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Full text of "Naval Attache's Reports, Office of Naval Intelligence"

DECLASSIFIED 

f 



\f 



NAVAL 

ATTACHE'S 

REPORTS 

O.N.I. 




X 



FEBRUARY 1915 



■ . 



NWC ARCHIVES 



DECLASSIFIED 

■NT , , iM K- wa J 

N °fc to ba taken 
from Library 



, I0 6».tWX." MW « SUBJ? 



iREC °" 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions 



of oM&eil w& b& returned. 






( n 



SUBJECT Royal Bear go permit ting Italic Gavernr..cnlJ 

to take -DOSGescion of Inventions. 



From ' ix No. .45-. Date 

Replying to O. N i. No — ™ Date 



February 1, JUL . 



b.. 



1 # cere . - , dated January B9< 19X5 a x)rovi&es 

for the right of the Stata to take possession, for military 
purposes, in art or entirely, 
either the inventor 



consent of 
The ov.ners 



of inventions, Y/itliout previous 
hin;elf or the patentees the roof . 



Buch inventions shall, in this ease, bo allowed 



a compensation to be fixed, in lieu of s_oeicl $re—arran£emonts , 
by one or three ezrperts purposely appointed by the Chief Ju 
of the Court of Appeals of Home. olalm, either judicial 

or administratis is allowed to be filed in exec tion to this 
ocroc. 

. Should the invention, so taken pos es ion of, be 
considered of interest to the State, on account of its charact- 
er of defense, the description a .:". plan;; thereof may be 
knovn to tha roper inister (under whose jurisdic the 

matter falls) even before acknov.led; thereof is given to 

the owner ^e inister, in this case, tir&lag to his 

Judgment, may cause the publication thereof to e belayed inde- 
finitely. 







SUBJECT 



[See Paragraph 4, Instruction:? of October 31, t900.| 

JV^ec/ wo£ 60 returned. 

EJROPiSAL. SITUATION. KfeCfc^dD 

warA 



From X 



^o 1*. Date 



.rv 1 



Replying to O. N. L No IMMt Date I mm*! | , If if . 

1. She following tnsrel report, b en w> ex co 

S8 Assistant to the Ravel kttaohe at London, -i'-:i v r r - is for- 

warded in accordance with O.W.I. 1 . 13209 ■• - ! I . t,191d< 

3, On July SI, I9i4, i sailed from e* York at ±0:00 a.] . 
oa tne American Liner M Bt. Louifc" for Southampton, nav ^ 
granted «* i<:o a . 'b leave eith per ion lo pe sbroad. 
intention was to go to England, fooling bure that Kngland would 
dealers war against Germany, wit tne heps c. inp able to ret 
oa board the Britleh Pleat -. ata observer. a. voyage over . 
comparatively uneventful. Od I ve I d by wirtli 

that thi .. c .niiixia^r "General 3 rant" had turned b i I 
York. Q:i August 5 the Captain ol the w st. Louie* informed 
that he han r .v^q in fori at ion by wireleb;: t ear id e-eo 

declared bj (Ireat britain against Ounuany. The passengers were 
first informed that the . p would not call at Cherbourg, after- 
wardb that she would go direct to Liverpool. ■ ?th i 

arrived off tne oar at Liverpool at 7;aC ■ .., shore aneho- 

red for tb ;ht . ■■ up St. Go org ,' tl il, avsaeroes 

British eruisers were sighted'. sxt day fc ihip dceJced 

early in the iLorning dverpool, I proc to Londi< 

On arrival Ln London 1 reported at one Boss ir Bya Lngrton, 

_ At l , wno t to dut assist 

At toons t% anoe. I fei ■/ busy, prinoij 

sith the handling of Am eric who - ssistanc i r 

fin an el all; or to return home* I fork vas esntralij by 
a branoh ox tn -t trie Savoy 1, to 

of Lonuon forming a committee L rorfc, vhiob *<*& 

earried on sith proat sffieieney. 



^^W^ ' 
" * 




I 

3. ^er Bymington informed me that the British 

-iralty positively refused to have tm eric en officer wit. 

its fleet or in any observing capacity. I oas surprii it 

e general faelin;- in Sag lead; til re vae no apparent enthu- 
siasm river tl ,r, snd the slOj of the country 
bu&ineL w^ usual, fi vary where one saw poster* calling i'or 
recruit each day % rt icing c i . increased until 

it. was ii- In size. The recruiting * .., .low, but I ■ 



told bj arm j of floors t at .. r rather rl ■ ■ of this, since 

thoj 1 b i e.uij ,, rifles, outfits, slot *ad drill* ,..- 

masters t ndlc in ia greater number. 

4. The fooling smong the better olasses about .America 
i tamed to oe that I were uncertain si America would 
do, and considered her a possible frlond ox' s possible enemy; 

ey evideotl; little raith In our Gover jrticularly 

ta some of the higher flo Lale. ^ 

5. • of fie tt ached to the Admiralty seemed v er., 

ey, bui not at all vorriod, ixample, vice- Admiral Bturdee, 

o was than chief of the naval war staff, took two hours for 
lunch at I .e United Bervioe Club eac , da; seemed tc ha 

vcrriea « ^r. Prince Louis o. >erg, who c ^e to 

the Club occ aally, however, looked vary tired ^idar a 

strain . 

Due to the British navy bei t at fuliistrength 

to i so aii of its ships, \ i fast that thai 

reserve, re n m aover the - I worr abo iJ the 

entire float for this purpose, but I an access of 

»ut 15,000, who were formed lnte a - brii xuol for service 
es shor % condition eat rorable for tuiefc li*a- 

on, end I cannot a strongly t it eij ilar ures 

b- in our Service k out iiJce 



3 



7. U In Lendon I ■ e tent tc In st some 14- inch 

tetng Bade for our j at . :s cf irs. Radfield 

& Company, Ltn., Sheffield, and t r i courtesy of one 

of the officials of the company, was It ted to see their 

.tire ordnance plant. The> had las a quantities of 15", 
.5", 12" shell L, /were tur ■ tat shells, et 

rate of 500 18.5" S IS*, 600 3.9" t« G" , ?000 Ifl tiler 

shell per aee . iy had »1 sd worh on the 15" as suffieli 

pply was on bend tc, steel - .. I t • the near future. 

B. Oil v 6 14th 1 eat ericen assy to 

Falseuth t© meet the 3 E end I rOHS IhA. 

way there, I etepped at Devonport, end alt tet gc 

late the dockyard, there was evidence of .. iei activity there 
but only tr.ree ahipi of i ilse, these being the old 

&TIC class. 

At nth I feund the upper harbor filled with 

prizes, and ©a shore there sere ...any . who h 1 I se 

on these various vessels ar^rx,. of ;e we.. 

i:i need, of assist ».iCfl, Shies was kindly riven by the mayor 
other officials of the teen. The official! here a ere most 
courteous, and through them I armirsd for a berth for t 

'JORT: ! BOXIftA, for coal for these I , for 

the landing of librt. parties, for the e Lltlng of effects 
of the Assistant Secretary's cf War pari the customs, 

and for a special train to convey the party to Lc lc 
ships arrived on the 16th about 8:00 p. . , na . reeks -e 

his party of twent -five left Falmouth C 
at 9:81 .at. 

10. On Augui I 20th Cap J Osborne, Director of Compasses, 

informed me that the admiralty h i In iti rat 

ov&r ?00 fuel > hips . 



11. 0:. August 2 . I was sent by the - i iy with. des- 
patches for the Hague* I pros rl stone sad 

i Channel at the Straits of we? itl by tight iifht 

cruisers, six destroyers sad servos s rlnes, all a] treat ly 

British. About sal? way to Flushing we |t|iti a patrolling 
division of four cruisers | tfaU and I others;. I-i the 
train fron. Flushing to the Hague I tslfced with several Date. 
geatlsaes) of Intel lip* eace , m4 tJ -*Ii feared. |h 12 

woulu be drawn into the war, and all sere very anti- 



ia their feelings. Holland's amy was mobilized and everywhere 

MM* 



j saw troops, partic I rue. 

IP. After fintshlai usinesi ' 41 1 returned 

with despatches by way of Hoc': of Bell snd~Harv lea. About h : iif 
way across we phased a British cruiser division consisting of 
3 DRAKES SAd ± BCADIOiA. :ri\ I ] found a 

large aumber of naval vessels, con. lag of 45 destroyers, 

6 cruisert , par chips, 7 isttr I iri 

fo: rsnsports, 6 collier. , 12 SUSM ,rino;.- of trie I 

D classes, end about 10 Keepers (trawler type). 

13. QeSflSOdO a Ke an old fri of u».ine, has in con- 

Biana of the ujas rines , so I called on hi . ard b tip, 

i iSTOHS. Unfortunately he was at the Admiralty la London, 
but i. sai his f i i secretary, a bright young paj i tor, who, 

eagst ether things, told me that i reaping for 
had Liffieulty to eeplnj the sweeps from sli . over 

the top of t .ines , and had to sweep -see*-. 

before .y were s u re it w as c le I r . 

1'i . After the oat tie o Lgol . office, e of the 

idi&iralty told porta t 



\ 
\ 



officers of the sinking i cr m see 

their own nan who * era in the water. 

>. Octooer 10th I received cr rs as Naval At tat 

In Paris, id dt I office oo Oe 



s 






lg 



>3 i tig of Unit i a Bt At n . ; . .j i 

■■■HMwngMna 



i . lost in 1 r 

c ler bis a v ery unfriendly act, I: connection, I 

it : in ona of ••:: I ! ... lelej Lc 

. , ... . tng I 

uet'cTv or sinee* It intiB t Freeidi Vila on I 

; ia Lnet ■ . | - our a I i ac a . t rj 

irouae ant re Li . rojeci the j ople - irally 

bail . . I i l . itain [ mis 

ir, but i« deaj of Arc i 1 coneider 

i publ in alJ .. i p pari c 

known. noi • ., howevar* 

40 . X era waj ic Lac use ion, 

ople in the pr ... in n rd to mpioy of J Be 

troops La Surope, I i Unit : Id thin _■:' t is. 

t. in fcheir enquiri* ... this 

oject. that It req able l mot i avoid sxpr Bing 

an opinion o:.e i .. tht c iar. 

41. At a t a iveu ror ug bj -. t of Vill 

franche (Avayron), n ijor of 76 Inl ntrj ) I*ina, , 

h .. wcut.dsu. £. . ;ime v o, gave us Us 

x. bting • «i*o- r things, 

. it &lion ^^55 aith the nef Lment in tha fightin - r So ib, 

aboul ha diddle ol J i . , thrown b ax 

ia. Qu . '■■ . 2000 man of Lent a 

i the fight, 1400 war^ lost, inti t sverj officer - 

regixent who vent into tha fight ^^ either killed or re ;i. 

Co 

fe tat ad that his j o Lhe 24th I ry ( in of 

161 ; euffe ny othars in . fighting. I 

laar oh q . • oourcsii that the£461 - — ■■ I i .c- 
i Lo Lily axl Lnguiah i in t 















* ^ 






" 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900 ) 



Weed not be returned. 

i 9 

0) 

SUBJECT EURO P E AN WAR -SITUATION TO FEBRUARY 7th 

1915. 



From 



Z 



No. 



89 



Replying to O. N. I. No. 



England has and will 
of food, has decided 
threatened submarine 
to be undertaken and 
in Z-84. 



Date 



Date 



February 8, 1915. 



#=7 









1915 



191 



191 



Germany havinp begone convinced that 
use her sea power to deprive her people 
on a counter thrust by declaring the lonp— 
war on England, ^he nature of the action 
the reasons therefore have been set down 



Whatever may be the opinion of neutral 
countries with respect to this blockade, Germany herself feels 
that England has used every means, whether countenanced by 
International Law or not, to brinpr actual starvation to har^ 
and she does not prpose to throw away the preat weapon of the 
submarine boat in bringing the war home to England* 

As Germany is not now allowed to receive 
anything of preat value from the United States, and as the 
United States is not in a position to uphold protests amine t 
Germany i even If she wished to make any, any action on the part 
of our country arainst this b^&cJ&atfle, will not carry weight 
under the present condition in Germany. 

The old kind of blockade as de-fined by 
International Law was rendered impossible by the advant of the 
submarine boat, the new kind is frein?* to be put in operation 
and die cue i ons as to its legality under International Law may 
properly be saved until after the war is over. 



ECONOMIC! CONDITIONS. 



certain kinds, 



The frovern lent has taken over food stuff a of 



30 



forbidden the sale of all breads unless containinp 
potato flour, and oven then allowing 3 kilos / 4.4 lbs) 
per person per week. Germany has the governmental machinery 
and the people are so disciplined that this law will be effectively 
administered. There is said as yet to be sufflolent potatoes 
end neat to see the country through to the next crop, but the 
action already taken causes uneasiness. 

^ith a nation in arms and their families on 
snort rations It is useless to consider that artificial limits 
imposed by International Law will stop the;., from loing their best 
to down the country who holds the food supplioa "from raaohlng them. 

NAVAL ACTIVITIES I;; THE NQ.1TH SEA. 



The situation is not changed by the action of 
January ">4th ( Z-69) and the North Sea remains as before, usually 
nearly oloar o* ships but always the possible scene of a rreat 
naval action. 



BALTIC. 



Only events 0^ minor importance have occurred, 
such as the torp*doinp of the "GAZELLE" and the shootinp down 



- ** - 



of the Cteman •Parseval B at Liebau. T7ith the Russian harbo 
frozen up but little of inportance 1*5 to he ejected. 



BLACK SflA. 

Reports fron various source e ar>r>ear to eonfim the 
ruior that the •fSOtfin JAr-rs spm:.'" (22221?' »tmek a nine 

and was seriously flana/red* Th§ p-'^-'et ofthis was at onr»e 

seen in the ran Ivitiss af the Pussian Black Sea fleet 

The Turfrii litary v ma in the Kau?^asus have been 

seriously h a by the to*9 Of aontrol of the Black Sea, 

resulting in ?urkey*s not bei* le to supply httr amy hy 

the vatar route *ro\: Con- le to Traperunt, 

The B "0F"< w* a case of »all tha errs 
bein^ in one I t* so far an the am i -and of the !31ack Sea 

"'^ernefU 



1 1 i tern C nrca i gn • 



The foraaa 3 th» allied affanstwa axtanding 
over a parlor of a eoupie af a without difficulty and 
than ^YOo an important vietory near Soiosons. 

Nor do they appear to be worried about the appearance 
of the «aw Bnplish army now reported to be on th y to 
rranaa* . §m ~ of recruits without a "'ue prportion of 
e;cperi*»no»-' affiaora and oon-e mionad affleara does not 
appeal to tha nind of the Qatfaana as beinr- coupe tent to be o* 
smah value 

Offiaarti aoiainaj frata the aastarn front with 
whoa T hawa talked, -'1 nay the n.~ - that the 
Raaaian amy has not pat the spirit to nake another serious 
for tent, m here is e lot of o'e^ensive fighting le^t 
in it, but a serious advance to the Harman frontlar is out 
of the question* 

vrith rag a rd to the Boas tan advance into laat 
Prussia, they say that a real attaupt to ro *ar into this 
country will he waleo ied by the Raman faraaa as loading to 
a Raselan itlaafttay, Fron the first to the 4th of February 
issian prisoners '*rers tr.'rtm. 

The darmana confidentially expect to take 
faraaa within tha naxt four s« In the last advance into 
Poland, resulting in the battle o^ Loir,, tha Gernans 
surroun-led and took prisoners 19*000 ungrounded Russians 
anrl the total Raaalan loss was nearly three hundred thousand 



isn. 



With regard to the supply of i*en for the 
fteman amy, the alalia is nade that Oemany is as stronr 
as ever. 50 Jt of tha wounded go back to the front and in 
addition every six Months brings 450,000 youths to the are 
of corvine, rising this aprainat the loaaaa f or the 

sane period there re .<;inq a lasa of not ewer I>0,000 ..on <*rora 



- 3 - 



the fip-htinp force which is neprlip-eable. To balance these 
optimistic views there remains the well known depression 
in Austria in regard to their situation and ability to hold 
out and the very uncertain attitude of Italy and Roumania. 

Well authenticated rumors credit Germany with 
having reinforced Austria by sending five Army Corps to the 
Buckowina and the neighborhood of the Roumanian frontier. 

Official and press accounts emanating from 
London or Paris should be carefully weighed before beinp: 
accepted and those -?rom St. P^tersburr: and Constantinople 
should be set aside as in no respects worthy of belief. 



SUBJECT 



[See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 3 fttf$l n0 l fy# retUTfiefi. 

i OF OJ LCfli ! fflMLJJiffl Is 



aOMJIL&B DE. 



FromJLJj*! No ftfl Date I' .; . 3.. T .......l&l£ a= 

Replying to O. N. I. No Date 



0:. J ... try 89th the follow! erala cos 1 d 

confronted each other ou the battle line ext€ :•• froai t 



Llorth Se i to Verdun ; - 



Allies Z&tt . 



d *Ur b al 



ten 



I : uy 



. 



i 



.1 o ury 



a ■.. 



Borralt 



Allies Ri«ht 



Crown Prince of Wurteiabere 

■ 

Drown Prince of Bavaria. 
von lulo* . 

V0;.'i Kiuck. 
I ' I .'van . 

I it z . 

Gem an Left . 




(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.) 



Need not be returned*. 



T2. 



SUBJECT BRITISH SUBAMRIMS IN THB.MLTIC, 



From No. 



S3 



Date 



February 4 «1P15« 



, 191 



., /P/ 



Replying to O. N. I. No. -- -- ~--~— — Dafe...-— ---——— ~~—~-~""~ 

Reference;- Z-70 of January 37, 1915. 

I am t">ld by a Swedish authority that the Naval 
General Staff of Sweden consider that the submarine which attacked 
and daiaar-ed the sraall cruiser "GAZELLE* was English and formed 
part of a flotilla which had been with the Russian fleet, but 
which was supposed to be leaving the Baltic on account of the 
freezing up of the Russian ports. 




(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.) I — 

mTeednotberet'u/rne&i , iT 



FtB 
SUBJECT BLOCKADE OP ENGLAND BY SUBMRINES. 






From 



No. 



84 



Date 



February 5, 1915. 



Replying to O. N. I. No. Date 



, 191 



> 191 



As foreshadowed in the interview given out 
by Admiral von Tirritz, this blockade has been declared and is 
bound to have far-reaching consequences. 

Germany feels that she has nothing to lose by 

such a blockade and much to pain in bringing the war home to 

Enrland. 

The anouncement of the plans of England to 

starve out the German people and the way in which the American 

ships were stopped from bringing foodstuffs to Germany * or to 

countries which would forward them to Germany practically placed 

foodstuff on the list of absolute contraband. 

The consequences of the present develorment of 
the war promise to be of far reaching importance in the future. 

Certain features of international law in regard 

to the rights of neutrals must not be considered hereafter as 

applicable. 

It is only necessary to read the newspaper 

translation and clipping forwarded with the present mail to 

realize how bitterly Germany feels towards the United States over 

what it considers the failure on the part of the United States 

to uphold the rights of neutrals in the exportations of foodstuffs 

and other articles destined for the use of the private people 



of Germany. 



\ 



It cannot therefore be expected that Germany 
in the future which lies beyond this war, will be inclined to 
abide by rules or doctrines which are to the interest of the 
United States and are not also equally so to Germany. 




- ? - 

The translation of the order of the Chief of the 
Admiralty Sta^f of the Navy in regard to the blockade is as 



follows:- 



(!•) 



a Proclamation * 
The watersiall around Great Britain and Ireland 



and including the whole English Channel is herewith 
declared war territory . Beginning February 18th 
each enemy merchant ship caught will be destroyed, 
without always being in a position to' divert the 
dangers threatening crew and passengers. 

Neutral ships also are in danger in this declared 
war territfcfcy, as it is not possible, in view of 
the order o* the British government for the misuse 
of neutral flags of January 31st, to always avoid 
that attacks are made upon neutral ships which are 
Intended only for the enemy ships. 

Shipping to the north around the Shetland Islands in 
the eastern part of the North Sea, and a stretch 
of at least SO seamiles wide alonp- the Dutch coast 
is not dangerous. 

Berlin, February 4th 1915. 

The Chief of the Admiralty Staff 
von Pohl." 



H) 



(S) 



The Memorandum addressed to the various 
Governments in regard to the bloc?«-ade is as follows :- 



e m o r a 1 a 1 



Since the beginning of the war Great Britain conducts 
against Germany the trade war in a manner which is a 
mockery to the principles of international law. The 
British government has in several orders designated the 
London Declaration as applicable in the conduct of her 
naval ^orces; in reality , however, It has cut loose 
^rom this Beclaration in some essential points, although 
the representatives of the British government have 
recognized the conclusions of the London Conference as 
international law. The British government has plaeftA 
a number of objects on the list o* contraband, which 
cannot be used for purposes of war, or which are only 
remotely in connection with war material and are therefore 
according to the London Declaration as well, as a^ter 
recognized principles of international law, not designated 
as contraband. England also has practically put aside 
the di^fernnce between absolute and relative contraband, 
In confiscating articles of relative contraband for 
Germany without consideration of the harbor in which 
the articles are to be discharged and without consideration 



\ 






- 3 - 



as to their hostile or peaceable use* "he British government 
unab a shingly violated the declaration of Paris on International 
Law at S^a by taking German property which was not contraband 
from neutral ships. Exceeding their own orders rerardinr 
the London Declaration they have taken numerous Germans, 
leable for service, from neutral ships, and made than 
prisoners of war. Finally the English rov(i*rnm«nt has declared 
the whole North Sea as war territory and Made the pa^sarre 
throuph the open sea , between Scotland and Norway for 
neutral Shipping extremely difficult if not impossible 
and dangerous equal IJmr to a certain errtent a bloc'-ade of 
neutral coasts and neutral ports in violation of international 
law. All these measures pursue evidently the j;urpose, 
by paralysing legitimate trade In violation of international 
law f to not only Influence the conduct of war* but to seriously 
strike at the social economy of Oeniany and to destroy the 
whole German people by starving them out* 

The neutral powers have, on the* whole, complied 
•^ith the measures of the British government! they especially 
have not succeeded in retting free those Germans taken from 
their ships in violation of international law. They have 
even Joined in a certain direction with the English measures, 
whieh are not consistent with the freedom of the ocean, 
evidently under the pressure by England, by forbidding the 
passage of ^oods to Germany for peaceable purposes. The 
German government has invited attention of the neutral powers 
in vain to the fact that they will have to consider the 
question of further adherence to the rules of the London 
Declaration, which Germany has always strictly observed, if 
England continues h^r present attitude, and i* the neutral 
powers pass silently over these violations of neutrality 
to the disavantap*e of Germany. Great Britain refers in the 
pursuit of her violations of international law, to tne 
interest of hfir national existence, which is threatened, and 
the neutral powers appear to be willing to be satisfied with 
theoretical protests, thus excusin- this kind of warfare 
on the basis of life interests of the powers at war. Such 
interests of existence Germany is now also form I to claim. 
It reprets that Ger tany will have to take such military measures 
which are reprisals for those adopted by England* As England 
has designated and declared the waters between Scotland and 
llorway as war territory, Germany now declares the waters 
round a" out Great Britain end Ireland, including the "-hole 
English Channel as war territory and is ready to attack 
enemy*? raerehntshipping with all military Ktaans at bar 
disposal. For this purpose Germany will attempt, beginning 

ry 18th, to destroy every hostils merehantship found 
in these waters, without beinf able to ward Off the danpers 
to men and material in all cases. The neutrals art therefore 
warned^ to trust to such shins men and material in the future. 
in addition attention is invitsd and recommendation made 
for neutrals to avoid these waters with their own ships. 
por evnn i* ( -erman naval fOTSSfl have directions to avoid 
force arainst neutral ships, as far as the?/ can be reeohnir.ed» 
in view of the fact hxtvenOTSsrwd :tha XKSSI -of nentr?c3: xgfcK 
that England has the use of neutral sskkpxx flags for 
their merchantships and in view of unhappy eoin-idencss, 
it may happen that a neutral ship nay fall rio tin to an 
attack, which was intended for a hostile shi_ . It is expressly 
to be noted that shipping to the north of the Shetland Islands, 
in the eastern part of the ?Iorth Sea and in a stretch of at 
least 30 sea miles width alonr the Dutch coast, is without 
danger. 



4 

- s- 

The Overman rrovsmment anounces this measure 
In the proper time, so that the hostile as well as neutral 
ships have the necessary time to make their dispositions 
repardinp- the ports they intended to run into. 0-ermany hopes 
that the neutral powers consider Germany's life interests not 
any less than England's and that they will contribute to 
keep away their citizens and their property* from the designated 
war territory. This is the more expected, as it is in the 
interest of the neutral powers, to have^this devastating war 
ended. 

Berlin, February 4, I PI 5. M 



c 



r 



DEMTnr 



iph 4, Instructions of October 3 



JS(f&d not be returncd.Tz 

.(o 



SUBJECT \..3MQM IMTIM. CMPS.QF E ! . 

:TRLA EBXSC24 hm CAUSE OF fcfclBQHBBS QjfcAH.. 










From ILlftJ No.. 28 Date. 

Replying to O. N. I. No Date 



1. Having bJvu designated by the Azub<iSfcaaor to I i ^ct , 
to company vith Lieut. Qari Boyd, U.S.A., certain oeaps for 
interned subjects of poraaay and Au^iria, aria i*i»« certain c 
containing c.o. prisoners of war, I have to iu-vke the follow! 

reports oi at) observations 

Interned Austrians ana Germane* - She men interned i 



these concentration oempi so the ages of 17 and 60; 

-ovv 45, not physically fit for ccrvicc, ser« aoi detained 

except in special cases. 

The end children interned are generally families of 

- U are interned under the foregoing rules, or else ere 
tri^j Frsaea vives u -. end Austrian soldiers. Ail \no 

vj.j.ldreii ere in these csmj ieir o*:. volition, that !*>, 

>j have refused the offer of the Preach government to trans- 
port t ;o their sen countries* There ore a fee axxuin;:, 
to this* somen vho nave been suspected of espionnage . 

2. x. cone. it ion eemps ar« under the Minister of 
the Interior, the prefect or -prefect of the town in vhlch 
they are located b< di recti) responsible for their nt 
I have eea given to ano.orjy.-and that *t the preaeat time there 
exists a lively controversy betwe a the Mi fci i of I ^r 
and v ir on thie subject, the ■>' el Sar cj- ti I 

LOuld ud under hie direction* In this con^ect^c, it nifhi be 
*eli te remark that Is one question tc vhicb no c h% 

hae probably I sen given in '^.^ Unit* tatoe, -via one vhie 
might ui settled sad plans made before the country it tetually 
aL *ar. 

3. Five of q . ps *t;r~ visited in eouth«*eei n 
France; Avi^uon, Millau, aSpalion, Bt. Afrique and Villef ranehc 



. 



. 









(Avcyrou/. £ha buildings used vert &estl| a on vents, eeminaries, 

etc., »uiCi; bad ft obi • into Lie >juboot,bion of the Gov trim 033 1 dl 

titfl tints of the sspulsian of tilt J^auiit. trial .ce. tents 

»ra mod* 

*. I'na total nuafoer of peoplS inspected BJteunted to about 

5 .00. Ala ti hue tars gtmsrallj itceerded bettor quart ore and 
ttuci ...ore liberty thao other eubjsota, A hi r of Alsatian a 

. ve volunteered end Joined the foreign Legion o. -vouch 

Anuy , and I jU&agina over; opportunity is tafcen tdvantaga f to 
induce i. q ao b . 

5. In jsost or tne oatups tha Qhildren are - . 

quarters apart fro., the i&en* I*. this oas o, the married 
ire pen itfced to vielt their f*aailiea each day. In othor aanps 
. iO vojaizb *ra occupied by frofii t*o or I tree up to ta or i^ore 

&ilies« In ail eases .. beds -.-r.,. mad* of ~*o.;o filled sitfe 
s tre* and placet on t ia floor , XX quit* aloaa together. 

Soxta building a urara nc ated a others «*nrj, but In all oases 

aa occupied by children sere t*JE iolsatly cowfortabla 
this rsspeot, 

G. an orally a peak in, • ■• teir quarter #ers dirt) , aa i 
i uch uxors ac .. n ot j: - ^, in ding Cii tne individu ul 

t 6o raa ... be] id it European doaa stic sanitation is 
vastly behind ours, nd I do not believe ,nat any of the. 
people considered t aj are Buffering my hardship on this 
account. Certain peraona, of slightly superior intelligence 
and education c^ given better auartara md tra ncployed In 
looki.-r fter the o1 i;. the capacity of clerks, interpre- 

ter, etc. 

7. or food, thee a In subjects hava neat foar a<*ys 

Bj veeli, emu apparently plenty of boane, potatoes -~ia bread. 
Iv.c j^ik -*re served ■ r day, to ptherwith ooffee md bread 
in the . cr b ie cui i . ... r; ich anuy. .. I of the 

people - been interned for five or ai\ months, and thej give 



one the la preeSlcn of oeinr healthy and well nourished. I is 
slelc, uid women nursing children - there ere a greet many 01? 
tris alas*) - are given a special diet. Ample prevision Is made 
for nedieal attention, and slelcnees and death is probably below 
. ; ma J average for people of their social status; 
ft. i . tlen of olothia se people sill become a 

serious matter liter on as very few of then nave anything 
exco he clothes thej now -• on, and the ►ran oft government 

/ill not appropriate any money for this purpose. 

9. ess Interned pereone ire for the most part miners 
and lay laborers of various .orts, eitfc i.i:v~ cf hotel 

, servants, stable- oyi , grooms, etc. »5 sell in the 
Interior of a mountainous country, t re oot leapt a .recti, 

uuaer guard. Ihey are always ell Owed to vallc in the court yard, 

if t a time ire permitted te welfe alone in t .■ town 
every o day from 11 a.m. til.:. 9 p.m. 

lu. There is svery evidence to believe that the French 
authorities are considerate or these people. miners 

sent to work, if they So reqti t the aloes in the 

vicinity, and tre for tneir work. 

1 1 . llitary P. r Is on at Castr es. - Ve first eel led 

on the i_ilit governor comiLanding this district , and he sent 

orderly to conduct us to the priton, where we were met I 
■ officer con. ing it who proved to be a retired iuajor of 

Gendarmerie. ioet kind • pit U>le, olally after 

we h xpl inea to him that we had not been sent to interfere 

with his affairs, but. merely to Inspect as neutrals. 

12. ie prison wa& formerly a Catholic seminal It is 

of in. ie else, with numerous oourt-g&rde nd ou Li aglee, 
the waole . Lng surrounded by tone rail ebout 10 I h. 

out 1400 prisoners red nsre, all prlvatee, 

except 195 non-coms . 1 officers (Sous^off lclers J md 

'aspirants" (oandidates for oosesl salens ); ther ie officers. 












1. . i :■ icier jad ispiraati aere quartered 

iy from their men, ov ...o...: thej ejcereiee « euall 
oJ , caieflj ia repeat fcc police *nd fatigue 

About tea o ' thia el <sa nvc in b&e aasie rot, . lh§ 
rooms uot boing crc ii .... - coaafo: kble, uiaay 

mcies, s< j ev. lag real aattreasei lai i 4 of t : 

stfiirt s^.. Le .-:•. the . a ral rule. 

ii. Ijq ... firat roow « a watered Ite occ,, i sere 
. .. . id about at - the) b«d a Little aj; re i of a; o, 

o; -rs , c . , el c . . gor explai is food a as 

of so#*e oi a food . . them at Gar! lto- 

jefcl ,r 3 15,000 - be:..... ..j/'j received it this j..> . from 

I. lit ion, i r >r ;iag sea ooataiaiaj -^ : '-, 

. . rclothiag, gloves, bl ■ . reeein .• . 

I iasp-acted i rge mantiti u of %h 
i.:r\ ils, re at to Bay i . ....;.. eon with the cloth- 

of similar tature laea of e arvice in ti»ea 

of peace, 1 jeraa x. o tii i r fciea r uri„oiK' ( . of 

war were far rior to ours. , clothing . j fi at l mui 

ii. bulk L._ ; Cross, gad by t tat had be 

forwarded to ita ia 

>. - « ... rsatly impressed by intelligent appe Be 

ldierly bearing of these sous- off iciari wad iapiranta. 

ire occupying t »lvei ;. \, iys; car -play^a 

iding, ^tua^ix ? . re playi iss, tha 

Bvidantly havio beea their owa . Qua, 

16, Ihe pri\ - id rporala ware ia larga rooma bald- 

ing, a< of thei,,, mors thau 200. Thoy bad strati be4 saeki 
p] v v .jr; close together oa i >iGor. t . ijor L . a 

. only vei tly bean able to gat all ... - 

r all the man t and 1 re ware a till a ffi 

i uot i j. . 1 . slept on ot raw. 












i. la tilt in fin r - ajor point* out tc i I 

intelligent look! . ;fore 

kd attempted to eicape. ... b al eight plied bar I ~t 

Ljq i findo* la the kltehan, slipped through* and dr id to 

Quad. I ton, 1a a > oi i gri icalo 

11, I .... L tali full of lOui w -*'.. or, 

seine of afcioh . ralloeed if for to to e- rcaa 

La predio ;, being *c houre in the veil, he « 

aeovered end r;:,j to guards, - and . ii a ■■ ie 

■ it i isovering - i I internal poieoning which 

. Lowed* . ijor < Ld not mo to bo ai£j I to be an pry 

oith bias for ail i Light, i : M3t conoid id tt all 

Si i very ood joke, md on mj tkln i . .•. 

t,o be, it he thou ... od 

y. la this aenaeotlea it - bo said fen at &o far 

g irds ere oonoemo d pre< ikon, ubtedl] pa 

._ ;'isou grounds eo ^ if foe tod tery easily, but -fter 

f . . -. . i\ uld proeabl; . i&pos ) tor I it out of 

i iamediatt vicinity of the city, and eonslttaring tn« preaent 
t . of tno inhabitant i oi -ranee, in all pr< bilit 

o would be killed. Xho tra i priaeneri raaliaa this, - 
att . ta to eecepo >.re s v . ara occurrence, so far i 

I can learn none aavo boon auocoeaful. 

?,-. i rent to feho kitchen, where the aveninj 
- & i- prej - I - gul iitlo 

son a is ted or «. thick atae, si rrotL 

in it; bread and ooffeo .-/..v^ &li behorved.. irk In 

the kit eh en eaa eeij up or vised by . \ j-; superior looking 
ft Iraat, irh 1 us - ui seen >ue oth iu 

thoulder. .. L,y a re^ervi ' -t, 

i i. bout forty years of ago, rho until the ear a 

prof si . . : Univeroitj of Poaen. 






i7 . reus bOJU ad roa u.jor'6 

si;, - ; about the C iriatmefl id been received; 

u.o I acted sueh little effects i . . all 3i ristJ&as •. . 
i^re end there froa the wires strung eereas the ruoiu. 
S« Alth< . roofl] ..' . ■.. . tfde<t| still ti . 

14 notsee >ad. ..-•. 9 1 & pro vie it ating. 1 . , pri- 

»re sere sell unifon»ed, ri Lj r boots or . 1 tag 

(j^o.-b *ere 1x3 !- oou repair } eaei . . rith - over- 

it, end it le iet 8 ./.ei. The French of fie are informed 

us every article of ! .. ..1 unifera 1 I rkably 

good material, eaicept bne Overcoat, 

19. I w:ib greatly impressed fi - physical 1 ranee 

ioae pj re« cat of .. lad been ^:._.;'i t .Oiiua 6 ie e for 

ov^r five months, still they ha< ^v«ry indication of leing i:i 

rfeel Leal health, 1 a. rere as veil set up and ae sol- 

dierly i. .. trance as .... a E ha.\ . et 11 ■.. in . 9 instant 

•.a a r^cjL- the coxa /.. tiven nd 1 a - ^c^ld 

Jump aji&edl at oly to the foot of nis bed, bring feia heel* to 1- 

.. i Oaick, add etand at at tent ion, eith 1 vary stiff 

.id military attitude. As ire passed along t lihey would tiwrn 
their head and .look, ua straight in the cyer, and *hil« lir 
loci: eaa not one to est defiance, tiill it certainly §re*e 

xc ii press ion that they *era ei, . . taject a or id of 

si 1 .ui • 

20.. » visiteu th - vhiefe wer -if 

lesen tteu in their beds under the iireat eupervieioz] of two 
n&en ftoa-cottaaiesioned officers of the Hospital Cor, There 

is a French uootor attached to the prison, d mriouL o t&es 
illnees ae sent to Lit urj hospital La 1 ow l4 . 

At ths time of ijuv visit the; - ..-..re about 50 its 

is h capita 



IS. ?'e ssre nest tafcti into i i. ? I court, where there 
t/as a well arranged . L 66, »lth voodoo I bl running v.ater. 

on whicn the i to coula scrub r alothee, end, shoo ihi 

■ permits, giTC each other bucket. Shower-baths. Close 
the benches vers the wutcr-cicoet;. in. i 11 fr Lldio b; 

they tore cleau, sanitary, free from Odor. A wor^in |uad, 
u;...er t ireetlon of two former p c;- she&ii -is, , I 

pj see la c'r:..r, a . 

^4. Off this bij eourt vai inotj j.- i li.:r one, on one 

side oi* rhieh vas t t& tiler building ti t a rest, oe cup led 

exclusively by All liao soldi ere, me fit of I i 

I • intc All last August, lere vere a .cut 

of the; in all. t only live bj tn lves , .itr 

slirhtly o otter irCCOffiir.odatiene, bu1 separate mesi 

well. '.'.■: re allowed bo circulate whtwrmr any of trie other 
prisoners 3kre allowed, but their own quarter! £ 1 in. its 

for 'he ethers. It seems there vere i rr^^\ aanj sore of these 
Ale at J at originally, but they have been sent to places in ti 
country to won-: at theiv former trades. e Major said they 

vi ilr own ro [\ test .. are ailov. sd pay for their work. 

but evidently they ire strongly encouraged to do this, as 
similarly we found Is tiei i at the concentration . 

were encouraged to ao ■ t ni c . It is evidently the pos^e.- I I 
freneh govern tc a ifce A .Pro ichi & out of the alsatie 

as eoe possible. 

85. As I trade stood It, these prisoners when out vorfcla 
are only lightly guarded* jor showed us, with great 

pride, some French shoes or "sabots" he had bought for Lnese 
Bie . ese shoes are quite dry in shallow mud and have inside 

them leather, wool- lined i 1 rs, i ■ rve aot only to Ices 

th let warm, but can be slipped out of Uie shoe vorn 

w ' thin the house without the shoe, ehsu the men enter it. 

16. We next visited a ouiluiu^ shore the tailors, sr.oo- 



b 



ers fUid barb< i i1 - • ..se, tcret, ; .;»• fith ccok^, 

elerfci , interpreter. i I sr scial let 11 ha< i tape 

o.evron ou their rifcht aras, put on by the French authorities; 

this they re allowed certain special privilege I 
ci residing about the grounds and buildings. 

21. ov ' : . c el, in which vers several 

Idlers in praver. 1 r servicer re held, both c olic 

i prote it . There wa^ large Chrisl tree, tfitb decora- 

tions still on it at one end of the room. . (or ror ed 

ua that the prisoners had J this trie-; n.eivcb. Wit son-* 

elder ble feeling be told i that he had lofce . Lderet 

right and best for the prisoners, -3.-. tad been very severe] • 
criticized by the peepl local pres^ tor being so Kind 

to tn ex.. He s^tid that twice, one time a/ r o , \ . ..it en 

up about it, enlj the previa -moth vr rtlele h 

ap] 3d. Ho had o- :d an ereli sstra at onr the pris rs, 

t h d get orherfc t< Leccntinue it. 

88. bile we ser fchat doming ^- ths Prefet - 

I learned t I until r itly a prisoners eer Lloeed 

.j allowances i-ir to Fre i >1 -err of their eorres- 

ponaiur^f, rade, but that no* the Pi oh gen trmuent b cut u 

»n considerably in retaliation for the w rob prisoners 

of *ar had oeou treated in Qe y. 

39 . things com i-ired, se prisoner . i 

1 press ion of being ve.ii fed, *#11 Hu^riered, well treated, end 
11 clothed. only h r i.1 tier, except confinement, 

is idleness. 

W>. ren.j^: . tilitar; Priepn itauban . - At t m 

... called on the Pr-jfe 1 Jom ending general, who sent 

officer to ace; . * oa the visit to the prison. EJ prison 

it also co.: dad by i Major of Qeiid irs/erie, ai i two 

lieutenants. - e 1500 prisoner! . , rtered la i large 



9 

oca pound, surrounded b) item i - i i • beat 10 I I high. -arly 
in the eent r of me ci, ii a i rge hec rmerlf 

£ a p^rc for '^ftil^cry Had train. Ihii ... .: ;i ii w^tcr^roof 
but :' . i iar1 floor. Inslds the prisoners nave constructed 

UL1 houses or l eats of thick bro-,vn pap4r, and io thess t] 
siaep, sight or tea to a housd rM it res en the ground 

underueal lie bed^ , vhici . .re be i reJ .. out si] 

:rioova i round. at ii;ore I is c : io i if or three- f ourthe of 

',j anor sued ves used- wit as ea n ous 

. rlcK stove and baiting even, ■fhicfc had oee.; construct td uy 
• . I'his wai only i >aas c ; boating used in t 

;d . 

17* I . ire la compound, * short ... 

from the -a. . y i ore oleen md 1 order; tho utensils, 

8v« t, soup Icettlei --to., ser« of tho rej l .tic i - ^i^ch. 
type. Shi I idivi - res of excellent type; the 

>i i* id bowls of cr'.cker . tailor to the tied used in our 

owii service. For serving food end certain jjciic i ad disei- 

. r tarn suree, tho prii re divided into oq jf ten 

tae md eao .-.. froa each squad, at the assign at ed time, 
irave all tat rations for hi« so, 

>. t neat Tie it to infirmary, eh let te a lai w 

•-storied etono building in tho eonpeund, close to tho large 

I. Thei six sards in all, tbout tvent; I eh 

ird, < ' these . .-. oro either cfssvaleseen . or ea too 

Li Injured for fartc Hit r; rvice, I La, io 

i ac am or 1c amputated < had been Ale charged fr< 
spital. . 1 of t ore olad i^ civ-^ . clethin 

their unif&r&fl having boon loot or bo I - tor.: is to be use- 
less for Curt tor wear ^t rere eounds< 

or dressing room vas crude. iao of our visit 

a founded ... y It i s badl) In voun i Ls 



10 

fcabli r< Ing 1 Me , ud b l 

ua was b washed cut u\ a non-aesBaiseioned off leer 

e hospital eorps< xoe pat i eat wsu ear* muc/i emaei a 

: Lnfc i wounded over six &e reviously. 

i, a visited the canteen, whieh sol 

it If purchase extra fooa, toilet articles . lior sfti* 

elee for their p in i fort . 

ir~closeti cm sorner ef the c ound 

i a lea iiid rj . It 5 p.»« jach .. 1 L 

u£ Ln tl ed| ore are a l 

, ;:co ^.l,. i*c ' '.. td to their s of i ire du I 

aight, small »ee oon ling *r ci sou I ( 

' . -,. I tart ire ru wl - Lt Is e-iosed for the 

light and kept th til mo\ 

31. The i this prison, 5 ppsar 

soldierly be . /i-.. ll*r to r . Dt G Btrss. 8 itly 

inetioa ems i here lo regar the fereat- 

t of sous* of fie ier id ipirants, h tss, either 

do I believe any distinotior was node wit] egard to Alsatians. 

B2« '. visited the e , teen officer prisoner . 

AJL1 were Ij ats, »xoept two wit i of eapt tin. 

were quartered in i stone . on a - of the itrsfji 

i .3 eltj . There was a smaU yard for exercising purpoi ie 

v it enclosed by a stone wall. ' i ill out e served 

it chen. She of fie U t in msiitory 

o,: , - ire inc having a c - , LI 

dressing table, and his own i - Bin. servant! each 

rtieerwas allowed to have his own orderly, and while Ld 

t tee; to have all the coi forts to nserly 

oeustemed, still sre lii i rerj ell md it- 

L their rank in iif . ox el 



11 



8$ . r I . .: t re oil gataered tc r is 

i .r< -.; room which served B lcu.. ; I room. A~ 

;.'j watered I - all stocv. ap, <_ -.luted, wad sua good morning . 
i ; Preach officers took p J. ■ .... er these fealutatleue, 

id good* bye .... i left • 

54. ! visited the r^^al>^r Fi i miiitwj aobpitiai 

four wounded \n officer;., ,il together in 

§ seme root*. £j Lij s , .... us, wad *e o i Led 

Lien - for . time, i'hej appeared 

4uite cheerful tad contented, ad were on the b^st of terms 
witi I teir temporary boat, the French military Burgeon. In 
. or lo our enqulriee I 3 olii sly fch cited ul end taid thf 

■ aothiuf jy .it , Li ic »ere verj fell attended 

to, and t received LI fro heir heme* .. *ry other day. 

I eould not help oontraetj air attitudi md iemeanor with 

. of mded I officers I had spent Ghri .' .3 

> at * country i ouee '. id. 1 . . 3 . lis . i ffic rs 

-o be downcast, id awfully oorud. see 



• .. 4&u officera were quite thejbp seemed to consider 

:'.■- wound: md prlsonship only as an incident of war. one 
th-^e officers, a very young . , who i lost hi a left i^p 
i'. .. the Roe**, Beemed i ost proud, . ■ si Had t up in 

i ui ia o u - t. jovial manner • Bach 

cole a • -surgeon -* ^icuocea th i he was a lleutc of the 

Grenadier ''.-rut. 's he ib p i r i ^rvice, arrange- 

e a iidfl to S3 -iiL. for a French of Lc r of 

c i il rank a^d condition. 

8fl. tfe 1 - . ire wej tbout fifteen 

b rtout.cieci 001 .. re ti SOI , on* . <~~ 

both lejp-e . fore. - ily 

prisoner I sa. that >.~.. iBcouragec oitf -. rted, 

qui Lte impi desion . 



12 



36, . Li Lted a « building Isolated fx 

lUlldings, iii *n >ut 80 tyohc , or 

men convalescent u it disease* Ihe si lined 

i'io,< all oho prisoners had v ace in at La 

disease, ex jot 3d rr roi >1h from it. Ti . 

\ n - . . ' th< ti- typha 1 1 i ir 

87 . "... 'd war vo inl of 

o : one , i ear - rti , L as I 

..-re .d-shou 'ed y< . u ... I son of s very rio m in 
rlin, and throi his generosity this **.r\ ppli 

. comfort id delii rvd. 'i ther Lted 

il was - priva q li the* th's H Hussars*" Boon 

noticed fcl he eas i object of special attention, he 
ic hv , slf, Lts oap, held it proudly 

Posi df chest, vi his fin r pointing tc )rpi ' leu 

it. 

i men at this camp, i I cou] 

fr< fi . c .-t r; ? rt£i of the theatre of op tlens and sers 

g ptured some tii Lj in the ear, fend others only a f 

days before* 1 captured st the battle ol ttarne. 

Lie rere in the infirmary, o prii - brought 

in frei i from 1 i trenches in • La slothing, boota md 

acooul ai .<^r<i caked aith mud. 



39 



• 



In the course of our trip in outh of Prance rn I Lked 

-,c of people of different classes 
different Lies in life. - irally, if the> do act directly 

mit their disappointment, U e^ »ncs tc realize th 

i^ lonj , - thej lee no end to It. seem a ad k 

rv. hoe terrible it all is. However, I I no oj 

. of or imply tl tythini b to i lone but to fl 

to tha -• . . i in the i *iid 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.) ) fc» 

♦ £ (31 

Confidential . Need not be returned. J 

SUBJECT N u m h e r •* S uhnar i n e s - 

GERMAN NAVY. 



_ S 88 February 8, 1915. 

^ M> £>«& — — ■mimrmn— , ^7 

Replying to O. N. I. No Date ., /P/ 



Reference:- Z-J590 of Noveiibjwr--^6^d^%/ 




I am Informed on ^air authority thataH 
submarines started prior to the war are now in service and that 
by working day and nipht those started with the war will now be 
shortly available. 

In addition, as fast as boats have been turned 
over, new ones have been started, so that the total number in 
the German Navy, built or buildinp-, considerately exceeds one 
hundred. 

With regard to the features of the new boats, 
I am told that larpe radius of action is the predominant feature. 

In eons i daring the time to build I was told 
that the delivery of engines determined the period necessary to 
construct the boat, as it took longer to make these than to make 
the hull. 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, \%N$ed ttOt be WtUriVeCb* 

Confidential • I 2- 

SUBJECT ACTION IN THE NORTH SEA OF JANUARY 34TH 1915. (4J 

( Supplementary -"Report ). 



From Z No 97 Date February 8, 1915. 101 

Replying to O. N. I. No Date /p/ 



Reference:- Z-69 of January 37, 1915, 



reliable sources :- 



The following additional information is frora 



The torpedoboat which passed between the 
columns and fired the torpedoes was ■ V 305" , and it is claimed 
that the act was deliberate and not due to loss of steam through 
accident to boilers or steam pipes. 

The •'Zeppelin* "L Z 5 H was used *or spotting 
and rendered most important service in this respect. She observed 
and reported the fall of salvos from a high position near the British 
fleet and whereby the fter urns claim they made a g^eaj many more 
hits than they received. ■ L Z 5 M did not waste iflt ■ time in 
trying; to drop bombs but observed throughout. Separate report 
follows; 

The "SEYHLITZ" and not the "FF1FFLIN0FR" was the 
ship which had the powdor^Burn and had serious damages and loss 
of li^e. All caused by one ■hell| & 15.5 shell from very long 
ranp-e struck near the bottom of the oarbette of the after turret , 
penetrated and exploded in the handling room which exploded 
4000 kilogrammes of powder. A separate report of the result of 
this explosion will be forwarded. Between 30 and 40 men were 
instantly killed by the explosion. 

The "BLU !R« fell back from result of a shell 
which struck her about •Jaiaship and not due to engine break-down. 

All stories tend to confirm the deductions 
made in Z-69, except that the minimum range appears to have been 
nearly 15,000 metres instead of 14,000 metres. 




f 







-— 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.) 

N eednott>eretnrn*& ^ 



SUBJECT 

QQSSITIOia II MB llUCSIAlf ABUT* 

From (H) Z No. ^<f Date February 8, , 191 5 

Replying to O. N. I. No Date , 191 



It has been learned from an American who hat just arrived 
from Russia that a great number of Russian soldiers were deliber- 
ately having themselves injured by the enemy so as no^ to be forced 
to continue fighting. The usual method is for the Russian soldiers 
in the trenches to hold up their hands and have them shot. It was 
stated that there were also many cases of self-inflicted injury. 
rhe usual method for this is to wrap a handkerchief around one 
hand, hold it over the run and fire it. The handkerchief keeps 
away the powder from the hand but parts of the handkerchief are 
discovered in the wound. 

Jhis American cuotes Dr. Eewton of , etrograd and claims that 
i)r. Bewtoa of the American ned Cross has a record of 600 cases 
of such self-inflicted injury. According to his statement, there 
has now been issued an order in the Russian Army that hereafter 
any soldier found -ruilty of self-inflicted injury is to be shot im- 
mediately. It v;as claimed that Zjt . „evvton stated that most of the 
men brought to the hospitals were nearly starved. 

It is claimed by many German officers operating on the 
east front that wholesale desertions from the Russian lines have 
been going on for some time. They claim that he Kussian soldiers 
who come over singly to the German lines to be taken prisoner are 
sent back with the order that if they bring a crowd of a/hundred or 
more they will be ta.:en prisoners. They are lot accepted without 
their rifles. The Germans, it is claimed, pay one mark apiece to 
each Russian soldier with a rifle. Jhe reason ^iven^is the lack of 
food in the Kussian Army. for the desertions 



It is claimed that the "graft" in the Russian Army and among 
contractors is stupendous and that the Russian Amy is held to- 
gether and forced to fight by the untiring energy, fearlessness 
and severity oi the Grand Juke Nicholas Hloholi. 

— ^ — - // 




(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October' 3r. i960) 



•' • ' ' ♦ 



I 



.1 



SUBJECT 



.*f..i^...CMef..o*...a^ 



From No. §£*.. 



Date 



-u 1:15, 



Replying to 0. N i. No ~- /)<?/<? 



1. Changes in the II aval illations hr.vo lately been 
issued stating that v&en the naval forces consist of one Squadron 
or an "areata" the detail of Chief of Staff will be assigned 
to a Vice Admifcal or to a Rear Admiral 

hen the naval forces consist of no-re- then one 
u?.fron the detail of Chief of Staff to each one of these will 

be as igned to a Hear /.amir el, who rry also be in coirxnu of 
a i vision of that Squadron. 



/ 



y^r x 5 19 & 






m 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions 



SUBJECT 



of October 31, 1900.) 

MaH a 191D 
RccewtfO 



Tz 



Mill! . . I I'lW I IM I ' 



f -HB- ADMISSIBILITY ©f f H£ SOMBAgEMElI QF L0SD&J BY AIRCRAFT. 
/w/w |a) 2 Wo /(?/ Date Feb ruary^bQ^c 'I ■-» &1 5 



Replying to O. N. I. No Date 




, 191 



A promln«nt newspaper man in Berlin addressed and cent a 
communication to the General Staff of the German Army and a sim- 
ilar communication to the German Admiralty, in which he asked the 
following question: 

V. ould the bombardment of London by aircraft be against the 
principles of International Law or contrary to any agreements or 
treaties of The Lague, or contrary to any agreements among nations? 



The General Staff 
in one word: "Ho." 



of the German Army answered this question 



The German Admiralty, however, replied at length concerning 
the admissibility of the bombardment of London by aerial craft. 
A translation of the reply follows: 

X. 

In the present war international treaties do not come into 
consideration as regards the employment of aerial craft and es- 
pecially for the bombardment by such. The Hague regulations for 
war on land and Ins Hague treaties refer to the bombardment by 
the navy in time of war and have only regulated the war on land 
and sea and not in the air. The Hague declaration regarding the 
prohibition of bombs and explosives from aerial craft has expired 
as expressed in its former form - and in its newer form has not 
been ratified by a part of the belligerents; therefore it does 
not hold good in the present war. Accordingly when using their 
aerial craft the belligerents are only bound by the aforementioned 
rules in so far as these are consistent with general international 
principles. 



o 



II. 

First of all there can be no doubt that international law 
does not oppose the bombardment through aerial craft where such 
is permissible through land or sea forces. In this respect -he 
Hague agreement goes further than The Hague convention for land 
war regarding the bombardment through naval forces in time of war, 
for while according to Article 25 ox the convention for land war 
only fortified ( verteidigte ) places might be bombarded, according 
to Article 2 of the above mentioned Hague agreement for naval war- 
fare all suitable military equipment in unfortified places admit 
of attack. All such coast places before whose harbors submerged, 
automatic or contact mines are laid, are fortified places (the 
real moaning of verteidigte Platze is defended places } in the sense 
of the treaty - for the contrary attitude to Article 1, Paragraph 2 
has been taken by Germany, France, Great Britain and Jappn and 
they have reserved their rights in this respect. Similarly, from 
the point of aerial warfare, imirt Luich places also be considered 
as defended (fortified) places, which have taken certain measures 
of defense against aerial craft through proper arms and measures. 

The further ouestion whether the bombardment by air can take 
place under lor. s stringent conditions than the naval bombardment 
must at presont remain in abeyance. At all events, it does not 
seem necessary according to the nature of aerial warfare as well 
as through the practice adootod by the aerial craft on both sides, 
that the notice prescribed In Article 26 of the regulations for war 



•8- 

on land and in Article 2 of the above mentioned Hague agreement 
should precede the bombardment . 



ill. 

According to the above, London may be attacked through air- 
craft at all points wherever military constructions or constructions 
suitable for military purposes are found. i.ereto belong docus and 
arsenals used for the navy. 

Besides that, the bombardment may be directed toward the city 
itself as this is considered fortified in the sense of the afore- 
mentioned treaty. It must remain undecided whether the closing of 
the Thames by contact-mines, as far as Tilbury-Gravesend and the 
probable mine blockade in the Thames as well as the shore fortifi- 
cations of this river characterize the city of London as a fortified 
place $ For the same reason it is impossible to discuss more minutely 
the dam probably prepared in the Thames by Tilbury-Gravesend. On the 
other hand, those land fortifications in the south of the city, 
which consist of three forts and ten redoubts and which lay as near 
as twelve kilometers to the city, must be considered as a direct 
defense of London. Added to this come the measures of defense which 
are undertaken in 
places as well as 
against an attack 
place for counter 



^ondon through the setting up of guns at elevated 
the placing in readiness of armed aerial craft 
from the air and which render London a fortified 
aerial attacks ♦ 



The bombardment of London by air-ships, therefore, appears 
permissible according to international law. 






J&eed not be return* d. , 



SUBJECT 



BUM. .I»IOI - aorth Sea wattle 






From 



JVo. 



ad. 



He pi [liny to O.JV.I. J\o. 



Date lJi Jj'ebruarF 



Date 



, 191° ^ 
,+191 



The latest informntior appear! to ixtuioate T.hat tne Lion 
wa^ rat/iwr badly damaged a tiring the north sea flattie, she waa 
hit ©uoui twenty four times, ana armor was penetraseu in iuur 
placet* on *at«jr line; una Shot a truck exactly or; point- of "bo?/ 
at water line and oausea immediate reduction in speed. Jhe 
tine required tor repairs it? uut known. 




[See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.] 



Need not he returned, 



SUB [EC T SHIP ... HJ1 3 1 1,1, .... 



From Y No 5.8 Date .February 11, 191.5. 

Replying to O.N. I. No Date 



1. ' oa b on tact irith ■ ch pw^le (not official) 

here in Paris, ! find that there it a very cUH i reel Ln*r 
resenti Inst the United M< J et . /. seti by th« Ship 

P irehsse Bill. i btO 1 . :■■ -<■_■■]•■■ hen r I ■■■' : :>d 

to the s of this Bill, but the et r tnat this 

©elli " , t -. ' - 1 ■ • '- « 

*! .::.1. ' on & ■ | r r ' ' ■ 









Need not be reu m*,du 

ff. p. a/.,„A. ,fl. ,q. n $. f- lt ,& ^ t . % 



Mfi nr -. ■* i ♦ r iw • 



STATEMENTS OP THE ACTING CHX1F OF TH* ADMIRALTY STAFF 
■WITH RESPECT TO THE DECLARATION 0? THE YTATER ABOUT 
KNOLAHD AND IRELAND AS A WAR Z 01135 , ETC. 

fllj 
10S February^**, 1915^_ 

^ .. l , l .-.. m -, M ..,gg > gfrj| t j>- 





I received on this date a telephone message from 
the Admiralty Staff asking me to meet the Acting Chief of the 
Admiralty Staff for a conversation. This was on the day after 
the American note of protest had been delivered. 

I was received by Rear Admiral B I n c k e 
and his assistant. — ** 

Admiral Behncke said that what he was 
poinpr to say had the approval of his chief* Admiral B a c h m a n n 
who was at the time absent at Wilhelnshaven f 

Admiral Behncke then reviewed the situation 
of Germany at present in substance as follows;- 

Up to the present time Germany in its war at sea h 
followed the London Declaration. Enplond has not followed 
such Beclaration» nor the stipulations of the Parts Treaty on 
which the conduct of war on the sea had been based before the 
London Declaration. 

In waffinr this corner cial warfare xnscknKk ?s> id 
had in view the sub tion of Germany by starvation. Germany ha 
in every way sought to bring the attention of the neutral \ *s 
and all others to the necessity she was fender to obtain fooft 
for her civil population which was h^r right under the laws of 
war. No results could be obtained from her efforts. 

Since the shutting off of food had notycone to t>* 
point where Gerriany had no longer sufficient food te feed her 
people « it had become necessary for her to brinr Enrland to tori 
by the exercise of her force. Germany knows that by the use of 
the submarine Enrland can be placed in osition where food will 
be lackinr. She has the submarine force to do it, her life as 
a nation and the lives of )\er people depends upon putting this 
campaign into action and she must do so. 

The difficulties lyinp- in the way of this camp aim 
have been largely connected with the care which it is desired 
to ffive to the neutral ships *n<\ to the lives on board all 
commercial ships whether neutral or enenie . 

First ; In arming her itshlps with puns for sel*- 

de^ense, England adoptctr~triOTi Inst whic many strongly 
protests . The United States took the British point of view. 

It is not possible for submarine* to British 
merchant ships and tinations without a \g themselves 
to run fire or bomb attack arainst which a sub:iarine boat woulfl 
be helpless, 

Soconfl :- That England has adviced her merchant fleet 
to fly neu.t^aX liars t to cover up names and heir 
paints pe the consequences of their nationality ( ^re 
was shown a copy of the radio up -e sent br t to n hips 
to this effect). 









• 9 - 



Admiral I Ihl 0K1 id that so far as the 
German submarines were concerned such ship?? anfl convoy 
would be absolutely safe. 












^ 



JVieed not oc returned. 



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luerstiovfr, - 

3o In 1 -• _: ; r, a ns II 

-i- - 

. j dec!. I z 3 , BJ f 

IS, ■ . . 

unctuallj to the prea 2„ lj GrOvern- 

3 ten:' - 10 belief 1 3 is "e: Bluff" j 

por t In realit; lish ] 

.. Lation o: ' '. 

hips, recommenc o 

li to 

dei. ie secret . . hile i 

in 1 . olved terms, 1 

Iso u l sev 1 3ea bee a j 

bee in . ice. 




detei . not 

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i resc: 

to its lates , .ted, 

ins of ohis note iiff uo it 

e in' 
3 a .3 is conoi] •• its t 3 c not 

et it "be a b fo: 

nited s V7i] rmit 3 be co ' Loed 

Lncec lated erpl ic of e 

. solicitudes tc po -© 

unfo nded. q und -en be nraclix.. 

is e:. iin, It Lll nc i Lts 

bo neutral e ' 

kee]; 01 e.~ terioa, 1' the c neu , .At 

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Meed not be returttvd,. 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31. 190°) 






m 



*j 



SUBJECT 



Purchase of :.:orchant ...Ship as LAuslllGry..-. 
Italian Havy. 



'J) 



From 



No M». 



Date 



ruary 15, 1j15. 



Replying to 0. N i. No. 



r ■ ■" ■"- ' "D ate ... .V.. ' l... rrrr— rr-Tr-r; ~ — «-■ 



1. The Italian ITavy has purchased from an Italian 
firm the steamship QfTAKVO and renamed her 3UR0PA. She is 
4143 tons and 3000 H?.» built in Glasgow in 1895* Sho will 
be an auxiliary to the fleet. 



cuoso 
■ 19^5 




SUBJECT: Appropiation - Russia, 

Date: February 15, 1915. 




191b 



' o) 

The Duma met on last Sunday, February 7, and closed its 
session on Friday, February 12, According to the reports in 
the newspapers, practically the entire open sessions were given 
up to speech -making by various ministers, the speeches being 
received very enthusiastically. These bore principally on policy 
and though interesting from a diplomatic point of view, had less 
interest from a naval or military view. All consideration of 
naval and military estimates was in secret, and no reference was 
made to them in the speeches. 

In discussion on finances, the Controller stated that 

estimates were as follows for 1915: 

Ordinary receipts 3,080,108,000 Roubles. 

Extraordinary receipts 9,500,000 w 



Total 3,089,608,000 



ii 



Ordinary expenditures 3,078,874,000 Roubles. 

Extraordinary expenditures 155,493,000 " 

Total 3,234,367,000 " 

Estimated deficit 144,759,000 Roubles. 

These figures refer to what may be considered as the usual 
or peace expenditures. 

Since the beginning of the war and until January 1, 1915, 
the total expenses for war purpose of both army and fleet, and 
including expenses of mobilization have been 3,020,000,000 
roubles. Roughly 14 million roubles per day are necessary for 
war expenditures of both army and navy, of which only 1,400,000 
are covered by appropiations, making it necessary that 12,600,000 
should be furnished daily by results of loans, or action of the 
Government credit. Of this of course the navy gets its proportion, 
but whether this is large or not, I can not learn. I think the 
navy is somewhat restricted in its allotments. Any \.ay the Navy 
Department estimates do not show by any means the actual conditions. 




rf 



% 



Need not be returned. 

(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.) 



riar^T SITUATION DIWBL0PP8NO BETWEEN GERMANY AMD 
SUBJECT AkftftieAv 



(3) 



M?. 



10 n £>afc Februar y 15, I ' ] ♦ 

^^FT""' ' 

Replying to O. N. I. No. Date ~^L~4 .3 t .., 79/ 





, /<?/ 



After the delivery of the American note to Germany 
referring to the pomible action of Qerraany in regard to neutral 
ships in the war •eon** around Bngland and after my talk with the 
Actinp Chief of the Admiralty Staff summarised! in report No, 1 
of February 13, 1915, I felt that the situation was one which 
may rapidly develop to any prportiom so that I cabled the office 
of Naval Intelligence of the seriousness of the matter ( copy 
of cable at1 »d )• This cable was sent through the Sftbansy^ 
via the State Department as beinr the only way to get a cable in 
eyp °r through. 

In considering the present situation and future 
relationships I believe that due weight must b« given to thi 
very strong position occupied v " Germany in its shore operations. 

In spite of the newspaper despatches from 
Fetroprrad 1 the German armies are developing a new forward movement 
which is likely to brin.~ a victory which will firmly establish 
the fterman armies in Warsaw and along the line of the Vistula. 

Once this has been accomplished a very f-reat 
force of seasoned troops can bo diverted to the west ^ront where 
the allies are even now only holding their own. 

Although food is a * actor in the present 

situation, yet on short rations Be . ijj will x±n ly win 

through to the next crops and in th teantime ^er fighting spirit 

is very high. 

One of the points rhieh increases the dangerous 

situation which is developing in regard to neutral shipping comes 

■from the fast that the ionrr strain and anx due to the war 

very 

has worked the German temperament of all slassei up to a hi 

pitch and to a sd ext 1 froia % le to 



- 1 - 

qeo the •t&ntlpoint of other n .. mb h ilng ~ood 

mnt in rrrard to tha fnmr.tions which Involve point! 
o-r riv* Pforlnf*' fro» their trwm. 






jS'eed not be ret ■»/*•■«■»*■■' 

(See-Paragraph 4. Instructions of October 31. 1900.) 



SUBJECT ?.9.t?....^ 

Impr^sion of Bote at Vienna. lM#T1*9+ of lll-ff+lfrmg 
toward America amd the Americans. 

From % No 5 Date February . 16,,, ljSOg^— - 



«■ mwnWUllV 



Replying to O. N. I. No Date. 



In a leading article the Vienna "Neue Freie Presse" commented 
as follows on the not© of the American note which was presented 
to the German government on the 13th instant: 

"A SHARP MOTS FROM THE AMERICA!* GOVERNMENT 

TO GERMANY. 
"England declared the Worth Sea to be within the war zone. 
President ivilson remained silent, although he must have known 
that the principle of the freedom of the sea had been grossly 
violated • Through inconsid rate misuse of the subject of con- 
ditional contraband England has wished to plague with hunger 
the inhabitants of the allied empires, about 120 million people, 
and even the defenceless women and children, and by such un- 
worthy means has wished to compel the enemies to a degrading 
peace and the destruction of their national independence. Presi- 
dent ..ilson, the friend of humanity, the author of works which 
show the highest flights of culture, remained silent, even though 
it were fitting for the chief of the Amerioan people to restrict 
excesses in warfare. The cotton industry of the United otates 
has suffered in the highest degree and President Vilson has 
accepted the subterfuges of the British government. Germany and 
the Auatro-Hungarian Monarchy are fighting against a whole world 
of enemies, against a coalition of such trenendoue pro port ions 
as has never been described in the world's history. President 

ilson and a part of the American people do not admire the 
sublime appearance of resistance against this military encircling; 
they are not moved by the seriousness in defence of life, and 
their disposition was not altered when Japan stepped in with its 
robbery, Japan against whom they harbor deep mistrust, and v.hen 
the attempt was made to leave to Japan the decision in the 
European war by the employment of its army. In declaring the 
British waters to be war territory, Germany did exactly that 
which Kngland had already done. President -ilson is no longer 
silent. Germany has the justification that, according to ancient 
usage, it has the right to resort to retaliation if the enemy 
itself disregards the established limitations in warfare. Presi- 
dent .ilson does not, however, turn against the originator, but 
against the imitator. Germany disclosed the intrigue v.hich 
England wished to attempt in advising British merchant vessels 
to hoist neutral flags for the purpose of deceiving the enemy. 
President ilson makes representations in London against the 
misuse of the American flag, and turns against the state which 
has not lied and deceived and which has been compelled by the 
British measures to retaliation. When the British Admiralty 
prescribed the route which neutral vessels should take through 
the ilorth 3ea and the Channel President I ilson remained indif- 
ferent, but now that Germany desires a similar thing, he says 
that belliger nts have no oth r right than that of the search 
of vessels. He will hold the German Empire strictly responsible 
for the destruction of any American vessel or the death of any 
American citizen and will take all steps that may be necessary 
for the protection of life and property on the high sea. Re 
speaks of circumstances which might cast a shadow upon the inter- 
course between the two governments. 



(See-Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31. 1900.) 



page 2. 

SUBJECT. ..... .. 



From No. Date 

Replying to O. N. I. No Date 



"The sharpness of the note is not to be explained by the 
planned measures of retaliation; Germany has not said that it 
will destroy neutral ships if the;- are not lade* with contra- 
band of war and are not transporting anas and ammunition to 
the enemy, which I resident V.ilson is permitting to be done, 
Germany has out of special obligingness accorded the neutrals 
a prescribed term for effecting the necessary arrangenents for 
guarding against the mistaking of flags as the result of the 
British tricks. The neutrals only need to insist in London 
that such trickery cease and that the nationality of a vessel 
be recognisable from its flag, and there would immediately 
arise a situation in which neutral vessels i ould be subjected 
only to the chances which are inherent in a state of war. ?he 
announcement of the German Empire in no way contributes to the 
suppression of commerce in cotton, copper, rosin, and other 
articles. 

"Many building stones for the proud : tructure of the United 
States have been transported from Germany, and in the hour of 
danger and need the citizens of that great land have found 
valuable sympathies in the German Kmpire and the y. The 
student ' ilson had instilled into us such a high respect and 
the man iison was of such a distinguished appearance as a 
teacher.. It is itx t there is su. I n Intentional pro- 
minent difference between the note sent to England concerning 
the misuse of flags and the language used toward Germany. Ger- 
many is not to be frightened. It has not the slightest inten- 
tion of beginning a conflict with the 'Jnited States and increas- 
ing the number of its enemies. But the great German people, 
which has never harmed a hair of the Americans, will not allow 
itself to be intimidated. On next Thursday the British waters 
.ill be war territory." 

The foregoing article was the sharpest comment on the note 
that came to my attention. Other newspapers commented more 
favorably, and practically all, including the "Ueue Praia Presse' 
saw no posribility of an international conflict developing 
from the situatiom. I have uioted the article of the Freie 
Presse, because, according to my observation, it represents 
the public opinion. The entire austrian press ignores the 
existence of that article of the Hague convention which explicit- 
ly exempts a neutral government from restraing it3 citizens 
from engaging in contraband commerce with belligerent states, 
even in the supplying of arms and ammunition, and the Austrian 
public is not aware of the existence of such an article or of 
the fact that Both austria and Germany were si ories of a 
convention containing such am article. The increasing bitterne 
against the United States is very apparent, and it is all on 
account of the fact that American firms are supplying the 
Triple Entente powers with war supplies. The people believe 
that such conduct is absolutely unneutral, and, according to 
my Relief the government and the press ,are making capital of 
this ignorance on the part of the people. 

Since my arrival at Vienna near the endof August I have seem 
the public opinion as regards the United StateB change from 
that of professed love and admiration to that of great bitter- 
mess. 



(See-Paragraph 4. Instructions of October 31. 1900.) 

page 3. 



SUBJECT 



From No. Date 

Replying to O. N. I. No Date 



Americans who speak the English language in public places are 
grossly insulted, and it is only an aggravation to explain that 
one is not English, but oaerica*. ven the American Ked Gross 
work does not appear to be welcomed; by aany it is viewed as a 
Yankee self-glorification. 

In this connection I must add that personally I have received 
nothing but the most courteous treatment from all persons with 
whom T have come in contact, f observations concerning the 
change of public opinion with regard to America and Americans 
re .however, founded upon reliable information. 




&i*i 









(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.) I ^U 

Need not be returned^ , \ 7 

CO 

SUBJECT PROPOSED SAFEGUARDING OP NEUTRAL COMMERCE IN 

War " I one decl ared by QwmiXT '•"" 

From Z No llflr*. Date Fehruar y 1? , 19 15. , 191 

Replying to O. N. I. No \T2.L.LL:. i_J„ Date """""" " ' , 79/ 



At the request of the As tin/? Chief of the 
Admiralty Staff, the Ambassador received Admiral B e h n c k 
on this date, I formed the third party to the interview. 



e 



Admiral B e h n c k e said in substance that 
the general proposition of convoy for neutral vessels to England 
had been held practicable and desirable by the (toman government 
and suggested that Bantry Bay would be a rood place as base for 
the convoying ship and that Cardiff or some other port in Bristol 
Channel was a good port to establish for the terminal of the 
voyage of such ships. 

He further advanced a propaaition for discussion 
to the effect that if Great Britain would agree to establish 
a port exclusively for neutral commerce and the neutral nations 
would agree to use it only with ships without carrying contraband 
( under the British acceptation of that tern), the Germans would 
not use submarine boats in the vicinity of that port, nor would 
they plant mines, etc. 



In order that the British should not use their 
own ships under a foreign flag to enter this port, the foreign 
consuls to have authority to see that such abuses did not occur. 

If this o-P^er was to be accepted by England 
and neutral countries the necessity for convoy to this port would 
be done away with. The river Tyne was suggested as being suitable 
and the voyage around the North of England and through the North 
Sea as being the safest under the present conditions. 

Admiral B e h n c k e reiterated the desire 
to come to a satisfactory arrangement to make American ships 
entirely safe. 

The Ambassador said that he would cable the 
Admirals suggestion to V/ashinrton, in regard to the "free port" 
with his endorsement of the plan for a settlement. This cable 
would not be official, but as an opening for a settlement to be 
considered. 

The first proposition, convoy ships, had already 
been put into a note by the German Foreign Office and had been 
transmitted to Washington with his favorable endorsement. 

Admiral B e h n c k e rave the Ambassador a 
type-written paper containing memorandum of the use of the 
American flag by ships of other nations. 

Copy appended. 







— 








J?> 






O) 






/<?/$ 



translation . 





c;o,ure HfOi 2, to despatch Bo* 218, of Ttibrw r lv, 

1915, from the American riabassy, id, Spain* 

MIHISTBY C I :. 

LAW 
Don Alfonso XIII, by the Grace of r«od and the Consti- 
tution, Kin- of Spain; t all whom the present shall read, 
Know: that the Cortes have decreed, and We, sanctioned the 
following: 

Article 1. th a view to endowing the natio, in 

a brief space of time with the elements of naval defense, 
absolutely indispensable for the prese ■ ion of her autonomy 
and the integrity of her territory, my Government shall 
contract t) .ecutior. of the following works, in strict 

conformity to the precepts contained in the Ian of January 
7, 1908, which are not, by the present, explicitly derogated. 
4 fast cr isers, 60,000,000 

6 torpedo boat destroyers 30,000,000 

28 submarines of such patterns and charact eristics 
as shall be fixed by tie Ministry of Marine, bearing in 
mind the services to which each one of the units or groups 
shall be destined, Including the necessary material, re] :<rs, 
and sun/lies, 100,000,000 

3 gunboats 9,000,000 

18 vessels for the performance of vigilance snd 
jurisdiction of tft* sea coast, which shall answer, moreover, 
for mjning services; they must besides be of the size and 
characteristics a;propriPte to the region whereupon they are 
to render service 6,000,000 

Automatic 



. 









m: a w 












• 



. 












■'■'- 



- 2 - 

Automatio mines and other submarine 
defenses 9,000,000 

For oompen8ation for the reotifi cations that ma^ 

be required in connection with the approximate estim tes of 

the above mentioned works: for aerial material and the 

execution of other unforeseen s or acquisition of material, 

which may, in the judgment of the Government, he considered 

as urgent or indispensable for the progress and efficiency 

of the floating material, 6,000,000 

2, 30, 000, 000 

2he stated amounts are approxim? . te estimates^ the 

cifi'erences can be compensated from within the total amount 

provided far the works, but should the latter be underestimated 

recourse may be bad to the six million of pesetas provided 

for. 

.e Government may enter into agreements with the 

present contractors for the execution of the whole or of a 

portion of said constructions^ putting off, for the time 

which may be deemed proper for the improvement of the 

arsenals and the development of the industries related 

therewith - the contract of cession now in force and 

applying to the latter the modifications advisable by 

experience, 30 that in the contracts which may be made 

during that time the interests of the State may be duly 

attended to. In case of disagreement new contracts shall 

be made by means of competition, the Government being 

empov ered to adopt the necessary agreements in order that 

the constructions ordered by the \ resent law may at once 

be proceeded with. 

When 



• 





















ool.C'u'- oi .-- ftotrhr 















■ 

119 WO J 9 






I I « 

7/hen in the judgment of the Government it is not 
a visablo to enter into contract ;\ith the party hoK in the 
concession in tho arsenals lor uie performance of work or 
acquisition of material, a concourse of free propositions 
shall >.e appealed to, 

lth ti xoeption of gun-boats end revenue cutters f 
vessels shall be contracted for, just in proportion as 
the;/ are to be built at once, in the following groups or 
series: cruisers, in two groups of two 4 torpedo boat 
destroyers, in two groups of three; and in four series of 
si;, and one of four, th>- submarines, in oach one of the 
series the i --o-date progress reached bj naval industry 
ill be taken advantage of. 

e payment of the amounts due for said vorira shall be 
made in : six years, to c^ ice from January 1, 

1916, lor whion purpose there shall be included in each one 
of zho successive budgets the sum of 36 million pesetas, ex- 
clusively provided for that purpose. In that of 1915 an 
appropriation ie sta&a of 14 million pesetas for this object, 
which will appear in section tv , apter 14, Article l t 
"Hew Construe! ions" . rtleiess, the Government may make 
arrangements for the execution of 3ai ." fOtkf in a shorter 
space of time, subject to tho financial conditions which 
may be sijpulatad and accepted with the mediation of the 
Council of Llinisters. 

*he Minister of i^arine shall take the adecuate measures 
for the implantation in Spain at the earliest possible moment, 
of the manufacture of tho elements ior sue* constructions, 
to the end of obtaining as soon as possible the complote 

nati onalization 



. 















. 






TT A t\ 




— — — 



*• 4 *• 
nationalisation of the Industries related thereto. In order 
to attain this end, the: Government shall propose to the 
Cort easures of a financial character as may "be 

deemed necessary in connection with the above mentioned 
measures. 

:e torpedo -boats, whose stat e of oc ruction or 
aoonnt of material gathered therefor, permits it (approp- 
riations for £4 having "been made accordant to the law of 
January 7, 1906), shall be substituted for torpedo-boat 
destroyers, without surpassing' the amount a reed upon with 
the ''Sociedad ^spahola do Construccidn iiaval". 

Article 2. Independently of the works stated In the 
pre >edln rticle and of those pending execution, ... s per 
the law of January 7, 1908, but simultaneously, a contract 
shall be made with zhe greatest urgency with one o^ several 
parties favorably known in analogous wQrke, for the execution 
Ox tho follow log works in the naval bases and ports of refuge, 
as well as for the construction of the floating material 
hereinafter expressed: 

FERHOL. 

Pre&glng oj the basin at nine metres and dredging of 
the fosse a:, si* metres and revetment of the slopes of the 
letter, 600,000 

Floating door for Ships of small 
tonnage 1,000,000 

Petrol sua tanks and accessories 500,000 

Landfalls in the Arsenal and at La Grana, hand cars, 
transportable crane, ropes, water pipes, telephone line 
and accessories _or wharves and vessel 
supplies 750,000 















■ 





















>~o o 









] 



30. 



r 






- 5 - 

For repairs In the nail of Arms and other "buildings 

and docks 400,000 

or a ware-house for aerial material 

50,000 

Shipyards of Puerto Chico put in condition for floating 
material and building of a workshop 100,000 

3,600,000 
CAD 18 
Dredging oi uhe chi.nncl^, luminous buoy and extraction 
of submerged articles, 3,045,000 

Piers, expropriations, pavemont EM fftrfcer on the 
beacn in the v/estern portion, railways, hand cars, trans- 
portable earns, rooeo, rater pipes, telephone line and 
Ooher accessories for piers and vessel supplies, 

3,243,000 
Petroleum tank ana accessories 500,000 

or shops, bull s and docks put in condition, 

electric power aad roads for communication r/ithcthe depart- 
ments situated outside of the Arsenal 1,782,000 
/rehouse for aerial material 50,000 

lg out of t. . e; Ice jronnd of ?orregorda., 

co e track, transportation means, platform, 

mountings, care affirming of p • vein en t 

500 , 000 
9,120,000 
roasferrint of L School to a locality- in immediate 

touch with the sea in the bay of Cadiz, incorporation in 
it of station of sub le forces, and endeavoring to asseable 
with All the necessar. ments the worl s and the expropriations 

being comprised 4,000,000 






. 






— ■*: 



- 6 - 

CARTAGENA 
Dredgin- of the basin, cutting of the- s lient os 

at the entrance, fitting out of the piers, railways, trans- 
portable crane, water pipes and other accessories for 
piers, 1,650,000 

Basin for torpedo "boats and floating material 

1,500,000 
Floating dfcck of a minimum capacity of 4,000 tons for 
torpedo bo;, ts and cruisers and for services in the shipyard 
of Santa Rosalia £,000,000 

Present shipyards put in co ciition 1^0,000 
Petroleum deposits arid accessories 500,000 
pazine for aerial material 50,000 

Transformation of the ©1(3 buildings, fitting out of 
workshops and electric plant 1,150,000 

Outside landfall 400.000 

7,350,000 

J0ETS OF RBFUMB 

,;r the neces.:ar,y preparations is the ports whit 

may be designated as ports of reii .or torpedo- bOJ ts 

ano submarines 2,000,000 

Floating shipyards 1.800,000 

2,800,000 

FL0A2I RIAL. 

Three large tow boats prepared for salvage purposes 
and mine maneuvering 2,000,000 

f Jwo smaller size tor bo: ts 600,000 
oix launches for towin of lights 300,000 









I 



~ 7 ■* " 



- 7 - 

Cisterns and light tl lor trie Bvpppljf of coal, 

trols ra, ;;• nit ions, etc., 1,575,^00 

i la. ting shears of 100 tone 1 . 000 . 000 

5,475,000 



Supply of potable water for t-c aayal bases 

7,000,000 



In oraer to earr oiit this service th -iistries 

of Marine am public rks must put theflftsalyes in aqoo a, 

deoidin b to whether the itrorks aust be d~ne by contract 
or si bvention. 

Works at Fcrrol, 3,600,000 

" " Cadiz 9,120,000 

Transference of Kaval school 4,000,000 

orkt. at -.-rthagena 7,350,000 

■ 2 ports of refuge ...000,000 

Floating Material 0,475,000 

Stable water supply 7,000.000 

40,345,000 

The prie are approximate estimations, and 

the difference will be tecle Up within the sum total . 
tl c total amount of the works are to be uaid i 
years, by yearly Instalments, w icf e in< ed 

fter decision in the Council I . [inisters, in the et 

of state expenses* 

The adjudication Bhall be oaae through a oone-urse 
of free proposals and they may c- rise the ..hole or a 
portion of the works* The Governinent may freely stcspt th< 
the o e as more aciv tageouS or refuse them all, the 

guarantee 



I 















) 



- 8 - 
rantee offered by the adder for 'is industrial it 

the tenn ofi'ercd for the carry in the work 

beii.. borne in mi n . 

In order to co.pl;; v. it the nrocepts expressed in the 
1 .8 of Januar, 7, 1908, eit t test cy and 

cc homy, the Government will examine and try to 1 I 11 
the works of the Arsenal de la Carracc , both 1 u.l' 

careening ana of new construction, the Government being 
entitled re up the work Shop*, warehouses, etc., in 

Biciilar e It ion as t t arei the Perrel and 

rthagena est b I. ishmonts or 'n the _■ ndltion i ieJjL may 
honcoiorward be adopted. 

r fhe necessary provision) sill be blishe 
iletr; of Public .orka lor carrying out th< - of 

the three naval bases at f r as the *i Is, aitb fcl 

urgency possiole, so that thaj may be Bade use of In 
facilitating the works comprehended in t ..,11 

s the ured.^ing In the be la of eeoeas in the oo oial 
pons an. the flttia the I of 1 io trio. 

DlflOIAIi ARTICLE. 
nister of Marine is a sized to purchase - 

the e>- d froa the proprieties sted 

by t le lav;- .. ami I four I I rines and tl a neoeeeery 
equipment for the ins1 ructions and or etioe e personnel 
whic It thorn an tl) I a cpecia ealra ;e vessel. 

He is likewise ant or i zed for organlalng t ervice 

i.i the submarines v. it officer I the general corps of 
the Wavy ar reorganising the Cor ■ si ahial ts 

oi boatswains, eter ganners and other 1.1 rns 





















J 



, y - 

a dap tin oir servicer.; ai nt to tho needs 

the new oone r cti.ns, a] icmnt approp- 

ri f6r anel Ln ! e present bi t. 

.e ii r ribtta L©, Ju tioaa, Chitfa, 

rnoTi r or it ice, civ" 1 3 ry 

eoc bio , ol r c 1 I I , k» i 

c Bf o tc be kept , - ■ 
in al l it pai ta« 

: tpq in the 3 1 ie 17th day of i"ofcrr-'r^, 

1 , 4 r 8 

Che .Minister < I arino. 

irurida. 



T<2. 

(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31. I9 ^,^ ^^ ^ p^WrnM*, 



SUBJECT 



of Loehip J&AB B 



r 



From I No. 






Date 



trxmvy , l... 



Replying to 0. N. I. No ~ Date 



he i. 



• 



1 1 
rtaa 

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3n 

Iee6 lot? spec 3 
or., 















VBWPWv v 



tit ft 



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o~ 



<-"!•*■«"» 






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pro. 1 at %% i 



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9 e&rttc hs 

ffce eck *w 

■■ r :> 1 ctrt p firon Ik 



itectlro deck tan to c ";aaee aft of 40 feet, 

«to& J ' nearer amidships.. 







sj 



T2. 
Need not be returned. ^ ( 



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lligent go ope leaders, , 

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evening- oi I 

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Ins to just standpoint, 

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of 

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lie i 1 ' Lnno c oouli 

rts of " » I 

i ' 1 - - 

Decl - - - " 

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deceive ourselves ihe 

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11 l~ itself 

of . Jol 

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(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31. XQfta^ V HOt M 

i. l91t T2- 

R vi£D , <L*L 



SUBJECT 



Itc lim Fleet, 



B, 



w% \ 



From I No. Q 



Date 



.^obrRGxy.JH 




Replying to 0. N. i. No... ~ Date 



■ 1 m m i w i ill h i i k w — 11 1 « t m m » » ■ » » m« » i « i m» 



1* i©T© hCTO b< 

Fleet, ■■ :iic£, since Vice .tairrl 



U 9 



-r. 



J, li 





lQI 




1 *i v ■'' 


if. 

■ J K. 






I. .', 



T-. 






v- c 



.ie 









• 















pe (hie 

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: 

I 

one re in 

▼* ItLansJ If ®& iv:' 

f ex 
ear 



m b. 



fl Tf 



■ 



. cC. 



f hss ttB sf 0; 

-•• r . * cs h ... 



ort Ie 
m the arrive 

:.6iit ; i;f; hi . 



1 in 
; vessel v.l 11 00- 







/^f V*, < 



Need not be returri^a, 



SUBJECT Second battle cruiser division oomiaanu.. 






From 



JVo. 37. 



Replying to O.M.I. .Mo. 



])<< te 



, 191 5 

, 191 



Hear riral .Moore, in command of the 3econfl battle 
cruiser division, flagship Hew Zealand, has been relieved of 
command by Hear Admiral de Robeck. This change is said to 
have been made at request of Vice Admiral Sir ~avid Beauty, 
and tie reason given is that he, Vice 4d« ?>eatty, thought that 
Jiear Admiral Moore, v/} o was senior officer present after the 
Lion was disabled, did not continue pursuit far enough- af-ter 
the Doggerbank fight. 




1 



WradMOt be return* d. 

JJC/CWfsff Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.) 



Th+vL, 



TO. 

CO 



SUBJECT LENGTH Of SUBMARINE CRUISES. 

Cc** Pfc^.+^fc;..-. C^^.^r^^.. ^jfr:.£^^^ 
From Z. No 137 Date »»*-«■-» Qi- iQJg. ; /q/ 



Replying to O. N. I. No Date 



, 191 



A G n naval of i~er tel .a me that L ho subrnafcinaa 
Stay away ' p rou their baeaa f or periods varyin fr between tan and 
twenty -.lyr,* T-wo weeka is a *-oo £* time. 

After a trip of this ohara^t.^r it usually ta'c«s 
anout the saue period to overhaul and prapare *or another <?ruise t 

Overhauling is lartf^ly done by reliaf crews. 




^T 



JRted not be relumed, 

(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.) i S^cLOSfy, 




vmiFCT LOSS of AMERICAN STEAMERS "EVELYN* and 



From Z No 135 Date February 34* 1915, , 191 



Replying to O. N. I. No Date f igi 



The following is a translation of a 
memorandum furnished me by the Admiralty Staff yesterday. 

A full investigation has been ordered 
by the Ambassador and the results will be forwarded when received 

u Memorandum. 



In the last days two American cotton 8 t earners, 

earning from Holland, when steering into the German Bay 

along the Esat Priesian islands f run on to mines and 
sank. 

The captain of the steamer "EVELYN" has 
already stated that an English officer had advised 

i, not to take the northern roiite indicated by the 
Oerman Admiralty, but the southern entrance along 
the east Priesian coast. 

The suspicion exists that the pilot service 
for the (toman waters is influenced from the English 
side for the purpose to bring neutral snipping in 

It is therefore re co:. mended to invite the 
attention of the government in Washington as well as 
the American Legation at ^he ttague to the fact that 
neutral shipping can only nail into the German Bay 
without I; nger by steering towards the Liestertief 
Buoy with a southern to eastern course and there to 
tales a pilot* 

arlin, February 33, 1915, 



) 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900 



Confidentia '../*■ ^ 



7 



fieettno 



SUBJECT 



CHANGES IN HIGH ^0;:..AMDS. 




From 



Z 



No. 



, 191 



Replying to O. N. I. No. Date 



., 191 



From unofficial sources the following changes 
are reported to have been Made •during the early part of this month* 

Admiral von Inrenohl detached 



rjcr: land North Sea Fleet to command the Baltic ;iaval Station 



( shore oo\ i land ) • 



Admiral von P o h 1 from Chief of the 

„minr— "" 



Adrairalty Staff to command the North Sea Fleet. 

Tr ioe Admiral Baoh man n from command of 
the Baltic Naval Station to be Chief of the Admiralty Staff, 

It has been apparent for some time that there 

was Much dissatisfaction with Admiral von Inr-enohl as 

the Fleet Go: L.iander, on account of the little that was accomplished 

by the fleet. 

Admiral von I n p- e n o h 1 occupied a very 

diffieult position, ~e could not afford to take chances of loss 

of any of his principal unite as was probable if he went out into 

the :: n r* ;, 9a and yet he was in coianand of a forne filled with 

lesire to accomplish something. Just what caused Lnal 

resolution to make the c ! has not levelopedf but apparently 

It from the squadron action of tnuary 34th 1915, 

It is possible that Q naval sentiment feels 

that if t o n Inpenohl had raoyeapremptly with the battle 

st f h€ fould hare cut off the lamed En?lisb I ttle cruiser, or 

>ssibly the whole battle cruiser squadron mi^rht ve boon brought 

to action. This , however* at the prsnent time, is conjecture. 



( 



1 





TV-' 1 -'] 



Berlin, February 27, 191 5 . 

Weed not be return* 

2 '"? .; 



His Excellency 

Honorable James W. Gerard, 
American Ambassador, 

Berlin 



M 'IIIIHHW Mil 



TWJJC 



SIR: — 

I have the honor to report that during my recent visit to England, 
which was undertaken at the request of the German Government, I 
was able to inspect nine ships and thirteen other places in which German 
prisoners of war are interned. A general permit to "visit the places of 
internment of prisoners of war in the United Kingdom", was given 
to me on January 27th, the day after my arrival in London. 

Approximately there were 400 officers (active and reserve, including 
a few Austrians), 6500 soldiers and (naval) sailors, and between 19000 
and 20 000 (merchant) sailors and civilians (German and Austrian) 
interned on February first. Probably less than one third of the total 
I number of German subjects or persons of German birth in the United 
Kingdom are interned at present, and many of those interned have 
no wish to return to Germany. Besides sea-faring persons, there are a 
considerable number of boys under seventeen and men over fifty-five 
who are interned, but in every case which came to my attention note 
had been taken of the fact by the local commandant and reported to 
the authorities with a view to repatriation, except where men had no 
wish to be sent to Germany. I spoke with several Germans who were 
at liberty in London — although to a greater or less extent subject to 
police supervision, and I heard of a number of cases of application for 
British naturalization — action upon which was to be deferred until 
the close of the war. I understand that approximately ten percent of 
those originally interned have been released for various reasons. I heard 
of various cases where men (civilians) have been permitted to go to 
America on parole, and I know that many applications for permission 





-to go are under consideration. I heard of no cases where women wen 
interned in England. 

At the British War Office I was told that the camps, mentionc 
in the memorandum sent me by the German Foreign Office, at Alders- 
hot (Frimley or Frith-Hill), Olympia and Newbury, as well as the tem- 
porary camp at Bedford, near Edinburgh, had been closed for some time 
and that there had never been a camp at Devonport. 

I visited the receiving depot at "Bevois Mount", Southampton, 
and the camps for officers at Holyport near Maidenhead, at Dyffrynj 
Aled in Wales, and at Donington Hall, Derbyshire. With the exception! 
of hospitals, there are no other places in which officers are interned, i 
Officers who had been at the Hospital at Netley spoke of the good treat- 
ment which they had received while there. 

I also visited the following places of internment of soldiers, sailors 
and (or) civilians; — Dorchester, Queen's Ferry, Lancaster, Wakefield; 
(Lofthouse Park), Handforth near Manchester, Stratford in East London, 
Douglas and Peel (Knockaloe) in the Isle of Man, three ships each at 
Southend (Thames), Gosport (Portsmouth) and Ryde (Isle of Wight),! 
and the receiving depot at Southampton, — in regard to all of which I 
shall refer later in detail. I did not go to the camps at Templemore, 
Ireland or at Shrewsbury (Abbey Wood), because I was informed offi- 
cially that these two were to be, and probably are now, closed. I did 
not think it worth while to visit the camp at the Oldcastle Union Work- 
house, County Meath, Ireland, because of the time which such a visit 
would require, nor that at Stobs, Hawick, N. B. where there are only 
about three hundred prisoners (no soldiers), nor those at Leigh, Lan- 
cashire, and Frongoch, Wales, which were not opened at the time of my 
arrival in England. So far as I am aware there are no other places of 
internment elsewhere in Great Britain or Ireland than those mentioned 
above, with the exception of the temporary — receiving depot — at 
Edinburgh, and Home Office camps at East cote in Northhants and 
Alton in Hants. 

Where it was necessary for arrangements to be made for me to 
get to the places of internment (the several ships and the two camps 
in the Isle of Man) notice of my visit was sent in advance officially, 
but otherwise I was at liberty to choose my own time for the visits. 
In some cases I sent word in advance myself, but in many no previous 
notice was sent and in several the local commandants had had no in- 
formation whatever with regard to my inspection until I announced 
my presence to them. 



•r ffl 



am 



.■ ■■ 



i 



IV^ 









i 



Everywhere I was granted every facility to see all that there was 
to be seen and to converse freely with the prisoners of all classes, with- 
out any kind of control or supervision. On two occasions, at Maiden- 
head and Dyffryn Aled, I lunched with the German officers, no British 
officer or soldier being present within the "camp" at the time. In general 
the officers are under practically no supervision so long as they remain 
within the camps themselves, and there is no direct contact between 
them and the British officers and soldiers except when they leave the 
barbed wire enclosure for exercise or other purposes. At Maidenhead, 
where I saw the officers playing football in a field which was not en- 
closed, guards were stationed around that field, but there are no guards 
within the wired enclosures in any of the officers camps. 

In the soldier and civilian camps as well, there was rarely any direct 
contact between the interned and the British soldiers on duty as guards, 
and none between the interned and soldiers who were off duty. When 
excercise marches take place — as at Dorchester and in the Isle of Man — 
the prisoners are accompanied by armed guards as a matter of course. 
In all these (soldier and civilian) camps the general fatigue and police 
work is done by the prisoners themselves. Opportunities are given for 
exercise, by marching as indicated above and by the use of gymnastic 
apparatus (bars, etc.), and foot and other ball games are permitted, 
but exercise is not obligatory, although all prisoners are compelled to 
spend certain hours every day outside their sleeping quarters. As a 
rule very little has been done as yet to provide occupation or employ- 
ment for interned prisoners, military or civil. 

Soldiers and sailors, who — and officers as well — are allowed to wear 
civilian clothes when they have no uniforms, and civilians are provided 
with blankets, shoes and clothing of all kinds by the British Govern- 
ment, in accordance with their individual needs, when they have not 
the means to purchase such articles. Soap is also provided, but towels, 
toothpaste, brushes, etc., must generally be supplied by the prisoner 
himself, or through the American Embassy in London on account of 
the German Government. Books printed before the outbreak of the 
war are permitted in English and other languages, and English news- 
papers have been permitted since the end of January. The regulations 
regarding the receipt of parcels, letters and money and for out-going 
correspondence are similar to those in Germany. The right to receive 
correspondence has been suspended in certain cases, as punishment 
for breaches of discipline, such as receipt or transmission of clandestine 
letters, etc., or the attempt to send letters through bottles thrown from 




''''•"■.'.■.'■ 
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I I 



; 

the ships. In some cases cigars and sausages had been cut open, be j 
cause it had been found that they had been used to smuggle letters 
or papers to the prisoners. In regard to correspondence there wertj 
many individual complaints, but by far the larger proportion of thePJ 
prisoners said that money, packages and letters had reached then I 
without extraordinary delay. It seemed to take from three to six week'! 
to receive an answer to a letter sent to Germany. 

The food furnished to prisoners is practically the ration of the i 
British soldier. Usually the food is prepared by German cooks, who J 
told me that the material furnished was of good quality. The food seemed j 
to be generally satisfactory both as regards quality and quantity, al-H 
though there were a considerable number of individual complaints. Most j 
of these were, however, with regard to the monotonous character of! 
the diet, that there was too much beef and too little pork, that there 
was white instead of brown bread, and that there were not enough fresh I 
vegetables. The ration includes a daily portion of butter, jam or cheese. | 
Cantine facilities exist everywhere, prices being fixed by the War Office. J 
The free use of tobacco was permitted everywhere. No alchoholic 
drinks are permitted except to officers, who are allowed to purchase 
what they like with the exception of spirits. 

In most of the "camps" visits are permitted — including those of 
the wives and female friends and relatives of prisoners, but in many 
cases the camps are so inaccessible that this permission is rarely availed 
of. Opportunities are given for prisoners to see their solicitors or business 
associates — at least in some camps — where their business interests do 
not conflict with regulations affecting "trade with the enemy". Women 
"camp visitors", representing the "Emergency Committee for the 
Assistance of Germans, Austrians and Hungarians in Distress" and 
other benevolent organizations, are also permitted, and these ladies 
do much to relieve the minds of the prisoners, by carrying messages 
and rendering services to their families. As a general rule prisoners are 
allowed to receive personal visits on only two occasions per month, 
but exceptions are made in individual cases. 

In general the health of the camps has been good. The "Prisoners 
of War Information Bureau" furnished me with a statement showing 
that from the beginning of the war up. to the nth of February, there 
had been 83 deaths (70 from wounds) among the combatant prisoners, 
and only 20 (4 as result of the riot at Douglas) among the German non- 
combatants. I was told that all these deaths have been duly reported 
to the German Government. Most of the deaths have resulted from 



causes not connected with internment, although in some cases death 
may have been hastened by it. There had been only one death from 
j» enteric fever, which had been contracted before admission to the camp, 
and two from malaria. In general the hospital arrangements are primi- 
tive, but they appeared to be sufficient. Seldom were the local hospitals 
full and dangerous cases were usually sent to permanent hospitals. Special 
diet is given the patients in most cases, but there were several com- 
plaints on this score, and there were also various complaints with regard 
to insufficient medicines. A number of men suffering from venereal 
diseases (of whom there were a large number) complained because they 
could not get the "606" treatment, and several spoke of their inability 
to get favorite remedies for their chronic diseases. In nearly every 
case there was a physician residing in or within easy call of the camp, 
who was regularly present at certain hours and who could be reached 
with but little delay at others. Of the sanitary conditions I shall speak in 
that part of my report which treats of the camps in detail. 

The "Prisoners of War Information Bureau", to which I referred 
above, appears to be admirably organized. It provides a blank form which 
each prisoner is supposed to fill immediately on his arrival at his first 
place of internment, and it is in receipt of regular returns from all the 
camps, showing the names, etc., of all prisoners interned, transferred 
or released, and containing reports of all sick or wounded. That this 
machinery breaks down in some instances is of course inevitable, and at 
one camp I saw a number of men who had just been called on to fill 
out their blanks, although they claimed that they had been interned 
for several months. The Bureau serves as a central station for the dis- 
tribution of mail and parcels, all of which is done as rapidly as is pos- 
sible. It answers — as far as is possible — all requests for information 
and claims to have answered thousands of letters from Germany in 
regard to prisoners. It also claims that its lists which are sent to Ger- 
many are much better than those furnished by the German Govern- 
ment, and that the corresponding German organization has not acted 
with reciprocity in answering applications for information in regard to 
British prisoners. 

The officers without exception told me that they had always been 
treated like officers and honorable men by the English soldiers, and 
many of the German soldiers told me of instances where they had been 
protected by the English from assaults by the mob on their way through 
France, and that they had not been subjected to any abuse or violence 
since their arrival on British soil. From the civilians, however, there 









were many complaints, especially from those who had been taken from 
neutral ships or who had been arrested in the Colonies (Africa), as 
to the manner of their arrest and their treatment before being brought 
to the detention camps. 

On the whole the present treatment seems to be as good as could 
be expected under the circumstances. The new camps are all better than 
the older ones and everywhere there seemed to be an intention to im- 
prove on existing conditions. Lack of organization and preparation 
would account for most of the hardships which prevailed at first. Ab- 
solutely nowhere did there seem to be any wish to make conditions any 
harder or more disagreeable for the prisoners than was necessary, and 
I saw no instance and heard of none where any prisoner had been sub- 
jected either to intentional personal annoyance or undeserved discipline. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

John B. Jackson. 

OFFICERS. 1 

"Bevois Mount", a small private estate in the city of Southampton, 
was taken over in September by the British authorities as a receiving 
depot for officers. At the time of my visit, on February 3rd, there 
where present n military, 9 naval and 17 merchant officers, as well 
as 8 military servants and 20 civilians, some of whom (notably the 
officers from the "Blucher") have already been transferred to the new 
"camp" at Donington Hall. The grounds in front of the house, where 
the interned are at liberty to walk, are enclosed by barbed wire. They 
are small and can be overlooked from the street. The house itself is good, 
but as it is intended only as a receiving depot, few alterations have been 
made to adapt it to the special use to which it has now been put. The 
number of water closets and baths are consequently barely sufficient. 
There are, however, several mess and recreation rooms, and no bed 
room is arranged to accomodate more than nine persons. No especial 
accomodation is provided for senior officers. Korvetten-Kapitan Ross, 
of the "Blucher", who was the senior at the time, was in the hospital 
room together with a number of other wounded. The officers are at 
liberty to make their own mess arrangements, and German cooks are 
employed. The use of wine and tobacco is freely permitted. Officers 
are allowed to receive visitors including ladies. The regulations are inter- 
preted liberally, and the relations between the interned and the British 



:*>*•* , 



Wi 




officers appeared to be entirely cordial. Among the merchant officers 
were several from steamers of the Woermann line, including one doctor, 
and the civilians were persons of good social standing (Baron Plessen, 
a son of the former Prussian Minister at Stuttgart, Prince Rohan, a 
young Austrian, and others). There were no complaints made to me by 
the interned with regard to their treatment. 

Previously, on January 29 th, I had visited the "camp" at Holy port 
near Bray, Maidenhead, which was opened on November 24. 140 officers 
were interned at the time and the place was overcrowded but about 
forty officers have since been transferred to Donington Hall. The senior 
officer present, Korvetten-Kapitan Pochhammer of the "Gneisenau", 
had a room to himself, but in other rooms there were as many as fifteen 
beds arranged in pairs with only narrow passages between the pairs. 
In the rooms occupied by several officers one washstand and one cup- 
board was provided for each three persons. The house itself, which 
was formerly a cadet school but which had been empty for a number 
of years, is not in good condition. Some of the rooms are on the ground 
level and consequently damp, and some are under the eaves and draughty. 
The heating arrangements — open fire places — were poor, and the limited 
number of water closets are close to the bed rooms. Hot water is available 
and there are a sufficient number of baths, as well as a swimming tank 
which, however, was empty at the time of my visit. Repair work was 
going on in the house, but there was still much to be done to make it 
really good. The health of the camp was good, and there was no one 
in the lazarette at the time of my visit. Among the officers were several 
who had been wounded — one was on crutches, and another had had his 
left arm amputated, — but all were glad to be among their own com- 
rades although they spoke well of the treatment which they had re- 
ceived in the hospitals. Most of the officers wore civilian clothes. Trades- 
men were showing samples and a dentist and a barber were at work 
while I was in the camp. Mail and packages were being distributed 
which had been from two to three weeks en route from Germany. Hous< 
and small grounds — sufficient for moderate exercise and including a 
croquet ground — are enclosed by barbed wire, but there is also a large 
unenclosed field in which football was being played upon my arrival, 
sentries being posted on its limits. In all I spent about three hours in 
this camp in unrestricted intercourse with the interned, taking luncheon 
(dinner) with the prisoners. The menu consisted of a good vegetable 
soup, "Klops" and potatoes, and apples, The cook was English with 
German assistants, and in the camp there were about forty military 




8 



servants. No British soldiers were on duty inside the camp and none 
accompanied me while I was in it. The general atmosphere of the camp 
was satisfactory, although there were many complaints from Colonial 
officials from Africa (Togo and the Cameroons) with regard to the manner 
of their arrest and their treatment before they were brought to England. 
There were also many complaints from reserve officers, who said that 
they had received no pay since their arrest and who expressed the hope 
that appropriate arrangements would soon be made by the two Govern- 
ments concerned. There were no complaints in regard to the treatment 
received from British officers and soldiers. The use of wine and tobacco 
is freely permitted. Among the interned was Dr. Pfeiffer of the Hospital 
Ship "Ophelia", who was detained pending the action of the Prize Court. 
On February nth I visited Dyjfryn Aled, in Wales about forty 
miles from Chester. Here there were 91 officers (including about 25 
belonging to the German Navy and one belonging to the Austrian — a 
reserve lieutenant), with about twenty civilian servants and cooks who 
had been brought from Queen's Ferry and were well satisfied by their 
transfer. In this camp I also took lunch with the prisoners, as did Lieu- 
tenant Oueckemeyer of the United States cavalry, who accompanied 
me on most of my visits. The prisoners run their own mess, and the 
use of wine, beer and tobacco is freely permitted. The house is a good 
one situated in a large wooded park, with no neighbors. As the house 
fronts on the road all the windows have been barred. At the back there 
is a large barbed wire enclosure, and a still larger field was being enclosed. 
German officers take walks in the woods and in the surrounding country, 
from time to time, with the British officers. In the house there are several 
recreation rooms, and a billiard table has been ordered. Music is freely 
permitted, and tradesmen have been allowed to come down from London 
to supply the wants of the officers, who generally wear civilian clothes. 
Single rooms are provided for senior officers, but the senior officer present 
at the time (a reserve officer of the German navy who had been taken 
from a merchant ship) was voluntarily sharing his with a comrade. No 
room contained more than six beds. The lights were poor, and only 
portable bath tubs are available. Other sanitary arrangements were 
satisfactory and there was no one in the hospital. Pictures, including 
those of the German Emperor had been hung in the bed rooms. Officers 
were allowed to receive money in any reasonable amount. There were 
no complaints in regard to treatment by British officers, but one reserve 
major spoke bitterly of his arrest — on board of a neutral ship, and his 
treatment by the police before he was turned over to the military authos- 



Ban 



,£l*s 



9 



ities. The same complaint as at Holyport was made by other reserve 
officers to the effect that they had received no pay. Among the prisoners 
were Consul Schlagintweit of Manchester, who had charge of the pur- 
chase of mess supplies, etc., and three military surgeons, who could not 
understand why some of their colleagues had been released while they 
were still kept as prisoners. 

My last visit was on February 16 th to Donington Hall, in Derby- 
shire, a beautiful place which formerly belonged to the Marquis of 
Hastings. This "camp" had only been opened on the ioth, and only 
about twenty officers (from Bevois Mount) were present at the time, 
although at least forty more were expected to arrive from Holyport 
the same afternoon. The house is a large one, situated in a wooded 
park, and will accomodate 174 persons with from six to fourteen in any 
one room. Each prisoner is to have his own washstand and one half 
of a four-drawered commode. No especial provision is made for senior 
officers, and Captain Ross ("Bhicher" — who had recovered from his 
wounds) shared a room with five others. Eight "huts", accomodating 
fourteen persons each, are being built near the house, so that eventually 
there will be room for about three hundred prisoners. The house con- 
tains several rooms devoted to general purposes of recreation, etc., as 
well as a Chapel, in which religious services had been held in German 
on the previous Sunday. Hot and cold water is available, and the house 
is well heated and lighted by electricity. In addition to the water closets 
already in the house a number of new ones (for officers and for servants) 
have been installed — although the number might be insufficient if 
the camp should be filled. A gymnasium is being arranged in what 
was formerly a carriage house. Good sized grounds — for football and 
tennis — had already been enclosed and a much larger part of the woods 
was being enclosed by barbed wire, which was soon to be available 
during daylight hours. Here, as elsewhere where officers are interned, 
the guards come in no direct contact with the prisoners. The messing 
is arranged by contract with the Army and Navy Stores of London, 
the charge being two shillings per day per person. There is to be regularly 
a hot breakfast, a light meat-luncheon and a three course dinner in the 
evening. There is also a well stocked wine cellar (wines, beer, champagne, 
whiskey, etc.) and a store, from which the prisoners can buy practically 
anything which they want in the way of food-delicacies or clothing. 
The cooks are Germans and the servants are German and Austrian 
civilians formerly employed in English hotels. The officers with whom T 
talked freely, were much pleased by their transfer to this place. 



*tB3S 



IO 



SHIPS. 

There are groups of ships at Southend (Thames), Gosport (Ports- 
mouth) and Ryde (Isle ofWight), each group consisting of three ships, 
two of which are devoted to civilian and one to military prisoners. All 
of these ships had previous to the war been engaged in trans-Atlantic 
passenger service, and most if not all of them were used recently to 
bring troops from Canada. I was told that in no case does the 
number of prisoners on board any ship, equal the number of soldiers 
who were brought over in her. The ships have been used as places of 
internment since December. 

The first group of ships which I visited was that at Southend, on 
January 30. It consists of the "Royal Edward", the "Saxonia" and the 
"Ivernia", the last named being the military ship. As these ships are 
anchored in the Thames at some distance from the shore, they are almost 
inaccessible to ordinary visitors, but visitors — including women — have 
been permitted to board them for the purpose of seeing friends or 
relatives. 

Of the whole squadron, the "Royal Edward" is obviously the show 
ship. On board of her the interned are separated in three classes, depen- 
dent to a certain extent upon their social standing but to a greater 
extent upon their ability to meet extra expenses. There were in all 
about 1400 prisoners on board this ship. In addition to a so-called 
"club", whose members can more or less cater for themselves, there is 
a first-class mess whose members pay two shillings per day in advance. 
Otherwise the prisoners receive the regular ration, which is prepared 
by German cooks and generally found satisfactory. Prisoners are per- 
mitted to avail themselves of the regular first class cabins upon pay- 
ment in advance of from five shillings to two and six pence per week, 
according to the number of persons occupying a cabin. The other pri- 
soners occupy the regular steerage quarters, sleeping in tiers of three, 
the air space, number of closets, washing arrangements, etc., being such 
as are provided by law for a larger number of emigrants. Some of the 
prisoners are locked below decks at night, which caused some nervous- 
ness among them, owing to the apprehension of danger from "Zeppelins". 
Otherwise the prisoners seemed to be in fairly good spirits, except cer- 
tain members of the "better classes" who complained bitterly of the 
fact that they were prisoners at all. Men who had been transferred 
from camps on shore, which had since been closed, were much better 
satisfied with existing conditions. Mail and packages had been received 






wmzwmm. 



ii 



in large quantities with fair regularity, although here, as everywhere, 
there were a number of individual complaints with regard to missing 
letters and parcels. A German barber was at work and a number of 
prisoners were employed as stokers, etc., being rewarded by small wages 
and extra privileges. All "fatigue work" is done by the prisoners them- 
selves, in accordance with arrangements made by them. The relations 
with the British officers, who are almost as much prisoners as the interned 
Germans, seemed pleasant. Among the prisoners were at least three 
German Consular officials: — Wilhelm Julius of Aberdeen, Buchholzke 
of West Hartlepool, and Kohler of Glasgow. All the interned are obliged 
to be on deck for a certain number of hours each day, but there is no 
obligatory exercise and no space for anything but walking. There is no 
opportunity for any "occupation" except, as indicated above, in connection 
with the work on board the ships. The general health of the prisoners 
appeared to be good, and there had not been more than two deaths, 
one being due to heart failure. 

On board the "Saxonia" there were about 1800 persons, and here 
all the prisoners were treated alike, with the exception of workers who 
were rewarded by being allowed to occupy cabins. The rougher element 
among the prisoners appeared to have been collected; although there 
were some belonging to the "better classes". On the day of my visit, 
several men were being tried by Court Martial for an attempt to escape. 
Attempts to visit the ship had been made by "undesirable females" 
and some trouble had been caused. Complaints which were made to me 
of the quality of the food, were not supported by the German cooks, 
with whom I spoke in German and apart from the British officers. 
Clothing is provided for the prisoners gratuitously when necessary. 
The men were not compelled to get up much before daylight ( 8 a. m.) 
in order to save the expense of lights, which were turned off at 9 p. m. 
Here, as on board the other ships, there were cantine facilities, but in 
this case they appeared to be less good than usual. Smoking, under 
certain necessary restrictions, is permitted on board all the ships, but 
no alcoholic drinks are allowed. On this ship as on the others, the usual 
boats were at their davits, available in case of necessity. The British 
physician had been taken ill and had gone ashore, so that at the time of 
my visit there was no doctor on board, and owing to the distance between 
the ships and the scarcity of running boats, it would have been practi- 
cally impossible to get a doctor in case of emergency if the weather had 
been bad. I called attention to this, and was told that it would be 
remedied. The general sanitary conditions seemed fair, however, and 






12 



I was told that there had been only one death on board. The British offi- 
cers on board this ship did not impress me as being as much interested 
in their work as might have been the case. Certain Germans who had 
been at Frimley, stated to me voluntarily that there had been no "rohe 
Behandlung" in that camp, and that they had had no fault to find 
with their treatment by the officers there. They said that the food had 
been better on shore than it was on shipboard. 

On board the "Ivemia" there were about 1700 soldiers and sailors, 
some of whom had been badly wounded — but were convalescent, al- 
though several had lost an eye and one had lost both legs. On board this 
ship there were two German military surgeons and sixteen sanitary 
soldiers. As in all the places where military men are interned, the spirits 
of the prisoners are better than with civilians. The food is practically 
the same as on the other ships, but there were no complaints in regard 
to it. The men are under their own non-commissioned officers, who 
give them daily exercise and drill on deck. On the morning of the day 
of my visit there had been the funeral of a German non-commissioned 
officer, who had died from ptomaine-poisoning (caused — it was claimed 
— by a sausage which he had received from Germany), and the men 
seemed impressed by the fact that he had been given a military funeral, 
with music, which had been attended on shore by British officers and 
by twenty of the dead man's comrades in uniform. 

The second group of ships, which I visited on February first, was 
at Gosport. Of this group the military ship was the "Scotian" , on board 
of which there were 936 soldiers, 319 sailors and 3 civilians, the senior 
non-commissioned officer being a machinist, ' 'Deck-Off izier" from the 
"Mainz". The men seemed in good spirits and the ship was very orderly. 
Among the prisoners were the members of the crew of the hospital ship 
"Ophelia". On this ship there was no steerage and all the men sleep in 
cabins. The cooks were English but I heard no complaints with regard 
to the food. The non-commissioned officers have special privileges and 
use the most desirable cabins. The men are put through gymnastic 
drills regularly. They have many separate mess rooms and there are 
also special rooms for purposes of recreation. I talked freely with a large 
number of the men, in German and without any supervision from British 
officers, and heard no complaints from any of them. Athletic sports 
had taken place among the men at Christmas, and on December 30, 
there had been a boat race in which a crew from the "Mainz" had beaten 
a crew made up of men living on board the "Ascania". This ship has 
accommodation for 1400 persons. 



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The two other ships of this group are the "Ascania" and "Lake 
Manitoba" , which are so moored that it is possible to cross from one 
to the other by a gangway. As these ships are in what is known as the 
proscribed area", general visitors are not permitted. Although the total 
accommodation of the three ships forming this group is given as 4050, 
there never have been more than 3600 on board them — including soldiers. 
Of the civilians about 400 had been released, there being 1003 in "Ascania" 
and 927 in the "Lake Manitoba" at the time of my visit. These ships 
had been in use since the first of December. On board of them the better 
class of prisoners have the use of the cabins, while the others occupy 
the steerage. All have the same food, in regard to which there were 
some complaints which did not appear to me to be substantiated except 
on grounds of monotony. Both white and brown bread and butter, 
of good quality, is served in plenty, and the German butcher, who showed 
me his store room, said that the meat was good. The ships were well 
heated. Lights are allowed until 9 or 9.30 p. m. The men engage in various 
sports (rowing, etc.) but there is no compulsory exercise except prome- 
nading the deck which is free until 7 p. m. At that time the men on 
board the "Ascania" are locked down. On board the "Lake Manitoba" 
the water closets are all on the upper deck, and consequently the men 
are not locked in. There was a British military doctor present, but 
very few sick, and there had been no deaths. There were some com- 
plaints about delayed mail and missing packages, but it was admitted 
that conditions had improved. On these ships I found one man, not 
a sailor, who was over 55 years of age, and several reserve officers, who 
wished to be transferred to officer camps. On board the "Scotian" 
there was at least one "Offizier-Stellvertreter". 

The third group of ships, which I visited on February 2, was at 
anchor off Ryde, Isle of Wight. It consists of the "Canada", "Tunisian" 
and "Andania". 

On board the "Canada" there were 1026 civilians, who had been 
separated into three classes by the German "Captain" and, as I found 
to be usual where the class system was in force, there were many com- 
plaints. Most of the men had been brought from Newbury when that 
camp was closed, or from Dorchester which has been made into a mili- 
tary camp. Those from Newbury were pleased by their transfer, while 
those from Dorchester were not. There were also a number of men who 
had come from Africa, who complained that no especial consideration had 
been paid to the fact that they suffered from the sudden change of climate 
and that sufficient warm clothing had not been given them. There were 




14 



no German cooks on this ship or on the "Tunisian", on board of which 
there were 795 more civilians in one class, the reason given being that 
when the ships had been taken over by the British authorities, a number 
of the personnel had also been taken over, including the English cooks 
who could not have Germans work with them without forfeiting their 
Labor Union cards. In consequence of this there were many complaints 
in regard to the manner in which the food was prepared. The quality 
of the food (beef and potatoes) seemed to me to be good, but I brought to 
the attention of the Commandant the wishes of the men to have more 
fresh vegetables and pork. The Commandant said that he would do 
what was possible to improve conditions, but said that it was difficult 
to get such things in the local market. Until my arrival newspapers 
had not been permitted, but this has now been rectified. From the 
"Tunisian" letters had been thrown over board in bottles, and when 
this was found out all correspondence had been suspended for several 
days as punishment. Here there were complaints about the doctors 
who had been taken over with the ships. There had been two deaths 
on board the "Tunisian", one from heart disease and one from "black- 
water" fever. The hospital rooms were filled with people suffering with 
malaria or other tropical complaints. Complaint was also made in 
regard to cantine facilities, which could not be so good as at places on 
shore or which were nearer cities. The conditions generally on board the 
"Tunisian" were depressing. These ships were, however, soon be given 
up and it is possible that the people whom I saw on board them may 
have been transferred elsewhere already. The ships were adopted as a 
temporary expedient, when some of the shore camps (Newbury and 
Aldershot) became impossible because of the unusually raining winter. 
They are very expensive to keep up, and as soon as proper accommodation 
can be provided on shore, they are to be done away with. On board the 
"Canada" I saw several sea-captains and one civilian who were over 
55 years of age. 

The military ship of the Ryde group was the "Andania" on board 
of which there were 579 Germans, most of whom were soldiers. There 
were also a number of civilians from Africa, including two pastors, several 
sanitary officials and one or two men over 55, all of whom were advised 
to make their cases known to the Commandant. The colonials had 
been on board for only a few days, and were soon to be sent to some 
other place. Some of the soldiers had been brought from Handforth, 
and some had come as convalescent from Netley Hospital. All those 
with whom I spoke, said that they had been well treated by the British 



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officers and soldiers, and several told me stories of how they had been 
protected by English soldiers from molestation by the population while 
they were still in France. None made any complaint of having been an- 
noyed in any way by English soldiers, although some said that they 
had been asked to give up their money by them. On board the "An- 
dania" all the prisoners live in cabins, they are divided into messes 
under their own non-commissioned officers who compel them to go 
through a certain amount of drill. The soldiers seemed contented, as 
is the general rule where military prisoners are interned. 

As some of the men who had been brought from Africa to Liver- 
pool in the "Laurentic" were anxious as to the safety of the members 
of their families who were to be sent on to Germany. I sent a telegram 
to the American Embassy in London about them, at the request of the 
British Commandant. To my telegram a reply was sent to the effect 
that so far as was known the ladies in question had reached the Con- 
tinent (Holland) in safety. 



OTHER PLACES OF INTERNMENT. 

The first "camp" which I visited after my arrival in England, was 
that at Stratford in the eastern part of London, on January 28 th. Here 
about 400 civilians were interned in "Ritchie's Works", Carpenter 
Road, a jute factory which had not been in use for several years. The 
camp had been opened about December 20th, Steam heating had been 
installed and a temperature of about 59 ° F is maintained. The works 
are lighted by electricity, which is used as little as possible in the mornings 
(to save expense) and turned off at 9. 15 p. m. The camp is governed by 
a so-called "Senate", the members of which have a certain amount of 
authority over the other prisoners, and enjoy especial messing, sleeping 
and other privileges. All except the "Senate" sleep in one large hall 
on wooden beds, with straw mattresses, about eight inches from the 
floor. There is ample space between the beds and at their foot, while 
at the head space is provided for clothes, boxes etc. The floor is of cement 
and dry. The men eat at tables in messes of about twenty-five each, 
in another part of the hall in which they sleep, which is large enough 
to provide exercise space in bad weather. The men are furnished with 
three army blankets each, and with such clothing as is necessary if they 
are unable to provide it themselves. There is a large out-door exercise 
place where the men are obliged to spend a certain number of hours, 



i6 



but there is no compulsory exercise or drill, and no opportunity is pro- 
vided for occupation except in connection with the work of the camp j 
such as white-washing, digging drainage trenches, making cinder paths, 
repairing shoes and clothes, cooking, and ordinary "fatigue" work. 
Everything in the camp is done by the prisoners themselves and the 
guards come in no direct contact with them. The camp can be over- 
looked by neighboring houses and from a railway embankment. It is 
surrounded by a single barbed wire which separates an open space from 
a high wire fence. The guards are stationed so as to overlook this "danger 
zone" with orders to shoot any one who goes into it. Prisoners are 
allowed to receive visitors, including the female members of their fa- 
milies, and opportunities are given them to see their solicitors and to 
transact business. One man was given leave in order to get married, 
as I was told, and others have been allowed to leave the camp tem- 
porarily for various purposes. A post office has been organized by the 
prisoners, which appeared to work satisfactorily. The prisoners are 
allowed to have only a limited amount of money in their possession, 
any balance being held on deposit to their credit. The kitchen was 
clean and well-organized, the chief cook having formerly been the "chef" 
in the Trocadero Restaurant. The food provided is good, and is prepared 
in accordance with the individual tastes of the members of the different 
messes. "Tidbits" are provided for those who care to pay for extras 
and the cantine facilities are good. No alcoholic drinks can be had. 
Smoking is permitted during certain hours, when lights are provided, 
matches not being allowed. Bath tubs and shower baths have been 
installed and warm water is always available. There are also sufficient 
washing facilities and rooms for washing and drying clothes. Those 
who care to do so, are permitted to send their clothes to outside laundries. 
In addition to the large hall there were a number of other rooms or 
out-buildings which were used for special purposes. One of these was 
used as sleeping quarters for the "Senate" and another for the hospital. 
In regard to the medical arrangements there were some complaints. 
The doctor did not live in the camp, although he told me that he could 
always be reached without delay. The men complained that they had 
difficulty to get attention paid to their cases, that there was no hospital 
diet and not sufficient medicines. Still there had been no deaths in the 
camp and only two persons had had to be sent to outside hospitals. 
Vaccination and typhoid-innoculation were advised but were apparently 
not compulsory. In the camps there were many cases of men suffering 
from venereal diseases, who were isolated as far as possible, being com- 






17 



pelled to use separate baths and water closets. Of water closets and 
urinals there were a sufficient number, both outside — for use by day, 
and inside — for use at night or during bad weather. The men had 
organized a circulating library, and they had a piano. Concerts had 
been given, and in one big room I saw the scenery of a play which had 
been given the night before in honor of the birthday of the German 
Emperor. This same room had been used at various times for religious 
services of all denominations. The cells which were empty at the time 
of my visit, were clean and dry. Confinement on bread and water for 
twenty four hours was the most severe punishment which had been 
given. So far as I could ascertain there were no boys under 17 and no 
men over 55 in this camp. 

The "Skating Rink" at Southampton, which I visited on February 3, 
has been arranged as a receiving depot for prisoners upon their arrival 
in England. At the time of my visit there were present 81 German 
soldiers, 21 naval and 69 merchant sailors, and eight civilian "suspects" 
who were kept in a separate part of the building. The men slept on 
straw mattresses on the floor of the rink, of which about one third of 
the space was occupied for the purpose. Blankets and all necessary 
clothing were supplied gratuitously. The out-door exercise space was 
small, and had only recently been made dry by the use of cinders. The 
sanitary arrangements were poor, both out-doors and in, but improve- 
ments were contemplated. There were no baths but preparation was 
being made to place them. The men seemed in good spirits. They had 
been allowed to celebrate the birthday of the German Emperor and 
at the end of the rink there was hung a large picture of His Majesty, 
which was draped with a German naval ensign and was already there, 
as I was told by the German soldiers, when they had reached the camp. 
Among the soldiers were several convalescent wounded who were glad 
to be among their comrades again. I saw several seamen and one civilian 
over 55 years of age, and one boy who claimed to be under 17. 

Dorchester, was originally a mixed camp, but is now intended to 
be exclusively military. On February 4, it contained 909 soldiers and 
25 sailors, and also nine German boys who had been brought from a 
reformatory in Belgium. The quarters occupied are horse artillery 
barracks, but huts are being erected which will make the capacity of 
the camp 2500. These huts were being constructed by English laborers 
and upon my asking why the soldiers were not used for the purpose, 
I was told that local labor conditions made it impossible. When the 
huts are finished, soldiers are to be employed to make the cinder roads 




i8 



throughout the camp. New water closets and baths have been installed 
and additional closets are being placed at the bottom of the slope on 
which the camp is situated. A large field adjoining the camp was being 
prepared as an exercise ground. For exercise, at the time of my visits, 
the men were taken for marches in the neighboring country — under 
armed guard. Among the prisoners were several who had been severely 
wounded and who hoped to be exchanged. One man had been semi- 
paralized from a wound in the head and several had lost limbs. Several 
of the soldiers spoke of the good treatment received from the English 
military doctors, and I heard more stories of the protection of prisoners 
in France by British soldiers. The cooking was done entirely by Germans 
and I heard no complaint as to the quality or quantity of food provided. 

A "Gymnasiallehrer" from Erfurt told me that he had written 
several articles about this camp for the German press. The senior German 
was a Bavarian "Offizier-Stellvertreter", named Kriiger, of whom the 
British officers spoke highly. There were other "Offizier-Stellvertreter" 
in the camp, some of whom had at first been interned in an Officers 
Camp. The exact status of these persons seems not to be understood by 
either the British or German officers. At Dorchester they as well as the 
senior non-commissioned officers have separate rooms, while the men 
generally are housed in the stables, lofts and other rooms of the barracks. 
This camp was one of the most contented which I visited. The man 
who had made himself famous by attempting to escape in a box was 
here. After having been punished with two weeks' arrest, he was treated 
as before. Pictures of the German Emperor and German flags were 
hanging in many of the rooms. 

In regard to the two camps in the Isle of Man, at Knockaloe near 
Peel and at Douglas, a report has already been made by Mr. Chandler 
Hale. When I visited the Knockaloe camp, on February 9, there were 
about 2000 interned persons in two separate compounds containing 
ten barracks each. Three additional compounds were in course of con- 
struction, which when completed would make the capacity of the camp 
5000. The camp is in a hollow, on clay soil in which the cinders used 
at first for roads had quickly disappeared, making it necessary to build 
plank roads. There is very little space within the enclosures for exercise 
and no work is provided for the prisoners, except in connection with 
the "police" of the camp, cooking, and repairing clothing, etc. For 
exercise the men may make marches, under guard, in the country roads, 
but during the winter most of them had preferred to spend their time 
in the barracks, reading and playing cards. The barracks were divided 






19 



longitudinally by a partition, bunks being arranged in tiers of three 
against this partition and in tiers of two against the sides of the building, 
a row of tables and benches filling the space between. At one end of 
each half building is a small room for its "captain", but otherwise all 
prisoners are treated alike. The buildings were heated by stoves and 
lighted by electricity. In a separate building shower baths were provided 
and warm water was available for personal use and for washing clothes. 
The cooking is done by Germans, and the food seemed generally satis- 
factory. Smoking is permitted. There were ample hospital accomo- 
dations, but the usual complaints of those who wished for special treat- 
ment. There had been no deaths in the camps. There were no water 
closets, the pail system being used. The pails were said to be emptied 
twice a day, and this system seems to meet with approval by the British 
military authorities. At the time of my visit there were no unpleasant 
odors, but conditions might easily become dangerous in warm weather 
or if there were many flies. The prisoners had been allowed to order 
sausages from London, but on the day of my visit considerable dis- 
content had been caused by the fact that all sausages had been cut 
open because newspapers had been found concealed in them in a pre- 
vious shipment. The cantine facilities appeared to be adequate and 
it was arranged that sausages should be ordered through it in the future 
and not sent to individuals. Moreover, as certain English newspapers 
are now permitted, the temptation to smuggle will be decreased. Cigars 
had also been cut open, because smuggled letters had been found in them. 
There had been a celebration on January 27, in regard to which in- 
accurate reports had appeared in an Isle of Man newspaper, The usual 
mail facilities were provided. In this as in most of the other camps 
there were sailors of all ages. 

At the Douglas camp, which I also visited on February 9, there were 
about 2400 prisoners. I was told that the same camp had held as many 
as 3000 summer visitors. Here most of the men lived in barracks similar 
to those at Knockaloe but larger, providing accomodation for 120 per- 
sons each. Some of the prisoners were still in tents, with wooden floors 
holding from one (captain) to seven persons. Several men told me that 
they remained in the tents from choice, and others said that they pre- 
ferred them because of their additional privacy. I think that any one 
who wished to do so, could have been transferred to a barracks, upon 
his request. The "captains" had special rooms in the barracks, and 
there are also a number of rooms, called "Cubicles" in another building, 
holding from one to five persons, who pay a moderate sum for their 



I 



20 



use. Some of these rooms were fitted up prettily and comfortably, at 
the occupants' expence. One room had been arranged as a Catholic 
confessional, and others were used by men working at various trades. 
More was done here to provide occupation than in any other camp I 
visited. The cantine was adequate, smoking was permitted, the water 
closets and urinals were sufficient although somewhat inaccessible at 
night, and the washing and bathing facilities were good, hot water 
being available at all times. The buildings are lighted by electricity and 
heated. There is a swimming-bath and special provision for washing 
and drying clothes. Large rooms were provided for recreation, where 
music and dancing are allowed, and in general the Commandant seemed 
to treat the prisoners as humanely as possible. Every one admitted 
that local conditions had improved. As the exercise space is limited, 
the prisoners are allowed to take walks (marches) under guard. Gym- 
nastic apparatus had been ordered. Hospital arrangements appeared 
to be adequate. In regard to the food there was still some complaint. 
A contract was given to the proprietor of the place when it was taken 
over by the authorities, and he was allowed to retain his own cooks 
(some of them women) and the their manner of preparing the food did 
not seem to give general satisfaction. The prisoners claim that it was 
necessary to supplement the regular food by purchases from the cantine. 
Good white and brown bread is provided. "Captains" were permitted 
to have beer. Clothing is provided here as elsewhere, when necessary. 
The day I visited these camps in the Isle of Man was rainy and dreary, 
but I can imagine the conditions in the summer as being really attractive. 
On February 10, I visited the camp at Queen's Ferry near Chester, 
where about 2200 civilians were interned, as well as a small number 
of soldiers. The general atmosphere of this camp was the most depressing 
of all those which I visited, and although the camp had been occupied 
for about five months but little had been done to improve the original 
conditions. The buildings are those of an old machine shop, and are 
divided into two separate compounds. The roofs are of glass and there 
were many leaks. The floors are of stone or cement and as a rule the 
wooden beds are raised only a few inches. There was no special accom- 
modation for better class prisoners, although many had been allowed 
to build a kind of tent around their beds, to protect them from leaks 
and draughts. The prisoners themselves seemed listless and not in- 
clined to make much effort to improve matters. No opportunity is 
provided for work and but few appeared to be willing to work. The 
bathing and washing facilities were limited and the use of hot water 



tOi 



IMLiCM 



feJQG 



MM 

'-■.->-■-■■ 
IHHBnKs 




21 



was restricted. There was no drying room but one is in course of building. 
New kitchens are also in building, the present one being dirty and in- 
sufficient. In the latrines the pail system is used, but the number is not 
adequate, and at night only two have been available for each compound, 
although provision is being made for an increased number. In spite 
of all this, there had been only two deaths in the camp, and a third 
after an operation outside. The hospital was full however, and a part 
of it was separated from the sleeping quarters of one of the compounds 
only by a wire screen hung with blankets to a height of about 8 or 10 feet. 
Men claimed to have been in the hospital for weeks awaiting medical 
or surgical treatment, and having no special diet. There were many 
cases of venereal diseases, and some of itch and other contagious diseases 
in the infectious ward. Much money, which does not appear to be avai- 
lable, would be necessary to put this camp in good condition. The 
cantine facilities did not appear to be bad, but there were many com- 
plaints about the regular food, the heating and lighting and the receipt 
of mail and packages. Sausages and cigars had been cut open as had 
been the case at Knockaloe, Although the ration is supposed to be the 
same as in other camps, it was claimed that there was only one hot meal 
and no bread or margarine at night. Smoking was permitted as usual 
and beer had also been permitted at first, but the privilege had been 
withdrawn after one of the Captains had got drunk. Papers and books 
were permitted but there was apparently no library. The exercise grounds 
are small. Visitors are permitted in theory, but few come because of 
the inaccessibility of the camp. In this camp there were a number of 
old sea-captains and some other old men who were apparently detained 
as spies. In this camp were also a number of Germans who have been 
brought from Africa, who made complaints similar to those made by the 
men on board the ships off Ryde. Some complained that they had 
been unable to obtain their money or luggage. Upon my speaking of 
these complaints at the War Office, upon my return to London, I was 
told that the baggage was being forwarded, and that the money would 
be returned upon demand and upon presentation of the receipts which 
were given at the time it was taken. 

At Lancaster, which I visited on February 12, there were about 
1800 men and 200 boys, many of whom had been taken from fishing 
boats at the beginning of the war, or who had belonged to bands of 
music. I understand that the boys under seventeen are to be concen- 
trated at this camp, with a view to their repatriation. Here there were 
a considerable number of Poles and Hungarians — more than I had 




22 



seen in any other camp, and there were also several men over 55. The 
buildings used were an old wagon works which had been empty for 
about seven years. The floors are bad, but some of them are being 
made of concrete — as money becomes available. The Commandant 
seemed energetic, interested in his work and anxious to improve con- 
ditions as much as possible. He has had a boxing ring arranged for the 
prisoners and has had gymnastic apparatus ordered. He has also arranged 
for school work for the boys and for other voluntarily instruction — 
in electricity, the English language, and other branches. The camp 
"major" is a merchant captain who has the confidence of the Commandant 
and has been permitted to have a comfortable room by himself. (This 
captain spoke bitterly of the manner of his arrest and of the fact that 
he had been put in irons before being turned over to the military autho- 
rites.) In the general part of the camp the beds are raised and some 
of them are tented, as protection from the leaky roof. The better class 
prisoners occupy a separate building, where they have been able to 
arrange things with considerable comfort. The heating was satisfactory 
but the lighting was poor. The washing facilities were fair, but there 
were only few baths. There were no water closets, the pail system being 
used, but here there were two sets of pails which were regularly dis- 
infected — something of which I had seen no evidence in other camps. 
At night, however, the out door latrines are not accessible, and the 
pails are put in the sleeping quarters of the prisoners. There were a 
number of small kitchens, one for each mess, which seemed to give 
general satisfaction as the men were able to have the food prepared in 
accordance with their individual tastes. Cantine facilities were adequate 
and there were few complaints made to me during my talk with the 
prisoners, except in regard to matters of historical interest having nothing 
to do with the actual conditions of their internment. The hospital was 
well arranged. It was quite full, there being a number of African patients 
(one case of "black water" fever and several of malaria). There had, 
however, not been more than two deaths in the camp since it was opened. 
Men with venereal diseases or the itch, were kept in a separate enclosure. 
On February 12 I also visited the camp in the Rubber Works at 
Hand forth, a few miles from Manchester. Here there were about 2000 pri- 
soners, including three soldiers and about 400 sailors from the "Bliicher" 
and "Gneisenau". The men from each of these ships occupied separate 
compounds, under their own "Deck" officers. The civilians occupied 
several compounds one of which was reserved for those of the better 
classes. The building itself was fairly new, with a good roof, cement 



23 



floors, steam heat and electric light. The quarters are roomy airy and 
dry. There is a room provided for religious services and one arranged 
as a gymnasium. There is also an outside exercise ground, and a field 
for football was being prepared. There are adequate bathing (shower 
baths with hot and cold water) and washing facilities, but some complaint 
was made in regard to the small allowance of soap for washing clothes. 
The latrines are out-of-doors, the pail system being in use. The kitchen 
was large and well arranged and the German cooks, who had worked in 
London restaurants, told me that the material furnished was good. 
Generally the food seemed to give satisfaction. The hospital was fair, 
and apparently well supplied with medicines. In it were a number of 
wounded men, and several who claimed that they needed special treat- 
ment. Hospital dietary was provided for. The use of tobacco was allo- 
wed. Clothes are provided when necessary. Prisoners were permitted 
to see their wives, and opportunities were given to transact business. 
Among the prisoners were many Anglo- Germans, some of whom were 
"captains", with whom fault was found by others who were more gen- 
uinely German. Here, as elsewhere, many of the civilians who had 
been long resident in England, were full of complaints in regard to their 
detention, and the financial losses occasioned by it. A number of men 
who had violated the camp police regulations against gambling, had 
been segregated and were compelled to work at making roads as punish- 
ment. Apparently no other work was provided and no opportunity 
was given to the prisoners to earn money. All the sailors with whom I 
spoke said that they had been well treated by the English in the hospitals 
and elsewhere generally. In this camp there were a number of men 
over 55 years of age. 

Lofthouse Park, near Wakefield, which I visited on February 13th, 
had been an unsuccessful "pleasure park". Among the buildings is a 
skating rink with large recreation rooms in one of which there is a stage 
which the prisoners are permitted to use. The camp had been opened 
in October, but at the time of my visit there were only 225 prisoners 
in it. New barracks are being built on the side of a hill, which will greatly 
increase its capacity. The present kitchen is good and the German 
cooks give satisfaction. Hot food is served four times a day. The real 
Germans in the camp complained because beef was given to them in 
one form or another every day. Most of the people in the camp are men 
who have been in England for many years and opportunities are given 
to them to see their wives (most of whom are of British birth). In the 
hospital there were several men who wished to have special treatment, 




34 

but who spoke well of the doctor in charge. The water closets are satis- 
factory at present, but I was told that the pail system was to be used 
in connection with the new part of the camp. There are shower baths 
with hot and cold water. The buildings are heated by stoves and lighted I 
by electricity. 

Attached hereto are copies of printed matter collected by me during 
my visits at various camps. J. B. J. 



Briefwechsel der Kriegsgefangenen. 

i. Wo nicht besondere Erlaubniss gegeben wird (was auch nur 
hochst ausnahmsweise geschehen darf), ist es Kriegsgefangenen gestattet 
nur zwei Brief e wochentlich auszusenden. Von diesem Lager werden 
Brief e und weiter befordert. — 2. Brief e miissen deutlich 

geschrieben und wenn moglich in englischer Sprache abgefasst sein; 
sie durfen nicht mehr als zwei Seiten der fur den Zweck ausgegebenen 
Brief bogen umfassen. Das Schreiben zwischen die Zeilen ist verboten. 
Marken durfen von den Gefangenen nicht aufgeklebt werden. — 3. Briefe 
an Kriegsgefangene die undeutlich geschrieben sind oder mehr als zwei 
gewohnliche Briefseiten (kleines Format) umfassen, erleiden betracht- 
liche Verzogerung. Den Gefangenen wird daher angeraten ihre Korre- 
spondenten zu bitten, kurze, deutliche Briefe zu schreiben. Briefe von 
ungewohnlicher Lange werden eventuell nicht ausgehandigt, auBerdem 
konnen in Fallen, in denen zahlreiche Briefe an einen Empf anger gerichtet 
sind, einzelne oder mehrere zuriickbehalten werden. — 4. Briefe von 
Personen im Vereinigten Konigreich (England, Schottland oder Irland) 
miissen deutlich den vollen Namen nebst Adresse des Absenders ent- 
halten, sonst werden solche nicht abgeliefert. — 5. Auch miissen Briefe, 
an und von Kriegsgefangenen, sich auf ihre Privat- und Geschafts- 
Angelegenheiten beschranken. Es ist verboten politische Angelegenheiten 
sowie Marine- oder Kriegsoperationen zu erwahnen. Wo solche Er- 
wahnungen vorkommen, werden die Briefe zuruckgehalten und ver- 
nichtet, ohne dass irgend eine Anzeige dariiber dem betreffenden Kriegs- 
gefangenen gemacht wird. — 6. Wo versucht wird in Briefen an und von 
Kriegsgefangenen irgend eine geheime Nachricht irgend einer Art zu 
libermitteln, kann die Erlaubniss, Briefe zu empfangen oder zu schreiben, 
dem betreffenden Kriegsgefangenen entzogen werden. 




Pockenimpfung und Einimpfung gegen Typhus. 

Es ist anzudeuten, da8 unter einer dicht bei einander gemeinsam 
f- wohnenden Menschenmasse die Gefahr des Ausbruchs und der Verbrei- 
tung ansteckender Krankheiten zu Tage liegt. — In den Feldlagern 
und ahnlichen Wohnorten ist der Typhus die gewohnlichste Krankheit. 
Der Ausbruch dieser Seuche darf wohl durch Einimpfung sehr oft ver- 
hindert werden. — Die Kriegsgefangenen werden deshalb nachdriicklich 
empfohlen sich eingeimpft werden lassen, wenn sie ja dies nicht friiher getan 
haben. Die notigen Vorkehrungen werden getroffen, damit Alle, die dazu 
geneigt sind, eingeimpft werden konnen. — Auch diejenigen, die gegen 
die Blattern unlangst nicht geimpft worden sind, sollten sich melden, 
damit die dazu betreffenden MaBregeln getroffen werden diirfen. — Die- 
jenigen, die von diesen VorsichtsmaBregeln Gebrauch machen wollen 
miissen sich personlich melden. 



Stratford — Innere Einrichtung. 

I. Kriegs-gefangene sind einzuteilen in Gruppen von circa 24 Man 
welche zusammen wohnen, arbeiten und Mahlzeiten einnehmen. — 
2. Manschaften konnen Thre eigene Gruppen formieren, aber eine 
Gruppenveranderung findet nachher nicht mehr statt. — 3. Gefuhrt 
wird jede Gruppe von einem Unteroffizier, oder von einem Mann' von 
den Leuten selbst gewahlt. — 4. Derselbe ist verantwortlich fur Ordnung, 
Reinlichkeit etc. in seiner eigenen Gruppe, und tragt ein bestimmtes 
Abzeichen der Autoritat, auch will er, wenn es moglich ist, gewisse 
Priviligien haben. — ■ 5. Zur gesundheit der Leute wird Arbeit verlangt 
wie Reinlichkeit der Raume und Farbenanstrich der inneren Raume, 
etc. — 6. Bei guter Fuhrung, etc. "Amusements" wird gestattet. Ein 
Comittee wird gebildet von gefangenen die fur freie Spiele, Concerte, 
etc., sorgen. — 7. Zwei Mann von jeder Gruppe haben taglich die Tische 
und Tafelgeschirr rein zer halt en. — 8. Rationen fur die Ktiche jeder 
Gruppe wird den Kochen zugeteilt, und mussen diese die Speisen selbst 
zubereiten. Gewisse Ueberschusse der Cantinen wird zum allgemein- 
wohl der gefangenen verwendet. — 9. Einer bestimmten zahl der Leute 
wird befohlen Polizeidienst zu verrichten welche einem alteren Unter- 
offizier unterordnet sind. Man hofft also den gefangenen frei Hand zu 
lassen ohne weitere Einmischung der Militar Polizei. — 10. Sollten 
sich Krankenwarter unter den Gefangenen befinden diese wurden dann 
dem Hospital zugeteilt. — 11. Es ist angeschlagen wo Trinkwasser zu 




26 



haben ist. Wahrend der Rauchzeit sind Gas-Brenner angebracht. — 
12. Die gute Fuhning jedes einzeln kommt der ganzen gruppe der gute, 
und wird den Leuten dadurch soirel Priviligien gestattet wie nur mog- 
lich ist und als Kriegs-gefangene zukommt. 



Stratford — Discipline. 

i. Strenge Militar Discipline wird aufrecht erhalten. — 2. Conver- 
sation ist gestattet aber jedes gerausch verboten. — 3. Das herum- 
laufen im inneren des Gebaudes ist verboten. Man muss immer im Schritt 
lanpam gehen lassen was auch immer man zu machen hat. — 4. Unter- 
haltung mit dem Posten oder British Militar Polizei ist streng verboten, 
und die Entfernung vom Posten muss niemals weniger als 10 meter 
betragen. Beschwerden werden, im Beiseines Unteroffiziers oder Ge- 
freiten, dem Offizier der Wache mitgeteilt in Gegenwart eines Dol- 
metschers, aber nicht dem Posten. — 5. Um .... Uhr begeben 
sich alle gefangene zu Bett. Dieses darf ohne besouderen Befehl nicht 
verlassen werden bis die Reveille schlagt. — 6. Klettern ist ganz ver- 
boten und das anfassen des Drahtes ueber 8 Fuss von dem Grunde 
ist hochst gefahrlich und untersagt. — 7. Die zum Dienst der Kiiche 
befohlenen haben Zutritt nur unter Aufsicht. — 8. Der Besitz von 
Streichholzer, Messer etc ist verboten und eine harte Strafe trifft den 
welcher solche besitzt. — 9. Ungehorsame gefangene werden dem Kriegs- 
gericht zugefiihrt. — 10. Auf dem Exercierens Platze. (i.) Gefangene 
welche den kleinen Drahtzaun uebertreten befinden sich in Gefahr und 
konnen sofort erschossen werden. — (ii.) Signale mit Personen ausser- 
halb des Campes ist beiden gefahrlich und verboten. — (iii.) Das Betreten 
des Platzes vor dem Hospital, und auch des Ganges zum Hauptgebaude, 
ist gefahrlich, da man erschossen sein kann, und ist verboten. 



Isle of Man — Sanitation. 

The Prisoners of War, in their own interests, are enjoined to bear 
the following points in mind: — 

1. Owing to the large number of men concentrated in the Camp, 
it should be the aim of each prisoner to co-operate in endeavouring 
to keep the sanitation of the Camp as perfect as practicable. — 2. Pri- 
soners should make a point of taking baths, of washing themselves and 
their clothing as frequently as possible, and of informing the Medical 



27 

Officers, through the Captains of their Huts, of any unusual indications 
on their persons, or of any pain or affection from which they may be 
£ suffering. — 3. Prisoners should keep their hair cut as short as possible, 
and should apply to the Captains of their Huts for the loan of clippers 
for the purpose. — 4. Prisoners should lose no opportunity that may 
be offered of being vaccinated against small-pox, and innoculated against 
typhoid fever. — 5. After clothing has been washed it should be wrung 
out in a five per cent, solution of boracic acid, which can be obtained 
from the Captain of the Hut. — 6. Every prisoner should do his utmost 
to keep his hut as clean as possible, and free from refuse. — 7. Care should 
be taken to throw matches, cigarette ends, orange peel, paper, and 
all other forms of refuse in the receptacles provided for the purpose. 
On no account must urine be passed anywhere except into the urinals 
and utensils provided for the purpose, nor must anything but water be 
thrown down the drains. 



Knockaloe Detention Camp. 
Information for the Guidance of the Commandant. 

1. The Camp is established and regulated by the Royal Warrant of 
the 3rd August, 1914, for the Maintenance of Discipline among Prisoners 
of War, so far as it applies. — 2. Rules for the general conduct of the 
prisoners, approved by His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, will 
be printed and exhibited throughout the Camp. — 3. Punishment may 
be awarded by the Commandant, as laid down in the Royal Warrant. 
Cases involving punishment in excess of that which the Commandant 
is competent to award must be reported to the Government Secretary, 
for the Lieutenant-Governor's instructions. — 4. The Commandant 
should satisfy himself that the prisoners' food is cooked and issued in 
accordance with the approved dietary, which should be exhibited in 
each hut. — 5. Cases of application for release on special grounds must 
be reported to the Government Secretary. A prisoner may not be released 
until a communication sanctioning such release has been received from 
the Government Office. — 6. The Commandant will arrange for a daily 
medical inspection of the prisoners and camp by the Camp Medical 
Officer. Medicine, etc., for prisoners and the troops will be obtained 
as directed. (See separate Regulations.) — 7. Stores will be controlled 
by the Camp Quartermaster, who will requisition the Government 
Office for all supplies. (See separate Regulations.) — ■ 8. Every prisoner, 
on admission to the Camp, should be at once registered, given an identi- 





■-"."■ = 






28 



fication disc, and searched. Weapons should be taken from him, and 
any money in his possession in excess of five shillings must be deposited 
in the Camp Bank. (See separate Regulations.) — 9. The Commandant i 
will arrange with the Officer Commanding Troops for the guarding of 
the prisoners when in Camp, and when marching or at work outside 
the Camp boundaries. — 10. The "Daily Returns" of the number of 
prisoners in Camp will be submitted by the Commandant to the Govern- 
ment Office in triplicate, daily, after Roll Call. — 11. The "Sick Report" 
will be submitted by the Commandant to the Government Office daily, 
together with any observations which the Medical Officer may make 
respecting sanitation or the health of the prisoners. — 12. The Com- 
mandant will submit a weekly general report on the Camp to the Govern- 
ment Office. — 13. The Commandant will report any serious occurrence to 
the Government Office. — 14. Each half-hut is constructed to accom- 
modate 100 prisoners, and is provided with ten tables of sufficient size 
to seat ten prisoners each. — 15. Each Compound or Enclosure is con- 
structed to accommodate 1,000 prisoners and is self-contained, possessing 
its own cook-house, wash-house, and latrines. 

By Order. B. E. Sargeaunt, Government Secretary. 

Government Office, Isle of Man, 3rd November, 1914. 



Knockaloe Detention Camp. 

Regulations Respecting Stores. 

I. The Camp Quartermaster will be responsible for the custody 
and issuing of stores both to the Canteen and to Destitute Prisoners. — 
2. Stores issued for the Canteen will be kept separate from those for free 
distribution to destitute prisoners, and separate Stock Books will be 
kept. — 3. The Camp Quartermaster will requisition all stores from the 
Government Office, and will cause stores in the Canteen to be sold 
only at such prices as shall be laid down by the Government Office. 
— 4. Requisitions from the Camp Quartermaster for supplies for clo- 
thing for free distribution to destitute prisoners will be countersigned by 
the Camp Commandant, who will secure that the stores are only issued 
in cases of real destitution. — 5. The money paid for purchases at the 
Canteen will be checked by the Quartermaster with the Canteen stock 
weekly, and will then be handed over to the Commandant to be paid 
into an account at the Isle of Man Bank, Peel called the "Knockaloe 
Camp Canteen Account." The Commandant will pay over the cash 



**t 






3£a 



ran 



HEMHHH3H 

PBfBwMT 




29 

at the Bank, without deductions, to the Treasurer of the Isle of Man 
at the close of each month. 

By order, B. E. Sargeaunt, Government Secretary and Treasurer. 
Government Office, Isle of Man, 29th October, 1914. 



Knockaloe Detention Camp. 
Prisoners' Banking Facilities. 

1. Each prisoner, on admission, will be required to deposit all his 
money in excess of five shillings at the Camp Bank. — 2. The Chief 
Purser will be responsible for the custody of prisoners' funds. — 3. No 
prisoner may retain in his possession a sum exceeding five shillings at 
any one time without the special permission, in writing, of the 
Commandant. — 4. The Purser shall give a receipt to each prisoner 
who deposits money with him, and will issue to the prisoner a dra- 
wing-out book at the same time. — 5. Whenever the cash in the 
possession of the Purser exceeds £ 100, he shall pay the surplus into 
an account in the name of the Camp Commandant at the Peel branch 
of the Isle of Man Banking Co., Ltd. — 6. Should the Purser require 
funds from the bank to meet current drawings, he will apply in writing 
to the Commandant for a cheque on the Commandants' account at the 
bank replenish his cash to £ 100, 

By order, B. E. Sargeaunt, Government Secretary and Treasurer, 
Government Office, Isle of Man, 29th October, 1914. 



Knockoloe Detention Camp. 
Rules for Prisoners. 

1. Prisoners will comply with all rules and regulations deemed 
necessaiy for their safety, good order, and discipline. — 2. Prisoners, 
whether officers or rank and file, are subject to the orders of all officers, 
guards, and sentries placed over them. All such orders will be obeyed 
immediately. — 3. Any prisoner guilty of disobedience to orders, or of 
any act prejudicial to the safety, good order, or discipline of the Camp, 
will be liable to punishment. — 4. Deliberate disobedience, coupled with 
resistance or apprehended resistance to officers, guards, or sentries, or 
other conduct of a mutinous or riotous kind will, if necessary, be dealt 
with by force of arms. — 5. Any prisoner attempting to pass the boundary 
fence or to go out through any gate without permission, after once being- 




30 



duly warned and disregarding that warning-, will be fired upon. — 6. In I 
case of an escape or attempted escape, by individuals, the whole body 
of prisoners will become liable to loss or curtailment of privileges and 
to the enforcement of more stringent discipline. — 7. Prisoners are on 
no account to converse with any person other than a Camp officer or 
prisoner, unless imder the authority of these rules, or by special permis- 
sion of the Camp Officer. — 8. The prisoners, other than officers, will be 
divided into companies and messes, as may be decided from time to 
time. — 9. The members of each company will select a captain, who will 
assist the staff in maintaining order in his company, and will bring to the 
notice of the Staff any matter bearing upon the comfort or well-being of 
the men which requires attention. — 10. Reveille will be at . a.m. — 
11. Prisoners will be mustered twice daily in each Camp for roll call, at 
a.m. and . p.m. — 12. Roll call will be called out in the 
following manner: The roll will be called by companies by an officer or 
non-commissioned officer daily appointed. — - 13. Floors will be cleaned 
and bedding- put out to air daily, at hours to be notified daily. — 
14. Tables and all utensils will be cleaned after each meal. — 15. The 
Camp will be inspected daily by the Commandant or other officer 
appointed by him. — 16. Prisoners will remain in their huts from Lights 
Out until Reveille, with such exceptions as may be hereafter notified. — 

1 7. Prisoners are allowed to smoke between 8-30 a.m. and Lights Out. — 

18. No strangers will be admitted to the Camp, without the written per- 
mission of the Commandant. — 19. They will enter by the Main Entrance. 
— 20. Application for permission will be made to the Commandant. — 
21. Prisoners are not allowed to consume Liquor, or to have it in their 
possession, without special permission. — 22. No Prisoner is to send 
Letters or Goods out of Camp, except hi accordance with the following 
regulations : — 23. All letters will be dropped unsealed into the letter-box. 
Such letters will be examined by an officer detailed for that purpose, and 
if their contents are, in his opinion, unobjectionable, they will be closed 
and forwarded to their destination. — 24. No Goods will be taken or sent 
out of Camp except allowed by Rules, or by special permission of the 
Commandant. — 25. All Letters and Parcels addressed to Prisoners will 
be examined before delivery by an officer detailed for that purpose, and 
will, if considered unobjectionable, be distributed as soon as possible. — 
26. Prisoners are only allowed to have in their possession such sums 
of money or other property as the Commandant may from time to time 
allow. — 27. All other Money or Property belonging to Prisoners will be 
in charge of the Chief Purser, who will keep an account. — 28. All 




31 



gambling or betting is strictly prohibited. — 29. No punishment of any 
kind shall be awarded, except by the Visitor or the Commandant, or 
* officers acting for them. — 30. No Prisoner shall be punished until he 
' has had an opportunitiy of hearing the charge and evidence against him, 
and of making his defence. — 31. Prisoners may be put in irons, or in 
mechanical restraint, by the Commandant or Officer of the Guard, in 
case of urgent necessity. 

By order, 



11th November, 1914. 



Commandant. 



Knockaloe Detention Camp. 
Daily Dietary as Revised and Approved for the Prisoners of War. 

Sunday. 

Breakfast: Porridge i pint, Syrup 2 ounces. Tea I pint, milk and 
sugar, Bread 8 ounces, Margarine i ounce. 

Dinner: Meat 5 ounces, Potatoes 12 ounces, Bread 6 ounces, Cabbage 
or other Vegetable, Pudding 8 ounces. 

Supper: Cocoa 1 pint, milk and sugar, Bread 8 ounces, Margarine 
1 ounce, Marmalade or Jam 4 ounces. 

Monday. 

Breakfast: Porridge 1 pint, Syrup 2 ounces, Tea 1 pint, milk and 
sugar, Bread 8 ounces, Margarine 1 ounce, Marmalade 2 ounces. 

Dinner: Bread 6 ounces, Potatoes 12 ounces, Soup 1 pint. 

Supper: Cocoa 1 pint, milk and sugar, Bread 8 ounces, Margarine 
1 ounce, Cheese 3 ounces. 

Tuesday. 

Breakfast: Porridge 1 pint, Syrup 2 ounces. Tea 1 pint, milk and 
sugar, Bread 8 ounces, Margarine 1 ounce. 

Dinner : Bread 6 ounces, Irish Stew, consisting of meat and potatoes, 
18 ounces. 

Supper: Cocoa 1 pint, milk and sugar, Bread 8 ounces. Margarine 
1 ounce, Marmalade or Jam 4 ounces. 

(Wednesday. 
Breakfast: Porridge 1 pint, Syrup 2 ounces. Tea 1 pint, milk and 
sugar, Bread 8 ounces. Margarine 1 ounce, Marmalade or Jam 2 ounces. 
Dinner: Soup 1 pint, with Potatoes, Bread 6 ounces, Pudding 
12 ounces. 

Supper: Cocoa 1 pint, milk and sugar, Bread 8 ounces. Margarine 
1 ounce, Cheese 3 ounces. 



32 



Thursday. 

Breakfast: Porridge i pint, Syrup 2 ounces. Tea 1 pint, milk and 
sugar, Bread 8 ounces, Margarine 1 ounce. 

Dinner: Meat 5 ounces, Potatoes 12 ounces, second vegetable. Bread 
6 ounces, Pudding 8 ounces. 

Supper: Cocoa 1 pint, milk and sugar, Bread 8 ounces. Margarine 
1 ounce, Marmalade or Jam 4 ounces. 

Friday. 

Breakfast: Porridge 1 pint, Syrup 2 ounces. Tea 1 pint, milk and 
sugar, Bread 8 ounces, Margarine 1 ounce. Marmalade 2 ounces. 

Dinner: Bread 6 ounces, Soup 1 pint, with potatoes, Pudding 
12 ounces. 

Supper: Cocoa 1 pint, milk and sugar, Bread 8 ounces, Margarine 
1 ounces, Cheese 3 ounces. 

Saturday. 

Breakfast: Porridge 1 pint, Syrup 2 ounces, Tea 1 pint, milk and 
sugar. Bread 8 ounces, Margarine 1 ounce. 

Dinner: Bread 6 ounces, Hot Pot or Stew, consisting of meat 
and potatoes, 18 ounces. 

Supper: Cocoa 1 pint, milk and sugar, Bread 8 ounces. Margarine 
1 ounce, Marmalade or Jam 4 ounces. 

Government Office, Isle of Man, 4 January, 1915. 



Knockaloe Aliens' Camp. 
Canteen Prices 

(Subject to Revision in future Lists). 

Cigarettes, Tobacco, &c. 

Woodbines, per packet of 5: 1 d. — Gold Flake, per packet of 10: 
3d. — Capstan Medium ,per packet of 10 : 3d. — Egyptian, per packet 
of 10: 3 d. — Muratti, per packet of 10: 3 d. — Three Castles, per packet 
of 20: 9 d. — Coaching Club Cigarettes, per packet 3d. — Cheroots 
each id. — Cigarette Paper, packet id. — Nailrod, per oz. 3%d- — 
Yankee Plug, per oz. 4 d. — Twist, per oz 3% d. — Cake, per oz 3% d. — 
Cut Cavendish, per oz. 3% d. — Chairman, per oz. 6 d. — Player's 
Medium Mixture, per oz. 6 d. — Craven Mixture, per tin 2/-. — Capstan 
Medium Tobacco, 2 oz. 10 d. — Gold Flake, 2 oz. 5 d. — Two Blades, 
2 oz. 3 14 d. — Silk Cut, 2 oz. 5 d. — Coolie Cut Tobacco, 2 oz. 3% d. — 





33 



Glasgow Mixture, 2 oz. 5 d. — Country Life, 2 oz. 5 d. — Bruno, 2 oz. 
4% d. — Dills' Cut Plug, per tin 1/-. — Birds Eye Tobacco 1 oz. packet 
•4% d. — Godfrey Phillips Grand Cut, 1 oz. packet 5 d. — Cigars, each 

2 d. — Marcella Cigars, 3 d. each 5 for 1/-. — Matches, 3 boxes id. — 
Clay Pipes, each % d. — Wood, each id. — Briar, each 6 d. & 1/-. — 
Cigarette Holders, each 3 d. & 6 d. — Pipe Cleaners, bunch 1 d. 

Stationery and Sundries. 

Writing Pads, each 6 d. — Ink, per bottle id. — Picture Post 
Cards, 4 d. per packet of 6 or 1 d. each. — Black Cotton, per reel id. — 
White Cotton, per reel id. — Tooth Brushes, each 6 d. — Carbolic 
Tooth Powder, per tin 4% d. — Cherry Blossom Boot Polish (Black and 
Brown), per tin 1 d. & 2 d. — Black & Brown Laces, per pair id. — 
Vaseline, per tin id. — Dale's Dubbin, per tin 2d. — Pen & Pencils, 
each id. — Playing Cards, per packet 4% d. — Sewing Needles, per 
card id. — Black Wool, per card id. — Grey Wool, per card id. — 
Shoe Brushes, 1/3 set of 4 or 2 brushes 8 d. — 

Preserved Foods, &c. 

Sliced Ox Tongue, in glass, each 1/4. — Lunch Tongue, y 2 lb. tins, 
each 10 d. — Corned Beef, 2 lb. tins, per lb. 1/4. — Salmon, flat tins, 
each 7 d. — Skipper Sardines, per tin 6 d. — Portuguese Sardines, 
per tin 5 d. — Peaches, per tin 6 d. — Pears, per tin 7 d. — German 
Sausage, per lb. 8 d. — Vienna Sausage, 2 lb. tins 2/-. — St. Ivel Cheese 
(Lactic), per pkt. 6% d. — Cream Cheese, per pkt. 6% d. — Granulated 
Sugar, per lb. 4 d. — Nestle 's Condensed Milk, per tin 4 d. — 

Biscuits & Apples. 

Tea Biscuits, per lb. 5 d. — Social Biscuits, per lb. 5 d. — Lemon Fingers 
per lb. 5 d. — Seed Cakes, each 6 d. — Cream Crackers, per lb. 6 d. — 
Apples, 2 for id. — Oranges, 2 for 1 d. — Bananas, 2 for 1% d., 4 for 

3 d., 8 for 6 d. 

Jams. 

Strawberry Jam (lib pots), per pot 7% d. — Raspberry Jam (lib 
pots) per pot 7 d. — Plum Jam (lib pots), per pot 6 d. — Damson Jam 
(lib pots), per pot 7 d. — Gooseberry Jam (lib pots), per pot 6 d. — 
Marmalade Jam (lib pots), per pot 6 d. 



Chocolates. 
Milk & Plain Chocolate per cake, id., 3 d., & 6 d. 



34 



Cocoa, Tea, Coffee, and Milk. 
Cadbury's Cocoa (% lb. tins), per %lb. 7% d. — Cadbury's Coco 
5 d. packets, per pkt. 5 d. — Tea, %lb. packets, per pkt. 6 d. — Coffee 
Chicory, per %lb. tin 7% d. — Fresh Milk, per quart 3 d. 

Clothing. 

Clogs, per pair 4/-. — Shirts (Pure Manx Wool), each 6/-. — Shirt 
each 4/-. — Socks, per pair 1/3 & 2/3. — Oilskins, each 6/9. — So 
Westers, each 1/3. — Jerseys, each 6/-. 

Wood Carving, &c. 
Mahogany, per super foot 1/-. — Whitewood (Canary), per supei 
foot 8 d. — Birch, per super foot 6 d. — Cement for Modelling, pei 
3lbs. 1. — 

Government Office, Isle of Man, 20. January, 1915. 



Aliens' Camp Douglas, Isle of Man. 

For the better preservation of orders and comfort of the Prisoners, 
the following have been made Captains of Companies: 
Who are responsible for the carrying out of all orders and keeping Tents 

and Grounds Clean. 

Reveille, 6.30 a.m, Bedding, 7.30 a.m.: All beds to be put outside 
till 9 a.m. (weather permitting) or at such time as may be noted; 
9.30 a.m.: Beds to be put back. 

Clothes: All spare clothes to be neatly folded up or kept in bags or 
boxes round pole of tent. 

Cleanliness: All tents to be kept clear of dirt or refuse. The tent 
floors will be scrubbed once a week. ■ — Captains of Companies will orga- 
nise Fatigue Parties every morning and afternoon to keep exercising 
ground, sleeping quarters, and recreation room clean. 

Sick parade: 11.30 a.m. each day. 

Roll Call: will be taken each day at 7.30 a.m. and 6 p.m. Prisoners 
will be formed up outside each tent, and after answering to their 
names will go back into tent till roll is finished. 

Latrines : Only water must be put down urinals and latrines ; nothing 
solid. A block in the drains will endanger the health of all. Infringement 
of this will be punished. 

Water Channels: Only water must be put down these. 

Letters: must be put in box erected for that purpose. 

Meals: Captains of Companies will form up Companies ready to 
march to meals 5 minutes' before the meal hour and will march off 



Si@B 



■ 



35 



in rotation as soon as bugle sounds beginning with No. i Company. 
Parade ground to be in front of mess-room. 

Camp inspection: There will be a Camp Inspection daily at n a.m. 
^when all men will have to be present at their tents. 

(Signed) H. W. Madoc, Lt. Col. Commandant. 



Douglas Aliens' Camp. 
Daily Dietary. 

Sunday. 

Breakfast: Porridge I pint, Syrup i% oz -> Tea I pint, with milk 
and sugar, Bread 8 oz. Margarine y 2 oz - 

Dinner: Roast Beef (boneless) % lb., Potatoes 20 oz., Cabbage, 
Bread 4 oz. 

Supper: Tea 1 pint, with milk and sugar, Bread 8 oz., Margarine y 2 oz. 

Monday. 

Breakfast: Porridge 1 pint, Syrup 1% oz > Tea 1 pint, with milk 
and sugar, Bread 8 oz., Margarine y 2 oz. 

Dinner: Stew (meat 4 ounces and veg.), potatoes 20 ounces, Bread 
4 oz. 

Supper: Tea 1 pint, with milk and sugar, Bread 8 ounces, Margarine 

y 2 oz. 

Tuesday. 

Breakfast: Porridge 1 pint, Syrup 1% ounces, Tea 1 pint, with 
milk and sugar, Bread 8 ounces, Margarine y 2 ounce. 

Dinner: Sausages 6 to 8 ounces, Potatoes, 20 ounces, butter beans 
or marrowfat peas, bread 4 ounces. 

Supper: Tea 1 pint, with milk and sugar, bread 8 ounces, margarine 

y 2 oz. 

Wednesday. 

Breakfast: Porridge 1 pint, Syrup 1*4 ounces, Tea 1 pint, with 
milk and sugar, bread 8 ounces, margarine y 2 ounce. 

Dinner : Scouce (meat, potatoes, and vegetables) 20 ounces, bread 4 oz. 

Supper: Tea 1 pint, with milk and sugar, bread 8 ounces, margarine 
¥2 oz. 

Thursday. 

Breakfast: Porridge 1 pint, Syrup i*4 ounces, Tea 1 pint, with 
milk and sugar, bread 8 ounces, margarine y 2 ounce. 

Dinner: Stew (meat 4 ounces and veg.), potatoes 20 ounces, bread 40Z. 



m 



- , ' ,; . 



36 



Supper: Tea 1 pint, with milk and sugar, bread 8 ounces, margarine 

y 2 oz. 



Friday. 

Breakfast: Porridge 1 pint, Syrup 1% ounces, Tea 1 pint, with milk 
and sugar, bread 8 ounces, margarine y 2 ounce. 

Dinner: Sausages 6 to 8 ounces, Potatoes, 20 ounces, butter beans 
or peas, Bread, 4 ounces. 

Supper: Tea 1 pint, with milk and sugar, bread 8 ounces, margarine, 

y 2 oz. 

Saturday. 

Breakfast: Porridge 1 pint, syrup 1*4 ounces, Tea 1 pint, with 
milk and sugar, bread 8 ounces, margarine y 2 ounce. 

Dinner: Scouce (meat, potatoes and vegetables) 20 ounces, bread 
4 ounces. 

Supper: Tea 1 pint, with milk and sugar, bread 8 ounces, margarine 
y 2 ounce. 






Southampton — Anweisung. 

Kriegsgefangene mussen alien fur sie befohlenen Anordnungen 
Gehorsam leisten. Die Befehle der Officiere, Mannschaften und Shild- 
wachen sind sofort auszufiihren. Wer obigen Bestimmungen nicht 
nachkommt, setzt sich Bestrafung aus. Auf gefangene, die die Um- 
zaunungs-grenze oder irgend welche verbotene Durchgange ubertreten, 
wird sofort geschossen. Im Falle eines Fluchtversuchs eines Kriegs 
gefangenen, werden die ubrigen gefangenen verantwortlich gemacht 
und eine strengere Beaufsichtigung wird verfiigt. Alkoholische Ge- 
tranke sind verboten und werden nur auf arztliche Veranlassung be- 
willigt. Rauchen ist nur in dazu bestimmten Raumen und zu gewisser 
Zeit erlaubt. Kartenspiel ist erlaubt. Um Geld zu spielen ist verboten. 
Unterhaltung ist nur unter einander und mit den uberwachenden of ticieren 
und Mannschaften gestattet. Mit Fremden ist die Unterhaltung ver- 
boten. J. Tyrwhitt-Walker, Lt.-Col., Kommandant 



Instructions relative to prisoners receiving visitors, 

parcels; letters, etc. 

Visitors are required to make application in writing addressed to 
the Commandant, Prisoners of War Depots, Southampton. Twenty-four 









37 



hours' notice is necessary, and the following rules must be strictly 
observed: (a) Prisoners of war may be visited once a month by not 
Ifcnore than two relatives or friends at the same time, for a period of a 
quarter-of-an-hour, during such hours as may be appointed for this 
purpose by the Commandant, (b) Visits to prisoners of war will take 
place within the sight and hearing of the Commandant, or some person 
appointed by him. All conversations must be held in English, unless 
this is clearly impossible, when an interpreter should be present, (c) All 
parcels, letters, &c, brought by visitors will be examined before delivery 
to the prisoners, (d) In case of misconduct the Commandant shall have 
power to withhold this privilege, (e) The Commandant may, in Special 
Cases, waive the restrictions laid down in sub-paragraph (a). 

Commandant, Prisoners of War Reception Depots, Southampton. 



German Officers' Mess. 
Bevois House, Southampton. 

Officers not wishing to draw the Government Ration, may have 
Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner at the inclusive rate of 3/6 per day, when 
Six or more Officers are in mess. When less than six, the charges are 

— Breakfast 1/3, Lunch 1/6, Dinner 2/6. 

Tariff for Sundries. 

Chop 1 s. o d. — Steak 1 s 2 d. — 1 Egg and Bacon 11 d. — 2 Eggs 
and Bacon 1 s. 2 d. — Plain Bacon 8 d. — Scrambled Eggs on Toast 10 d. 

— Large Gammon Rasher 1 s. o d. — Two Cutlets 1 s. o d. — Wiener 
Schnitzel 1 s. 4 d. — Boiled Eggs (each) 3d. — Sausages (2) and Bacon 
1 s. o d. — Grilled Sausages (2) 9 d. — Sausage (1) and Mashed Potatoes 
6 d. — Kippers (2) 6 d. — Haddock 8 d. — Soups (various) 6 d. — Sardines 
on Toast 8 d. — Soft Roes on Toast 10 d. — Cold Smoked Sausage (per 
portion) 6 d. — Plate of Tongue 10 d. — Plate of Ham 10 d. — Bread 1 d. 

— Butter id. — Cheese (per portion) 2d. — Cake (per slice) 2 d. • — Jam 
or Marmalade (per portion) 2d. — Sardines (per small Box) 7 d. — 
Potatoes, Boiled or Mashed 2d. — Potatoes, Fried or Saute 3d. — 
Fresh Vegetables, 3d & 4 d. 

Tea, Coffee or Cocoa, per Cup 2 d., per Pot 4 d. — Special Black 
Coffee, per Cup 4 d. — Milk (per J / 2 -pint) id. — Afternoon Tea — Plain, 
with Bread and Butter 6d., with Jam & Cake is. 
Note. — Any Special Meals may be obtained on application to the Manager. 



"Hi WdKi 



.In 






^saC3 



1 



38 



Tobacco, &c. 

Cigarettes: Turkish or Egyptian, io's 9 d. — ■ 25's is. 10 d. — 
50's 3 s. 8 d. — ioo's 7 s. 4 d. 

Cigarettes. Virginia: 25's 1 s. 6 d. — 50's 3 s. o d. — ioo's 6 s. o d. 

Tobacco. (Mixture) : Per oz. 7 d. — Carson's Mixture, 2 oz. Tins 
is. 4 d. 

Cigars : Each 3 d. 
Special Brands of Cigars or Cigarettes obtained on application. 

Wine List. 

Hock: Laubenheimer per bot. 3/6. — Niersteiner per bot. 4/0. — 
Berncastler Doctor per bot. 5/0. — Liebfraumlich per bot. 6/6. 

Champagnes: De Lossy (1906) pints 6/0, quarts 10/6. 

Spirits: Scotch Whisky per peg 6 d., y 2 peg 4 d. — London Gin 
per peg 4 d. 

Wines: Port (Old Vintage) per peg 6 d., per bot. 4/6. — Claret 
per bot. 2/6. — Burgundy per bot. 2/6. 

Liqueurs: Creme de Menthe, Kummel, Curacao, French Vermouth, 
Italian Vermouth per glass 6 d. 

Beer: Tennant's Lager per pint 6 d., per % P m * 3d- — Draught 
Beer per y 2 pint 2d. — Stout Beer per bot. 3 d. 

Minerals — Soda Water, small, 2 d. ; large, 4 d. — Still Lemonade, 
2 d. per glass. 

Officiers requiring Articles of Clothing or necessaries for Toilet purposes 
can obtain the same on application to the Manager. 

General Manager, British Canteens, Ltd. 

Winchester House, old Broad Street, London, E. C. 




» 



ii 



D 



H. M. T. "Royal Edward", Southend-on-Sea. 

Rules for Correspondence with Prisoners of War. 

1. Names and adresses of correspondents must be given. — 2. Letters 
must not exceed two sides of writing paper. They must be written 
clearly in ink and reasonably spaced. — 3. War news and politics for- 
bidden. — 4. Letters must not be registered, unless containing necessary 
remittances or valuables. Express letters are forbidden. — 5. Telegrams 



d 



39 

can only be sent in cases of extreme urgency, and must not be worded 
ambiguously. — 6. Letters should be addressed in this manner: Postal 
Censorship H. C. Branch, Salisbury House, London, E. C. 

r For Prisoner of War (Name) Number H. M» T. "Royal 

Edward," Southend-on-Sea. 

If these rules are broken, the privilege of correspondence will be with- 
drawn. 



H. M. T. "Royal Edward". 
Rations for prisoners of War, per day per man. 

Bread i lb. 8 oz. — Meat y 2 lb. — Vegetables io oz. — Coffee y 2 oz. 
\or % oz. of Tea. — Butter i oz. or 2 oz. of Cheese. — Sugar 2 oz. — 
Milk i lb. tin for 20 men. — Salt y 2 oz. — Pepper V72 oz > 



H. M. T. "Royal Edward", off Southend-on-Sea. 

8th January, 1915. 

Prisoners of War who have been ordered on light diet by the Medical 
Officer will receive in lieu of ordinary rations the following: 

Breakfast: 2 oz. of Porridge, y 2 oz. of Cocoa, y 2 lb. of Bread, 1 oz 
of Butter. 

Dinner: y 2 lb. of Fish (in lieu of Meat) Vegetables, y 2 lb. of Bread. 

Tea: Milk Pudding (% pint of milk per man to be allowed for 
making the milk pudding), y 2 lb. of Bread. 

The Medical Officer will inform the Chief Steward daily as to what 
amount of milk is required, and the Chief Steward will keep a record 
of the amount supplied daily. 



H. M. T. "Royal Edward", of Southend-on-Sea. 
23rd January, 1915. Specimen-Scale of First-Class Messing. 

Pay at the rate of 2/ — per day, which must be paid one week in 
idvance. All complaints and payments to be made to the Adjutant. 



m- 




40 



Day: 



Breakfast : 



Lunch : 



Dinner: 



Sunday : 



Porridge 

Eggs & Bacon 

Bread & Butter 

Tea Coffee 



Cold Meats 

Cheese 

Pickles 

Bread & Butter 

Tea 



Soup 

Boiled Fish 

Roast Beef 

Potatoes, Cabbage 

Plum Pudding 

Bread 



Monday: 



Porridge 

Kippers 

Irish Stew 

Bread & Butter 

Jam, Tea, Coffee 



Sardines 

Cold Meat 

Bread & Butter 

Beetroot Salad 

Tea 



Soup 

Saute of Veal 

Roast Mutton 

Potatoes, Green 

Peas, 

Stewed Fruit 

Bread 



Tuesday: 



Porridge 

Fried Fish 

Mutton Chops 

Potatoes 

Bread & Butter 

Marmalade 

Tea Coffee 



Cold Meats 

Cheese 

Pickles 

Bread & Butter 

Tea 



Soup 

Boiled Fish 

Roast Beef 

Potatoes.Calavonsis 

Rice Pudding 

Bread 



Wednesday : 



Porridge 

Bloaters 

Grilled Steak 

Potatoes 

Bread & Butter 

Tea Coffee 



Thursday: 



Porridge 

Kippers 

Irish Stew 

Bread & Butter 

Jam, Tea, Coffee 



Fresh Herrings 

Cold Meats 

Bread & Butter 

Tea 



Soup 

Fried Fish 

Roast Pork 

Potatoes, Mixed 

Roots 

Stewed Fruit 

Bread 



Sardines 

Cold Meat 

Bread & Butter 

Beetroot Salad 

Tea 



Soup 

Saute of Veal 

Roast Mutton 

Potatoes, Green 

Peas 

Stewed Fruit 

Bread 



Friday : 



Porridge 

Fried Fish 

Mutton Chops 

Potatoes 

Bread & Butter 

Marmalade 

Tea Coffee 



Cold Meats 

Cheese 

Pickles 

Bread & Butter 

Tea 



Soup 

Boiled Fish 

Roast Beef 

Potatoes, 

Calavonsis 

Rice Pudding 

Bread 



Saturday: 



Porridge 

Bloaters 

Grilled Steak 

Potatoes 

Bread & Butter 

Tea Coffee 



Fresh Herrings 

Cold Meats 

Bread & Butter 

Tea 



Soup 

Fried Fish 

Roast Pork 

Potatoes, Mixed 

Roots 

Stewed Fruit 

Bread 



Capt. & Adjutant. 



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Authorised scale of Rations for prisoners of War. 
On H. M. T's "Canada", "Andania", "Tunisian". 

Bread, i lb. 8 ozs., or biscuit, i lb. — Meat, Fresh or frozen, 8 ozs., 
'or pres'd i — 2 ration. — Tea, 1/2 oz., or coffee, 1 oz. — Salt, 1/2 oz. — 
Sugar, 2 ozs. — Pepper, 1/72 oz. — Milk, condensed, i/20th tin 
(1 lb.) — Vegetables, fresh, 8 ozs. — Butter or margarine, 1 oz., (Alter- 
native, 2 ozs. cheese). — Peas, Beans, lentils or rice, 2 ozs. 
G. Strangman Hancock, captain, Commandant Prisoners of War Ships. 







Concert. 

Zu Ehren des Geburtstages S. M. des Kaisers. 

Stratford, E. Kriegsgefangnis. 

Mittwoch den 27 Januar, 1915. 

Programm. 
I. Teil. 

1. Klaviervortrag „Jubelouverture" Herr Leimer. 

2. Prolog, gesprochen von Herrn Kraentz. 

3. Gesangchor „Das ist der Tag des Herrn" . . Herr Haake-Dirig 

4. Violinsolo Herr Sartori. 

5. Doppelquartett ,,In einem kuehlen Grunde" . Herr Haake-Dirig. 

6. Walzerklaenge Herren Leimer, 

Sartori, Sommer. 

7. Gesangchor „Gott gruesse Dich" Herr Haake-Dirig. 

8. Solovortrag: Die Beiden Grenadiere (Bass Bariton) Herr Dubois. 
9- HELDENTOD. 

Spiel in zwei Akten. 

(In Szene gesetzt von Herrn Haake). 

Personen : 

Baron von Holstein Herr Haake. 

Waldemar, sein Sohn, Dragonerleutnant .... Herr Botzian. 
Major von Plettenberg, Nachbar des Barons . . Herr Kraentz. 

Dr. Weidauer, Hausarzt Herr Wahren. 

Jean, Diener im Hause des Barons Herr Flatauer. 

(Der zweite Akt spielt zwei Monate spaeter). 




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II. 

12. 

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42 

II. Teil. 

Klaviervortrag ; „Ungar. Rhapsodie" von Liszt. Herr Leimer. 

Humoristischer Vortrag Herr Flatauer. 

Solovortrag : Mundharmonika Herr Bielefeldt. 

Humoristischer Vortrag Herr Kraentz. 

Violine und Klavier Herren Schubert 

und Leimer. 
DAS FIDELE GEFAENGNIS. 
Lustspiel mit Gesang in 1 Akt. 

Personen : 

Waechter Herr Haake. 

1. Student Herr Dubois. 

2. Student Herr Kreutzer. 

Akrobatische Vorfuehrungen .... Herren Amann und Vesely 

Chorgesang: ,,Die Wacht am Rhein" Herr Haake-Dirig. 

Beginn: 7 Uhr abends puenktlich. 



Fest-Spiele H. M. T. „Scotian", 
Weihnachten 1914. 

Spielleiter : 

Kapitan E. A. Barnett, 4th Battn. Princess Charlotte of Wales's 
(Royal Berkshire Regiment). 

Leutnant Baron Sir Harry Stewart, 4th Battn. Princess Charlotte 
of Wales's (Royal Berkshire Regiment). 

Leutnant P. Slade, 4th Battn. Princess Charlotte of Wales's 
(Royal Berkshire Regiment). 

Leutnant A. Nobbs, Royal Army Medical Corps. 

Leutnant H. Wharmby, Adjt. und Ouartiermeister Head Quarter 
Staff. 

Leutnant W. Sparrow, Dolmetscher, Adjt. und Ouartiermeister 
Head Ouarter Staff. 

Programm. 

Sacklaufen: 1. Preis 5 Schilling. — 2. Preis 1 Schilling. — 3. Preis 
1 Schilling. — 4. Preis 1 Schilling. 

Wettrudern: 1. Preis Weihnachtskuchen und 5 Schilling. — 2. Preis 
Weihnachtskuchen. — 3. Preis Weihnachtskuchen. — 4. Preis Weihnachts- 
kuchen. 
Sieger im Wettrudern war die Kuttermannschaft der Kaiserl. Marine. 




'S11 



43 



S. M. S. „Mainz". 
Tauziehen: i. Preis 5 Schilling. Sieger: Armee. — 2. Preis 2 Schilling. 
(Sieger: Marine. 

Mittwoch, den 30. Dezember 1914. 

Programm. 

Wettrudern: Kuttermannschaft „Mainz" gegen Kuttermannschaft 
„Ascania". Preis 20 Schilling. Sieger: Kuttermannschaft S. M. S. 
„Mainz". 

Ringen: 1. Preis 5 Schilling. — 2. Preis 2 Schilling. 
1. Preis: Heizer Kurlbaum, S. M. S. „Mainz". 2. Preis: Ob. F. Gst. 

Tillmann, S. 119. 
Gewichtsstemmen : 1. Preis 5 Schilling. — 2. Preis 2 Schilling. 
1. Preis: Reservist Busch, 112. Inf.-Rgt. 2. Preis: Heizer Kleve, S.M.S. 

„Mainz". 
Zweikampf auf dem Schwebebalken : 1. Preis 5 Schilling. — 2. Preis 
2 Schilling. 

1. Preis: Ob. F. Gst. Tillmann, S. 119. 2. Preis: Heizer Fruendt, 

S. M. S. „Mainz". 



Preisrichter: 

Steen, Ob.-Steuermann S. M. S. „Mainz'*. — Bruene, Offz.-Stellv., 

233. Res.-Inf.-Rgt. — Miethke, Vize-Feldwebel, 104. Inf.-Rgt. — Ur- 

banek, Ob.-Verw. Lazarettsch. „Ophelia". — Thielemann, Torp.-Ma- 

schinist S. M. S. ,, Mainz". — Jannicke, Vize-Feldwebel, 242. R. -Inf.-Rgt. 




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(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31. 1900) 



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SUBJECT Conditions.- Italy ..- ..onth of February. 



^>w» X M>- 64: ^^ February 9*±}M&* 

Replying to 0. N. I. No. mmmmmmm... Date mmmmmm** 








1. rliament met on . el i . 1 . ;_, an. ing to 

a eer ous crisis throughout Italy regarding the hi price of 
bread, no serious discos ions on the question of r trans- 

pired - end up to date all inquiries in Par XI t on the 
course to ho followed by the Crov ,: ve been avoided with 

as little discussion as possible. 3 of ■ nt, how- 

ever, on Febrtt&ry 18th* -any demons tratl one by larcc crowds 
against urtrir took lace in the streets of 3 :.. , ithout any 
eer 'ous results, owing to lar^e bodies of troops having been 
sent into the city In anticipation of demonstrations. In other 
cities many encounters between Neutralists I nterventionists 

have taken piece, resulting in several deaths cntl :aany wounded. 

2. The situation, as I sec it, and as understood by 
many diplomats with whom I have conversed, le that the Italian 
Havy is ready for war in all respects, and that the ..rr.y is 
practically ready with the except ion of a few pieces of heavy 
field artillery an? sio, • uns, but thrt the economical condi- 
tion of t" ountry is such that the country eannot finance a 
war for more than 3 or 4 months - to ore, as long as the 
end is not in sight, and long as in the ascendency- 
Italy will not £0 in. 



3. In the Ilavy.tho dreadnought jjontc ■ d i Cavour has not 
yet entered the fleet, but it is only a qucsTTbli ." i week or so 
when she will Join. uilio is fitting out and will join in 

. §r I months. 







(2) 

ftatio* Turkey. Port 

Report -from tf.S,5.30OHPI0I. 

Date of Report February 28,1915. 



cm 



, Con stan tin ople. 



ports. 

Fane 



I* other reports I have give* lists of merchant trans- 



Class 



Yadikiar-i-Milet 


Destroyer 


Mouavenet-Milet 


tl n it it R 


JIoumouAie-Hamie t 


IT ft It MM 


Gairet-Vatandeh 


it m n M M 


Fansoun 


It B M II M 


Basra 


T* II II Tl II 


Tassos,or Taschos 


II tl II M II 


Yar-Hissar 


It II II M II 


A3c-His ar 


Torpedo Boat 


:,Iasoul 


w ii M it it 


^atahia 


It 11 IT II M 


D4razzo,(Dratz) 


mi ti mm 


Berk-Efshan 


Snail torped 


Eusered billet 


Mine layer 


Ytioh Bahr 


u it ti 


Ugly 


nit ti 


Malgar Alger 


Mine Lifter 


Se jar 


It MM 




It II II 



Remarks 



boa- 



There are other small 

torpedo boats, but their 

numbers and names are 

indefinite. 

400 tons. German. 25 mines 

400 tons .Old tug. 30 mines 

500 tons. Old tug. 30 mires 

220 tons 

220 tons. 

A third mine lifter of 

which I have been unable 

to get the name, but she 

looks like this. 



Jl 



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2. The following ves els are 
lists. There are undoubtedly others. 



known to be removed from the 



Fame. 


Class . 


Remarks . 


^ussudtLjeh 


Battle s$3k$ J p 


Stink in Dardanelles, by 
If 11 ah submarine , Dec : 




— • 


15,1914. 


Shipka 


Gunboat 


Sunk i^ battle of Co^fid- 


Alntao 


It :i ll 


ah,Red Fea.by Italian 


Ordou 


It M II 


ships, on Dec. 25, 1912. 


Gastamoni 


It MM 


- — do- — 


Baffra 


n tut 


do 


Moha 


It MM 


•"--do**"" 


Keuktehe 


MM M 


•— 'do— - 


Roufahie.or Rafadieh 


mi It 


- — do- — 


Bezym-Y-Alem 


Transport 


Punk in present war 


llidhat Pacha 


nn ti 


do 



^^^fe^^^ fir 



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(3) 



Nation Turkey. 

Report iroa E7.S.S.&00HPI01T. 

Date of Report . . . . . .Februar 



Port. Constantinople. 




i....... 



3." The Allied Fleets have been seriously boabarding 
the Dardanelles during the past weok. Details are lacking, but, 
frora preparations in, and around the city, and on the shores of 
the I.Iaraiara,it is expected that the English a^d French Elects 
will force tho straits. 

4. The Sultan, and the German "'and Austrian Ambassadors, 
are prepared to leave. Archives, gold, and other valuables are being 
sent to the interior on th3 Asiatic side. 



5. Temporary defenses are bei~>g prepared, guns siou 1 - 'jed,and 
nines placed - both submarine and land sai^es - covering the ap- 
proaches to the city by land, and water. Mine pl&nters are loaded, 
and standing by at anchor off the town. 

6. The latest reports from the Dardanelles are froai people 
arriving here February 27, and 28 r They report that all the women 
and children have left Ohanak,or Dardanelles, and that all natives, 
living near the threatened area, are moving back into the ooui 



in try, 



7. One reports that just before he left he saw an English 
battle cruiser v/ell inside bombarding, and with her boats out drag- 
ging for Qines. 



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