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Full text of "Naval Attache's Reports, Office of Naval Intelligence"

DECLASSIFIED 

*. • * J? 






JUNE 1915 



NWC ARCHIVES 



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No 4 : to bo ta 
from Library 



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,„£* T- DOB «**> ? 3 m 19?2, SUBJ! 




Need not be returned. 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31. 1900) 



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to ttm XtcHcR i'loct. 



From No.. 



-Date Jwm %* ...X»l--- 

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Replying to 0. N. I. No. ...^v...^-^*.. Date *?fp^ 




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X* N» ItaltaQ floot boo bo n ro-«MPoroc tie 

Irltiefc iooMpo - Igj&geMo * r^onaon - *^lnoo of fid* 

- fttil 'uocn, thlo aiva^IccTS 6 oorfSBl o£ a- 

n&r&l ^jtnrsAys ttioro os?o aloo ton Fronch floe attach© a 

to tho ?loot tshloh I boliow capo tmtler 1 ) -#- 

oln ou^# Hb.-.£ of tin a ' 

dct€ trtxiao t -If bo. ca ©roller t^po« 

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[See Paragraph l. Instructions ..I October 31, 1900.1 

Need not be retur 



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Subject- econdary larval Station, Tsingtao. 




From I, /Vo.13 Dale -JV*£, 

Replying to O. N. I. No. ' Date XXXXXXXXXS 

Sow that th« port of Tsingtao is in order th< oondary 

vel Station* pro tempore, was closed On May Slst, and a 
defense Division, pro tempore, similar to that in tl outh 
slands, will l>e stationed Here instead, 



i 






Title VI. Expenses for Maintaining 

val Preparations 

Item 1. aval construction 

Title VIII. rpenses for Investigation of 

.eronautics 

Item 1. penses for investigation 

of aeronautics 



Yen ll.8gg.818 
11,888,818 

15C .000 

15 , 



"otal 7 xtraordinary "xpenditures ten 12,010,802 



Expenses for i:ai nta ining raval Preparations , 

1. Sum previously authorized Yen 446.855.C16 

2. ditional sum authorized 9 g, 946, 91 4 

total 
Of the above sum 



1. xp ended to and including 1914-1915 

2. To he expended from 1915-1916 



54u.781.98C 



X'en g9C ,117,959 
150,663,971 



The last sum is to he expended from 1915-1916 to 1918- 
1919, and the amount assigned to each year is as follows :- 

1915-16 1916-17 1917-18 1918-19 

'rotal 58.71g.865 46 , 847 , C G4 gg, 258.767 11.844,855 

Xaval Construction 4C, 495, 926 86,548,489 25,815,641 6,860,478 



Shore Buildings 



8,248,95? 



5 C HO 



* ■ » ■ ■- » 



2,938,857 



Construction and 
repairs of ships 0*969, Q09 5,298,515 2,448,126 2,5 , 
ind arms. 



Kxtraordinary n ar fund. 

Additional "xtraordinary " ar Fund 

for 1915-1916 shall he 



Yen 16,175,424 



/ 






|See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.] 



Need not be ret 



i/t - - ; -'• 



Office of Naval Intelligence, 

June 2 , 1915 . 



Compilation J.H.&. ' J I i 
Copy S.H.Ii. 



T~y^~~~7r 



From 
To:- 



Commanding Officer. ' £2 —~^iWarc^ 



Intelligence Officer, /<&/\* uu,v 2 r/ Tqi* 

SUBJECT:- Intelligence Report. Alexandria. 



-n 

U. 3. 3. HOBTE CAROLINA, #/, 
At Sea, Alexandria- 
Gibraltar, 
June 1, 1915. 

j'un 



*) 



1. The defenses Of Alexandria have doubtless been covered in other 
reports to the Office of Kaval Intelligence. So far as could be 
ascertained, they have not been strengthened since the outbreak of the 
war, nor has the normal garrison of the city, two battalions of Eng- 
lish regulars, uQQn increased as a permanent garrison, karge quan- 
tities of troops are of course based there. 



o 



B. Since early February, 1915, Alexandria has Ijeon used as a base 
for the Allies' operations against the Dardanelles . An advanced base 
was established about -larch 1 on the island of Lomnos, but Alexandria 
has remained as the main base. It has been used for three main pur- 
poses: concentration and despatch ox troops; collection and transport- 
ation of supplies; reception of wounded. 



3. In the autumn of 1914, the main body of Australian and II cw 
Zealandian troops disembarked in ngypt and were concentrated in Cairo, 
^ to undergo a period of training, These troops, originally 50,0 
in number, were subsequently re enforced to about 60,000. They com- 
prised a complete army corps, with all arms. On 3?©b r y E3, the movement 
of these troops to Alexandria was commenced, and, as transports became 
available, they were thence transshipped to hennas, the concentration 
at that advanced base of the entire Australian contingent being com- 
pleted about Apriib 1. At the present time, some of these troops, ar- 
tillery and cavalry only, have returned to Alexandria, as the cavalry 
cannot be used (except dismounted) on Gallipoli peninsula* and the ar- 
tillery is in excess of that needed. English troops bo the number of 
2i 300, of volunteers mainly, with some regulars, arrived in Alexan- 
dria in March and were, save about 5,000 still in Alexandria, sent 
direct to the Dardanelles, Trench troops, mainly African native troops, 
about 40,000 in number, were camped in Alexandria during march, and of 
them 5,000 remain, the rest hairing gone on to the Dardanelles. Such 
Indian troops, in all not ma e than 5,000 as went to that theater of war, 



it irect from Port Said, but their supply ships 



on Alexandria* 



The transportation of these troops and of the quantities of 






4 

• -C 

5,000 to SO, 000 tons full load displacement • These ships are 
into 
I flic; t 
fleet 

serial numbers observed between May 14 & 29, the period of the 
Carolina's stay in Alexandria; 



ies necessary far them at the Dardanelles, wa3, and is be 
ted by means of a number of British merchantmen, rang 

to 20,000 tons full load displacement. Those s 
fleets and each ship is individually designated by a lctt 
ing its fleet, and a number, showing its serial number in 
The extent of these fleet.- y be judged from the hi 



in , 
from 
divided 
or, in- 

thet 
est 

llorth 



A 36 (A for "Army" service — originally "Australian", but 

now English and Australian indiscriminately. } 



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3 



From:- Intelligence Officer* 
To:- Commanding Officer. 



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U. S. 0. NORTH CAROLINA, '« 
At Sea, Alexandria- 
Gibraltar, 
-June 1, 1915. 



-O- 




X <g War (^!^y U 



■¥J 



SUBJECT:- Intelligence Report, Alexandria. 



■o 



1. The defenses of Alexandria have doubtless been covered in other 
reports to the Office of haval Intelligence. So far as could be 



ascertained, they have not been strengthened since the outbreak of the 
war, nor lias the normal garrison of the city, two battalions of Eng- 
lish regulars, been Increased as a permanent garrison. 
'titles of troops are of course based there. 



rge 



quan- 



2. Since early February, 1915, Alexandria has been used as a base 
for the Allies 1 operations against the Dardanelles. An advanced base 
was established about March 1 on the island of Lemnos, but Alexandria 
has remained as the main base. It has been used for throe main gur- 
' poses: concentration and despatch of troops; collection and transport- 
ation of supplies; reception of wounded. 



3. In the autumn of 1914, the main body of Australian and New 
'"oalandian troops disembarked in Egypt; and were concentrated in Cairo, 
to undergo a period of training. 1'hese troops, originally 50,000 
in number, v/ere subsequently reenforced to about 60,000. 1'hey com- 



prised a complete army corp 
of these troops to Alexandi 



°» 






with all arms. 
was commenced, 



On Feb'y £3, the movement 
and, as transports became 



available, they were thence transshipped tc Lemnos, the concentration 
at that advanced base of the entire Australian contingent being com- 
pleted about Aprift 1. At the present time, some of these troops, ar- 
tillery and cavalry only, have returned to Alexandria, as the cavalry 
cannot be used (except dismounted) on Gallipoli peninsula* and the ar- 
tillery is in excess of that needed. English troops to the number of 
21 ,000, of volunteers mainly, with some regulars, arrived in Alexan- 
dria in March and were, save about 5,000 still in Alexandria, sent 
direct to the Dardanelles. French troops, mainly African native troops, 
about 40,000 in number, were camped in Alexandria during March, and of 
them 5,000 remain, the rest having gone on to the Dardanelles. Such 
Indian troops, in all not mo e than 5,000 as went to that theater of war, 
went oirect from Port Said, but their supply ships base on Alexandria. 



4. xhe transportation of these troops and of the quantities of 
■upplies necessary for thorn at the Dardanelles, wa3, and is bein , 
pffected by moans of a number of British merchantmen, ranging from 
5,000 to £0,000 tons full load displacement. These ships are divided 
into fleets and each ship is individually designated by a letter, in- 
die, ting its fleet, and a number, allowing its serial number in that 
fleet, xhe extent of these fleet: y be Judged from the hi ;t 
serial numbers observed between may 14 & 29, the period of the Uorth 
Carolina's stay in Alexandria; 

, A 36 (A for "Army" service — originally "Australian", but 

now final ish and Australian indiscriminately. ) 



/ 



■ 




::'-■■■■•■'■ :'-■■ 



J'C.;;f, ■ 



■n^^HHH^^BM 



£. 



3 

II 

2 
F 



CO 





8 

14 



was 



(3 for "supply" ) 

(II for "naval division", a species of advanced 

basa organization,) 
(Z for Indian troops and equipment ) ♦ 
(F for "French" ). 
The routine business of handling and despatching these ships 
seemed to be excellently done, the large dockage spaces of the port 
proving of great value. For example, II 2 anchored, on arrival, near 
the llorth Carolina one afternoon, hove up and went alongside dock the 
next day, discharged a number of field guns and horses, found super- 
fluous at the Dardanelles , and left port the following day. 

-he number of such auxiliary ships in port at any one day 
well over for'jyy. 

The naval and military authorities cooperated in the manage- 
ment of these vessels, "he Ilavy was in charge until the moment ox 
anchoring on arrival, and after heaving up on leaving, but the Army 
wa.. responsible for the allotment of dock space and the continuous flow 
of traffic. £he exact authority in charge could not be determined, but 
^was a general officer of the Army Service Corps, similar to the UV . 
^Quartermaster General. Naval authorities looked after the safety of the 
vessels en route, but as regards disembarkation, etc. at the Dardanel- 
les, \hey were of course under the orders of the General Commanding the 
Expeditionary Force, Sir Ian Hamilton, these ships were mainly commanded 
by officers of the Hoyal Naval Reserve, but '//ere maimed hv- their civ- 
ilian complement and Horn the red ensign; one or two had been placed 
in regular commission and flew the white ensign and pennant « 

The fleet organization seemed to be for administrative purposes 
only; no attempt at sailings in bodies, with or without escort, was made. 



Australian wounded from the actions at the 



5. The British and 
Dardanelles were brought back lo Alexandria in large hospital ships, 
converted passenger steamers, entering at the rate of about one daily; 



the French wounded were transported direct to France, from the Dar- 
danelles, 'to date, some 20,000 wounded had been received in Cairo and 
in lexandria, all entering through Alexandria, they were placed in 
all the regular hospitals of both cities and in many emergency hospi- 
tals. The subject of evacuation and receipt of wounded is to be treated 
more exhaustively by the medical Officer Of this vessel in a report to 



the Bureau of lied i cine and Surgery. 



The 



hospital ships, like the other 



auxiliaries, were commanded by reserve officers, leaving the medical 
staff free for their duties. 



danellei 



6. The subject of military and naval operations at the Bar< 
, as far as could be learned from conversation with officers 



returned therefrom, will be covered in a separate report. 



(signed ) 



a. 



Wilkinson 



I 



■ 



sJa 



In reply refer to No. 

b 13373 





AEF. 
OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE, 

WASHINGTON, D. C, 

June 5, 1915. 



From: Director of Naval Intelligence. 
To: President of the Naval War College, 
via Aid for Operations. 




Subject: Extracts from Attache's 1 Reports. 



1. There are forwarded herewith copies of four sets 
of some extracts from reports of Naval Attaches. 

2. As these notes contain some information given to 
the Attaoh£s in confidence, they should not be given out. 





l^C^Z- 



~V 




KfiroB 



I 






^ 









! 






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Office of Naval Intelligence, 

June 2 , 1915 . 



Compilation J.H.K.. 
Copy IT. ILL. 



I 



Logistics III* 

nmiTiou supply 4 o. it. 1.5172. - 



Inactivity C-oeben and Breslau (stated by Berlin) 
iue to exhaustion ammunition and inability to get more. In 
beginning April, a train load ammunition shipped through hcu- 
mania and Bulgaria. Very heavy bribing of railroad and gov- 
ernment officials necessary to get trains through. 

Berlin Attache reports that many Uerman ships sua- 
fared lack ammunition before they "were put out of action. Re- 
serve ammunition in quantities and near at hand is an urgent 
requirement of naiml campaign. 



r BKA3I1IAS SHIPS - O.N. I. 5175. 



negotiations being carried on in London by private 
concern for purchase of Brazilian dreadnoughts Minas Geraes and 
Sao Paulo for one Of Allies . probably rubric. aobrbllity of 
success of negotiations reported. 



M BLI A" xI7j,xA.aIub A GAJSIS 3b.D..Ahli:h LXmhCSIGEI - 0.17.1.4509 A . 
Reliable information that Elia system has not been 
ado -ted by Trench and Lnglish Navies. Vickers are experimenting 
with several systems of under -water protection Which may or may 
not, embody Ilia r s( system) ideas. 



i 22 3HI23 - 0.1. I. 1718. 



1. Bretagnc expected to be completed at Brest by 
June 1, 1915. 

2. Lorraine at St. Hazaire. Estimated sill be 

commissioned by June 15, 1915. 

3. Flanders launched Brest Lov.22 ,1914 . Work delayed 
to expedite Bretagne. Boilers and machinery now installed - no 
guns mounted as yet. 



\ 



■ 



e 






( 



- 2 - 

4 . No rraa nd i e at St. L a s G :" r e . On &.pr 11 9,19 1 5 , h a 3 
"boilers on u )per decfes ready for striding below, much Bid.fi ar- 
mor and two turrets still to be installed and no guns aboard. 



GAS - : Ji'OE SUBMERGED £K0"J?UL3IOH - 0*5*1.-4644 



British havs given up experimenting with devices te run 
arines submerged by means ox internal combustion engines* 
Weight and cost eliminates it from practical use. iJo cx-eri- 
mts made along this line for several years* 



tiCKD CKAI&KS - O. K. 1.-5 091. 

The Queen Elisabeth used half charges while bombarding 



Dardanelles forts In order to save tons and to get a sort of 
howitzer fire into forts. 



[.n^jiVIli : ~_ .U . 1 .- 5091 . 

She British dreadnought $arspite was commissioned April 
6,1915, sailed Prom Devonport, destination unknown. 



INFLEXIBLE - MM SO - 3.1. -5091. 



On March 18, 1915, in Dardanelles, Inflexible struck mine 
which exploded under forward part of ship. Several at 
in flooded compartments , drowned. Ship run into shoal water * nd 

later proceeded slowly to Malta. 

IITDE^'A'IiaOLE - 0. IT . 1.5091- .April 16. 1915 . 

Now with battle cruiser squadron, probably re placing Lion 

* jam 

which is still in dock yard. 



C ALIBI E hAIIT ?AT?FEY ?rUffS - 0.H.I.-511E . 

Report from Berlin Attache, r -1 97, April 15,191. , 
"The following significant remarlc m le tc r&t by a 

Gormen naval Lieutenant :- 

"We realize that in actions between ourselves and 
the English, where the ships are about equal in number, 
that the ships with the biggest guns are going to win." 
This is rather in contrast with earlier ideas in which 



- 3 - 



German rapidity of fire was looked upon to more than counteract 
the heavier weight of broadsides, 1 " 



.RiHJ S - Q.H .1.-1671, 



art* -1 



The 10 new submarines are to be oi 80Q tens (m. } tj: : ;- 
eat. at Co., which received contract for six, 
turned over two to be "built at Orlando shipyard, :-ivorno. 



iwf t i • .. pt »« -rv.--.. I ■ • r\n , m ; mo ft B T '•'VO/ 



Gr4,gtoforo Colombo keel laid Maroh 4, 1915, at Ans Ido & Co. 
rcantonio Oolonna " H ■ 3, 1915, at Odero Ship- 

-WW 

building Co., at Ceuoa. 

Italian naval attache in London stated that Colombo class 
and all later vessels would "be equipped with U.S. Navy type of 
skeleton mast. 



i :^: . "... h-j- ^. K.I. -481 j 



It is thought tiiat Oeriaan mines are connected 'by cables. 
Both w Carib n and "Greenbrier were destroyed by mines which ex- 

*-*■ mm 

ploded an id ships . Captain of Garib thought he bad hoard of this 
method from Senas ns (evidently he could not unders Ld German 
sufficiently well to be sure of what he had heard}. 



SUBMARINES ■? TRIESTE - 0.H.I.S608* 



ttm 



Report (V-14 .April 29, 1915) from Vienna Attache* ) 
".here is a strong and persistent rumor in Vienna that 
rts of submarines of the latest type have oeen snipped from 
'ori::any to Tricst for a; 'ling and use against the allied 
fleets in the ' r e~ j iorrancan particularly apainst the forces 
rating against the Dardanelles. 

I have been unable to ascertain any facts in the matter." 

BhMxluIl j'Jfj..J..:j.: ' ::o - 0.1; .1 .-:574S . (fjt*«<m^*£ j 

All submarines of D class and larger hare three officers 

each, two regular service and one of reeerre. he latter usually 

navigator. 



- 4 - 
xhe first of G. Class ready in July. Bight being built 
Chatham and remainder (probably oev^a ) at private yards. G 
class about 1300 tons submerged ■: isj[ Laoonent . 

Zhe Ameri _.a a built submarines, are called S and 8 
classes . 

jlJLowinjj Met of submarine lodges up to May 11, 19113, 
Moved to bo fairly accurate: 

AE2- Australian - off Australia — accident (published ) 



B-4 ; 



B-ll) 



)Qff Dardanelles - believed struck by minea (not 



published ) 



0-11 ) English Channel. J ? o details. (£o% pifb- 

} 
C-22(?) ) lished.) 

D-2 - iosx in the Belt- (Hot published ) 

P-5 - Sunk off Xarmeuth by nine (published) 

E-3 - ixeli^Oxand Bight (published) 

E-10- Did not return from berth Sea (published/ 

8-1$- Lost off nardanelles - (published) 

Liote : •'C-li" probably refers to M 0-12" . 

Loss of D-2 wag published in American press- 

April 80, 1915. 



SUMAfilHEa - .!}.!• -4734 



Berlin attache reports rumors that German bavy is 
building submarines of £100 tons displacement, some of which 
are said to be in service. Also building some of 2900 tons. 
icial confirmation to date. 



j ::. 



UK SHELLS - O.N. I. -27b. 



Petrografl ax t ache reports rumor that a number of German 
•Ha first at Isag range ieil base first and that Lion bad 
been so struck. 



.FAiU'l'liX- l-IiGLioli S1.I 13 - o..: j .-.6142 . 

Extract report from O-in-C, Atlantic Fleet-.- 



4 



am 



- 5 - 

"H.M.S. Suffolk - painting of- 

x x x x Apparently an effort was made , by nee of the 
dark paint on part cf the sice to give a silhouette of a much 
smaller vessel; also to blend in with the water line. 1'he how 
and stern, as v.ell as the upper part of the hull, masts, stacks, 
etc., were painted a very light whitish gray cf rather streaky 
appearance to olond in with fog, clouds, or a misty horizon. 
The result is considered to be Yerj effective towards reducing 
visibility." 



; 



SUBJECT 



[See Paragraph 4, Inductions of October 31, ,900.]^^^ W <^ ^ TetUmed, \ 

~% 1 

2 
INTERNATIONAL LAW - 88RMAJI FOREIGN OFFICE 
OVER THE CASE OF AMERICAN STBAM1HS " GULFLIGHT" 
and "GUSHING". 



From 



No. 



158 



Date 



June 3 , .....1915 .... jgj 

iWwiiMi nr ■ i ii i*iTi nit i ' ■ ■ ■ i rrr ■ mttm ■ nrmfr.i -■ ' 






««M«ai«*Sii««aBB»a««i 




► 



Replying to O. N. I. No Date 



The following note was— rmrtt^to^cne janhassy 
yesterday afternoon and sent by cipher telegram last ni^ht:- 

" With reference to the note of May 38th, 
the underpinned has the honor to inform His Excellency the 
Ambassador of the United States of America Mr. James W. 
Gerard that the examination undertaken on the part 
of the German government concerning the cases of the American 
stealers "GULFLIGHT" and •CUSHINGM* has led to the f&ll&wing 
conclusions:- In rerard to the attack on the steamer 
"GULFLIGHT", the coi.nander of a German submarine saw, on 
the afternoon of May 1st in the vicinity of the Seilly 
Islands, a large merchant steamer coming coming towards 
him which was accompanied by two small vessels. These latter 
took up such a position in relation to the steamer that they 
formed a regulation safeguard against submarines; oy\q of 
them moreover had a wireless apparatus, which is not usual 
with small vessels. From this it was evidently a case of 
English convoy vessels. Since such vessels are regularly 
armed, the submarine could not approach the steamer on the 
surface of the water without running the danger of destruction. 
On the other hand it was to be assumed that the steamer was 
of considerable value to the British Government since it was 
so particularly guarded. The commander could not see any 
neutral markings of any kind, that is, distinctive marks 
painted on the freeboard recognisable at a distance, such 
as are now usual on neutral ships in the English zone of 
warfare. In consequence he arrived at the conclusion from 
all the circumstances that he had to deal with an English 
steamer, and attacked submerged. The torpedo came in the 
i imediate neighborhood of one of the convoy ships which at 
once approached rapidly to the point of firing, so that the 
submarine was forced to >o to a great depth to avoid being 
rammed; the conclusion of the commander that an English convoy 
ship was concerned was in this way confirmed. That the 
attacked stealer carried the American flag was first observed 
at the moment of firing the shot. The fact that the steam- 
ship was pursuing a course which led neither to nor from 
America was a further reason why it did not occur to the 
commander of the submarine that he had to deal with an 
American steamship. 

Upon scrutiny of the time and place of the occurrence 
described, the German government has become convinced that 
the attacked steamship was actually the American steamship 
"GULFLIGHT". According to the attendant circumstances there 
can be no doubt that the attack is not to be attributed to 
the fault of the co mander but to an unfortunate accident. 
The German government expresses its regret to the Government 
of the United States concerning this incident and declares 
itself ready to furnish full recompense for the damage 
thereby sustained by Aierican citizens. It begs to leave it 
to the discretion of the American government to present a 
statement of this damage, or if doubts may arise over 
individual points, to designate an expert who would have to 



.* 



a 



, 



~ <"> •— 



determine together with a German oxaort the amount of 
the damage. 

It has not yet bean possible by means of an 
inquiry fully to clear up the case of the American 
st earns!* 
avail) 

flying 

The German aviator considered the vessel a^ hostile, and 
s forced to consider it as such, because it carried no 
flap and also bore no further recognisable neutral 
ar^inps. The atteev, which was carried into effect by 
means of four bombs* was of course not aimed at any 
American ship. 

That, howevr, the ship attacked was the Amer lean 

steamship "CURHIIiO* Is not impossible cons dfirina the 
time and place of the occurrence; nevertheless this does 
not appear to have been established beyond doubt. ie 
German rovernerit accordingly requests the American 
government to communicate +^ it the material widen has 
been submitted for Judgement in order tha, with this as 
a basis, It can take further position in reaard to the 
matter. 

fill* the under s .1 leaves It to the 
Arat>a*eador to bring the foregoing to the immediate 
attention of oia adornment, he takes this opportunity 
to renew the assurance of his most distinguished 
consideration. 

{ Signed) 

Minister of Foreirn Affairs 
(By name) 



B 



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it 



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Meed not be returned- 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31. igoo) 



.X 



From JL ....No.... 



Date 



arii 

mm . 
■" 

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$$ 30NL 



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SUBJECT .,_.. Submarines.... ,.. 






4 A. i 4b * 



Replying to 0. N. i. No... : •....Date ...nt. 







' I < ' W8rG**>*- 



I there was a German ux : 



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Office of ilaval Intelligence, Compilation J.H.K. 

June 3, 1915. Copy 1J.H.L. 



» r 4 



MISCELLANEOUS III. 
B2ERACJE O.H.I. -4755. 
**) The following is taken from an official report regarding 

JJalkland Islands battle. Ac (Tactics and Logistics are so closely 
interwoven in this account, tho entire report is quoted under 
"Miscellaneous ." 

"The following details in connection with the Falkland Is- 
lands fight have been learned from the "Invincible." 

The Germans usually fired directly after the English ship, so 
that their cordite smoke interfered with English spotting. 

The action fought with the Scharnhorst was at 1G000 to 12,000 
yards. The Schamhorst straddled the Invincible with the third 
salvo, range about 15,500 yards. 

The incendiary effect of shell explosion was very small; a 
shell exploded in one compartment where there was wooden furniture, 
but no fire resulted, and the paint work was not even scorched. 

Fire v/as controlled from the fore top during the entire en- 
% gagement; ship steaming down wind most of the time, and smoke 
from funnels and cordite interfered with range finding. 

Range finders were of very little use and range finder plot- 
ting impossible owing to great range and difficulty of observa- 
tion. Two spotters were necessary aloft, one at forward end and 
one at after end of top, as the splashes from the enemy's shots 
frequently shut off the view of one or the other, but rarely both. 
Large quantities of water were thrown over the ship by enemy's 
shots, and the control top was frequently wetted. Continual wiping 
of all glasses was necessary ;this also applied to turret sights. 

Bow wash was point of aim, but was not a good one as it was 
hardly visible. Enemy altered his course 1G pts. several times 
and pointers on some occasions mistook stern for bow, causing 
dispersion. At no time wai the center portion of the enemy 1 ■ 



♦ 






9 



- 2 - 
ship more obscured than the "bow or stern. 

The Invincible 's director firing installation had not 
been completed so was not used . The smoke at times seriously 
interfered with the laying of guns of two of the turrets, and 
it is thought that a director system would have been of immense 
value . 

There were four 3in. voice tubes from fore top, all close 
together, arid one 3hell wrecked three and flattened the fourth, 
so that jjQEmuni cat ion was very difficult. Several flexible voice 
tubes were exposed on deck in the neighbourhood of the conning 
tower. They were entirely wrecked bj the blast of the explosion 
of an 8.2 shell, and a 2" copper tube in same place was not 
injured. 

An 8.2 shell wrecked the starboard mast strut. The blast 
of the explosion blew open the door at the top into the control 
top and wrecked the Dumeresque and the rate transmitter; it 
knocked everyone down, and caused spotters to miss the fall of 
one salvo . 

Separate telephones had been fitted from control top 
direct to each turret officer - these were invaluable, both be- 
fore opening fire and during intervals, for direct conversation. 

Spotting against the Gneisenau was particularly difficult, 
as she zigzagged. Changes of course could not be detected and 
continual spotting was necessary. The only effective way was 
to keep rate at zero and spot on to the target, thus getting 
an occasional hit. 

All men of turret crews should have respirators . 

If paint is thick on turret guns it will give off fumes 
after long firing. 

Much trouble was experienced with the caps of fuzes for 
lyddite shells; some pins could not be gotten out, and shells 
were fired with caps on. There were several other minor mis- 
haps in turrets, but none of any consequence, and all turret 






I 



4 L 



• 



^ 



- 3 - 
guns were in action at the finish. 

507 rounds of turret ammunition were fired, of which 109 
rounds v/ere fired from left gun of forward turret. 

The conning tower roof was struck by an 3.2 shell, which 
exploded. The door was "badly jammed but no ono was hurt. 

Excessive water on upper deck is a mistake; it runs 
through shot holes to lower decks; everything was very wet from 
water thrown by shots of enemy," 

EXTRACT 0.11.1.-5241 . 

The following is taken from an official report regard- 
ing slinking of French Cruiser Leon Garnbetta. 

"On the S7tk instant the Vienna press published the fol- 
lowing terse report of the commander-in-chief of the fleet: 

"Submarine U-5, under the command of Lieutenant Georg 
Fatter von Erapp, has torpedoed and sunk the French armored 

an**'" 

cruiser Leon Gambetta in the Ionian Sea," 

Newspaper despatches from Italy give the following addi- 
tional details: 

The sinking occurred in the middle of the night about 
20 miles from Santa maria ai Leuoa . 

One despatch purporting to be an account "oy surviving 
officers of the Gambetta is as follows: 

Rome 28 April . Shortly before midnight the cruiser had 
held up a three-master and examined her papers. Hardly had the 
ship been cermitted to proceed when the cruiser x'eceived a heavy 
1p blow from starboard, the meaning of which was at once clear to 
everyone, for at the same moment the electric lights vi/ent out 
and the engine-rooms filled with water. The ship had a hole a 
meter in diameter just below the waterline. The dynamos and en- 
gines were destroyed or rendered unserviceable and the radio ap- 
paratus refused to function. The watertight doors still held 
the entirely helpless ship above water, but her fate was sealed. 



» 



' 



' 



• 



- 4 - 
The crew, the greater part of which had been surprised while 
asleep, took to the boats almost unclothed. Two of the boats 
capsized and the others drifted to the southwestward with the 
strong era-rent; with the assistance of the Italian torpedoboats 
which had rushed to the scene four of them reached Cape Leuca. 
In the course of the lorenoon 3 officers and 20 men were rescued 

12 miles from the cape, In all 10 officers and 14.9 men 

have been rescued. There is no news of the remainder of the 
complement. 

Another despatch states that the ,$*ambetta, which was 
steaming at about seven knots, was struck by two torpedoes, the 
second of which exploded in the engine-room. The cruiser attempted 
to strand herself but was unable to do so. She sank in tan min- 
utes . 

This event is the cause of much rejoicing in Vienna and 
is gladly seized upon by the authorities and the press "uo raise 
the spirits of the greatly depressed public. It is given an 
importance vastly in excess of its actual significance." 

NOTES 01! GEMAiff SUBMABIID? WAEM® - .0 .11 .1 .-4654 . 



-■■■ 

Statements made by a German submarine officer actively 

operating en English Coasts: 

1. Greatest danger to be avoided is being rammed, Lluch. cau- 
tion has to be observed to avoid this. VOien periscope first 
emerges, the danger is greatest as submarine can be rammed be- 
fore enemy is seen. 

2. Submarines can not attack British transports in Straits 
as they are absolutely enveloj)ed by destroyers. 

3. Invariably when German submarine stops English merchant- 
man and orders master to come aboard submarine with his papers, 
the master fails to bring along manifest or invoices claiming 
that he forgot or mislaid the:.'. 

4. In case of Dutch ship "Medea"- Italy for England- claimed 



4 % 



x - 5 - 

to be laden with oranges only, the master brought orange invoices 
and claimed there was nothing else. Submarine officers worked 
out s?ac« oranges Tvould oceu;oy and found it to be only one-third 
ships capacity. Therefore they sank the ship. 

5. An imnocent looking English coast j.ng steamer which 
was stopped Suddenly opened fire and two destroyers appeared. 
Only by quick work the submarine escaped. Steamer acted as decoy. 

6. Asked if they would sink a ship like Lusitania, if 

they got a chance, the officer said "certainly", in fact she was 

being looked for." 

ITote . This interview took place prior to April 15, 1915. 
P .. ^ ^ , . ^ , , . 

iiotes on MJ^m;ij.i^.-.c.;;.i.-47G4. 



The wrecked British submarine E-15 is about 400 yards to 
southward of "Kephez Burnu (Bardano) and is partly visible above 
water . 

Three British submarines are said to have been sunk or 
captured in sea of Marmora, near Uerefli (40 miles above Galli- 
poll) during past week. (May 3,1915). Stated they came through 
Dardanelles on moonlight night. 

Turkish troops at Dardanelles are in good spirits, under 
command of Turkish officers, well drilled and enthusiastic. 

The "iiaraddin Barbarrossa" and "Torgut Iteis" alternate/m 
duty at Dardanelles, one being on duty while ot&er overhauls, etc., 
at Golden Horn. Eelieve each other for periods of about one week. 

Russian Fleet continues bombarding various parts Turkish 
Black 3ea$oast, near Bosphorus. Bombarded Bosphorus itself May 
1, 2 and 3rd. 

Russians using two balloons for fire control. 

Sultan 3elim (ex Goeben) accompanied by a destroyer and 
a torpedo boat was in Bosphorus night of Hay 2, 3. 

Hostile aeroplane (painted green) dropped bombs and pa- 
pers on Constantinople May 2. Ho material damage. 

Turks and Germans still grimly confident (May 3,1915) 






I 



<■ 






• 



* 



- 6 - 
Admit however that conditions are critical and any thing may 
happen . 

A Turkish naval officer stated (April 26th) 

(a) Estranged feeling between Turkish and Sarnsan naval of- 
ficers growing. 

(b) Turkish officers receive half pay. Turkish enlisted men 
draw £i.20 per month. All Germans receive double pay. 

(c) Increase of want and misery among the poor even though 



winter is ever. 



(d) Turks can not stand another winter of war. 

(e) Majority Turks hoped English would get in soon. 

(f ) Spies everywhere - no one dared talk. 

(g) The triumvirate, braver irasha, Talaat Bey and Djemal 3ey 
absolute and in combination with Germans. 

fh) Combination expected to fall sooner or later "and most 
people hop«& sooner; there is no justice now." 

The Bulgarian Government, as result of Hussian pressure, held 
up ammunition from Germany and Austria for Turkey. Turks fear 
scarcity of awmanition. 

statement by (Turkish Officer (April 17) recently returned 
from Ha vak (Black 3ea entrance to Bosphorus }: 

(a) Russian Fleet off Kavak for three weeks seen every day. 

At one time 35 vessels counted. Continues bombarding Black seaports 
Put Ka-vak battery Anatolian side, (12-10 cm.) out of commission. 

(b) Two searchlights working constantly at Kavak. iatrol 
torpedo boats also maintained. 

(c) On April 1, Turkish fleet went out - Undilli (Brosluci) 
Hamidieh, another ship and 6 colliers steamed down Anatolian 
Coast while Selim (Goeben), TTedjidieh and two dc3troyer,3 steamed 
along European Coast, hussian fleet appeared. i.Iedilli, Hamidieh 
and other 3hip returned safely without colliers. 

Selim returned soon after aid signalled she had been 
torpedoed and that Hedjidieh and 2 destroyers were lost, rank by 



• 



Office of Haval Intelligence, ' Compilation D.W.K/* ^y» 

June 4, 191J5. Copy H.H.L. 



ABHOHAUTICS II. 



At the time of the first Zeppelin Baift on Paris during March, 
the Frerch searchlights and anti-air craft guns were apparently 
controlled individually and difficulties vore encountered simil- 
ar to those experienced by our ships in the earliest stages of 
night firing, The searchlights constantly crossed beams, gtuns 
fired frequently without a target and in general, there was much 
confusion, lack of co-ordine+ion and ineffectiveness. 

During this raid the general confusion was so great that 

not 
aeroplanes were sent up for fear of damage from French guns. 

Two kinds of shell were used. Shrapnel without tracers and 
a special anti-a±i craft shell fitted with tracer and designed to 
set fire to and explode the hydrogen gas of the Zeppelin. In 
some of the shrapnel a time fuse was used. 

Since the first raid the dispositions made for the defense 
of the city against aeppelinBaids have greatly improved. During 
the raid of May 11th the city was first darkened and 5 aeroplanes 
fitted with searchlights were sent up. The efficiency of this 
means of illumination was unfortunately not tested because the 
Zeppelin, for some reason unknown, turned back. 

French aeroplanes are now equipped with small glass bottles 
about 4" long and 1 1/2" square, carried in racks on the sides 
of the fuselage. 

These bottles contain an explosive charge which explodes five 
seconds after the stopper has been withdrawn, forming a smoke puff. 

There s*re three types: one making a single smoke ball; one 
making two smoke balls, and another forming a smoke streamer. 

The signals are designated with the following meanings: 

The streamer: Aeroplane ready to observe; commence firing 
One smoke ball: short. 
Two smoke balls: over. 

Right and left is designated by aeroplane turning ; for 



i ' 



• 



■ 



I 



► 



- 2 - 
example; a shot is short and right - the observer drops a sin- 
gle smoke ball bottle and 'he aeroplane changes its course to 
the right. 

The initial range in tafcen from the maps, and the aer- 
oplane observes from a course determined by its battery and the 
target . 

French aeroplanes equipped fox night flying: ..re provided 
with an electric light of about 6 candle power, - electric cur- 
rent being s^.pplied from dry cell batteries 'weighing about 4 
lbs. This lamp is fitted on the landing chassis in the most ad- 

:itageous position ana depending also on the type of landing 
gear of The aeroplane. 

•The landing field is illuminated by pouring gasoline 
on the ground and lighting it. This has proven very dangerous 
as sometimes it spreads in uhe path of the landing machine . This 
practice is being discontinued and in the future torches will 
be used. 

Migho flying is not carried on to any extent, due to the 
dangers it offers, and results obtained do not compensate for 

e losses incurred. Several night raids have been made on 
German positions, but these have been carried out over ground 
that the pilots had flown over for months and were perfectly fam- 
iliar with in case of a forced landing outside of the landing field. 
The pilots were tlsc all expert flyers selected for the T .^ork. 

A pilot who has made several of 
said 

these raids, ^that a moonlight night was selected, and all navi- 
gating in the air was done by compass. The noise of the motors 
notified the men uu duty a.t the Held of tie xoiurn, when gaso- 
line fires were lit for landing. Down to about 50 feet, the 
ground can be clearly distinguished, but afoer that it is impos- 
sible to jud, o the nei.ht; then the l.^mpa carried by the aero- 
planes are used. The leiape ure controlled ny button! on the 
c onf r o 1 c o iumns . 



) 



1 



1 






i 



- z - 



I 



► 



Ehe British have a number of large calibre howitzers 
in France, the shotting tor "which is done by mean3 of aeroplanes 
equipped with radio, both gun and aeroplane being supplied with 
fire charts. These charts are c ividcd into large squares, which 
are lettered A., h., C., etc. These squares are in turn divided 
into sixteen small squares, numbered 1, 2, 3, etc., and those 
numbered squsres :,re again divided into ptj-jstean small ec, cares 
lettered a, b, c, etc. The fall of a shot can therefore be 
closely located by signalling the three designations in succession, 
thus - B3d, f7&| etc. The receiving radio is located in a bomb 
off in rear of the gun and connected by telephone to gun position 

The accuracy which has been attained with this howitzer 
is said to be marvellGus. 

The Germans report that the French aviators are using 
bombs which emit strong gases on exploding which have an exceed- 
ingly 3trong odor (called in German w Stinkbomben rt ) • The purpose 
is to drive the men away by means of this strong, offensive odor 
and then make an attack. For this reason Preach aviators have 
dropped these bombs on German soldiers in the trenches. 

It was not stated just what the gases are that are being 
used. There are, however, a number of suen kind of gases that 
can be used. 

The necessary requisite of these gases is that they can 
be liquified. The bomb is filled wi th liquifiec gas so that the 
small volume of uhe bomb can be utilised to contain the maximum 
amount of gas. This liquid gas upon the explosion of the bomb 
then takes its former gaseous state and makes a largo volume of 
gas. here are a number of gases which can be used in this man- 
ner for the filling of bombs - fur inetanee, eul.uai.rous acid 
(H^SO- ) and chlorine gafi (C_), e'oc. 

The objection to this type of bomb, however, lies in the 
fact tha.t all of these gaseo ere. L*t fchwa air: they volatilize 
very slowly and dually. The gas hangs over the place Where the 



- 4 - 
"bc-ifb fell and exploded, lilre a heavy cloud. SlfcS result of this 
is that both sides cannot coma tc,^e*>.her until the atra^aplaere Is 
cleared* It is apparently as bad lor one si&e. as lor the other. 
This gas, furthermore, is very limited in the area covered and 
the number 61 fce& affected. The soldiers have time •.lien in :500a 
trenches, to got clear and to jump into their tre'ioh "dug-outs". 
r Jiie Gfermaiia sl&iisi 4hi& typ« titf 1 oi .':■ is &£ , •■i.all value 
d use against an enemy and is in no way tc be f tared* 

It has iirccucntly been Btdt6d by German officers that 
the &ermans are experimenting with a gaseous homh which on ex- 
ploding emits a poisonous gas that will kill all wh© breathe it. 

IB******** 

A "bomb filled with such a gas and lighter than air would he 
much more dangerous than the "otinhhoiaben" . There are, how- 
ever, no reports of this bomb being used by German aviators in 
the field . 



. 



► 






' 



I 






\ 



Office of ITaval Intelligence, 

-lime 3, 1915. 



Compilation J.H.X. 
Copy N.H.I. 



TACTICS III. 
A'^'TC AL OBC-A.'Tir ^VL'iON OA JAALlA i ^AAKg ON 'AAY 7, 1915 . .1? . 1 . 3327 . 

1. As well as can be determined with war imminent the 
following is the present constitution cf the Italian fleet. This 
allows for the &r«adn©nght Duilio which, from all reports, can 
join at any moment* 

2. !Hi« assignment of destroyers to divisions is impos- 
sible, as no informatiia has been given out since last July. 

1st ._ Squadron 

Gom'j:r:-j.id«?r-5n-Chief , S.A.R. ii Duca dsgll Abrusszi, 
Chief of Staff, Vice Admiral Cits< 
lag si- 1 - -C ent e ds Cavour . 



1st .Division. 



3rd. Division. 



5th. Division. 



-Lear-Admiral Corsi.- -Hear-Admiral frlfari- -H.Adml.Cervin- 



Dante Alighieri 
Leonardo a a Vinci 
0-iulio Cess re 
Duilio. 



Garibaldi 
Jferruocio 

Vares'e 

Y. Pisani. 

2nd. Squadron 



in 

ii.Ailiberto 
Saint Boa 
Carlo Albert© 



Comi.-ander-in-Ch.t ef , "vice Admiral -resMte-ro , 

Chief of Staff, ? 
FlagShip-Bsgias. Aargherita. 



JSd. Division. 

-Fear-Ao'miral Outinelii- 

Regina Alcna 
I r.poli 

Vittorio Amanuele 
Home. . 



4th. Division . 

-Hear -Admiral Cagni - 

San Karoo 

Aisa 

S an Giorgio 

Amalf i . 



Alpine 

Aguilone 

Artigllere 

irdito 
Ardent* 

Audace 
Anirnoso 



Division of Scouts 

Aiuo Bis 
Quarto 
irsale . 

BestrQyers. 

rf 

Bersagliere 

Borea 

Garabiniers 

OorasssJ e: 

C.Bossarol 

l^ardc 

Espero 



Indomilo 
Jmpavido 
Intxepido 

•otuoso 
Irrequleto 

lid5 oso 
Lampo 



' 



i 



I 



Ascaro 
A.Poerio 



- 2 - 

Destroyers (Continued) 

Euro 

Fuciliere 

Fulmine 

F .Hullo 

Garibaldino 

Granatiere 

Guglielnio Pepe 



Lanciero 

Nembo 

Ostro 

Pontiere 

Strale 

turbine 

Zeffiro. 



No change in Torpedo -Boats 



Submarines 

[2TT~~ 



Delfino 

Glauco 

Squalo 

Narvalo 

Otaria 

Tricheco 

Foca 



Velella 
Medusa 
Argo 
Tisalia 
Salpa 
Uautilus 
<ereide 



£1 



Jalea 

Jantina 

Soea 

G.Pullino 

G. Ferraris 

Atropo 

Argonauta . 



Bote . For characteristics of these vessels see "The 
Naval Pocket Book 1915." 



CONVOYING AUSTRALIAN TRANSPORTS - O.N. I. -5098. 



Troops (about 50,000) embarked in 38 transports. All 
cruised in one body in a formation of two parallel lines, 19 
transports in each line, interval 3 or 4 miles, distance about 
1000 yds. Position kept roughly. Rectangle about 4 by 10 miles 

All radio sending keys removed. Signalling entirely by 

flags. Cornet radio messages warships to transport very rarely 

made. Due to this radio restriction the convoy passed within 

40 miles of Emden without detection. 

Attending men-of-war were British Cruisers Melbourne, 

I b u k. i 
Sydney, and Minotaur, and Jap cruiser -Kb*4fc£-. Melbourne ahead, 

Sydney EHEtxbfcteKfesHi left flank, <Ur&3rkl right flank, Minotaur 

astern. 

Shortly after departure from Australia, .Uinotaur was 
detached for scout duty. 

Sydney left to destroy Emden and thereafter proceeded 
Colombo alone. 



Ilriki also detached. Convoy then proceeded. 






. 



k ¥ a 



SUBJECT 



^ardaBellec operations ; * 8 • "• • Agamemfe 






From 



J\o SLl 



Replying to O.M.I. J\o. 



Date 4 June 

mi — — Mfirnrr m i ni 



Date. 



, 191 5 
, 191 



XeednotberemrMd, 






It seams certain that the Agamemnon has b&en torpedoed 
ana sunk off the "Dardanelles, although there has been no 
statement by the Admiralty in regard to her. 




* 









k 



Need not be returned. 



Ti 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31. igoo) 



«/ 



SUBJECT The . Atxst, laval Attack .on..tM..iti^lim...So ! !Bns. 

!3flCJM»i.ill§* 



From A TVb 



T 



14 



.£>«& to...5|.i^ : 

— MBM 



Replying to 0. N. i. No. " *.—: mm ":"~~*.'"___Date._ ."t~-^" 



JUN 2P 1913 




1« Any portietilars other then the very general 
official account in the clippings forwarded, have been al- 
most impossible to get, but I submit the following which has 
a little adc3.itior.el info /net ion, 

. About 4 a.m« three Austrian light cruisers oponocl 
fire on Senigallj .a, entirely destroying the Custom-house, and 
dancing many "nouses . There were a for; killed and many wounded. 
Operating with the cruisers there was an aeroplane which had 
no offensive part in the action, and although reported to me 
to bo directing the fire, I think it more probable that the 
machino was used to keo ;. the ships informed of any possible 
a proach of enemy vessels. A troop train was fired upon, but 
the troops were all disembarked before the range was found. 

•• At jncon a there wore nine Austrian vessels in the 
attack - flhree cruisers and 6 destroyers - I believe, this on© 
force operated against oil the towns, passing from ono to an- 
other. £he maskoa battery mentioned in the clippings did con- 
siderable damage to the Austrian ships. 

4« The other towns sustained moro or less damage. 



W 




> 



i 



I 






♦ f 




a j 



J( f 7 im 



■ 



i'TOEi:- 



r-« 



o:- 



11 • ilblall . 

June 7, 1M15 . 

Intelligence O.Cfioer. 
onmanding Officer. 

;- Intelligence ort, Gibraltar. 



1. Due to the st.to of war, additional restrictions 
h' ve been made to prevent the Intrusion of unauthorized per- 
sons into forbidden territory, and much of that territory 
formerly open is now closdd. 

2. iThether for exercise or for actual use in case of 
necessity, sand-bag barriers, loop-holed, have been placed on 
top of the w*llfl commanding e view of the oauaev/ay fron the 
neutral ground and other preparations made to resist any 
possible land .attack* 

• . In I e Story Yard, there ore t ^resent throe com- 
pleted dry-docks, two about five hundred and fifty by one 
hundred feet, and the third about seven hundred and fifty by 
one hundred and twenty five. The diaft of the first two 

soemed about thirty feet from rough observation, of the third 
about thirty five. "he firtrfc t?/o were occupied t this date 
by the light cruiser 'Bristol' and the nre-dreadnaught battle- 
ship "Caesar"; the third w s unoccupied. The "Caesar" has t 
it is understood, suffered slight injurle.: at the jDardanelles, 
the "Bristol f s" reus on for docking not certain. 

4. The -attle cruiser 'Inflexible was lying along- 
side the workshop dock, and twoHe"-vy cranes were employed in 
lifting material to or from her. The extent of her" inju- 
ries t the Dardanelles could not be determined, but &b© 

has nov/ baes here six weeks and it is stated that she will 
remain two months longer. 

5. veral a oyers, torpedo boats, and the 
French ship"Oascard" comprised the remainder of the Allies 1 
vessels here. All .ere at anohor behi ;d the breakwater nd 
w#re, aa far a could be scertained, ready for serv ce m& in 
full oo amission* 

6. Tho Havy Yard, though contained in limited space, 
had a number of buildings resembling ma. nine shoos, eight or 
more, MA robably is equipped for cny ordinary Yard con- 
struction and repair work. 



\ - ^ • ^O 




stoker 1 inp^Aehn^ 9 ^^U i and 
bows an LitftfL°^ Q Li? °a tQr h «*•*. h 



also one 
had ntod 



bo W8 an aiisnifcri;:, ^.^.r;*!^*"^ '» 

tiona aa to the Booed of tho ahfn ZZ 2? y amr ® B ***!*- 

o direction > r.*oa« 8 t i£. *f*2l f^ % ,°° ntxo1 or to 
was nbo.t six feot above tha w.tJ n " oxibl ° ' s " Panted 
thirty feet; tha raerStm ^^1 'f *? ? xt °^ «*t about 
and taperlag for tvyeatTi-wt **t ?n !"°*^* " b0Te t,1G «». 
Inflexible^" did not tap« '"* ' m60t **• w,t ^-llno; the 






I 






[See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.] Need/ flOt be Vetll'I'HeU 



M 



SUBJECT G2JHMAN SUBMARINE TO CONSTANTINOPLE. 



1. 




Prom Z No. * 6 ° Date 

Replying to O. N. I. No. Date 



I learn on good authority that the submarines 
jwhich recently arrived at the Dardanelles and have achieved so much 
success came direct from Germany and were not sent to an Austrian 
port and assembled there. 



jseed not oe tvvw* wwh 

[See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.] 



V ,7 m 



SUBJECT SITUATION brought forward by the SINKING of 



* "f A L L ABA 



From 




Reference:- Z-198 of April 15 1915. 



The following is a copy of a letter 
( translation) and a picture sent rae by the Admiralty Staff 
on June 4th 1915. 

• Berlin, June 4, 1915. 

I have the honor to forward herewith a picture. 
Prom it it may be clearly seen that English soldiers 
have been transported on the «FAXIABA tt . 



By order. 



(Sig). Vanselow*. 

To the American Naval Attache* 
and Commander U.S. Navy, 
Gherardi 

American Embassy, Berlin. 



• 



The Admiralty Staff cannot or will not see 
that even if British officers ( or soldiers) had taken passage 
on the "FALLABA , the safety of neutral passengers on merchant 
steamers still remains of consequence and must be provided for. 

I am told that in the Foreign Office there is 
a very strong desire to make concessions in regard to the 
submarine warfare, but that the ?Taval Staff refuses to yield 
and the Emperor backs the Naval Staff. 

The Naval Staff generally believes that given 
time the submarine warfare will ruin England. 









(* 






« 



' 



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Translation. 
REGULATIONS 
FOR THE MEIBERS OF THE VOLUNTEER MOTORBOAT CORPS. 

§ 1. 

The purpose of the Volunteer Motorboat Corps 
is the support of the fighting forces of our country in 
time of war in case of necessity and upon demand of the 
command of the Army and in accordance with directions 
received from the Ministry of War and the Chief of the 
General Staff of the Field Array. 

§ 3. 

The Corps will be organized from the owners 
of motorboats placed to the disposition of the Government 
and their pilots, also from those Gentlemen who place their 
services at the disposal of the Corps in assisting the conduct 
of business as an office of honor. 

% 3. 

The members must be citizens of the German 
Empire, and the boats must be entitled to fly the German 
national flag. 

$ 4. 

The Volunteer Motorboat corps ( F.M.K.) is 
under the command of a commander-in-chief appointed by Hid 
Majesty the Emperor. The Commander-in-chief appoints a staff 
consisting of 6 members. 

5 5. 

Applications for membership are acted upon 
by three members of the Staff as the "Committee of Acceptance • 

§ 6. 

The members of the Corps oblipate themselves 
upon their word of honor to carry out all orders of the 
commander-in-chief or his subordinates without contradiction 
to the best of their ability. 

{ 7. 

After admission to the corps a commision is 
prepared for the new member and handed to ttom him. 

§8. 

The admission of the members is based upon 
a service contract. 

Such a contract is also made with the members 
of the crew: Machinists, quartermasters, w\d. sailors. 

J 9. 

Non-fulfilment of obligations will result in 
expulsion from the F.M.K. 



c 









3 3 

§ 10* 



The dismissal from the Corps may be carried 
out by the Commander-in-flhief with the consent of the 
majority of the Staff. 

§ 11. 

The Staff forms the Court of Honor of the 
Corps and acts in conformity with the repudiations laid 
down for officers of the Army in the Courts of Honor 
for the latter. 

§ ru 

Members of the Corps who are officers placed 
to disposition or retired receive the pay and allowances 
of their service rrade for immobile formations* the 
rest of the members the pay and allowances of lieutenants. 
Gratuities for uniforms are not granted. Pay beyond 
that of a "staff officer* ( IKWfe Major ) lg not 
granted* below 

The motor machinists and boats wheelmen 
receive the pay and allowances of corporals, for the 
rest of the crew the pay of the privates of the Army 
forms the basis. 

The position of the Commander-in-Chief 
is an office of honor. 

All the members of the FrM.K. are 
entitled to quarters in kind and free subsistence, 
if not in a position to make use of them the regulation 
reimbursment. In the payment of the pay and allowances, 
the principles laid d-wm in the ■ War Payment Herniations" 
S 8 and 9 are applicable with due consideration for 
eventual special orders from the War Ministry. 

} 13. 

The members of the F.M.K. have the 
rank of officers. The motorboat pilots, however, have 
not the status of superiors as far as the at » and 
ivy is concerned. 

The captain o^ the boat (pilot) and the 
whole boat's crew are during mobilisation subject to 
military Jurisdiction and military discipline. 

} 14. 

In case of sickness, wounds or death, the 
provisions noted in the service contract, are applicable. 

$ 15. 

Running material ^or motors and enrines 
a?? well as running material for boilers is furnished 
by the Army Administration. 

The boat remains in the possesion of 
the owner during the war. A commission of experts 
witha representative pf the War Ministry set tes 
Ve value of the boat to enable the War Department 
to pay the appropriate daa-es in case o* lo*s or 
injury. A list in duplicate of the estimated values 
is prepared of which one oopy is forwarded to the 
War Department. 



/ 



( 



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> 3 

- 3 - 



The uniform of the members consists of 
a blue (Club) jacket, vest and trousers, blue or white 
cap with the German cockade over the Club insignia, 
black cravat, black or brown shoes with black or brown 
leggings, brown military cloves. On the left upper arm 
a black-white-red band with a heraldic eagle is worn. 

The boats captains wear the shoulder straps 
of a lieutenant, if on account of their former service, 
they are not entitled to higher rank. 

The machinists and wheelmen wear the the 
same uniform as heretofore and a cap with the present 
insignia. 

The sailors wear sailors uniform, sailors 
cap with band. 

Machinists and sailors also wear an 
ana band like the members of the F.M.K. 

§ 17, 

The members of the F.M.K. wear side arms 
according to model, on a black belt over the jacket, a 
pistol or revolver - if possible pistol 08 - in black 
sxsx holster. 

The members of the F.M.K. will have to 
pracure their own arms and ammunition. 



* mjm +. . JJp In case tha Commander-in-Chief of the 
Army finds it necessary that a certain number of boats 
should be equipped with machine puns, renuisitjon for 
the same will be made to the War Department. 

The men required for the serving of the 
machine pung, (of which not more than 15 pieces will 
be furnished) will be required to receive instruction 

I *l ! \ t0 3 ***** according to the orders of the 
war Department. 

§ 18. 

- Q i„4.* < i T !?? salu ** of the members is the military 
salute, laying the hand on the cap. 

$ 19. 

The boats of the P.M.K. fly on the stern 
the national flag with heraldic eagle, and on the 
dow or on the mast a pendant resembling the "Gosch" 
her-aldi^Iagle^ 8imilar P endant ( black-white-red with 

Club pendants are not carried. 

§ 30. 

1ourn»i n«*\ T ?! meiib0rs are obliged to keep a war 
l*Zl f J P) after a P reacr ibed sample which after 
fS^2: a $3 e e Y? nta wil1 hav ® to forwarded at once to 
request 0th6rwise " **U only be forwarded upon 



i 



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A 



3 D 

* 1 M 

J it. 

Postal connections of the F.M.K. is through 
the •F©lfl~ost». (Field Post). 

The Captains of boats will inform the coupe tent 
Field Post Office within their territory The p. . . will 
report Xso to the lire eriai Post Office. 

The Lies ibers will m*&M the: .salve*? acquaint*. 
with the regulations roveroinr the Field Post, as well as 
with the orders froa the War Department of the ^1/ 8/1914 
Ho. 9M/8 t 14. A 3 ( Ameeveronlnunrsblatt 1914 "o. 84$* ) 



/ 



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- 5 - 



CONTRACT. 

■■ h M mom - ii«p. « Wi n w iiiii i»«i— m — i i— imm ■■■ tm.mm m m 

Between the German Empire, represented by 



and the member of the Volunteer Motorboat Corps 



I 



the following contract is made after military inspection. 



1. 

The undersigned obligates himself to serve 
as captain of the motor craft (which he himself is furnishing) 
under the orders of the military authorities during war 
conditions and until the orders for demobilisation is p-iven. 

§ %• 

The undersigned will obey all orders given 
to htm by persons designated as his superiors, as long as 
he is with the Army carrying on the war. 

§ 3. 

The authorities can transfer the undersigned 
with his boat and crew fp at any time from one place of 
service to another. 



The disciplinary measures are exercised 
by the immediate superiors. 

§ 5. 

The undersized will have to respest the 
laws and usages of war. 

§ 6. 

(a). The uniform is the present club uniform 
in addition the German cockade is worn over the visor of 
the cap and on the left sleeve a black-white-red band with 
the heraldic eagle • The undersigned will have to furnish 
his uniform ( side arms and pistol or revolver) and 
ammunition himself. 

(b) During his service with the mobile army 
the undersigned will be given free quarters and regulation 
substistence, in case of sickness medical treatment etc. 
the same as to officers. Payment is rep-ulated by the 
princirjles laid down in War PAayment Instructions and 
eventual special orders from the War Department. 

$ 7. 

The motor craft remains in the owners 
possession. It will be inspected by a commission of 
experts with an officer of the War Department and estimates 
of the costs made. 

The War Department furnishes the running 
material for the boat and eventual repairs are also made 

by the War Department. In case of loss of the craft damares 
are paid. 



( 



g 



(" 



* 



) D 



- 6 - 



8 



355 of the Officers tension Regulations of June 
31, 1906 are applicable in granting pensions. 

In fixing the pension of dependents f Finterbliobenen ) 
the same rules as for officers survivors. 

9. 

This contract ceases to be valid with the demob- 
ilization. The military authorities reserve the right to 
give warning 14 days before to dissolve the contract during 
war time. 

In case of gross neglect of duty of any kind which 
the undersigned may be guilty of, the military authorities have 
the right to dissolve the contract at once without previous 
notice. 

living notice by the undersigned will not be 
recognized. 

10. 

Application of Stamp and registration (In Alsace 
Lorrain) of the contract, will be done at the expense of the 
military authorities. 



/ 



( 



«* 






- 7 - 

C M TRACT 



Between the flerman Empire* represented by 



and the Boatswheelman ( machinist, sailor) ---------- 

.afLtne 

Member of the Volunteer Motorboat Corns 



the following contract, after medical examination , has been 
made • 

§ 1. 

The undersigned obligates himself during the 
war and until demobilisation to serve the military authorities 
aa boatswheelman { machinist, sailwfr on the motorboat placed 
to the disposition of the War Department by the member of the 
Volunteer Motorboat Corps Mr* •*-*«. 

M« 

The undersigned will have to ebey all orders 
of those persons designated to him as his superiors, as long 
as he is with the mobile army. 

§ 3. 

The authorities can transfer the capa&in of the 
boat at any time from one place of service to another* 

§ 4. 

Disciplinary measures are exercised by the 
immediate superiors of the captain of the boat, 

§ 5. 

The undersigned will have to observe the laws 
and usages of war* 

§ 6. 

(a) The uniform is the present boatswheelmen (machini 
uniform with the black-white-red band with the heraldic eagle. 
Uniform will be procured by the undersigned and kept in re i air* 

(b) Free quarters and regulation subsistence will 
be furnished during wartime, also medical treatment in case 
of sickness, in accordance with Regulations §§1^,14, of the 
F.M.K* 

§ 7. 

The undersigned receives during hit service with 
the mobile army the pay and allowances of a corporal (private) 
in conformity with 7/ar Payment Regulations § 9* 

§ 8. 



%1 



r 



3 3 

_ Q m 

5 8. 

The Pension regulations for non-commissioned 
officers and privates of the Array are applicable in this 
case. 



§9. 

This contract ceases to be valid - rr ith the 
demobilisation. During war conditions the military 
authorities have the right to dissolve the contract by 
fivine* 14 days notice before. In neglect of duty on the 
part of the undersigned the authorities have the right 
to dissolve the contract at once without giving notice. 

Giving notice by the undersigned is not 
recognized. 

§ 10. 

Expenses for stamping and registering this 
contaact ( In Alsace-Lorraine) are borne by the War 
Department. 



ATTESTATION OF OBLIGATION . 

In this earnest but great time of rising 
of All-Germany for the defense of her honor and the 
boundaries of the Empire, its existence and continuation 
of German culture I have asked for admission to the 
Volunteer I.Iotorboat Corps. 

Having exa^t knowledge of the rep-ulationa 
governing the Volunteer Ilotorboat Corps I give my word of 
honor to exert myself to the utmost to fill the position 
which is given me, to the best of my strength and ability. 



the — 



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3 



3 



- 9 - 



. jm m a ^uwwl 



J 



To the Volunteer .":torboat Corps 



h a r 1 o t t e n b u r rr 



volunteer 
Cor^*. 



I apply * w wfeiwltii to than corps ae war 
• Place uy notsorboat to the disposition of the 



Length of the motorboat 

ih 
Type 
Type of Motor 



*7 



IU P. 

Uiytnr Place 

Owner belonrs to vrfe&t 

club? 



Fullna-ae ;- 

Born at and when:- 

Profesnicm:- 

jaaeiaence:- 

Ape :- 

Miliary Status :- 

Served in the Lands tuna (-Trained) 

Served in the Lands? turn (not trained) 

Year:- 



the 



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¥ 






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ARMY. 



^\ Need not be returned. 



wmmmmtmmm 



yt 



tj^cCosi 






&^i 



MEMORANDUM 



ON THE 



* 



CENSORSHIP. 



ifmentio to notij l&ouge* of parliament on <£ommanti of Ww jfttajwstn. 



► 




LONDON: 
PRINTED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE 
By EYRE and SPOTTISWOODE, Ltd., East Harding Street, E.G., 

PRINTERS TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 



To be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from 

WYMAN and SONS, Ltd., 29, Breams Buildings, Fetter Lane, E.C., aud 

28, Abingdon Street, S.W., and 54, St. Mary Street, Cardiff ; or 

H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE (Scottish Branch), 23, Forth Street, Edinburgh ; or 

E. PONSONBY, Ltd., 116, Grafton Street, Dublin ; 

or from the Agencies in the British Colonies and Dependencies, 

the United States of America and other Foreign Countries of 

T. FISHER UNWTN, London, W.C. 



[Cd. 7679.] 



1915. 
Price Id. 



Memorandum on the Censorship. 



The Censorship is one of several instruments all designed with the threefold 
object of preventing information of military value from reaching the enemy, of 
acquiring similar information for our own purposes, and of checking the dissemination 
of information likely to be of use to' the enemy or prejudicial to the allies. So far as 
is consistent with the attainment of the above objects, there is as little interference 
as possible with the transmission of correspondence or the publication of news, and 
every endeavour is made to safeguard the legitimate interests, private and commercial, 
of British subjects and neutrals. 

In the course of the present war it lias become apparent that in the censorship 
there lay ready to hand a weapon, the full value of which was perhaps not 
anticipated prior to the war, and which can be used to restrict commercial and 
financial transactions intended for the benefit of enemy Governments or persons 
residing in enemy countries. 

The censorship falls naturally into two main departments : (I.) the censorship 
of private and commercial communications, conducted directly under the Army 
Council, and (II.) the Press censorship, exercised through the Official Press Bureau. 
If confusion is to be avoided, it is essential to remember that the above departments 
are, for the purposes of actual censorship, distinct and separate organisations, 
administered by different departments and controlled by different directors. 

I. — The Censorship op Private and Commercial Communications. 

The censorship of private and commercial communications is under the direction 
of a General Officer, who is responsible to the Army Council for the conduct 
and general supervision of the censorship. It is organised in two sections : (i) the 
cable censorship, which is controlled by the Chief Cable Censor and deals with all 
cable messages other than those intended for publication ; and (ii) the postal censor- 
ship, controlled by the Chief Postal Censor. Though for the purposes of actual 
censorship these two sections are separate organisations, yet in regard to the 
principles of censorship particular attention has been given to the task of co- 
ordinating their aims, methods, and results. 

The Cable Censorship. 

The Chief Cable Censor is a senior officer of the General Staff at the War Office. 
The objects which he is instructed to keep in view may be thus summarised : — 

(1) To prevent assistance being given or naval and military information being 

transmitted to the enemy. 

(2) To prevent the spread of false reports or reports likely to cause disaffection 

or to interfere directly or indirectly with the success of naval and military 
operations of British or allied forces, or likely to prejudice relations with 
foreign powers or the security, training, discipline, or administration of 
the British forces. 

(3) To collect and distribute to the several Government Departments and 

branches of the War Office concerned all naval and military information 
derived from the censorship that may be of use to them. 

(4) To deny the use of British cables to any person or firm, whether British, 

allied or neutral, for commercial transactions intended for the benefit of 
the enemy. 

(5) To interfere as little as possible with legitimate British and neutral trade. 

In addition to some 120 cable and wireless stations in various part of the Empire 
the Chief Cable Censor controls in the United Kingdom messages sent over the 
Government cables to and from the Central Telegraph Office, and messages sent over 
the cables of the private cable companies. 

It has been found possible, by various means, to reduce to a minimum the 
number of stations in the United Kingdom at which actual censorship is conducted. 

A 28789 



NAVAL WAR COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



SHELF 
MARK 

no .6X7/ JUL 14 1915 



The Chief Cable Censor has a delicate task in holding the balance between the 
advocates of two conflicting conceptions of the ideal censorship. There are those who 
complain on the one hand that British cables are being used with impunity for 
transactions conducted ostensibly by British or neutral firms, but really in the interest 
of the enemy ; and on the other that the severity of the censorship is destroying 
neutral commerce and placing a heavy burden upon the British trader. It is almost 
inevitable that the innocent must sometimes suffer with the guilty ; and the more 
severe the restrictions imposed, the more impossible does it become to avoid the 
occasional commission of an unintended wrong. Constant care, therefore, has to be, 
and is, exercised to ensure that increased effectiveness of censorship is not purchased 
at the expense of the British trader. 

It is obvious that where from 30,000 to 50,000 telegrams pass through the hands 
of the censors in the United Kingdom every 24 hours, uniformity of treatment can 
be attained only by observing certain broad principles in the censoring of messages. 
In the interpretation of these principles much must clearly be left to the personal 
discretion of individual censors. Little difficulty arises in this respect with regard to 
private telegrams, but the formulation of principles for dealing with trade telegrams 
was a task requiring considerable time and experience. 

The accepted principle upon which the censorship of commercial cables is now 
conducted is to withhold, as far as British cables are concerned, all facilities for 
carrying on trade with an enemy country. 

All cables accordingly are liable to be stopped which show clear evidence, either 
by the text of the telegram or by the known facts as to the sender or addressee, that 
they relate to a transaction, whether in contraband or non-contraband, to which a 
resident in an enemy country is one of the parties. 

This principle, it will be observed, is applied impartially to British, allied, or 
neutral subjects who endeavour to trade with the enemy through the medium of 
British cables. 

The number of censors employed in the censorship of cables is in the United 
Kingdom, exclusive of those employed in the Official Press Bureau, * about 180 ; 
elsewhere in the Empire about 400. In the United Kingdom they are, with few 
exceptions, retired naval and military officers, many of whom, after years of dis- 
tinguished service, have exchanged an official for a commercial career. 



The Postal Censorship. 

The objects of the Postal Censorship are similar to those of the Cable Censorship, 
and there is as little intention of interfering with legitimate correspondence. All 
mails which have to be censored are necessarily subjected to some delay, but harmless 
letters, whether private or commercial, are not stopped, even when coming from an 
enemy country or addressed to an enemy person. No letter, however, addressed to an 
enemy country can be transmitted unless its envelope is left open and is enclosed in 
a cover addressed to a neutral country. Letters in which any kind of code or secret 
writing is used are liable to be stopped even if the message appears to be harmless 
and totally unconnected with the war. 

The letters which are examined fall into three main categories, each of which is 
allotted to a separate branch of the Postal Censorship : — 

(1) The correspondence of prisoners of war in the United Kingdom and of British 

prisoners in enemy countries. This is censored in the Prisoners of War 
Branch. 

(2) Private correspondence, censored in the Private Branch, and including: — 

(a) Letters from members of the British Expeditionary Eorce, and from 

persons within the area of operations in which they are engaged. 

(b) Letters and parcels to and from certain foreign countries. 

(c) Press messages sent abroad by other means than by cable ; and 

(d) Newspapers. 

In this Branch more than a ton of mail matter is censored every week 
exclusive of parcels. 

(3) Commercial correspondence with certain foreign countries, which is dealt 

with in the Trade Branch and amounts to nearly four tons every week. 



* See footnote on page 4. 

A (1)28789 2000 5/15 B A; S \ -j 



Letters coming directly from the area of military operations are in most cases 
censored locally, under the orders of the Field Marshal or General Officer Com- 
manding-in-Chief the British Forces in the Field. Those which appear to have 
escaped censorship are sent by the Post Office to the censors in London for 
examination. 

The mails between the United Kingdom and various foreign countries are liable 
to censorship. In order to reduce their work as much as possible the censors 
employed in examining these mails are supplied with lists giving certain classes 
of persons whose correspondence it is unnecessary to open, e.g., letters addressed to 
members of Parliament at one of the Houses of Parliament. It is not, of course, 
practicable to issue to the censors a list of all persons whose correspondence might 
safely be exempt from censorship, nor, if such a list were prepared, would it be possible 
for the censors to consult it before deciding whether any particular letter should be 
opened or not. 

Among the critics of the Postal Censorship, as among those of the Cable 
Censorship, there appear to be advocates of two opposite and irreconcilable ideals 
of censorship. Complaints are sometimes received from the recipients of censored 
letters that their letters can only have been opened out of idle curiosity. Others, 
again, complain that the censored letters should never have been permitted to reach 
them if the censorship were efficiently performed. It may, therefore, be worth 
recording that curiosity is usually extinguished after a short period of employment as 
censor, and that the censors are not instructed to assume that the mere reception of a 
hostile and possibly abusive letter by a British subject will undermine the loyalty 
of the recipient. 

The transmission of newspapers in bulk between foreign countries and publishers 
and newsagents of repute in the United Kingdom is not subject to any restriction. 
Newspapers sent by private individuals are subject to delay or such restrictions as 
are necessary to prevent their use for the conveyance of information other than that 
printed in them. As regards pamphlets, similar rules apply, but measures are taken 
to limit though not to prohibit the distribution in British territory of such as are 
compiled with no other object than to assist the enemy. There is no restriction on 
the sale of enemy newspapers in the United Kingdom. 

The number of the staff of all grades required to examine and censor the 
correspondence included in the above categories is about 800. They are mainly 
civilians, who have been most carefully selected. The qualifications required of them 
are linguistic or commercial, and personal. They must possess either a good know- 
ledge of French and German or of one of the less known foreign languages, or have had 
commercial experience. In addition, they must, in every case, be recommended by 
responsible people. They are interviewed by an officer, their references verified, and 
every possible precaution taken to ensure that they are persons of character and 
integrity. 

II. — The Press Censorship. 

After the last war the question of the censorship of Press communications was 
from time to time the subject of consideration by the two departments mainly 
affected. Attempts to proceed by way of legislation failed, and the problem was left 
unsolved until about a year before the outbreak of the present war. An agreement 
was then reached by negotiation between the Press on the one hand and the Admiralty 
and War Office on the other, by which the former undertook to respect warnings 
given by the latter, and to withhold from publication information the exclusion of 
which from the papers appeared to the departments concerned to be desirable in the 
national interests. The working of this voluntary agreement was entrusted to and 
was watched carefully by a joint committee representing the Admiralty, War Office, 
and Press. In peace the arrangement proved successful, and, as special legislation 
was not considered likely to be of greater value, it was continued when war broke 
out. 

It was not, however, possible during war time for the greatly increased volume 
of work to be dealt with by this committee, the official members of which had other 
duties of an exacting nature to perform. Accordingly, a special department was 
formed designated the Official Press Bureau,* to which the Press could turn for 
guidance when in doubt. The principles upon which the censorship of the Press is 
conducted by this department are virtually those on which the Admiralty, War 

* For a statement of the functions of this Department, see the separate Memorandum on the Official 
Press Bureau. 






Office, and Press Committee acted in peace. They are based on the original 
voluntary agreement, and not on any special statutory powers. Legislation has, 
however, since been enacted, and room has been found in the regulations under the 
Defence of the Realm Act for provisions dealing with " press offences." 

It was felt that the Official Press Bureau would have in any case a difficult and 
thankless task. Its functions were accordingly extended, so that with its responsibility 
for withholding information was combined the duty of supplying from time to time, 
for publication in the press, official news which the departments themselves had 
previously intended to transmit direct to the newspaper editors. All Govern- 
ment Departments were, therefore, requested to use the Bureau as the sole 
channel through which official news was to be communicated to the Press. 

The combination of these two different functions in the new department has led 
to some misunderstanding. The criticism has been made, and the belief still persists, 
that the press censors are responsible not only for withholding from publication news 
which has come to the press from other than official sources, but also for omitting 
from the official announcements information which the Press think the public should 
be given. Apart from one or two instances where the Bureau has censored official 
announcements, the criticism is unsound. The Government Departments alone are 
responsible both for the scope and form of the communications which they make 
public, and also for the rules and directions by which the Press Bureau is guided in 
the actual work of censoring Press communications. 

The Admiralty, War Office and Press Committee is still in existence, it meets 
from time to time for the discussion of matters in which the interests of the Press are 
affected or the Admiralty and War Office desire their advice and co-operation. 









AEMY. 



\f Feed not be returned. 




MEMORANDUM 






6^7 




ON THE 



OFFICIAL PRESS BUREAU. 



$re0*ntrtr to fiotfj l^ousrs of fltarUament op ^ommantJ of 3%i& ittaieetp. 




LONDON: 

PRINTED UNDER iTHE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE 

By EYRE and SPOTTISWOODE, Ltd., East Harding Street, E.G., 

PRINTERS TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 



To be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from 

WYMAN and SONS, Ltd., 29, Breams Buildings, Fetter Lane, E.G., and 

28, Auingdon Street, S.W., and 54, St. Mary Street, Cardiff ; or 

H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE (Scottish Branch), 23, Forth Street, Edinburgh; or 

E. PONSONBY, Ltd., 116, Grafton Street, Dubltn ; 

or from the Agencies in the British Colonies and Dependencies, 

the United States of America and other Foreign Countries of 

T. FISHER UNWIN, London, W.C. 



[Cd. 7680.] 



1915. 
Price \d. 



Memorandum on the Official Press Bureau. 



When the Official Press Bureau came into existence in August last .it consisted 
of a Director, Secretaries and a few Naval and Military Censors. No rules for the 
guidance of Censors were framed in the Office, hut the Censors acted on general 
instructions received hy the Bureau from the Admiralty and the War Office. In the 
"building originally allotted to the Press Bureau there was no room for more than a 
very small staff, hut it was necessary to gi^e accommodation to a large numher of 
Press representatives who have had accommodation in the Press Bureau ever since 
its organisation. Shortly after the move into the present offices (the Royal United 
Service Institution, Whitehall), the Censorship of Press cables from and to all parts 
of the world has been dealt with in the Press Bureau. The Press Cable Censors were 
originally part of the establishment of the Cable Censorship'^' and with the other cable 
censors were located in the Central Telegraph Office under the direction of the Chief 
(Cable) Censor at the War Office, and when transferred to the Press Bureau they 
brought with them instructions defining their duties in considerable detail. Those 
instructions covered the general principles on which all cables should be dealt with 
by the censors. They provided for the hours of work, the division of the staff into 
a succession of reliefs, and the provision of a senior officer who* would always be 
present and to whom reference should be made in cases of doubt. The instructions 
also set out the system on which references should be made to Departments such as 
the Admiralty, the War Office, and the Foreign Office, and the method of dealing 
with cables which were delayed or stopped. 

The staff of the Official Press Bureau, as now constituted, consists of the 
Director (Sir Stanley Buckmaster, K.C., M.P., Solicitor General), two Assistant 
Directors (Sir Prank Swettenham, G.C.M.G. and Sir Edward Cook), a Secretary and 
about 50 censors. 

The Censors comprise naval officers (appointed by the Admiralty), a body of 
milita-ry censors (appointed by the War Office), who are senior officers appointed or 
attached to the General Staff, and civilian censors. The latter, who are appointed 
by the Director, include £.r-Civil Servants, barristers and journalists. 

The duty of the censors is to censor all press matter which comes to the Bureau, 
and this work is attended to day and night. 

The matter is of two kinds : — (1) All press cable messages to, from, or through 
London are, by Government order, diverted to the Bureau by the Post Office and 
Cable Companies. Inland Press Telegrams, referring to the war in any way, are also 
sent to the Bureau by the Post Office. 

A tube has been installed between the Press Bureau and the Central Telegraph 
Office, and all cablegrams to and from the Press Bureau pass through it. The time 
taken in transit is about 6 minutes. 

(2) The submission of other press matter by the newspapers is voluntary. Those 
who publish without submission do so on their own responsibility and subject to 
the penalties provided for breach of the Regulations under the Defence of the 
Realm Act. 

The greater part of the Press submit a large amount of matter, dealing with 
naval or military operations, questions of foreign policy, &c, to the Bureau. Maps, 
diagrams and photographs are also commonly submitted. 

The voluntary nature of the censorship accounts for many complaints, which are 
caused by some newspapers publishing, without submission, matter which others, on 
submission, were prevented from publishing. 

The Official Press Bureau has no power to initiate or veto proceedings under the 
Defence of the Realm Act, that power being vested solely in the Naval or Military 
authorities. 

On the 26th of October, 1914, a Memorandum was issued to all censors in the 
Press Bureau setting out in great detail the manner in which the work of the office 
was to be done, with instructions to all those concerned on almost every point which 
was likely to arise. These instructions are necessarily private. 

* For a statement of the functions of the Cable and Postal Censorship, sec the separate Memorandum 
on the Censorship. 



NAVAL WAR COLLECt 
LIBRARY 



SHELF 
MARK 



n«.6Z7£ Ml 14 1915 

Prom the very beginning it was necessary to issue instructions to Hliu Truss for- 



their information and guidance, and up to the present time over 200 such instructions 
have been issued. They are all private and confidential, and the greater part of 
them were issued at the request of the Admiralty, the War Office, the Foreign Office 
or one of the other great Departments, while' a few were issued on the initiative of 
the directing staff of the Press Bureau. On two occasions those of the instructions 
which up to a certain date had not been cancelled were issued in pamphlet form to 
all editors of newspapers in the Kingdom. The instructions consist for the most 
part of particular hints and elucidations about matters which in general terms are 
covered by the 18th or 27th of the Defence of the Realm Act Regulations. 

All matter bearing on the war issued by any Department of the Government 
for publication in the Press is sent to the Press Bureau and there copied and 
distributed to the Press of the Kingdom. 

The means of distribution are either by hand to the Press representatives in the 
building, by telegram through a Press agency, or by post. The confidential 
instructions to the Press are distributed to the Press by one or other of those methods, 
but when urgent always by telegram. All Casualty Lists, despatches from the Seat 
of War, narratives of Eye-witnesses, Poreign Office despatches, &c, are distributed 
to the Press and made public by these means. 

The nature of the work of the Official Press Bureau, and the general policy by 
which the Press censorship is governed, were explained by the Director in answer to 
a question in the House of Commons on 26th November 1914, and a condensed 
summary of his statement is subjoined. 

" The office of the Press Bureau is the offspring of the War and its powers 
must be measured and its actions judged in relation to this fact. It provides the 
official means by which all information relating to the War which any of the 
Departments of State think right to issue is communicated to the Press, but it has no 
means of collecting news and no power to compel its publication. The policy which 
determines publication of any matter rests with the particular Government Depart- 
ment through which the information comes ; it does not depend on the whim of the 
censor. If news of any event reaches the Press before it is received from an official 
source, the question as to whether it should be made public or held back is determined 
by the Department to which it relates. For example, I have no power to publish 
news of an action or accident at sea without the consent of the Admiralty ; nor of any 
action or mishap on land, excepting in accordance with the rules of the War Office. 
This office does not withhold, and according to my views of its powers cannot 
withhold, any news excepting pursuant to the provisions of the Defence of the 
Realm Act and to the rules and directions laid down by one of the Departments of 
State. 

" As to the censoring of news, this is carried out in obedience to the regulations 
which are drawn up from time to time in accordance with information received from 
the other Government Departments, with whom we are in constant contact. These 
form the instructions on which our censors act. Subject to this, the actual work of 
censoring is all done under my control. No private communications of any kind are 
within the scope of our jurisdiction. It is a mistake to imagine that the policy of 
the office has recently undergone any modification or change. It has been and will 
continue to be the policy to publish everything that can be made public without 
danger to the State." 



A (1)28790 2000 5/15 E ,V S 



1 



iS«e Paragraph *, Instructions ot October 31, 1900 J 



u 



/ 



SUBJECT SIMKIHG Of XHX FHBKCJJ MIHSL41BB 8ASABIASCA. 



-Bfeed %^ dc returned. 



From Y 



No. 1 



Replying to 0. N. I. No. 



Date 



Date 



Jy 



L5, 



SWUMMMHSBSW 



i. It has Ledj officially reporter bj I iisl 33 

.riue that during fc&a alght cf Juas 3-4, the Prench mine- 
lay ar GASABXAHOA struck £*sd i ..in the Aegean Sea. 

2. £he cc-HH&anding officer, one officer and sixty-four 
men of tha crew have beeii rescued u; v ..a iSssgli&h destroyer. 

£C0SU^ 




/^ / • 




/ 



[See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900 



:ioDer ji, ivuu.j « m — 

Need not be returned. 

r 



SUBJECT VOLUNTEER MOTOR BOAT CORPS - GERMANY. 



a 



z 



363 



June 8, 1915. 



■ lit! I. liUfiUhJrtHg 




From. ...No. Date 

Replying to O. N. I. No. Date 

References:- Z-389 October 8, 1915. 

Z-997 October 14, 1915. 

The following additional information 
has been furnished to me of this interesting corps which has 
rendered important services especially to the army:- 

REPORT ON THE ACTIVITY OF THE 
VOLUNTEER M0T0RB0AT CORPS. 



Immediately after the declaration of mobilisation 
the preparatory work for the organisation of a volunteer 
Motorboat Corps on the part of the Imperial ifotor Yacht 
Club was taken in hand and with cooperation of the 
Cavalry Section of the Royal Prussian War Ministry the 
basis principles of the regulations governing the same 
and for the private service contracts were laid down. 

At the head of the corps is Vice Admiral z.D 
Aschenborn , appointed by Kis Majesty the Emperor, 
as commander of the corps, and who had charge of the 
organization of the entire corps. The commander of the 
corps, according to the by-laws, appointed his staff, 
so that after the arrival of the Cabinet Order of the 
Emperor, on September 30th 1914, the whole organization 
was finished and ready to comply with orders of the 
Array regarding the sending of boats to the scenes of 
action. Until the publication of the Cabinet Order 
authorizing the organization of the corps, the boat 
material on the Wannsee ( near Berlin) had been made 
ready for war requirements. In conjunction with the 
Royal Rifle Proving Commission { Gewehrprufangskommission) 
the installation of machine guns on motorbfcass was 
taken in hand and owners of boats reporting were riven 
preparatory military instruction. 

The services of the corps were frequently 
inspected at the front on the part of the commander of the 
corps. 

I. ACTIVITY OF THE STAFF . 

The staff is composed of 6 members of the 
corps, in compliance with the regulations. They are :- 
1. Rear Admiral z.D. J o s e p h i , at the same 
time commander of the main assembly place in 
the city east harbor whose activity will receive 
special attention further on. 

?. Kapitanleutnant a. 7). von E i n e m, called 
von Rothmaler. 



3. Captain (Cavalry) of the Landwehr Cav. 1) o u g 1 as 







I 









I 

1 



- 3 - 

4. Captain ( Cavalry) of Reserve a.D. 
von Carstenjen. 

5. Member of the Corps B r a s c h . 

6. Member of the Corps Schroer. 



Kapitanleutnant von Uinem 
was charged with the duties of Chief of Staff, at the 
same time performing the duties of Adjutant . 

The Staff has charge of :- Assignment 
of Personnel of the whole corps, the equipment of the boats, 
equipment of the crews, and the whole correspondence with 
the authorities. 



II. ACTIVITY OF THE COMMAND 
OF THE MAIN ASSEMBLY PLACE. 

Examination of the boat material assembled in 
Berlin as to technical and maritime quality and training 
of officers in military, technical and maritime mattters 
in courses lasting four weeks. For this purpose the 
Machine Oun Reserve Section in Spandau-Ruhleben kindly 
furnished officers and men, also furnishing opportunity 
for target practice and firing exercises. 

Branches off this Command are in Bremen, Hamburg, 
Stettin and Danzig. 

There are up to the present day in service 161 boats, 
357 boats officers, 193 machinists, 73 sailors. 

THE EMPLOYMENT ? 

for these motorboats is so manifold that the 
placing of the same in the service, although a new departure 
in Warfare, has proved an absolute necessity. From 
timid attempts in the beginning, these boats, of whose 
activity in earnest warfare absolutely nothing was known. 
are having important tasks assigned to them. The peculiar 
m ter conditions existing in the eastern and western theaters 
of war called for the employment and cooperation of light 
craft, instead of steamers of larger size which are not 
so easily handled. 

THE EMPLOYMENT IN THE WEST. 

The net-like canal system in the west had 
been made unnavip-able by sunken boats, trunks of trees and 
other artificial obstacles on the part of the enemy. Here 
the extensive activity of the boats commenced. They removed 
the obstacles, made scouting trips, reported the water 
conditions by means of minor surveys, and thus made the 
use of the canals again possible. By means of the boats 
supplies of war material were made easier, the transportation 
of the wounded on water made possible. At the same time 
the boats were used for military and police supervision, 






' 



9 



- 3 — 

to control the traffic on the water, loading and disoharpe 
of cargoes, prevention of espionage. In this connection 
the boats succeeded repeatedly in brinprlnf: forth hidden 
war material ( for instance field runs sunk in the water) 
raw material of the enemy etc. 

Mine searching and to Hake nines harmless 
was also one of the tasks of the motor boats* 

While therefore a part of the boats was 
placed to the disposal of the harbor coriander* another 
part was attached to the military building service* The 
latter boats had officers who in their civil calling ware 
engineers or had technical training* 

Kepeated expressions of recojmition of the 
services of the boats on the part of the military superiors 
bear testimony that the attempt to attach motor-boats 
for military service has been successful throughout* 

The motorboats in the east* as far as they were 
sent to the Vistula, were assembled under the designation 
of "Vistula Flotilla"* the Vistula* on account of its 
£reat width ( on some places) forms a very important zone 
of operations* On account of the changing sands it was 
necessary to employ very flat-bottomed boats* These* as 
far as possible were equipped with machine runs* and could 
render valuable services in preventing the enemy from 
advancing to and fording the river; they supported our land 
troops effectively through their scoutinrr trips* at which 
at times a sharp artillery - or infantry fire could be 
silenced by machine ^un fire from on board or on land* 

At times they were even the only connection 
between Thorn and Loclawefc, thus offering the only possibility 
for the transport tion of military persons for sendinn 
orders* 

Sea^roinr: boats were active on the KJemen* Here 
their duty was to search for mines, watching the fording 
of stream** support of the operations* transport of 
Eastern Prussia refugees* salvage? of German and Russian 

ships bodies. 

Soapointf boats were further on the Xurisohou laff 
and in the channels and rivers of that country. They 
transported troops and war material* money by order of 
the Reichsbank* and also made trips to sea for the naval 
intellirence bureau* The sea cruiser VII succeeded 
to rescue the greater part of the crew {11 persons) of the 
steamer "ELBINO IX" which sunk about 15 s.m* from kernel* 
The crews of those boats also had opportunity to participate 
in the le Tense of kernel ilnet the EftisttaflS* 

The haste with which the first transport 
of those boats had to be carried out to the front on account 
of the conditions of war, did not permit ot ■ thorough 
train inr: of the boats or fleers* During the time of heavy 
frost, ho e^eT?, when the boats were not able to do any 
service, the officers ware riven instructions by milltar* 
lectures, and exercises with the machine runs, so that now 






. 






r 



■ 



- 4 - 



this lack has been overcome. 

OTHER EMPLOYMENT OF THE BOATS, 



A seagoing motorboat was called for the Island of 
Pellworm. 

Activity: Connection of the island with the main land, 
adjustment of the mine closing, searching for and making 
harmless mines, connection of the command of the island 
with the war craft anchoring in the Kever. Control of 
the neighboring islands. 

The ■Sperrkommandantur" ( mine closing command) 
at Geestemiinde had two boats as connection with the crater 
forts, the outpost ships, war light ships, etc. 

The tt Sperrkommandantur* ( mine closing command) 
Borkum had a steamer and a motorboat for service on the 
"Y/atten 11 and to prevent espionage* 

The Command of Bremen received permanently 
watch boats for the Weser, 

The Royal Wurtenberg War Ministry called on the 
35th of February 1915 for 17 boats, and ten boats officers 
without boats for the purpose of preventing espionage. 
From these boats the so-called Lake Constance boat flotilla 
was formed. 

Furthermore the Technical Trial Commision, 
7/ilhelrashaven, as well as the Traffic Technical Proving 
Commission, Berlin-Schoneberg had motorboats at their 
disposal. There also the boats fulfilled all the 
requirements. 

Encouraged by the many praises and by the bestowal 
on 19 boat officers of the Iron Cfcass II. Clads, the Corps 
is at all times making efforts, besides the continuous 
readiness for service, to perfect the boat material for 
military purposes, as demonstrated by past experiences. 

Orders have been given for the building of an 
armored motor cruiser, especially adapted for the rivers and 
canais of the zones of occupation. Her measuriaants will 
be :- 33 m. length; beam 3.15 m. draught 65 c/m, thus 
transportable on all German government railroads. The 
cruiser will have two motors of 75 H.P. and twin screws. 
Speed 13 knots. The armor protects against machine p-un 
fire at a range of 35 metres. Tha cruiser will have one 
7.5 c/m gun and one machine gun. 

The building of additional armored motor 
craft is under consideration. 

The air propeller boat ^RASE 11 , called for 
by the government Thorn, has been commissioned. The boat is 
of special importance in view of the expected low water 
as the boat has a very small draught ( only 13 c/m) even 
loaded, and is therefore specially adapted for places which 
cannot be used by even the flattest motor boats. The speed 
of this boat is about 30 kid. 






( 



I 



« 



- 5 - 

Finally it is to be noted that another smaller 
amored boat is being built by a member of the corps , which 
will be subjected to a trial as a model for armored motor 
boats in order to create for the future better material 
than was at the disposal of the corps at the beginning of the 
this war* 



j 



- 



« 






• 



I 



( 



( 



< 




n 



, 



,t re a, (Hbr altar* Boo ton, 



"rom:- Intel 11 geace 1: fleer. 
To:- Commanding officer. 



MMWHHi 






:- ending ^edition a£ i&rdaaeilee* 

1. •.lie following note© ©re »d fro- terrier 

with officers returned from saos^miitefcK the mrOaaelles to 
Mexandrl 'ice only 'rmy officers could be , lie 

inform tion obtained is mostly f the reer md that regard- 
ing naval operations concerns only those la which the - f avy, 
cooperated with the Army; no larormation regarding the bombard- 
ment of the &>rts prior to the first landing s could be gotten. 

£« ?he British plea. In the shore o orations, w:-,s to ob- 
tain a foothold on the «nd of the peninsula, and to advance up 
it, at the wm* time landing in rear* o roo® ite the Harrows, and 
advaaci i across II -ala. These advances were for t 

double u^oae, first and primarily £o oceungr the grou id 
eventually capture by -and the forte on the . ; uro- i side, 
ana secondly t to ocupy high ground overlooking the forts so 
as to "spot" the fire of the war-ships, whose bombardment of 
the forts had, for lack of observation facilities, "hmn neces- 
sarily aomewhat blind. 

i 1 he naln landing mis mde on April So. 'the 

week prior thereto, feint, wore m at no®, on the id, 

and at the oulf of - side of the Bulair lines at the neck 

of t'-;e )cn nsula of Jellipoll. eao feints; consisted la the 

appearance of a number of transports — eirht or S in 

each case — accompanied by an escort of battleships* in 
neither locality was any 'landing made or at*y flri It ~ 

er by British or rks, though the trei rts steamed at 

times only a few hundred yards from the shore. t the Lr 

lines, just beioio daybreak, about 1000 donkeys ided 

and driven inland toward the Turkish entren< >.to — whether 
to uaoo\ T er the Turks' position or to discover land mines, te 

'Turks opened heavy r fie an& machine gua fire on these sale, 
disclosing their position and readiness, but .o Partner action 
w s taken by the Ish. tensive entrenchments and 

field fortifications were found at Sulair, but few at : :nos ♦ 

4. April 22, 2. , i 24, a searohiu^ bombardment was nude 
of the extremity of the peaiaaula at Cape Bellas. 11 the 
battleships we o engaged in it, hut fired only inter . .odiato 
batteries. High explosive she" 1 shr jed. 
(The i3rltis are now su >lying shrapnel for nil calibres, ov 
the "ueen Elisabeth's " 15' gems solas equi ood with a few 
rounds of shrapnel as well as their normal . , ♦ ) 

5. at daybreak April '25, the o oncer tod British and u- 
straltan landing woe to take e, the fo ner at Cape Sellae, 
the letter at Q bu :epe t across the tea a in rear eft 
Harrows. At 9 He , the British uiee , tbe 
night of the 24th, er ed in an olci r ma >ort witb I orte 
out out of her side ad with floats irea a?, e. 

ship was ra round Just ro daybreak t*,© 

.»ril £0, and the »ourod out of i 1 onto is, 

wh oh were then to po tov nto 1 wator by ticket 1 <• . 

'ho Turks, however, ms (either bro the 

ni -it or kept I despite the -sit) : ring t 

and literaUy swo >t olorai the floats full of no a, of 

the; advance >arty of 1000 men were killed or wounde<- , 

I was neoeoearily el | ?d for the ti ;g and the 

bomb aat reaewed. .bat after ■ btea.it o- 

baroation wi» made, using floti 1: a of ship's bo , towed by 



, 



pioi: t launches. Covered by tho ship's fire, the bouts suf- 

fered^ less* end, though with sever, looses* an advance party of 
about 3,000 men was aehnrsed In shot:! wafer* ro» however, 

barbed wire had been planted under water, r^nd only after c -nal- 
ft le time and lose from ioh machine-gun, shrapnel and 



tie-fire, were the British able to out through the wires un- 
der water, through more on the beach, and finally to cfe. rno 
the first line of trenches about 800 yards from the beach* 
This they to held. awhile, the boats were return- 

ing with reen for cements, *m& on their arrival, and again more, 
the sslnteasnoe of the foothold en the land w* ired before 

dark* 

From that time till late ltay t the usual t reach warfare 
has been carried out, and at the middle the Hies* 

position was a line four miles %m$ directly across the penin- 
sula about 6 miles frcn ito end* ?he line for o lie on 

the eastward is held by th<- I oh troops, 3y bla< 

(recalled after a landing and partial -e on the slat is 

side). ilesct conges, for l/4 mile, the G, .glish of 1fte 

Havel Division, and the- the regaining territory is occupied 
by British regulr re and volunteers ami bjt Australians, at 
45,000 British and 15,0J0 ustraliais. These t*< re 

e-iuipced with machine-guns sad with light and feesvy field artil« 
lery** i cavalry was in use as such t though some of the 
Australian cavalry regiments had been landed, dismounted, as 
light infantry) and no siege, artillery and been landed. 
Against then., the ^arks 1 nmin reliance was on field $anu end 
naohine-guns ; their rifle-fire or, no indirect fire 

from their fort rose gas i uuet U The tre <me 

so close together that suppartlare lire fr ;he forts for the 
) Turks, or from the s for the British, I cult . 

The British found the fire ten the ships difficult also be- 
cause of (1) tftrgftfc often invisible from seav & indirect 
fire necessary. it) slow oonmunioatlon from shore to ships, 
(o) moving ships, (4) often, shift , i of a field 
battery el. '-.hg location after discs &T&. 

6. The Axtstmliezi landing at Gaba Tope also toe ' oe 
at dawn April 25. Here no bombardment had been made, as the 
landing was to be m much of a surprise as possible* -e 

transports, : tended hj six battleships end a number of de; 
troyeru, rrived of! the shor abo .idnight ?he men of 

the advance party, sibout , were placed tn bo^ts, tewed a- 

stern of destroyers, which then « dv f&r as possible 

int shoal water, cast loose, and then the men in the 

boats pulled then ashore* be movement was well timed, 

in that at fcyfrrwik the boats "ended* barbed wire en- 

tanglements impeded thou, but the ^xirte were not surprised and 
caused t em grave losses before and during d bion by 

entrenched rifle and machine gun fire from In front and i 
nel from three and four gone empl? nts at right eft, 

respectively, of the beach o. which the Lng r ,nde* s 

soon as landed, the .aen threw off their hmvy equipment and 
ohnrged the nearest ^reaches, > taring them. enforcements 

were iient fren the ships (the boats ha been ulled be 

a few seamen boatlst wears carried In e^ioh) and eventually t ; 
full landing force of 31,000 were ashore that day* in rhe 

in the oourse of four days, the uetrelians had won to 
a o si on tho orest of a ridfce parallel to the shore and 

about one mi e dl u ore they secured their position, 

and garrisoned It with , > t the reminder being sent 

down to aid the advenes upv.ard frai 3 . % tho 

^Lif ?2S» tl(m# / i "- tll «J ab<wt ** ™ **>» the peninsula, n« 
mediate farther advance from this position w s contemplated. 

?h * Axa V offio rs were rather bitter against the jfavy 



no 






< 



V 



tor their total lack of support la this lauding* It seems 
the ship© had orders not to bombard, w jount of £es roving 
the slemnst of surprise. «r the attempt at the landing 

had been discovered, however, and ti irks were severely :*un- 
iehiag the troop**, atUi no firing wae done by the shies — 
either because of their orders or beoauee,posoihly, the Turkish 
positions could not e made out fton seaward. Even the tor- 
pedo-boats, close to the shore, govs no hel#, an& several rmy 
officers have stated their opinion taat many livos wer<?> on 

aooount is failure of support* -ft or the la is 

well established and signal oosnuni cation set up, seas firing 

3 done ay the fleet, but With little aucceua, £m :oa- 

souo iron above la conn cation with the Hrl 

7. -ree* sf the a and Australia,; ta - 

were so ^000 killed end wounded, froc* ^pril So to tfa§ , & 

sad the French losses were estimated at east o, . The 

wounded were given firu \ on the field X'roia first aid pao- 

kets carried by themselves, and self- lied, then were treated 
in first aid stations or dressing stations la rear, and were 
thense eat Hreot y aboard hospit alps, of vfeloh tea 

large ones were In attendance. bess o\ >d the British to 

aloxondria, od the -reach to iiarselllea, tned as soon 

as possible. 

8. ?he Turks fought well, both in artillery and rifle- 
fire, though tl letter was la* .--curate; but they could not 
withstand bayonet charges, nor moke tl ith any success* e 
prooortion of German officers in the fieli tfny til, io- 
then £ .'■', but i : tho large .-.>ro portion rrevailed in 
the fortress troona. M&ay jIo die if ecti on in the Curfci: 
troops was known "of* ay authenticated oases oi ling and 
maiming of wounded by ?urks were found, sad tho temper .,ho 

lied troops was bed is sense uenoe. 

9. "he British, ustrali ,, and white troops were 
tbt^ ate idy in both attack and defense, out the roach blacks, 
though sear&gseus a attack, were unsto tuly in defense, parti- 
cularly St night, asd their yieldiuf the rig t fl of the 
li - t ono tlras oaused the withdrawal, for s son. iderable 61a* 
tanoe, of the entire Allied line soar the aila. it, 
the British hf> "d heir fire la t mb, when no target 
presented, throughout the niglit the volleys 

by s a down their line in turn — either tc the ground 

oon~ swept el ess la fro.it of tat , -so to keep u>> to 

a good look-out their trsop . 

10. TbM oriol of both aides see, to function . ;eU; 
shells, both hi ael, t regularly. io 
destruction wrought by the cploslve 

ft bbs interpolate as f the flc as evidenced by 

the shell-holes in the ground feun by the Ian - 

I kg party after the "boa lent, was cited as terrific, in e: - 

tent, thou^i little 1 damage w s done to the well-hiddo 

Turks. 

11 . The gsos: the officers interviewed m 
that moro n&n and a 1 ie were ttsossssgr for the auooeso of 
the lad operations, sad \ m fieet could do 1 ttle uotll 

uoh succe£ i late ,; y it was stntod, but act 

tively, that 1 i # 000 Bagllsh 1 era were as en route 

tho Dardanelles. 






I 



. 






• 



(See Paragraph 1, Instructions of October 31, 1900.) 






^ 






/> 



SUBJECT DEATH OP THE CHXS» OP THE GiSN-BRAL STAFF, 

Need not be rei/wnu 



FBKNG IVY. 



From No. 108 

Replying to N. I. No. 



Date 



Date 



mii i j. iig mwB > ^n»i »ii iia»«wH»W!»aiBii<wa??; 



ce Admiral Aubert, Chi if of the Seneral 8tafl 

Franc , died Ju ^ 6th fche Wl :ie Grace Hospital, after 

a 1c ag Ulna J8 . 

2. Iral s de Jonquieres has been appointed 
b ouceeetsor. 

3. I La anr vUf e, aenti to attend the funeral of 
Vice* Admiral Hubert, ! flower" ae a nark of reepeet 

memory . 



)) 



> 



c 






fk^JJJJ^ 



Ministry of Munitions Act, 1915. 

[5 & 6 Geo. 5. Oh. 51.] 



.f 



Need not be returned. 



ARRANGEMENT OE SECTIONS. 



A.D. 1915. 



Section. 

1. Establishment of Ministry of Munitions. 

2. Powers of Minister. 

3. Remuneration and expenses. 

4. Seal, style, and acts of Minister. 

5. Ability of Minister and Secretaries to sit in Parliament 

6. Cessation of Ministry after the close of the war. 

7. Short title and interpretation. 




W^ 7 ?- ** /; . 




[Price Id.] 



A 




' 



. 




[5 & 6 Geo. 5.] Ministry of Munitions Act, 1915. [Oh. 51.1 




CHAPTER 51. 

An Act for establishing, in connection with the present a.d. 1915. 
War, a Ministry of Munitions of War, and for purposes 
incidental thereto. [9th June 1915.] 

BE it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, by and 
with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, 
and by the authority of the same, as follows : — 

1. — (1) Eor the purpose of supplying munitions for the Establish- 
present war, it shall be lawful for His Majesty to appoint a IjjVr 11 * ° f 
Minister of Munitions who shall hold office during His Majesty's Munitions. 
pleasure. 

(2) The Minister of Munitions may appoint such secretaries, 
officers, and servants as the Minister may determine. 

2. — (1) The Minister of Munitions shall have such adminis- Powers of 
trative powers and duties in relation to the supply of munitions Mimster - 
for the present war as may be conferred on him by His Majesty 
in Council, and His Majesty may also, if he considers it 
expedient that, in connection with the supply of munitions, 
any powers or duties of a Government Department or authority, 
whether conferred by statute or otherwise, should be transferred 
to, or exercised or performed concurrently by, the Minister of 
Munitions, by Order in Council make the necessary provision 
for the purpose, and any Order made in pursuance of this 
section may include any supplemental provisions which appear 
necessary for the purpose of giving full effect to the Order. 

(2) Any Order in Council made under this section may be 
varied or revoked by a subsequent Order in Council. 

A 2 1 






[Ch. 51.] Ministry of Munitions Act, 1915. [5 & 6 Geo. 5.] 



A.D. 1915. 

Remunera- 
tion and 
expenses. 



Seal, style, 
and acts of 
Minister. 



3. — (1) There shall be paid out of money provided by 
Parliament to the Minister of Munitions an annual salary not 
exceeding five thousand pounds, and to the secretaries, officers, 
and servants of the Ministry such salaries or remuneration as 
the Treasury may from time to time determine. 

(2) The expenses of the Ministry of Munitions to such 
amount as may be sanctioned by the Treasury shall be paid out 
of money provided by Parliament. 

4. — (1) The Minister of Munitions may adopt an official 
seal and describe himself generally by the style and title of 
the Minister of Munitions, and the seal of the Minister shall 
be officially and judicially noticed and shall be authenticated by 
the signature of the Minister or of a secretary or some person 
authorised by the Minister to act in that behalf. 

(2) Every document purporting to be an Order or other 
instrument issued by the Minister of Munitions and to be 
sealed with the seal of the Minister authenticated in manner 
provided by this section or to be signed by the secretary or any 
person authorised as aforesaid shall be received in evidence and 
be deemed to be such Order or instrument without further proof, 
unless the contrary is shown. 

(3) A certificate signed by the Minister of Munitions that 
any Order or other instrument purporting to be made or issued 
by him is so made or issued shall be conclusive evidence of 
the fact so certified. 

(4) Where in connection with the undertaking of any duties 
or powers by the Minister of Munitions it appears to the Minister 
of Munitions and the department or authority concerned that 
in any notice, order, contract, or other document the name of 
the Minister of Munitions should be substituted for the name 
of any department or authority, or that the name of any officer 
of the Ministrv of Munitions should be substituted for the 
name of any officer of any such department or authority, the 
Minister of Munitions may order that the substitution shall take 
effect, subject to any limitations contained in the order, and, 
where such an order is made, the notice, order, contract, or 
document shall have effect in accordance with the order. 



5. — (1) The office of Minister of Munitions or of Secretary 



Ability of 

Secretaries 1 ^ n ^ ie Ministry of Munitions shall not render the holder thereof 
to sit in incapable of being elected to or sitting or voting as a member 

2 



Parliament. 



[5 & 6 Geo. 5.] Ministry of Munitions Act, 1915. [Oh. 51.] 

of the Commons House of Parliament, but not more than two a.D. 1915. 
such Secretaries shall sit as members of that House at the 
same time. 

(2) The Minister of Munitions shall take the oath of alle- 
giance and official oath and shall be deemed to be included in 
the Pirst Part of the Schedule to the Promissory Oaths Act, 1868. 3i&32Vict.c.72. 

6. The office of Minister of Munitions and the Ministry Cessation of 
of Munitions shall cease to exist on the termination of a period t l m8 ^ 

r alter the 

of twelve months after the conclusion of the present war or close of the 
such earlier date as may be fixed by His Majesty in Council, war - 
and then any appointments made under the powers conferred 
by this Act shall be determined, and any powers or duties 
which have been transferred to the Minister of Munitions under 
this Act shall, without prejudice to any action taken in pursuance 
of those powers or duties, revert to the Department or Authority 
from which they were transferred. 

7. — (1) In this Act the expression "munitions of war" Short title 
and the expression " munitions " mean anything required to be 



munitions " 

provided for war purposes, and include arms, ammunition, 
warlike stores or material, and anything required for equipment 
or transport purposes or for or in connection with the production 
of munitions. 

(2) This Act may be cited as the Ministry of Munitions 
Act, 1915. 



pretation. 



Printed by Eyre and Spottlswoode, Ltd., 

for 

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And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from 
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or from the Agencies in the British Colonies and Dependencies, 
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T. FISHER UNWIN, London, W.C. 







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( 






(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of 



f October 3 i.j$&pd not be rettcrned 



7 
SUBJECT copy. Mf English Jnf exmibiJm .ONtor...*. ^ 

: ..also ...* 0e*tsa& .JHf-CMlf-'-H!^ --'■£?-- 

Fn^...,-.T- Afr. 147. Date Juno 1Q» -1315 , 

Replying to 0. N. I. No..-~~*r~~*'~-.-.Date 




1. There are attached copies (1) of en :jnglish /xniy 
Information Order and ( ) a German /jngy Order. 'Iho first nay 
be of interest as r. impt t itesas of interest ao were 

considered such by uttral Staff concerned; the second as 

.pie of a Sorbin Crdcr as well as giving nou itons 

of interest. 



;:ncls. . 



v> 









Copy, 



I Army, 

Br, Gen, Butle: . f ^ 



TR- -15, 
Summary of Information, 



1. OPERATIONS OF THE I7thIE IT. 
north-west of ORBAI; ( LLS.A0E) an attack by one German battalion 

was repulsed with heavy loss, including over 40 prisoners, 

The French maae successful attacks on "both hanks of the River 
FF.CHT(v/est of • ) , capturing important heights on either hanks, 

No infantry fighting took -place in the WOBVR . 

Uorth-West of F:RTHS the Germans exploded two mines short of the 
French trenches, managed to retain possession of the cavity of one of 
them. 

Three further counter attacks H B de LOH83P3SB during the 
night of the 16-17 were easily checked. 

BRITISH FROUT. I 8-4- 15. 

After exploding a mine the British assaulted and captured 
Hill 60{just west of KLEIN SILIEHFiEB) last night, and held it in spite 
of heavy shelling and strong counter-attacks. Some of the enemy's 
oolumne were caught in close formation by machine gun fire, and 
affered very heavily, 

2. *IR HECOTAISS4ITC?.. 

The che if points of interest of to-days reconnaissance are:- 

(a) The absence of rolling stock at TOTJRBAI, where there has usually 

been sufficient for from ten to twelve trains. 

(b) The unusual amount of rolling stock(H to lu trains) at 

'RVIC?.. early this morninr , most of which had been re- 
moved by H.3Q p.m. 
Both these observations point to a movement of troops, but in 
what direction it is impossible to say at present. 

Railway movements and rolling stock South of the LYS were other- 
5 wise normal. 

A battalion was seen moving into 00 ; , -OTKEEKE from ROULERS 
about 7.0 a;m; 

70 ioter transport were seen drawn up on the roadrunning North 
through the Foret d'Houthulst. 

One observer reported a purge park of Meter Transport at 
: (Horth of ROULtes) estimated at about 100 &.T. This obser- 
<r vation was not confirmed by later reports, and was made under great 
difficulties, o?/ing to the British machine being attacked loj a German 
aeroplane. 

3. IISTRIBUTION OF TEE Y»S FQROF ; 

XXVI R CORPS— The 239th Reserve Regiment was, according to doc- 
euments, at STAICT on the 5th, and the 840th at RQULBRS on the 2nd APRIL. 

XV CORPS One officer and 15 men of the I05th KEG1 , Oth 

Division, XV Corps, and one man of the 84th Field Artillf ry Regiment 
were taken prisoner yesterday evening at point 6o,Y/est of KXI 
Z ILL IB" : . They said that the 99th,Regiment was on their left, and tl|at 
the I43d on their right, and that the I?6th Regiment had been withdrawn 
for unknown destination about a week ago. Companies are said to be 
up to war footing, and«-y»»eea $ -» recent casualties had been slight. 
. e I06th Regiment has six machine guns of which one was recently 
wuthdrawn, presumably for repairs. 

The gunner stated that the 51st Field Artillery Regiment was armed 
l>) with field howitzers, and that he did not know of any heavier ordnano • 
The heavy Austrian howitzers are no longer in the neighborhood. 

The prisoners stated that every four or fivo weeks the?I05th 
iment was withdrawn from the front for a weeks rest and is relieved 
in the trenches by the l Reserve Regiment, 4 .©serve Division T 3QI R. 
Corps. 



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American Dmbassy, 

L M D u H, England, 
Juno 10, 1915. 



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From: 
To: 
3uoj ect : 



Lt. Col. Thomas C. Treadweil, U.S.H, . 

val Attache. 

The forcing of the Dardanelles. 

Second Pho.se - Combined Operations* 




The Landing. ( April 25th - 28th} 

During the latter part of April, the naval and military operations 
to force the Dardanelles were resumed. 

The naval attack on the Dardanelles was begun on Feb, 19th,. thus 
the Turks, directed by the Germans, had over two months to make the position 
impregnable, or more than five weeks froffl the last disastrous naval attack 
on inarch 17th, This valuable time was utilized by them in repairing the 
damaged fort3, and mounting new guns in them; mounting heavy howitzers in 
concealed positions in Gallipoli peninsula, and placing lighter mobile 
artillery; strengthening the garrisons, accumulating ammunition, nines and 
torpedoes; oiacing under water tubes, and making preparations to repel 
landings by constructing trenches, barbed wire entanglements, and other 
obstacles - infaet, making every preparation possible for the defence. The 
forcing of the Dardanelles - a most difficult undertaking at first - had 
been rendered doubly so by the delays of the Allies, 

Reconnaissances of the Dardanelles defences were uiade by the naval 
forces during April. The British submarine E 15 while attempting a re- 
connaissance of the Kephez mine field ran aiahore near ^ephez Pt, April 17, 
and the crew were made prisoners. The next day she was torpedoed by picket- 
boats to prevent her falling into Turkish hands. The transport tounitou 
carrying British troops was attacked by a Turkish torpedo beat in the Aegean 
which fired 3 torpedoes at her without making a hit, and was later chased by 
destroyers and run ashore on the island of Chios, 



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On April 20, Enos near the Bulgarian border, and about 65 miles 
from Bulair was bombarded, and a landing demonstration made. About 10 days 
before a Turkish camp at this place had been bombarded by British vessels 
and telegraph station destroyed. It was reported that 63 transports with 
troops left Alexandria on April 18. Great activity was meanwhile going 
on at Leranos, where troops and transports were arriving daily from Alexandria, 
Aeroplanes flew over oiayrna and dropped bombs on Gheane, and a destroyer 
bombarded some scattered Turkish encampments, 

on April 25, the landing at the Bar dan ell e a began. 
On the 26th, the Admiralty and the far Office made the following 
announcement: — 

"The general attack on the -Dardanelles by the Fleet and army was 
resumed yesterday. 

"The disembarkation of the Army covered by the Fleet began before 
sunrise .t various points on Galiipoli Peninsula, and in spite of 
serious opposition from the enemy in strong entrenchments protected by 
barbed wire was completely successful. Before nightfall large forces 
were eetaolished on shore. 

"The landing of the Army arid the advance continue". 
On the 27th the far Office and Admiralty made following announce- 
ment : — 

"After a day's hard fighting in difficult country the troop3 landed 
on Galiipoli Peninsula are thoroughly making good their footing with the 
effective help of the Navy. The French have takBn 500 prisoners." 
The French communique of the same date was as follows: — 
"In the lending effected on April 25 by the Allied forces on ooth 
■J ores of the Dardanelles the French troops comprising infantry and 
artillery were especially designated to operate at kuni Kale on the 
Asiatic coast. This task was accomplished with entire success with the 
support of the guns of the French fleet and under the enemy's firo. 
"Our troops succeeded in occupying the village, and in holding 
their ground there notwithstanding 7 counter-attacks covered by heavy 

artillery which were delivered by the enemy durin^ the night. 

-2- 






1 
























"We took 500 prisoners and the enemy's losses appear to be high, 

"The general disembarkation of the Allied forces continues under 
excellent conditions." 

On the 28th the War Office made the following announcement : — 

"In face of continued opposition the troops have now established 
themselves across the end of the Gallipoli Peninsula from a point 
north east of tfski-Hessarlik to the mouth of the stream on the opposite 
side, 

"They have also beaten off all attacks at jSari Bahr, and are 
steadily advancing." 

"The Turks had made considerable preparation to hamper any lojiding. 
Wire entanglements under xhe sea as well as on land, and deep pits with 
spikes t the bottom wdre among the obstacles overcome by the troops." 

The Russian communique dated April 25th was as follows:— 

"At 6 aim. the Russian Bia;k Sea Fleet approached the Bosphorous. 

"At about 8 a.m. the vessels opened fire with heavy gang against 
the forts and batteries. They successfully shelled the two forts 
at Fener, the Karbdge, Yum Burun, and Uzangur forts, and the forts at 
Kavak and Majar. As a result of the bombardment great explosions were 
observed in the forts, 

"The Turkish warships in the Straits were shelled and forced to 
retire. The battleship Target replied to our fire without effect. 

"linemy torpedo boats which advanced towards us were quickly driven 
off by the fire of our ships. observations made by hydroplanes showed 
the accuracy of the fire of the squadron. The enemy Datteries attempted 
to shell our airmen but without success." 

when the full details of this landing at the Dardanelles are 
published, it ./ill no doubt be found the most remarkable oomoined naval and 
military operation ever carried out in the face of strong opposition. The 
official accounts given above tell ail the facts which are strictly material 
to a general grasp of the situation up to April 28th, Knowing, however, 
the success that h as attended this landing, it is important to know the 

-I- 



methods by which that successaas obtained, and the details of the 
various landings; and much light has been thrown on these points by the 
excellent accounts of a member of observers on the spot. 

The difficulties in disembarking troops on a shore which was so 
will defended ver.3 almost insuperable, and until landing force was not 
only on shore, but had b&en able to establish itself in tenable positions, 
and in fighting formations, the entire conduct of operations waw under naval 
command . 

There was no port, and no wharves or piers, and the mere transport 
of the men from ships to land, and their disembarkation there constituted 
a very complicated piece of work. Everything that could carry men had to 
be used, not only from every transport, but also from every warship. 
Trawlers, sweepers, tugs, lighters, etc., had also to be provided* This 
numerous and variegated fleet was divided up into flotillas, each told off 
for a special unit, and towed in proper order to the section of the shore 
which each unit was designated to attack. As a staff work of organisation, 
and as a feat of seamanship, the effective landing, as near simultaneously 
as possible of such large forces in 7 differentplaces was unprecedented. 
And the boat work was not limited to a single trip of each boat. There were 
not enough ooat3, etc. to go round - nor for that matter beach enough-to 
land more than a fraction of expeditionary force at one time. As fast as 
the boats vere emptied steam pinnaces, destroyers, trawlers, etc. bad to 
tow them back to transports for fresh loads. 

The Navy had to prepare for the landing by oombarding Turks 
positions, deliver the army safely on shore, and maintain an offensive by 
the fire of its gun3 on every Turkisn position in reach so as to reduce hostile 
attack on the disembarked troops to a minimum. Almost the whole of the 
northern coast of the QaUipoll Peninsula is continuous cliffs. The separate 
beaches where a landing was made appear at best to be confined spaces the 
defend, of vhxch by we^-i placed infantry, machine tJ uns, artillery, and wire 
entanglements should not have been difficult. That an amy could be landed 
on such on unpromising shore tbo ft at excellent coiuoined work by bha army 

and navy, without Which it voulci have been oven more costly it was, or 

InvnoflsIM *. " 4 ~ 






I 









The most difficult of all operations on a coast of this character 
is the landing of artillery and horses. This landing of the artillery 
seems to have been begun on the 26th, and continued the 2tfth and 28th. 
By the 28th the whole end of the peninsula was in the hands of the British 
and entrenched; while the Australians held a second position 10 idles 
to the north at the end of a gap in the hills that run through to Maidos 
from the Gulf of jSaroe» 

The great difficulty in Banking good the landing was the putting on 
shore of the first troops* Once fcheae supported by the fleet could es- 
tablish a position across the narrow peninsula, the transports could put on 
shore the heavy munitions, and ail that the expedition needed, acting securely 
behind the screen of troops that had established themselves, livery part in 
the difficult and complicated work of putting troops into ooats from the 
ships, towing then ashore, etc. $ad it seems been rehearsed for days before, 
until everyone was perfect in the drill. The rapidity with which the operation 
was actually performed on the 25th is the best justification of these 
rehearsals. To have attempted the landing without every detail having 
been practical would have been to invite disaster. 

Early in April, General* Sir Ian Hamilton was reviewing the French 
part of the expedition in jSgypt. By April 21, the transports in kurdos 
Bay and the officers and men on ooard were apparently ready for the attack. 

e landing began at dawn April 25, when the fleet of warshies, 
transports, and trawlers, which had left their anchorage in Hardee bay during 
the afternoon and night before, appeared off the mouth of the Dardanelles. 

The whole operation comprised 6 landings on the Gallipoli Peninsula, 
and a seventh by the French on the Asiatic side. One landing place was a 
beach below De Totts battery at the eastern end of i.-orto Bay. The next was 
a beach immediately to the west of '>eddul-Bahr. The third near heiles, aoout 
a mile further along. The fourth was on the north-western shore of the 
peninsula about t o wiles to north of G ,■ ok eh. The fifth a small beach 
two toil • a further up the coast. The Australians landed ftbeut 10 miles further 
up near Gaba Tepe. 

he landing of 'renek en the -vsiatio ooast was on the beach 

between Kum Kale and Yeni Shehr. -b- 



The landing places were small flat open beaches where boats could 
run ashore, but the Turks occupied the high ground behind and flanking than, 
In most cases also the Turks had protected them with quantities of barbed 
wire, hidden machine guns, and strong forces of infantry in entrenchments 
supported by field and mountain guns, and 6-in. howitzers and smaller guns 
inland. 



■- 



he general arrangements for the landing seem to have been as 



follows: The covering troops spent the night on ooard selected battleships. 
Before daylight they were transf erred to trawlers, of which 4 or sore accom- 
panied each conducting battleship. .Each trawler had 2 tows of 3 boats made 
fast to the bews, one on t-ach side. The battleships also towed 2 long lines 
of ships boats vhich were to be filled rapidly with troops at a given signal 
and towed in by the ships steam pinnaces. The trawlers were to steam in until 
they grounded on the beach." The boats were then to be cast off, and make for 
the shore, the soldiers rowing themselves, assisted by some sailers* 

In this work of rowing the troops had been practiced for a week 
before, but each boat Y/as in charge of a few seamen. The sweepers landed 
their men in the sane way, j-id the other tows of boats were hauled by the 
steam picket boats from the warships. The trawlers end other boats then 
dragged themselves free, and proceeded to the transports further out to take 
on troops for the main landing. A bombardment by the warships beginning a 
few minutes before 5 am. preceded the landing. 

The landing was accomplished, by a total of about vO,000 troops, 
including the 29th Division, the Rdyal Naval Division, a division of Aus- 
tralians, a 'lew Zealand contingent, and a French Colonial Division. That 
an army composed of nuch a mixed body of troops comprising a British regular 
division, a naval division, Australians, Me» Zealanders, French and Cin- 
galese - ■ ay of whom had never bneu under fire - should make i,ood their 
land.'ui on eueh a difficult shore, in the face of a stiff defence, speaks 
in the highest terms for the efficient command, staff 'ork, organization, 
discipline, uoruio, and fine fighting (.ualities of these troops. 



-6- 







I 









Gaba Tape. 

The Australian and hew Zealand troops were landed at a beach 
near Gaba Tepe, under cover el the fire of the London and other ships 
of that division. This landing place was more favorable than some of 
the others, but nevertheless these forces met with stiff opposition. 
Two of their boats wiri sunk, and others broke away from their tows 
before reaching the shore by Turkish shells, end nearly all the boats 
had casualties, .hen the boats reached shore the raen jumped out and 
without waiting to form line charged the Turkish trenches. The first 
line of trenches near the beach was abandoned by the Turks before they 
crossed bayonets with the attackers, and purouers and pursued rushed on 
the second line, some distance up the cliff, v/hich Bade no stronger de- 
fence than the first. Continually reinforced from the shore, the attack 
pressed forward and carried the trenches further inland, as well as the 
flanking entrenchments whose enfilading fire had been almost as des- 
tructive tc the flying Turks as to the Australians mingled with them. 

The ridge under v/hich landing was made stretches north from 
uaba Tepe and culminates in height of Coju Chemen which rises to height 
of 95dft. Towards 'the aea the terrain presents a steep front, broken 
up into ridges, bluff3, valleys, and sand pits, nnd covered with thick 
bushes about 6-ft. high. Go broken is the ground that Turkish snipers 
were able to lie concealed within a few yards of attack without being 
discuvered, taid during the early part of the day very heavy casualties 
were suffered in the boats which conveyed the troops to the beach from 
the hidden Turkish sharpshooters. The Turks also enfiladed the beach 
with two field guns i'rom Gaba Tepe, but later in the day these two guns 
were silenced by a cruiser moving in close to shore and covering Gaba 
Tepe v/i:h a hail of shell. 

This initial rush carried the Australians to a distance of 2 
miles inland without a pause, the losses on both sides being rather 
heavy. The position thus gained could not, however, be held in Lhe 
face of large Turkish forces and artillery, and a retirement to ^ooition 

-7- 



near the cliffs was made giving the Australians a footing of only about 
a mile square, which they entrenched and held. Stores, horses, mules, 
guns and ammunition were landed, and wireless stations put up.* droops 
continued to land and were rushed to the firing line mostly to the left 
where pressure was strongest. At night attacks were made by the Turks, 
and rifle and shrapnel fire continued in fluctuating bursts. At dawn the 
position was strongly attacked in the center, the Turks penetrating line in 
places, but ?/ere forced back. This attack lasted Hor two hours, the 
Turkish infantry attacked with great bravery and suffered heavily from fire 
of ships. 

The TurKs evidently intended to drive the Australians into the 
sea by a great concentration of infantry, supported by increasing shrapnel 
fire, expecting to find a line thinly held by men exhausted from their losses 
and exertions on day of landing, but for the Australians the only hope was 
to maintain their position, as it would have been impossible to re-embark 
if ring of hills commanding beach had been lost* 

During the night of the 26th the Turks harassed the Australians 
in their trenches by sniping, but did not press homo any attack. By the 
27th the .iustralians were firmly established in their entrenchments on a 
semi-circular front which covered the landing place. There the position 
had been also greatly improved by the landing of some of their field guns 
and several Indian mountain Catteries. During the 2'<th the Turks opened 
fire with a large number of fiela gun3 which they had put in position during 
the night, on the shore and the sea beyond in an endeavour to prevent landing 
of reinforcements and munitions. The warships kept up an incessant fire on 
these Turkish batteries, and on any infantry that attempted -co advance, being 
much assisted by the efficient spotting of hydroplanes. 

.Yhile the Australians and hew Zealand ere made good their landing 
at Gaba Tepe, the British troops - the 29th Division, assisted by units of 
the Naval Division and covered by the battleships made five landings at 
southern end of Gallipoli Peninsula. These landings were on beaches obsig- 
nated as 3, V, '.il, X, and Y, on the appended chart, ihe cliffs are irregular 
here, and at places rise from bO to 100 feet from th iter's edge. There 

-8- 



' 






1 






is no foreshore and rocks in most places make landings impossible, but 
there are at intervals stretches of beach, and five of these were selected 
for the disembarkation of troops each under the covering fire of warships. 

Two of these landings are on the western side, and are marked 
with letters X and Y The third known as W is between Gape Tekeh and Cape 
Helles; a fourth, V, between Cape Helles and Seddul Bahr; the fifth, S, 
in ii'iorto Bay, east of Seddul Bahr. 

There is an open grassy plateau behind the low cliffs at these 
points reaching inland for about 2 miles, when the ground becomes hilly and 
broken near the village of Krithia; and the slopes of the hill of kehi Baba 
which rises about 700-ft. This flat plateau is partly cultivated, and partly 
grass covered with scattered brush. Many of the Turkish trenches could not 
be made untenable by the fire of the ships' guns# 



Y Beach. 

The landing at Y was covered by the cruisers Duolin, Amethyst, 
and Sapphire. Two battalions and one company were put|aahore here, the 
landing was made without opposition, and troops obtained a firm footing 
on the cliff. When they attempted to advance, however, they encountered 
strong opposition, and attacks from V and W being held to the edge of the 
coast all day, troops advancing from Y were outflanked, and obliged to 
fall back after suffering heavy losses. This force held its position during 
the night, and then re-embarked successfully on the morning of the 27th, 
under heavy covering fire from the ships* ,uns. 



X iieach. 



The landing at X was carried out successfully and with little 103s 



largely owing to effective fire of Impiacaole. At dawn the covering ship 
Swiftsure, opened up a heavy bombardment on the cliffs above X and at 5.30 a.m. 
the Implacable stood in shore, until she reached the 6 fathom "'ine, only 
500 yards from the shore. iTrom this point die covered the top of the cliffs, 
and the shore with her fire. The Turks could not show a head above the 
cliffs, and tows went right in to beach, and troops obtained & firm footing 

-9- 



at the edge of the cliffs where they entrenched. This force then advanced 
about 1,000 yards inland, r/here they v/ere counter-attacked, and found their 
right flank exposed as advance from V was held up all day. They also suffered 
from fire of a Turkish battery near village of krithia, but position being 
signalled, it was silenced by fire of Implacable. In spite of Turkish 
attacks, the troops from X held their ^round inland ail day, but at night 
jrhe Turks counter-attacked in force, and they were driven back to the cliffs, 
where they hung on all night in shelter trenches, ana on the morning of the 
26th, were again able to advance. 



• i>each. 



At i there is a small bay with a broad stretch of sand; thi3 



sandy beach oeing commanded on the left by Cape Tekeh, 100-ft. high, ana 
on the right by continuation of cliffs which reach to Cape Heiles. The 
landing parties had to land on a sandy beach enclosed on both sides by 
hills, and to force their way up this semi-circular valley. 

The Turks had constructed trenches for defence of this beach, pro- 
tected by barbed wire, and their snipers were hidden in the broken ground, 
and covered the shore with their fire* At dawn for three-quarters of an 
hour, the position was swept by a strong fire from the covering ships, with 
the object of making it untenable and destroying the barbed wire, which was 
known to be obstructing the shore. 

At daylight, the troops v/ere taken to shore from the cruiser 
Euryalus in 8 tows. Three of these tows made for the shelter of cliffs on 
the right, 3 for the beach, and the other 2 to the left under Cape Tekeh. 
Ail of these tows v/ere exposed to a very heavy fire as they approached the 
shore, but the tow3 which had made for cliffs to right reached the beach, 
and the troops scaled the cliffs and obtained a footing on the crest near the 
Turkish trenches. Here they were held and could advance no further. The 
tows which made to the left also reached the beach and men got shore, iaid 
these two uodies of troops clung to edge of cliff on both sides. The troops 
from boats which landed on beach between found themselves confronted by a 
hedge of uncut barbed wire, and exposed to a cross fire from the pompons, 

-10- 















- 






: 



- 



maxims, trenches, and snipers concealed everywhere. The kaxims were 
concealed in holes dug in the cliffs, and could not be found by the fire 
of the ships. 

The beach party, detachments of engineers, and units of the Naval 
Division who were corning ashore in the second tows made for the shelter 
of Cape Tekeh, and swarmed up the cliffs to support of troops there. This 
reinforcement enabled these troops to advance a little, and they captured 
a Turkish trench, and thus in some degree checked the enfilading fire on 
the beach. 

At 10 a.m, another regiment was landed which sweeping up the 
valley drove back the Turks, and it then becane possible to clear the 
wounded from the beach, cut the barbed wire, and start disembarking uunitions 

That afternoon, the troops succeeded in advancing a little inland, 
and some companies worked their way east along the cliffs to assist the 
troops who were endeavouring to getaahore on V beach. This advance was for 
a time successful, and some Turkish trenches were captured, but the line 
having become very thin the troops had to fall back to immediate crests 
commanding W, and there they occupied the trenches out of which they had 
driven the Turks earlier in the day. 

That night, the Turks having brought up reinforcements attacked, 
and beach parties of bluejackets, detachments of engineers, and of Naval 
Division who were disembarking munitions on the shore were ordered to re- 
inforce the firing line, With this reinforcement they held through the 
night, and Turks were driven off with heavy loss. 

On the following day, more men were landed at Iff, and the line 
joining up with troops at X was able to move forward a short distance and 
get across the end of Peninsula. 



V, b ouch. 



The most difficult of all the landings was that at V between 



Cape Kelles and ^eddul Bahr. 

The general configuration of the coaut is much the Lsame there as 
at tf - a sandy beach, with u Broken valley running inland enfiladed by hills 

-11- 



the hills behind, and the Turkish trenches. Duping the entire day the 
River Clyde lay afehore with her men paoked in between her decks, and officers 
crowded on protected bridge. The bullets rattled against her steel plates 
without penetrating thorn, and sharpshooters on shore picked off any one 
who showed his head above cover. 

The Turks on Asiatic side attempted to destroy the Hiver Clyde 
by howitzer fire, but this was kept under by the covering warships in the 
Straits. 6he was, however, pierced by 4- shells, all of which failed to 



explode. 



All further efforts to land at V were postponed until after dark. 



In the afternoon, some companies of the troops landed at v/ advanced along 
the cliffs and captured some of the Turkish trenches on the hill overlooking 
V on the left* but they -were forced to retire that night. 

At 3 p.m. it was dark enough to make another attempt to land, 
and this time almost the entire force was out on shore without loss. On 
landing the troops moved eastward to get the shelter of the cliffs under 
the Castle of Seddul Bahr, 

At 11 p.m., the Turks again opened up a heavy fire sweeping the 
beach, but the British troops were then under cover and suffered small loss. 
During the night a firm foothold was obtained, the castle being partly 
occupied, and the old ruined fort and cliffs beyond. 

On the morning of the 26th, an advance was attempted on the left, 
through the ruined village. This attack was held up by machine guns placed 
in one of the towers of the castle, and troops had to again taka cover until 
Cornwall!* demolished it with her guns. There was then hard fighting in the 
ruins of the village, before the British troops could clear out the snipers, 
and thus gain the open country beyond, where they were confronted by the 
trenches and barbed wire on Mill 141, 

At about 11 a.i'u, an attael tn this position was begun, and at noon 
after consideraoie loss, the trenches wero taken. Thus at length after theso 
strenuous exertions V, like the other positions was made good, ?.nd the way 
opened for further advances. 



-14- 









• 






I 






- 



< 





















S Beach. 

At S, which is between Seddul Bahr and De Totts Battery, 30cie 
750 men were put ashore from trawlers, under cover of fire from ships, v/ith 
few casualties, and succeeded in establishing themselves on the cliffs, and 
held this position in the face of considerable opposition, until this 
position was taken over by French troops. 

The Turks had a trench along the shore of Morto Bay, which was 
well battered by the battleships and was carried by a bayonet charge soon 
after landing was effected. 

The Turkish howitzers made the beach under De Totts uncomfortable 
with shrapnal fire, but troops quickly rushed up the side of the cliff to 
the old disused battery on the top, and other troops worked round a shouid.,r 
of the hill to left, pushing the Turks before theia. By 10 a.m., the troops 
were well on the way to possession of height, and by the afternoon Lhe 
troops had established themselves, and were able to maintain their position, 
in the face, as said, of about 2,000 Turks in their front. A company was 
also landed at Camber, the little boat harbor under the fort of Seddul Bahr, 
but it could make no progress up the steep cliffs into the village and had 
to be withdrawn. 

By the end of the afternoon of the 26th, additional troops and 
some guns having been landed, the different forces had joined up, and all 
the trenches on uhe top of the ridge were curried. These trenches were found 
to contain many dead Turks who had been killed by the fire train the ships, 
which searched the ridge until advance of British troops made it necessary 
for them to cease fire. 

This operation established British firmly on the end of peninsula. 
Fhe night of the 2Gth and after the troopfl whQ hud dug themselves in repulsed 
attacks by the Turks. During the ni b ht of thl I Gth, a force of French troops 
landed at liorto Bay, and next day formed up their lino with tha British on 
the ridge. The beaches could then be used for landing fith greater safety 
munitions for the Army on shore. 



-lb- 



mv 



I 



the loss of the Turks who had wiado many desperate aria unsuccessful counter- 
attacks, and hammered as they were in many of their trenches, by the ships' 
guns, must have been considerably more. By the 23th, the British and 
French forces had Deen able to establish themselves with a small footing 
astride the ^allipoli Peninsula, from ^ski Hesserlik to mouth of stream on 
opposite side - that is, a line only about 3 rules in length* and only 2 ' 
frowi uape Heiles the extreme point of peninsula,- While the Australians 
and Hew ^ealanders had obtained even u smaller footing near Gab a Tepe» 

From this time the Allies further advance up the peninsula was 
very slow. The Turks had numerous good defensive positions - two very 
strong ones at Achi Baba, and Pacha Dahr, that would have to be taken before 
forts at narrows eoulci be attacked from iana siae - and the hx&i&s&F 
military operations thus became of the nature of seige warfare. 




-17- 



V V 









- _- ■ — :-■ 



I ^ r 






7? 



[See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.) 

Need not be retm 






QiiBirnT GERLIAN SUBMARINE to 
bUttJL^l CONSTANTINOPLE. 



From No. .*•* 

Replying to O. N. I. No. 



June 11, 1915. 




., J 91 



...., 191 
UG 2 i 1915 



The following is an exact copy of a telegram 
from the Associated Press correspondent in Constantinople to the 
correspondent in Berlin for transmission "by mail relative to the 
German submarine successes at the Dardanelles. 

One word ( the number of the submarine 
commanded by Ernest von v o i g t ) was censored out :- 



w Constantinople June sixth Oerman submarine 
development this war J said Kapitanleutnant Otto j£exaijag 
to-day associate^) at outbreak war it^considered extraordinary 
our submarines reaching Boulogne France.We ourselves 
underrating actionradius submarines /quoted /Her sing arrived 
here yesterday with submarine * IT 51 * from Wilhe 1ms haven, 
trir> covering distance close 5000~mTles ending wi th torpedoing 
British lineshii: •TRIUMPH* "MAJESTIC* outside Dardanelles, 
s^kw Her sing September fifth torpedoed British cruiser 



*J]AT]TFINDER*. since then sank five British freight steamers, one 
innarbor LeHavre .^ow has total credit eighty Her sing aged 
thirty tall sharp faced darkhairad Oerman without pretentions 
affable demeanor, his aides Lieutenants John Buntehardt Dietrich 
Niebuhr, engineer John Heine Doctor Gustaf Olshausen sharing 
these characteristics, all young man about thirty in whose 
faces daring rather than hardhsips^recent trip observable, all 
glad having been of service'' causeifatherland^Hersing quote 
when leaving Wilhe lms haven myself-^-two others, only , knew 
destination, Dardanelles appeared' long way of'f but 7/e w w£ 11 i ng + 
make it, have done so .left home -nor t April 35th arrived off 
Dardanelles May 35th % torpedoed that day "TRIUMPH* two days 
later *MAJE STIC*, Ground on 39th that British fleet hart gone 
cover, so put in h^re in order rest erow 



to 



who* *en 1 1 1 1 e d * a'f t er 



w.k^Ui *VUVW J 1->J U,A ±S i. KllVJl l^U,DU IVXOVi <>«,.' <■-• Ci.\j . i.\l . Jl\J . | JLJ 

starting work ainking •TRIUMPH* early ^-lorning May S5^ 
British iestr&yerajgdne right over me^Hestroyer near 



strenuous trip exceeding month Reached Gibraltar encountering 
no British battleships though malting majority run surface, 
near Gibraltar noticed' English destroyers but sailed through 
v«ry center on surface unobserved untill well beyond 
Gribriatar^ then chased Jli^ed v e scaped unscratchsd,had similar 
experience near French base Biserta reached Ae ge an , immediately 

»fv mtivnlns? v Q^th after 

dived 

but could hear propellers hum as vessels sped over * U 51 * 
came surface immediately fired torpedo dived again heard 
explosion torpedo, two days later made ■MAJESTIC* quarry close 
to coast , one eye glued constantly periscope saw that "MAJESTIC* 
crew Just having dinner, considered for few moments whether or 
not pKe crew finish dinner but decided finally my duty**fire 
without delay, •MAJESTIC* then surrounded by about ten 
transports, had to fire obliquely but pot her well aft, ship 
turned turtle whan we eomin&mBurfaca naw h*r ? r eel up, in both 
instances British ships had torpedo nets down said Hersing. 
Jii^L -b***. refused discuss contrivance enabling! ^is torpedoes cut tin 
through nets which of toughest steelwire, bur torpedoes do it 
th&ts enough he said, Hersing then went over great part his 
work including sinking •PATHFINDER" by * U 11 " which he then 
commanded /That was first torpedo which ever sank warcraft,he 
explained ( since then torpedo became terror sea 

0m 

If 






! 






- 3 - 

ipeaking ;J life aboard submarine Hersing ajaete very 
strenuous of course v men on post six hours off same _ . 
time^exeept when diving- when every man ; on duty ,but jW* 
• p conditions aboaad German submarines not as bad 
y^jMf L\ t as saatle flfcirsupply moderatley good, Too Awhile a^l 
" conserved^ also gcod/ltaal hardship however lack'fall 

opportunity*' get exer«ise > V6' ienevf,r possible we steam a- 
surface for officersTs ailing personnel, this great 
comfort but not for mechanical personnel, which 
obliged to remain below constantly ^This^borne out 
by bronze faces officers and sailors and blanched 
faces engineers Continuing Hersing ^otenien find 
much amusement in phonograph playing mostly (reman 
marches and^'few cabaret songs of which q-weie- Prussian 
Glory march** favori,te x we spend hours that way when 
obliged^la^ below 'when near enemy „ phono graph is 
stopped so that noises above which beat upon 
submarine shell as upon tympanum may be heard, we &*•* 
now ^xpert telling what snipes teaming over us being 
able^ distinguish marine engine stroke from 3teady hum A. 
turbine after torpedoing ship we sink immediately 
beinA able tell result deep under surface by 
detonation penetaating that ^ar.MfeHBnStle feeling 
in matter because torpedoing' our duty. to constant 
danger we at^eustome ft Hersing unwillingrsay what 



percent age torpedoes Ipat.we hit often enough 
howevprT5peaHngtHr|ng torpedo Kersing said touching 
small lever himself "*only act necessary when submarine 
positioned to sink- vessofT stop, Surrounding warship 



•; 



with other vesgels^ho preventive because German 
submarine' able* dive under them as he demonstrated 
several times^l^nes no bar to submarine he added 
because 5 "" good commander* "able to get through field 
though doing sO "rather dangerous % s4e*L"1?bnnage and 
special^applianoes'teis and other German submarine' 
Hersing janwi 11 ing discuss. likewise actual per&felon 
radius tfhougtf Remonstrated no#*more than 5000 miles « 
£eratn?^--e^te *talk about. Germaff submarine bases 
Irish Sea^ Mertlterranean IJ all nonsensa.&adiUsTOur 
submarines great eno ughTdo what they^done without 
needing base % >eftto^wi J&sert'.onsijjhajt German submarine 
usirjg special fuel likewise de¥cVI&ed by Hersing * ,. 
we^retting best out of what we have, may say here lA^ 
Bnfp>isli submarine s*t<|uipped with many appliances 
we use, Will- not discuss their unsuccess but will 
say England 1 V;aking poor showing ruling waves, on 
entire trip Wilhelmshav en 'Dardanelles British 
line ships out sight v hard work finding them 
jtjiowaday e , That reallymuost difficult phase TO 
)nr* 4.4? tmdif licult sinking them whQn located but to 
locate them most trying undertaking. quo'tred- Hersing 
notified to-day he ,s given order "Pour Le Me>ite s ' 
took his distinction calmly his aides more excited 
over it than he^Tnat his submarine sank two English 
llneships matter of fact thing with him .Re 
regretting repeatedly quick disappearance \ftnglish 
flaet after his arrival, speaking of measures against 
3-erntan submarine crews now em] loyed by British » 

irslng said this had led merely to determination 
to do greatest possible damage* British avy, and 
merchant marine before being caught t q*wrte- for report 
where my boaVflighted British government has here- 
tofore offered five hundred pounds, this was recently 
raised to one fchousnadj that is all good it will do 
if I can hilp it Associated also interviewed 
Commander Ernest von voigt of German submarine — 



ur work 



^ 



- 3 - 



which now here after torpedoing French transport near 
Dardanelles von voights story identical with Hersings 
both submarines put in here for purpose resting crews 
mail story on this coming next mail* * 



The following is a copy 
of an interview with Lieutenant H 



of another telegram 
ersingof»U 51 M . 




C Although these will appear in American papers 

in expanded form I think that some of the points contained 
therein are of interest and valuable for our own submarine 
officers :- 
11 ,$Te remained submerged several hours 
then came surfaee^find British disappeared* though search 
aUTTn vainpame Constantinople arriving yesterday 
morning having 3pent forty two days in submarine without 
let uteres t/unquojte /Her sing took sip from glass then 
turnoof^me tfau^h-s%ery enderL-quoAa-JLj. fa Submarine ife no 
ebillplay, fc&£s~weird existence, scientifically the air 
and nutrition suffice, but om suffers lack exercise, even 



scientifically pure air some time s^ pauses higher pulse -"V l 
rate rapid breathing, \Kiat hardest %11 for crew is fact W*V 
submarine like Cyclops has, only one eye thi3 being captains 
right optic.lt stays glued ^periscope through all trying 
time hi a word alone giving comrades Inkling what going on 
excepting for ear which* becomes highly trained to noise 
striking sounding board'* submarine body^qwe^te cruiser aft 
firing upon us* unquote says this cyclops 7 then crew only 
can wait for detonation striking under w|ter craft, quote 
JtJ.lfee Shakespeare splay where progres^ battle' shouted 
from tower to men in castle be^ww ^ said ships doctor 
Gustaf 01shausen»«nq«atd-quote N ^>r like Jungfrau von 
Orleans where fight^ off scenes described fighters on 

aboard 
submarine which H built economise spaesKiftmost .crew has 



;s ont place i 
jacJ^cfeiost vCi 
only one room which is most**ln^erior^iip»low H 'rounded » 
a room surrounded by machinexy^Ihirty three men sleep 
eat commune tor-ether, bunKsthere are^and electric lights 
also electric stoves wwhere oooking i's v done other fires 
being taboo for fear /explosion^ even smoking forbidden, 
menu is as canner permit s^qwffiirar* bacon and peas to-day 
peace and bacon to-morrow* a change of beans every six 
days < said Hersing jestingly * men work on six hour shifss 
but when submarine dives every man 1 at his post even if 
submersion lasts twenty four hours or longer. fence in 
Mediterranean Hersing stayed fifty two hours at periscope, 
quota, 'training has everything to do with it said 
Lieutenant Dietrich Niebuhr. one soon learns to stay 
twenty four hours standing in same place through he does 
get sleepy at end of it .unq-tte^e- though air* oxygenized 
there Tio device^keep it dry , clothes even if of silk^oon 
shimmering and shoes whited by moisture } while drops j^ 
water constantly fall tron low vaulted roof qu^ke—by-^such 
Journey good humor saves situation said Hersing, we all 
know we facing death but have to $ie some time be it 
to-morrow or years from now hence" made up my mind if 
tod'ft&Jbo everyone jollyffnen another essential is 
unquestioning discipline without which submarine would 
lost built as it is like'Vatch,Imposiible t 'do anything 
without complete oonfidence'severy man for if one fails 
overygna^gone, crew must have confidence in commander 
co i. lander in crew, he alone sees . so alone oan determine, 
every roan must realize instant obedience to slightest 
command 1 absolutely necessary unquote sHich discipline 



- 4 - 



such mechanical perfection of. delicacy surely represents 
highest development human ingenuity coupled'' human 
self-contr<&l > J ract fifty one withstood long journey 
without slightest mechanical trouble not least her 
achievements, though ships rocked by storms despite 
submersion* 5 " shaken by e:rplosion f %lockwork ac curacy ! ^her 
nervous machinery never failed > calculated supplies 
also proved ample *cfiitrtH3*igreat deal tommyrot written 
about our having base^Irish co as ^mediterranean said 
Engineer John Heine* also about new fuel burned *"our 
engines |we made trip^feual fuel allWhich^br ought 
with us^ un^o^e tjjut if training can teach men *st and 
raotionless^amepplaceYtwenty four hours or j&Lue eyes 
that lenth tino^peri scope lack practice 
t^jcrew fifty one had not 



mos 



practice can disastrous, 
come on deck during entire 



trip > forrot ten*' climb ladder really walk % staggered up 
at Constantinople wL$h clothes damp shoes whited 
themselves blinking sun light tottering like^babies 
q uo fr e but that all over now said Heine we^orgotten 
already what trials we underwent we are only happy 
that we have served our country imtiuote^l-lersings 
record unique aside firing first torpedo sinking ship 
and sinking two more warshlps^iOardanelles sunk five 

Havre November--* 



•lish French freight ships being 
torpedo tube which sank "PATHFINDER" been engraved 
name now name "TRIUMPH" added while name "MAJESTIC" 
engraved second tube and swing story sorry delayed 
but is'nt it ~reat am congratulating hiiru " 



are :- 



The deductions I make from these interviews 

1. That at least two submarines have arrived 
in Constantinople, having proceeded under 
their own power and unescorted from 
Germany* 






That one of these boats was " U 51 " 
( of about 1000 tons surface displacement) 
and the other probably a boat with a 
higher number* 



3. That the voyage was nearly 5000 miles 
made in 30 days or an average of about 
165 miles per day supposing no stops 
were made on the way. 

4. That at the md of this trip and without 
going into port for overhaul the » U 51" 
sank the British battleship "TRIUMPH" 
Hay T5th and the "MAJESTIC" on May 39th. 

5. That both British battleships had torpedo 
ne££ down but they were not sufficient 
To keep the torpedo from striking the 

ship. 



G. That a British destroyer attacked "U 51" 
while she was operating arainst the 
■TRIUMPH* and tried to ram, but that the 
submarine dived under and just escaped 
and subsequently came to the surface 
and fired against the ship. ( In this 
connection attention in invited to 
Z-IG5 of 1915 on attacking submarines. 



V 



- 5 - 



7. That the German submarine Service attributes its 
success larrely to the rigid discipline and 
high degree of training which submarine boat 
crews have received { Report 153 of 1915) • - r 3 , \ 

(t) 

8» That watches for surface runs are six hours on 

and six off 



'0 

(See-Paragraph 4. Instructions of October 31. 1900.) 



SUBJECT linking ..#£ Bagliah •■■^i^i-fte^----by---/vu-Ktro-f!rm^«ri-c[n" 

Huta&rlJte boat.. _::. _ __. _ _ __ 

From V No £.3 Date. 

Replying to O. N I. No Date 




^'j_ 



The following despatch of bh« commander-in-chief of the 
An»tr#-Hun^arian fleet . Bade public on the 10 bh inst*: 

"On the 9th inst. submarine boat IV. Lieutenant Singule coa- 
BKLniiag # borpedoeft and n&iik an English cruiser of ohe ''Liverpool'* 
b3 ,83 will eh waa cruising under the protection of sly. destroyer* 

30 miles west of 3an Giovanni di Medua." 




B^S^ 



I. 



V 



-*fW 



JSTeed not be returned, 

(See-Paragraph 4. Instructions of October 31. 1900.) 



if*- 



The following despatch of the commander-in-chief of the 
Austro-Hungarian Fleet was made public on the 11th instant: 

"The Italian submarine boat 'Medusa" has been torpedoed and 
sunk by one of our submarine boats in the northern part of the 
Adriatic* Second officer and four men rescued and made prisoners ." 



SUBJECT Sinking ...*£.. Italian Submarine boat by Austro- 
Hungarian Submarine boat in Adriatic. 



■tmiimmmnimjh 



From .?. No 2A Date June ....12., 1915 

Replying to O. N I. No Date 



Ill H III MI IW I I IBWM W W M W 



JUL ~TS 1915 




&/ 



c 






Office of ITaval Intelligence, 

June IP,, 1915, 



Compilation J.P.J. 
Copy . .L* 



&. 



J 



Air Strength of Belligerents 

and 



nta -J — 2L_ *. y 









Part .flayed by Aeronautics in the European War. 



rrn 



u]iis paper has "been compiled as a partial digest of informa- 
tion on file in this office regarding the aerona utic strength of 
belligerents and the part played by aeronautics in the present 
BxtrOjpe&n War, 

It is intended to emphasis© the vast importance attached to 
the science oi aeronautics by all the nations concerned, as shown 
by the sise of their aeronautic corps at the outbreak of the war, 
the remarkable development during its progress and the straining 
of every nerve on all sides to turn out air craft and train i.er- 
30nnel with the greatest possible rapidity. 

tie paper further attempts to show the reason for this in the 
part played 'by aeronautics in the war and the actual uses to which 
air erafi ve been put, taafrisg them indispensable adjuncts to 
in the field and fleets at sea. 

It is hoped to farther elaborate this subject la tor hj v ;iv4ng 
a resume of the principal air operations of the war and the lessons 
taught ^oj each, a comparison of the value of dirigibles and aero- 
planes and their field of usefulness from the results attained, 
and the latest | ractiee and conclusions reached in letters of de- 
sign and operation from experiences gains* in the war. 



t> fl fiQ •*•« 









V 












. 



Part 1. 

Aeronautic strength of Belligerents at the outbreak 

of the European War. 

liaterial 



Hation 


Dirigibles 


Aeroplanes 


Bemarks 


Germany 


20 


500 to 


800 


lso 3 civilian diri- 
gibles and a few civ- 
ilian aeroplanes. 


Prance 


18 


400 to 


500 


Iso 5 civilian diri- 
gibles and 500 civil- 
ian aeroplanes. 


Great Britain 


7 


200 to 


£50 




E us s la 


IB 


260 to 


300 




Italy 


8 


100 to 


150 


Also 3 small civilian 
dirigibles. 


Austria-Hungary 9 


100 to 


150 




Belgium 


2 


27 






Japan 


8 


10 










Personnel 







.viators. 



Hation 



Naval 



Military 



Civilian 



Total 



Germany 




22 


200 


578 


France 




11 


191 


790 


Great Britain 


172 


257 


400 


Bus s la 




3 


111 


5 


Italy 




7 


120 


84 


Austria- 


•Hungary 




74 


109 


Belgium 






58 


48 


^w ^^DWF%&m^ 




17 


4 
Dirigible , ilots 


5 


Germany 






43 


11 


France 






15 


8 


Italy 






30* 


3 


Austria- 


•Hungary 




7 


12 



800 
992 
829 
119 
211 
183 
106 
26 

54 
23 
33 
19 



^Includes 11 naval pilots. 

page 2 . 



fhe number of dirigible pilots of other nationalities 



is not imown. 

By way of comparison, the aeronautic strength of the 
United States at this same time is given: 



Dirigibles 




Material 

» » iiii-i i "M i m i 

3ea and aeroplanes 
19 

Personnel 



Aviators. 



15 aval 
8 



Military 
33 



Civilian 
489 



Building 





Total 
523 



Develo pment since the tifar beg an » 

Since the outbreak of the war there have been great 
losses on both sides. In many cases losses lave been concealed 
for military reasons and for the same reason new construction has 
been concealed so that it is difficult to make an accurate estim- 
ate of the present actual aeronautic strength* Resources are 
being strained to the utmost to turn out air craft and their 
accessories* and as many aviators as possible are being trained* 

Germany* 

Up to February 1, 1915. the loss of German aviators was 
reported to be 2G6, In spite of this enormous casualty list ex- 
ceeding the total number of naval and military aviators at the 
outbreak of the war f Germany has* thanks to her 3a r&e reserve 
and efficient system of training new pilots, not only been able 
to fill up the gaps but actually to increase the total number of 
aviators to 1800 or 2000* 

It Is reported that on December 1st, Germany had 1 
new bi-planes of various types, aad was commissioning them at 
the rate of 12 a day. 

The aviators are trained at the works taring the con- 
struction of the machines; and receive the finishing touches and 
are required to qualify at the regular government stations* 

Zeppelins are reported as being turned out at the rote of 



- 3 - 



on© every sixteen days* f fheso fitb dirigibles of other types, 
and ma king allowance for losses, should bring the total number 
of dirigibles now available in Genaany to somewhere about 40* 

France . 

Definite details regarding the present aeronautic strength 
of France, due to losses or increases since the war began, are 
somewhat lacking; but all plants have been working to full cap- 
acity turning out aeroplanes and their motors. Many shops such 
as automobile work®, etc, have 'hmn adapted to the construction 
of aeroplanes and motors • 

As an example, the famous Renault Automobile Company at 
Billancourt may be mentioned. Shis company employs 14,000 men 
in two shifts and operates night and day* Its output is 6 aero- 
plane motors per day, but in addition it is turning out 5,0-JO- 
75 mm. high explosive shells -p^ &&$* flUfti 150-3 ton motor lorries 
per week. 

£here is said to be a great shortage of aeroplanes in 
the french Army # and that in this respect the Germans have 
steadily maintained their lead. Lvery effort is being made to' 
increase the daily output. 

Considering this shortage, it is probable that France 
has all the aviators she can at present use. 

England. 

'xhe English Zioyal Flying Corps is divided into the Mili- 
tary Wing and the Boyal Haval Air Service. The exact number of 
machines is not known, but on April 6, 1915, it was reported 
that 2,000 machines were on order and undelivered. In operations 
on the present scale an allowance for the loss of 1 maohino a 
day is made. 

There are 300 aviators in the Hoyal Kaval ;.ir Service 
and presumably about the same number in the Military flag, 

ere are now under construction for the British .iralty 
some very large seaplanes having a span of 120 feet, three 
fuselages abreast, and driven by three motors. 



- 4 - 



Russia « 

In Russia aeroplanes for military service are constructed 
at the Baltic VTorks, at .uebedef 's, and Dehitnisky's, all in vic- 
inity of i-etrograd . The principle plant is the Baltic >.orks 
which turns out various types of air craft at the rate of about 
10 per week. Lebedef 's, although in existence only six months, 
has a capacity of 5 per week, 2hey also repair and reconstruct 
captured machines. Schitnisky's is a small works of limited 
capacity* 

A type of aeroplane distinctive to Russia is the Sikorsky 
Biplane. This gigantic oraft is 65 feet long, with a span of 
121 feet, and a "bearing surface of 1958 sq.feet. it weighs 
3 1/2 tons and is propelled by four engines of 400 to 600 h.p. t 
two of which may be disabled without endangering the biplane. 
It has a closed in fuselage and carries a normal crew of 8 men, 
but can carry 16. 

It was first experimented with two years ago, and has 
had a varied careefc or misfortune; but recently it 3s reported 
as having made a successful war flight over the city of Ilotsk, 
during which 15 heavy bombs were dropped, 

Russia is short of aeroplane motors, and it is stated 
that they are willing to pay any price asked to obtain them. 

There are rather unfavorable report concerning the Rus- 
sian aeronautic personnel* The number of military aviators has 
never been great in comparison with the number in England, France 
and Germany, and there are practically no civilian aviators to 
draw upon as a reserve. 

This weakness manifested itself early in the war, and 

the Germans soon secured control of the air on the Kast Front. 

The crushing defeat of the Russians in the .lasurian Lake region 

is attributed to their lack of an efficient aeronautic corps for 

BO outing purposes. The Germans were able to mass a large force 

for this attack, unobserved by the .Russians, who were taken by 

surprise and unable to concentrate in time to meet it. 

- 5 - 



1 



A German newspaper, in consenting upon their own aerial 
supremacy, states that it is reported the 'Russian aovemnent has 
made an appeal to France and England for flyers, owing to the 
lack of Hussion flyers and their inability to cope with the Ger- 
man aviators. 

Italy. 

Italy has been extremely active in aeronautics since the 
war began, especially in the training of aviators. ...evcral 
schools have been established for this purpose and the require- 

ats for military pilots "licenses are very rigid* ere are 
now probably over 300 aviators in the military establishment. 

In construction also she has not been idit#In January it 
was reported that 16,500,000 Lire had been appropriated for the 
development of airships and stations, in addition to 220,000 Lire 

-eviously appropriated. 5,000,000 of this will be used for 
building and developing hydro -aeroplanes. 

Italy is now said to have 20 dirigibles of various sises 
and types, and probably about 350 aeroplanes and hydroplanes. 

Aus t r la -Hungary « 

At the outbreak of the war the Austrian Central Commit- 
tee placed 1,440,000 kronen at the disposal of aeronautics. 
500,000 kronen had already been voted. 4c/rfeil aeroplanes v;crc 
ordered from Germany but only 12 were delivered. 8 Aviatik aero- 
planes, on exhibit at the Berne Exposition, were shipped to 
Austria . Altogether it was intended to acquire about 80 naval 
aeroplanes, the favorite type in Austria, and to erect a number 
of flying stations. £he outbreak of the war upset this program, 
and it is doubtful if many machines have been secured. 

Belgium, aervia and ^urfeey. 

The aeronautic services of Belgium, .jorvia and Turkey 
have probably not been materially increased since the war began. 
On the contrary they are probably weaker, due to the losses sus- 
tained • 



- 6 - 



Japan* 

Japan was very weak in aviation at the outbreak of the 
war. L"ho navy operated their few hydro -aeroplanes and the army 
was charged with the nanagcment of the dirigibles but also had 
a few aeroplanes. 

In the operations at Tsing Tao only 4 planes were used, 
one of 100 h.p. and three of 75 h.p* te la tter were Tumble to 
rise to the height considered necessary for the work in hand, 
and only the lou h.p. machine was used after the first few days 
until late in the siege, when a second 100 h.p. machine arrived. 

oince then however, Japan apparently impressed with the 
indie* ensability of aircraft in war operations, has shown con- 
siderable activity. 

In the spring of 1914 Japan had placed large orders in 
Germany for air craft and motors. f i:hey tried to secure 40 3 mo- 
tors from the Daimler factory alone. By August 1, 1914, however, 
only a few machines had been shipped to Japan, and the rest were 
of course held up. 

Japan has now 2 dirigibles, about 50 aeroplanes and 100 
to ISO flyer officers. 

Latest reports indicate that Japan lias decided to build 
at once not less than 160 aeroplanes, in addition to those al- 
ready on hand and under construction. 

There is an aviation station and plant at Tokorosawa, 
23 miles from Tokyo. 



- 7 - 



i/art II . 
itert played by Aeronaut lea in the War, 

Aeronautics may well be said to have revolutionised modern 
warfare , -both a3 regards the strategic and the tactical conduct 
of operations . 

£he present war has shown that air craft are an essential 
and indispensable part of the makeup of fleets and armies , which 
without them would be fore-doomed to almost certain defeat. 

2hat all of the belligerents engaged recognise this to the 
fullest extent is apparent from their strenuous efforts to turn 
out aircraft and train aviators to the utmost of their capacity. 

-en Japan, not seriously engaged since the fall of Tsing £ao, 
has shown her appreciation of the lessons learned, by the formu- 
lation of a definite aerial policy, and the determination to in- 
crease hor aeronautic service by the addition of 150 aeroplanes. 

i.ir craft has six separate and distinct uses in war. .uim- 
erated in order of their apparent importance, as thus far demon- 
strated in the present war, these are: 

1. Spotting and Beconnaissanco . 

2. Spotting and Control of Artillery Fire . 

3. Dispatch Carrying and Communication. 

4. Aerial Paids and Attacks. 

5. Defense against hostile Air Operations. 

6. Location of Submarines and Uiaos. 

Spotting and reconnaissance. 
Daily reconnaissances along the western battle front take 
place with routine regularity, cry morning at daylight the 
aeroplanes atart out, and the information they acquiro determines 
the conduct of operations. It is difficult to Imagine what the 
commanding generals would do if deprived of this means of obtain- 
ing rformation. Flights have become practically independent 
of weather conditions, and place even in fO{$, rain and high 
Winds. - 8 - 



It ia no longer possible to accomplish large concentrations 
of troops unobserved by the enemy through their air scouts. Bach 
side js thus able to forestall from the start every hostile attack 
in force, by immediately counter mas sing troops at the threatened 
point. The present deadlock along the western battlefront is the 
evident result. 

There is hardly a doubt that if either side had been notably 
weak in aeronautics, its line would long ago have been pierced 
and its armies routed, as the Russians were in the Masurian Lake 
region. 

In addition to locating the massing of large bodies of troops 

far in rear of the battleliae, it is possible to follow the move- 
ments of troops, supply trains, artillery, etc, near the firing 
line, which are otherwise hidden by forests, hills and folds in 
the ground, -he lines of hostile trenches can be traced and def- 
initely located, and masked batteries discovered. 

Air craft are the eyes of the army and the fleet and these 
must have an unlimited number of eyes, The importance of full 
accurate and uptodate information of the movements of the enemy, 
has been so thoroughly proved in past campaigns, and in the pres- 
ent war, as to need no comment* In those past campaigns this in- 
formation was acquired in a very imperfect manner by the slow, 
tedious and limited movements of cavalry on land and uncertain 
and equally tedious movements of ola* time frigates at sea, whose 
activities were completely limited by the force and direction of 
the wind. 

It can be seen how much more important and valuable is the 
•theft of securing information by means of air craft, with their 
extreme case and rapidity of movement, lar^o radius of action, 
esceller.it facilities for comprehensive and minute observation and 
practical independence of the topography of the theatre of war, 
and of the elements; I < ouotrated by the aerial operations of 
the present war, conducted with regularity and certainty in almost 
all kinds of weather. 

- 9 - 



In previous ?/ars an army without cavalry or a fleet without 
scouts was hopelessly handicapped. At present an amy or a fleet 
without air craft would "be infinitely worse off, and in the pre- 
dicament of a "blind nan fighting an alert and observant adversary, 

spotting and Control of Artillery 

i'iro , 

■The value of air craft for spotting has proved inestimable ♦ 
It has made possible accurate and effective lire upon distant and 
unseen targets, 

:e bombardment of Dunkirk by the Germans from Dixmude, at 
a distance of 23 3/4 miles is the most striking example, German 
aeroplanes hovered over .Dunkirk throughout the firing. It vrould 
have been impossible for the Germans to have known where their 
shell were falling and to have corrected their range and deflec- 
t tion except by their aid. 

In field artillery actions the accuracy acquired through the 
aid of aeroplanes has been incredible* The methods employed by 
the E&gliaa, French and Germans are essentially the same and dif- 
fer only in the details and the methods of communication between 
spotting aeroplanes and battery. 

The general scheme is for the aeroplane to fly out over the 
enemy position and locate the target. It then flies back to its 
own lines and transmits this information to the battery commander 
in any one of a number of ways, -such as dropping a message, sig- 
nalling by flags, etc. The target is usually located on a map of 
the theatre of war by signalling numbers indicating the square in 
which the target is located, 

Ehi aeroplane then flies out and takes a position over the 
target. en the battery opens fire the range and deflection 
are communicated to it from the aeroplane. 



/ 
/ 



- 10 - 



Dispatch Carrying and Communj cation . 

he aeroplane is the quickest, surest and most effective means 
of transmitting dispatches from one part of the b&ttleline to an- 
other when telephonic communication does not exist or is inter- 
rupted • 

The commandi.. oneral can assure himself in a few minutes 

through his aeroplanes that some movement he has ordered in s dis- 
tant part of the field has "been executed; and can coordinate the 

ate and attacks of his entire line by the use of a few aero- 
planes. 

A ero Balds and Attacks. 
The wa*r has demonstrated that the dropping the bombs by air 
craft operating Singly or in small numbers is uncertain, ineffec- 
tive and inaccurate, and the results attained rarely justify the 
effort exerted. To avoid the destruction by rifle fire or the 
fire of anti-air craft guns, which have been rapidly developed 
during the war, the aeroplane must fly at an altitude of at least 
2000 meters. Plying at such a height at the rate of 60 or more 
Miles an hour, with varying and unknown currents of air, the 
chance of hitting a target of small dimensions is practically nil; 
3 even when hits are made the dBonaje done is often surprisingly 

all • 

The only real chance of success is through surprise and by 
remaining undiscovered until the attack is made. The aeroplane 
might then be able to come down very close over the target and 
deliver its attack before the defense is aware of its presence 
and could concentrate upon it. 

There have been several instances of attacks upon air ship 
sheds, powder r;orks, r: ilv/ay functions, etc., which are claimed 
to lave aeon successful, But considering the number of aeroplanes 
presumably available to each side those attacks are comparatively 
few and it is usually impossible to verify the damage claimed, to 
re been done. 

- 11 - 



There Is a growing tendency to regard this use of air craft 
as ineffectual and hardly worth while. is is especially so 

t the French who now seldom -mhe raids for the solo pur- 
pose of dropping booths. All of their aeroplanes carry bombs how* 
ever, and they drop them if opportunity offers. 

Bfce foregoing remarks apply, as stated, to air craft acting 
singly or in small numbers* ore would i. r to bo large possi- 
bilities however, for attacks in force. This has been pointed out 
recently by an English authority and the reason that such attacks 
70 not been attempted -^7 fee due to the fact that the number of 
aeroplanes and aviators available to the different belligerents, 
is not sufficient to spare them for this work from their more im- 
portant duties of scouting and spotting;, 

£h±a authority claims that it would be possible to paralyse 
tho German lino of corammiieations into franco by the destruction 
of the 15 principle railway bridges across the Phine; over each of 
which it is estimated that a military supply train passes every 
ten minuts. If these 2140 trains per day or say only one -third 
of them were held up for even a few days what would happen to the 
Barman army in Prance? he holds that 150 to 200 aeroplanes rak- 
, ing such an attack would guarantee success* 

In the same Banner running trains attached by 40 or 50 aero- 
planes simultaneously would stand small chance of escaping. L'he 
theory is the same as that of an attack on the battle-fleet by 
a cloud of destroyers. Some are bound to get in. 

o further ts time/fee a that 1000 aeroplanes oould permanently 
destroy hrupp's Torhs ut ISssen, arid that repeated attacks by such 
*a number upon the German Fleet at its naval base would compel it 
to £;o to 3ea. 

ese are theories and cannot be substantiated by experience 
but show the trend of thought in Europe , and the number of machines 
considered necessary to effectively carry on war, and utilize to 
the full their capabilities. 

- 12 - 



Del enso against hostile Air Operations* 

Air craft form the "best means of defense against air craft 
and also the best means of driving off hostile air craft attempting 
to rmn information. 

In attacks upon cities and other objectives offering a largo 
target, hostile air craft can maintain such an altitude that they 
are beyond the range of anti-air craft guns and are invulnerable 
to them. Under these conditions the only means of meeting an at- 
tack is by opposing air craft to it. Squadrons of air craft must 
be kept ready to ascend at a moments notice at the first word of 
g that hostile air craft are in sight. 

iO cat ion of Submar ines and Mines. 
It has been found possible to locate large objects under water 
with considerable ease from air craft. 2he depths at which, sub- 
marines and mines can be seen under water depends upon the clear- 
ness and depth of the water, the character of the bottom, the slate 
of the sea and atmosphere and the height of the air craft. Under 
normal conditions air craft forms a fairly efficient means of lo- 
om t 1 ng ouch objects. 

•c ort from Italy states tha t in oxperiraento in locating 
l from air craft, all mines in the field wore detected from 
a height of 1000 feet within an angle of 3u°. 

- oplanes have been used to come extent in convoying ships 
at sea to warn them of the presence of submarines; but nothing 
very Lnite is known as to their actual value in this work. 



* 



- 13 - 







KMMHmKP 



OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE 




<. 



COPY-AEF. » /<* 




PRIVATE LETTER RECEIVED IN THE BUREAU OF ORDNANCE, 



NAVY DEPARTMENT. 



P:-ar Admiral: 



June 14, 1915. 

wwwwwwW MI i W lli l lil li l lt ' ^IUII N llWliWIIBI 1 * ' 



I saw Admiral Winterhalter for a few minutes and took occasion 
to tell him how helpless this country was in the production of wat 
material and how fortunate the situation was disclosed by the needs 
of others and not our own needs. 

He asked why I did not write to you, and I said what I knew 
related principally to army ammunition, and I supposed the Army 
knew all about it. I never understood, however, why the Army had 
such a small stock of ammunition, and suoh a large and growing 
variety of gun calibres. 

The fact is, Europe come here to buy about $200,000,000 worth 
of ammunition and found that nobody here had &ny equipment to make 
any ar.d nobody knew how to make any. That statement is correot, and 
is practically true at this late date. But some of the manufactur- 
ers are now shipping some of the simpler parts. The newspapers 
speak of big shipments, but it is not true as to ammunition. The 
customs house reports show the truth. The large shipments are 
automobiles, metals, and horses, and some small arm cartridges, and 

gun cotton and powder. 

i 

I am familiar with most of the European drawings, of standard 
army ammunition and know pretty well what they have asked for, what 
has been ordered, who is making it, and their progress* 

Under the above circumstances you will find it difficult to 
get any wa material at decent prices or deliveries. . \ 



There has been little demand for naval ammunition. Washington 
Steel & Ordnance, Bethlehem, Midvale, ana Crucible are doubtless 
making some a.p-. shell. These are all the a. p. shell makers I 
know of. Mr. Jennings, President of Carpenter Steel Company, who 
used to make such good shells, told me he stopped some years ago 
and did not intend to begin again. He said the Government con- 
tracts were too intermittent. If you offered him a long contract 
he might take it up again. 

The Harrisburg Pipe and Pipsbending Co. know the common shell 
game and are good people. They make alloy steel. 

The European orders call for about six or eight million rounds 
rounds of 3 W shrapnel and explosive shell complete with case, powder, 
and fuzss - ±m& also larger calibres. 

They also want several billion small cartridges and several 
million rifles. They also want powder, picric acid, and T.H.T. 

The result ie all necessary raw materials, ana machine tools 
and acid, even stone ware for aoid, is sold out for months. 

There are a great many manufacturers who are making noble 
efforts to produce, and some of them are beginning to get results. 
Most of them have to put in the equipment and are unwilling to do 
so unless they get a long contract and an advance payment. 

It takes a lot of brains to buy anything. The Russians and 
French have lost months of time in getting started. 

The Aetna ExpXosive Co. is building large plants - for powder 
and picric acid. I believe they have started producing powder at tae 
Emporium plant. 

The game is too big to attempt to write about. The question 
is what the Government should do. I remember an exoellent 




aHH 



HHH 



suggestion made by some one about the Torpedo Factory. They said 
the factory should build tools for making torpedoes, ready to deal 
out to private manufacturers. 

I know of a lot of new people coming into the ammunition game, 
and if I knew what particular things you wanted I sight suggest a 
manufacturer. They all have to be coached ana are naturally 
afraid of firing tests. The specifications should be so modified, 
as the Government is responsible for the design. You may have to 
change other details of the specifications. The Germans are using 
steel cartridge cases. I also hear duraluminum is used. If I 
can furnish any aseful information I will be glad to. 

Excuse writing as I am writing at night, with no typewriter. 
With best regards - 

Sincerely yours, 






'jp 



M 



T< 



U 



Office of ITaval Intelligence, 



Copy 

II. H. L. 



(*/ 



Extracts from letter received from Uaval Attache, 
Petrograd, June 14, 1916. 

«*"i hi tmummmyginKMIfWH 



'0/ 



^ 



'^% 



"The Black Sea Battleship Ivaperatritza Maria is now ready, 
and that the Imperatritza Ekaterina will he ready by Juljr 1. 



Undoubtedly the work on these two ships has heen rushed since 
'Turkey cane in. Of the four battle cruisers, the Ismail is 
nearly ready for launching, hut the others I do not think can 
he completed inside of a year. Of the Baltic Fleet the 
Eurik and Andrei Pcrvosvannyi have been damaged some time ago, 
hut are now repaired, the four new battleships of this Fleet 
are now in active service. There is constant mention of the 
operations of British submarines in the Baltic, but I think 
these are only the two which came in last fall, and about 
■which I wrote you." 



L 



Office of Naval Intelligence, 

July 7, 1915./ 



Copy 



B.H.L. 






Extracts from letter from llavai Attache, i^etrograd, 



June 14, 1915. 






"The regulations in regard to giving out any information are 
now almost incredibly strict. Heavy fines for discussing anywhere 
any military or naval movements. The latest order issued forbids 
speaking in any Ian guage hut Russian over the telephone - 3000 
roubles fine and 3 months imprisonment. I don't suppose this will 
apply to diplomatic representatives, but there would nevertheless 
be so much trouble about it, that I doubt if these will use any 
other language - Six months ago this would have been exceedingly 
inconvenient, but I can get along now in Russian. 

"A recent Russian Havy List has been published but is consid- 
ered confidential." 



) 

r 



(: 



v: 






,>* 



Need not be returned, 

(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31. 1900) 

Jul . 

■ 
/ 



SUBJECT , F 



9 < 

From No. * 



Date 



■•... ... 



Replying to 0. N. I. No..mmmmmm Date 



' li>i of 



♦ 




1915 



o 






* 









;. 









In rt ^ w 1 4 oi 















- • 









» 






'■r , 4 «". 






m iu<: 






tho o 



up 



4. In report n T" 104 there ere $hree riv m& 
in let Sque.&ron end tv/o in tho ut.clron, whereas it should 

bo reversed - the 1 re clivi ions o - : 

o remaining throe in 



[See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.] 



Need not be returned. 



SUBJECT RELATIONS BETY7EEN ARMY, NA^Y, AND FOREIGN OFFICE 
IN GERMANY WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE 
•LUSITANIA" NOTE. 



June 14% 1915. 




From No. 

Replying to O. N. I. No. 



The Second •LUSITANIA* note appeared 
yesterday in all the newspapers and in general the attitude expressed 
in the German newspapers is one of satisfaction and relief that no 
ultimatum was made and that there is opening for further 
negotiations* 

In order to understand the situation at the 
moment in Germany a brief review of the controlling factors is 
necessary. 

The most Important affairs of Germany are run 
by three organizations, the General Staff of the Army, the Actoiralty 
Staff of the Navy and the Foreign Office* 

The Btaperor may veto plans of these organization? 
but it is generally believed that he has steadily upheld the plans 
of the Army and Navy. 

The Army and Navy Staffs have full swing 
whithfcn their respective spheres to conduct the war as they please 
and they do so. The Army and Navy Staffs have therefore overridden 
international law and precedent when it seemed advlseable and have 
left it to the Foreign Office to patch up the matter with the 
government concerned. Of the three departments the Foreign Office 
is perhaps the least able, but it does not deserve all the 
condemnation showered upon it in Germany. It does not create the 
situation, but the situations are passed over to it by the war 
rmaking branches of the government. The Foreign Office also has the 
least influence with the Executive Head of the Government who 
traditionally and by education is altogether bound up in the 
success of the array. 

Beginning with the Belgian breach by the 
army and continuing to the present day in the submarine warfare 
carried on by the Navy, Germany has provoked the hostility of all 



the surrounding nations, 
enemies, a certain amount 
general and there is much 
nothing even if the world 
to be bargaining with the 



Since Italy has gone over to her 
of light has penetrated the country in 
less feeling that Germany must concede 
comes against her. Roumania is known 
allies, the Scandinavian countries, 

notably Denmark, are growing very restive under the German methods. 

Holland is unfriendly. 



The situation appears to be that the Foreign 
Office recognizes these tendencies and is strongly in favor of 
concessions which will keep America from setting an example which 
may quickly spread to the remaining neutral countries. 

The Army Staff, though flushed with success 
bythe Galician campaign is far from desiring to find any more 
frontiers threatened and are advising conciliation. Only the 
Admiralty Staff hold to the "no concession" pollyy. All the 
Navy can do now is with the submarine and all their hopes are 
based on the submarine. Unless forced by higher authority at the 
demands of other branches of the government, the TIavy will stick 
to the submarine warfare against commerce even if it brinrs 



- 3 - 



a conflict with America. 



It has been /riven out in the newspapers that to 
collect the evidence necessary to answer the American note 
it will take some time. A policy of delay is probably 
assumed, not only to allow public feeling in America to 
die down but also to secure the time for agreement between 
the divisions of the government in Germany • 



<>) 



Need not be returned. 



SUBJECT 



amemnQj 



Fnmt 



JVn 



9 6 



Replying to O.M.I. Mo. 



Date 



Date 



15 . eJUJ I 

., , c. -.MS*** 







1 '« 



The British Admiralty has stated confidentially tc 
the press that the "Agamemno n 1 has not "been lost, but that a 
^Llsgui»ad("8hip of similar appearance was torpedoe-i off ihe 
Dardanelles and sunk, probably giving rise to the German story 
of the lo a of the Agamemnon. 



|See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900, 



Weed not be returned. 



S UBJEC T INFORMATION CONCERHJN 







lx 



) 



) *^ y« "'i LJU^i>m JUStlu>,» 



From Z No * 66 Date 

Replying to O. N /. No. 13448 Date 



The information desired is in general not available 
at the present time. With regard to the hits made on the German 
ships during the action of January 94th 1915 there is some light. 

The Reichs-L'arine-Amt claims that hits were 
received only as follows :- 



"SEY BLITZ" 



■DERFFLINOERtt 



» M L T K E 



One hit on barbette of after turret 
resulting in destruction t;irret 
personnel and wrecking interior of 
turret. All electrical machinery 
ruined in this turret as the powder 
in the handling rooms caught fire 
and burned out everything 

One hit on $ide armor resulting in 
driving back a plate and opening a 
hole underneath the plate. There has 
been some dispute as to whether the 
hole underneath the plate was not made 
by a different shell from the one that 
hit the plate but I believe that best 
authorities think not. 

No hits. 



The «»BLUECirER* received one or more hits at 
long range which put her "engines out of action after which she 
dropped back and became a general target. 



Hits made by the Germans on the English fleet 
The cruiser "KOLBERB" received two hits. 



not known. 



It is probable that after the war when 
discussion is allowed that the information desired will be 
available. 




\ 



[See iPnragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.] 



Need not be returned, /// 



SUBJECT LOSS of » U 14 «. 



From 



No. 



■367 



Date 



June IS, 1915. 



Replying to O. N. I. No. 



Date .jr%<> ,S(7 ^ 






The long of this submarine is officially 
announced as follows :- 

■ U 14 " Lost, 



The "Wolff Telegraph Bureau" makes the official 
publication :- 

According to a communi cation of the ttr&% Lord 
of the Admiralty in the House of Commons a German 
submarine was sunk by the English in the beginning 
of June and the whole crew taken prisoners. Prom a 
note published by the British government regarding 
the treatment of captured submarine boat crews it is 
evident that it is the German submarine * U 14 ". 
As this boat has not returned from its last enterprise 
it must be considered as lost. 

The Acting Chief of the Admiralty Staff 

(Sir.) B e h n k e . " 




/ ' / 



[See Paragraph 4, Instructions ol October 31, 1900.] 



Need not be returned. 



SUBJECT 



74 



\ 



QBHKRAL 0BSSBVA3PIOIS i» WLQIXM and JSQRTH FRAil 03 along the 
WBSfBaB THEATRE of fAB. 

From 2 (0) No....... ^^tf Date 

Replying to O. N. I No. Date 




, 191 5 
, 191 



I 4&QAJDS: These are under the management of the railroad 
department of the German Army. The bridges damaged and destroyed 
have been repaired or new v/ooden or iron structures built, the 
tunnels rebuilt or building and in some oases, as at liontmedy 
where a very long tunnel was effectually demolished by the French, 
the railroad has been built around the hill. All bridges are 
heavily guarded and in fact the entire stretch of railway is con- 
tinually under the eye of some Gorman soldier. The railways are 
primarily for the transportation of supplies, bodies of troops. etc. 
and few passenger trains are run. A regular time-table for pas- 
senger trains is in force. Throe through-trains over three dif- 
ferent routes run between the Great headquarters , situated in 
Mezieres-Charleville in France, and Berlin. 

The cars comprising these trains are the modern German 
vestibule wagons. Beyond Charleville on the stretches of railway 
to Ostende and to the north into Belgium, Belgian or French pas- 
senger cars are found. Through-trains to the larger centres 
average one daily. So officer, soldier or civilian is permitted 
transportation without a pass from the military authorities. 
Officers, soldiers and officials are given free transportation. 
The signs about the stations are in German and French. The attend- 
ants on the trains and in the stations are all in uniform, the prin- 
cipal positions are occupied by Germans and the natives employed 
only in such positions as cleaners and similar jobs. 

The branch lines towards the south are used solely for the 
supply of the Army along the front and supply trains literally 
run into the zone of fire. In travelling from Belgium into Germany, 
at the border town of Ilerbestal all baggage, officer, soldier, 
sailor and civilian alike, is subject to the inspection of custom 
officials. One must obtain from the German Government in Brussels 
special permission to entor Germany from Belgium. 



The 



railway equipment 
throughout the country. 



of the Belgian Government is used 



0QUH5RX: As one travels through this territory occupied by 
the German troops, one is impressed with the cultivation of the 
fields, livery square acre of tillable land is under cultivation. 
The military authorities have only permitted the natives to plant 
food stuffs - wheat, barley, potatoes, etc This region was 
formerly largely given over to the production of the sugar beet 
but the cultivation of this vegetable is not perm it tod by the 
military. In France there are not many young men or middle-aged 
men seen as workers in tho field, the work being done by women, 
old men and boys. In Belgium there are many more men of a mil- 
itary service age; this is remarked in the cities 
the country. The natives appear to have retained 
tlo and horses and in France I noticed very largo 
grazing in the fields, which I was informed belonged to the mil- 
itary and had been imported from Germany. 

The Germans are importing from France and Belgium quantities 
of hard wood for us o afl stocks for rifles, etc. The coal mines 
in the northern part of France and in Belgium are boing~ worked 

i8le* iG of rWdfirofi^rt me^g&fi^no^rleVfiS ia£n¥8g t ana irt 
leather manufacturies and iron mills are being worked on full 



as well as in 
their own cat- 
herds of cattle 



-2- 



time to supply the needs of the military. The military 
authorities informed me that the,/ paid cash for everything bought 
and - • ve reason for believing this is true, as in all places 
visited I talked with French or Belgians and thoy confirmed this. 

The roads throughout the country are of maccadam construc- 
tion and kept in excellent repair. A division of the Army - 
called road repair division - has charge of this work. lative 
civilians are employed, receiving two francs per diem and food. 
French prisoners are also employed in this work and in the town 
of Hethel Hue i prisoners were seen at work. In the numerous 
hospitals visited, cleaners, la and ryw omen and assistants in 
the kitchens were from the natives; they received two franco a 
day, with food. 

CITIES: A large number of the richer and better class of 
the population fled from the cities during the first advance 
of the Germans in August last. This is especially true through- 
out northern France and is not confined solely to the cities; 
numerous villas and chatoaus in the country were vacated by their 
owners. Such public or x>rivate buildings as the military needed 
for their purposes wore requisitioned. Xach city is taxed so 
much for the support of the invading Army. The hotels in the 
larger cities and, in the smaller towns, private buildings are 
requisite one d for housing officers and men of the Army of Occu- 
pation. A German officer or soldier arriving in -jille, for 
example, announces his arrival to the rCommando if he be an officer; 
if a soldier, to the proper office in the railway station. He 
exhibits his authority for visiting the city to the officer on 
duty, states the purpose of his visit, the duration of his stay 
and is then given a paper which entitles him to quarters and 
subsistence at some designated hotel. A certain number of the 
bettor hotels are reserved for quartering officers, while the 
soldiers are quartered in barracks or often in hotels designated 
for this purpose. In the majority of cases, as in Bruges, for 
instance, the limit of cost of the officer's daily .'subsistence 
is twelve francs. All of the larger elties have issued paper 
currency* German money is everywhere accepted, the ratio of 
exchange between French and Belgian currency and German money 
being one franc twenty* five centimes to the mark. The various 
municipalities are permitted, to continue their civil government 
und er t h e BUpe rvi si on of the German, milit ary aut h or it ie s . 



In the cities the trolleys are running and a few horse taxi- 
meters are to be had with the usual rates, The best horses have 
been requisitioned by the military and the animals who drag one 
around in the taximeter cabs present a forlorn picture of a horse. 

The civilian population all have certificates of identifi- 
cation and are not permitted to leave the district in which they 
live without special permission from the military. I was informed 
that numerous French families - only the women and children - who 
desired had boon permitted to go to France, i.e. that part not 
under German control, the journey being effect el by going through 
Switzerland. 

ue municipal police, gendarmario, are on duty and they are 
supplemented by a detail from the troops, regular soldiers armed 
with guns, bayonets fixed. Shay wear a black, white and red 
brassard on loft arm with the letters "8. P." in black. A special 
detail of mounted troops patrol the country roads; they correspond 
to our state constabulary at home. In addition, throughout the 
cities are many secret service man in civilian clothes; they carry 



a paper from the Oberkoramando as their credentials. 

The authorities informed me that the native population 
are quite peaceful and they have very little trouble of a 
serious nature. Occasionally some event takes place such as 
that recently in Brussels when an English flyer appeared over 
the town and succeeded in materially damaging a pelin. The 

populace were wild with excitement., parading the streets sing- 
ing and shouting "Viva la Fr&rce'', "Viva la Beige"* It amounted 
almost to a riot and required a strong detail of troops to dis- 
perse them. 

In many little nagging ways the military have made them- 
selves very unpopular and heartily disliked. In large cities, like 
Brussels*, they have stopped the use of telephones - even in our 
"; Consulate, and oar Consul general, as well as our Minister, 
informed me that they were "both sorry they could not send me to 
my hotel in their respective motors. ?hey said that the Germans 
had Issued an order to the effect that those permitted to have 
motor cars could only use them for their own or family use. Dis- 
obedience of this order would incur a fine of two hundred and 
fifty francs. 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 3 



■JOfaepL not be returned, 



I i I 

n 1 



"i 



SUBJECT LOSS of ARMORED CRUISER ■PRIEDRICH KAHLf 



Z 375 

From No. Date 

Replying to O. N. I. No. Date 



June 17, 1915* 



■■rttfiwHtr— iiff- 






-, W 



'^, 



Pi* 



191 



'^. 



The loss of this ship has never been 
officially admitted, but it is generally Jcnown to have occurred 
in the Baltic Sea in December 1914# 



o 




/ 6 



SUBJECT 



(See-Paragraph 4. Instructions of October 31. 1900.) 5q 

AuBfcro-Eui^&ri^ Cruiser ...laid on Italian Coast. 



From ? iVtf. 28 Date- 
Replying to O. N. I. No Date 



June £0. 1915, 

i n iii«ii i. .mi l iii ' 



_ <s^ (4 , ■ 

* ^_ 1915 

The following despatoh of the commander-in-chief of the 
Austro-Hurgrrlan fleet was ftftftt public en the 19th instant: 

"On June 17th and 18th several of our cruisers and torpedo 
units undertook a raid on tfc® Italian coast from the frontier to 
Fano. In this raid the semaphore stations afc the mouth of the 
Tagliomento rirer and nera Fssaro as well as the railroad bridges 
ofer the Metauro and Arsllm rivers, near Hiraini, ^ere damaged 
and an Italian steamer was sunk. Th<& crew of the steamer was 
rescued. 

"All units hare returned in good condition." 




I 









( 




"Jr. 






I. 



■•- p 

returned. 



roc bo r 



onoe. 



i lid 

?) 

in , ril 



*0 



..'. . • 



Ugulat: 



9 ill j 
chord t , 



of any description to be turn. 



. 









. 



:... hi 



ud iolcjic sn rie 



-»*• • 



.lors hat bene .... Gu*abor:i 

m*. ian saout < . -Hid the cruiser than, -Jho lv- 

rtur i the • - 

intion was ever .it . 

!T represent t the navy 

on tf&y . . Mnmb oi the ship in "$>* is 

mml s - our. 

j. iie i t he 3» s. 



i. 



4. 



'i been . & am 1 (<j 

those ! 

.Jid '«. . re 

Kit ox ;ivej 

Ba called, Ijo iinprovaaoiru 

|«l . 'cih c ns • .... oiv - * 

Lltn 1. ... ■ in the no thorn pi j .; of the island eaid that arin : one oi tha 
By aonuhs .re c. ontc 

if or leaving at diiferont t; . . . . at li 

u dlarit hip;. 

■•xpe: c-rver. 

. raiser 

ill was ordinary color e , . 

s 

.lar.thi 

il figures m ohm , i a 

published In the a 

anellea,wltfc irregular 1: over 









iral j et la and q .e station ; 

1tie 
!i?hey have a loe. 

or 

.•no©. About tcci 

■ - w X £J U-l. , , 1 [» 1 1 13T. _ 



Mv \~> V. 



re:- 

could go to t 
tide 9 I uttl 



and reiiovi 









.bd^vHs; 



£9$%. 







i 



.rom jiondon. 



is ;;ust t 












same con 

to clear s 
in the ins*! 

, ; T 



.1 in red in l1 , id 1 
Iter was 



EX 

Lon.;.t is expos-. 

tiie trees to cc .d tiie ros 



is 



AJ.« 



ttricted 
.ed.i'or cm uxoi 




»-^> 



M>nS 



"■^S^^^—^t; V' V *V -^ __ 




^ 



A 



>• 



|See Paragraph 4, I nsl ructions of October .'(I, I'.KtO.J 

Need not be returned,, 



Tc 



9 



*l >fO 






r 



-; 



S UBJECT - .Var xagtexiaX ln-Bxazil . 



From 



JVo. 



X " ' ' ■ ■ n « «m,M , 



, 191 



Replying to 0. JV. I. JVo Date , 191 



-5- 



V 



*47 



^75 



Two Battleships)) Minas Geraes- Bao Paolo, ^ 

The quetion of selling those ships is frequently brought 
up. Up to the present time the idea has not been accepted 
by the administration, and it is stated that it never will 
be accepted. 

It no^r appears that if the United States should at any time 
desirs to buy these ships, the administration would be will- 
ing to sell, provided Argentine could be persuaded to ftell 
the two battleships she has bought in the United States. 



"v5» 




t r 

|See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October SI, I !><«>. J JV^Cfl? flOt 1>C VetttVUeCL. 

r* v g o 
SUBJECT -tr Qsterlel ill ??astl 



Replying to 0. .¥. 1. Wo Date -, 191 

Manser Bifles. 

About 1910 the last President of the Republic of Brazil 
went abroad vnA was received with marked military attention 
in Germany* 

An order for a large quantity of German Mauser rifles 
was given at that time/ i'he number is /aid to be 400000. 
Some o* all of these have since 'b&zn delivered. Various at* 
tempts have been made "by a bo Xlg-orent country, supposed to 
England, to gat -mansion of these rifles. "jho Bean* addopt- 
ed seems to have be Hie ewplovment of a so oallod neutral 
syndacats as a go between, the rv.fles to be delivered la Por- 
tugal or :wher,* Br' p threats ana underhand methods 
have been suspected. 

The Brasilia^ j o vernment so far refused tft sell these 
riflea and etatea that it io intention of doing bo ae long 
■ the war lssts t for fear of violating neutrality* 

It is now il a&t thifl decision does not apply to the 
United State! •. if desired it is considered rrcbcll. 
that a quantity up to 8 OOcauXa be sold to her. 



j 



|See Paragraph 4. Instructions of October SI, 1900.J 



SUBJECT 




u - /r^ 




From- .—-JVo Date f 191 

Replying to (). .¥. I. No Date f 191 

of the subjects of strategy and Tactics. 

These subjects are of much greater Interest to the student 
officers than any of the others and it seoms to be a fact that 
many officers have delayed applying to take the course until 
they could ascertain how that portion of the instruction would 
be conducted. 

The past yer therefore has not been a very fair sample of 
them interest that may be expected, although the interest shown 
has been as g eat as it is with us. They sewn to realise the 
necessity for the kind of instruction that our ar College 
represents. These ideas are however absolutely new as they 
were originally with us. The Brazilian XJavy can only be ex- 
pected to absorb^ themslowly. 

IDt is to be hoped that the next class may include some offi- 
cers of high rank and influence who can speak with authority. 
The tendency at the ' ar College at present is to make it a 
school and not a College. This If the direct result of 
French teaching. 

The President of the ' ar Collee is Contra /.lmirante Gomez 
Pereira a progressive and well read man, who has beeen spoken 
of as the next Minister of Marine. 

The War Game ar played at Uewport has been introduced and 
an attempt made to found the studies on the Estimate of the 
Situation and the War College Order Form. Several of the 
papers published in the Haval Inst itute y have been used as 
lectures. The teaching h s been oonducted almost entirely in 
French, suplemented with English and Portugese. This has re- 
quired much translation and in many cases the papers have had 
to be rewriten to fit them for translation. 



- — k 



ISce Paragraph i, Inst nicl ion* of October 31, HKIO.] 



SUBJECT 



From, No Date- — , 191 

Replying to 0. N I. No. Date -, 191 

Tactical problems have been played on the ilanoever Board and 

some Chart Games have been carried out. Che so latter have been 
constructed with a view to emphasizing the possibility of attack 
by a European power of great Naval strength and also -also the 
possible attack by some other South American Power. It is de- 
sirable from every point of viewth&t the str tegic positions 
on the Brazilian Coast should be examined and developed. As 
yet there is no well defined idea on the subject, although the 
general opinion seems to be that one of the islands, such as Santa 
Catharina or Isla Grande, would be seized as bases by the enemy 
for future operations. ''The possibility of ernando Koronha and 
theBrazilian Island of Trinidad must be considered. 

This situation might well be considered at Newport inthelight 
of the Monroe loctrine and the Panama Oanal. 

/•s Brazil has prsctic«lly no settled foreign policy, except 
that which leads to comraerei':! development, it is difficult eo 
find anything upon which to base hwr Jlaval d velopment. 33k* 
has little money andit is therefore most im ortant thr.t this 
should not be wasted in following e: centric Nav 1 fashions and 
cquiring diverse diverse types of vessels. 

It should be the duty of the £raj;ili: r ar College to J>ro be 
ideas of this character. I >: .vo endeavored to assist by articles 
in the r.evista Maritime and in conversation with prominent officers. 

The present is rather a peculiar time to start the College, 
Brt..::il has very little money ■ nd hai been forced to economise in 
every v;ay. It was for this reason that our Embassador considered 
it inadvisable juet at present to nend another officer to th 
duty. 

Later -hen times improve , there will be ample work to keep two 

of icers employed and if these initial efforts are successful 
the 



|See ParaRrajih 4. Instructions of October 31, 1900.] 



SUBJECT 



From. 



JVo Date . 



., 191 



lying to 0. JV. I. JVo Date f 291 

the duty will be most important. 

It is absolutely neees ary to speeke French and later to leafcn 
Portugese. Portugese 1b a difficult language and takes time 
to acquire. 

In my opinion the object of this duty is: 

First. I 1 © increase the friendly relations 
between the two countries / by lending the Brazilian tfavy, every 
disinterested assistance pos ible. 

Second. • study the strategic situation 
of il,in order that she may be able to resist attack from 
without. The information gained inthese investigations should 
be available to he United States, in case it ever becomes 
necessary to operate in these areas. 

It must be remembered that the influence sought takes time 
to acquire. 



•v ■ > 



Need not be returned, 

[See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.) 



CONFIDENTIAL. 



SUBIECT A &ERJUH SUBMARINE ATTACKED BY A SfBAMBH 
J FLYING HKUTEftli 00L0HS. 








June ?1, 1915. 


Date 




Date 


^L, 



Z 377 

/vww Afo Date ..., 79/ 



Replying to O. N. I. No. Date < * j , 191 






-* 



o 



I am told by the Sweetish Nafeal Attache' that he 

has received information from hla own government that they knew 

it to be a fact that on the 10 of June a German submarine was 
attacked by a steamer flying the i Lsh flag* 

The German Admiralty Staff state that the vessel 
in question attempted to ram the submarine and actually carried 
away her periscope. 

The offical account as given to the newspapers 
by the German government is as follows :- 

" MISUSE OF NEUTRAL FLAGS IN ATTEMPTING 

TO RAM GERMAN SUBMARINES. 



The Wolff Tel, Bureau is told from competent 
source that on the 14th of May in the forenoon, about 
5 miles from Longstone Light an English steamer flying 
the Norwegian flap : and having the Norwegian neutral 
distinctive marks made an attack on a German submarine 
intending to ram her. The attack was unsuccessful* The 
captain of the submarine who considered the ship as of 
Norwegian neutrality did of course not molest her, but 
seeing a few days later in an English paper that the ship 
was English and that the Norwegian flag had been misused, 
evidently for the purpose to collect the reward offered 
by the British Admiralty for the destruction of a German 
submarine without running any danger. 

A second cane, much more severe, happened 
on June 10th. On this day a steamer under Swedish flag* 
also in the vicinity of the Longstone Light House, attempted 
to ram one of our submarines which had a very narrow escape. 
This steamer worked together with a second steamer without 
a flag and an English destroyer, was therefore in the 
service of the English Navy and was evidently to serve 
as a trap for our submarine. The case proves that the 
English Admiralty is unabashed to use the flag swindle 
recommended for raerchantships also for naval actions. 

It is not necessary to discuss how England 
endangers thereby neutral shipping of which she declares 
herself to be the -or o tec tor." 



The German new-, era make claims the submarine 
• U 39" was sunk in a similar manner, but inquiries at the 
Heiohs- . ine-Amt fail to develop any proof that this is fact. 
The British Admiralty announce that » U ?9 ■» was sunk by a man-of- 
war. 



Need not be returned, 

'u 



[See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.] 



INTERNATIONAL LAW 
SUBJECT CAPTURE OF SV7EMSH STKAMER »T H Q R S T E N i 
BY GERMAN AUXILIARY CRUISERr 



From Z No * 78 Date June % ll 1915 - 191 

aw m-^-wi, <,, i n r i l l - in ii Hiiii ) M aw w a»i tt^;TO MteB»»i«^at!a^^ > i zr i 



i°Ax 



Replying to 0. N. I. No. Date «.J i 3 ( jgj 



The Interesting point connecter! with this 
capture in that the prize crew hoisted the German man-of-war 
flatf on her and then tool: her frori the point of capture in 
the SkaperRak to Swinemiinde in the Baltic Sea. 

In doing this they necessarily passed through 
S7m'Ush territorial waters. 

This action has caused great dissatisfaction 
in Sweden. 

The published account of the affair in Germany 
is as follows :- 

* Deeds of Auxiliary Cruisers. 

Copenhagen, June 17, 191 .% 

The German armed auxiliary cruiser which seized 
the Swedish mail stealer "Thorsten" yesterday 
morning en route from Gothenburg to Pnpland started 
yesterday evening with the l, T h o r s t e n w to 
Swinemunde. The reason for the capture is probably 
not because there was contraband of war on board the 
ship but 1*37 mail bafts containing principally Russian 
mail matter were probably the reason. The ships which 
were en route from England to Gothenburg have been 
ordered back. The incident aprain caused alarming news 
to be circulated in Copenhagen. 

According to "Berlin^ske Tidende" is the 
auxiliary cruiser which seized yesterday the »TH0RSTEN* 
identical with the ship which sunk day before yesterday 
the Swedish steamer "T^RTA ND!" on the south west coast 
of Norway. It is further stated that the auxiliary 
cruiser sunk the steamer •GHANIT* between the 1.5th and 
16th of June 4 miles soutH~oT Christian-sound, this 
steamer bein^ en route from Norway to Manchester with 
a cargo of wood which was declared contraband by 
Germany. The German auxiliary cruiser had the crews 
of the sunken steamers on board when passing the Sound. 
Toe cruiser caused the crews to b^ sent on land by 
torbedoboats. tt 



V 



I 



[See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900^^^* TUQkOG VCtWffMXt,, 







SUBJECT RELATIONS BETWEEN UNITED STATES and GERMANY 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE "LUSITANIA" NOTE. 

Z xr 379 _ . June 33, 1915. 

From NO. Date > " ■■■ " mrmmmmmuimmm»m mm f ]Q] 

Replying to O. N I. No Date ^^jfj% 191 

There Is a ceratin significance to-day over 
the suppression of the * Deutsche Tage3zeitung% & newspaper 
which has been violently ant-15erican and whose naval writer , 
Oount Reventlow, has been urging the government to make no 
concessions to the demands of America as made in the •LtfsiTANIA* 
note. 

I attach a translation of the official 
announcement of the reasons for the suspension of the newspaper 
as published in the "Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung*. 

This statement is notable as being one of the 
first signs of a return to reason by the German government in 
in its foreign relations. Whether the reasonable party are 
going to be strong enough to overcome the • irre cone i cables* 
in the Admiralty Staff will appear when the German reply to 
the second "LUSITANIA" note is delivered. It shows , however, 
that there is a great divergence between the Foreign Office 
and the Adminalty Staff. 




. 2-2. . 

Translation . K eed not be returned* 



Berliner Tareblatt. June S3, 1015. 

THE "DEUTSCHE TAQJCSZEITUNQ" F03BIDDEN 
UIT7IL FURTHER ORDERS. 



The "Deutsche Tagesr,eitung" has sent yesterday opening 
to its readers the following communication:- "The appearance 
of the "Deutsche Tar-esr^eitung" has been forbidden until 
further orders on account of an article in the Monday edition. 

" The Publishers". 

To this the "Uorddeutsche Allgemaine Zeitung* 

writes:- For some time past a violent campaign has been 
carried on in the "Deutsche Tages7,eitunf?" in which in a more 
or loss open or disguised way the eyes of its readers should 
be opened to the dangers which threaten German respect and 
prestige in general and the energetic conduct of war against 
England in special by a meek attitude of the government in 
the well Jmown differences with America on account of the 

io' -arine -Tar .fare. On one side the impression is made as if 
official authorities on account of love of peace with America 
entertained the thought to abandon the submarine warfare, 
on the other the stupid assertion is brought forward that 
an increase in the number of our enemies is a matter of 
indifference. In the number published to-day ( Monday June 3X§) 
the 11 Deutsche Tageszeitung* went as far as to sneer at the 
legal stand taken by the government in the German note to 
America and to personally attack the directing statesman. 

The men who bear the responsibility to weigh 
dangers and advantages cannot be influenced if they are 
reproached of being guilty of faintheartedness, meekness or 
lack of backbone by all kinds of paraphrases made directlv or 
indirectly. They claim timxts&Zx for themselves the full 
national force and dignity which the naval cooperater of 
the "Deutsche Tageszeitung" thinks himself the only 
representative. 

Such conduct can only make the task of the 
government morn difficult in the settlement of the disputable 
point with America* not to speak of the injurious reaction 
on the 'hole political situation. In the interest of the 
defense of the country, as well as foreign policy, the 
expectation is enteratined that this propaganda working 
with empty rumors and non-political sentiments will end. 



Need not be 2~Z~ 

SUBJECT £} ie c©nstruetion «f Haval Earners 




Frem 



K 



He 



13 



Replying te O.H.I. If* 



Date 
Date 




Eke -ese Admiralty have definitely decided t* start 
a censtructiea ef three Haval Harbers. One t® be lecated at 



San-tu-wan in Fukiea, aaether te "be located at Huluta© in Chili 



x : r®vince, and the third te be lecated at Hsiang-shaa-waa in 



Chekiai . 



Y/©rk en the stati©n at San-tu-wan is te be started 



immediately, as tj r occupies a mere str- Leal positioa 



and alse is more accessible to deep draft ships. 



Ck&u 




/ 



Office of Haval Intelligence, 



Copy 



J»4flHb#?*$9!r5 t , 



»*- 



H.H.L 






Report received by the Array War College from Cap- 
tain 3. E. Llargetts, 6t'li Field Artillery, Paris. 



Office of the Military Observers with 

the French Army, Paris, 
. June 24th, 1915. 

Rec'd V'.C.D. ,0.0. S. Jul. 8, 1915. 
SUBJECT:- 305 m/m French Navy Gun mounted 
on Special Railroad Car. 



The Schneider Mobile Battery of 
200m/n Howitzers. Armoured Trains. 



*^*s 



JUL 



2 * 1915 



cr-r 



^'<L 



SUBMITTED BY:- Captain K. E. Llargetts, 6th Field Artil- 
lery, Military Observer. 



g i\& 



:vv*; -^ 



«.* 



. -Tt, *>-*,. 



*K 



THE 305mm FIMCH NAVY GUI* MOUNTED OH A SPECIAL RAIL- 
ROAD CAR. 

Through the acquaintance of an officer attached to the 
Cie f des Porges et Acieries de la Marine et d'Hamecourt, the 
largest works of which are at Saint Chamond, I was shown confi- 
dentially, the photographs of the great 305mm ilavy gun which is 
mounted on a specially constructed railroad car and which was 
tested at Cherbourg in March 1915 > under the direction of the 
inventor of the ciout, a civil engineer named Mr. Dupont, also 
a member of the Saint diamond staff* 

This test was reported to have been most successful from 
every point of view, as a result the government ordered two to 
be completed at once, one of these two was the subject of a brief 
report rendered by me on April l3t» 1915, in which I stated I had 
seen it while passing through the engineer proving grounds at 
Versailles, the second one is now finished and at the same place, 
4 others are in course of construction. 

My friend endeavoured to arrange a meeting for me with 
Mr. Dupont, but when told that I wanted to talk to him about the 
gun and carriage he stated he was absolutely forbidden to talk or 
give any information unless authorised by the Minister of T ,7ar, a 
request to visit these guns has been made by me . 

This gun of 305 mm is intended to be fired from its mount 
on the special car, and primarily against the German fortified 
places, I was told it may soon be used against some part of the 
present German lines. 

The gun is the ITavy 305 mm model 1893 and 1896, with car- 
riage model 1899 P.O. modified. 

The pointing apparatus of the 65 mm mountain gun is em- 
ployed. 

The projectile weighs 348 kilos with 108 kilos bursting 
charge. The effort de freinage Is 130 tons. 



- 2 - 

Mounted on its special car an elevation of from 15 to 
20 degrees can "be given, with a range of 21 kilometres, it can 
be traversed 10 degrees to the right and 10 degrees to the left 
of the railroad track, the idea is that a number of rails and the 
necessary material will be carried to construct short branch 
lines in case of need to fire at greater lateral angles than 10 
degrees on either side of the m&in line. 

Following is a description of the gun and carriage as 
near as I can recall from memory: 

Two trucks as 3hown in sketch (A and B) support the two 
extremities of the gun platform (C) which rests on large pivots (D) 
these two trucks are very strongly constructed, and each is supported 
by 6 axels carrying IE wheels. 

The gun platform has the general form of (C) mounted on 
this platform is a sort of turret (E) which receives the gun 

carriage (F ) the latter naturally carrying the 305 mm gun (G ) , 

For firing the gun carriage is raised out of its turret 
(E) but Y/hile being transported it rests inside the turret thus 
lowering the gun to its traveling position* (see page 4) , 

Before firing the platform (G ) is supported as follows: 
4 (bequilles } or firing supports aro placed as indicated in sketch 
(in traveling position these supports are f o3d ed up against the 
side of the platform) and 4 large hydralic pillars (I ). ( Jacks ) 

In rear of the gun at (Z) is the loading platform where 
the projectile and powder charge is received by means of a re- 
volving crane, from the ammunition carriages in rear. 

The central platform consists of: 

(Une couche de sable dame ) or layer of rammed or pounded 
sand about 300 mm in thickness. 

(Un lit de 11 madriers jointifs) or a bod of 11 planks 
joined (200 by 400 by 5400) in length. 

(Un lit de 11 lambourdes jointives) or a bed of 11 sleepers 



_ 3 - 

for gun platform (400 by 400 by 4400 ) and 4 other lambourdes in 
traverse. The truekpiece, or gun platform is 19 l/2 meters between 
pivots (on the two trucks which support the two ends of the plat- 
form) and v;eighs 170 tons. 

The propelling charge is made up in four sections in cloth 
begs (weight not known). 

The recoil system I was not able to learn in detail but was 
told it was the same as the 76 mm (hydro pneumatic), the length of 
recoil it appeared would be short t but I could not find this out. 

The report from which I took the above notes stated that 
during the test at Cherbourg the stability of the entire carriage 
and mount during firing was remarkable. 

I learned from the same source that this was the only large 
type gun being mounted on rail road cars, but that the French Gov- 
ernment had ordered from the Saint diamond people 4- mortars cali- 
ber 370 mm to be mounted on platforms and that these guns were now 
actually in course of construction. 

I expect to go to the Saint diamond Works soon on a visit and 
shall make an effort to learn more in regard to this gun. 

As the above information was given me by a personal friend 
who has access to these records in a moment of thoughtlessness and 
as he exacted a promise from me that no one should know if it I 
therefore ask that the above report be' treated and considered as 
most confidential. 



Since writing the above report I have learned that the gun 
carriage is rigidly and permanently fixed to the base (spoken of as 
the turret in the above report ) that it remains always in the same 
horizontal position, that the gun alone moves in a vertical posi- 



- 4 - 

tion when giving elevation, and that the gun and carriage is trav- 
ersed horizontally on the base. 

Before firing the 4 large jacks are put in the position indi- 
cated and working together the entire platform is raised a little 
in order to that no weight will rest on the trucks during the 
shock of discharge as this would endanger the wheels, the 4 jacks 
have large foundations, and with the 4 bequilles or oblique sup- 
ports at each corner, the stability of the gun and carriage is assured 
while firing. Of course it is of great importance that the plat- 
form be level before firing commences. 



The following caliber ed guns are being made for the French 

Government by the Saint Chamond Works: 

65 mm mountain gun, 

70 ma mountain gun, 

150 mm howitzer, 

305 mm Havy gun but mounted on special rail road car, this 

gun is 12 metres in length, 
340 mm new gun for the latest French battleships. 
370 mm mortar now being made to be mounted on platform. 



(signed) II. E. Margetts 



( 






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F/g". ^- — Batterie mobile d'obusiers de 200 mm a tir rapide, 
roulant ft lirant sur voiefei 



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- 5 - 

'SCHNEIDER MOBILE BATTERY, 
MOUNTED OH RAIL ROAD CARS.* 
THE Mobile batteries, mounted on railroad cars, that the 
Schneider Establishments have constructed for various foreign Gov- 
ernments, Peru, Denmark, Russia and others, have for their object 
to assure the defence of the coast line in an effective and econom- 
ical manner; they can, in fact, replace the fixed or semi-permanent 
works . 

Thanks to their mobility they can cireula te on a quite ex- 
tended perimeter, they can move rapidly to the menaced points of 
the coast, enter immediately in action, withdraw to go into action 
at another point, and when threatened hy the enemy's superior ar- 
tillery, can retreat or change position in a minimum of time. In 
fact, this uniting of a certain number of pieces of artillery con- 
stitutes a mobile fort, powerful and economical* 

Independently of the advantages enumerated above, the mobile 
batteries offer still others very appreciable:- First, complete 
liseretion in the projects of defence, since no preliminary work 
reports its emplacement to the adversaries, (unless at certain 
points emplacements are constructed to receive the cars, or the 
mtire train). 

Then, a better utilization of the material; the pieces are not 
mraobilized in a fort, with a restricted field of fire; also the 
selessness is shown of establishing strategic routes for the cir- 
ulation of siege or field canon. 

nd then in times of peace, a railroad established for this 
ur pose of protecting the coasts, can be used for transporting pas- 
engers and merchandise, in co-operation with the main lines, 
mobile battery constructed by Schneider & Co., Fig. 1.- 



/ 






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'?''.•:-■■'■"'' 

nlr JB M1WHT K *i Kir?^ f» vif/i^J: I »&<K3ltf. 




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'V' 1 I ■ •'•• H4 #tffi 



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ran / * 

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hhm 

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/•7#. *£. — Obusier de 200 wzm a tir rapide stir plale-forme de chemin defer. 



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- 6 - 



consists of two howitzers, calibre £00 m/m, each one mounted on 
a truck carriage, an ammunition carriage, and a carriage for the 
personnel, with an apparatus for observation (a sort of mast)* 
together this forms a train of four carriages, that a locomotive 
can draw on a normal line. 

Each howitzer of Schneider steel, is composed of a tube, 
reinforced at the rear by a jacket, furnished with notches or 
(scarfs which unite it to the traineau (sled), while in front a 
|cradle hoop makes it solid with the latter. 

Ihe breech mechanism, made for the use of metallic car- 
tridge cases, is manoeuvred rapidly by one continued movement of 
a lever. An apparatus for firing the piece 'by percussion and rep- 
itition permits the piece to be fired at all angles. 

The traineau (sled), constituted hj a block of forged 
Iteel, in which are found the lodgments of the M f reins hy&raul- 
.qjues" and of the "recupdrateur a reservoir d'air", (or the re- 
Iboil and counter-recoil system), is fixed to the howitzer by 
means of clasps and pins which render its separation from the 
piece very easy. On its superior part are found the guide rails, 
ined with bronze, for the recoil on the cradle. 

The carriage on which rests the oscillating part of the 
lertical pointage, is composed of two flasks, transomed in steel, 
lid united by a circular platform in sheet steel, with track 
pstined for the circulation of a truck carrying the ammunition. 
l ig.2). 



I 



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< 



' 




*#^&r 



Fig. ./. — Inlcrieur du wagon a munitions. 



■ 



■ ■ 



1 1 Sfl' 








- 7 - 

(hi oh is sent from the Ammunition carriage attached to one of the 
ends of the giaa car. 

Besides, three clasps, placed one in front and two in rear 
)f the carriage maintain the latter on the "sellette" or pedestal 
during the firing of the howitzer, which points laterally in any 
lirection whatever, thanks to different mechanisms and a pointing 
ipparatus • 

The truck with its two bogies offers nothing in particular, 
ixcept the two shutters which articulate on each side, at the 
Junction of the lower part and the raised part of the platform. 
it the free extremities of these shutters are found fixing or :ceg- 
Llating screws, which support the carriage on large metallic soles 
ut on the ground in the firing position, as is shown in Pig. £• 

But the system of coupling, the axles, the wheels, the grease 
>oxes are scarcely different from the models employed by the Rail- 
ray Companies • 

The Ammunition Carriages, Fig, 4. 



iestined to supply the two howitzers are coupled, one to each end 
of the train battery. The exterior aspect is similar to a baggage 
car, but the roof is provided with Bix scuttles opening from the 
interior, and two guard rails, forming a central gallery. In each 

"1, front and roar, there is a sliding door fitted with plate 
glass in the upper part. 







wWm Ml. 





Fig. 3. — Le wagon a personnel avec I'ubservaloire Mveloppe. 



It.. ******** with the means ior 

L «8 necessary repairs by t, he artificers. 




— o.v,o«xiuu Lne carriap-p 
jnts, separated by partitions of sheet steel, 6 m/m in tiiick- " 

iss t - each one provided with a door similar to those at the ends 
t the car. As to the chassis, formed of two side rails transomed 
Jtween them, it rests on three axles by means of suspension springs 
aunted on oil boxes, and terminates at each end in a platform of 
ccess with a foot-bridge which can be raised, in order to facili- 
ate circulation between the carriage and the :nn carriage. 

In the two extreme compartments prepared to receive the armnun- 
tion, are found 64 projectiles, weighing about 7,500 kilos. At 
he side of the projectiles in a magazine are the loaded cartridge 
ases, placed vertically on their bases, in brackets lined with 
eit . 

The handling of the projectiles takes place at each end of 
he carriage, by means of an arm, one end articulating in a sup- 
)ort fixed to the roof of the carriage, the other enA terminating in 
l rope tackle, which carries tongs for the handling of the pro- 
jectiles. The central compartment is provided with the means for 
making necessary repairs by the artificers. 

In terminating the description of the different parts which 
constitute a Schneider mobile battery , ve will describe the carriage, 
for the personnel, -Fig 3. 









< 




- 9 - 

It is -usually placed next to the locomotive, in order that it may 
"be more easily detached from the other carriages in case of need, 
either to make a reconnaissance or to occupy a more advantageous 
point of observation. 

This carriage, whose "body, chassis and brakes resemble those 
of the ammunition car, differs from the latter by the armor and 
the observation mast: besides, it has only two axles, The armor 
is of steel plates, assembled with lapping pieces covering the , 
panels and its longitudinal walls. 

As the illustration shows, the observation mast is composed 
of two mobile chimneys, guided one inside the other by a fixed \ 
tube, bolted on the chassis* 

In the position of marching order, the smaller tube enters in 
the large fixed cylinder; when raised for observation it reaches 
a height of 5 metres above the top of the fixed lube, and raises 
the observer 9 1/10 metres above the rails. The manoeuvring of 
this telescopic mast is effected by the aid of a windlass with 
auto -regulator cable, worked by a man from the interior of the car. 
A hinged disc, fastened at the top of the fixed tube covers the 
system when the tubes are in march order position* 

A speaking tube connects the observer with the inside of the 
car. The oar is partitioned like the interior of an ordinary End 
class passenger car. In the part not occupied by the observation 
apparatus, are shelves and benches for holding the belongings of 
the artillery-men. 

En resume, the Schneider Mobile Battery, with its organs 
ingeniously combined, allows the transportation by rail of large 
calibre artillery, in such a manner as to accumulate them rapidly 
in large numbers on a iven point, and also to fire them from the 
railroad, without having to construct platforms to receive them. 

(signed) II. S, ilargetts 



10 - 



>/ 





ti^u n*^i ^a/v. 



- 11 - 

I AHMOKED ERAIUS . 

Properly speaking, armored trains do not constitute a mili- 
tary innovation, but it is the first time they have played an im- 
portant role in an European war. 

Some fifteen years ago they made their appearance in the T.ar 
of the Transvaal, In order to re-establish communication Try rail- 
way "between the cities on the coast and those of the Transvaal and 
of the Orange Free State, the English had improvized some armored 
trains which rendered effective service: hut they were engines of 
rbrtune, the passengers of which were not sufficiently protected 

from tae bullfcts of the Boers. 

They were armed only with machine guns . when attacked "by 
field artillery they were rapidly destroyed or forced to retreat. 

The armored trains which 'made their appearance in Belgium 
early in October, were a great improvement over those previously 
employed in war. 

The photographs, unpublished in France, that are shown in 
is article, permit us to enlarge on the description. 

The locomotive is encased in sheets of steel of a thickness 
of 3 c/m: the vital organs are protected from bullets and shell 
of small calibre: the wheels are protected by the steel walls. 

The train itself consists essentially of flat cars: on each 
one is mounted a rapid fire gun on a central pivot carriage. The 
■iiece can thus be fired in any direction. It is protected, as 
well as the detachment, by a circular armor plate, open at the 
top. In certain cases, they even instal a veritable turret with 
canon Inside, which fires from an embrasure; in this case it is 
the turret which turns around its vertical axis, in such a manner 
as to permit the canon to be fired in any direction. The other 
carriages of the train are covered wagons, the walls of which are 
armored With sheets of strong steel, end loop holes for rifle fire 
are cut in the sidos. The roofs of the cars are armored in tho 



- 12 - 



same way to protect the personnel from the effects of shrapnel 



fire. 

They can still put infantry in the uncovered cars but fur- 
nished with armor plates at a convenient height and curved to a 
right angle over the heads of the men, in order to protect them 
from bursting shell. Y/hen danger does not threaten the men can 
circulate in the passage between the armored walls. 

On one of the carriages is mounted a canon, especially des- 
tined for fire against air craft. (i?igs. 2 & 3.) 




Fig-. "5. — Canon 

de j5 mm. monte 

sit?- une plale- 

forme. 



Fig. 2. — Canon contre aeroplane. 




In order to fire on the air machines, it is of course nec- 
essary to point the canon at a groat angle of elevation. 

That is very possible with the ordinary canon v/hon the na- 
ture of the terrain permits the digging of a ditch quite deep, 
to receive the trail of the carriage, but ..hen the piece is mounted, 
as on the fixed platform of the car, it is necessary to employ 
special canon. 

Fig. No. 3 represents a 75 m/m mounted to fire en air craft; 
this piece has proved its effectiveness en several occasions by 
bringing clown German Aviatilis, at an altitude superior to 1»2Q0 
metres. 



< 



- 13 - 
The armored train consists "be3id.es of a certain number of 
covered wagons, serving as dormitories and ammunition magazines. 
In ono is installed a kitchen where meals for about thirty men 

can be prepared. 

tfe do not know to what extent the armored trains have already 
b<_ -en employed on the Franco-Belgian frontier or on the coast of 
the Ilorth Sea. But the dispatches of the English journals have 
several times reported the exploits of three trains which partiei- 

ted simultaneously in the same actions in the triangle formed 
by the cities of Ostend, of ilieuport and of Dixmude. 

The most brilliant of these exploits took place on October 
28th, 1914, to the ilorth of Ilieuport, where the Belgian Army had 
struggled 3ince morning against ten times their number. 

The combat had endured for three hours and the brave soldiers 
of the King of Belgium, menaced by envelopment, were already in 
retreat, when two trains made their appearance on their rear. 

After an exchange of communications between the commanding 
officers of the Belgian forces and the train crews, the former 
increased their movement in retreat; the Germans, falling into the 
trap, took up a rapid pursuit in compact masses. The two trains 
advanced at high speed and, profiting by the embankment on both 
sides of the track which concealed thorn from view of the Germans, 
they were thus able to take position without being seen, between 
the two massed columns on each side of the line, and suddenly 
coming out from the cut formed by the embankment, they vomited 
fire upon fire on the German columns* 

According to eye-witnesses it was a massacre, unbelievable. 
The machine guns swept the nearest ranks, while the canon sowed 
death in the most distant battalions. 

Surprised, demoralized, the Germans fled; soon rallied by 
their officers, they attempted to take the trains by assault; the 






Hymfcyftqi 






- 14 - 
loss was frightful, mounds of corpses accumulated on each side of 

c line, and again the Germans fled, in order to reform under the 
shelter afforded by th# sand hills, and there awaited their ar- 
tillery. 

One of the trains was derailed but this fact was unknown to 
the enemy, v.n.6. this gave the crew - aided by the Belgian engineers - 
time to get it back on the track. 

After about two hours the German artillery was in position; 
the two trains rendered registration impossible by moving at var- 
iable speed up and down the track, firing on the German positions 
all the time. The German pieces were soon reduced to silence and 
the German hordes had to admit defeat. This day cost them more 
than eight thousand killed and wounded: at certain points more 
than five hundred bodies were counted in a spa.ee of 100 square 
metres. 

These armored trains, which have rendered great service to 

the Allies are of an internationalism; they were construct ed in 
France by Prench and Belgian workmen, but from plans, they tell 
us, furnished by English engineers. 

heir crews are composed of Belgians and English,- the for- 
r occupying themselves with the locomotion and the handling of 
the machine guns, and sharp shooters are selected to work at the 
loopholes. Specially selected English gunners, chosen from the 
Havy, operate the canon. 

(signed) II. E. Ivlargetts. 



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(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31. igQ^jTCCft TlOt hC TCtVjT7l(iCi, 






SUBJECT German &ute rin© in the Adriatic ,- : - l V 



From. 



-No. 15s-, £Vz& 



Replying to 0. N. I. No..~*~.^~^_.Date 



1. I have on excellent authority that several Ger: on 
submarines are Gyrating in the Adriatic. These v/ore shipped 
overland and nut together in Austrian norts. 





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Need not be retutueU, 



(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31. 1900) 






SUBJECT 



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Office of Naval Intelligence, Compilation J.K.&. ,ir 

Ji me 25,^ 191 5. Copy IT.H.L. 

I C0ITl!'ID5iITlAL . 

Logistics iv. 

I I TALIA!! L I 1ITE DZHSTROYSI to . O.K. I. 5344. 

Destroyer (sheet metal) about 4 feet long and shaped like 
torpedo. Filled wife high explosive. Has war-nose. A horizontal 
plane is fitted on each side, about 1 l/2 feet abaft war-nose. 
The angle of these planes controls depth of destroyer while being 
towed by small boat. About 50 to 100 being experimented with at 
Taranto . 
TORPEDOES - O.H.I. 5335. 

Agent of Eskilstuna Co. states as far as he knows, no torpe- 
does experimented with by European countries, prior to war, greater 
than 53 or 54 cm. diameter. However, an experimental torpedo was 
being built last year for Japan in Germany of 60 cm. diameter. 
SPECIAL RAJSGE CLOCK - FRAIICE - .11.1.5334. 



French adopting new form of clock with bell or gong attach- 
ment. Clock is set for sight bar range. Clock started when salvo 
is fired. Oong rings when salvo is about to fall, i.e. at nearly 
expiration of time of flight. Adopted to insure that spotters 
spot their own ships salvo and not the salvo fired by another ship. 

Note: -This sane idea was perfected by Germany, 'i'heir spotters 
carry such small clocks strapped about their shoulders. Buzzer 
warns spotter of expiration time of flight. 

air amy c/?m:t7J;,; - m gland - o.ii.i. 5355. 

About June 1st Admiralty requisitioned two Blue Funnel Line 
boa ts. One is Hector, Lame other unknown, -'.bout 350-375 feet 
long. Ordinary tranrj? type. Forecast removed from each. Clear 
level between bridge house and raised foesle of 00-100 feet. Ves- 
sels to be used for carrying one military airship each (not aeroplane 
Officers of Eavy Flying Corps all ready ordered to these ships. 
Work being pushed. 



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Smoke Producing Plant for Dardanelles - O.K.I. 5265. 

Extract report from TEEHSSSEE of April 29, 1915. 

"1. It is the intention of the British Navy to use a smoke 

I Producing plant to screen operations in the Dardanelles. 
2. The details of a unit are as 3et forth on the enclosed 
sketch marked "a" . 

3. About 6 old schooners will comprise the number of units 
so far as is known, and these are being prepared at Alexandria. 
Small schooners were dismasted and dismantled, seams on bottom re- 
caulked and the deck ma de level by cement; the thinest section of 
the cement being on the fore and aft line and one inch thick. 

4. Each schooner carries three cones, a fuel oil tank and 
two air flasks. The cones are constructed of a light sheet iron and 
covered with 3/4" X 3/4" X 10 B.W.G. wire mesh (up to within 1" of 
the apex) over l/4" asbestos millboard. She' mesh is filled with 
asbestos dement. The cones are mounted on shallow pans which have 
leak-off connections over the side. The burner pipe runs up through 
the vertical axis of the cone and out through the truncation and is. 
protected by a small conical cap. The "burner is made of 1/2* gas 
pipe perforated on under side. The fuel tank is constructed of l/4" 
sheet iron, riveted and caulked and tested to 20 pounds gauge. It is 
mounted in the after end of tho hulk and has supply pipes leading 

to cones. A regulating globe valve for each supply pipe is located 
near the tank. A constant pressure of about 8 pernios i je is main- 
tained on tank by air flask connections through a pressure regulator 

5. The cones are surrounded by a sheet iron screen six feet 
high. This apparently is not high enough because on i Recent test 

lame showed ,bov; fcne screen,, jDhis vac the only criticism m de 
of the performance. A dense column of smoke about forty feet high 

oduced .?.nd the repress live of the 3ritish Sayy present was 
satisfied vm* th results. 

6. There is reason to bolieve that tbese are to be towed 

first to Lemnos. 



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7, At present it is impossible to obtain any information of 
the plan of operation for the smoke producing plants in the Dardanelles I' 
I;i:: : "\:^E3 Vh'ITICE - 0*1,1, 8812. 

A number of flat "bottom ligntcrs aaded to Defenses of Venice. 
Each armed with two ^uns of large calibre - 6" to 10" - exact size 
not known. Light draft enables lighters proceed along shore and 
inside lagoons. Some have own propelling machinery. 

Ideal base for torpedo craft. All forts lately overhauled and 
many new batteries installed, includes 30.5 cm. and 32 cm. guns. 

ire net wot'-: placed over out ire inner basin and shops having 
submarines under construction. 

Aeroplane guns mounted, on tracks along Cavallino Shoal and 
possibly along Lido. 
ITALIA1T BUDGET .- O.E.I. 4230. 

Hoy&l decree of Hay 14,1915 increased original Budget 1914-15 

by 25,000,000 lire ($4,325,000 )for Ifcvy and 100,000,000 lire ($19,300, 

000 ) for Army. 

DHFBHSB3 ?AK/JgfflO - O.H.I. 4418. 
<■■» 

fortifications complete except 3 new batteries under construc- 
tion. Includes guns up to 20 cm. howitzer* . 

Submerged breakwaters constructed so as to close up harbor. 

Four rows of mines laid out. Channel very narrow. On Hay 11, 
Italian merchantman dragged over mine iield - struck two mines - 
both exploded - vessel sank within five minutes. 
REDoTCIOn GEAP.IIJG - 0. II. 1.4258. 

Copy of letter of May 25, 1015 from London haval Attache. 

"1. By recent enquiries irom private sources the following in- 
t formation in regard to use of reduction gearing on British shi-ns 
has been obtained. Ihis i:vf or. .i tion, however, has not as yet been 
confirmed from official or semi-official sources and should not, 
therefore, be considered conclusive. 

2. Two destroyers, each with a total oi 22-24000 8«H,P., have 
been built with reduction gears; one high pressure and one low 
pressure turbine being geared to each of 6wc .its. One pinion 
on each shaft transmits about r /000 .j.a.P. and the other the remain- 
ing 4-50003 .11. P. My informant stated that these installations were 
not a success at first, the pinion teeth breaking under the strain; 
he was not, however, cognisant of the developments in connection 
with these installations curing the last lew months. These are 
believed to be the most powerful installations of reduction gearing 
yet made in the British Navy. 



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3. The machinery of t&e s.s. Transylvania is said to be the 
most powerful fitted with reduction gear which is at present in 
actual ucrviec, 

4. fhe .' eotinghouse Company have recently obtained contracts 
to furnish reduction gears for two Swedish battleships, the total 
3.H.P*, for eaeh ship feeing £2000, which will be developed on two 
shafts." 

Aeroplanes for following course of enemy's torpedoes - . IT . I . 
3649 



The Italian fleet has been experimenting with feasibility of 

■ 

designating courses of torpedoes fired fron enemy ship. ir craft 
fly immediate vicinity enemy and, upon observing wake of torpedo , 
nearest aeroplane follows its course, giving ample warning to 
target ship. 

ITALIAH MIKE LAYKBS - O.h.I. 5342. 

JP* 3? 

Two cruisers Liguria and Paglia fitted as mine layers. Carry 
about 60 mines each on deck, arranged is two rows. Vessels fitted 
with track and apparatus for planting over stern. Hot known how 
many mines carried/oelow decks. 

Two old gunboats Llinerva and -?artenope also carry mines but 
have no track, etd . , for dropping mines. 

1 ill..! ^IllL J . X i- .J-t±.J..JA J .',ij--.XUX m i < a . J- • — 0<J L ±\J . 

All ships of Italian Fleet painted (about May 1,1915) a very 
light gray. Vessels originally painted as dark as U.S. ships. 
LSTS - ITALIAN SHIPS - O.H.I. 5341. 



During April and L'ay, all large vessels Italian Fleet had 
sts cut down. Some had had one omst taken out and the other 
shortened. In drcadnaughts all top masts struck below. 

Large radio radius not needed in Adriatic. Visibility of 
ships decreased by cutting down matte. 

20: ) 

)iij:/i ! ^. - 0. P. I. -4763. 

SUEIl-'iaLTP" 

At T&ranto, Italians manufacturing large number of heavy 40 
or 50 feet beams. Fitted so as to be joined together at ends and 
to have torpedo nets Buspenaed from them. Certain number of booms 
and nets distributed to each Ship sc la to entirely surround fleet 
when at anchor. 7/ire net believed to be not a torpedo net but a 



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very coarse wire mesh for use against submarines ♦ 
AUSTRIA - SUBMARINES -0 .11.1. 2608. 

Austrian Havy League instituted popular subscription for 

providing $avy with additional submarines. Articles appearing in 

press showiiig great value of submarines and urging people to be 
I 

patriotic and subscribe. 

ITALIAII AUXILIARY OivUISLI ^ - .II .1 .-5417 . 

The Italian Government took over and converted the following 
4 ships - Cjita di Palermo 

« « Catania 
" " Messina 
" " Siracusa. 
All are IE, 000 H.P., 23 knots, 3500 tons vessels. Each armed 
with 6-427 guns. 

Also took over following - Citta di Oagliari; 

M " Sassan and 
Caprera . 
These are 2500 tons, 4500 H.P. and 15 knot steamers. 
HBV7 ITAIIAH EQKftSDQ BOATS - O.H.I. - 3031. 

■11 ' ■».■■ mi— — mmtmmi ■. m n mi-M i " n ■ ' ■ ph— a^Ki w iwwi w 

Italy has ordered 24 additional torpedo boats of P.H. class, 
to be completed in one year. 
Hote:- P.U. class as follows: 

12 boats built 1911-12. Length 139 feet, breadth 14.5 feet. 
Displacement 118 tons. I.H*P.2760 = 27 knots. 1-3 pdr. and 2-21" 
tubes . 



-6- 
TETRO-NITROSANIUNE - O.N.I. 5434. 

Tetro-nitro-aniline 1b used to some extent ae a primer or 
booster for explosive chagges in projectiles, torpedoes and mines 
(England). It is not used to any very great extent, beoause it 
is. rather dangerous and may not stand shook of explosion or heat. 

Tetra-nitro-methylaniline is used for the same purpose to a muoh 

***** 

greater extent. 

CRUISER BftTTLE, JAHUARY 34, 1915 - O.N.I. 4910. 

1. Following report from Berlin Attaohl in reply to O.N. I a 
inquiries is quoted: 

"The information desired is In general not available at the 
present time. With regard to the hits made on the German ships 
during the aotion of January 24th, 1915, there is some light. 

"The Reiohs-Marine-Amt claims that hits were received only as 
follows :- 

"SEYELITZ": One hit on barbette of after turret resulting in 

destruction turret personnel and wrecking interior 
of turret. All electrical machinery ruined in this 
turret as the powder in the handling rooms oaught 
fire and burned out everything. 
"DERJFLINGER" One hit on side armor resulting in driving baok 
a plate and opening a hole underneath the plate. 
There has been some dispute as to whether the hole 
underneath the plate was not made by a different 
shell from the one that hit the plate but I believe 
that best authorities think not, 
"MOLTKE" No hits. 

"The "BLUECHER" received one or more hits at long range whioh 
put her engines out of action after which she dropped back and became 
a general target. 

"Hits made by the Germans on the English fleet not known. 
"The cruiser "KOLBERG" reoeived two hits. 

"It is prooable that after the war when discussion is allowed 
tnat the information deslrea will be available. » 






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2. Similar reporc from London Attache: 

"It has not yet been practicable to obtain details of the 
number, location and resultant damage, of hits suffered by the 
"LION" ana "TIGER" in the engagement of January 24th, but some 
further details supplementing anu modifying my report a of March 9 
and April 6 have tt^en obtained from an absolutely reliable source • 

"The side armor belt of these ships was not actually pierced, 
except in the ease of a poor plate referred to in my report of April 
6« The belt was hit, however, by heavy shell, but at suoh angles 
that actual penetration did not take place; by measurement of line 
of trajectory as shown by holes in funnels and decks, the angle oi fall 
of heavy calibre shells was approximately 20°; also due to the tac- 
tical positions oi the ships during the action there was an angle of 
incidence to the armor in azimuth as well; the combination of these 
angles ana the decrease in remaining velocity due to the great ranges 
were given as the causes preventing complete penetration of the armor 
in most o&aea. 

"My inf orxas&at did not reoollect the exact effect of the shells 
on/the protected decks, but was certain that no vital or important 
damage resulted from piercing the decks. 

"By far the greatest damage was caused by shell striking the 
ship at or below the bottom edge of the side armor. In aduition to 
the one case of an armor plate being driven back through the struc- 
ture, as aesoribed in my report of April 6, there were several oases 
on both ships where shells evidently striking short made an impact 
and exploaed against the side, with the result in each case that the 
plating ana framing was destroyed locally, thereby flooding side 
compartments in wa&e of the aamage; the longitudinal bulkheads, how- 
ever, remained intact - if these had failed or been pierced my in- 
formant stated I hat it would probably have been impossible to get 
either of these ships safely back to port. 

"As a result of this fight, all feed water tanks on British 
ships situated outboard adjaoent to the side, as in the LION, have 
been removed. It was the injury to the feed water tank that was 















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the primary cause of the •LION" retiring from the aotion, as it was 
not discovered until serious priming ocourred in the boilers and 
sufficient water had been carried over to the turbines to causa con- 
siderable injury to the blading. 

"The "TIGER" was repaired at the Works of Cammell^Laird at 
Birkenhead, taking about three to four weeks*" 
REVERSIBLE TORPEDO (Germany) - O.H.I. 1346. 

A German lieutenant tells me that prior to the war the torpedo 
station was experimenting with a device which was to be used in 
torpedoes when firing against a column of ships. 

The device shifted the action of the gyre on the valves of the 
steering engine after the torpedo had run a certain number of minutes, 
causing the torpedo to turn and run in the opposite direction. 

The torpedo had therefore double the chanoes of hitting some 
ship of the column than when fired without the device. 

Whether the device i tfaa adopted or not the officer did not state. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION - ENGLAND - O.N.I. 5184. 

Report from London Attache": 

"Referring to my report of April 6, 1915, in regard to a new type 
of war vessel now under construction, I have obtained from a high 
source in the Admiralty confirmation of the fact that large vessels 
of great dimensions, power, and speed, and oarrying heavy guns, are 
actually under construction, but no dimensions or details could be 
obtained. 

■Tne statement in my report that "this exceedingly rapid con- 
struction is made possible by adapting for these vessels the machinery 
which was already well advanced for a number of light cruisers" is, 
however, in error, as my informant states that the machinery for 
thesw new vessels is so much more powerful that it is not praotioable 
to .'li-ipt othsr machinery for the purpose except aa regards boilers. 
He stated further uhau the 8»H.P. per ton of propelling machinery 
weights for these large vessels would be oiooely the same as for their 
reoent light cruisers; if all machinery weights for the ship are in- 
cluded, such as all hull auxiliaries, turret machinery, generators 






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and hydraulio compressors, the S.H.Po per ton of this total weight 
would be about 15$ lees than the corresponding figure for light 
cruisers *u given in my report of April 21, 1915, in regard to 
machinery weights for high ape 3d vessels. This means that the S.H.P. 
per ton for these nevr vessels is about 48 or 40.8 depending upon 
what is included in the machinery weights. The whole tenoa/of the 
conversation, duxAng which this information was obtained, made it 
clear that torpedo boat destroyer practice a-s regards propelling 
machinery weights had been applied to these very large speedy vessels? 
MOVEKEBTE AND DAMAGE TO VARIOUS ENGLISH VgFBFLS - 0«N«I, 1461. 

"The only ships present in Gibraltar were the 3ritish men-o-war, 
INFLEXIBLE, BRISTOL and CAESAR and the French ccuiser CASSARD. 

•*■* Mitt yts&fr ,&&&* 

■The INFLEXIBLE was undergoing repairs in dry dock, due to 
damages received at the Dardanelles. She is said to have hit a 
mine during the early operations In the Straits and also to have suf- 
fered damage from gun fire from the forts. Twenty six of her crew 
were ©aid to have been killed* She was convoyed to Malta by two 
men-of-war, -tih.&x& temporary repairs were made, so she oouia make 
Gibraltar for farther necessary repairs, She took water badly dur- 
ing the trip from the Dardanelles to Malta and grave fears for her 
being able to keep afloat were expreseed, it bein& necessary to head 
her stern first frequently and she entered Malta in this manner. It 
was stated that ehe was preceded through the Straits at the Dardanelles 
by two steam pinnaoee, mounting 3-poundera in their bow, which guns 
were used for the purpose of firing at the mines. How this was 
possible was not told. 

■It was said here that the loa3 of the BULWARK, was due to the 
3ritish system of continuity of Magazines; that is the several maga- 
zines not being separated one from the other. The flawed oould be 
heard running along the magazines, followed 'oy explosions throughout. 

"The QUEEN ELIZABETH stopped at Gibraltar daring the weak ending 
May 29th enroute to England from the Dardanelles. It was said in 
Gibraltar that her big guns hau opened up several eeame and that 
she was going baox for overhauling, thenoe to join the Channel 



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Fleet as her work at the Dardanelles had been completed." 
DEFENSES OF GIBRALTAR - OoN.I. - 1461. 

maim f*~" 

Report of June 7, 1915. 

"The inner harbor is oloeed tight at sunset and until sunrise. 
The draws in the breakwater are closed by means of collapsible gates 
or bridges, made of steel frame work. Entering the harbor, one 
sees a red buoy (not charted) which was said by the pilot to make - 
the outer edge of mine fields. 

"Searchlights were kept playing baok and forth during darkness 
from stations ashore. 

"The Western approach to Gibraltar was patrolled by three (3) 
torpedo boats and converted cruisers. 

"The forts were holding target practice daily by firing at a 
moving target towed by a tug. Many exposed guns could be seen on 
the heights." 
ELEVATION OF GUNS - ENGLAND - 0*N.I* - 08/708. 

Report from London Attach!. 

"I have learned on unquestionable authority that in all British 
ships now under construction or contemplated steps have been taken 
to increase materially the previously accepted maximum elevation 
of guns. The exact figure of the new maximum elevation provided 
for I have been unable to learn but it marks a distinct increase 
over the 15 degrees »hioh I understand to be the figure previously 
used. Although not definitely so stated, I believe this increase 
applies to the torpedo defense battery as well as to the main battery? 
AMMUNITION FOR VESSELS AT DARDANELLES - 0„N.I<, 5400. 

High explosive shell and shrapnel are both used. British are 
now supplying shrapnel for all calibres, even the QUEEN ELIZABETH 
15" guns being equipped with a few rounds eaoh of shrapnel as well 
as their normal H.E. shell. 

The material of both sides seemed to function well; shells, both 
high explosive and shrapnel, burst regularly. The destruction 
wrought by the large British H.E. shells from the intermediate 
batteries of the fleet, as evidenoeu by the shell holes in the ground 
found on Cape Hellas by the landing party after the bombardment, was 



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oited as terrific in extent, though little actual damage was done 
to the well hidden Turks. 



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CO&FIDEKglAL. 

I.1I3CRLLAUE0US IV. 

BLACE: SEA ENGAGEMENT May 10, 1915. .13. 1. #099 .' 

Report from Petrograd Attache. 

Teste 
"Russian vessels Eostofi and Zlatoust in action with Goeben 

■MM* 

for about 20 minutes. Firing "began at range about 22,000 yards. 
Least range was 14,000 yards. 

Goeben fired about 200 shots. liade no hits. Russians claim 
to have made 4 hits. 

Goeben able to make about 20 knots and avoided close action." 
Hote:- Goeben has 10-11" guns . Is manned by mixture of Germans 
and Turks. 

Russian ships are sister ships - have 4-12" and 4-8" each. 
HOLLAND'S NEUTRALITY - C.H.I. 5194. 



1M5 



Report of April 6, 1915. 

"Haval officers have disclosed to me part of a plan of oper- 
ations against Germany, which they assert will be put into ef- 
fect before June 15. .for the successful operation of the plan 
Holland must either be a belligerent or her neutrality must be 
grossly violated. 

The extent to which the Admiralty are carrying these prepar- 
ations gives the impression XlicX they will not hesitate to vio- 
late Dutch neutrality if necessary." 
HOLLAND AIJD Y;AR - O.K. 1. 5194. 



Extracts Report of Liay 11, 1015 by who visited Holland 
beginning of iday. 

"Passengers greatly inconvenienced crossing England to Hol- 
land. Strict examinations both ends of line. Passengers prohib- 
ited carrying letters or written messages. 

Holland full of German spies." 

Over 200,000 Belgian Refugees in Holland. Over 30,0'JO in- 



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terned Belgian soldiers at camps at Siesrt and Hardinierfk. About 
1600 interned British at Usk and Groningen. Sisall number interned 
G-ermans at Bergen and Alknear. 

Holland making every effort preserve neutrality. Unanimous 
wish of inhabitants to remain at peace. Opinion of Datch that 
nothing short of invasion will drive Holland into war. General 
feeling of over 90'$ people in favor Allies. Llany Army Officers 
Pro -German. 

Entire Army 255,000 mobilized - of which 90,000 are on fron- 
tier, 90,000 in depots and 70,000 in garrisons or defensive works. 
Understood to be short munitions and equipment. 

Scheme of defense - flood whole country and reduce defended 
area to minimum - "but to include AMsterdam, Hotter dam and Hague. 

Vice Admiral Aubert, Chief of French General Staff died June 
8, 1915. Vice Admiral de Pauque de Joncoiieres appointed his 
successor. 
AUSTRIA!? ATTACK OH ITALY . - H$y 24, 1915. O.H.I. 5358. 

Extract report from Home Attache. 

"Any particulars other than the very general official account 
in the clippings forwarded, have been almost impossible to get, 
but I submit the following which has a little additional information. 

About 4 a.m. three Austrian light cruisers opened fire on 
Senj^allia, entirely destroying the Custom-house, and damaging many 
houses. There were a few killed and many wounded. Operating with 
the cruisers there was an aeroplane which had no offensive part in 
the action, and although reported to me to be directing the fire, 
I think it more probable that the machine was used to keep the 
ships informed of any possible approach of enemy vessels. A troop 
train was fired upon, out the troops were all disembarked before 
the range was found. 

At Ancona there were nine Austrian vessels in the attack - 
three cruisers and 6 destroyers - I believe this one force opera- 
ted against all the towns, passing from one to another. 'ihe masked 
battery mentioned in the clippings did considerable damage to the 
Austrian ships. 

The other towns sustained more or less damage." 

:tract report from Vienna Attache. 

"On tho 24th instant the following official announcement was 
made in Vienna: 

"In the night following the declaration of war (Is/lay 23-24) 
our fleet undertook an action against ^he east coast of Italy be- 
tween Venice and Barletta, and effectively bombarded important 



- 3 - 

military objects in numerous places. Simuiltaneoiisly our naval 
aeroplanes dropped bombs on the balloon shed in Chiarvalle, the 
military works of Anccna and the arsenal in Venice, Thereby vis- 
ible damage and conflagrations were caused. 

Commander of Fleet." 

On the 25th inst . the following report was given out : 

"The official tslephon&A report of the fleet action on the 
corning of/.he 24th Inst, is as follows; 

"Before sunrise to-day, that Is within 12 hours of the declar- 
ation of war by Italy, the I. & It. Ilavy executed a set of success- 
ful simultaneous attacks on the coast of Italy from Venice to 
Barletta. 

"A naval aviator dropped 14 bombs in Venice, setting fire to 
the arsenal, seriously injuring a destroyer, and bombarding the 
railway station, oil tanks, and hangar in the Lido. 

"The destroyer "ocharfschiitze" pushed into the very narrow 
channel of Porto Corsini until it found itself in the immediate 
proximity of a fully manned infantry trench. A large portion of 
the completely surprised garrison was^ shot down, ?/hereupon three 
entirely concealed shore batteries opened a heavy fire from guns 
of about 12 cm, caliber against the cruiser "Jiovara" and torpedo- 
boat "80", which were lying at the entrance to the channel. The 
latter received a hit in the officers messroom which seriously 
wounded one man and caused the boat to leak. The "LSovara" contin- 
ued the fire, in order to help the destroyer out of its predica- 
ment, and enfiladed the trenches and demolished a barracks , but 
received many hits herself. 

"Lieutenant Perslch and 4 men killed, '4 men seriously and 
several slightly wounded, but the losses of the enemy are perhaps 
10 to 20 times greater. 

"The "Scharfschutze" escaped entirely uninjured; torpedo- 
boat "80" to Pola with a collission mat. 

"The railway station and bridges in Himini Y^ere bombarded by 
the armored cruiser "St. Georg" . 

"In Sinigaglia railway bridges, water tower, harbor works, 
station buildings and a train were demolished by 3.M.3."£rinyi" ; 
the station, train and adjacent buildings were "burned. 

n JjH Aneona the old forts, the cavalry and infantry camp, 
wharves, electric power house, railway station, gas tanks, petro- 
leum depot, semaphore and radio station were bombarded by the main 
body of the fleet, and great damage was wrought by stray shots and 
fire . Two steamers in the harbor were sunk and one on the ways 
ready for launching was demolished. Resistance was made only by 
two light batteries and a few machine guns against two destroyers. 
In the only modern fort, Alfredo Savoe, the men stood at their 
guns at the beginning of the bombardment, but two of our avietors 
who appeared at the right moment drove them away so effectively 
that they did not return to their stations. These aviators and a 
third also dropped bombs on the balloon shed inshore of Ohiaravalle 
and., on several other mi3 itary objects. 

"The airship "Citta di Ferrara" threw several bombs at 3.M.3. 
"Srinyi" without results and attempted to attack the retiring 
fleet, but hurriedly retreated at the approach of two aeroplanes, 
which, however, had used all of their bombs. 

11 The same or another airship had already been sighted half an 
hour after midnight by the fleet on opposite course halfway be- 
tween I'ola and Aneona, doubtlessly bound for Lola. However, when 
the two vessels that were accompanying it retreated before gun- 
fire the airship put about and disappeared to the northwestward, 
apparently without having seen the fleet. 

"3 .M.S. "Admiral opann" with 4 destroyers fired on the railway 
bridge over the Sinarea river, the railway station, locomotives, 
pumping station, etc. in Campo Mariano, demolished the semaphore 
of Tremiti and damaged that of Hileto. 

" .SMS. "Helgoland" with 5 destro:/ers bombarded Viesto and 
Manfredonia and near Barletta fell in with 2 Italian destroyers 



-4- 

whicn it at onoe took under fire and pursued. One of the destroyers 
made its escape, but the second, the TURBINE, was pressed toward 
Pslagosa by our destroyers CSEPEL and TATRA, ana was set on fire and 
reduced to a sinking condition by hits in the boilers and engines. 
She surrendered. The CSEPEL, TATRA, and LEKA rescued 35 of the crew, 
including the captain, executive offioer, and chief engineer, and 
made prisoners of them. The rescue vrcrk was disturbed by the 
appearance of two battle Ships of the VITTQRIO EMANUELE clas6 and 
an auxiliary cruiser which approached to within 9000 meters. 

"In the ensuing gunfire action only the CSEPEL received an un- 
important hit, whereby one man was seriously wounded and 2 men 
slightly wounded. The fire was returned with good effect by the 
HELGOLAND and the destroyers. Mlnimim range 8000 meters. Within 
a short time our vessels were out of range. 

"The railway bridge over the Potenza river was fired upon and 
damaged by the DABET2KT. 

"The 1. & R. fleet suffered no losses than those noted above." 

ITALIAN TAEG5T PRACTICE - 0»N.I. - 3079. 

Reports tTQBi Pome Attache. 

"There has been an enourmous amount of sub-caliber practice by 

the Italian fleet at Taranto. Besides the shooting at the usual 

fe£&ll towing target, there has been a great deal of sub-caliber work 
done at kites. These kites are 150 meters high, shaped like an 

aeroplane and of the dimensions &iven bslovr in the rough aketoh. I 

understand that each dreadnought has an allowance of 6000 rounds a 

day for 3,11 kinds of sub-oaliber work. ■ 

"Gunnery training in the Italian Navy is progressive in charaoter 
It begins in the autumn of each year after the recruits are got 
aboard and ends with the practices carried out in the maneuvers 
which are held in the late summer when practicable. 

"Every ship has its dummy guns ana its mechanical targets. 
The drills are not unlike ours and are oarried out with the same 
vigor. 

"Every orew has its Captain. He is almost invariably a petty 
officer and almost always has had 10 years or more of service. He 
receives no extra pay or authority by virtue of his position as gun 
Captain but by virtue of his grade as petty officer. He is always 
senior to all the crew including the pointers. 

"The pointers are all graduates of the gunnery school. They 
are never assigned as pointers until they have been graduated from 
the school. Each one has a booklet on which is inscribed hie record. 
There are always on board more graduate pointers than there are 
places for pointers. Hence there are two classes; punt at or i soelti 
and punt at or 1 comuni . (Selected and Common). The selected ones are 
chosen for their performances at pointers* target practice (gare 
di puntamento) and are divided into let and 2nd Classes. 

"At -fens beginning of the gunnery year, the work is of a very 

elementary form. There is considerable drill at meohanioal targets. 
Much eub-oaliber praotioe i£ held firing one or perhaps two or three 
guns at a time. This is generally oarried out in smooth water in 
port, the target being towed by a steam launch. The targets are 
quite like the ones used in our Navy for the same purpose. 

"Sometimes during the quarter there is a praotioe with half 
oharges at targets 3 meters by 7 meters. The target and ship are 
both in motion. The range is about 3000 meters. Guns fire one, 
two or three at a time, out are controlled separately. At this 
praotioe there is some night firing with the torpedo defense guns. 



-5- 

under practically the same conditions as that in day time. 

"The second practice comes in the spring* The targets are 7 m 

x 7 m and are tewed at about 3000 meters from the ship. The guns 
fire independently although more than one may fire at once. The 
conditions are practically the game as ours. 

"The third practice corresponds to our gun pointers' practice. 
The conditions are practically the same as above. Scoring is done 
more carefully. 

"The fourth practice is generally held at the time of the 
maneuvers. Three quarters charges are used for main and inter- 
mediate battery guns. The target is 7 x 35 meters. It is really a 
battle practice with ships firing eingly. The ranges vary from 

4000 to 8000 meters* Night firing is carried out with torpedo 
defense guns firing at the 7x7 meter target. 

"After this comes a fifth practice in which divisions fire 
together. Sometimes as many as three ships concentrate their fire 
on one target , but generally one two. Records are kept of all these 
practices and squadrons, divisions and ships are lined up a3 in the 
case in our Navy. 

"The targete' screens used are of four sizes, dimensions in 
meters as follows: 1,80 x 3,50, 7 x 3, 7 x 7, and 7 x 85. The first 
mentioned is a sub-caliber target carried on a slid. Each ship 
carries two of these slide. The next two are also carried on slide, 
but larger than that just mentioned. Each ship carries one of these 
sllds. The last named is usually made in five pieoee of canvas set 
on an old torpedo boat filled with cork and rigged with six masts 
stayed by shrouds in all directions. 

"The competition is divided as follows: The Gara ai puntatori, 

igun pointers 1 practice); the Gara di tiro migliorato diurno fra Navi , 
Day battle practice, single ships) ; Gara di tiro migliorato notturn o 
fra navi , (Wight battle practice, Biggie ships); Gara di tiro fxsT 
division! , (Division battle practice;. 

"The Gara di Punt at or i comprises the competition! with the heavy 
calibers J for which the Coppa San Marco is awarded; with the medium 
calibers , for which the Cup donated by the Ministero della Marina is 
offered; with the small calibers , for which the Ooppa Garibaldi is 
awarded; with all calibers combined , for which the Cup donated by S . 
A.R. 11 Duoa di Genova, ia/awar#ded, and with prune on torpedo craft , 
for which the Cup for t bis Competition donated by the Ministero della 
Mar ina is awarded. 

"The Coppa donate da S.A.R. il Duoa de^li Abruzzi is awarded to 
the winner of the Day battle practice, single snips. The Cup g,ive n 
by the Navy League is awarded the winner of the Night battle practice. 
A Cup donated by the Ministry of the Marine is awarded the winner of 
the Division battle practice. And the KING'S CUP is given to the 
ship having the highest merit for all kinds of firing combined. 

"Letters of oommendation are given to deserving persons regard- 
less of whether they win other awards. For example, laet year the 
Captain, offioers and crew of the NAPOLI were commended for doing so 
well after so brief a period of training. The NAPOLI stood I in gun 
pointers 1 test, 3 in day battle practice and 4 in night battle prao- 
tioe. 

"ToTDjedo training is proseouted generally very much as it is in 
our Navy. "Every torpedo on board is fired a certain amount annually. 
Those from the big ships and destroyers very seldom, those from the 
torpedo boats a great deal. The truth of the matter is the real 
instruction with this weapon tskes place at the torpedo sfchool, and 
the firing from ships in service is reduoed to a minimum. Similarly 
very little maneuvering is done with the destroyers, almost all being 
done by the torpedo boats. 









M 



< 









-6- 

"Thers are regular competitions however with this weapon and 
cups are awarded to the winners in the classes into whioh the ships 
are divided. The target is always three buoys towed by a line. It 
is 90 meters long. Ones a y&zx certain torpedoes are fired with war 
heads against the shore. 

"I do not think money awards are every given the winners of 
competitions. 

•The Italians have one very exoellent scheme (already reported 
on). There is at Spezia a set of screens with ohBonographa mounted 
out in the bay, and ships oan anchor behind the screens and fire 
through them for their regular mounts on board. This is carried out 
for every ship upon commissioning, and afterwards when there arises 
a question as to the actual velocities of the guns. 

"The system of training is nothing if it is not systematic. 

Apparently officers and crews work hara at it and are well inspired 

by the regards. The principal fault I see in the system lies in the 

fact that they practically never fire full charges except with the 

medium and small calibers. 1 ' 

EXTRACT R E PORT OH DARDANELLES - O.N.I. 4704. 

"British submarine appeared 900 feet from SCORPION and fired 
two torpedoes, one of which struck a Turkish transport. Water 
battel iee engaged without any effect." 

VARIOUS I N FORMATION - O.N.I. 5426. 

"I have iust had a talk mV&h Mr. H. R. Gary, representing the 
Cummings Ship Instrument Works, 110 High Street, Boston. He used 
to be a draftsman at the Navy Department. He has just come back 
from a two or three months visit iio England and France, and while 
there he picked up considerable information of more or less interest, 
principally through his association with other Americans who are now 
employed in installing American guns and American devioes on English 
ships. 

"Doubtless your offioe has received a good deal of information 
as to what is going on, but I would suggest that it would be a good 
idea to have somebody talk matters over with Mr* Gary. He is per- 
fectly willing to tell everything he has seen. He is a very agreeable 
person, and is going to visit the Department soon on business for 
his company. A great many of his company's appliances are installed, 
and are being installed, on our vessels. 

"He says that on the Clyde he saw two extraordinary vessels being 
jbuilt. These were not yet launched. They were apparently about 
; four or five thousand tons. Their peculiarity was in the extra- 
ordinary shape of the hulls. The beam of the ship was very narrow 
indeed, Below the water line, or about on the level of the water 
line (there was no water line painted), the hull extended out to a 
greater distance on either siue than the beam of the ship above the 
water. He estimated the aepth of these wings to be about five feet. 
He assumes that the vessels are for use in extremely shallow water 
and that the wings are so oompartmented that a torpedo would ao- 
ths vessels very little damage, if indeed it could secure a hit. 
He knows nothing about the battery these vessels are to o&rry. 

"He also saw a vessel of the oruiser type of approximately the 
same size as the above, and having in the center of ner length what 
was apparently a large gun carriage. This was supporter from the 
deck by a number of strong struts^ and where they oauie together was a 
oassable capable of taking a trunnion about the size of tbos\v tQl our 
13-inoh guns. The trunnion would be about twenty feet above the deok. 
He understood that this was to support a large calibsr aeroplane gun 
of the mortar type. 



in 






y + f 















-7- 

"Another bit of information is that there were acres and acres 
of torpedo destroyers and submarines builg built as rapidly as pos- 
sible. A great many of the submarines were very small, were cigar- 
shaped, and were entirely circular in cross-ieotion. There were 
also a number of large submarines • The destroyers were apparently 
of the usual type. On the bows of all destroyers, as well as on 
the bows of other ships that he saw, there was painted a bow wave 
in white paint representing the "bone" a vessel lias in her teeth 
when steaming at full speed. He also noted that the vessels were 
painted a rather light gray color, and that some of them had painted 
against their sides in very black paint the profile either of a 
destroyer submarine. 

"He said there were a number of battleships building but he had 
no information as to their characteristics. Also that the heavy guns 
built by the Bethlehem works for the Chilean Government had been 
taken over for installation on British ships, and that some of the 
Bethlehem men were assisting in their installation* He understood 
they were 12-inch guns. 

"Mr. Gary had a yarn with several trawler Captain^ who told him 
that they did a great deal of drajjging (or trawling) for submarines 
with a mine on the end of a drag; that, through long experience in 
trawling, one of these men could recognize the nature of the bottom 
by keeping his hand on the line dragging the mine; oould immediately 
detect any obstruction and oould recognize the "feel 11 of the hollow 
hull of a submarine; that, in this fishing, eaoh trawler dragged two 
mines (electric) with an expert trawler attending each; that they 
continuously dragged certain areae, and also any area about the place 
where a submarine had been seen to go down; that a considerable 
number had been destroyed in this manner. You can have this yarn 
for what you think it may be worth. f 

LORD FISHER - O.N.I. 4788. 

Report from London Attache. 

"It is stated that Lord Fisher was forced out of the Admiralty 
beoause of his mental condition. He has recently been suffering 
from lose of memory, and a great deal of confusion has been causee 
thereby. 

"The proposed scheme for the violation of the neujtjjality of 
Holjand is said to have originated with Lord Fisher, and probably will 
no? be carried through under the changed condition© in the Admiralty 
and the Cabinet. 

"There has been praotically no discussion of Lord Fisher's 
resignation and, up to the present, no mention in the press of his 
mental state." 

EMDp, ETC. O.N.I. 4690 

Consular report from Nassau, June 3, 1915. 

"I have the honor to state for the benefit of the Navy Depart- 
ment that while on board the British cruiser SYDNEY, about 5,000 
tons, two days ago, I learned from the commanding officer and others 
relative to the engagement between that vessel and the German raider 
EMDEN some months ago. 

The firing began at more than 10,000 yards by the German vessel 
ana the shots were accurate, from 4.1 inch guns, a surprisingly long 
range. The Germans fired rsxy rapidly, moreover, uuring t . c nty 
minutes, speed of vessel then 23 knots. The British guns were 6 inoh 
diameter, speed of vessel 37 knots then. The battle lusted 30 
minutes. 



-8- 

w The SYDNEY seems to be on the lookout for the German ©hips 
now interned in American ports, whould they be compelled to put to 
sea, in view of issue at present between the United States and 
Germany. She left yesterday." 

TWO TURKISH PROCLAMATIONS - O.N.I. - 4735. 

I. "The following is a textual translation from the French of a 
letter from the Commandant of the Turkish Fourth Army to the Turkish 
Village of Beyrouth. 

■In my capacity of General Commanding the Fourth Corps of all 
Syria and its neighborfcft§d, I find it indispensible to take the 
following measures to defend the oountry:- 

"i. All the commandants of places as well as the detachments of 
Gendarmerie of all the coasts shall be henceforth under my orders 
and shall refer to me in all affairs. Only the armies which are at 
Akaba, Bir, Gabeh and Han Younes will be dependent upon the command- 
ant of the Third Corps. 

"2, The civil authorities will be dependent directly upon the 
oorps of the army in all questions political having for object 
assurance of the defense of the country and the public safety and must 
oonform to the orders of the oorps of the army. Consequently the 
eivil functionaries must put into force immediately the orders of the 
C°rps of the Army and impart them to the authorities; they shall »©t 
even wait for the orders of the authorities to follow the said in- 
structions. 

"2. The Foreign Consuls with their functionaries may leave the 
country but the Consuls of Russia with their functionaries are held 
here. The subjects of all enemy powers will be held in Turkey until 
the arival of new orders from Constantinople; the refusal to allow 
them to leave has for object the non-bombardment of the coast cities 
by the squadron of the enemy. In case it should be forbidden these 
subjeots to leave the plaoee where they find themselves and it is 
not possible to stop them they will be ©topped in these localities. 
It is neoessary to notify the said subjects that if they attempt to 
flee or to give information to their warships they will be pitilessly 



"4. The banks of the belligerent powers will be requisitioned 
and all their money will be committed to the charge of the B.I.O., 
at Damascus, Aleppo and at Jerusalem. The Corps of the Army must 
be informed of the amount of money requisitioned. 

"5. The foreign subjects who are taken in the interior of the 
country as hostages will stay in the places where they find them- 
selves until further orders. A list containing their names, business, 
ages and residence will be made, and a copy will be dispatched to' 
the Army Corps. 

"6. The subjects of enemy governments must not be permitted to 
be insulted or humiliated on the part of the inhabitants, and they 
must be safeguarded from all bad treatment. The Military function- 
aries must not refuse any aid in oaae the civil functionaries ask it 
of them. 

"7. The hour when this order was received shall be reported by 
wire." 

"The following io a textual translation of the second Proclama- 
tion of Djemal Pasha, the Commandant of the Eighth Army Corps, with 
Headquarters at Damascus, Sytia: 



-9- 

"Offioers and Soldiers of the Eighth Corps of the Army: 

"While our Ottoman Squadron was manoeuvering in the Black Sea, 
the squadron of our anoient enemy, the Tzar of the Russians 
traitorously came to attack it and without deolaration of war. 
The Russians who disdain any alliance of the Powers and who, by 
their cowardliness and their habitual treachery, through auadenlytfc 
take by surprise our fleet and conquer our brave officers and sailors, 
as well as those of the Emperor of Germany, the friend of His Majesty, 
our Sultan, noticed this would be surprise, and our victorious fleet 
sank four warships of the Russians and a great number of their merch- 
antmen. It also bombarded the fort of Sebastopol as well as the 
fortifications of Odessa, destroying the telegraph office without 
leaving a wire. By the Grace of God our fleet has not suffered any 
harm. 

"Soldiers! Do you know who was the Admiral of the Russian squadron? 
It was the English Admiral Lympos, whom the traitorous English Govern- 
ment had detailed to organize our fleet; it is this Admiral who 
oollected for himself as well as for his officers, considerable sums 
of money of the Ottoman people; who, instead of giglng a sincere 
service, has readily attacked our ships, and has abandoned the 
drilling of our navy by order of his traitorous government; this 
commander who has no scruples about attacking a fleet of a neutral 
government belongs to that nation of treacherous English who have 
stolen the two ships built with the money of the Mussulmans. And 
if it pleases Go$ the hour will soon arrive when we shall settle our 
aocount with the deceptive English who have subjeoted and humiliated 
the Mussulmans throughout the entire world. 

"Off io errand Soldiers! Your most noble duty consists in study- 
ing as hard ae you possibly can and in the performance of your mili- 
tary exercixee, in order that you may be ready, when His Majesty, our 
Illustrious Sultan, declares war on the arrogant and false English. 
Then the Mussulman lion, leaning on Providence, will crush the 
infamous enemy as our fleet has vanquished them. 

"(Signed) Commandant of 8th Corps of th© Army." 

GERMAN SUBMARINES IN DARDANELLES - 0*N.I, - 5357 -A. 

Following deductions made from supposedly authentic interviews 
of Associated Press with Commanding Offioers of German submarines 
in Constantinople: 

1. At least two submarines made trip from Germany to Constanti- 
nople unescorted and under own power. 

£. That one of these boats in V-51 (about 1000 tons surface 
displacement) and other probably a boat of higher number - i.e. - of 
a later design. 

3. Voyage of nearly 5,000 miles made in 30 days - average 165 
miles per day without stop. 

4. At end of trip and before going into port for overhaul, th© 
V-51 sank the TRIUMPH on May 35 and the MAJESTIC on May 39. 

5. That both British battleships had torpedo nets down but 
th©y ware not sufficient to ke©p torp©do from striking ship. 









. 





















- 






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-10- 

6» That a British destroyer tried to ram the U-51 while oper- 
ating againet the TPIUMPH but the submarine dived and barely escaped. 
Subsequently came up and fired fatal torpedo* 

7 e That the German Submarine Service attributes its success 
largely to rigid discipline and high degree of training which crews 
had reoeived. 

8. Watches for suffaoe runs are 6 hours on and 6 hours off . 
While submerged all hands constantly on watch. 



•• m 






. 



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(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 



$% d not be returned. z / 

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SUBJECT .JWWttfciottLl Jtegliflfe re~«u 

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From v% ..No. 



Date 



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Replying to 0. N. i. No. 



Date 



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*7 



Subject Suppleiaentary iiuaget for the fiscal year 1915-1916. 



F, 



rom 



W. 



No.. 21 



Date ...*l.une. 27, 1915 



Replying to O. N. I. No. XXXXXX Date XXXXXXXXXXXXX 



Supplementary Budget for the fiscal year 1915-1916. 
Published in the Cfficial (cassette of June 21, 1916* 



ilav y r e pa r t ment . 




r rdinary Exp enditures . 
title I. Admiralty 

Item 1. Pay 

Item 2. Office expenses 
(Title il. Expenditures for the ;;aval Service 

Item 1. Pay 

Item 7. Clothing and provisions 

Item 8. construction and repair of 

ships and arms 

item 9. noeuvres 

Item 12 maintenance of vessels 

Item 16 Pay of foreign employees 



Yen 7,584 

7,£, 

134 

Xen 1,267,C82 

357,622 

114,776 

454, 8S1 

60,948 

276,908 

1,997 



Total Ordinary nditures 



ven 1,274,466 



Extraordinary Exp enditures . 

Title i. Mew buildings xen 

Item 4. council Hall, Ominato 

( the former hall "being burned down ) 

iltle V. jbooks and charts for sale 

Item 1. rlnting and binding books 

and oharta for sale 



21,984 
21,984 

5. 



I 



Need not be retuvtu 

ISee Paragraph 4. Instructions of October 31, 1900.] 



Subject '^he Law f overning trategical Zones. 



f 

A r V 



From . No. 22. Do/e .. . JUILG 27, 191 5. 

Replying to O. N. I. No. XXXXXX Date .2DCS^2£03XXX22CZXX . . 

The Lav/ uoverning trat epical , r :ones has "been amended as 
follows :- 

Art. VII. So person shall survey, or take photographs, 
sketches, or records of the configuration of land and water 
within strategical zones, nor shall aviate therein, except by 
permission of the commander of the fortress concerned. 

The provisions of the preceding paragraph apply outside 
of strategical zones within 3500 Ken (about 3 1/2 miles) from 
the outer limits of such strategical zones. 

garfting permission or prohibition of aviation, comma ndere 
of fortresses 3hall obtain the approval of the Minister of ~ar. 




■\tfti 



Office of Naval Intelligence. COPY-AEF. 

.5. 



1 



EXTRACT FROM PRIVATE ETTER FROM NAVAL ATTACHE, PETROGRAD, 

June 28, 1915. 

jn—iwi J ninrrii-"- 

There have been in town lately a number of Japanese officers - 
mostly artillery - walking around in their regular uniforms. At 
the funeral of the Grand Duke Constant ine there were perhaps 20. 
I have heard that there are Japanese troops with the Army. I have 
not seen any one who knows. The newspapers discuss now daily the 
desirability of a Russo-Japanese alliance - the Navoe Vremia had a 
long editorial on it this morning - pointing out the mutuality of 
interests, the general desirability, and the nobleness of the 
Japanese character. I have asked many people about presence of 
Japanese in Government offices, and can find no confirmation of 
its being an organized institution. Russia gets many things now 
from Japan - from big guns to rifles (some of the new troops are 
armed with old Japanese rifles) and under the circumstances there 
is a temporary mutuality of interest, but I still plaoe faith in 
the statement of the Minister of Foreign Affairs as quoted to you. 

Since beginning of the war the Ministry of Marine has organize 
two special services in the Navy - the Aviation Service connecting 
the shore with the Fleet as separated from the Naval Aviation 
Service itself, and the Trawling Service. They are in the way of 
being departments of the Naval General Staff. I have the orders 
of organization, and one of the reasons that I had to let the 
translator go was the faot that she fiddled around for three weeks 
without getting ahead on them. 









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[See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31, 1900.] * jt 



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SUBJECT THE FIGHTING ON THE EAST AND WEST FRONTS DURING 
MAY and JUNE 1915. 



Z 385 Jun e 39 , 1915. 
From No Date ■ \ , 191 



Replying to O. N I. No. Date ...., 191 

EAST FRONT. "^ 



^ 



The great drive of the German and Austrian armies 
of the la3t two months has driven the Russians almost out of 
Galicia and has seriously demoralised the Russian military strength. 
This is the fourth pre at defeat the Russians have sustained and 
the pressure on them is not being released. 

Something of the magnitude of the operations involved 
may be gathered from the fact that in these two months 450,00b 
Russian prisoners have been taken and that the number of Russian 
prisoners of war now in German and Austrian hands number one and 
one half millions. These figures I know to be fairly accurate. 
Allowing for the same number of killed and wounded, Russia has 
lost so far three million men from her field armies and even her 
giant resources are failing. Many of the men who were captured 
had only a few weeks instruction and were soldiers in uniform and 
name only. 

Not so the German army. The periods of instruction 
have not been hastened. Each man has his full course of training. 
The German troops in Galicia are in the pink of condition, their 
equipments are perfect. Supply trains and horses are of approved 
army type and as well ordered and disciplined as the fighting troops. 

In these respects the German army Is far in advance 
iof the Austrian. The latter appear as inferior physically and in 
equipments. They straggle in their marching and the columns are 
not closed up as the Germans. Their supply trains are mostly the 
little Polish two horse carts which can barely carry one third of 
the load of the German supply wagon. Of the six hundred thousand 
prisoners taken by the Russians mostly last fall, probably not 
more than 50,000 are German while the rest are Austrians. 

BREAKING THE RUSSIAN LINE. 

The Germans appear to be quicker in applying modern 
conditions of warfare to the situation than their enemies. They had 
organized their industries to provide the necessary war supplies 
early in the war. They recognized thfct in the trench warfare, the 
small calibre field gun was ineffective. They also recognized 
that the machine p*un was to become a great factor for holding 
trenches against attack. All their units have therefore had the 
number of machine guns greatly increased and the manufacture and 
organisation of heavy howitzers batteries, which made the breaks 
in the Russian lines possible, have gone on unceasingly. The 
effective guns against trenches have bee**> the high angle howitzers, 
principally the Austrian 30.5 c/m and 34 c/m - the German 38 c/m 
and 31 c/m and also the less motile 43 c/m. 

It is said that when General von Mackensen first broke 
the Russian line early in May* fifteen hundred guns of all 
calibres were assembled to play on the part of the line at which 
the attack was to be delivered. 



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In the soil of Galicia the 43 c/m gun tears an 
opening in the earth 45 feet in diameter and 15 feet deep, 
the 30.5 c/m hole is 30 feet by 10 feet deep, the lesser 
guns in proportion. Field guns such as the French 7.5 c/m , 
or the German 7.7 c/m have practically no effect on trenches. 
Under the massed fire of the big howitzers, the Russian 
trenches, though skilfully built, in many lines were torn to 
pieces and the men in them shattered, buried alive and killed 
by air concussion. A series of craters covered the positions. 
Those left alive were incapable of resistance. 

The Germans did not pick out weak points in the line 
to attack in this manner, but the strongest, the "key points 8 , 
which when captured, meant the withdrawal of the whole 
adjacent line. The assault delivred and the Russians &, once 
started out of their trenches, the infantry and the field guns 
took up the battle and followed up the retreating foe. 

Each of the lines of defense occupied by the Russians 
was forced in this manner. 

Following the capture of Lemberg, the Austrian army 
was in process of shifting large bodies of troops to the 
Italian frontier. 

L0SSL0F THE CAMPAIGN IN GALICIA. 

The German losses have been large, but not 
sufficiently great to impair the organization and spirit of 
the forces. Before the campaign opened all troop units 
were filled to their regular number with men who had 
completed their periods of instruction. During the advance 
depots of unassigned troops were ready to fill vacancies 
when called upon to do so. The losses cannot at present 
be given as a whole, A division of the Imperial Guards 
which numbered 34,000 men at the beginning of the campaign, 
and which did more than an average amount of fighting, lost 
6000 men in killed, wounded and sick or 35 Jfc# Of these a 
large number who were slightly wounded will return to the 
command in time. 

Hospital trains and the handling of the wounded 
was admirably administered. One of the most interesting 
features of the German front are the depots for captured 
material. All battle fields are cleaned up after being on. 
The arms, ammunition, guns, etc. are sorted an^ stacked for 
future use, as are uniforms and equipments of all kinds, 
he extent of the work of these depots may be imagined from 
the fact that the Russian small arms taken in this advance 
were mayn hundreds of thousaads, machine guns uayn thousands, 
and heavy guns many hundreds, besides ammunition in vast 
quantities. Clothing is fumigated, made into bales and shipped 
back for overhaul or reworking. 

the aaama front . 

To make the Galicia campaign effective, a very large 
number of troops were withdrawn from the western front and 
up to the present this front has been held on the defensive 
by the Germans, yet their General Staff appear to have no 
nervousness about its being able to hold. 



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They say that they build trenches especially for the 
French to attack, send a few men into them with machine guns 
and the French concentrate a heavy fire on them, in one case 
a hundred thousand shell being fired at an unoccupied 
position. The French then attack in force and the Germans 
launch a counter attack, before the French can effectively 
occupy the trenches attached. 

For trenches which are meant to be held, the Germans 
seek to have concealment from direct rifle fire. With the 
barbed wire entanglement and the machine gun a very short 
field of fire is all that is ncessary to bring the attacking 
force to a stop. They therefore build trenches on the 
reverse of a hill, or back of the opening of a woods or 
other concealed position* 

The preceding information is largely from the account 
of the Military Attach^ Colonel K u h n who has been 
through Oalicia and seen the results of the campaign. 



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OFFICE OF NAVAL INTELLIGENCE. TRANSLATION-FV. ^L 

June 3 iii)r lJ1 5 . ^ d 

_ * ^. 

Number 6 76 of the Official Collection of Laws and Decrees of 
the Kingdom contains the following decree: I ^__, 



i9J5 



VICTOR EMMANUEL III. 
KINO OF IATALY. 

In view of the regulation of service in war, approved "by Royal 
decree, March 10, 1912; 

Upon proposal of the Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers, and 
with the consent of the Ministers of War and Navy; 

Having heard the Cabinet of *fce Ministers; 
We have decreed and do decree: 
Single Article. 

From this day onward Our orders relative to the operations of 
the army and the navy and of their divisions, shall be communicated, 
from Us, to the army and the navy respectively by the Chiefs of the 
General Staff of the Army and of the Navy, who will put them into 
practice, in so far as they relate to land and sea operations, keep- 
ing the Ivlinib«,ers of Army and Navy informed of frhe dispositions 
which may concern them. 

The Chiefs of the General Staff of the Army and of tine Navy 
shall be notified by their respective Minister regarding all prov- 
isions of the Government which may influence the conduct of the 
military operations. 

We order that the present decree, sealed with the Seal of the 

State, be inserted in the Official Collection of the Laws ' and Decree 

of the Kingdom of Italy, requiring all concerned to observe it and 

to see that it is observed. 

Rome, May 23, 1915. 

V I T TORI EMANUELE . 

SALANDRA — ZUPELLI — VIALE. 

Witnessed, ORLANDO. 

Keeper of the Seals. 



Need not be reim"^ jd > 



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American iiabassv# ° 

LONDON, Bngland. 



Juno 30. 1 

mum -ITT 



yrom: Lt. Col. Thomas o. vreadwell, B.S.J . . ^(// « 

lo : „val ^-fct-che. »*- 

subject: /ho forcing of the Dardanelles. Second l J hase - 

Combined Operations. First Attack on .ichi Daba 
Position and ouosequent operations to June 2nd, 



9f April 8t # the British and French forces had obtained a firm 
footing at end of Gallipoii Peninsula, while the Australians u.n& Hew ^ealanders 
were estaolished at ~nri Bair, These positions were, however, of very limited 
extent - that o:i end of peninsula from Tski HissarliK to taouth of scream on 
opposite side being a line of aoout 3 miles in length, and enly 2 miles from 
end of peninsula; ;md the position oi iUistraiians along ridge of ;ari Bair, 
protecting landing place nortn of uaba Tepe, being of even smaller urea. The 
position of the lilies at the end of peninsula v/as confronted by the strong 
Turkish position at tchi Bab a, and could be reached by long range fire from *** 

heavy Turkish guns a t Achi Baba, and from the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles/ - ' t 
Khiie the position of the Australians at uaba Tea© was confronted by an almost 
equally strong furkiah position on the ridges inland from their trenches on 
Sari Bair. fr« i >ril 29th to Hay §fch» these two positions were consolidated 
by the iliies and strengthened, and heavy artillery munitions, ino reinforce- 
ments landed. During this term, the Turks made a number of attacks, particu- 
lar!/ on the . roneh position on the right, none of which uevelopod much 
itrangth, except one that for a snort time too part of r'rench line, out was 
sooi driven out by counter-attack. 

on iipril 29th, the •ubaarini . 14, W iii bad aucuoeded in getting 
through t^ie Dardanelles, sank a Turkish transport In the of inruora, and 

on Bay 3rd, a .at, and the Huosian fleet oo ibardatt the forts at 

the entrance to the BaaphoroUl at ion,^ range with little result. 



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On April 30th, AS 2 of the Royal Australian Imvy was sunk in an 
attempt to onter the oea of Marmora, and her crew taken prisoners. 

On Stay 6th, theAllies having been reinforced by a part of a 
ierritorial division, an Indian r L ade, :ind s French Division, an assault 
was made on the s.chi baba position. This battle v/as ended on May bth, with 
a slight gain of ground for the iliies. 

The Achi baba Position. 



Any study of the xohi baba position shows its great strength against 
attack from the south-west - that is, from the direction of urithia, and frow 
th« slopes beyond falling towards the end of the peninsula, where the .U-lies' 
position rested. e crest line of the Turkish position is indicated on the 

appended skcstoh map oy dotted red lines, in front of it, on the slopes as far 
as krithia, and beyond, to the ffavines on the flanks were lines of Turkish 
trenches in conot; .led positions, rows upon rows, one behind another, while in 
positions behind the aflbt iiaba ridge, was hidden the Turkish artillery. 

iioth ends of this line are flanked by ridges descending abruptly 
towards the sea, and the difficulties of attacking the flanks are increased Dy 
the presence of two ravines, on& running inland from the Dardanelles, the other 
from the Aegean >*ea, with precipitous sides, which protect fpfla direct assault 
any position above then, 'ho steepness of the sidi s of these ravines creates a 
certain atuount of dead ground, but they can be sea* ciieri by anfilade fire frt 
that part of the position at the head of uaeh. 

rai peak of vchi baba,216 metres high, doraina^e8 everythx 
in sight, and from it every part of the area hold u \ t.he nllies must oe 
viaiulft except the revorsos jf hills and bottoms of ravines. he ridge is 
formidable, quite apart frot it 3 uofencea, and between the Allies* position 
and 4ffeli aba the ground is imeraooted oy several ravines, the largest of whibh 
runs from mouth of stream on Aegean 3ide, across the country. In front of 
Krithia. the ri^lit in front of Hit reach pouxt-Lun ia a ravine thr , 

which the streut. Known as i.ereves Dero flows into the Dardai j. These 






ravines, aa stated above, were of groat value to the Turks, and afforded 
excellent cover lor troops, and concealed positions for maxims. 

in the centre of the position also the opportunities for defence 
fire very great. The saddle at lowest point of ridge just opposite j\rithia 
is low, and lies only aoout a mile in front of that village, out this saddle 
is commanded by rocky slopes rising u ,on either side to heights of 144 and 
216 uietres, 'and the whole saddle is commanded at ranges of less than 2,000 
yards from the slopes of these hills. Thus the depression in front of Krithia 
cannot be used by the attack until the suasaits commanding it from either side 
are carried, and the Achibaba position could not be taken by the Allies until 
these two hills are seized. 

..'ie slopes towards the Augean are so precipitous that although the 
plateau with its culminating ridge along which the position lies, can be shelled 
from the sea, yet the ships have to lie far out to effect this ;)ur,>ose, which, 
of course, greatly reduces Vm: effect of their fire. While from the mouth 
of the Dardanelles their fire could be still less effective, and ships would be 
endangered from drifting mines. 

The Achibaba position is, therefore, a very formidable one, and 
tremendous efforts would be necessary to force it, strengthened as it has been 
recently by weeks of work on the part of the Turks, to entrench it, and make 
it impregnable. It the position could be forced, however, b the Allies, the 
retirement of theTurka to the next strong position at lush a iiugh, would be 
likely to exposo them to heavy loss. The north eastern slope oi the ridge 
towards the valley, which lies between it and the second position, being a 
series of long easy stretches of falling land exposed to fi~e from the summits 
of the Achibaba rid wJ e, with little cover afforded. D» the other nana, the 
ridge if tafcttt, would be under the fire from heavy artillery posted on fasha 
agh, and also under fire at long range from the permunent works, and mobili 
batteries of heavy guns on ..aiatic sido. 

There is no definite information as to strength of Turkiuli force on 
(iallipoli early in .ay, but it is estimated that it was over 100,000 men. 
a fifth Turkish amy under General Liman von banders was formed to uofend 
uropean Turkey. originally 2 Amy '^orpo, with additional iroopo were charged 

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with defence of both shores of the Dardanelles, but it is certain that this 
number had been considerably increased. i is estimated that the Turks could 
bring up 4 or 5 Corps for defence of Uallipoli, and the force on the Peninsula 
could be increased at any time, by sending reinforcements, either over the 
isthmus of Bulair, or by Transports landing them at Uailipoli, or other points 
in the Dardanelles' above the Harrows. 

*'irst Attack on Achibaba (May 6-dth). 



The report from the tiax office of thio attack -as as follows: — 

"wti kay 6th, after the arrival of fresh troops, which included part 
of a Territorial Division, a general advance of the Allied troops took 
pi. ace. a heavy covering fire was maintained by the Allied fleets. During 
the night of May 5»(§, a portion of Australian and Mew Zealand array Corps 
had been transferred froia Gaba Tepo in order to take part in the attack* 
/ery severe fighting took place all day, and by ni b htfall the whole 
Allied line had been -advanced from 1,000 to 1,500 yards, but the left 
of the advance was checked by a strong Turkish redoubt manned with 
machine guns. Just at dark, hov/ev or, the French troops obtained possess- 
ion o* an important tactical point, which was thoroughly fortified during 
the night, to 3©rve as a point for further operations. 

"un nay 7th, the attack wa» contxnued, the French troops again 
improving their position, while on the left, the B9th Division succeeded 
ju3t before sunset, in driving the enemy back nearly xnto Kxithie village. 

"un kay 8th, the attack vms again resumed, and an advance in face 
of a vory heavy fire took place. The French troops Kttaokad the Turkish 
trenches with the bayonet, and the whole line, except on the extreme left 
advanced steadily. During the night, the Turks attempted a counter-attack 
which was everywhere repulsed with a heavy lose. 

"During the 3 days' fighting, the Australian Cosps at Bttri Hair in 
spite of having sent reinforcements to support the main attack success- 
fully holn their own, and resisted all attacks. The fighting whi ok 
place on those 3 days was severe, Out happily, a largo ^rjpc-txoii oi" the 






_a_ 



british casualties represented only slight wounas. It was dourly demon- 
strated that the Turkish defences were strong!/ constructed, and that their 
capture must oe achieved by slow methodical jui-asures of trench araTfare. The 

reach forces throu^iout these operations had fought witl Aficent courage 

and dash, ana had suffered heavy loss." 

The following is taken from the? French coiauunique:-- 
%n the evening of Auy 8th, the Franco-Knglish forces, operating 
in the south of the Gallipoli Pen insula, with the support of the guns of 
the allied fleets made a general attack against the position which had 
already been damaged on The day before, The troops with remarkable spirit 
and vigour took at the point of the bayonet several lines of trenches 
on the heights near Krithia. During the $th instant they consolidated 

.id fortified their position on the grounu conquered the day before, fhe 
1'urko have not e&te&i] . any counter-attack.' 1 

On iuay 6th, reinforcements having reached the 'tliied &my ariu suff- 
icient heavy t> uns and munitions having been landed it vus able to resume 
the offensive against the Turkish positions, which had been suspended except 
for slight t.ocai advances since April 2btfi. 

The ultimate object of this offensive was to obtain pee#e*S :.on of the 
position of iChibaba, but before this could be attempted it was necessary to 
obtain possession of the two aras of that mountain ridge which stretch out 
the one to ards Aegean and the other to the shore of the . '.rdanelles. 

The rotd to Arithia ran through the centre of the *iliied position 
on May 6th, and divides it roughly into two parts - that on the left facing 
the right of ichibaba position being held by Jm British, and that on the right 
by ti.e French, vith ■ 0rig*4* of thedoyal i.avai Division to ri...nt o£ road 
supporting the French left. The British left rested on the .usgean, tr.e French 
rijit ou the -ard-viexieo. 

a either flank, out in the L/urdaneilea, arid in the aegean, there 
w«re the allied oattleonips, and cruisers, v.itn their guns tra .nod to sweep 
enomy'a position. 



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on may ftth, -he first day of the assault the -Uliea .-xraj rae ur<wm 
up in the f ollowing order: — 

On the extreme left the 87th Brigade held the and ef ravine and 
the trenches on hills beyond, the line Wai prolonged on the right uy the 

Nth Brigade, and then on uo the j\rithia road by & brigade of the .aval 
Division. On the other side 01 felfce read $84 the other brigade of fl&vai divi- 
sion, behind this line, in r**ejrfa« were the Indian brigade, the .uBtralian 
Brigade, and the Kew Zealand brigaao; and behind them, a brigade of the newly 
arrived Territorial Division* 

On the right were the French. The Colonial Division of iienageiese 
in front line, and a brigade of branch infantry, a brigade of iiouaves, ?md 
fereigjQ Legion in reserve. 

The immediate object of the British seems to have been xo push lor.'aifti 
left wing, and at same t.u.e to endeavour to occupy hrithia, and the ridge on 
which it stands-. The immediate object of the Treioh was to advance up the 
spurs, and get astride the Lmidos road, and to advance across ravine of the 
r»ereves Dari. 

At 11 a.m, the French artillery fte&r .'eddul Bahr enened a heavy fire 
on the right am of ^chibs.ba, and broken country under its summit to the right 
of rithia road. The shells swept the ground over which Infantry were to 

advance, and this rapid fire was kept uu i'or half an hour, at the same time 
the French battleships in the Oardaneiles, with the Agamemnon, turned their 
bi^ guns on the up.>er slopes of Aghihaba* and the Turkish trenches in her eves 
Dere ravine, the other battleships firing on Turkish positions from the Aegean. 
At 11,30 a.f-u the Senegalese advanced iros their trenches, and wept 
l'orward. far some time they made steady progress, their artillery osvsring 
the advance, -/hen the infantry tojpect the slope overlooking the valley they 
were strenuously resisted by the Turks fro:/, their entreno its on the other 
side of the crest, and the advene e as held up. Part of firin t . line ■ I • to 
the left and >urt iuoved forward towards th< read, shile ti.u iavaJ r Lj ido 

supporting the Kreneh left also advanced unci- f vy fire Vhieh 'j.iused man - 

UMaltiee* The advance to -varus the . -aides read was asful, but was 

-..-ventually held up oy a redouot and eons* renchoe. 



The French artillery end 3hips' guns poured shrapnel and ooiu^on 
©hell on the position, t/ithout using afelfl to check the lire of the darkish 
infantry. Kepeatod charges of the oeneg'iiese broke ooforo the Turkish fire, 
and eventually they had to be withdrawn to ste$*ana* line, and trench regiia«nts 
took their place. 

Qa ^ay 7th, at 10. a. m., the ships in Aegean opened up a heavy 
baatoardaent on thai right ^rzu of Aehibaba, sweeping the broken country at the 
head of ravine, and th& slopes leading up to Krithia. After a quarter of an 
hour of thia raoid i'ire fro. i ships and artillery, on shore there was a general 
advance of the left win..,. 

The 3 7th and bath brigades pushed forward thron h the orush in the 
ravine, and in the centre torards Trithla. ■'< tan they left their trenches 
the Turkish infantry who had been quiet in their trenches openeu up a heavy 
firs from these concealed trenches who^e position hm not been located. The 
attack, however, advanced in good order fcfoa supports and reserves occupying 
vacated trenches as they moved forward. Th<? attack gained ground aau occupied 
sojoe of the Turkisht ranches, only to be held up by others. Throughout the 
fliorning, the Turks used their field guns actively against the British left wing, 
generally concentrating his fire on the supports ana reserves. 

a the right wing, the Trench had been quint all the warning, out 
at noon their artiiinry again opened fire, -.an at J p.au there v/aa a general 
adv-aice up the slope towards the j;aido3 rouo, $ vie the Naval division on their 
left also rushed forward. Thi3 laovetaent, gained soiae ground. 

at i«4fi p. i«. the Turks brought a great ^any guns into action against 
tho /reach covering thuir advance trenches with shrapnel and s#eo,)in ; the ground 
behind to prevent supports fro.u being brought up. Tho Trench batteries replied 
shelling the Turkish trenches and the redoubt, vhicn was the chief obstacle 
to \ further advance. Their Jufifuniry again advanced, but wer« B*t by such a 
strong lire of shrapnel that the line wavered and broke, am> mi swaoan^ 
back down the 3lope, part of the troops passing through the line of the Javal 
bivision. rha fire that the Turk6 were now developing lai intense, and their 
Latteries concealed on the \iA§ it Agfeibaba oouid not bo <-. k*4« 

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situation aft this time looked very serious, and as if ail the ground gained 
would have to km abandoned, iiut General d'Amadu sent forward his reserves, 
which delivered 8 counter-attack, and re-occupied the abandoned crenchaB. 

ght came with the French still holding tenaciously on under a heavy fire 
frora the Turkish guna. 

At 5 p.m., another heavy artillery fire, and from ships, was con- 
centrated froru all the british guno on the right aria of /*ahib&ba, and on 
village of Krithia. 

About I p.m. an attack was started on the extreme left, long lines 
of troops advancing from the head of tha ravine there, and pressing forward 
toward a the hill behind Krithia. They w$g% met by a heavy shrapnel fire from 
the Turkish guns, the advance, however, pressed forv/ard laatag heavily, but 
moot oi the Turkish fire wtta high. This advance gained some ( , round, m& -as 
brought to a stop by darkness. 

On the morning of ilay 8th, at 10 a.m. the battle -as continued, 
i ships opened up another heavy bombardment on xho right arm of 
nchibaoa, on Krithia, and on the ground bahind. After this hud lasted for 
half-an~hour» the infantry on the left and left centre again advanced to the 
attack, and again were met by heavy fire, which showed that Turks ware otiil 
hole in,; their trenches with the same tenacit;/ . The b'/th and dBth brigades 
however, gained some /:rounn t and on the left a Turkish trench was ttken. 

Throughout this fierce fighting in the oroken gruund on the slopes 
leading a* u> i.rithia, the plain below w&a filled with lines of truopa pressing 
forward towards the firing line. The Turkish shrapnel burst owx* thorn but 
inflicted email damage owing to open formations adopted. \ftien each successive 
line reached the fire zone, it doubxed across the epan ground rns.ing in the 
vacated trenches, and then or easing I'or.-ard to tha next. 

1 nmervc ,rou /, bfatig B9Va4 forward to t) jiting line 

were the Mew Zealand J.rj.. ..-.v, hich uc\> , to pas3 through the 88th brigade 

for the final assault find on their r< the Australian brigade who passed 

through the Naval Brigade on the left of the urithia roud. The t>7th brigade 
v:ti.Ll hnid rounrt at the top of the ravine, while the Indian brigade and 

Lanoaehire brigade acted ae | i renorve. 

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At 1.30 p.m. these movements vara completed* ^no a lull caiae over 
the battlefield. Will xasted until b.i.'i (•»«« when «uddeniy every ship 
afloat and over;/ batter/ on 3horv opened up a tremendous bomourdment. -.11 
the battleships and cruisers opened fire with their main and i .-eond'.ry artwa- 
ments searching the slopes leading up to Aehibaba. The heavier guns fired on 
Aehibaba, and its highest slopes; «he secondary armament, xower down; and 
in front of the trenches the field guns «B*S field howitzers poured a shower 
$>f shrapnel on the ground over which the infantry were to advance. 

>ien the guns ceased fire, for a short time, the infantry who were 
concealed in the brush and in th* trenches advanced %Q the assault. The entire 
line from the head of the ravine towards Aegean tu the i.rithia road moved 
for. ard to the attack of kxithia. At the same time the French line advanced, 
rushing up the slopes towards th® j\aioo3 road, line after line, emerging fyfcjs 
cover, and dashing forward. 

The New Zealanders passed throap< feita 88th Brigade, many of the men 
of which joined theia, and pushed forward, entering one of the'furkish trenches 
and passing on to broken ground beyonn. 

On the ri^pii ox the K&v ^eaianders, the Australians advanced at the 
same time, but over more open grouna which provided little cover, xdey were 
met by a nouvy fire ana enfiladed by machine i ;v the right, the artilj. 

in vain attempt ring to keep down the fire. 

A consideraoie advance towards i\r ithia .-,.;., but at length, tha 

advance could proceed no further. The men lay down v/here they were, und 
endeavoured to reply to the concealed furfeft. uniy a few hundrad ,-urds had been 
won, and the Australians ana -;ew -eaiandera proceeded to entrench themselves. 
At the end of an Jiour, it MM oovious that the attack had failed, and couia 
not gain further ground, and that tl t ope of taking > rithia b < iroct 
u3 ranlt ^ust be aban-ioned. 

(jo 'fused fighting went on ;.il aion u the line atttll at V.JO th 
approach of tarknest put an end to this tnrrioj, ■.,. 



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they deluged the heights of achi baba, and the foreground; and fired in 
reverse on the position, their fire seems to have produced little result, 
even though directed by the observation of nuuerous hydroplanes, ^rora 
this result, it would appear that a powerful fleet has little chance of 
making a well prepared shore position untenable, unless specially aided 
by the favorable lay of the ground, The assault had proved very costly 
to the .allies, for it is estimated that their casualties exceeded lb, GOG, 
while the results obtained had done nothing to com^n-ate for this heavy 
loss. 



Operations after Attack on Achi B&ba to June 2nd. 

after the attack on Achi iiaba ending Lay Bth, the allied resorted 
to the slower methods of siege warfare, though numerous local attacks were 
made by both the allies and Turks. Am events succeeding this attack are 
given in the statement of the $»r office and of the admiralty as follows: — 

"During i'«ay 9th the ground gained was everywhere consolidated 
/(t 10.45 p.m. an attack was brilliantly carried out by the lbth and 16th 
battalions of the 4th Australian infantry brigade who attacked and cxried 
with the bayonet 3 lines of Turkish trenches on Sari :iair, and estab- 
lished themselves therein, a heavy Turkish counter-attack was launched 
at dawn on :..ay 10th, and forces the Australians back to their original 
trenches, but the guns of the uorps were in readiness, and opened fire 
on the enemy at close range. th% execution done was terrible and the 
Turks lay so thick upon the ground as to form an obstacle;. 

"during Way 10th, 11th, and 12th, further reinforces of 

/ranch, British arid auatraiiun troops arrived. 

i the night of ;.ay 12th, the troops of the Uvth bivisxon 
under u.ajor- .v.rn.rtxk Hunter weston undertook an attu JLnct the enemy's 

extreme ri&ht; under cover oT a uewonawutiou ifantry and artillery 

a double company of uurkhao crept along unuer the precipitous sea cliffs 
and occupied a cleft in front of the miiod ime whoro they ui. 

solves in. During the oi' -.ay 1.3-i4th, the l»ft of |hi aiied line 

-11- 



* 



was again further ^Advanced, and the position of the Indian brigade 
was made secure. 

. the ni t iht of May i4th the battleship Coliath was torpedoed 

in an attack by destroyers when she was protecting thu French flank just 

inside the :?trai,s. There were 20 officers and 160 mm saved, and aoout 

500 lost. The submarine 8 14 which penetrated the Sea of karmora 

some time before reported that she sank 2 Turkish gunboats, and another 

large Turkish transport." 

Two british submarines had succeeded in getting through the taine 
fields in the .Dardanelles about 2 weeks before, and sunk 2 Turkish transports. 

"on U&y 17th, the 29th Division worked further forward and 
established themselves in trenches 200 yards in advance. The Allied 
artillery was well handled, and aided by aeroplane observation destroyed 

ir. ct hlt3 a Turkish 6-ln. howitzer and exploded a wagon load of 
heavy gun a-j&unition, also demolishing some new Turkish entrenchments. 
On this day General bridges commanding the Australian Division was 
mortally woundeo during an attack on the Australian position, his sub- 
sequent death causing an irreparabin loss to his eoramand." 

"On the night of May ib-19th, the Turkish forces moss ueter- 
Lned attacks against the Australian and Hew Zealand Corps, which vers 
all repulsed with heavy loss, their casualties being over 7, ILL of 
which 2,000 were killed. Our losses did not exceed 500.'* 

-ho ground occupied by the Australian Corps consisted of two oemi- 
circuiar ridges, the outer higher than the inner, ana rising in places to 
over GcO-ft. A ravine runs north-oast up the centre of the position, dividing 
it into a northern and southern sector, both inch are rough una brok 
ground, conoi of small hills and deep gullies covered with thick brush 
orbare earth. 

The Turks were entrenched almost right round the position, aoept 
where the ahx una kept then awa . from the coast. To tho north end north- 
east the Turkish trenches were on higher round while to the south uth- 
east they lie io./or. The distance uetweon the two front Lints ftf -reaches 

- iv>- 






- 



( 






varied fro^i about 20 yards at one p*fett« to a quarter of I ixe, and averted 
about 200 yards. The Turks were strongly entrenched near head of r .vine, 
and could s lipe Mtn going through it at long range, £very precaution held 
been taken by the australians since their landing, to make the position im- 
pregnable, and to rake each section sell'- contained, 

Ji.is position of the Australians and New Zeaianders on the iiari 
Bair ridge handicapped the operations of the Turks against the Allied forces 
on the southern end oi* aailipoli, for unless the Turks could hold i/hem, thl 
..oionials could advance across the peninsula, towards kaidos, thus cu ting 
the Turkish lines of communication; and when the Turks attempted the offen- 
sive, or had to resist attack in the south, a lar B <s force had to be left to 
cover the 'Jari bair position. Therefore, as a preliminary Measure before 
attempting the offensive against the position at southern end of peninsula, 
uenerai von Zanders made a &roat effort against £>ari tsair. 

For this effort, the Turks are suid to have brought up from 
Constantinople, 5 fresh regiments. 

On toy 18th, movements of troops were reported by aeroplanes, ana by 
the ships observing at various points along the coast. The Turks .,- re 9een to 
be disembarking man > rom Lransports in the htraits, and a general movement 
was reported from the north and east of hrithia towards the v/nst. A heavy 
bomba-dment was opened on the position throughout the liith, not only from field 
guns, out from heavier guns and howitzers. 

At midnight, a heavy rifle and machine gun fire was directed from 
the Turk's positions, and under cowr of this fire a line of snipers crept 
forward from the Turkish trenches close up to the line, and attempted to snipe 
the defenders when they repiicu to the fusilade. ;<iore Turks thenccept forward 
until a thio/t lints was established at very oiose ran^e. vt 3 .m. an assault 
was made on the Australian position, Wiat part of x% towards ,. Ornish uully being 
repulsed with heavy loss. 4 series of attacks on various points was then 
delivered the most violent agaj. .ons known no ^uinn's and Courtney's 

foots. These were all repulsed by rifle fire at close range. 



-13- 



At 5 a.m. on the iyth, as soon as it was light, the Turks opened 
up ft heavy bombardment on the trenches, interior of the position, and Oeaoh 
or inking into action heavy howitzers and field guns, /md from b to y.30 a.< • 
the Turks made a series of desperate attacks principally against ^uinn'o 
and Courtney's Posts, but the oistralians held firm, and no Turks were able 
to enter the trenches. By W a.m. the Turks began to retire under a heavy 
fire from field guns and howitzers, and to seek the cover of their trenches. 
roughout the morning the Turks kept up their botabrdiue- it and heavy 
rifle fire, ax 3 p.m. there were evidences of a fresh assault, but it came 
to nothing, and durjuti,, the remainder of the Iftll and up to dawn of the £Cth 
there was only rifle fire and sniping. 

it was estimated by the Australians that at least 30,0C0 men, 
supported by a heavy artillery fire were massed against them, for this assault, 

On the 21st the Turks made overtures for an armistice for buryi 
the dead, which van later granted. 

General Birdwood, commanding the Australian Corps, reported that 
"during the suspension of fighting in order that thu Turks uight bury 
their dead much larger losses than the 2,000 dead already reported came 
to light. Two areas in front o£ one of our sections where heavy punish- 
ment to the enemy had been previously reported were covered with uead, 
400 corpses /ere counted in an. area ;iC x 100 yards. 

"The Turkish burying parties worked quietly and quickly. They 
were ail supplied with cotton wool prepared with oome solution to deaden 
the stench, a moat necessary and much needed precaution, over !,;;« 
-urkish rii'ios wer picked up on our ffjUto of .the dividing line during 
the suspension of hoatiiities." 

"On . ay iJth in the Southern area of the Uillipoli teninsula 
reach forces in caaj unction with uhe hritish coiul-xoi rabie 

advance and have consolidated new position, uur aeroplanes dropped 
bombs UMBgjrt furkiah reinforcements lane. La ilk Haohi SiMUB I 

caused Boneidtrabit losses. 

"On Uay 25th, an advanced t*< leh, L&i rardi La frent of <en. 
Uox's iiri as rushed and oucu tied by our uen." 

-14- 









UBO 






On way 26th, the admiralty announced that "while operating in 

* 

support of tho Australian and New Zealand forces on the; abort it the 
Gallipoli reninsula, His majesty's tthip Triumph, Captain Laurico /ita- 
mauriee, was torpedoed Dy a submarine and sank short iy afterwards. 

"The majority of the officers and ,ien are reported uaved 
including tho Captain wad Commander. 

"The taibruarine as chased by the destroyers and patrolling 
craft until dark." 

on Kay 27th, thi: admiralty made the following; announcement: — 

"An enemy submarine torpedoed and sank . .8, jestic. 
Captain . ... . Talbot, this morning, -It lie supporting the army on the 
Ga : Lp»li Peninsula. 

"Nearly all the officers and men were saved. 

"Submarine 1\ $ E»t. Gomdr. : art in ■ .. Jaamith, has sunk in Iho 
Sea of Larcaora a vessel, containing a ,,roat quantity of a..imunition, 
comprising charges for heavy howitzers, several gun mount xn&j$ and a 
6-in. gun. 

"Che also chased a supply ship with a heavy cargo of stores 
and torpedoed her alongside pier at liodouto. 

"a small store ship was also chased and run ashore. 

"Gubiiiarine i 11 entered Constantinople, rad discharged a 
torpedo at a transport alongside the arsenal. The torpedo was heard 
to explode." 

On i.ay 2Cth, Turkish night attacks wero repulsed, and on June 1 
there if fair at ^ulna's Fast in Sari i3air position. 

June 2nd, a German transport was sunk by British submarine in 
Panderma hay. And on that day a blockade of tho Asia Minor coast was 
tlarsd b < the .j.lies. 

an attempt to oend flgr— n or Austrian iubnorinas tu the Dardanelles 
had long been foreseen by tho Allies, i.arly in r<iay, it v/as rumored that 
German sub I been despatched to this thaatra, and rewurd was offered 



—15. 






for any information concerning such oubi:;arines seen in the 
Mediterranean, thax wight i.ad to their destruction or capture. The 
recently constructed Ger.aan submarines having a radius of over 4,000 miles* 
a surface speed of 17 Knots or over, and underwater speed of 12 knots could 
make the trip (about 3, §00 aiiies via the Channel* and 4,QOG viu. north of 
Scotland), but would need temporary Oase or supply ship on arrival in Turkish 
waters for any further activities, Close watch had bee ■ kept in - astern 

Mediterranean, especially on probable temporary oases* ana haroors like 
Cheone near Smyrna had oeen patrolled oid boadaarded. 

.,'be arrival of the Seraftn submarines, find the sinking of the 
dritish battleships by them, had a consideruoie influence on the operations 
at the C'ardanelles, and compelled l,he ..llxeo' ships to take greater precau- 
tions against attack with the result that they were not able to support the 
-vr.iy en shore 30 effectively as before. The iiereian subiuarines, hov/t;vor 

"■iinnrmiiiinrriiriln't 

were not abiu U> ruaain long outside the \iardanelies3, in fault of a secure 
oast, .!. • vhey soon passed through the straits and reached Constantinople 
where they SW8 available to threaten Russian dlaok &&a r'ieet. 

British submarines on the other hand, had been able to get into 
the Sea o; Mansers* and even reached oonutantinople. A number of Turkish 
transports and supply vessels -/ere sunk, and the;/ threatened, unless passage 
through Jtraits was effectively blocked to them, to cut off entirely, or 
seriously threaten the Turkish transport by water of men and munitions to 
tfti Salllpell Peninsula. 



; , of Operations at Dardanelles on the Lilt ry and i oiitical 

situation. 



The effect of the oicrtitu.. to forco the Dar lies up to the 
first of oune had not been merely local, but had ■ ;0i3t imp o it ant urn f. p 
reaching In/iusnec on tic- general conduct of the ultinats 

results, oil as on clitleal conditions in varlettl countries. 



-16- 



- 



< 



< 



Greece had, at the beginning of tho operations to fcrue the 
Dardanelles, a good opportunity of going into tho '»ur against her old enemy 
Turkey, ar.. ; oi" realizing her national aspirations. Vide polic / bad ooen 
favored by ^he Greek Premier, Venizelos, but as opposed by King Gonstauiine 
and German influences, and Venizelos was deposed, only to be returned to 
office by election in June, after the moot favorable moment for the inter- 
vention of ureeoe had passed. 

in rloumania and Bulgaria* whose policy had been so baffling and un- 
certain since the outbreak of the var, the deadlock in the bardanelies had 
produced influence to keep %hm out of the contest, find they no doubt 
consider that the forcing of the Gt raits is a varj doubtful adventure. Gven 
the entry of Italy into the war in laay has to fur failed to bring them in. 

in Great Britain the failure of theuovernaent to mobilize the whole 
resources of the country in preparation fior a groat war had been severely 
criticised. This distruct had been principally caused by the failure to supply 
munitions in adequate quantities, and tho conduct of the operations to force 
the Dardanelles. Th» conduct of the admiralty, long the- subject of hostile 
criticism, had with the first failure of Gardanelies operations boon open to 
general distrust. Toivards the latter part of ;iay, a coalition cabinet was 
foriaed, including ministers from all parties, :he chief changes being the 
creation of a new office - ainister of ; .unit ions - of ;hich !r. ^loyri ueorge 
was made chief, and the replacing of .,r. Ghur chill and Admiral Wisher, as 
,-irst Lord and J^irst Gea Lord of tho .almivait,/, uy Hr« Balfour, ana admiral 
Jackson. 

i'he new ritish armies under training in ungland had not been sont 
to France in the spring, uv/ia ; oartly to lack of munitions - so much of which 
were required for aardaneiles operations - partly to the require. 1 lOMtfl for 
large r of troops for Dardanelles, and partly i'or other reasons, ^s a 

result of this absence of tho ew Armies from ,'ronoe, ailed offensive 

in the west had not been undertaken on | large scalt3 ur accomplished any 

iocisive results, nd Germany had boon able tu transfer a considerable n nber 
of men to the (usaian front. 

-IV- 



7 



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(See Paragraph 4, Instructions of October 31. igooK*^^ flOt OC 7'CtUi'H 

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(AagttaU 1914-lume 1915) 

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out en ant ( j .g . ) J . G . Latham, U . i .II . 



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At the outbreak of the Kuropean ^ar, 
ican Hospital at -ieuilly, a suburb 
an operation for appendicitis. 



oi Paris, 



I was in the Amer- 
convalescin^ from 






os ides the newspapers and the talk of the people in the 
hospital, m: rst inti] ;ion of war was the rattle of a drum 



and the loud voice of a policeman as he vent from street corner 
to 3treet corner reading out the order for general mobilisation. 

Immediately there was a wild scramble of American pa- 
tients to leave the hospital, the German nurses were sent away, 

e English nurses ill the military establishment stood by for 
a call to active service. The hospital ItsildE ; -t in a hurry 
order lor coal, food and hospital supplies/also for ready money 

from th< ;y over-rushed banfes* Sext the telephone was 
found to he cut off end taacicaufl and carriages impossible uo ob- 

n. 



A tense, awesome silence seemed to pervade eTftrythj.^ , 
broken only by the shrill voices of the little newsboys # crying 
the numerous editions of the Paris papers, or more seidom by 



I -' ■: ; strains of 
marched by on its way to 



the 



"Chant du 

frontier. 



Do pa 



rt" 



u 



S S 



regiment 



watch 



to next day, i was well enough to 
one of these regiments, and 1 was at 



in /• 



>:o to the corner to 

once struck with the 



contrast between it and the boisterous shouts and the picnic air 
of our own youngsters leaving for the Spanish l;ar. 2n the first 
place, these were not youngsters, out men of all ages* from 

irths of twenty to bearded men of 45, from every strata of the 
French nation, from the heavy, rosy-cheeked peasant to the well- 
groomed sons of the I thy and pale anaemic clerks, who sur- 
prised oiiq with the ease with which they tripped along in their 
long overcoats and heavy hob-nailed shoes, under the enormous 
weight of their pack and long Lebel rifle. Instead of an air of- 

/ety, there was one of grim determination, as if each man 
fully realised that he was engaged in the inevitable doa - ; 
struggle , brewing for more than forty years, the end o- ich 
Prance would either be able to remove the crepe from the strass- 
tue or be oh ed entire er the hated - joizz . 
of the '^en } " rench flags stuck in the musEles of 
their rifles and many of ...go carried s or 

her of the Ail lea. .lied alon ok v ..e 

words of the interminable "Chant du Depart" played by the band* 



Louder and louder it wellc , 

too, grim and determined . 



till 



the str . th it, that 



Specie. to: ire ..ore 

i ■ 



- aity, old .on id 

little : ldren. They didn't ir cheers of "Vivo 

l ranoe n , "Vive I'Armee" seemed vibrant with their suf ferine 
at their pereonal losses, yet iso \ preoiation and I ^ir 

ineos to give their all for France. f the W< is- 
tributed chocolates or ilowors to the BOldie ised, 



( 






- 3 - 




:en 



erted 



ta tne nymns or. tnc 

cjll.i<s«. au9su««^uu4.u uv Avuigv* w v ov.i.u. CafCS Closed at 8 p.SU 

as did the sidewalk teri^ees of the restaurants, which themselves 
were forced to close at 3sS0, 

5.'he few people on the streets g&£6& avsoataindedly '.. 
she i . -in&ows or Gashed jaa&ly at each succeeding newsso|jant fl with 
his newsies s extra, if the lines of the subway had eeas 
running and the others stopped at only a limited number of sta- 
tions and during shortened hours. It was even worse with the. 
surface lines, and the auto busses had entirely disappeared from 
the traffic lines, one being seen only occasionally ri2 it ra©~ 
bled by filled .•> ith soldiers or supplies for the army. 

She few toacicubs to be seen were never idle, but if yon 
hailed thea, iey would usually atop to giro you a lift and cany 
times the passengers would volunteer you a ride, as if everyone 
must li&'k-p to make things as ous,; as possible for bhe others. 
There were still a good many urivate limousines, but most in ev- 
idence were the great gray military cars, racing along at full 
Sed and making the life of tfri .-eaestriau actually uxnaerons. 

In a fm days uhin^s hvd. settled down* fhe Government 
crusjied and dispersed the apaches and stopped disorder* fhe 
mobilization was finished and l< railroads be a. 

lin their passenger trafiie, S fetes blank papez sasttd oi 
the schedules to Germany and to Belgium* All -ire arms in a. 
stores were seised by the authorities and the population or- 
dered to -..urn over all those in their possession. e subway 
and street cv.r service became better, with woaen as conductors; 
ta; os became more pi au.1, '.he roots .nts again had rood 
food, the stores 0©gan one 'oj one to re -open, and even some of 

sac halls recommenced | aa;aaa,noe3,bnt were promptly 
closed again ^ the authorities. & combined searchlight and 
aeroplane gan-d$ - tse of Paris against 8epueli&g was organ- 
ised and the beams of the four searchlights placed at different 
points about the city, began their never motionless searching 
of ".he . iris Skies at . ' ;, discontinuing onl? en after sev- 
eral months, L1 an tojfroali sea/that, while serving no useful 

.so, they were excellent guiding lights for the very Zeppe- 
lins they were keep off. 

The tie i -3 could no longer be cried, they tore limi- 
ted to one edition a day, no headline could extend over more than 
two columns and the letters of these deadlines could be no more 

an two oentiifi rs high* In every Issue * blanlc columns and 
even whole pages attests... ie vigilance oi the censor, nam 

e first captured battle-flag was exposed in Paris, and 

rais' spirits of the- i . were still ru3 »d 

by the novo a ; French successes U d the ; I ion 
ol liul o. a RC &( ( ir flrsl 

a( sere selcofiied j Ltl husit a.., >. .vera 

ipirink greater confidence, good news came 
he Russian front, in veryt d te ij 

ear fulness and confidence 1. rly and successful and of the 

r. 'eryono to lor ad lor 

is 4 Ho a were improvised all over the city for ny 
dies that hi o * in each ai front, 

for ih nurses, orderlies, ambulance drj i and boy j- j, 
von. teered by , 

:en the di ' days came . ie&e fell, tu 

doned, liaiasur fell, tl o ih were defoatOi £. he 






( 



i 



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*4 



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m 4t . - 

?aubes commenced their daily dropping of "bombs on Paris. ot 
that this last event sed much damage or li ireo 1 majch fear, 
rather it was something of a benefit, ..-c salads of the 
people eii their More serious worries fend affording a daily in- 
teresting spectacle for which the £nh&bi1 I s of I a±is showed 
their appreciation by thronging the streets and housetops at 
it 3 appearance ana firing at it with every sort of contraband 
firearm, causing a shower of. leaa»much more dangerous than the 
bombs from the faabe. Hat all this was eound to add to the im- 
pression of the might of fche o- ; oat German military machine 
steadily forcing back the Allies b**for« it. 

Refugees began to oour in from the horth of franco, re- 
porting the Grenaans there, fhe white oaper pasted over the rail 
way sche&ul rev: vfder. overnment continued to issue i1 
colorless communiques, attempting to keou up public confidence; 

but the public ': . ; too much end didn't Delieve them* tihoi 
and pessimistic rumors sprang oo life, People began ft night 

that ce soless, nervosa watting of one boulevards Which has re- 
mained anch a noticeable part of Paris life, 

frantic effort, were sade to strengthen he defences of 
e eity and to replace with every possible means the -runs whose 
existence had never reached a point further than the "money 
strayed to the pockets of grafting politicians, She gates of 
rrris were flocked and protected by cheveaux de frisei tranches 
and abattis. iho Bole le Boulogne luiavthe BoiS de Vincennes 
were crowded With hundreds of thousands of sheep and cattle. 
Great supplies Of forage and food staffs a r ere gathered in, and 
all preparations Cc siege-. 

September came, .. - ling he ::ty .r.ervous end frightened, 
people began to leave for the south, encouraged by the govern* 
ment, which put free trains at their disposal; with a resul 




xhe French government end the diplomatic corps left for 
Bordeaux, leaving only the imerio&n Bmhsssy in Paris* 

Oeneral eallioni published his tm&QB proclamation; "fhe 
Government has left P&xia in order to give a new impulse to fehe 

rational Uei unse . I have received t rder to defend Paris a- 
gainer the invader* Is order I will carry out to the end." 
The people believed him and felt better. 

i'he Germans z cached coi ;ny, t] en 'enlis, them Baateuil 
and Jieaux, then Longy, within felt of the Eiffel fov.-cr; but the- 
trolley oars continued to run and people went out in the evening 
to their . ies, not kno hether or not the doming 
would bhem in the 1 id ae enemy* 

uddeuly there came the news of the victory of the :; me, 
I '.. jucoessful stro&e of rai oallieni and 
e as , I , followed quicrly riving of the Ger- 
man .a lane; end J eris f jubilant, »ent at .0 
• * jn f t ted, . theseyfeJ , v./ee ho 
field} hut "he euthoriti.es were too busy iting to be 
Le tc e cf ent ores to pret then; so many people 
h, 

* 18th of Sept ir, 1 managed to obtain from the eolioe 
athorJ is tc ■ , tutomosile ...' Ln oom- 
rlth Liei 2* . Wilkinson, -. . ., ind 1st ieatenant 

.■ - - . , • . .: .C . , s1 fc to pee the battle. ] old. 

adec" eastward alone the nor 6, 



{ 



t 



/■'T 






- 5 - 

passed many trenches and many roads "barricaded by parapets, 
trenches, trees and overturned carts; but saw no signs of the 
actual "battle, till we reached ifeJow^oint opposite Langy. Here 
the stone bridge had been blovm up, to prevent its passage by 
the Germans, and fcteHya^ialf submerged military pontoon bridge 
bore witness to the further difficulties they had encountered. 

The stone bridge 
Langy. 




Passage across the Martae was already possible by means 
of a temporary bridge buoyed up by canal boats, and workmen were 
clearing away the debris of the permanent bridge preparatory to 
its reconstruction* 

On account of the reported bad state of the roads beyond, 
we crossed this bridge, turned to the eastward, passed to the 
Tillage of Langy which was rather deserted, but seemingly un- 
scarred, then we struck out along the wonderful country road 
leading to the bridge at Ueaux, determined to have at least a 
try at the known interesting country to the northward before pro- 
ceeding to the unreported country to the eastward to which our 
pass entitled us to go. v 'e -passed many more trenches, many more 
barricaded roads with their guards of territorialssEfeas, more 
half deserted villages, several batteries of 7d f s, engineers 
pontoon trains, machine gun sections and detachments of infan- 
try; all on their way to the front. 

Still there were no signs of actual fighting. 

The Meauz bridge, like that at Langy, had been blown 
up, and again like the other, temporarily repaired; We crossed 
it, and with our blue pass (the proper color for that day) 
prominently displayed, managed to pass the large auard of terri- 
torials, then headed northward through the town, "lioaux, a town 
of several thousand inhabitants was also half deserted, and un- 
scarred, but what interested us most were the stores, most of 
which were open, seemingly with a full stock of D oods, even the 
shoe stores. Vhether the goods had been replaced or whether the 
Germans were in too big a hurry to help themselves, we didn't 
stop to inquire. As we left the town, we passed a detachment of 
territorials armed with shovels and pickaxes, just marching off 
to the northward. 

I continued northward, through an undulating country, 
variegated with patches o^ -^oods and with hay fields, closely 

dotted with great conical hay stacks. About two miles north 
ui ..:eaux, the road itself ran through a little patch of woods. 
The trees of this wood were in a condition comparable to nothing 
I had ever seen. Fully one-fourth, many of them trees between 
e foot and three feet in diameter, had been shot square off. 
The feacfcfceeyxsbx badly shattered tops and debris littered the 
ground showing the terrible effects of the high explosive shells 
which had struck them. The splintered trunks anA the t ees re- 
maining standing were all deeply gashed by passing uhells, and 
all of them were literally speckled with smaller scars caused by 
shrapnel and rifle bullets. It was all too evident, whl d 
taken place, but I had to learn the details from a friend of mine 
who went over the ground on foot three days beforo, ami found 
the emplacements of the French guns on the higher ground to the 
right of , the road, and to the left of it about 200 yards away 



- 6 - 
a trench filled with hundreds of German bodies. 



,.o kapt on a little farther, then turned sharp to the 
left into a road which led across the hay fields. :ese already 
harvested and cleaned/foot ted here and there with a noat symet- 
rical haystacks, looked very calm and peaceful under the warn 
September sun; but as we went along, we began to see other 
things among these stacks; many many flattish mounds of earth, 
each with its one or several red French soldier caps, and some- 
times also a little rude wooden cross. Less frequently, there 
was a grave a little apart, the narrow gold braid on the cap 
denoting an officer. here the cross was larger and rudely writ- 
ten on it sometimes in pencil, was the name and rank of the offi- 



cer, the date and 
nemi M ; but in some 
from the uniform, 
among the scorched 
grinning half burned 
pyres of the ftermans. 



"Hort pour la f atrie" or "l.ort en face de 1 ' en- 
cases there was no name, only the rank learned 
There were also manjr low piles of ashes where 
hay at the edges # charred hands and feet and 
aces ±sm named too clearly the funeral 
*he ground round about was scattered with 



shrapnel balls, cartridge shells, bullet riddled canteens, firfct 
aid packages, broken rifle stocks, and other articles of cloth- 
ing and accoutrements that the territorial grave diggers had 
abandoned as utterly useless. 



e moved on. 
toppling church tower 



Ahead of us was the village of Barey.j, whose 
and the shattered walls and roofs of A h'ouses, 
marked even from a distance as a target for artillery fire. 




^fect 



JCil 

shell 



of 



fire . 



Battle of the 



Ma rue 



the 



On closer approach walls, roofs everything, were seen to be alBO 
litfcerally pockmarked by bullets and shrapnel balls, e turned 
to the right and again took the road to the northward. is 
road, depressed about four feet below the level of the fields, 
was marked on the ri^ht hand side with a long line of shaded foot 
holds for defending it from attack from the eastward, while the" 
stone walls on the left hand side had ^eeii disfigured to serve 
same purpose. Further on we passed many trenches most of them 
miserable little shelter trenches about two foot deep and run- 
ning in so many different directions (having been used by both 
sides during both the retreat and the subsequent advance of the 
Trench) that it was impossible to tell from observation of the 
terrain, the direction of the operations. 

I passed more villages, burned houses, shattered walls 
and roofa^iiotoe pockmarked walls of the streets hearing witness 
to the hail of shells and bullets that had swept down the . 

<st of these villa ;;es wt found almost deserted, some of thorn 
entirely so with the furniture generally arr d in curious 
groups behind protecting stone walla, murkin e spot of ■ htfis 
encampment. Sometimes near them, but more often at the ,e of 
patches of woods near the trenches, we found lon£ rows of rude 



I 11 



« 






/-V 



( 



- 7 - 

shelters mode of branches of trees and of hay, taking the place 
of tents with which neither the French nor Germans are provided. 



aased more and more burying detachments of territor- 
ials, all marching northward, the pointed olades of their long 
handled shovels appearing somehow curiously sinister and horrible 
All at once we knew that we had passed them all. We were grasped 
and held and choked by an odor, in Its sickening awfulness be- 
yond anything we had ever even imagined. $ e beran to pass the 
bloated bodies of horses all lying on their sides the upper hind 
leg invariably pointing toward the sky. Then in the stretch of 
woods through which 



& j 



splotches, 



..he road was passing, we began to make out 
the bright red trousers of the French 



■o J 



many strange 

blazing out from the dark undergrowth, while the grey of the 
German uniforms made a duller contrast. Some were lying natur- 
ally as if asleep, while the twisted agonised .positions of others, 
showed in Borne measure the terrible agony they had suffered be- 
fore death came. Some passer by had mercifully covered the faces 
of those nearest the road with the skirt of their long overcoat, 
worn by both armies, but so doing, he had exposed the cartridge 
belts pressing * deeply into the bloated bodies. 



Soon, at the left of the road we came upon the little 
village of £cy, absolutely deserted. Host of the houses had been 
burned by shells, whose course we could trace hj the gaping holes 
they had made in the stone walls . A shallow trench along the 
road side was almost entirely paved with French bodies, while 
many more lay in the open space before the houses and in the 
narrow little streets. 



I c kept on. Again we struck a stretch of open country, 
but this time the red spots between the haystacks were not only 
French caps but :lso their red trousers, intersperced with Ger- 
n grey ones. Behind nearly every haystack were two or three 
crouching bodies, found out by the deadly searching bullets, and 
in one place I saw a pile at least three feet high of intermingled 
German and French bodies, a monument to the efficiency of bayonets. 




L 



e -<-' 



Dead - Battle of 1 me 



8a 








The Ma me 13/) ft Ie, Fib 1 4 




Jhtz /VUr/ve fe pc&IfXi'eI.cI 






(I 



- 3 - 



Scattered everywhere was the full wreckage of an amy, or better, 
of two ar.r:ie3. Cart r idee shells and loaded rifle cartridges lit- 
tered the ground, among shell fragments and shrapnel halls. Rif- 
les were scattered about, most of the German ones with their 
stocks broken. 'Stiere were knapsacks, many in various stages of 
diseubowelment, shoes struck fantastic attitudes in all direc- 
tions, socks and underwear were strewn about, but more than any- 
thing else were pieces of white and colored shirts,; why, 1 
could never find out. ost of the bi£ wreckage was German. Aa 
abandoned artillery caisson in a field, tireless limousines and 
touring cars along the roadside, trains of automobile trucks 
burned down to the bare chassis, still holding the gasoline can 
used to set xbqge them on fire, and piles of unfired shells 



dumped from the artillery caissons, gave an idea of the £eete 
of the German flight, onee it started. Yet amid all this wreck- 
age there were wide stretches of country whose fields and woods, 
neat cottages and flower gardens, showed no signs of the terrible 
storm that had swept so close h^m 



of 



Vt reached Bets, slightly scarred by bullets and shells 
and mostly peopled by big detachments of territorials. Here we 
turned into the road leading Jcsto the southeastward, From this 
point, in fact from farmer back down the road, we could hear 
constantly the dulleheacvy roar of the big guns intermingled 
with the sharper orack of the quick firers at the front about 
8 miles away. Yet in nearly every village the inhabitants were 
already beginning to repair the damage caused by shells end bul- 
lets, and the roads still smooth and fine were encumbered in many 
places with flocks of sheep and the high carts of the peasants, 
moving back to their homes. At one point, just beneath the X±K-crest 
&B±a hill, ?/e came upon the emplacements of two batteries of 
German guns, close to the right of the road, with their bomb 



<►« 



proofs 



behind 



and 



observation pits in front. ell to the left 
of the road, in a little valley, was a line of German bomb proofs 
and trenches, well built, but striking me as rather too wide. 




German trenches, Marne Battlefield 



■ / 

It ear thorn we found a few loaded rifle cartridges and a pile of at 



least £50 loaded cartridges for the German 77 mm. field ; : yun, i om- 
ingly dumped from the artillery caissons, whan the German flight 
started. (Four of these shells were forwarded to the hureau of 
Ordnance ) There were also numberless empty small tin cans that 
had contained preserved meats, also several an graves. .he 
guns belonging to these bomb proofs v/ere, I learned later, still 
in position near the crest of the next hill, having all been dis- 
abled by the deadly 1 reach artillery fire. 



'"e started on again. ar the cross roads leading to 
Lisy our Gurcq on the left, we turned to the ri^ht instead down 
a narrow lane, past the gravt of a wrench lieu 1 . it-colonel, 
past a wall on which was rudely painted an arrow and the inseri - 
tlon 2KU JPELD L ., into the court yard of a farm house whioh 



II 



- 9 - 



had been used, by the Germans as a field hospital, Remains of 
bandages and medical supplies were still scattered about, as 
well as the piles of straw on which the wounded had been placed. 

3 turned into the road, continued on to several 
little vidians almost intact and headed down the main read tow- 
ard Mean! . -ere we passed many detachments of French infantry, 
on heir wa_y to the front, several supjpy and munition trains and 

"rom 
ame t s 
e 



but the dead had 
seen before. 



fire, 



been buried and we saw nothi are than m i 



! reached lieaux, and as ae turner .into the narrow ExxdtgE 
street leading to the bridge, 1 saw painted on a wall, another 
arrow and^fnscription in lish TO I'Sl CDGB. 

In loss than an hour we were in Pari»« 



j*our days later, in company with liajor Roosevelt, ? # $»2E*0« 



n 



o« 



Lieutenant ( j ,g . ) 
bassy, a Packard, car, 

newspapers ^packages of cigarettes, I started out again, this 

+ i fie w»4 4-.lh + "h« •$>"!+. o m +. •? r\ v\ r>-f* wtti no- eta r>1 nna s*« •nAcim'1-ilci in •<.>»<» 



Wilkinson, u.. ...,;., two civilians from the 
a pass to I'anteuil and several hundred 



time with the intention of jotting as close as possible 
front . 



to the 



Prom Parig we headed Northeastward and were hardly out of 
the city before we were stojjped by a road guard of dragoons, whose 
corporal questioned us closely to find out if v.e were not five 
German officers who had slipped into aaris dressed as women, 
overhauled all our papers, read us hia orders and finally with 
an air still doubtful, let us go. e went on pa3t many trenches 
of the Paria defenses but saw nothing of special interest till 
we reached Senlis, Here most of th© houses along the main street 
had been burned, as well as many isolated ones in other parts of 
the town. rhe street walls were gouged by bullets but there were 
no signs of artillery f ire . 




Main street of Senlis. 



-. ■! -n a 



and- 



of- 
ay 



It was interesting to see the German writing; on walls 
doors, instructing the soldiers whether to burn or spare the 
houses. The inhabitants pointed out to us where the Germans 

d entered the town, where, when they were fired at from one 
the houses by a rear ; : .uard of Senegalese, they had retaliated 
shooting the mayor and burning part of the town, and where iinally 
one night they were driven out by a detachment of French soldiers 
who dashed into town in taxicabs. As »• passed out Of ... e vil- 
lage we noticod the stone walls of the adjacent farms which had 
been pierced for rifle firefr. Joon, v.e kjan to meet many of Hie 

•eat, two-wheeled farm carts, driven by soldiers and piled high 
with rain-soaked accoutrements, rifles, knapaac , overcoats, 
cartridge belt3, everything, French and lied in ; ell a.ell 
It was reported that from the Wam« battlefield the Frenc th- 
ered up twonty-six railroad trainloads of German booty alone. 



» fit 



4»A 

A! 



(I 



I 



- 10 - 



A little later we entered the gr«a rest of Oomp£&gne, 
re orted Lurm y the lish in an attempt to destroy a German 
army there, hut we found no signs of fire and no damage except 
that the telephone and telegraph wires were down. §?here we set 
a regimert of African Spahis returning from the front for new 
rsea a ad looking very Strang* amid ir occidental sur round- 
indiscreet en o offer .. rettes, we lost 
nearly our whole supply before they would permit us to go on. 




'Spahis in Forest of Compiegne . 



ITert u6 passed through the city of 



Coxapefcgne 



y 



,ed 



Bridge across Aisne, 
Attichy. 

half deserted, out 



esoept for 'bullet marks along the street walls. neav- 

Compeigne we turned into the wide military road running $ust 
south of the Alone. Here we could plainly hear the incessant 



;;illery 



fire, 



ich increased in intensity as we continued 



^vtward until, when we reached the village of Attichy we could 
plainly distinguish the sounds of the machine guns and could see 
the shell "bursts just above the crests of the hills to the north 
of the river. rom the time we left eompeigne, we found the roads 
en cumbered with an almost continuous procession of troops, artil- 
lery machine tvii soot ions, and supply and munition trains moving 
toward the front and empty wagons and munition and supply trains 
coming back, while every mile or two we found a village full to 
overflowing with more troopsVJfat one place also a squad of Ger- 

n prisoners under guard engaged in the odoriferous task of 
burying dead horses. 9 were stopped many times oy road guards 
and chiefs of detachments but we were generous with our news- 
ier b and cigarettes, our pass was the right color and doubtless 
also the khaki uniform^f Major Roosevelt stopped too close 
questioning and confirmed our general appearance as anglo-sas:- 
ons. Then too, we caught up with a big .French military touring 
car filled with officers and followed close behind it. At any 
rate we were not turned back* 



cross 



batteries 



' e triad each bridge in succession in an attem.-; to 
the Aisne and get as close as possible to the French 
on the line of hiles,to the north/JJwo found every one blown np f 
the only means of communication being a few military pontoon 
bridges, which in view of our extremely doubtful right to be in 
thieparticular part of the country, wo didn't think it wise to 
try. o had always to cross the railroad track to get to the 
bridges and at one place we returned j#ust in time to see a sol- 
dier si iq railroad crossing gate in our faces and hold us 

ere pi it el jr but firmly till the corporal had time to come and 
in; t cur papors. 



't 



ix 



Vic sur Aisne, the sound of firing was much louder 
and 'here was ft distinct air of so ing doing. Long munitic 
trains were waiting along the shady road leading to the bridge, 
cavalry was halting in the shelter of the hills, and everything 
had an air of watchful preparation for all eventualities • Bet- 
ter still the bridge, which had been blown up had also been tem- 
porarily repaired; so following our military car ..c Cashed ucro3s 
it. Che other car turned sharp to the right into the road run- 
ning along the north bask of the Aisne, but we kept sti ., 



<h 






on* 



' 






I 1 



- 11 - 

through the village which was Badly battered and occupied ex- 
clusively by soldiers, past the Chateau, a trenches v;ith 
their soldiers lolling idly about, past the stretcher parti© 3 
waiting, behind the "broken walls, and i'inally headed out into the 
valley. ds valley, about two mile 3 vvide extends Iron: the river 
to the bases of oho line of steep hills to 1 , altering 
several little villages toward one of which we turned. e val- 
ley was level os a floor and entirely hare except icr the very 

rasa, a pood many haystacks and the several high structural 
steel nasts of an overhead conveyor system designed for trans- 
iting stone fron quarries with v/hich the hill3 are honeycombed. 
"e noticed, several soldiers i ■ rently asleep in the shade of 
the hay stacks and several others in the grass hut we didn't pay 
any particular attention and went on, finally reaching one of the 
conveyor masts near the middle of the valley, when one shell 
whistling close over our heads and immediately afterwards two 
others bursting about five hundred yards ahead of us and kiekin 
up a great cloud of dust and black smoke, brought us to a sudden 
realisation that the puna on the hills ahead were not French at 
all, but German and that the machine pun and small arm firing 
.ich we heard 30 distinctly must come from a French trench noar 
ere the last shells had struck. 

e turned quickly around and scuttled back, through the 
town and across the bridge and turned into the main road runninp 
along the south bonk of the Aisne and leading to Soissons. -th 
•sides of the road were wooded and formed the camping places of 
the several thousands of troops stationed in the immediate vici- 
nity, all of which looked to be in excellent physical condition 
and to be Caking things as easily as circumstances would permit. 

I were fishing in the Msne or washing clothes, others were 
writing letters, reading, sleeping or lying around in groups 
telling stories. Having just seen an aeroplane overhead, we 
stopped a soldier we met walking along the road and asked him if 
there hod been sny ^aubes about. "There's one now", he said, 
pointing in the direction we had just seen the aeroplane, "he's 
been dropping bombs around here for the last ten minutes", "?hy 
don't somebody fire at it", we asked; "Oh, that", he replied, 
"we've ;;iven that up long ago, we can't hit those birds, and fir- 
ing- at them only exposes our guns, disturbs everybody and wastes 
ammunition." 

We hadn't gotten more than a half mile down the road be- 
fore two more shells whistling over our heads made us realise 
a£ein; so we turned back to where we had just passed a ^rouj/bf 
French surgeons and inquired concerning the practicability of the 
road. "Oh the road's hxb all ri^ht," said one, "but the Boehes 
will shell you, they shell everything that does down it. How- 
ever, I .pot through yesterday with a convoy and one automobile 
takes up less space and can go faster than a whole convoy. You 
can probably make it. It's worth while trying. Jry it." 
-ever we didn't, but instead took the road over tho hills 
ere he told us we could :;ct a good view of the Operations .At 
a turn in the road, bout three quarters way up, we came square 

batteries }'s, comfortably installed on a flat lcdp:e, 
b by nature into the face 01 1 hill, in such a way that the 
as were completely ,'d by trees just behind them, while thoy 
tirer: through the top branches of the trees below which extended 
all the way down the hill into the valley. 

ped the automobile and piled out. ^13 were 
not firing at the moment, but ..ere uirrouaded by big piles of 
empty she lis, some of them still smoking. Ih< a had been dis- 
used. Scae were swabbing out tho , some lying around 

, -hers t r with the of iic or 3, were e iding 
among the trees at the top of the eut« watching the bursts of 
e shells from some ear splitting 105*8 somewhere izs, 



o 



i 






I 1 



- 12 - 

aimed at the Soman batteries which through our " glasses we could 
y cog on bhe Greets of the opposite hails, as 

.!■ ■- . ; thc- r . 

..he soldiers, immediately responded ;o our off er i 

and cigarettes end .ere eager to tell us of iokc 

tey h )ii the Germans* At ihe foot oj .-. hills, sa£ely dug 
in among the under >wth f were Beyers Tench 75 's usi:. lack 
powder. L'o these the Germans attributed all the French shells 

,d upon them . e& all ir ammunition, while the really 
usei'ul and well masked £pms higher up, using smokeless powder, 
had not been discovered during more than a week of service. 

e were told that the range of the Germans was five kilometers 
hut that the 75 had proved effective and accurate up to seven. 
It was interesting to watch the shell hursts coming down closer 
and. closer to the German batteries, till just at the exoitii 
moment when wo expected the very nezt one to make a stride and 
had the added interest of watching the men take up their posi- 
tions at the 75 's just about to recommence tiring;, a big mili- 
tary touring ear rolled up end a little, fat, hearded official - 
looking frenchman in civilian clothes bounced out. Be looked 
.round for a minute or two, then came up to us and asked who 
we were end what we were doing there. ving been informed that 
we were Americans and were looking around and that we would like 
te have the pleasure ox knowing whom w« had the honor of addres- 
sing he first fully convinced us that he was the inspecting gen- 
ii, then asked for our papers. .ter looking over our motley 
collection of American passports, .American Ambulance workers 
passes and diplomatic cards, he said, "But 1 don f t see that you 
have any business here, nobody but the french army is allowed 
here, only yesterday we had to turn hack a British colonel. 

rar in the world did you get here anyway, without a p&ssf" "'to 
Just game" SS answered, not 'firing to show our pass to poor 
little fanteuil more than thirty Zilometers back. "Well, 1 
don't know what you'll do", he said looking at his watch. "You 

J I remain here, that's certain. It3 five-thirty now &ae cir- 
culation on the roads is stopped at six. You might make Vit- 
lers-vottereis, hut all the hotels and houses there are full of 
soldiers, so you'll have to sleep in your automobile". ith 

at he climbed into his own car, and dashed off down the road, 
ollowea him immediately afterwards and found him about a 
quarter of a mile back at a cross roads, standing alongside 
four most disagreeable sounding 105* s, (the one's supplying our 
shell bursts, }which were fir in:, away for dear life, while an 
interesting lookiivp aeroplane was hovering overhead spotting the 
shots. In order to gain time to get a good look at the uns, we 
ran up close to him and enquired the directions to Villers-Cot- 
terets (which we knew well enouph from our road map) h con- 
sidering the circumstances he gave rather agreeably. After 
thanking him, and apologizing for all the inconvenience wo might 
have caused the French army in general and himself in particular, 
we started off down the road he had Indicated. 

ha 
About a mile, ^«> clterec behind a wood, we ran into a 

dap of the second line of defense. About a thousand munition 
caissons, delivery wagons and ombbile trucks were <■ rked in 
lo: , -lose to the edge of Use cod, v.here the horses not 
in evidence, must have been picketed, in all sorts of ii.;- 

ovised BhedB, shelters, and w tents were quartered, ■ 
estimatcu about five thousand men. ^hey blocked our way as 
soon as they saw i coming, asked the ne arts, ;oi al3 
cur rcmainj ;tcck of papers ana ees, and uo££e< us to 
wait a few minutes while t] bhled off post ^crde and let- 
ters to bo ma iled in Paris. en after wo had en started* 
•we had to stop about every minute for some '.y 

ter us, with another handful, he LI acted, with Lnal 
result that the Paris post-office was enrichoti that th 
about fi- >n<3 extra ieccs of mail matter. 



v 



I 1 



- 13 - 

A little farther on we passed a barn, serving as a hangar 
for two aeroplanes. Shortly afterwards, being held up at Vil- 
lers-Cot i.ereis we were let through, on our pass, wMob of course 
was perfectly good from then on. Viilors-Cotterets we found, as 
the dene, til had s. id, full of soldiers, hut full also of sup- 
plies and munitions, kong lines ox little French freight cars 
re aking still ". 3 . .hor the enormous stacks of shells, forage 
wes of small arms ammunition and food-stuffs, while the 
line of waiting motor trucks extended for a mile down the road. 

Un this road we passed several trench* a and b vil- 
lages, met [aany automobiles and supply trucks and in the dnrk- 
ness nearly ran clown a flock of peace loving sheep, but beside* 

'Oken wrec 8 of a German taube, saw nothing more of spec- 
ial interest, goon we arrived at Lleaux, where we turned into 

e road running westward along the north hank of the I.larne. 
After numerous exciting enoounters with road guards, who hearing 
the whir of the autOdoeiXe from their comfortable but forbidden 
positions in some road houses, gave a wild yell and dashed 
Straight at us, long bebel rifle and sharp triangular bayonet 
causing a most unpleasant sensation, we finally arrived at Paris, 
and before eight o T clock, were at dinner, v.'hile on the subject 
of road guards, I might explain that these men are, except at 
most important points, always men not mobilized, either old men 
or reformes, guarding every railroad and bridge and nearly 
every crossroads in France. Their principal characteristics 
are a red soldier's cap, a rifle and bayonet and an invincible 
determination to let nothing got ~oy them. Of this last quality 
especially, I have been entirely convinced, both "oy a few nar- 
row escapes of my own and by harrowing narrations of several 
of my friends still suffering from the feeling; touch of a bay- 
onet in their stomach or the jarring sound of a Leo el bullet 
as it whistled past their ear. 

She follow." two incidents, both of which i believe 
really happened, may serve to give an idea of the peculiar con- 
ditions existing in the country districts during the first few 
days after the battle. As soon as the Germans had been reported 
di l north, an Englishman 1 have met, a fat unwarlike old 
follow of about sixty, set out alone in an automobile to Fen- 
tainbiecu, where he had business, he was just entering the 
Forest of Po&tainbleau through which the road passes, when he 

w in le distamcv a him* a troop of lancers. In the 

mi'h f philosophising en the subject of the comfortable feel- 
ing c ed by the sight of the fine French cavalry, to his hor- 
ror, he discovered that the tops of their helmets were flat, 
that their uniforms were strange, that in fact they must be 
German Uhlans. lie would have turned around miu made a dash a 
dash for if, if lie had dared, but he was too close; so he had to 

cp on a head, hop in at he would not be stopped. _o his 
consternation the officer in command rode ahead to meet him and 
Surrendered himself and his troop of forty men. lie explained that 
they had gotten cut off from the German army and had passed 

■ in the Forest of ?cntainbleau, almost without food, 
fraid to go near the villages for fear of being massacred by 

e inhabitants* I wanted the Englishmen to give them up to 
the g- rmerie in the nearest time. ae Ln^lishman however 
couldn't see how be could prevent a massacre or how he could 
avoid being in it, if it occurred; so he refused, but counseled 
the officer to have his men invert their lanses and reverse 
theme carbines, and he ., to enter the village well ahead 
of them, and attempt to explain, in case they got into . ble , 
"here 00 need of however, The villager* only stared 
at -,o the Q< merle, i f sur- 

rendered to three gendarmes. Another nglis] an exploring the 

country- oij a bicycle, a lev/ days later, had his attention 
attracted by a . roadside, ovur a 

stone wall, go his Question of what was the attraction, the 



- 



r 



* 



i i 



- 14 - 

« 

peasant replied m -q's a taube in that field* if I i .1121 
I 1 re at it." Sure -enough there was ft monoplane; the black 
er< .nted on the under surfaces of the wings, ii Lng 
• is a Germ? chine, he leather -coated aviator was fussing 
:d tinkering with the engine, which getting in working order, 
he started up and soon diss; ,1 in the distant slq . 

From a oint Of view, 1 ... eriod eurir. id 

immediately after t 1 attle of the ISarae, was the worst during 

e whole war up te he end oi June, '.hen I laft __-:nce. 
Thousands of wounded began to arrive in ?ari8, five, slag, cr 

en dare after they had Been ded, with only an. emer- 
:r drcse.' id little or no food, rotten iron ie cr 
■ sti from tetanus; and in addition the terrible 
-» gas /,an&rene, swelled bodies and limbs till under 
the opere '"knife, fche poisonous* sweetish gases hissed out as 
from a punctured automobile Lire. Arms and legs cam* cif by 
thousands but in many cases the weakened systems could not stand 
9 shock and even if they could, there were too many times 
en te IS still claimed its victim or the blade rotteness of 
■erne erawled on above the cut;, till hospital wards beea 
' Ideous to enter. 

ilitary reasons limiting the number of wounded permitted 
in Paris to S5 f 0OO, many of the hastily improvised hospitals 
there remained without a patient, while the wounded had to con- 
tinue their painful journey to places further south, Lvcn under 
the great load of their terribly sickening work doctors, nurses 
and population, never faltered, but redoubled their efforts to 
better conditions and succeeded. Special hospital trains with 
Stretcher racks, greatly increased the comfort of transportation, 
dressing stations with diet kitchens established at all stopping 
places, assured proper attention of wounds and proper food, am- 
bulances were improved in number and. design. The hospitals them- 

Ives were ovei "led find modernised and convalescent hospitals 
were e ed in the great hotels on the hiviera^until now, 
ins- end of . v;cc::, he wounded usually reach the Paris hospitals 
In £4 hours of Die time "..key are wounded, even in the far 

nme. any of the private automobiles of Paris be,, an to em- 
ploy their time taking convalescent soldiers out for an airing 
and women from the best families could be seen taking others out 
for a wal 1'he most celebrated singers end actors in France 
began the jcg, still in vogue, of spending their time going 
: m he ttal to hospital emus in hie wounded* -ho entire pop- 
ulation once recovered from its excitement and relief at the 
result of the Battle of the harne, settled down to a realiza- 
tion of the fact that the Germans could not fco driven beyond 

isne for the present and that s winter c was inevi- 
table, der the stead luence of this realisation they 
took up the t .theni: he weakened fabric of the 

nations life. Societies were organised for bettering the con- 
ditions of the soldiers at the front, for findin biem lopk in 
epilation, for looking after "heir wives and children, 
and their widows and orphans in case of their death. Oilier so- 
cle -.ook 1 >rk of collecting eld thing and habitatio 
for the . eh and ian refugees, of finding jobs for the men 

. - m. , rkinr classes for the .en, of organising 
so:- itohens and penny restaurants of collect in, to be 

Bdners in Germany, mit even of writing letters 
to the lonely soldiers on ..0 long e . entree 

were re -opened to aid the otarvi GoVe: 

ositions of paintings for the relief of the lots. r3es 

.ere scc3 imated 3 ;.t 
to rmerW. , .., railroads 

on ml ec ,.ies £ilic 1 laces OJ r workers at 
che front with ,ersi sl est of 

the street car id soi isgan to hai en 

ore* we m to abor on 



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- 15 - 

and other efforts began 



toys ad other articles usually imported from ..riy.^to. be 

c to ee other '■ an lanuf&etured articles. jiety 
for IH r a enormous but popular t of 

batter: • ■- physii ■ aondltion ' 'lug military trai 

ell the boys in Prance more than ten years old, to w3 
fast: the Goven ■ ■ iling a ._;r eaany re- 

ot floors and petty off I cere as instructors as well i 

Services of the mil; nds. 



^e^ging eharit i for - ifl icfit of the soldier .ere 

iiistitutefl - mobile . , .idea by the Gov- 

, , a "tor each one o: o three already c .o <. £ 

ihildrea who acted as "a I aeses" , % £5 more 

Ullon dollars* 

In a \yord,Govc:\ .d people all combined to lend 
their best efforts toward - I ' ; ina; their army on to -victor 

o reseurses, the life and the spirit of ee un to 
e highest possible standard* foreigners helped too, aer- 
Lly, and the aid of the Americana in ace and i .ds 
of boxes and nds of dollars pouring in from America 

.erican relief clearing house in aariu, has contributed a 
greet deal toward keeping up this standard. 6 fifth of Bey* 
ember I started on a railroad trip to Calais and Dunkirk. As 

laces were within the zone of open I a®| I had to show a 
are i was allowed to buy i; ie^et. .iter that, I had 
no more trouble with passes till i left the train at Calais* 
'there was nothing unusual about the train which was only fairly 
filled with business men returning to the north, with Bngliah 
doctors and nurses on their way to hospitals arayivith^ravellers 
to ad. &ssengers being only a secondary consideration, we 
re side tracked many tines to give way to the military trains, 
o loaded with field guns,, others aith shells ^^zi&.. munitions 
and way ethers with oread, cattle*, forage and every ar- 
ticle o.f food, or equipment needed by the great armies along 

lines* rom time lo time we would meet a train of 
cheer j soldiers, whose fresh Uniforms and tourist air, 

adve .norance of e bloody work ahead of them* They 

right looking yo ors, however, in fine physical con- 
dition, well set up and ieemingly ideal materia: 1 , tor military 
he officers were not bo impressive. Beorepid, wbite- 

sajors directed lieutenants varying frc 
oehed boys :• to ruffing s^ e 7 haired fat nen of 
ore. oh detach .1 to bringing its full 
id supplies along with it and the cany field guia , 
showed the large or t ion oi artillery among them. 

or trains too, silent ones, wheee enormous red 
cresses blazing out froi eir surrounding circles of white, 
>se white capped ] and. the bandaged .pain i rted faces 
at a 9 windows, left no doubt as to their identity* 

little r. iiv. station was provide;. its 

a,rds, with his free restaurant and dressing station for the 

soldi ^ with i : met. , retty girl came 

1th her '. i cress money 

re o:> .' s wg , • erenVi ; 

I pwa dini i j securing one of \ 

ly o.. .s on sail ye the 

i : ees. ir on iple of com . u- 

- ined auari c way b o -;. land 
do e. 03 ., nd the 

; l 1 , : tal 

1 : . .■:. vt. . o .. r • 

hours e arrived at Calais 
j 30 in the si r do n- 

bed by deer to , &< ^d 

i set out to hunt a place to p. a found every hotel with 



4 



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- 16 - 

any claim to decency, literally crowded to the doors with even 
the dining rooms full of cots, hut finally we secured a miser- 
able little room in a still more miserable filthy little hotel. 
This proved however a not unqualified hardship. Like most of 
the houses in Calais it was inhabited largely by Belgian offi- 
cers and petty officers, and some of the officers we found to be 
very interesting men. On© captain in particular had been through 

e entire war including the attack on Liege, where he was 
wounded. o had a wholo collection of interesting stories of 
the war, had a very broad minded view of the whole situation, and, 
praise for all the armies, including much for the Germans. One 
idea seemed absolutely to obcess him. would time and again 
lament the fact that the Allies had not been able to send to 
Antwerp her army of a hundred thousand men which, he asserted 
could combined with the Belgians and simultaneously with attacks 
of the French and English armies along the battle line, have 
absolutely destroyed the German lines of communi cation and 
forded them to evacuate Belgium and northern France if not to 
absolute defeat. 

From him also I learned that by opening only one canal 
sluice, the remaining hit of Belgium and all the northern part 
of Prance down to St. Omer, could be flooded and that even then 
the water was ftept within a foot of the surface, rendering 
cavalry useless. 

Calais was abnormal in many ways. First the town was 
overrun with soldiers mostly Belgians, for Calais I learned was 
the main base and point of reorganization of the Belgian army, 
a fact attested by Belgian policemen alternating with ihe French 
ones on the street corners by Belgian sentries, by parks? of their 
artillery, automobiles and supply trunks, by the carloaus of 
munitions and accoutrements which Belgian soldiers were hand- 
ling, by squads of half uniformed men drilling in the publio 
squares and finally by detachments of their soldiers entraining 
for the short journey to the front. 

Three hospital ships, two English, one Belgian, the Leo- 
pold II, prominent in the evacuation of Ostend, were at the 
clocks awaiting their ghastly freight for England which they 
>new would arrive at midnight. 

:ny small French and Belgian steamers were ties up, but 
the docks, ^ere the scene of little animation, and even the 
row of six French submarines lying idly at their float, showed 
no signs of life. 



In the stores, the few cigarettes and ready eatables 
like chocolates, all bore the label "will be sold only to sol- 
diers", and the stocks of everything else, eatable and wearable, 
filled only a comer of the gaping spaces assigned to the 
But more than this material evidence, the air and the conversa- 
tion of the inhabitants, showed that Calais was still suffering 
from the effects of the great storm that had just swept through 
It, thli storm was the thousands and thousands of Belgian* , 
who after the evacuation of Antwerp poured in here, on foot, in 
hay carts, in carriages, in luxurious touring cars and limous- 
ines, till even in the streets there wasn't standing room, but 
Such pitiable misery, that now that the last of these people 
had boen cvacuatec * to land and to parts of e beyond the 
zone of operations, the stocks of food and clothing in the pri- 
vate houses were much more reduced than those in the stores, and 
tfae Belgian Army having collected, the great number of horse- 
drawn vehicles and automobiles abandoned, in the streets, during 

I ..lid rush for the English steamers, had a substantial addi- 
tion to its transportation equipment. 

ith the aid of the consul, 1 L ,ot through the crowd 






' 



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y~ i i 



- 17 - 

gathered outside the Prefecture of Police, and after answering 

lay questions and showing all my papers including my seale 
letter from the B mbassy to the Consul at Dunkirk, I v/ao 
given a pass or "Sauf Conduit" as it is called in French, to 
Dunkirk, I coulan't get a train till 7:00 o'clock in the even- 
ing so had to postpone Inspection of the country along the route, 
till my return trip. 

iter showing my hard-earned pass to the sentry, at xhe 
door, I was permitted to enter/the station, buy my ticket and 
hoard the train. This time there wasn't so much room. I occu- 
pied a compartment with four Frenchmen, and knowing that I was- 
n't supposed to he able to speak French, I kept quiet and lis- 
tened to the interesting conversation that ensued. All of the 
D v;ere on their way from Paris to Dunkirk. .0 were minor 
•vernment officials, one was an inhabitant of Dunkirk and one 
a business man from the little town of i'umes just across the 
Belgian frontier. 

For the first time, 1 heard something definite in regard 
to the fabled German atrocities, not ^iven out as information 
but as comments on facts known liy i-hem all, committed in vil- 
lages they had seen since and on people they knew and mentioned 
byname. Hone of these atrocities were of the class of fright- 
ful mutilations so often reported as oecuring in Belgium and 
described to me oy an American friend of mine, who in one case, 
arriving in a Belgium village evanuated a few minutes before by 
the Germans, came across the naked body of a young Belgian 
woman, whose blood still dripping from the wounds where both 
hands and feet had "ocen cut off, covered furniture walls and 
coiling. Ilather they were of the class of immoralities, Mncfc 
of the talk was about a little French town, whose name i have 
forgotten where all the women were forced hj the Germans to 
strip and parade through the public square for inspection and 
choice f first by the officers, afterwards hj the soldiers. 

l ! he man from furnes was full of information. had seen, 
passing down the street, there, guarded by French cuirassiers, 
a squad of seven sullen German officers, one of whom, a captain, 
suddenly pulled a concealed revolver and shot dead a French 
naval lieutenant walking along the sidewalk, thus entailing the 
immediate execution of all the Gorman officers, pleading pite- 
ously for their lives. He knew all about the much talked of 
French explosive, turpinite, had seen shells loaded with it and 
marked with blue and yellow stripes; knew that on explosion it 
liberated a deadly heavy gas, clinging to the spot for hours 
and wzsa: liable to be blown by the wind in any direction, thus 
killing many FrenchEitm as well as Germans, i^his quality, to- 

rther with its instability, causing the explosion of many 
guns, had Just led to its final abandonment. » described the 
almost daily bombardment of yumes and the growing callousness 
of the inhabitants to shell fire, also the sights in Dunkirk, 
which I afterwards had the opportunity of verifying . 

at Dunkirk was a military camp, I knew from the moment 
I stepped off the train aa& found myself staring at the sharp 
point of a long slender bayonet, fixed to the equally awe-in- 
spiring muzzle of a Label rifle; while a sergeant went through 
ray papers a^xfetexateidam:. 



station tfoere was entire absence of carriages or any other form 
of vehicle, but a ragged boy of twelve took my bag and piloted 
me along the dark streets, almost absolutely deserted, owing, 
I learned, to a police ordinance forbidding their use after 
9:30 p.m. by anyone not on important and urgent business, -he 
two big hotels were full to overflowing, the character of their 

osts being shown by a long line of French and Belgian mili- 
tary cars, intc gled with darker ones of the British liavy and 



', 



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I I 



- 18 - 

with great curious shaped armored care equipped with one pounders 
and machine guns. 

The public squares and many of the streets were crammed 
with hundreds more of these cars, -with long rows of omnibusses 
and with automobile trucks of every description. 

After much walking I finally found at the little hotel 
at. Jean, a fine bee room, a lot of French and Belgian petty 
officers, end the most unpalatable food it has ever "been my mis- 
fortune to encounter; though I did find thereyjiittle French 
rolls that through a sense of justice, to the bakers, were de- 
nied U3 in faris. 

Horning came, my little guide called for me and I started 
out to explore. The parks of Xl£$ vehicles in the squares and 
streets ware breaking up and forming a long and almost contin- 
uous column moving to the eastward and the front. Among these 
it was curious to see auto buses from Paris and from London, 
others from Liege and Brussels and even several captured ones 
from Berlin and other German cities, T all screened and all filled 
with hanging quarters of beef or muttoS*^sHso thousands of peaceful 
looking delivery wagons equally Incongruous and equally misused. 

At intervals, there would dash by this line a high speed 
touring car filled with French or Belgian army ssdt officers or 
British naval officers attacheoyio the flying corps. The few 
ople on the streets seemed to have very little to do and a 
very great interest in everyone else's business. 1 couldn't 
stop for a minute to look at anything without an immediate gath- 
ering, the appearance of a policeman and an instant demand for 
my papers. This suspicion of strangers I learned had ~been 
created l>y the capture of a groat numbe: of German spies in the 
town. Only a day or two before a supposed Belgian officer had 
disappeared only leaving his uniform in his room. 







Dunkirk is surrounded by a high earthen rampart defended 
at that time by many big antiquated guns ajia newly made emplace- 

nts for a lot of field artillery; but there were several op- 
enings for canals and I wondered what would happen if a shell 
ever struck one of the two high concrete tanks of the water 
supply systen. However, when I learned that the whole country 
s round, for a distance of 15 miles, was provided with line after 
line of newly constructed sand bag defenses and communication 
protection, and that this entire area could be flooded above the 
surface by opening one canal sluice, I didn't consider the de- 
fease of the town so hopeless. The inside basins, which like 
the canals, occupy a large part of Dunkirk, were rather crowded 
with canal boats and fishing vessels, also in one place, with 
a dozen little French torpedo boats. At the outside docks, 

; ch I was not allowed to approach, 1 could make out many .mer- 
chantmen, a big British hospital ship and two little British 
cruisers or gunboats. /'guide told me tl here r;ere al30 
three small French submarines out there; but these I could never 
get near enough to see. The docks alongside the merchant ships 
were the scene of great activity, huge $±±Exm£ heaps of boxes 
piled '.here as well as the clusters of others being continually 
lifted out of the ship's holds by their cargo booms, were dis- 
appear- ..; into the long line of freight cars drawn up to re- 

: ve them. ussy little locomotives were constantly moris 
cors into position, brin .'"*■ - ones to be filled, and hauling 
the loaded ones into the great frcightyards. These freight yards 
crowded with hospital trains and freight oars were, I was told, 
also the home of the British and Belgian armored trains, which 
returning late at night, always started oat again at daybreak, 
prepared for another day of .service at the front. 



«. 






an*V« a'-aiji 1 " 



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- 19 - 

Tae official posters on the walla were impressive* Af- 
ter the first of November all German, and Austrian subjects found 
in the Department of the Uorth, (in which Irankirfc is situated) 
would be shot, very old men, women and little children would 
be imprisoned till the end. of the wax. All persons not author- 
ised inhabitants of Dunkirk, who remained there longer than 36 
hours, without a "leriais de Sejour" or residents permit, which 

it would he issued only in case of .roved absolute neces- 
sity over government business would be imprisoned till the end 
of the war, and/the/iroprietor o^the/notel or house sheltering 
then would have bis house closed and would be imprisoned for a 
year. 

Being absolutely unable, even with the aid of the Consul, 
to obtain a pass to the front, or even to Fumes, and hex. 
forced to get one back to Paris, for the next morning, with even 

or and minute of the train departure filled in, I started 
out to get as near the lines as possible without anything, 
Paasing through one of the eastern geteo, I came first upon a 
large park which had been wooded; but all the trees had been 
cut down to facilitate artillery fire from the ramparts and it 
looked desolate and forlorn. Beyond this par&, extending over 
to the sea, lay the summer resort and village of lialo les Bains, 
with its many cottages deserted and the windows and terraces of 
its pig hotels filled with wounded soldiers. In the village, 
I st d at a little restaurant for lunch. All through the 
meal the proprietor kk& ojed me suspiciously, finally, when 
five French soldiers on their way to the front on foot, came 
in, laid aside their rifles and packs, and sat down at a ialle, 
a relieved expression came over his face and he began to whis- 
per to the terge&nt among them. This immediately caused me to 
become an object of great interest for the soldiers also. Hav- 
ing finished oy lunch and paid my bill, I Yfalked out and had 
reached the corner, where I was to wait for the trolley car, 
when - orgeant, rushing out of the restaurant, ran up to me 
and demanded my papers. "But you have no authority to demand 
my papers," I replied, "You will have to bring a policeman." 
"I know X have no authority", he said, "but with so many spies 
about you'll have to admit that it 1 a a wise precaution; so you'll 
either have to show me your papers or come with me to the police- 
station." Convinced that he was in earnest, X sho?/ed him my 
card from the Military government of w,?aris # seeing which he sal- 
uted with both hands, apologized profusely and dashed off. 

The trolley line ended about 5 miles further up the coast, 
at Halo Terminus, where I left the oar. Just at the end of the 
trolley line not far from the beach wa3 a big summer hotel, with 
"bandaged Trench and German soldiers gathered on the porches. On 
the beach itself stood a long row of bathing machines drawn up 
for the winter and back among the great bare sand dunes, which 
seemed to extend for miles JrwKfrtec inland was a high old fash- 
ioned fort, o only thing in eight among all ±temmxfcBLK®±sdaB. 
JrcrwfrirKgpritHHgg that desolate looking sand. Around the hotel was ■ 
scattered a few cottages and two or three out -buildings, at 
one of which seemingly fitted up as a repair shop, three bel- 
gian soldiers were working on a group of automobile delivery 
wagons from Liege, it didn't take a long look to convince me 
tt out at sea there were neither the British monitors X had 
hoped to see, nor anything else; and the only thing Interesting 

. all, a hyr - ero .lane passed quickly overhead bound toward 
Dunkirk j so I walked back to the track and waited for my trolley 
car. In a minute or two, I discovered that I was causing a eo- 
motion amon£* A soldiers on the >»orch of the hotel. In another 
minute a .Belgian policeman ran out, ano^Wi • r« alar 

operation of d; idlJ my papers and the rejulajfrlrmr operation of 
apologizing afterwards. 16 trolley car took me back to Dunkirk, 
where I loft it, and aftor further exploration on foot. started 






< 






- 21 - 

evacuated; and both were full of praise for army, which 
arrived, not in very good order to be sure, "but "bringing with 
it its .full equipment and everything else moveable, oven some 
of ike heavy i'or tress rams fro .twerp. 

i'he subject of British aeroplane a didn't bring north 
;h in :.'ornclion. Their at hobby was the French, .^e 
efficiency, they said, was the greatest carvel of the wi 
and whose modesty not less . o iderful was in striding contract 
to the Distant British method of crying every exploit fro 
the house-tops, ^nej stated that t/.ey knew of hundreds of 
wonderful, yet unpublished exploits accomplished by the avia- 
tors of the French aeroplane service, who already masters of 
the air, were becoming better every day; that the French Bayy 
patrolling its unknown stations was doing its wori efficiently 
and silently, and that the French submarines were the force 
protecting the straits of Dover so well that never a ship had 
been lost -here. One of them, crossing a day or two before, 
had seen a line of French submarines stretching clear across 
the Channel, The Belgian aviators, they said, had beautiful, 
well -equipped machines, compared to which, as one expressed it 
"Our machines are sticks and paper" ; but they didn't think the 
Belgl&nfl especially courageous or efficient flyers.. 

The country between Dunkirk and Calais is entirely ilat, 
with the water in the canals and ditches at that time, purposely 
kept within a foot of the surfaoe, rendering the ground soggy 
and impossible for horses; and at neo<L 9 I was told it could 
be flooded above the surface. Every few hundred yards, <c 
passed a line of isolated sand-hag brest corks connected with 
lower sand -bag protected' communications. About half-way to- 
twoen Calais nnt Dunkirk, we .passed an aviation camp composed 
of a house, three tent hangars and several aeroplanes, accord- 
to my English friends, a sign to the defense of Calais. 

t Calais, 1 had to change cars, and as 1 walked along- 
side icy new train, searching for a comfortable compartment, 
I noticed 1 I at one compartment was attracting a great deal of l 
attention* Looking in,I saw a French private soldier with 
fixed bayonet, guarding a German Major, a great big broad- 
shouldered laam* but unshared, dirty and bedraggled, and with 
the most sullen, scornful look on his face that 1 had seen in 
a long time, rerhaps It was on ad count of the rank of his 
guard, perhaps on account of the people looking in at him, who 
though Tory respectful, were certainly very much interested. 
If the latter* he must h: ve had a very painful trip, for with- 

doubt, he t;; c the center of attraction of our train, at 
every stopping place all the way to iaris. In my compartment 
in this train, there were, in addition to two French civilians, 
a French naval lieutenant, who recently wounded in the abdomen 
at Dixmude, had progressed well enough to be able to leave the 
hospital and finish the convalescence at his home in ?aris. 
He stated that in the trenches there were already abo oven 
thousand ch blue- jackets and "fusiliers iiarina" or Llarinos, 

it this number was being increased to ten thousand, lie 
also stated that at the beginning of the war, many trench oifi- 
cre supplied with pistols oi the vintage oi$.87Q,that 
o had all since been ehangetf for modern revolvers, but that 
ere had ly ever been an opportunity to U3e cither, the 
o wasn't a matter of much Importance* I was deeply im- 
pressed with the power of 'six©: Germans and with the d iff lenity 
though not impossibility of defeating them. b had a great 
deal of admiralties lor the German ingenuity and for Die bravery 
of their cioae- r charges; but .;as excited about their 
rocitles Which he believed and about their pil3 , x.ny 
oofs of which he had seen i of prisoners. 



i 



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My trip back to Paris was very much the same as the. one 
leaving there, "e passed even nore trains from Havre and Bou- 
logne, filled with British territorials, Imt in spite of them, 
arrived in Paris about 7 that evening, five minutes ahead of 
time. 

.e evening of Decc r lot, , oaether with 1st .Men'; en- 
ant B. L. Smith, U. ■ •:' .0., I n loft .aris, this time for 
..ice and the other Mediterranean ports of France. 3?he train, 
very different from ay last one, had a dining car, sleeping- 
car and all the appendages of a regular peace - : ess. 
One thing though both trains did have in common* e Oerman 
of all the trilingual inscriptions, so many of LI trench 
cars contain, was painted over with black paint. ::e train 
was well filled, a large proportion of the passengers "being 
middle -ate- moh soldiers returning home on leave, re suit in 
from the efforts of General Joffre to increase the greatly 
diminished hirth rate of France by giving all possible leave 
to his married soldiers. 

The fceautlfu! Rhone country through whi/ch we passed 
loolied very normal and very peaceful. Only the crowds of sol- 

the stations and the Eed Cross M fya&daEgggg ''paeteiises", 
who went through the train at every stop, reminded one of the 
war . 

V. T e arrived at Kice about 6 the next afternoon, and 
found a very rainy, very desolate ITice. Easjj of the Dig hotels 
had "been turned into hospitals and most of the others were 
closed. There were noyfehows, the only form of amusement "being 
the cinematographs an ^ the bulletins hung out in fromt of the 
newspaper offices or the big war maps inside. 

The only naval protection was a single inoffensive 
looking little French torpedo heat. ere were lots of sol- 
diers though, most of them fine looking Alpine troops, who 
spent all their time going through setting-up exercises and 
ftice hikes, fully equipped. I was told in liice 
:al there were 300,000 trench troops kept on the Italian bor- 
der. 

•o left a ice by automobile, going westward along the 
eautifttl road which follows the toast. All the little win- 
ter resort towns we passed were full of troops under instruc- 
tion, but they looked desolate and dreary; at ill as most re- 
sort towns look that way out of season, I suppose they were 
rfectly normal. te first place of any interest was Toulon, 
jeh was crowded with soldiers, there were six torpedo boats 
tied up to sea wall in the harbor arid several cruisers whose 
masts we could see above the walls of the Savy $ard. This 
navy yard however, we were not able to enter, our strenuous 
efforts, both Official and unofficial being- always met with 
the too familiar reply; "It distresses me very much not to be 
able to grant your request which I assure you would be granted 

Lately if it depended on me . Unfortunately hot over, no 
one dan be allowed in the rd ithout written permission 
from the ...inister of Sarins in raris. I am sure $te will be 

. to t you this is s ion and then it will give me 
great tie- sure to show you everything we have." Unfortunately 
I already know, by experience, |he impossibility of obtaining 

is permission and realized that my only hope of getting in, 
(that of the rise method) was smashed. 

it e ring Marseilles, v.e passed a large camp of at least 
, ..'0 British Indian troops. X could recognise the Slfehs a 

as <ved on, we arohing column oi little brown 
en, whose almond eyes, wide felt til nee breeches, C tt 

bo tith end .. o th.' bhea Japanese; but who we afterwards 






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- 84 - 

During the first days of December, the Government 
slipped basic $o ParlS f but its/bet urn didn't cause the slightest 
excitement or enthusiasm, r'is had learned too well how to 

t along without it referred the ability and style of 
justice of Soneral Gallieni; moreover, in spite of thi e- 
e3aity for it, . i La still resented be in andoned. 
Christmas am ohed, i aris began to shew distinct symptons 
of catc : e ristmas spirit and reverting to its old 

sy life. Several restaurants and cafes get hi ir or- 

chestras, and dance halls began to re-open all over the city. 
It was short-lived however, this gayety, for Chrisl was 

rdly over before the heavy hand of the military authorities 
had stopped it all. 

Since the beginning of the new year, Paris while still 
serious, is becoming always more normal. Business is con- 
stantly improving. e restaurants now remain open till 10; 30 

.-. and their sidewalk terraces, so stetada^xr^ifc missed at 
night during the first months ox the war, now remain open till 
the same hour. Taxis are again fairly plentiful, nearly all 
the theatres are runnir. .th good hills, rhe exhibit of Ger- 
man trophies in the hotel des I.nvalides is always full to 
over-flowing as is the square in front of it during the periodic 
reviews and presentation of medals to the decorated members of 
Ihe Army of Paris* fhe population of Paris and in fact of all 
of Prance appear to be in excellent spirits, and while natur- 
ally regretting the length of the war* are entirely confident 
in regard to its final outcome, especially since Italy came in. 
During the period from the beginning of the year to June 26th, 

on I left iaris, the only events of special interest which 
occurred ?vere the coming of the Zeppelins and the declaration 
of war hy Italy. Paris had been rather fore-warned of the 
first event i for since the first days of .mreh, the lighting 
of the city had been greatly reduced and there had been drills 
-.hen ail lights in the streets had been entirely extinguished 
and all windows in the city masked. 

About 1:30 in the morning of I larch 21st I was awakened 
by a bugle call, the signal for fires and also the conventional 
signal for extinguishing all lights during Zeppelin attacks. 
I get up and looked out the window, but as the street lights 
were still on and I could see no fire, I went bach to lea again. 
About 15 minutes later, I heard a shot, and again looking out 
saw that the ."hole city \.s in darkness. After waking the 
people I knew on the same floor, I went out on the balcony, 
outside my window, which overlooked the guileries Gardens. 

ohllghts were flashing in all directions. In a moment, 
one uncovered the well known form of a German £e/ mi in about 
9,000 feet up in the northwestern a'ky* i'he guns at the J, iff el 
Sower and the frocodera immediately "began firing and 1 telr 

alls, fitted with night tracers began to mark long graceful 
c! rves in the sky, all falling far short of their target. 
In a moment, the Seppelin had disappeared behind the roof of a 
hotel but for several minutes afterwards v; ; e continued to hear 

e slow t deep soundin plosions from its motors, n- 
tites later the same performance was repeated, second 
Zeppelin; but Le time the Zeppelin was alwe ddden 'ad 
the hotel roof. In a minute or two all noise ceased and about 
a half hour later ;le sounded the release end all lights 
earns on again. 

i day or two later, I visited some 0: i e 

the Zeppelin bombs had dropped . 9 st ion of one 
wlumf- lewn in the ground, a big conical hole rly 5 feet 

decj;, and one nel bomb, which had killed two dogs, ull 

of v i 2 saw were made by inoendiarr bombs f not one of 

which had succeeded in doing any <- solaole d e. o or 

r e e t i me s d ur in wo we t k s foil o w in g , I a r la had o 1 h er 






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Zeppelin ngs.« All lights in the streets were extinguished 
lighted windows .. ••■red. cms people did retreat to the 
cellars a's they had be< /arned to u.o "by the police, but from 

at I saw most of ther. :ered in the streets an& parks to 
see 1 . ,i, going home xaxjcoEHHtajtioi^ each time much 
disappointed that it hadn't happened, 

ofiting "by its experieneas during the first Zej elin 
night, experiences reflectina/iot any too much credit on t 
.sted aeroplane protection, .aris set hard to work to im- 
Gve all its -liri and aeroplane defense; till nam it is 
id to be almost impo ss x elasor a I.eppelin to reach Paris at 
.all, and re here, bhere is awaiting it the certainty 
of destruction* lane guns have been greatly improved and 
greatly increased in number. ow one aeroplane is kept in the 
r over Paris all night long during every nipht, and at the 
rst Zeppelin warning, four others join it, each aeroplane 
trolling a different height and different sector of the 
eity and each controlled hy signals from the ground* in addi- 
tion, o anes are eenl up to attack the Seppslin 
before it reaches the city and still others stand by tc attack 
it 1 se it succeeds in arriving ah ore . How instead of the 
55 f 000 street lights it i^ses in normal time, iaris is ed 
"by 16,000 lights up to 10 o'clock and by 5500 after that hour. 

■ 

The entering of Italy into the war didn't cause much 
itaaent in par is e;:cept among the Italians a>ho seemed to 
»«nd most of 1 r time, the first dtew days after its deelar- 
ion, in pars ding the streets in flag decorated taaicahs, and 
i eating enormous dinners at all the Italian restaurants. The 
Grovemment had all the public uildings decorated with the 
flags of all the Allies, but the French people yast hung out 
an Italian flag alongside the others and felt happy. 

fhe last l saw of francs was Bordeaux, seaming very 

.h its well lighted streets. Ships lined the docks 
busily unloading and the docks 1. . < elves wars piled hi 
with stores, mostly war material from /aierica. ;e mouth 
Of the river was crowded with more than 50 ships, ail loaded 
to capacity and all awaiting their turn to po up the river 
d delivery more munitions to France. 



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