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Full text of "The Naval chronicle : containing a general and biographical history of the royal navy of the United kingdom with a variety of original papers on nautical subjects"

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VIII 










TO 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE 

COMMISSIONERS FOR EXECUTING THE OFFICE OF 
LORD HIGH ADMIRAL 

OF THE 

UNITED KINGDOM, 

THE EIGHTH VOLUME OF THE 

jRatml Chronicle, 

IS, BY PERMISSION, INSCRIBED, 
WITH THE MOST GRATEFUL RESPECT. 




E F A C 



TO THE EIGHTH VOLUME. 



HP 



1 HE Completion of another Volume furnishes us 
with the customary opportunity of rendering our 
thanks to those who have contributed to the support 
of this Work by their patronage, or to the embellish- 
ment of it by their talents. It is in Literature, as it 
is in life, a duty which every man should impose upon 
himself, occasionally to review the task which he has 
nndertaken, to apologize for the errors which he 
may have committed, and to acknowledge the assist- 
ance which he has received. In discharging this 
duty, as far as relates to himself, the Editor is neither 
inclined to deprecate severity, nor to court applause. 
As a Biographer, he has uniformly endeavoured to 
be accurate in his Memoirs of the eminent Characters 
of whom he has had occasion to treat, and seeks for 



r PREFACE. 

no higher praise than the merit of having related with 
fidelity whatever has come within the limits of his 
knowledge. Though he has often to complain of 
the paucity of his information, if this merit be allowed 
him, the Lives of those illustrious Commanders,, Lord 
ANSON, Lord MULGRAVE, Sir CHARLES SAUNDERS, 
and Sir GEORGE POCOCK, now no more: of Lord 
GARDNER, and Sir THOMAS GRAVES, names dear 
to their Country, which appear in the present Volume, 
must excite interest, and, it is to be hoped, will gratify 
curiosity, 

In that department of his duty, the office of 
reviewing the labours of others, the Editor has de- 
livered his sentiments on the Works which have come 
under his consideration, without partiality or bias, 
bestowing praise with pleasure, where he thought he 
could bestow it with justice, and censuring with 
fieedom where his judgment was offended. Among 
the Works which he has had occasion to mention 
with peculiar approbation, will be found Mr. CHAR- 
NOCK'S valuable and elaborate History of Marine 
Architecture, Captain SCHOMB ERG'S Naval Chro- 
nology, Captain ELMORE'S Direftory and Guide to 
the Trade and Navigation of the Indian and Chinese 
Seas, and the Rev. Mr. WJLLYAMS'S Voyage in the 
Mediterranean. The same impartiality will distinguish 



PREFACE. T 

our future criticisms; and we must here request the 
Authors of Works on Naval Subjects to send Copies 
of their Productions, in order that no delay may 
attend the consideration of them. 

To our valuable Correspondents, the Editor and 
Proprietors of this Work cannot sufficiently express 
their obligations ; and they are happy to add, that 
the return of Peace has not diminished the number of 
Communications. While we render unfeigned 
thanks to those who have favoured us with their 
Contributions, we must at the same time solicit a 
continuance of their Literary Assistance, and we can. 
safely promise that every attention shall be paid to 
their friendly aid. As we have experienced a con- 
siderable degree of difficulty in procuring the Portraits 
of eminent living Naval Characters, whose Memoirs 
we flatter ourselves would give general satisfaction, 
we take this opportunity respectfully to invite all 
gentlemen who may be in possession of such Portraits, 
to favour us with the loan of them for the purpose of 
engraving ; and, if accompanied at the same time with 
Sketches of their Lives, they would be peculiarly 
acceptable. In the early part of our Work, we gave 
Memoirs of some eminent, and illustrious Characters 
without Portraits, but at the suggestion of many 
respectable Subscribers, we intend occasionally to 



Yl PREFACE. 

present our Readers with their Likenesses, and shall 
feel proud in seizing an opportunity of embellishing 
our Work with the Portraits of men so worthy of the 
admiration of their Country ; so that in time the 
NAVAL CHRONICLE will exhibit a complete Series 
of the Portraits of the NAVAL DEFENDERS OP 
BRITAIN. 

Communications intended for the NAVAL CHRONICLE, are re- 
quested to be sent to the Publisher, Mr. GOLD, No. 103, Shoe Lane, 
Fleet- street. 

Ltndon, 3 1// December^ l8oz. 



PLATES IN VOLUME VIII. 
From Original Designs, 



A VIGNETTE TITLE, from a Design by Mr. THURSTON, represent- 
ing BRITANNIA, seated on a Cannon, a Trident in her right Hand, 
pointing to a Fleet under sail in the distance. Engraved by Mr. 
ARMSTRONG. 

PLATE faft 

CI. PoRTRAiTof the late Sir CHARLES SAUNDERS, K.B. Ad- 
miral of the Blue Squadron. Engraved by RIDLEY, 
from an original Painting in Greenwich Hospital, . . . i 

CII. Accurate VIEW of Alexandria, from a Drawing by AN- 
DERSON, engraved by WELLS, 3* 

CIII. PORTRAIT of the late Right Hon. Lord MULGRAVE. 

Engraved by RIDLEY, from a Painting by GAINSBROUGH, 89 

CIV. A Correft VIEW of MALTA. Engraved by WELLS, 

from a Drawing by ANDERSON, izi 

CV. PORTRAIT of the Right Hon. Lord GARDNER, Vice- 
Admiral of the Blue Squadron, Major General of 
Marines, &c. Engraved by RIDLEY, from a Painting in 
the Possession of I. DOBREE, Esq 177 

CVI. An accurate VIEW of COPENHAGEN. Engraved by 

WELLS, from a Drawing by F. GIBSON, Esq. F. A. S. 209 

CVII. PORTRAIT of the Right Hon. GEORGE Lord ANSON, 
Admiral of the White Squadron, and Admiral of the 
Fleet, from a Painting by Sir JOSHUA REYNOLDS, en- 
graved by RIDLEY, 465 

CVIII. VIEW of the SECOND BAR, China. Engraved by 

WELLS, from a Drawing by OWEN, . ..... 333 

CIX. PORTRAIT of Sir THOMAS GRAVES, K.B. Rear- Ad- 
miral of the White Squadron. Engraved by RIDLEY, 
from a Painting by NORTHCOTE, R. A. . . ... 353 

CX. A VIEW of Dartmouth CASTLE and HARBOUR. Engraved 

by WELLS, frem a Drawing by HODGES, R. A. . . 409 

CXI. PORTRAIT of the late Sir GEORGE POCOCK, K. B. Ad- 
miral of the Blue Squadron. Engraved by RIDLEY, 
from a Painting by HUDSON, ......... 441 

CXII. VIEW of the Isles of ST. MARCOU. Engraved by 

WELLS, from a Drawiag byF. GIBSON, F. A; S,. . . 47$ 



K riLVKTLES 





t*t. by ./Ma 




BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OF 
THE LATE SIR CHARLES SAUNDERS, K. B. 

ADMIRAL OF TUB BLUE SQJJADRON, AND SOME TIME FIRST LORD COM- 
MISSIONER OF THE ADMIRALTY. 



He disdain'd, for coward ease, 

And her insipid pleasures, to resign , 

The prize of glory, the keen sweets of toil, 
And those high joys dm teach the truly brave 
To live for others, and for ethers die. 

THOMSON. 

OIR Charles Saunders was one of the most distinguished 
Officers of his time, and arrived at the highest rank in 
his profession. He entered early in life into the service of his 
country, and passed through all the subordinate stations of 
the Navy with the approbation of his superiors. He attained 
the rank of Lieutenant some time before the memorable 
expedition of Commodore Anson to the South Seas, and on 
the recommendation of that brave -and judicious Officer, 
was appointed First Lieutenant of the Centurion, on board 
which ship Mr. Anson sailed. This appointment, at the 
express request of so accurate a judge of naval merit as Mr, 

ol. VIII. & 



2 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

Arisen, is a sure testimony that at an early period of life 
Mr. Saunders afforded, by his zeal, adivity, and conduft,-a 
strong promise that be would prove an honour to the service, 
an ornament and a benefit to his country. 

The squadron under Commodore Anson sailed from 
Spithead September the i8th, 1740, and the Captain of the 
Pearl frigate dying on the coast of Brazil, the January fol- 
lowing, a promotion of Officers took place, when Mr. 
Saunders was appointed to the command of the Trial sloop. 
Mr. Saunders, sharing the general sickliness of the crew, 
was dangerously ill at this time of a fever, and obliged to 
remain on board the Centurion, Mr. Saumarez, who suc- 
ceeded him as First Lieutenant, was appointed provisionally 
to command the Trial till the re-eftablishment of his health 
should enable him to undertake the charge of the sloop him- 
self. On his recovery Capt. Saunders proceeded on board the 
Trial, and his skill and courage as a navigator were emi- 
nently displayed in the passage of that vessel round Cape 
Horn. The squadron entered the Straits of Le Maire on 
the 7th of March, and from that time till the end of May, 
they experienced, with little intermission, a succession of 
the most dreadful tempests. To add to their distresses, the 
scurvy raged so violently among them, that the mortality in 
the squadron daily amounted to six or seven men, beside 
disabling many whose services were peculiarly required at 
this period of calamity and danger. On the yth of April 
the Pearl and Severn separated from the Commodore, and 
intimidated by the continuance of the storm, or reduced by 
sickness, gave up the enterprise, and returned to England. 
On the 2$d of the same month, the Trial was no longer 
able to keep company with the Centurion, but parted in a 
storm more terrible than any they had hitherto experienced. 
A less resolute Commander than Captain Saunders would 
probably on this occasion have judged it prudent to return 
to England, but his zeal for the service, assisted by the 
firmness of his mind, clctei mined him to persevere in the 



OF THE LATE SIR CHARLES SAUNDERS. K. B. 3 

prosecution of the voyage. Already he had suffered incre- 
dible hardships : his crew was weakened and hourly suffer- 
ing by sicknes, and his vessel much damaged by the storm ; 
but his anxiety to perform his duty prevailed over all the 
consideration of future safety, which these distressing cir- 
cumstances rendered extremely doubtful, -and it was the 
happiness of this intrepid Commander that his perseverance 
was crowned with success. 

The Trial arrived at the island of Juan Fernandez two 
days after the Centurion had reached that hospitable, though 
uninhabited spot. Captain Saunders had by this time buried 
nearly one-half of his crew, and so deplorable was the con- 
dition of the survivors, that the Commander, the Lieutenant, 
and three men, were the only persons on board T capable 
of enduring the fatigue, necessarily attendant oa the navi- 
gation of the ship. 

The vegetable productions of Juan Fernandez, with the 
advantage of having tents on shore for the accommodation 
of the sick, soon stopped the progress of rive scurvy, and the 
crew of the Trial being recovered, Captain Saunders was 
dispatched by Commodore Anson to cruise off the island of 
Masa Fuero, in hopes of finding some of the missing ships of 
the squadron, which might have mistaken the latter island for 
the appointed place of rendezvous. After a fruitless cruise, 
during which Captain Saunders examined every bay and 
harbour in the island of Masa Fuero, he returned to Juan 
Fernandez. About this time the Centurion had the good 
fortune to capture a Spanish prize. The prisoners on board 
this vessel were astonished at seeing a ship of so small a 
rate as the Trial, at Juan Fernandez, alid believed, at first, 
that she had been built, on the island, by the English, whose 
indefatigable diligence, and almost incredible exertions, 
they could not sufficiently commend, for having, under the 
most adverse circumstances, reduced in numbers and 
weakened by sickness and the complicated calamities of a 
long and disastrous voyage, constructed and equipped in so 
short a time, a vessel of her description. Some of them had 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 



probably experienced, and all of them had heard of, the 
dangers of the passage round Cape Horn, and they were at 
a loss to conceive how a vessel of the Trial's small dimen- 
sions was capable of performing a passage, that was frequently 
attempted in vain by the finest ships, and most skilful 
Commanders of the Spanish navy. Flattery could scarcely 
have conceived a compliment more honourable to Captain 
Saunders than this mistake of the Spanish sailors. 

Although a part of the squadron belonging to this expe- 
dition, whose arrival Commodore Anson anxiously ex- 
pefted, was still missing, the Commodore, as it was his 
opinion that the Spaniards were still unacquainted with the 
arrival of the English in the South Seas, and therefore had 
probably many ships at sea, richly laden, dispatched Captain 
Saunders on a cruise in September. The subjel of our 
memoir had now an opportunity of displaying his vigilance 
as a cruiser, as well as before he had of displaying his skill 
as a navigator. In a few days he fell in with, and captured, 
after a tedious chase, a valuable merchant ship, of 600 tons 
burthen, bound from Callao in Peru, to Valparaiso in 
Chili. This was the second prize which the English 
squadron made in the South Seas, and as the captured vessel 
and her cargo was estimated at i8,OOol. it must have been 
considered as an auspicious omen of their future success. 
The good fortune of Captain Saunders was not, however, 
without alloy. The Trial sprung a mast during the chase, 
and was afterwards so much damaged in a squall, that the 
utmost exertions of the crew at the pumps were necessary to 
preserve her from sinking. In this condition, and there 
being no possibility of repairing the damages of the Triaj, 
Commodore Anson determined to scuttle her, and ordered 
Captain Saunders ami his crew to repair on board the prize, 
which, in honour of the Trial and her meritorous Officers 
and men, was now named the Trial's prize. As the vessel 
which Captain Saunders now commanded, had formerly 
been employed as a frigate in the Spanish service, Commo- 
dore Anson commissioned her as a frigate in the English 



OF THE LATE SIR CHARLES SAUNDERS, K. B. J 

Navy, and her Commander received his commission as Post 
Captain the 26th of September, 1741. The guns of the 
Trial were put on board the prize, together with those of a 
victualler belonging to the squadron, which together 
amounted to twenty, and having scuttled the Trial, Captain 
Saunders, in his new ship, proceeded in company with the 
Centurion to cruise off the island of Valparaiso. This 
cruise did not prove successful ; however, Captain Saunders 
shortly afterwards had the satisfaction of being present at 
the taking of Paita, and though it does not appear that he 
was personally concerned in that business, it can scarcely 
be doubted, but that his advice contributed to the success of 
the enterprise. Shortly after this, the condition of Captain 
Saunders's ship proved so bad, that she could no longer be 
navigated with safety, the crew of the Centurion was greatly 
reduced in number, and on board the Gloucester, which had 
joined them, the mortality was still more destructive. 
These circumstances determined Commodore Anson to 
destroy the 1 Trial's prize, and remove the Officers and men, 
on board the Centurion and Gloucester. This resolution 
was carried into execution in the harbour of Chequetan, 
where the Trial's prize was destroyed, and Captain Saunders 
removed on board the Commodore's ship. He remained 
with Commodore Anson some time in the South Seas, but 
was not present at the capture of the famous Manilla ship, 
having quitted the Centurion at Macao, where she refitted, 
previous to the cruise on which she took the galleon. 
Captain Saunders sailed in a Swedish vessel from Macao in 
the month of November 1742, having under his care dis- 
patches from the Commodore for England, and arrived in 
the Downs, after an agreeable passage, in the month of May 
following. His departure from Macao terminated his share 
of the dangers and glory of the South Sea expedition : though 
a young Officer, he showed himself superior to difficulties 
that had proved fatal to old and experienced Commanders, 
and the enemy themselves testified their admiration of his 
conduct by doubting the possibility of what his perseverance 



6 BTOGRA7HICAL MEM0111 

had achieved. His fortune might bare acquired a large 
addition had he been present at the capture of the Manilla 
ship, but it could have added little to his fame, which 
already announced him as one of the most promising 
Officers in the service. 

On his arrival in England in 1/43, Captain Saunders was 
appointed to the command of the Sapphire frigate of forty- 
four guns, one of the ships of war employed, daring tl>e 
ensuing springy in cruising off the coast of Flanders and 
blockading the harbour of Dunkirk. His success on this 
Station does not appear to have been great, for the only 
capture he is recorded to have made, is that of a galliot 
hoy from Dantzick, having on board nearly two hundred 
Officers and soldiers belonging to Count Lowendabl's 
regiment at Dunkirk, which had been raised in Prussia 
for the service of the French King. His vigilance probably 
kept the enemy within their ports, and to this must be 
attributed his want of success* 

Captain Saunders remained on board the Sapphire, we 
believe, till he was promoted to the command of the Sand- 
wich, of 90 guns, which appointment took place in the 
month of May 1745. This ship was employed as a guard- 
ship, and so inactive a station being unsuitable to the energy 
cf Captain, Saunders's character, he was, according to his 
wishes, ia the month of April ensuing, removed to the 
Gloucester, of 50 guns, a ship just launched, and named 
after one of Commodore Anson's unfortunate squadron. 

Being now employed on a&ual service, Captain Saunders 
Lad soon an opportunity of distinguishing himself. In 
1746, cruising in company with the Lark, Captain Cheap, 
ene of the Officers belonging to Commodore Anson's ex- 
pedition, they captured the Fort de Nants, a register ship 
from Spanish America, valued at one hundred thousand 
pounds. Captain Saunders probably took other prizes, but 
we have no authentic information concerning him, till 
Oftober 1747, when he commanded the Yarmouth, of 64 
guns, one ri the fleet commanded by Rear-Admiral Haw-Ice, 



OF THE LATE SIR CHARLES SAUNDERS, K. B. 7 

which engaged and captured nearly the whole of the French 
squadron under the orders of M. L'Entendiere. To this 
important victory Captain Saunders very eminently contri- 
buted; two of the enemy's ships, the Neptune and the 
Monarque, of 74 guns each, having, as is reported by an 
eye-witness*, struck to the Yarmouth. Though his loss 
in the engagement was very severe, amounting to nearly 
100 of his crew killed and wounded, he is said to have 
proposed to Captains Saumarez and Rodney, of the Not- 
tingham and Eagle, the former of which gentlemen, as has 
already been mentioned, had served with him in the Cen- 
turion, that they should pursue the Tonant, of 80 gujis, 
and the Intrepide, of 74 guns, which ships were then endea- 
vouring to make their escape. This measure appears to have 
been carried promptly into execution, but its success was 

* The following account of his gallantry on this occasion is given in a letter, 
written by an Officer belonging to the Yarmouth. It bears a testimony too 
honourable to the character of Captain Saunders to be omitted here : 

Though the Yarmouth, without dispute, had as great a share as any single 
ship in the fleet, if not a greater, in the engagement with the French, October 
the i4th, yet, in all the accounts I have seen, she is not so much as mentioned, 
as though no such ship had been there. It is something surprising that Ad- 
miral Hawke should see and notice, in his long account, the behaviour of the 
Lion, Louisa, Tilbury, and Eagle, and yet could discover nothing of the extra- 
dinary courage and conduit of Captain Saunders of the Yarmouth, who lay 
two hours and a half close engaged with the Neptune, a 70 gun ship, with 
700 men, which he never quitted till she struck, although the Monarch, a 
74 gun ship, which struck to us likewise, lay upon our bow for some time, and 
another of the enemy's ships upon our stern. When the Neptune struck, after 
killing them ico men, and wounding 140, she was so close to us, that our men 
jumped into her ; and notwithstanding such long warm work, the ship much 
disabled in masts and rigging, and twenty-two men killed, and seventy wounded, 
his courage did not cool here. He could not with patience see the French Ad- 
miral and the Intrepide, a 74 gun ship, getting away, nor could he think of 
preferring his own security to the glory and interest of his country, but ardently 
wished to pursue them, he proposed it therefore to Captain Saumarez, in the 
Nottingham, and Captain Rodney, in the Eagle, who were within hail of us ; 
but Captain Saumarez being unfortunately Hilled by the first fire of the enemy, 
the Nottingham hauled her wind, and did no more service, and the Eagle never 
came near enough to do any, so that the Yarmouth had to deal with both the? 
enemy's ships for some time, till at length they got out of the reach of our 
gunj. I think so much apirit and bravery ought not to lie in oblivion. 



$ Bto6RArHlCAL MEMOIRS 

was fatally prevented by the unfortunate death of Captain 
Saumarez, of the Nottingham. 

Captain Saunders, in the month of November following, 
was examined as a witness on the trial of Captain Fox, of 
the Kent, for misbehaviour during the adion with L'En- 
tendiere's squadron ; but the naval registers of the times do 
not mention his name, as connefted with the service, during 
the continuance of the war. In the month of April 1750, 
he had the honour to be eleded Member of Parliament for 
the borough of Plymouth, on a vacancy occasioned by the 
advancement of Lord Vere Beauclerk to the dignity of a 
Peer of Great Britain. He married, on the 26th of Sep- 
tember, in the following year, the only daughter of James 
Buck, Esq. a banker in London, but it does not appear that 
he had any issue. 

In January 1752, he was appointed Commodore of the 
squadron under orders to proceed to the Mediterranean, for 
the purpose of relieving Mr. Keppel, who then held the 
chief command on that station. Captain Saunders did not, 
however, proceed to this station, for in May following he 
was appointed Commodore" and Commander in Chief at 
Newfoundland. He sailed shortly afterwards for this station 
on board the Penzance, of 40 guns, and was instructed to 
look for a supposed island in lat. 49 deg. 40 min. longitude 
24 deg. 30 min. from the Lizard, in search of which Com- 
modore Rodney, some weeks before, had cruised ten days in 
vain. It is almost unnecessary to add that Commodore 
Saunders had no better success. After remaining the usual 
time on the Newfoundland station, he returned to England, 
and in April 1754, was appointed Treasurer of Greenwich 
Hospital, an office which on his farther promotion he 
resigned. 

In the Parliament that met at Westminster, May the 
3ist, in the same year, he was returned a member for 
the borough of Heydon in Yorkshire, through the interest 
of his great and constant friend Lord Anson. 



OF THE LATE SIR CHARLES SAUNDERS, K. B. % 9 

In consequence of the appearance of a war with France, 
which every day became more threatening, in the month of 
March 1755, Mr. Saunders was appointed to the command 
of the Prince, a new ship, of 90 guns, and in June he 
entertained with the utmost magnificence, on board his ship 
at Spithead, a numerous assemblage of the first Nobility of 
the kingdom, who came to see the rejoicings of the fleet on 
the anniversary of the King's accession. Captain Saunders 
Continued to command the Prince till the month of De- 
cember following, when he quitted his ship on being 
appointed Comptroller of the Navy. This lucrative place 
he probably obtained through the patronage of his steady 
friend Lord Anson, who at this time was at the head of the 
Board of Admiralty. Having accepted a civil appointment 
under Government, he vacated his seat in Parliament, but 
was immediately rechosen for the borough he had before 
represented. About the same time he had the honour to 
be elected an Elder Brother of the Trinity House, a strong 
proof of the high respect in which his character was held. 
In the spring of 1756, war being formally declared against 
France, an Officer of the acknowledged services, experience, 
and merit of Captain Saunders, could not long remain un- 
employed. Accordingly, in the month of June, intelligence 
being received of the misconduct of Admiral Byng in the 
Mediterranean, and the consequent loss of Minorca, a large 
promotion of Flag Officers was made, purposely to include 
Captain Saunders, who sailed immediately afterwards with 
Sir Edward Hawke, as a passenger on board the Antelope, 
for Gibraltar, where he was to hoist his flag as Rear--Ad- 
miral of the Blue. On the return of Admiral Hawke to 
England, in January 1757, the command in chief of the 
Mediterranean fleet devolved on Admiral Saunders ; but it 
does not appear that any very favourable opportunity * was 

The most remsrkable appears to have been the following skirmish, which, 
took place early in the year, -with a small French, squadron, bouiui io LoaU 

, dot.VIII, c 



| O BTOCR Ai'HICAl. MEMOIRS 

afforded him of signalizing himself, during his continuance 
on that station. In 1758, he was promoted to be Rear Ad- 
miral of the White, and in February 1759, to be Vice- 
Admiral of the Blue. Immediately on this last promotion, 
he was appointed Commander in Chief of the naval arma- 
ment destined to assist in the reduction of the French 
possessions in North America. He sailed from Spithead on 
the 1 7th of February, on board the Neptune, of 90 guns, 
having with him as " his colleague in war/' the immortal 
General Wolfe, who commanded the land forces attached to 
the expedition. The fleet under the orders of Admiral 
Saundcrs consisted of the Neptune, his flag-ship ; the Royal 
William, of 84 guns ; the Dublin, Shrewsbury, and War- 
spite, of 74 guns ; Orford, of 70 guns j Alcide and Stirling 
Castle, of 64 guns; the Lizard, of 20 guns ; the Scorpion 
sloop, the Cormorant, Strombolo, and, Vesuvius fireships, 
and the Baltimore, Pelican, and Racehorse bomb vessels. 
A detachment under Admiral Holmes, a junior Officer, 
had sailed from Spithead a few days before. On the aist 
of April Admiral Saunders made the island of Cape Breton, 
but not being able to enter the harbour of Louisbourg on 
account of the ice, he was obliged to bear away for Halifax 
in Nova Scotia. From this station he dispatched a division 
of the fleet under Admiral Durcl, to cruise off the isle of 

bourg, under Monsieur Revcxt. The Phoenix, Captain Wa-fe, arrived at 
Plymouth on the z3th of April, in eighteen day* from Mahga, and reports 
l;at on the id instant. Admiral Saundcrs, at Gibraltar, had received an ex- 
press from Malaga, with advice th.xt there were off that port, four French men 
of war, of 74 gum each. On which he went out with the Culloden, Berwick, 
Princcw Loima, Guernsey, and Portland, to cruise in the Gut, and on the 5th 
ab^ut four o'clock in the afternoon, saw the French. He being to leeward, 
formed the line; and ahout sunaet the enemy did the same, about two miles to 
windward of our Admiral, and began to fire, hut it did not reach our ships. 
The Guernsey and Louisa got within shot, and began to engage; but before 
the ret got up it was night, and the two squadrons lost sight of each other. 
About nine o'clock the moon getting up, the Guernsey and Louisa saw the 
French again. '1 he Admiral made a fignnl to chase, but could not come up 
with them. On the 8th, the Phrenix spoke with one of the Admiral's ships* 
who id they lost ij,ht of the 1 rciich the day before. 



OF THE LATt IR CHARLES SAUSDERS, K.B. I* 

Condre?, at the entrance of the river St. Lawrence, in order 
tt> intercept a small fleet of French victuallers and transports, 
which he had intelligence, before he left England, had sailed 
to t'ie relief of Quebec ; but though every possible exertion 
was made on the part of the English squadron, the French 
had the good fortune to reach the place of their destination, 
before Admiral Durel appeared off the mouth of v St. Law- 
rence. Towards the latter end of the month of May, the 
navigation being deemed sufficiently open, Admiral Saunders 
sailed from Halifax with the remainder of the armament, and 
on the 6th of June stood in for the river St. Lawrence. 

The fleet now consisted of twenty-one ships of the line, 
beside frigates, smaller vessels of war, and a numerous body 
of transports, and owing to the difficult navigation of the 
river St. Lawrence, did not reac' 1 the inland of Orleans, the 
place of disembarkation, till ^ie a6th. On this occasion the 
discernment of Admiral Saunders first brought into public 
notice a seaman, whose abilities afterwards shed pre-eminent 
lustre on his country. To select for difficult undertakings 
a person every way qualified for the service, reflects equal 
honour on the judgment of the employer, and on the capa- 
city of the employed. The buoys and marks which faci- 
litated the navigation of the river St. Lawrence, had been 
carefully removed by the French, on the appearance of an 
hostile fleet, it was therefore a matter of great consequence 
to the success of the expedition, that a proper person should 
be appointed to survey the channel of the river, and point 
out the, dangers of the navigation. To this important 
service Admiral Saunders appointed a person, who then held 
a very subordinate station in the fleet. This person was 
Cook, who afterwards proved the most intrepid and skilful 
navigator that perhaps ihe world ever saw. Had the public 
services of Admiral Saunders been confined solely to the 
opportunity he here afforded this great man of displaying 
his tilents, he had conferred a benefit on his country t: at 
had di.s.T\ed its lasting gratitude. How perfectly qualified 



It BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

was Cook for the difficult service on which he was employed, 
the whole of his future life (during which he enjoyed the 
pationage of Admiral Saunciers), was an illustrious testi- 
mony. After Cook had surveyed the river, the fleet reached 
die island of Orleans in safety, and on the 2yth of June the 
British forces were landed. The following day an attempt 
was made by the enemy to destroy the fleet, by sending. down 
the river seven fireships or rafts, of an uncommon descrip- 
tion, but owing to the vigilance of the Admiral, and the 
excellent disposition of his fleet, the design proved abortive, 
although the channel was crowded with vessels, and the 
rapidity of the stream favoured the attempt of the enemy. 
On the 28th of July, the French made a similar attempt, 
but of a more formidable nature. Nearly 100 rafts of 
timber, charged with combustibles of every kind, and driven 
by the course of the stream, %eemed to threaten inevitable 
destru&ion to the British fleet. But the good fortune of 
Admiral Saunders again prevailed, and the alarming prepara- 
tions of the enemy were frustrated, In all the subsequent 
events of the memorable siege of Quebec, Admiral Saunders 
appears to have born a distinguished share ; but it would 
be difficult now, if not invidious, to decide how far he 
contributed to the general success of the enterprise. The 
blaze of glory which deservedly crowns the memory of 
Wolfe, obscures the fame of his brother in arms. It can- 
not, however, be doubted, but that Admiral Saunders, by his 
able disposition of the marine forces under his command, 
his zeal tor the service, and his various knowledge of the 
art ot war, materially assisted in the reduction of the place. 
On the i8th of September he had the honour of signing with 
General Townshend, the articles of capitulation granted to 
the garrison of Quebec, by which this memorable expedition 
was terminated with the most complete success. 

The surrender of Quebec having made the farther assist- 
ance of the fleet unnecessary, Admiral Saunders sailed on 
his return for England, accompanied by General Towns- 



OF THE LATE SIR CHARLES SAUNDERS, K. B. IJ 

liend. In the chops of the Channel they were informed of 
the Brest fleet being at sea, on which the Admiral took the 
gallant resolution of going to join Sir Edward Hawke, 
though without orders, and dispatched a vessel to England 
with intelligence to the Admiralty of the measure he had 
taken, and his hopes that it would meet with their appro- 
bation. But that affair had been gloriously decided by the 
total defeat of the French fleet before his arrival. On this 
he altered his course, and the wind not being favourable for 
England, he bore away for Ireland, and landed at Cork. 
From thence he went by land to Dublin, where he arrived 
on the 1 5th of December, and going accidentally to the 
Theatre, he was received by the whole audience with the 
highest demonstrations of applause, which being most truly 
merited by his eminent services, and particularly by the 
glorious conquest he was jq^|fc-eturned from, could not fail 
to have been gratifying to him, though no man was ever of 
a character more averse to flattery, and desirous of shunning 
popular applause. 

Leaving Dublin, Admiral Saunders arrived in London on 
the a6th of December, and his reception, both by his Sove- 
reign and all ranks of people, was in the highest degree 
honourable to him. Without any solicitation on his part, 
some days previous to his arrival, he was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-General of Marines. Attending in his place in the 
House of Commons on the 23d of January 1760, the thanks 
of the House, which some time before had been unanimously 
voted him, were given him in the customary forms by the 
Speaker. Jn the course of the spring, he was appointed 
Commander in Chief on the Mediterranean station, and 
sailed from St. Helens on the 2ist of May, having his flag 
still on board the Neptune, with the Somerset, of 70 guns, 
the Firme, of 60 guns, and the Preston, of 50 guns, under 
his orders. He arrived at Gibraltar on the 9th of June. 
The repeated losses of the French had nearly annihilated 
their naval force in the Mediterranean, and therefore, though 



fj BIOGRAf BICAL MEMOIRS 

Admiral Saundcrs by no means continued in a state of 
inaftion, his command was not distinguished by any re- 
markable events during the remainder of the year. In the 
new Parliament, which was chosen in the beginning of 

1761, but did not meet till the month of November, he was 
re-eleftcd, through the influence of Lord Anson, to repre- 
sent the borough of Heydon ; and on the 26th of May was 
installed, by proxy, Knight Companion of the Most Ho- 
nourable Order of the Bath. During the continuance of 
the war, Sir Charles Saunders retained his command in the 
Mediterranean, and in his absence, in the month of October 

1762, was promoted to the rank of Vice-Adm. of the White. 
On the 3Oth of August 1765, he was appointed one of the 
Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Ad- 
miral, and on the i6th ctf September in the following year, 
he was raised to the dignity <ftfe Privy Counsellor, and ap- 
pointed First Lord of the Admiralty. 

Sir Charles Saundcrs being a junior Admiral, his promo- : 
tion to the high station of First Lord of the Admiralty, 
gave offence to a number of senior Admirals, among others 
to Sir George Pocock, who immediately waited on Lord 
Hawke, and complained to him, in rather severe terms, of 
the indignity he thought was offered on that occasion to 
the older Flag-Officers. Lord Hawke was at this very time 
on the point of going out in order to congratulate Sir 
Charles on his promotion, and when he informed Sir George 
of his intention, the opinion of that great and good man 
had so much weight with him, and he expressed himself so 
strongly in favour of Sir Charles Saunders, as not only 
to moderate his displeasure, but also to adopt a similar con- 
duel: himself. By this it is seen how high an opinion Lord 
Hawke entertained of the merits of Sir Charles Saundcrs. 
lit retained his situation, as First Lord of the Admiralty, 
onJy two months, and then resigned. 

In the funeral procession of his Majesty's brother, the 
Duke of York, on the 3d of November 1767, he was o:v 



OF THE LATE SIR CHARL23 SAUNDBRS, K. S. ij 

of the Admirals who supported the canopy. In the nevr 
Parliament which met in the month of May 1768, he was 
again chosen for the borough of Heydon, though some time 
before, he had sustained a severe loss by the death of his 
illustrious friend Lord Anson, through whose influence he 
had formerly been returned. In October 1770, he was 
appointed Admiral of the Blue. The Parliament being dis- 
solved in 1774, Sir Charles Saunders stood a candidate for 
the borough of Yarmouth, a place that has frequently been 
represented by distinguished Naval Commanders ; but in this 
contest, perhaps the only one in his life where he ever failed, 
he was unsuccessful. He was, however, rechosen a fourth 
time for the borough of Heydon. He did not long survive 
this event, dying at his house in Spring Gardens, of the 
gout in his stomach, on the 7th of December, 1775. 

The praise that is bestowq|l on living characters, may 
often be suspefted to proceed from interested motives, but it 
is otherwise with the applause that is bestowed on the dead. 
Five hours after his lamented death, a just eulogium was paid 
his memory in the House of Commons, by two members 
eminently distinguished for their virtues and abilities. Sir 
George Saville and Edmund Burke, who had been the inti- 
mate friends of Sir Charles Saunders in his life-time, in 
announcing his death to the House, took a proper occasion 
to enlarge on his public services, his private virtues, the 
splendid achievements of his professional career, and the loss 
the nation had sustained, in being deprived of the counsels 
and exertions of so gallant and experienced a Commander, 
at a period when the colonies were in open revolt, and the 
empire was threatened with hostilities by the combined 
forces of France and Spain. The House acknowledged the 
justice of the eulogium pronounced on this melancholy 
occasion, and men of all ranks and parties were anxious 
to testify their respect for the deceased; 

On the 1 2th of the month, the remains of Sir Charles 
Saunders were privately interred in Westminster Abbey* 
near the monument of General Wolfe, " his gallaat brother 



|6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS, &C. 

of the war." He died possessed of very considerable pro- 
perty, the bulk of which he bequeathed to his niece ; but he 
left several handsome legacies so some of his brother 
Officers, which in a particular manner bespeak the excellence 
ef his disposition. To Admiral Keppel, who had served 
with him as Lieutenant on board the Centurion, and with 
whom he had lived for many years in the closest friendship, 
he bequeathed a legacy of 5000!. and 1200!. a year ; to Sir 
Hugh Palliser 5000!. and to Timothy Brett, Esq. the soa 
of Sir Piercy Brett, a brother Officer under Lord Anson, 
and his second in the Mediterranean, a legacy to the same 
amount. To sum up the character of Sir Charles Saunders, 
he was an Officer equally distinguished for his gallantry on 
the day of battle, and for his seamanship in the hour of 
danger: his conduit while he had the command of the 
Yarmouth is a proof of the farmer, his passage round Cape 
Horn, in the Trial, of the latter. He was steady in his 
friendships, an excellent judge, and a warm patron, of 
mcritt His zeal for the glory of the service was of the most 
ardent description, and hac} farther opportunities been 
afforded him of signalizing'himself, it cannot be doubted he 
would have left behind him a reputation equal to that of the 
most illustrious Naval Commanders. 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE 
INSTITUTION AND PRACTICE OF INSURANCE 

AGAINST THE DANGERS OF THE SEAS. 



[As the re establishment of Peace will naturally encourage a number 
of Merchants and Mariners to embark in new enterprises, and as 
.our external trade will thereby be considerably increased, we hava 
been at some pains to draw up this article for the benefit and ia- 
struftion of our reader*.] 



TNSURANCE against loss at sea is carried on to the best 
A tage by public companies, or by a considerable number of private 
persons, each of whom only engages for a small sum, on the sam* 
There are two public compares established by authority of 

4 



INSURANCE ON SHIPPING. 17 

Parliament, viz. the London and Royal Exchange Insurance Com- 
panies. For procuring subscriptions by private persons, brokers arc 
generally employed, who extend the policy or contract of Insurance, 
procure subscriptions, and assist at settling losses. They are entitled 
to an allowance for their trouble, generally five per cent, on premiums, 
and tvroper cent, on losses. 

The parties who engage to pay the damage are called the Insurert, 
or Underwriters ; the parties for whose security they engage, are 
called the Insured, and the premium is understood to be paid when 
the insurance is made. 

On this subject we shall consider what is necessary to render an 
insurance valid, when the risk commences, and when it terminates ; 
what constitutes a total or a partial loss, what proof of loss is neces- 
sary, and how the loss is adjusted. 

First, in order to render an insurance valid, the insured must have 
property really at stake ; the voyage must take place under the 
circumstances agreed on ; and the dangers insured against must not be 
contrary to law, and a candid account must be given of circumstances 
which enhance the danger, 

l. The condition of possessing property was required by 19 Geo. 2. 
cap. 37, to prevent ship.s from being fraudulently destroyed when 
insured above their value ; and to discourage a practice which had 
become common, of converting policies to the purpose of mere 
wagers. In transactions of this kind, as the insured had no property, 
and could claim no indemnification for partial damage, so the insurers 
having lost their wager by the ship's being lost, could claim no 
abatement though part was saved ; accordingly, the policies contained 
clauses of interest or no interest, free from average, and without 
benefit of salvage. All such policies are declared invalid. 

This restriction does not extend to privateers, nor to ships trading 
to the Spanish or Portuguese plantations. 

Insurances are commonly made as interest shall appear, and it is 
incumbent on the insured to prove the value of his property. The 
value of the goods may be proved by the invoices, and the coquet . 
must be produced, if required, to instruct that the goods were 
actually shipped. It is admitted to value the ship at prime cost and 
charges, deducting ths freights that have been drawn since purchased, 
if the proprietors choose to stand to that rule ; but they are not 
restricted to k. Somttimes the value of the ship or goods is expressed 
in the policy ; and this value must be admitted, although it be higher 
than the true one ; but it is incumbent on the insured to prove that 
.he had property at stake, and if the property be trifling in com 

J!2at>.<zn;ron. (Sol. VIII. D 



I* INSURANCE OS SHIPPING. 

parison with the sum insuicd, the insurance will be set aside as aa 
evasion of the statute. 

Expeded profits and bounty on the <wlalc fishery, if specified in the 
policy, may be insured. 

When the value is less" than the sum insured, the owners may 
claim a return of premium for the excess. 

If fhere be several policies on the same subjeft, of different dates, 
the earliest one is valid, and the others must be vacated. If they 
be of the same date, they must be vacated in equal proportions. 

When a policy is vacated, in whole or in part, the underwriters 
have a right to retain one-half per cent, for their trouble. 

In the case of a cargo intended for A. but afterwards sent to B. 
both expeded it, and insured, and B. claimed for the value on its 
being lost. The underwriters answered, that it was a double in- 
surance, and they ought only to pay their proportion. Judgment 
was given finding them liable for the whole, and reserving to them 
any demand competent against the underwriters who insured for A. 

Fraudulently to cast away or destroy a ship insured above its value, 
is felony. 

2. If the ship does not proceed on the voyage, or if, being war- 
ranted to depart with convoy, it depaits without convoy, the insurance 
must be vacated. 

If the extent of a trading voyage be uncertain, the longest one in 
contemplation is described in the policy, and it is agreed that part 
of the premium shall be returned if the voyage be shortened. In like 
manner, in time of war, when insurance is made without condition of 
convoy, it is agreed that part of the premium be returned in case it 
sail with convoy. 

When a ship is warranted to depart with convoy, it is understood 
from the usual place of convoy (e. g, the Downs), and it is insured till 
it arrive there. 

The common proof of sailing with convoy is the production of 
sailing orders ; but if a ship be pi evented by the weather from re- 
ceiving the sailing orders, other proof may be admitted. 

A ship was insured from the Thames to Halifax, warranted to sail 
from Portsmouth ivith convoy. The convoy had sailed before the 
ship had arrived there, and the underwriters declined to insure it 
without convoy for the rest of the voyage. They were found liable 
to return part of the premium, retaining only in proportion to the 
accustomed rate from London to Portsmouth. This decision seems 
to establish the following principle, that when the voyage performed 
11 only part of that described in the policy, and when the risque can 



INSURING* OS SHIPTIHO. T$ 

be proportioned, the underwriters are bound to return part of the 
premium, though there be no agreement for thalt purpose. 

But if a ship insured only against the hazards of the sea, be 
taken by the enemy, the insured have no right to claim a return 
of premium, though the capture happen soon, under pretence that 
little sea-hazard was incurred. 

If a ship deviate,s from the voyage described in the policy without 
necessity, it sets aside the insurance. An intention to deviate is not 
sufficient to set it aside ; there must be an actual deviation, and even 
in that case the insurers are liable for damages sustained before 
deviation. 

It is no deviation to go out of the way to the accustomed place of 
convoy, nor to the nearest place where necessary repairs may be had. 
Deviation, for the purpose of smuggling, if without the knowledge 
of the owners, does not set aside the insurance, nor when the master 
is forced by the crew to return. 

In insurances to the East Indies and home, the insurers are under- 
stood to take the risk of detention in the country, and of country 
voyages. 

3. Insurance of prohibited goods against the risque of seizure by 
Government, is unlawful, and invalid. The insurers, insured, brokers, 
and all accessaries, are liable to the fine of 500!. 

4. If the insured have any information of more than common 
danger, they must reveal every such circumstance to the insurers, 
Otherwise the policy is set aside. 

This rule is established for the preservation of good faith, and there 
are several strong decisions in support of it. If a ship be spoke to 
leaky at sea, or if there be a report of its being lost, these circum- 
stances must be communicated to the insurers. Even the conceal- 
ment of a false icport of loss vitiates the insurance ; and if the ship 
be afterwards lost, though in a different manner, the insured will 
recover nothing. In a voyage from Carolina to London, another 
ship had sailed ten days after that which was insured, and arrived 
seven days before the insurance was made ; and the concealment of 
this circumstance, though the fac~l was not proved to the satisfaction, 
of the jury, was considered as sufficient to set it aside. Also during 
the continuance of the American war, a ship being insured from 
Portugal, by the month, being condescending on the voyage, sailed 
for North America, and was taken by a provincial privateer. The 
insurers refused to pay, because the hazardous destination was con> 



JO IKSURANCE ON SHIPPING. 

cealcd ; and it was only upon proof of the insured being equally 
ignorant of it, that they were found liable. 

But the insured are not obliged to take notice of general perils, 
which the insurers are understood to have in contemplation : dan. 
g( :;'.is navigation, West Indian hurricanes, enterprises of the enemy, 
and the like. 

Insurance is not set aside by a mistake in the name of the ship, or 
master, or the like. 

Insurance may be made on an uncertain ship ; on any ship that 
the goods may be loaded on ; ou any ship that A. shall sail in from 
Virginia. In this last case, the policy is not transferred to a ship 
which A. goes on board during the voyage. 

Secondly, If a ship be insured at and from a port, the insurance 
commences immediately if the ship be there. If it be damaged when 
preparing for a voyage, the insurers are liable, but not if the voyage 
be laid aside for several years with consent of the owners. Insurance 
from a port commences when the ship breaks ground ; and if it set 
sail, and be driven back and lost in the port, the insurers are liable. 

Insurance on goods generally continues till they be landed ; but if 
they be sold after the ship's arrival, and freight contracted to another 
pint, the insurance is concluded. Goods sent on board another ship 
or lighter are not at the risque of the insurer, but goods sent aahoic 
iu the long boat are. 

Insurance on freight commences when the goods are put on 
board. 

Goods from the East Indies, insured to Gibraltar, and to be re- 
shipped from thence to Great Britain, were put on board a store-ship 
at Gibraltar, to wait an opportunity of resliipping, and were lost ; 
the custom of putting goods on board a store ship being proved, the 
insurers were found liable. 

Loss of sails ashore, when the ship is repairing, is comprehended 
within the insurance. What is necessarily understood, is insured, as 
well as what is expressed ; the essential means, and intermediate 
steps, as well as the end. Ships performing quarantine are at tiie 
risque of the insurer. 

Thirdly, The insurers are liable for a total loss when the subject 
perishes through any of the perils insured against. Barratry, though 
it properly signifies running away with the ship, extends to any kind 
of fraud in the master or mariners. Insurance against detention of 
prince.-, does not extend to ships that are seized for transgressing the 
laws of foreign countries. 



IKSURANCE ON SHIPPING. 21 

The insurers are also liable for a total loss when damage is sustained, 
and the remaining property abandoned or vested in the insurers. 

If a ship be stranded, or taken and kept by the enemy, or detained 
by any foreign power, or seized for the service of the Government, 
the proprietors have a right to abandon. 

But if a ship be taken .by the enemy, and be retaken, or makes It* 
escape, before action against the insurers ; have the insured a rio-ht to 
abandon, or must they only claim for the damages sustained as an 
average loss ? There are opposite decisions according as the circum- 
stances of the case were strong. When the ship was long detained, 
the goods perishable, the voyage entirely lost, or so disturbed, that the 
pursuit of it was not worth the freight, or when the damage exceeds 
lialf the value of the thing, they have been found intitled to abandon 
(Gloss v. Withers, 2 Burrow, 683). But if the voyage be completed 
with little trouble or delay, they are not entitled (Hamilton i/. Mendcz, 
2 Burrow, 1198). 

The insured cannot claim, as for a total loss, on an offer to abandon 
or not. They may retain their property if they please, and claim 
for an average loss ; and they must make their option before their 
claim. 

If the goods be so much damaged that their value is less than the 
freight, the insurers are accountable as for a total loss. 

The insurers are liable for general average when the property is 
charged with contribution ; and for particular average when the pro- 
perty is damaged or part of it destroyed. 

If the damage be sustained through the fault of the ship, the owners 
of the goods may have recourse either against the masters or insurers; 
and if the insurers be charged, they stand in the place of the owners, 
and have recourse against the master. 

In order to prevent the insurers from being troubled with fiivolous 
demands for average, it is generally stipulated, that none shall be 
charged under five per cent, or some other determined rate ; and corn, 
flax, fruit, fish, and the like perishable goods, are warranted free from 
average, unless general, or the ship be stranded. 

In order to encourage every effort to save the ship, the insurers are 
liable for charges laid oat with that design, although the subject 
perish. Thus, they may be charged with more than the sum insured. 

In case of goods being damaged, the proportion of the sum insured, 
for which the underwriters are liable, is regulated by the proportion 
cf the prices which the sound and damaged goods fetch at the port 



Ja 1XSURANCB ON SHIFMNO. 

of destination. The prime cost of the goods is not considered, nor 
the necessity of immediate sale, in consequence of damage. Al- 
though the damaged goods sell above prime cost the insurers arc 

liable. 

Fourthly, If a ship be lost and the crew saved, the loss is proved 
by the evidence of the crew. 

If damage is sustained, the extent is proved by an examination of 
the subjca damaged at the ship's arrival, and the cause by the evi. 
dcnce of the crew. 

If the ship be stranded, evidence must be taken at the place where 
stranded. 

Documents of loss must be laid before the underwriters, w4th all 
convenient speed, and if these be sufficiently clear, the loss shall be 
immediately settled. The underwriters generally grant their notes at 
a month or six weeks date for their proportions. 

If a ship be not heard of for a certain time, it is presumed lost, 
and the underwriters are liable to pay the sums insured, the property 
being abandoned to them in the event of the ship's return. Six 
months are allowed for a voyage to any part of Europe, a year to 
America, and two years to the ast Indies. 

By the ordinance of Hamburgh, if a ship be three months beyond 
the usual time of performing a voyage, the underwriters may be desired 
to pay 92 per cent, on an abandon. If they decline it, they are allowed 
fourteen months more, and then they must pay the full value. 

A ship insured against the hazards of the sea, but not against the 
enemy, if never heard of, is presumed lost at sea. 

fifthly, In order that the manner of settling losses may be under- 
stood, we must explain what is meant by rove ring property. We men. 
tloncd already, that insurances for greater sums than the insured had 
really at stake, were contrary to law ; but some latitude is allowed in 
that respeft, for if the owner were to insure no more than the exaft 
value of his property, he would lose the premium of insurance, and 
the abatement, if any was agreed on. 

For example, if he has goods on board to the value of lool. and 
insures the same at five/fr tent, to abate two per cent, in case of loss ; 
then, if a total loss happen, he recovers g8l. from the insurers, of 
which 5!. being applied to replace the premium, the net sum saved 
is only 93!. ; but if the value on board be only 93!. and the sum in. 
ured jool. he would be fully indemnified for the loss; and his pro- 
perty, in that case, is said to be covered. 



INSORAKCE ON SHIPPING. 2J 

To find how much should be insured to cover any surrii subtract 
the amount of the premium and abatement (if any) from icol. As 
the remainder is to lool. so is the value to the sum which covers it. 

In case of a total loss, if the sum insured be not greater than that 
which covers the property, the insurers must pay it all. If greater, 
they pay what covers the property, and return the premium on the 
overplus. 

Partial losses are regulated by this principle, that whereas the owner 
Is not fully Indemnified in case of a total loss, unless he covers his 
property, therefore he should only be indemnified for a partial loss in 
the same proportion ; and if it be not fully insured, he is considered as 
insurer himself for the part not covered, and must bear a suitable 
proportion of the loss. Therefore-the value of the property is proved, 
and the sum required to cover it computed. If that sum be all 
insured, the underwriters pay the whole damage ; if only part be 
insured, they pay their share ; which is computed by the following 
rule . as the sum which covers the property is to the sum insured, 
so is the whole damage to the part for which the insurers are liable. 
For example ; if the value of the property be 360!. the sum insured 
300!. the premium eight per cent, and abatement two psr cent. ; then 
the sum which should be insured to cover the property is 400!. and 
if damage be sustained to the extent of 200!. the owners will re- 
cover 150!. 

If a voyage is insured out and home, the premium outward must 
be considered as part of the value on the homeward property, and the 
sum necessary to cover it computed accordingly. For example, to 
insure icol. out and home, at five per cent, each yoyage, abatement 
two per cent, we compute thus : 

93!. lool. ; lool. 107!. los. 63. to be insured outward, premium 
on 107! los. 6d. outward, at five per cent. 5!. 75. 6d. 93!. lool ; 
lo,l. 73. 6d. ; 113!. 6s. to be insured home, the premium on which is 
1. 133. 6d. and if the ship be lost on the homeward voyage, 
From the sum insured home - - 113 6 o 

Subtract the discount, 2 per cent. - 253 



Sum for which the insurers are liable - in o g 

Insurance out - 5!. 73. 6d, 

Insurance home $1. ijs. 30*. - - - ii o 9 

Covered property 100 o o 



C H 3 



MR. EDITOR, 

KNOWING, frofn observation, that your very enter- 
taining and useful publication the NAVAL CHRONI- 
CLE, has found its way on board most of the ships of his 
Majesty's Navy, 1 am induced to offer the inclosed, and 
solicit a corner for its insertion, as I think it will be 
found extremely useful, more especially to the younger 
Gentlemen of the Navy. It is a Table composed by Vice- 
Admiral WALDEGRAVE, which I found in a book entitled 
A Treatise on Naval Tafticsy and as it is my idea that those 
things cannot be too generally known, and those who read 
the Naval Chronicle may not have seen this Treatise, I 
trust will be considered a sufficient apology for my making 
the extraft. If your ideas coincide with mine, it is at your 
service. 

Junezz, 1802. NEPTUNE. 

A T able for finding the Distance of Ships in the Line. 



Dist. in 


100 


90 


4 


7 4 L. 


%4*. 


64 


60 


SO 


fathoms. 


Guns. 


Guns. 


Guns. 


Guns. 


Guns. 


Guns. 


Guns. 


Guns. 




eg. min. 


eg. min. 


eg- min. 


leg min. 


leg. min. 


ueg. mjn. 


deg. min.' 


deg. min. 


5 


3' 5'-i 


30 45 


35 43 


3 r J 3 


30 16 


27 50 


^6 45|- 


2 5 34i 


ICO 


6 ^\\ 


! 5 43f 


16 49 


.6 7 {- 


'5 34l 


H 45 


'3 2>i 


2 r 1 

2 5t 


150 


" 3* 


10 37 


n 25 


10 4*J 


10 26 


9 3 


9 5f 


8 39 


2CO 


8 i8 


7 59 


8 29! 


8 -i 
s /i 


7 5 


7 8 


6 49-} 


6 29- 


2JO 


6 39 


6 a 3 i 


6 50 


6 30 


6 16* 


5 42 


5 2 7 


5 uj 


3 00 


5 3*1 


5 '81 


5 39? 


5 M! 


5 i3f 


4 44i 


4 3 2 v 


4 19! 


4 00 


4 9 


3 59i 


4 '5 


4 3i 


3 55 


3 34 


3 H 


3 H 


5 00 


3 9i 


3 ni 


3 24 


3 '5 


3 


2 51 


2 44 


2 36 


6OO 


2 46 


2 39 


2 CO 


2 42| 


2 36| 


2 225 


2 17 


2 JO 


700 


2 22* 


2 I 7 


* *5-; 


2 19 


2 14 


2 2 


' 57 


1 5 1 


800 


* 5 


1 59 


2 8 


2 2 


I 58-^ 


I 461 


i 4 af 


37i 


ooc 


i 5' 


i 4 6| 


i 53! 


I 48 


44 


1 35 


i 3 1 


i 27 


I mile 


i 38 


i 34 


i 40* 


I 36 


' 3^1 


i 24 


I 2Oj 


i 17 


2 miles 


o 49 


4?f 


Sl 


48 


o 4 fii 


o 42 


o 40 


o 38 


3 miles 


33 


o 3'1 


33^ 


o 32 


o 31 


o 28 


o 27 


2 5 f 


4 miles 


24- 2 


235 


o 25, 


o -24 


o 23 J 


021 


O 2O| 


o 194; 



METHOD OF ASCERTAINING DISTANCED AT SEA. 2$ 

Observe, with a Hadley's quadrant well adjusted, the angle made 
from the observer's eye to the main-top gallant-mast-hounds, or 
tigging of the next ship, by bringing the hounds or rigging down 
to the surface of the sea, then refer to the table, and under the rate of 
the ship observed in the upper column, take the angle which is nearest 
to that on the quadrant, and in the same parallel on the left hand 
column, will be found the distance of that ship's main-mast from the 
observer, in fathoms or miles. 

When the angle observed does not agree with any in the table, 
and the corresponding distance is required, accurately proceed thus : 
Suppose the observed angle of the rigging of the Princess Royal, of 
90 guns, to be 8 e 40' required her distance ? 

The nearest greater angle 

in the table is 10 37' answering to 150 fathoms dist. 

The nearest lesser angle is 7? 59' 200 

Their difference is 2 38' answering to 50 fathoms differ. 

Then from 8 40' the observed angle, 

Subtract 7 59' the nearest lesser angle, 

Leaving o 41' difference. 

n proceed thus : 

38' is equal to 50 fathoms, what is o 
60 50 

Answer, 

158 ij8 )zo5o( 13 fathoms. 

158 

47 
474 

Therefore deducting 13 fathoms from 200 fathoms will give the 
distance required, 187 fathoms. 

REMARKS. 

The ships are Supposed to have six months stores on board, and 
the nautical mile to contain 1,015 fathoms, sixty of which make one 
degree of the meridian. In composing the table, the observer's eye 
has been supposed to be elevated thirty feet above the surface of the 
ea, which answers to the gangways of three-decked ships, or the poop 
of a ship of 74 guns. 

When the line of battle ahead is formed in close order, it must not 
fce forgotten that the distance between the observer and the observed 



16 FRESERVAT1VES ASAINST HUNGER AND THIRSf. 

ship's main-mast found by the table, may be very different from that 
which is between the taffrel of the one, and the jib boom end of the 
other ; it is also evident, that when the observer is on the gangway, 
the distance found will be nearly equal to that which is between main- 
mast and main-mast ; but should he be on the poop, it will be almost 
half the length of his ship less. When the distance of the ship observed 
is considerable, and the main top -gallant-sail is hoisted, the yard may 
be very safely used in observing the angle, instead of the ngging, and 
it is for this reason, as well as for the arbitrary lengths of the main- 
top-gallant-mast heads, that the hounds have been used. It maybe 
proptr to observe, that the ships having been supposed to have six 
months stores continually on board, will, in some measure, compen- 
sate for the inclination of the mast when they may be of a lighter 
draught of water. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE NAPAL CHRONICLE. 

SIR, 

A S 1 believe that nothing tending to the benefit of the 
** sea service can be unacceptable to you, I send you an 
account, extracted from an old book, of some preservatives 
against hunger and thirst. 1 do not pretend to vouch for 
the efficacy of any of them, nor have I opportunities to 
enquire, but I may be the- means of guiding the attention of 
some of your readers to the subject, and from thence some 
of them may perhaps be led to favour you with communica- 
tions more valuable than mine. Few narratives of the 
distresses of seamen arc more melancholy, than those which 
are related of their sufferings from want of food and water. 
Sometimes obliged to quit their vessel, at the distance of many 
hundred leagues from land, they have been known to 
navigate the ocean for weeks in an open boat, without the 
slightest nourishment, till dreadfully forced by hunger, they 
have had recourse to the horrid expedient of casting lots 
for their lives, in order to satisfy the cravings of nature on 
a human vidim. In a boat which perhaps, with difficulty, 
carries twenty men> what room is there for provisions, when 
the number of persons escaping is as many as she can be 
navigated with ? And does it not frequently happen, on long 
voyages, that the crews of ships suffer severely from famine ? 



PRESERVATIVES AGAINST HUNGER AMD THIRST. 27 

Any thing then which has a tendency to prevent so dreadful 
a calamity, is deserving of attention, and I contribute my 
mite, in the hopes tlut some person better qualified than 
myself, will give the subject a future consideration. 

I am, &c. 
A FRIEND TO THE SERVICE. 

THERE were some compositions in vogue among the ancients, feu- 
averting the dreadful effects of hunger and thirst, which were held by 
them to be extremtly necessary in time of scarcity, long voyages, and 
warlike expeditions. Pliny says, that a small portion of some things 
allays hunger and thirst, and preserves strength, such as butter, cheese 
made of mate's milk, and liquorice. The American Indians use a 
composition of the juice of tobacco, with calcined shells of snails, 
cockles, oysters, &c. which they make into pills, and dry in the shade. 
Whenever they go upon a long journey, and are likely to be destitute 
of provisions by the way, they put one of these pills between the 
lower lip and the teeth, and by swallowing whatever they can suck 
from it, feel neither hunger, thirst, nor fatigue, for four or five days 
together. 

The following composition is an extract from a manuscript scholium 
on a book of Heron in the Vatican library , and one much to the same 
effect, with some others, may be seen in Philo's fifth book of Mili- 
tary affairs. It was reputed an exceeding nutritive medicament and 
also very effectual for banishing thirst. Both the besiegers of cities 
and the besieged, fed upon it in time of extremity, and called it 
Epimenidian composition, from the sea-onion, which was an ingredient 
in its composition. The method of making it is thus : 

The sea-onion being boiled, washed in water, and afterwards dried, 
it was cut into thin slices, to which a fifth part of sesame was added, 
and a fifteenth of poppy ; all which being mixed and worked up into 
a mass with honey, the whole was divided into portions about the big- 
ness of a walnut, whereof two in the day, taken morning and evening, 
were sufficient to prevent hunger and'thirst. 

There was another way of preparing it, by taking a pint of sesame, 
the same quantity of oil, and two quarts of unshelled sweet almonds; 
when the sesame was dried, and the almonds ground and sifred, the 
sea onions were to be peeled and sliced, the roots and leaves being cut 
off, then pounding them in a mortar till reduced to pap, an equal part 
of honey was to be added, and both worked up with the oil ; after- 
wards all the ingredients were to be put into a pot on the lire, arM 
$tirred with a wooden ladle, till thoroughly mixed. When the mass 
acquired a thorough consistence, it was taken off ihe fire, and formed 



4g ACCOUNT OF THE ANflAMAN ISLANDS. 

into lozenges, of which two only, as above, were very sufficient for a 
day's subsistence. 

Avicenna relates, that a person setting out upon a journey, drank 
one pound of oil of violets, mixed with melted beef suet, and after- 
wards continued fasting for ten days together, without the least 
hunger. Hence it was that this celebrated physician, who knew 
things more by unquestionable experiments than by idle speculations 
and conjectures, prescribed the following composition, which in time 
of famine, by sea or land, might be extremely serviceable. 

Take of sweet almonds, unshelled, one pound, the like quantity 
of melted beef suet, of oil of violets two ounces, a sufficient quantity 
of mucilage, of the roots of marsh mallows one ounce; let all to- 
gether be brayed in a mortar, aad made into bolusses about the big- 
ness of a common nut. They must be kept ao as to prevent their 
melting by the sun. 

AN ACCOUNT OF 
THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS. 

FROM LIEUT. COL. SYMEs's EMBASSY TO AVA. 



ripHE Andaman islands are a continuation of the Archipelago that 
Jl extends from Cape Negrais to Achen Head, stretching from 
10. 32. to 13. 40. north latitude, and from 90. 6. to 92. 59. east 
longitude. What has been considered as the Great Andaman, is the 
most northern, about one hundred and forty miles in length, and not 
exceeding twenty broad. A separation, or strait, however, has 
lately, owing to a fatal accident *, been discovered in this island, 
which in fadl divides it into two, and opens a clear passage into the 
Bay of Bengal. The first settlement of the English was made in 
1791, near the southern extremity of the island, in a bay on the east 
side; but it was afterwards removed in 1793, by advice of Admiral 

In the month of February 1791, a vessel was freighted from Madras to 
carry stores to his Majesty's fleet at Andaman. The master, being unac- 
qiuinied with the harbour, sent a small boat, in the afternoon, to explore an 
opening in the land, that appeared like the entrance; the boat stood in, it fell 
dark, and she was swept by a rapid current, through a channel that divided the" 
main island, and opened into the Bay of Bengal. The north-east monsoon 
prevailed with great violence; unable to work against stream and wind, the 
boat wa borne to leeward, and driven irresistibly into the Indian Ocean. 
Wthteen days afterwards she was picked up by a French ship near the equinoc- 
tial line. The crew consisted of two Europeans and six Lascars ; and shocking 
to relate, when relieved by the French ship, three of the Lascars had been 
killed and eaten by their companion* 



ACCOUNT THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS; 2J 

Cornwallis, to the place where it is now established. The original 
obje& of the undertaking was to procure a commodious harbour on 
the east side of the bay, to receive and shelter his Majesty's ships of 
war, during the continuance of the north-east monsoon ; it was also 
used as a place of reception for convi&s sentenced for transportation 
from Bengal. 

No writer of antiquity has transmitted a distinct account of the 
Andamans; they were included by Ptolemy, together with the 
Nicobars and lesser islands, in the general appellation of Insulae Bonae 
Fortunse, and supposed by him to be inhabited by a race of Anthro- 
pophagi. The mild inoffensive Nicobarians have long since been 
acquitted of the horrid imputation ; but the different form, disposition, 
and habits, of the few wretched savages, who wander on the shores of 
the Andamans, may have given ground for a supposition that human 
flesh has been eaten by them ; if so, it probably arose more from the 
impulse of excessive hunger, than from voluntary choice ; a conclu- 
sion, that well authenticated instances of the distress they at times 
endure, appear to authorize. 

Notwithstanding the colony had been established on its present 
site little more than sixteen months, the habitations of the Com- 
mandant and Officers, and the huts of the inferior classes, were ren- 
dered extremely comfortable ; the first constructed of stone and 
planks, the latter of mats and clay, thatched with the leaves of rattan, 
or covered with boards. The surgeon had a separate dwelling assigned 
him, and there was likewise a commodious mess-room. The number 
of inhabitants altogether was about 700, including a company of 
Sepoys as a guard over the convidls, and a defence to the settlement. 

A situation more picturesque, or a view more romantic, than that 
which Chatham island and Cornwallis harbour present, can scarcely be 
imagined : land-locked on every side, nothing is to be seen but an 
extensive sheet of water, resembling a vast lake, interspersed with small 
islands, and environed by lofty mountains, clothed with impenetrable 
forests. The scenery of nature in this sequestered spot, is uncom- 
monly striking and grand. 

All that voyagers seem to have related of uncivilized life, seems to 
fall short of the barbarism of the people of Andaman. The ferocious 
natives of Zealand, or the shivering half-animated savages of Terra 
del Fticgo, .are in a relative state of refinement compared to these 
islanders. The population of the Great Andaman, and all its de- 
pendencies, does not, according to Captain Stokoe, exceed 2000 or 
2500 souls; these are dispersed in small societies along the coast, ^r 
on the lesser islands within the harbour, never penetrating deeper than 



*O ACCOUNT OF THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS. 

the skirts of the forests, which hold out little inducement for them to 
enter, as they contain no animals to supply them with food. Their 
sole occupation seems to be that of climbing rocks, or roving along 
the margin of the sea in quest of a precarious meal of fish, which, 
during the tempestuous season, they often seek for in vain. 

The only quadrupeds seen on the island are hogs, rats, and the 
ichneumon ; the guana of the lizard tribe, may be reckoned in this 
class, and these proved very destru&ive to poultry ; there arc also 
several species of snakes and scorpions. Labourers, whilst clearing 
away the underwood, were frequently bitten, but in no instance did the 
bite prove mortal, although the patients commonly fell into violent 
convulsions ; eau de luce and opium were the remedies in most cases 
administered. 

During the prevalence of the north-east monsoon fish is caught in 
great abundance, but in the tempestuous season it is difficult to be 
procured. Grey mullet, rock cod, and scate, are among the best ; 
oysters have been found, but in no great quantity. There arc 
several sorts of trees on the island, among which are the ficus 
religiosa, or banyan tree, the almond tree, and the oil tree, which 
latter grows to a great height, and from it a very useful oil is thus 
produced : a horizontal incision being made in the trunk, six or seven 
inches deep, a chip fourteen or fifteen inches long is cut at right 
angles, and the surface of the incision being hollowed and filled with 
live coals, the turpentine or wood oil exudes copiously from the top of 
the wound. The penaigree tree also is found, and is well adapted for 
the knees of ships, and the iron tree, of stupendous size, whose tim- 
ber almost bids defiance to the axe of the wood cutter, the red wood, 
which makes beautiful furniture, little inferior to fine mahogany. 
Beside these, there are numberless creepers and rattans, which surround 
the stems of the larger trees, and interwoven with each other, form 
so thick a hedge, that it is impossible to penetrate far into the forest, 
but by the slow and laborious process of cutting a road. 

The climate of Andaman is unwholesome, owing to the incessant 
torrents of rain with which it is deluged. According to a meteoro- 
logical table kept by Captain Stokoe, there appears to have fallen in 
even months, ninety-eight inches of water, a quantity far exceeding 
what I have heard of in any other country. The settlement, however, 
is yet in its infancy, and when the woods are cleared, may prove more 
wholesome. Possessing an excellent harbour, it is an objeft of great 
consideration, both to the East India Company, and his Majesty'? 
s^ips navigating the Indian sea, that this new settlement should be 
PCI levered in. 



C 3' 3 



7*0 THE EDITOR OF THE NAVAL CHRONICLE. 
s nn, Cape of Good Hope, l $th of March, 1 802. 

S your valuable Work is considered a register of the 
exploits of our Navy, 1 beg leave to transmit the 
following one, which, for gallantry and daring enterprise, 
has not been surpassed during the late war ; and as I was 
only a spectator on the occasion, I can relate it without in- 
curring the charge of egotism. I am, Sir, 

Your very humble servant, 
AN OFFICER OF THE CAPE SOJJADRON. 

ON the morning of the 1 2th of September 1800, his Majesty's ship 
Adamant and Lancaster, cruising off the Mauritius, saw a ship stand- 
ing in for the land, to which they gave chase ; on the Lancaster's 
coming up and firing at her, she hoisted Hamburgh colours, but still 
continued her course ; finding that she did not intend to heave to, 
the Lancaster opened a regular fire upon her, at half gun-shot 
distance, which was continued till the chase, by superior sailing, suc- 
ceeded in getting under the heavy batteries at the entrance of Port 
Louis, which now opened on our ships, and obliged them to haul off", 
while the boats from the shore boarded the chase, and towed her into 
the harbour, amidst shouts and applause from the batteries, which 
were manned for her protection. Captain Hotham having deter- 
mined to make an attempt on the ship where she lay (in an harbour 
as close, and almost as well defended as Portsmouth harbour), the 
boats of both ships were hoisted out at sunset ; unfortunately the 
enemy saw this done, and immediately sent a party of forty soldiers to 
reinforce the ship, and manned all the batteries to prevent a surprise. 
The boats left the ships at seven o'clock, and at eight we saw a heavy 
fire of musquetry in the harbour, but this was soon confounded with a 
most tremendous cannonade, which continued, without intermission, 
for an hour and a half j at half past nine the firing ceased, and was 
succeeded by profound silence. As the night was very dark, we could 
not tell the event of the expedition, and we remained in the most 
anxious suspense as to the fate of our gallant shipmates, till ten 
o'clock, when, to our great joy, we saw the ship pass under the 
Adamant's stern, and hail her. It appeared that our boats got into 
the harbour without being fired at, and having passed three privateer* 
ready for sea, they cnme to the ship they were intended to attack, and 
which they found full of men, ready to re9eive them, who opened 4 
l 



2 DESCRIPTION OF PLATE XCIT 

heavy fire of musquetry, which was supported by the fire from the 
batteries (all within musquet-shot), as well as from the privateers and 
a guardship, mounting twenty four pounders, to which the ship at- 
tacked, as a further security, was fast with a hawser; notwithstanding 
these disadvantages, the gallantry of our countrymen prevailed ; after 
a contest of ten minutes, they had complete possession of the ship, 
and having cut her adrift, they towed her out of the harbour, under 
the most dreadful fire we ever witnessed. Our loss amounted to three 
men killed, and Lieutenant M'Farland and seven more wounded ; on 
the part of the Frenchman, from twenty-five to thirty were killed or 
wounded, and the ship was cut almost to pieces by the batteries. 
The Officers who volunteered on this occasion were Lieutenants Grey 
and Fothergill, Lieutenant Owen, of the Marines, and Mr. White, 
from the Adamant, and Lieutenant M'Farland and Walker, from the 
Lancaster. A flag of truce was sent on shore next morning with the 
wounded prisoners, and, in return, the Governor sent a flag with a 
handsome present of fruit and vegetables, accompanied by a letter to 
the Commodore, thanking him and his Officers for their humane and 
generous condudl to their prisoners upon this, and every other 
occasion. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE XCIV. 

tfE of the most memorable naval achievements of the late war 
having taken place in 'the neighbourhood of Alexandria (the 
glorious victory of Aboukir), and that city having been subdued by 
the bravery of British arms, we are happy to present our readers with 
an accurate view of it, taken from the mouth of the harbour. In the 
foreground is an Egyptian vessel, called agerme, which is used in the 
navigation of the Nile ; a Turkish castle, built on a peninsula, which 
was in Caesar's time an island, under the walls of which a Turkish 
vessel is at anchor, appears on the right, and behind the shipping 
are the turrets of Alexandria, and that beautiful piece of antiquity, 
which is known by the name of Pompey's column. 

The city of Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great, 330 
years before the Christian sera. It stretched itself along the shore of 
the Mediterranean to the north, having the large lake Mareotis lying 
behind it to the southward, and was situated at the distance of thirty- 
five miles from the Canopic branch of the Nile, Advantageously 
situated for commerce, and surrounded by a fertile country, Alex- 
andria soon became famous for its riches and trade, and as a relaxation 
of morals too frequently accompanies an excess of wealth, its in- 
habitants became ptoveibially remarkable for the dissoluteness of their 



ACCOUNT OF ALEXANDRIA. 33 

manners*. The ancient city, with its suburbs, according to Diodorus 
Siculus, extended above seven leagues in length, and contained a 
population of more than three hundred thousand inhabitants. Many 
writers have expatiated on the magnificence of its public buildings, 
its stately obelisks, its noble amphitheatres, its lofty columns and 
superb temples, but we shall pass over these, to mention one peculiar 
advantage which this city possessed over all the others in Egypt, the 
benefits of which have probably been experienced by some of our 
countrymen. Dinocrates, the most celebrated architect of his time, 
who was the builder of the city, considering the great scarcity of 
good water in Egypt, dug very spacious vaults, which, having com- 
munication with all parts of the city, furnished the inhabitants with 
one of the chief necessaries of life. These vaults were divided into 
many capacious reservoirs or cisterns, which they filled at the time of 
the inundation of the Nile, by a canal cut out of the Canopic branch 
entirely for that purpose. The water was in that manner preserved 
for the remainder of the year, and being refined by the long settle- 
ment, was not only the clearest, but the most wholesome of any in 
Egypt. This grand work is remaining, whence the present city still 
enjoys a part of the benefactions of Alexander the Great. 

Of the monuments of antiquity which remain in Alexandria, the 
most remarkable are two obelisks, the one standing, the other fallen 
and nearly buried in rubbish, which are vulgarly called Cleepatra's 
Needles, and a noble column of granite, which bears the name of 
Pompey's P 'lar. The obelisk, which is no\v standing, is formed of 
one mass of granite, fifty-four fevt high, and seven feet four inches 
square at the base. It is inscribed on the four sides with hieroglyphics, 
which on those parts exposed to the south and east winds, are much 
effaced, while to the north and west they are well preserved. Pom- 
pey,'s Pillar stands on a rising ground, about half a mile from the walls 
of the city. This noble piece of antiquity is composed of only three 
blocks of marble, one of which forms the pedestal, the second the 
plinth and shaft of the pillar, and the third the capital ; its whole 
height, inclusive of the three parts, is one hundred und two feet. 
It is pf the Corinthian order, and though the capital, which is not very 
well executed, gives reason to imagine that it was erected at a time 
when architefture was not in its highest peiftftion, yet the other 

* " Ne Alexandiinis quidem pernnttcnda'deliciis." 

(^'IN 

Not to be allowed even to the looseness of Alexandria, 

. OUI. VIII. F 



.$1 KXTRACTS TROM JUTENAL. 

parts arc found to answer the rules of the strictest proportion. Thr 
common notion from which it has taken its name, is, that it was 
erected by Julius Caesar upon his arrival in Egypt, as a monument of 
his victory over Pompey ; but as there is no mention of this in any 
ancient author, we must content ourselves with admiring the magni- 
ficence of the column, without enquiring into the occasion of its 
erection. Modern Alexandria, or Scandria, as it is called by the Turks 
and Arabs, is built upon a narrow itshmus, between a peninsula and 
the walls of the ancient city, and divides the two harbours. The 
largest and best harbour, which is to the west of the city, is known 
by the name of the Old Port ; the form of it is near an oval, com- 
posed to the southward by the African shore, and to the northward by 
au island anciently called Anti Rhodus. Into this harbour ships only 
are admitted, which sail under the Ottoman flag, while those which 
come under European colours, are obliged to anchor in the New Port, 
which at certain seasons of the year is a very dangerous station. The 
trade of Alexandria is much reduced, but nevertheless it still contains 
many opulent merchants, and in times of peace, Consuls are main- 
tained there by most European nations. 

At a future opportunity we shall present our readers with a more 
detailed account of the present state of Alexandria, with some in- 
tere^ting particulars relative to the place while it was in possession of 
the British forces. As we wish to give our readers the most au- 
thentic information on the subject, and have the means of acquiring 
it, we hold ourselves justifiable in deferring this article to a future 
occasion. 



A 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE NAFAL CHRONICLE. 
SIR, 

S the termination of the war has curtailed the aftive 
pursuits of many of your young readers, and given 
them leisure to enlarge their opportunities of study or 
amusement, you will, perhaps, excuse this address to tbem, 
through your extended publication, and concur with me in 
recalling their attention to those authors, from whom, in the 
early duties of their profession, they were taken away, and 
hive not since had leisure to attend to. 

It is far from my intention to substitute the study of the 
anticnt classics, in place of the much more important pur- 



EXTRACTS *ROM JUVENAL. 35 

suits of naval or mathematical knowledge; I should recom- 
mend them only as the relaxation and amusement of the 
well informed Sea Officer. Subjects professionally interest- 
ing frequently occur, and as such I have copied a few ex- 
tra&s from the twelfth Satire of Juvenal the description of 
a storm, which nearly proved fatal to Catullus, the poet's 
friend. 

With the most sincere congratulations upon his escape, 
Juvenal begins by regretting his inability to offer the gods 
a worthy sacrifice. 

Ob reditum trepidantis adhuc, horrenda que pass!, 
Nuper, et incolumem sese mirantis amici. 

Little or no previous description of the weather, winds, 
or vessel are given, but we are caught suddenly in all the 
horrors of the storm: 

Nam prater Pelagi casus, et Fulguris iclum 
Evasi, densae coelum abscondere tenebrae 
Nube una, subitusque antemnas impulit ignis ; 
Cum se quisque illo percussum crederet, et mox 
Attonitus nullam conferri posse putaret, 
Naufragium veils ardentibus. 

With a dangerous sea, sudden darkness comes on, the ship 
is struck with lightning, and fired in her yards and rigging. 
The crew exclaim no shipwreck can equal the terrors of the 
present scene. The fire, however, seems to be got under, but 
fresh misfortunes follow : 

Genus ecce aliud discriminis ; audi 

Et miserere iterum. 

Cum plenus flu&u medius foret alveus, et j;\m 

Alternum puppis latus evertentibus undis, 

Arboria incertse nullam prudeiitia can! 

Reftoris conferret opem. 

A great depth of water in the hold, the ship straining and 
Jabouring in a heavy sea, the masts in great danger, and her 



3$ EXTRACTS FROM JUVENAL, 

commander or pilot unable to order any thing for her 
relief. 

A curious simile is here introduced, wherein Catullus is 
made to imitate the Castor, whose sagacity, when pursued 
hy the hunters, suggests a method of escape by sacrificing to 
his pursuers what is most valuable : 

Fundite qux mea sunt, dicebat, cunfta, Catullus 
Prsecipitare volcns etiam pulcherrima, vestes 
Purpurcas, &c. Sec. 

All his clothes, money, plate, and furniture are thrown over- 
board, but with little effeft : 

Jacratur rerum utilium pars maxima, sed nee 
Damna levant.- 

The gale continues, and orders are at length given (which 
then appeared a most desperate remedy), to cut away the 
masts : 

Tune adversis urgentibus illuc 
Recidit, ut maluiii ferro submitteret. 
discriminis ultima quando, 
Przsidia afferimus, navem fadura minorem. 

The poet, indeed, particularly dwells upon this subject, 
alleging, that in future, hatchets, against a similar misfor- 
tune, should be laid in, as carefully as provisions or 
stores : 

Mox cum reticulis, ct pane, et ventre lagena;, 
Aspice sumendas in tempestate secures. 

It seems, however, this resource, the storm abating, saved 
the ship :-- 

" ' - postquam planum jacuit Mare, 

Fatumque valentius Euro, 
Et Pelago 

Seamen were then superstitious, and fate is not forgotten. A 
gentle breeze now springs up. 

modica uon multo fortior aura, 

Ventus adest. 



EXTRACTS FROM JUVENAL; 37 

We have here a specimen of the manner in which Roman 
vessels were, or rather were not, found in spare rigging, 
&c. unless every thing went overboard with Catullus's 
goods : 



inopi miserabilis arte cucurrit 



Vestibus extensis, et quod superaverat unum, 
Velo prora suo. Jam deficientibus Austris, 
Spes vitse cum Sole redit. 

The southern gale is over, and hopes of their lives animate 
the crew. Land appears : 

Conspicitur subli mi's apex - 
Tandem intrat positas inclusa per aequora moles, 
Tyrrheramque Pharon, porreftaque brachia rursum. 
Qu pelago occurrunt medio, longeque relinquuut 
Italiam. Trunca puppe magister, 
Interiora petit Baianse penia cymbae 
Tuti stagna lacus ; guadent ibi vertice raro, 
Garrula securi narrare pericula nautae. 

At lenth she enters the bay, formed by projecting works and 
arms which advance into the sea far from the main land, 
and in her shattered state is brought up into the calm basin 
of the inner harbour. The sailors again at their ease, talk 
over the perils of the recent storm. 

I have kept out of its place, to conclude with, the poet's 
own opinion of a sea life, which he gives his friend : 

I nunc, et ventis animum committe, dolato 
Confisus Hgno, digitis a morte remotus 
Quatuor, aut septem, si sit latissima teda. 

ARGONAUT; 



C 33 ] 
NAVAL LITERATURE* 

MODERN GEOGRAPHY. A Description of tie Empires, Kingdom^ 
State', and Colonies ; -with the Oceans, Seas, and Isles ; in all Parts of 
the World: Including the most recent Discoveries and political Altera- 
tions. Digested on a new Plan. By JOHN PINKERTON. The 
Astronomical Introduction by the Rev. S. VINCE, A. M. F. R, S. 
and Plumlan Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy in 
the University of Cambridge. With numerous Maps, drawn under the 
Direclton, and w'nh the latest Improvements, of ARROWSMITH, and 
engraved by LOWRY. To the whole are added, a Catalogue of the 
lest Maps and Booh of Travels and Voyages* in all Languages ; and 
an ample Index. In 2 vols. 4^0. 1501 pages. 

THE importance of Geography as a science (the author of the 
volumes under our consideration, justly observes in his preface), 
and the exuberant variety of knowledge and amusement which it 
exhibits, are themes too trivial for argument or illustration. The 
want of a good system of geography has long been one of the dis- 
graces of British literature. The popular works which have appeared 
on the subje&, as the Geographical Grammars of Guthrie and others, 
were miserably defective in all the principal points, which a geogra- 
phical work ought to embrace ; they abounded in errors of the 
grossest kind, and were used only because no better compilations 
were to be met with. It is injustice to compare Mr. Pinkerton's 
elaborate work with the faulty performances alluded to, for the men- 
tion of them alone is sufficient to show the necessity there was for a 
new and improved system of geography. To the execution of this 
important task, the abilities and industry of Mr. Pinkerton have 
proved completely adequate ; he has done an eminent service to 
science and literature in general, and the work before us will not 
diminish the well earned reputation which he derivea from his former 
productions. 

The present period is remarkably favourable for the appearance of 
a new system of geography. The successive discoveries in the Pacific 
Ocean, and other parts of the globe, have, within these few years, 
acquired such a certainty and consistency, that they may now be ad- 
mitted and arranged in a regular and precise distribution of the parts of 
the habitable world ; while the recent discoveries of La Perouse, Van- 
couver, and other navigators, neatly complete the exa& delineation 
of the continental shores. The great changes which of late have 
taken place in most of the states of Europe, render a new description 
of them necessary. The boundaries and existence of kingdoms no 



NAVAL LITERATURE. y) 

longer depend upon the events of a campaign, but are established by- 
solemn treaties. By means of these treaties not only has the face of 
Europe been materially changed, and whole provinces and kingdoms 
been transferred to new masters, but important changes have takea 
place in the possessions of European Powers in the other quarters of 
the globe. 

The maps which accompany this work, forty-five In number, arc 
engraved by Lowry, under the direion of Mr. Arvowsmith, on a 
new principle, which cannot be better described than in the author's 
own words *. One obvious improvement we cannot pass over without 
commendation. At the bottom of the maps are introduced the 
authorities from which they are taken, so that a person dissatisfied 
with the small size of the maps, is thereby immediately referred to the 
best large maps from which they are reduced. 

The astronomical introduction from the pen of Professor Vince, is 
an excellent treatise on the subjedt, and highly honourable to his 
abilities. He has collected with diligence whatever could illustrate 
his subject, and many of his tables will be found curious and useful. 
We select the following extract on the temperature of different parts 
of the earth : 

" It is manifest that some situations are better fitted to receive or 
communicate heat, than others ! thus high and mountainous situa- 
tions being nearer to the source of cold than lower situations, and 
countries covered with woods, as they prevent the access of the sun'i 
rays to the earth, or to the snow which they may conceal, and present 
more numerous evaporating surfaces, must be colder than open 
countries, though situated in the same latitudes. And since all traces 
of land present infinite varieties of situation, uniform results cannot 
here be expelled. Mr. Kirwin observes, therefore, that it is on 
water only that we must seek for a standard situation, with which to 

* A most ingenious artist, considerably Imbued with matbematical know- 
ledge, having invented machines which give more clearness and precision to the 
engraving of straight lines, the author, who had hitherto only seen this method 
employed in the representation of mathematical instruments and machinery, 
was impressed with its peculiar fitness for the delineation of water. With this 
idea he applied to Mr. Lowry, the inventor, and the effe& is now before the 
public in a series of maps, which may safely be pronounced to be not only un- 
rivalled, but unexampled, by any former efforts in this department. Not to 
mention superior richness and neatness, it is not only singularly adapted to the 
instruction of youth, by the instantaneous representation of the form and chief 
bearings of each country, but also facilitates consultation by the marked dis- 
tinction between land and %vater, which enables the eye to pass more quickly to 
the other objects. The consultation of charts might be facilitated in a similar 
manner, while, in the usual contrast between maps and charts, the sea might 
be preserved white, and the lands distinguished by strokes, not horizontal, 
which would resemble water, but vertical. 



^O KAVAL LITERATURE. 

compare the temperature of other situations. Now the globe con- 
tains, properly speaking, but two great tracts of water, the Atlantic 
Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean, which may each be divided into north 
and south, as they lie on the northern or southern side of the equator. 
In this trac"l of water, he choge that situation for a standard which 
recommends itself mostly by its simplicity, and freedom from any but 
the most permanent causes of alteration of temperature ; viz. that 
part of the Atlantic which lies between 80. north, and 45. south 
latitude, and extending southward as far as the gulf stream, and to 
within a few leagues of the coast of America ; and that part of the 
Pacific Ocean which lies between 45. north, and 40. south latitude. 
Within this space the mean annual temperature will be found as ex- 
pressed by the following table. The temperatures beyond 80. lati- 
tude aie added, though not stri&ly within the standard. 

*' A Table of the mean annual Temperature of the Standard Situation in 
every Degree of Latitude. 



Lat. 


Temp. 


Lat. 


Temp. 


Lat. 


Temp. 


O 


8 4 


33 


68,3 


62 


4 2 7 


5 


83,6 


34 


67,4 


63 


4 X 9 


6 


83,4 


35 


66,6 


64 


41,2 


7 


83,2 


36 


6 5>7 


65 


40,4 


3 


82,9 


37 


64,8 


66 


39,7 


9 


82,7 


3B 


63,9 


67 




10 


82,3 


39 


63 


68 


38)4 


1 1 


82 


40 


62 


69 


37.S 


|J 


81,7 


41 


61,2 


7 




13 


81,3 


42 


60,3 


7 1 


3^6 


H 


80,8 


43 


59>4 


7 2 


36 


15 


80,4 


44 


58,4 


73 


35>5 


16 


79>9 


45 


57,5 


74 


35 


17 
18 


79*4 
7,9 


46 

47 


96.4 
55.6 


75 


34>5 
34>! 


'9 


78,3 


48 


54.7 


77 


33>7 


20 


77.8 


49 


53,8 


78 




21 


77,2 


5 


52,9 


79 


32.9 


22 


76,; 


5i 


52,4 


80 


32*6 


23 


75.9 


52 


51.1 


81 


32,2 


24 


75>4 


53 


50,2 


82 


32 


25 


74.5 


54 


49,2 


83 




26 


73.8 


55 


48,4 


84 


3M 


27 


7-jN 


56 


f7>5 




3')4 


28 


72,3 


57 


46,7 


8<5 


3 '' 2 


29 


7'5 


58 


45>S 


87 




30 


7'-,7 

jf 


59 


45' 1 


88 


31,10 


12 


69,9 
69,1 


60 
61 


44>3 
43 '5 


89 

9 


3^4 



NATAL LITERATURE. 4! 

*' The rule by which this table has been computed, was given by 
the famous astronomer Tobias Mayer, of Gottingen, and is as follows : 
it was constructed from knowing the mean annual temperatures of two 
latitudes. Let s. be the sine of the latitude f then the mean annual 
temperature will be 84 53 X'- 2 - that is, from 84 subtract 53, mul- 
tiplied into the square of the sine of the latitude, and the remainder 
is the mean annual temperature." 

How near the theory of the above table approaches to fact, is a 
matter very well deserving the attention of those who have oppor- 
tunities of making experiments. If persons on long voyages would 
set down the mean daily temperature, with the different degrees of 
latitude, much light might be thrown on the subject. 

At a future opportunity, we shall give some farther extracts from 
Mr. Vince's Introduction* but we must now conclude our account of 
this valuable performance, with some passages from the body of the 
work. 

We must first premise, that Mr. Pinkerton divides Geography into 
four heads or branches, i. The Historical or Progressive Geography 
of a Country, in which is comprised its ancient names extent- 
boundaries -original population progressive geography historical- 
epochs and antiquities. 2. Political Geography, which embraces 
religion government laws population army navy revenues- 
political importance and relation. 3. Civil Geography, to which 
division belong manners and customs language literature the 
arts education universities cities and towns edifices roads, in- 
land navigation manufactures, and commerce. 4. Natural Geogra- 
phy, under which are classed, climate and seasons face of the 
country soil and agriculture ri/ers lakes mountains forests 
botany, zoology mineralogy mineral waters natural curiosities. 

" The naval power of Great Britain, constitutes so important and 
striking a feature in the national portrait, that it merits particular 
illustration. Even in the Saxon times we find considerable fleets 
mentioned of the small vessels then in use. One of the Northum- 
brian monarchs assembled a numerous fleet near Jarro, the monastery 
of Beda, in an extensive haven of the time, now become a salt-marsh. 
About the year 882, we find that Alfred directed a powerful fleet 
against the Danish invaders * ; but it is to be regretted that the early 
writers have not been more particular with regard to the number and 
form of the vessels. The fleet of Edgar is also celebrated; but the 
author of the Saxon Chronicle assures us, ' that the armament of 

* See Asser Vita Alf. St. Croii, Hist, de la Puisanss Navale deL'Angleterre, 
Paris 1786, a vols. 8vo 

i. Qol. VIII. o 



*2 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

Ethelred II. in the year 1009, exceeded any which England had ever 
before beheld; and as William of Malmesbury, .computes that of 
Edgar at four hundred vessels, this may probably have amounted to 
five hundred of the small ships then known. But the devastations of 
the Danes and Normans occasioned such a decline in the naval power 
of England, that Richard I. was obliged to have recourse to foreign 
vessels for his crusade. In the reign of John, we, for the first time, 
find commemorated a signal victory of the English and Flemings over 
the French fleet of PhHip Augustus, whi"h was computed at seventeen 
hundred ships, or rather boats *. T<he English monarch John, inso- 
lent in prosperity, mean in adversity, in the pride of his triumph, 
was the first who ordered the salute to be paid by foreign vessels to 
the national flag. The fleet of England thenceforth continued to be 
always respectable, and generally victorious. In the reign of Ed- 
ward III. it had acquired such pre eminence, that in his gold coin, 
the first struck in England, he appears in a ship, the symbol of com- 
merce and maritime power; hut the preponderance of the English 1 
armaments over those of France, only became permanent and decisive 
a little more than a century ago, after the battle of La Hogue. Spain 
had yielded the contest since the destruction of her great Armada ; 
and Holland had been greatly reduced in the naval conflicts under 
Charles II. so that no other rival remained, and Great Britain main- 
tains a fixed superiority over the ocean. In the mechanism of ships, 
the French builders certainly excel; but in the soul of ships, spirited, 
alert, and skilful seamen, no country can pretend to vie with Great 
Britain. The progress in number of vessels has been more rapid in 
this reign than at any former period, as may appear from the com- 
parative statement in the note, which includes every military vessel, 
from the first rate to the frigate f. 

" The special superintendance of the Navy is committed to the 
Board of Admiralty, composed of Admirals of known skill, and or 
Peers, whose impartiality generally regards merit alone in this ira- 

* Near Dam, in Flanders, A. D. 1213. Damme, now inland, a league N. F.. 
of Bruges, was formerly a maritime town, and the sea washed its walls. Guicc . 
Disjer. Belg. 

| Under James II. - - 173 

William HI. - - 373 

Anne ... 2 g^ 
George I. in 1711 - 206 

George II. in 1734 - 208 

1746 - 276 



George III. 1764 - 343 

1801 - 787 



NA^AL tlTERATURE. 43 

fortant service. The recent conduft of maritime war, has been 
crowned with distinguished success ; and whilst the Admirals must 
fee allowed to rival any names in naval history, ancient or modern, the 
fame of SPENCER has become as dear to patriotism as to literature." 

We shall contrast this interesting sketch of the progress of the 
British Navy, with the account given of the French navy, in the 
political geography of that country. 

*' The maritime power of France \vas formidabl -^en 'o England, 
till the battle of La Hogtie, since which the Briticr- fiag 1 rs reigned 
triumphant on the ocean, and the struggles of France, though often 
energetic, have encountered the fixer] destiny of inevitable defeat. So 
frequent, fatal, and decisive, have been the recent humiliations of the 
French navy, that hardly the semblance of a fleet could be presented, 
except by the constrained assistance of Spain. About twenty ships 
of the line constitutes the maritime power of France, not being above 
one quarter of its former extent. Nor can the loss be easily re- 
deemed, for though ships may be bought or constru&ed, it must be 
the labour of many yeais to form a numerous body of experienced 
seamen." 

The islands in the Pacific Ocean are classed by Mr. Pinkerton 
tinder two new divisions, Australasia and Polynesia*, which he con- 
ten is, with a good deal of ingenious argument and learned reference, 
ought to be admitted to the dignity of geographical divisions of the 
earth. But we think it most probable, as he himself allows in his 
preliminary observations, that the popular division of the four quar- 
ters of the globe, w ill continue to predc'niaate over any scientific 
discussion. According to his arrangement, vv'.-ich we highly ap- 
prove of, though we doubt its general adoption, the length of 
Australasia may be computed from 9$. east longitude, to 185. that 

* Though some recent German geographers have considered Australasia and 
Polynesia, as -synonymous terms, v.-e .igree \vith our author, that it seems pre- 
ferable to consider them (if we ;;dn:ic them at ill), as names describing two 
great and distinct maritime divisions of the globe. Australasia can, with no 
degree of propriety, be applied to islands (hat extend thirty degrees to the north 
of the equator, being on the contrary stridly connected with A position, at 
least to the south of the line. Polynesia (which is formed of a compound 
Greek term, signifying many islands], would, therefore, be more proper as a 
general appellation, but cannot with cijual justice be applied to New Holland, 
supposed to be a continent, and the circumadjacent islands, which are distin- 
guished by their size, not their number; while in Polynesia, as here acceprcd, 
the characteristic feature consists in small islands. Australasia recalls to mind 
the Terra Australis, which Cook and other navigators have sought for iu vain, 
and which, if it exists, is probably out of the reach of navigation, on account of 
the ice that surrounds the south pole. 



44 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

is, 90. in lat. 30. or nearly 5000 G. miles ; while the breadth, lat. 3. 
north, to lat. 50. south, will be near 3180 G. miles. Within these 
boundaries are contained, 

1 . The immense island, or rather continent, of New Holland, and 
any isles which may be discovered in the adjacent Indian ocean, 
twenty degrees to the West, and between twenty and thirty degrees 
to the east. 

2. Papua, or New Guinea. 

3. New Britain and New Ireland, with the Solomon Isles. 

4. New Caledonia, and the New Hebrides. 

5. New Zealand. 

6. The large island called Van Dieman's Land, recently discovered 
to be separated from New Holland by a strait or rather channel, called 
Bass's Strait. 

The boundaries of Polynesia are thus described, " Aline passing 
due north, in the meridian of 130. east from Greenwich, will leave 
the Phillippine islands in the Oriental Archipelago, divided by a wide 
sea from the Pelew islands, the most western groupe of Polynesia, 
though a few small detached isles appear to the S. W. About 20. 
north lat. the line of demarcation bends N. E. so as to include the 
Isle of Todoslos Santos, and that called Rica de Plata, thence pro- 
ceeding east so as to include the Sandwich islands, and pass south 
about long. 122. west, till it reach the southern latitude of 50. 
where it turns to the west, and joins the boundary of Australasia." 

It is probable that future -navigations may greatly improve and 
enlarge the geography of Polynesia, by the discovery of new groups, 
and the more accurate arrangement of those already known. At 
present the following appear to be the chief subdivisions : 

1 . The Pelew Islands. 

2. The Ladrones, a chain extending in a northerly direction, the 
small islands in the Pacific, seeming to be mostly the summits of 
ranges or groups of mountains. 

3. The Carolines, a long range from east to west, so as perhaps, in 
stri&ness, to include the Pelews. 

4. The Sandwich Isles. 

5. The Marquesas. 

6. The Society Isles, so named in honour of the Royal Society. 

7. The Friendly Isles. 

There are be&idts many isles scattered in different directions, which 
would be difficult to connetl with any group, and indeed none of 
them, yet discovered, appear to be of any consequence. 



C 45 3 

NAUTICAL OBSERVATIONS 

DURING 

A VOYAGE TO THE ISLE OF FRANCE, 

BY I. H. B, DE ST. PIERRE. 



npHE trade winds, though in general regular and uniform in the 
* main sea, are, notwithstanding, variable along the coast, and in 
the neighbourhood of the islands. 

There is a breeze off the land almost every night, along the shores 
of the great continent. This wind blowing in a different direction 
from the sea breeze, brings the clouds together into one long motion- 
less range, which vessels rarely fail seeing as they approach the land. 

It is in general stormy near the coast, especially in the neighbour- 
hood of the islands. The winds in these parts vary much. At the 
Canaries, the S. and S. E. winds blow sometimes for eight days suc- 
cessively. 

About twenty-eight degrees north latitude, we first meet with the 
trade winds, but they seldom continue so far as the line. An 
experienced seaman has given me the following account of the ceasing 
of the trade winds, which he has with much labour collected from 
more than two hundred and fifty journals of this voyage : 

In January, between six and four degrees of north latitude. 

In February, between five arid three degrees. 

In March and April, between five and four degrees. 

In May, between six and four degrees. 

In June, in the tenth degree. 

In July, in the twelfth degree. 

And during the months of October, November, and December, 
they blow as far as the line. 

There is a difference between the trade and general winds ; the 
trade winds particularly, south of the line, where we commonly find 
the winds variable and stormy. What are called general winds extend 
much farther than the trade, even as far as twenty eight degrees south. 
Beyond which latitude the winds vary more than in the seas of Eu- 
rope, and the higher the latitude the more variable they are ; blowing 
generally from the N. to N. W. and from the N. W. to the S. S. W. 
When they get round to the S, a calm succeeds. 



4 NAUTICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Near the Cape of Good Hope, S. E. and E. S. E. winds are fre* 
quently met with. It is a general maxim to keep to the windward of 
the place intended to be made ; yet not too much, as the ship would 
then make too much leeway. It is best to cross the line as much to 
the eastward as possible. 

The following account of the island of Ascension, from 
the same work, will probably be agreeable to some of our 
readers, on account of the vivacity with which it is written. 

A S W. wind, and a fine sea, constantly carried us before it very 
pleasantly, till we got to the island of Ascension. We were ner.r its 
latitude March zoth, 8 deg. S. but we had taken it too much east- 
ward. We were obliged to run down the longitude, our intention 
being to anchor there, and catch some turtle. 

On the morning of the 2zd, we had sight of it. This island is 
visible at the distance of ten leagues, though scarcely a league and a 
half over. One can distinguish a pointed hill, called the Green 
Mountain. The rest of the island is formed of small black and red 
hills, and the pieces of rock near the sea were quite white with the 
dung of bird*. 

In proportion to the nearness of your approach, the more horrid 
the landscape appears. We coasted along shore, in order to anchor 
on the north-west side of the island ; and at the foot of the black hills, 
we perceived an appearance like the ruins of an immense city. They 
were sunken rocks, which have proceeded from an ancient volcano ; 
they are scattered all over the plair, and as far as the aea, in strange 
irregular shapes. The shore hereabouts is composed of them. Some 
are formed like pyramids, others like grottos, half finished arches ; 
the waves break against them ; one while they flow over them, and 
in running down again, cover them with a kind of table cloth of 
foam ! then finding fiat pieces raised high, and full of holes, they 
beat against them underneath, and throw up long water-spouts of 
various forms. 

The shores here are all black and white, and were almost covered 
v:;th sea fowl. A nnmber of frigate birds hovered about our rigging, 
where they were taken by the seamen. Having anchored in the 
evening at the entrance of the great bay, I went into the boat with 
the men who were to catch turtle. The landing place is at the foot 
of a mass of rocks, which is seen from the anchorage at the extremity 
of the bay, on the right side. We got out upon a large sand, which 
is white, mixed with grains of red, green, and other colours, like that 



ACCOUNT OP ASCENSION ISLAND. 47 

kind of aniseed called mignonette. Some paces from hence we found a 
little grotto, and in it a bottle, in which the ships who touch there 
put letters. They break the bottle, and having read the letters, put 
them into another, or forward them to their destination. 

Walking forward to a little plain, about fifty paces behind the rock, 
the ground broke to pieces under our feet, and appeared as if it had 
been a covering of snow. I tasted some of it, and it was salt, which 
I thought rather remarkable, there being no appearance of the sea 
coming so high. 

Having brought wood with us, and a kettle, we took some refresh- 
ment, and the sailors laid down on the sail of the boat in expectation 
of night. It is about eight in the evening only that the turtles come 
on shore. The people were laying here at their ease, when one of 
them jumping up, called out in a great fright, a dead man, a dead 
man. The matter was this, by a little cross, placed on a small hill of 
sand, we perceived that some person had been buried there. The 
man had laid down upon this place without thinking ; but not one 
of them would stay here a moment after this discovery, and we were 
obliged to comply with their humour, and remove about a hundred 
yards from the spot. The moon rising now, began to diffuse a light 
over this dreary solitude, which, unlike agreeable views, so often im. 
proved and rendered more soft and pleasing by her mild radiance, 
appeared only so much more horrible and dismal. We were at the 
foot of the Black Hill, at the top of which we could see a large cross, 
put up, as we supposed, by some sailors, who had been there. Before 
us, the plain was covered with rocks, from which rose an infinite 
number of points, about the height of a man. A sparkling was 
occasioned on the top of these points by the moon, arid they were 
whitened by the dung of the birds that had rested on them. These 
white heads upon black bodies, the one of which were upright, the 
other sloping, appeared like ghosts wandering among tombs. The 
most profound silence reigned in this dismal region : a silence, now 
and then only interrupted and rendered more horrid by the dashing 
of the sea on the beach, or the cry of a stray frigate bird, frighted at 
the sight of man. 

On the edge of the bay, we lay upon our bellies, waiting for 
turtle, and maintaining the most cautious silence, as this animal flk 
at the least noise. At last we saw three come out of the water ; they 
appeared like black clouds creeping along the sand. We ran to the 
first, but our impatience occasioned our losing it, she went down the 
beach again, and swam away. The second was advanced farther, and 
could not escape, but was thrown upon its back. In the course of" 



the night, and near the same spot, we turned about fifty, some of 
which weighed about 500 weight. 

Holes were dug all over the shore, where the turtle had lain so 
many as even 300 eggs, and had covered thenvwith sand, where they 
were left to be hatched by the sun. 

A turtle, killed by the sailors, was now made soup of, after which 
I laid me down in the grotto where the letters are deposited, that I 
might enjoy the shelter of the rock, the murmuring of the sea, and 
the softness of the sand. I ordered a sailor to fetch me rriy wrap- 
ping gown ; but he dared not go by himself past the place where the 
man had been buried. 

On awaking after a very comfortable sleep, I found a scorpion and 
some crabs at the entrance of my cave. On the island I saw no other 
herb than a species of milk thistle, or celandine. Its juice was milky 
and very bitter. The herbage and animals were worthy of the 
country they were in ! 

I made a shift to scramble up the side of one of the hills, the earth 
of which resounded under my feet. It was a perfect cinder, of a 
reddish colour, and salt. From hence, perhaps, proceeds the little 
covering of salt upon the shore where we spent the night. A boaby 
came, and alighted on the ground a little way from me. I presented 
the end of my cane to him, and he took it in his bill without at- 
tempting to fly away. 

These birds easily suffer themselves to be caught, as will every 
other species unused to the society of mankind ; a proof, this, that 
there is a sort of good-will and confidence, natural in all animals 
towards those creatures which they do not think mischievous. Birds 
have no fear of oxen. A number of frigate birds were killed by our 
sailors, for the sake of a piece of fat that is round their necks. They 
think it a specific for the gout, because this bird is so swift: but 
Nature, which has annexed this evil to our intemperance, has not 
placed the remedy for it in our cruelty. 

The shaUop lay to, about ten in the morning, to fetch the turtles 
on board. As the surf ran high, she anchored at a distance, and 
drew them on board with a rope. We were employed on thii 
ttdious business all the day. In the evening the turtles that were not 
worth taking, were thrown int.o the sea again. When they have been 
long upon their backs, their eyes grow red as a cherry, and stand out 
of their head. There were many on the shore that had been left by 
other ships to die in this situation ; a negligence altogether un- 
pardonable. 



49 3 



EPILOGUE TO 
STREANSHALL ABBEY, 

A TRAGEDY. 

J8y FRANCIS GIBSON, Esj. F.4.S. 

*TPHUS hath our Bard, with pencil dipp'd in gore. 

And hand advcnt'ious, sketched days of yore. 
When, clad in steel, amidst surrounding foe*,, 
To save his country, Royal Alfred rose, 
He who the olive round his sword ent'.vin'd, 
The mildest, wisest, bravest of mankind 4 
Who fram 'd those laws that tyranny restrain, 
And bade Biitannia rule the azure main : 
Whom warm imagination, from the sky, 
occs on his Albion fix'd his awful eye, 
That views the bolt launch'd forth on faithless foes, 
By those who from h>:> bright example rose, 
Who in his Country's bosom plac'd his throne, 
And made his people's happiness hi- own. 

Long shall her gallant HOWE Britannia mourn, 
And palms eternal flourish round Lis urn : 
He who on high her crimson standard bore, 
The Father of her Navy now ,no naore ! 
Yet still the tears of grateful Albion flow, 
And memory embalms the name of HOWE : 
No monument he needs, while Calpe's towers 
Frown stern defiance to Iberia's powe. E : 
While glowing Phoebus shines on Biscay's Bay, 
Still shall his Country hail the glorious day. 
When Neptune gave the trident to his hand, 
And bade him ocean's utmost bounds command, 
Fix on the sea-girt rock his Sovereign's throne, 
And with Britannia's honours mix his own. 

Glory, beam forth ! again thy rays be shed, 
With dazzling lustre round ST. VJN CENT'S head, 
He, who despising numbers on the main, 
"With British thunder shook the shores of Spain, 

*5at>XT$ron. cttoI.VIII. H 



r JOETRY. 

Where Gades saw her floating bulwarks fall. 
And mourn'd, too late, alliance with the Gaul. 

Nor WARREN, shall thy fame remain unsung, 
While Eirin's harp shall be to valour strung ; 
Though wint'iy skies, with misty horrors frown'd, 
Still did thy squadron form her strongest mound. 

No longer treason's standard mocks the wind. 
But Britain's sons, invincibly combin'd, 
Saw crimson victory her hero crown, 
On that proud day the day of Camperdown, 
When, with Batavia's standard, DUNCAN bore 
Eight floating trophies to Britannia's shore. 

See ! by the sulph'rous flash, 'midst cannons' roar, 
An armed ghost majestic stalk the shore ; 
Its awful brows with blooming laurel crown'd, 
An eye that casts terrific glare around, 
View on his helm the eagle's plumage gleam, 
When god-like he subdu'd the Granic stream ; 
Bursting the cearments of his marble tomb, 
Great Alexander rises through the gloom, 
And 'midst contending storms of hostile fire, 
Beholds the hopes of haughty Gaul expire ; 
While Fame, from Pompey's column sends the sound 
Of British triumph to the shores around, 
And rising bright through thick'ning smoke and flame, 
To future ages wafts a NELSON'S name. 
Now chilling blasts deform the parting year, 
And sable clouds o'erspread our hemisphere ; 
From Hope's fair tree that lately brav'd the sky, 
Bow'd by the storm, the scatter'd blossoms fly, 
Yet still the trunk remains, and genial spring, 
With tepid breath, fresh flowers and fruits may bring. 

Long shall the British Muse with tearful strains 
Embalm her sons who fell on Belgia's plains ; 
Though angry skies and' adverse fortune frown'dj 
Yet honour still their daring effoits crown'd ; 
And Britain hails returning to her strand, 
Th/ illustrious Chieftain and his valiant band. 



POETRY. 51 

O ! may our foes, of transient triumphs vain, 
Bid their united navies plough the main ; 
Soon shall our rubid cross exalted fly, 
And English oak their utmost powers defy : 
Again her vengeful thunder on them hurl'd, 
Our Albion shall command the wat'ry world. 

HOISTING THE SAILS. 

FROM BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER. 

LAY her before the wind, up with your canvas, 
And let her work, the wind begins to whistle ; 
Clap all her streamers on, and let her dance, 
As if she were the minion of the ocean. 
Let her bestride the billows, till they roar, 
And curl their wanton heads. 

The day grows fair and clear, and the wind courts uf 
O ! for a lusty sail now, to give chase to, 
A stubborn bark, that would but bear up to us, 
And change a broadside bravely ! 
^-^-^< 

A BRAVE PIRATE. 

FROM THE SAME. 

THIS element never nourish 'd such a pirate j 
So great, so fearless, and so fortunate, 
So patient in his want, in aft so valiant. 
Kow many sail of well-maun'd ships before us, 
As the Bonucodoes the flying fish, 
Have we pursued and scour'd, that, to outstrip us, 
They have been fain to hang their very shirts on ! 
What gallies have we bang'd, and sunk, and taken, 
Whose only fraughts were fire and stern defiance, 
And nothing spoke but bullet in all these. 
How like old Neptune have I seen our General, 
Standing in the poop, and tossing his steel trident, 
Commanding both the sea and winds to serve him ! 

SMALL BOAT PURSUED BY A SHIP IN A STORM. 

FROM THE SAME. 



AT sea, 



Jn out escape, where the proud waves took pleasure 
To toss my little boat up l.-ke a bubble, 
(Then like a meteor in the air it hung !) 



Then catch'd, and flung him in the depth of darknesr?' 
The cannon from my incensed father's ship 
Ringing our knell ; and still, as we pecp'd upward, 
Beating the i aging surge with fire and bullet ! 

^^"^* 

DRINKING COMPARED TO A VOYAGE AT SEA 

FROM COVTLEY. 



up, my mates, the winds do- fairly blowy 
-s Clap on more sail, and never spare ;. 

Farew-rH; alMatids, for now we are 
In the wide sea of drink, and merrily we go. 

Bless me, 'tis hot ! another bowl of wine, 

And we shall cut the burning line ; 
Hey boys I she scuds away ! and by my head I know*- 
We round the world are sailing now. 

What dull men are those, that tarry at home, 

When abroad they might wantonly roam, 

And gain- such experience, and spy too 

Such countreys and wonders as 1 do ! 
But pri'thee, good pilot, take heed' what you do 
And fail not lo touch at Peru ; 

With gold there the vessel we'll store, 

And never, and never be poor, 

No, never be poor any more. 

*s*^r*^ 

LINES 

n the Chair made out of Sir FRANCIS DRAKE'S Slip * t prtttxtidt* 
the Univcrnty of Oxford, by JOHN DAVIS, of Deptford, Esq. 

FROM COWtEY. 

HP O this great shipv which round the globe has run , 
* And match'd in race the chariot of the sun, 
This Pythagorean ship (for it may claim, 
Without presumption, so deserv'd a name, 
By knowledge once, and transformation, now)* 
In her r.ew shapes this sacred port allow. 
Drake, and his ship, could not have vmh'd from fats 
A more blest station, or more blest estate. 
For lo ! a seat of endless rest is given^ 
To her in Oxford, and to him in heaven. 

* Seep. 38, VoL VI. of the Natal Chronicle* 



POETRY. J 

(THE name of ANDREW MARVELL is still mentioned with honour j 
but he is chiefly remembered as a patriot, and a iw>; his poetry, 
tender, delicate, and often sublime, through a strange neglect, 
in the present day having become almost forgotten, we venture 
to lay before our readers his highly affecting and grand descrip- 
tion of the circumstances of the death of the brave Captain Douglas, 
(from a poem entitled The Loyal Scot'), who was burned in 
his ship at Chatham, on the memorable day when the Dutch 
fleet sailed up the Medway. At this time he commanded the 
Royal Oak, and notwithstanding he defended his ship with the 
most extraordinary resolution, the Dutch were too successful in 
their attempts to destroy her. When the ship was completely in 
flames, Captain Douglas was advised to retire, and though he had 
an easy opportunity of escaping, he magnanimously preferred to 
perish with his ship. " Never iuas it known," ^aid he, *' that' 
* Douglas quitted bis post without orders.'"'] 

THE fatal bark him boards with grappling fire, 
And safely through its port the Dutch retire. 
That precious life he yet disdains to save, 
Or with known art to try the gentle wave. 
Much him the honour of his ancient race 
Tnspir'di nor would he his own deeds deface ; 
And secret joy in his calm eoul does rise, 
That Monl: looks on to see how Douglas dies. 
Like a glad lover the fierce flames he meets, 
And tries his first embraces in their sheets. 
His shape exad, which the bright flames infoM, 
Like the sun's statue stands of burnish'd gold. 
Round the transparent fire about him glows, 
As the clear amber on the bees does close; 
And, as on angels' heads their glories shine, 
His burning locks adorn his face divine. 
But when, in his immortal mind he felt 
His altering form, and soderM limbs to melt, 
Down on the deck he lay'd himself, and died, 
With his dear sword reposing by his side ; 
And on the flaming plank so rests his head, 
As one that warm'd himself and went to bed. 
His ship burns down, and with his relicks sinks, 
And the sad stream beneath, his, ashes drinks. 
Fortunate boy ! if cither pencil's fame, 
Or if my verse can propagate thy name, 
When (Eta and Alcides arer forgot, 
Our English youth shall sing the Valiant Scot, 



f 14 3 

PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS 

AND USEFUL NAVAL PROJECTS. 

~t_ 

PREMIUMS offered by ^SOCIETY, instituted at London, jbr tie rt- 
couragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, for the Tear 1802. 

E lament that out of one hundred and eighty one 
subjects for which the Society has offered premiums, 
tve have been able only to select the following, as connected 
with the design of the Naval Chronicle. As well-wishers to 
Cvery thing that can tend to the benefit of our Country, to 
the improvement of Agriculture, the perfection of the Arts, 
or the extension of Commerce, we give the Society ample 
credit for their laudable exertions to promote those objects ; 
but at the same time we cannot help expressing a wish that 
more premiums had been offered for the benefit of the 
maritime service. We admit that of late years great improve- 
ments have taken place in every branch of naval detail: the 
scurvy, which formerly committed such ravages in our fleets, 
is now disarmed of its violence, and the chances of mortality 
are scarcely increased by the longest voyages. But much 
may yet be added to the comforts and safety of navigators, 
and we shall be happy to find, on a future occasion, that 
these important subjects occupy a larger share of the attention 
of the Society. 

The chief objects of the Society are to promote the Arts, 
Manufactures, and Commerce of this kingdom, by giving 
rewards for all such useful discoveries, inventions, and im- 
provements (though not mentioned in their list of pre- 
miums \ as tend to that purpose, and in pursuance of this plan, 
the Society have already expended near fifty thousand pounds, 
advanced by voluntary subscriptions of their members, and 
legacies bequeathed. 

Preserving salted Provisions from becoming rancid or rusty 
TO the person who shall discover to the Society the best, cheapest, 
and most efficacious method of preserving salted provisions from 



PREMIUMS OFFERED BT THE SOCIETY OF ARTS. 5J 

growing rancid or rusty ; the gold medal, or thirty guineas. A full 
description of the method, with proper certificates, that it has been 
found, on repeated trials, to answer the purpose intended, to be 
produced to the Society, on or before the first Tuesday in February 
1803. 

Substitute for Tar. 

To the person who shall invent and discover to the Society the best 
substitute for Stockholm tar, equal in all its properties to the best of 
that kind, and prepared from materials the produce of Great Britain ; 
the gold medal, or one hundred guineas. A quantity of the substi- 
tute, not less than 100 weight, with certificates that at least one ton 
has been manufactured, and that it can be afforded at a price not 
exceeding that of the best foreign tar, together with an account of the 
process, to be delivered to the Society on or before the first Tuesday 
in March 1803. 

Preserving Irott from Rutt. 

To the person who shall invent and discover to the Society a cheap 
composition, superior to any now in use, which shall effectually pre- 
serve wrought iron from rust, the gold medal, or fifty guineas. A 
full description of the method for preparing the composition, with 
certificates that it has stood at least two years unimpaired, being 
exposed to the atmosphere during the whole time, to be produced 
to the Society, with ten pounds weight of the composition, on or 
before the first Tuesday in January 1803. 

Taking Porpoiset. 

To the people in any boat or vessel, who, in the year 1802, shall 
take the greatest number of porpoises on the coast of Great Britain, 
by gun, harpoon, or any other method, not fewer than thirty, for 
the purpose of extracting oil from them ; the gold medal, or thirty 
pounds. Certificates of the number, signed by the persons to whom 
they have been sold or delivered for the purpose of extracting the 
oil, to be produced to the Society on or before the fivst Tuesday in 
January 1803. 

Transit Instrument, 

To the person who shall invent and produce to the Society, a cheap 
and pottable transit instrument, which may easJly be converted iijtc 
a zenith sector, capable of being accurately and expeditiously adjusted 
for the purpose of finding the latitudes and longitudes of places, and 
superior to any portable transit ins'.rument now in use j the gold 
medal, or forty guineas. To be produced ou or before the last 
Tuesday in January 1803. 



NAVAL SCHOOL AT BREMEN. 



CURING the American war, and particularly during the last 
war, the trade and shipping of Bremen had so rapidly increased, 
that a sufficient number of natives was wanting to take the command 
of and navigate the merchants' ships, which it was necessary to intrust 
to the care of strangers from the neighbouring part of the HaHQ- 
veriari territory and Oldenburg. In order to free themselves from 
this disagreeable dependence, and the dangerous consequences there- 
from arising, several patriotic citizens subscribed, in 1799, a consider- 
able sum, for the purpose of instituting a public naval school, in 
which the children of burghers who wished to devote themselves to 
the sea service, should be inttru&ed gratis. The plan Is as follows r 
fourteen youths receive lessons in arithmetic, geometry, rectilinear, 
and spherical trigonometry, mathematical geography, and spherical 
astronomy, three days in the week, three hours each day ; the course 
of lectures to be concluded in one year. Those who ate already 
engaged as sailors on board of the ships belonging to Bremen, are, 
during their residence on shore, taught, at distinct hours, whatever 
is necessary to render them skilful, able navigators ; the instruction, 
being renewed as often as they return to port, till they receive from 
the master of the school, a testimonial of their being sufficiently 
instructed. The pupils are likewise exercised in writing letters, 
reports, &c. in the German and French languages ; and a drawing- 
master is appointed to teach them in the art of laying down plans of 
harbours, coasts, &c. the knowledge of which cannot fail to prove of 
the greatest use. The dire&ors of the Institute have likewise been 
enabled by the liberal contributions of the subscribers, to procure a 
large complete model of a ship, by means of which an experienced 
eeaman makes his scholars acquainted with the construction, use, and 
management of its various parts; and to this practical exercise is 
added, a developement of the theory of naval architecture and 
manoeuvres. And as no proper elementary book of navigation existed 
in the German language, Mr. Braubach, who has been appointed the 
teacher in that science, undertook to write one, which has been printed 
at the expence of the Institute, and met with the general approbation 
of those be.t qualified to judge of its merits. The first public ex- 
amination was held on the zjth of March, in the presence of 3 
numerous and most respeftable audience. They were much pleased 
with the progress of the scholars, who acquitted themselves in a 
tr equally honourable to themselves and their worthy instrii&or, 
2 



ACCOUNT OF THE NAVIGATION ACT.' 57 

The soltmnity closed with the distribution of four English octants, as 
prizes, to those who had particularly distinguished themselves. All the 
youths have since been sent to sea as supernumeraries, in order to learrt 
the practical part of their profession, and fit themselves to take the 
command of a ship. Each is furnished with a chart> a French and 
German grammar, and three blank-paper books to write their 
journals in. 

This naval school will probably become the mother of other similar 
ones, as the Prussian Minister Von Massow and Count Von Schulen- 
burg, intend to establish others in Dantzic and Elbing, and have for 
that purpose sent to Bremen for a plan of the Institution. 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE NAVAL CHRONICLE. 
SIR, 

/CONCEIVING it a subjeft intimately connected with 
the design of your valuable publication, I se"nd you a 
short account of the famous Navigation. Act. The value of 
this most salutary legislative measure^ has been so justly 
appreciated by politicians of every class, that any praise of 
mine would be superfluous It is scarcely advancing too 
much to say, that to it we are indebted for the dominion of 
the sea, our widely extended commerce, and perhaps our 
existence as an independent nation. The speedy insertion cf 
tli is article will oblige 

Your obedient servant, 
Differs Commons, July to, i8oi. T. B. 

ACCOUNT OF THE NAVIGATION ACT; 

THE Royal Navy of England (says Sir William Blackstone) hath 
ever been its greatest defence and ornament ; it is its ancient and 
Natural strength ; the floating bulwark of the island; an army, frorn 
which, however strong and powerful, no danger can ever be appre- 
hended to liberty ; and accordingly it has been assiduously cultivated* 
tv-en from the earliest ages. To so mttch pcrfectidri was our naval 
reputation arrived in the twelfth century, that the code of maritime 1 
laws, Which are called the laws of Oleron, .and are received by all the 
nations in Jiurope, as the ground and substruction of all their marine 
constitutions, was confessedly compiled by our King Richard the 
First, at the Isle of Oleron on the coast of France, then part of the 



$ ACCOUNT or THE- NATJCATION ICCTi 

possession* of the Crown of England. And yet, so vastly inferror 
were our ancestors in this point to the present age, that even in the 
maritime reign of Queen Elizabeth, Sir Edward Coke thinks it 
matter of boast, that the Royal Navy of England then consisted of 
three and thirty ships. The present condition of our marine k in a 
great measure owing to the salutary provisions of the statutes, called- 
the Navigation Aft ; whereby the constant increase of English 
tbipping and seamen was not only encouraged, but rendered un- 
avoidably necessary. By the statute 5 Ric. 2. c. 3. in order to aug- 
ment the navy of England, then greatly diminished, it was ordained, 
that none of the king's liege people should ship any merchandize 
out of or into the realm, but only in ships of the king's liegance, on 
pain of forfeiture. In the next year, by statute 6 Ric. 2. c. 8. this 
wise provision was enervated, by only obliging the merchants to give 
English ships (if able and sufficient), the preference. But the most 
beneficial statute for the trade and commerce of these kingdoms is 
that Navigation Adi, the rudiments of which were first framed in 
1650, with a narrow partial view: being intended to mortify the 
sugar islands, which were disaffefted to the Parliament, and still held 
out for Charles II. by stopping the gainful trade which they then 
carried on with the Dutch ; and at the same time to clip the wings of 
those our opulent and aspiring neighbours. This prohibited all ships 
of foreign nations fro:n trading with any English plantations, with- 
out licence from the Council of State. In 1651, the prohibition was 
extended also to the mother country ; and no goods were suffered to 
be imported into England, or any of its dependencies, in any other 
than English bottoms ; or in ships of that European nation, of which 
the merchandize imported was the genuine growth and manufa&ure. 
At the Restoration, the former provisions were continued, by statute 
12 Charles 2. c. 18. with this very material improvement, that the 
master and three-fourths of the mariners shall also be English sub- 
ject. 

The following are the principal provisions of this famous 
Aft: 

First, All ships, of which, the owners, masters, and three-fourth? 

of the nuriners, are not British subjects, are prohibited, upon pain of 

forfeiting ship and cargo, from trading to the British settlements and 

.u^us, or from beig employed in the coasting trade of Great 

Britain. 

Secondly, A groat variety of the most'bulky articles of importation 
can be brought into Great Britain only, either in such ships as are 
sbofc described, or in ships of the country where those goods ara 



COMMERCIAL HSN'TS, RECOLLECTIONS, SfC. 59 

produced, and of which the owners, masters, and three- fourths of the 
mariners, are of that particular country ; and when imported even in 
ships of this latter kind, they are subject to double alien duty. If 
imported in ships of any other country, the penalty is forfeiture of 
ship and goods. When this aft was made, the Dutch were the great 
carriers of Europe, and by this regulation they were entirely excluded 
from being the carriers to Great Britain, or fiom importing to us the 
goods of any other European country. 

Thirdly, A great variety of the most bulky articles of importation 
are prohibited from being imported, even in British ships, from any- 
country but that in which they are produced, under pain of forfeit- 
ing ship and cargo. 

This regulation too was probably intended against the Dutch. 
Holland was then the great emporium of all European goods, and by 
this regulation, British ships were hindered from loading in Holland 
the goods of any other European* country.. 

Fourthly, Salt-tibh of all kinds, whale fins, whale bone, oil, and 
blubber, not caught by and cured.. on board British vessels, when im- 
ported into Great Britain, are subjected to double aliens duty. 

The Dutch were then the only fishers in Europe, that attempted to 
supply foreign nations with fish. By this regulation a very heavy 
duty was laid upon their supplying Great Britain. 

By what has been stated it appears, that the Adi: of Navigation 
very properly endeavours to give to the sailors and shipping of Great 
Britain the monopoly of the trade of their own country, in some cases 
by absolute prohibitions, and in others by heavy burdens upon the 
shipping of foreign countries. Some of the regulations of this cele- 
brated act have, doubtless, proceeded from national animosity ; but 
they are as wise, as if they had all been dictated by the most deliberate 
wisdom. National animosity at that particular time aimed at the 
very same objeft which the most deliberate wisdom would have re- 
commended, the diminution of the naval power of Holland, the only 
naval power which could endanger the safety of England. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, & c . 

MANTSF JN GUKGITE VASTO ! 



ANECTOTB OF THE LATE SIR SA-MUEL CORNISH. 

TT is well known that The late Admiral Sir Samuel Cornish rose 

solely by his merit, from a very low situation in life, to a high 

command in the Navy, If his abilities as an Admiral were un- 



OO COMMERCIAL H1KTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &t. 

doubled* his acquisitions as a scholar were hut few. At the t\iv 
reader of Manilla, in 1/63, his colleague, Colonel Draper, afterward* 
Sir William, who was one of the most accomplished scholars of his 
age, and prided himself highly on his literary attainments, carried on 
all the negotiations relative to the ransom of the city, 'in the Latin 
language, with the Spanish Archbishop. On the shameful evasion of 
the payment of this ransom, Admiral Cornish declarer), that he would 
nver accept a command again in conjunction with a man who under^ 
stood Latin. 

HINTS RESPECTING BUOYS. 

BUOYS were first laid down at the entrance of the river Thames in 
1538. They were then nearly of the same construction that they 
are at present ; a very faulty construction, as in stormy weathtr they 
are frequently removed, which occasions the loss of many lives and 
vessels. During a period of upwards of two hundred and sixty years, 
very little improvement has taken place in the system of buoyage, 
though much has been done for every other branch of navigation. 
We recommend this subject to the consideration of the Society for 
the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. A few 
premiums for buoys, on improved principles, might be attended with, 
happy consequences to navigation. 

LORD ANSON. 

AS to his natural disposition, Lord Anson was cool, calm, and 
steady, but it is reported, that our honest, undesigning seaman was 
frequently a dupe at play, and it was wittily observed of him that he 
had been round the world, but never in it. 

ANECDOTE OF ADMIRAL BENBOW. 

JN the year 1686, Captain Benbow, in his own vessel the Ben- 
bow frigate, was attacked in his passage to Cadiz, by a Sallee rover, 
against which he defended himself, though very unequal in the num- 
ber of men, with the utmost bravery, till at last the Moors boarded 
him, but were quickly beat out of his ship again, with the loss of 
thirteen men, whose heads Captain Benbow ordered to be cut off, and 
thrown into a tub of pork pickle. When he arrived at Cadiz he 
went on shore, and ordered a negro servant to follow him, with the 
Moors' heads in a sack. He had scarce landed, before the officers of 
the revenue enquired of his servant what he had got in his sack ? 
The Caplain answered, salt provisions for his own use. That may be, 
answered the officers, but we must insist upon seeing them. Captain 
Etnbow alleged that he was no stranger there ; that he did no* use 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 6l 

to run goods, and pretended to take it ill that he was suspected. The 
officers told him that the magistrates were sitting not far off, and that 
if they were satisfied with his word, his servant might carry the provi- 
eions where he pleased ; but that otherwise, it was not in their power 
to grant any such dispensation. 

The Captain consented to the proposal, and away they marched to 
the custom-house ; Mr. Benbow in the front, his man in the centre, 
and the officers in the rear. The magistrates, when he came before 
them, treated Captain Benbqw with great civility ; told him they were 
eorry to make a point of such a trifle ; but that, since he had refusect 
to show the contents of his sack to their officers, the nature of their 
employments obliged them to demand a sight of them ; and that, as 
they doubted not they were salt provisions, the showing of them 
could be of no great consequence, one way or other. ** I told you," 
said the Captain, sternly, " they were salt provisions for my own use ; 
Caesar, throw them down upon the table ; and gentlemen, if you like 
them, they are at your service." The Spaniards were extremely 
struck at the sight of the Moors' heads ; and no less astonished at 
the account of the Captain's adventure, who, with so small a force, had 
been able to defeat such a number of barbarians. 

ANECDOTE OF PETER THE GREAT. 

IN his passage from Holland in 1698, on board a British ship of 
war, commanded by Admiral Sir David Mitchell, his Czarish Ma- 
jesty asked the Admiral a variety of questions concerning the modes of 
punishing seamen in the British Navy. When the Admiral men- 
tioned keel-hauling, among many others, the Russian Sovereign desired 
it might be explained to him, not by words, but by experiment. This 
the Admiral declined, as not having then an offender who deserved 
correction; the Czar replied, " take one of my men." But Sir David 
informed him, that all on board his ship were under the protection 
of the laws of England, and he was accountable for every man there 
according to those laws ; upon which the monarch persisted no 
farther in his request. 

A FLOATING WRECK. 

From Sir PHILIP SIDNEY'S " Arcadia" 
Sidney, warbler of poetic prose. OJWPER'S TASK. 

WHEN they came so near, as their eyes were full masters of the 

pbjeft, they saw a sight full of piteous strangeness : a ship, or rather 

the carcase of the ship, or rather some few bones of the carcase, 

hulling there, part broken, part burned, part drowned } death having 

* 



6* COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTION'S, i'C. 

used more than one dart to that destruction. About it floated great 
store of very rich things, and many chests, which might promise no 
less. And amidst the precious things were a number of dead bodies, 
which likewise did not only testify both elements' violence, but that 
the chief violence was grown of human inhumanity : for their bodies 
. were full of grisly wounds, and their blood had, as it were, filled the 
wrinkles of the sea's visage ; which, it seemed, the sea would not wash 
away, that it might witness, it is not always his fault, when we con- 
demn his cruelty. In sum, a defeat, where the conquered kept both 
field and spoil : a shipwreck, without storm, or ill footing, and a 
waste of fire in the midst of the water. But a little way off they saw 
the mast, whose proud height now lay along, like a widow, having 
lost her mate, of whom she held her honour; but upon the mast 
they saw a young man (at least if he were a man), bearing show of 
about eighteen years of age, who sat (as on horseback), having 
nothing upon him but his shirt, which, being wrought with blue 
silk and gold, had a kind of resemblance to the sea, on which the 
sun (then near his western home), did shoot some of his beams. His 
hair (which the young men of Greece used to wear very long), was 
stirred up and down with the wind, which seemed to have a sport to 
'play with it, as the sea had to kiss his feet ; himself full of admirable 
beauty, set forth by the strangeness of his seat and gesture ; for 
holding his head up full of unmoved majesty, he held a sword aloft 
with his fair arm, which often he waved about his crown, as though be 
would threaten the world in that extremity. 

CHARACTER OF A BRITISH SAILOR. 

From GEORGE ALEXANDER STEVENS'S LeSure on Heads. 

HERE is the head of a British tar, and while England can man 
her navy with thousands of his spirits, Monsieur's threats are vain. 
Here is a man who despises danger, wounds, and death ; he fights 
with the spirit of a lion, and, as if (like a salamander), his element 
was fire, gets fresh courage as the aftion grows hotter ; he knows no 
disgiace like sti iking to the French flag ; no reward for past services 
so ample as a wooden leg ; no retreat so honourable as Greenwich 
Hospital. Contrast his behaviour with that of a French sailor, who 
jnust have a drawn sword over his head to make him stand to his gun, 
who runs trembling to the priest for an absolution, " Ah, monlonpere> 
a<vtK. pitit de moi," when he should look death in the face like a man. 
This brave tar saw the gallant Farmer seated on his anchor, his ship 
in a blaze, his eye fixed on the wide expanse of the waters round him, 
scorning to shrink, waiting with the calm firmness of a hero, for the 
moment when he was to die gloriously for the service of his country. 



A NARRATIVE OF THE 
HIOVIDENTIAL ESCAPE AND SUFFERINGS OP 

CAPTAIN BOYCE, 

WITH SOME PARTICULARS OF HIS LIFE. 



A T an early stage of our undertaking, we promised to fur- 
nish our readers, from time to time, with correct 
relations of shipwrecks and providential escapes of our 
intrepid mariners. This, though not the most agreeable 
part of our duty, may prove of great utility in future cases of 
danger, by showing that the severest difficulties are to be 
overcome, by patience, perseverance, and fortitude. . 

CAPTAIN Boyce, who for many years enjoyed the very ho- 
nourable situation of Lieutenant-Governor of Greenwich Hospital, 
and died in 1774, in the early part of his life was employed in the 
merchants' service. In the year 1727, he was- second mate of the 
Luxborough, a ship belonging to the South Sea Company. In 
that year the most terrible of all misfortunes befcl the above men- 
tioned vessel, of which and the subsequent distresses of the greater 
part of the unfortunate crew, we have the following highly interest- 
ing though melancholy account, from Captain Boyce himself: 

On the 23d day of May 1727, we sailed from Jamaica ; and on 
Sunday the 2jth day of June, were in the latitude of 41. 45. N, 
and in the longitude of 20. east from Crooked Island, when the galley- 
was perceived to be on fire in the lazaretto. It was occasioned by the 
fatal curiosity of two black boys, who, willing to know whether some 
liquor spilt on the deck was rum or water, put the candle to it, 
which rose into a flame, and immediately communicated itself to the 
barrel, from whence the liquor bad leaked. It had burned some 
time before it was perceived, as the boys were too much intimidated 
to discover it themselves, having tried all means to extinguish the 
fire in vain. We hoisted out the yaul, which was soon filied with 
twenty- three men and boys, who had jumped into her with the 
greatest eagerness. The wind now blowing very fresh, and she run- 
ning seven knots and a half by the log, we expected every moment to 
perish, as she was loaded within a streak and a half of her gunnel. We 
had not a morsel of victuals, nor a drop of water, no mast, no sail, 
no compass to direct our course, and above a hundred leagues from 
- :-y land. We left sixteen men in the ship who all p<yrishcd in her. 



64 PROVIDENTIAL ESCAPE OP CAPTAIN BOYtfB. 

They endeavoured to hoist out the long-boat, but before they could 
effect it, the flames reaching the powder-room, she blew up, and we 
saw her no more. A little before this we could distinguish the first 
mate and the Captain's cook in the mizen top, every moment expeft- 
ing the fate that awaited them. Having thus been eye-witnesses 
of the miserable fate of our companions, we expected every mo- 
ment to perish by the waves, or, if not by them, by hunger and 
thirst. On the two first days it blew and rained much ; but the 
weather coming fair on the third day, viz. the 28th, as kind Provi. 
deuce had hitherto wondet fully preserved us, we began to contrive 
means how to make a sail, which we did in the following manner : 
We took to pieces three mens frocks and a shirt, and with a sail- 
needle and twine, which we found in one of the black boy's pockets, 
we made a shift to sew them together, which answered tolerably well. 
Finding in the sea a small stick, we woulded it to a piece of a broken 
blade of an oar, that we had in the boat, and made a yard of it, which 
we hoisted on an oar with our garters for halyards and sheets. A 
thimble, which the fore-sheet of the boat used to be reeved through, 
served, at the end of the oar or mast, to reeve the halyards. Know- 
ing, from our observations, that Newfoundland bore about north, we 
steered as well as we could to the northward. We judged of our 
course by taking notice of the sun, and of the time of the day by the 
Captain's watch. In the night, when we could see the north star, or 
any of the great bear, we formed the knowledge of our course by 
them. We were in great hopes of seeing some ship or other to take 
us up. The fourth or fifth night, a man, Thomas Croniford, and 
the boy that unhappily set the ship on fire, died ; and in the after, 
noon of the next day, three more men, all raving mad, crying out 
miserably for water. The weather now proved so foggy, that it 
deprived us almost all day of the sight of the sun, and of the moon 
and stars by night. We used frequently to halloo as loud as we could, 
in hopes of being heard by some ship. In the day time our deluded 
fancies often imagined ships so plain to us that we have halloed out to 
ttem along time before we have been^ undeceived ; and in the night, 
by the same delusion, we have thought we heard men talk, bells ring- 
ing, dogs bark, cocks crow, &c. &c. and have condemned the phan- 
oms of our imagination (believing all to be real ships, men, &c.>, 
r not answering and taking us up. The seventh day we were 
duced to twelve in number, by death. The next night the wind 
cing about E. N. E. blew very hard, and the sea running high, we 
right before it, with our small sail half down, expeding every 
u-nt to be swallowed up by the waves. July the 5 th, Mr. Guish- 
net died ; and on the 6th died Mr. Steward (son of Dr. Steward, of 



PROVIBEKTIAt ESCAPE OF CAPTAIN BOYCE. 65 

Spanish Town, in Jamaica), and his servant, both passengers. In the 
afternoon we found a dead duck, which looked green, and not sweet. 
We eat it, however, very heartily (not without our thanks to the 
Almighty) ; and it is impossible for any body, except in the like 
unhappy circumstances, to imagine how pleasant it was to our palate 
at that time, which at another, would have been offensive both to our 
taste and smell. On the ;t!v day of July, at one in the afternoon, we 
saw land about six. leagues off. At four o'clock another man died, whom 
we threw overboard to lighten the boac. Our number was then, 
reduced to seven. We had often taken thick fog-banks for land, 
which as often had given us great joy and hopes, that vanished with 
them at the same time ; but when we really saw the land, it appeared 
so different from what we had so often taken for it, that we wondered 
how we could be so mistaken; and it is absolutely impossible for any 
man, not in our circumstances, to form an idea ot the joy and pleasure 
it gave us, when we were convinced of its reality. It gave us 
strength to row, which we had not for four days before ; and must 
infallibly most of us, if not all, have perished that very night, if w$ 
had not got on shore. Our souls exulted with joy and praises to our 
Almighty Preserver, Ai>out six o'clock we saw several shallops fish- 
ing, which we steered for, having a fine gale of wind right on shore. 
We went with sail and oars about three or four knots ; when we came 
SO near that we thought one of the shallops could hear us (being just 
under sail, and going in with their fiah), we halloed as loud as we 
i'ould : at length they heard us, and lowered thtir sail. When \ve ap- 
proached pretty near them, they hoisted it again, and were going 
away from us; but vre made so dismal and melancholy a noise, that 
they brought to, and took us in tow. They t>jid us that our aspects 
were so dreadful that they were frightened at us. They gave us some 
bread and water. We chewed the bread sir-all with our teeth, and 
then, by mixing it with water, got it down with difficulty. 

During our voyage in the boat, otu* mouths had b<.-en so dry, for 
want of moisture for several dsys, that we were obliged to wasli them 
with salt water every two or three hours, to prevent our lips glewing 
together. We always drank cur own water ; and all the people 
rirank salt water, except the Captain, guru-eon, and myself. In foggy 
weather the sail having imbibed some nurture, we used to wrir>g it 
juto a pewter bason, which we hnind in the boat, Having wrung it 
as dry as we could, we sucked it all over, and used to lick one an- 
other's clothes with our tongues. At length we were uMi-tc'., by 
inexpressible hunger and thirst, to eat a parf pf he bpdjts of six 

. <3ol. VIII, K. 



66 TROTIDBNTIAL ESCA?E OP CAPTAIN BOYCB. 

men, and drink the blood of four, for we had not, since we came from 
the ship, saved, only one time, about half a pint, and at another, 
about a wine glass full of water, each man, in our hats. A little 
food sufficing us, and finding the flesh very disagreeable, we confined 
ourselves to the hearts only. Finding ourselves now perishing with 
thirst, we \vere reduced to the melancholy, distressful, horrid aft of 
cutting the throats of our companions, an hour or two after they were 
o*ead, to procure their blood, which we caught in a pewter bason, 
each man producing about a quart. But let it be remembered in our 
defence, that without the assistance this blood afforded to nature, it 
was not possible that we could have survived to this time At about 
eight o'clock at night we got on shore ar Old St. Lawrence harbour, 
in Newfoundland, where we were kindly received by Captain Le- 
crass, of Guernsey or Jersey, then Admiral of the harbour. We were 
cautioned to eat and drink but little at fust, which we observed, as well 
as the infirmity of human nature, so nearly starving, would allow. 
We could sleep but little, the transports of our joy being too great to 
admit of it. Our Captain, who had been speechless thirty-six hours, 
died about five o'clock the next morning, and was buried, with all 
the honours that could be conferred upon him, at that place. 

After tViis follow the names of the persons who were burnt in the 
thip, of those who were starved to death in the boat, and those who 
lived to get on shore. From this it appears, that sixteen perished iq 
the ship, sixteen died of hunger, and only seven lived to get on shore, 
one of whom, the Captain, died a few hours afterwards. 

The boat, in which they reached Newfoundland, after traversing a, 
distance of upwards of a hundred leagues, was only sixteen feet long, 
five feet three inches broad, and two feet three inches deep. It wa$ 
built for the Luxborough, by Mr. Bradley, of Deal. 

After this disastrous voyage, Mr. Boyce entered into the Royal 
Navy, and in the month of Oftober 1741, was appointed to com- 
mand tue ^Etna fireship. He was promoted into this vessel, from the 
rank of Lieutenant, by Admiral Vernon, who dispatched him home 
with intelligence of his having taken possession of Walthenham har- 
bour, in the island of Cuba. On his arrival in England, he was re- 
moved into the Baltimore sloop of war, and on the 2$th of June 
i 743, he was advanced to the rank of Post Captain, and appointed to 
the command of the Greyhound frigate. From this ship he removed 
into the Princess Louisa, of sixty guns, and cruised for some time 
off the coast of France. On this station, he captured a large French, 
privateer, mounting twenty-two guns, and carrying one hundred and. 



BRIEF MSMOI& OF CAPTAIN BOYCJ. 67 

forty-eight men, called the Achilles. In the year 1746, he sailed for 
the East Indies in the Pearl frigate, and was present at the unsuccess- 
ful attack en Pondicherry. But the naval campaign in India afforded 
him no opportunity of reaping honours, and nothing material or 
beneficial to his fortune or fame occurred while he continued in that 
part of the world. Peace prevented him from having any a&ive 
employment on his return to England ; but when hostilities again 
commenced with France> he was appointed to the command of the 
Sovereign, a first rate. In this ship he continued but a short time, 
and removed from her, about the year 1759. into the Preston. To- 
wards the end of the summer, he was promoted to be Commodore of 
a small squadron, stationed off Dunkirk, to watch the motions of an 
armament, fitting for sea at that port, and destined fur a desultory 
attack on Ireland, under the command of the celebrated Thurot. 

Under so adive, vigilant, and enterprising an Officer, as Thurot has 
universally been allowed to have been, the enemy had the good 
fortune to elude the vigilance of the British Commodore, who, im- 
mediately on -hearing of his having quitted the port of Dunkirk, 
pursued him with the utmost expedition, but without success. 
Thurot took refuge in the port of Gottenburg, and Commodore 
Boyce, having blockaded him for some time, returned to England. 
He was now appointed to command as Commodore at the Nore ; and 
in the ensuing spring retired from active service, on being appointed 
Lieutenant Governor of Greenwich Hospital. In this honourable 
tation he continued to his death, which happened in 1774. 

It is related of this Officer, and we have no reason to doubt the 
truth of the account, that from the year 1727, to his death, he an- 
nually observed a. strict and solemn fast on the 7th of July, in com- 
memoration of his arrival in Newfoundland, after the dreadful hard- 
ships he had endured in consequence of the destruction of the 
Luxborough. So rigid was he in this at of humiliation and thanks- 
giving, that, when in the decline of life he became settled at 
Greenwich, he not only abstained from food, but from day-light, 
would not suffer any person whatever to converse with him, lest that 
time should be unseasonably interrupted, which, with becoming grati- 
tude and propriety, he devoted to returning thanks to the Supreme 
Being for his wonderful escape. Let those who may be so unhappy 
as to experience his sufferings, imitate his piety ; fur signal benefit* 
ought to be repaid by exemplary devotion. 



C * J 

THEORY OF THE TIDES. 

>Y EDMUND HALLEY. 



REAT as were the faults of Tames II. in almost what- 
\_y . 

ever point of vic^v we consider his character, it. cannot 

be denied that he had a just idea of the natural strength of 
these kingdoms, and was a zealous friend to the Navy, as 
well when he was Duke of York, as when he afterwards was 
seated on the throne. Appointed by his brother, Charles II. 
immediately on his restoration, to the Office of Lord High 
Admiral, he appears from that time to have bestowed the 
most sedulous attention on every subject connected with 
naval affairs, not only taking upon himself the labours of 
his official duty, but exposing his person in various severe 
encounters at sea. His conduct in the first Dutch war 
gained him the reputation of one of the- bravest naval Com- 
manders of the age ; nor cNd his partiality to the Navy relax, 
when, by the death of his brother, he succeeded to the crown. 
In his first speech to Parliament, he declared, in the fullest 
terms, his regard for the Navy ; and at his abdication of 
the throne, left it in so flourishing a condition, that by its 
means (under the Providence of God), all the efforts of 
Louis XIV. were ineffectual to restore him to his do- 
minions. 

The following Theory of the Tides, which is an analysis of 
the Principia of Sir Isaac Newton, was drawn up for the 
use, and by command, of James the Second, by Edmund 
Halley> a name dear to naval science, and never to be men- 
tioned but with respect and veneration. The Treatise of Sit 
Isaac Newton, locked up in the fetters of a dead language, 
and too Abstruse for common readers, had perhaps remained 
long accessible only to the learned, but for the labours of 
Halley. This illustrious mathematician, to whose .geniu* 
and industry navigation is most deeply indebted> thought it 
not unworthy of his talents to deliver to the world, in an 

5 



THEORY OF THE TIDES. 69 

easy and intelligible form, the discoveries of another, and 
thereby rendered to science a benefit Scarcely less valuable 
than that conferred by the original author. 

THE sole principle upon which this author (Sir Isaac Newton), 
proceeds to explain most of the great and surprising appearances of 
nature, is no other than that of gravity, whereby in the earth aB 
bodies have a tendency towards its centre, as is most evident : and 
from undoubted arguments it is proved, that there is such a gravita. 
tion towards the centre of the sun, moon, and all the planets. 

From this principle, as a necessary consequence, follows the spheri- 
cal figure of the earth and sea ; and of all the other celestial bodies ; 
and though the tenacity and firmness of the solid parts, support the 
inequalities of the land above the level ; yet the fluids pressing equally 
and easily yielding to each other, soon restore the equilibrium, if 
disturbed, and maintain the exacl figure of -the globe. 

Now this force of descent of bodies towards the centre, is not at 
all places alike, but is still less and less as the distance from the centre 
increases. ; an^ in this book it is demonstrated, that this force de- 
creases as the square of the distance increases ; that is, the weight of 
bodies, and the force of their fall is less, in pnrts more removed from 
the centre, in the proportion of the squares of the distance. So as 
for example, a ton weight on the surface of the earth, if it were raised 
to the height of 4000 miles, which I suppose the semidiameter of 
the earth, would weigh but one-fourth of a ton, or 500 weight ; if 
to 12,000 miles, or three semidiameters from the surface, that is, four 
from the centre, it would weigh but one sixteenth part of the weight 
on the surface, or a hundred and a quarter ; so that it would be as 
easy for the strength of a man at that height to carry a ton weight, 
as here, on the surface, one hundred and a quarter. And in the same 
proportion does the velocities of the fall of bodies decrease ; for 
whereas on the surface of the earth all things fall sixteen feet in a 
second ;' at one semidiameter above, this fall is but four feet ; and at 
three semidiameters, or four, from the centre, it is but one-sixteenth 
of the fall at the surface, or but one foot in a second ; and at greater 
distances both weight and fall become very small, but yet all at given 
distances is still something, though the effect become insensible. At 
the distance of the moon (which I will suppose sixty semidiameters of 
the earth), 56^0 pounds weigh but one pound, and the fall of bodies 
is but 7 ^-y of a foot in a second, or sixteen feet in a minute ; that 
is, - a body so far off descends in a minute no more than the same at 
the surface of the earth would do in a second of timi-. 

As was saW before, the same force decreasing after the same man- 
ner, ia evidently found in the sun, moon, and all the planets j but 



THfcORY Of THE TIDIS. 

tnore especially in the sun, whose force is prodigious ; becoming sen-* 
sible even in the immense distance of Saturn. This gives room to 
suspeft that the force of gravity is in the celestial globes propor- 
tional to the quantity of matter in each of them ; and the sun 
being at least ten thousand times as big as the earth, its gravitation, 
or attractive force, is found to be at least ten thousand times as much 
a* that of the earth, acting on bodies at the same distance. 

This law of the decrease of gravity being demonstratively proved, 
and put past contradiction, the author, with great sagacity, inquires 
into the necessary consequences of this supposition, whereby he findf 
the genuine cause of the several appearances in the theory of the 
moon and planets, and discovers the hitherto unknown laws of the 
motion of comets, and of the ebbing and flowing of the sea. Each 
of which are subjeds that have hitherto taken up much larger 
volumes ; but truth being uniform, and always the same, it is admira- 
ble to observe how easily we are enabled to make out very abstruse 
and difficult matters, when once the true and genuine principles are 
obtained. And, on the other hand, it may be wondered, that not- 
withstanding the great facility of truth, and the perplexity and non- 
consequences that always attend erroneous suppositions, these gicat 
discoveries should have escaped the acute disquisitions of the best 
philosophical heads of all past ages, and be reserved to these our 
times. But that wonder will soon cease, if it be considered how great 
improvements geometry has received in our memory, and particularly 
from the profound discoveries of our incomparable author. 

The theory of the motion of the primary planets is here shown to 
be nothing else, but the contemplation of the curve lines, which 
bodies cast with a given velocity, in a given direction, and at the 
same time drawn towards the sun by its gravitating power, would 
describe. Or, which is all one, that the orbs of the planets are such 
curve lines as a shot from a gun describes in the air, being cast accord- 
ing to the direction of the piece, but bent in a crooked line, by the 
supervening tendency towards the earth's centre. And the planet* 
being supposed to be projected with a given force, and attracted 
towards the sun, after the aforesaid manner, are there proved to 
describe such figures as answer punctually to all that the industry of 
this and the last age has observed in the planetary motions. So that 
it appears, that there is no need of solid orbs and intelligences, as 
the ancients imagined, nor yet of vortices or whirlpools of the ce- 
lestial matter, as Des Cartes supposes : but the whole affair is simply 
and mechanically performed, upon the sole supposition of a gravitation 
towards the sun, which cannot be denied. 

The motion of comets is here shewn to be compounded of the 
ame dements, and not to differ from the planets but in their g iater 



THEORY OF THS TIDES. 71 

swiftness, whereby overpowering the gravity that should hold them 
to the sun, as it doth the planets, they fly off again, and distance 
themselves from the earth and sun, so that they are soon out of our 
sight. And the imperfet accounts and observations antiquity has 
left us, are not sufficient to determine whether the same comet ever 
returns again. But this author has shown, how geometrically to de- 
termine the orb of a comet from observations, and to find his distance 
from the earth and sun, which was never before done. 

The third thing here done is the theory of the moon, all the in- 
equalities of whose motion are proved to arise from the same principles, 
only here the effect of two centres operating on, or attracting a pro- 
jefted body, comes to be considered ; for the moon, though princir 
cipally attracted by the earth, and moving round it, does, together 
with the earth, move round the sun once a- year, and is, according as, 
she is nearer or farther from the sun, drawn by him more or less thaa 
the centre of the earth, about which she moves ; whence arise several 
ii regularities in her motion, of all which the author in this book, 
with no less subtility than industry, has given a full account. And 
though, by reason of the great complication of the problem, he has 
not yet been able to make it purely geometrical, it is to be hoped that 
in some farther essay he may surmount the difficulty. And having 
perfected the theory of the moon, the long desired discovery of the 
longitude (which at sea is only practicable this way), may at length 
be brought to light, to the great honour of your Majesty, and ad- 
vantage of your subjects. 

All the surprising phcenomena of the flux and reflux of the sea, are 
in like manner shown to proceed from the same principle ; which I 
design more largely to insist on, since the matter of faci is in this case, 
much better known to your Majesty than in the foregoing. 

if the earth were alone, that is to say, not affected by the actions 
of the sun and moon, it is not to be doubted, but the ocean, being 
equally pressed by the force of gravity towards the centre, would 
continue in a perfect stagnation, always at the same height, without 
either ebbing or flowing ; but it being here demonstrated, that the 
un and moon have a like principle pf gravitation towards their 
centres, and that the earth is within the activity of their attractions, 
it will plainly follow, that the equality of the pressure of gravity 
towards the centre will thereby be disturbed; and though the small- 
ness of these forces, in respe& of the gravitation towards the earth's 
centre, renders them altogether imperceptible by any experiments we 
can devise, yet the ocean being fluid and yielding to the least force, 
by its rising shows where it is least pressed, and where it is more. 
pressed by its sinking. \To be continued. 



C 7* 3 



ADMIRALTY-OFFICE, JULY 2O, l8oi, 

ef a letter from Captain Sir Home Popham, to Sir E'van Nepean, Bart. 

dated at Calcutta, the i%th of November 1801. 
SIR, 

I HAVE much pleasure in transmitting you a copy of Captain 
Collier's letter of thfc loth of September, for the information of 
fliy Lord* Commissioners of the Admiralty, giving a very detailed ac- 
count of bis sinking the French national ship Lii Fieche, of twenty. 
two guns, and 170 men. 

The result of Captain Collier's unremitting nerseverance under 
every trying circumstance, and his determined conduct in warping 
the Vicror into Mahe harbour, is likely to be of very material service 
to the commerce of I n .ciia, as La Fleclie was unquestionably intended to 
cruise in the Bay of Bengal. I have the honour to be. &c.- &cc, 

HOME POPHAM. 

SIR, ffis Majestf; sloop Vittor, Maze Roads, September 19, 1801. 

THE state of the crew of his Majesty's sloop under my command, 
cffer leaving the Red Sea, induced me to put into the Island Diego 
parcia 5 after procuring a large supply of turtle and good water, I left 
that harbour on the xjth of August, and proceeded on the execution 
of" the particular service pointed out in your orders of the ^z<^ of July, 
find on the zd instant, in sight of these islands, his IV'-ajesty's sloop 
fell in with a French national corvette, and after a ic\\ ineffectual 
manoeuvres on her part, from the superior sailing of the Viflor, when. 
going large, T had the pleasure of bringing her to a close action at 
three quarters past five P. M. ; the disguised state of the Victor did 
jiot long deceive the enemy, the second broadside proved sufficient, 
the corvette hauling her wind and endeavouring to escape, which, in 
about twenty minutes, I was sorry to observe, by having almost solely 
directed her fire at our mast$ and sails, she had a fair pros [-eft of effeK 
jng, for, on her tacking under our lee, I endeavoured to wear, with 
the hope of boarding on her bow, when I had the mortification to fin4 
both lower and top-sail brscf-s shot away on the starhoa: <1 side, as well 
as, preventer ones and bow lines, and before others could be rove the 
Corvette was half a mile to windward; night fast approaching added 
to the chagrin I felt on observing the corvette sail better than the 
Viftor on a wind ; the chase continued all night, frequently within 
gun-shot, and at sunset the following day, from the wind, having 
favoured the enemy, she was four or rive miles to windward j in tho 
night of the ^th lost sight df the chase, when, probably by tacking, 
the escaped. 

In this affair I had one man wounded with two musket balls, and 
Mr. Middleton, Matter's Mate, slightly; the damage sustained in th 
hull trifling, the fore-mast shot through, and I have to regret our 
sails and rigging much cut. 

Judging from the course the corvette was steering when first seen, 
she must be bound to these islands, I pushed for them, and towards 
sunset of the sth, she was again seen running in for this anchorage ; J, 
kept under easy sail till dark, when the Vidor was anchored ; at day- 
light I had the satisfaction, of seeing the corvette moored with springs 



GAZETTE LETTERS. 73 

in the basin or inner harbour, with a red flag at the fore (which, as I 
since learn, was in defiance) ; being unacquainted with the channel, 
and having no pilot, Mr. Crawford, the Master (though ill of a fever), 
and Mr. Middleton, being volunteers, were sent to sound, which ser- 
vice they completely performed ; nor did the latter gentleman desist, 
till repeatedly fired at by a 'bout from the corvette. 

The extreme narrowness of the channel, added to the wind not 
being very favourable, compelled me to use warps and the stay-sails 
only, which exposed the ship to a raking fire for spme minutes, till, 
ahoaling our water, I was obliged to bring up. Having two springs on 
the cable, our broadside was soon brought to bear; and at three 
quarters past eleven A. M. a well-direded fire was opened, which was 
kept up incessantly from both vessels till twenty minutes past two, 
when I plainly perceived the enemy was going down ; in a few 
minutes her cable was cut, she cast round, and her bow grounded on. 
a coral reef. 

Mr. M'Lean,the First Lieutenant, with a party of Officers and men, 
were sent on board ; though scarce had they put off, ere we discovered 
the enemy to be on fire; Lieut. Smith, and other Officers were then 
sent with proper assistance, but just as they had succeeded in ex- 
tinguishing the fire she fell on her larboard bilge into deeper water 
and sunk. 

She proves to have been the French national corvette La Fleche, 
mounting twenty long French eight pounders, answering to English 
Jiines, with two stern chasers, though it appears all her guns were not 
mounted in the first aftion ; was larger than the Victor in dimensions, 
perfectly new, a rema. kable fast sailer, and not four months from 
France, commanded by Captain Bonamy, Lieutenant de Vaisseau, with 
four Lieutenants, and a complement of one hundred and forty-five 
men, some of whom had been left sick at Bourbon. 

From a numbsr of dead and dying men reported to be found on her 
forecastle, as well as two alongside, I am induced to belive the carnage 
was great, though only four are acknowledged by the French Captain. 

She had twenty men to assist at her guns, forming a part of the 
crew of the French frigate La Chiffonne, captured here a few days sine* 
by his Majesty's ship La Sybille, Captain Adam. 

The obstinate defence made by La Flecbe was on the supposition of 
the Victor being a privateer. 

From the length of time elapsed ere this business was brought to a 
close, I have felt it necessary to be thus particular in my detail, and I 
trust for your excuse should I dwell longer, as I feel I should do an 
injustice to every Officer and man on board, did I negleft paying a 
just tribute to the cool and determined bravery they evinced; even, 
men labouring under a lingering fever (of which I had unfortunately 
thirty), felt a proportionate zeal. 

I beg leave to recommend to your notice Lieut. M'Lean, as well as 
solicit your interest for the confirmation of my Second, Mr. Smith, as 
also Mr. Hyde, Gunner, observing, that whenever Mr. Middleton of 
Mr. Graves (both having passed for Lieutenant*), shall obtain the 
rank, they will do equal credit to your patronage. 

In this aclion I most fortunately had not a man either killed or 
wounded ; our hull, rigging, and boats have suffered much, besidei 
having some shot between wind and water. I am, 

GEORGE R. COLLIER. 

To Sir Home Pepham, K. M. Captain <f bit 
Mujestfj ship Rcmney, ifr. ffiV. 

fcoI.VIII. & 



f 74 J 

NOTICES TO MARINERS. 



from tke Danish Royal Council of Customs and of the India t dated Copen- 
hagen, 6th of April, jSoz. 

HIS Majesty having been pleased to order that there shall be a 
Watch Lighten the northern coast of Bornholm, to guide the navi- 
gators of the Baltic, we give notice, that examination having been made 
of the most convenient place from whence the light might be most 
distinctly seen, as well by those who come from the west as by those 
who come from the east and the north, and who wish to pass between 
Born holm and the coast of Sweden, a Light house has been con- 
structed on the mountain called Steileberg, which is situated by the 
compass, about a quarter of a mile from the northernmost bay of 
Bornholm. In consequence of the height of this mountain, this 
Light-house will be 272 feet above the level of the water. Although 
it is lighted by means of a coal fire, it is surrounded by a glass case or 
bnthorn, of fourteen feet diameter, constructed upon a new prin- 
ciple, so that, in all weathers, the flame will rise without interruption, 
and the light will be augmented by it, because that part of the case or 
l.inthorn which is on the land side, and every part from .whence the 
light cannot be seen at sea, is a wall, the interior of which is covered 
with plates of polished block tin. 

This Light-house will be lighted up for the first time on the aist of 
June 1801, and afterwards it will be continued according* to the terms 
of the Ordonnance of the zist of March 1705, and of the Proclamation 
of the ist of February 1799, so that in summer, that is from Easter 
Day to Michaelmas Day, it will be kept burning from an hour after 
sunset till sunrise, and in winter, that is from Michaelmas Day to 
Faster Day, from half an hour after sunset till sunrise. 

Done at Copenhagen, at the Royal Council of Customs 
and of the Indies, the 6th of April, 180^. 
r_Then follow the Signatures.] 

Royal Council of Customs, ami of tie Indies, Copenhagen, June 3* 1802. 

HIS Danish Majesty having ordered, for the guidance of persons 
navigating in the Baltic, that a Light-house should be creeled 
upon the extreme southern point of Falsrer, called Giedser-Odde, and 
after having previously consulted with M. Lowenorn, Adjutant- 
General of the Royal Marine and Chief of the Pilots, the public is 
hereby made acquainted, that a Light-house has been constructed upon 
the said Giedser-Odde, at about one-eighth of a mile from the most 
extreme point of land, and although the light is entirely produced by 
a coal fire, yet care has been taken to surround it with a lanthorn or 
glass case, according to the latest invention, of fourteen feet diameter, 
so that, be the weather what it may, a constant flame will arise there- 
from, and the light be augmented thereby, because all that part of the 
case which is towards the land, and which cannot be seen at sea, is 
lined with a plating of polished block tin. 

In order that the dangerous flat called Triadelen, situated by thecotn- 
pass at about three quarters of a mile S. E. one quarter S. without the 
(Jiedser-Odde may the more readily be observed by navigators during 
tne day, a pillar with a barrel on the top of it, painted black, has btru 
arising ground near the sea, and which is placed; as w^b 

r 



NOTICES TO MARINERS. 7J 

regard to the Trindelen, in the same point of vievr as the Light- 
house, which is painted white : so that when under sail, the black bar- 
rel is seen in the same point of view as the white Light house (which 
may very easily be distinguished from the Trindelen in gloomy 
weather, and even at a distance of half a mile without the flat, accord- 
ing to the greater or less elevation of the vessel at sea), she is in a right 
line with the Trindelen. In such case a vessel must keep at the distance 
of a mile from the coast in order to avoid the said flat, it being im- 
possible to take soundings. When the course is from west to east, 
and the barrel is seen insulated and free on the western side of the 
Light-House the vessel is quite clear of the flat, and vice versa, when 
sailing from the east, and the barrel is seen insulated and free on the 
eastern side of the Light-house. 

As to ships not being of great burthen there is a passage between 
the Trindelen and shore ; but this passage must be extremely well 
known, or a pilot should be taken, who will come out from Gicdser- 
Odde upon signal being made. 

This Light House will be opened on the ist of August 1802, fronv 
which day the Regulations contained in the Ordonance of the 2 ist 
of March 1705, and in the Placard of the ist of February 1779, will be 
adopted ; so that it will be kept burning in summer, or fro:n Easter 
Day to Michaelmas Day, from an hour after sunset to sunrise ; and in 
winter, or from Michaelmas Day to Easter Day, from half an hour 
after sunset to sunrise. 

[Here follow the Signatures.] 



$atial Courts 

PORTSMOUTH, JULY 22. 

A CQURT-Martial was held on J. HAMILTON, belonging to his 
Majesty's ship Zealous, for neglect of duty. The charge being proved 
he was sentenced to receive two hundred lashes, which sentence 
was put in execution alongside the respective ships in the harbour. 
Just before he was seized up alongside the first ship, he jumped over- 
board and attempted to make his escape, but was soon retaken 

23. A Court of Admiralty Sessions was held before the Hon. GEORGE 
CuTHBtRT, Esq. for the trial of PATRICK KELLY, alias AFFLECK., one 
of the principal mutineers on board rlie Lady Shore transport, when on 
her passage from England to Botany Buy. He was found guilty, on 
the clearest evidence, and the sentence of the law was accordingly 
pronounced. 



A vessel arrived at Whitehaven lately, from Strangford, which is 
known to have been coasting, chiefly in this channel, for 130 years. 
She is called the Three Sisters, Donnan, master, but is better known 
by the name of the Port-a-Ferry Frigate ; she is of the burthen of 
thirty-six tons, at present rigged as a brigahtine, but there is a report 
that she formerly appeared as a ship. However this may be, it is cer- 
tain that she was employed at the sieg? of Londonderry, in 1689, and 
was successful, on an emergency, in supplying the garrison with pro- 
visions. This venerable n--:ce of naval architecture (which, from ; he 
great improvements made n the course of the hist centu y, is now 
viewed as a curiosity), is allowed, \ve are in f.j.-m?d, the privilege of 
"using any of the public clocks at Liverpool, free of all port charges ; 
and this is in consequence of her having been the first vessel that 
entered the Old Dock. 



C 76 3 

MONTHLY REGISTER 



LTEUT. Grant, of the Lady Nelson store ship, who is lately arrived 
from New South Wales, brings pleasing accounts of the flourishing 
state of that colony : he left Port Jackson in November last, when the 
crops vrere very luxuriant and beginning to be cut down, without 
having suffered that year from the floods of the Hawkesbury. Governor 
King had opened a communication with Otaheite, for the purpose of 
supplying the colony with pork, in which he had been singularly suc- 
cessful. The country is no longer in want of a staple commodity, 
coals of an excellent kind being found in abundance in Hunter's 
river, together with plenty of wood, well qualified for the masts of 
shipping. The Gov .:.->r had also formed a small settlement at 
Hunter's river, for the purpose of working the coal, which is of the 
sam? nature with that of Newcastle. Mr. Grant entered this river in 
,dy Nelson, in order to obtain the survey of it j he penetrated in 
his b ts rt'in'y seventy miles up the same, accompanied by Lieut. 
Col. : 09, without being able, at that time, to discover its source. 
mhling rustick has also been found. Mr. Grant in his 
ro) England t.) Port Jackson, in the Lady Nelson, a ves- 
sel of only sixty tons burthen, with three sliding keel.s, and built 
on Captain Sclnnk's construction, was the first thut passed through 
thi Straits whi ii separate Van Dieman's Land from New Holland. Mr. 
Gr.int bears testimony to the good qualities of the Lady Nelson, and 
vessels built on that construction, as being particularly calculated for 
discovery. 

^"^^^ 
SHIP-WRECK. 

BY accmmts from Baltimore, North America, we learn, that the 
schooner Nymph, Captain Corlet, laden with flour and corn, having 
been out four days from Philadelphia, bound to Charleston, South. 
Carolina, had the misfortune to run aground off Cape Lock out-shoals, 
on the night of the i6th of April, the wind being N. by E. After 
being bilged, in about half an hour she went to pieces, all her cargo 
having been previously washed overboard. The Captain and crew 
had cut away her main mast, in the fall of which great part of the 
larboard side of the deck AVSS carried along with it, and the boat en- 
tirely lost. The crew consisted of eight in number, and one pas- 
senger, every soul of whom, except one John Kelly, a young English- 
man, are said to have perished. 

The Captain betook himself to a piece of the mast, and the rest to 
ipars, oars, &c. Kelly, who still hung to the main wreck, got off 
nearly an hour after, during which time he was endeavouring to pro- 
cure from the wreck some part most likely to effeft his safety. He 
pasie.l byall his fellow suff rers but the cook, who did notgothroughthe 
breakers ; when he had one some distance by the Captain, he looked 
bacKand waved his hat, which was only answered by a shake of the 
head. H-.- never saw one of them after. Floating on, for two days 
and n night, and often overwhelmed by the breakers, he got within 
two miles of the shore, when the wind shifting, he was again driven to 
sea above six miles. Thus wafted at the mercy of the waves, he was 
at length discovered abont a mile off, by Captain Dudley, of the 
schooner Hannah, from Beaufort, North Carolina, who humanely put 
rbout, and who was fortunate enough to snatch this hapless victim 
from a watery grave. Captain Dudley, who arrived safe at Baltimore 
on the 3oth, says, that for several hours before he came up with Kelly, 
he observed iioui , ice. floating on the water. 



MONTHLY REGISTER OF NAVAL EVENTS, f 

OFFICERS returned to femre as Members of Parliament for 
United KingdoMy taken from the London Gazettes ta i-jtk July, 

For the County of Gloucefttr. 
Hon. George Cranh'eld Berkeley. 

City of Rocbefler. 
Sir William Sidney Smith, Knt. 

Stirling. 
Hon. Charles Elphinstone Fleming. 

To-xua of Nottingham. 
Sir John Borlase Warren, Bart. K. B. 

Ejt. 
Hon. William Cornwallis. 



LA PEROUSE. 

After the lapse of years, some glimmering of information has reached 
Europe with respect to the fate of the French navigator PEROUSE. 
Our readers may recollect that he sailed on a voyage of discovery with 
two frigates, and that after performing part of his voyage he touched at 
Botany Bay. Froru the period of his sailing from New South Wales, 
no account was ever Deceived from him. A vessel was sent from 
France, under the command of D'Entrecasteaux, in search of him, 
but the search was ineffectual. At length, an American ship, which 
had traversed the South Sea, brought to the Mauritius, in February last, 
some information, which gives strength to the conjectures that have 
been formed of the unfortunate Navigator's having been massacred, 
with all his crew. The following article, extracted from the French 
paper called the Moniteur, throws some light on the subject : yet the 
American Captain ? s information relates only to one of the ships, and 
leaves us still to conjecture whether the Captain massacred was 
Perouse, or the Commander of the veisel which sailed in company 
with him. 

Extraflfrom a, Journal, entitled The Nou<uellifte des IJles de Trance and de la 

Reunion. 

Mauritius, Feb. 14. 

" Captain Ingenold, Commander of the American ship the Char- 
lotte, arrived from China, says, that he learnt, in his voyage in the 
South Sea, at the Sandwich Isles, and on the North West Coast, that 
before the Revolution of France, without being able to determine pre- 
cisely the year, a vessel from Brest had, in the month of April, 
anchored in the Bay of Comshervar, a bay which is 53 degrees 
13 minutes North, opposite Englefieid Bay, in the island called Queen 
Charlotte's Island. 

" That this vessel having a great quantity of sick was attacked by 
the Islanders, who got on board at the moment the crew were employed 
in reefing the sails j that they, massacred the Captain, who was on the 
deck, and the whole crew, with the exception of a young man, whose 
fate is unknown. 

" It is added, that the Islanders destroyed thf vessel, after having 
unloaded it. It is to be presumed that this vessel is M. La Peroute's, 
er her companion." (Moniteur.) 



COURT OF KING'S BENCH, JULY 2. 

WATERHOUSE 1>. KING. 

This was an argument on a point reserved at the trial of this cause at 
Guildhall : The plaintiff was appointed by the Admiralty Second 
Captain of a small ship, the Reliance, destined for Botany Bay. 
The reason that the Admiralty appointed a Second Captain was, 
that the First Captain, Hunter, was obliged to stay principally on shore, 
and they wished at those times that the vessel should be under the 
command of a higher authority than that of a Lieutenant ; this vessel 
was one of a squadron which detained several Dutch ships, a short time 
previous to the issuing letters of marque and reprisal against the ships 
of that nation : although they were not strictly entitled to any thing 
on account of this detention, a sum of money was granted in consi- 
deration thereof, to be distributed among the captors according to the 
proportions laid down in the Royal Proclamation for the distribution 
of prize-money. This Proclamation mentioned one Captain to a ship ; 
and the questions now were, first, Had the Lords of the Admiralty the 
power of commissioning a supernumerary Captain, without the express 
acquiescence of his Majesty in Council ? Secondly, Supposing they had 
that power, would such supernumerary Captain be entitled to any, and 
what share of prize-money under that Proclamation ? These questions 
were argued at considerable length by the Counsel on both sides. 

The Court held, that the Lords of the Admiralty have now the same 
full power which the Lord High Admiral had, formerly, of granting 
such commissions as to them may seem expedient for the service j 
and that every person who holds a commission from them is entitled to 
all the privileges and advantages of that commission j and therefore 
that the plaintiff in this case is entitled to a Captain's share of prize- 
money. 

A'KEI, v. ELLIOT. 

14.. This was an action on a policy of insurance, on the ship Suffolk, 
from Bengal to London. This ship was one of those that was taken up 
in the time of the scarcity to bring rice from Bengal to England ; and 
had been insured nearly to its full value, which was then 9000!. She 
left Bengal the i3th September 1801 ; and having met with seven 
tonns on her arrival in the Channel, she with difficulty made St. Ives, 
but in such a shattered state that it was impossible to repair her, so as to 
enable her to proceed on her voyage without expending more money in 
repairing her than she would be worth at the present reduced price of 
ships. The owners served the underwriters with notice of abandon- 
ing the vessel, which the underwriters refused to accept. The question, 
then, in this instance, was, Whether the underwriters were liable as 
for a total loss to the amount of near 9000!. which was the sum the 
si. ip was insured for ? or whether, as on an average loss, they were only 
bound to pay about 4000]. which was about the sum her repairs would 
have cost ? -As to the possibility of her being repaired, there were 
witnesses on both sides ; but as it appeared that she had suffered so 
i by the storms as to be in a state almost as bad as ever a vessel was 
loned in, the Jury found a verdidt for the plaintiff, as for a total 

A cause of considerable importance to the owners of smacks, &c. 

was lately tried >n the Court of Exchequer, which originated in Captain 

lies of the Roebuck, revenue cutter of Portsmouth, having, iu the 



OF NAVAL EVENTS. 79 

wionth of December last, seized a vessel called the Blossom, Edward 
Stuart, Master, for not being rigged accordingly to law, viz. "not 
having a fixed stay." 

After a complete investigation of the circumstances, and Captain 
Stiles's evidence was given, in which he clearly pointed out the method 
in which the said vessel was rigged, the Court condemned the seizure a* 
a good and lawful prize. 

By a late Aft of Parliament, all vessels laden with contraband goods 
are liable to seizure, if within eight leagues of the shore. 

The following letter has been addressed from Mr. .Livingston, 
Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States in France, to Mr. 
Skipwith, the American Commercial Agent at Paris : 

" SIR, Paris, July 18. 

" Letters which I have this moment received from Commodore 
Morris, who commands the squadron of the United States in the 
Mediterranean, and from Mr. Gavine, our Consul at Gibraltar, 
communicate the disagreeable intelligence of Mr. Simpson's arrival 
in that port from Tangiers ; the Emperor of Morocco having forced 
him to depart precipitately, and having at the same time ordered his 
vessels to be armed against the American merchantmen. 

" I beg that you will give notice of this event, without delay, to our 

Commercial Agents in the different ports of France, requesting them 

to dispatch copies of this letter by the first vessels which sail for the 

United States, or the West Indies, and to direct the Captains of those 

.vessels to publish it in the ports in which they arrive. 

" Commodore Morris advises all American vessels, bound to the 
Mediterranean, to rendezvous at Cadiz, where they will find a convoy 
appointed to protect them on their passage through the Straits. 

" I am, &c. " ROB. R. LIVINGSTON." 

Lord Nelson and Sir W. Hamilton have been presented by the Cor- 
poration of Oxford with freedoms of that city, in gold boxes. 

Admiral Villaret Joyeuse has been appointed Captain-General of 
Martinique by the French Government. He is gone to Brest to take 
1 the command of a squadron of two sail of the line, several frigates, and 
light vessels, in which the troops, destined to take possession of Marti- 
nique, will embark. 

From Memel we have the following anecdote : The Emperor of 
Russia and the King of Prussia were walking by the harbour, with only 
a few attendants, when an English ship arrived, which had been some 
time at sea, and whose crew knew nothing of the meeting of the two 
Monarchs. When the English Captain came ashore, the two Sove- 
reigns, perceiving he wore a Russian order, entered into conversation 
with him, and the Emperor asked him, " Where he had acquired the 
Order he wore ?" To which he answered, " At Ancona." The King 
of Prussia now acquainted the Captain, to whom the two Monarchs 
were still unknown, with the high rank of the Emperor ; surprised and 
confused, he drew back, and testified his respeft by a low bow. But 
the Emperor now disclosing to him the rank of the King, he thought 
they were making game of him, and left them, saying, 
I-aiu not to be caught in that way, I assure you," 



$6 MONTHLY REGISTER 

An affe&ing, and at the same time ludicrous, scene was exhibited 
a few days since. A sailor, who had been absent from his country 
ince the commencement of the war, and was supposed dead by his 
friends, unexpectedly came to town, about ten days since, with his 
pockets pretty well filled with the fruits of his hard-earned services. 
Immediatelyonhis arrival, he hastened to the spot where he had left his 
wife and child ; but she had left her place of residence some years back, 
and was gone nobody knew where. Still he was determined to find 
her, if alive, and wandered wherever his fancy directed, in hopes of 
gaining some intelligence of her fate ; he had almost exhausted him- 
self in the search, and given up all hopes of finding her, when, chanc-- 
ing to pass a street, near the Seven Dials, he heard a woman crying 
water cresses the sound arrested his attention he thought lie recog- 
nized the voice of his former helpmate; for a moment he doubted hi 
senses, scarcely believing his wife could have experienced such a re- 
verse of fortune, but, on coming nearer, his doubts were removed ; 
with a tumult of joy, not to be described, he snatched the basket from 
her arm, threw the cresses into the street, and gave her as complete a 
ling, as honest and robust affection was capable of performing. The 
poor woman was no Jess surprised, and burst into tears, which the 
jolly tar soon dispelled with a comforting drop of the dear creature. A 
thousand questions were now asked, and resolved in a minute, when, 
the sailor hauled away his bride to a clothes shop in the neighbour- 
hood, where he rigged her from stem to stern, casting her old ones 
into the street ; after which he called a coach, and rode away in 
triumph, swearing, that now he had found his wandering rib, he was 
the happiest dog alive, and d n him but Poll and he would have a 
night of it. 



FEMALE SAILORS. 

Some years since, a Gentleman in London, extensively engaged in 
West Indian commerce, was involved in bankruptcy by a misplaced 
confidence rhe retired into the neighbourhood of Bradford with two 
daughters, and shortly after sunk beneath the pressure of his mis- 
fortunes, leaving them wholly without provision. The former afflu- 
ence of their father had prevented their acquiring a knowledge of 
any profession by which to earn a respectable maintenance they could 
not work, and were ashamed to beg. In this dilemma, their enter- 
prise rose superior to considerations of fear, and prompted the bold 
expedient of assuming the dress and characier of men, and entering 
into the Navy. They went to Portsmouth, and by their address ob- 
tained a situation on the quarter-deck of a troop ship bound to the 
West Indies. They were engaged in the reduction of Curatjoa, &c. 
and served with credit in two or three actions in those seas, till one of 
them was wounded by a splinter in the side, when her sex being dis- 
covered, she was discharged, and came to England about six weeks 

at n/*A 



since 



The other sister was at this period sinking under the fever which 
has proved so fatal to Europeans in the West Indies, and had been 
sent ashore at Dominica ; there, under an impression of approaching 
dfiatb, she disclosed to one of the Officers of the ship Her sex. The 
discovery gave tenderness to the esteem he had before entertained for 
his young friend: his attentions contributed to her convalescence. 
In short, she recovered, they were married, and are now returned to 
England, in possession of the means to render happy the remainder of 
their days. 



F NAVAL EVENTS. l 

PLYMOUTH REPORT. 

FROM JUNE II TO JULT 25. 

Jvitt II. Orders came down yesterday from London to send all the frigates 
and sloops lying in the Sound to sta immediately, as the coast from Berry 
Head to Mount's Bay is infested with smugglers. The following frigates, 
&c. were immediately victualled for two months, viz. Amethyst, of 36 guns, 
Captain Glyn ; Blanche, of 36 guns, Captain Dacrcs; Amelia, of 44 guns, 
Captain Lord Proby ; and Rosario, of 18 guns. Yesterday the Achille, uf 
84 guns, Captain J. O. Hardy, was paid off. 

14. Sailed for the coast of Scotland, the Amethyst, 38 guns, Capt. Clyr* 
on a cruise against the smugglers. 

t6. Letters received here from the Favourite brig, of this port, dated 
Fvr Jnam, the l8th of May last, mention her safe arrival there from this port, 
after a good passage : she had taken in a cargo of sugar, rum, coffee, cotton, 
and indigo, for the London markets, and was to sail the first fair wind. 

17. Letters from an Officer of the Audacious, of 74 guns, Captain Peard, 
dated the 1st of May last, at Port Royal, Jamaica, mention, that the squa- 
dron which left Torhay last February, arrived the latter end of March at 
Martinique, being only twenty -five days on her passage ; and found there 
the Saturn, of 74 guns, Rear Admiral Totty, with the Excellent, of 74 guns, 
and Magnificent, of 74 guns. Sailed for 1-ort Royal the 5th of April, with 
the Bellerophon, of 74 guns; arrived at Jamaica after a fine passage, and 
found there Vice Admiral Sir ^. Duckworth, Bart, with fifteen sail of the 
line, besides frigates and sloops of war. The remainder part of the fleet were 
cruising between Jamaica and St. Domingo. 

20. All this day a signal has been flying at Maker Tower for a fleet 
from the eastward. Several coasters, with groceries, are come in from the 
Downs; with the Pitt, Sovereign, and Hibberts transports, for the 2o.th regi- 
ment of foot, which will embark in the course of the week. 

21. This morning, dispatches, said to be of importance, were received by 
Rear Admiral Dacres, Port Admiral here, and were immediately put on board 
the Hunter, lying in the Sound, for the West Indies; she unmoored, and is 
now lying at single anchor. 

22. Sailed with dispatches for Jamaica and Martinique, the Hunter, of, 
1 8 guns, Capt. Jones ; she carries out orders to send home more ships of war, 
in consequence of the surrender of Toussaint to General Le Clerc. Came in 
from Spithead, the Carnatic, of 74 guns, Captain Prouse ; she cam& home 
from Jamaica with seven sail of the line, and is to go up the Hamoaze to be 
Stripped and paid off. 

zb. Went into the Soand, the Hibberts, Camilla, Pitt, and Severe'^:; 
transports, having o'n board the agth regiment of foot, Lieutenant Coi. li;-:;j- 
Uhey sailed this morning, with a fine breeze at S. S. E. for Halifax. 

a;. Came into Cswsand Bay, a line of battle ship, but cannot learn her 
name, though she is supposed to be from the West Indies. 

29. Came in from New Brunswick, with a valuable cargo of timber, large 
musts, spars for yards, &c. the Lord Macartney, formerly an East Indiaman, 
for the Dock Yard. This forenoon the Achille, of 84 guns, beir.g stripped 
was paid off in Hamoaze, and her crew turned over to other ships. She is 
laid up in ordinary for the present, being in want of much repair, and will 
go into Dock the first spring tide after the Great Portland Dock is vacant. 

30. Wind S. W. Fair. Went up the harbour, the Lord Macartney mast 
hip, to discharge her cargo of naval stores, masts, &c. &c. Marched 
ir.to Plymouth Dock Earracks the third and fourth division of the g^Uaut a8:h 



9t MONTHLY REGISTER. 

rrjjimrnt of foot from Fgypt. Tt is in contemplation, that when the 
Royal Invalid? in Plymouth Citadel are disbanded, the Royal Corps of Artil- 
Irrv, with their park and fit-Id pieces and howitzers, are to occupy the barracks 
of the citadel as a central point. 

July i. Wind S. W. Sho'ver'y. Came in from the Leeward Islands, a 
West "India packet. She came to in Caw-sand Bay, having overshot her port ; 
She landed her mails which were forwarded direclly. 

2. Wind S. W. Clordy. 'I he Hibhcrts. Lieutenant Donovan, Camilla, 
Pitt, and Sovereign transports, with the zgth regiment of foot, for Halifax, 
attempted to sail, hut it blowing hard at s. W. they were obliged to put back, 
and come to at their old moorings in the Sound. 

3. Wind S. W. Rain. This day the lucky Snuhante, 14 guns, Captain 
I-'eshim, V.MS stripped and paid off in Harnoa/e. Sb* was formerly a Dun- 
kirk privateer, and did much damage to our trade, with her consorts, in the 
North Sea. She was immediately tnki-n into the service, and the command 
given to Captain Tomlirison, who was very successful in his bold cruizes' off 
the coast of France, particularly rear the Isle de Bas, where lie fell in with 
a French privateer of superior force, and her prizes, five Opcrto ships, with 
wine*. Tor i'ublin, and was so fortunate as to capture the whole of them, with 
W-.ich he entered the harbour of -Plymouth in triumph. For this and several 
other services he xvas made post captain. Captain Whitman succeeded to the 
command of J.a SufHsante, and was very fortunate. Ill health prevented him 
from continuing the command, and he was succeeded by Captain Nesham (firice 
niiifi-- }>o>.t capMin), who was also extremely aftive in her, till the peace put 
a stop'to his exertions. She is lor the present laid up in ordinary. 

4. Wind S. W. Rain, No arrivals or departures. 

5. Wind S.W Hard Rain. Several of the Royal Marines of this divi- 
sion, who have served on hoard the Suffolk, 74 puns, lately paid oil, from 
the Ea ;t Indies, arrived here from Chatham, to their regular division, they will 
have at least to receive 300! wages and prize money. 

6. Wind variable, Rain. This morning, on account of the ensuing General 
Flection, all the troops in garrison and barracks, were ordered not to pass the 
different barriers. Ciders came- down this day at the dock yard, to prepare 
moorings in Hamoaze, ior the reception of La G'enereux, of 84 guns, Captain 
V. C. Berkeley, hourly expeded from Malta and Mahori ; she will when the 
dock is vacant, go into the Great Portland Dock, built by that skilful architect, 
the late T. Parlby, Esq. of Stonehall, near Plymouth. 

7. Wind S. W. Rain. This forenoon on account of the very orderly and 
correct conduel of the Royal Marines, quartered here, and ordered to barracks, 
on account of the General Election, the Mayor, by the commanding officer, 
IJiutenunt Colonel Dyer, sent a letter of thanks for their good behaviour td 
Colonel Bowattr, Colonel Commandant of this Division of Marines. 

8. Wind S. W. Rain. The pay books of the Carnatic, of 74 guns, Captain 
I'roure, came down this day from the Kavy Board to the Pay Oiiice at thi 
dock yard, she luts had upon hooks during her stay in the West Indies, upwards 
o! 13. on nits, but with sickness, deaths, discharges, and desertion, her com- 
ptinient v.'ds now only 55,0 men 5 she is to be paid off this week, and each man, 
has seven years pay due to him, she is the richest ship paid oft since the peace at 
this port. 

9. Wind S. W. Cloudy, some Pvain. This forenoon came express from 
Torhay, the chief mate of the Bridgewater, East Jndiaman, put in there by 
contrary winds, hound for 1 otany Bay, Port Jackson, and Norfolk Island, 
with convicts ; his objcd was to purchase 2Oj legars, to be fitted with water on 
her arrival at the Cape of Good Hope, for the use of the- turtle of different 
sorts, to l>e j,-,' c, and conveyed to the above settlements, for their 
use and also to breed from. The transports with the 2gth reginunt of foot on 
r.->ard, nra (Ir an attempt to sail this evening, but tlie wind becoming foul, they 
put back, and came to in the sound, at their old moorings. 



i 



OF NAVAL K VERTS.' j 

to. Wirfd N. Wl Some Rain. Letters from Port Mahon, dated June id, 
ffom ac Officer of the Cxsar, of 84-guns, I-' ear Admiral Sir James Saumarez,- 
Hart, state the complete evacuation of the Island of Minorca, to the Governor 
appointed by 'he King of Spain. The. Briti-.li Squadron was expected to sail 
for Gibraltar in a few days with the troops and stores. The Th-imes, of 3Z 
guns, dispatched for Alexandria, was hourly expected to join bir James 
tiaumarez, Bart. The fleet arid army were very healthy' and mutual civilities 
took place between the Sp-inMi and iJritish Officers. 

li. Wind N. N. E. Fair, some Flying Clouds. .-"Early yesterday, after a 
detention of 17 days, from contrary winds, blowing strong at S. W. with a 
heavy sea, sailed from the Sound for Halifax, the Hibberts, armed transport, 
Lieutenant Donovan, Qjieen, Camilla, and Matthew and Thomas, transports, 
with the zpth regiment pn board, in the highest health and spirits; ir Jerome 
Fitzpa trick, Km. Inspector General of Transports, for carrying~troops, attended 
on the occasion, and though the weather has been very warm, ha found it 
jjcce?sary to tsnd only one soldier to the Royal- Mi'itary Hospital at Stoke^out 
uf6corank and file. In the evening- a thick fog sprung up, and the wind 
veered to S. \V. when they again put back. 

ti. Wind N. N. W. Some Rain. This morning the transports with the 
2<jth regiment on board, sailed for Halifax, with a fine leading- wind at 
M. N. W. by sun set they had cleared the Ram Head, and made a large offing 
in the W S. W. quarter. Came in from Cork, whore she had been with dis- 
charged seamen, the V r iper Cutter, Lieutenant j. Coghlan. The Dorset Yacht, 
which arrived from Dublin, is gone into dock to be refitted and new painted, 
for the reception of his Excellency, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland ; ihe su;l 
fi;r Dublin the first fair wind. 

13. Wind W. S. W. Rain. Yesterday the Carnatic, of 74 guns, Captain 
Prouse, was paid off in Hamoaze, the crew discharged, and she was laid up in 
ordinary at her moorings; the crew received seven years pay, two of the poor 
fellows got intoxicated at dock, and were robbed of all their property so hardly 
earned, and after so many years hard servitude. Oiciers came down this day 
for moorings to be laid down in the River Tamar, for the Foudroyant, of 84 
guns, hourly expected from Spitliead, to be paid off and laid up JB ordinary ; 
also for the Csesar, of 84 guns, Rear Admiral Sir James Saumar^z, Bart the 
moment she arrives from Gibraltar, those ships being, to make use of a nautical 
phrase, ton tonglcggid. for the eastern yard. 

14 Wind N. N. E. Fair. Carne in the Captain, of ?4 guns, Captain 
I'oyles, to be paid off, dismantled, and laid up in ordinary in the river Tamar ; 
she will go up the first fair wind. Arrived from iJath, where he has been for 
the recovery of his health, Rear Admiral Thornborough, it is imagined he will 
have the coi;;mand of a squadron of frigates to cruise in the Channel,, to exer- 
cise the seamen and marines, und look after the numerous smugglers which 
infest the coasc from the Prawle to the Sciily islands Rear Admiral D acre's 
*tiil retains his, situation as Commander in Chief at this Port. Came ill La 
lortt>nee, of 40 guns, Captain dementi, from Cork for orders. 

iS- Wine W. N. W. Cloudy. Letters from Port Royal, Jamaica, dat.'d 
ttifn June, state 'the extreme healthiness of the crews of the different ships <,u 
that station, owing to the very judicious arrangement of Vice Admual .-..i: 1 . 
Duckworth, Bart, who has kept tht fleet there cr>nstar.tly cruising in divi- 
sions, ard only allowed to come into port to wood and waur. Yesterdav a 
pleasure yacht toith a party of ladies and gentlemen, in turning in ti... 
thc sluice of the Pier Heads Barbican, the wind flattening, missed stays, ii;n 
foul of the pier head, carried away her bowsprit arm jib, and did some 
little d.'t!iisige to the kirb stones of the pier h-cjd 5 but the party en hoard 
were only a little frightened. Came if) from Stonthouse Barracks the light 
company of the Royal Marines, commanded by Lieutenant CtiloneLDyer, to 
be quartcied here. Arrived from Spithead to l;e puid off, the Foudroyant, 
84 guns. Shewas built in 173^, and the second of her class ever bunch-: d 
in an r English yard : the Csesar, 84 guns, wa the fir:, aud was launched, 
as well t the I oudroyant, at iim duck yard. 



84 MOWTHtV RECI8TFR 

16. Wind W. S."W. Rain. Wtnt up the harbour, the Foudroyant, 84 
guns. She is to be stripped and paid off directly. In passing the Narrows 
of Devil's Point, she was cheered heartily by the spectators assembled at 
the battery as an old friend returned to hr native port. Came in from Spit- 
head to be stripped and paid off, the Warrior, 74 guns, Captain Tyler, and 
the Saint George, 9/8 guns. Captain Lobb. Came in, the Oiseau, 36 guns, 
Cap -.ft in Philips, from a cruise against the smugglers. 

17. Wind W. Rain. Seamen enter but very slowly for the ships in com- 
iion in Hamoa'ze, preferring, for the present, going home to visit their 
friends and families. The Captain, 74 guns, Captain Boyles, and Warrior, 7$ 
guns Captain Tyler, are now lying at single anchor, waiting for a wind to 
go up the harbour. Orders came down this day for all the frigates to get 
ready for sea direcUy. The Gxsar, 84 guns, is hourly expelled here to be 
paid off and laid up in ordinary. Moorings are now getting ready for her 
*gainst her arrival. 

18. Wind W. Some Rain, with Thunder. By order of the Lords of the 
(Admiralty, and Navy Board, the ships in ordinary at this port, which are 
now so numerous, are divided ituo divisions of fourteen each, in Hamoaze and 
the River Tamar. Each division has a Superintending Master, who make;, 
weekly reports of their state and condition to a Chief Master of the whole, 
who sends them to the Con-ni^ionur, .'J be forwarded to the Lords of the 
Admiralty, and the Navy Board , a measure which will be highly beneficial 
SO the service. 

19. Wind W. N. W. Cloudy. Came in from a cruise, arkt anchored in 
Cawsand Bay, the Sirius, 56 guns, Captain King, and Imogene, 8 guns 
They are to visual ani water, and then sail direclly to cruise against the 
smugglers. Orders came to the Dock Yard to prepare moorings for eight sail 
of the line, four frigates, and five sloops of war, daily expe&ed from Jamaica 
to be paid off and laid up in ordinary. 

20. Wind W. N. W. Cloudy. Went up the harbour to be stripped and 
paid off, the Captain, 74 guns, Captain Boyles; Warrior, 74 guns, Captain 
Tyler ; and Saint George, c/3 guns, Captain Lobb, with a fine wind at W. 
N. W. 1 his 'day the Loyal Antient Irish Fencibles embarked, on board trans- 
ports, from Mill Bay Barracks, for Cork. 

zi. WindW.N. W. Showery. The ships expeded from Jamaica to be 
paid off at this port are the Temeraire, 98 guns, Rear Admiral Campbell ; 
Formidable, 98 gnns; Sans Parei), 84 guns; Spencer, 74 guns; Vanguard, 
74 gns; Bellerophon, 74 gnnsj Theseus, 74 guns; Santa Margaretta, 36 
guns; Nereid, 36 guns; Syren, 32 guns; ./Solus, 36 guns; Busy, 18 guns; 
Plover, 18 guns; Offspray, 18 guns; and Arab, 18 guns. 

xz. W?nd W. N. W. Cloudy. An experiment was made a few days since, 
ef a new Portable Bridge, on the lawn before Government House, before 
Generals England and Mercier, and ail the Officers of the line and Royal 
Artillery; it is the invention of Captjin Henderson, of the a^th regiment. 
After the trial, the Officers gave it as their opinion, that it would answer in 
mfcny situations where pontoons would not. The machine is deposited in u 
timber yard near the gun-wharf. 

z.l- Wind W. N. W. Fair. Orders again came down this day for all the 
fngute* in the Sound ready, to proceed diredly to sea in different directions, to 
meet the fleet expe&ed from the West Indies to be paid off here. Came in a 
sloop of war, with her foremast and bowsprit gone in a gale of wind. 

24. "Wind W. N. W. Orders came down this day to Rear Admiral Dacrcs 
to give directions for moorings to he prepared for the Gibraltar, 84 guns, 
Captain Kelly, hourly cxpe<5ted from thence to be stripped, paid off, and laid 
up in ordinary. Sailed on a cruise, the Amelia, 44 guns, Hon. Lord Proby 
Ofseau, 36 guns, Captain Philips; Sirius, 36 guns, Captain King; Glenrr.ore^. 
30 guns, Captain . ; Galatea, 36 guns, Captain Wolffc ; and Imogen*, 

18 guns. 



05" NAVAL BTENTS. fe'J 

PORTSMOUTH REPORT, 

FROM JUNE 27, TO JULV25. 

June z8. Arrived the Gannct sloop of war, Captain Burrowes, from the 
Down*. 

49. Arrived the Saturn, of 74 guns, Captain J. Brisbane, from Martinlco. j 

30. Sailed the Morgiana sloop of war, Captain Raynsford, on a cruise. 

July 'i. Arrived the Winchelsea, armed in Jlute, Captain Hatley, in forty- 
throe days, from Jamaica, with invalided sailors and soldiers. Came into har- 
bour to be paid off, the Vengeance, Captain Duff; and the Orion, Captain 
Cuthbert. Also the Phcenix frigate, Captain Halstcad. 

a. Arrived the Dreadnought, of 98 guns, Captain Vashon, from Minorca ; 
La Pique, of 38 guns, Captain Young, from Gibraltar ; Solebay, of 36 guns', 
Captain Dundas, from the same place, last from Lisbon in six days ; and the 
Racoon sloop of war, Captain Rathborne, from Malta, last fiom Gibraltar. 

3. Arrived the Foudroyant, of 98 guns, Admiral Lord Keith, Captain 
Searle, from the Mediterranean, 

4. The Foudroyant, of 98 guns, Lord Keith, was relrcyed from quarantine 
and his Lordship landed. 

The following ships, lying at this port, are to be put in commission, by orders 
sent from the Admiralty : Barflcur, Canada, Success, Dido, Nymph, Pearl, 
Prompte, Amphitrite, Serpent, Bull Dog, and Swan. Arrived the Determines, 
Captain Beaver, from the Mediterranean. She is put under quarantine at 
the Motherbank. Sailed L'lmmortalite, of 98 guns, for Weymouth. 

8. Sailed the Solehay frigate, Captain Dm: das, for Deptford, to be paid off; 
and the Sophie sloop of war, Captain Rosenhagen, for Jersey. Arrived the 
Acasto frigate. Captain Wood, from the Mediterranean; and the Immorulitc. 
Captain Owen, from Weymouth. The Princess Augusta and Royal Char- 
lotte yachts passed down Spithead this afternoon for Weymouth. The Fou- 
droyant is ordered to Plymouth to be paid olF; and the Saturn is ordered into 
harbour. The Bellona, Orion, Vtngcance, and Brunswick, have been paid off 
this week, and laid up in ordinary. At a late hour this evening arrived at 
Spithead his Majesty's frigate Juno, commanded by Thom&s Manby, Esq. 
This active and zealous Officer left Port Royal, Jamaica, on the 5th of June 
last, being charged with dispatches of importance from Sir John Duckworth, 
relative to the surrender of General Tomsuint to thi French troops The Juno 
brings a very large mail, and a considerable sura of money home, belonging- to 
the merchants. The Quebec frigate and the packet were to leave JamiLca three 
days after tne Juno. The Augustus Cxsar, merchant ship, sailed from the: 
island the day previous to her. Many of the line of battle ships were to sail 
for England in ten days, when the Juno left it. Several homeward-bound 
West India ships passed by the Juno on her passage home. The Boston frigate 
was spoke off the Bermudas, bound to Halifax, three weeks ago. Captain 
Douglas, his Officers, and crew, all well. The greatest good health prevails 
amongst the whole of our ships at Jamaica ; for though 20,000 seamen aad 
marines are employed on that station, only twenty-seven men were in the 
hospital. 

10. Came up to St. Helen's the following men of war from the West Indies, 
they left St. Domingo on the ith of June, several large packets of 'letters were 
landed fxom them, and sent ofFio Lnndou ; the St. George, of 98 guns, Captain 
Lobb ; Warrior, of 74 guns, Captain Tylet ; Resolution, of 74 guns, Hon. Capt. 
Gardner; Captain, of 74 guns, Captain Boyle* ; Zealous, of 74 guns, Captain 
Linzee ; and Robust, of 74 guns, Captain Jervis. 

11. Several guns of distress were distinctly heard from the eastward, in con. 
sequence of which the Immortalize, of 38 g'-uis, Captain Owen ; and r^iig!. 
cienne, of 36 guns, Captain Vaiisiturt ; and Li Pujue, of 36 guns, Captain, 
\oung, instantly hoisted anchors and gat under weigh from Spithcad. Since 
their sailing we learn that it is the Woolwich storehip aground near the Oirs 
in coming round from the Downs. This evening arrived the C^ucbirc, of ^Q 



St$ MONTHLY REG1ST5R 

puns, Captain Grant, from Jamaica. The Resolution man of war, and Jtmff 
frigate, are now getting under way for the eastward, to be paid off. 

12. Arrived the Mermaid frigate, Captain Oliver, from the Mediterranean, 
last from Lisbon, with the Countess of Hrro! on board. Sailed the Foudroyant, 
of 98 guns, Captain Scarle ; and Captain, of 74 puns, Captain Boyles, for Ply- 
mouth, to be paid off; and the I.ejnder. of 50 guns, Captaiu Oughton, for Hali- 
fax to receive the flag of Vice- Admiral Sir A. Mitchell. 

13. Arrived the Active, Captain Davers, from Gibraltar. Sailed the 
Warrior, of 74 guns, Captain Tyler, for Plymouth; and the Quebec, of 3% 
guns, Capta:.: Grant, for Woolwich, to.be paid off. 

14. Arrived the Alonzo, of 16 guns, Captain Falknor, from the Downs, 
Sailed the St. George, of 98 guns, Captain Lobb, for Plymouth, to be paid off; 
Immortalitc, of 36 guns. Captain Owen, on a cruise ; and the Chichester store- 
ship, Captain eleven, for Barbadoes. 

15. Arrived rlie CVn.-or and Monkey gnn-brigs, from a cruise. Sailed the 
Mermaid, of 32 guns, Captain Oliver, and the Corso brig, for Woolwich, to be 
paid off. Ci.nii into harbour the Zealous, of 74 guns, Captain Linzee ; Robust, 
of 74 guns, Captain Jervis; Saturn, of 74 guns, Captain Brisbane; Acasta, of 
36 guns, Captain Wood ; La Pique, of 36 guns. Captain Young ; and the De- 
termine?, of 24 guns, Captain Beaver, to be paid off. 

1 6. Arrived the Pomone, of 44 guns, Captain Gower, from the Mediterra- 
nean ; and the Sophie, of 18 guns, Captain Rosenhagen, from Jersey. 

18. Sailed the Starling gun-vessel, with discharged seamen, for Ireland. 
21. Arrived the Lapwing, of 18 guns, Captain Rotheram, from a cruise. 
Sailed the Alonzo, of 16 guns, Captain Falknor, for Jersey. 

CJ. Arrived the Caesar, of 80 guns, Rear-Admiral Sir James Saumarcz, 
Captain Downman ; Europa, armed en fate, Captain Stuart; and the Pigmy 
cutter. Lieutenant Shepheard, from Gibraltar. Sailed the Diamond, Captain 
Elphinstone ; Revolutionaire, Hon. Captain Capel; Magicienne, Captain Van- 
sittart; Pomone, Captain Gower; Alcmene, Captain Stiles ; and Ahrm frigate, 
Captain Parker , Sophie, Captain Rosenhagen, and the Racoon, sloops of war, 
Captain Rathborne, for Lymingtou and Jer5ey, to convey the Dutch troop* 
from those places to Cuxhuvcn. 

24. -Arrived the Duna, of 38 guns, Captain Maling, from the Mediterra* 
ncan ; and the Rambler sloop of war, Captain Rye, from a cruise. 

promotions anD appointments. 

WHITEHALL, JULY 13, l8o2. 

THE King has been pleased to grant the dignity of a Baronet of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to Archibald Dickson', Fsq. Admiral of 
the Blue Squadron of his Majesty's fleet, and to the heirs male of his body law- 
fully begotten. 

IJ. The King has been pleased to give and grain unto Viscount and Baron Krl- 
*on of the Nile, his royal licence and permission to receive and wear the ensigns 
Of Knight Grand Commander of the Equestrian Secular, and Capitular Order 
of St Joachim; his Lordship's nomination to the same hawng-been signified to 
him by ierdaniid Charles, reigning Count of Leiuingen-Westcrbourg. Grand. 
Piaster of the Order. 

T , J . Ct ,' 1 J' e ^ in h * s been pleased to gnnt the dignity of a Baronet of the 
United Kingdom oJ Great Britain and Ireland, to Evan Nepcan, of Lnders and 
RotherUinpton, , the county of Dorset, Esq and to the heirs male of his body 
lawfully begotten, 

Sir J. B. Warren, K. B. is appointed British Ambassador to the Court of St. 
i'ctersburgn. 

Captain Stiles is appointed to the Alcmcac. 
Captain Burrotijrh to the Pyladcs. 
Captain C. Brisbane, t# the Goliath. 



OF NAVAL EVENTS. 87 

Captain I. \Volley, to tlie Trent. 

Captain Hayes, to the Circe. 

Captain Swainc, to the R.tven. 

Captain Lobb, to the St. George. 

Captain L. Thompson, to the Crescent. 

Captain James Katon, to the Trent. 

Captain Mai;land, to the Clenmore. 

Honourable Captain F. Aylmer, to th^ Delight. 

Captain j. Stuart, to the Termagant. 

Captain Fane, to the Driver. 

Captain Barrie, to the Bourdelais. 

Captain Tippet, to the Lark. 

Captain F .bass, to the Gannet. 

Lieutenant \V. Peak, to the Escort. 

.Lieutenant Ravenscroft, to the Spider schooner. 

N ! r. Ridge, of Chichester, Midshipman, who was wounded on hoard the 
F.clgar, off Copenhagen, on the ad of April, is made a Lieutenant into Le 
Tigre, now at Malta. 

Previous to Admiral Totty's sailing from Martinico (see page 8$), he ap- 
pointed the Hon. Captain Stopford, of the Excellent, Commodore, with a broad 
pendant. 

Captain Nash, of the Hornet, to be his Captain ; and 

Lieutenant Tucker, of the Saturn, to the Hornet, to succeed Captain Nash. 



MARRIAGES. 

At Titchfield, Capt. Stair Douglas, of the Royal Navy, to Mi^s Ann Payne, 
Second daughter of John Payne, Lsq. of Stubbington House, Hants. 

Lately, at Stoke church, near Plymouth, Lieutenant Forbes, late of his Ma- 
jesty's shipCarnatic, of 74 guns, to Miss Jenkins, daughter of Jenkins, 
Esq of Clarence-street, Dock. 

At Arreton church, Isle of Wight, Count Byland, Lieutenant Colonel of 
Hompesch's regiment of dragoons, to Miss Mary Christian, second daughter of 
the late Rear- Admiral Sir Hugh Christian, Knight of the Bath. 

Mr. John Edison, of Coopers Hall, Basinghall -street, to Miss M. A. Bowers, 
daughter of the late y Captain J. H Bowers, of the Navy. 

At Gibraltar, Captain Young, of the Navy, who was so fortunate as to cap. 
ture a Spanish galleon, by which he at one blow made a large fortune, to the 
daughter of Colpnel Fyers, of the Artillery, who was deemed the Beauty of the 
Rock- 

OBITUARY. 

On the i8th of July, in the 74th year of his age, Thomas Dnmaresq, Esq. 
Admiral of the blue bquadron, much beloved for his hospitality and truly bene- 
volent he-art. He was made Pos: in the year 1774, Rear-Admiral in 1794* 
Vice Admiral in 1795, &nd Admiral in 1801. Mr. Dumaresq commanded the 
Repulse, cf 64 guns, in the gallant a&ion fought by Lord Rodney with the 
Compte de/.ra-se, on the ever memorable I2th of Apiil I78z, and particularly 
distinguished himself on that occasion. The Admiral was a native of Jersey, 
of a family who have for centuries filled some of the rao^t important of?;, 
that ij'.and, a member of which at the present time, occupies the situation of 
President of the Royal Court there. The Admiral was wont to take ship ular 
delight in relating the following anecdote of himself, " "J hat he had nearly at- 
tained the age of seventy- three, without rvr having occasion to fay i j.:. ; . i Jan or 
9 Uwycr a tee.' 1 



83 

r On board the Saturn, the zd of June last, of the yellow fever, Rear^Admiral 
Totty. He went on shore to reside while his cabin was painting, during which 
time he was teized with the fever which proved fatal to him : he went on 
beard and put to sea, in hopes that the disorder would leave him ; but 6nding 
it increase he returned to port again and made the necessary preparations for 
the ship's return to England. On the 4th of May, she sailed from Martinico, 
and on the id of June he died. 

'I he Admiral's body was interred in the garrison chapel at Portsmouth, at- 
tended by all the Captains and Lieutenants at that port. The chief mourners 
were Admiral Milbankc and General Whitelocke. 

The following extract of a letter from a young Midshipman belonging to the 
Saturn (ard who was with Admiral Totty in the Invincible, when she was last 
year lost in going out of Yarmouth Roads to join the Baltic fk-et) to his father, 
on the abova melancholy subjed, may perhaps prove interesting to our readers : 

" Spithead, July ^. 

" If the public reports have not already informed you, ho?/ great your surprise 
must be, on receiving a letter from me dated at Spithcad, after having informed 
you very lately that we expelled to remain some time longer in the West Indies. 

Would to God we had remained there for years, rather than that the melan- 
choly circumstance which has caused our return had happened! in that climate 
even, so inimical to English constitutions, I should have felt myself happy, so 
long as I continued uudcr the patronage of Admiral Totty. By the blessing of 
God, 1 there enjoyed a perfeft state of health, although daily hearing of the death 
of some of my brave shipmates, most of them cut off in the prime of life. In 
the midst of this mortality, the Admiral, having been on shoie for a few day* 
while the ship was painting, was attacked by the fever, and on coming on board 
was immediately put to bed ; and thinking that the fresh air at sea might benefit 
him, he ordered the Captaif to get under way. We cruised a day or two off the 
jsland.when the Admiral finding his end fast approaching, with the assistance of 
the Secretary and Captain, he arranged the public affairs, and appointed a Com- 
niodpre in the Kay. (.:i the 24th of last month, we sailed for England, and in a 
day or two we heard the joyful news that the Admiral was mending considera- 
bly, and that there were some hope* of his recovery ; but Providence, alas ! 
ordained it otherwise, for on the zd of this month, death seized upnn its prey, 
and his noble spirit fled to the realms of bliss, to receive that reward his num- 
berless virtues deserved. Thus did Great Britain lose one of her bravest and 
most zealous Officers, society one of its greatest ornaments, and I lost, more 
th-n all, my best frirnd and patron. The many good qualities I have found 
him to possess since I have known him, have so endeared him to me, and to 
every one that knew him, and his kindness to me has been so great, that his 
memory will be cherished by me as long as there is breath in my body. The 
task would lie endless were I to enumerate the many benefits he bestowed on 
all such as were so fortunate as to be known by him. One circumstance alone 
will prove this assertion : having while in health promoted several young men 
who depended entirely upon him, there were still several left unprovided for ; 
thc*e, while on his death-bed, troubled with a multiplicity of public affairs, he 
still remembered, and it was almost his first concern to give them their com- 
missions, and send them on board the ships they were appointed to. Suffice it to 
sny, that on board this ship, which he Lad been long Captain of, at hit death 
there was scarce a man that did not shed a tear to hit memory. Tocty, adieu ! 
happiness is your portion." 

On the nth of July, at Fri-'ol Ilotwelh, Roger Curtis, Esq. made a Com- 
nander in the Navy, in I7S9- He was the eldest fon of Vice Admiral Sir 
Koger Curtis, Bart. He came from the (ape of Good Hope (where he com- 
manded the Rattlesnake), about two months since, in an ill state of health, and 
has laboured ever since u;)der a painful disorder, which baffled all rr.edical skill. 

Richard Browne, Esq. a Post Captain in the Navy. 

At Mile End, Lieutenant Kornbby C'harlcs, of the Navy, and son of M. 
Charles. E<q of that place, lie w^s a Midshipman of the CKieen Charlotte in 
the action of the 1st of June 17^4, in vrkich he last a leg. 

At Jamaica, Mr. l.on^, Purser of the Trent. 

TV i jth inst. at Sjrry Place, after a lor.f; and severe Ulr.jsjj ?\'rs, M^LaurlB > 
widow of the late Cap- ' 



JOHN PHI 







BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OF 
THE LATE LORD MULGRAVE. 



A knight he was, whose early youth had shown 

His love to arms, and passion for renown. 

Courteous and affable ; of honour nice ; 

A friend to truth, a foe to ev'ry vice. 

In many brave engagements he had been, 

Known foreign courts, and men and manners seen. 

T ORD Bacon regrets that the lives of eminent men are 
not more frequently written, that posterity might profit 
by the example of their virtues. It is a natural and a 
laudable curiosity to desire to know the steps by which a 
man acquired renown -, to be acquainted with his progress 
through life, from the period when his character was un- 
formed, till he has firmly established his reputation, and by 
his aftions merited and secured the love of his country. 
The biography of a man, who has served his country in 
war, with fidelity and courage ; in peace, who has laboured 
in the senate to promote her domestic welfare, and on the 
ocean to extend her commerce, contains a series of useful 
instructions, and carries the services of a man's life far 
beyond ihe common period of mortality. It is also a 
tribute of respe&due to departed excellence, that the charac- 
ter of a man who has done honour to his country, should 
be preserved, his adlions recorded, and his conduct held out 
to imitation. 

Constantine John Phipps, second Lord Mulgrave, was the 
eldest son of Constantine Phipp% Esq. by Lady Lepel, 
daughter of John Lord Hervey, whose daughters were 
allowed, by royal permission, equal rank with those of an 
Earl. Mr. Phipps was created an Iristf peer in. the reign of 
George the Second, by the style and title of Constantine 
Lord Mulgrave, of New Ross, in the kingdom of Ireland, 
which title, in 1775, descended to the subject of our present 
memoir. Ke was born May the- 3Oth 1744, and having 
^ron. OZoI. VIII- N 



JO BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

early in life manifested a predile&ion for the sea service, he 
was sent, as a Midshipman, on board the Dragon, of 74 
guns, then commanded by his maternal uncle, the Hon. 
Augustus John Hervey, afterwards Earl of Bristol. As a 
seaman, Captain Hervey's merits were of the highest order ; 
he was endowed with the most brilliant courage, and from 
long and adtive service had acquired the most consummate 
professional skill. A more proper person to form the mind 
of a young naval Officer, could not have been selefted. 
The Dragon sailed in the autumn of 1761, for the West 
Indies, and materially assisted in the reduclion of the island 
of Martinico. Captain Hervey was ordered with his ship, 
after the capture of St. Lucia, which succeeded that of 
Martinico, to join the squadron under Sir George Pocock, 
destined to attack the Havannah. The Admiral's opinion 
of Captain Hervey's abilities and courage, induced him to 
order the Dragon to lead to the attack of the Moro castle, 
which service he performed with his wonted intrepidity 
and resolution, having had fifty-three men killed and 
wounded, and among the latter was his nephew Mr, Phipps. 
On the surrender of the Havannah, the Dragon was dis- 
patched to England with intelligence of that event; and on 
the 17th of May 1762, Mr. Phipps was promoted to the rank 
of Lieutenant. The following year he was made a Com- 
mander, but without, we believe, being actively "employed ; 
and on the 2Oth of June 1765, he was raised to the rank of 
Post Captain, and appointed to the command of the Terp- 
sichore frigate. In 1767, he was removed to the Boreas, 
of 28 guns, then employed as a cruising frigate, but as this 
was a period of general peace, he had no opportunity of 
distinguishing himself, and soon resigned his command. 

At this time Captain Phipps was considered as one of 
the best thorough-bred seamen in the Navy ; his abilities, 
naturally excellent, had been sedulously cultivated; and he 
joined, to a complete knowledge of the praftical parts of his 
profession, an intimate acquaintance with the higher 
branches of astronomy and mathematics. Nor were his 



OF THI LATE LORD MULCRAVE. <)l 

genera] attainments of a vulgar order. When he came into 
Parliament, as representative for the city of Lincoln, after 
a severe contest with Mr. Vyner, he brought with him a 
mind richly stored with various knowledge, and soon dis- 
tinguished himself as a public speaker. Though a great 
part of his life had been spent on the sea, in active employ- 
ments, which do not afford much leisure for the cultivation 
of knowledge unconnected with nautical pursuits, the fund 
of general information which he possessed, was equalled by 
that of few who had enjoyed the best opportunities of im- 
proving their minds. On subjects where a very slight degree 
of information might have been expected and pardoned in 
a naval Officer, he exhibited a depth of judgment, an acute- 
ness of penetration, and strength of reasoning, rarely sur- 
passed by persons who have made it the study of their lives to 
excel in one particular branch of knowledge. In the debates 
which originated from the famous trial of the King against 
Almon, the printer, and the doctrines then held by Lord 
Mansfield, concerning the law respecting libels, he displayed 
the greatest abilities in the House of Commons, and a 
knowledge of our practical jurisprudence, seldom acquired 
by any who are not of the profession of the long robe. 
But he chiefly distinguished himself when any matters 
respecting commerce *or the Navy were before the House, 
and on these subjects few members were possessed of more 
extensive information. Naturally addicted to study and 
close investigation, and assisted by a retentive memory, 
he permitted no subject to escape him, until he had 
made himself a complete master of it. His mind was a 
fund of constitutional knowledge, and his opinions, espe- 
cially on professional matters, were always heard with 
deference and attention by both sides of the House. It 
ought here to be mentioned, that by his exertions, and those 
of his noble relative the Earl of Bristol, the pay of Lieu- 
tenants in the Navy was augmented one shilling per day ; 
and some important regulations in the coal trade, which 



gi BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

Captain Phipps justly considered as the best nursery of 
British seamen, were adopted at his suggestion. 

The idea of a passage to the East Indies, by the North 
Pole, had at an early period of navigation, excited the atten- 
tion of different adventurers, and several voyages were 
undertaken, from the year 1527 to 1614, for this purpose, 
but without success. From that time, however, the idea 
seems to have been relinquished, and no further attempts 
were made to ascertain the pra&icability of approaching the 
North Pole. This great point of geography, so interesting 
to science, and important in its consequences to a maritime 
and commercial state, in the early part of the year 1773, at 
length excited the attention of the Royal Society, and 
application was made, by that learned body, to the Earl of 
Sandwich, to lay before his Majesty a proposal for an ex- 
pedition to try how far navigation was practicable towards 
the North Pole. The noble ardour which his Majesty had 
before shown for the improvement of geography, in the 
voyages of discovery he had ordered, left little doubt of the 
success of the application, and accordingly the King was 
pleased to direft that the expedition should be immediately 
undertaken, with every encouragement that could promote 
the enterprize, and contribute to its success. 

As soon as Captain Phipps heard of the design, disdain- 
ing a life of inactivity and anxious to acquire honour, he 
offered his services, and being an Officer every way qualified 
to conduft so difficult and dangerous an undertaking, he 
was appointed to the command of the expedition. The 
nature of the voyage requiring particular care in the choice 
and equipment of the ships, the Racehorse and Carcass 
bombs were fixed upon as the strongest, and therefore best 
calculated for the purpose. The certainty that the expe- 
dition could not be prosecuted without meeting with much 
ice, and the tempestuous seas they were in all probability 
destined to encounter, made some additional strengthening 
necessary ; they were, therefore, immediately taken into 



OF THE LATB LORD MULGRAVE. 93 

dock, and fitted in the most complete manner for the ser- 
vice. That nothing might be wanting to the success of the 
expedition, the ships were stored with every possible atten- 
tion to the rigour of the climate they were intended to 
explore. An additional quantity of spirits was provided for 
each ship, to be issued at the discretion of the Commanders, 
when extraordinary fatigue, or the inclemency of the 
weather, should render it necessary, and a quantity of wine 
was allotted for the use of the sick. Additional clothing 
also was put on board to be distributed among the seamen, 
when they should arrive in the high latitudes, and as it was 
foreseen that one or both of the ships might be lost in the 
prosecution of so hazardous a voyage, the boats of each 
ship were calculated, in number and size, to be fit (should 
such a misfortune occurj, to save the crews. In short, as 
Captain Phipps very properly acknowledges in his narrative, 
every thing which could tend to promote the success of the 
undertaking, or contribute to the security, health, and 
convenience of the ships' companies, was readily and plenti- 
fully furnished by the Board of Admiralty. 

As the voyage was likely to afford many opportunities of 
making experiments and observations in matters relative to 
navigation, Captain Phipps provided himself with all the 
best instruments hitherto in use, and many others which 
had been imperfectly, or never, tried. His astronomical 
apparatus was perhaps the most complete that a navigator 
ever carried to sea , and could not have been in more 
judicious hands, as the accurate and curious observations 
he made during the course of the voyage, and afterwards 
published, fully evince. 

The account which we shall now proceed to give of his 
voyage towards the North Pole, is extracted from Captain 
Phipps's journal, which was published, soon after his return, 
with a dedication (by permission), to his Majesty. As an 
author Captain Phipps appears in a favoura . I point of 
view ; his narrative is simple and concise, the best adapted 
to his subject, and a scrupulous attention to accuracy, a 



4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

thing much to be desired in all relations of voyages, is a 
very prominent and commendable feature of his work. 
The dedication is a peculiarly elegant and glowing pane- 
gyric on his Majesty's well known attention to and encourage- 
ment of the British Navy. 

On the igth of April 1773, Captain Phipps received his 
commission to command the Racehorse, and at his recom- 
mendation Captain Lutwidge was appointed to the Carcass. 
The instructions for the voyage were, to proceed up to the 
North Pole, or as far towards it as possible, and as nearly 
upon a meridian as the ice or other obstructions might 
admit i and during the course of the voyage to make such 
observations of every kind as might be useful to navigation, 
and tend to, the promotion of natural knowledge. In case 
of arriving at the Pole, and even finding free navigation on 
the opposite meridian, the ships were directed not to pro- 
ceed any farther, but at all events to return .to the Nore, 
before the winter should set in. 

Contrary winds and other circumstances prevented the 
sailing of the Racehorse and Carcass till the ad of June ; 
and in this interval Captain Phipps was visited by the Earl 
of Sandwich, who had warmly interested himself in the 
success of the voyage, and paid every attention to the equip- 
ment of the vessels. On the 28th of June, our navigators 
made the land of Spitsbergen. Here they found the weather 
temperate, and the sea clear of ice. Sailing along the coast 
of Spitsbergen, on the 5th of July, they discovered the ice 
laying from N. W. to E. and no opening. After various 
attempts to discover an opening to the northward, Captain 
Phipps began to conceive that the ice was one compaft im- 
penetrable body, having run along it from E. to W. above 
ten degrees. He then changed his course to the eastward, 
in order to ascertain whether the body of ice joined to 
Spitsbergen, and in case of meeting with an opening, 
however small, he was determined to push through it. 
Cold weather and the fatigue of extraordinary work now 
made the additional clothing and spirits necessary to the 



OF THl LATB LORD MULORAVE. $J 

men ; and notwithstanding the utmost care, several of them 
were confined with colds, which affefted them with pains in 
their bones ; but from the judicious attendance given them, 
few continued on the sick list above two days at a time. On 
the 1 3th of July, after various attempts to penetrate north- 
ward, the ships worked into a roadstead called by the Dutch, 
Vogel Sang, and anchored in eleven fathoms water, soft 
clay. Here they completed their water, with great ease, 
from the streams which fall from the rocks, and arc 
produced by the melting of the snow. The foggy weather, 
for the most part, prevented them from using their 
astronomical instruments. On the lyth, however, the 
\veatherbeing clear, Captain Phipps ascended one of the hills, 
from which he could see several leagues to the N. E. and the 
ice appeared uniform and compact, as far as his view ex- 
tended. By observations they were now in latitude 79. 50. 
N. ; longitude 10. 2. 30. E. ; variation 20. 38. W. dip. 
82. 7. The tide rose about four feet, and flowed at half an 
hour after one, full and change. 

On the i8th, the ships weighed anchor, with the wind 
westerly, and stood to the northward; but after having 
run about eight leagues, they were prevented by the ice 
from getting farther. On the iQth they found themselves 
in the place, where they had twice been stopped without any 
passage to east or west. 

These discouraging circumstances did not, however, 
depress the mind of Captain Phipps. He continued, with 
uncommon resolution, beating about the ice, in hopes of 
rinding some opening, by which he could penetrate to the 
north. The coast of Spitsbergen and the adjacent islands 
were accurately explored, as well as the impenetrable field of 
ice which checked his progress. 

His ardour to execute the service on which he was engaged, 
had at length nearly proved fatal to the ships under his 
command. On the 3131 of July, at noon, the ice was so 
close, that being unable to proceed, the vessels were obliged 
to be moored to a field. The ice measured eight yards tea 



56 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

inches thick at one end, and seven yards eleven inches at 
the other. During the greater part of the day it was calm,, 
and the weather very fine; but the ice closed fast, and was 
all round the ships ; no opening to be seen any wherci 
except a hole of about a mile and a half, where the ships 
were moored to the ice with ice-anchors. The pilots being 
now much farther than they had ever been before, and the 
season advancing, were considerably alarmed at being sur- 
rounded by ice. 

On the following day their latitude, by the double alti- 
tude, was 80. 37. The ice continued to press in fast, and 
in some places it was forced higher than the main-yard, by 
the pieces squeezing together. There was not now the 
smallest opening, the two ships were within less than two 
lengths of each other, separated by ice, and neither having, 
room to turn. 

The ships' companies, on the 3d, endeavoured to cut a 
passage to the westward, by sawing through pieces of ice, 
some of which were twelve feet thick. This labour was 
continued the whole day, but with so little success, that 
at evening the ships had not moved above three hundred 
yards to the westward. Their situation now became 
exceedingly precarious and alarming ; and our navigator 
might with strict justice have applied to himself and 
companions, Thomson's beautiful description of a ship 
entangled by the ice in the Polar sea : 

Miserable they ! 

Who, here entangled in the gathering ice, 
Take their last look of the descending sun ; 
While full of death, and fierce with tenfold frost, 
The long long night, incumbent o'er their heads, 
Falls horrible. Such was the Briton's face *, 
As with first prow (what have not Britons dar'd !) 
He for the passage sought, attempted since 
So much in vain, and seeming to be shut 
By jealous nature with eternal bars. 

Sir Hugh Willougbby, sent by queen Elizabeth to discover the N. E. passage. 



Or THE LATE LORD MULGRAVt. 97 

The chance of extricating themselves from the ice hourly 
diminished ; and, as the season was already far advanced, 
some speedy resolution became necessary as to the steps to 
be taken for the preservation of the people. The hopes of 
getting the ships out were not hastily to he relinquished, or 
obstinately adhered to, till all other means of retreat were 
cut off. After weighing the dangers of delay, and the hard- 
ships and difficulties to which the ships' companies would 
be exposed, if they were obliged to winter in those in- 
hospitable parts, where ships never even attempt to come, 
and the most frightful sterility reigns, Captain Phipps 
thought proper to send for the Officers of both ships, and 
informed them of his intention of preparing the baats for 
going away. The boats were accordingly hoisted out, and 
every precaution taken to render them fit for the service 
on which they were to be employed. At this time the 
weather was bad, most part of the day foggy, and rather 
cold. 

On the morning of the 7th, Captain Phipps set out 
with the launch over the ice ; she hauled much easier than 
was expefted, and was moved to the distance of about two 
miles. When he returned with the people to dinner, he had 
the satisfaction of finding the ice more open near the ships j 
and the wind being easterly? though but little of it, the sails 
were set, and the ships got about a mile to the westward. 
All sail was set upon them, to force them through when- 
ever the ice slacked the least. This gave them some en- 
couragement, that they should be able to extricate the ships 
from their perilous situation : but as it would be a week's 
labour to get the boats to the water-side, and if the position 
of the ships did not alter by that time, it would be extremely 
hazardous to remain longer by them, Captain Phipps re- 
solved to carry on both attempts together, moving the boats 
constantly, but without omitting any opportunity of forcing 
the ships through the ice. 



98 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

Two pilots, with three men, who were sent early in thtf 
morning of the 8th, to examine the state of the ice to the 
westward, returned with a very unfavourable account: they 
reported the ice to be heavy and close, consisting chiefly of 
large fields. In the mean time the people continued to haul 
the boats, and the launch was moved above three miles. 
The ships had moved something through the ice ; but as 
there was a thick fog, they could not judge precisely of the 
advantage they had gained ; and therefore Captain Phipps 
did not think himself justified in giving up the idea of 
moving the boats. 

Fortune now began to beam with a more favourable aspeft 
on our hardy navigators ; on the gth, in the morning, the 
ships moved a little through some very small openings ; in 
the afternoon they got past the launches, and a number of 
men were sent for them, and got them again on board. The 
next day the wind springing up to the N. N. E. in the 
morning, the ships crowded sail, and forced through the 
heavy ice with such violence, that the shank of the best 
bower anchor of the Racehorse was broke with one stroke. 
At noon they happily got through all the ice, and stood 
out to sea. 

On the following day the Racehorse and her companion 
came to anchor in the harbour of Smeerenberg, to refresh 
the people after their fatigues. The latitude of this place 
was determined by Captain Phipps to be 79. 44. the longi- 
tude 9. 50. 45. E. ; dip. 82, 83!.; variation 18. 57. W. In 
this abode of desolation they found no inse&s, nor any kind 
of reptiles, not even the common earth worm ; and Nature 
had scattered on this frozen soil, with a parsimonious hand, 
the blessings of vegetation. No rivers or springs were to be 
seen, and the water which they colleded was produced by 
the melting of the snow on the mountains; They might 
have again applied to Thomson for a description of the 
place, and exclaimed in his words, 

" Here Winter holds his unrejofcfng court 5 
And thro' his airy hall the loud misrule 



99 

QF driving tempests is for ever heard : 
Here the grim tyrant meditates his wrath j 
Here arms his winds with all subduing frost ; 
Moulds his fierce haili and treasures up his snows." 

Having again explored the ice, without finding any open- 
ing, on the 22d of August Captain Phipps determined finally 
to quit the Greenland seas. To use his own words, " The 
season was so very far advanced, and Fogs as well as gales 
ef wind so very much to be expected, that nothing more 
Could now have been done, had any thing been left untried. 
The summer appears to have been uncommonly favour- 
Able for our purpose, and afforded us the fullest opportunity 
of ascertaining repeatedly the situation df that wall of ice, 
Extending for more than twenty degrees between the lati- 
tudes of eighty and eighty-one, without the smallest ap- 
pearance of any opening." 

On the yth of September, the Racehorse and Carcass 
Arrived off Shetland, and from that time until the 24th, when 
they made Orfordness, they experienced, with little inter* 
tnission, a continuation of severe gales of wind, in one of 
which the Racehorse lost three of her boats, and was obliged 
to heave two of her guns overboard. These gales were 
constantly indicated, several hours before they came on, by 
the fall of the barometer and rise of the manometer, which 
proved to Captain Phipps the great utility of those instru- 
ments at sea. 

Thus terminated a voyage honourable to those who pro- 
posed, and to those who executed, it. Though unsuccessful 
in its grand objeft, not the slightest degree of imputation 
rests on the noble seaman who commanded the expedition. 
Every thing was done by him which the most resolute 
perseverance, the hardiest spirit of adventure, and the most 
perfeft professional skill, could effefr..- Nor was the voyage 
without a high degree of utility. It has solved a question 
which, for upwards of two centuries, occupied the attention 
of the learned, and evaded the researches of the curious. 



foO BKJGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS! 

It determined the impracticability of approaching the Ttforth 
Pole, and consigned to oblivion the chimera of a north-east 
passage. Though he failed, the name of Captain Phipps> 
as a navigator, will be handed to posterity with those of the 
most celebrated seamen our country has produced. 

Sat est magnis votuisse. 

Towards the end of the year 1774, Captain Phipps stood 
a candidate to represent the town of Newcastle upon Tync 
in Parliament. He was solicited to engage in this contest 
by a numerous body of the ship owners of that placei who- 
re^ properly wished to be represented in Parliament by a 
person well acquainted with maritime affairs, and accord- 
ingly fixed their eyes on Captain Phipps, as a gentleman 
every way qualified to attend to their interests in the House 
of Commons. The family interest, however, of the other 
candidate*, and the desertion of many who had promised 
Captain Phipps their support, occasioned him to fail in this 
contest; and he continued out of Parliament till the year 
1777, when he was chosen for the town of HuntMigdon, 
through the influence of his friend the Earl of Sandwich. 
Captain Phipps had succeeded before this time to the title of 
Lord Mulgrave, in consequence of the death of his father, 
xvhich happened on the I3th of September 1775. 

On the 4th of December 1777, Lord Mulgrave was ap- 
pointed one of the Commissioners for executing the office 
ot Lord High Admiral, which honourable appointment he 
continued to hold, through four successive commissions, 
till the great political changes which happened in the early 
part of the year 1782, obliged him to quit it. Lord Mul- 
grave distinguished himself as an active supporter of the 
marine administration of the Earl of Sandwich, and took a 
considerable part in all important debates which were agitated 
in the House. 

Soon after the commencement of hostilities with the 
American colonies, his Lordship was appointed to the com- 
mand of the Ardent, of 60 guns, which ship formed part of 



OF THE LATt tORO MULGRATE. lot 

a squadron employed in the Bay of Biscay, to intercept the 
trade of the colonies, and cut off any succours that might 
be sent them from France. As the duties of his station, as 
one of the Lords of the Admiralty, together with his at- 
tendance in Parliament, frequently rendered his absence 
from his ship necessary, an afting Captain was sometimes 
appointed to the Ardent, and afterwards to the other ships 
which he commanded. 

When the ill-judged support given by France to the 
revolted colonies, made a war with that power inevitable, 
Lord Mulgrave was promoted to the Courageux, of 74 
guns, a ship belonging to the Channel Fleet. In the en- 
gagement of the ayth of July 1778, between Admiral Keppel 
and the Count D'Orvilliers, Lord Mulgrave bore an ho- 
nourable share. Being, to leeward of the celebrated Ville de 
Paris, by a masterly manoeuvre, he got the weather-gage, 
going close by the wind over her hawse, so near that the- 
Officer on the forecastle called out, they should be on board 
the French Admiral. " No matter," said the gallant Mul- 
grave, coolly, " the oak of old England is as well able to 
bear a blow as that of France." The Courageux barely 
cleared the jib-boom of the Ville de Paris, and at that cri- 
tical time poured a whole broadside into her formidable ad- 
Tersary, while she was not able to get a single gun to beat 
on the British 74. She suffered, however, severely during 
the course of the engagement, having nineteen men killed 
or wounded, and being considerably damaged in her hull 
and rigging. 

The following anecdote relative to this engagement, as it 
is illustrative of the character of this excellent nobleman, and 
would do honour to any character, cannot fail of being 
acceptable to our readers. We are indebted for it, and other 
valuable information, to a gentleman who was long honoured 
with the friendship of Lord Mulgrave. On board the 
Courageux was a man who worked for the Captain and 
Officers as a taylor, and as he was a remarkable steady sober 
man, he was a favourite with his Captain, and received 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

many marks of his regard. This man, during the cruisc> 
fell into a melancholy state of despondency, being firmly 
persuaded that he should lose his life whenever the fleets 
engaged. His Commander, observing the deje&ion of his 
spirits, endeavoured by argument and ridicule, but in vain, 
to drive the idea from his mind. Shortly after they fell in 
with the French fleet, when this man was ordered to assist 
the surgeons in the cockpit, as a place of the greatest security. 
After the engagement commenced, the poor fellow, impelled 
by irresistible curiosity to see what was going forwards, 
came up the main-hatchway, and was instantly mortally 
wounded with a chain-shot. Lord Mulgrave went to him, 
who was then exclaiming, " what would become of his wife 
and fatherless children!" his Lordship took him by the 
Land, and told him, that he would take care of his wife and 
be a father to his children. 1 he poor man, grasping the 
hand of his noble Captain, immediately expired. Lord Mul- 
grave was as good as his word. The widow was provided 
with an eligible situation in a Nobleman's family j and the 
children sent to school, where they were supported and 
educated at his Lordship's expence. 

' On the trial of Admiral Keppel *, Lord Melgrave was ex- 
amined as one of the witnesses, and a long and disagreeable 
dispute, carried on with a considerable degree of heat on 
both sides, took place between his Lordship and Admiral 
Montague, one of the members of the Court-Martial. A 
this altercation arose in a great measure from the complexion 
of the politics of the time, we shall content ourselves with 
"briefly stating, that it terminated without any unpleasant 
consequences, and was disgraceful to neither party. 

The operations of the Channel Fleet, in which Lord 
Mulgrave was employed, during the years 1779 and 1780, 
under the successive commands of Sir Charles Hardy, Ad- 
miral Geary, and Admiral Darby, were unproductive of 
any striking events,^ovving partly to the cautious temper of 
the British Admirals, and partly to the reserveof the enemy. 
Sec page 389, Vol. VII. 



Of THE 1ATE LORD MULGRAV2* IOJ 

Towards the conclusion of the year 1780, the Courageux, 
in company with the Valiant, a ship of the same force, was 
ordered out on a winter cruise in the chops of the Channel. 
On the 4th of January 1781, they fell in with two French 
frigates, one of which was chased by the Valiant, while his 
Lordship pursued the other, which proved to be the Minerva, 
of 32 guns, and 316 men, taken from the English in the 
West Indies, at the commencement of the war. A French 
frigate engaging a British 74, seems an instance of rashness 
as inexcusable, as examples of the kind are rare. The laws 
of war, according to the usage of nations, appear to be, that 
where there is no possibility of a successful defence, and all 
means of escape have been tried, the inferior force may strike 
its flag, without any impeachment of the Commander's 
honour ; and where a defence is attempted, without a rea- 
sonable prospel of success, the vanquished are justly liable 
to all the severities of war. The principles on which these 
tacit, yet admitted, regulations between hostile States are 
founded, proceed from a lively regard to the interests of 
humanity, blended with a nice and delicate attention to 
national or individual honour, softening the rugged features 
of war, and preventing wanton aggression, or unmanly- 
triumph. 

Strifrly consonant to these principles was the gallant 
defence of the French frigate. The sea ran prodigiously 
high when the Courageux came up with the Minerva, and 
this circumstance lessening the disparity of their forces, 
induced the Chevalier de Grimouard to defend, with the 
most resolute courage, the ship committed to his charge. 
The engagement continued above an hour within musket- 
shot, and the frigate did not surrender until she was a per- 
fe6t wreck, and had done considerable damage to her 
formidable adversary, the Courageux having ten men killed 
and seven wounded. The following is an extraft of a letter 
from Lord Mulgrave to Mr. Stephens, dated Spithead, 
January the 8th, 1781. 



XO4 UOGRAfHlCAL MtMOTRS 

I arrived here thig morning with La Minerve, a French frigate of 
thirty-two guns, and 316 men, taken by the Courageux, in company 
with the Valiant, on the 4th of this month, about three in the after- 
noon, Ushant bearing east, distant fourteen leagues. She had sailed 
from Brest on the 3d, with La Pine, L'Aigrette, and La Diligente, 
to cruise for a fortnight off Scilly. The Chevalier de Grimouard, 
who commanded her, did not strike till she had been for about an 
hour under the fire of our broadside, within musket-shot. From 
the ships being so near each other, the few shots fired by the frigate 
in the course of that time necessarily took place, by which the 
Courageux had ten men killed, and seven wounded. The fore-mast, 
rnizen-mast, and bowsprit; are damaged. On board La Minerve, 
Mons. Andrieu, one of the Lieutenants, and forty-nine men were 
killed, and twenty three wounded, amongst whom it is with great 
concern that I mention the Chevalier Grimouard, and his nephew, 
Mons. Nossay, both I fear very dangerously. All her masts were 
rendered unserviceable, and the hull much damaged. The Valiant 
parted from us in chase of one of the other frigates. The disabled 
tate of the prize made it absolutely necessary to tow her into port. 

In this engagement Lord Mulgrave had a very narrow 
escape. His valet stood at his left hand, and was in some 
conversation with his master, when a cannon-ball came and 
struck him .dead at the noble Lord's feet. Lord Mulgrave 
had an attachment to the man from long service, and was 
considerably affefted at his premature death. 

The frigate proved an important capture, as she had on 
board all the signals for the French squadron, in the West 
Indies; and Lord Mulgrave thought so highly of the gal- 
lantry of her Captain, who fortunately recovered from his 
\vounds, that he wrote a letter to the French Minister of th* 
Marine, praising the conduct of the Chevalier de Grimouard 
during the action, and recommending him to further 
promotion, which was attended with the desired effect. So 
noble-minded an instance of generosity towards an enemy, 
reflects great honour on the character of Lord Mulgrave, 
and bespeaks him a man gifted with the finest qualities of 
the heart. 

Soon after the return of Lord Mulgrave to port, the 
Courageux, with the Canada, and sora vessels of an inferior 



OF THE LATE LORD MULGRAVB. IO 

force, proceeded on an expedition against the Dutch port of 
Flushing ; but the enemy having information of their de- 
sign, had made formidable preparations of defence ; and the 
force under the command of Lord Mulgrave being in- 
adequate to the attack of the place, the design was given 
up, and the squadron returned to Spithead. 

In the spring of 1781, Lord Mulgrave sailed with the 
fleet under the command of Vice- Admiral Darby to the 
relief of Gibraltar; but he is not mentioned on this, or 
any other occasion, during the remainder of the war, as 
having particularly distinguished himself, nor indeed had he 
any opportunity. In 1782, he accompanied Lord Howe 
with the Grand Fleet to Gibraltar, and in the partial en- 
counter which took place off the Straits, on the 26th of 
October, with the combined forces of France and Spain, the 
Courageux had the honour to lead the division of the Com- 
mander in Chief. On this occasion, he had one Midship- 
man killed, his relative the Hon. Augustus Hervey, and four 
seamen wounded. Peace succeeding quickly to these events, 
the Courageux was paid off; and his Lordship's services 
were no longer necessary. 

Ceasing to be actively employed in the defence of his 
country, Lord Mulgrave had now leisure to dedicate his 
application to civil pursuits. He continued to represent the 
town of Huntingdon in Parliament from the time he was 
first chosen, until the general election in 1784, when he was 
returned member, on the popular interest, for the borough 
of Newark upon Trent. In the month of April 1784, he 
was nominated Joint Paymaster General of the Forces, and 
on the 1 8th of the following month was appointed one of 
the Commissioners for the Affairs of India. About the 
same time he was sworn a member of his Majesty's Most 
Honourable Privy Council, and appointed one of the Lords 
of Trade and Plantations. These important and honourable 
situations his Lordship continued to hold till the year 1791, 
when ill-health induced him to resign, 

. 801. VIII. 



106 BIOGRAPHICAL MBMOIRS 

Beside his public employments, which necessarily occupied 
a considerable portion of his time, Lord Mulgrave was an 
aftive member of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, and 
principally instrumental in the establishment of the Society 
for the Improvement of Naval Architecture, under the 
patronage of his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence. 
He attended almost constantly at the meetings of the Royal 
and Antiquarian Societies, and had the honour repeatedly 
to be chosen of the council of both these learned and 
illustrious bodies. He laboured constantly to improve the 
Naval Architecture of his country, borrowing lights from the 
scientific experiments of a rival nation, and at his death left 
behind him a library the most perfect in England, as to all 
works connected with nautical affairs, together with a large 
collection of unpublished charts and notes of soundings. The 
Leviathan, of 74 guns, one of the finest ships of her rate in 
the Navy, was planned by his Lordship ; her bottom was 
taken from that of the Courageux, the old French 74, which 
he long commanded, with considerable improvements in her 
gun decks. 

On the i6th of June 1790, Lord Mulgrave was raised to 
the dignity of a peer of Great Britain, by the style and title 
of Baron Mulgrave, of Mulgrave Castle, in Yorkshire; but 
he did not long continue to enjoy this accumulation of 
honours, dying on the loth of Oftober 1792, at Liege, in 
Germany, from which place his body was brought to the 
family vault for interment. His Lordship married in 1787, 
Anne Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Nathaniel Cholmley, 
of Howsham and Whitby Abbey, in the county of York, 
Esq. by whom, who died in childbed May 1788, he had one 
daughter, now living. His Lordship's Irish peerage, and the 
bulk of his estates, descended to his brother Henry, a Lieu- 
tcnant-General in the army, who distinguished himself 
greatly at the siege of Toulon, and in whose person the 
English peerage was revived in 1794. 

We shall now conclude our account of this excellent and 
lamented nobleman, with a general summary of his charae- 



OF THI LATg LORD MULGkAVI. 107 

ter. At sea he joined humanity to the stridlest discipline. 
The meritorious Officer found in him a liberal patron ; the 
sober and a&ive sailor a warm friend. Nor did he forsake 
them on shore : his grave was bedewed with the tears of 
the veteran tar, and the seaman's widow. Ardently attached 
to science, and a steady friend to merit, his regard was 
shown more to the arts which contribute to utility, than to 
those which tend only to embellishment. He was cautious 
and tardy in his professions, but his promise, once made, was 
inviolable. 

In his private life, those who saw him at a distance 
thought htm rouh and sullen j but on a nearer approach, 
through the hardy features of the British tar, shone forth the 
benignity and urbanity of the accomplished gentleman. His 
tender regret for the premature death of his most amiable 
lady, it is to be feared, greatly contributed to shorten a most 
valuable life. In fraternal affection he was almost beyond 
example, and it was returned with veneration and love. 
His table was most hospitable and convivial ; there, among 
his select friends, he was confessedly superior. His wit, 
especially in repartee, was brilliant and keen, but never gave 
pain, and what must ever be mentioned to his honour, he 
scorned to borrow it from the polluted sources of indecency 
or infidelity. As a landlord his character was singularly- 
benevolent and humane, and he was adored by his tenants, 
into whose houses he would frequently go, asking them 
about their affairs with the mostengagingcondescension. 

The following elegant and spirited picture, drawn by Lord 
Muigrave, of the character of his relation the Earl of 
Bristol, is so descriptive of himself, that we should be 
highly censurable were we to omit inserting it here. 

His constant employment in aflive service from his first going to 
ea, till the close of the American war, had furnished ample matter 
for experience, from which his penetrating genius,' and just observa- 
tion, had deduced that extensive and systematic knowledge of minute 
circumstances and important principles, which is necessary to form an 
expert seaman and a shining Officer: with the most consummate 
professional skill, he possessed the most perfect courage 'that ever 
ibrtified a Leart, or brightened a character ; he loted enterprise, he 



JOS JIOCRAfHICAt MEMOIRS 

was cool in danger, collected in distress, decided in difficulties, ready 
and judicious in his expedients, and persevering in his determi .ations ; 
bis orders in the most critical situations, and for the most various 
objects, were delivered with firmness and precision which spoke a 
confidence in their propriety, and facility in their execution, that 
insured a prompt and successful obedience in those to whom they were 
addressed. 

Such was his character as an Officer, which made him deservedly 
conspicuous in a profession, as honourable to the individual, as im- 
portant to the public: nor was he without those qualifications and 
abilities, which could give full weight to the situation in which his 
rank and connexions had placed him in civil life ; his early entrance 
into his profession had in some measure deptived him of the advant- 
ages of a classical education ; this defect was, however, more than 
balanced by the less ornamental, but more solid instruction of the 
school he studied is : as a member of Parliament, he was an eloquent, 
though not a correct speaker : those who differed from him in politics, 
confessed the extent of his knowledge, the variety of his information, 
and the force of his reasoning, at the same time that they admired the 
ingenuity with which he applied them to the support of his opinions. 
He was not more eminent for those talents by which a country is 
served, than distinguished by those qualities which render a man 
useful, resptcted, esteemed, and beloved in society. In the general 
intercourse of the world, he was an accomplished gentleman and 
agreeable companion ; his manners were noble as his birth, and en- 
gaging as his disposition ; he was humane, benevolent, compassionate, 
and generous; his humanity was conspicuous in his profession; when 
exercised towards the seamen, the sensibility and attention of a Com. 
mander they adored, was the most flattering relief that could be 
afforded to the sufferings or distresses of those who served with him ; 
when exerted towards her enemies, it ch'd honour to his country, by 
exemplifying in the most striking manner that generosity which is 
the peculiar characteristic, and most distinguished virtue, of a brave, 
free, and enlightened people. In other situations his liberality was 
extensive without ostentation, and generally bestowed where it 
would be most felt and kast seen, upon modest merit and silent 
distress. 

We cannot conclude this memoir without returning our 
best acknowledgments to Francis Gibson, Esq. F. A. S. for 
the obliging readiness with which he furnished us with an 
original picture of the late Lord Mulgrave, and some in* 
tcresting particulars respeding his life. The following lines 
were selected from Shakespeare, at Mulgrave Castle, by that 



OF THE J.ATE LORD MULGRAVS. 1O9 

gentleman on the evening of the interment of his noble 
friend. 

The gaudy babbling and remorseful day 

Is crept into the bosojn of the sea, 

And the hoarse muttering winds arouse the jades, 

That drag the tragic melancholy night, 

Who, with their drowsy, slow, and flagging wings, 

Clip dead mens* graves, and from their misty jaws, 

Breathe foul contagious darkness in the air. 

. Was that the solemn slow and midnight bel^ 

That did with iron tongue and brazen mouth, 

Sound One unto the drowsy race of night ? 

Now all is still ; the Baron's in his grave, 

After life's fitful fever, he sleeps well ; 

But yet while sabkd memory holds her seat 

In this distracted globe, will I remember him. 
Sprung from a royal stock, 

And fashioned much to honour from his cradle, 

He was a soldier, and a ripe and good one ; 

Exceeding wise, fair spoken, and persuading ; 

Lofty and sour to those that lov'd him not, 

But to those men that sought him sweet as gummer ; 

He had a tear for pity, and a hand 

Open as day for melting chanty : 

He ever proved a shelter to his friends, 

A hoop of gold to bind his brothers in. 

Heard ye him talk of commonwealths, 

You'd say it had been all in all his study ; 

List his discourse of war, and you would hear 

A fearful battle rendered you in music. 

Turn'd he to any cause in policy, 

The gordian knot of it he would unloose 

Familiar as his garter. He's regarded 

As the most noble corse that ever herald 

Did follow to his urn. 

And to add greater honours to his age, 

Than man could give him, he dy'd fearing God, 

Now to his ashes honour, peace be with him, 

And choirs of angels sing him to his rest, 

He was a man, take him for all in all, 

We ne'er shall look upon his like again. 
REFLECTION. 

O ! what we have, we prize not to its worth. 

While we enjoy it, but being lackM 

Why then we rate its value. 



HO BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS, &C. 

The remains of Lord MultTave arc interred in Lyth 
church, in the family vault,; his monument is simply ele- 
gant. On a square pedestal, is placed a sarcophagus of 
Virgin marble> surmounted with a Baronial coronet. 
Below, in bas relief, are placed crosswise, the anchor and 
British flag, as emblems of his late profession. The in- 
scription, composed by the present Lord Mulgravej is as 

follows : - 

(Executed by Messrs. Fisher, of York). 

In memory of 

Constantine John, Baron Mulgrave, 
Who was born on the 9th of May 1 744, 

And died the loth of October 1 792 j 

Having passed the period of an adive life 

In the pra&ice of every public and domestic virtue. 

In the service of his country, 

He was 

A skilful, gallant, and enterprizing Sea Officer, 
A learned, upright, and constitutional Statesman* 

In society, 

An aflive, and indefatigable patron, 
A sincere and unalterable friend. 

In his family, 
A zeal6us, kind, and liberal brother, 

A dutiful and affectionate son, 
An indulgent, considerate, and tender husband ; 
He bore a tedious wasting illness, with the patient firmness 

of 

A Philosopher, 
He saw the approach of death, with the chearful resignation 

of 

A Christian ! 

Having employed the concluding hours of such a life 
, In the aftive exertion of his mental faculties, 
In the placid exercise of his human affection*, 

He died 
With the humble but confide at hope 

of 

Eternal happiness, 

Through the merits, and mercy, 

Of his Saviour. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF NAVAL HISTORY. 



70 THE EDITOR OF 'THE NAfAL CHRONICLE. 
SIR, 

S the following letters form a valuable addition to your 
memoirs of the late Admiral Sir Charles Saunders *, I 
doubt not but you will deem them worthy of a place in 
your valuable publication. Gazette letters relative to im- 
portant events ought to be preserved, as the safest documents 
from which an historian can gather fats. The first letter is 
particularly curious, as it sets forth in a succinft and precise 
manner the difficulties which retarded the conquest of Quebec, 
and the very serious apprehensions the Admiral entertained 
of being obliged to abandon the expedition. 

1 am, &c. 
Southampton, August 9, 1802. AN OLD OFFICER. 

Stirling Castle, off" Point Lew, In the River 
SIR, St. Laurence, Sept. 5tb, 1759. 

IN my letter of the 6th of June, I acquainted you I was off Scatari, 
landing for the river St. Laurence. On the z6th 1 had got up, with 
the first division of the fleet and transports, as far as the middle of the 
Isle of Orleans, where I immediately prepared to land the troops, 
which I did the next morning. The same day the second and thir4 
divisions came up, and the troops from them were landed likewise. 

I got thus far without any loss or accident whatever ; but direcllr 
after landing the troops, a very hard gale of wind came on, by which 
many anchors and small boats were lost, and much damage received 
among the transports by their driving on board each other. The 
ships that lost most anchors I supplied from the men of war, as far as 
I was able, and, in every other respecl, gave them the best assistance 
in my power. 

On the 28th, at midnight, the enemy sent down from Quebec seven 
fireships, and though our ships and transports were so numerous, and 
necessarily spread over so great a part of the channel, we towed them 
all clear and aground, without receiving the least damage from them. 
The next night General Monckton crossed the' river, and landed with 
his brigade on the south shore, and took post at Point JLevi ; and 
General Wolfe took his on the westernmost point of the Isle of 
Orleans. 

* See page, i, &c. 



UZ IttUSTRATlOKS OT NAVAL HISTORY. 

On the istof July I moved up between the points of Orleans and 
Lcvi j and, it being resolved to land on the north shore, below the 
falls of MoiUmorenci, I placed, on the 8th instant, his Majesty's 
sloop Porcupine, and the Boscawen armed vessel, in the channel 
between Orleans and the north shore, to cover that landing, which 
took place that night. 

On the I yth, I ordered Captain Rous of the Sutherland, to pro- 
ceed, with the first fair wind and night tide, above the town of 
Quebec, and to take with him his Majesty's ships Diana and Squirrel, 
with two armed sloops, and two catts armed and loaded with provi- 
sions. On the 1 8th, at night, they all got up, except the Diana, 
and gave General Wolfe an opportunity of reconnoitring above the 
town ; those ships having carried some troops with them for that 
purpose. The Diana ran ashore upon the rocks off Point Levi, and 
received so much damage, that I have sent her to Boston, with 
twenty-seven sail of American transports (those which received most 
damage in the gale of the i;th of June), where they are to be dis- 
charged ; and the Diana, having repaired her damages, is to proceed 
to England, taking with her the mast- ships, and what trade may be 
ready to accompany her. 

On the z8th, at midnight, the enemy sent down a raft of fire 
stages, of near 100 radeaux, which succeeded no better than the 
fireships. 

On the 3 ist, General Wolfe determined to land a number of troops 
above the falls of Montmorenci, in order to attack the enemy's 
lines ; to cover which, I placed the Centurion in the Channel, be- 
tween the Isle of Orleans and the falls, and ran on shore, at high 
water, two catts which I had armed for that purpose, against two 
smaH batteries and two redoubts, where our troops were to land. 
About six in the evening they landed, but the General not thinking it 
proper to persevere in the attack, soon after part of them re-embarked, 
and the rest crossed the falls with General Wolfe ; upon which, to 
prevent the two catts from falling into the enemy's hands, they being 
thtn dry on shore, I gave orders to take the men out, and set them 
en fire, which was accordingly done. 

On the jth of August, in the night, I sent twenty flat-bottomed 
boats up the river to the Sutherland, to embark 1260 of the troops, 
with Brigadier- General Murray, from a post we had taken on the 
soutH- shore I sent Admiral Holmes up to the Sutherland, to aft in 
concert with him, and give him all the assistance the ships and boats 
could afford. At the same time I direded Admiral Holmes to use 
his best endeavours to get at and destroy the enemy's ships above the 
tow& ; and to that purpose I ordered the Leostoffe, and Hunter sloop, 



* l 



tvith two armed sloops, and two catts, with provisions, to pass Quebec, 
and join the Sutherland ; but the wind holding westerly, it was the 
27th of August before they got up, which was the fourth attempt 
they had made to gain their passage. 

On the 25th, at night, Admiral Holmes and General Murray, with 
part of the troops, returned ; they had met with and destroyed a 
magazine of the enemy's clothing, some gun-powder, and other 
things : and Admiral Holmes had been ten or twelve leagues above 
the town, but found it impracticable at that time to get further up. ^ 

General Wolfe having resolved to quit the camp at Montmorenci, 
and go above the town, in hopes of getting between the enemy and 
their provisions (supposed to be in the ships there), and by that 
means force them into an acYion, I sent up, the 2gth at night, the Sea- 
horse, and two armed sloops, and two catts laden with provisions, to 
join the rest above Quebec ; and having taken off all the artillery 
from the camp of Montmorenci, on the 3d instant, in the forenoon, 
the troops embarked from thence, and landed at Point Levi. The 
4th, at night, I sent all the flat bottomed boats up, and this night a 
part of the troops will march up the south shore, above the town, to 
be embarked in the ships and vessels there, and to morrow night the 
rest will follow. Admiral Holmes is also gone up again to assist in 
their future operations, and to try, if, with the assistance of the 
troops, it is practicable to get at the enemy's ships. 

As General Wolfe writes by this opportunity, he will give you aa 
account of his part of the operations, and his thoughts what further 
may be done for his Majesty's service. The enemy appear numerous, 
und seem to be strongly posted ; but let the event be what it will, we 
hall remain here as long as the season of the year will permit, in 
crder to prevent their detaching troops from hence against General 
Amherst; and I shall leave cruisers at the mouth of the river to cut 
off any supplies that may be sent them, with strlft orders to keep that 
station as long as possible. The town of Quebec is not habitable) 
being almost entirely burnt and destroyed. 

I inclose you the present disposition of the ships under mT com- 
mand : twenty of the victuallers that sailed from England with the 
Echo, are arrived here, one unloaded at Louisbourg, having received. 
damage in her passage out, and another I have heard nothing of. No 
ships of the enemy have come this way, tha^ I have had any intelli- 
gence of, since my arrival in the river, except one, laden with flour 
and brandy, which was taken by Captain Drake, of the Lizard. 

Before Admiral Durtll got into the river, three frigates and seven- 
teen sail, with provisions, stores, and a few recruits, got up, and ate 
fchose we are so anxious, if possible, to destroy. 
Qol.VIII. < 



ILLUiTRATtOtfi OS NAVAL 

Yesterday I received a letter from General Amherst (to whom I 
have had no opportunity of writing since I have been in the river), 
dated Camp, at Crown Point, August the 7th, wherein he only de- 
tires I would send transports and a convoy to New York, to carry to 
England six hundred and seven prisoners, taken at the surrender of 
Niagara. 

I should have wrote to you sooner from hence, but while my dis- 
patches were preparing, General Wolfe was taken very ill ; he has 
been better since, but is greatly out of order. 

I shall very soon send home the great ships, and have the honour 
to be, with the greatest respect, 

Sir, your most obedient, 

And most humble servant, 
CHARLES SAUNDERS. 

From the above letter, which appeared in the Gazette, it 
Seems that Sir Charles Saunders entertained very little hopes 
of being able to reduce Quebec, and had determined in a 
short time to abandon the expedition, and send home the 
large ships. The disappointment of the nation at this in- 
telligence was very great ; but soon after another express ar- 
rived from the Admiral, with an account that the British 
forces -were in possession of the capital of Canada. This 
was published in a Gazette Extraordinary. 

Copy of a Letter from Vice- Admiral Saunders to the Right Hon. Mr. 
Secretary Pitt> September 20, 1759. 

SIR, 

I HAVE the greatest pleasure in acquainting you, that the town 
and citadel of Quebec surrendered on the i8th instant, and I inclose 
you a copy of the Articles of Capitulation. The army took posses- 
5on of the gates on the land side the same evening, and sent safe- 
guards into the town to preserve order, and to prevent any thing being 
destroyed ; and Captain Palliser, with a body of seamen, landed in 
the lower town, and did the same. The next day our army marched 
In, ancl near rooo French Officers, soldiers, and seamen, were em- 
barked on board some English catts, who shall soon proceed for 
France agreeable to the capitulation. 

I had the honour to write to you the 5th instant, by the Rodney 
cutter ; the troops mentioned in that letter embarked on board the 
ships and vessels above the town in the night of the 6th instant, and 
at four in the morning of i3th, began to land on the north shore-, 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF NAVAL HISTORY. 115 

abovit a mile and a half above the town. General Montcalm, with his 
whole army, left their camp at Beaufort, and marched to meet them. 
A little before ten both armies were formed, and the enemy began 
the attack Our troops received their fire, and reserved their own, 
advancing till they were so near as to run in upon them, and push 
them with their bayonets ; by which, in a little time, the French gave 
way, and fled to the town in the utmost disorder, and with great 
loss ; for our troops pursued them quite to the walls, and killed many 
of them upon the glacis, and in the ditch, and if the town had been 
further off, the whole French army must have been destroyed. 
About 250 French prisoners wer taken that day, among whom are 
ten Captains, and six subaltern Officers, all of whom will go in the 
great ships to England. 

I am sorry to acquaint you that General Wolfe was killed in the 
action, and General Monckton shot through the body, but he is 
now supposed to be out of danger. General Montcalm, and the three 
next French Officers in command, were killed ; but I must refer you 
to General Townshend, who writes by this opportunity, for the par- 
ticulars of the action, the state of the garrison, and the measures he 
is taking for keeping possession of it, I am now beginning to send 
on shore the stores they will want, and provisions for 5000 men, of 
which I can furnish them with a sufficient quantity. 

The night of their landing, Admiral Holmes, with the ships and 
troops, was above three leagues above the intended landing place. 
General Wolfe, with about half his troops, set off in boats, and 
dropped down with the tide, and were by that means less liable to be 
discovered by the French centinels posted along the coast. The ships 
followed them about three quarters of an hour afterwards, and came 
to the landing place just in the time that had been concerted, to cover 
their landing. Considering the darkness of the night, and the rapidity 
of the current, this was a very critical operation, and very properly 
and successfully conducted. When General Wolfe and the troops 
with him had landed, the difficulty of gaining the top of the hill is 
scarce credible ; it was very steep in its ascent, and high, and had no 
path where two could go abreast ; but they were obliged to pull 
themselves up by the stumps and boughs of trees, that covered the 
declivity. 

Immediately after our victory over their troops, I sent up all the 
boats in the fleet with artillery and ammunition; and on the i/th, 
went up with the men of war, in a disposition to attack the lower 
town, as soon as General Townshend should be ready to attack 
the upper ; but in the evening they sent out to the camp, and offered 
tetrns of capitulation. 



Il6 THEORY Of THE TIDES. 

I have the further pleasure of acquainting you, that, during thfe 
tedious campaign, there has continued a perfeft good understanding 
between the army and navy. I have received great assistance from 
Admirals Durell and Holmes, and from all the Captains ; indeed 
every body has exerted themselves in the execution of their duty ; 
even the transports have willingly assisted me with boats and people 
on the landing the troops, and many other services. 

I have ths honour to be, &c. 

CHARLES SAUNDERS. 



THEORY OF THE TIDES. 

BY EDMUND HALLEY. 
[Concluded from Page 71.] 



>OW if we suppose the force of the moon's attraction to decrease 
as the squares of the distance from its centre increases (as in 
the earth and other celestial bodies), we shall find, that, where the 
moon is perpendicularly either above or below the horizon, either in 
zenith or nadir, there the force of gravity is most of all diminished, and 
consequently that there the ocean must necessaiily swell by the coming 
in of the water from those parts where the pressure is greatest, 
namely, in those places where the moon is uear the horizon ; but that 
this may be the better understood, I thought it needful to add the 
'following figure (i), where M is the moon, E the earth, C 
its centre, Z the place where the moon is in the zenith, and N 
where in the nadir. 




Now by the hypothesis it is evident, that the water in Z being 
nearer, is more drawn by the moon than the centre of the earth C 
and that again more than the water in N ; wherefore the water in 
Z has a tendency towards the moon, contrary to that of gravity, 
being equal to the excess of the gravitation in Z above that in C, 
and in the other case, the water in N tending less towards the moon 
than the centre C will be less pressed, by as much as is the difference 
of the gravitation towards the moon in C and N. This rightly 
understood, it plainly follows, that the sea, which otherwise would be 
spherical, upon the pressure of the mooni must form itself into n 



THKORV OF THE TIDES. Ifj 

pheroidal or oval figure, whose longest diameter is where the moon is 
vertical, and shortest where she is in the horizon ; and that the moon 
shifting her position as she turns round the earth once a-day, this oval 
of water shifts with her, occasioning thereby the two floods and ebbs 
observable in each twenty-five hours. 

And this may suffice, as to the general cause of the tides ; it re- 
mains now to show how naturally this motion accounts for all the 
particulars that have beea observed about them ; so that there can be 
no room left to doubt, but that this is the true cause thereof. 

The spring tides upon the new and full moons, and neap tides on 
the quarters, are occasioned by the attractive force of the sun in the 
new and full, conspiring with the attraction of the moon, and pro- 
ducing a tide by their united forces ; whereas in the quarters, the sun 
raises the water where the moon depresses it, and the contrary ; so as 
the tides are made only by the difference of their attractions. That 
the force of the sun is no greater in this case, proceeds from the 
very small proportion the semidiameter of the earth bears to the vast 
distance of the sun. 

It is also observed, that ex te ris paribus, the equinoctial springtides 
in March and September, or near them, are the highest, and the 
neap tides the lowest ; which proceeds from the greater agitations of 
the waters, when the fluid spheroid revolves about a greater circle of 
the earth, than when it turns about in a lesser circle ; it bting plain 
that if the moon were constituted in the Pole, and there stood, that 
the spheroid would have a fixed position, and that it would be always 
high water under the poles, and low water every where under the 
equinoctial ; and, therefore, the nearer the moon approaches the 
poles, the less is the agitation of the ocean, which is of all the 
greatest, when the moon is in the equinoctial, or farthest distant from 
the poles. Whence the sun and moon, being either conjoined or 
opposite in the equinoctial, produce the greatest spring tides; and the 
subsequent neap tides, being produced by the tropical moon in the 
quarters, are always the least tides ; whereas in June and December, 
the spring tides are made by the tropical sun and moon, and therefore 
less vigorous ; and the neap tides by the equinoctial moon, which, 
therefore, are the stronger ; hence it happens, that the difference 
between the spring and neap tides in these months, is much less con- 
siderable than in March and September. And the reason why the 
very highest spring tides are found to be rather before the vernal and 
after the autumnal equinox, namely, in February and October, than 
precisely upon them, is, because the sun is nearer the earth in the 
winter months, and so comes to have a greater effect in producing 
the tides. 



JiS 



THIORV or THB TIDES. 



Hitherto we have considered such affe&ions of the tides as are 
universal, without relation to particular cases ; what follows from the 
differing latitudes of places, will be easily understood by figure 2. 




Let A p, E p, be the earth, covered over with very deep waters, 
C its center, P p its poles, A the equinoctial, F f the parallel of 
latitude of a place, D d another parallel at equal distance on the 
other side of the equinoctial, H h the two points where the moon is 
vertical, and let K k be the great circle, wherein the moon appears 
horizontal. It is evident, that a spheroid described upon H h and 
K k, shall nearly represent the figure of the sea, and C f , C D, C F, 
Cd, shall be the heights of the sea in the places f, D, F, d, in all 
which it is high water. And seeing that in twelve hours time, by the 
diurnal rotation of the earth, the point F is transferred to f, and d to 
D ; the height of the sea C F will be that of the high water when 
the moon is present, and C f that of the other high water when the 
moon is under the earth, which in the case of this figure is less than 
the former C F. In the opposite parallel D d, the contrary happens. 
The rising of the water being always alternately greater and less in 
each place, when it is produced by the moon declining sensibly from 
the equinoctial ; that being the greatest of the two high waters in each 
diurnal revolution of the moon, wherein she approaches nearest either 
to the zenith or nadir of the place ; whence it is, that the moon in 
the northern signs, in this part of the world, makes the greatest tides 
when above the earth, and in the southern signs when under the 
earth ; the effect being always the greatest where the moon is farthest 
from the horizon, either above or below it. And this alternate in. 
crease and decrease of the tides has been observed to hold true on the 
coast of England, at Bristol, by Captain Sturmy, and at Plymouth, by 
Mr. Colepresse. 

But the motions hitherto mentioned are somewhat altered by the 
libration of the water, whereby, though the aft ion of the luminaries 



THEORY THI TIDES. 

should cease, the flux and reflux of the sea would for some time con- 
tinue. This conservation of the impressed motion diminishes the 
differences that otherwise would be between two consequent tides, and 
is the reason why the highest spring tides are not precisely on the new 
and full moons, nor the neaps on the quarters ; but genet ally they are 
the third tides after them, and sometimes later. 

All these things would regularly come to pass, if the whole earth 
were covered with sea very deep ; but by reason of the shoalness of 
some places, and the narrowness of the straits, by which the tides are 
in many places propagated, there arises a great diversity in the effect, 
and not to be accounted for, without an exacl: knowledge of all the 
circumstances of the places, as the position of the land, and the 
breadth and depth of the channel by which the tide flows ; for a vey 
slow and imperceptible motion of the whole body of the water, where 
it is (for example), two miles deep, will suffice to raise its surface ten 
or twelve feet in a tide's time ; whereas, if the same quantity of water 
"were to be conveyed up a channel of forty fathoms deep, it would 
require a very large stream to effect it, in so large inlets as are the 
channel of England and the German ocean ; whence the tide is found 
to set strongest in those places where the sea grows narrowest, the 
fame quantity of water being to pass through a smaller passage. Thia 
is most evident in the straits, between Portland and Cape de la Hogue 
in Normandy, where the tide runs like a sluice ; and would be yet 
more between Dover and Calais, if the tide coming about the island 
from the north did not check it. And this force being once impressed 
upon the water, continues to carry it above the level of the ordinary 
height of the ocean, particularly where the water meets a direct 
obstacle, as it is at St. Maloes ; and where it enters into a long 
channel, which running far into the land, grows very strait at its 
extremity, as it is in the Severn at Chepstow and Bristol. 

This shoalness of the sea, and the intercurrent continents, are the 
reason that in the open ocean, the time of high water is not at the 
moon's appulse to the meridian, but always some hours after it, as it 
is observed upon all the west coasts of Europe and Africa, from Ire- 
land to the Cape of Good Hope ; in all which a S. W. moon makes 
high water, and the same is reported to be on the west side of Ame- 
rica. But it would be endless to account for all the particular solutions, 
which are easy corollaries of this, hypothesis, as why the lakes, such 
as the Caspian Sea, and the Mediterranean Seas, such as the Black 
Sea, the Straits, and the Baltic, have no sensible tides ; for lakes 
having no communication with the ocean, can neither increase nor 
diminish their water, whereby to rise and fall ; and seas that com- 
municate by such narrow inlets, and are of so immense an extent, 



120 THEORY OF THE TIDE*. 

cannot in a few hours time receive or empty water enough to raise of 
ink their surface any thing sensibly. 

Lastly, to demonstrate the excellence of this doctrine, the example 
of the tides in the port of Tonkin, in Chiha, which are so extraor- 
dinary, and differing from all others we have yet heard of, may suffice. 
In this port there is but one flood and ebb in twenty-four hours, and 
twice in each month, namely, when the moon is near the equinoctial 
there is no tide at all, but the water is stagnant ; but with the moon' 
declination there begins a tide, which is greatest when she is in 
the tropical signs ; only with this difference, that when the moon is 
to the northward of the equinoctial, it flows when she is above the 
earth, and ebbs when she is under, so as to make high water at 
moon's setting, and low water at moon's rising. But on the contrary, 
the moon being to the southward, makes high water at rising, and lovr 
water at setting) it ebbing all the time she is above the horizon, as may 
be seen more at large in the Philosophical TransaSions, No. 162. 

The cause of this odd appearance is proposed by Mr. Newton, to 
be from the concurrence of two tides ; the one propagated in six 
hours out of the great South Sea, along the coast of China ; the other 
out of the Indian Ocean, from between the islands in twelve hours, 
along the coast of Malacca and Cambodia. The one of these tides* 
being produced in north latitude, is, as has been said, greater, when 
the moon being to the north of the equator, is above the earth, and 
less when she is under the earth. The other of them, which is pro- 
pagated from the Indian Sea, being raised in south latitude, is greater 
when the moon declining to the south, is above the earth, and less 
when she is under the earth. So that of these tides, alternately greater 
and lesser, there comes always successively two of the greater and two 
of the lesser together every day ; and the high water falls always 
between the times of the arrival of the two greater floods ; and the 
low water between the arrival of the two lesser floods. And the moon 
coming to the equinoctial, and the alternate floods becoming equal, the 
tide ceases, and the water stagnates. But when she has passed to the 
other side of the equator, those floods which in the former order were 
the least, now becoming the greatest, that which before was the 
time of high water, now becomes the low water, and the converse. 
So that the whole appearance of these strange tides is, without any 
forcing, naturally deduced from these principles, and is a great argu- 
ment of the certainty of the whole theory. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE XCVI. 

r ]PHE island of Malta, which is situated in latitude 35. 
53. N. longitude 14 28. E. has long been celebrated 
in the annals of heroic warfare. It was ceded to the Knights 
of St. John of Jerusalem, in the year 1522, by the Emperor 
Charles V. in consequence of their being driven from the 
island of Rhodes, by Solyman the Magnificent. Strongly 
fortified by nature and art, and defended by a gallant body 
of soldiers, all the vast forces of the Turkish empire were 
repeatedly brought against it without success : and in a lapse 
of almost three centuries, it insensibly acquired the reputa- 
tion of an impregnable fortress. The rich endowments 
which the Knights possessed in various states of Europe, 
furnished them with ample means for the protection or 
embellishment of the island; and under successive Grand 
Masters, the city and harbour of Valette, of which we 
annex a correft view, was provided with whatever could 
contribute to its defence or magnificence. In the stateliness 
and grandeur of its palaces and churches, it was excelled 
by few cities in Europe; but what principally attracted the 
notice of strangers was its stupendous fortifications, and the 
strength of its works. An author of great merit, Mr. 
Brydone, who visited Malta in 1770, speaks thus of the 
city of Valette : 

The city stands upon a peninsula, betwixt two of the finest ports in 
the world, which are defended by almost impregnable fortifications. 
That on the south east side of the city is the largest. It runs about 
two miles into the heart of the island, and is so very deep, and sur- 
rounded by such high grounds and fortifications, that they assured us 
the largest ships of war might ride here in the most stormy weather, 
almost without a cable. 

This beautiful basou is divided into five distinA harbours, all equally 
safe, and each capable of containing an immense number of shipping. 
The mouth of the harbour I scarcely jn quarter of a mile broad, and 

VIII. & 



t2* ACCOUNT Of THI ISLAND OF MALTA. 

is commanded on each side by batteries that would tear the strongest 
ship to pieces before she could enter. Besides this, it is fronted by 
a quadruple battery, one above the other, the largest of which is a 
Jlcur a'enu or on a level with the water. These are mounted with 
about eighty of their heaviest artillery, so that this harbour, I think, 
may really be considered as impregnable ; and indeed the Turks have 
ever found it so, ad I believe ever will. 

The harbour on the north side of the city, although they only use 
it for fishing, and as a place of quarantine, would, in any other part 
of the world, be considered as inestimable. It is likewise defended 
by very strong works, and in the centre of the bason there is an island, 
on which they have built a castle and a lazeret. 

The fortifications of Malta are indeed a most stupendous work. 
All the boasted catacombs of Rome and Naples are a trifle to the 
immense excavations that have been made in this little island. The 
ditches, of a vast size, are all cut out of the solid rock. These ex- 
tend for a great many miles ; and raise our astonishment to think that 
so small a state has ever been able to make them. 

As the city of Valette is built upon a hill, none of the streets ex- 
cept the key are level. They are all paved with white freestone, 
which not only creates a great dust, but from its colour is likewise so 
offensive to the eyes, that most of the people here are remarkably 
weak sighted. The principal buildings are the palace of the Grand 
Master, the infirmary, the arsenal, the inns or hotels of the Seven 
Tongues, atid the great church of St. John. The palace is a noble 
though plain stru&ure, and the Grand Master (who studies con- 
veniency more than magnificence), is more comfortably and com. 
modiously lodged than any prince in Europe, the King of Sardinia, 
perhaps, alone excepted. The great stair is the easiest and best I ever 
aw. 

The naval force of the Knights of Malta consists of four galleys, 
three galliots, four ships of sixty guns, and a frigate of thirty-six, 
besides a number of the quick sailing little vessels eallecl scam paviaa 
(literally runaways). Their ships, gallies, and fortifications, are not 
only well supplied with excellent artillery, but they have likewise 
invented a kind of ordnance of thtir own, unknown to all the world 
besides. For we found to our no small amazement, that the rocks 
were not only cut into fortifications, but likewise into artillery to 
defend these fortifications ; being hollowed out in many places into 
the form of immense mortars. The charge is said to be about a 
barrel of gunpowder, over which they place a large piece of wood made 
oxadly to fit the mouth of the' chamber. On this they heap a great 



quantity of cannon-balls, shells, or other deadly materials; and when 
an enemy's ship approaches the harbour, they fire the whole into the. 
air, and they pretend it produces a very great effect, making a shower 
for two or three hundred yards round that would sink ar.y vessel. 

But notwithstanding the immense strength of the isle of 
Malta, as it is here described, and corroborated by other 
authors, it fell an easy prey to the French, under General 
Bonaparte, in the month of June 1798, after an investment 
of little more than twenty-four hours. The then Govern- 
ment of France affected to consider this conquest as an 
arduous victory, and their official report of the event was 
full of the praises of the General and army by whom it was 
achieved. The Directory were anxious that the world should 
believe, the capture of Malta was effected by the bravery of 
Bonaparte and his army; but nothing was farther from the 1 
true state of the case. The French interest predominated 
in Malta, and French intrigues produced the surrender of 
the place. No resistance was attempted that deserves the 
name of resistance ; and the island was traitorously and 
shamefully given up by those who on every principle of 
duty were bound to defend it, and who moreover had amply 
the means of defence in their power. The city of Valette 
was immediately garrisoned by French troops; and the 
Knights, who were faithful to their order, took refuge in 
various states of Europe. 

Soon after the glorious battle of the Nile, an English 
squadron appeared before Malta, and formed the blockade of 
the place. The natural and artificial strength of Valette 
made it impossible to 'take it by storm, or the usual methods 
of siege, and therefore it was determined to starve the 
garrison into a surrender*. On this occasion the navai 
superiority of Britain appeared pre-eminently great. The 
heroism and perseverance of our Commanders and seamen, 
as usual, prevailed } and after a tedious blockade of two 

* Vide Vol. IV. page 335. 



jj^, ACCOUNT OF THE J31AND OF MAtfA. 

years, the fortress of Valette, with all its dependencies, sur-r 
rendered to the British arms, the 5th of September 1800. 
By the articles of capitulation the French garrison were con- 
sidered as prisoners of war, and engaged not to serve 
against his Majesty or allies until regularly exchanged. The 
military stores found in. the place were very considerable ; 
but the besieged had suffered greatly from want of provi- 
sions. In the harbour were found one Maltese vessel, of 
64 guns, in good condition, and another sixty-four gun ship 
and a frigate, with so:ne small craft, not in a state to proceed 
to sea. 

By the tenth article of the Definitive Treaty of Peace the 
island of Malta, with its dependencies, is restored to the 
Order of St. John of Jerusalem ; and is to be held by them 
on the same conditions as before the war, with some addi- 
tional stipulations. The principal of these are, that for the 
futuie there shall be no English nor French Langues ; and 
that no individual belonging to either of the said powers, 
shall be admissible into the Order. A Maltese Langue is to 
be established, with all the dignities, privileges, and appoint- 
ments of the other Langues ; and the garrison of the island 
is at all times to consist at least one half of native Maltese 
troops. The independence of Malta is under the guarantee 
of Great Britain, France, Austria, Russia, Spain, and Prussia; 
and the Order is bound to maintain a perpetual neutrality. 

In the event of a future war, whether thtse regulations 
would prevent the French interest from predominating in 
the island, is a point which we shall not attempt to can- 
vass ; but let affairs take what turn they would, we need not 
fear their being in possession of the place, since we have 
sSown it is as liable to be blockaded by our marine as their 
other ports, and that against the courage and perseverance of 
our seinv-n, its wonderful means of defence and almost im 
pregnable fortifications are of no avail. 






NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c. 

NANTES IN GURGITE VAITO. 



OBSERVATIONS ON ADMIRAL BLAKE. 

TT ts remarkable that this great seaman was bred a scholar in the 
University of Oxford, where he had taken the degree of Master of 
Arts ; and it is an observation very pertinent to sea affairs, which the 
noble historian who has written of those times, has left us concerning 
him. '* He was," says Lord Clarendon, " the first man that de- 
clined the old track, and made it manifest that the science might be 
attained in less time than was imagined ; and despised those rules 
which had been long in practice, to keep his ship and his mea out of 
danger, which had been held in former times a point of great ability 
and circumspection, as if the principal art requisite in the Captain of 
a ship, had been to come home safe again. He was the first man, 
that brought ships to contemn castles on shore, which had been ever 
thought very formidable, and were discovered by him to make a noise 
only, and to fright those who could rarely be hurt by them. He wai 
the first that infused that proportion of courage into seamen, by 
making them see by experience what mighty things they could do, 
if they were resolved ; and taught them to fight in fire as well as upon 
the water ; and though he hath been very well imitated and followed) 
he was the first that gave the example of that kind of naval courage* 
and bold and resolute achievements." 

CAPTAIN BLAIR. 

THIS able Officer, for his gallant conduft in the Dolphin frigate, 
in the engagement with the Dutch on the Dogger Bank, August 5, 
1781, was promoted to the command of the Anson, a new ship, of 
64 guns. By bravtly distinguishing himself under Sir George 
Rodney, on the izth of April 1782, he fell in the bed of honour, 
and became one of the three heroes to whom their country voted a 
monument. An ingenious writer proposed the following well-adapted 
lines as part of an epitaph : 

This last just tribute grateful Britain pays, 
That distant time may learn her heroes.' praise, 
Fir'd with like zeal, fleets yet unform'd shall gain, 
Another Blair, a Manners, and a Bayne; 
And future Chiefs shall unrepining bleed, 
When Senates thu reward aud consecrate the deed. 



Uf KAVAL ANECDOTES, 

THE MARINER'S COMPASS. 

(Front ANDERSOH'S Historical and Chronological DeduS'ion of tie 
Origin of Commerce). 

MOST authors fix on the year i 302, for the date of the incom- 
parable invention or discovery of the mariner's compass, or magnetic 
needle, for the dire&ion of ships at sea. The" inventor was Flavio de 
Gioia, a native of Amalfi, an ancient commercial city in the kingdom 
of Naples ; in commemoration of which, this verse of one Anthony, 
of Palermo, is recorded by the Neapolitan historians, viz. 

" Prlma dedit nautlt usum magnet'is.dmalphii." 

By which it is understood, that as the poles of the magnet, or load- 
tone, answered to the poles of the world, it could also communicate 
that wonderful property to an iron needle, placed on a chart, maiking 
the points of the world. 

The power of the magnet to attraftiron was known to the ancients, 
and is mentioned by Plato, Aristotle, and Pliny ; but its directive 
power, to cause a- piece of iron touched with it to point north and 
outl'. is undoubtedly of a later date. 

Goropius, according to MonsotHS, insists that the inventors of 
this wonderful pyxis nr*utica, or compass, were either Danes or Ger- 
mans, because the thirty-two points nn it arc written or pronounced 
in the Dutch or Teutonic language, by aU nations using the sea; 
though this may, perhaps, only prove the improvement of the corn- 
pass by the Teutonic people. For it is agreed by every one, that, 
at the first, there were only the four cardinal points, or at most eight 
joints named on the compass (north east, north-west, south-east, 
south-west), which eight winds had been so named by Charlemagne, 
in the ytar 790 ; and that Emperor etill using the Teutonic tongue, 
though with some alteration from its original dialeft, from thence 
those of Bruges might naturally have named the other twenty- four 
point* in the same language, as the bringing them to thirty-two 
points is usually ascribed (says Vcrgestan, c.), to the people of 
Bruges, in Flanders, where the Teutonic dialed is still in use. 
Others, continues Morisotus, ascribe the discovery of the compass to 
Marco Polo, of Venice, who, on his return from China, about the 
year 1260, communicated the secret to the Italians. Some indeed 
have formerly thought, that what is called venoria by Plautus, was 
the magnetic needle, and was consequently known to the ancients ; 
but the learned seem- nbw to be of opinion, that this versoria was 
nothing more than a rope which turned the saii. 



COMMERCIAL HINT*, RECOLLECTIONS, &C^ 12J 

There are also two other Frenchmen^ Mezerai, and Motis. Huet, 
Bishop of AvrancheS, who will only allow Flavio de Groia the honour 
of having rendered the compass more perfect and practicable ; and 
declare it to be a more ancitnt discovery, as they find mention of it, 
or of something resembling it, in several authors prior to this period. 
Bishop Huet seems positive, that it was in use among die French pilots 
above forty years before Marco Polo's time, as appears, says he, 
from some verses of Guyot de Provins, a French poet, mentioned by 
Fauchet, who lived about the year 1200. Notwithstanding all which, 
the general consent of authors give it to Flavio de Gioia, of Amalfi, 
who, according to Abraham Ortelius and others, used it only for the 
eight principal winds or points, till it was improved, as we have 
already related, by the people of Bruges, to thirty-two points. 
Neither, indeed, does .this excellent invention seem to have been 
generally known and used even long after Flavio's time, as appears too 
plainly, from the Portuguese creeping along the shores, even so late as 
their first discoveries on the west coasts of Africa, in the fifteenth 
century ; yet the Portuguese ought to have the honour and justice 
done them to acknowledge, that the use of the astrolabe, the table* 
of declination, with other astronomical and mathematical rules, ap- 
plicable to navigation, were their inventions ; and it is highly probable 
also, that the sea charts, made by the brother of Columbus in 
England, were their invention. It is true, the English pretend not 
to the invention of the compass, as several other nations have done, 
yet they are said to be the contrivers of the most convenient method 
of suspending the box which contains the magnetic needle, so as to 
keep it always horizontal. The variation of that needle, or its de 
clination from the true north point, was discovered by Sebastian 
Cabot, in the year 1500; and the inclination, or dipping, of that 
needle, when hung so as to play vertically to a point beneath the hori- 
zon, was first discovered by Robert Not man, an Englishman, in I c/6, 
as have been many other lesser improvements in the instruments for 
navigation by our nation ; neither ought we by any means to forget 
Lord Napier's discovery of logarithms, so useful in our arithmetical 
operations for nautical as well as other purposes. Lastly, the varia- 
tions of the variation, or the different declinations of that needle at 
different times in the same place, was first discovered by our country- 
man Gellibrand, about the year 1634; though some attribute the 
merit of this discovery to Gassendi, a French mathematician. So 
much seemed necessary to be said on this incomparable invention, a.nd 
n some of the other nautical improvements, which, as it were, sprung 
naturally from it. Endless are the encomiums justly bestowed by all 



12g HAVAL ANECDOTES, 

maritime nations on the mariner's compass, for the benefit of 
lion and commerce. 

The invention of this most excellent and useful instrument, set every 
maritime nation upon improvements or discoveries, by which means, 
things utterly unknown before, were continually adding to the mor 
perfect accomplishment of it. Nothing can make the contrast 
stronger, than to view and compare the timorous coasting of the old 
navigators *, who seldom had the courage to venture out of sight of 
the shore, with the exa&Hess which, in these times, a ship, for instance, 
can sail from the Lizard Point, in Cornwall, and directly make or 
arrrfe at one of the small isles of the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean ; 
far distant from any land, though in the darkest weather, deprived of 
the comfort and use of the heavenly luminaries, and of every other 
mark from heaven, earth or sea, for his guide, the modern navigator 
securely sails on, generally knowing with great exactness by his 
reckoning where he is, and how far distant from his intended port. 
In short, a voyage which before this invention, was used to last three 
years, can now be performed, with great safety, in as many months. 

By the help of this noble instrument it was that the Spaniards 
made their discoveries of a new western world ; the Portuguese, the 
way by sea to India and China, and the English and Dutch the 
everal useful discoveries towards the North Pole ; all which, but for 
the compass, would have probably still remained unknown ; and all 
the wealth acquired from such discoveries, and most of the knowledge 
obtained in consequence thereof, would never have been possessed. 

ANECDOTE OF ADMIRAL BOSCAWEN. 

"WHEN Admiral Boscawen added so gloriously to the laurels so 
often reaped by the British tars, and defeated the French fleet, he 
was under the necessity of going on board a boat, in order to shift his 
fhg from his own ship to another, in the midst of a violent storm. 
In his passage a shot went through the boat's side, when the Admiral, 
taking off his wig, stopped the leak with it, and by that means kept 
tlie boat from sinking until he made the ship he intended to hoist 
his flag in. 

.* The infancy of navigation is happily deicribed by Dryden, and is 
applicable to this passage : 

Rude as their ships was navigation then, 
No useful comfatt, or meridian known ; 
Coasting they kept the land within their ken, 
And kuew no oorth but when the pole star shone/* 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 129 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE NAVAL CHRONICLE. 
SIR, 

TPHE readiness with which you inserted some of my former 
communications) and a desire to be of service to your 
excellent publication, induce me to send you some curious 
extracts from Sir William Monson's Naval Tra&s; and, as 
it is the fashion of the present day to give biographical 
notices of authors, I send you also some particulars of Sir 
William's life. Sir William Monson may justly be con- 
sidered as one of the fathers of tile British Navy; he flourished 
at a time when the English fleet first acquired that decisive 
superiority over the eilemy, which it has ever since main- 
tained, therefore he is particularly entitled to notice in a 
work, the professed object of which is to record the lives and 
exploits of British Naval Worthies. 

I am, &c. 
AN OLD CORRESPONDENT. 

SIR William Monson, a brave English Admiral, was the third son 
ef Sir John Monson, of South Carlton, in Lincolnshire, and born in 
the year i 569. According to the practice of the age, being of 
liberal family, he%ras some time a Student at Oxford ; but being of a 
martial and enterprising disposition, he soon grew weary of the tran- 
quillity of an academic life, and, according to the bent of his incli- 
nation, entered into the se3 service, in which profession he aftervaids 
greatly distinguished himself. His first voyage was in 1985 ; and it 
appears that his advancement was rapid, for in 1587, he went out 
commander of a vessel. In 1583, he served on board one of the 
Queen's ships, but had not the command of it. In 1589, he was 
Vice- Admiral to the Earl of Cumberland, in his expedition to the 
Azores islands, and was present at the taking of Fayal ; but in their 
return suffered such hardships, and contra6ted so violent an illntss 
from them, as kept him at home the whole of the year i 51,0. * : The 
extremity we endured," says he, " was more terrible than b.fc-1 any 
thip in the eighteen years war ; for laying aside the continual ex- 
pectation of death by shipwreck, and the daily mortality of our men, 
I will speak of our famine, that exceeded all men and ships I have 
known in the course of my life ; for sixteen days together we never 
tasted drop of drink, either beer, wine, or water ; and though we 
had plenty of beef and pork of a year's salting, yet did we foibear 
eating it, for making us the drier. Many drunk salt-water, and thoe 
' ftol. VIII- s 



IJO fJAVAt ANECDOTES, 

that did, died suddenly, and the last word they usually spake, \<'as 
drink, drtnl) drink \ and 1 dare boldly say, that of five hundred men 
that were in that ship seven years before, at this day (1641), there is 
not a man nlive but myself and one more." 

In 1591, he served a second time under the command of the Earl 
of Cumberland ; and the commission was, as all the former were, to 
i&. against the Spaniards. They took several of their ships ; and 
Captain Monson, being sent to convoy one of them to England, \vaa 
surrounded and taken by six Spanish gallies, after a long and obstinate 
engagement. After a confinement of two years at Cascais and 
Lisbon, during which time the Spaniards shamefully refused to ex- 
change him, Captain Monson was at length released, and soon after 
joined his patron, the Earl of Cumberland, under whom he continued 
to serve with his usual courage and intrepidity. 

He served in the year 1596, in the expedition against Cadiz, under 
Queen Elizabeth's celebrated favourite, the /Earl of Essex, to whom 
he proved highly useful by his wise and moderate counsel, and was 
deservedly knighted. He was employed in sevtial other expeditions, 
and was greatly honoured and esteemed during Elizabeth's reign. 
The pacific temper of James I. led him to show little favour to 
military men, and therefore, after the death of the Queen, who was 
both gracious and bountiful to Sir William, he never received either 
recompence or preferment, more than his ordinary entertainment or 
pay, according to the services he was employed in. However, in the 
year 1604, he was appointed Admiral of the Narrow Seas, without 
any solicitation ; and continued in that station till 1616; during, 
which time he supported the honour of the English flag against the 
sauciness of the infant republic of Holland, of which he frequently 
complains in his Naval Trails, and protected our trade against the 
encroachments of France. 

Notwithstanding his long and faithful services, which ought to 
have secured him a better fate, he had the misfortune to fall into dis- 
grace, and through the resentment of some powerful courtiers, was 
imprisoned in the Tower in 1616; but after having been examined 
by the Chief Justice Coke and Secretary Winwood, he was dis- 
charged. He wrote a vindication of his conduft, entitled " Con- 
concerning the Insolences of the Dutch, and a Justification of Sir 
William Monson ;" and addressed it to the Lord Chancellor Elles- 
mcre, and Sir Francis Bacon, Attorney-General and Counsellor. His 
ieal against the insolence of the Dutch, and in promoting an enquiry 
into the state of the navy, contrary to the wishes of the Earl of Not- 
tingham, then Lord High Ailmiral, stem to have been the occasion 
<jf his troubles. Sir William, however, soon recovered his credit at 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. Ijr 

Court, for in 1617, he was called before the Privy Council, to give 
his opinion, how the pirates of Algiers might be suppressed, and the 
town attached. He showed the impossibility of taking Algiers, and 
was against the expedition ; notwithstanding which, it was rashly 
undertaken by Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. He was also 
against two other ill-undertakings, and as ill managed, namely, the 
expedition to Cadiz, and the Isle of Rhee, in 1625 ar.d 1628. He 
was not employed in these aciions because he found fault with the 
Minister's measures ; but in 163 c, it being found necessary to equip 
a large fleet, in order to break a confederacy that was forming be- 
tween the French and the Dutch, he was appointed Vice Admiral in 
that armament, and performed his duty with great honour and bravery. 
After that he was employed no more, but spent the remainder of his 
days in peace and privacy, at his seat at Kinnersley, in Surrev, where 
he digested and finished his Naval Trafts. He died there, February 
1642-3, in the 7jd year of his age, and left a numerous posterity. 

EXTRACTS FROM SIR WILLIAM MONSON's NAVAL TRACTS. 

The Epistle to all Captains of Ships, ATasfers, Pilots, Mariners, and 
Common Sailors. 

In all reason the dedicating of this third book is more proper and 
due to you, than any of the others to whom they are commended ; 
forasmuch as what is contained in them, you and your profession are 
the principailest actors and anchors of, as the wheel from whence the 
rest receives their motion. 

For what would it avail that all boughs of trees were oaks, or every 
stalk of hemp a fathom of cable, or every creature a perfect artist, 
to build and frame a ship ? What were all these more than to the eye, 
were it not for you, your art and skill, to conduct and guide her ? 
She were like a sumptuous costly palace nobly furnished, and nobody 
to inhabit in it ; or like a house in Athens, Laenius writes of, ia 
which all that were born proved fools; and another in the field of 
Mars, near Rome, whose owners ever died suddenly; both -which 
were commanded, the one by the senators of Athens, the other by 
the Emperor Maik Anthony, not oply to be pulled down, but the 
timber to be burnt. 

How should we know that Franco, Italy, and Spain, produced 
wine out of the grape, or England oth.-r commodities not heard of 
by them? How should we know the Indies, and wealth therein, or 
the means to receive it from thence, 'were it not for your skill and 
labour ? How should we kncny that all nations differ from us in 
language, or from one another, but by your navigations ? All islands, 
fcow little otver, would be in ,the error of the Chinese, who. thought 



,.j KAVAL ANECDOTES? 

there was no other world or people but their own, till the Portu- 
guese, by their travels and mathematical art and learning, made it 
apparent to them. All these secrets must be attributed to your art, 
adventurts, and painful discoveries. 

What subjeas can make their king and country more happy than 
you, by the offensive and defensive services you may do them at sea ? 
What wealth is brought in or carried out of the kingdom, but must 
pass through your hands ? What honour has England of late years 
gained, and all by your adventures and valour, which has made you 
excellent above all other nations ? Who knows not that your parts and 
profession deserve favou/ of the State ? Who knows not that the whole 
kingdom has use for you, and that there is a necessity to nourish you ? 

CONCERNING SEAMEN. 

The sea language is not soon learned, much less understood, being 
only proper to him that has served his apprenticeship ; besides that, 
a boisterous sea and stormy weather, will make a man not bred to it 
so sick, that it bereaves him of legs, stomach, and courage, so much 
as to fight with his meat. And in such weather, whtn he hears the 
seamen cry, starbord or port, or to bide alooff, or flat a sheet, or haul 
home a clue- line, he thinks he hears a barbarous speech, whieh he 
conceives not the meaning of. Suppose the best and ablest bred sea- 
man should buckle on armour, and mount a courageous great horse, 
and so undertake the leading of a troop of horse, he would no doubt 
be accoutited very indiscreet, and men would judge he could perform 
but very weak service ; neither could his soldiers hope of good security, 
being under an ignorant Captain, that knows not scarce how to rein 
his horse, much less to take advantage for execution or retreat ; and 
yet it is apparent to be far more easy to attain experience for l n nd 
service than on the sea. 

The bred seaman is for the most part hardy and undaunted, ready 
to adventure any desperate action, be it good or bad ; and prodigal 
of his blood, whenever his Commander orders him, if he loves or fears 
him. 

The starran's desire is to be commanded by those that understand 
their labour, laws, and customs, thereby expei;ing reward or punish- 
ment, according to their deserts. 

The seamen are stubborn or perverse, when they receive their com- 
mand from the ignorant in the discipline of the sea, who cannot speak 
to them in their own language. 

The Commander who is bred a seaman, and of approved govern- 
ment, by his skill in choice of his company, will save twenty in the 
hundred, and perform better service than he possibly can that unde* 
itands not how to dirtft the Officers under him. 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. J^J 

The best ships of war in the known world have been commanded by 
Captains, bred seamen ; and mercl'ants put their whole confidence in 
the fidelity and ability of seamen to carry their ships through the 
hazard of pirates, men of war, and the dangers of rocks and sands, be 
they of never so much value ; which they would never do under the 
charge of a gentleman or an experienced soldier, for his valour only. 

The United Provinces, whose safety and wealth depends chiefly 
upon their sen affairs, and who for some year* past have had great 
employment, and enlarged their dominions much in remote places, use 
only their expert seamen to go Captains and chief Commanders in all 
their ships of war and trade. 

Great care must be had to choose a Commander or Captain of dis- 
cretion and good government, who is to be preferred for his skill an4 
experience ; for where the seamen are Icfc without orderly dis- 
cipline, there can be nothing expected but confusion and shame. 

The seaman is willing to give or receive punishment deservedly, 
according to the laws of the sea, and not otherwise, according to the 
fury or passion of a boisterous, blasphemous, swearing Commander. 

Punishment is fittest to be executed in cold blood, the next day 
after the offence is committed and discovered. 

A Captain should choose able and honest men for hjs company, at 
near as IK can ; but especially his Master and. Master's Mates should 
be of good government, whereby he is like to have a prosperous and 
good voyage. 



PUNISHMENTS AT SEA. 

A Captain may punish according to the offence committed, viz. 
putting one in the bilbows during pleasure ; keep them fasting ; duck 
them at the yard-arm, or haul them from yard-arm to yard arm, 
under the ship's keel ; or make them fast to the capstan and whip 
them there ; or at the capstan or main-mast, hang weights about 
their necks ; or to gag or scrape thtir tongues for blasphemy or 
wearing. This will tame the mpst rude and savage people in the 
world. 

DISCOURAGEMENT OF SEAMEN. 

When they have inexperienced needy Commanders ; bad and un- 
wholesome victuals, and complaining of .it, can have no redress ; 
Cutting their beef too wnall ; putting rive or more to four mens' allow- 
ance ; want of beer ; long staying for their wages. 

[To be co 



t <34 3 

NAVAL LITERATURE. 



The Report of the Committee for eonduSirig the Experiments of tkf. 

SociETY/or the improvement of NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. 

(Printed by order of the Satiety). 

Muius valent prxcepta quam experimenta. QUINCT. I. 5. 

labours of this highly useful and patriotic Society 



have for some years been directed to ascertain the 
laws respecting bodies moving through the water with dif- 
ferent velocities, and the results of between nine and ten 
thousand experiments, made in the years 1793, 17941 J 795? 
1796, I797> 1798* are NOW presented by the Committee to 
the Society. These experiments, made by means of proper 
models, are calculated to ascertain the comparative advant- 
ages or disadvantages arising from the form, either of the 
head end, or of the midship body, or of the stern end, "of all 
kinds of navigable vessels, and must consequently be con- 
sidered of the greatest importance to Naval Architecture. 
We have every reason to confide in the accuracy of the 
experiments, which seem to have been made with the utmost 
care and precision. They were chiefly conducted by two 
gentlemen of the Committee, one of them aa able and ex- 
perienced Officer in the Navy, the other a gentleman in a 
military situation. Occasional assistance, however, they had 
from other gentlemen of the Committee, and particularly 
from Earl Stanhope, t>ne of the V ice-Presidents of the 
Society, whose zeal for the improvement of Naval Archi- 
tecture, extensive knowledge of the subjeft, and general 
attention to scientific pursuits, cannot be sufficiently com- 
mended. 

We shall now proceed to give some extrafts from the Re- 
port, but we must first premise, that we are sorry the Com- 
mittee, in their preface, find themselves obliged to represer* 
to the members of the Society, the necessity of paying up '' 
arrears of their subscriptions, as the heavy expence of ap- 
paratus and assistance,' engraving, printing, &c. has nearly 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 15$ 

exhausted the funds of the Society. The operations of a 
Society instituted for so important a national object, as the 
improvement of our marine, ought not to be permitted to 
languish for want of pecuniary assistance, and we trust that' 
this notice will have the desired effect, and that we shall soon 
hear of the Committee renewing their experiments with that 
ardour which generally results from liberal support. 

DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATORY OBSERVATIONS. 

1. By Head Pressure, we mean the tolp.l pressure which exist* 
against the head end or foremost part of a body, immersed either 
wholly or in part in any given fluid, when such body is at rest. 

2. By stern pressure) we mean the total pressure which exists against 
the stern end, or hindermost part of a body, immersed either wholly 
or in part in any given fluid, when such body is at rest. 

3 By plus ptcssme, we mean the additional pressure, which is 
sustained by the head end, or foremost parts of a body, moved 
through a fluid ; which additional pressure is over and above what we 
have termed the head pressure, and arises fiom the fluid being obliged 
to be displaced in order to permit the moving body to pass through. 

4. By minus pressure, we mean a subtraction of pressure from the 
stern pressure, and which subtraction is occasioned by the fluid not 
pressing so strongly against the stern end, or hindermost parts of a 
body, when such body is in motion through the fluid, as when the 
body is at test. 

5. By friSion (as relating to this subject), we mean that sort of 
resistance to a body moved through a fluid, which arises either fronl 
the adhesion of the particles of the fluid to the surface of the moving 
body, or from the roughness of the body, or from both those causes 
united. 

6. By total resistance) we mean the sum total of the plus pressurtt 
the minus pressure, and ihcfrifiion, united. 

7. By bead resiitanct, we mean the minus pressure , and the friction of 
the water against the head end, united. 

8. By stern resistance, we mean the minus pressure^ and the friction of 
the water against the stern end, united. 

These definitions, from one to six inclusive, were drawn 
up in the year 1795, by Kail Stanhope. As they are well 
conceived, and also perfectly consistent with the laws of 
nature on this subject, they may serve in future to express the 
ideas of persons, who may choose to make similar experi- 
ments, and it is to be wished that this may be the case, as a 



|j5 KAVit LITERATURE. 

great degree of precision and facility of comprehending and 
comparing experiments will thereby be obtained. 

Having procured two bodies, called the long fti&ion plank, and the 
thbrt tridion plank (which weie of the same degree of smoothness, 
and also of the samt breadth and thickness* and of the same fbrm in 
every respect, except in length), for the purpose of ascertaining the 
tftedl or resistance arising from the friftion of the water. And also 
other bodies with the same middle part and head end, but with dif- 
ferently formed stern ends, for the purpose of ascertaining the effect 
of the stern resistance, a.d the minus pressure ; and also other bodies 
with the same middle part and stern end, but with differently formed 
head ends, for the purpose of ascertaining the effec\ of the head resist- 
ance, and the plus pressure. 

All these different bodies were planed smooth, and painted white 
and the form and dimensions of the said bodies are respectively rtpre- 
scnted in table :. 

The bodies which are represented in table I . of the first part of the 
Report, were respectively immersed by means of the conductor, and 
its bar or bars, to the medium depth of six feet under the surface of 
the water ; and when they weie so immersed, the conductor swam 
with its top, or horizontal upper surface, exactly one inch above the 
surface of the water ; but the bodies which are represented in table J . 
of the second report, were only immersed so as to keep the top* or 
horizontal upper surface ju t even or level with the surface of the 
water when in motion. All these bodies were drawn through the 
water by means of certain weights or motive powers ; which motive 
powers, and also the velocities produced therewith, are respectively 
thown iu table i. The motive powers are in the top columns to the 
right hand, and the velocities produced therewith, are in the same 
columns underneath, and direclly opposite to the bodies to which the 
velocities do respectively belong. 

COMPARATIVE OBSERVATIONS RESPECTING THI RESISTANCE 
ARISING FROM THE FK.ICT1ON OF THE WATER. 

In may be necessary to observe, for the sake of explaining the 
different effcfts which have been found with respedl to friction, that 
the respective friction planks and other bodies that were used in the 
experiments of the year 1796, were planed smooth and painted ; and 
that tbfy were immersed a iitfficient time in the twatcr t so as to be pretty 
tnuch water soaken, though clean from slime or dirt, befoie the experi- 
ments were made. 

And also, that the respeftive friftion planks and other bodies, that 
were used in the experiments of the year 1798, were planed smooth and 
painted, tut were net water toaJien, and also clean from slime or dirt, 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 



37 



From whence it is evident, that the experiments of the year 1798, 
were not made precisely under the same circumstance, as the experi- 
ments of the year 1796; that is, so far as relates to the resistance 
arising from the friction ; for it is to be noticed, that when bodies 
have been immersed some time in the water, so as to be pretty much 
water soaken, then the fibres of the wood start, and the surface be- 
comes rougher than when such bodies were first immersed ; therefore 
the resistance arising from the frictkm will be gi eater against the bodies 
that have been water soaken, as in the friction found by the experi- 
ments of 1796 ; and which is proved to be the case by the following 
comparison : 



Nautical miles per hour, 


I | Z 


3 1 4 


5 I o 7 | 


h 

Friiftion against i square 1 
foot of surface, per ex- > 
periments 1796, ) 
Fridtion against I square ) 
foot of surface, per ex- > 
periments 1798, ) 


lotive 
Ib. 

0,014 

0,012 


powers 
Ib. 

0,047 
2,043 


in pou 
Ib. 

0,095 

0,080 


ids an 
Ib. 

0,155 
0,144 


1 deciir 
Ib. 

0,256 

?,20 9 


tal par 



0,309 
0,279 


s ofpo 

ib. 

0,400 
0,354 


unds. 
Ib. 

0,501 
0,43 



Now as we had several opportunities of observing, th:t there was a 
material difference between the resistance of the bodies, when drawn 
through the water both before and after they were water soaken, 
and that they always met with more resistance after they were 
water soaken, we have not therefore the smallest doubt, but the dif- 
ference in the friction, as found above, arises from the aforesaid cause. 

And it may be useful to observe, that we have occasionally drawn 
bodies through the water, that have been immersed long enough to 
gather a little slime on them ; and have immediately afterwards drawn- 
the same bodies through the water by means of the same motive 
power, with the slime washed off, from whence we have always found 
that the bodies came the faster when the slime had been washed off. 

Upon considering the results of the various experiments that we 
have made respecting the effect of the friction of the water on moving 
bodies ; it is evident to us, that the resistances arising from the 
friction (even against very smooth surfaces), is considerably more 
than it has generally been conceived to be, or than has hitherto been 
accounted for, in the estimation of the resistance which bodies meet 
with in moving through the water at different velocities. And from 
whence it naturally follows, that although ships may be built ever so 
much alike in their form and dimensions, yet still a very little difference 
in the smoothness of their bottoms (or ia putting on the copper in 
coppered ships), will produce a considerable difference in their resist- 
ances, and of course in the comparative rate of their sailing. 
C80I.VIII. T 



t ^g NAVAL LITERATURE. 

TO FIND THE LONGITUDE OF PLACES UPON 
THE EARTH'S SURFACE. 

(From Professor VINCE'J Astronomical Introduction to PiNKERTONV 
Modern Geography.") 

THE situation of a place upon the surface of the earth, is deter- 
mined from its latitude and longitude. The methods of finding 
the latitude we have already explained ; but the longitude cannot be 
so readily found. Philip III. King of Spain, was the first person 
who offered a reward for its discovery ; and the States of Holland 
soon after followed his example. During the minority of Louis XV. 
of France, the Regent Power promised a great reward to any person 
who should discover the longitude at sea. In the time of Charles II. 
the Sieur de Saint Pierre, a Frenchman, proposed a method of find- 
ing the longitude by the moon. Upon this, a commission was 
granted to Lord Viscount Brounker, President of the Royal Society, 
Mr. Flamstead, and several others, to receive his proposals, and give 
their opinions respecting it. Mr. Flamstead gave his opinion, that 
if we had the places of the fixed stars, and tables of the moon's mo- 
tion, we might find the longitude, but not by the method of the 
Sienr de Saint Pierre. Upon this Mr. Flamstead was appointed 
Astronomer Royal, and an observatory was built for him ; and the 
instructions to him and his successors were, ' that they should apply 
themselves with the utmost care and diligence to reftify the tables 
of the motions of the heavens, and the places of the fixed stars, in 
order to find out the so- much-desired longitude at sea, for the per- 
fefling of the art of navigation." 

In the year 1714, the British Parliament offered a reward for the 
discovery of the longitude ; the sum of io,oool. if the method de- 
termined the longitude to one degree of a great circle, or to sixty 
geographical miles ; of 1 5 oool. if it determined it to forty miles ; 
and of 2O,ocol. if it determined it to thirty miles ; with this proviso, 
that if any such method extend no further than thirty miles adjoin- 
ing to the coast, the proposer should have no more tharf half the 
rewards. The aft also appoints the first Lord of the Admiralty, 
the Speaker of the House of Commons, the First Commissioner of 
Trade, the Admirals of the Red, White, and Blue squadrons, the 
Master of the Trinity House, the President of the Royal Society, 
the Royal Astronomer at Greenwich, the two Savilian Professors at 
Oxford, and the Luca&iau and Plumian Professors at Cambridge, and 
several other persons, as Commissioners for the- longitude at sea. 
The Lowudian Professor at Cambridge vras afterwards added. After 



NAVAL LITERATURE. Ij9 

this aft of parliament, several other afts were passed in the reigns 
of George II. and George III. for the encouragement of finding 
the longitude. At last, in 1774, an aft passed, repealing all other 
afts, and offering separate rewards to any person who should discover 
the longitude either by the watch keeping true time within certain 
limits, or by the lunar method, or by any other means. The aft 
proposes as a reward for a time keeper, the sum of 5000!. if it de- 
termine the longitude to one degree, or sixty geographical miles ; 
the sum of 7,500!. if it determine it to forty miles ; arid the sum of 
lOjOocl. if it determine it to thirty miles, after proper trials speci- 
fied in the aft. If the method be by improved solar and lunar 
tables, construfted upon Sir Isaac Newton's theory of gravitation, 
the author shall be entitled to 5000! if such tables shall shew the 
distance of the moon from the sun and stars, within fifteen seconds 
of a degree, answering to about seven minutes of longitude, after 
allowing half a degree for the errors of observation. And for any other 
method, the same rewards are offered as those for timekeepers, pro- 
vided it gives the longitude true within the same limits, and be prac- 
ticable at sea. The commissioners have also a power of giving 
smaller rewards, as they shall judge proper, to any one whs shall 
make any discovery for finding the longitude at sea, though not 
within the above limits : provided, however, that if any such person 
or persons shall aftemards make any further discovery, as to come 
within the above-mentioned limits, such sum or sums as they may 
have received, shall be considered as part of such greater reward, 
and deducted therefrom accordingly. 

After the decease of Mr.Flamstead, Dr. H^lley, who was appointed 
to succeed him, made a series of observations on the moon's transit 
over the meridian, for a complete revolution pf the moon's apogee, 
which observations being compared with the computations from the 
tables then extant, he was enabled to correft the tables of the moon's 
motions. And as Mr. Hadley had then invented at) instrument, by 
which the altitudes and distances of the heavenly bodies could be taken 
at sea, Dr. Halley strongly recommended the lunar method of finding 
the longitude. 

TO FIND THE LONGITUDE BY A TIMEKEEPER, 

The sun appears to move rou:i\i tit- earth from cast to west } op 
to describe three hundred and sixty degrees in twenty-rour hours, and, 
therefore he appears to move at fifteen cleg-rees in an hour. If there- 
fore, the meridians of the two places make an angle of fifteen de- 
grees with each other, cr if the two places differ fifteen degrees in 
longitude,, the sun will come to the eastern meridian one hour before 



1^0 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

he comes to the western meridian ; and therefore, when it is twelve 
o'clock at the former place, it is only eleven at the latter ; and in 
general, the difference between the times by the clock at any two 
places, will be the difference of their longitude, converting into time 
at the rate of fifteen degrees for an hour, the time at the eastern 
place being the forwardest. If, therefore, we can tell what o'clock 
it is at any two places, at the same instant of time, we can find 
the difference of their longitudes, by allowing fifteen degrees for every 
hour that the clocks differ. 

Let, therefore, the timekeeper be well regulated, and set to the 
time at Greenwich, that being the place from which we reckon our 
longitude ; then, if the watch neither gains nor loses, it will always 
shew the time at Greenwich, wherever you may be. Now to find 
the time by the clock at any other place, take the sun's altitude, 
and thence find the time by Article 61 ; now the time thus found is 
apparent time, or that found by the sun, which differs from the time 
shown by the clock by the equation of time, as we have shown in 
Article 79 ; we must therefore apply the equation of time to the 
time found by the sun, and we shall get the time by the clock ; and 
the difference between the time by the clock so found, and the time 
by the timekeeper, or the time at Greenwich, converted into degrees 
at the rate of fifteen degrees for an hour, gives the longitude of the 
place from Greenwich. For example : let the time by the time- 
keeper, when the sun's altitude was taken, be six hours nineteen 
minutes, and kt the time deduced from the sun's altitude be nine 
hours twenty seven minutes, and suppose at that time the equation 
of time to be seven, showing how much the sun is that day behind 
the clock, then the time by the clock is nine hours thirty four mi- 
nutes, tl e difference between which and six hours nineteen minutes 
is three hours fifteen minutes ; and this converted into degrees, at 
the rate of fifteen degrees for one hour, gives forty-eight degrees 
forty-five minutes, the longitude of the place from Greenwich ; and a? 
the time is forwarder than that at Greenwich, the place lies to the east 
of Greenwich. '1 hus the longitude could be very easily determined, 
if you could depend upon the timekeeper. But as a watch will 
always gain or lose, before the timekeeper is sent out, its gaining 
or losing every day for some time, a month for instance, is ob- 
served ; this is called the r*t, of going of the watch, and from thence 
the mean rate of going is thus found. 

Suppose I examine the rate of a watch for thirty days : on some 
of those days I find it has gained, and on some it has lost ; add 
together all the quantities it has gained, and suppose they amount to 
seventeen seconds; add together all the quantities it has lost, and 

5 



NAVAL LITERATURE. |^J 

suppose they amount to thirteen seconds ; then upon the whole it 
has gained four seconds in thirty days, aad this is called the meun rate 
for that time, and this divided by thirty, gives o',l33 for the mean 
daily rate of gaining ; so that if the watch had gained regularly 
O",i33 every day, at the end of thirty days it would have gained 
just as much as it really did gain, by sometimes gaining and some- 
times losing. Or you may get the mean daily rate thus. Take the 
difference between what the clock was too fast, or too slow, on the 
first and last days of observation, if it be too fast or two slow on 
each day ; but take the sum, if it be too fast on one day, and too 
slow on the other, and divide by the number of days between the 
observations, and you get the mean daily rate. Thus, if the watch 
was too fast on the first day eighteen seconds, and too fast on the 
last day thirty two seconds, the difference, fourteen seconds, divided 
by thirty, gives o",^66, the mean daily rate of gaining. But if the 
watch was too fast on the first day seven seconds, and too slow on 
the last day ten seconds, the sum seventeen seconds divided by thirty- 
gives o",$66, the mean daily rate of losing. After having thus got 
the mean daily rate of gaining or losing, and knowing how much the 
watch was too fast or too slow at first, you can tell, according to 
the rate of going, how much it is too fast or too blow at any other 
time. In the first case, for instance, let the watch have been ',17" 
too fast at first, and I want to know how much it is too fast fifty 
days after that time; now it gains o", 133 every day; if this be 
multiplied by fifty, it gives 6 '',65 for the whole gain in fifty days ; 
therefore, at the end of that time, the watch would be i',2$" y 6$ too 
fast. This would be the error, if the watch continued to gain at 
the above rate ; and although, from the different temperatures of 
the air, and the imperfection of the workmanship, this cannot be 
expected, yet the probable error will by this means be diminished, 
and it is the besc method we have to depend upon. In the watches 
which are under trial at the Rqyal Observatory at Greenwich, as 
candidates for the rewards, this allowance of a mean rate is admitted, 
although it is not mentioned in the aft of parliament ; the commis- 
sioners, however, are so indulgent as to grant it, which is undoubtedly 
favourable to the watches 

As the rate of going of a watch is subjedj to vary from so 
many circumstances, the observer, whenever he goes on shore, and 
has sufficient time, should compare his watch for several days with 
the true time found by the sun, by which Vie will be able to find its 
rate of going. And when he comes to a place whose longitude is 
known, he may then set his watch again to Greenwich time ; for 



,^j . ATTEMPTS OF THE RVSSIANS TO 

when the longitude of a place is known, you know the difference 
between the time there and at Greenwich- For instance, if he goes 
to a place known to be thirty degrees east longitude from Greenwich, 
his watch should be two hours slower than the time at that place. 
Find therefore the true time at that place by the sun, and if the 
watch be two hours slower, it is right ; if not, corred by the diffe- 
rence, and it again gives Greenwich time. 

In long voyages, unless you have sometimes an opportunity of 
adjusting your watch to Greenwich time, its error will probably be 
considerable, and the longitude deduced from it will be subject to t 
proportional error. In short voyages, a watch is undoubtedly very 
useful ; and also in long ones, where you have the means of correct- 
ing it from time to time. It serves to carry on the longitude from 
one known place to another, supposing the interval of time not very 
long ; or to keep the longitude from that which is deduced from a 
lunar observation, till you can get another. Thus the watch may be 
gendered of great service in navigation. 



ATTEMPTS OF THE 

RUSSIANS TO DISCOVER A NORTH EAST PASSAGE. 
From COXE'S Supplementary Accounts of the Russian Discoveries. 

yHE only communication hitherto known between the Atlantic 
* and Pacific Ocean, or between Europe and the East Indies, is 
made either by lailing round the Cape of Good Hope, or by doubling 
Cape Horn. But as both these navigations are extremely tedious, the 
great objed of several late European voyages has been turned towards 
the discovery of a north-east or north-west passage. As this work 
is entirely confined to the Russian navigations, any disquisition con- 
eerning the north-west passage is totally foreign to the purpose ; and 
for the same reason in what relates to the north east, these researches 
only extend to the attempts of the Russians for the discovery of that 
passage. 

The advocates for the north-east passage have divided that naviga- 
tion into three principal parts ; and by endeavouring to show that 
the three parts have been separately passed at different times, they 
conclude that the whole navigation is not impraaicable. 

The three parts are, i. From Archangel to the Lena; 2. From 

ena to Kamtchatka ; 3. From Kamtchatka to Japan. With 

7pedto the latter, theconnedion between the seas of Kamtchatka 



DISCOVER A NORTH-EAST PASSAGE. 143 

and Japan first appeared from some Japanese vessels wrecked upon the 
coast of Kamtchatka in the beginning of this century ; and thu 
communication has been unquestionably proved from several voyage* 
made by the Russians from Kamtchatka to Japan. 

No one ever asserted that the first part from Archangel to the Lena 
was ever performed in one voyage ; but several persons having ad- 
vanced that this navigation has been performed by the Russians at 
different times, it becomes necessary to examine the accounts of the 
Russian voyages in those seas. 

In 1734, Lieutenant Morovkf sa'Icd from Archangel toward the 
river Oby ; and got no farther -.the first year than the mouth of the 
Petchora. 

The next summer he passed through the straits of Weygatz into the 
sea of Kara ; and coasted along the eastern side of that sea, as high 
as latitude 72. 30. but did not double the promontory which separates 
the sea of Kara from the bay of Oby. In 1738, the Lieutenant* 
Malgyn and Skurakof doubled that promontory with great difficulty, 
and entered the bay of Oby. - During these expeditions the naviga- 
tors met with great dangers and impediments from the ice. Several 
unsuccessful attempts were made to pass from the bay of Oby to 
the Yenisei, which was at last effected in 1738, by two vessels com- 
manded by Lieutenants Offzin and Koskelef. The same year the 
pilot Feodor Menin sailed from the Yenisei towards the Lena : he 
bteered north as high as latitude 72. 15. but when he came to the 
mouth of the Pisida, he was slopped by the ice ; and finding it im- 
possible to force a passage, he returned to the Yenisei. 

July 1735, Lieutenant Prontshistshef sailed from Yakutsk up the 
Lena to its mouth, in order to pass by sea to the Yenisei. The 
western mouths of the Lena were so choaked with ice, that he wa 
obliged to pass through the most easterly one ; and was prevented by- 
contrary winds from getting out until the 13th of August. Having 
steered north-west along the islands which lie scattered before the 
mouths of the Lena, he found himself in latitude 70. 4. He sa\r 
much ice to the north and north-east, and observed ice mountains 
from twenty. four to sixty feet in height. He steered betwixt the 
ice, which in no place left a free channel of greater breadth than one 
hundred or two hundred yards. The vessel being much damaged, on 
the ist of September he ran up the mouth of the Olenek, which, 
according to his estimation, lies in 72. 30. near which place he passed 
the winter. 

He got out of the Olenek the be inning of August in the follow- 
ing year ; and arrived on the 3d at the mouth of the Anabara, which 



144 ATTEMPTS OF THE RUSStAtfS TO 

he found to lie in latitude 73. i. There he continued until the loth, 
while some of the crew reconnoitred the country in search of some 
mines. On the loth he proceeded on his voyage : before he reached the 
mouth of the Katanga, he was so entirely surrounded and hemmed in 
with ice, that it was not without great difficulty and danger he 
was able to get loose. He then observed a large field of ice ftretch- 
ing into the sea, on which account he was obliged to continue near 
the shore, and to run up the Katanga. The mouth of this river was 
in latitude 74. 9. From thence he bent his course mostly northward 
along the shore, until he reached the mouth of the Taimura on the 
1 8th. He then proceeded farther, and followed the coast towards 
the Piasieta. Near the shore were several small islands, between which 
and the land the ice was immovably fixed. He then directed his course 
towards the sea, in order to pass round the chain of islands. Ac first 
he found the sea more free to the north of the islands, while he ob- 
served much ice lying between them. He came at length to the last 
island, situated in latitude 77. 25. between which and the shore, as 
well as on its northern side, the ice was firm and immovable. He at- 
tempted, however, to steer still more to the north ; and having ad- 
vanced about six miles, he was prevented by a thick fog from pro- 
reeding. This fog being dispersed, he saw on each side, and before 
him, nothing but ice : that towards the sea was not fixed ; but the 
accumulated masses were all so close, that the smallest vessel could not 
have worked its way through. Still attempting, however, to pass to 
north, he was forced by the ice N. E. Apprehensive of bein 

d d * n> , r T, ned to the Tairnura ; and from th - ce *<* & 

difficulty and danger, to the Olenek on the 2O th of August. 

' fthe eXt '' '"' ^raaed from the account of 



. 

Prf T'r fthe eXptdl ' n ' n '"' ^raaed from the account of 
sor Gmehn ; .according to Mr. Muller, who has given a cursorjr 

hof h T SamC T gC> Pront8h ^ef did not quite reach the 
Ta ' mUra 



from th ; / r He thtre f Und the chaia of islands stretch- 

om the continent far into the sea. The channels between them 

' that h * as im to 



f te 

bet t 

of se 



the 
hee e t n u n apef ' Wlth the 8ame bad success 

; w ,4h7:: u ; v;T\f si r and 

before he cLlds^^ 16 ' *" '** 



DISCOVER A NORTH-EAST PASSAGE. 14$. 

From all these circumstances we must collect, that the whole space 
between Archangel and the Lena has never yet been navigated ; for 
ingoing east from the Yenisei the Russians couM get no farther than 
the mouth of the Piasieta ; and, in coming west from the Lena, they 
were stopped, according to Gmelin, north of the Piasieta; and, ac- 
cording to Muller, east of the Taimura. 

The Russians, who sail almost annually from Archangel, and other 
towns, to Nova Zemla, for the purpose of catching sea horses, seals, 
and white bears, make to the western coast ; and no Russian vessel has 
ever passed round its north eastern extremity. 

The navigation from the Lena to Kamtchatka now remains to be 
considered. If we may believe some authors, this navigation has been 
open for above a century and a half; and several vesstls have, at dif- 
ferent times, passed round the north eastern extremity of Asia. But 
if we consult the Russian accounts, we shall find, that frequent ex- 
peditions have been unquestionably made from the Lena to the 
Kovyma ; but that the voyage from the Kovyma round Tschukotskoi 
Noss, into the eastern ocean, has been performed but once. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Muller, this formidable cape was doubled in 1648. The 
material incidents of this remarkable voyage are as follows : 

In 1648 seven kotches or vessels sailed from the mouth of the river 
Kovyma, in order to penetrate into the eastern ocean. Of these, four 
were never more heard of: the remaining three were commanded by 
Simon Deshnef, Gerasim Ankudinof, and Feedof Alexeef. Consider- 
ing the little knowledge we have of the extreme region of Asia, it is 
much to be regretted, that all the incidents of this voyage are not cir- 
cumstantially related. Deshnef takes no notice of any occurrence until 
he reached the great promontory of Tschutski ; he mentions no oh- 
stru&ions from the ice, and probably there were none, for he ob- 
serves, upon another occasion, that the sea is not every year so free 
from ice as it was at this time. He commences his narrative with a 
description of the great promontory": " It is," says he, *' very dif- 
ferent from that which is situated west of the Kovyma, near the river 
Tschukotskia. It lies between north and north east, and bends in a 
circular direction, towards the v\nadyr. It is distinguished on the . 
Russian (namely on the western) side by a rivulet which falls into the 
sea, close to which the Tschutski have raised a pile like a tower, with 
the bones of whales. Opposite the promontory (it is not said on 
which side) are two islands, on which he observed people of the na- 
tion of the Tschutski, who had pieces of the sea horse tooth thrust . 
into holes made in their lips. With a good wind it is possible to sail 

<U. VIII. v 



1^6 ATTHJOTS Of THB RUSSIANS, 5fC. 

from this promontory to the Anadyr in' three days; and the journey by- 
land may be performed in the same space of time, because the Ana- 
dyr falls into a bay." Ankudinof's kotche was wrecked on this pro- 
montory, and the crew was distributed on board the two remaining 
vessels, which soon afterwards lost sight of each other, and never again 
rejoined. Deshnef was driven by tempestuous winds until October, 
when he was shipwrecked considerably to the south of the Anadyr, 
not far from the river Olutora. Dwhnef, with twenty-five compa- 
nions, reached the Anadyr, and the following year built an ostrog on 
its banks. Here he was joined by some Russians on the zjth of 
April 1650, who came by land from the river Kovyma. 

In reviewing these several accounts of the Russian voyages in the 
frozen sea, as far as they relate to a north east passage, we may ob- 
serve, that the cape which stretches to the north of the Piasida has 
never been doubled ; and that the existence of a passage round Tschu- 
kotgkoi Noss rests upon the single authority of Deshnef. Admitting, 
however, a pra&icable navigation round these two promontories ; yet> 
when we consider the difficulties and dangers which the Russians en- 
countered in those parts of the frozen sea, which they have unques- 
tionably sailed through, how much time they employed in making an 
inconsiderable progress, and how often their attempts were unsuccessful; 
when we reflect, at the same time, that thtse voyages can only be per- 
formed in the midst of a short summer, and even then only when par- 
ticular winds drive the ice into the sea ; we shall probably conclude, 
that a navigation, pursued along the coasts in the frozen ocean, would 
probably be useless for commercial purposes. 

A navigation therefore in the frozen ocean, calculated tb answer 
any end of general utility, must (if possible) be made in an higher la- 
titude, at some distance from the shores of Nova Zembla and biberia. 
And should we even grant the possibility of sailing N. . and enst of 
Nova Zembla, without meeting with any ^insurmountable obstacles 
from land or ice; yet the final completion of a N. E. voyage must 
depend upon the existence of a free passage between the coast of the 
Tschutski and the continent of America. But such disquisitions as 
these do hot fall under the intention of this work, which is meant 
to state and examine fa&s, not to lay down an hypothesis, or to 
make theoretical enquiries. 



C 147 3 



ISLES OF FRANCE AND BOURBON. 

from a Voyage to Madagascar and the East Indict. By A LEX I 
ROCHON, Member of the National Institute, and of the Academy of 
Petersburg. 

'TPHE origin of the colony of the Isles of France and Bourbon is 
connected with the first establishments of the French in Mada- 
gascar. Were it not for the proximity of Madagascar to these islands, 
one could scarcely conceive why the latter should have been chosen 
for the purpose of forming a respectable settlement. These two 
islands are so small, that they are hardly perceptible in a chart of the 
vast Indian Ocean. 

It is well known, that several Frenchmen, who had suffered from 
the unhealthfulness of Madagascar, formed a resolution of quitting that 
large island, in order to settle in the small island of Bourbon, the air 
of which is exceedingly salubrious. 

It was in the year 1664 tnat they put this design in execution ; 
and they took the wise precaution of carrying along with them some 
sheep and cows, together with a young bull. 

The island, at that time, was uninhabited, and the soil uncultivated, 
but the coast abounded with fish, and the ground was covered with 
tortoiies of an immense size. At first, the colonists lived upon fish, 
turtle, rice, potatoes, and yams. They were forbid the use of butcher's 
meat, because the preservation of their live stock was a matter of the 
Utmost importance. 

When the season became favourable, they planted sugar-canes, 
and sowed wheat. Their first crops exceeded their expectations ; 
and in a little time the success of the colony was no longer doubtful. 
The life of the ancient patriarchs does not exhibit a truer picture of 
the happiness always inseparable from man, when he approaches to a 
state of nature, and lives under a serene sky, amidst innocence and 
labour, than the situation of these colonists. 

The inhabitants of Bourbon employed their sugar-canes in making 
a kind of fermented liquor. The islanders of Madagascar had taught 
them the method of making this beverage, which, in my opinion, is 
preferable to the best cider of Normandy. It is a pity that a liquor 
io useful cannot be kept more than twenty-four hours after it ferments. 

The small number of oxen and sheep, transported from Madagascar 
to Bourbon, instead of perishing, acquired every day, in this neve 
bed, an additional degree of increase. These animals found iu the 



148 ACCOUNT OF THE ISLES OF FRANCE AND BOURBOIT. 

woods, with which the island is coveted, a shelter from the scorching 
mn of the torrid zone ; they fed upon succulent grass ; and appeared, 
above all, to delight in those vast savannas, the productions of which 
arctsimilar to those of Madagascar. 

When the inhabitants of Bourbon had made a proper provision for 
their subsistence, by paying great attention to agriculture, the principal 
and the most productive source of all riches, they thought that coffee, 
in the course of time, might form an useful branch of commerce be- 
tween their island and Europe. In the year 1718, therefore, they 
sent to Moka and Aden for some young plants of the coffee-tree, 
and were not deceived in their speculation. These plants being cul- 
tivated with care, became in a few years very productive; and the 
island soon afforded the French East India Company a very important 
article of trade. 

While the small French colony of the Isle of BourbDn continued to 
prosper, that of the Dutch, established in the Isle of France, was 
much distressed, and in a languishing condition. I am unacquainted 
with the reason why the Dutch established themselves in this island, 
which they called Mauritius. I know, only, that they complained of 
the gttat devastation occasioned in it by locusts and rats. 

In 1712, they resolved to abandon entirely the establishment 
which they had formed at the Isle of France, in order to remove to 
the Cape of Good Hope. It may be readily conceived why they 
preferred a vabt continent to a sm^ll island. 

'1 he inhabitants of Bourbon were not sorry for the departure of the 
Dutch ; and they lost no time in taking possession of the spots where 
they had been established. The Isle of Fi ance has two good harbours, 
and is only thirty-four leagues distant from that of Bourbon. Though 
the air is salubrious, the island is neither so fertile nor so extensive as 
Bourbon ; but there disadvantages are counterbalanced by the excellence 
of its ports, and by its being situated to the windward. 

In 1734, the French East India Company having determined to 
form some considerable establishments here, the care of that enter- 
prize was entrusted to the celebrated Mahe de la Bourdonnais. That 
gentleman born to command, because he had abilities which enabled 
him to know mankind, and to enforce obedience, showed in those 
distant countries that he was as able a governor as a skilful mariner : 
the island is indebted to him, and to him alone, for its aquedufts, 
bridges, hospitals, and principal magazines. In short, every thing 
useful that still exists there is the work of that truly great roan. La 
Bourdonnais had a very extensive knowledge of those mechanic arts 
which are most common and most necessary for our wants. Often 
was hcaeen by the break of day, at the head of his labourers, driving 



ACCOUNT OF THE ISLES OF FRANCE AND BOURBON*. 149 

" a wheel barrow, or handling the trowel and the compass, merely with 
a view to excite and keep up a spirit of emulation. After the example 
which he himself gave, it was hardly possible for any one not to 
concur, as far as he was able, in promoting the public advantage. 
Whatever, therefore, he planned or undertook for the benefit of the 
colony, during the twelve years of his administration, was always 
attended with speedy and complete success. 

It was this Governor also who made choice of the port to the 
north-west. A man less enlightened would have perhaps preferred 
the port in the south west, because it is larger and more commodious ; 
but this able seaman knew, as much as any one, the advantages of a 
port to the leeward. On those shores, whtre general winds prevail, 
lee\vad ports are alone susceptible of an easy defence when attacked, 
as the enemy's ships must always be towed in order to bring them into 
the harbour. By the same reasoning the wind is always favourable 
for going out, another advantage, which, though inferior to the 
former, is not to be overlooked. 

The cultivation of corn is that which succeeded best in the Isle 
ef France. The lands there produce successively, every year, a crop 
of wheat and one of maize, commonly called Turkey corn. The 
manioc *, which was transported from Brazil, is at present the ordi- 
nary food of the blacks. 

The continual want of supplies by ships and squadrons has greatly 
impeded the increase of sheep and horned cattle in this island. It 
produces, however, an excellent kind of grass, which springs up 
from the earth about the beginning of the rainy season, and which, 
comes to full perfection in the space of three months. The inhabi- 
tants take advantage of that tfme to pasture their cattle and flocks ; 
but -when vegetation has ceased, nothing remains on the ground 
except some straw, too hard for the nouriihment of animals. Thia 
straw is so dry, that the least spark sets it on fire, and the wind 

Manibot, megnoc, or manioe, is a plant which grows in America and the 
West Indies, and from the root of which a kind of bread is made, called tauaet* 
or catsavi. The juice of the root is a mortal poison ; but when it has been 
properly extracted, the root is put over the fire, in order that all its aqueous, 
volatile, and noxious particles may "be dissipated ; h is then grated down into 
a mealy substance, which is again dried ; and it is afterwards formed into small 
cakes, and baked, by being placed upon hot plates of iron. The milky juice of 
the mcnioc when swallowed, or when the root is eaten without being carefully 
prepared, brings on convulsions, and occasions a violent retching and purging* 
It ads only on the nervous system, and produces no inflammation in the stomach ; 
but the stomach of a man or animal poisoned by it, appears to be contracted 
one half. The French sometime! call the bread made of this root 



iro ACCOUJT er THK ISLES or FRANCE and BOURBOW. 

Breads the flames with so much rapidity, that there are no physical 
means of checking its progress. When such an accident takes place, 
the cattle quit the savannas, and go to feed in the woods. 

When the Portugueze discovered the Isle of France, the land 
was covered with wood to the very summits of the mountains. 
The whole island was one vast forest composed of beautiful trees. 
Of these the most remarkable were several kinds of the palm-tree, 
bamboos, ebony, matt-wood with large and small leaves, tacamahaca, 
stinking wood, and a multitude of others, which were exceedingly 
valuable. 

When this island was first inhabited, the ground was all cleared 
by means of fire. , It would, however, have been prudent to leave 
rows of trees here and there at certain distances. Those rains 
which, in warm countries, are so necessary to render the earth fer- 
tile, seldom fall on ground after it has been cleared ; for it is the 
forests that attract the clouds, and draw moisture from them. Be- 
tides, cultivated lands have no shelter to defend them from the vio- 
lence of the wind. Cultivation without measure, and without me- 
thod, has sometimes done much more hurt than good. 

Those eminences which hang over the harbour, and defend it from 
the violence of the winds, have been cultivated to the very tops. 
The chalk of the mountains is become dry, and the earth proper for 
vegetation has fallen down into the valleys. Those large trees, 
which, when the island was inhabited, secured the earth from such 
dangerous falls, have been either burnt or cut dovrn. Torrents have 
been consequently formed, and the greater part of the gravel 
washed dowu by them has choked up the harbour. The anchoring 
ground at present is not sheltered from the violence of the sea, nor 
the impetuosity of the winds. Thus through an absolute want of 
foresight iu the first settlers, and a desire to promote their own tem- 
porary advantage, France is likely to be deprived of a port which is 
considered as the bulwark of its forces, and the most commodious 
torehouse of its commerce in the Indian Seas. 

M. de Tromelin, formerly a Captain in the Navy, an Officer as 
fertile in resources as skilful and experienced in every part of his pro- 
fession, finding, however, that this evil might be remedi -d, became 
very anxious to accomplish so important an objed At that time 
M. Poivre was intendant of the Isles of France and Bourbon. That 
celebrated man seeing all the advantages of M. de Tromelin's projeft, 
united with M. de Steinaure, a General Officer, highly worthy of 
esteem both by his knowledge and virtues, and who acted in the 
interim as Governor, to request, in the name of the colony, of the 
Duke de Praslin, then Minister of the Marine, the speedy ex.ecuM"o 



ACCOUNT Of THE ISLES OT FRANCE AND BOURBON. lt 

of a plan which would give the Isle of France a safe Harbour, where 
vessels might be sheltered from hurricanes. When the proposed 
works were ordered M. de Tromelin first employed himself in 
changing the course of the torrents by d) kes and channels, which 
served to colledl the body of the waters, and to conve y them to sea 
behind Cooper's Isle, in a place where mounds of sand and gravel 
could occasion no obstruction. 

This, without doubt, was the most urgent part of the operation. 
The clearing of the harbour, or rather channel, might be afterward* 
effected without any obstacle, in a period of time proportioned to the 
number of machines destined for the purpose of taking up the mud 
and sand ; for it is well known that each machine clears almost to the 
depth of twenty feet a day, when the wheels which make the two 
ladles aft are worked by thirty- six men. 

M de Tronwlin did not confine his plan to that labour which wat 
necessary for clearing the channel, and preventing it from being 1 
choked up in future. This Officer had greater and more extensive 
views. He remarked that the channel communicated with a vast 
basin perfectly sheltered from the most violent winds. This basin, 
known under the name of Trou Fanfaron, is three hundred fathoms in 
length. In breadth it is sixty fathoms, and the mean depth of the 
water does not exceed ten feet. Jt was necessary, therefore, to make 
it twenty feet deep, in order that it might be capable of receiving the 
largest vessels, as fully loaded as possible. To effeft this, nothing- 
was requisite but to remove some sand banks ; and two machines, in 
les= than six years, were able to clear away forty-five thousand cubic 
fathoms of sand which encumbered the basin. But this was not the 
most embarrassing part of the labour. The entrance of the basin 
was shut up by a coral bank, to get rid of which appeared to be a 
work of great expence and difficulty. This obstacle, however, did 
not discourage M. de Tromelin. After a judicious examination of 
its extent, and taking a number of soundings very near to each other, 
he was enabled to form a proper plan for accomplishing the objedl of 
his wishes, and by means of gunpowder he broke to pieces, under 
the water, that part of the bank which obstrufted the passage of 
vessels. 

We are in possession of two subsequent volumes of this 
Author's voyages, which have lately appeared in Paris, and 
intend soon to give our readers some interesting extracts 
from them, translated purposely for the NAVAL CHRO- 
NICLE. 



t u 3 



tSrflXS RESPECTING 
LOSS OF THE PRINCE GEORGE, BY FIRE, 

APRIL IJ, 1758. 



all the calamities to which seamen are liable, there is 
not one more terrible than the destruction of a ship 
by fire. On shore, the most dreadful conflagrations arc 
seldom attended with the loss of many lives ; for the means 
of escape, in most cases, are ready, and assistance is easily 
obtained ; the buildings are generally solid, and calculated 
to resist the effects of fire, so that with a little notice the 
sufferers are enabled to save themselves. But on the ocean, 
this calamity rages with tenfold violence. The materials 
of which ships are composed are of a nature fittest to pro- 
pagate fire, and their construction assists the destructive 
element to extend its ravages. Tar, pitch, and oil, it is 
well known, make a necessary part of the stores of every 
ship, and no substances burn with greater fury ; besides, 
the sails, rigging, and hull of a ship, are in the highest 
degree combustible. But, above all, the great quantities of 
gunpowder which ships of war carry, render such a mis- 
fortune, when it occurs to them, of the most terrific na- 
ture. Instant destruction is the consequence of the fire 
reaching the magazines ^ and the dread of this not only 
paralizes the efforts of those on board, but frequently deters 
others from coming to their assistance, lest the explosion 
of the magazines should involve them in one common de- 
struftion. 

We subjoin the following Letters relative to the loss of 
trie Prince George, which at that time was on her passage 
to Gibraltar, and carried the flag of Rear Admiral Broderick, 
as part of our engagement to our readers, to furnish them, 
from time to time, with authentic particulars of the disas- 
ters that have happened to our brave seamen, and because 



lETTERS RESPECTIXG THE LOSS Of THE PRINCE GEORGE. 1^3 

they form an interesting narrative of a most melancholy 
event. 

ExtraS of a Letter from the Rev. Mr. SHARP, Chaplain. 

GlasjpUi) off" Lisbon, April 20. 

ON Thursday, the I3th instant, at half an hour past one in the 
afternoon, word was passed into the ward-room by the sentry, that 
the fore part of the ship (the Prince George) was on fire ; the 
Lieutenants ran immediately forward, and myself, with many others, 
went directly on the quarter-deck, where we found the whole ship's 
crew was alarmed : the pumps were handed out, the engine and 
buckets carried forward, and every immediate remedy applied. The 
Admiral, with the Lieutenants on watch, kept the quarter-deck, 
from whence he sent such orders as he thought most expedient for 
the preservation of the ship, and the souls in her. Captain Peyton 
and the Lieutenants, on search, found that the fire first broke out in 
the Boatswain's store-room, to which place large quantities of water 
were applied, but in vain, for the smoke was so very great and hot, 
that the poor creatures could not get near enough to the flames for 
their labour to have any effecL On this,' Captain Peyton ordered 
scuttles to be ' made, that the water might be poured in by that 
means ; but there he was defeated likewise, for only two carpenters 
could be found, and they had nothing to work with for a long time 
but a hammer and chissel each. The lower gun deck ports were 
then opened, but the water that flowed in was not sufficient to stop 
the violence of the flames. He ordered, likewise, the powder-room 
to be wetted, lest the ship should immediately be blown up, and 
every soul perish in an instant. This had the desired effed, and 
for some minutes we had glimmering hopes. I mention the above 
particulars, as I was below myself, worked with the men as long aa 
I could stand it, went up for air, and returned again instantly, con- 
sequently an eye-witness, I can declare them as fafts. The fire 
oon increased, and raged violently aft on the larboard side ; and, as 
the destruction of the ship was now found inevitable, the preserva- 
tion of the Admiral was first consulted. Captain Peyton came on 
the quarter-deck and ordered the barge to be manned, into which 
the Admiral entered, with near forty more, for now there was no 
distinction, every man's life was equally precious. The Admiral 
finding the barge would overset, stripped' himself naked, and com- 
mitted himself to the mercy of the waves ; and, after toiling an 
hour, he was at length taken up by a merchantman's boat. Captaia 

x 



ij4 LETTERS RESPECTING 

Qeyton lyspt the quarter-deck an hour after the Admiral left it* 
when he happily got into a boat from the stern ladder, and was put, 
safe on board the Alderney sloop I must be deficient even to at- 
tempt a description of the melancholy scene before me; shrieking, 
cries, lamentations, bemoantngs, raving despair, and even madness 
itself presented themselves. Tt was now high time tcr think of 
taking care of myself : I looked from evtry part of the ship for 
roy preservation, and soon saw three boats off the stern. I went 
immediately to my cabin, and offered up my prayers to God, par- 
ticularly thanking him for giving me such resolution and composure 
of mind. I then jumped into the sea from one of the gun-room 
ports, and swam to a boat, which put me safe on board the Alder- 
ney sloop. There were near thrte hundred people saved, and more 
might have been saved, had the merchantmen behaved like human 
creatures ; but they kept a long way to windward the whole time ; 
and if possible, to their greater shame be it spoken, instead of saving 
the men that swam to their boats, they were em r 'loyvd in taking up 
geese, fowls, tables, chairs, and whatever else of the kind came near 
them. 

^^ 

Letter from Mr. PARRY, an Officer, dated as above. 

ABOUT half-past one at noon, being in the office adjoining to 
the cabin, I saw the Admiral run out with two or three Officers. 
On enquiring the cause, I was alarmed with the report of the ship's 
bj. n ' on fire forward, and it was believed in the boatswain's fore 
sjotx-room. Every method was taken to extinguish it, but the 
smoke was so violent, no person could get near enough to find where 
the fiie was. About half past two we made the signal of distress j 
but to render our situation more wretched, the fog came on very 
thick, ajid the wind freshened ; so that it was near four before the 
Glasgow and Alderney got intelligence of our condition. They 
thvn repeated the signal, hoisted out their boats, and stood towards 
us ; but not knowing we had taken care to float our powder, were 
under ad apprehensions we might blow up, and therefore could 
rot, consistent with their own safety, give us the assistance our de- 
plorable condition rendered us so much in need of. We attempted 
to scutile the decks to let the water on the fire, but the people could 
not stand a minute without being nearly suffocated. About half- past 
four the smoke increased, and the flames began to break out. The 
Admiral then ordered the boats to be hoisted out, got the barge 
out, aad weat .off, promising to bring a ship alongside ef us. I 



LOSS OF THE PRINCE GEORGE, BT FIRt. 155 

observed her so full, that her gunwale was almost even with the 
water ; and in a few minutes after saw her sink at some distance 
astern. Not above three or four were saved out of above forty, 
among whom it pleased God to preserve the Admiral. The wea- 
ther was now become clesr, but nor*: of the merchantmen wouid 
come near us. Our Officers behaved well, and endeavoured to keep 
the people to the purrps and drawing water; but they were now 
become quite ungovernable. About a quarter before five, Captain 
Peyton left the ship, and promised as the Admiral, but was not able 
to accomplish it. About five, the long boat was endeavoured to be 
got out, in which were near one hundred people, but as they were 
hoisting hsr out, one of the tackles gave way, by which she over- 
set, and almost every soul perished. We were now reduced to the 
greate t distress. You may have some idea of our miserable condi- 
tion, when I tell you the ship began to be in flumes fore and aft, 
preading like flax ; people distracted, and not knowing what they 
did, and jumping overboard from all parts; I was reduced to the 
melancholy choice of either burning with the ship, or going over- 
board Very few that could swim were taken up, and i that could 
not swim must have little hopes indeed. About a quarter pa.~t, five 
J went into the Adrniral's stern gallery, where two you.ig gentlemen 
were lashing two tables together for a raft. I assisted them. One 
of them proposed to make fast the lashijsg to the gallery, and lowef 
ourselves down to the tables, then cutting the lashing to commit our- 
selves to the mercy of Providence. We hoisted over the tables, but 
being badly lashed, one of them we lost ; as soon as the other was 
down, J proposed to venture first, which they readily consented to. 
There were about three boats astern ; this wa the time or never ; 1 
tfent down by the rope, but, as there was a great swell of sea, it wa$ 
impossible for any ooe to follow me, and I was turned adrift. By the 
cries of the people from the ship to the boats, in about five ininuteS 
J was taken up very near drowned. 

715 Complement. 
30 Passengers to Gibraltar. 

745 



260 Saved. 
485 Lost. 

^ 

745 



* c6 J.ETTERS RESPECTING THB LOSS OF THI PRINCE GEORGE* 

Letter from the Matter of a Merchantman^ under convoy of 
Admiral BRODERICK. 

THURSDAY, April 1 3th, Ushant bearing east sixty leagues dis- 
tance, at noon, I saw Admiral Broderick hoist a signal of distress* 
upon which I made what sail I could, and went down to him. At one 
in the afternoon I could discern the Prince George on fire ; at two we 
drew pretty near her, and thought they might have quenched the 
fire ; at three, I saw plainly it was impossible. I was within a hun- 
dred yards of her stern, but durst not venture alongside, the sea 
running high, besides the going off of her guns, and danger of 
blowing up. At four in the afternoon the Admiral was taken up 
swimming, by a merchantman's boat, as by this time the ships that 
had boats sent them all out, and a good many of them were lost, 
the weather proving bad. Towards night I was within pistol shot, 
and remained there some time, picking up four of her crew. Had 
pot two of my men run away with my boat the night before we 
sailed from St. Helen's, I am confident I could have saved sixty or 
eighty of them at least, as I was all the time nearer to them than 
any ship in the fleet. What made me venture so near was, that I 
knew my ship went well, and was under good command. At six, 
what a dismal sight ! the masts and sails all in a blaze ; hundreds of 
souls hanging by the ropes alongside ; I could count fifty of them 
hanging over in the stern ladder, othtrs in the sea on oars and pieces 
of wood, a melancholy spectacle ; besides the dismal cries from the 
ship, which still ring in my ear. At half an hour past six the 
flames broke out at her broadside, and in less than five minutes 
every part of her was on flames, and so continued until seven, 
when she overset, but did not sink. I then ran within twenty yards 
of her, but my people compelled me to go farther off, for fear of 
striking on the wieck. All I can say of it in addition is, there 
never was a more shocking sight ; pray God I may never se the 
like again. It was very griewiiis to me that I could not save more 
of her men without running the risk of sharing her fate. The j8th 
of April the Glasgow, a twenty gun ship, hoisted the signal for all 
Mastets of merchantmen to come on board, where the Admiral had 
bis flag hoisted, to know how many of his psople we had saved 
amongst us, and to deliver them up. By the then list it appeared 
that the Admiral, Captain Peyton, and about two hundred and fifty. 
three .men were saved. 



C '57 3 



ELEGY 

ON THE LOSS OP THE QUEEN CHARLOTTE*, BURNT OFF TH 
HARBOUR OF LEGHORN, MARCH 17, I SoO. 

By JAMES KENNEDY, thcna resident at Leghorn. 

TROM snow-rob'd Appennines the frosty gale* 
Tiiscania scouring swept the waves off shore ; 
By rosy dawn the Queen Charlotte set sail, 
The cloudless sky a placid visage wore, 

Though no sad omen mark'd the rising day, 

Nor friendly spirit ruin nigh foretold ; 
This B-itish bulwark had made little way, 

When round her quarters smoky volumes roli'd. 

What glowing pencil faintly can pourtray ? 

What fancy form a speftacle so dire ? 
What living language feebly can convey ? 

The horrid semblance of a ship on fire ! 

From hay 'tis said the fatal flame arose, 

Which light'ning-like along the rigging flew, 

While in their hammocks numbers snug repose, 
Who only wake to bid the world adieu 1 

The smothering smoke pervaded ev'ry deck, 
From stem tb tern the blazing torrent ran, 

The conflagration's rapid course to check, 
Soon bade defiance to the powers of man, 

Scene dread, and deathful ! yet the seaman brave, 

Destruction's progress boldly strove to stay, f 

The hull half drown'd, the powder-room to save 
While blazed thtir garments, cut the mast away. 

Prodigious efforts small respite obtain, 

1 h ; impeded flames anon redoubled rage ; 
XJndaunttd still the heroes of the main, 

The fiery warfare more intrepid wage. 

* For the interesting particulars of this melancholy event, we refer car 
111. page 199. 



Hard fated tars ! nought boots your godlike deeds, 
Though pending dangers can't your hearts dismay ; 

True valour's sor.s oft ciown'd with vidVry's meeds, 
Must now before ferocious flames give way. 

A keen embrace, a kind farewel, they take, 
On all they dearest hold God's bliss implore ; 

No time to write, or latter will to make, 

No friend to bear their dying wish on shore. 

High roll'd the waves, chill blew the biting blast, 
The fire tormenting, and no succour nigh, 

Some took to spars, some grappled with the mast, 
While handreds headlong dar'd at once to die ! 

Like ravens cluster'd on a tree forlorn, 

When Boreas howling Nature sheaths in snow 

Becloud the bowsprit, seamen weary, worn, 
But life's last hold oft haplessly let go* 

The fatal spot assistance reach 'd too late, 
Already dtath had dreadful havoc made, 

And reckless rushing from their awful state, 
The debt of nature many rashly paid, 

By friendly aid about one-sixth were sav'd. 

Tho' round him rag'd the sure devouring flame> 
Brave Captain TCDD, the fiery ordeal brav'd, 

Ah ! too tenacious of a spotless fame. 

The dread explosion thus appear'd to view, 

A darkness rose (a oft from Etna's height), 
iCheti form'd a pillar of a paleish hue, 
Majestic rising 'bote the reach of bight. 

A stately ship thus Britain's Navy lost : 

But what are ships to precious lives compar'd ? 

Not all the wealth the globe itself may boast, 

These tars can ransom from death's ruthless guard. 



FOITRY. 

TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK OF SIMONIDES. 

BY MR. G. DYER. 

'HEN on the motley-painted chest the wind 

Blew boist'rous, and by dire commotion siirr'3, 
The rising surges roar'd, 
Fair Danae, while trickled down her cheek 

The frequent tear, felt all a mother's pangs ; 
Round her young Perseus, round her dearest babe. 

She threw, resign'd to. fate, her lovdy arms, 
And breath'd, thus softly breath'd, the sorrows of her heart, 

Ah ! me, my child, what griefs do I endure ! 
Whilst thou, dear suckling- babe, ill-omen'd child, 

Sleepest with heart at rest ; 
Steepest in joyless brass-encircled house, 

And dark the night, tho' gl ams the mooa serene, 
The wave, that passes thy unmoisten'd locks, 

Thou heedest not, thou hearest not the winds, 
For calm is thy lov'd face, in purple vestment veil'd. 

Ills now press on, and didst thou know those ills, 
How wouldst thou to my words, my words of woe, 

Lend me thy little ear i 
Sleep, then, my babe, thy mother bids thee sleep ; 

And sleep the waves, and sleep my sea of cares. 
Yet, oh ! my father, confound their schemes ! 

Bold now the prayer Oh ! may my Perseus live ! 
Still may he live, and still revenge his mother's wrongs. 



SIMILE TAKEN FROM A SHIP COASTING ALONG 
THE SHORES OF ARABIA FELIX* 

(PROM MILTON.) 

AS when to them who sail 
Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past 
Mozambic, off at sea north-east winds blow 
Sabean odours from the spicy shores 
Of Araby the blest ; with such delay 
Well pleas'd they slack their cpursej and many a league 
Chear'd with the grateful smell old Ocean smiles ; 
So etertain'd those odorous sweets the head. 



fOETRV. 



COMPARISON OF A WELL-DREST WOMAN TO A 
SHIP IN FULL SAIL. 
(FROM MILTON.) 

BUT who is this, what thing of sea or land ? 
Female of sex it seems, 
That so bedcck'd, ornate, and gay, 
Comes this way sailing, 
Like a stately ship 
Of Tarsus, bound for the i&Iet 
Of Javan or Gadire, 

With all her bravery on, and tackle trim, 
Sails fill'd, and streamers waving, 
Courted by all the winds that hold them play ; 
An amber scent of odorous perfume 
Her harbinger, a damsel train behind ; 
Some rich Philistian matron she may seem, 
And now at nearer view, no other certain^ 
Than Dalila thy wife. 

Chorm in Sampson jfgonisler* 

THE STORM. 
FROM DONNE'S POEMS. EDIT. ^669. 

RN, like two mighty kings, which, dwtlling far 
Asunder, meet against a third to war, 
The south and west winds join'd ; and as they blew, 
Waves, like a rolling trench, before them threw. 
Sooner than you read this line, did the gale, 
Like shot, not fear'd till felt, our sails assail ; 
And what at first was call'd a gust, the same 
Hath now a j form's, anon a tempest's name. 
Jonas, I pity thee, and curse those men 
Who, when the storm raged most, did wake thoe their. 
Thousands our noises were, yet we 'mong'st all 
Could none by his right name, but Thunder call : 
Lightning was all our light, and it rain'd more, 
Than if the sun had drunk the sea before. 
Some, coffin'd in their cabins, equally 
Grieve, that they are not dead, and yet must die r 
And, as sin-burden'd souls from graves will creep 
At the last day, tome from their cabins peep, 



An'3 trembling ask " what news," and do hear so, 
As jealous husbands, what they iuou!d not know. 
Some, sitting on the hatches, would seem there, 
With hideous gazing, to fear away fear. 
There note they the ship's sicknesses ; the mast 
Shook with an ague, and the hold and waste 
With a salt dropsy clogg'd ; our tacklings 
Snapping, like to too-high-stretch 'd treble strings. 
And from our tatter'd sails rags drop down so, 
As from one hang'd in chains a year ago. 
Pumping hlth tir'd our mert, and what's the gain ? 
Seas into seas thrown, we Suck iri again. 
Hearing hath deaf'd our sailors, and if they 
Knew how to hear, there's none knows what to say, 
Compar'd to these storms, death is but a qualm, 
Hell somewhat lightsome, the Bermudas calm, 
Darkness, Light's eldest brother, his birthright 
Claims o'er the world; 



THOUGHTS RELATirE TO 
AN EXPEDITION AGAINST ALGIERS. 



*~pHE piratical States of Algiers having of late engaged a 
good deal of the public attention, and it being generally 
reported that France meditates an expedition agiinst that 
barbarous power, the ideas of an old English Admiral on 
the subject cannot be uninteresting. Algiers was a place of 
little consequence until the year 1514, when it was seized by 
the celebrated Barbaro?sa, under whose govetnment it became 
a noted resort of pirates 5 this corsair candidly declared that 
his country was a nest of robbers, and he was their chief. 
The Emperor Charles V. urged by the repeated and cla- 
morous complaints of his subjects, in 1541, fitted out a 
powerful armament to chastise the insolence of the bar- 
barians. It consisted of twenty thousand foot, and two 
thousand horse, mostly veterans, together with three 
thousand volunteers, the flower of the Spanish and Italian 
nobility, and a proportionate naval force, under the command 
ef the renowned Andrew^oria. With these mighty forces 
. nm. Sol. VIII. Y 



j6 THOUGHTS RELATIVE TO 

Charles landed in Africa; but on the third day after his ar- 
rival, a storm dispersed his fleet, and sickness and famine 
nude dreadful ravages in his army. He was obliged to con- 
fine his operations to defensive measures, though the enemy 
did net exceed in number a quarter part of his forces ; and 
on the return of fine weather, was happy to embark in his 
fleet for Spain, with the shattered remains of his army. Other 
European powers have fince attempted, with the same bad sue. 
cess, the subjugation of these barbarians, whose ravages have 
successively been felt by every maritime state. In the reign of 
Tames the First the complaints of the English merchants 
trading to the Mediterranean, caused a Consultation of the 
Lords of the Council to be held, as to the means how the 
pirates of Algiers might be suppressed ; and that experienced 
seaman, Sir William Monson, was ordered to deliver his opi- 
nion on the subjer. The following are his sentiments, en- 
titled " TAt danger and uncertainty of surprizing Algiers, or 
taking it by siege, or otherwise" 

Whosoever knows Algiers, cannot be ignorant of the strength of it : 
the inhabitants consist principally of desperate rogues and renegadoes, 
that live by rapine, theft, and spoil, having renounced God and all 
virtue, and become reprobates to all the Christian world. This town 
is, and has been of so great annoyance to the Christians lying over 
against it, that they have been often times forced to attempt it by sur- 
prise ; but still have failed of their designs, either by intelligence the 
town has had, or by their carefulness to defend it ; for no man but 
must think that a town which depends on its own strength, being in 
continual dangers of stratagems, and sudden surprises from the bor- 
dering enemies, both Moors and Turks, who have the convenience of 
gallies to transport and land an army at pleasure, will be extraordinary 
watchful and circumspeft to fortify itself, and withstand all dangers 
that can befal it. 

And if those Christian countries that lie open to the places afore- 
said, could never prevail in their sundry attempts, being nigh them, 
and having convtniency to embark and transport an army without sus- 
picion or rumour, and to be succoured by the islands of Minorca and 
Majorca, if necessity required, but especially having intelligence with 
some of the town for the delivery of it, as about fourteen years since 
it happened, by the practice of a renegado, called Spinola, which 
failed, what hope have we then to prevail, who cannot so secretly 
furnish an army or fleet, but that all the world must ring of it in their 



AN EXPEDITION AGAINST ALGIERS. 163 

gazettes and other intelligences ? Or if it be once known in Marseilles, 
it cannot be concealed many hours from Algiers, there being a settled 
trade and correspondence between those two cities. 

But allowing our designs to be kept secret till the very time we ar- 
rive upon that coast, yet the warning will be sufficient for a garrison 
town of less force, and fewer men than Algiers, to prevent a sur. 
prise. 

In such a case as this the time and wind is principally to be regarded; 
for a large wind that is good to carry a fleet into a landing place in an 
open bay, will be dangerous if it over-blow upon a lee-shore, and it will 
make so great a sea, that it will be impossible for men, with their fur- 
niture and arms, to land without apparent danger ; and what resistance 
a few men are able to make, I leave to consideration. 

On the other side, if we ply into the bay with a scant wind, and it 
gives us a good entrance to land, by reason of the smoothness of the 
sea, yet the defendants shall have these advantages } they will descry 
us from the shore a long time before we can draw near, and conse- 
quently have time sufficient to withstand our landing. With their 
gallics they may cut off our boats with our men, if ships ride not 
within command of the shore; besides many other casualties the sea 
and weather affords. Besides, our boats can land but the third part of 
our men at once ; by which means we shall attempt to land but with 
the third part of our army ; and if we do it near the town they will still 
have warning enough; or if it be far off the march will be inconve- 
nient, and they warned hy fires. 

But if we fail of surprising Algiers, and attempt it by siege, we 
have neither necessaries to land our ordnance, nor to dr?.\v it to a 
place fit to raise a battery, wanting engines, cattle, and other conve- 
niences for that purpose. It must be considered how to relieve our 
siege, and defend our besiegers, against the sallies of the town, which 
have ten men to one of ours. We must likewise forecast, if we fail 
of the attempt, to bring off our men with safety, as a point of great 
providence in a commander. 

Whosoever shall enterprise Algiers, his greatest strength by sea 
must be in gallies, which can run near the shore, and command the 
landing place with their ordnance ; or if an enemy draw down his 
forces there to withstand him, he may soon bring about his gallies, 
quit that place, and land where Vie shall se no danger : ships cannot do 
so when they are at anchor, but mu:t have wind and tide for their 
purpose. 

But all I can ssy is nothing to what follows ; for you must under- 
the Algerines are a, sort of outlaws, or misci cants, that live in 



ifj^ THOUGHTS RELATIVE TO 

enmity with all the world, acknowledging the great Turk in some 
nie^sure for their Sovereign, but no farther than they please them- 
selves. Now that pait of Barbary where Algiers is seated, is a spacious 
and fruitful country, and abounds in numbers of people ; and though 
the kuig of it be a Mahometan, as well as the Algerines, yet they live 
in perpetual hatred and war ; but so, that if either of them is attacked 
by Christians, they will presently join as partners in mischief; and we 
shall no sooner land, but be welcomed by three or four score thou- 
sand of these ungodly people. Having shewp the impossibility of 
taking Algiers, cither by surprise or siege ; now shall follow the little 
ue we can make of it, either to annoy the King of Spain or any other 
potentate; as also the small profit we shall make of it ; no, not so 
much as to defray the tenth part ot the garrison, or any hope to go 
farther with a conquest. 

If it be conceived to lie conveniently to annoy the King of Spainj 
or any other enemy, it will prove otherwise, considering the distance 
from England to be relieved, and the many casualties we shall undergo 
at sea, having neither the Christian nor Turkish shore to friend, and 
yet we must sail in the Mediterranean, where we cannot pass unseen 
or unmet, because of its narrowness. 

The ha, bour of Algiers which must entertain us, is of so small a 
compass, that it will not receive above twenty ships, which number, 
and no more, we must allow both to annoy and defend ourselves from 
all entmies, either Christian or Turkish. 

The p ace affords neither vi duals, powder, masts, sails, ropes, or 
ether necessaries that belong to ships; and if there be but a want of 
the least of th. rn, England alone must supply them. Then consider the 
charge and danger that is likely to follow to this little purpose ; for 
the cxpence is certain, and le.,s than five thousand men cannot be al- 
lowed for garrison, and the twenty sail of ships aforesaid. The profit 
and advantage that can be made of it, must be by theft and rapine by 
sea, which the Tmks cannot afford us, they having lutle or no trade 
in shipping. The princes of Italy are in the same condition ; and. 
therefore our only hope must depend on the spoils of Spain, which we 
cannot expeft in the Stn ights, they having no trade of importance 
upon those coasts; and. what we shall take without the Stiaights we 
shall sooner do from England than Algiers ; and prizes so taken will 
t sooner and safer brought for England than carried to Algiers, 
vh.Tt they myst pass so many dangers, as I have said before. 

W. ui this following adion against the Turkish pirates was in agi- 

?tion, it was solicited by the late Lord High Admiral of England, 

1 of Nottingham, who not long after resigned his office to the 



AN EXPEDITION AGAINST ALGIERS. l6j 

IDi'ke of Buckingham, who being young, and infefted with the di- 
sease of youth, to hearken to bas^ flattery,, gave ear to those that 
thought to make use of his favour with the King, and advised him to 
promote this voy ge, promising it would redound to his everlasting 
honour at the fiist entrance into his place: but the event of it shall 
Appear to be caused by the ill management of it ; for no doubt but 
the intention was to be commended, and the management was to be 
blamed. 



MONTHLY REGISTER 



WEST JNDJA DOCKS. 

HT'HE zjth of August being the day of the final accomplishment of 
J. this vast undet taking, as early assix in the morning the royal stand- 
rd was hoisted on the summit of the warehouse No. 8, and the different 
vessels in the riyer prepared to exhibit their rhgs and streamers from 
the mast-head. At eight o'clock the bells of Limehouse Church rang a 
merry peal, and about nine, the sailors on board the Henry Addington 
began to decorate the ship with the colours of the different nations, 
the British being placed above the rest. At ten o'clock the foot guards 
took their station on the North Quay, and a Corporal's guajd was 
placed at the entrance into the town of Poplar, Four hundred work- 
men, who had been sworn in constables on the preceding day, were 
ordered to do duty in the vicinity of the coffre dam and the great bason. 
The Bow street officer.', to the amount of 100 and upwards, were like- 
wise present ; in short, every precaution was used to preserve order 
and prevent the .ncknockets from committing their accustomed depre- 
dations. At e.cven o'clock, crowds of people begjn to colleft near the 
entrance lock and on . i:e banks of the bason, and the company who had 
Pirecrors tickets for tru North Quay began to arrive in their carriages, 
&c. By tA'eh'e o'cjock the concourse of people was immense on the 
North C^uiy. rlie s'de v. here spectators were admitted only by Interest j 
there could not be less than three or four thousand persons ; the tops 
of the warehouses, No. z, 4, and 3 were crowded, and every wmdo-ar 
a^nd, outlet was in the same state. On the opposite sides of the great 
dock, the bason, &c were as well attended. 

Contrary to general expectation, preparations were made (half-an- 
hour earlier than the time appointed) for admitting the two ships into 
the Dock, viz. the Henry Addington and a loaded ship. The Henry 
Add'tigton entered first, being towed in by the capstan, assisted by 
the labourers, who dragged the cable ropes affixed at the head of the 
vessel. Two small boats were likewiseemployed. On passipg through 
the coffre dam, the chain of the flood-gates' gave way, which stopped 
the proceedings for near five" minutes, and on entering the Jock 
leading from the great bason inVo the principal dock, the ship went 
against the side of the lock, and carried away a part of the stone, but 
providentially no damage was done to the ship. The Henry Adding- 
^ on entering the great dock, fired a royal salute of twenty-one gui$s, 
' was answered by repeated huzzas from the populace, The 



l66 MONTHLY- RHGISTBR 

loaded ship came in about five minutes after the first, without meeting 
any impediment. At half after one, they arrived at their moorings, 
immediately opposite the warehouse No. 8, on which occasion the guns 
were again fired. The band of the first regiment of guards, stationed 
on the North Quay, then struck up, " God Saw the King," which was 
re-echoed by the City band on board the Henry Addington. It was 
one of the most beautiful sights ever seen, the ships coming in with a 
full breeze from W. ; the flags being all new, and placed from, head to 
stern, and to the pennant at the mast-head. 

During this novel exhibition many distinguished personages appeared 
on the North Quay : one party consisted of the Earl of Rosslyn, Lords 
Hawkesbury, Hood, Pelham, Glenbervie, Hobart, and Sir George Shee ; 
they arrived at twelve o'clock in the Admiralty yacht. The Lord 
Mayor, Mr. Ladbroke, Aldermen Hibbert and Curtis, and Mr. Pybus, 
came in the Trinity yacht at the same time. Sir Sidney Smith was on 
board the Henry Addington when she came in. He came up from 
Chatham in his own sloop. He afterwards came ashore dressed in 
green, with a star on his breast. The whole of the above Gentlemen 
afterwards went on board the Henry Addington and partook of the 
refreshments ; and about half past three, Earl Ro.-slyn, and Lords Pel- 
ham, Hawkesbury, and Glenbervie, with Sir Sidney Smith, &c. went 
up the river in the Admiralty barge, A pleasure-boat, with a green 
awning, and rowed by two watermen in uniform fancy dresses, were 
actively employed in conveying the company from the North side of 
the ship. At five o'clock an elegant dinner was set out in the great 
cabin for the ladies, &c. on board. Mrs. Lacey, the Captain's Lady, 
presided at the festive board. ' The King," and other loyal toasts, 
were drank with enthusiasm. In the evening there was a ball on board, 
when about twenty couple danced. The colours were taken down 
about seven o'clock. The scene, aided by the fineness of the day, 
attracted about ten thousand spectators, who seemed perfectly gratified 
with this happy completion of one of the greatest undertakings which 
could possibly be accomplished, and will not only relieve the commer- 
cial interest from the long complained of inconveniencies in the River, 
but be a security against that regular system of robbing ships in the 
night, so long practised with impunity. 

Nothing can be conceived more beautiful than the Dock itself, even 
independent of the magnificent living drapery with which it was sur- 
rounded. The water was of the necessary depth, about sixteen feet, 
and its surface, smooth as a mirror, presented to the" eye an haven 
secure from storms, and the mind anticipated those sensations of 
pleasure and delight which all the nations of the world, a.'ter buffet- 
ting storms and tempests, must feel when lodged in its tranquil bosom, 

MEMBERS returned to PARLIAMENT for 
Borough of Dunkcvcd, otberwife Launcefton. 
Captain Richard Henry Alexander Bennett, 

Borough of Truro. 
Captain Edward Leveson Gower, 

Orkney and Zetland, 
Captain Robert Honyman, 

Borough of Portsmouth. 
Captain John Markhara. 

Burghs of Dunftrmline, Stirling, Inverkeiiking, Culros, an 
Honourable Captain Alexander Cochrane 



CF NAVAL EVENT!. IJ 

jpatal Courts ^partial* 

PORTSMOUTH, AUGUST 2. 

A Court Martial was held on board his Majesty's ship Donnegal, on 
Mr. JOHN WEIR, Boatswain of the Beanlieu, for negleft of duty, and 
taking improper women on board. The charge not being proved, he 
was acquitted. 

23 and 24. A Court Martial was held on board the Donnegal, on 
Captain C. B. JON PS, of his Majesty's sloop Beaver, on the following 
charges exhibited against him by Lieutenant WILLIAM CASE, of the 
said sloop 

1. For running the ship on shore through obstinacy; which was 
not proved, but found frivolous and vexatious. 

2. For tyranny and oppression j which was partly proved. 

3. For having used language to the said Lieutenant, scandalous and 
unbecoming the character of an Oriicer ; which was proved. 

And he was accordingly adjudged to be dismissed his Majesty's 
service. 



Anecdote of the Gallantry of a Eriiljh Seaman. In the very spirited, 
though unsuccessful, attack on Admiral Linois' squadron in the Bay 
of Algesiras, the fth of July iSor, the heavy fire the Caesar had sus- 
tained had rendered every boat perfectly useless. Rear- Admiral Sir 
J. Saumarez deeming it necessary to send some particular orders of 
great consequence (in the then state of the action, and the perilous 
situation of the Hannibal, of 74 guns, Captain S. Ferris, on shore, and 
very much exposed to a raking fire of shot and shells from Linois* 
squadron and the batteries at Algesiras, manned by French artillery- 
men, without her being able to bring a gun to bear) to the Venerable, 
of 74 guns, Captain 8. Hood, he went to the railing of the quarter-deck, 
and asked who could swim ? A young seaman, named Collins, nineteen 
years of age, one of the Admiral's barge's crew, immediately run up 
the ladder, and answered, he could very well. He immediately stripped, 
took the orders in his mouth, went over the side, and actually swam to 
the Venerable, then fifty yards off ; delivered the orders to Captain 
S. Hood, took the answer in his mouth, and accomplished his return to 
the Cscsar in about forty-nine minutes, to the astonishment of every 
person on board. The sea was literally splashed with shot and shells 
during the time Collins was swimming to 'and from the Venerable. 
His name is deserving a place in the annals of British seamens' daring 
intrepidity in the hour of danger. This gallant business of Algesiras 
Bay on Linois's squadron was the means of saving Lisbon, which was 
to have been attacked by the French and Spaniards jointly, had not this 
action, and the subsequent viclory off Cadiz, on the i2th July 1801, 
occurred. This circumstance is not generally known, but does credit 
to the foresight of Rear- Admiral Sir J. Saumarez, K. B. 

sXX~^ 

Letters received by an American ship, arrived at Falmouth, state the 
capture of the Porcher, country ship, Captain Blake, by the Bellona 
French privateer, in the Bay of Bengal, on the asd of February last, 
and that she was carried into the Isle of France. Both ships were in 
possession of the signing of the Preliminaries of Peace, yet it was ex- 
pefted the ship and cargo would be condemned. 



). MONTHLY REGISTER, 

FRAUD ON THE UiNDERWRITERS. 

MANSION Houir., Aug. 26. An examination took place of WilHafi* 
Codling, Captain ot the Adventure brig, bound from London to Leg- 
horn, and sunk off Brighton, on Sunday the gth of this month $ as also 
of Wm. M'Farlane, one of the owners of the oaid brig. 

Thomas Cooper, Male of the said vessel, who was admitted as a King's 
evidence depesed, that he went on board the said vessel in the Downs, 
having engaged to make the voyage with her ; but that a short time 
after he had come on board, he was prevailed upon by the persuasion of 
the Captain to join in a scheme that was proposed of sinking the vessel, 
after having first plundered her. On Saturday night he, by the particu- 
lar desire of the Captain, broke open some boxes containing watches, 
which the Captain carried ashore at Deal; -the Captain provided 
augurs for boring holes in the ship's bottom, and the next day, the 
vessel being near Brighton, this witness, at the Captain's desire, 
bored several holes in the ship's bottom. The rest of the crew of the 
vessel, about five or six in number, confirmed the account given by 
the Mate, and said, that on Saturday, as well as Sunday, the Mate was 
shut up with the Captain in the cabin j that the boys who used to attend 
in the cabin were not permitted to go down ; and from all those cir- 
cumstances, the crew suspecled that something wrong was going for- 
ward : tlwt on Sunday, finding the ship make a great deal of water, 
they were all busily employed at the pumps 5 but the Captain cried out, 
" d n you, never mind her j d H the pumps, let her go to the bot- 
tom." After this, the Mate went down into the hold, with a crovf 
bar 5 and in a short time afterwards, the leak was found to have in- 
creased prodigiously, and the vessel to be in a sinking state. Signals of 
distress were then made, and several boats came off to her assistance j 
but the Captain would not suffer them to come alongside, but called out 
to them to stand off, saying they .should have nothing to do with the 
vessel till he had done with her: a short time afterwards the vessel sunk, 
and the crew got ashore in the boats. A day or two afterwards Mr. 
Easterby, and Mr. M'Farlane, two of the ship's owners, came down to 
Brighton, and paid the crew their wages, without asking any particu- 
lar questions about the loss of the ship. 

Richard Brewer, a ship-builder, resident in Shoreham, hearing of the 
loss of the ship, went immediately down to Brighton, and seeing part 
of the ship's mast still above water, by fastening ropes to it, he con- 
trived to have the vessel drawn under water so near the shore as to be 
in a state of safety. While he was doing this, he was very much op- 
posed by one Read, who pretended to have the possession of the vessel 
as supercargo (and which Read is now in Lewes gaol). 

The witness, however, said he was determined to keep the vessel till 
he knew who were the real owners of her. The Captain was with Read 
at the same time, and seemed very unwilling to leave the vessel in the 
witness's possession. The witness afterwards brought the vessel on 
shore, and upon examining the state of her bottom, he found several 
holes which appeared to have been bored with augurs, and a larger one 
that appeared to have been made by such an instrument as a crow bar. 
He then produced three augurs which were found in the ship upon her 
examination. 

Mr. Tasker was present when the ship's hatches were opened for the 
purpose of examining her cargo. He said that a considerable number 
of articles which the ship's papers and her clearances at the Custom- 
house proved to have been shipped on board of her, were not to be 
found i in particular, several cases of hats, several boxes of Irish linens, 



OF NAVAL EVENTS. 169 

249 ounces of worked silver, and a variety of other articles were then 
missing. 

Mrs. Patterson proved that twenty-two packages of goods found at her 
house were brought by her from the house of Mr. M'Farlane (in a for- 
mer exaniinaiion she said that she had removed them at the desire of 
Mr. M'Farlane, which she now denied.) 

Mary Smith, her sister, and who lives in her house, said those things 
were brought to the house by her sister in a coach, at the hour of 
twelve o'clock at night. She confessed that the word " stores," were 
marked upon some of the packages. The. packages were proved to be 
part of the ship's cargo. 

Jobn Perry, an officer of the Marine Police (after having apprehended 
Mr. M'Farlane), found at the house of Mrs. Patterson the twenty-two 
packages before-mentioned, and which were proved to belong to the 
cargo of the Adventure. 

Air. Rqff, organ-builder and musical instrument maker, proved, that 
he had been employed by Mr. Easterby, one of the owners, to make a 
grand piano forte, which Easterby said was for his daughter ; and after- 
wards, by t"he order of Mr. Eastei by and M'Farlane, he made several 
other musical instruments, particularly organs, to be exported by this 
ship Adventure \ since that time, and since the loss of the said ship he 
has seen two of the said organs, the one at Mr. Easterby's, the other at 
Mr. M'Fai lane's } he also saw the grand piano forte, although that, 
as well as the organs, had been entered in the ship's papers for ex- 
portation. 

Thomas Blagdoa, a waterman and lighterman, proved, that y the 
particular desire of Easterby, he carried about ten tons of goods from, 
the Custom-house to Canada wharf, where Easterby 's house is $ that 
many of these parcels were marked A. M. (the same marks as the par- 
cels had which were found at Mrs. Patterson's. 

Several clerks of the Custom-honse proved the entries and clearances 
made at the Custom house, which were for a much larger quantity of 
goods than were found on board her. 

Edmund Storrow had been an apprentice to Easterby, when he was a 
sail maker in Sunderland $ remembers to have been present at a con- 
versation which took place at the house of E.isterby between Easterby 
and M'Farlane, about the possibility of smking ships, so as to take in 
the underwriters : it was then agreed that the Adventure should be so 
sunk, and the plan then was, that the witness should go out as super- 
cargo, sell as many articles as he could at Gibraltar, and then sink the 
ship. 

Mr. Blacht, a Broker, proved, that he had been commissioned by 
Mr. M'Farlane, to insure for him to the amount of 5005!. whereas it 
had been before proved, that the entire value of the cargo did not ex- 
ceed 3500!. 

The evidence being closed, Captain Codling and Mr. M-Farlane (being 
called upon to shew why they sliould not be committed for trial) re- 
fused, at the present stage of the business, to make any defence ; but 
requested by their Counsel that they might be admitted to bail. This 
was refused by his Lordship, and they were fully committed to New- 
gate, in order to take their trials at the next Admiralty Sessions at the 
Old Bailey. 

A letterfrom an Officer of his Majesty's ship La Sensible, lost off the 
Island of Ceylon, on the sd of March, says, " The Sensible is lost, and 
all hands, except one, are saved. At two o'clock in the morning of 
the jd of MarcJi, she went on shore on the island of Ceylon a strong 
current must have caktn us out of our course. The night was passed 

on. (Hoi, VIII- z 



j~ e MONTHLY REGISTER 

in the most anxious way imaginable, not knowing exaftly where we 
were, close to the breakers, the surf on which got higher every mi- 
nute, and all our efforts to get the ship off proved in vam she soon 
bilged, and at eight o'clock on Wednesday night, after sixteen hours 
tevere fatigue, the Captain was obliged to order the people, for the 
preservation of their lives, to quit her. Thank God only one man 
was lost, who was found dead in the ship. Had we been a cable'i 
length, in either direction, from the place in ^which the vessel wa 
wrecked, we must all inevitably have perished/' 

Extraftofa Utterfrom Mr. THOMPSON, late ist Officer of the Highland Chief. 
" Brig Roebuck, off yixagafatam, March 5, 1802. 

" I am forry to inform you of the capture of- the Highland Chief, by 
the French privateer brig La bubtilite, of five guns, 116 men, com- 
manded by Capt. Pineau, in lat. 2. 12. S. and long, 93. 36. E. on the 
9th February, at 2 P. M. after an action of about half an hour, when, 
they soon got possession by boarding us with 75 men, the greatest part 
being intoxicated. The Portuguese seamen and Liiscars having run 
from their quarters, we had only twenty-one English in all for the de- 
fence of the ship. They boarded us on the weather side, having every 
thing in icadiness for that purpose the men being in the tops and 
rigging, and the back of the sails towards us, we were prevented from 
seeing their intention. I am sorry to add, Capt Gieenway was killed 
on the poop after the action. The greatest part of the letters have 
been lost, and Mr. Haldane is gone in the Highland Chief to the Isle 
of France. 

" When the privateer was first seen she was to windward, with Ame- 
rican colours flying, and supposed to be the American brig Roebuck, 
which vessel the Highland Chief sailed in company of from the Cape, and 
had been seen twice during the passage : she continued edging down on 
the Highland Chief, carefully concealing her guns and people, (as only 
three Europeans and a few black faces uere seen) until she came within 
huii, when an answer was given in tolerable English to a question that 
had been asked ? it was then discovered that she had guns, and that 
they were shining them, over to the side next the Highland Chief, 
which first occasioned suspicion of her being an enemy; and after three 
r four rounds with the great guns, the contest was terminated by 
boarding, as above stated. 

" Soint of the crew of the Highland Chief were wounded rj*y cut- 
laflTes, in boarding, but no other life was loll than Captain Greenway's, 
which probably may be attributed to the general ftate of intoxication of 
*.ie crew of the privateer, for he was (hot from a blunderbufs, out of 
nc of the tops, after the (hip had (truck. The lofs of the enemy was 
one officer and seven men killed, and nineteen wounded. 

" The day after the capture of the Highland Chief, the privateer fell 
in with the Roebuck, and fired into her, notwithstanding she had 
American colours flying, by which some of her stays and other incon- 
siderable damage was sustained ; and Monsieur Pineau made no cere- 
mony afterwards nf plundering her of such articles as he wanted } he 
then ordered the boats of the Roebuck to be hoisted out, to receive 
rhe prisoners on board ; but they Were first employed upwards of 3.0 
hours in carrying the guns and various articles from the Highland Chief 
privateer, previous to her dispatch to the Mauritius, after 
which the prisoners were put on board the Rebuck, with a promise 
umcient supply of water and provisions, &c. but the quantity 
both was very scant, and a want of the former article obliged the 
Roebuck to put into Vi/agnparam. 

" The Roebuck arrived with the crew of the Highland Chief at Ca?- 
utu on the j*th March. The c.irgo of the prize Was worth 4.0,000!." 



OF KAVAL EVENTS. I?! 

PLYMOUTH REPORT, 

FROM JULT l8 TO AUGUST *5 

J'u/y 19. Wind S. Fair. This forenoon the remains of the Dutton East 
Tndiaman, wrecked in i 796, under the Citadel Rocks, were buoyed up, and 
towed into the Pool for sale. Sailed the Beaver, j8 guns, Captain Jone, for 
Portsmouth, to be paid off. Came in the Crescent frigate from Jamaica, after 
a passage of seven weeks. She left the greater part of the British fleet prepar- 
ing to return home. 

ao. Wind S. W. Hard Rain, failed for , c pithead, the Crescent frigate to 
lie paid off, She just victualled and watered previous to her sailing to the east- 
ward. Orders came down this day for the following men of war, fitting for 
ca in Hamoazc, as soon as their crews are completed to their peace establish- 
ments, to go into the Sound, and to be victualled for four months, viz Centaur 
74 guns, Rear Admiral Darres, Captain Littlehales ; Courageux, 74 puns, 
Captain Hardy; Belleisle, 84 guns, Captain Whitby ; Fisgard, 48 guns, Cap* 
tain Wallis; Hussar, 36 guns, Captain P. Wilkinson ; Carysfort, 32 guns, Cap- 
tain Munday ; Sirius, 36 guns, Captain Prouse. It is supposed this little squa 
dron will go a Channel cruise, to exercise the officers, seamen, and marines. 

21. Wind S. W. This being the anniversary of the Birth Day of his Royal 
Highness Admiral the Duke of Clarence, K. T. was observed here with every 
mark of respeA Last night, to consolidate the two balls- for the Duke of 
1 ork's and Duke of Clarence's birth day, there was a grand dress ball at 
I'ridhim's Long Rooms, Stonehouse, which was fully and fashionably attended. 
The Admiral of the port the Captains of the Ro\al Navy, together with Major 
General England, Major General Bay waters, and the Officers of the Army and 
Royal Marines, were present on the occasion. 

25. Wind W. S. W. Hard Rain The blue flag has been flying all day for 
a fleet from the westward, hut the ships composing it made so large an offing, 
that the trawl bo.its could not speak them. Yesterday there was a large gale 
of serviceable stores landed fiom the different men of war at the Victualling 
Office here, viz. ico.ocolb. of prime cheese, which sold at 5 6s per cwt. and 
100,'colb. of Cork butti-r, which sold at 583. per cwt. These quick sales of 
serviceable and unserviceable stores reflect great credit on the Commissioner* 
of the Victualling Loard, and is a great saving to Government. 1 his being 
the Anniversary of the Defeat of the Grand Spanish Armada in 1588, by Ad- 
miral Lord Howard and two 1'lymouthians, Admiral Hawkins and sir F. Drake, 
was observed here as usual as a Gala Day. 

26. Wind W. N. W. Rain. Came io from a cruise the Peterell, 1 8 guns. 
All the ships expected here from the Straits are to bring home troops from 
A3alta and Minorca. Orders came down this day for the following ships to 
proceed for Portsmouth, to be paid off, on their arrival from the West Indies, 
if they should put in here by contrary winds : Leviathan, fljg-ship, Excellent, 
Magnificent, Cumberland, Audacious, Goliath, Ganges, and Elephant, of 74 
guns each, Severn, 44 guns, Emerald, 36guns, Decide, 44 guns, Venui-,36 guns, 
Andromeda, 36 guns, Castor, 32 guns, Heureux, 14 guns, and Drake, 18 guns. 
The Gaiete 3*5 guns, and Osprey,i8 guns, are to be paid off here on their arrival. 

27. Wind W. S- W. Rain. Went up the harbour to new step her bow- 
sprit and get in her fore-top mast, which she lost in a gale of \viud a few days 
tiiice, the Cygnet, there being too great a swell in the Sound for that purpose. 
This afternoon a fishing boat turning out of Catwater to fish off the V\ hite 
}:uoy in the Sound, the sheet being belayed, it jibbed and overset her ujjon the 
rocks of the Cobler's Ledge, by which accident -she filled, overset, and went 
down. Her crew, two industrious fishermen, witli large families, wen: 
drowned. 

28. Wind W. S. W. Rain. This day the Fisgard, 48 guns, Captain Wallis, 
was paid off all standing, and recommissioned again dire<5tly. The St. George^ 
gS guns, Captain JLobb, was also paid off, and laid up in ordinary. 



r- MONTHLY REGISTER 

19. Wind W. S. W. Fair. This "forenoon the Ville de Paris, HO gun, 
was hauled alongside the sheer hulk to have her lower masts taken out. Went 
into dock, to be repaired and fitted for commission, the Doris, 44 guns, latelf 
paid off at this port, as the ordinary at this port will be larger than was ever 
known in Hamoaze and the river Tamar. All the bowsprits are to be taken 
out and laid up in the mast ship for convenience of the service. The Captain, 
74 guns, Captain Boyles, was paid off this day, her crew discharged, and laid 
up in ordinary. 

30. Wind S. W. Fair. Sailed the Amethyst, 38 guns, Captain Glynn; 
Glenmore, 44 guns, Captain Lord Proby ; Galatea, 36 guns, Captain Wolfe 4 
for Guernsey, to take in Dutch troops for Holland, from the Isle of Wight 
Sailed die Peterell, 18 guns, to recall by signal the Sirius, 3 6 guns, Captain 
King, which is to go up the Harbour to be paid off and recommissioned, all 
standing. Captain King hadlate'y the command of a flying squadron of cruisers 
against the smugglers, viz. Carysfort, 32 guns, Imogene, 18 guns, Rosario, 
18 guns, and Peterel, 18 guns. The Duke of Kent Packet, from Halifax, 
Captain Dennis, lately arrived at Faltnouth, after a passage of only fifteen 
days. 

31. Wind W. S. W. Fair. The new regulations respecting the limits al- 
lowed to smuggler?, is altered from four leagues from any headland, and is 
extended to eight leagues from the nearest headland, which will be a great 
advantage to the cruisers and revenue cutters. 

August i. Wind W. N. W. Fair. Came in a large Danish ship from the 
Baltic, with timber for the dock yard. Passed up, a line of battle ship, but 
he made j>o large an offing, the trawl boats could not speak her. Came in 
from a cruise, the 'Carysfort, 36 guns, Captain A'lundy, and the Sirius, 36 
gun*, Captain King. They are to go up the harbour to be paid off, all stand- 
ing, and immediately recommissioned. 

2. \Vind W. S. W. Fair. Sailed several coasters to the eastward. Went 
up the harbour the Cary ? fort, 36 guns, Captain Mundy , and the Sirius, 36 
guns, Captain King, to be paid off. Orders are come down to receive the 
Genereux, 84 guns, and Cxsar, .84 guns, from Portsmouth, as soon as they 
have pei formed quarantine, to be pa.d off. and laid up in ordinary in the River 
Tamar, on account of their great draught of water. 

3. WkidW.N. W. Fair. Came in from Malta, last from Gibraltar, La , 
Diana, 44 guns, and the Tamar, 38 guns, from the West indies. They are to- 
be paid off as soon as they go up the harbour, and laid up in ordinary. This 
day the Foudroyant, 84 guns, was paid off. fad laid up in ordinary -/and th; 
Fisgard, 48 guns, Captain Wallis, was paid off all standing, directly recommis- 
sioned, and the same officers appointed to her. 

4- Wind N. N. E. I air and Sultry. La Commerce de l\*arseil!es, 12- guns, 
now alongside the North ;etty Head; her upper deck and upper works are 

to be ripped off to lighten her, previous to hrr going into dock to bf ripped up 
her materials sold, as she is too much hogged to be worth the enormous 
expence of repairicr. 

5- Wind E X. E. Fair. Came in from Malta Minorca, and Gibraltar, 
if-t from Spithead, that fine ship I. a Gcnereujc, 84 guns, Captain V. C* 
ley, the hist of the Nile Flee: which escaped Vice-Admiral i ord Nelson, 

DC glorious First of August, 1798, in the Bay of Shoals, off Alexandria and 
captured oK Malta. '] he wind being quite fair, she made a signal to, 
flmual Dacres which was answered di-vcrly, and she ran up the harbour- 
hcr moorings to be stripped, paid off, and her crew discharged. 
6. WmdN. N.E. Fair. This day the Captain, 74 guns, Captain Coyles, 
4* pa.d off and laid up in ordinary. Went-up the haib.-ur to be paid off,, 
fhe Diana, 44 guns, Captain Stephenson, and 'J amar 38 <,uns. The Carys- 
fort, 32 guns, went into Barn Pool to have her rigging overhauled, and new 
'.: up. 

7 Wind E. N. E. Fair. Arrived from Fpithead, the Caesar. 84 guns, Cap. 
tain Downman when released from quarantine. Rear-Admiral Sir J. Sauma- 
rw, K itruc* his flag, and set off for London with Lady Saumarez, who 



OP NAVAL EVENTS. 175 

arrived from Guernsey in the Pigmy cutter, Lieutenant Sliepheard, an advice- 
boat to the squadron. The wind being fair, she went up the harbour to her' 
moorings to be stripped and paid off. She was received as an old friend re- 
turned to port after a long absence. She was launched in 1793, and has been 
in active service ever since ; was in the battle of the glorious ist of June 1794; 
was engaged, July $th, 1821, when Rear-Admiral .Sir James S&umarez. K. B. 
so gallantly, though unsuccessfully, attacked Liuois' squadron, under cover of 
the Spanish batteries at Algesiras, and again off Cadiz on the i2th of the same 
month, when the little British squadron defeated a superior fleet, and the two 
Spanish first rates blew up with a dreadful explosion, and the St. Antoine, 74 
guns, was taken. 

8. Wind K.N.E. Fair and Sultry. Came in the Imogene, 18 guns, Captain 
Vaughan, from a cruise against the smugglers. Captain Prowse, of the Sirius, 
36 guns, is to have command of a squadion of frigates and sloops to cruise 
from thj Provost i'oint to the Dodman. Captain King is set off for Bath. 

9. Wind E. N. E. ' loudy. Passed up from Falmouth the Dutch squadron 
from thence for the Texel. Came in the Viper cutter, Lieutenant Coghlan, 
from a cruise. The new ships building here, viz the Union, IZD guns, Cale- 
donia, 120 guns, and Hibernia, 120 guns, are to have several gangs put on 
them, as soon as the ships wanting immediate repairs go out of dock. 

10. Wind R. N. E. Hard Rain. Went out of dock, the Dorset Yacht, 
Captain Sir A. Schumberg, Knt. She has been thoroughly repaired, and fitted 
up for his Excellency the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and sails for Dublin as 
soon as rigged and ready f or sea. The Pilchard Fishery has begun with great 
success on the coasts of Devon .and Cornwall, and promises to be very pro- 
ductive. -This forenoon r. Eastlake, Solicitor for the Admiralty at thia 
port, and Coroner, took an inquest on the bodies of the two poor fishermen 
drowned on the Cobler's Reach. Verdid, Found Dretuncd. 

11. Wind E. S. E. Cloudy. Came in La Bourdelais, 24 guns, Captain 
Manliy, from Jamaica, in forty one days Left the fleet all well at Port 
Royal, but some of the islands were unhealthy. She jijst victuals and waters, 
and then goes to the eastward to be paid off. This day fifteen cases of cu- 
riosities from Egypt, of various kinds and of great value, were landed at the 
pier heau, and lodged in the warehouses of IVlr. ! ockyer, merchant. They 
were collected by order of i,ord hlgin in Egypt, and sent by the Diana, 44 
guns, for England. If the duties are paid here, the boxes will be opened ; if 
in London, they will be forwarded by the first coaster. 

12. Wind E.S.E. Cloudy. Being the Anniversary of His Royal Highness 
the Prince of Wales's Birth Day, was observed here with every maik of 
respect, his -iloyal Highness being Lord High Steward of this borough, 
Sailed the Bourdelais, 24 guns, for Chatham, to be paid off and laid up in 
ordinary, ame in from L or k, the Beaver, 16 guns, Captain J. Jones. She 
had been with discharged seamen, and is returned here to wait for orders. 

13 Wind N N. W. Fine and Fair. Sailed for Weymouth, to attend on 
their Majesties, the baint Fiorenzo, 40 guns, Captain Bingham, having re- 
ceived a thorough repair. Three of the boxes containing tlie cariosities from 
Egypt have bten opened, one contained a beautiful Grecian Statue of * 
Centaur ; a second, contained one of twenty-one brass guns on curricle car- 
riages, used with great success by Bonaparte at the siege of Cairo ; and the 
third, two shafts of pillars of exquisite workmanship, apparently Egyptian. 
Most of these curiosities were colle&ed amidst the ruins of Corinth and 
Athens. The boxes were soon closed up again, to the disappointment of the 
Virtuosi. 

14. Wind N. N. W. Fair. The Diana, 44. guns, was this day paid off and 
laid up in oidinary. The Doris, 44 guns, lately paid off and gone into deck, 
is to be rccommissioned for Channel service as soon us she is repaired. 

15. Wind E. N. E. Fair. Mr. Whitford, Coroner for Devon, took an in- 
quest on the body ot a seaman who hung himself in a sentry box near Stone- 
house Hill. Some symptoms of derangement having appeared, the Jury found 
a verdift of Lunacy. Rear- Admiral bu; James baumarcz, K. ii. after his leave 



174 MONTHLY REGIITBt 

of absence is out, will certainly return to the Straits as Commander in Chief 
on that station, and cakes with htm hit late Secretary, Mr. Champion. Came 
in the Abundance transport with troops and stores from Gibraltar. Also the 
Nttley schooner with hemp lately purchased at Gibraltar. 

16. WindE.SE. Fair. Order* came down this day for the Teresa armed 
transport, with naval and military stores for Quebec, to proceed to sea as soon 
as possible, for fear, from the lateness of the season, he might not reach the 
River at. Lawrence previous to the setting in of the ice. Trm being the 
Anniversary of the liirth Day of Field Marshal Kis Royal Highness the Duke 
of York, Commander in Chief, was observed with every mark of respect. 
The Royal Artillery fired a triple royal salute, and the z6th and z8th regiments 
of foot, just returned from -Egypt, answered on Government Lawn with three 
excellent vollies. 

17. Wind E. N. E. Fair, but excessively sultry. Came in from Jamaica, his 
Majesty's sloop Lark, 16 guns, Captain E. H. Brenton, after a passage of 
forty-four days, as she left Jamaica the 4th of July. On the 8th of j uly, off 
Cape Antonio, she spoke the Bristol, of Bristol, homeward bound, with a 
cargo. On the Jth of August, in long. 33. spake the Hibbcrt*, Lieutenant 
Hibberts, Queen and Two Brothers transports, with the apth regiment of 
foot, Lieutenant Colonel Lord P. Montague, all well, steering for Halifax, 
with the wind at W. Captain Paul, late of the Wimbledon, 14 guns, came 
passenger. On the 141(1 instant, within nineteen leagues of Stilly, spoke the 
Duke of Montrose and Monarch East Jndiamen, standing up Channel. On 
the I ;th instant spoke the Jane brig in great distress, in the chops of the Chan- 
nel, for provision and water, which Captain Brenton very humanely supplied 
her with for the relief of the crew. 

18. Winds. 8. W. Fair and Sultry. Sailed the Lark, 1 6 guns, Captain 
Brenton, for Woolwich, to be paid off. Came to, off the Bolt Tail, ihe Duke 
of Montrose and Monarch East Indiamen. Mr. Mortimer, Purser of the 
latter, with Dispatches for Government and the Honourable East India Com- 
pany, was put on board a pilot boat, and landed at six P.M. at the Pier Head. 
A post-chaise and four was provided by the Agents to the Honourable Kast 
India Company at this port, when Mr. M. set off express direaiy for London. 
The Duke of Montroxe and the Monarch were seven weeks from St. Helena. 
The above East Indiamen made sail diredly for the Downs. 

tz. Wind S. W. Rain. Came in from the Tcxel, by contrary winds, the 

Bato, 76 guns and 850 men, Captain Claris, having on board for the Cape of 

Good Hope, to receive restitution of that settlement from Lieutenant General 

)undas, the Governor General Jarissen, Commissary-General De Mis:, with 

several Civil Officers of the colony, with their ladies, suites, and families. 

J>he hoisted the new Latavian ensign, and saluted Rear-Admiral Dacres with 

thirteen guns, which the Port Admiral returned with an equal number Tho 

rernor, Commjssary General, Captain Clam, and their suites, landed yes- 

day, and paid a visit of compliment to Rear Admiral Dacres, which was 

urned by the Port Admiral and Captains of the Royal Navy this forenoon, 

at the Pnnce George Hotel (Payne's). The dress of both Naval and Military 

:ers is excesavcly handsome and splendid. Captain Claris was a prisoner 

if T^ ? r - tW i. y cars .*P d w Particularly happy to see those gen- 

o had dunng his captivity softened the rigour* of confinement. 
'nd Variable. Cloudy. Passed through this town for Dock, _ 

r'' t ** , nC J ^ ^ rdS - f the Admiralty, Captain Harwood, and 
r, Esq. two of the Commissioners of the Navy: fari"t Vincent 



- a arc 



t h,v M,, 

Yard &L T '.I" 8h ' P - m 0rdhUry ' Brew * dualling Office 
r 1 from ?, t C 'v J f hl l mor in K at ^o A. M. several guns of distress were 
I from the back of Drake's Island; but it being foeU no boa 



, 

TK gU "\ a j hore on the brid g< bween the iLnd and 

toffn t . -V V "r* Had CU \ aWa >' her masts ' and il is su Pl'^ d 
Jtt next tide, ^o lives were Jost Went up th harbour the Abun- 
::amport, with bctnp for the Dock Yard. 



or NAVAL EVENTS. lyf 

PORTSMOUTH REPORT, 

FROM JULY 25, TO AUGUST 2. 

July 26. Arrived the Leda, of 36 gum, Captain Hope, from the Mediter- 
ranean, last from Lisbon ; and the Port Mahon, sloop of war, Captain Bucha- 
nan, from Gibraltar. 

*7. Arrived the Genercux, of 74 guns, Captain Berkely, from Gibraltar. 

28. Arrived the Mondovi sloop of war, Captain Richardson, from Gibraltar. 

29. Sailed the Camilla, of 20 guns, Captain Hill; and Galgo, of 16 guns, 
Captain Dod, for Newfoundland ; and the Childers brig, Captain Delafons, ou 
a cruise. 

30. Sailed the Lapwing, of 28 guns, Captain Rotheram, on a cruise ; the 
Diana frigate, Captain Stephenson, for Plymouth; and the Bloodhound gun- 
brig to the eastward. 

31. Arrived the Hawke sloop of war, from the Leeward Islands. Sailed 
the Caesar, of 80 guns, Captain Downman, for Plymouth, to be paid off. 

August i. Sailed the Genereux, of 74 guns, Captain Berkeley, for Ply- 
mouth ; and the Hawke sloop of war, Captain Johnstons, to the Eastward, to 
be paid off. 

2. Arrived the Gaietc sloop of war, Captain J. Briggs, from the West 
Indies. 

3. Sailed the Gaiete, of 16 guns, Captain Briggs, for Deptford, to be 
paid off. 

4. Sailed the Woolwich Store ship, Captain Jennings, for Jamaica; and the 
Frevoyant Store ship, Captain Brown, for the Mediterranean. 

5. Arrived the Constance, of 24 guns, Captain Mudgc, fromLeith. 
n. Arrived the Jamaica, of 3 6 guns, Captain Rose, from the Downs. 

ii. Arrived the Resistance of 38 guns, Hon. Captain Wodehouse, frets, 
attending his Majesty at YVeymouth. 

13. Arrived the Alexander, of 74 guns, Captain M. Dixpn, feom the Medi- 
terranean. Sailed the Constance, of 24 guns, Captain Mudgc, for Weymouth. 

14. Arrived the Jalouse, of 18 guns, Captain Strachey, from the Downe. 
She sailed again this evening for the same place. 

16. Arrived the Lapwing, of 28 guns, Captain Rotheram, from cruising off 
Brighton; Constance, of 24 guns, Captain Ivtudge, from Weymouth ; and the 
Morgiana Sloop of war, Captain Raynsford, from a cruise. 

19. Arrived the Melpomene, of 44 guns, Captain Sir Charles Hamilton, 
with part of the 59th regiment on board, from Antigua ; Penelope, of 36 guns, 
Captain Broughton, in thirty days; and Champion, of 34 guns, Captain Lord 
Stuart, in forty days, from Malta ; Coromandel armed transport, Lieutenant 
Reeler, with the 2oth regiment of Dragoons, from Jamaica; Beaver Sloop of 
war, Captain Jones, from Cork, last from Plymouth; and the Nctley Schooner, 
Lieutenant Lawrence, from Ireland. 

20 Arrived the Delft, armed en fute, Captain Redmill, with troops on 
board, from Jamaica, bailed. the iViorgiana Sloop of war, Captain Raynsford, 
en a cruise. 

at. Arrived the Wassenaar, armed en Jlutt, Captain Baker, with the re- 
mainder of the 5th regiment of foot, from Gibraltar ; and the Eurus, armed 
tnfxtt, Captain Cowen, with troops from .Malta. . Sailed the Melpomene fri- 
gate, Captain hir C. Hamilton, lor Deptford, to be paid off; and the Rambler 
bloop of war, Captain Innes, on a cruise. 

22. Arrived the Magnificent, of 74 guns, Captain Giffard ; and the Mil- 
brook schooner, Lieutenant De Starck,from Lisbon. Sailed the Champion, of 
94 guns, Captain Lord Stuart; and Jamaica, of 24 guns, Captain Rose, to 
the Eastward, tobepiidoff; and the Redbridge schooner, Ljeutenact 
pricrc, on a cruuc. 



1^6 MONTHLY REGISTER OF NAVAL EVENTS. 

B3romotion0 anU appointment*. 

DOWN'.NG-STREET, AOQ. 2t, l8o2. 

The King lias been pleased to appoint Sir iohn liorlase Warren, Bart. Knight 
of the Most Honourable Order of the l;ath, and RearWdmiral of the White 
Squadron of his Majesty's Fleet, to be his Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary 
and i k-n:potemiary at the Court of tit. Petersburg!*. 

Captain Cumberland is appointed to La Pique, vice Young. 

Captain Prowle, to the .Sirius, vice King. 

Captain C. B. Ross, of the Druid to the Desirce. 

Captain H. Whitby, to the JEolus. 

Captain T. Innes, to the Rambler, vlte Rye, indisposed. 

Captain Grosser, to the Port Mahon, -vice Buchanan. 

Captain Venour, to the Calypso. 

Captain Lock, to the Revolutionaire frigate, WcrCapel. 

A Skene, Esq. lately promoted to the rank of Post Captain, has been ap- 
pointed to the command of La Determinee, of 24 guns. La Determinee is under 
orders to cruise on the northern coasts for the interruption of smugglers. 

.Lieutenant Cottrell, to the Druid. 

Lieutenant Trelawny, to the Pelican, pro temporc. 

Lieutenant Atcheson, to the Censor gun-vessel, vice Christian. 

The following Officers of the Royal Marine Corps, on account of their emi- 
nent services, are to retire upon their full pay : 

Colonels Varlo, M'Donald, Cuming, Monro, Spry, Archibald: Captains 
Patten, A. Ball, Colby, Foster, G. Young, Weir, Simpson, Hopper ; Captain- 
Lieutenant Rea ; First Lieutenants Halls, Ransley, Ede ; Second-Lieutenants 
Tail, R. W. P. Day, and Green. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Flight, of the Portsmouth Division of Royal Marines, i 
appointed Deputy Paymaster of the Plymouth Division, vice Weir, deceased. 



MARRIAGES. 

Lately, George Burdett, Esq. a Captain of the Royal Navy, to Mi White- 
locke, daughter of Major-General Whitelocke, Lieutenant Governor of Ports- 
mouth Garrison. 

At St. Pancras church, Middlesex, Dr. James Cairns, of the Royal Nary, to 
Miss Reid, daughter of David Reid, Esq. Commissioner of his Majesty's Cus- 
toms in Scotland. 

At Kingston, Stephen Perdreau, Esq. late Lieutenant of His Majesty's ship 
Dreadnought, to Miss Maria Rowe, daughter of Mr. G. Rowe, surgeon, Frat- 
ten, Port sea. 

Mr. George Rowe, late Surgeon of His Majesty's Ship Ardent, to Miss Se- 
bire, of Guernsey. 

Uaac Minet, Esq. to Miss Pole, daughter of Admiral Sir Charles Pole. 
At Stapleford, in Nottinghamshire, Captain Tedley, of the Coldstream 
Guards, to Miss Warren, only daughter of Sir John Borlase Warren, Bart. K.B. 

OBITUARY. 

Lately, Henry Weir, Esq. Captain and Paymaster of the Royal Marines it 
Plymouth. 

At Lilliput, near Deal, Captain Winkworth, many years agent for transports 

Mr. Francis Lean, purser of the Clyde. 

A few days since, Mrs. Doborough, Lady of Colonel JDesborough, of the 
Royal Mwiuer 




ORD GAB 




^fi& 

the 



C ////////:/ 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OF 
THE RIGHT HON. LORD GARDNER, 

VICE-ADMIRAL OF THE BT.UB SQ0ADRON, MAJOR-GENERAL OF MARINES, 

AND ON* OF THE R E Pit S ENTAT I V E S IN PARLIAMENT 

FOR THE CITY OF WESTMINSTER. 



' A heart which we have found , 

By certain proofs, not lew, intrepid, sound, 

Good, and addi<t-d to adventures high, 

When tempests shake the seas, and fire the sky, 
It rests self-wrapt in adamant around : 

As safe from envy, and from outrage rude, 
From hopes and fears that vulgar minds confound, 

As fond of honour and fix'd fortitude. 

TOURING the late war the Navy of Great Britain ac- 
quired a degree of consequence and superiority which it 
never before possessed, and is likely long to retain. This con- 
sequence arose in a great measure from the nature of the war, 
and the character of the enemy. In former wars it had been 
the policy of France to weaken England by attacking her 
remote possessions ; vast armaments sailed from her ports to 
reduce our settlements in the East or West Indies, or assist 
our revolted colonies, and hostilities were carried to distant 
parts, and directed against comparatively insignificant 
objects. The capture of a sugar island in the West Indies, 
or the reduction of a fortress on the coast of Coromandel, 
were of little relative weight in the scale of national im- 
portance; and such were the objects against which the 
marine forces of France were chiefly directed. In few 
instances, however, were they successful ; they experienced 
repeated defeats both in the East and West Indies ; and, if we 
except the assistance they afforded to America, the combined 
fleets of the enemy produced no material impressions on the 
welfare of Great Britain. 

The late war bore a very different aspect from all that had 
preceded it. The conquest of remote possessions, the 
destruction of our colonies, and the-annoyance of our trade, 
which had formed the principal features of all former 
hostilities, scarcely entered into the views of France. Her 

J3at>.I)ton.Ciol.VIII. A A 



178 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

ambition was of a loftier kind. The subjugation of the 
British empire was the gigantic object against which her 
forces were directed. In former wars the threat of invasion 
had been held out, but that it was ever seriously intended 
may very fairly be doubted : it served to put the nation to 
an expence, alarmed the timid, and encouraged the dis- 
affected; but the projected invasion invariably terminated 
in empty menaces. France entered on the late war with a 
spirit of animosity far beyond what she had ever before 
manifested. Careless of the fate of her foreign possessions, 
and little anxious to seize upon ours, her views were directed 
at various periods of the war, to the invasion of these 
kingdoms. Had the fleet which was encountered and de- 
feated by Lord Howe on the ist of June 1794, been 
victorious, the instructions to the French commander were 
to proceed with his fleet to Spithead *, and a French array 
would have landed in Britain. It is foreign to the nature of 
this work to speculate on what would have been the con- 
quences of such a disastrous event. Our soldiers are not 
inferior in bravery to our seamen ; a nation of freemen 
would have risen in arms to repel the invaders ; but even 
victory must have been attended with a train of melan- 
choly circumstances. The horrors of war would have been 
brought home to our peaceable dwellings ; and the land which 
for centuries the husbandman had cultivated in security 
and quiet, the blood of hostile combatants would have 
deluged. The tranquillity of our plains would have been 
disturbed by the rude noise of artillery ; and the manu- 
facturer must have quitted the occupations of industry for 
the tumults of war. Happily these calamities were averted 
by the decisive victory gained by Lord Howe. It is gene- 
rally admitted that the French fought on the j st of June 
with a greater degree of courage and enthusiasm than they 
had ever before exhibited. According to report, the French 
seamen were liberally supplied with brandy previous to the 

* See Naval Chronicle, Vol. I. p. 33. 



OF THE RIGHT HON. LORD GARDNER. I?9 

engagement, to fortify their spirits ; and every art was used 
to excite their hostility against the English. But nothing 
could withstand the skill and courage of the British Com- 
manders and seamen. The victory of the ist of June will 
go down to posterity as one of the most important naval 
engagements that was ever fought. 

The successes of the French on the Continent, the con- 
quest of Holland, and the humiliation of Spain, enabled 
our ancient rival to arm those powers against us, and 
Britain had to contend, with the same confederacy that was 
leagued against her -in the American war. But the success 
was far different. The fleets of France and Spain never 
insulted the coast of England*; they were blocked up in 
the harbours of Brest and Cadiz, or if they escaped, and 
were encountered by our fleets, a certain defeat was the 
consequence. The grand fleet of each power was successively 
vanquished by our squadrons ; and their smaller armaments 
and cruisers seldom escaped. In the East and West Indies 
the British flag rode triumphant, and terms of submission 
were di&ated by our cannon to the powers of the North. In 
no instance, during the late war, where our fleet met with 
the enemy, did a drawn battle occur; disadvantages of the 
wind, and disparity of force (unless where to combat would 
have been the extreme of rashness), never prevented our 
Commanders from engaging. No position, however well 
adapted to the means of defence, secured the enemy from the 
attempts of our seamen ; wherever their ships were accessible 
they were attacked, and the event was rarely unfavourable 
to British valour. In the various expeditions that were 

* Once in the course of the American war the combined fleets of France and 
Spain appeared off Plymouth, and threw the nation into no inconsiderable 
degree of agitation and alarm. In consequence of this event it was afterward* 
proposed to fortify the dock-yards of Portsmouth and Plymouth in a very 
expensive manner; but a hoard of Naval . Officers, consisting of the most 
distinguished characters in the service, having' given a decided opinion against 
the measure, it was abandoned. The victories of the late war have justified 
their confidence in the bulwarks of Britain, and while our naval superiority 
remains, we can never want fortifications on shore. 



l8o BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

undertaken during the course of the war, no important 
enterprise failed, the execution of which was committed to 
the Navy. Where valour could command success, success 
was obtained ; and where exertions of nautical skill were 
required, our Commanders proved themselves as expert 
and dexterous seamen, as they were valiant and warlike 
Officers. 

It is a subject of peculiar felicity and congratulation, that 
during the whole course of the war, an uninterrupted 
harmony reigned among the Commanders of our fleets. 
Diversity of opinion in politics, which in former wars had 
occasioned so much detriment to the service, if it existed, 
and it is contrary to reason and experience to suppose that 
it did not exist, caused no animosity between Commanders. 
All were animated with an equal zeal for the good of the 
service; and the only rivalship which existed among them, 
was a glorious rivalship in deeds of arms and feats of valour. 
In former wars various were the failures which 
attended our marine expeditions. Actions were frequently 
indecisive, and no inconsiderable degree of popular clamour 
often pursued the unsuccessful Commander. But of such 
misfortunes no example can be produced from the annals of 
the late war. Partial successes were unknown ; and almost 
every Gazette recorded some brilliant achievement, some 
spirited attempt, or well-conducted enterprise. It was also 
the happiness of our Naval Chiefs not only on no occasion 
to have merited censure, but to have been exempt, so 
unanimous was the national sentiment in their favour, from 
the common and unprovoked attacks of unfounded calumny 
and reproach. No Commander of distinguished rank and 
long services was disgraced in the opinion of the public : no 
enquiries were instituted in Parliament as to any supposed 
misconduct on the part of the Navy. The nation rested 
with secure confidence on the valour of our seamen and the 
skill of our Officers; and on every occasion that confidence 
was amply justified. 



OF THE RIGHT HON. LORD GARDNER. l8l 

A subject of gratitude and exultation cannot but force 
itself upon the mind, when we review the transactions of 
the late war, that, when almost every quarter of Europe 
experienced the miseries attendant on a state of warfare, 
Britain was exempt from such scenes of horror. Protected 
by her Navy, her cities and her fields enjoyed the tran- 
quillity of peace, while some of the fairest portions of 
Europe felt the ravages of war, and beheld the sanguinary 
combats of exasperated armies. Contending with a foe 
powerful in men, and prodigal of blood, her opulence held 
out an alluring excitement to invasion, her enemy was her 
old rival, and the political convulsions of France had 
sharpened the edge of former animosities. But the British 
Navy presented an impregnable bulwark to all the attempts 
of tbe enemy; and on many signal occasions demonstrated 
to hostile nations that Britain is destined to wield the 
trident of Neptune, 

" The world-commanding sceptre of the deep." 

Among those who have contributed to place the British 
nation in the state of enviable security here described, the 
name of GARDNER will long be mentioned with respect and 
admiration. He was born at Uttoxeter, in Staffordshire, 
April 1 2th, 1742, and like most persons who have obtained 
an eminent rank in the Navy, he entered at an early period 
of life into the service. The commencement of his naval 
career was May I, 1755, on board his Majesty's ship the 
Medway, of 60 guns, commanded by Captain Peter Denis *, 
off Harwich, which ship, under Lord Anson's orders, con- 
voyed George II. to Helvoetsluys, He was on board the 
same ship in 1757, when, in company with the Eagle, they 
took the Due d'Aquitaine, ship of war, of 60 guns. May 
29th, 1758, he was on board the Dorsetshire, of 70 guns, 
commanded by Captain Denis, when she took the Raisonable 
French ship, of 60 guns. The following particulars of 

* Captain Denis was one of the Lieutenants of the Centurion, and accom- 
panied Lord Alison in his voyage round the world. 



jg2 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

the a&ion cannot be unacceptable. The Dorsetshire formed 
one of a small squadron cruising under the orders of Captain 
Pratten. About three o'clock in the afternoon, Captain 
Pratten seeing a sail to the S. W. made a signal to the 
Dorsetshire to chase ; but soon after observing the chase to 
be a large one, he also dispatched the Achilles, of 60 guns, 
commanded by the Honourable Captain Harrington, after 
her ; and then followed them with the rest of the squadron. 
About seven o'clock the Dorsetshire came up with the 
chase, which proved to be the Raisonable, a French ship of 
war, of 64 guns, and 630 men. Captain Fcnis began to 
engage her very closely; the aftion continued till about nine 
o'clock, when the enemy's ship, commanded by the Prince 
de Mombazon, Chevalier de Rohan, struck, having suffered 
greatly jn her hull j sixty one men were killed, and one 
hundred wounded. She was going from L'Orient to Brest, 
and was a new ship not above four or five months off the 
stocks. The Dorsetshire's masts, yards, and sails, were 
greatly shattered ; and she had fifteen men killed, and twenty- 
one wounded in the a&ion. 

Mr. Gardner was also on board the Dorsetshire, Novem- 
ber 20th, 1759, in the general engagement off Belleisle, 
between the English and French fleets, commanded by Sir 
Edward Hawke and the Marshal de Conflans ; and Captain 
Denis was one of those who particularly distinguished .them- 
selves on that memorable occasion. He is reported to have 
had the highest encomiums bestowed on him personally by 
Sir Edward Hawke, who, in the warmth of his gratitude, 
thanking him for his services, told him, in conjunction 
with Captain Speke, of the Resolution, that they had behaved 
like angels. 

Thus it was Mr. Gardner's good fortune to receive the 
rudiments of his nautical education in the school of those 
illustrious Commanders, Anson and Hawke, under whose 
auspices it is well known, that many of the most eminent 
naval charaders of the late and preceding war were formed. 
The advantages to be acquired from serving under the eyes 



OF THE RIGHT HON. LORD GARDNER. 183 

of such masters cannot be valued too highly. Under a 
brave and experienced Commander, the mind of a youthful 
Officer is early formed to principles of honour and courage ; 
his respect for the wholesome and necessary discipline of the 
Navy is cherished by example, and a love for the service 
gradually becomes one of the ruling passions of his heart. 
In this point of view it is to be wished, that not only the 
gallant and dignified aflions of Naval Officers should be 
recorded, but that we should be made acquainted also with 
their early habits, inclinations, and the opportunities they 
had of seeing service. A trifling incident in youth frequently 
opens the way to future greatness j a slight circumstance in 
early life often gives an honourable bias to a character. The 
manner in which a man has spent his youth, who has per- 
formed noble services for his country, will always carry 
with it something interesting and useful. In the juvenile 
Officer we expeft a prompt and ready obedience to the com- 
mands of his superiors ; attention to and patience in the 
execution of his duty ; an ambition to signalize himself that 
never slumbers ; and a mind always inquisitive and ob- 
servant. When such qualities are early displayed, we may 
safely prognosticate the future eminence of the person by 
whom they are exhibited ; as they will command esteem, 
they are the surest and most honourable recommendations 
to preferment ; and in a service like that of the British Navy 
can never go unrewarded. 

On the 7th of March 1760, Mr. Gardner was advanced to 
the rank of Lieutenant, and appointed to the Bellona, of 74 
guns, commanded by Captain Denis, whose favour he seems 
to have enjoyed in a peculiar manner. On the I4th of 
August 1761, when Lieutenant on board the Bellona, then 
commanded by Captain Robert Faulkner*, he was present at 
the capture of the French ship Le Courageux, of 74 guns. 

* Father of the late gallant Captain Faulkner, of the Blanche frigate, who 
was unfortunately killed in an action with La Pique, a French ship of 
superior force, off the island of Marigalante, in the month of January 1795. 



igjj. BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

The crew of the Courageux out-numbered that of her op- 
ponent by 150 men ; but this disparity was, perhaps, more 
than compensated for by the discipline and bravery of the 
British seamen, and the skill and judgment of their Officers. 
The particulars of the a&ion, as officially given in a letter to 
the Secretary of the Admiralty, from Captain Faulkner, 
dated Lisbon River, August the 2ist, 1761, are too in- 
teresting to be omitted in this place. 

Be pleased to acquaint my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 
that, On the I4th instant, at three P. M. we saw three sail in the 
S. W. quarter, Cape Fiuisterre bearing N. E. half E. distant tea 
leagues ; we immediately gave chase, and by their crowding from us 
soon suspected them to be enemies ; we came up but slowly with 
them, and continued the chase all night. At five A. M. we got 
almost up with the frigates ; at six the Brilliant began to engage one 
of them, and soon after the other also; at twenty-five minutes after 
six we came alongside the large ship, and began to engage as near as 
possible ; at thirty-four minutes after six our mizen-mast went away 
by the enemy's shot; and at forty- five minutes after six the enemy's 
mizen-mast went over the side. At four minutes after seven the large 
hip struck, which proved to be Le Courageux, of 74 guns, com- 
manded by M. Dugue L'Ambert, having on board 700 men from 
St. Domingo. The Brilliant continued to engage the two frigates, 
at half past seven the French frigates bore away, and neither of our 
ships were in a condition to pursue them ; at the same time the prize's 
main-mast went away. We found our lower rigging much cut, the 
fore-mast, main- mast, and main- top-mast much shattered ; we lost in 
the acYton six men, and had twenty-eight wounded ; the enemy had 
240 men slain, and tio wounded. We sent our First Lieutenant, 
Mr. Male, with other Officers, and 150 men, to take possession of 
the ptize, and received 224 prisoners on board ; the Brilliant sent 
fifty men, and received ico prisoners on board: she had five mea 
killed, and sixteen wounded ; among the slain is the Master." 

The Editor of the Biographia Navalis gives us the follow- 
ing particulars of this spirited aftion, which the modesty of 
Captain Faulkner has omitted : 

" At the time the mizen-mast of theBellona was carried away, the 
rest of that ship's rigging was so completely destroyed by the enemy's 
fire, as to afford a very probable opportunity for her escape ; to pre- 
vent this, Captain Faulkner immediately resolved to board his auta- 



OF THE RIGHT HON. LORD GARDNER. 1 85 

gonist, but their relative situation rendered this measure impracticable) 
except the Btllona could be wore round, so that she might lay on 
the opposite quarter of the Courageux ; there appeared but little 
probability that Captain Faulkner would, owing to the disabled state 
of his ship, be able to carry this measure into execution ; in farther 
prevention of it, the position of the Bellona was extremely un- 
favourable, so that nothing could have pieseived the British ship, but 
a manifest superiority of judgment in her Officers, and a promptitude 
of aclion in her crew ; the haulyards, sheets, and greater part of the 
running rigging were destroyed, so that the safety of the ship de- 
pended, in a great measure, on the use of her studding sails. These 
were so managed by Captain Faulkner and his Master, that, with an 
activity scarcely to be conceived, the Bellona was brought into the 
desired position, the action was renewed with the utmost spirit from 
the opposite guns, and, as it is officially stated, after an aclion of 
thirty. nine minutes only, from its first commencement to its con- 
clusion, the enemy surrendered." 

Mr. Entick makes the following short remark on the 
foregoing a&ion, and adds a particular, which we do not 
otherwise meet with : 

* ( The desperate situation," says he, " from which the English 
had just recovered their own ship, by mere dint of knowledge and 
dexterity, made them sensible, that any relaxation or delay might 
soon prove their ruin ; there was no trusting to the ship's working, 
they must either profit by their present position, or be carried in 
triumph into France. These reflections accelerated their discharges, 
which never abated, and were so well served, that every shot carried 
destruction along with it. The sides of the Courageux were shat- 
tered and torn by every broadside, and her decks were covered with 
the slain; yet, as if these wretches had resolved not to survive the 
disgrace of the day, some of them, by firing a shot from the lower 
tier of the Courageux, after their Captain had surrendered, and the 
English, having left their quarters, were congratulating each other on 
the success of the day, so provoked the conquerors, that the seamen ran, 
to their quarters-, and, without orders, poured two broadsides into the 
Frenchman, which obliged the imprudent captives to call for quarter, 
when they had violated the laws of arms, and thereby almost put it 
eut of the power of the victorious Commander to save their lives." 

The success of this action probably hastened Mr. Gardner's 
promotion, for on the i2th of April 1762, we find him 
. erjron. Ool. VIIL B B 



l6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

advanced to the rank of Commander, and appointed to the 
Raven fireship. The Preliminary Articles of Peace being 
signed between Great Britain, France, and Spain, in the 
early part ot the month of November of the same vear, it is 
probable that Mr. Gardner did not obtain any other com- 
mand, or at least had no opportunity of advancing his 
fame- 

On the iQth of May 1766, Mr. Gardner was promoted to 
the rank, of Post Captain, and shortly afterwards was ap- 
pointed to the Preston, of 50 guns, the flag-ship of Rear- 
Admiral Parry, who was sent out Commander in Chief on 
the Jamaica and Windward Island station. This being a 
period of general peace, in which few opportunities are 
afforded the Officers of the Navy of distinguishing them- 
selves, we have nothing to record of Captain Gardner during 
the time he continued in the Preston, which was about two 
years. He removed towards the end of the summer 1768, 
into the Levant frigate, of 28 guns, and continued on the 
Jamaica station till the year 1771, when he returned to 
England. 

It ought here to be mentioned, that Captain Gardner was 
married in the year 1769, at Kingston, in the island of 
Jamaica, to a lady of the name of Turner, by whom he has 
several children, of whom two of his sons are Post Captains 
in the Royal Navy * ; in which station, if fortune favours 
them with opportunities, they will emulate the bravery and 
conduct of their sire. 

On her arrival in England the Levant was paid off, and 
Captain Gardner remained unemployed till the year 1775, 
when he was appointed to the Maidstone frigate, of 28 guns, 
and sent out, probably at his own request, to his former 
station, the island of Jamaica. The period was now ap- 
proaching when the services of Captain Gardner were to be 
called into action. Dissatisfied with the measures of the 

In May i8or, the Hon. Captain F. F. Gardner was appointed to the 
Princess Charlotte, yf 44 gun. 



^- OF THE RIGHT HON. LORD GARDNER. 187 

British Ministry, and anxious to throw off the yoke of the 
parent country, the flames of war were lighted in America, 
and France, ever desirous of an opportunity to harass Great 
Britain, secretly assisted, with money and military stores, the 
revolted colonies. A procedure so injurious in its operation, 
and contrary to the rights of nations, when repeated 
remonstrances had been made without effect to the Court 
of Versailles, at length produced hostilities between the two 
powers. 

In consequence of this event, towards the end of the year 
1778, Captain Gardner was ordered in the Maidstone to 
cruise off the coast of America, to intercept the commerce 
of the rebels, or prevent their receiving supplies from France. 
His vigilance soon gave him an opportunity of displaying 
his courage and professional skill. On the 3d of November, 
being distant about sixty leagues from Cape Henry, the 
Maidstone discovered a large ship about one in the morning, 
which Captain Gardner immediately chased, and about half 
past three brought into action, when the chase hoisted 
French colours. The engagement continued for about an 
hour with great spirit and resolution on both sides, when 
Captain Gardner found himself under the necessity of 
hauling off, in order to secure his masts, and repair the 
damages his rigging had sustained from the enemy's shot. 
At day-break a second ship appeared to windward, supposed 
to be the enemy's consort, and bore down towards the 
Maidstone. When almost within gun-shot, she hove-to, 
and made a private signal, which not being answered by the 
Maidstone, the strauger declined a contest, hauled her 
wind, and stood to the southward, pusillanimously leaving 
her consort to her fate. 

The ship which Captain Gardner had engaged, was now 
nearly a league to windward, and having repaired the 
damages of the Maidstone, as well as time and circumstances 
would permit, he wore ship, and about twelve o'clock 
renewed the action. After a second engagement of nearly 
an hour's continuance, the enemy struck her colours, and 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 



yielded to British valour. The captured vessel proved to be 
the Lion, a French ship in the merchant's employ, but 
equipped for war as well as for commerce. She carried forty 
guns, twelve, six, and fourteen pounders, and her crew 
amounted to 216 men ; while on the other hand the Maid- 
stone carried only twenty-eight guns, nine and six- 
pounders, with a crew of 190 men. On board theMaidstone 
four men were killed, and nine wounded, one of whom died 
afterwards. The enemy's loss was more considerable, eight 
being killed, and eighteen wounded. Both ships were 
greatly damaged in their masts, sails, and rigging ; and at 
the conclusion of the engagement the Lion had seven feet 
water in her hold. 

The cargo of the prize consisted of upwards of 1500 
hogsheads of tobacco, which would have been a very 
valuable booty to the captors, had not the great attention 
paid by Captain Gardner to his instructions and the regula- 
tions of the service, very much diminished it. His condudr. 
on this occasion, as set forth by the accurate editor of the 
Biographia N 7 avalis, and as we have gathered elsewhere, 
deserves a more particular mention. We have already stated 
that at the termination of the engagement, both ships were 
greatly disabled, particularly in their masts, sails, and 
ri gg' n 2> damages which necessarily rendered it extremely 
hazardous and difficult for them to beat against a contrary 
wind. The wind then blew fair for England, and Captain 
Gardner might have proceeded thither with his prize, with 
ease and safety, and with the certainty of selling her cargo 
to great advantage. But no prospect of private emolument 
had any influence with Captain Gardner : a rigorous 
adherence to orders, and the good of the service, were para- 
mount considerations in his mind, which no temptations or 
discouragements could induce him to forego ; and accord- 
ingly he shaped his course to the West Indies with his prize, 
notwithstanding the condition of the ships, and the state of 
the wind, were such as to render the passage not only ex- 
tremely tedious, but also highly dangerous. The Maidstone 



OF THE RIGHT HON. LORD GARDNER. 1 89 

and her prize did not reach English harbour, in the island 
of Antigua, till the 22d of December, near seven weeks after 
the engagement ; and then the proceeds of the Lion's cargo, 
as was expelled and foreseen, were not so great by many 
thousand pounds, as they would have been, had she been 
sent to England. Examples of such disinterested conduct 
are, we believe, by no means rare in the annals of the British 
Navy, for it is the glorious characteristic of our seamen 
that all personal considerations are of no moment compared 
with the rigid execution of their duty ; nor do we mention 
this instance as an example to others, for we trust that 
among brave and honourable men no such example is 
requisite to instruct them in their duty ; but we mention it, 
because it is our pride, and affords us the liveliest satisfaction 
to record every liberal, manly, and disinterested trait that 
comes to our knowledge in the character of our Naval 
Officers. A brave man, tainted with the vice of avarice, 
will serve his country but by halves, for considerations of 
personal advantage will come athwart the execution of his 
duty, and make him neglect the interest of his country to 
promote his own. But the truly meritorious Officer 
entertains no thoughts of himself; his study and ambition 
are, at every personal hazard, and without any regard to 
pecuniary emolument, to execute the duties of his station, 
and promote the interests of his country. 

Shortly after his arrival in Antigua, Captain Gardner 
was promoted, by Vice-Admiral Byron, the Commander in 
Chief on that station, to the Sultan, of 74 guns, as successor 
to Captain Wheelock, who had died a little time before. Iu 
the Sultan, Captain Gardner was engaged in the aion off 
Grenada, with the French fleet, under the Count D'Estaing, . 
on the 6th of July 1779, and a&ecl as one of the seconds to 
the Commander in Chief, who, in his dispatches, speaks of 
Captain Gardner's share of the day in the following terms : - 

" The signal was immediately made for a general chase in that 
quarter, as well as for Rear- Admiral Rowley to leave the convoy.; 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

and as not more than fourteen or fifteen of the enemy's ships ap- 
peared to be of the line, from the position they were in, the signal 
was made for the ships to engage and form as they could get up ; ift 
consequence of which, Vice-Admiral Barrington, in the Prince cf 
Wales, with Captain Sawyer, in the Boyne, and Captain Gardner, in. 
the Sultan, being the headmost of the British squadron, carrying a 
press of sail, were soon fired upon at a great distance, which they did 
not return till they got considerably nearer ; but the enemy getting 
the breeze of wind about that time, drew out their line from the 
cluster they were lying in, by bearing away, and forming to leeward 
on the starboard tack, which shewed their strength to be very different 
from our Grenada intelligence ; for it was plainly discovered they 
had thirty four sail of ships of war, twenty-six or twenty-seven of 
which were of the line, and many of those appeared of great force ; 
however the chase was continued, and the signal made for a close 
engagement; but our utmost endeavours could not effeft that, the 
enemy industriously avoiding it, by always bearing up when our ships 
got near them ; and I was sorry to observe, that their superiority 
over us in sailing *, gave them the option of distance, which they 
availed themselves of, so as to prevent our rear from ever getting into 
a&ion ; and, being to leeward, they did great damage to our mastj 
and rigging, when our shot could not reach them." 

This action, though indecisive, was highly honourable to 
the British fleet, for it was evident that the French Admiral 
declined coming to a close engagement, though the forces 
under his command were vastly superior to the squadron 
under Admiral Byron. That Captain Gardner bore an 
ample share in the engagement is very apparent, for on board 
the Suhan sixteen men were killed, and thirty- nine wounded, 
a greater number than in any ship in the fleet f. 

Soon after this drawn battle, for such in faft it was, 
owing to the timidity of the enemy, the Sultan was ordered 

* As the attention of the Society for the Improvement of Naval Archite&urc 
ftaj of late been direded to ascertain the best forms of construdmg ships (see 
l^ge 34) so as to improve their rate of sailing; and as we are in possession of 
some of th*.finest models of the French Navy, we may hope that the period It 

t far distant, when this superiority shall cease to exist ; and that we shall 
ee the bravery of our seamen seconded by such advantages as are wanting 
in the building of our ships. 

t For a more detailed account of this engagement, see the Memoirs of Ad- 
fcxiral Harrington, Vol. IV. p. 188; and of Admiral Cornwall!*, Vol. VII. p. u. 



OF THE RIGHT HON. LORD GARDNER. igt 

to Jamaica, from whence Captain Gardner returned t3 
England, with a convoy under his care, the following year. 
His ship, soon after her arrival, was paid off, and Captain 
Gardner, after remaining for a short time out of commission, 
towards the end of the year 1781, was appointed to the 
Duke, a second rate, of 98 guns, one of the ships ordered 
to reinforce Sir George Rodney's fleet in the West Indies. 
Captain Gardner sailed on this service, in company with the 
Valiant and Warrior; and had the happiness to join Ad- 
miral Rodney previous to the memorable i2th of April. 
On this glorious day, the Duke was second to the Formid- 
able, the flag-ship of Sir George Rodney, and Captain 
Gardner had the honour first to break through the enemy's 
line of battle *. During one period of the adion, the Duke, 
the Formidable, and the Namur, had to sustain the fire of 
eleven of the enemy's ships, and their loss of men was propor- 
tionally great. On board the Duke thirteen men were 
killed, and sixty wounded, among the latter were one of 
the Lieutenants, the Master, and the Boatswain. The 
services of Captain Gardner were acknowledged by Admiral 
Rodney, in his official dispatches, and every Officer in the 
fleet bore a generous testimony to his merits and spirited 
exertions. For a more particular account of the action of 
the 1 2th of April, which terminated so favourably to British 
valour and seamanship, we must refer our readers to our 
Memoirs of Lord Rodney f, to whose life it more parti- 
cularly belongs, contenting ourselves with observing, that 
no private Commander afted a more distinguished part on 
that glorious occasion, than the brave Officer whose actions 
it is our happiness now to record. 

Sir George Rodney being superseded by Admiral Pigot, 
the command of the West India fleet became vested in that 
Officer. On the commencement of the hurricane season, the 
fleet, as was usual, sailed for North America, and when that 
season was past, returned to its former station. Peace being 

* See Vol. I. page 391, of this work. f Ibid, page 353. 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 



concluded early in the ensuing spring, between Great 
Britain, France, Spain, Holland, and the United States of 
America, Captain Gardner repaired to Fngland, in company 
with most of the ships employed in the West Indies, and on 
his arrival the Duke was paid off. 

It does not appear that Captain Gardner held any subse- 
quent commission, till the 8th of September 1785, when he 
was appointed Commander in Chief on the Jamaica station, 
wi h the temporary rank of Commodore. He hoisted his 
broad pendant on board the Europa, of 50 guns, and con- 
tinued at Jamaica during the usual term of three years. On 
this ^tation he gained the love and esteem of all who came 
under the sphere of his influence ; his acquaintance with the 
West Indies, the result of a long residence there, rendered 
him peculiarly qualified for his situation ; and during the 
period of his command, he completely filled the expectations 
that had been raised of him. On his return to England, 
Captain Gardner was, in 1790, appointed to the Courageux, 
of 74 guns, one of the ships put into commission on account 
of the dispute with Spain respecting Nootka Sound, but 
that business being settled without proceeding to hostilities, 
the Courageux, and the other ships which formed the arma- 
ment, were paid off. 

On the igth of January 1790, Captain Gardner was ap- 
pointed one of the Commissioners for executing the Office 
of Lord High Admiral, which honourable and important 
situation he continued to hold during four successive com- 
missions, till the month of May 1795, when he quitted the 
Admiralty Board. Some time in the year 1790, he was 
chosen one of the representatives in Parliament for the 
boroug'i of Plymouth ; and, at the general election in 1796, 
he was returned for the city of Westminster, which place he 
continues to re resent, though not without some opposition 
at the late election, but of a nature too contemptible and 
ludicrous to merit ob eivation in this place. 

We now corne to the services of Lord Gardner during 
the late war. Tne hostile disposition of France towards thia 



OF THE RIGHT HON. LORD GARDNER. 193 

country, on the subversion of her ancient Government, 
being manifest, the most prompt and vigorous measures were 
taken by the British Ministry to put the nation in a respect - 
able state of defence. On the istof February 1793, imme- 
diately on the commencement of hostilities, a general 
promotion of Naval Officers took place, and Captain Gard- 
ner was advanced to the rank of Rear-Admiral of the Blue. 
On the 22d of February he had the honour to kiss his 
Majesty's hand, on being appointed to command the 
following squadron, then under sailing orders for the West 
Indies : 

Guns, Commanders, 

f^. f Rear- Admiral Gardner, 

Queen, - 98 \ . 

\ Captain Hutt, 

Orion, - 74. J. T. Duckworth, 

He&or, - 74 G. Montagu, 

Culloden, - 74. Sir T. Rich, Bart. 

Heroine, - 32 A. H. Gardner, 

Andromeda, - 32 J. Salisbury, 

Rattlesnake, 16 A. Mouat. 

Admiral Gardner hoisted his flag on the 6th of March, 
and the above squadron sailed from St. Helen's on the 26th 
of the same month. They arrived at Barbadoes on the 27th 
of April, without having met with any thing on their 
passage worthy of notice; and Admiral Gardner took the 
command on that station as successor to Sir John Laforey, 
Bart. The island of Tobago had surrendered a few days 
before his arrival *, and an attack was meditated on Marti- 
nico ; but the French unfortunately had reinforced the 
place ; and Admiral Gardner not having with him a sufficient 
body of land forces to co-operate with the fleet, nothing of 
moment was effected during that season, against the pos- 
sessions of the enemy in the Carribean Sea. In the autumn 
Admiral Gardner returned to England, and his squadron 
was immediately attached to the Channel Fleet, under the 

* See VoL I. p. 424. 
f2at).T|?ron.2JeI VIII. c c 



194 BIOGRAPHICAL MBMOIIS 

command of Earl Howe. On the I2th of April 1794, 
Admiral Gardner was advanced to be Rear of the White. 

In the spring of the year 17945 the French had fitted out 
a powerful armament for sea, with the express intention of 
invading these kingdoms. In the equipment of the ships that 
composed their fleet, the utmost care was taken to render 
them formidable antagonists to the enemy with whom they 
had to contend. The seamen were the flower of the French 
marine, and the Commander in Chief, Villaret de Joyeuse, 
a man of acknowledged bravery, and long experience. On 
board the Admiral's ship were two of the representatives of 
the French people, delegated by the National Convention, 
to animate by their presence'the operations of the fleet, and 
inspire the seamen with a more than ordinary portion of 
hostility against the British nation. England had not been 
threatened with so terrible an assault, since the days of the 
memorable Armafa. But the intentions of the enemy, in spite 
of all their measures, in spite of the bravery, bordering on 
desperation, with which they fought, and though almost 
determined on conquest or death, were, happily for the 
safety of the nation, averted by the splendid viftory gained 
by Lord Howe, on the ever memorable ist of June. The 
general bravery and good conduct displayed by the Admirals 
and Captains of the British fleet, on that glorious and im- 
portant day, leaves no room for individual panegyric ; nor 
would it be easy to seleft one Commander, on that never to 
be forgotten occasion, more distinguished than another. We 
can, therefore, only say, that Admiral Gardner was, not 
only not inferior in deeds of valour to his gallant <c brothers 
of the war," but equalled in martial exploits," the bravest 
of a host of heroes. 

On board the Queen the number of slain was great. 
Captain Hutt lost a leg, and died on the ad of July follow- 
ing ; three Lieutenants, a Midshipman, and thirty-six 
men were killed, and sixty-seven wounded. In the aftion 
of the 2Qth of May, the Queen was in imminent danger. At 



CF THE RIGHT HON- LORD GARDNER. 19$ 

one period of the engagement she lay totally disabled, and 
the enemy, after wearing, pointed their heads towards her, 
which would have endangered the Royal George and In- 
vincible likewise ; but Admiral Graves, in the Royal Sove- 
reign, gathered about him as many ships as he could, and 
placed himself between the enemy and them. The van of 
the enemy engaged this little phalanx as they came forward, 
and in succession bore away before the wind ; by which 
means the Queen, and her gallant Commander and crew, 
were happily rescued. 

On the return of the victorious fleet to port, Admiral 
Gardner received, with the other Flag Officers, various 
flattering marks of his Sovereign's favour. On the 28th of 
June, he was appointed Major-General of Marines, and 
received, on board the Queen Charlotte, from his Majesty's 
hands, a gold chain and medal, as a mark of his gracious 
master's royal approbation of his conduct in the actions of 
the agth of May, and ist of June. On the 4th of July, he 
was promoted to the rank of Vice- Admiral of the Blue, and 
on the 6th of the following month, was created an English 
baronet. In the official dispatches of Earl Howe, the ser- 
vices of Admiral Gardner were particularly noticed ; he re- 
ceived also, with the other Commanders, the thanks of both 
Houses of Parliament, and addresses of congratulation from 
the city of London and other corporate bodies.- 

In the course of the service, on the ist of June 1795, the 
anniversary of the glorious vi&ory, Sir Alan Gardner was 
appointed Vice- Admiral of the White; and, on the 23d of 
the same month, he was second in command, in the engage- 
ment of Port L'Orient, between the English and French 
fleets commanded by Lord Bridport, and Admiral Villaret 
de Joyeuse. The French fleet was discovered at day-break 
in the morning of the 22d, and at seven o'clock the signal 
was thrown out for a general chasfc. The following day the 
headmost ships of the British fleet came up with the flying 
enemy, and a running fight commenced, which ended in. 



ig6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

the capture of three ships of the line *. The loss of men in 
Lord Bridport's fleet was, comparatively trifling ; and on 
board the Queen none were killed or wounded, that ship 
not having been able to get materially into the a&ion. On 
the 3d of November the same year, Sir Alan Gardner re- 
ceived the thanks of the House of Commons, for his conduct: 
in the above action. 

From this time, the shattered remains of the French Navy 
having kept close to their harbours, Sir Alan Gardner, who 
continued attached to the Channel Fleet, and had removed 
his flag, in the course of the year 1797, from the Queen to 
the Royal Sovereign, of no guns, had no farther oppor- 
tunity of adding to the splendid reputation he had so ho- 
nourably acquired. In the spring of the year 1797, an 
alarming mutiny broke out in the Channel Fleet, and Sir 
Alan Gardner was one of the Officers who contributed 
eminently to suppress it. Accompanied by Admirals 
Colpoys and Pole, he went on board the Queen Charlotte, 
to confer with the delegates of the fleet, and, at no small 
personal risk, remonstrated with them on the impropriety of 
their conduct. His firmness had like to have produced dis- 
agreeable consequences, but happily the respect due to his 
character preserved him from the violence of the mutineers ; 
nor were his conciliatory propositions altogether without 
effect. To dwell on transactions like these is highly offen- 
sive to our feelings; but in justice to the seamen of the 
Channel Fleet, we must observe, that their mutiny was un- 
attended with those acts of violence and treason, which 
distinguished a similar proceeding at the Nore; and that 
their demands were not altogether improper, maybe gathered 
from the circumstance, that most of them were acceded to 
by the Lords of the Admiralty, and afterwards confirmed by 
Parliament. 

On the i4th of February 1799, Sir Alan Gardner was 
advanced to the rank of Vice-Admiral of the Blue , and on 

For a particular account of this engagement, see the Biographical Me- 
moirs of Lord Bridport, Vol, I. p. 279, and 156. 



OF THE RIGHT HON. LORD GARDNER. 197 

the 30th of August 1800, he was appointed Commander in 
Chief of his Majesty's ships and vessels employed on the 
coast of Ireland. The brilliant successes of Admiral Kings- 
mill's cruisers on that station, we have already noticed in 
our Memoirs of that gentleman*, and if Sir Alan Gardner's 
were not as successful, the fault did not lie with him, but 
resulted from the impoverished state of the enemy's marine, 
which prevented them from sending any vessels to sea. We 
have only to record the capture of two vessels during the 
short period of Sir Alan's command; the one a privateer, 
of 1 6 guns, the other of 14 ; and the termination of hosti- 
lities in the month of October 1801, necessarily suspended 
the further prosecution of offensive measures. 

In reward of his long and meritorious services, Sir Alan 
Gardner was created, on the 23d of December 1800, a Peer 
of Ireland, by the style and title of Baron Gardner, of 
Uttoxeter. It remains only for us to say, that shouU Great 
Britain again unfortunately be involved in war, through the 
animosity, turbulence, or ambition, of her neighbours, there 
is no man to whom the nation may look, with greater con- 
fidence, to lead her fleets again to victory, than the distin- 
guished character of whom we have treated. 

For some particulars in the above Memoirs, we must 
acknowledge our obligation to Dcbrett's Peerage, a work of 
more accuracy than any we have seen of a similar descrip- 
tion ; for the following account of his Lordship's family, we 
are indebted to the same source. 

Lord Gardner has issue, by his wife Susanna Hyde, sole daughter 
and heir of Francis Gale, of Liguania, in Jamaica, by his wife Susanna, 
daughter of William Hare, Esq. 'of Jamaica, widow of Sabine Turner, 
Esq. Alan Hyde, born Feb. 6, 1772, a Captain in the Royal Navy ; 
Francis Farrington, born June 21, 1773, a Captain in the Royal 
Navy; William Henry, born Ot. 6, 1774, a Lieutenant in the 
Royal Artillery ; Henry Cossy, died Nov. 5, 1792 ; Herbert, bom 
August zo, 1781; Edward, born March 9, 1784; Valentine, died 
Feb. i, 1786; Valentine, born March 20, 1787; Samuel Martin, 
born at sea on board his Majesty's ship Europa, Aug. lo, 1789; 

* Vol. V. p. 206. 



Ing BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS, &C. 

Susanna Hall, born July i, 1773, married Jan. 7, 1794, to Joht 
Cornwall, of Hendon, in Middlesex, Esq. (who died June 20, i 802), 
leaving issue, John, born Jan. 22, 1/955 Susan Caroline, who died 
Jan. 1797 ; Susanna, born May 20, 1797 ; Alan Gardner, born July 
16, 1798 ; William Henry, born Sept. 4, 1799 ; Augusta, born Jan. 
13, 1*01 ; and Sophia, born April 2, 1802. 

William Gardner, father of Lord Gardm-r, was born at Colcraine, 
in Ireland, March 24, 1691, and died at Uttoxeter, in Staffordshire, 
August 14, 1762; he was a Lieutenant-Colonel in the i ith regiment 
of dragoons, in which he served with distinguished honour from the 
rank of a Cornet ; he married at Preston, in Lancashire, Dec. 27, 
1726, Elizabeth, eldest daughter and coheir of Valcutine Farrington, 
of Preston, aforesaid, M. D. (youngest son of William Farrington, of 
Werdon, in Lancashire), by his wife, Agnes, sole daughter and heir 

of Pricket, of Nutland Abbey, in the county of Westmoreland, 

Esq. and by her (who died August 16, 1783), had issue, i. Valen- 
tine, late a Major in the army, born May 16, 1739, married in 1762, 
Alida, third daughter of Colonel Robert Livingston, of Livingston 
manor, New York, and died Sept. I7gr, leaving issue, William 
Linnaeus, a Captain in the army; he married, secondly, De'cember I, 
1792, Frances, second daughter of Samuel Holwotthy, of Elsworthy, 
in Cambridgeshire, widow of Framingham Thruston, of Weston, in 
the county of Suffolk, and has issue, Valentine, born in 1794; 
2. William, of Liverpool, merchant, died unmarried, Odober 27, 
1788; 3. Sarah, born May 26, 1745, married November 9, 1771, 
Henry Humphreys, Esq. o{ London, merchant ; she died May 27, 
1778, leaving issue John Montague, born Oft. 7, 1772; Henry, 
born April 29, 1774; and Sophia, who died in 1776; 4. Henry, 
died in 1740; 5. Dolly, born Sept. 29, 1751, married at St. 
Augustine, in East Florida, May 10, 1772, Robert Barrie, Esq in the 
army, who died in 1775, leaving issue, William Oughton, who died 
June 1773; a "d Robert, May 5, 1774; sj "' e married, secondly, Sept. 
22, 1784, George Clayton, of Lostock Hall, in Lancashire, and has 
issue, George, born Nov. 9, 1787; Frances, born July 29, 1785; 
William, born June 17, 1790; and Elizabeth, born Od. 15, 1792; 
6. MilJred, died unmarried, Dec. 29, 1758; 7. Margarita, died 
Nov. 8, 1777; 8. Agnes, born Nov. 16, 1735; 9. Anne, born May 
1733, married Thomas Dixon, Esq. since deceased; 10. Elizabeth* 
died Aug. 3cth, 1738; u. Henry Farrington, Colonel Commandant 
of the 20th regiment of dragoons, died unmarried at Jamaica, July 
20, 1792; and 12. Alan, the present Peer, created as above. 



[' '99 J 

NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, ate. 

NANTES IN GURGITE VASTO. 



QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

'"JHHIS wise and politic princess was frequently styled the Restorer of 
-* Naval Glory, and the Mistress of the Ocean. Her character is well 
drawn by the author of the Columna Rostrata. " By her wise con- 
duit," says he, " and the bravery of her Sea Commanders, she spread 
her fame into all parts of the known world. She was sensible of the 
true foundation of her greatness, and looked upon manufactures as the 
richest mine of the State, and the dominion of the seas, as the chiefest 
jewel of her crown. This disposed her to take all possible measures 
both to promote trade, and to deprive the neighbouring nations of the 
means of rivalling the English at sea. By her victorious arms she 
broke the naval force of Spain, and curbed the insolence of the Hanse 
Towns. The terror of her successes Held France, though governed 
by the great Henry, so much in awe, that the sea forces of that king- 
dom could not become formidable during her reign. And having the 
Brille, Ramakins, and Flushing, the keys of Holland and Zealand, 
in her hands, she could, as it were, lock up the sea forces of the 
Dutch, at her pleasure. Thus she remained till her death the absolute 
mistress of the seas, and by consequence the arbitress of the affairs of 
Europe. To signify this, she caused a portcullis to be stamped on 
some of her coin, intimating thereby, ftiat it was in her power to 
shut up the sea. Which she m*ade sufficiently appear, when the King 
of Denmark and the Hanse Towns, soliciting a passage through her 
seas, to transport corn to Spain, were refused it ; and when the 
Hanseatic fleet, f/hich had dared to attempt a passage, without her 
permission, was seized and confiscated. I shall only add, that the 
utmost bounds of Europe, Russia, and Tartary, could not limit the 
extent of her great fame ; but it spread farther, into the most remote 
parts of Asia, Africa, and America, among the Turks, the Persians, 
Barbarians, and Indians. In most of whose dominions, to ;he great 
enriching of her kingdom, she settltd commerce, and gained large 
privileges for the encouragement of her merchants, whcm she cherished, 
as a most necessary and important part of her commonwealth. 

SIR. WALTER RALEIGH. 

IT is well known that this brave m?.n and experienced Officer, 
was imprisoned for a long time in the Tower, in the rtign of Jams* 



100 JiAVAL ANECDOTES, 

the First, and afterwards put to death. Prince Henry, the son of 
the monarch who caused this gallant seaman to be beheaded, was wont 
to observe, " that no other king but his father would keep such a 
bird, as Sir Walter Raleigh, in a cage." 

CHARACTER OF SIR FRANCIS DRAKE, BY A CONTEMPORARY. 

THERE is no man so perfeft, but is fit to be amended ; nor none 
80 evil, but he has something in him to be praised ; and comparing the 
imperfe&ions of Sir Francis Drake, with his perfections, the world 
shall truly judge of his merits. His detractors lay to his charge the 
baseness of his birth and education, his ostentation and vain glorious 
boasting; his high, haughty, and insolent carriage; and except against 
his sufficiency for a General, though they allow him to be an able 
Captain. 

His friends and favourers answer in his behalf, that the meanness of 
his birth was an argument of his worth, for what he attained to was 
by no other means than meiit. They say, that every man is so-n to 
his works ; and what one has by his ancestors can scarcely be called 
his own ; that virtue is the cause of preferment, and honour but the 
effect ; that a man is more to be esteemed for being virtuous, than 
being called worshipful; the one is a title of honour, the other desert. 

Marius, being upbraided by Sylla, in the like manner, for the base- 
ness of his birth, and haughtiness of carriage, answered ; that he was 
not of so great a family as Sylla, yet Sylla could not deny but that he 
was the better man ; for in Sylla's house were painted the ads of his 
forefathers ; but in his were hung up the banners, that he himself had 
won from his enemy. 

In vindication of Sir Francis Drake's ostentation and vain glory, 
they say, it was not inherent to him alone, but to most men of his 
profession and rank. It is true, he would speak much and arro- 
gantly, but eloquently, which bred a wonder in many, that his nature 
could yitld him those helps of education. Indeed, he had four pro- 
perties to farther his ;;ift of speaking, viz. his boldness of speech, his 
understanding in what he spoke, his inclination to speak, and his use 
n speaking; and though vain glory is a vice not be excused, yet he 
obtained that fame by his actions, that facility, in speaking, and that 
wisdom, by his experience, that I can say no more, but that we arc 
all the children of Adam. 

His friends say farther, that his haughty and high carriage is some- 
what excusable, when it appears not but in his command ; for a 
General ought to be stern towards his soldiers, courageous, in hi* 
person, valiant in fight, generous in giving, patient in suffering, and 
merciful in pardoning ; and, if Sir Francis Drake was to be praised 

2 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. SOI 

For most of these virtues, let him not be blamed or condemned for one 
only vice. Many times, where a man seeks obedience, it is imputed 
to his pride and high carriage ; but if people's hate grew upon envy 
(as it is likely), it appeared greater than if it had been grounded upon 
injury. 

The exceptions against him, by those that condemn him as an i'H 
General, are his neglect of furnishing his fleet to the Indies, in ic8c ; 
his not keeping St. Domingo and Carthagena when he was possessed 
of them, in that voyage ; his weak preparation for such ah expedition 
as that of Portugal ; his promise to go up to Lisbon, that voyage, 
and his non-performance; the taking of the pinnace in his way to 
the Indies, which discovered his directions in 1595. Something I 
will say of him as a private Captain, and especially of his renowned 
voyage about the world, being the first attempt of that nature, that 
ever was performed by any nation, except the Spaniards themselves, 
and they only in that of Magellan and his company. And it was the 
more honour to him, in the Streights of Magellan were counted so 
terrible in those days, that the very thoughts of attempting it was 
dreadful; secondly, in that it had been but once passed, and but by 
one ship that ever returned to Europe, and that above sixty-nine years 
before his enterprise. His praise was, that he could carrry a voluntary 
action so discreetly, so patiently, and so resolutely, in so tedious and 
unknown a navigation, the condition of seamen being apt to repine 
and murmur. But, lastly and principally, that after so many miseries 
and extremities he endured, and almost two years spent in unpractised 
seas, when reason would have bid him sought home for his rest, he 
left his known course, and ventured upon an unknown sea, in for ty- 
eight degrees ; which sea or passage we know had been often at- 
tempted, but never discovered. 

This attempt alone must silence all his detractors ; for it shewed an 
extraordinary resolution in his person, a special desire to enrich and 
benefit his country, and a singular patience to endure the disasters and 
mishaps that befel them. 

And yet he must not go so clear without stain or blemish ; for you 
must know, that though he deserved well in the direction and carriage 
of his journey, yet the ground of his enterprise was unjust, wicked, 
and unlawful, his design being to steal, and thereby to disturb the 
peace of Princes, to rob the poor traveller, to shed the blood of the 
innocent, and to make wives widows, and children fatherless. 

No man had more experience of the inconstancy of fortune than 
he ; for the nature of fortune is to bite when she flatters, and to strike 
when she is angry. 

. Got. VIII. D 



2QZ WAVAt ANECDOTES, 

What his birth and other deserts were, needs no reiteration. For- 
tune did much for him ; but at his death she was angry with him ; 
first, in that there wa3 a doubt whether it was natural ; and secondly, 
and the best his friends can say, that it was caused by grief, for failing 
in his expectations in that voyage ; thirdly, after his meritorious ser- 
vices, his heir was prosecuted and perplexed for debts and accounts to 
the Crown ; and lastly, he died, like Pizarro and Almagro, without a 
child to succeed him, and perpetuate his memory. 

ADVICE BY DR. FRANKLIN. 

WHEN you intend to take a long voyage, nothing is better than 
to keep it a secret, as much as possible, till the moment of your de- 
parture. Without this you will be continually interrupted and tor- 
mented by visits from friends and acquaintance, who not only make 
you lose your valuable time, but make you forget a thousand tilings 
which you wish to remember ; so that when you are embarked and 
fairly at sea, you recoiled, with much uneasiness, affairs which you 
have not terminated, accounts that you have not settled, and a number 
of things which you proposed to carry with you, and which you lind 
the want of every moment. Would it not be attended with the best 
consequences to reform such a custom, and to suffer a traveller, with- 
out deranging him, to make his preparations in quietness, to set apart 
a few days, when these are finished, to take leave of his friends, and 
receive their good wishes for his happy return ? 

ANECDOTE OF CAPTAIN TIMOTHY EDWARDS. 

THIS truly brave but eccentric man possessed many singularities, 
which could, however, scarcely be deemed otherwise than virtuous, or 
bright points in his character as a Naval Commander. One anecdote 
we have heard of him is, that, previous to his going into some adlion, 
he lite; ally ordered the colours to be nailed to the ensign-staff, and 
from thence acquired, among the seamen, the whimsical name of old 
hammer and nails. Another is, that being struck down by a splinter, 
he lay for some time on the deck, completely motionless, insomuch 
that all those round him, concluding him dead, were bewailing, in. 
their uncouth, but affe&ionate terms, his disaster. Stunned as he was, 
be soon recovered his recolledion, but lay without appearance pf life 
for a few moments, till at length one of his people uttering an ex- 
clamation of grief, whimsically expressed, at his fate, saying he wag 
certainly dead, Captain Edwards jumped instantly on his feet, and 
exclaimed, //'/ a lye t by ; fire away, my lads." 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 20$ 

A HINT. 

AMONG the number of esculent roots, the parsnip has two un- 
common and little known good qualities: one is, that it will endure 
the severest frost, and that it may be taken out of the ground in the 
spring as sweet as in autumn ; the other is, that it may be pre- 
served by drying to any desired length of time. This latter quality 
may suggest a method of preserving so pleasant and wholesome a 
vegetable for the use of seamen in long voyages, to prevent the scurvy, 
arid other disorders incident to a seafaring life, which is often rendered 
tedious and distressing for the want of vegetable food, since parsnips 
dried and packed in tight casks, may be transported round :he globe, 
without any loss of their flavour, or diminution of their nutritive 
quality. 

ANECDOTES OF SAILORS. 

TWO sailors falling into a learned dispute, whether or no his Ma- 
jesty (God biess him), was bead of the Church, which the one per- 
tinaciously insisted upon, the other as resolutely denied*, affirming 
that power to be vested in the Archbishop of Canterbury : a third put 
an end to the controversy, by observing, to the satisfaction of both 
parties, that his" Majesty surely was master of the Sees. 

Sailors, though they are the best 6ghters in the world, are not 
always the greatest scholars or theologians. One of these being lately 
at church, and hearing it read that the ark was carried on mem' 
shoulders, left the church in a great passion, affirming, with an oath, 
that master chaplain there had told a d - d lye, " for as how, do 
ye see, he had heard, that that same ark was big enough to stow one 
Noahy his crew, and a great deal of live stock. 

A recruit, on his passage to Quebec, on board a ship of war, was 
complaining bitterly to an Irish sailor, during a storm, of the danger 
they were in of foundering and being lost. " Never fea:, my 
hearty," said the tar, " we will have our revenge, for if the ship 
founders, the Captain will be tried for it by a court-martial, when nue 
Quebec. 



NARRATIVE OF THE WONDERFUL ESCAPE OF SOME ENGLISH- 
MEN FROM ALGIERS. 

IN the year 1639, one William Okeley was taken on board the 
ship Mary, of London, by a pirate vessel, .and carried captive to Al- 
giers. He had the good fortune to have a kind master, and being 
trusted with a sum of money to trade with, kept a shop, and sold strong 
waters, tobacco, &c, out of the profits of which he was only obliged to 
give his master a certain sum weekly. However, not being able to 



404 NATAL ANECDOTES, 

bear the thoughts of slavery, he was continually proje&ing how t 
make his escape ; and judging seven persons would be enough to 
manage and carry on the design, he opened his mind to John An- 
thony, a carpenter, who had been a slave fourteen years ; William 
Adams, who, during eleven years r.lavery, had learnt brick making ; 
John Jeplis, a sailor, who had been captive five years ; and to another 
carpenter, who had likewise been a slave five years. There were two 
jnore, whose business it was to wash clothes by the sea side, who had 
a share in carrying on the work> though they did not go with them. 

These persons, having fixed their resolutions to attempt an escape, 
provided a piece of timber, about twelve feet long, to make the keel 
of a boat, which was to be wrought in Okeley'a cellar; they then 
took care of timbers or ribs, every one of which was made of thi ee 
pieces, and joined in two places, in such manner, that each joint being 
fastened by two nails, in holes so contrived for that purpose, would 
make an obtuse angle, and so incline as near a semicircular form, as 
occasion required. For the clothing of the naked ribs of their boat, 
instead of boards, they bought as much strong canvas as would cover 
it twice over, upon the convex of the careen, PS also as much pitch, 
tar, and tallow, as would make it a kind of tarpawlin sear cloth, with 
earthen pots to melt their materials in. 

Their boat being fitted up in this manner, and then taken in pieces 
again, the next difficulty was how to convey it out of town, and hide 
the pieces in a secure place. It wa*, however, not without danger 
of discovery, at length, carried out by pieces, and hid at the bottom 
of a hedge, near the sea side, whither they had likewise conveyed a 
piece of canvas for a sail, and a pair of oais, such as they were, made 
of a couple of pipe staves, For provisions they laid up a small 
quantity of bread, and had two leather bags or bottles filled with 
water. Every thing being thus ready, they appointed their rendez- 
vous at a young fig tree, near where the pieces of their boat were 
concealed. Repairing thither at night, they soon got it put together, 
and added the young fig tree, which they cut down, to strengthen her 
kel They bound small canes all along the ribs lengthwise, to keep 
thejn from veering, and to keep out the canvas stiff; and the ribs 
were fastened to the top of the keel, and in the joints, with rope- 
yarns and small cords, to kep them firm and stable. They lastly 
drew on her double canvas case, and then four of them carried her on 
their shoulders to the sea side. There they immediately stripped stark 
flaked, and putting their clothes into the boat, carried her as far as 
they could wade, into the sea, and then all seven got into her; but 
ihty were no sooner embarked, than they found they had not propor- 
tioned their vessel to the burthen she was to carry, and that ate \v%s 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c. 205 

ready to sink under them. Two of them were therefore obliged to 
return to their slavery, and with the other five she seemed to bear up 
very well. 

The 3Oth of June, these bold adventurers launched out in the man- 
ner I have described; and they worked very hard that night to be 
out of sight of the ships which lay in the harbour, before day. The 
next day they were sensible of their little forecast, with regard to their 
provisions. For their bread was soaked through with salt water ; 
and their fresh water became so nauseous by their bags having like- 
wise lain in salt water, that they preferred their urine to it. They 
made shift with their bread, spoiled as it was, three days, in which 
time the wind was so contrary, that they made very little way. One 
of them had a pocket dial, which they steered by, in the day time, 
and in the night they were guided by the motion of the stars. But 
their greatest plague was, by day, the heat of the sun ; for which they 
had no other remedy (though by the bye the remedy was worse than, 
the disease), but for the fifth man, while the other four were rowing, 
to scoop out the salt water which gathered at the botfom of the boat, 
and throw it upon their naked bodies to cool them. This, with the 
heat of the sun, so bleached, and at the same time so pickled them, 
that they rose all over in blister s, which caused them exceeding great 
pain. 

In this wretched condition, they continued four days and four 
nights, and were so brought to the brink of despair, that they laid 
by their oars, and left off all labour. The fifth, they discovered a 
tortoise, not far from them asleep on the sea, and having silently rowed 
to the prey, they took her into the boat, with great triumph cut off 
her head, and having let her bleed into a pot, drank the blood, eat 
the liver, and sucked the flesh, which proved a very great refreshment 
to them. About noon they discovered land, and laboured hard to 
get at it ; but being at length tired, they took a litrle repose in their 
boat, and then renewing their diligence, towards evening discovered 
another island. The first they saw was Majorca, and towards that 
they resolved to make. They rowed very hard all night, kept 
within sight of it all the next day, which was the stventh after their 
putting to sea, and about ten at night got under the island ; but the 
rocks were so steep and craggy that they were not able to climb up. 
At length they found a convenient place, where they thrust in their 
weather-beaten boat, and got safe ashore. They got with some diffi* 
culty to the town of Majorca, where the Spaniards kindly relieved 
them. From thence they got their passage by sea to Cadiz, and so 
with Captain Smith, of Rotherhithe, to London, where they arrived 
in the month of September, and in this perilous manner gained their 
liberty. 



20 g NATAL ANECDOTES, 

AN ADDRESS TO THE PUBLIC FROM THE SOCIETY FOR TH 
IMPROVEMENT OF NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. 

THE plan of this Institution has now been a sufficient time before 
the public to enable them to form a judgment of its merits 
attention of the Society being solely direfted to the general good, 
they are happy to find that the decided encouragement and support 
which has been already received from all ranks and professions of men, 
and from many of the most respeaable characters in this country, 
fully justify their most sanguine hopes. They, therefore, think it a 
duty they owe to the public, clearly to state the objefts they have in 
view, and the general tendency of their designs, in order that they 
may not be mistaken or misrepresented. 

The principal object of the Society, as the name of the institution 
implies, is the Improvement of Naval Architecture in all its branches ; 
for it cannot be conceived that the Society have any idea of confining 
themselves to one branch of the art, but that it is their intention to 
extend their enquiries and improvements to vessels of every kind. 

To promote this important object as effectually as possible, the So- 
ciety propose to encourage every useful invention and discovery as far 
as shall be in their power, both by honorary and pecuniary rewards. 
They have in view particularly, to improve the theories of floating 
bodies, and the resistance of fluids ; to procure draughts and models 
of different vessels, together with calculations of their capacity, centre 
of gravity, tonnage, &c.^ to make observations and experiments 
themselves, and to point out such observations and experiments as 
appear best calculated to further their designs, and most deserving 
those premiums which the Society can bestow. 

But though the Improvement of Naval .Architecture in all its 
branches be certainly the principal object of this institution, yet the 
Society do not by any means intend to confine themselves merely to 
the form and structure of vessels. Every subordinate and collateral 
pursuit will claim a share of the attention of the Society in propor- 
tion to its merits ; and whatever may have any tendency to render 
navigation more safe, salutary, and even pleasant, will not be 
neglected. 

With such objects in view, the Society thought themselves justified 
in calling upon the public for their countenance and support. That 
their call has been attended to, will sufficiently appear from the 
respectable list of subscribers. And as they have every reason to 
expect support still -more effectual, it is with confidence that they 
repeat their solicitations for further assistance, such as may enable 
them to extend their views to make experiments on a large scale 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 207 

to assist young persons in the attainment of this most useful art and 
even to institute an academy f ' r the regular study, not only of the 
art itself, but of those sciences which ought to form the basis of it. 

But the Society do not- merely cnll upon the public for pecuniary* 
assistance ; in particular, they solicit the Officers of the Royal Navy 
and merchants' services to examine carefully the hints and plans which 
may at any time be laid before this Society ; and to suggest any im- 
provements that may occur, however minute they may appear to 
them ; they being confessedly the best judges of the advantages to be 
derived from the facility of manoeuvring ships, of the comparative ex- 
cellence between one vessel and another in sailing, and all other de- 
sirable properties. 

They likewise solicit all professional men, of what description soever, 
employed in the construction and equipment of shipping, to assist the 
Society with their knowledge and experience, and to forward the 
vitws of this institution. 

Finally, they invite men of eminence in the mathematical sciences, 
as well in London, as in our Universities and elsewhere, to co-operate 
with them in their views for the public good. And they will thank- 
fully receive information from every description of ingenious men/ not 
only in this, but in every other country. 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE NAPAL CHRONICLE. 
sis., Rochester, Sept. ^tb, 1802. 

[" BEG leave to call the attention of the gentlemen of the 
Navy, through the medium of your valuable publication, 
to a few interesting topics, which the leisure of peace may, 
perhaps, afford them an opportunity of considering. 

1st, The Gazette accounts of actions, we know from experience, 
are frequently very barren, is it not then extremely desirable, that 
Officers, who have been in actions, of which we have very imperfect 
accounts, should, for the future benefit of the service, furnish more 
minute and particular details ? 

2d, An engagement is often terminated by some fortunate manoeu- 
vre of a ship, as many Officers in the Navy can testify ; would not 
examples of this kind be extremely useful, and could not many of 
your correspondents furnish you with them from personal experience ? 

3d, Merit, in a private station, is seldom rewarded with publ'c 
encomiums; but is it not to be wished, that instances of private merit, 
should be handed down to posterity, and does not our Navy abound 
fa such instances ? 



Z o8 NAVAL ANECDOTES, &C. 

4th, From the manner in which naval enterprises have been con- 
dufted, may not much be learnt, and many valuable lives thereby- 
saved in future ? An Admiral, or a General, attacking a town, would 
he not make himself acquainted with all the assaults that the place 
had formerly withstood, in order to learn how to dispose his forces to 
the greatest advantage, and effeft his purpose with the least loss ? 
The same principle applies to attacks on vessels at anchor, surprises of 
forts, and the whole of that species of warfare denominated coup de 
main, and cherefore accounts of such attacks, &c. going largely into 
the detail, might hereafter prove of great utility ; these might be 
furnished by persons who have been engaged in the kind of service 
here mentioned. 

5. Ships meeting with violent storms at sea are sometimes preserved 
from foundering, by very uncommon and singular expedients ; might 
not accounts of these prove serviceable on future occasions ? 

These hints, I trust, Mr. Editor, are not altogether un- 
worthy of the notice of your correspondents and readers ; 
I must, however, remind them, if they are disposed to 
pursue my ideas, that accuracy is most likely to be obtained, 
by describing events while they are recent ; the lapse of a 
few years makes great inroads on the memory, and the cir- 
cumstances which formed the chief merit of an aftion or 
enterprise are soon forgotten. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 
A LATE PURSER IN HIS MAJESTY'S NAVY. 

In a great measure, we agree in opinion with what our 
correspondent recommends, and can promise him that no 
endeavours shall be wanting on our part to give efficacy to 
his hints. At the same time we must remind him, that the 
pages of the Naval Chronicle have often been devoted to the 
topics which he so justly commends ; there is not one sub- 
ject, which he mentions as deserving of attention, that has 
not appeared in the course of our work; and, we flatter 
ourselves, not without gratification to individuals, and ad- 
vantage to the service. 



C 209 ] 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE XCVIII. 
E are indebted for the design of this plate to FRANCIS 
GIBSON, Esq. Fellow of the Antiquarian Society, a 
gentleman to whom the public are under various obligations. 
Our readers will rely on its accuracy when they are informed 
that the same person compiled the sailing directions which 
conducted Lord Nelson to the battle of Copenhagen. In 
the foreground of the pidture is the battery called the Three 
Crowns, which flanked the Danish line of defence, and 
behind is a correft representation of the city of Copenhagen, 
as it appears from the roads. 

COPENHAGEN, the chief city of Denmark, stands upon a low 
promontory, on the eastern shore of the large and fertile island of 
Zealand, about twenty-five British miles to the south of the cele- 
brated Sound, where vessels that visit the Baltic pay a small tribute 
to Denmark. The scite is flat and rather marshy. Compared with 
other cities of Europe, its origin is of a modern date. It was founded 
about the year 1 169, in the reign of Waldemar I. and was then caUtd 
Kiopman's Hafen, or the Harbour of Merchants. It was made the 
royal residence in 1443, during the reign of Christopher, of Bavaria ; 
since which time it has been gradually enlarged and beautified, and is 
become the capital of Denmark. Copenhagen is the best built city 
in the north, for though Petersburg excels it in superb edifices, yet as 
it contains no wooden houses, it does not display a striking contrast 
of meanness and magnificence, but exhibits a more pleasing and uni- 
form appearance. The town is surrounded towards the land with 
Tegular ramparts and bastions, a broad wet ditch, and a few out- 
works. Its circumference measures between four and five miles ; 
and it is computed that it contains nearly 80,000 inhabitants, the 
annual lists of births being, upon an average of several years, estimated 
at 2830, and deaths at 2955. The streets are regular, and well paved, 
with a narrow foot path on each side. The greatest part of the 
buildings are ofbiick; but a few are of freestone, which is brought 
from Germany. The houses of the nobility are in general splendid 
edifices, and constructed in the Italian style of architecture, The 
palace, which was creeled by Christian V-I. is a large and lofty pile 
of building, surmounted with a tower and cupola, which is a beauti- 
ful and conspicuous objeA from the sea. The four fronts are of 
stone, and the wings of brick stuccoed. Before the terrible fire in 

. aol.VIII. x s 



210 

1 794, which consumed the interior of the building, the suite of 
royal apartments, particularly the Knights' hall, were grand and 
princely. In the sweeping wings are the royal stables, containing 
accommodation for 200 horses ; the stalls are divided by pillars of 
dark Norway marble, and the racks and mangers are of copper, kept 
very bright. 

This city owes its principal beauty to a dreadful fire in i 728, that 
destroyed five churches, and sixty-seven streets, which have since been 
rebuilt in the modern style. The new part of the town was raised 
by the late king Frederic V. and is extremely beautiful. In it is an 
odlagon containing four uniform and elegant palaces ; in the centre of 
an area, stands a noble equestrian statue of Frederic V. in bronze, on 
a pedestal of white marble. It was executed by Saly, at the expencc 
of the Asiatic Company, and cost 8o,oool. sterling. 

Part of Copenhagen, called Christianshaven, is built upon the Isle 
of Amack, which island is about four miles long, and two broad, 
and is peopled by the descendants of a. colony brought from East 
Friesland by Christian II. It contains six villages, and two churches, 
and between three and four thousand inhabitants, supplying the 
capital with butter, cheese, and vegetables. These people wear the 
ancient dress of their ancestors, and enjoy their particular privileges, 
having their own inferior tribunals ; but in capital cases they are 
amenable to the King's Court of Justice in Copenhagen. 

A considerable degree of commerce is carried on at Copenhagen ; 
the haven is always crowded with merchants' ships ; and the streets 
being intersected with broad canals, merchandize is brought close to 
the warehouses that line the quays. 

The naval force of Denmark, before the battle of Copenhagen, con- 
listed of thirty-eight ships of the line, including nine of fifty guns, and 
one of forty-four, and twenty frigates. According to the regulations 
of thtir service, a ship of ninety guns, carries 850 men, seventy guns, 
700 men, sixty-four guns, 600, fifty guns, 450. Most part of the 
Danish navy, which is not employed on foreign service, is moored in 
the men of war's haven, where the ship's lie with their sterns to the 
respeftive magazines that contain their stores. 

In 1779, Denmark furnished the Armed Neutrality with ten ships 
of the line, four frigates, and two ships of twenty guns each. The 
number of registered seamen is near 40,000 ; and the military force 
of Denmark, Norway, and Holstein, consists of 10,478 cavalry, and 
56,431 infantry, making together 66,909 men. The annual revenues 
of Denmark are computed to be about a million and a half sterling ; 
of which above one hundred thousand pounds arise from the tolls of 
the Seund and the two Belts. 



DESCRIPTION OP COPENHAGEN. 2It 

SAILING DIRECTIONS FOR COPENHAGEN. 

[Communicated by Mr. GIBSON.] 

After passing Elsineur castle, you give Fluen or Tycho Brahe's 
Island a tolerable good birth, till you observe the spires of Copen- 
hagen rising out of the water, the distance about seven leagues. 
With a fair wind, run until you bring the great northernmost crane 
on with the southernmost steeple, which is easily distinguished from 
the rest, by its spiral form, and statue on its summit. You will then 
see the first buoy of the Grounds, and may take either the Caspar or 
King's Channel, or the eastern gatt, called the Outer-deep, as the 
wind suits. On entering the Outer-deep borrow towards the middle 
Ground, as the rocky side of Southolm is very steep ; opposite the 
first and second buoy you may be aground in thirteen feet water, 
with seven fathoms under the stern ; going to the southward, the 
Southolm still continues steep, though in a less degree. 

Above the third buoy of the middle* lies a dangerous spit from the 
Amack side ; in the chart of the Sound you will observe several good 
and distinfl marks of it. It is most to be guarded against by ships 
coming from the southward, as it lies nearly as far to the eastward as 
the Caspar buoy. 

After passing this spit to the northward, the channel widens to- 
wards Draker, abreast of which it is contradled by a spit running 
westward above a mile. Here is the shoalest water in the whole 
passage of the Grounds, seldom more than four fathoms, and after a 
long continuance of southerly winds often less. The shoals in the 
Grounds are rocky, and the water generally so clear, that the bottom 
may be seen in six fathoms water. The currents, either from the 
north or south, generally take a pretty straight course through the 
Grounds. 

After passing Draker, you will see two trees on Steden Point, 
bearing S. W. \ S. distant seven leagues ; your course is then S. S. W. 
seven leagues to Falsterbom Reef. 

Lord Nelson passed up through the Outer-deep, brought up below 
Draker during the night, and came down by the Caspar or King's 
Channel. 

Ships bound to Copenhagen leave the Crown batteries on the lar- 
board side, in five fathoms, then pass a floating beacon, the water 
gradually shoaling towards the citadel, near the southernmost angle 
of which lies the way into the merchants' 'mole, which i divided from 
the men of wars' haven by a strong boom. 



C 



70 THE EDITOR OF THE NAVAL CHRONICLE* 

His Majesty's Sloop Pheasant, Halifax, 
SIR, Nova Scot/a, yth Aug. 1802. 

HAVING noticed in the obituary of your Naval Chroni- 
* 
cle, Vol. VII. page 180, that in your account of the 

death of George Augustus Delanoe, Esq. late Commander of 
his Majesty's sloop Ann, you mention that he was Second 
Lieutenant and Commanding Officer on board his Majesty's 
ship Repulse at the time she was retaken from the mutineers 
at the Nore in the year 1797. 

As First Lieutenant of that ship at the time, and being 
the person who planned the enterprise, and commanded 
during the whole of its execution, I feel it my duty to have 
the mistake in your statement corrected, and this I do 
without the smallest wish to diminish in the least the fame 
of Captain Delanoe, but I should not do justice to myself 
was^I without notice to permit the merit of that transaction 
to be ascribed to Captain Delanoe, who was only second in 
command, and received the unfortunate, though honourable 
wound, you mention, while he was gallantly seconding 
my exertions on that trying occasion, and during the time he 
was in the actual execution of my orders. 

The disposition you have manifested in your publication 
to perpetuate the fame of all those who have distinguished 
themselves in his Majesty's Naval Service, leaves no doubt 
on my mind, but that you will take the earliest opportunity 
to correct the mistake you have made on this occasion, by 
publishing this note, together with my letter to Captain 
Alms on surrendering to him the command of his Majesty's 
ship Repulse at Sheerness. In doing this, 

You will oblige 

Your obedient servant, 

HENRY CAREW. 



COPY OP A LETTER FROM CAPTAIN CAREW. 



(COPY.) 

His Majesty's ship Repulse, Sheer ness Harlour, <)th June 

SIR, 

IT is with much satisfa&ion I inform you, that having 
this day laid a plan assisted by each of the Lieutenants, 
Master, Purser, Marine Officer, and Boatswain, together 
with all the gentlemen of the quarter-deck, for the purpose 
of retaking the command of his Majesty's ship Repulse, aud 
having been led thereto from the loyal disposition of part 
of the ship's company. 

The plan I intended carrying into effect at the hour of 
eleven this night, having arranged these circumstances, 
nearly about the time the Leopard was perceived under way, 
our loyal party took fire thereat, and fearful of losing 
power by delay, caught the moment, and with great success. 
carried our point ; unfortunately it happened to be low 
water, and the ship soon after getting under sail, took the 
ground for nearly two hours under a heavy fire from the 
Monmouth, Diredor, Grampus, and Ranger. I am sorry 
to signify that the Second Lieutenant Delanoe, lost his leg 
in this business, but the nature of such a service will 
strike you with astonishment, that this was the only loss 
received, but the hull, sails, and rigging were very much 
damaged. 

I have every gratitude to each of my assistants, and part 
of the ship's company, in thus enabling me to inform 
you of the safety of his Majesty's ship here. 

I am, 

Sir, 
Your most obedient, 

Humble servant, 

Captain Jims, his Majesty's , HENRY CAREW. 

fh'ip Refuhe, 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 



NAVAL CHRONOLOGY ; or, An Historical Summary of Naval and Mart- 
time Events, from the Time of the Romans, to the Treaty of Peace 
1802. With an Appendix. In 5 -iols. By ISAAC ScHoMUERG> 
Esq. Captain in the Royal Navy. 

'E are happy to find that a gentleman of the Naval 
profession, has devoted his leisure to illustrate the 
service to which he belongs; and we have to congratulate 
our readers on the appearance of the valuable and elaborate 
work, now under our consideration. How much a work of 
the kind was wanted, any person in the least acquainted 
with Naval History must be sensible ; and we can safely 
venture to affirm, that the present will go a great way to 
remove this ground of complaint. Nor are Captain Schom- 
berg's merits as an historian of an inferior class ; in his 
relations, he is faithful, accurate, and impartial, omitting 
nothing that is material to his narrative, scrupulously exaft, 
and bestowing praise and censure with an equal hand. If 
the style of our author has not the polfsh of a classical 
student, it is at least free from any glaring defects, and is 
simple, perspicuous, and well adapted to his subject. In 
the arrangement of his work there is much to commend ; it 
differs widely from that of any former writers who have 
treated of Naval Affairs, and seems the most proper that can 
be employed on such topics. 

As Captain Schomberg's preface gives a very clear view of 
the nature and design of his work, we shall, for the satis- 
faction of our readers, and out of justice to the author, 
subjoin it. The dedication to Lord Hood, the author's 
patron, does honour to Captain Schomberg's feelings ; 
and with pleasure we observe, that a numerous and most 
rcspedable list of subscribers, most of them naval cha- 
rafters of high eminence, names dear to valour and their 
country," is appended to the first volume. 



NAVAL LITERATURE. jrj 

The task which I have undertaken on a subjeft already so ably 
handled by some of the most distinguished characters in the literary- 
world, will not, i should hope, rtnder this production less acceptable, 
especially as none on a similar plan has hitherto been introduced to tha 
notice of the public. 

It often happens that men who are bred to the naval and military 
profession, when unemployed in the service of their country, find 
themselves at a loss for some occupation to fill up the great vacuum 
resulting from the want of those professional and active pursuits to 
which they have beeu so much accustomed. There are no doubt 
many who from age, infirmities, and length of service, wish to retire 
in ease and comfort, and whose situation requires that certain degree 
of relaxation, which the fatigues of service, and change of climate, 
may have rendered so necessary. Still, among the number, there arc 
several to whom we are much beholden, for having employed not 
only their professional, but literary, abilities to the improvement and 
advantage of the respective services a pleasure and satisfaction which 
every man must feel who is a sincere and zealous lover of his country. 

Impressed with these ideas, and urged on by such examples, I was 
induced to devote my leisure moments in compiling the following 
sheets ; having frequently, in the course of service, experienced the 
great utility that might be found in a chronological abridgment of 
the Naval History, with other maritime and nautical events, not only 
as a work which might afford some entertainment and instruction, 
but more particularly as a book of reference. 

The necessary connection between our civil and military, with that 
of our naval history, makes the latter, in general, very voluminous, 
the thought naturally occurred, that a work of this kind would be 
considered useful to nautical men, and would also serve to refresh 
the memories of Sea Officers, with those heroic and glorious aftions 
of our ancestors, which should ever stand before us, as examples 
worthy our imitation. 

As it will in a great measure show the rise and progress of the 
British Navy, 1 judged it necessary to commence its history at so earjy 
a period as that in which the Britons were constantly exposed to in- 
vasions from their neighbours. Perpetually harassed and insulted, ' 
they were roused to the exertion of national spirit, and they began 
to discover the natural strength of their situation, and how much, by 
the establishment of a powerful marine, they would be preserved, not 
only from the attacks of their invaders, but also against the great 
number of pirates which infested the Channel ; such a force was soon 
found of the greatest advantage to the nation, for in the year of our 
Lord ^88, by the desertion of a Roman general, who brought over 



4 l5 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

with him a considerable fleet, which was united to that of the Britons, 
they became so formidable in their Navy, as to claim the dominion of 
the sea ; which was insisted on and confirmed by Edgar the Great, 
who compelled all the Kings of Britain and the adjacent isles, to ac- 
knowledge his tight and authority. The naval superiority and power 
which Great Britain has maintained ever since that period, notwith- 
standing the various obstinate disputes which have caused so much 
slaughter, have been supported by her in opposition to the united 
maritime powers of Europe. 

It is an objeft of amusement and utility for Sea Officers to be 
acquainted with the times of invention and introduction of the many 
mathematical and nautical instruments, charts, &c. by which we are 
enabled to traverse the immense ocean in almost perfeft security. The 
near approach to the discovery of the longitude in these modern days, 
by the ingenuity, industry, and astronomical abilities of Mr. Witchel's 
lunar observations, and Mr. Harrison's invention of the time-keeper, 
have proved truly beneficial to mariners. 

The numerous adventurers both of our own and other nations, to 
whose persevering and indefatigable labours, we are so much indebted 
for having explored the then unknown seas, and enlightened us by their 
various and useful discoveries, as well as those distinguished British 
circumnavigators, Drake, Anson, Byron, Wallis, Carteret, Furneaux, 
Vancouver, and the ever-memorable Cooke, are worthy of a distin. 
guished place in the records of history. 

The events and occurrences are curtailed as much as circumstances 
would permit, in order that the woik may not be extended more 
than was absolutely necessary ; those during the famous Dutch wars, 
and in the two last, are deserving our particular observation, and are 
more detailed. The original plan was, to have comprised it in three 
volumes, and to end the 3151 of December 1800, had not the prospeft 
of peace, and the signing its preliminary articles, encouraged me to 
bring it up to that period. This, with the many heroic exploits 
which have been performed during the last war, are so deserving of 
record, that I should have considered myself very remiss in not giving 
them that place in history which they so justly merit, and which is due 
to the names and characters of those gallant men who have borne so 
aftive and conspicuous a part in adding immortal honours to the 
British Navy. 

By extending the work to two more Yolumes, I have also been able 
to introduce many useful state papers, together with the opinion and 
judgment of Sir William Scott in many interesting prize causes in the 
Court of Admiralty, particularly that on the right of search of neutral* 
by the Belligerent Powers. 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 217 

The Appendix is given in two separate volumes, in order the more 
readily to refer to any particular occurrence. It contains the state 
of the Royal Navy of Great Britain, its various successes and losses, 
with a comparative view of those of other powers ; a list of fleets, 
squadrons, lines of battle ; an account of the different offices in the 
Naval Department, with the names of those noblemen and gentlemen 
who have served in each ; a list of the Admirals and Post Captains 
who have borne commissions in the Royal Navy, with an account of 
any important service they have performed, besides other useful 
information. 

Some events having been obtained since the work went to the prcss 
and others more accurately stated, they are subjoined in a supplement 
at the end of each volume. 

The candour of my readers will, I should hope, be blind to such 
errors, which may too often occur, and expose my humble production 
to censure and criticism ; but when they consider that it is from the 
pen of one, whose profession requires so eaily an introduction, that it 
interferes with those pursuits of classical learning, which are necessary 
qualifications to enable him to appear before the public as an author, 
and who has undertaken this work to fill up those leisure hours which 
were unemployed by his country ; I am pc-rsuaded they will have good 
humour enough to pass over faults which might be deemed inexcusable 
in any other situation. 

Should it, in general, meet the approbation of not only the Officers 
in the Royal Navy, but all those who are conversant in nautical affairs, 
as well as others of my readers, I shall think myself amply rewarded, 
in having bestowed my time and labour so beneficially. 

We shall now proceed to give our readers an abstract of 
the contents of each volume, by which means they will be 
better able to judge of the value and importance of the work. 
At the same time we must observe, that each volume seems 
to have been executed with an equal degree of care, and much 
attention has been bestowed on the work, to render it a 
valuable addition, not only to every nautical library, but to 
the library of every person who wishes to possess a complete 
collection of British history. 

The first volume contains a chronological account of 
naval and maritime events from the time of the Romans, 
A. D. 288, to the conclusion of the year 1779, in 481 

jat).af)ron. 8Soi. VIII. F t 



31$ JJAVAL LfTERATURE. 

pages, with an index. The early part of the history, neces- 
sarily brief, records the events under the names of the 
sovereigns, in whose reigns they occurred; but in the course 
of the work, the transactions of our marine are divided into 
different heads, and a yearly summary is given of them. 
This arrangement commences with the year 1740, and is 
divided into occurrences at home, proceedings of the fleet in 
the Mediterranean, North America, and the West Indies; and 
afterwards, according to the nature of the war, to the different 
parts in which our fleets have been employed, so that an 
account of each squadron is to be met with, under the name 
of the station, where they were respectively engaged. Under 
the article Occurrences at Home^ are placed the proceedings ill 
Parliament respecting the Navy, the promotion of Flag- 
Officers, changes in the Board of Admiralty, Court- Martials, 
the transactions of the Channel Fleet,, and of our cruisers in 
and near the British seas. 

The second and third volumes, on a similar plan, bring 
the Naval History of Britain down to the conclusion of the 
late war ; and like the former, have each a copious and use- 
ful index. The number of pages in the second volume is 
454, and in the third 640. 

The fourth and fifth volumes contain the Appendix, in 
two parts, which are further divided into chapters. The 
first chapter, of the first part, gives the state of the Royal 
Navy at various periods, from the death of Queen Elizabeth, 
to the peace in 1801, with comparative views of the navies 
of France, Spain, Hol'and, Russia, Sweden, Denmark, and 
the United States of America. Also lists of ships of the 
line, which have been launched from 1756 to the 3151 of 
December 1801 ; and a list of ships of the line, which have 
be n broken ui, or otherwise disposed of, from the year 
1763 to the above mentioned period, and in whose ad- 
ministration. Chapter II. contains a list of lines of battle,, 
fleets, and quadrons, from June 1691, to May 1799, in* 
eluding the French, Spanish^ and Dutch, lines of battle on 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 



various occasions. The second part of the AppendiXj 
Chapter I. gives an account of the losses sustained by the 
several Belligerent Power* from the year 1688, to the present 
time, the names of the ships, the number of guns mounted, 
of men they carried, and where, and by whom taken or 
destroyed. Chapter II. contains an account of the Public 
Offices in the Naval Department, with a list of the Lords 
High Admirals, and Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty} 
Treasurers of the Navy; duty of the Navy Office, Com- 
missioners of the Navy, Dock yards, Victualling Office, 
Transport Board, Sick and Wounded Office, and Marine 
Office. A list of the Governors, Licutenant-Governors, 
and other Officers of Greenwich Hospital, since its establish- 
ment, on the ist of December ; 704, to the 3151 of Decem- 
ber 1801. Chapter III. a list of the noblemen and gentle- 
men who have been raised to the dignity of Admirals in the 
Royal Navy of England and Great Britain, from the 
restoration of King Charles the Second ib6o, to the 3ist 
of December 1801. Chapter IV. a list of Captains who 
have served in the Royal Navy of Great Britain, from the 
year 1653 to 1802 ; with the names of those retired from 
aftive service, and put on the ioj. list established in 1786 , 
and a list of the Admirals and Captains, who have lost theii 
lives in the service, from the year 1665 to 1801. 

Such are the principal contents of Captain Schomberg's 
valuable work; we ought, however, to mention, that his 
lists, whether of ships or men, are not dry lists of names 01 
dates, but frequently enlivened with important biographical 
notices, or interesting remarks. Of the accuracy of out 
author we have already given an opinion, and therefore any 
further praise on that icore would be superfluous. His 
wotk, as a book of reference, can scarcely be surpa sed ; it 
will therefore, be read with pleasure and instruction by the 
Naval Officer: with gratitude and admiration by every 
lover of his country. But let it not be imagined, that we 
consider these volumes as a complete history of the Navy of 



HO KAVAL LITERATURE. 

Britain, as an history which we think either worthy of the 
subjeft, or the literary character of the nation. We can bear 
the most unqualified testimony to the utility of the work, 
and to the diligence and fidelity with which it has been 
executed ; but we are by no means disposed to affirm that 
it supersedes the necessity of some future production on 
the same subject. The Navy of Britain is so glorious a theme, 
that we should rejoice to see the pen of a Zenophon or a 
Tacitus employed in recording its exploits. Compared with 
former writers, Captain Schomberg's work will hold an 
honourable place on the shelves of the learned ; his pre- 
cursors, for the most part, were men of no considerable 
abilities, and their writings, are little sought after, even by 
those whose professional occupations , induce them to in- 
vestigate the subjefls of which they treat, much less are they 
capable of exciting the attention of persons, whose studies 
and pursuits are directed to different objects ; but the work 
under our consideration possesses qualities which will render 
it npt only agreeable to the professional, but to the general, 
reader; and, until a more perfect one appears, must be con- 
sidered as, perhaps, the most valuable production on the 
naval history of Britain, that has hitherto met the eye of the 
public. 

The following extracts may serve as a specimen of Captain 
Schomberg's style and manner. The name of Blake is still 
mentioned with respect and veneration by all lovers of the 
naval glory of their country ; and therefore any particulars, 
relative to so intrepid and fortunate a Commander, must be 
acceptable to our readers. 

The gallant Blake was more fortunate in the Mediterranean ; after 
having compelled the Grand Duke of Tuscany to make reparation 
for his former conduft to the English, he sailed from Leghorn, and 
on the icth of March arrived at Algiers, where anchoring his fleet 
without the Mol~, he sent an Officer to the Dey, to insist upon the 
ships and subjects of England, which had been taken, being restored, 
This demand the Dey instantly complied with. Blake then sailed to 
Tunis, where he was not so cordially received. The Bey replied ttj 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 221 

Jus demand, " Here are our castles of Culleta and Porto Ferino, you 
may do your worst." The Tunisian soon paid dearly for his haughty 
answer. Blake immediately entered the bay of Porto Ferino, and 
brought his squadron up within musquet-shot of the fort, which he 
soon reduced to a defenceless state. The Admiral then gave directions 
for the boats of the fleet to be manned and armed, and boldly entering 
the harbour, they boarded and burnt nine of the pirate's capital ships. 
On this service the English had twenty-five men killed and forty 
wounded; Admiral Blake's next expedition was to Tripoli ; with 
this State -he concluded an honourable peace ; and sailed again to 
Tunis. Fearing lest he should do more execution, the inhabitants 
implored his mercy, and entreated him to grant them a peace. These 
glorious actions made the name of Blake as great a terror in Asia and 
Africa, as it had been formidable in Europe *. 

Before we leave this intiepid and heroic Englishman, it is but 
justice to his memory to relate an anecdote of him, so deserving of 
record, viz. While he was lying at Malaga with the English fleet, 
some of his sailors being on shore, ridiculed the host, which they 
met in the street ; the priest highly resented this insult to their religion, 
and irritated the people to revenge themselves by beating the sailors 
very severely. When they returned on board they complained to 
the Admiral, who sent a trumpet to the Governor demanding the 
priest to be sent on board to him. The Governor returned for an- 
swer, " that he had no power over the church, and could not send 
him." Blake sent a second message to say, that he would not enter 
into the question, who had power to send him, but that if he was 
not sent within three hours, he would destroy the town. The in- 
habitants alarmed at this threat, obliged the Governor to send the 
priest, who, when he came on board, excused himself to the Admiral, 
by representing the improper behaviour of the sailors. Blake with 
much calmness and composure told him, " that if he had complained 
of this outrage, he would have punished them severely ; for he would 
not suffer any of his men to affront the established religion of a place, 
where he touched : but he blamtd him for setting on a mob of 
Spaniards to beat them ; that he would have him and the whole 
world know, that none but an Englishman should chastise an Eng- 
lishman." 

In the year 1666, the English sustained some losses in their 
\var with the Dutch ; the account of them, as given by 

* A Dutch Admiral laying with a squadron at Cadiz at the same time with 
flake, struck his flag, an 4 refused to hoist it, put of resped to the English, 
Admiral, 



;;; NAVAL LITERATURE. 

Captain Schomberg, are extremely interesting, by reason 
of the desperate valour with which the English fought, and 
the praise bestowed on their conduct by the enemy. 

This year the command of the fleet was given to Prince Rupert 
and the Duke of Albcmarle ; the former had orders to sail in quest 
of a French fleet, which consisted of thirty-six ships, under the com- 
mand of the Duke of Beaufort, and were designed to enter the 
Channel, for the purpose of joining the Dutch fleet, commanded by 
De Ruyter, who was off Dunkirk with seventy-one sail of the line, 
twelve frigates, thirteen fireships, and eight yachts. 

On the ist of June the Duke of Albemarle, who had put to sea 
with sixty sail, fell in with De Ruyter, and instantly bore down upon 
him with the utmost bravery. The action soon began, and continued 
with great violence until night parted the combatants. The ships, in 
which were De Ruyter and Van Tromp, were so much shattered that 
they were obliged to shift their flags and had nearly been taken. 
One ship was blown up, and .Admiral Evertzen killed. On the side 
of the English, Sir William Berkeley, who gallantly led the van in 
the Swiftsure, a second rate, being attacked on all sides by the 
enemy, was killed, and his ship compelled to strike. The Essex, a 
third rate, was also taken. The intrepid conduct of Sir John Har- 
rnan, who commanded the Henry, deserves to be recorded. The 
ship being surrounded and assailed from all quarters by the Zealand 
squadron, Admiral Evertzen, who commanded it, hailed and offered 
him quarter ; to which this brave fellow replied, " No, Sir, it is not 
come to that yet.'' The next broadside killed the Dutch Admiral, 
by which means their squadron was thrown into confusion and obliged 
to quit the Henry. Three fireships were now sent to burn her, one 
of them grappled her starboard quarter, but the smoke was too thick 
to discern where the grappling irons had hooked, until the blaze 
burst out, when the boatswain resolutely jumped on board, disen- 
tangled the irons, and instantly recovered his own ship. Scarcely 
was this effefttd before another fireship boarded her on the larboard 
side ; the sails and rigging taking fire, destruction seemed inevitable, 
and several of the ciew threw themselves into the sea ; upon which 
Sir John Harman drew his sword and threatened to kill any who 
should attempt to quit the ship. The exertions, at length, of the 
remaining crew extinguished the flames. Sir John Harman, although 
his leg was broken, continued on deck giving directions, and sunk 
another fireship which was bearing down upon him. In this crippled 
state he got into Harwich, and repaired the damages his ship had 



NATAL LITERATURE. 

ustained in sufficient time to be at sea and share in the following 
a&ions. 

On the ad, in the morning *, the battle was renewed with increased 
fury. Van Tromp rashly pushing in amidst the English ships had a 
narrow escape. De Ruytcr, who came down to his assistance was in 
equal danger; these Admirals being reinforced by sixteen Dutch ships 
gave an instant turn to the battle ; and the Duke of Albemarle be- 
came so hard pressed, that he found it necessary to retreat towards 
the English coast. The Dutch continued to pursue him until night, 
when a calm put an end to the conflict. In the morning the Duke of 
Albemarle finding that he had only with him twenty-eight ships fit 
for service, and the Dutch still in pursuit with a much superior force, 
ordered three of the ships most disabled to be burnt, and directed those 
which had not suffered so much to go ahead to look out, preserving 
the line himself with the rest to receive the pursuers. 

In the afternoon, when the Dutch fleet was almost within gun- 
shot, a fleet was discovered to the southward, which the Duke soon 
perceived to be the squadron under Prince Rupert crowding sail to 
join him. 

The English Admiral instantly hauled to the wind, the more readily 
to effect the junction. Sir George Ayscue, in the Royal Prince, of 
loo guns, standing too near the shoals, run upon the Galloper, where 
she was surrounded by the Dutch fleet and taken +. 

On the 4th, about eight in the morning, the English squadroa 
having joined, pursued and came up with the Dutch fleet. The attack 
was now made and supported with greater violence and resolution 

* Previous to the action a council of war was held, wherein the Duke of 
Albemarle gave this opinion : " That if we had dreaded ^the numbers of our 
enemies, we should have fled yesterday ; but though we are inferior to them in 
ships, we are in all things else superior. Force gives them courage. Let us, if 
we need it, borrow resolution from the thoughts of what we have formerly 
performed. Let the enemy feel, that though our fleet be divided, our spirit i 
entire. At the worst it will be more honourable to die braveiy here on our 
own clement, than to be made spectacles to the Dutch; To be overcome i 
the fortune of war, but to fly is the fashion of cowards. Let us teach the 
world, that English.nen would rather be acquainted with death than with 
fear." 

f The capture of an English Admiral caused great exultation among the 
Dutch; tb'. has been assigned by some Sea Officers as a reason why the English 
do not wear the red flag at tiie main ; but Sir George Ayscue was Admiral of 
the White. The distinguishing flag of the red squadron has ever been the 
Union or flag of the Lord High Admiral. Sir George Ayscue oa his return to 
EngUnd was set aside, 



3^4 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

than before. The action continued until seven in the evening, when 
a thick fog put an end to this dreadful and bloody contest, each re- 
tiring to its own coast claiming the honour of the victory. 

The loss sustained by the English in this long and well-fought battle 
Is computed at sixteen men of war, ten of which were sunk, and six 
taken. Between five and six thousand men were killed and wounded. 
The English writers mention the Dutch to have lost fifteen men of 
war, twenty-one Captains, and five thousand men ; their own authors 
confess nine ships to have been lost, and a prodigious slaughter. 

The pensioner, De Witte, said after this battle, " If the English 
are beaten, their defeat did them more honour than all their former 
victories ; their own fleet could never have been brought on after the first 
day's fight, and he believed none but theirs could ; and all the Dutch 
had discovered, was, that Englishmen might be killed and English ships 
burnt, but that English courage was invincible." 

The action off Cape La Hogue, 16921 memorable, not 
only on account of the glorious victory gained by our fleet, 
and its important consequences in saving the nation from an 
invasion, but for the severe check which it gave for a series 
of years to the French marine, is thus described by our 
author : 

About the middle of May Admiral Russel had collected a vert 
powerful fleet, which, in conjunction with a Dutch squadron, amounted 
to ninety-nine sail of men of war. With this force he sailed from St. 
Helens on the 1 8th of May, and stretched over to the coast of 
France. The next morning, at three o'clock, the look-out ships 
made the signal for having discovered an enemy. Orders were im- 
mediately given to form the line of battle, and at eight o'clock it was 
completed. At ten, the French being to windward, the Count 
Tourville bore down with great resolution; and at eleven this ever 
memorable action began off Cape La Hogue. At one, the French 
Admiral was so much shattered that he was obliged to be towed out 
of the line. The battle continued with great violence until four, 
when so thick a fog came on that the enemy could not be seen ; on 
its clearing up, they were discovered much scattered and in disorder 
steering to the northward. Admiral Russel instantly made the signal 
for a general chase ; but unluckily the fog coming on much darker 
than before, he was obliged to anchor in order to keep his fleet col- 
ledcd. The weather again clearing up, the Admiral got under weigh 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 22 

and pursued the flying enemy. About eight in the evening the blue 
squadron got up with the enemy, and engaged for about half an 
hour, when having lost four of their ships they bore away for Conquet 
Road. In this short adHon Rear- Admiral Carter was killed. The 
two next days the weather proved so dark and foggy, that although 
both fleets were frequently in sight of each other, nothing tffc.-tt.ual 
could be done. The French continued standing to the westward, and 
the English pursuing them. 

On the 22d, in the morning, the English fleet was so well up with 
the enemy, that at eleven o'clock the Fiench Admiral ran ashore and 
cut away his masts ; his two seconds and some other ships plied up 
and remained by him. Admiral Rugsel observing their situation, 
ordered Sir Ralph Delaval, who was in the rear, to keep a sufficient 
number of ships in his division ready to destroy those of the enemy, 
and to send the rest to join the body of the fleet. In the evening 
many of the enemy's ships were seen standing into La Hogue. On 
the 23d, the Admiral sent Sir George Rooke with several men of 
war, some fireships, and all the boats of the fleet to destroy those 
ships in the bay. On his approach he observed thirteen sail of men 
of war, which had got so high up into the bay, that none but the 
small frigates and boats could advance near enough to be of service. 
Sir George, determined to execute his orders, gave directions for the 
boats to be manned, and instantly proceeded to the attack, going 
himself to encourage the enterprise. The boats vied with each other 
who should be the foremost in boarding the enemy, who were so much 
alarmed and terrified at the intrepidity of the English seamen, that 
they crowded out of their ships on one side as the conquerors entered 
the other. Six of the ships of war were burnt that night, and the 
other seven the next morning, with several transports and vessels 
laden with ammunition. The English lost only ten men on this ser- 
vice, although it was performed under a prodigious fire from the 
enemy's batteries on shore, and within sight of their camp. 

Some of the enemy's ships pushed through the race of Alderney, 
and took shelter in St. Maloes, where our ships could not with safety 
follow them. 

After this important victory Admiral Russel returned to Portsmouth 
with the greater part of the fleet to refit, and left out Sir John Ashby, 
with twelve sail of the line, and Vice-Admiral Calcroberg with the 
like number of Dutch, to cruise, and endeavour to destroy the 
French ships that had put into Havre-de-Grace j but stormy weather 
and the stxure retreat of the enemy rendered it impracticable. 

G G 



22 6 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

The ships the French lost in this aftion were as follows : 
Soleil Royal, 104 Count de Tourville, 

t Chevalier de la Villette, Vice- 
L'Ambitieux, 104 | Admiral of the Blue, 
L' Admirable 90 Monsieur Beaujean, 

L'Etonant, 80 Monsieur de Septime, 

Tc Terrible, 80 Monsieur Septville, 

r Monsieur Cottolage, Rear- Ad 
LeMagnifique, 76 | miral of the Blue, 
Le St. Philip, 76 Monsieur Infreville, 

Le Conqucrent, 76 Monsieur du Magnon, 
Le Triomphante, 74 Monsieur Bellemont, 
L" Amiable, 68 Monsieur de Raal, 

Le Fier, 68 Monsieur Larsethoir, 

Le Glorieux, 60 Le Count de Chateaumorcnt, 

Le Serieux, 60 Monsieur Bernier, 

Le Trident, 56 Monsieur Monteaud, 

Le Prince, 60 Monsieur BagnCuz, 

Le Sans Pareil, 60 Monsieur Ferille. 

Another three decked ship was supposed to be burnt, name not 
known *. 

We shall early resume our consideration of Captain 
Schomberg's interesting work, which we quit with mingled 
emotions of gratitude and regret : of gratitude, for the 
pleasure and instruction which his volumes have afforded us 
in the perusal ; of regret, for the limits to which the nature 
of our publication necessarily confines our extracts. But we 
can assure our readers, that at an early opportunity, we shall 
lay before them further extracts, of a more recent date, from 
this truly valuable and useful publication. 

^.^.^ 

A Foyagr ub the Mediterranean in his Majesty's Ship the Siuiftsure, one 
of tie Squadron under the command of Rear- Admiral Sir HORATIO 
NELSON, K. B. now discount and Baron NELSON of the Nile, and 
Dulf of BRONTE, in Sicily. With a Description of the Battle of the 
Nile on the lit of August 1798, and a Detail of Eventt that occurred 
nibinjufnt to the Battle, in various Parts of the Mediterranean. By 
the Rev. COOPKR WILLY A MS, A. M. late of Emmanuel College , 

* Campbell's Lives of Admirals, vol. ii. page 363. 



NAVAL LITERATURE, 227 

Cambridge ; Vicar of Exning, Sitffolk ; Chaplain of hit Majesty's 
Ship tie Swiftsure ; and Domestic Chaplain to the Earl of St. Vincent. 
4/0. 309 pages , and forty-three plates. 

WE have to thank the author of the agreeable and elegant 
volume before us, for the pleasure which we have derived 
from the perusal of his work ; and we are glad to find a 
Chaplain of the Navy employing his leisure to so much 
advantage as this gentleman has done *. In the event of a 
future war, we hope his example will not want imitators, 
and that the Chaplains of the Navy will become the histori- 
ographers of the squadrons to which they may belong. We 
can safely venture to prophesy that they will not want 
splendid achievements to record, and we cannot conceive 
how their hours of relaxation, from the duties of their sacred 
function, can be more laudably or usefully employed, than 
in transmitting to posterity the gallant deeds of their country- 
men. Their situation, aloof from the duties of navigation, 
or the dangers of battle, gives them an opportunity of calm 
observation, and from their education and profession they 
ought to be qualified for literary pursuits. Our author 
seems to have made the best use of the advantages of his 
situation ; and appears qualified in every respect for the 
office which he has undertaken. Speaking of himself, in his 
preface, he says, 

Placed as he was i'n the midst of a battle as splendid and extraor- 
dinary as the page of history has ever recorded, an attendant of the 
chase which preceded it, and of the many interesting occurrences and 
scenes which the shores of the Mediterranean exhibited for neatly 
two years after its termination, he daily minuted down with his pen 
and pencil the observations and images which obtruded themselves 
upon him. The authenticity of such memorials, and the views of 
places and people, which the present as well as the past has rendered 
subjects of such warm curiosity and interest, may, as his friends flatter 
him, give a value to his simple diary, and the sketches, even if un- 
skilful, of a self-taught artist. All know how soon the numberless 
minutiae now vivid iu the memories of the actors, would yield to the 

* Our author formerly published an " Account of the Campaign ip the West 
Indies, in 1794." 



228 NAVAL LITERATURI. 

pressure of more recent occupations, and fade away without a re~ 
cord ; but these pages will furnish remembrances of their activity and 
glory on which they may look back with pleasure ; and where their 
posterity may hereafter be proud to point out their names." 

We proceed to extract, with pleasure, our author's ac- 
count of the glorious battle of the Nile. The time of the 
occurrences during the acYion, he informs us, was corrected^ 
from the minutes of Mr. Gamble, Purser of the Swiftsure, 
who was employed in the honourable post of Signal Officer 
during the combat, and marked the events as they occurred; 
and further assistance was afforded him by Captain R. W; 
Miller, of the Theseus, so that the accuracy of the account 
may be very safely relied on. 

At a quarter past three p. m. the Admiral made the signal 
' to prepare for battle,' and we (in the Alexander and Swiftsure) had 
not bore up more than an hour, before we also descried the French 
fleet at anchor, in a line of battle, in the Bay of Aboukir. 
Towards them we stood with the enthusiastic ardour of men bent 
On conquest, and who knew there could be no alternative between 
that and death. By standing so far in towards Alexandria, \ve 
were left far astern. This was at first regarded as a most unfor- 
tunate event, but we had reason to think otherwise. At four p. m. 
"the Admiral made the signal to prepare to anchor with springs on 
'the cable, and that it was his intention to engage the van and cen- 
tre of the enemy. At five the Alexander made a signal to the 
Swiftsure, that of standing into danger ; and immediately tacked. 
Captain Hallowell luffed up to avoid the danger, and we had the 
mortification to perceive that the Culloden was agrouud on a reef 
of hidden rocks. These rocks extend a considerable way from the 
island, which forms the north-west point of the Bay of Aboukir. 
In his eager desire to gain a forward station in the glorious contest, 
the gallant* commander had with crowded sail borne down towards 

* Captain Tronfcridge has- passed almost the whole of his time in active 
service, and has had occasion repeatedly to distinguish kimself for that zeal and 
intrepidity, which has so justly raised the naval character. 

On that ever-mcmorable day, when a fieet of only fifteen British sail of the 
line, attacked and conquered twenty-seven sail of Spanish men of war of the 
largest size, bearing away four of their ships as trophies of the victory gained by 
Sir John Jcrvis, off Cape St. Vincent ; Captain Troubridge, in the Culloden, 
had the distinguished honour to lead the van into battle. Now, when his ardent 
mind had pictured to himself fresh laurels to be won is defence and support of 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 229 

the enemy. No one in the fleet had the least knowledge of the 
bay ; nor was any known chart of it existing, except an ill drawn 
plan found on board the vessel captured on the agth of June, 
which had been presented to the Admiral, but from that nothing 
certain could be made out. Captain Troubridge had kept con- 
stantly sounding as he proceeded, and, just before he struck, had 
found ten fathoms of water; before the lead could again be hove, 
the Culloden was fast aground on the rocks. Warned by his 
disaster, several other ships, standing into the same danger, were 
preserved from a similar fete. The evening was now closing in, 
the bay quite unknowm, and the enemy ready to receive us, drawn 
up in a close line from north-east to south-west, forming an obtuse 
angle at the centre. 

Here true heroism was displayed in the prompt decision of Ad- 
miral Nelson When his squadron was well collected round him-}-, 
he determined without loss of time, to attack the foe, formidable as 
their appearance was; superior their number, weight of metal, 
and size ; night coming on ; and an unknown navigation. Surely 
too much cannot be said of such magnanimity! His honour, 
character, and life, were to be put to the decision of the en- 
terprise ; for it was well known that conquest or death was his 
determined objeft. 

His resolution was instantly formed, and his intentions made 
known to the fleet by the signal ' for the headmost ship to bear 
down and engage, as she reached the van of the enemy ; the next 
ship to pass by and engage the second ship of the line ; and so 
on.' With alacrity was this signal obeyed : the sure presage of 
victory sat on the brow of every Briton, and a general ardour per- 
vaded all ranks. The commanders, with that courage which 
distinguishes men inured to danger, saw the hazard of the contest, 
and prepared to meet it : their ships were trained to every exercise 
of arms ; all means of preservation from fire, leaks, and other 
casualties, were arranged in order; a bower cable was got out of 
the after part of each ship, and bent forwards, that she might anchor 

the honooir of his country, to find all his prospers blasted ! Not Only nnable tc 
gain a forward station, he was totally rendered incapable of lending any aid to 
his gallant countrymen and obliged to remain an inactive spectator of a contest 
in which he had hoped to have borne a distinguished part.' His feelings were 
such as only a brave man, by imagining himself exposed to a similar disaster, 
can form any idea of 

f Except the Alexander and Swiftsure, who were under aprcB of sail, making 1 
the best of their way to join. 



2JO NATAL MT1RATURE, 

by the stern ; the dreadful engines of destruction read/ primed and 
doubly lo:id j d; the men at their quarters, waiting in silent 
expefta-.ion the orders of their superiors; the officers respectfully 
looking towards their captains, and waiting with firmness the awful 
moment. The enemy's line presented a most formidable appear- 
ance : it was anchored in close order, and apparently near the 
shore; flanked with gun-boats, mortar vessels, and four large 
frigates ; with a battery of guns and mortars, on an island near 
which we must pass. This posture gave the most decided ad 
vantage to the French, whose well known perfection and skill in 
the use of artillery, has so often secured to them splendid victories 
n shore : to that they were now to look for success ; for each ship 
being at anchor, became a fixed battery. 

The British Admiral, who saw all the advantages the enemy 
possessed, but saw them with a seaman's eye, knew that they must 
have room to swing the length of their cables ; and, consequently, 
that there would be space enough for our ships to anchor between 
them and the shore. 

The Goliath*, commanded by Captain Foley, had the distin 
tinguished honour to lead the fleet into battle. The water was 
smooth, and a pleasant fine breeze soon brought him within reach 
of the guns of the enemy. By a quarter past six p. m. the French 
commenced the engagement ; in two minutes he returned their fire, 
and then doubled their line and anchored alongside of the second 
ship in the van. 

Captain Hood f , in the Zealous, followed close and took his 
station on the bows of the Guerrier with great judgment ; and in 

* Captain Foley has again fought under Lord Nelson, who hoisted his flag 
on board his ship, the Elephant, in the late daring attack and vidory off Copen- 
hagen. At the capture of the island of Corsica, Captain Foley commanded the 
St. George of 98 guns, the flag-ship ofRear-Admiral Cell. In LordSt. Vincent 1 * 
victory over the Spaniards, he also bore a distinguished part, a* he commanded 
the Britannia, of 100 guns, which ship bore the flag of Vice-Admiral Sir Charlci 
Thorn pnon. 

t Captain Hood had been hailed by the Admiral, to know if he thought 
there was sufficient depth of water for our ships between the enemy and the 
shore ; Captain Hood said he did not know, but, with the Admiral's permission, 
be would lead in and try. The Goliath, however, being the fastest sailer, and 
having the start, first gained the post of honour. 

The following anecdote is so highly characteristic, that I must beg leave to 
mention it. At the time of the evacuation of Toulon, Captain Hood com. 
manded the Juno frigate on that station c previous to that event, he had sailed 
on a cruise. When he returned to port, unconscious of what had happened in 
hi* absence, he sailed into the harbour and anchored without being aware of 
fcu dilemma. The evening was hazy, with heavy raini ; no colours were 

1 



SAVAL LITIRATVRt. 2jf 

twelve minutes the Guerrier was totally dismasted. The Goliath 
who had, as I before observed, anchored alongside of the Con- 
querant, shot away her opponent's masts in ten minutes afcer. 
The third ship that doubled the van of the French line, was 
the Oriqn, commanded by Sir James Saumarez *. A frigate, La 
Sirrieuse, fired upon him as he passed, and Sir James ordered a few- 
guns to be pointed at her; a broadside, ho.vever, was discharged, 
and the frigate instantly sunk. He then proceeded and took his 
station on th-? larboard bow of the Franklin, and quarter of the 
Peuple Souvrain, receiving and returning the fire of both. The 
Audacious, commanded by Captain Gould t, next followed, and 
dropped anchor on the bows of the Conquerant, where he 
commenced a spirited and galling fire. Captain Miller, in the 
Theseus, was the last that anchored between the french line and 
the shore. Passing between the Guerrier and Zealous, he could 
not resist the opportunity which ofrVred, as he brushed the French- 
man's sides, of pouring in an effective broadside: be then took his 
station on the larboard side of the Spartiate. The Vanguard, 
distinguished by the flag of Admiral Nelson, now entered the battle- 
Aware of the impossibility of the rear of the enemy (being to 
leeward) coming to the assistance of their van, he determined to 

displayed on the batteries, or if they were, they were not visible, or were 
English. A boat came alongside; several Frenchmen of the new municipality 
came on board; they were asked for news, and perceiving the mistake that stilJ 
reigned, they conversed with him as if they belonged to the British Govern- 
ment By good fortune the tri-colour cockade in the hat of one of them caught 
his eye, and he saw the treacherous tendency of their visit. On this, with 
great presence of mind, having set before them some refreshments, he went on 
deck and communicated to thj officers and crew the situation of the ship; gave 
orders to slip the cabls, and make al! possible exertion to Fail out of the harbour. 
This he effected in defiance of a heavy cannonade from the fort and batteries as 
he passed, and soon after joined the fleet under the command of Lord Hood, 
with the welcome account of his adventure and fortunate escape. 

* This officer has had the good fortune, repeatedly, to distinguish himselfl 
Early in this war, he commanded the Circe, of 36 guns. Being on a cruise off 
Cherbourg, he fell in with the Crescent, French frigate. After a close action 
of more than two hours, during which the enemy lost 120 men, killed and 
wounded, he captured her without the loss of one man in his own ship. For 
this gallant action he received the honour of knighthood. He commanded the 
Orion in Lord Bridport's action off Port L'Orient, 3d Jane 1795. And in Lord 
St \ incent's unrivalled victory over the Spaniards, he also, in the eame ship, 
had a share in the glory of that day. On June 6th, 1801, he was made a 
Baronet. 

t At the capture f the idand of Corsica, he commanded the Cyclops frigate, 
of 28 guns. 



3JJ NAVAL LITERATURE. 

redouble his efforts to conquer one part before he attacked the rest. 
In pursuance of that resolution, he himself set the example to the 
rest of his fleet, and anchored withoutside of the enemy's line, who 
were, in consequence, completely between two fires.. The Van- 
guard anchored within half-pLstol-shot on the larboard side of the 
Spartiate, and began such a severe and well direfted fire, that, 
totally dismasted, and having lost a great number of her crew, the 
frenchman was obliged to call for quarter, which was immediately 
granted. Captain Louis *, in the Minotaur, anchored next a-head 
of the Admiral, and engaged the Aquilon, which was also obliged 
to strike to his superior fire. The Bellerophon, commanded by 
Captain Darby, now entered the conflict, and running down the 
line, dropped anchor alongside of L'Orient, of 120 guns, bearing 
the flag of the French commander in chief, Admiral Brueyes. 
The Defence, Captain Peyton, followed close, and took his station, 
with great judgment, ahead of the Minotaur, by which the line 
remained unbroken ; he engaged the Franklin, of 80 guns, on the 
starboard bow. This ship bore the flag of Centre- Admiral 
Blanquet du Chelard, second in command. The Majestic, com- 
manded by Captain Westcott, next came into action, and closely 
engaged the Heureux on the starboard bow, receiving also the fire 
of the Tonnant, an 80 gun ship, next astern of L'Orient. The 
superior weight of metal pouring in from these two ships, soon 
made dreadful havoc in the Majestic. Captain Westcott f fell by a 
musket shot at the time he was exerting himself with great 
gallantry to counteract the advantages possessed by the enemy in 
size and number, by the energy and vivacity of his fire. Mr. 
Cuthhert, the first lieutenant, continued to support the unequal 
conflict with determined courage and resolution. The Alexander 
and Swiftsure now came in for their share of glory. Having been 
(as I before observed) prevented assisting at the commencement of 
the battle, by bearing down to reconnoitre Alexandria, and after- 
wards being obliged to alter their course, to avoid the shoal that; 
had proved so fatal to the Culloden, it was eight o'clock before 
they came into aciion, and total darkness had enveloped the com. 
batants for some time, which was dispelled only by the frequent 
flashes from their guns; the volumes of smoke now rolling down 

He commanded this ship also at the recapture of the island of St. Lucia, in 
the West Indies, in 1796. 

( 'n Lord Howe's adion with the French fleet on the ist of June 1794, Cap. 
tain Wcstcoti commanded the Impregnable, of 98 guns, the fia 2 ship of Reajw 
AdmiraiCaldweH. 



233 

* 

fch'e lini from the fierce fire of those engaged to windward^ rendered 
it extremely difficult for the rest of the British ships who came in 
last to take their station : it was scarcely possible to distinguish 
Friend from foe. To remedy this evil, admiral Nelson diixfted his 
fleet to hoist four lights homontally at the mizen-peak as soon as it 
was dark. The Swiftsure was bearing down Under, a press of sail, 
and had already got within range of the enemy's guns, when 
Captain Hallow-11 perceived a ship standing out of action under 
her fore-sail and fore-top-sail, having no lights displayed. Sup- 
posing that she was an enemy, he f.lt inclined to fire into her ; but 
as that would have broken the plan * he had laid down for hi 
Conduct, ht desisted : and happy it was that he did o ; for we 
afterwards found the ship in question was the Bellerophon f , 
which had sustained such serious damage from the overwhelming 
/ire of the French Admiral's enormous ship L'Orient, that 
Captain Darby found it was necessary for him to fall out of 
action, himself being wounded, two lieutenants killed, and near 
two hundred men killed and wounded. His remaining mast falling 
soon after, and in its fall killing several officers and men, (among 
the former was another of his lieutenants,) he was never able to 
regain his station. At three minutes past eight o'clock the Swift- 
sure anchored, taking the place that had before been occupied by 
the Bellerophon ; and two minutes after began a steady and well 
directed fire on the quarter of the Franklin and bows of L'Orient. 
At the same instant the Alexander passed under the stern of the 
French Admiral/ and anchored withinside on his larboard quarter, 

* Captain Hallowell being aware of the difficulty of breaking men off front 
their guns when once they have begun to use them, determined not to suffer a 
shot to be fired on board (he Swiftsure, till the sails were all clued up, and the 
hip anchored in her station. As the British fleet bore down towards the scene 
of action, they were first saluted by a shower of shot and 'shells, from two 
batteries on the island, and were then obliged to receive the whole fire from the 
broadsides of the French line full into their bows. The men being employed 
aloft in furling sails, and below hauling the braces, ranging the cables, and 
preparing every thing for placing the ships in the best situation at anchor, it it 
a providential circumstance that greater slaughter was not the consequence . 
especially, as it is but justice to observe, that the French received us with cool 
deliberate courage, and did not open their fire till we were within half-gun- 
shot distance of them, when both sides hoisted their colours. A shot striking 
the larboard bow of the Swiftsure several feet below the water mark, was a 
considerable annoyance; the chain-pumps were obliged to be kept constantly 
at work, nor could the leak be kept completely under; she had four feet water 
in the hold from the commencement to the end of the action. 

f The lights which had been hoisted, must have gone overboard when the 
jnizen-mast fell. 

. i;ron. dot. VIII. H a. 



J24- NAVAL LITERATURE. 

raking him and keeping up a severe fire of musketry on his decks* 

The last ship which entered the bloody conflict was the Leander. 

Captain Thompson bore up to the Culloden on seeing her strike, 

that he might afford any assistance in his power to get her off 

from her unfortunate situation, but finding that nothing could be 

done, and unwilling that his services should be lost, where they 

could be more eiFe&ive, he made sail for the scene of adlion, and 

took his station with great judgment aithwart hawse* of the 

Franklin ; by which manoeuvre he was enabled to do considerable 

damage to the enemy without exposing his own ship to the 

greatest danger. In the ran, four of the French ships had already 

struck their colours to the British flag. The battle now raged 

chiefly in the centre. The Franklin, ^'Orient, Tonnant, and 

Heureux, were in hot aftion, making every exertion to recover the 

glory that had been lost by their comrades. At three minutes past 

nine o'clock a fire was observed to have broken out in the cabin of 

L'Oriem ; to that point Captain Hallowell ordered as many guns as 

could be spared from firing on the Franklin to be directed ; and, at 

the same time, that Captain Allen, of marines, should throw in the 

whole fire of his musketry into the enemy's quarter, while the 

Alexander on the other side was keeping up an incessant shower of 

shot to the same point. The conflagration now began to rage 

with dreadful fury : still the French Admiral sustained the honour 

of his flag with heroic firmness ; but at length a period was put to 

his exertions by a cannon ball, which cut him asunder : he had 

before received three desperate wounds, one on the head, two in 

his body, but could not be prevailed on to quit his station on the 

arm-chest. His Captain, Casa Bianca, fell by his side. Several 

of the officers and men seeing the impracticability of extinguishing 

the fii.% which had now extended itself along the upper decks, and 

was flawing up the masts, jumped overboard; some supporting 

themselves on spars and pieces of wreck, others swimming with all 

their might to escape the dreaded catastrophe. Shot flying in all 

directions, dashed many of them to pieces ; others were picked up 

by the boats of the fleet, or dragged into the lower ports of the 

nearest ships; the British sailors humanely stretched forth their 

hands to ave a fallen enemy, though the battle at that moment 

raged with uncontrolled fury. The Swiftsure, that was anchored 

within half-pistol shot of the larboard bow of L'Orient, saved the 

lives of the commissary, first lieutenant, and ten men, who were 

* A tea term, meaning across the headmost part of a ship as she lies at anchor. 



NATAL tITIRATURI. 335 

drawn out of the water into the lower deck ports during the hottest 
part of the action. The situation of the Alexander and Swiftsure 
was perilous in the extreme. The expected explosion of such a 
ship as L'Orient was to be dreaded, as involving all around in 
certain destruction. Captain Hallowell, however, determined not 
to move from his devoted station, though repeatedly urged to do 
so. He perceived the advantage he possessed of being to windward 
of the burning ship. Captain Ball was not so fortunate ; he twice 
had the mortification to perceive that the fire of the 'enemy had 
communicated to his own ship. He was obliged therefore to change 
his birth and move a little further off. 

Admiral Nelson, who had received a very severe wound on his 
head, and was obliged to be carried off the deck, was informed by 
Captain Berry, of the situation of the enemy. Forgetting his own 
suffering?, he hastened on deck, impelled by the purest humanity, 
and gave ^directions that every exertion should be made to save as 
many lives as possible. All the boats of the Vanguard, and of the 
nearest ships that could swim, were sent on this service, and above 
seventy Frenchmen were saved by the exertion of those so lately 
employed in their destruction. The van of our fleet having finished 
for the present their part in the glorious struggle, had now a fine 
view of the two lines illumined by the flames of the ill-fated foe; 
the colours of the contending powers being plainly distinguished. 
The moon, which had risen, opposing her cold light to the warm 
glow of the fire beneath, added to the grand and solemn picture- 
The flames had by this time made such progress, that an explosion 
was instantly expected, yet the enemy on the lower deck, either 
insensible of the danger that surrounded them, or impelled by 
the last paroxysms of despair and vengeance, continued to fire 
upon us. 

At thirty-seven minutes past nine the fatal explosion happened. 
The fire communicated to the magazine, and L'Orient blew up with 
a crashing sound that deafened all around her. The tremulous 
motion, felt to the very bottom of each ship, was like that of an 
earthquake ; the fragments were driven such a vast height into the 
air, that some moments elapsed before they could descend, and then 
the greatest apprehension was formed from the volumes of burning 
matter which threatened to fall on the decks and rigging of the 
surrounding ships. 

Fortunately, however, no material, damage occurred. A port- 
fire fell into the main- royal of the Alexander, and she once more 
was in danger of sharing the same fate as the enemy, but by the.. 



skill and exertions of Captain Ball, it was soon extinguished 
Two large pieces of the wreck dropped into the main and. 
foretops of the Swiftsure, but happily the men were withdr.a.wq 
from those places. 

An awful silence reigned for several minutes, as if the contending 
squadrons, struck with horror at the dreadful event, which in an 
jnstant had hurled so many brave men into the air, had forgotten their 
hostile rage in pity for the sufferers. But short was the pause of 
death : vengeance soon roused the drooping spirits of the enemy. 
The Franklin, now bearing the French Commander's flag, opened 
her fire with redoubled fury on the Defence and Swiftsure, and 
gave the signal for renewed hostilities ; the latter being disengaged, 
from her late formidable adversary, had leisure to direft her 
whole fire into the quarter of the foe, that had thus presumed 
to break the solemn silence ; and in a very short time, by the well 
direfted and steady fire of these two ships, and. the Leander 
on her bows, the Franklin called for quarter, and. strv;ck to a 
superior force. 

The Alexander and the Majestic, and occasionally the Swift- 
lure, were now the only British ships engaged ; but the commander 
of the latter finding that he could not dire& his guns clear of 
the Alexander, who had dropped between him and the Tonnant, 
and fearful lest he should fire into, a friend, desisted, although he 
was severely annoyed by the shot of the Tonnant, which wa$ 
falling thick about him. Most of our ships were so cut up in 
their masts and rigging, that they were unable to set any sail or 
move from their stations. About three o'clock on the morning of 
the id of August, the firing ceased entirely, both squadrons being 
equally exhausted with fatigue. At four, however, jus{ as the day 
began to dawn, the Alexander and Majestic recommenced the aftio$ 
with the Tonnant, Guillaume Tell, Genereux, and, Timoleon. The 
Heureux and Mercure had fallen out of the line, and anchored 9, 
considerable distance to leeward. 

Captain Miller, perceiving the unequal contest, bore down to 
Assist his friends, and began a furious cannonade on the enemy. 
The Theseus had as yet fortunately received but little damage in her 
masts and rigging, and that had been repaired by the a&ive 
exertions of her commander, as soon as the firs^ part of the adlion, 
in the van had terminated in our favour. - 

L'Artemise frigate, stationed on the left of the centre of the 
French line, fired a broadside at the Theseus, and then struck her 
Colours. Captain Miller dispatched an, officer to take possession Q$ 



HAVAt. 11TERATTJR8, 237 

* *h* DOat had come within a short distance, she 
burst into a flame, and soon after blew up. 

This unofficerrlike concjudl, replete with treachery, will re- 
flect eternal disgrace on the name of Estandleti who commanded 
her. After having surrendered his ship by striking his ensign 
and pendant, and conscious that he was then secure from im- 
mediate danger, he set fire to her, and with most of his crew 
escaped to the shore*. 

At six o'clock tiie Leander, having as yet received little damage, 
was ordered by signal from the Admiral to assist the ships engaged, 
which she accordingly obeyed. At this time the a&ion betweeh 
our three ships Alexander, Majestic, and Theseus, and the Guil- 
Genereujf, Tonnant, and Timoleon, had become very 



* The fate of the Artemise frigate is rather peculiar, a former commander 
iaving displayed a still more atrocious and deliberate zt of viihiny. Citizen 
CharbonnJcre., commanding the Boudouse, being in company with another 
Prench frigate, fell in with and captured a British merchantman, which, of course, 
made no resistance. He took the captain and crew out of the vessel, and brough^ 
them on board his frigate, and there, in cold blood, put them all to death. The 
captain of the other French frigate humanely remonstrated against this need* 
less act of blood; but Charbonniere urged a decree of the convention, which 
Ordained that all British prisoners should be put to death ; the other argued, 
that at least he might take them to Toulon (near which port they were), as it 
would never be too late to put the decree in execution, which had probably 
been passed in a moment of frenzy, and would undoubtedly soon be repealed. 
These haman,e arguments had no effeA on the sanguinary monster, for he caused, 
them all to betaken pn the forecastle, and shot to the number of eleven, among 
whom was the captain's son, a lad of twelve years old, who in vain interceded 
for his father's life, as the unhappy father did for met cy^ towards his child. Thi 
anecdote was related to me by an officer of the strictest honour and veracity, 
who assured me he was in the Bay of Tuni?, at the time Charbonnier ewas there 
also, and having heard this stpry of him, and wishing to ascertain the truth or 
falsehood of it, he waited on the French Consul for that purpose, who candidly 
acknowledged that the fgft was too true, and that the deed was reprobated by 
the whole French nation ; yet how could that be, when we find that the French 
government soon afterwards removed this assassin from the Boudouse to the 
command, of the Artemise, a fine new frigate; and afterwards promoted him ta 
the command of a line of battle ship ? The account further adds, that the fisher- 
^nen's wives, apprehensive kst their husbands might, by way of retaliation^ 
suffer a similar fate if they fell into the hands of the English, were so enraged, 
against Charbonniere, that they insulted him grossly as he was proceeding; 
from Toulon to Marseilles, and his life was in such danger from them, that 
he was allowed an armed force to guard him. We have since heaid that thi 
cruel monster has gone to answer for the bloody act before the roost just of 



,g NAVAL LITERATURE. 

distant, as the latter continued imperceptibly to drop to leeward, 
and the Theseus was obliged to veer on two cables to keep within 
Teach of them. 

At eight a. m. the Goliath bore down and anchored near th 
Theseus, the French ships having brought to again. The fire of 
our ships was now chiefly turned on the Heureux and Mercure, 
which were soon obliged to surrender. The Timoleon was ashore, 
and the Tonnant was rendered a complete wreck. Thus circum- 
stanced, and perceiving that few, if any of our ships were in a 
condition to make sail, Rear-Admiral Ville Neuve, in the Guil- 
laume Tell, of 80 guns, resolved to lose no time in escaping from 
the certain fate that awaited him. About noon he got under weigh, 
as also did the Genereux, of 74 guns, and La Justice and La Diane 
frigates. The instant Sir Horatio Nelson perceived what they were 
about, he dispatched the Zealous, by signal, to intercept them. 
Unfortunately none of the windward ships were in a condition to 
second his attempt to stop the fugitives. He did, however, all 
that could possibly be done ; as they passed by him, he received 
and returned the fire of e*ach in succession ; the damage he sustained 
in this contest, prevented him from tacking, and the Admiral, with 
his usual judgment, gave the signal of recall. In the morning of 
th<e 3d of August, there remained in the Bay, only the Timoleon. 
and Tonnant, of the French line that were not captured or destroyed. 
The former being aground near the coast, the Captain (Trullet) 
with his crew escaped in their boats after setting fire to her, and in 
a short time she blew up. A flag of truce had been sent to the 
Tonnant, bat she refused to submit j on which the Theseus and 
Leander going down to her, and the Swiftsure following, she struck 
without further resistance. This completed the conquest of the 
Trench fleet in the Bay of Aboukir, and the British flag rod* 
triumphant on the Egyptian seas. 

The great length of this interesting extral, obliges us to 
postpone the further consideration of this well written 
volume to a future occasion ; when we shall point out some 
few instances, where we conceive our author to be liable to 
censure. 

[To be centlnutJt 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 2Jf 

Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt, in. company will) several Di-visiont 
of the French Army t during the Campaigns of General BONAPARTJS 
in that Country, and published under his immediate Patronage, by 
VIVA NT DEMON. Embellished with numerous Engravings . Trans- 
lated by ARTHUR AIKJH. In a vols. ^to.page: t about 670. 

The tame work in three volumes, 8i>0. pages 1042. 

Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt, during the Campaigns of General 
BONAPARTE. 2tyViVANT DENON. Translated from the French. 
To -which is prefixed, an Historical Account of the Invasion of Egypt bj 
the French. By E. A. KEN DAL, Esq. Illustrated by Maps, 
c. In ^ <vo!s. %vo. pages 577. 



we first heard that M. Denon's work respe&ing 
Egypt, was about to be published, under the splendid 
patronage of the First Consul of France, we conceived it to 
be a work extremely likely to engage the attention of the 
English booksellers ; nor have we been deceived in our ideas, 
two translations of it, under different forms, have already 
appeared, and a third, we understand, is nearly ready for 
publication. We like this spirit of rivalship, because com- 
petition is always beneficial to the public, but we should 
have been better pleased to have seen it exerted on a happier 
subject. 

M. Denon was one of the learned men selected by Gene- 
ral Bonaparte to attend the French army in its expedition 
against Egypt, for the purpose of making drawings of the 
stupendous remains of antiquity that are to be met with in 
that wonderful country, to describe the natural produftions 
of Egypt, and the manners and customs of its inhabitants, 
and to record the military transactions of the French 
army. 

After witnessing the defeat of the French fleet in Aboukir 
Bay, by Admiral Nelson's squadion, which is erroneously 
and partially related, M. Denon proceeded with a division of 
the French army, under General Desaix, into Upper Egypt, 
in pursuit of the celebrated Murad Bey. Our author's ac- 
count of the curiosities which he saw on his route, is fre- 



2^.0 KAVAL LlTfcRATttRfe. 

quently interrupted by a detail of the atrocities cOrnmitte'dl 
by the French troops during their march ; their excesses 
are sometimes reprehended by our traveller ; but his humanity 
too often slumbers over the vices of hi* countrymen, and 
the unbridled licentiousness of a profligate and debauched 
soldiery is frequently treated with the utmost levity of ob- 
servation. A mistaken notion prevailed in England, soon 
after the invasion of Egypt, that the French were received 
by the inhabitants of that country as allies and benefactors ; 
but the very reverse appears from our author to have been 
the case, and to borrow the words of one of the translators* 
Mr, Aikin, " so far were they from conciliating the esteem 
of the Egyptians, that the French dominion was confined to 
the range of their cannon, and their stragglers were cut off 
like proscribed beasts of prey." Of our author's morality, 
the following is so curious a specimen, that we should be 
sorry not to hold it out to the indignation of our readers j 
and we confess that we are somewhat surprised that two 
English translators should have passed it over without a 
single word of reprehension. Speaking of a lady, the wife 
of a Frank, whose portrait embellishes both translations, M. 
Denon says, (we follow Mr. Kendal's translation,) 

She was beautiful, of amiable manners, and she loved her husband j 
twit she was not amiable enough to love him alone : his jealousy was the 
caiwe of continual noisy quarrels ; on her submission, she constantly 
promised to renounce the objedl of his jealousy, but the next day 
there was new affliction, she would weep and repent again ; still her 
husband had always some fresh cause for scolding. She lived oppo^ 
site my windows, the street was narrow, and this alone naturally ren- 
dered me the witness and confident of her sorrows. The plague ap- 
peared in the eity ; my fair neighbour was so sociable that she wai 
turc to receive and give it ; she actually did receive it from her last 
paramour ; she honestly gave it to her husband, and all the three died. 
/ regretted her, the singular goodness of her heart, the artlessness of hef 
offences, the sincerity of her tears, had interested me ; and this so much 
the more, as that, a simple confident, I had had no occasion to quarrel 
with her, either as her husband, or as her lover ; and that, happily, I 
was not at Rashid, when the plague desolated this [that] part of the 
ouutry. 

4 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 



241 



In Mr. Aikin's translation, the passage which we have 
given is rather softened, but we believe, in this instance, 
Mr. Kendal's approaches nearest to the spirit of the original. 
It would be to insult the feelings of our readers to make any 
Comments on a passage so offensive to virtue, and irre- 
concileable with the duties of civilized life. M. Denon's 
amiable Egyptian may meet with admirers, and apologists 
for her ari/e&s offences, among his countrymen ; but th 
honest moral feelings and Habits of our nation, we trust, 
will always lead us to revolt at such a character. 

The most interesting part of M. Denon's work is certainly 
that where he appears as an artist; and the parts of Egypt 
which he visited abounded in subjects to exercise his pen 
and pencil. Following the route of the troops commanded 
by General Desaix, M. Denon successively explored the 
grand portico of Hermopolis, the remains of Tentyris, and 
the ruins of Thebes. Proceeding onward, he visited the 
temple of Esneh, the aikierit Latopoiis, with the beauty of 
\vhich he was particularly struck; and that of Edfu, or 
Apollinopolis Magna, one of the most magnificent and best 
preserved of the monuments of Egypt. From thence M. 
Denen crossed an arm of the desert to Syene or Assuan, on 
the frontiers, near which place the Nile enters Upper Egypt ; 
here he spent some time, examining the beautiful island of 
iPhiloe, and its stupendous antiquities ; the cataracts of the 
Nile, and the quarries of Gebel Silsilis. 

On the right bank of the Nile, M. Denon visited Ombos, 
the city of the Crocodile, and Coptos, that of Juno Lucina. 
From thence he returned to Keneh, and after making some 
stay at that place, he accompanied a party of the army over 
the desert to Cosseir, on the Red Sea. Returning from 
thence again to Keneh, he had opportunities of making 
repeated visits to Edfu, Esneh, Hermontis, Thebes, and 
Tentyris, by which means his drawings of those places were 
multiplied and corrected ; and he was enabled to give much 
curious information on the antiquities of Egypt. In one 

. BoLVlII. i J 



t^t NAVAL LITERATURE. 

of his expeditions to Thebes, M. Denon had the good 
fortune to obtain a roll of papyrus, found in the hand of a 
fine mummy, a manuscript which boasts an antiquity of forty 
centuries, and unquestionably proves that the Egyptians had 
written books. 

M. Denon was one of the chosen few who accompanied 
General Bonaparte in his flight from Egypt, and conse- 
quently his narrative of the expedition does not come down 
to the period of the landing of the British forces at Alex- 
andria. Having now given a hasty sketch of M. Denon's 
travels, we must do him the justice to observe, that what- 
ever relates to the arts, he describes with accuracy, vivacity, 
and intelligence ; he has surveyed with no common eye, the 
gigantic remains of antiquity with which Egypt is covered, 
and his drawings, even at second hand, are spirited, bold, 
and striking. Without any pretensions to the learning of 
Pocock, and wanting the amiable modesty of Niebuhr, his 
work, nevertheless, excites a considerable degree of interest, 
and may be read with instruction by those, who are desirous 
of information respecting a country so full of wonders as 
Egypt. However, we think it by no means deserving the 
great eclat with which it has been ushered into the world. 

It remains for us now to say a few words of the transla- 
tions, both of which diffet in some respefts from the 
original work. The narrative, which in the original is one 
continual journal, from the embarkation of the author at 
Toulon,' to his landing again in France, at Frejus, is divided 
by Mr. Aikin into chapters, an obvious and agreeable im- 
provement ; and some notes of the original are incorporated 
with the text. Of Mr. Aikin's translation we can safely 
pronounce, that it is faithful and spirited, and if the plates- 
with which it is enriched (fifty- nine in number), are not 
above mediocrity, and (we cannot say much in their praise), 
they are not worse than what we have met with in books of 
a similar description ; from this negative praise, however, 
we must except the map of Upper Egypt, prefixed to the 
second volume, which is the most wretched engraving of the 
kind that ever came under our inspection* According to 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 243 

Mr. Kendal's own account, his translation is compressed, 
rather than abridged, from the original ; and the journal 
form is retained without any division into chapters, with 
this singularity, that M. Denon is sometimes made to speak 
in the third, and sometimes in the first, person, whereby a 
disagreeable confusion arises. The number of plates which 
accompany this edition are very limited, and what have been 
sa;d of the former, may with great propriety be applied to 
these. 

For the present we shall take our leave of M. Denon, sub- 
joining, from Mr. Aikin's translation, his account of the 
capture of the island of Malta, which may be considered as 
a kind of accompanyment to our description of that 
place*, and from it our readers may see, that we were 
perfectly correft in our statement respecting the surrender 
of the island to the French. 

At five in the afternoon we were off Cumino and Cuminotto, two 
islots which lie between Gozo and Malta, and which, together with 
these islands, constitute the whole of the sovereignty of the Grand 
Master. There are several small fortresses to protect these islots from 
the Barbary pirates, and to prevent them from establishing themselves 
there when the Maltese gallies are no longer at sea. ,One of our 
barks approached, but a landing was refused : she sent her small boat 
to sound the anchoring grounds. At six o'clock we descried Malta, 
the aspect of which delighted me as much as when I first saw it. Two 
paltry barks came out to offer us tobacco. The evening closed, and 
not a light was to be discovered in the city. Our frigate was off the 
entrance of the port, within Jess than a gun-shot of Fort St. Elmo. 
Orders were given to prepare for landing the troops. At nine o'clock 
a signal was made for the ships to take their stations ; there was little 
or no wind, the ships of the line made night signals relative to these 
movements, and to those of the convoy. Rockets were let off, and 
guns fired, in consequence of which all the lights were extinguished 
in the port. Our Captain went on i> ard the flag ship, but on his 
return concealed from us the orders he had received. 

On the loth, at four in the morning, having been carried away by 
the strength of the currents, we were, to leeward of the island, the 
eastern part of which was in sight : it was still calm. I made a 
4'awing of the whole of the island of Gozo, and of the two islets* tQ 

* See page iai, of thii volume. 



24.4 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

give an idea of the general form of this groupi and of its surface pa 
the horizontal line of the sea. 

A gentle breeze sprung up, and advantage was taken cf it to form 
a. semi-circular line, one of the extremities of which terminated at St. 
Catharine's point, and the other a league to the left of the city, 
blocking the port. The centre was stationed off forts St. Elmo and 
St. Angelo ; and the convoy at anchor between Cumino and Gozo. 
Immediately after, a shot was fired from fprt St. Catharine, levelled 
at the barks which approached the shore, and at the troops for land- 
ing under the command of General Desaix. Instantly another shot 
xvas fired from the fortress which commands the city, and oh this 
fortress the standard of the religion was displayed, 'and at the saine 
time that, at the other extremity of the line of our vessels, our boats 
were employed in landing troops and field-pieces. Scarcely were they 
formed on the beach, when they proceeded to the attack of two posts, 
the garrisons of which retreated after a momentary resistance. The 
batteries of all the forts now commenced a fire on the ships and de- 
barkations. This fire they kept up 'till the evening, with an impru- 
dent precipitation, which betrayed their fears and confusion. At ten 
o'clock we saw our troops ascend the nearest height, and march to 
the rear of Valetta, to oppose a sortie made by the besieged, who 
were driven within the walls, and under the batteries. The firing 
was kept up until night. This attempt on the part of the knights, 
aided by the peasants, was fatal to them. During their absence there 
had been tumults in the city, where the populace massacred several of 
them on thtir return. 

The wind dying away, we took advantage of the little that remained 
to join the ships of the line, from an apprehension of being becalmed, 
and of being thus exposed to the fire of two Maltese gallics which "had 
anchored off the entrance of the port. I was constantly on deck, and, 
with a spying glass in hand, could have kept a journal of all that passed 
in the city, and have noted in a manner the degree of activity of the 
passions by which the movements were guided. The first day all was 
in martial array, the knights in full 'uniform, and a constant communi- 
cation k; pt up between the city aiid the forts, into which provisions 
and ammunition of every kind were thrown. Every thing, in short, 
indicated hostility. On the second day the movements were confined 
to an agitated" state. A part only of the knights were in uiiifoim : 
they disputed with each other, but had ceased to aft. 

On the i ith,at day break, the state of things was pretty much the 

is on the preceding evening. A slow and insignificant fire was 

kept up by the besieged. Bonaparte had returned on board ;~ and 

General Rtgnicr, whp had made himself master of Gozo, had sent 



NAVAL UTBRATJIRE. 245 

off several prisoners, Frenchmen. After having questioned them, 
Bonaparte said to them with a stern voice : " Since you have taken up 
arms against your country, you should have known how to die. I 
will not accept such prisoners ; you may, therefore, return to Malt?i 
which is not yet in my possession." 

A bark left the port : we sent a small boat to hail her, and to 
conduct her to the Commander in Chief. When I saw this small 
bark carry at her stern the standard of the Religion, sailing humbly 
beneath the ramparts, which had for two years victoriously resisted 
all the forces of the East, commanded by the terrible Dragut ; when 
I figured to myself this accumulated glory, acquired and preserved 
during several ages, melt away when opposed to the fortune of Bona- 
parte, I thought I heard the ghosts of Lisle- Adam and Lavalette 
vent their dismal lamentations, and I fancied I saw Time make to 
Philosophy the illustrious sacrifice of the most venerable of all illusions. 
At eleven o'clock another bark came off with a flag of truce. It 
had on board several knights who had quitted Malta, and who did 
not wish to be comprehended among those by whom resistance had 
been made. It was easy to collect from their conversation that the 
Maltese had but few resources left. At four in the afternoon the 
Junon was within half gun-shot of the island : I had a distinct view 
of the forts, in which I could perceive fewer men than guns. 

The gates of the forts were shut, and there was no longer any 
communication between them and the city ; a circumstance which 
manifested a distrust and misunderstanding between the inhabitants 
and the knights, junot, an aid-de-camp, was sent with the General's 
ultimatum. A few minutes after, a deputation of twelve Maltese 
commissaries went on board the Orient. We were stationed exafUy 
opposite the city, vyhich runs from north to south, and which we could 
see from one extremity to the other, the streets being in a right line. 
They were as well lighted as they were obscure on the night of our 
arrival. 

On the 1 2th, in the morning, we were informed that the General's 
aid- dc. camp had been very favourably received by the inhabitants. I 
could distinguish, with the help of my glass, that the palisade by 
which fort St. Elmo is enclosed was assailed by a multitude of persons. 
Those who were withinside were seated on the walls of the batteries, 
in' an attitude which denoted anxious expectation. At half afcer 
eleven, the bark which had brought the flag of truce, and which had 
remained under her stern during the night, left the Orient. We 
received at the same time orders to hoist our colours, and, a moment 
after, the signal was made that Malta was in our possession. 



KAVAL LITERATURE. 



NAVAL PUBLICATIONS. 



IN compliance with the wishes of many of our Correspondent?, 
\re shall for the future allot a certain portion of r he NAVAL CHRO- 
NICLE, for the purpose of announcing to our Readers, such Naval 
Works as have lately been published, and we request that the Authors 
w Publishers of this department of Literature, will send copies of 
The Same to the Naval Chronicle- OfH'*<*, 103, Shoe Lane ; not only for 
the purpose of appearing in our Monthly Catalogue, but likewise 
to be reviewed. 

THE SPIRIT OF MARINE LAW, or Compendium of the Statutes relating to 
the Admiralty; being a concise but perspicuous Abridgment of all t|ie \dls 
relative to Navigation. By I- I. Maxwell, ~"sq. of the Hon. Society of the 
Temple, and late of the Royal Navy, i Vol. Odavo. 

THE NAVAL T.^ARDIAN. By Charles Fletcher, M. D. formerly a Surgeon 
in the Navy. Dedicated by Permission, to the 1< ight Honourable the Lore's 
Commissioners of the Admiralty. 2 Vols. Octavo. 

Under the Patronage of the Hon. East India Company, THE BRITISH 
MARINER'S DIK ECTOBY, and GUIDB to the TRADE and NAVIGATION of the 
INDIAN and CHINA SEAS: Containing fnstru&iors fpr Navigating from 
Europe to India and China, and from Port to port in those Regions, and Parts 
adjacent; with an Account of the 1 rade, Mercantile Habits, Manners, and 
Customs, of rhe Natives. By H. ivj. Elmore, many years a Commander in the 
Country Service in India, and late Commander of the Varuna Extra East 
Jndiamar. 

Dedicated by permission, to the Right Hon. the Eari of St. V 'r. cent, printed 
in Royal Quarto, and embellished vrith forty-two Plat.-, and r. "hart of the 
Mediterranean, engraved in .'quatinta by Stadler, from :: - <nai Drawings by 
the Author, A VOYAGE up the MEDITERRANEANS i& ' ! IV.'ajesty'sShp th 
Swiftsure, one of the Squadron undt-r the command of Rear- Admiral Sir 
Horatio Nelson, K. B. now Viscount and Earoa I\'elson of t> ; Kile, *nd Duke 
of Bronte in Sicily; with a Description cf the Battle of the 1 lie <>a the ist of 
August 1798, and a Detail of Events that occurred subf.,que..' t. the Batrl-j in 
various parts of the Mediterranean. By the Rev. Cooper "A"iily:.ms, '. M- iatc 
of Enianuel Collegt, Cambridge. Vicar of Exiling, Suffolk, (. haplain of his Ma- 
jesty's ship the Swiftsure, and Domestic Chaplain to the Earl of St. Vincent. 

A SUMMARY of NAVAL and MAR ITIME EVENTS, in Chronological Order, 
from the time of the Romans to the Definitive Treaty of Peace ; with an Ap- 
pendix, containing a Periodical State of the Royal Navy of Great Britain, and of 
rhofe of the other Powers of Europe ; the loss each has sustained in Ships of 
"War, Privateers, &c. at the conclusion of each War ; the Lines of Battle, 
fleets, and .Squadrons. Also a List of those Persons who have served in th? 
various Offices in the Naval Department ; together with that of the Admirals 
and Captairs of the Royal Navy, from a very early Period. By Isaac Schom- 
bcrg, Esq. Captain of the Royal Navy. 

Asiatic Annual Register, Vol. III. The ASIATIC ANNUAL REGISTER : or 
a View of the History of Hindustan, and of the Politics, Commerce, and. 
Literature of Asia, for the year 1801. 

A VOYAGE round the WORLD, performed during the Years 1790, 1791, and 
1792, by Etienne lV:archand; preceded by an Historical Introduction, and 
illustrated by Charts, &c. Translated from the French of C. P. Claret 
Fleurieu, of the National Institute of Arts and Sciences, and of the Board of 
Longitude of France. 



POETRY. 247 

The First Volume of the NAVAL HISTORY of the LATI WAR, compiled 
from authentic Documents. By William Stewart Rose. 

A TREATISE of the LAW relative to MERCHANT SHIPS and SEAMEN, in 
Four .Parts; i, Of the Owners of Merchant Ships ; z, Of the Persons em- 
ployed in the Navigation thereof ; 3, Of the Carriage of Goods therein ; 4, C" 
the Wages of Merchant Seamen. By Charles Abbott, of the Inner Temple, 
Barrister at Law. 

MODERN GEOGRAFHT : A .Description of the Empires, Kingdoms, States, 
and Colonies, with the Oceans, Seas, and Isles, in all Farts of the World; 
including the most recent Discoveries and Political Alterations. By John Pin- 
kerton. The Astronomical Introduction by the Rev. S. Vince, A.M. F.R-S. 
and Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy in the 
University of Cambridge. To the whole is added, a Catalogue of the best 
Maps and Books of Travels, in all Languages, and an ample Index. In Two 
Volumes Quarto, with numerous Maps, drawn under the Direction, and with 
tlie last Improvements of Arrovvsmith, and engraved in. a new Manner by 
Lowry, forming an universal Modern Atlas. 

An ACCOUNT of a GEOGRAPHICAL and ASTRONOMICAL EXPEDITION to 
the Northern Parts of RUSSIA, for ascertaining the Degrees of Latitude and 
Longitude of the Mouth of the River Kovima ; of the whole Coast of TshutskL, 
to East Cape : and of the Islands in the Eastern Ocean, stretching to the 
American Coast. Performed by Command of her Imperial Majesty, Cathciii..- 
the Second, Empress of all the Kussias, by Commodore Joseph Billings, in tlic 
Years 1785 to 1794. The whole narrated from, the original Papers, bv Martin 
SaMer, Secretary to the Lxpedition. Elegantly printed in Quarto, and illus- 
trated by a Chart, and numerous other .Engravings of Views, &.c. 

A Second Volume of an ACCOUNT of the EXGLIS.U COLONY in NEW Sea i H 
WALES, comprising the Transactions of the Settlement for Four Years sail 
sequent to the former Account ; and containing some interesting Particulars of 
the Discovery of Bas Strait, and further Observations on the Customs and 
Manners of the Natives of New Holland, by Lieutenant-Colonel Co'lius, Author 
of the former Volume-. Handsomely printed ia Quarto, with a Map, and other 
Engravings of Views, Natural History, &c. 

VOYAGES from MONTREAL, on the River St. Lawrence, through the Con- 
tinent of \orth America, to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans, in the Ye<rs 1789 
and 1793. With a Preliminary Account of the Rise, Progress, and preset*: 
State of the Fur Trade of that Country, by Sir Alexander Mackenzie. Quarto, 
illustrated with M j| s. 

pirtrv* 



SONG 

THE DEFEAT OF CONKLANS* FLEET BY STR B DW. 

npHE wat'iy God, great Neptune, lay 
-** In dalliance soft and amorous playv 

On Amphitrite's breast ; 
When uproar rear'd her horrid head, 
The trident shook, the Nereids fled-, 
And aU their fears corifest. 

i 
Loud thunder shook the vast domainj 

The liquid world was wrapt in flame', 
The god amazed, spcke ! 



748 fOEtRY. 

Go forth, ye winds, and make it known* 
Who dares to shake my coral throne, 
And fill my realms with smoke. 

The winds, obsequious at his nod, 
Sprang strongly up t'obey their god, 

And saw two fleets away ; 
The one, victorious Hawke, was thine B 
The other Conflans* wretched line, 

In terror and dismay. 

Then down descend and tell their chief, 
That France was ruin'd past relief, . 

And Hawke triumphant rode ; 
Hawke, cried the chief, pray who is he 
That dares usurp my power at sea, 

And thus insult a god. 

The winds reply'd, in distant lands 

There lives a king, who Hawke commands, 

Who scorns all foreign force ; 
And when his floating castles roll, 
From sea to sea, from pole to pole. 

Great Hawke dire&s their course. 

Or when his winged bullets fly, 
To punish fraud or perfidy, 

Or scourge a guilty land ; 
Then gallant Hawke serenely great, 
Tho* death and honour round him wait^ 

Performs the dread command. 

Neptune with wonder heard the story 
Of GEORGE'S sway and Britain's glory?, 

Which time can ne'er subdue ; 
Boscawen's deeds, and Saunders* fame, 
Join'd to great Wolfe's immortal name, 

Cried out can this be true. 

A King, he needs must be a god, 
Who has such heroes at his nod, 

To conquer earth and sea ; 
I give my trident and my crown, 
As tribute due to such renown, 

Great GEORGB shall rule for me. 



249 



LINES 

AN OBELISK ERECTED BY A GENTLEMAN IN THE WEST 
AS A DIRECTION TO SAILORS. 

HOW much the man to human kind a friend, 
Who bade this pile a distant warning lend J 
With caution teach the mariner to guide 
His bark, in safety, o'er the dang'rous tide. 
This strand was strewed with fathers, husbands, dead, 
The coast their sons are doom'd nd more to tread, 
But mourning widows, and an orphan race, 
Shall cease to brand with infamy the place. 
Thy guidance lent, the deep shall safe restore, 
Returning Britons to their native shore, 
Let pointed rocks the foaming billows brave 
Or (yet more fatal) luik beneath the wave; 
Let dreadful quicksands hide insidious here, 
Let men, dire wretches (whom e'en sailors fear !) 
Let men exult with savage joy to gain, 
By pillage, shameful trophies of the slain. 
Quicksands, rocks, and men in vain combine 
To glut the tomb the means to save are thine. 



MONTHLY REGISTER 



LA FORTUNEE FRIGATE. 

E feel much satisfaction in being enabled to lay before our Readers 
the following particulars relative to the Fortunee frigate, Capt. 
Clements, which ship was laid to have been totally lost in the Texel : 
' On the 8th of September, the Fortunee, Diamond, Alcmene, and 
Autumn, sailed from the Downs, with Dutch troops on board for the 
Texel. On the loth they bore up for the TeXel, in a heavy gale of 
wind from W. S. W. which blew so hard that no pilots could venture 
off. The Fortunee and Diamond struck several times in going in ; and 
owing to the Dover pilot mistaking the buoy, the Fortunee ran on the 
find, which the Diamond only escaped by coming to an anchor. la 
the course of the night the storm so much increased, that it was 
thought advisable to cut away the Fortunee's masts, notwithstanding 
which she beat off her rudder, and w.s filling very fast, when the crew 
deserted her. The Diamond kept firing guns of distress all night; 
but it continued to blow so very hard that no assistance could be givep 
hr. The next morning she was got into the Texel. Onther$:hthe 
weather moderated, when, by the great exertions of the Captain 
and Officers of the Fortunee, assisted by the crews of the other .ships, 
she was weighed, and is now safe anchored in theDiep, where she is -si- 
*8ato.<$ion.fBoI.VIII. ic K 



JO MONTHLY REGISTER 

ting in jury-masts to proceed to England, accompanied by the Magi- 
cienne, Captain Vansitta. t The Alcmene and Autumn went into the 
Texel, through the Inner Channel, and got safe in. 

THE SOCIETY OF SHIP-OWNKRS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

IN order more effectually, at this alarming crisis, to promote and 
. protect the Shipping Interest of Great Britain, and to prevent any 
further infringements of the Navigation Laws ; and also for the 
purpose of taking not only such measures for the preservation of the 
rights which the Legislature has, in its wisdom, conferred on the 
Owners of British Ships ; but likewise to relieve them from various 
extortions and inconveniences to which they were then, or may here- 
after, be liable It was resolved, at a General Meeting of Ship Owners, 
convened for that purpose, on the zzd of June last, in London, to form 
and establish a Society of Ship-Owners, under the denomination of 
" THE SOCIETY OF SHIP OWNERS OF GREAT BRITAIN," with Com- 
mittees to be annually chosen from amongst them in London and at the 
Out-Ports ; and the following persons were appointed the Committee 
for the Port of London for the year ensuing : 

Mess. Moses Agar Mess. Archibald Heurtley 

Jos. and Peter Ainsley John Jackson 

John Akenhead Thomas Keddey 

Tho. and Rob. Brown Peter Kennion. 

John Blacket John Lyall 

Ralph Clarke William Marshall 

"William Clark, jun. Richard Mordey 

Norrifon Ccverdale William Moorscm 

Robert Curling Thorr-is Metcaife 

William Curling William Masterman 

Anthony Collins D. Macarthy 

Jofeph and W. Dowson Robert Pedder 

Thomas Davison Thomas Rowcroft 

James Dunning Joshua Reeve 

George French Isaac Robinson 

William Fairies John Shuttleworth 

Henry Fletcher Henry Smithers 

John Faulder Daniel Stephens 

Thomas Gillespy J. R. Sherman 

Sir Cuth, Heron, Bart. William Thompson 

Mess. John Hill, Chairman John Tulloch 

Heathfield, Pycroft, and Thomas and George Wil- 

Heathfield kinson 

William Havelock Richard Wilson, jun. 

Thomas Hayman Thomas S. Williams 

Ives Hurry j ohn Woodcock. 
Hough and Jackson 

Mr. John Hill, Mr. Thomas Gillespy, and Mr. Isaac Robinson, were 
appointed Trustees ; and Nathaniel Atcheson, Esq. F. A. S. P. R. I. 
was appointed Secretary to the General Meetings, and to the Com- 
e for the Port of London j and since, Thomas Sanderson, Esq. 
Ijas been ^pointed Secretary to the Committee for the Port of Sunder- 
Jand j William Blackburn, Esq. Secretary to the Committee of Ship- 
Owners at South Shields , and William Harrison, Esq. Secretary to the 
Cnnn.ttee of Ship Owners at North Shields ; and the Ship Owners at 
B istol, Leith, K.rkaldce, Barlington, and many other Ports, have 
ieterm.ned to co-operate with the London Committee in promoting 
the various and important objefts of the Society. 



OF NAVAL EVENTS. 



EAST-INDIA INTELLIGENCE. 



A LETTER from Prince of Wales's Island, dated the 4th of November, 
says, " This day was landed from the Hon. Company's ship the Duke of Buc- 
cleugh, Captain Wall, under a royal salute from his Majesty's ship ion, of 
64 guns, and all the Indiamen for China, an original painting, in full length, 
of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, which His Royal Highness has " 
been graciously pleased to send as a mark of his respect to the Merchants here, 
to be put up in the Government louse." 

A most superb entertainment, says a letter lately received from Bombay, has 
been given at Goa by his Excellency the Captain-General and Viceroy, to Co- 
lonel Sir William Clarke, the British Officers serving there, and a select party 
of Portuguese Gentlemen. The band of the 84th regiment played appropriate 
tunes, and the evening terminated with great festivity 

A letter received from Calcutta, dated the z 8th of January last, says, " On 
Monday arrived in the River his Majesty's ship Sea-Horse, of 38 gns, Capt. 
Foote, from Englan , whence she sailed on the gth of September." 

The Hon East India Company's ships, the nn, Captain Alexander Sinclair ; 
the Caledonian, Captain John 'raig ; and the General Stuart, Captain Robert 
Abbon Mash, arrived at Fort -St. George, from t- ngland, on the 4th day of 
February 1-m. The ^overeign, Captain Gilbert Mitchell, arrived at Bombay 
the 9th of February, and the Northampton. Captain Robert Barker, arrived at 
Bombay from i ngland the I ith 'of February. 

On the joth of January anchored, in the harbour of Bombay, the Hon. 
Company's cruizer the v iper icutenant Thomas i>adc Beaty, commander, 
from Aujengo, from whence she sailed on the nth, and touched at Cniiloa 
and Cochin. She left all the Indiamen at Qui;on on the izth, in the expecta- 
tion of prosecuting their voyage In the end ot the month. 'Ihe Viper fell in 
with and spoke the y.icht and Penelope, all well; the Viper Afo spoke the 
Friendship, Captain Dawson, bound to China. Captain Matthew liratnan, of 
the Bombay Military Establishment, arrived in the Viper from Cochin. 

The Hon. East India Company ship the Duke of Montrose, Captain Patrick 
Burt, had not arrived at the Island of St. Helena on the jthof uue, though 
slie sailed from Bengal in company with the Iiarl Howe and Henry Dundas, 
both of which have arrived in England. It is said the Duke of \lontrose is a 
very bad sailer, and hence her being out so long is attributed^ This is the last 
voyage she has to perform. 

At a late Admiralty Session at Calcutta, Joao Elirio, a native of Manilla, 
was tried for the murder of Captain J. George, on board the ship Marianne, 
in January last. He was found guilty, and executed the 3d of February, at 
the Old Fort Ghaut, pursuant to his sentence His body was afterwards carried 
down the river, to be hung in chains on the banks of the Hooaly. 

The principal Merchants of : ombay have presented a sword to Captain Wil- 
liam Selby, of the Hon, Company's Marine of that Establishment, in return 
for his judicious conduct while Commodore on the Surat station, whereby the 
trade has been protected from piracy and plunder. 

We have just received a letter from Prince of Wales's Island, which says, 
" Penang is much improved ; many houses building ; new roads making; new 
ships laid down; two vessels, one building by Captain Elliot, burthen 18,000 
bags of rice, and another by Captain Scott. The market is at present over- 
stocked with European articles, sixteen Indiamen having touched there this 
season." 

A letter received by the Henry Dundas from Calcutta, mentions the arrival 
in the river of the ship l.alla, Captain Young, from Bombay, on the 25th of 
February. Unfortunately, in proceeding up to town, and having advanced 



*5* MONTHLY REGISTER 

nearly to Garden Reach, this ill-fated ship caught fire about six o'clock, an4 
was totally consumed. Some valuable horse*, which weie on board, miserably 
chared the same fate. No property whatever was saved. The Officers and the 
greater part of the crew were saved. 

It is computed that the Honourable East India Company have at present in 
their employ 86,782 tons of shipping, which are contained in ninety three 
ships ; the cost of which, when equipped, is said to amount to about 
4,790,000!. 

In addition to the tonnage sent out to China this season, the ships Coroman- 
del, Rolla, Perseus, and Atlas, are engaged by the East India Company to 
bring home cargoes from China. 

The ship Porcher, Captain Blake, which is reported to have bften captured 
before the signing of the Preliminaries of Peace, with a valuable cargo, ha 
performed one voyage to England, and arrived in September 1800 from Bengal, 
bhe received permission to return thither soon afterwards, and was on her second 
voyage when the capture is said to have taken place. 

By the last accounts from Malacca, we are informed, the brig Sumatra, on 
her return from Rhio, fell in with a fleet of pirate prows, to the number of 
forty, belonging to Raja Mooda, formerly Rhio, which engaged him for nearly 
two day*, and were on the point of boarding, when a bieeze enabled the brig 
to escape. 

We understand from Bengal, that it is in contemplation to establish a factory 
at Tangalle, in Ceylon, the Bay being very commodious, and the air particu- 
larly salubrious. The streets in Columbo have been made wide and spacious, 
the buildings being ere&ed in the modern taste ; and the Governor's house is 
rendered a very handsome structure. 

A very valuable present has been sent from Cohimbo to the King of Candia, 
consisting of six horses of a certain description. The Candians hold those in 
the greatest estimation which are large, and nearly white, being, in their opi- 
nion, the requisites that constitute their beauty. These people too have a great 
veneration for certain marks on horses, which they consider as portentous of 
fortunate events. The horses were presented to the King at his Court, in the 
name of his Excellency Mr. North. 

We learn from Bombay, that quicksilver has been found in a pure state at 
Cottah, in Columbo. A pit has been dug to the depth of fourteen feet, and 
the quicksilver is found in five different parts of it, at a small distance from 
each other, in strata of earth nearly two feet thick ; eight or nine pounds weight 
have been collected : it appears in small globes. We further learn, that orders 
have been issued at Columbo, prohibiting the cutting of timber in the Compa- 
ny's forests, without authority for that purpose. 

ISLAND OF TERN ATE. 

By the late arrivals from the Fast Indies, we are enabled to state s^nie cir- 
cumstances relative to the capture of the Inland of Ternare, as communicated 
in a letter received by the Earl Howe, dated the 17th of February. On the 
attack of this settlement, the vessels belonging to the Bombay marine had par- 
ticularly an opportunity of distinguishing themselves ; the Swift, commanded 
by Lieutenant John Hayes, sustained three very close and desperate attacks with 
Fort Orange, and the different batteries on the Island ; in the last attack ho 
was most gallantly supported by the Star, commanded by Lieutenant Scott : 
both vessels lay stationary within pistol-shot of Fort Orange for upwards of 
fifty minutes} thry were engaged upwards of two hours, and exposed to a 
heavy, cros, and Hiking hre, from guns of twenty-four, eighteen, and twelve 
pounders, which did great damage to their saiU, rigging, masts, and yards; 
but their laying so close to the enemy's batteries, and the probability of their 
not hcinj;; ible to depress their guns sufficiently, prevented their suffering ma- 
terially m their hulls, and accounts for the small number of men killed and 
wounded on ihe oicasion. The Swift had only one man killed and clever: 
wounded, and the Star had four killed. 



OP NAVAL EVENTS. 2^3 

A private letter from Bombay informs us, that upwards of 4OO,coolbs. weight 
of cinnamon were to be shipped from Columbo this year, the produce of the 
Candian territories; and that a greater quantity was expe&ed nest season, in 
consequence of the prunings, which afforded air and space to the plants in the 
Marendahn. 

Some time since, the Dove, Captain Duffin, was lost off the Little Anda- 
mans, in the Indian Sea. when most of the crew reached the shore. The na- 
tives of these islands have been represented as cannibals, and ferocious in the 
extreme; but Captain Duffin and his people found them to be mild, inoffen- 
sive, and friendly. Their sole occupation is climbing the rocks, and seeking a 
slender and precarious meal of fish; these, during the tempestuous season, can- 
not he obtained, and famine is the consequence. They constantly divided their 
fmall pittance amongst our sailors, notwithstanding which many of them pe- 
rished with want. 

On the aoth of August, the arrival of the Mornington packet from Bengal, 
was announced at the India House. She sailed from Bengal the 191)1 of April, 
and from St. Helena the id of July. The Comet was at Kedgeree ready to 
atl. The Duke of Montrose spoke the Walmer Castle, Canton, and Thames, 
(outward bound,) on the pth of May, in lat. 30. 29. S. long. 38. 30. . all 
well. The Dover Castle, Asia, and extra ship Admiral Rainier, arrived at 
Linton, opposite Macao, with his Majesty's ship Arrogant, on the I9th of 
March. The Princess Charlotte had arrived at Amboyna ; the '1 rue Briton 
arrived at Whampoa the zist of March ; the Duke of Buccleugh left China 
the ipth ditto, and parted company on the izth of May, in thick hazy wea- 
ther, with the under-mentioned ships, under convoy of his Majesty's ship Lion, 
viz. Ganges, Warley, Alfred, Albion, Woodford, Taunton Castle, i,arl of 
Abcrgavenny, and Belvedere and Elizabeth extra ship. 

Passengers per Monarch, which ship we advised the arrival of yesterday from 
Madras, are 

Colonel U. Vigors, Captain Tichborne, Mr. Samuel Bontflower, Mr. J. 
Bulckley, Surgeon of the Princess Charlotte ; Mr. T. Shalack, in the Compa* 
nv's service; Captain Chitwood. of the 7^d regiment; Captain M'Gregor, of 
the poth regiment ; Lieutenant John Daniel, of the 74th regiment, in the 
King's service; Masters Hewett and G. T. Ness; Mrs- M. Hare. 

DOVER, dug. 30. The Purser of the V.'alpole East Indiaman landed here 
this moining at five o'clock, with dispatches i'or the East India Company, and 
Captain Brown and family landed this day : this gentleman has lost his right 
arm in India, and been very badly wounded in the head. The Duke of Buc- 
cleugh and Preston East Indiamen were in company with her. It being quite 
calm, and a very thick fog, these ships have been in some danger between 
Dover and Folkstone, but are now going with u gentle breeze for the Downs. 

The Company's ships the Earl Howe, Captain Burrowes, and the Henry 
Dundas, Captain Canuthers, lately arrived, have had an uncommonly quick 
passage from the Island of St. Helena, situated in the latitude of 15. 55. South; 
though very deeply laden. These ships have scarcely been six weeks on their 
voyage from St. Helena, and only four months from Bengal, having left the 
pilot in March. 

The late addition which the Court of Directors of the East India Company 
Rave made to the tonnage already sent to India ;md China this season, makes 
the total number of ships to amount to forty-three, viz. seven to Coast and 
Bay, seven to China dire<l, six to Bengal direct, three to Coast and China, 
three to Bombay and China, two to Madras, Bombay, and Chm.i, one to St. 
Helena and China, two to St. Helena and Bengal, two to Bengal and Ben- 
coolen, one to Madras direct, two to Madras and the Spice Islands, three to 
Bombay, one to Bombay and Bengal, one to St. Helena, Bencoolen, and China, 
and two to Madeira, Coast and Bay. 

We have the pleasure to announce the safe arrival in the Downs of the Ho- 
nourable East India Company's ships the Woodford, Captain James .Martin; 



24 MONTHLY REGISTER 

th Alfred, Captain James Farquharson ; the Ganges, Captain Alexander Grey; 
the Albion, Captain Andrew Timbrill; the Taunton Castle, Captain T. B. 
Pierce ; and the Belvedere, Captain James Peter Fearon ; under convoy of his 
Majesty's ship the Lion. The above ships left Macao on the id day of April, 
arrived at the island of St. Helena the latter end of June, and sailed early in 
the month of July. 

The following Whalers have been licensed by the Honourable the Court of 
Directors of the East India Company, to proceed this season to the Eastward 
of the Cape of Good Hope, on the Southern Whale Fishery, viz. the Aurora, 
Elizabeth and Mary, British Tar, Astrea, Alexander, Georgiana, Mary, New 
Euphrates, Favourite, Commerce, Flirt, C harming Kitty, Resolution, Dubue, 
William Fenning, Policy, Pacific, Albion, and Edwinstow. 

At a Court of Directors of the East India Company, held at the India House, 
the following Gentlemen attended, and were sworn into the command of their 
respective ships, viz. Captain Alexander Cuming, of the Castle Eden, for 
the Presidency of Bengal ; Captain Andrew Patton, of the Ocean, for Madras, 
Bombay, and China. 

The tonnage for the service of the Honourable East India Company in the 
ensuing season, is expe&ed to be engaged next week. 

The Company's frigate the Nonsuch, has been discharged in Bengal in conse- 
quence of the peace, and the crew has been paid off, 

On the ist of September, a Court of Directors was held at the East India 
House, when Captain Anthony Murray was sworn into the command of the 
Lord Duncan. 

Letters from Bengal, dated March 26, advise the arrival there of his Majes- 
ty's ship Eurydice extra ships Anne, Caledonian, General Stuart, and Princess 
JViary. The extra ship Manship arrived in Bengal River, from Columbo, the 
ad of April. 

The Swallow Packet arrived at Fort St. George from Mocha, was shortly to 
sail for Europe. 

The East India Company's ships the Henry Addington, ; Ocean, 

Captain Patton ; Castle Eden, Captain Alexander Cuming: and Lord Duncan, 
Captain George Saltwell, lately engaged to proceed to the East ln>.irs, are to 
touch, in their outward passage, at the Cape of Good Hope, in order to 
take from thence to the East Indies the icmainder of the troops now left at 
that Colony. 

Sfft. 6 Advice was received at the Eaft India House of the safe arrival in 
the Downs of the Sarah Christiana, from Bengal, and the Earl of Alberga- 
venny and VVarley from China ; Sarah Christiana s*iled from St. Helena the 
Ijth of July, with the Elizabeth, and parted the 8th of -\ ugust in lat. 28. 3 I N. 
Jong. 31 46. W. the Betsey left St. Helena the icth of July; the Triton, 
from Bengal, had also sailed from St. Helena for England ; the Coldstream 
whaler arrived at St. Helena the I9th of July ; spoke with the Cirencester, 
Perseverance, and Alnwick Castle, in lat. 34. oo S and long 25. o. E. His 
Majesty's ship Lion, and China ships Ganges, Alfred, Albion, Woodford, 
Taunton Castle, and Belvedere, were to leave St. Helena the 23d of July. . 
The Coldstream, and Adventure Danish ship, last from Bombay, and brig Anna 
Josepha, from the Cape, were left at St Helena. The A6tive whaler sailed 
from St. Helena for England the nth of July. 

Passengers per Sarah Christiana Captain N. Macalista, Bengal Artillery; 
Mr I. L. Auriol, civil service ; Miss Sophia Johnson, child. 

PerWarley Geo. James Robarts, Esq. from Canton, of the Bengal civil 
service ; Rev. Mr. Voss and Lady. 

Sef't 8. A Court of Directors was held at the East India House, when the 
following ships were taken up, and thus timed : 

New ship Laikins, fo- Captain Dance ; Bombay Castle, Bombay and China ; 
ad new ship Anderson, fct. Helena, Beucoolcn, and. China; to be afloat the 



OP NAVAL EVENTS. 25$ 

a6th O&ober, to sail to Gravcscnd the 9th November, and to be In the Downs 
the i5th December. 

Hindostan, and new ship Borradaile. for Coast and China ; to be afloat the 
9th November, at Grave&end the afth ditto, and in the Downs the 3 ist of 
December. 

City of London, and new ship Hamilton, for St. Helena and Bengal ; and 
Admiral Gardner and Sir S. I ushington, for Coast and Bay ; afloat 
November ; Gravesend the 9th December, in the Downs the i4th January. 

New ship Queen, for Bombay ; Windham and Walpole, for Madras; 
afloat the 9th December, Gravesend the zzd ditto; and in the Downs the a;th 
January. 

Hugh Inglis and Calcutta, for Coast and Bay ; and new ship Charnock, Cap- 
tain Robertson, for Bengal ; afloat the gth January, at Gravesend the 23d ditto, 
and in the Downs a8th February. 

New ship Charnock, and Charlton, for Bengal; Wigram, and new ship, by 
Larkins, for China; afloat the 23d January, i8c3, at Gravesend the 6th February, 
in the Downs the I4th March. 

New ship Mestaer ; new ship St. Parbe, for Bombay and Madras ; new ship 
Mellish, for St. Helena and Bengal ; Exeter. Dorsetshire, and Coutts, for 
China; afloat the 6th February, at Gravesend the 2ist ditto, in the Downs the 
S9th March. 

Earl Spencer and Preston, for Bengal; new ship Bonham, for Bombay; and 
the Hope, and such other ships as are intended to compose the last fleet, for 
China ; afloat the 2ist February, at Gravesend the ;ch Maich ; in the Downs 
the ) 2th April. 

All the above ships to remain at Gravesend thirty days. 

The ship Princess Mary, Captain Andrew Grieve, is shortly expeded to 
arrive from Bengal, at which Presidency she was on the 2 th day of March 
last, with the Caledonian, Ann, and General Stuart, taking in cargoes for 
England. M he Swallow Packet, which has been out so long, was at Ma- 
dras on the 3d of April last, and, we understand, was to be dispatched to 
Europe. 

The following Gentlemen are appointed Commanders of the new regular 
ships, building for the service of the Honourable East India Company, viz. 
Capt. Thomas Garland Murray, of the ship building by Mr. Hamilton; Capt. 
John Price, of the ship building by Mr. Niestaer; Captain Milliken Craig, of 
the ship building by Mr. Agar ; Captain William Tryon White, of the ship 
building by Mr. Bonham ; Captain Robert Hudson, of the ship building by 
Mr. Borradaile ; Captain John F. Timmin-, if the ship building by Mr. Ander- 
son ; Captain Nathaniel Dance, of the ship building by Mr J. P- I.arkins ; 
Captain Thomas Larkins, of the ship building by ditto ; Captain William 
Stanley Clarke, cf the ship building by Mr. Wigram ; Captain William Gel- 
sone, of the *hip building by Mr. Mcllish ; Captain Thomas Hudson, of the 
shipbuilding by Mr. St. Barbe ; Captain G. Robertson, of the shipbuilding 
by Mr. Charnock ; and Captain Charles Lennox, of the ship building by ditto. 

The tonnage appropriated to China this reason, for the service of the East 
India Con >. ny, amounts to 15,648 tons, of which 7,200 tons are dire&ly con- 
signed to China, and 8,448 tons proceed circurously.by the way of Madras and 
Bombay. Only two ships are consigned direcily to Eombay, and seven direclly 
to Bengal. 

A letter fr^m Bombay, by the late dispatch, states, that Mr. Mannesty, the 
East India Company's agent at Pi^ssorah, has intimated, by a vessel dispatched 
from the julph, the total des>iuc"Hon of a. fleet of piratical Dows. under the 
immerihte orders of the ; jtorious free-booter Nassir Ebu -Swadie. The ship 
Governor Duncan, according to the same letter, was dispatched in quest of the 
pirate. Another vessel, we understand, has been engaged by Mr. Manncity 
in the room of the Pearl, captured in the Gulph. 



t?6 MONTHLY 

The Honourable East India Company's ship the Dover, Castle, Captain l*e*ef 
Sampson, whose arrival at Canton we have already announced, sailed from 
Bengal on the loth of December, having on board Colonel Hamilton, com- 
mander in chief of the troops, four Officers, and 350 Sepoys. His Majesty'* 
ship Romney, commanded by Captain Sir Home Popham, with the Company'* 
ship the Asia, and Admiral Rainier country ship, left Sangur Roads at the same 
time. On the a6th they arrived at Prince of Wales's Island, sailed from 
thence the ist of January, under convoy of his Majesty's ships Arrogant and 
Orpheus. The Romney parted for the Red Sea. On the 6th of January ar- 
rived at Malacca ; arrived at Amboyna the 4th of February ; and arrived off 
Lintin Island, China, the 2Qth of March. The troops were designed for the 
protection and defence of the Portuguese settlement at Macao, a town of 
China, in the province of Canton, seated in an island at the mouth of the 
river Tae. The Portuguese have been in possession of the harbour 150 years, 
but have only a fort and a small garrison. A Chinese Mandarin resides here to 
take care of the town and the neighbouring country. 

The following regular ships belonging to the Honourable" East India Com- 
pany, are now to arrive from the respective settlements in the East Indies, 
viz. Of the season 1801, from Bengal, the Duke of Montrose; from Ben - 
coolen, the Walpolc and Preston ; from the Molucca Islands, the Princess 
Charlotte ; from China, the Ganges, True Briton, Dover Castle, Asia, Duke 
of Bucdeugh, Warley, Alfred, Albion, Woodford, Taunton Castle, Belvedere, 
and Earl of Abergavenny. Of the season 1801, from St. Helena and China, 
the Arniston and Marquis of Ely ; from Bombay and China, the Walmer 
Castle, Thames, and Canton , from Madras and China, the Cirencester, Per- 
severance, and Aluwick Castle ; from Madeira, Madras, and Bengal, the 
Baring and Lady 1'urge* ; from Madras and the Molucca Islands, the Mar 
chioness of Fxcter and the Britannia ; from Madras and Bengal, the Lady Jane 
Dundas, the Marquis Wellesley, Walthamstow, Bengal, Lord Nelson, and 
United Kingdom ; from Bombay direct, the Earl St. Vincent and the Sir 
Edward Hughes ; from China direcSl, the David Scott, Ceres, Glatton, Bruns- 
wick, Royal Charlotte, Cuffnells, and Neptune ; making in the whole 43 ships, 
besides 23 extra ships. 

Seft. ij. A Court of Diredors was held at the East India House, when 
Captain J. F. Timmins was sworn into the command of the new ship build- 
ing by Robert Anderson, Esq for St. Helena, Bencoolen, and China. 

A letter received from Bombay says, " On Saturday morning early, the ist 
of February, conformably with a signal which had been displayed at the 
light-house on the preceding evening, a ship was seen to the westward, stand- 
ing in for the land, which was, by the tremendous swell then prevailing, hove 
to leeward as far as Malabar Point, about four or five leagues off shore. 
After riding by the sheet cable, she parted, and endeavoured to run ashore, 
\vith a view to save the lives of the crew, which were now in the most im- 
miuei,t danger, without any hope of getting assistance, from the state of the 
weather, t>he soon struck, and her masts went overboard almost immediately 
afterwards, the sea breaking completely over her. In a short time she bilged, 
and, we are sorry to say, is totally lost, with a most valuable cargo ; the 
crew with the utmost difficulty, are faved. .She proves to have been the Isa- 
bella, Captain Edward Brown, belonging to Mr. J- Tod, of Calcutta, and 
freighted for Bombay by Messrs. Braham, Princrf and Co. of Natal, on the 
West Coast of Sumatra. 1 ' 

We learn from Cuddalore the death of Captain Andrew Kerr, aged 76, for- 
merly of the country service, but better known by the name of the Old Com- 
modore. He was born at Fort St. David's about the year 1726. In his will he 
directed his body to be interred in a particular spot of his garden, without cere- 
luony or service. His coffin had lain for many years in his godo-wn (warehouse), 
and was made use of as a liquor chest. 



OF NAVAL EVENTS, 
PLYMOUTH REPORT, 

I ROM AUGUST 15 TO SEPTEMBER . 

August 25. This forenoon the Mars, 74 puns, which has been in dock some 
time past, in coming out of dock to make room for the Commerce de Mar- 
seilles, 120 guns, received some damage, which has hogged her a little. The 
Commerca now occupies her dock, and is to he broken up and sold as old 
timber. Yesterday His Excellency Governor 'anssen, Commissary General De 
Mist, and several Dutch Officers of distinction, dined at Saltram, the delight- 
ful seat of the Right Honourable Lord Boringdon, and returned this morning, 
highly gratified with the polite and hospitable entertainment of their Noble 
host. The dinner, desert, and wines, were in the true style of a British 
Nobleman. The ! Ught Kon. Lord Boringdon this forenoon paid a compli- 
mentary visit to the Right Kon. arl St. Vincent, and Sir A. 6. Hamond, Knt. 
Comptroller of the Navy, at dock. The Bato, of 76 guns, Captain Claris, 
has her foretop mast struck on the fore cap, as she sprung it on her passage 
here from the Texel. 

Last night it blew a fresh wind, with rain and squalls at S. W. ; a large 
boat in turning up Hamoaze, near Torpoint, the sheet being behycd, jibed, 
by which means she upset, and, out of fourteen persons, two were drowned. 
The Right Hon. Earl St. Vincent, and the Lords of the Admiralty, Sir 
Andrew Snape Hamond, Knt and the Navy Board, went afloat tHis fore- 
noon, and returned to the North Stairs. The ships were all manned to receive 
them ; the two Boards will go on boar-' to-morrow in gravd style, to review 
the men of war in commission, and then proceed up the T.uner, to visit, inspect, 
aud receive reports of the ships in ordinary. The Admiralty flag is now flying 
in the Dock-yard, as their Lordships are examining several of the old ship- 
wrights, preparatory to their superannuation. 

26. This day the Mayor and Court of Aldermen, at the Guildhall, unani- 
mously voted the freedom of this ancient borough to the Right Hon. J\arl 
St. Vincent. First Lord of the Admiralty, for his eminent services in the late 
and former wars. It will he enclosed in a handsome silver box, beautifully 
embossed with emblematkal and suitable devices. Yesterday a number of 
shipwrights volunteered their services to work for the private yards on the 
River Thames. This day a signal was hoisted at the fiacr staff at the North 
Stairs, for all the men of the ships in ordinary to come a c hore to be mustered 
by the Lords of the Admiralty in the Dock-yard, as the weather is unfavourable 
for the two Boards to go afloat. Yesterday a great boar of a sea rushed 
into this port, swept all before it, and retired as suddenly, without doing any 
damage. 

27. This day Earl St. Vincent, and the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty, Sir A. S. tiamond, Knt. B. Tucker, F.sq and the Commissioners of the 
Navy, went afloat, with the Admiralty of Great Britain's flag, and the flag of 
the Navy Board, flying in the stem-sheets of their respective barges. On vi- 
siting the Centaur, 74 guns, Rear-Admiral Dacres, she manned ship and fired 
a salute of nineteen guns; ^fter visiting every part of the ship, which was in 
extreme good order, the two Bo.irds of the Admiralty and Navy visited the 
Sound and Cawsand Bay. The Right Hon. Karl St. Vincent, with the other 
Lords and Commissioners, accompanied by General Bentham, inspefled the 
whole of Cawsand Bay. the latter Gentleman, as Naval .Superintendent of Naval 
Affairs, giving his opinion as to the feasibility of the scheme of the projected 
pier, to secure his Majesty's ships and vessels against the S. and S. E. winds, in 
case of a future war. The two Boards then returned in the Commissioners 
yacht, after being saluted by the Rosario, 14 guns, and the Childcrs, 14 guns, 
in the Bay. In passing the White Buoy in the Sound, the Petterell, 18 guns, 
saluted with twenty guns ; on which the two Boai'ds left the yacht, and pro- 
ceeded with their respective flags up the harbour. On passing the Narrows of 
Devil's Point and Mount Edgecumbe, the Centaur, 74 guns, Rear Admiral 
liacres, Belleisle, 84 guns, Couragcux, 74 guns, Hussar 36 guns, Sinus, 36 gn, 

ron- (Hoi. VIII. t L 



2C;S MONTHLY REGISTER 

and Carysfort, 51 guns, immediately manned ship, and saluted with nineteen 
guns. This day their Lordships attended. Divine Service at the Chapel of the 
Dock yard ; after which there was a grand l,-.vee of all the Naval Officers of 
every rank. 

28. Passed through from Dock to Plymouth Citadel, with various stores, 
several ammunition waggons, all of which are dismantled and laid up in ordi- 
nary in the Cicadel store-house. Went into Cawsand liay, the Childors, 14 
guns, to remain there during the stay of the Lords Commissioners of the Ad- 
miralty and the Commissioners of the Navy, with the Rosario, 24 guns Yes- 
terday Earl St. Vincent gave, at his apartments in George's Street, a grand 
breakfast to the Lords of the Admiralty here, Commissioners of the Navy, 
Rear- Admiral Tacren, and several Captains of the Royal Navy; after which 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty proceeded to the Dock-yard, where 
the Warrant Officers of the different ships in ordinary, the Clerks of the diffe- 
rent departments, pas=ed in review before their Lordships, with the caulkers, 
ropers, riggers, and riggers' labourers. 

A new regulation is about to take place among the riggers' labourers, and 
the men in the ships in ordinary ; all landmen are to be discharged, and re- 
placed with prime seamen lately paid off, by which useful arrangements at this 
port, there will be constantly ready for immediate service, nearly 2000 good 
seamen, enough to lay a foundation for manning ten sail of the line at a trifling 
expence. i-assed up for Torbay, the Proserpine, 44 guns, Batavian frigate 
(with two other frigates), Commodore Bloye, and twenty-one sail of trans- 
ports, with settlers, stores, and troops fur the Dutch or Batavian settlement* 
in the West Indies, ceded to that Republic by the treaty of peace at Amiens, 
The wholt of this day has been occupied by the Lords of the Admiralty and 
Commissioners of the Navy afloat in surveying the Sound and Cawsand Bay ; 
but as the post is going, the particulars of this interesting Naval spectacle mut 
be deferred till to-morrow. 

30. This forenoon, His Excellency Governor Claussen, and the Dutch Offi- 
cers and their Ladies, went up the Larn, and paid a visit of ceremony to the 
Fight Hon. Lord Boiingdon, at Saltram. The Right Hon. Karl St. Vincent 
and the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty this day at noon reviewed and 
inspected the Plymouth Division of Royal Marines, commanded by Major- 
General Bowater, in the Barrack-square Stone House ; the word of command 
was given by that Royal Marine veteran the gallant Colonel Elliott : the bat- 
talion went throHgh their different mat:ceuvrcs in a very correct stjle. After 
which, Ear; St. Vincent and their Lordships of the Admiralty took a scjour pour 
Jejune with Vajor General Bowater. Aiter this refreshment their Lordships 
insp'-Aed the Royal ^aval Hospital, and were much pleased with the neatness 
and regularity of each department Sailed for Gibraltar, with passengers, the. 
Unanimity packet. 

31. Last evening sailed the Dutch line of battle ship Batho, of 74 guns, 
Captain Klisis, for the Cape of Good Hope. This day the Sea Flowtr, 14 guns, 
Lieutenant Murray, was paid off and laid up in ordinary. The Sirius, 36 gun% 
Captain rowse and the Au'ante, 16 guns, Captain Masefield, were taken into 
dock, to have their bottoms inspe&ed. 

September i. Sailed at six o'clock in the evening, with a fire wind nt 
E N.E for the Cape of Good Hope, the Batavian man of war the Pato, 76 
guns, Captain Claris. She takes out all the Civil and Military Officers for 
that settlement - Sailed also from Torbay, the Proserpine, 1'atavian frigate, 
Commodoie Blois, with two other frigates, and twenty one transports, full of 
troops, for the Latavian West Indian scukmtnrs, ceded at the late peace. 

a. C me in, after a short passage of a few hours, from WeymouEh, where 
she had been to attend their '-.ajesties during the summer, the Blanche, 36 
guns. Captain Hammond. Their Majesties, and the Royal Family and suites, 
were preparing to leave Weymouth for Windsor Castie this morning early. , 

Arrived at ahram, the Ri^ht Honourable Villiers, Paymaster-General 

of the Royal Marine Forces in Englan.4. He is hrotber-in law ty the Right 



OP NAVAL EVENTS. 2$$ 

Hon. Lord Boringdon, to whom, after the public business of yesterday was 
over, the Right Hon. Earl St. Vincent, accompanied by B. Tucker, Esq. and 
the Commissioners of the Vavy, paid a visit, and returned to dinner it i)ock 
at half past five P. M. ; previous to which their Lordships gave private au- 
diences by appointment to several Gentlemen on particulir business. Thii 
morning their Lordships, accompanied by B. Tucker. Esq set off from Dock 
for London, and then they proceed to the eastern Yards and Victualling, to 
inipecl their different arrangements. The Amazon, 36 guns, Captain Sutton, 
fitting for sea at one of the eastern yards, is to carry Rear-Admiral Sir J. B. 
Warren, K.B. to Petersburgh, as Ambassador from this Court to the Emperor 
of all the Russias. 1 he Clyde, 44 guns, was to have gone, but is counter- 
manded. A large quantity of turbot and pilchards was taken by the fishing- 
boats yesterday, which were sold at reasonable rates. 

4. Last night, and till seven this morning, it blew a very heavy gale of 
wind it S and S. \V. with a pitching, rolling sea in the Sound and Catwater. 
The ships of war rode it out without damage, but a trawl boat (belonging to 
J. M'Aughland, Esq. Pilot to the Hon. East India Company,) in working into 
Catwater from fishing, trying to weather the Victualling Office Point, she 
missed stays, and was driven amongst the breakers off Deadman's Bay, where 
she now lies bilged; but. as the weather moderates, she may be got off: no 
lives were lost. A large barge, Hicks, master, in turning down Hamoaze 
with a cargo of staves, missed stays betwen Mount Edgcumbe and the Rocks 
of Devil's Point Battery, and unfortunately was driven on the rocks of the 
latter, bilged, and filled, the cargo all lost, and Mr. Hicks drowned, being 

knocked overboard with the jerk of her striking on the rocks. Yesterday 

came in from the H elder Point, where they had been with returned Dutch 
Emigrant troops, disbanded from our service, the Galatea, 36 guns, Captain 
Wolfe; Amelia, 44 guns, Hon. Lord Proby; L'Oiseau, 36 guns, Captaia 
Phillips ; Glenmore, 36 guns, Captain Maitland. ' Also, after a fine passage of 
six wetks, the following men of war from Jamaica the S^nspareil, 84 guns, 
Captain Essington ; Southampton, 32 guns, Capt Cole ; Arab, 24 guns, Capt. 
Fanshawe ; and Reynard, 24 guns, Captain Adlam (acting). '1 hey spoke i-e 
Tigre, 84 guns, Captain Jackson, from Malta, bound up channel, all well. 
As the Nereide, 36 guns, Captain R. Mends, and Plover, 18 guns, sailed about 
the same time, these ships may be hourly expedted. '1 his morn i:ig anchored 
in Cawsand Bay, from Jamaica, the Spencer, 74 guns, Commodore Darby, with 
his broad pendant flying at the main ; the Circe, 28 guns, Captain Woolley: 
chese latter ships left V'ce-Admiral Sir T. Duckworth, Bart. Captain Dunn, in 
the Leviathan, 74 guns, and it was supposed he would not leav'e that station 
till the Spring. 

5. This morning, at half past seven o'clock, went up the harbour from the 
Sound, to be paid ff and laid up in ordinary, that beautiful ship the Sans 
Pareil, 84 guns, Captain Lssington ; she is a ship of large and capacious di- 
mensions; her length on deck 193 feet 7 inches , length of keel 159 feet; 
breadth, 51 feet 6 inches ; depth, 23 feet 4 inches , tons, 2247 : she has 16 
ports on her upper deck, and 15 ports on her lower deck. She carries her 
guns high from the water. She was the favourite of the late gallant Vice- 
Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour, and struck to th: Leviathan, 74 guns, "his ship, 
in the ever- memorable Naval Victory of the i?t of June, 1794. h'is Lord- 
ship's flag was flying in the Sans Pareil, during his command oti the Jamaica, 
station, until his death. At twelve, A.M. ths Spencer, 74 guns, Commodore 
Darby, made a signal to go up the harbour from Cawsand Bay ; -he soon got 
under Weigh with the Commodore's broad pendant at the main-top. As she 
came abreast Mount Edgecumbe, the wind fell scant and foul at W. S. \V. she 
then anchored in Barn Pool, to wait the flowing tide to go up the harbour. 
Went up the harbour to be paid off, the Arab, 24 guns, Captain Fatibhawe. 
Went into the Sound, the Circe, of 24 guns, Captain Woolley. Remain in the- 
Sound, the Glenmnre, 36 guns, L'Oiseau, 36 guns, Amelia, 44 guns, Galatea, 
36 guns, Southampton,. 32 guns, Circe, 24 guns, Petterell, 18 guns, aud a guu- 
brig. In Cawsand Bay, the Rosario and Imogene, > 8 gups each. 



*6o MONTHLY REGISTER 

6. By order of the Right Honourable 'he Lords Commissioners of the A6?- 
Wiiralty and the Commissioners of the Navy, there has tukrn place since their 
departure, a discharge of 520 shipwrights, riggers, ropem, .!! s, sailmakers, car- 
penters, joiners, and labourers. Severn! old men discharged have been near 
nfty years in the service. By letters from Salcombe we learn, that a packet 
from Portsmouth, with a number of passengers for this place, in a violent gale 

of wind, foundered off the Start, and it is feared every soul has perished. 

7. By orders of the Lords of the Admiralty, a large discharge of labourers 
.from the Viiflualling Office and South Uown Bre-.very and Cooperage has taken 
place. Last evening, the whole of the Dutch squadron and transports, under 
Commodore t'lois in the Proserpine, 44 guns, bound for the ceded Batavian 
Settlements in the West Indies, being forced back by the gale at S. W. on 
Saturday, were observed laying to off the Etlystone, and the weather being fine 
and the horizon clear, 21 sail could be plainly discovered In the night the. 
wind sprung up at N. tJ. W. with a stiff breeze, when the whole fleet stood 
down Channel. 

8. Came into Cawsand Bay, forced in by contrary winds, the Thomas, 
Guineaman, Captain Martin, bound to Senegal and Goree, with a cargo, and 
for slaves. Captain Martin went ashore in the afternoon of Sunday to pro- 
cure fresh beef ard vegetables. V hilst absent, six of the sailors, (lately paid 
off from a man of war,) being rather in liquor, refused to furl the sails or go 
aloft, on whkh Mr Scott, chief mate, remonstrated. Fup and Arthur, two 
of the ringleaders, and the most active in the mutiny, with the others, rushed 
aft, knocked down Mr. Scott, and used him very roughly indeed, till rescued by 
the better disposed part of the crew. During the mutiny, Captain Martin came 
on board, and ordered them to their duty, which they refused, and Fup gave the 
Captain so violent a blow on hi? neck as brought him to the deck ; on this 
they kicked him as he lay senseless. The Mate being on the forecastle, 
hailed La Vemuriere, 18 guns, lying abreast of the Thomas, when a boat 
well manned and armed with Royal Marines, with a Midshipman, pushed 
off, and got alongside the Thomas, when the mutineers took shot and axes, 
and swore they would sink the boat before any marine should come on board 
the ship, swearing they would have their blood for supper, and that of their 
Captain and his Mate. By this time the gallant Royal Marines and the young 
Midshipman rushed up the side, boarded, and charged bayonets on the muti- 
tineeis, who were soon overpowered> handcuffed, and sent on board the flag- 
ship in Hamoaze, and put in irons for the night, but still behaved very dis- 
orderly and riotous. In the morning they were sent on board the Spider cut, 
ter. The mutineers were this morning handcuffed and well guarded, brought 
to the Guildhall, where the depositions of Captain Martin, Mr. Scott, and the 
Midshipman-, were taken before the -Mayor and Deputy Town Clerk. It is 
supposed they will be committed for trial at the Admiralty Sessions. Yes- 
terday mcrning came in the Hunter, 18 guns, from Jamaica, being disabled in 
the gale of wind la Friday. The Ntreide, 36 guns, Captain R. Mends, also 
from Jamaica, being in company, took out her dispatches, but owing to a thick 
fog, she did not arrive till lat last night. 

9. Orders came down this day for the Fisgard, 48 guns, Captain Wallis, to 
be paid off, and the Naiad, 38 guns, now in ordinary, is to be commissioned 
in her room. Captain Wallis, and the men already entered on board the Fis- 
gard, are to go on board the Naiad when ready to be commissioned. By th 
latest accounts fiom the sta ports of France, brought by a Gentleman who 
has visit-d Brest, L'Orient, and Rochffort, it appears that the building of 
men of war and of the line goes on biiskly, as no less than sixteen ships of 
the line, from izo to 74 guns, are almost ready for launching in this and 
the next mouth. 

12. Pas^d up for Torbay from Jamaica, after a passage of six weeks, the 
Coliath, 74 guns, the Bcllerophon, 74 guns, and Majestic, 74 guns. They 
overshot the port in a gale of wind. '1 hey are to be pajd off at this port. The 
P^gard, 48 guns, paid off last week, it is said is to bfr> 7 broken up, as she is so 
wry leaky ihc will scarcely be worth repairing, f he 6ans Pareil, 84 guns, 



OP NAVAL EVENTS. 261 

Captain Es^ngton, was yesterday paid off in Hamoaze, all standing : she is to 
be recommissioned directly as a guardship By order of the Right Hon. the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, a picquet nightly guard is mounted at 
the Dock yard, from the Royal Marine Barracks, of asubakern and 3 6 private*, 
for the further security of that Naval Arsenal. 

13. Several ships appeared in sight from the eastward, but they made so 
large an offing, and the weather is so hazy, they cannot yet be made out. 
Last Saturday evening, just as the workmen had left the new Wst Dock at 
Turn Chapel, the property of Lord Boringdon, part of 'the new work, by the 
force of the water, was blown up, and has done considerable damage to this 
undertaking, which it is hoped may yet be rendered useful to the trade and 
shipping of this port. The Nereide, 36 guns, Captain Mends, just arrived 
from the West Indies, goes up the harbour to be stripped and paid off in the 
course of a day or two. 

14. Sailed for Spithead and Portsmouth, with 120 Marines, paid off from 
the Sans Pareil, 84 guns, and the Blanche 36 guns, Captain Hammond. Thty 
belong to the Portsmouth Division, and have been abroad five years in the West 
Indies. Went up the harbour to be stripped, paid off, and laid up in ordinary, 
La Nereide, 36 guns, Captain R. Mends. By the latest accounts from Gib- 
raltar, dated the end of August, it appears that the Gibraltar, 84 guns, Tri- 
umph, 74 guns, and Dragon, 74 guns, were liying there, waiting to come to 
England ; but, as a frigate is dispatched with orders for their further stay, 
at least for the present, it is supposed they will be at the Rock some time longer. 
Sailed on a cruise from Torbay, the Rosario, 18 guns, and Arrow, 24 guns, 
after having taken in fresh beef and water. Went into the Sound, the Imogen, 
1 8 guns, from Hamoaze.^Sailed for ^pithead, with discharged seamen, the 
Galatea, 36 guns, Captain Wolfe. 

15. Letters received here from Cork, state t' e arrival at Cove of several 
frigates and troop ships, armed en flute, having on board five regiments of 
those gallant fellows who served in Egypt. 1 hey will perform quarantine 
there, and mr/.t probably according to the present arrangements, sail for this 
port, to occupy (at least a part of them) the uninhabited barracks of Frankfort 
and Mill Bay. 

16. Sailed for Cork, Waterford, "Wcxford, Dublin, and Belfast, several 
vessels with seamen paid off from the different ships in this harbour. The Sans 
Pareil, 84 guns, paid off last Saturday, was to have been re-commissioned; 
but as she wants much repair, she is put for the present in ordinary. One of 
her crew received 150!. wages and prize-money. Came in this day from 
the Straits, last from Spithead, I.e Tigre, 84 guns, and Northumberland, 74 
guns. 1 hey performed their quarantine at the Motherbank, and go up the 
harbour this afternoon, to be stripped and paid off, and laid up in ordinary. 

18. Went out of harbour into the ?ound, the Atalante, of 16 guns. Cap. 
tain Alascfield. The following ships were paid off and laid up in ordinary in 
the course of last week Sans P<trdl, 84 guns, Sptncer, 74 guus, Nereide, 36 
guns, Arab, 20 guns, and Plover, 16 guns. 

21. Last night, after a passage of seven weeks, arrived from Jamaica, the 
Tcmeraire, 98 guns. Rear-Admiral Campbell; formidable, 98 guns, Majestic, 
74 guns, and Audacious, 74 guns. Off the Sound appeared the Decade, 44 
guns, and Ceres, aS guns, from the Windward Islands. There was a great, 
fog this morning, 'i he Formidable, 98 guns, and the Temeraire, 98 guns, 
worked into the .- ound from Cawsand Bay, and mean to lay to for the young 
flood to go up the harbour to be stripped, paid off, and laid up in ordinary. 



FROM AUGUST Z3, TO SEPTEMBER ZZ. 

Jitgvst 2-3. Failed the Jamaica, 26 guns, Captain Rose, to the Eastward; 
Champion, 14 JUDJ, Captain. Lord Stewart, and Cororuandel armed transport, 



REGISTIR 

to Chatham, to be paid off; and the Redbridge schooner, Lieutenant I.ctn* 
pritre, on a cruize. Came into harbour his Majesty's ships Euruj and Penelope, 
to be paid off; also the Magnificent, 74 guns. 

24. Arrived L'Aimable frigate, from the West Indies. Came into har- 
T>our, the Eurus, Penelope, and Magnificent frigates. Arrived his Majesty's 
ihip Netley, from a cruise. 

25. Arrived the Northumberland, 74 guns, Captain Martin, and Bonne 
Citoyen frigate, from Malta. Went out of harbour, the Hazard sloop of 
war, Captain Veve. The Constance, Captain Mudge, and Hazard sloop, arc 
ordered to take Dutch troops from Lymington to the Elbe. It blew ?o hard 
last night, that the signal was made from, the Port Admiral's ship to strike 

Jards and topmasts. Sailf d the Delft, Captain Redmill, to the eastward, to 
e paid off. 

a6. This day his Majesty's ship Northumberland was released from quaran- 
tine. Arrived his Majesty's ships Zephyr, William and John, and Niger, from 
Cork, and came into harbour to be paid off. 

47. Sailed the Wassenaar, armed en flute, Captain Butler, for Chatham, to 
l>e paid off; Constance, 24 guns, Captain iYludge, and the Hazard sloop of 
war, Captain Neve, for Lymington, to take Dutch troops from thence to the 
Elbe. Went out of harbour, the Doris, 36 guns, Captain Williams Passed 
through Spithead from Lymington, the Potnone, 44 guns, Captain Cower ; 
Magicienne, Captain Vansittait; and Alarm, Captain Parker, with Dutch 
troops for Cuxhaven. 

30. Arrived the Hazard sloop and Constance frigate from Lymington. 

31. Arrived the Glatton, 54 guns, Captain Colnett, with convidls for Bo- 
tany Bay, from the Downs; and the Lapwing frigate, Captain Rotherham, 
from Brighton. Sailed the Charger gun-vessel, on a cruise. Passed through 
Spithead, the Constance, Captain Mudge.and the Hazard, Captain Neve, with 
the remainder of the Dutch troops from Lymington for Cuxhaven. The Mag- 
nificent, 74 guns, Captain Giffard, was paid off this morning, and laid up in 
ordinary. 

September i. Arrived the Racoon, sloop of war, Captain Rathborne. 

a. The Sophie sloop of war, Captain Rosenhagen, arrived from Cuxhaven. 

3. Arrived Le Tigre, 84 guns, Captain Curry, from the Mediterranean; 
and St. Fiorenzo frigate, Captain Biugham, from attending his Majesty at 
\Veymouth. 

4. Last night Commissioners Harmood and Tucker, of the Navy Board, 
arrived from Plymouth. And this afternoon Ear) St Vincent, Captain Mark- 
ham, Mr. Garthshore, Lords of the Admiralty ; and Mr. Marsden, Secretary ; 
also, Sir A. S. Haniond, Con-.ptroller of the Navy, from 1'lymouth. His Lord- 
ship was received by a Captain's Guard of the Royal Marines. The house 
formerly occupied by Admiral Holloway is fitted up for his Lordship and the 
Admiralty Board ; Sir A. S. Hamond and the Navy Board have apartments at 
the George Inn. Arrived the Mutine brig from the Mediterranean The 
Penelope fiigate, Captain Broughton, has been paui off and re-commissioned. 
The Ulatton, Captain Calnett, bound to New South Wales, with conviAs, is 
lying at Spithead, Several now confined on board the hulks in Langston har- 
bour, are to be put on board previous to her departure. 

6. Arrived the Southampton frigate, Captain Cole, from Jamaica. Sailed 
the Redbridge schooner, Lieutenant Lempriere, on a cruise Went out of 
harbour, the starling gun- vessel. Lord St. Vincent yesterday had a levee ; and 
this morning at six o'clock, his Lordship, attended by the Admiralty a"hdNavy 
Boards, wtnt to the Dock-yard to inspect the men, &c. 

7. Arrived his Majesty's ship Tromp, from the West Indies. Passed bf, 
the Trusty, Ncale, from Jamaica in forty-nine days. She sailed from Jamaica 
the same day the Thetis and Atalanta merchant ships did. By the Trusty 
we leain, that the island was very healthy ; and that although there wcic 



OF NAVAL EVENTS. 263 

between twenty and thirty men of war there, there were only seventy sick 
in the hospital, 

8. ("his morning arrived the Phoebe frigate, Captain Shepard; Ulysses, 44 
guns Captain Columbine ; and the Advice tender, from the Downs Yester- 
day morning, at six o'clock, Lord St. Vincent went to the Dock-yard, and 
inspected the different artificers until near seven in the evening, when he re- 
turned to his apartments in the '.^igh-street to dine. The Tigre, Captain Curry, 
is ordered into haroour to be paid off. 

9. Arrived at St. Helens, the Vlorghna sloop of war, Captain Rainsford, 
from a cruise. Sailed the Mutine brig, Captain Lord William Fitzroy, to the 
eastward, to be paid off. The Northumberland, of 74 guns, Captain Martin, 
is ordered to Plymouth, to be paid off. 

10. Arrived the Hind, of 28 guns, Captain Larcom, from the Mediter- 
ranean, i his afternoon Lord fit. Vincent, Captain VJarkham, Mr. Garth- 
shore, Mr Marsden, Sir Andrew Snaps iiamond, Mr. Harmood, and Mr. 
Tucker, set off for London. 

11. Arrived the Lion, of 64 guns, Captain Mitford, front the East Indies, 
last from St. Helena, in seven weeks. This d.iy arrived at the Motherbank, 
and was put under Quarantine, his Majesty's sloop Delight, Captain the Hon. 
F. W. .-v rimer, from Gibraltar in 15 days Left at Gibraltar, his Majesty'* 
ships Superb, Dragon, and Triumph. The Dryad frigate, Captain Williams, 
is paid off at Spithead, and recommissioned. i he Ulysses, and her tender, arc 
to take out the Commissioners to survey the island of Trinidad. Sir Samuel 
Hood is expected here on \:onday to hoist his btoad pendant. This evening; 
arrived from tke Mediterranean, and put under similar restrictions, his Majesty'* 
ship Athenian, 64 guns, Captain sit Tho. Livingstone, from Malta, last from 
Gibraltar, which place she left the ajth ult. 

14. Sailed the Northumberland, 74 guns. Captain Martin, and the Tigre, 
So guns, Captain Curry, for Plymouth, to be paid off. This afternoon sailed 
the Liwn, 64 guns, Captain Mitford, and the Hind, 28 guns, Captain Larcom, 
to the eastward, to be paid off. Dropped down to .St. Helen's, the Glatton, 
54 guns, Captain Colnett, with convicts, bound to New South Wafes. 

16. Arrived the Galatea, 32 guns. Captain Wolfe, with discharged marines, 
from Plymouth. Sailed the Delight sloop of war, Hon. Captain Aylmer, to 
the eastward to be paid off. 

17. Came into harbour to be paid, hi* Majesty's ship Southampton. 

18. The Lords of the Admiralty have directed that an increase of pay should 
be granted to all the Warrant Officers in his Majesty's service. 

2Z. Sunday sailed the Galatea frigate. Captain Wolfe, for Plymouth Yes- 
terday the Ambuscade, 36 guns, Hon. C ;l ptain Colville, and this morning the- 
Resistance, 38 guns, Hon. Captain Wodehouse, sailed for Chatham, to be paid 
off. This evening sailed the Morgiana sloop of war, Captain Raynsfoid, on 
a cruise. 



]promotion0 anti appointmente. 

The King has been pleased to grant the dignity of a Baronet of the United 




sphe 

the Roya! Navy, (eldest son of XVilliam Dickson, Esq. also Admiral of the 
Blue squadron of his Majesty's Fleet,) and the heirs male of his body lawfully 
begotten. 

Captain James Hardy is appointed to the Leda frigate, -vice Hope. 

Lieutenant Wright, of the Tigre, who so gallantly distinguished himself 
while serving on shore under Sir Sidney Smith at the siege of Acre, is pro- 
moted to the rank of Commander, and appointed to the Cynthia sloop f war, 
vice Dick. 



i6$ MONTHLY REGISTER OF NATAL EVENTS. 

Captain G. M'Kinley is appointed to the Ganges ; Captain Huring to the 
Shark ; Captain P. Hunt, to the Hornet ; and Captain Guen, to the Alkmaar. 

The Hon. Captain Capel is appointed to the Phe:bc,36 guns, She i nder 
orders for the Mediterranean. 

Captain :,ock is appointed to the Revolutionaire frigate, vice Capel; and 
Lieutenant Atcheson to the Censor ^un-vessel, vice Christian. 
' Captain Hawes, of the Royal N.ivy. is appointed Secrefai y to Sir John Borlase 
Warnn, on his Embassy to Petersburgh. Captain Hawes was in consequence 
presented to the King at his levee. 

Captain A.J. Griffiths is appointed to the Constance frigate. 

OBITUARY. 

Lately, at Barnstaple, Captain-Lieutenant Da vie, of the Royal Marines. 

Lately at Antigua, Mr. John Masters Empson, Surgeon of his Majesty's fri- 
gate Castor. 

August Z4th, Mr. Randall, proprietor of the Dock-yard, Deptford, where 
the insurgent shipwrights made a riot on Saturday. Anxious to see peace and 
<>rder once more restored among the artificers in his yard, for that purpose 
he was on the Saturday preceding particularly active till a late hour in the 
evening, when the dispute running; extremely high, he received a violent blow 
from one of the men. Indignant at this treatment, and alarmed at the state 
in which his property was involved by the turbulence of his workmen, he re- 
turned home visibly depressed in mind, and continued with evident signs of 
disorder till iViooday morning, at six o'clock, when, leaving his bed, lie pre- 
cipitated himself from a two pair of stairs hack window, and ft-11 into the court 
yard below, even with the kitchen, making the fall three story high. One 
arm was broken, his head fractured, and his body most dreadfull) bruised ; 
he was instantly conveyed into the house, and surgical assistance immediately 
sent for, when, after languishing till nine o'clock in the greatest agony, he 
expired. The Coroner's Jury have brought in a verdict of Insanity. Thus 
has the rashness of a few individuals, whom he had ever cherished with his 
county, proved, by a momentary unwarranted ad, the death of a man who 
might have lived for years an ornament to his country. 

On Thursday, September 2, Mr. John Alien, aged 74 years, between forty 
and fifty of which he wasDraugtrrr.an to the J-urveyors of his Majesty's Navy. 
He obtained the distinction of Father of the Drawing Room, no person ever 
having served so many years in that employ before, owing, in the early part of 
his life, to the mutability of fortune, who deprived him of his powerful and 
Boblc friends at the moment opportunities offered by which they could 
serve him; and, possessing in a high degree that distinction of pride which 
ennobles rather than debases mankind, he never could submit to solicit favours 
in his own behalf, although at the same time open and free, even to a beggar. 
His pi ofessional abilities, joined to a respectful address, procured him friends 
by whom he was highly regarded. Lord ,Anson, and bir Percy Brett, Comp-. 
troller of his Majesty's Navy, were particularly attached to him ; but death, 
interposed, and deprived him of their friendship and ass,i>tance , yet he did not 
die without a. sincere and firm friend at Just, as far as it was in his power to 
>erve him, in the person of that truly gooj and upright man Sir John Henslow, 
one of the present Surveyors of His Majesty's Xavy, who was his intimate 
icnd and companion in their youthful days. Sensible of his own uprightne^s-i 
and integrity, he feared not the frowns of any man. He was steady in his 
ittachments, and fixed in h ; s displeasure, although forgiving ; void of hypo- 
nsy or empty ostentation, and no sycophant. No child could ever boast a 
lore arTedionate and good lather ; hi. indulgencies anci his corrections were 
both equally tempered with moderation. He firmly believed in and adored 
the works of his Creator. He retained his faculties, except that of speech, 
pcrii.ct to Me last moment, and died, as he had lived, peaceable and happy, 
and in sincere good will with all the wmld. He always enjoyed a superior 

asure in repeating the words of Mr. Pope " An honest man's the noblest 

work of God; and in no man was it ever more justly exemplified than in 

*, The only debt remaining unpaid at his death was his Doctor's bill.' 

.- nrver injured a sujgle pcn.cn by word or deed during the whole course of 




LORD AN&Q: 





BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OP 

GEORGE LORD ANSON, 
ADMIRAL or THE WHITE, SQUADRON, AND ADMIRAL or THB FLKET. 

inlaminatltj'ulget honorlkui, 

Ulysses' voyage lives by Homer's pen, 
Who many cities saw and many men ; 
Shipwrecks and sufferings, fancy could display, 
In a small portion of the midland sea ; 
But \vhatto ANSON'S were Ulysses' toils ? 
Or what to India's wealth were Ilium's spoils ? 
The world surrounded, all the nations view'd, 
Each climate tried, each danger now subdu'd ; : 
Our second Drake, arriv'd on British ground, 
His toils with laurels and with honour crown'd. 

ANON. 

JPHE recital of the most distinguished a&ions of eminent 
men, is at once a reward and an encouragement to 
merit, and serves to convey useful information in the most 
agreeable form. Among the heroes who have contributed 
to the naval glory of their country, and who stand high on 
the records of fame, the name of ANSON holds a prominent 
place. Our illustrious seaman was the second and youngest 
son of William Anson, Esq. of Shugborough, in the county 
of Stafford, a gentleman of an ancient and respectable fa- 
mily, and Elizabeth his wife, one of the daughters and co- 
heirs of Ralph Lane, Esq. and sister to Mary Countess of 
Macclesfield. Discovering an early passion for the naval 
profession, and taking the greatest delight in reading and 
hearing the stories of our most celebrated voyagers and Ad- 
mirals, his father gave him an education suitable to his 
genius ; and having served the usual period, in the year 
1722, he was made a Commander, and appointed to the 
Weazle sloop. On the ist of February 1724, he was pro- 
moted to the rank of Post Captain, and commanded for some 
time the Scarborough frigate, but had no opportunity of 
performing any services of sufficient value to be transmitted 
to posterity. From this time we are without any particulars 
of Mr. Anson's history, till the year 1731, when he was 



3,66 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

Captain of the Diamond, of forty guns, one of the vessels 
intended to be attached to the fleet then in the Mediterranean, 
under the command of Sir Charles Wager, but never pro- 
ceeded thither. 

For a number of years, during the pacific administration 
of Sir Robert Walpole, Spain had beheld .with, an evil eye 
the growing commerce and increasing naval consequence of 
Great Britain, particularly in the neighbourhood of that part 
of her dominions (her possessions in South America), where 
she was most vulnerable, and entertained the greatest jealousy 
of intrusion. Desirous of monopolizing to herself the whole 
commerce and wealth of Mexico and Peru, the vessels of 
foreign powers were forbid, under severe penalties, to ap- 
proach within a certain distance the coasts of her American 
possessions ; and, to enforce this regulation, the American 
seas were filled with Spanish cruisers, whose enormities at 
length attracted the attention of the British Parliament *. 
After fruitless representations to the Court of Madrid for 
redress, the British Ministry determined on hostilities, and, 
to the great joy of the nation, whom the atrocities, of the 
Spaniards had bitterly incensed, war was formally declared 
against Spain on the 23d of October 1739. 

On the declaration of war against Spain, it was imme- 
diately determined by the Ministry, that Captain Anson, who 
had for some time commanded the Centurion, of sixty guns, 
should be employed in an expedition against the Spanish 
possessions in the South Seas. It was at first proposed, 
that he should proceed to attack Manilla, the capital of the 
Philippine Islands, and a depot of immense wealth, but this 
plan, though well imagined, was laid aside. A considerable 

One instance of their cruelty it is not improper to reldte in this place, as it 
had a very material effcd in producing the war. Captain Jenkins, master of ft 
Scotch vessel, being rummaged by the Spaniards, they tore part of his ear off, and 
bid him take it to the English king, and tell him that they would serve him 
so, if they had him in their power. The Captain, being examined before the 
House of Commons, was asked what were his sentiments when thus treated, 
and threatened with death? who gallantly replied, that L< ntommcndid bi, </ 
: (J'jJ, and i/is cautt to bit country* 



OF GEORGE LORD ANSON. 267 

delay, and some disagreeable circumstances attended the 
equipment of his squadron (which are related at large by the 
compiler of his voyage), so that though he received his 
commission on the loth of January 1740, he was not able 
to put to sea till the i8th of September, by which means, 
the Spanish Court, which was informed of his destination, 
.had time to warn the Governors of the Spanish provinces in 
America of the intended expedition. 

As our account of our hero's celebrated voyage round the 
world, is necessarily an abridgment from the work published 
under his auspices, it cannot be uninteresting to our readers 
to have some particulars relative to the author, as the voyage 
in a literary point of view is supposed to possess more merit 
than any similar production, and is one of the most amusing 
works in the English language. 

Lord Anson's " Voyage round the World," though it 
carries the name of Walters, who was Chaplain to the Cen- 
turion, in the title page, was in reality written by Benjamin 
Robins, a man of great eminence and genius as a mathema- 
tician and writer, under the immediate inspection of the 
noble Officer who commanded the expedition. So favour- 
able was its reception with the public, that four large im- 
pressions were sold within twelvemonths, and it was 
translated into most of the European languages. The work 
still supports its reputation, and' has been repeatedly reprinted 
in various sizes. 

Commodore Anson took his departure from Spithead, 
September the iSth, 1740, in the Centurion, of 60 guns, 
having under his command the Gloucester, of 50 guns, 
Captain Norris ; the Severn, of 50 guns, Captain Legg ; the 
Pearl, of 40 guns, Captain Mitchel ; the Wager, of 28 guns, 
Captain Kidd ; the Trial sloop, Captain Murray ; and the 
Anna and Industry pinks, vi&ualling tenders. This fleet 
had four hundred and seventy marines and invalids on 
board, which were commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Cracherode, and was ordered to the South Seas to distress 
.the enemy in that quarter, where it was evident their weak,- 



268 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

ness would afford a favourable opportunity of attacking 
them, and their wealth would greatly enrich the individuals 
concerned in the enterprise. 

On the 29th of October the Commodore anchored at the 
island of Madeira, where he supplied the fleet with fresh 
provisions and wine, and sailed from thence on the 3d of 
^November. On the 28th our navigators crossed the equi- 
no&ial, and on the 2ist of December the whole squadron 
came t van anchor at the island of St. Catherine's. Disease had 
by this time made an alarming progress in the fleet, and the 
Commodore's first care was to provide accommodations for 
the sick. Tents were erected on shore for the recovery of 
the invalids, of whom there were about eighty from the 
Centurion, and from the other ships nearly as many, in 
proportion to the number of their hands. From what had 
been rr lated by former voyagers, Mr. Anson was led to expect, 
that the supposed salubrity of the place, and a constant 
supply of fresh provisions, which might easily be obtained, 
would soon recover his sick ; but in these particulars he 
had been greatly deceived, for the air of St. Catherine's was 
far from being so healthy as it had been represented, and the 
conduct of the Governor deprived them of the advantages 
they might have obtained from the refreshmeiits of the 
place. 

The ships being refitted, and their stock of provisions 
and water recruited, though inadequately, Commodore 
Anson left the island of St. Catherine's on the i8th of 
January, and stood to the southward. As they were to 
expect a more boisterous climate to the southward than any 
they had yet experienced, the Commodore, as a measure of 
necessary prudence, appointed three places of rendezvous for 
the squadron, in case of separation. The first was Port St. 
Julian, on the coast of Patagonia j the second, the island of 
Noitra Scnora del Socor - t and the third, the island of Juan 
Fernandez, in the South Sea. A few days after their de- 
parture from St. Catherine's, the Pearl was separated from 
the rest of the squadron, and did not rejoin it till near a 



OF GEORGE LORD AN'SOK. 269 

month afterwards. During her absence she was chased by 
five Spanish men of war, and narrowly escaped being taken, 
owing to the correcT: information afforded the Spanish Ad- 
miral, by the treachery of the Governor of St. Catherine's, 
by which he was enabled so to disguise his ships, that the 
Pearl mistook them for the British squadron, and was within 
gunshot of the Spanish Commander before they discovered 
their error ; but, by superior dexterity in manoeuvring the 
ship, happily escaped. 

After spending some time at Port St. Julian, the squadron 
sailed from thence on the 27th of February, and having a 
continuance of favourable weather, on the 7th of March 
passed the Straits Le Maire. As these straits are considered 
to be the boundary between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, 
our navigators persuaded themselves, that the greatest diffi- 
culties of their voyage were now at an end, and that they 
had nothing before them but an open sea, till they arrived 
on those opulent coasts, where all their hopes and wishes 
were centered. These pleasing ideas were encouraged by 
the brightness of the sky, and the serenity of the weather, 
for the morning of the day on which they passed the straits, 
though the winter was advancing apace, yielded in mildness 
and brilliance to none they had witnessed since their de- 
parture from England. 

These favourable presages, however, were soon at an end : 
for before the sternmost ships of the squadron were clear of 
the straits, the serenity of the sky was suddenly obscured, 
and all the indications of an impending storm appeared. 
From this time, during a period of two months, they had 
a continual succession of such tempestuous weather, as 
surprised the oldest and most experienced seamen on board^ 
and obliged them to confess, that what they had hitherto 
called storms were inconsiderable gales, compared with the 
violence of these winds. During this disastrous period, the 
ships sustained the most serious damage in their hulls, masts, 
and rigging, and to add to their distresses, the scurvy raged 
dreadfully in the fleet. Some idea may be formed of the 






270 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

ravages committed by that malady in this ill-fated squadron, 
when it is told, that in the space of one month the Centurion 
lost forty-three men, and afterwards the mortality went on 
increasing, and the disease extended itself so prodigiously, 
that after the loss of above two hundred men, they could 
not at last muster more than six foremast-men in a watch 
capable of duty. 

Under all these distressing circumstances, owing to the 
prudent orders and regulations of the Commodore, and the 
strift observance of them by his Officers and the Captains 
of the squadron, they for a long time resolutely contended 
against the storm and kept together. But the tempest in- 
creasing in violence, and the crews of the ships being 
weakened by sickness, the Pearl and Severn parted from the 
squadron on the loth of April, and discouraged by the con- 
tinuance of the storm, returned to England. On the 25th, 
the Commodore lost sight of the remaining part of the 
squadron, but this misfortune by no means retarded him 
from bravely continuing his voyage. After suffering in- 
credible hardships, he at length succeeded in making his 
passage round Cape Horn, and, notwithstanding it was the 
general opinion of all on board, that none had survived the 
tempest but themselves, and the crew was daily diminishing 
by the scurvy, proceeded for the first place of rendezvous. 
This zeal to fulfil his instructions was the more laudable, 
as the circumstances of his situation were such, as would 
have justified him in departing from his orders. Having 
cruised for a fortnight off the island of Nostra Senora del 
Socoro, without meeting with any of the ships of the 
squadron, and despairing of seeing them again, the Commo- 
dore steered for the island of Juan Fernandez. And now, 
as if fortune was not weary of persecuting them, they ex- 
perienced a fresh disaster. On the 28th of May, they were 
aftually within sight of their desired port, but owing to the 
state of the atmorphere mistook the island for a cloud, and 
imagining themselves considerably to the westward of their 
course, they sailed for the main land of Chili, in order to 



OF GEORGE LORD ANSON. 271 

take a new departure. By this means they were not able to 
anchor at Juan Fernandez till the nth of June, and lost 
between seventy and eighty of their men, who probably 
would have been saved, had they kept their course when they 
first made the island. The crew of the Centurion, by this 
time, was reduced to so helpless a condition, that they could 
scarcely, taking all watches together, muster hands enough 
to work the ship on an emergency, though they included 
the Officers, their servants, and the boys ; and only two 
hundred and odd men remained alive, out of between four 
and five hundred, who had passed the Straits Le Maire but 
three months before, almost all of them in health and 
vigour. 

On the evening of his arrival at Juan Fernandez, the 
Commodore was joined by the Trial sloop, and some time 
afterwards by the Gloucester, and Anna pink, victualler, all 
which vessels had been proportionally reduced in their 
numbers by the scurvy. The Gloucester indeed suffered 
more severely than the other ships, for though she appeared 
off the harbour the 28th of June, she was kept at sea by 
contrary winds, till the 23d of July, when she arrived in s6 
melancholy a condition, that her crew was reduced to fifty- 
six men. The necessary steps were immediately taken for 
the recovery of the sick, to which the healthful air of Juan 
Fernandez, and the abundance of its vegetable productions, 
greatly contributed. This island, covered with perpetual 
verdure, and blessed with a mild and salubrious climate, 
soon produced a visible amendment in the sick, and checked 
the inveteracy of their malady. The most prudent measures 
were adopted by the Commodore to profit by the advantages 
of his situation, and to relieve his enfeebled and debilitated 
seamen. Tents were erected on shore for the accommoda- 
tion of the sick, in places admirably calculated for their 
convenience and comfort, and the antiscorbutic productions 
of the island were furnished them in great abundance. By 
these means most of the invalids recovered, and after th$ 



t -jZ BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOU$ 

second day, not more than ten died during their continuance 
on the island, a period of upwards of three months. 

The Commodore, having recovered his men, and refitted 
liis little fleet, and despairing of being joined by the missing 
ships of his squadron, resolved to commence his operations 
against the enemy as soon as possible. Accordingly, on the 
8th of September, a sail appearing in the offing, he weighed 
and stood in pursuit of her ; but having lost sight, con- 
tinued his cruise, and on the 12th, discovered a sail to wind- 
ward, which he soon came tip with, and captured. The 
prize was about four hundred and fifty tons burthen, was 
bound from Callao in Peru, to Valparaiso in Chili, and had 
on board a cargo of bale goods, tobacco, some trunks of 
wrought plate, and twenty-three serons of dollars, weighing 
each upwards of aoolbs. avoirdupois. But what was more 
valuable to the captors, and by which their future plan of 
operations was decided, was the information which they 
obtained from their prisoners. They gathered from them the 
miscarriage of the Spanish squadron, which had been sent 
out to intercept them, and farther learnt, that though an 
embargo had been laid upon all the shipping in the South 
Seas, in the month of May preceding, it now no longer sub- 
sisted, some valuable prizes might, therefore, probably be 
ma.de, before the Spaniards were sufficiently alarmed to keep 
their ships in port. The Commodore, on this information, 
returned with his prize to Juan Fernandez, and used the 
Utmost diligence in preparing his little squadron for sea. 

The next day the Trial sloop was dispatched to cruise off 
Valparaiso; and the Anna pink being deemed incapable of 
farther service, her guns were taken out, and mounted on 
board die prize, and the command of her given to Lieutenant 
Saumarez. The Centurion, with her prize, the Carmelo, 
weighed from the bay of Juan Fernandez on the 191!} of 
September, leaving the Gloucester behind, and a few days 
after were joined by the Trial, which during her cruise had 
taken a valuable prize. This vessel was fitted up, and called 

4- 



OF CEORCS LORD ANSON. 273 

the Trial's prize, whose men were transferred to her, as 
the sloop was no longer in a condition to be navigated with 
safety, and accordingly was condemned and burnt. 

1 he Commodore now proceeded towards Paita, off which 
place the Gloucester was ordered to cruise, and took on the 
5th of November a prize, but ofsmill value, except 5olb. 
of silver in pla^e and specie. On the I2th, lie captured 
another prize, which had stopped the day before at Paita, 
to take in water and provisions, a-id .from an Irishman on 
board this vessel, anJ the other prisoners, he learnt such an 
account of the defenceless stare of the town, that he deter- 
mined to attack it without loss of time. They were now 
about twelve leagues distant from the town, and lest the in- 
habitants should be alarmed by ; fch> 'appearance of the ships, 
and thereby have an opportunity of removing their valuable 
effedls, the Commodore resolved to attempt the place with 
his boats only, under cover of the darkness of the night. 
Accordingly, about ten o'clock at night, the ships being 
then within five leagues of the place, Lieutenant Brett, 
afterwards Sir Piercy, to whom the command of the expe- 
dition was given, put off, with fifty eight chosen men under 
him, and arrived at the mouth of the bay without being 
discovered; but some of the people of a vessel rid ng at 
anchor there, perceived them, and getting into their boat, 
rowed towards the fort, and so alarmed the town. Lights 
were now seen moving about, and it was obvious that the 
inhabitants were aware of their appioach; Lieutenant 
Brett, on this, encouraged his men to pull briskly up, tiiat 
they might give the eneny as little time as possible for pre- 
paration. .So.ne shot were tired at the boats from the fort, 
but without success; and in less than a quarter of an hour 
from the first landing, and \\ith no other los> than one man 
killed and two wounded, Lietenant Brett a;.d his party 
became masters of the place. The Spaniards, unable to 
resist the desperate efforts of British valour, fled with the 
utmost consternation into the country, Laving their valua- 

incn. BoI.Vl.L NN 



1-4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

ble effcds behind them, and many of them half uaked. The 
sailors, who could not be prevented from catering the houses 
of the fugitives, decked themselves out in rich Spanish 
dresses, which, contrasted with their own greasy apparel, 
made so grotesque an appearance, that their Commander 
when he saw them, could not immediately be satisfied they 
were his own people. 

At day-break the Commodore had the satisfaction to per- 
ceive the English flag hoisted on the flag staff of the fort, by 
which he knew that his people were in possession of the 
place, and standing in with the ships, came to anchor in the 
afternoon, at about a mile and a half distance from the town. 
The people were now busily employed in collecting the 
treasure, and removing it eii board the ships ; nor did they 
tneet with interruption from the enemy, though vastly 
superior to them in number, and apparently well-armed 
and disciplined. While the treasure was removing, Com- 
modore Anson made various overtures to treat with the 
Governor for the ransom of the town and the merchandize 
it contained, but these being rejected with great insolence, 
when the place was evacuated, he ordered it to be set on 
fire, which was accordingly done. The treasure taken at 
Paita amounted to upwards of 30,000!. sterling, but the loss 
of the Spaniards was estimated at a million and a half of 
dollars-^ The vessels found in the harbour were sunk, ex- 
cept the Solitiad, the largest and best ship, which the Com- 
modore kept with him, and appointed Lieutenant Hughes, 
of the Trial, to command her. 

At Paita, as Commodore Anson had nobly supported the 
character of his country for gallantry and enterprise, so he 
gave the enemy an example of the humanity of his nation, 
well worthy of their imitation. He now set at liberty th 
prisoners collected from the various prizes before mentioned, 
Whom he had treated during the whole time of their confine- 
ment with so much generos'ty and tenderness, as to impress 
them with the strongest sentiments of gratitude and admira- 
tion. The barbarity of the Buccaneers in the same seas 



OF OSORGE LORD ANS0N. 27$ 

had filled the natives with the mast terrible ideas of the 
cruelty of the English, so that the prisoners at first regarded 
their captivity as a misfortune the most horrible that could 
befalthem; but the mild behaviour of the Commodore to 
his prisoners in general, and particularly his conduct to- 
wards two young ladies of high rank and great beauty, whom 
he treated with all the respect and delicacy that generosity 
and honour could suggest, completely removed these un- 
favourable impressions, and left on tl>e minds of the 
Spaniards the most grateful and lasting remembrance of his 
humanity, good faith, and benevolence. 

On the 1 6th of November, the squadron weighed, and 
put to sea ; and two days after were joined by the Gloucester, 
which had taken two small prizes, the one laden with wine, 
and about 7,000!. in money and plate ; the other with a 
pretended cargo of cotton, but in reality carrying a quantity 
of double doubloons and dollars to the amount of near 
I2,oool. 

Commodore Anson having learnt from some- papers found 
on board a prize, that the expedition against Carthagena 
had failed, and therefore that he could not hope to be rein- 
forced across the isthmus, and consequently was too weak 
to attack Panama, determined to steer as soon as possible to 
the southern parts of California, or to the adjacent coast of 
Mexico, there to cruise for the Manilla galleon, which he 
knew was now at sea, bound for the port of Acapulco. 
The force tinder the Commodore amounted to eight vessels, 
including prizes, but two of them sailing so ill, as greatly 
to retard the progress of the squadron, they were ordered 10 
be cleared of the most valuable part of their cargoes, and 
burnt, as was a third soon afterwards. 

The squadron being in want of water, the Commodore 
proceeded to the island of Quibo, in the bay of Panama, 
where he supplied his ships with that -necessary article, and 
also obtained a large quantity of turtle, which proved a great 
refreshment to his men. On the I2th of December the 
jquadron stood from Quibo^.io the westward, but owing to. 



2*6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

contrary winds and other unfavourable circumstances, did 
not get into the track of the galleon till near the end of 
January. The prisoners on board endeavoured to persuade 
them, that it was no uncommon thing for the galleon to 
arrive at Acapulco so late as the middie of February, and 
the propensity of men to believe whatever flatters their 
wishes, led them to credit this account ; but having cruised 
for some days off Acapulco, without having seen the object 
of their earnest wishes, the Commodore resolved to send a 
boat, under cover of the night, to see if the Manilla ship 
was in the harbour, in order, if she was not there, that they 
might be animated, by the prospeft of her capture, to con- 
tinue their cruise, or if she was arrived, that they might be 
at liberty to consult their necessities, or aft as circumstances 
should render most advisable. Accordingly, a boat well- 
nianned, was dispatched from the Centurion, with' Lieu- 
tenants Denis and Scott, to cruise oft* the harbour of Aca- 
pulco, for information respecting the galleon ; and after six 
days absence they returned with three negro prisoners, whom 
they surprised in a canoe fishing off the port. From these 
men the Commodore learnt, that the galleon arrived at 
Acapulco on the gth of January, had delivered her cargo^ 
and was taking in her lading for Manilla, for which plact 
the Viceroy had appointed by proclamation, that she should 
depart on the 3d of March. 

This information raised to a high pitch the spirits of the 
squadron, and particularly as the Indians seertied confident 
that the Spaniards had no suspicions of an English force 
being off the port, and consequently would not prevent the 
sailing of the galleon at the appointed time. As it was ort 
the i gth of February that the boat returned, and brought the 
above intelligence, thr Commodore resolved to continue the 
greatest part of the intermediate time to the westward of 
Acapulco, conceiving, that, in that situation, there would be 
less danger of his being seen from the shore, and this interval 
he employed in making such an arrangement of his force, 
as was dilated by prudence ard consummate skill. On the 



OP GEORGE LORD AMSOK. 377 

1st of March, the Commodore made the high lands of Aca- 
pulco, and the squadron got with all possible expedition into 
the stations prescribed by his orders. The distribution of 
the ships on this occasion, both for intercepting the galleon, 
and for avoiding a discovery from the shore, was the most 
judicious that could have been conceived. The ships were 
ranged in a circular line, at three leagues distance from each 
other, so that the whole sweep of the squadron, within 
which nothing could pass undiscovered, was at least twenty- 
four leagues in extent; and to render this disposition still 
more complete, and to prevent even the possibility of the 
galleon's escaping in the night, two cutters belonging to the 
Centurion and Gloucester, were both manned and sent in 
shore, and commanded to lie all day at the distance of four 
or five leagues from the entrance of the port, where, by 
reason of their smallness, they could not possibly be dis- 
covered ; but in the night they were directed to stand nearer 
to the harbour's mouth, and as the light of the morning 
approached, to come oack again to their day-posts. 

On the dawn of the day fixed for the departure of the 
galleon, every one was eagerly engaged in looking out to- 
wards Acapulco, from whence neither the casual duties on 
board, nor the calls of hunger, could easily divert their eyes; 
but that, and the three succeeding days passed in a state of 
fruitless expectation. They did not, however, yet despair ; 
all were disposed to flatter themselves, that some unforeseen 
accident had intervened, which might have put off her de- 
parture for a few days ; and suggestions of this kind occurred 
in great plenty, and were eagerly listened to. But nearly a 
month being spent in this state of anxious suspense, the 
Commodore began, with reason, to imagine, that it was 
discovered he was on the coast, and that the sailing of the 
galleon would of course be deferred until the ensuing season. 
On this he formed a plan for attacking the town of Aca- 
pulco, and making himself master of the wished-for prize in 
the harbour ; but the reduced number of his men rendered 



B/OCRAfHICAL MEMOIBS 

this scheme impracticable ; and the squadron being at length 
in great want of water, he was obliged to Steer for the har- 
bour of Chequetan, about thirty leagues to the westward of 
Acapulco, where he anchored on the 7th of April. Lieu- 
tenant Hughes in a cutter with six armed men, was ordered 
to cruise for a few days longer off Acapulco, in the forlorn 
hope, that the Manilla ship might yet make her appearance, 
and in that case he was directed to join the Commodore 
with all possible speed; but the galleon not venturing to 
put to sea, the cutter some time afterwards joined the 
Commodore. 

The crews of the squadron were now so much re- 
duced, that their whole number did not amount to the 
complement of a fourth-rate man of war, and therefore tho 
Commodore found it necessary to destroy the three other 
prizes, having first removed their cargoes, and divided their 
people between the two ships. These proceedings, together 
with the time consumed in supplying the ships with wood and 
water, detained them near a month in the harbour of Che- 
quetan ; and the Commodore, after sending some prisoners 
on shore, resolved to give up for the present all hopes of 
intercepting the galleon, and to steer for the river Canton 
in Chiiw. 

On the 6th cf May, the Commodore took his de- 
parture from the coast- of - Mexico ; their passage was 
favourable till the beginning of June, when the scurvy broke 
out afresh on board boih ships, and threatened to commit 
its former ravages. Encountering repeated gales of wind, 
aad with a crew reduced to sixteen men and eleven boys fit 
for duty, the Gloucester became in so crazy and disabled a 
condition, that the Captain and her Officers represented to 
the Commodore the necessity of abandoning her, as it wa& 
impossible to keep her above water. The crew were accord- 
ingly taken on board the Centurion, together with what 
money, goods, and stores, could be saved, and the ship was 
burnt. 



4)F CiHORGE LORD ANSOK. 2^ 

The Centurion was now, the only ship remaining, in the 
South Seas, of a potent squadron, that had passed the Straits 
Le Maire. But in the most adverse circumstances, the con- 
stancy and resolution of the Commodore, never for a moment 
forsook him; struggling under the most formidable diffi- 
culties from disease, reduction of strength, and commanding 
a vessel leaky in her hull, and materially injured in her 
masts, rigging, and sails, he set an example t^his crew of 
patience and activity, cheerfully sharing with the healthy 
their hardships and fatigues, and kindly administering to the 
sick every relief and comfort within his power. In this 
situation, as Commander of a single ship, he gave a happy 
earnest to his country of those services which he afterward* 
performed, when raised to a higher station, and invested 
with a more important command. 

The Gloucester was destroyed on the I5th of August ; 
and on the a8th of the same month the Centurion came to 
an anchor at Tinian, in a condition nearly as deplorable a> 
when they arrived at Juan Fernandez, so that had the ship 
continued much longer at sea, the whole crew must inevita- 
bly have perished. Some idea may be formed of the weakness 
of the crew, when it is mentioned, that all the hands they 
could muster capable of ading on the greatest emergejicies r 
including some negroes and Indian prisoners, amounted to 
no more than seventy-one; and this, inconsiderable as it 
may appear, was the whole force that could be collected, ia 
their present feeble condition, from the united crews of the 
Centurion, the Gloucester, and the Trial, which, when they 
departed from England, were manned altogether with near a 
thousand hands. The sick, amounting in number to one 
hundred and twenty -eight, were brought on shore with the 
utmost dispatch, and the Commodore himself humanely as- 
sisted in providing every thing for their accommodation. Hut> 
and tents were erected to receive them, and the Commodore 
took care that they should be sufficiently supplied with the 
excellent vegetables and fruits which the island produced. 
By these means the sick recovered with as much rapidity as 



2^O BIOGRArHlCAL MEMOIRS 

in a former instance they had done, under similar circum- 
stances, at Juan Fernandez. 

But while our hero was occupied by these benevolent 
cares, a misfortune occurred, which had near fatally ter- 
minated the expedition. In a severe gale of wind the 
Centurion parted from her anchors, and was driven to sea, 
leaving behiod the Commodore, with many more Officers, 
and great part of the crew, amounting in the whole to one 
hundred and thirteen persons. The weak condition of the 
Centurion's crew, the disabled state of the ship, and the 
violence of the storm, led most to conclude that she was lost; 
and those that believed her safe, had scarcely any expectation 
that she would ever be able to make the island again. In 
either of these views their situation was indeed most deplor- 
able. They were at least six hundred leagues from Macao, 
the nearest amicable port, and the only means they had of 
transporting themselves thither was a small Spanish bark, of 
about fifteen tons, seized at their first arrival, which would 
not even hold a fourth part of their number. This vessel 
they hauled on shore and sawed asunder, to lengthen her 
twelve feet, which would enlarge her to near forty tons 
burthen, and enable her to carry them all to China. Ow- 
ing to the indefatigable exertions of the Commodore, and 
the patience and industry of his people, the work of 
lengthening the bark was advanced apace, when to their 
great joy the Centurion was descried in the offing, after an 
absence of nineteen days. This event proved full as satis- 
factory to the distressed on board, as to the destitute on 
shore, for during their absence they had suffered incredible 
hardships, and the ship was so leaky, that they could scarcely 
keep her afloat with the constant use of all their pomps. 

The Commodore now resolved tq stay no longer at 
Tinian than was absolutely necessary to complete his stock 
of water. A second gale of wind drove the ship again to 
sea, but her crew was considerably stronger than before, and 
al o animated by the presence of their Commander; ami 
the weather soon proving favourable, she returned to art 



OF GEORGE LORD ANSOW. ?8l 

anchor after about five days absence. Having completed his 
water, and laid in a large quantity of oranges, lemons, and 
other fruits ef the island, the Commodore took his departure 
from Tinian on the aist of Oftober, steering direttly for 
Macao in China. On the 5th of November they made the 
coast of 'China, without having met with any remarkable 
occurrence on their passage: and on the 12th anchored in 
the road of Macao. The Chinese, a people extremely 
jealous of strangers, harassed our Commodore for some 
time with every species of vexation and delay ; but his firm- 
ness and conciliating manners at length succeeding in re- 
moving all difficulties, the ship was thoroughly repaired and 
fitted for sea. 

Not discouraged by his former disasters, the Commodore 
resolved again to risk the casualties of the Pacific Ocean, in 
hopes of meeting the galleon; and he supposed, that instead 
of one annual ship from Acapulco, there would be this year, 
in all probability, two ; since, by being before Acapulco, he 
had prevented one of them from putting to sea the preceding 
season. He therefore resolved to cruise for th'-se returning 
vessels off Cape Espiritu Santo, on the island of Samal, 
which is the first land they always make at the Philippine 
Island ; and the better to conceal his intentions, lest by any 
means the enemy should become acquainted with them, he 
gave out at Macao, that he was bound to Batavia, and from 
thence to England. 

On the igth of April 1743, the Centurion sailed from 
Macao, and on the 2Oth of May, arrived off Cape Espiritu 
Santo, their intended station. Sensible of the weakness of 
his crew, and that success must in a great measure depend 
on their discipline and skill, the Commodore ordered them to 
be exercised almost every day in working the great guns, and 
in the use of their small arms. These precautions were ex- 
tremely necessary, as it was well known, that the galleons 
were vessels of great force, and should they fall in with two 
of them, as they ardently hoped for, the contest must neces- 

/2at3.ljron.iM.VIII. o o 



2$2 B-10GRAPHICAL MEMOIRS. 

sarily be severe, and they could only hope for success from 
their superior skill in the management of their ship and 
arms. 

As the month of June advanced, the expectations and 
impatience of the Commodore's people daily increased. No 
better idea can be given of their great eagerness on this oc- 
casion, than by copying a few paragraphs from the journal 
of an Officer, who was then on board, as they afford a more 
natural pilure of the full attachment of their thoughts to 
the business of their cruise, than ca,n be given by any other 
means. 

May 31. Exercising our men at their quarters, in great expe&ation 
of meeting with the galleons very soon, this being tht I ith of June, 
their style. 

June 3. Keeping in our station, and looking out for the galleon. 

June 5. Begin now to be in great expeftatipn, this being the mid 
<lk of June, their style. 

June 1 1 . Begin to grow impatient at not seeing the galleons. 

June 13. The wind having blown easterly for the forty-eight hours 
past, gives us great expeflations of seeing the galleons soon. 

June 15. Cruising on and off, and looking out stri&ly. 

June 19. This being the last day of June, N. S. the galleons, if 
they arrive at all, must appear soon. 

From these extracts it will appear how entirely the trea- 
sures of the galleons had engrossed, and how anxiously they 
passed the latter part of their cruise, when the certainty of 
the arrival of those vessels was dwindled down to probability 
only, and that probability became each hour more and more 
doubtful. On the 2oth of June, however, being just a month 
after their gaining their station, they were relieved out of this 
state of uncertainty ; for, at sunrise, they discovered a sail 
from the mast head in the S. E quarter. On this, a general 
joy spread through the whole ship ; for they had no doubt 
but this was one of the galleons, and they expefted soon to 
descry the o;her. The Commodore instantly stood towards 
her, and at half an hour after sevp,n they were near enough 
tQ see her from the Centqrion's deck -, at which tirrie {hf 



fcF GBORftE LORD AfcSOtf. 

galleon fired a gun, and took in her top-gallant-sails. This 
was supposed to be a signal to her consort, to hasten her up, 
and, therefore, the Centurion fired a gun to leeward to 
amuse her. The Commodore was surprised to find, that 
during all this interval the galleon did not change her 
course, but continued to bear down upon him ; for he 
hardly believed, what afterwards appeared to be the case, 
that she knew his ship to be the Centurion, and resolved to 
fight him. The particulars of the aft ion itself, as well a* 
what in part took place on the Centurion's return to 
China, cannot be more satisfactorily described, than in Mr* 
Anson's own words. 

The south-west monsoon being srt in on the coast of China before I 
had refitted his Majesty's ship, it became impossible for me to proceed 
to Europe till the month of Oftober. I, therefore, determined, al- 
though I had not half my complement of men, to cruise for the 
King of Spain's galleon, which was expected from Acapulco with 
treasure to Manilla. After having finished the necessary repairs of 
my ship, on the i8th of April, I made the best of my way for Cape 
Spiritu Santo, being the land to the southward of the Straits of 
Manilla, a shore which ships generally fall in with. Having cruised 
jhere thirty-one days, I got sight of her on the zoth of June, and gave 
chase, she bearing down upon me before the wiftd. When she came 
within two miles, she brought to, to fight me ; and after an engage- 
ment of an hour and an half, within less than pistol-shot, the Admiral 
struck his flagatthe main-top mast head. She was called the Neustra 
Senora del Caba Donga, Don Gtronimo Montero, Admiral j had 
forty- two guns, seventeen of which were brass, and twenty-eight brass 
pedereroes ; five hundred and fifty men, fifty-eight of which were slain, 
and eighty-three wounded, her masts and rigging were shot to pieces ; 
and one hundred and fifty shot passed through her hull, many of 
which were between wind and water, which occasioned her to be very- 
leaky. The greatest damage I sustained was by having my fore- 
mast, main mast, and bowsprit, wounded, and my rigging shot to 
pieces. I received only fifteen shot through my hull, which killed 
me uv,p men, and wounded fifteen. Beuig under great difficulty in 
navigating two such large ships in a dangerous and unknown sea, and 
guarding four hundred and ninety- two prisoners ; I was apprehensive 
of losing company, and thought proper, for the security of the galleon, 
and the* great treasure in her, which could not be removed (the 



jfy BlOGRAfHICAL MEMOIRS 

weather being very tempestuous), to give my First Lieutenant a 
commission to command her, with other proper Officers under him. 

I got into the river Canton on the i<fth day of July, and sent an 
Officer with a letter to the vice-king, acquainting him with the reason 
of my putting into his port ; that I intended to pay him a visit, and 
desired a supply of provisions and stores. A mandarine was sent on 
board some days afterwards, to acquaint me, that the vice-king would 
be glad to see me, with the Captain of the other ship, and brought 
me a licence for supplying me with provisions from day to day. He 
mentioned to me the payment of the duties and measurage, which he 
informed me, by the Emperor's orders, were to be demanded, from all 
ships, without excepting men of war. I told him that the King of 
Great Britain's ships were never treated upon the same footing with 
trading vessels, and that my instructions from the King, my master, 
forbid me to pay any acknowledgment for his ships harbouring in any 
port whatsoever. 

Finding I could not obtain the provisions and stores to enable me 
to proceed to Europe, I was under a necessity of visiting the vice-king. 
The Europeans were of opinion that the Emperor's duties would be 
insisted upon, and not knowing, therefore, what means they might 
make use of when they had me in their power, I gave orders to 
Captain Brett, who upon this occasion I had appointed Captain 
tinder me, that if he found me detained he should destroy the galleon 
(out of which I had removed all the treasure, amounting to 
1,313,843 pieces of eight, and 35,68z ounces of virgin silver and 
plate), and proceed with the Centurion without the river's mouth, 
out of gun-shot of the two forts. 

The vice-king received me with great civility and politeness, having 
ten thousand soldiers drawn up, and his council of mandarines attend- 
ing the audience ; he granted me every thing that I desired, so that I 
had great reason to be satisfied with the success of my visit. 

The particulars of the engagement with the galleon being 
given more at length in Commodore Anson's voyage, and 
every thing relative to so memorable a capture being in- 
teresting, we shall make an extract from that work for the 
satisfaction of our readers . 

At noon the Commodore was little more than a league distant from 
the galleon, and could fetch her wake, so that she could not now 
escape; and, no second ship appearing, it was concluded that she had 
been separated from her consort. Soon after the galleon hauled up 
her fore-sail, and brought to under top-sails, with her head to the 



OT GEORGE LORD ANSOM. 285 

northward, hoisting Spanish colours, and having the standard of Spain 
flying at the top gallant-mast-head. Mr. Anson, in the meantime, 
had prepared all things for an engagement on board the Centurion, 
and had taken every possible measure, both for the most effectual 
exertion of his small strength, and for the avoiding the confusion and 
tumult, too frequent in actions of this kind. He picked out about 
thirty of his choicest hands and best marksmen, whom he distributed 
into his tops, and -who fully answered his expectation by the signal 
services they performed. As he had not hands enough remaining to 
quarter a sufficient number to each great gun, in the customary man- 
ner, he, therefore, on his lower tier, fixed only two men to each gun, 
who were to be solely employed in loading it, whilst the rest of the 
people were divided into different gangs of ten or twelve men each, 
who were continually moving about the decks, to run out and fire 
such guns as were loaded. By this management he was enabled to 
make use of all his guns ; and instead of whole broadsides, with inter- 
vals between them, he kept up a constant fire without intermission, 
whence he doubted not to procure very signal advantages ; for it is 
common with the Spaniards to fall down upon the decks, when' they 
see a broadside preparing, and to continue in that posture till it is 
given ; after which they rise again, and, presuming the danger to be 
for some time over, work their guns, and tire with great briskness, till 
another broadside is ready ; but the firing gun by gun in the. manner 
directed by the Commodore, rendered this practice of their 's im- 
possible. 

The Centurion being thus prepared, and nearing the galleon apace, 
there happened, a little after noon, several squalls of wind and rain, 
which often obscured .the galleon from their sight, but whenever it 
cleared up, they observed her resolutely lying to. Towards one 
o'clock, the Centurion hoisted her broad pendant and colours, she 
being then within gun shot of the enemy } and the Commodore per- 
ceiving the Spaniards to hare neglected clearing their ship till that 
time, as he saw them throwing overboard cattle and lumber, he gavef 
orders to fire upon them with the chase guns, to disturb them in 
their work, and to prevent them from completing it, though hi* 
general direclipns had been not to engage before they were within 
pistol shot. The galleon returned the fire with two of her stern 
chasers, and the Centurion getting her sprit- sail-yard fore and aft* 
that if necessary, she might be ready for boarding, the Spaniards, in 
a bravado, rigged their sprit-sail yard fore and aft likewise. Soon 
after, the Centurion came abreast of the enemy within pistol-shot, 
keeping to the leeward of them, with a view of preventing their 
putting before the wind, and gaining the port of Jalapay, from which 
they were about $even leagues distant. And now the engagement 



a g5 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

began In earnest, and for the first half hour, Mr. Anson over-rea"che4 
the galleon, and lay on her bow ; where, by the great wideneas of his 
ports, he could traverse almost all his guns upon the enemy, whilst 
the galleon could only bring a part of hers to bear. Immediately oa 
the commencement of the aclion, the mats, with which the galleon 
had stuffed her netting, took fire, and burnt violently, blazing up 
half as high as the mizen-top. This accident, supposed to be caused 
by the Centurion's wads, threw the enemy into the utmost terror, 
and also alarmed the Commodore ; for he feared lest the galleon should 
be burnt, and lest he himself too might suffer by her driving on board 
him. However, the Spaniards at last freed themselves from the fire, 
by cutting away the netting, and tumbling the whole mas?, which 
was in flames, into the sea. All this interval the Centurion kept her 
first advantageous position, firing her cannon with great regularity 
and briskness ; whilst at the same time the galleon's decks lay open to 
her topmen, who, having at their first volley driven the Spaniard* 
from their tops, made prodigious havock with their small arms, kill- 
ing or wounding every Officer but one that appeared on the quarter- 
deck, and wounding in particular the General of the galleon himself. 

Thus the aftion proceeded for at least half an hour, but then the 
Centurion lost the superiority arising from her original situation, and 
was close alongside the galleon, and the enemy continued to fire 
briskly for near an hour longer; yet even in this posture the Commo- 
dore's grape-shot swept their decks so effectually, and the number of 
their slain and wounded became so considerable, that they began to 
fell into great disorder, especially as the General, who was the life of 
the action, was no longer capable of exerting himself. Their con- 
fusion was visible from on board the Commodore ; for the ships were 
o near, that some of the Spanish Oificers were seen running about 
with much assiduity, to prevent the desertion of their men from their 
quarters; but all their endeavours were in vain, for after having, as a 
last effort, fired five or six guns with more judgment than usual, thtf 
yielded up the contest : and, the galleon's colours being singed off the 
ensign staff in the beginning of the engagement, she struck the 
standard at her main-top gallant-mast-head ; the person who was em- 
ployed to perform this office, had been in imminent peril of being 
killed, had not the Commodore, who perceived what he was aboutj 
given express orders to his people to desist from firing. 

The Commodore, on his return with his prize to tho 
river Canton, had farther experience of the jealous disposi- 
tion of the Chinese ; but by his prudent management, as is- 
briefly stated in his letter, he succeeded in removing the 
prejudices of the Chinese Government, and vindicated th 



F GEORGE IOR0 ANSOtf. 287 

honour of th& British flag. In a delicate and embarrassing 
negotiation, with a people the most attached to their own 
opinions of any in the world, subtle and perfidious to an 
extreme and who are seldom or ever known to yield a point 
which they have once insisted upon, the Commodore main- 
tained the dignity of his nation, and proved himself as skil- 
ful in negotiation as he was in war. 

Not being able to procure a sufficient number of people to 
navigate her to England, the Commodore sold the galleon to 
the merchants of Macao, for six thousand dollars, a sum 
far less than her value, but which his impatience to get to 
sea induced him to accept. The Centurion weighed from 
Macao on the i5th of December ; and on the nth of March 
arrived at the Cape of Good Hope. Here the Commodore 
Continued till the beginning of April, refreshing his people* 
and furnishing the ship with those stores which could not 
be procured in China. He entered forty Dutch seamen> 
and sailed from the Cape on the 3d of April. On the iQth* 
they saw the island of St. Helena, which however they did 
not touch at, but stood on their way. On the agth, they 
crossed the line for the fourth time, to the northward, and 
arrived in soundings about the beginning of May. By the 
J2th they got sight of the Lizard, and the I5th, in the even- 
ing, to their infinite joy, they came safe to an anchor at 
Spithead. But, that the signal perils, which had so often 
threatened them in the preceding part of the enterprise, might 
pursue them to the very last, and the watchful care of Pro- 
vidence be farther exercised towards them, the Commodore 
learnt on his arrival, that there was a French fleet of con- 
siderable force cruising in the chops of the Channel, which, 
from the account of their position, he found the Centurion 
had ran through, and had been all the time concealed by a 
fog. " Thus," to use the words of the author of the voyage, 
" was this expedition ended, when it 'had lasted three years 
and nine months, after having, by its event, strongly evinced 
this important truth, That though prudence, intrepidity, 
perseverance united, are not exempted frorq the Iplows 



288 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS - 

of adverse fortune ; yet in a long series of transactions, they 
usually rise superior to its power, and in the end rarely fail 
of proving successful.'* 

The Commodore, as might naturally be expected, met 
with the most flattering reception from all ranks of people, 
and eight days after his arrival was promoted to the rank of 
Rear-Admiral of the Blue. The treasure of the galleon was 
drawn in triumphal pomp through the city of London, in 
thirty-two waggons, which were preceded by a band of 
military music, playing national airs, and guarded (the most 
interesting part of the spectacle) by a detachment: of the 
Officers and seamen of the Centurion, The observations of 
the author of the Biographia Navalis, on the termination of 
this memorable expedition, are so extremely forcible and 
judicious, and coincide so exactly with our own sentiments 
on the subject, that we cannot refrain from inserting them. 

It has not been unshrewd'y remarked (says this very ingenious f 
sensible, and acute writer), that the greatest talents are frequently con- 
signed by misfortune to everlasting oblivion, while succtss alone is 
sufficient to secure everlasting fame ; but it is necessary this success 
should not be partial, but complete in all its points, for many persons 
have, in the particular instance of Mr. Ansou, rather invidiously ob- 
served, that * though he was himself enriched, and by an occurrence 
too, which they are pleased to term accidental, yet that the British 
nation was by no means indemnified for the expence occurred 
by it, and that the original design was entirely defeatrd." The ex- 
pedition itself was one of those speculative attemps in war which are 
always considered as hazardous ; and very frequently prove unsuccess- 
ful. Nothing ever induces an Administration to espouse or encourage 
them but the chance of deriving an immense advantage, if fortune 
Favours the undertaking ; and sustaining a loss comparatively trivial if 
otherwise. Considerable negledt and delay took place in the equip- 
ment, circumstances the most unpropitious that could have happened 
to the intention with which the armament was sent out, and though 
upon the whole that intention certainly failed, yet was that misfortune 
by no means impotable to Mr. Anson, who certainly displayed, 
through the whole of this long and perilous adventure, the greatest 
prudence, personal intrepidity, perseverance, and spirit. 

Soon after his arrival in England, Mr. Anson was engaged 
i.n a disagreeable dispute with the Lords of the Admiralty, 



OF GEORGE LORD ANSOMk 289 

who refused to confirm to Captain Brett, the rank and coin- 
mission of Captain of the Centurion, which, as the Com- 
modore himself states in his official letter, he had given him 
in the river Canton, when he was under the necessity of visit- 
ing the viceroy. This dispute occasioned Mr. Anson not 
only to remain for some time unemployed, but caused him 
to decline accepting the rank of Rear-Admiral, which, as 
we have before mentioned, was conferred on him eight days 
after his arrival. On the 2yth of December 1744, a very 
extensive change in Administration took place, and a new 
Board of Admiralty was formed, at which Mr. -Anson him- 
self was honoured with a seat, and received the farther satis- 
faction of having his commission to Captain Brett confirmed. 
About this time Mr. Anson was chosen representative in 
Parliament for Heydon, in Yorkshire, a borough which he 
had purchased with the spoils of his expedition, and which, 
after his advancement to the peerage, continued for many 
years to be represented by Officers who had served under him 
in the South Seas. 

On the 2Oth of April 1745, Mr. Anson was advanced to 
be Rear- Admiral of the White ; but he was not invested with 
any command till the month of July 1746, when, having 
previously been promoted to be Vice-Admiral of the Blue, 
he was appointed to command the Channel Fleet, as suc- 
cessor to Vice- Admiral Martin, who sailed to the North Sea 
to intercept any supplies that might be sent the Pretender, 
then at the head of the rebellious clans in Scotland. No 
event, however, of any consequence took place in the Channel 
this year, though Mr. Anson continued at sea during the 
greater part of the winter, in expectation of intercepting a 
French squadron on its return from America, under the Due 
d'Anville; but that Commander having received information 
of Mr. Anson's station, he took the necessary precautions to 
avoid him, and was tolerably successful, one of his ships only 
being taken, the Mercury, formerly a French ship of war, 
mounting 58 guns, but then serving as an hospital ship. 
. erijron. CtoI.VIII. PP 



290 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

The following ye^r, the French, not discouraged by theif 
former losses, determined to make another effort to recover 
Cape Breton, which had fallen into the hands of the English 
some time back. For this purpose a strong squadron was 
equipped at Brest, and the command of it given to M. de la 
Jonquierre ; at the same time another squadron was prepared 
to sail for the East Indies, under the command ofM. de St. 
George; and for the better protection of the trading ships 
against any attempts of the British cruisers ; and these 
squadrons were to proceed in company as far as their courses- 
were the same. 

To counteract the designs of the French Cabinet, the 
British Ministry ordered a powerful squadron to be got ready 
for sea, the command of which was conferred on Vice- Ad- 
miral Anson, and Rear Admiral Warren. This fleet sailed 
from Plymouth on the Qth April, and continued to cruise off 
Cape Finisterre till the 3d o f May, when the Fre.nch squadron 
was discovered, consisting of thirty-eight sail. The particu- 
lars of the aftion which ensued, are so fully detailed in the 
account which was published on the occasion by authority, 
that any observations on our part would be unnecessary. 



Prince George, 



Admiralty Office, May r6. 1747.' 

Captain Denis, of his Majesty's ship the Centurion, arrived this day with aa 
express from Vice Admiral Anson, giving an account, that on the 3d ir.st. the 
tquadron under his command, consisting of the following ships, viz. 

Slips. Cunt, Commanders. Slips. Guns. Commanders. 

1 Vice-Admiral Defiance, 60 Capt. Grenville, 
Anson, Nottingham, 60 Saumarez, 

Capt. Bentley, Pembroke, 60 Fincher, 

' Rear- Admiral Windsor, 60 hanway, 

Devonshire, 66 ^ \Varren, Centurion, 50 Denis, 

Capt. West, Falkland, 50 Barradel, 

Boscawen, Bristol, 50 W. Montagu, 

Harrison, Ambuscade, 40 John .'ontagu, 

Morris, Falcon sloop, 10 Gwynn, 

Brett, Vulcan fireship, Pattigrew. 



<unt, 

90) 

/ 



Namur, 74 

Monmouth, 64 

Prince l rederick, 64 
Yarmouth, 64 

Princcts Louisa, 60 



Watson, 



being off ("ape Finisterre, v/hich bore S. j E. distant twenty-four leagues, fell 
in with a French fleet, consisting of thirty-eight ships, nine of which shortened 
ail, and were drawing into a line of battle ahead ; and the resr of thr fleet, 
which appeared to be under their convoy, stretched to the westward with all 
the sailthcy could set. Mr. nson formed his flirt into a line, but nb.-rrving, 
by the motions of the enemy, that their ami wts 'o ra''n time, m-d endeavour 
to escape under favour of the nijrht, he made the signal br the v.iiol- i^et to 
thaw, and engage the enemy, \\ithout any regard to the line of ba'.tle. The 



OF GEORGE LORD ANSON. 29! 

Centurion, Captain Denis, having got up with the sternmost French ship about 
four o'clock in the afternoon, began to engage her, upon which two of the 
enemy's largest ships bore down to her assistance. The Namur, Defiance, and 
Windsor, being the next headmost ships, soon entered into the adtion, and after 
having disabled those French ships in such a manner that the BritLh ships astern- 
most soon come up with them, they made sail ahead, to prevent the van of the 
enemy from escaping ; as did also several other ships of the fleet. The Yarmouth 
and Devonshire having got up and engaged the enemy, and the Prince George 
being near the Invincible, and going to fire into her, all the ships in the enemy's 
rear struck their colours between six and seven o'clock, as did all those which 
were in the line, before night. Vice- Admiral Anson brought to at seven, having 
detached the Monmouth, Yarmouth, and Nottingham, to pursue the convoy, 
\v.ho then bore W. and by S. at about four or five leagues distance, so that there 
are hopes of having a very good account of them. The Falcon sloop, which the 
Vice- Admiral had sent after the convoy during the a&ion, with orders to make 
.signals for a guidance to the other ships, returned to the fleet the nest day with 
the Dartmouth Indiaman. The number and quality of the ships taken from the 
enemy are as follows, viz. 

Ships of war belonging to the French King. 
Slips. Guns. Men. Commanders. 

Le Serieur, 66 556 M. De la Jonquierre, Chef d'scadre, 

1,'lnvincible, 74 700 M. De St. George, 

Le Diamond, 56 450 Hoquart, 

Le Jason, 52 355 Beccard, 

Le Rubis, 51 318 M'Carty, 

La Gloire, 44 330 Salesse. 

F.ast India Company's Ships fitted as men of war. 
L'Apollon, 30 13* De Santons, 
Le Philibert, 30 170 Cellie, 
Le Thetis, 2 > 100 Macon, 

East India Ship taken by the Falcon Sloop. 
Le Dartmouth, 18 50 Penoche. 

The loss on our side was not very considerable, except that of Captain Gren. 
villc, of the Defiance, who was an excellent Officer, and whose dea;h cannot be 
sufficiently lamented. Captain Boscawen, of the Namur, was wounded in the 
shoulder with a musket-ball, hut ia in a very fair way of recovery. 

The French Chef d'F.scadre, M. de la Jonquierre, was shot under the blade- 
bone of both his shoulders, but it was thought he would recover. One of the 
French Captains was killed, and another lost his leg. 

Most of our ships have suffered in their masts and rigging. 

The following extraft of a letter from an Officer on board 
his Majesty's ship the Windsor, dated Plymouth Sound, May 
15, I747> contains some particulars relative to -this engage- 
ment, which do not appear in the official account. 

This comes to inform you, that in latitude 43. 46. longitude 3. 50. W on 
Sunday the 3d of May, at eight o'clock in the morning, we saw thirty-six sail 
of ships whom we supposed to be French, and indeed found them to be so. At two 
o'clock we took in two reefs in our top.saiis, unslung the yardi, knocked Jowu 
all the cabins, and all the bulk heads, and cleared the ship for fighting, v/e being 
in chase with Admiral Anson, Vice- Admiral of the Blue, and Admiral- Warren, 
Rear Admiral of the White, who had thirteen" sail of the h: e of battle hips, xc. 
The wind N. E. our course south 31. and at half an hour past two. the Admiral 
made the signal for the line of battle abreast, observing that nine of the French 
brought to, and formed the line of battle on the starboard tacks, to engage. 
But at three o'clock, observing our superior force, they wore, and seemed to k r o , 
8way at large, with their larboard tucks at the cat-Leads j upou which the A&^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

miral made the general signal to chase, and form the line of battle, without re- 
gard to seniorty, and suon after, the signal to engage. At four o'clock we 
hauled down the small sails, and bunted the main-sail, and about half an hour 
after the Centurion began the engagement, being seconded bv the Namur; bat 
the former dropped astern after three or four broadsides, having his main top- 
mast shot away. By this time we came alongside the French Admiral, of 64 
guns, seconded by the Invincible, another French ship, of- 76 guns, whom we 
engaged very close for an hour and a half; the French dmiral drcpt astern, 
and would certainly hare raked us fore and aft, had it not been for the Namur, 
who immediately poured a broadside into him ; after the Namur, the Devonshire, 
Rear-Admiral Warren, clapt him alongside the Prince George, Vicc-Admiral 
.Anson, to whom he struck, having a great many men killed, his main-top-mast 
shor away, and hull, rigging, and sails tore to pieces. The Admiral having 
struck, the Invincible soon did the like, having his main-mast shot away, and 
his hull, rigging, and sails, much shattered by our ship, Rear-Admiral Warren, 
and the Defiance, who discharged several broadsides into him. It was in the 
beginning of the aJHon that we lost the Captain of the Defiance, whose brave 
and gallant behaviour cannot be too much spoken of, and will certainly per-- 
petuate to his memory a lasting monument of fame. After this, we made as 
much sail as we could after two French ships of war, who were trying to run 
away, but the sternmost was soon obliged to strike to the Namur and the Falk- 
land. We pursued the Diamond, a French fifty four gun ship, obstinately, till 
we had him alongside, and the second broadside we gave him, he struck, his 
fore-mast being shot away, and his hull, sails, and rigging, very much damaged ; 
this was the ninth ship that struck. 

Never was a piece of better conduct than the French Admiral shewed,, in 
drawing up five sail of the line of battle ships, and four sail of frigates, to fight 
thirtem sail of the line of battle ships, frigates, c. in order that the convoy 
might have an opportunity of getting off; and, to say the truth, they all shewed 
their courage was not lost, for none of them offered to strfke till their ships 
were so disabled that they could not work them. The Admiral sent Commo- 
dore Harrison and two more ships of force, after the remainder of the French 
fleet, who, we believe will bring a good account of them. At nine o'clock at 
m'ght our forc-top-mast came down, being shot through ten feet above the cap. 
We had likewise several shot in our lower mast, and a great many in the hull, 
and two of our guns rendered unserviceable, by having their trunnions shot off. 
"We fired above 600 great shot, and 40^ weight of musket-shot. Our ship lost 
in the action Lieutenant steward, of the marines, four more killed, and eighteen 
dangerously wounded. 

The number of killed and wounded on board the British 
fleet amounted to 250, the loss sustained by the enemy was 
more severe, 700 being killed and wounded. The speech of the 
French Admiral, M. Jonquierre, on presenting his sword to 
the conqueror, deserves to be recorded ; " Monsieur" said he, 
" vous avez vamcu L' Invincible, et La Gloire vous suit," 
pointing to the two ships so named, which had struck their 
colours, and were taken possession of by the English. Vice- 
Admiral Anson brought his prizes safe to Spithead, and 
when he appeared at Court after this victory, his Majesty was 
graciously plea-ed to say to him, " bir, you have done a great 
service; I thank you ; and desire you to thank, in my name, 
all the Officers and private men for their bravery and cou.- 
duel, with which I am well pleased," 



OF GEORGE LORD ANSON. 203 

On board the French men of war was fou'id upwards of 
300,000!. in money, destined to pay their troops in America 
and the East Indies, which was put into twenty waggons, and 
conveyed to London, guarded by detachments of marines. 
On the first waggon was hoisted Vice -Admiral Anson's blue 
flag; on r he sixth wa< the French Admiral's flag; on the 
twelfth was a Union Jack ; and on the seventeenth was Rear- 
Adm. Warren's w;.ite flag. The treasure proceeded through 
the city of London to the Bank, where the money was lodged 
amidst the acclamations of a vast concourse of people. For 
these repeated services, o.i the ijthof June, Admiral Ansoa 
was rewarded by his late Majesty with a peerage, by the title 
of Lord Anson, Baron of Soberton, in the county of South- 
ampton ; and Rear- Admiral Warrbn was honoured with the 
Order of the Batn. On the 1 5th of July a general promotion of 
Flag-Officers took place, and Lord Anson was advanced to be 
Vice -Admiral of the Red ; and on the I2th of May 1748, to 
be Admiral of the Blue. The same year he commanded the 
squadron that convoyed the late King to and from Holland, 
and ever after constantly attended his Majesty on his going 
abroad, and on his return to England. In April 1748, his 
Lordship married the Hon. Miss Yorke, eldest daughter of 
Lord Hardwicke (then Lord High Chancellor), who died 
without issue on the ist of June 1761. 

To return to the account of his Lordship's subsequent 
employments and promotions, In the month of July 1749, 
Lord Anson was appointed Vice-Admital of Great Britain; 
and on the 22d of July 1751, was appointed First Lord of the 
Admiralty, in which post he continued (with a very short 
intermission) till his death. In the year 1752, he was ap- 
pointed one of the Lords Justices of the kingdom, during his 
Majesty's absence in Germany, and had the same honour 
conferred on him again in 1755. That year, on the appre- 
hension of a rupture with France, 'so adlive and spirited 
were his measures, that a fleet superior to the enemy's, was 
equipped and manned with amazing expedition; and hosti- 
J.ties having actually commenced, the vigilance of his 

3 



294. BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

administration soon became conspicuous. With the 
tingle exception- of the loss of Minorca, the British arms 
were every where triumphant; but that misfortune being 
attributed by popular clamour to some misconduct of the 
Board of Admiralty, Lord Anson resigned his seat on the 
28th of November 1756, and continued in retirement till 
the beginning of July 1757, when he returned to his office, 
at the solicitation of Mr. Pitt, who a few days before, to the 
great satisfaction of the nation, had been appointed Secre- 
tary of State. This illustrious statesman was too well ac- 
quainted with Lord Anson's abilities and talents, to permit 
him to remain in retirement, at a time when his country 
stood so much in need of his counsels, judgment, and courage; 
he was accordingly, the clouds of prejudice and faction being 
blown over, recalled to his former station, which he held, 
without interruption, to the time of his death. 

On the ist of June 1/58, being then Admiral of the White, 
and having hoisted his flag on board the Royal George, of 
JOO guns, Lord Anson sailed from Spithead, Sir Edward 
Hawke commanding under him, with seventeen sail of the 
line and five frigates, and by cruising continually before the 
port of Brest, he covered the descents that were made that 
summer, by the Duke of Marlborough and Commodore 
Howe*, at St. Maloes, Cherbourg, &c. On the 1 6th of 
July, Lord Anson returned with the fleet to Plymouth 
Sound, where he was joined by Rear-Admiral Holmes, with 
a reinforcement of six sail of the line, and four frigates. 
On the 22d of the month, he again put to sea, and continued 
to cruise off Brest till the middle of August, when he was 
joined by Rear-Admiral Saunders, to whom he resigned the 
command of the fleet, and returned to England- 

His Lordship now continued on shore, sedulously devoting 
his time to the duties of his high station, as First Lord of the 
Admiralty. A series of the most brilliant successes attended 
bis administration. The fleets of France were confined 

* See Vol I. page ij. 



Or GEORGE LORD ANSON. jjQtf 

Within her ports, or put to sea only to experience the most 
shameful defeats; her coasts were insulted by British 
squadrons, which made repeated descents, plundering her 
towns, and destroying her harbours and fortifications. 
Louisbourg and Quebec, in North America ; Goree, on the 
coast of Africa ; and Pondicherry, in the East Indies, the 
capitals of their possessions in those parts, yielded to the 
efforts of British valour. In short, to use the words of Vol- 
taire, speaking of this period, the English were viftorious in 
every quarter of the globe. 

The last service performed by Lord Anson at sea, was the 
convoying to England the august personage who now shares 
the crown of these kingdoms, and who, for nearly half a 
century, in the dignified stations of wife, mother, and queen, 
has not for a moment ceased to possess the affe&ions and 
veneration of a great, loyal, and generous people. On the 
yth of August 1761, his Lordship hoisted the Union flag on 
board the Royal Charlotte yacht at Harwich, and being 
joined by a squadron of men of war in Yarmouth Roads *, 
proceeded from thence to Cuxhaven. On the 24th, her 
Majesty embarked on board the yacht at Stadt, and on the 
6th of September landed at Harwich, after a tedious and 
stormy passage. 

On his return from this very honourable service, his Lord- 
ship, whose health had been for some time on the decline, 
was recommended by his physicians to try the efFeft of the 
Bath waters, from which he was thought to have received 
benefit ; but soon after his departure from thence, he was 

* The squadron which convoyed the Queen consisted of the following vessels : 
Sbit>s. Guru. Commandtrt. 

. t Lord Anson, 

Royal Charlotte (yacht), 10 J Capt p?ter Denig> 

Nottingham 60 Samuel Marshall, 

Winchester, 50 James Hab, 

Minerva, 3* ' Alexander Hood, 

Tartar, 28 J- Knight, 

Hazard, 14 Hon. Henry St. John, 

Lynx, 14 Hon. Keith Stewart. 



4p5 BIOGRAPHICAL MfcMOlfc.5 

suddenly seized with a violent indisposition, just after walk- 
ing in his garden. After lingering a few days, he died, at 
his seat at Moor Park, in Hertfordshire, on the 6th of June 
1762. By his will the hullc of his Lordship's fortune de- 
volved to his sister's son, George Adams, Esq. who, according 
to his uncle's directions, assumed the name of Anson. 

As an Officer and a man, the memory of Lord Anson is 
entitled to the utmost veneration and respeft. As an Officer, 
he was cool and steady in the execution of his duty, of an 
enterprising spirit, yet patient under difficulties, and endowed 
with a courage that no dangers could dismay. He had the 
welfare of his country truly at heart, and served it with a zeal 
that has been equalled by few, and surpassed by none. 
Among the many services that will immortalize his name, 
his discreet and fortunate choice of his Officers was none of 
the least, as will readily be allowed, when it is mentioned, 
that Sir Charles Saunders, Captain Philip Saumarez *, Sir 
Piercy Brett, Sir Peter Denis, and Lord Keppel, were his 
Lieutenants in the Centurion. As a man, he was warm and 
steady in his friendships, and particularly careful of the in- 
terests of those whom he had taken under his protection, if 
they continued worthy of his patronage. In his disposition 
he was mild and unassuming, and could boast of no great 
acquaintance with the world f, but on professional subjects 
his judgment was quick and comprehensive; and Mr. Pitt 
allowed him to be one of the ablest colleagues of his glorious 
administration. Of good fortune no man had a larger share 
than Lord Anson, but it should be remarked, that scarcely 
any man deserved it more j his successes were not the result 
of blind chance, but of well-concerted and well -executed 
designs. On the whole, we may safely pronounce our hero 
to be one of the most illustrious characters that our Navy 
has produced, and one whose name will descend with honour 
to the latest posterity. 

* For a short account of this gallant Officer, see Vol. VI. page S$, 
f Vide an anecdote of Lord Anson, p. 60. 



C 2 97 1 



SOME ORIGINAL ANECDOTES OF 

PETER THE GREAT, 

jlnd tie Story of the Ship's Boat, loh'ich gavr his late Russian Majesty t 
PETER ALEXOWITZ, the first thoughts of building the RUSUM Fleet 

nnHE Russian History is exceedingly difficult to trace, because no 
* history takes notice of any actions till after the time of Duke 
Ruric, who died anno 879. Chiverius indeed is quoted, who relates 
from Greek historians, that Igor, Great Duke of Russia, crossed the 
Euxine Sea with a fleet of 15,000 vessels, to attack Constantinople, 
but these are agreed to be only cock boats, and of no naval conse- 
quence ; and it is also further agreed, that Duke Uladimir was too 
much engaged in establishing religion to regard navigation, and was 
blamed for the division of his country into twelve dukedoms far 
the sake of his twelve sons ; but the disturbances this impolitic 
division made were soon quieted by the Great Ruaze or Prince 
Ivan Basilowitz, who re-united these dukedoms, and reduced them 
again into one body. His success 1>y land gave umbrage to the mari- 
time powers, lest such an enterprising Prince should make any attempts 
by sea ; and therefore, in a congress at Lubeck, the subjedls of 
foreigners were forbid to come into Russia, to teach navigation or 
ship building, though the Prince seemed to. have no views that way, 
his whole time being taken up in making conquests by land. The 
death of Boriee Godunoff concluded the succession in his line ; and, 
after an inter-regnum of some years, it came to the family of the 
Emperor Peter the Great. 

1. His grandfather, Czar Michael Theodorowitz, who quelled the 
civil dissensions of the country, and guarded against the incursion* 
of the Tartars, had no thoughts of building ships. 

2. His father, Czar Alexie Michaelowitz, not only confirmed the 
trength of the dominions his father left, but advanced upon his 
neighbourg, enlarged his territories, and extended his thoughts also 
towards the sea ; yet in this he made but a very slight progress, 
having only built a small vessel called the Eagle, and one yacht or 
galliot, in the river Wolga ; and his farther designs' were totally de- 
feated at Astracan by a quarrel amongst the Hollanders, who built 
and had the care of these vessels in their way to the Caspian Sea. 
The Captain bting killed, some fled to Persia, and from thence to the 
Indies, and only two of the whole company, a surgeon and a carpen- 
ter, returned to MOSCOVT to relate the disappointment. 



2g ORIGINAL ANECDOTES OF 

So that Czar Peter Alexiewitz truly began and perfe&ed a fleet, 
the tory of which is thus related. 

His Majesty, when yet a youth, was walking in the flax yard, at 
Ishmaeloft (an old seat of the family near Moscow), and passing by 
the magazines, where some remains of the household furniture of 
Niketa Ivanovvitz Romanoff, his great uncle, were laid, he spied 
amongst other things a smz\] foreign vessel, and his curiosity nt suffer- 
ing him to pass it by without an enquiry, he presently asked Francis 
Timerman (who then lived with him, and taught him geometry and 
fortification), what sort of a vessel that wab ? He told him it was an 
English boat. He then asked how they made use of it ? He was 
answered, that it was made use of by ships to bring and carry goods. 
His Majesty then asked in what it was preferable to the Russian 
vessels ? (for he observed it built in a fashion better and stronger than 
theirs.) Timerman answered, that it goes with a sail, with the wind, 
or against it ; which made him greatly wonder, and, as though not 
credible, raised his curiosity to see a proof of it. The C/ar asked 
Timerman, was there such a man as could relit the vessel and shew it 
to go so? and hearing that there was one, bei:ig oveijoyed, he re- 
quired him then to find him out, upon which Timerman sought out 
a carpenter, Carsters Brand (who was stnt for by the Czar's father 
from Holland to build ships in the Caspian Sea as before mentioned). 
Then did the seed of the Czar Alexie Michaelowitz begin to sprout.. 
Carsttrs Brand a long time despairing of employment in his own way, 
had hitherto subsisted himself by joiner's work, and, contrary to his 
expectation, being called to work at his first trad- , he very willingly 
repaired the boat, made tire mast and four sails, and sailed up and down 
the river Yause * in his Majesty's sight, which was yet a great wonder 
tu the Czar, and pleased him exceedingly. Who at that time would 
Uaye imagined that the amusement of his Majesty would ever have 
been improved to greater purposes, and not have been laid aside as an 
entertainment of his youth ? But this monarch was so particularly 
remarkable in all he did, that the very pastimes of his childhood were 
esteemed as transactions of moment and weight, and appear worthy 
to be recorded in history. He pursued such diversions in his child- 
hood as led him, and many other great personages before him, to future 
great exploits. His pleasures were to build forts moated round ; 
to draw up battalions as in a real engagement with an enemy, offen- 
sive and defensive; and so the said boat did not only sevve for play 
and pastime, but gave occasion for his building a great fleet. 

* A small river that runs by the suburbs of Moscow, wherein the Engli.h 
and Dutch merchants dwell, and falls int9 the Mosqua a little above the city. 



TETER THE GREAT. 299 

But to return to the story, his Majesty was not content to see the 
sailing of the boat, but coveted himself to go in her, and steer her ; 
and because he had observed the boat not to answer her helm, but 
often to strike against the bank, he asked the above-said Carsters 
Brand the reason of it, who answered, because the water was narroiv 
and she had not sufficient way ; then his Majesty ordered the boat to 
be carried into a water called the Prussian Potul, but this was nothing 
better, and his desire was so inflamed that it hourly increased, and he 
resolved to carry it into a larger water, and the lake of Perestave was 
mentioned to him as the nearest ; he wished to fly thither, but an ac- 
cident intervened to retard his journey. His mother, the Czarina, 
teing heartily solicitous for the safety of her sou, endeavoured to 
disauadc and divert him from his intention, yet with a deference and 
respect to his sovereign dignity ; on his part he so comported himself 
to her will, as if he had been regardless cf his own power and dignity. 
Here was the difficulty; to desist from his intended journey toward; 
the lake, his strong bent of mind that way would not permit, and yet 
to proceed, without his mother's approbation, his filial affection forbad 
him, and all the scruple was about her Majesty's consent in an under- 
taking, at least in opinion, dangtrous. However his eager desire to 
tfledt his purpose, made him very thoughtful to bring it about. 
Under the pretext of performing a vow in Trinity monastery, he pre- 
vailed upon his august mother for an opportunity of making this 
journey : hence it is manifest with what an ardent zeal for the public 
good, this monarch was inspired. 

After his Majesty had taken a full view of the extent of this lake, 
he then instantly and openly intreated his mother to build there a house 
and vessels ; and so the above said Carsters Brand built two small 
frigates and turee yachts, wherein his Majesty diverted himself a few 
years ; but afterwards he thought this too small a water, and designed 
to go to the Lake Cubins, which is large and extensive, but not deep 
enough. It was then he fixed his. resolution to visit a water large as 
his d_fire, and that was the sea itself; but motherly care again ob- 
structed his design, and often represented this as a voyage dangerous 
and troublesome, but such was the impulse of the son's spirit, that 
it could not be restrained or diverted, and she saw him immediately 
resolved, notwithstanding all the dissuasion she had used. 

Therefore, in 1694, his Majesty visited Archangel, and from 
thence, in his own yacht, called the St. Peter, he sailed to Ponoia, 
in company with English and Dutch merchants ships, under convoy 
of one Dutch man of war, commanded by Captain Jolle Jolson. 

His Majesty was delighted with this voyage so much at large, bt 
did not stop here ; he therefore beat his thoughts wholly toward* 



JOO ORIGINAL ANECDOTES OF 

building a fleet, and when in his invasion of the Tartar*, he had laid 
siege to Asoph, and happily taken it, he then in prosecution of hrs 
purpose, which was unchangeable, thought not long about it, but put 
it speedily in execution. A fit place for building ships was found in 
the river Veronez, near a city of the same name : master* were sent for 
from Holland, and in 1696, a new work was begun in Russia, the 
building of great and noble ships and gallies, and other vessels ; and to 
make it lasting in Russia, he contrived to bring the art itself into his 
own nation, and to that end, sent great numbers of his nobility and 
gentry into Holland and other dominions to learn ship- building and 
navigation. 

And what is most wonderful, as though this monarch was ashamed 
to be outdone by his subjects in this art, he made a tour to Holland 
himself, and, at Amsterdam, in the wood yard called the Ostend 
Wharf, he wrought with other volunteers in the ships, and in a little 
time made that proficiency as to pass for a good carpenter ; after this 
he desired John Pool, master of the yard, to instruct him in the pro- 
portions of a ship, which he learned in four days. 

But because in Holland, this art was not taught perfectly in the 
mathematical way, but only some few principles of it, and the rest 
must be acquired by long practice and experience ; and the above said 
master told him they could not demonstrate this in lines, it gave him 
great uneasiness that he had undertaken so long a journey for that 
purpose, and had failed of the end he so much desired. 

A few days after it happened that his Majesty was at the house of 
John Theesing, a merchant, where he sate in company very pensive 
for the before mentioned reason, and when in the course of conversa- 
tion, he was asked the cause of his melancholy, he then declared his 
reason for it. An Englishman in company who heard this, told him 
that in England, this kind of structure was in the same perfedlion as 
other arts and sciences, and might be learnt in a short time. His Ma- 
jesty was glad to hear this, and therefore in all haste went to England, 
and there in four months time finished his learning, and at his return 
brought over with him two master ship builders, John Dean and 
Joseph Noy *, and now it appears to have been an occasion not a little 
remarkable, since there is a complete fleet in Russia, and the Czar 
'himself was a master ship-builder, as he proved in fad t, by appointing 

Btron Huysscn, Counsellor in the College of War, in the History of hi* 
Majesty's Life, says, that his Majesty perceived the method and manner of 
building ships in England to be more regular and much better than that in Hol- 
land, and was often heard to say, that had he never gone to England, he had 
jtill remained ignorant of the art. 

f For at soon as he returned from England he went down to Veronez, 
*hrtker be carried the two English builder*, Dean and Noy ; the first o 



*BTIR THB GREAT. jfrf 

another place for building ships in the royal city of Petersburg, which 
he founded What a multitude of great ships and gallies and other 
vessels of every kind are here built regularly and beautifully, we have 
no occasion to relate, but to a!l rejoice and wonder. And because a 
fleet, to enable it to succeed in expeditions and engagements, requires 
some formal regulation or a rule, without which winds and sailors are 
nr-eless, this most wise monarch set himself to this work, and partly 
from his own judgment, and partly out of the regulations of foreigners, 
he colle&ed the excellent rules which he formed into a book. And thus 
has lie, as it were, breathed a living soul into his own material 
creation, and thence we have seen, by the blessing of God, those happy 
successes in every part of the Baltic, where he made prizes of a great 
many ships of his enemies ; with unusual success took the Swedish 
Rear- Admiral and his squadron, and subdued the great kingdom of 
Finland, which by land was never to be come at by reason of the 
difficulty of the road to it, and in 1719 passed, by a descent on Sweden 
itself, and gave them such a defeat as concluded in his great advantage 
and triumph. 

To show farther in an instance very remaikable, the passion hit 
Majesty had for his little boat, I presume to add the last token of his 
regard fof it, whereby he seemed desirous to perpetuate its remem- 
brance as the first occasion of his naval proceedings and exploits. 

This very boat was brought from Moscow to St. Petersburg in 
1723, repaired and beautified, in order to make her last and most 
glorious appearance on the 1 2th of August, which we shall give a 
short account of, from one who had an opportunity of seeing the 
transaction. In the month of June in the same year, his Majesty- 
sailed to Revel with his fleet and returned to Cronstadt, in the be- 
after desired a discharge, which was granted, without giving any proof of hit 
art. The Czar himself and Noy received orders from the Lord High Admiral, 
Theodore Golovin, to build each of them a man of war. The Czar having 
taken upon himself the title of a piaster ship-builder, was pleased to subject 
himself to the condition of that character, and in compliance with that order 
gave the first proof of his skill in the art which he had acquired abroad, and 
continued afterwards to bear that title, and had at all times, notwithstanding 
his great engagements in other affairs, one ship .upon the stocks, and at hi* 
death left one ship half built, one of the largest in Europe, 180 feet long upoa 
the deck, fifty-one broad, and twenty-one deep, and mounts nOguns, and i* 
by relation one of the finest bodies that has ever been seen, as were indeed all 
the rest he built ; he himself drew the draught of this great ship at Riga, where 
was no master ship-builder but himself, and when he returned to Petersburg, 
he gave the Surveyor an account that he had drawn his draught of the great 
ihip, which he had orders to build from the Surveyor's office, and according t 
the regulations of the Navy presented his draught to be examined. 



O2 NATAL ANICDOTH, 

ginning of August, at which time a great number of yachts and 
fcoijcrs, about zco, and one galliot, were ordered to meet him there, 
awl attend on the famous little boat above. 

After this fleet was arrived within half a league of the place with 
their charge, they had orders to cast anchor till the nine flags, in so 
Kiany pinnaces, came up to pay their respecls to the mother of their 
great fleet ! A small parent indeed of so large a progeny .' At the 
ictura of the flags, the yachts, &c. weighed anchor, and went into 
the haven, save the galliot which bore the venerable matron, that 
lay off at sea, till the day of the grand solemnity, which was received 
with uncommon ceremony. For the Czar a second time made her a 
wisit with the flags alone, launched her, and graced her with his Im- 
jerial standard, his own person steering, the great Admiral, and two 
other Admirals, rowing, with the Surveyor of the Navy, Ivan 
Michaelowitch Goloviu. 

At her launching, the Great Admiral fired seven guns, as a signal 
to the whole fleet, consisting of twenty-two men of war of the line, to 
fire at once. Then away she came, and as she sailed by each ship 
was saluted by all the camion ; after she had passed the whole flctt, 
and rowed into the haven, the dutiful children paid the last compli- 
ment to their mother with one general salute of their cannon. Then 
came on dinner time, and in the evening the Court and Flag-Officers 
rendezvoused on the edge of the haven, and closed the evening with 
merriment, &c. 

A few days after the boat was brought back to St. Petersburg, and 
laid up in the castle, where she is taken the gieatest care of, aud 
may be seen at the present day. 

NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c. 

MANTES IN GURG1TE VASTO ! 

j- - ^_ __ 

ANECDOTE OF A BRITISH SAILOR. 

r "]pHE following anecdote is related of a British sailor at the attack 
** of the Helder, the authenticity of which can only be ascertained 
by those who were present ; it is however truly characteristic of these 
intrepid fellows when on service and in the face of an enemy. 

This man was one of the detachment of seamen sent on shore to 
assist in drawing the artillery up the beach. The party employed on 
this service was covered by a body of grenadiers, one of whom having 
dropped, Jack started from his gun, and examined the body, exclaim- 
ing with an oath, that he wa a dead man, he said he would take his 

I 



COMMERCIAL HltfT'S, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. JOJ 

place ; and having stripped off the grenadier':, belt and cartouch box* 
and equipped himself therewith, he seized his firelock, and began 
loading and firing at the enemy ; he discharged his piece six times, at 
each time bringing down his man. At length he dropped himself 
and was earned on board the hospital ship to be amputated, having 
received a ball through his knee. This was not all ; he was told that 
he must be brought to trial for having deserted his post, and taken 
upon him a task out of the line of his duty. ' But please your ho- 
nour," (replied this gallant fellow), " I killed six of them." " That 
may be," said his Captain, <' but you flew from your quarters." 
" Then please your honour," rejoined Jack in the simplicity of His 
heart, " forgive me this once, and I will kill no more of them." 

ANECDOTE OP ADMIRAL BLAKB. 

f_ From SCHOMBERC'S Naval Chronology. "\ 

VAN Tromp passing Dover roads without paying the honours to 
the flag, Blake ordered three guns to be fired without shot, upon 
which the Dutch Admiral returned a whole broadside. Blake at this 
time was in his cabin drinking with his Officers, when the shot broke 
some of the windows, upon which he exclaimed angrily, " he took it 
very ill in Van Tromp, that he should take his ship fora bawdy-house 
and break his windows." 

A RELATION OF "THE WONDERFUL PRESERVATION OF EIGHT 
MEN, WtfO WERE ACCIDENTALLY LEFT IN GREENLAND. 

[From LEDIARD'S Naval History,] 

THE account we have of this very extraordinary event was written 
by one Edward Pclham, who was one of the number. We have it 
at large in the collection of voyages, and an abridgment of it in the 
Appendix to Harris. I shall, for brevity's sake, only collect some of 
the most material circumstances. It was about the middle of August 
that these men were sent ashore by their Captain (who was a whale 
fishing), upon the coast of Greenland, to hunt for some venison for the 
ship's provision. Having very good success, they killed, in two days 
time, above twenty deer, and the third, embarking themselves and? 
their game, in their shallop, they found that their ship had been obliged 
to put to sea, to get clear of the great shoals of ice, which were already 
driven upon the c ( >ast. Upon this, they threw their venison over- 
board, and made all the haste they could to Bell Sound, which was 
then the' rendezvous of all the English ships then in Greenland. 
Having unhappily missed their point, by the obstinacy of one of their 
number, who affirmed it to be more to the southward than it was,. 



e . KAVAL ASECDOTM, 

and discovering too late thtir error, at their arrival there, they found 
all the ships had sailed to England. 

They were now left in a country destitute of all things necessary 
for human life, without clothes to protect them from the rigour of 
the most frigid climate, having no food of any sort to subsist on, or 
if they had any, no fuel to dress it. In this distress, they immediately 
took a resolution to use their utmost endeavours, at least, for their 
own preservation, and not to give themselves up to despair. They, 
therefore, agreed to cake the next opportunity of fair weather, to go 
to Green Harbour, which affords great store of deer, to kill what 
tenison they could for their winter provision. Accordingly, arriving 
there the 2Cth of August, they went the next day to a place called 
Cole's Park, about two leagues distant from Green Harbour, and 
returned that night with seven deer and four bears. 

That day's success encouraging them to make a second voyage to 
Cole's Park, spying some deer upon the side of a hill, on their way 
thither, they there went ashore, and killed twelve deer, besides eeveral 
bears, with all which they returned to Green Harbour. There they 
loaded another shallop, which had been left there by the ship's com- 
pany, with the greaves of the whales that had been boiled that year, 
and two days after set out for Bell Sound, to which place the con- 
venience of a vast tent, or shed of boards, erefted for the lodging and 
accommodation of the coopers, &c. invited them to take up their abode 
for the approaching winter. In their way thither they were benighted, 
and having hauled up their boats, and fixed them as well as they 
could, they got ashore to seek some shelter against the rigour of the 
cold. But the next morning they found their boats driven from their 
places, and a great part of their venison washed overboard, and ca?t 
ashore. 

The 3d of September, having a clear day, they picked up their 
renison, and launching their boats, got safe to Bell Sound, where 
being arrived, they applied themselves with all possible -diligence, to 
make as good provision as they could for their subsistence, during the 
winter season, in that place. 

The great shed, I mentioned above, was eighty feet in length, and 
fifty in breadth ; and not far from it, there being another, of a more 
narrow compass, they pulled down the latter, to get materials for 
building a little habitation for themselves, within the great shed, 
which having finished, and made a very warm sort of a chamber, of 
twenty feet long, sixteerj broad, and ten high, by the means of about 
a thousand bucks, five casks of lime, which they mixed with sand, 
and so made mortar, and good store of boards and rafters, which they 
fuund IB thf liitle tent they had pulled down. They afterwards made 



COMMERCIAL BINTS, RECOLLECTION?, &C. 

four little cabins to lie in; their beds were the deer- skins dried, 
which they found to be rery warm and useful to them in their great 
distress ; and as for firing, they made bold with some hundreds of 
empty casks, which they found in the tents, /besides several old 
shallops, which had been left there by the fleet. 

Their case was very lamentable for several months, they being in 
continual fear of starting for want of food ; because thry found, that 
what they had was not near sufficient for their maintenance, till the 
arrival of the fleet, and had no hopes of getting any more in that 
country. They were, therefore, forced to reduce themselves to three 
meals a week, on bear and venison, and the other four days to feed 
on the unsavoury and mouldy fritters and greaves of whales, which had 
got spoiled too by the wet they got. And for an addition to their 
misfortunes, they began at the same time to lose a sight of the sun, 
which did not appear to them, from the 14th of Oftober, till the 3d 
of February, all their day being a glimmering sort of light, which 
lasted but a few hours, and from the 1st to the 2Oth of December, 
did not appear at all. 

With the new year the cold began to be so rery excessive, that 
there being no possibility of finding any water below the ice, as before 
they had done, all the drink they had, from the loth of January to 
the zcth of May, was melted snow. The extremity of the cold like- 
wise raised blisters upon their bodies, as if they had been burnt. 

By the last of January, the days being prolonged to seven or eight 
hours (by the sort of glimmering light, a* I have mentioned above), 
they began to take a little heart ; but viewing their provisions, and 
finding, that even at the miserable rate they then lived, they could 
not last above six weeks, it put them once more upon very melan- 
choly reflections. At length the weather beginning to be tolerably- 
fair, and the wild beasts now appearing, beside a seahorse or two, 
which they killed, and seven or eight bears, they caught above fifty 
foxes in traps, thirty fowls as big as ducks, and about sixty of another 
sort, as big as pigeons. By this means they lived much better than 
they had done before, taking sometimes two or three meals a day. 

The 25th of May, two ships arriving in the sound from HuH, the 
master of one having heard that some men had been left, sent ashore 
some of his crew, with orders to haul up their boat, and walk over 
the snow to the great shed, to see whether they were yet alive. 
They were just about to go to prayers in the inner hut, and onty 
waiting for one of their number, who was doing something in the 
outward shed. The Hull men upon their approach, cried Hty y and 

. (Hot. VIII. R a 



306 NAVAL ANECDOTES, &C. 

were immediately answered by the man in the large shed, Ho. 
other seven hearing this (and probably, according to the manner of 
sailors, forgetting their prayers when out of danger), run out, and 
after welcoming these new-comers, carried them into their hut, and 
entertained them the best they could, that is, with a piece of venison 
roasted four months before, and a cup of cold water. 

They then went on board one of the Hull ships, where they staid 
till the London fleet arrived, with whom returning home, they were 
gratified and rewarded by the Muscovy Company, in whose service 
they had endured so many hardships. 

DESCRIPTION OF A MACHINE CALLED THE INFERNAL, WHICH 
WAS USED AT THE BOMBARDMENT OF ST. MALOES, 1693. 

THE vessel was a new galliot, of about three hundred tons. In 
the bottom of the hold were placed above a hundred barrels of gun- 
powder, covered with pitch, tar, brimstone, rosin, tow, straw, and 
faggots. Over these was a row of thick planks and beams, with 
holes pierced through them, in order to communicate the fire from 
above ; and upon them were placed three hundred and forty carcasses, 
or rather chests or mortars, filled with grenades, cannon balls, iron 
chains, fije-atms, loaded with ball, large pieces of metal wrapped up 
in tarpaulings, and other combustible matters. They were open in 
iix parts, like six mouths, to let out the flames, so fierce as to con- 
eume the hardest substances, and not to be quenched, but by hot 
water, as was upon trial observed. The dtsign was to have fasteried 
it to the town wall, and it was not doubted, but if it hr.cl taken its 
effeft, the town would soon have been one heap of ruins. It was 
scut in before the wind, and was at the very foot of the wall where 
it was to be fastened, when a sudden gust of wind drove it off, and 
forced it upon a rock, where it struck, near the place where it was 
to have blown up. The engineer perceiving it begin to burst, had 
time to set fire to it before' he retired ; and it did indeed blow up 
soon after ; but the carcasses, which were to have done the greatest 
execution, being wet with the sea water, did not take fire. Yet the 
shock was so terrible, though at some distance, that it threw down 
part of the town wall, shook every house in the town, and overthrew 
the roofs of above three hundred, which were the nearest. The 
capstan of the vessel, which weighed above a ton, was thrown over 
"the wall, on the top of a house, which it beat down. 



C 337 3 

- 

ro THE EDITOR OF THE NAPAL CHRONICLE. 
SIR, 

HE profitable information derived by professional men 
in perusing the NAVAL CHRONICLE, must at all times 
form one of the chief pillars of its support. 

The heaving down of a ship of war ought to be considered 
as a mechanical operation, since there are so many circum- 
stances attending the process, which may not be expe,led as 
forming a part pf the necessary qualification of an Officer. 

A British ship of the line having been hove down and 
repaired in a French naval arsenal, is a circumstance that 
so seldom occurs, and the method so little known, that I 
have thought it proper to submit the enclosed paper to your 
notice, which if you think should be entitled to a place in 
your publication, I shall be amply compensated for any 
trouble 1 may have taken in the execution of it. 

I am, Sir, 

Your very humble servant, 

Mar$arfDtrf* 9 WM. ELLETSON KING. 

Otf. i, 1802. 

jin Account of the Preparation and P recess of heaving down his Majefty't 
{ate Ship the Coaragevx, in the Arsenal cf Toulon, OQober 1793. 
Itfith Obser-vaticntj by Lieutenant WILLIAM EI.LETSOX KTKG, of 
the Royal A<ny. 

AT the time of the Courageux being J n the arsenal of Toulon, for 
the purpose of repair, the late Captain I. Matthews had the command of 
that ship, arid no tloubt p'anned some of the arrangement for heaving 
her down, being an Officer well known for his ingenuity. 

As I had never seen anr ship hove down before, and having had 
the honour of belonging to the Courageiix at that time, I was anxious, 
fvom a motive of curiosity, of remarking ever)' thing that occurred as 
to the preparation and process of this undertaking* 

The French do not htave their ships down to a wharf, but to a 
hulk constructed solely for that purpose, v. hichis generally a small 
hip of the line cut down, and the hold provided with a ^reat quaaii.y 
of iron and shingle ballast. 

In the midships of the spar-deck of this hu'k, are placed the cap- 
ttans to which the purchase falls are brought, and so contrived that 



J 8 rAKTICVtARS ItltjnriVE TO THE 

they lead down to the between decks, through scuttles cot for that 
purpose, which place being appropriated to that purpose, will cause 
little confusion on the capstan-deck, where the men lay in at the bars 
for heaving. 

The ship, when perfectly cleared, was warped and lashed to this 
hulk for to be hove down on her larboard side. 

The inside and outside of the sides of the ship, whales, and topsides, 
were well caulked ; the scupper and port rope holes were plugged up 
and pitched over, as were all the bolt-heads and other places that ap- 
peared any way suspicious of leaking. 

Broad pieces of oak of half a foot thick, were placed abreast 
of the 'mainmast on the quarter-deck; this was intended for a 
bedding, on which the heels of the spar shores were to rest and be 
secured after the heads of them had been properly placed against the 
mast. 

Beddings oflarge oak pieces were laid on the upper and lower deck, 
abreast of the mast, on them were placed a double tier of shores, 
wedged and secured with brace pieces and cleats to enable the decks 
to support the heavy pressure of the mast shores when in the aft of 
heaving down. 

Beds and deck shores were placed for the fore-mast, in the same 
manner as the main. 

The masts were brought close over to the partners, and the star- 
board rigging well set up. 

The upper deck ports were closed up with double pieces of deal, 
fcaulktd and pitched over. 

It was thought advisable not to caulk in the lower deck port-leads, 
probably on the account that it may have occasioned their leaking 
afterwards. The ports were closed in, in the same manner as those of 
the upper deck. 

The gunroom ports and hawse-holes were left open ; part of the 
quarter-galleries taken down, the entrance of which were filled in and. 
caulked. 

From the Cotirageux being French built, and consequently wall- 
r!ded, two breadths of thick deal were annexed to the gangways to 
remedy the supposed inconvenience of water getting into the waist, 
when the ship was hove keel out. 

Two apar shores, one of fifty French feet, were placed against 
the main-mast, the heads of which were fitted on a mat doubly 
lashed and wedged to prevent them from slipping. The other 
par shore measured forty-three French feet; the heels of them 
fisted on the larboard bedding on the quarter-deck, well lashed and 



KEAVJHC DOWN OF THE COUR.AGETJ, 309 

The fore- mast had two spar shores, one of forty-three French feet, 
and the other of thirty-eight, fitted in the same manner as those on 
the main-mast. 

The ship's rudder was unhung. 

In the enclosed part of the manger, many shot were placed as a 
weight, to briag the ship wore by the head, and to facilitate the pro- 
cess of heaving down. 

The fifth, sixth, eighth, and ninth ports on the lower deck- were 
left open, they were doubly bolstered, and secured with strong cleati 
on the outside, batted under the lowsr part of the channel wale. 

To add to the security of the shores and rigging, and to take off 
from a great part of the heavy strain, that the decks and the larboard 
*ide of the ship must inevitably be subject to, strong pendants (of 
the dimensions of the ship's stream cable), were brought into the 
above mentioned bolstered lower-deck ports, after the eyes had been 
placed over the mast-heads, the ends of which were set up witU 
double purchase tackles brought round the lower deck beams (the 
deck being scuttled for that purpose), and spanned into each other. 
For the fore- mast, the second, third port, and die hawse holes {bol- 
tered as before), strong pendants were brought into, set up, and be* 
byed round the bit-heads. 

The main-mast had four-fold purchase blocks, two of which were 
placed and lashed to the mast-head, the other two about ten feet 
below the hounds. The purchase tackles were six-inch and not 
hawser laid. 

The fore-mast had three of the same, one to the mast-head, and two- 
seven feet below the hounds. 

The mizen-mast was not used in this process, but the rigging wett 
et up. 

As soon as the people began to heave away in the hulk, and the 
hip's side far enough to admit of a floating stage, proper people at- 
tended to every suspicion of complaint as she went down, provided 
\vith pitch, tallow, oakum, boards, and saw-dust ; the latter vras in- 
troduced in a net fixed to a long pole, under water, and applied to 
particular parts, in case of any leaking. 

The greatest strain was observed on the purchase-falls when the 
upper deck ports were touching the water. 

Four pumps were constantly used at the time of heaving down, 
two of which were step'd in tubs on the footling over the floor head, 
and worked on the upper deck. Two more were fixed on the orlop 
deck, which worked on the lower deck. The first two a&ed until 
luch a time as the ship was keel out, when the floor-pumps ceased, 



3TO PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO THE COURAGBXTX, &C. 

and those of the orlop came into play, and kept the ship entirely free 
during the time of repair. 

The time of heaving the purchase-falls taught, to their being se- 
cured, and the ship keel out> was one hour and forty minutes. 
The ship when hove down, was two feet four inches by the stern* 
I observed in heaving down, that the main-purchase tackles afted 
almost independantly of the fore ones, which sufficiently accounts for 
the ship being keel out of the water aft, almost as soon as forward. 

When the new keel was put on, in order to caulk the seam next to 
the water, the French had a machine like a punt, about ten feet long 
and four wide, being three feet six inches deep, at each end was a 
partition about one quarter the length, filled with shot, to bring this 
machine down within six inches of the water, being well caulktxt 
Inside and out; the vacancy between the end partitions are where the 
men stand who are to caulk, which they do w ith much ease and dis- 
patch, having people with ropes to haul the machine under the ship's 
bottom, &c. 

Eighteen days did the ship remain keel out on her larboard side 
without being righted. 

The ship being righted at the expiration of the above time, the 
process for heaving the ship down on her starboard side commenced. 
The shores were removed to that side, and the larboard rigging set 
up. The lower-deck ports were closed up, and the opposite ones 
opened to receive the pendants, and the purchases shifted. The pre- 
paration and process were exaftly the same as performed on the other 
aide of the ship. The starboard side of the ship was brought to the 
same side of the hulk which she was before hove down to, and the 
process commenced. The sl.ip hove down easier and better than 
before, and the greatest strain on the purchase-falls were observed to 
be when the ship was down about a foot higher than the uppermost 
part of the lower-deck ports. The ship remained not quite two days 
in this situation, when she was righted she appeared to have a small list 
to port. 

Much danger may probably be supposed when a ship of the line 
is suffered to remain keel out of the water for the space of three weeks. 
The different falls consequently give more or less, and do not bear the 
same strain with each other when hove down for that time without 
being righted. This case cannot exatlly be applied to the Courageux> 
that ship being hove down by two masts, in a bason of water not 
subject to a tide. 

There are many circumstances in the repair of a ship that may not' 
admit of her being righted when it shall be thought necessary so to do j 



STRATAGEMS TO BE USED AT ISA.' JfJ 

therefore judgment cannot at a 11 times be exercised on this point ; to 
remedy this inconvenience the falls should be particularly attended to, 
and if there should not be the smallest tide i, the p. ace, a current will 
sometimes make a rise and fall of water, and this observation should 
be the more attended to when ships are hove down to a wharf, and 
which in this latter instance will require before right, that some inches 
of the different falls should either be hove on or come up at dis- 
cretion . 

An inconsiderable rise and fall of water has very often been observed 
in the arsenal of Toulon. 



STRATAGEMS TO BE USED AT SEA. 
[From Sir W. MON SON'S Naval 



I. A FLEET that is bound to a port, and fears to meet an enemy, 

-" may avoid him by this stratagem following : besides such 

"pinnaces as must be sent to look out the ships expected, to give them 

warning of an enemy, they ought to have other pinnaces, choice 

sailers, that should attend the enemy's fleet, and finding they lie in a 

height, the others have order to sail in, to draw near them, and to 

entice them to chase them ; and in pursuit of them, they will be drawn 

to leeward, and give passage for their fleet's entrance. 

2. But if this prevails not, they may cause one of their pinnaces to 
be purposely taken to deceive them with false instructions; as for 
example, if their fleet have ordrr to come home in thirty-seven degrees, 
the enemy finding those directions, will not suspect a deceit, but will 
stand into thirty-seven degrees, while the others will come home in 
thirty-six, the height formerly assigned them, and so avoid thfitn. 

3. Or if a fleet be sent out for guard of those ships expected, and 
not so good of sail as their enemy, to force them to quit their coast, 
it were better such a fleet should lie in a contrary height to that their 
ships have directions to sail in, than otherwise ; for the enemy finding 
in what height they lie in, will vetily believe they have ciders to come 
home in the same height, and will strive to meet them ia that height, 
before they shall join together, when the others have directions not to 
come within forty or fifty leagues of them. 

4. If fleets sliall meet in the night, or after an encounter they for- 
bear fighting when it is dark, and one of them have a desire to quit 
the other, they may cause so many lights as- usually their Admiral, or 
other ships, carry in the night, to be carried by pinnaces at such a 
height as may equal the poops of their ships ; and the enemy accom- 
panying those lights, will not susped the flight of the fleet, who ia 



JIJ STRATAGEMS TO BE VE AT SEA, 

the mean time may convey themselves away, and karc only the } 

races behind them. 

5. If a fleet will deceive an enemy of a lew force, that is to far to 
windward, that they cannot fetch them, they may do h with counter- 
feit flags, and working like merchants' ships ; and for a bait, may ap- 
point part of a fleet to chase another astern, and the chaser to wear 
the enemy's colours. 

The ships must shoot, but miss one another, which they to wind- 
ward spying, will come home in hope to liave part of the booty, 
and so be brought into the wake of the fleet, and entrapped. 

6. This stratagem will serve as well for a road, to cause in the like 
manner one ship to chase another, as though she that is chased la- 
boured to recover the road, and a flag seeming to be a friend, may 
embolden them to go forth to the rescue of her, and so fall into the 
laps of the enemy. 

7. People are not so easily deceived with counterfeit Sags as they 
have been, for the often practice of such stratagems, makes men more 
cautious ; we were wont to make it a common custom, after we had 
taken a Spanish caravel, to clothe our men with the other garments, 
and to send them into the harbours of Spain to be informed of the 
ttate of their shipping. 

8. In i $87, the first time I went to sea as Captain, I had two 
pinnaces, and one Spanish frigate with me : the frigate took a Portu- 
guese, and after was robbed herself by a French ship of war ; out of 
necessity this frigate was forced into the harbour of Setuval in Portu- 
gal, and the people seeing her Portuguese built, and the men attired 
in the habits of the Portuguese they had formerly taken, and having 
a Portuguese aboard with them, that came out of England, and whom 
they trusted, they were supplied with whatv they wauled from the 
short, anddepaited without suspicion. 1 

9. One night I came into the road of Cezimbra, pretending to be 
a Fleming bound to Setuval to load salt, and desired a pilot ; under 
which colour I deceived the pilot, and divers boats and barks that 
came aboard me, by whom I understood the state of the fleet at Lis- 
bon, ready to set to sea. in pursuit of me. I could recite many 
ftratagems of this kind. 

10. If a fleet intends an attempt upon a harbour, where a strong 
fort may impeach thtir entrance, by example of Lisbon, and the castle 
of St. Juliau's, the stratagem is to set two or three old vessels on fire, 
fitted with all manner of necessaries lo make a smoke, and to run them 
ashore under the castle, that the gunners may not see a ship, much 
k-*s have any aim at tbem, and so they may pass without danger. 



TkATAGEMS TO BE USED AT SB*. JIJ 

11. What stratagems may be used against such ships as are entered 
a harbour, and how to prevent it, I have expressed in the second book, 
where I have treated of the last expedition to Cadiz, in 1625. 

And because I have named Lisbon* I will set down a stratagem I 
had in my mind after my imprisonment there* 

12. Both many years before and after I was a prisoner in Lisbon* 
the Hollanders had a free trade into all parts of Spain, which I took 
advantage of in tin's stratagem following:'-! devised that twenty 
Holland ships freighted with merchandize, under the colour of mer- 
chants, should repair to Lisbon, arid that every ship should have a 
number of men secretly hid in them, and when they came to anchor 
at Bekm, which they generally do, and are viewed by the King's 
Officers, these men should not appear ; and after their discharge 
From Belem, I had ordered that every ship should ride as near the 
king's palace at Lisbon as conveniently they could ; and that in thd 
rjight when there was no suspicion of theni, and the galleons had no 
more men on board than the ship-keepers, the Hollanders should 
sheer aboard, possess, and biirn them, for they were sure to find no 
resistance ; after this was done there was no fear of their coming outj 
for it is an ordinary thing for ships to pass Belem in despight of the 
castle. 

13. If a ship falls into company of a fleet at night, it is necessary 
to have a sudden and a ready answer, as also two or three of the nation 
to speak as they shall be directed ; as for example, and as you shall 
read in my last voyage in the Queen's time, how in the night I lighted 
amongst twenty-four galleons of Spain, and being so nigh the Admiral 
I could not avoid her, had I been known to be an enemy 5 I com- 
manded a Spaniard that served me to call the Admiral* and tell him 
there was a strange ship entered amongst our fleet, which of all others 
he could not suspeft mine* because of the warning I gave him; and irt 
the mean time I tacked from him, and so escaped in a secret mannerj 
making no noise* 

14. In the island expedition I met the Indies fleet, and it blowing 
little wind, I went off in my boat to destroy them ; when I perceived 
what they were, I made myself and ship known to them* urging them 
to pursue me, which if they had done, I had brought them into the 
wake of my Lord of Essex and his fleet, froni whom I departed but 
three hours before, where they had beeu taken, and the state of Spain 
utterly destroyed. 

15. It is a common use when ships are scattered, and chance to meet 
in the night, not knowing one another, to hail one another m a 
fllrange language, which I disapprove as a thing dangerous ; for the 
other being satisfied by his tongue, not to be his consort, or of hi* 

* a 



JlJf. STRATAGEMS TO BE USED AT SEA. 

country, prepares to fight, and thus it had like to fall out with me ; 
the Mary Rose and I meeting one night, after we had lost company, 
one of my company hailed her in Spanish, without my privity, whereat 
I was angry, and caused her to be called to in English, even as she 
was giving fire to her broadside. It is folly in this case to counterfeit, 
for no good can come of it, seeing the one cannot part from the other, 
without knowing what they are. 

16. The signs that direft a fleet in the day time, are striking or 
hoisting the top sails, showing their flag, or shooting their ordnance ; 
by showing lights in the night, many times 1 have known when a 
ship hath lighted in company of an enemy, that by chance she has 
made the very same sign given by the General, by which means she 
has escaped, and in the like manner ships have been taken by the 
same fortune ; therefore there cannot be a better stratagem, than 
when a ship shall make a sign, to be answered by the same, and the 
contrary ship begin a new sign, before the other make any, for it is 
not to be doubted but the other ship will answer every sign that shall 
be made by her that makes the first. 

17. I once knew an unlikely stratagem take good effect, in this 
manner: after three days chase of a rich ship, my Lord of Cumber- 
land was out of hopes of fetching her up, she tvas so far to windward, 
only a pinnace kept her company, and in the night carried a light for 
us to follow. I advised my Lord to fire a culverine at her, though 
we could not fetch her at twice, saying, that perhaps she would yield 
to the countenance of the ship, that would not for shame do it to a 
pinnace. This seemed ridiculous, and I had much ado to persuade 
my Lord, yet upon my importunity he yielded to it, and the ship, as 
1 foretold, submitted herself. 

18. A ship that is chased, and desirous to show fear, thinking to 
draw her that chases into her clutches, must counterfeit and work as 
if she were distressed, and lie like a wreck into the sea ; she must cast 
dregs, hogsheads, and other things overboard, to hinder her way ; 
she must show no more men than an ordinary gang, and haul in her 
ordnance, and shut her ports, that her forces be not discerned till the 
other ship come within command of her. 

1 9. As ships ought to observe their Admiral's working in the 
night, by his light, so ought they to be more careful when they are 
nigh a shore, lest they mistake a light on land, instead of their Ad- 
miral, by example of 1597, when the Adclantado drew down his fleet 
from Lisbon to the Groyne, and coming nigh the North Cape, the 
greatest part of the fleet steered with a light on the shore, mistaking 
their Admiral, and cast away thirty-six ships and 5000 men. 



STRATAGEMS TO BE US^D AT SEA. 31$ 

20. As lights direft one another at sea, so they are directors of 
ships from the shore, as I can instance i'-. many cases, some of which 
I have already declared ; to which I refer you. 

21. Lights kept in the night offof a headland, as the Lizard, or such 
capes, are a safeguard to ships in their passage, that are in view of 
them. Lights likewise give warning of an enemy that are upon a 
coast, and for that use beacons were invented. 

22. Ships that are appointed for more readiness of a service ta 
ride in the Sound of Plymouth, in the range of Dartmouth, or other 
roads upon our coast, and in the night are suddenly taken with a storm 
at south, which is a deadly wind in those roads, if ligiits be placed on 
either of the sides of Catwater or Dartmouth, will be guided into the 
harbour, be it never so dark. 

23. In a barred harbour, such as Dunkirk, that is continually 
beleaguered by an enemy, by keeping lights from half-tide to half- 
tide, he that enters, is directed how the tide increases or decreases, 
and thereby how to avoid the tnemy. 

24. Ships riding at the Downs, and fearing a surprise from an 
enemy in the night, with a southerly wind, by placing two boats with 
lights on either side of the brake, will direct one how to pass the 
channel and avoid the sands ; which being done, and the lights taken 
away, the ships that pursue them will run upon their death if they 
follow. 

25. The cutting down mills, trees, taking away buoys, or other 
marks that direft the pilot, is a great safety to any port or place, such 
as the Thames, where many sands must be passed. 

26. The placing of ships for the advantage of wind, is a matter of 
great consequence ; as for example, if an invasion against England be 
intended from the southward, that wind that brings an enemy for 
England will keep our ships in harbour, that they cannot stir out ; 
only one place is advantageous to us, which is Limehouse near Ply- 
mouth ; for that wind that brings an enemy from the westward or 
southward, will serve our ships that lie in Limehouse to follow them, 
as they pass into any part of our channel to the eastward. 

27. Prospedive glasses, if they were not so common, were an 
excellent stratagem to be used in m^ay cases at sea, and yet it is no 
hard thing to deceive them that use them ; for a merchants* ship that 
carries not above ten or twelve men, may have the shapes of men 
made, and seem to be one hundred afar -off ; they likewise may have 
counterfeit guns made of wood, which the glass cannot discover from 
iron, to the terror of the assailant. It may as well serve for a man 
of war to stow his men in hold till a ship come near him. 

*S. The best and the greatest ship in the world may be sunk by a 
bark of twenty tons, by this stratagem, viz. to place a cannon in the 



Jl6 STRATAGEMS TO BE USED AT SlA/ 

hold of a hark with her mouth to the side of the ship the bark shall 
board, and then to give fire to the cannon which is stowed under 
water, and they shall both instantly sink ; the man that shall execute 
this stratagem may escape in a small boat hauled on the other side of 
the bark. 

29. Two galleons may be manned, and furnished in the manner 
following, and will be as great a guard and safety to a fleet of gallics 
as the wings of an eagle to little buds, or a castle to a ship. 

The two galleons shall carry each of them one thousand men, with 
all kinds of arms, for offence and defence : there shall be placed aloft 
such kind of fowlers as I will invent. 

Their hatches shall be made with trap-doors, and pikes placed under 
them, that as fast as men enter thev shall fall upon the pike s so placed ; 
all the deck shall be strewed with sftujid pease, tallowed, that treading 
ppon them, no man shall be able to stand upon hi-, feet ; the ships on 
the outside to be stuck with tenter hooks, that they shall take no 
hold to enter with their hands, and their clothes will stick upon the 
tenter- hooks, that they shall not be able to enter : there shall be bar- 
ricadoes and close fights, made with all advantage, and all parts of the 
ship shall be musket proof for the safeguard of the men. 

By the water and without board, they shall be fortified with packs 
of wool, that no shot shall pierce them, or gallics be able to board 
them ; every ship shall have upon his yard-arm a barrel or two of 
gunpowder mixed with bullets, that as the gallics phall approach the 
distance of the yards, the barrel of powder shall be let fall with a 
pulley, and matches about the barrel that shall give fire upon the fall, 
and breaking of the barrel ; in this manner will the galley be burnt, 
and the men slain all at one instant. 

30. If gallics attend a fleet of ships, thinking to cut off some 
stragglers, as they did to, Sir Francis Drake, and after to us at Cadiz, 
where they took some few vessels, in such a case, the great ships must 
be a guard of the outside of the fleet to the lesser ships ; and if the 
fleet chance to anchor, to place the least and weakest vessels outer-? 
jnost of the fleet in the day time, which will embolden the gallies in 
the night tp assail them ; but when the darksomeness of the night 
hall approach, {hen to remove them, and in their place to cause the 
best and greatest ships of the fleet to anchor where the others did, 
that if the gallies attempt them they shall be entertained to their loss. 

31. If a ship will board an enemy under a castle, let him that 
Boards bring the ship boarded between him and the castle ; for then 
dares not the castle fire for hazarding their own ship boarded. v - 

32. Sinking of ships full of stones is an old invention, and used 
a well to defend oneself in a barred harbour, as by an enemy to keep 
irj slv'ps from going out : but it is to little purpose to him that poa- 



STRATAGEMS TO BE USED AT SEA. 317 

sesses a harbour ; for when the water is decreased, such ships sunk 
may be waded to, the stones taken out, and the ships burnt without 
hurt to themselves or the harbour. 

33. Booming harbours for the safeguard of ships is usual, but at 
each end of the boom sconces must be built to defend it. 

34. One of the known dangers in a ship of great burthen, and in a 
great storm, that carries weighty ordnance, is the breaking loose of 
one of her pieces in the lower tier, for before she can be muzzled, or 
overcome by force of men, what with the rolling of the ship from one 
side to the other, the piece will carry the ship's side, and founder her 
in the sea. 

35;. For avoiding these perils, there is but one remedy, if it take 
e ffedl, which is suddenly to heave up the hatches of the deck, that in 
her recoil she may find the deck open, and fall into the hold, where 
she shall be easily overmastered. 

I am of opinion, if any had escaped aboard the King of Spain's 
(ships that were wrecked, which was impossible, they would confess 
the breaking loose of their ordnance was the occasion of their destrucv 
tion ; and no marvel, for they used to carry their great ordnance upon 
field- carriages, which makes them the more dangerous and unservice- 
able, when they come to traverse them. 

36. If there could be made a ball of wildfire, as I have heard some 
take upon them to do it, which ball should burn without quenching, 
then it were an easy thing to convey one of those balls secretly into a 
ship, and privately to hide it till the party be gone out of the ship, 
which being then set on fire, will not only burn the said ship, but all 
others near her. 

37. In passing a fort in the night, it is a good thing to make both 
the ship and sails black, with a care that no light be seen in her ; but 
the way for an enemy to prevent her entrance is this, to make a fire 
opposite to the fort, and to lay the ordnance point blank with the fire, 
that when they shall see the shadow of the fiie taken from them by 
the ship and sails, then to discharge their ordnance, and be sure to sink 
the ship. 

3 8. A ship that will keep another from boarding her, she being to 
windward, and may board her, the remedy is, to put forth two masts 
at two ports, that the ship coveting to board, she shall light upon 
the masts, and keep her from coming near the ship. 

39. It is a good stratagem to board a s"hip, though she presently 
fall off again; and during the time she is on board to appoint the car- 
penters with their axes to put the port- ropes of the ship boarded, that 
at her coming off again, when she shall begin a new fight, her pieces 
may serve for no purpose, because her ports will be clogged, and not 
able to put forth a piece of pidnance, but lie to be annoyed by the 
c nemy. [ T be 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 



jfn History of Marine drclritefiure. Including an enlarged and pro~ 
gresslve View of the Nautical Regulations and Naval History ; both 
Civil and Military, of all Nations, especially of Great Britain ; derived 
chiefly from original Manuscripts, as well in private Collections at in 
the great public Repositories ; and deduced from the earliest Period to 
the present Time. In 3 vols. 4/0. By JOHN CHARNOCK, Esq. 
F. S. A. Pages 1300. IOO Engraving*. 

TT has been admitted by most writers, who have treated of 
the causes which promoted civilization and the improve- 
ment of the human race, that those nations who were ac- 
quainted with the uses, and cultivated the art, of navigation, 
emerged earlier from barbarism than the nations to whom 
the advantages of navigation were unknown. The high, 
degree of perfection to which Greece had arrived, in the 
liberal arts, the science of government, the social institutions 
of life, and all branches of philosophy, at a period when 
surrounding nations were sunk in the profoundest ignor- 
ance, may, in a great measure, with safety be attributed to> 
the early knowledge and skill of the Greeks in the art of 
navigation. A variety of circumstances tended to produce 
in them a partiality to maritime pursuits. The ^Egean Sea, 
having no tides, nor consequently any waves except such as 
are caused by the wind only, and broken by innumerable 
islands and capes, was, by the smoothness of its surface, and 
the proximity of its neighbouring shores, extremely favour- 
able to the infant navigation of an ingenious and ative 
people. Much excellence was not displayed in the construc- 
tion or equipment of their vessels ; but they answered all the 
purposes of the people, and an easy intercourse was main- 
tained between the most distant members of the Grecian, 
commonwealth. The wants of one State were supplied from 
the superfluities of another, improvements of every kind 
were quickly circulated, and so rapid were the advances of 
Greece towards a state of the most refined civilization, that 



RATAL LfTERATURt. 319 

scarcely four centuries elapsed between the fabulous age and 
the period when Athens was at the summit of her greatness. 
Similar causes produced the early civilization and improve- 
ment of E;ypt ; and Carthage, a maritime and commercial 
State, had acquired a high degree of splendour and renown, 
while Rome was yet an inconsiderable village, peopled only 
by banditti and plunderers. 

No idea can be more erroneous than to suppose, that the 
benefits of navigation are confined to the transfer of com- 
modities from one nation to another, or to the system of 
offensive or defensive warfare to which it is applicable. By 
the means of navigation the lights of science have been 
made to shine on rude and distant nations, and the arts which 
contribute to human happiness, have extended the sphere of 
their operation far beyond the soil which produced them. 
To place our ideas on this particular branch of the subjeft, 
in a more perspicuous point of view, let us imagine a ship, 
driven by the violence of a tempest oat of her intended 
course, and falling in with an undiscovered island, peopled 
by a barbarous and uncivilized race. Can the visitors of this 
rude people quit them without having imparted to them 
some particles of their superior knowledge, without having 
added in some shape to their comforts, by instructing them 
in useful arts, of which they were ignorant? In this man- 
ner has navigation conferred the most important benefits on 
mankind, and materially operated in civilizing the world. 

These refleftions were suggested to us by the important 
and ably-executed work now under our consideration. In 
it the art' of navigation is deduced from its infancy, to itg 
present state of maturity and perfection ; and the various im- 
provements which have taken place in Marine Architecture, 
from the earliest periods of history to the present time, are 
perspicuously stated and minutely detailed. Far surpassing 
all other nations in whatever relates to the dominion of the 
waves, we are led to regard, with a sort of national partiality, 
a work which treats of an art, in which our countrymen are 
confessedly superior to all the world. We state this as one 



i 



NATAL tJTERATWRS. 

of the claims which the work before us has to public e$timai 
tion; but our author may rest with more security for the 
remuneration of his labours of twenty years *, on the sterling 
merit of his work, and the diligence, fidelity, and acuteness< 
with which he has executed his 1 plan. In the various 
qualities of a man of letters, an ingenious artist, a profound 
reasoner, and an indefatigable enquirer, Mr. Charnock if 
entitled to the highest respect; his learning has embellished, 
and his science has illustrated, a subject the particular glory 
of iiis country; and as we justly boast of being the most 
powerful and renowned maritime State that ever existed, so 
we may now congratulate ourselves, that the best digested 
treatise on Naval Architecture, which has hitherto appeared* 
is the production of one of our own nation. 

In a prospectus to his work, published some years ago^ 
Mr. Chatnock spoke with a considerable degree of diffidences 
of the share of public patronage and support which he was 
likely to obtain, and we fear, from the length of time that 
has elapsed, since his work was first announced, that it has 
not been fostered into life by those vivifying rays of en- 
couragement, to which its merits entitle it. However, we 
have no doubt, from a careful perusal of the three volumes, 
but that our author's labours will meet with general appro- 
bation, and we hope soon to see them in a shape calculated 
for a more enlarged circulation. They will be found emi- 
nently useful to the ship-builder, and to the Naval Officer, 
and interesting to every one who is alive to the renown and 
welfare of his country. Such a work cannot sink into 
oblivion, or fall, as it were, still-born from the press ; it 
will remain a monument of the author's industry, genius* 
and science j and when the present edition is disposed of, if 
it appears in a cheaper form, will, like all works of real utility 
which are well executed, readily find its way into the libraries 
of most persons who are concerned in the subje& to which 
it is devoted. 

* See Naval Chronicle, Vol. I. pagf 137. 



NATAL LITERATURE. J2I 

Our readers will be better able to judge of the value of 
Mr. Charnock's splendid and important volumes, by the 
extracts with which we shall, from time to time, enrich our 
pages, we shall therefore conclude our present observations 
with mentioning, that the engravings which accompany the 
work, are numerous, and executed in a style of the greatest 
elegance and accuracy ; they increase, it is true, the price of 
the publication, but at the same time they serve admirably 
to illustrate the text, and are interesting and faithful de- 
lineations of the Naval Architecture of all nations and of all 
periods. 

The following extract, from Mr. Charnock's preface, will 
enable our readers to form a general idea of the nature of his 
work; and at a future period we shall give some passages' 
from the body of the history, with such observations as may 
occur to us, either from our personal experience on the sub- 
ject, or from the lights we have derived from former writers. 

The maritime history of the world may be reduced to a regular 
system, and considered as fairly divisible into seven different sections, 
cleaily pointed out by as many remarkable epochs. The first may 
comprehend all that dark and intricate space of time previous to the 
foundation of Rome, during which, all pretended authority, and the 
assertion of facts, no matter how positively given, appear so totally 
founded on surmise, as to fuinish very slender materials for any histo- 
rian who wishes his relation to be received with that venerable respect 
which is due to tiuth, in whatever homely garb it may be clothed. 
The second section comprises a period somewhat less obscure, in 
which, as the collateral testimony and evidence of various persons and 
authors may be examined and compared with each other, there cer. 
tainly appears less difficulty in developing the real state of fals, and 
unravelling, in a slight degree, those historical zenigmas, which, on 
some occasions, convert the page of history almost into romance. It 
tt'ill extend from the foundation of Rome to the destruction of her 
rival, Carthage, and from thence a third may find its termination in 
the conversion of the republic into an empire; an sera when the want 
of naval enemies to contend with, rendered the maintenance of a fleet, 
as connected with the prosperity and safety of the state, a consider- 
ation not only of secondary, but certainly immaterial consequence. 
The death of Charlemagne may be considered as the fourth grand 

fiato. et$nm. filol. VIII. TT 



J2t NAVAL LITERATURE. 

epoch ; since, although the maritime pursuits of the whole globfe 
might then be deemed in an almost totally dormant state, yet some 
circumstances appeared which seemed to promise a revival of the 
pursuit, by a people at that time almost unknown, and certainly pos- 
sessing a very inferior share of political weight in the state machine of 
the universe. 

From the death of Charlemagne, the science of navigation appeared 
progressively acquiring strength, and obtaining followers, who in- 
dustriously and most laboriously attempted to attain a considerable 
perfection in maritime knowledge. This, however, appeared denied 
to them 33 though by nature, till the discovery by Europeans of the 
wonderful properties possessed by the loadstone, and the subsequent 
invention of that instrument, known by the name of the mariner'* 
compass, seemed at once to dispel the mist which had so long obscured 
that summit, to which the art was, without much difficulty, capable 
of being advanced, and promised the immediate removal to a distance 
almost infinite, or beyond human comprehension, of those limits, 
within which the practice of it had, till that time, been unavoidably 
confined. The sixth section, therefore, may be fairly stated to com- 
mence with the invention just mentioned, about the year 1260, and 
continue to the beginning of the sixteenth century, when the general 
introduction and use of cannon on board ships, as instruments as well 
of annoyance, as of defence, together with the contrivance of port- 
holes, gave birth to the seventh and last epoch or asra, by attaching to 
vessels those requisites and properties, which, though improperly sup- 
plied and provided for in the beginning, have, by repeated practice* 
and continued experience, gradually improved into that excellence, and 
almost unimprovable state of perfection, which the ships built at the 
present day are, by some, supposed to possess. 

The maritime history of Britain becomes more than proportionably 
narrowed in its extent, when compared with that of the universe ; 
first on account of its obscurity, occasioned by the want of local 
literature which prevented the record, and which, though perhaps 
imperfecTtly, has preserved that of other countries ; secondly, inas- 
much as, till the period generally known by the appellation of the 
conquest, it varies so little, and has become so interwoven with the 
history of other countries, as scarcely to render it necessary to give 
any thing but a brief recapitulation of the leading, or most prominent 
events, which took place, more perhaps for the purpose of rendering 
the chain of history regular, lhan exciting any forcible interest in 
the mind of the enquirer. The case becomes, however, materially 
altered as the science advances to maturity ; for there is a certain 
violence of enthusiasm which, without any arrogance at all, has been 



NAVAL LITERATURE. J2J 

fostered and encouraged by the most rapid tide of success* which 
causes a Briton to dwell, with the most peculiar satisfaction, on the 
history of that science, to which he naturally considers he owes his 
wealth, his consequence, and his security. This at all times induces 
him to probe every incident that is likely to contribute towards his 
pleasure, to the very bottom, to descant on and describe it with a 
tedious minuteness, frequently painful to those not materially interested 
in the discussion, and, on some occasions, perhaps, in the warmth and 
animation of his heart, to exceed even the bounds of credibility itself. 

The earlier ages, as just observed, independent of every other con- 
sideration, are so enveloped in doubt, surmise, and romance, that 
little can be collected from them, on which mankind ought to place 
any dependence. Mention, indeed, is made of immense fleets, raised, 
as it were, by necromancy, which disappear, as the enquirer may en- 
deavour to persuade himself, by the same kind of influence. The strong 
degree of popular attachment to that particular pursuit, by which the 
inhabitants of a country have first raised it into public consequence as 
a naval power, may induce them to dwell with infinite pleasure on the 
naval exploits of Uther, Pendragon, and the renowned Arthur, on 
the victories of Alfred, and the naval triumph of Edgar the Great, but 
admitting the accounts of them [to be] strictly true in every parti- 
cular, yet, when adduced as irrefragable proofs of the aboriginal naval 
supremacy of Britain, they appear rather to invalidate, than support 
any claim, that can be supposed to rest on so weak a foundation. 

Alfred has bet- n generally celebrated as the founder of the British 
Navy. He is said by the best historians to have suggested a variety o 
improvements in the structure and form of ships, and to have con- 
siderably advanced the art of building them ; so that it has become a 
kind of historical treason to disbelieve any of those his naval exploits, 
which, to some modern opinions, may appear at least wonderful, if 
not incredible. 

The effects produced on naval affairs, by the inventions of 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, are thus described. 

The variety of improvements and inventions which had taken place 
during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, tended to render general 
nautical knowledge much more respectable than it had been. To the 
invention of the compass is most probably owing the discovery of 
America. To that of cannon, and their introduction into ships, may 
be attributed those improvements in Naval Architecture, which dis- 
tinguish a modern ship of war from an ancient galley. 

The naval militia, as it may with much propriety be termed, and 
which continued in use for some centuries, was all the defence on 



324 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

which the nation had to depend as a protection from invasion, 
previous to the reign of Henry the Eighth. That monarch wisely 
considering the inconvenience to which a very sudden attack might 
at all times subject the nationj resolved on establishing a Royal Navy, 
which, being under the immediate direction of the Sovereign, might 
form a temporary stand against the enemy, till the ships furnished by 
the different ports should arrive to reinforce it. Notwithstanding 
even this precaution, and most prudent institution, the provident 
monarch did not yet think his kingdom sufficiently secure. Hall in 
his Chronicle, anno 1559, says, " The kynges hyghness, which never 
ceased to stody and take payne both for the avauncement of the com- 
monwealth of this realme of England, of whiche he was the only 
supreme governour and hed, and also for the defence of al the same, 
was lately enfourmed by his trustie and faithfull frendes, that the 
cankerd and cruel serpent, the Byshop of Rome, by that arche traitor 
Reginald Poole, enemie to Codes word, and his natural contrey, had 
moved and stirred dyverse great princes and potentates of Chnstea- 
dome, to invade the realme of England, and utterlie to destroy the 
whole nation of the same, wherefore his Majestie in his own persone, 
without any deley, toke very laborious and paynefull journeyes towards 
the sea coaste, also he sent dyve-rce of his nobles and counsaylours to 
view and search all the ports and daungers on the coasies, where any 
meete or convenient landyng place might be suppos'd, as well on the 
borders of England, as also of Wales, and in all soche doubtfull place* 
his hyghness caused dyverse and many bullwarks and fortifications to 
be made." 

The events of the sixteenth century are esteemed of a much more 
consequential nature than those of any which preceded it, not because 
the natural bravery of the English exceeded, perhaps, that which they 
had frequently manifested in former ages, but because the human 
mind takes, we know not how, a considerably greater interest in 
contests, in proportion as their nature bears a nearer relation to those 
of modern days. Prodigies of valour were, without doubt, performed 
by men clothed with armour, whose only missile weapons were arrows 
and javtlins, and whose contests were frequently decided by the same 
instrument of destruction those by land were, the sword. But there 
is considerable difficulty in associating ideas with objects which men 
have not been accustomed to behold, and they regard the greatest 
aucestrial bravery of those times with little more warmth and generous 
emotion than they do the battle of Actium. 

The introduction of cannon into ships, which took place at the 
Utter end of the fifteenth century, venders naval history, therefore, 



KATAL LITERATURE. jjj 

much more interesting to moderns, and they feel a natural pleasure 
in tracing the growth of a caraval, a carrack, or a galleas, into a first- 
rate, while at the same time they disdain not to bid the rising 
generation contemplate, as well as emulate, the example of Drake, 
Grenville, Raleigh, and the Howards. 

Where we find much deserving of applause, we have the 
less relutance in pointing out a few trivial defefts. From 
the preceding extra&s will it appear, that Mr. Charnock's 
style is sometimes confused and obscure, and amidst a 
redundance of words which approaches near to tautology, it 
is sometimes difficult to discover his meaning. His periods 
are inharmonious, frequently perplexing on account of their 
length, and not easily retained by reason of the infelicity 
of their arrangement. Our language now abounds in so 
many examples of style, differing widely from each other, yet 
all excellent, that an author must be culpably negligent, 
who dees not cultivate with success a branch of literature, in 
which he can copy, without blame, from so many masters. 

The general table of contents which is appended to the 
last volume, very inadequately supplies the place of an index, 
a thing so useful in a large book, that the omission of it in 
the present work cannot but be disagreeable to the generality 
of readers. 



Cursory Observations on the several MoJes now in Use of Manufa3uring 
Cables, Hawsers, and ether Gordage for Nautical Uses, by the Patentee 
of the Sail agee System. 4/0. 19 pages, with Engravings. 

npHE present pamphlet is written by Mr. James Mitchell, 
a person who has obtained his Majesty's royal letters 
patent for the manufacture of cordage on a new principle, 
differing essentially (as he affirms) from the one in common 
use; and the objeft of it is, to recommend the patentee's 
mode of manufacturing cordage, in preference to the other 
methods at present in use. For this purpose various plates 
are given, exhibiting the superior construftionofMr. Mitchell's 
cordage over that of the common rope-makers. The en- 
4 



Jjtf NAVAL LITERATttR*. 

gravings are extremely neat, and possess every attra&ion, 
except accuracy of representation, as far as the common 
system of rope-making is concerned ; and in that particular, 
we are sorry to state, they are extremely faulty. There are 
undoubtedly bad rope-makers, as well as bad mechanics of 
every other description ; but when the patentee meant to 
represent the common usage of rope-making, he should 
have given what was really the practice of the respectable 
part of the trade, and not examples evidently drawn to suit 
his own purpose ; besides, we can venture to assert, that his 
examples are taken from no rope-grounds in existence, but 
are merely the creatures of his own imagination, and exhi- 
bited as foils to his own superior system. This is extremely 
unfair, and merits the severest reprehension, we are, there- 
fore, called upon to bestow more attention on this article; 
than it otherwise merits. 

Rope- making, from every information that we can collect, 
from nautical as well as professional men, began to decline 
in the beginning of the American war, and, from that period 
to the end^of tire contest, such a quantity of cordage was 
manufactured, chiefly from damaged hemp (particularly in 
the port of London), that the rope-making trade was brought 
into great disrepute. The yarn, being spun of bad hemp, 
of course would not bear to be manufactured as ropes should 
be made ; and the consequence was, that the journeymen 
iope-tr,akers got into so slovenly a method of making up the 
yarn (which is the ground- work of rope- making), that 
towards the close of the war, it became absolutely necessary 
to frame some regulations as to the modes of manufacturing 
cordage. Since that time, to the present, the rope-making 
trade has been gradually getting into a better system, or rather 
has been returning to the old system. 

In the interim, several attempts have been made, by a 
variety of patent^ to bring the trade into its pristine state; 
the present one, called the Salvage? system, is one of those 
that appears to come near to what ropes formerly were, 



JfAVAt LITERATURE. 337 

when every man employed in the aianufafturc of cordage, 
used his utmost endeavours, to make each thread bear its 
proportion of strength, which is only to be accomplished 
by care and attention. Had this mode been pursued, as 
formerly, the present patentee, in all probability, would 
never have thought of his improved system of rope-making; 
but from the general outcry "gainst the badness of cordage, 
he, with other persons, thought a patent was absolutely 
necessary to improve the manufacture of that useful article, 
and like other patentees, he exclaims, that the plan adopted 
in his rope-ground, is superior to all ethers. 

We have known, and at present know, ships whose 
rigging is at least eighteen years old, and still is in good 
condition ; cables which have worn until they have been 
destroyed, as it were, by the course of nature, or more pro* 
perly speaking, till the tar has been dried up, and the rope 
of consequence lost its original strength. We are, therefore, 
decidedly of opinion, that ropes, if properly attended to, 
and well manufactured, as in days of yore, are not only 
equal, but superior in strength, duration, and all desirable 
qualities, to any that' can be manufactured on any new plan 
that has hitherto been presented to the public. 

Rope making is of a nature extremely simple and easy to 
be understood ; where you gain in power, you lose in keep- 
ing out the wet, filth, and mire, which all ropes, cables in 
particular, must imbibe in rivers like the Thames, and there- 
fore they cannot last so long as ropes that are more firmly 
twisted ; besides, the elasticity of cables made according to 
the old method, renders them infinitely superior to any 
other, in bringing ships short up, an advantage that could 
not easily be dispensed with in our narrow and difficult 
navigations. On the whole, we see no reason why the old 
system of rope-making should not be adhered to, as vastly 
preferable to what our present patentee recommends, and 
therefore we cannot help looking on his attempts at improve- 
ment as entirely futile. 



C 3*8 3 

NAVAL PUBLICATIONS. 



THE TRIDENT, or the National Policy of Naval Celebration j de- 
scribing a Hieronauticon or Naval Temple, with its appendages; 
proposing a periodical celebration of Naval Games, and on occasion 
of victories of the first nature, the granting of triumphs ; these works 
and institutions being intended to foster the rising arts of Britain into 
a full maturity, and a successful rivalship with those of Greece and 
Rome ; and to keep alive, and in full lustre, to the latest Generations, 
the present heroic spirit of the British Navy. By a private Gentle- 
man. 410. Illustrated by plates. 

Copy OF a CORRESPONDENCE, &c. between the Right Hon. 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, the Right Hon Earl 
St. Vincent, K. B. and Admiral Sir J. Orde, Bart. 8vo. 

TABLES for facilitating the Calculations of Nautical Astronomy, 
and particularly of the latitude of a ship at sea, from two altitudes of 
the sun, and that of the longitude from the distances of the moort 
from the sun, or a star. Containing the natural versed sines to every 
ten seconds, and the logarith malic sines, double sines, &c. to every 
minute from o to 180 degrees ; and several other tables useful in Astro- 
nomy and Navigation. By J. De Mendoza Rios, Esq. F. R. S. 410, 
_-____ 



LINES 

To ike Memory of Captain DUVAL *, who ivai lost in his Majesty* t 
Ship the Fly. 

'O longer dare we hope! The anxious months 
Have heavily roll'd on, nor brought one ray 
Of comfort on the wing of Time. Severe, 
And frequent, were the Gales that blew, 
As ever raged upon a northern shore : 
Loud Equinoctial Gales made ev'ry heart,' 
That felt a Sailor's danger, tremble ; while 
Anxious Friendship with reludant dread, 
Attentive listen'd to each vain surmise ; 
Nor sunk despondent, till the varied Tale 
Had ceas'd around ; and e'en prolonged Hope, 
By doubtful Rumours, could delude no more. 



329 

Hush then my swelling soul ! 
The solemn subjeft suits not with complaint. 
The sorrows of the heart at such a loss 
From selfish motives rise 'til Nature weeps ! 
While RESIGNATION with prophetic Eye 
Fixes her gaze upon the awful scene, 
And contemplates celestial rays of 
MERCY that succeed the Storm. She beholdi 
The objedr. of her grief, free from the weight 
Of Life's severest cares, on Seraph's wing 
Triumphant borne, to claim his bright reward 
For Virtues nurtur'd by the hand of Heaven. 
Him bid the World admire ! His Merit grew 
Unaided by the hand of Wealth or Power : 
And as he rose to Fame, his buoyant spirit 
Thro' Tribulation's School victorious passed. 
Then, as the eagle from its airy nest 
Tow'rs tow'rd the Sun, his try'd and ardent mind 
Secm'd soaring in the bright effulgent ray 
Of ENGLAND'S Glory. But alas ! too soon 
The radiant Vision clos'd ; to us it clos'd ! 
To him it opened in Eternal Day. 

Then check the Tear : weep not thou much-revcr'd 
And honour'd Friend, for whom his gratitude 
Express'd filial Affe&ion ; by whose Care 
His infant lip was taught the Sacred Song; 
Weep Thou no more ! but with religious faith 
Dwell on the prospeft of those promised JOYS 
THE SERVANT, GOOD AND FAITHFUL, may expect. 



LINES 

On the Viftory obtained by BLAKE over the Spaniards in the Bay of 
Sanflacruse, in the Island of Tencrif, 1657. Addressed to the LORD 
PROTECTOR. By A. MARVELL. 

'OW does Spain's fleet her spacious wings unfold, 

Leaves the new world, and hastens for the old ; 
But tho' the wind was fair, they slowly swum, 
Freighted with a&ed guilt, and guilt to come ; 
For this rich load, of which so proud they are, 
Was rais'd by tyranny, and rais'd for war. 

Jftft.C9ton.QtoL VIII, w 



Every capacious galleon's womb was fill'd 

With what the womb of wealthy kingdoms yield; 

The new world's wounded entrails they had tore 

For wealth, wherewith to wound the old once more : 

Wealth, which all others' avarice might cloy, 

Bat yet in them caus'd as much fear as joy. 

For now upon the main themselves they saw, 

That boundless empire where you give the law ; 

Of wind's and water's rage they fearful be, 

But much more fearful are your flags to see. 

Day, that to those who sail upon the deep 

More wish'd for, and more welcome is, than sleep, 

They dreaded to behold, lest the sun's light 

With English streamers should salute their sight ; 

In thickest darkness they would chuse to steer, 

So that such darkness might suppress their fear : 

At length it vanishes, and fortune smiles, 

For they behold the sweet Canary Isles ; 

One of which, doubtless, is by nature blest 

Above both worlds, since 'tis above the rest. 

For lest some gloominess might stain her sky, 

Trees there the duty of the clouds supply j 

O noble trust, which Heaven on this isle pours, 

Fertile to be, yet never need her show'rs. 

A happy people, which at once do gain 

The benefits, without the ills, of rain. 

Both health and profit fate cannot deny, 

Where still the earth is moist, the air still dry. 

The jarring elements no discord know, 

Fcwel and rain together kindly grow ; 

And coolness there with heat doth never fight, 

This only rules by day, and that by night. 

Your worth to all these isles a just right brings ; 

The best of lands should have the best of kings : 

And these want nothing Heaven can afford, 

Unless it be, the having you their lord ; 

But this great want will not a long one prove, 

Your conquering sword will soon that want remove ; 

For Spain had better, she'll ere long confess, 

Have broken all her swords, than this long peace j 

Casting that league off, which she held so long, 

She cast off that, which only made her strong'. 



POETRY. 331 

Forces and art, she soon will feel, are vain, 

Peace, against you, \vas the sole strength of Spain ; 

By that alone those islands she secures, 

Peace makes them hers, but war will make them yours. 

There the rich grape the soil indulgent breeds, 

Which of the gods the fancied drink exceeds ; 

They still do yield, such is their precious mould, 

All that is good, and are not curs'd with gold ; 

With fatal gold, for still where that does grow, 

Neither the soil, nor people, quiet know ; 

Which troubles men to raise it, when 'tis ore, 

And, when 'tis rais'd, does trouble them much more. 

Ah ! why was thither brought that cause of war, 

Kind Nature had from thence remov'd so far? 

In vain doth she those islands free from ill, 

If Fortune can make guilty what she will. 

But whilst I draw that scene, where you ere long 

Shall conquests aft, you present are unsung. 

For Sanftacruz.e the glad fleet takes her way, 
And safely there takes anchor in the bay. 

Never so many, with one joyful cry, 
That place saluted, where they all must die. 

Deluded men ! fate with you did but sport, 

You scaped the sea, to perish in your port. 

'Twas more for England's fame you should die there, 

Where you had mobt of strength, and least of fear. 

The peak's proud height the Spaniards all admire, 

Yet in their breasts carry a pride much higher. 

Only to this vast hill a power is given 

At once both to inhabit earth and heaven. 

But this stupendous prospect did not near 

Make them admire so much as they did fear. 

For here they met with news, which did produce 

A grief, above the cure of grape's best juice. 

They learn'd with terror, that nor summer's heat, 

Nor winter's storms, had made your fleet retreat. 

To fight against such foes was vain, they knew, 

Which did the rage of elements subdue ; 

Who on the ocean, that does horror give 

To all besides, triumphantly do live-. 



33* FOETRY. 

THE POST CAPTAIN, 

Written t>y an Officer in the Navy, and sung with JejervtJ applause ly 
Mr. INCLEDON. 

WHEN Steerwell heard me first impart 
Our brave Commander's tory, 
With ardent zeal his youthful heart 
Swell'd high for Naval Glory, 
Resolv'd to gain a valiant name, 

For bold adventures eager, 
When first a little cabin-boy on board the Fame, 

He would hold on the jigger ; 
While ten jolly tars, with musical Joe, 
Hove the anchor a-peak, singing, Yo heave hoe, &c. 

To hand top -gallant- sails next he learn'd, 

With quickness, care, and spirit, 
Whose generous master then discern'd 

And prized his rising merit ; 
He taught him soon to reef and steer, 

When storms convuls'd the ocean, 
Where shoals made skilful vet'rans fear, 

Which mark'd him for promotion ; 
As none to the pilot e'er answer'd like be, 
When he gave the command hard aport, helm a lee, 
Luff boy, luff, keep her near, 
Clear the buoy, make the pier, &c. 

For valour, skill, and worth renown'd, 

The foe he oft defeated, 
And now with fame and fortune crown'd 

POST CAPTAIN he is rated ; 
Who, should our injur'd country bleed, 

Still bravely would defend her ! 
Now blest with Peace, if beauty plead, 

He'll prove his heart as tender ; 
Unaw'd, yet mild to high and low, 

To poor, and wealthy, friend or foe. 
Wounded tars share his wealth, 
All the fleet drink his health ; 
Prized be such hearts for aloft they will go, "J 
Wnich always are ready compassion to show > 
To a brave conquer'd foe. J 



I 333 3 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE C. 

!JE of the effe&s of the late war was, to throw into the hands of 
Great Britain a very large portion of the commerce of the globe, 
by which means her shipping was doubled in extent to what it had 
been at any former period, and her character in distant parts assumed 
an aspe& more respeftable than it had ever before displayed. The 
commodities of China are now become so necessary to Europe, that 
no matter how they are imported from thence, whether in home or 
alien bottoms, they are sure of a ready market. The powerful Navy 
which Great Britain so successfully employed during the late war, 
totally destroyed (for the time) the commerce of her enemies with 
China, and as Europe could not do without the accustomed supplies 
from that quarter, the nations, at war with England, were obliged to 
receive, through a circuitous channel (of which England was the 
fountain head), the produftions of that country. Thus the commerce 
between Britain and China became an objeft of immense value, iuas- 
much as Britain supplied the greater part of Europe with the pro- 
ductions of that empire, and found a large vend for her manufactures 
in that populous country. Under these circumstances a closer con- 
nexion was formed between Britain and China than ever before existed, 
and the British fadlory at Canton has become almost an independent 
settlement. It is true, that Lord Macartney's embassy failed of suc- 
cess, owing to the intrigues of some French and Spanish Jesuits at 
Pekin ; but the commerce of the two empires since the commence- 
ment of the late war, has flourished and increased beyond all foimer 
example, and, we are well assured, from respectable authority, that 
the British nation is so highly favoured by the Chinese, that our late 
enemies have no speedy prospefk of rivalling us in the lucrative trat'c 
of that country. 

The jealousy of the Chinese confines the traffic of Europeans to one 
part of their vast empire. Our present plate is taken frdm a 
picturesque view o:i the river Canton, the only river, in that extensive 
country, into which the vessels of foreign nations are admitted. Its 
scenery, naturally fine, is improved by the elegant and decorative 
8trulures on its banks, for, such is the genius of the people, pagodas 
are placed (as if by the hand of a painter) to embellish a prospect, and 
forts are ere&ed for no other purpose, as it were, than to add beauty 
to the landscape. The artist and the man of taste will see, in a 
moment, how much the view under our'- immediate consideration, is 
aided by these ornaments, and from thence will be led to form an idea, 
by no means unfavourable, of the capacity of the Chinese to improve 
the natural beauties of their countiy. 



C 334 1 

OLD BAILEY, 

TUJiSDAV, SEPTEMBER. 21, 1&QZ. 



SPECIAL COMMISSION. 

THE Commission appointed by his Majesty's order met at ten 
o'clock. The Judges were the same who usually sit during the 
sessions. 

Henry Rea, Joseph Grace Beaumont, and John Morgan, the two 
former Lieutenants of Marines, and the latter a Lieutenant in the Navy, 
were then put to the bar, charged with wilful murder. The indictment 
charged them first, that Henry Rea, on the i4th of March, in parts 
beyond the seas, did with a certain pistol, loaded with a leaden bullet, 
shoot at John Breamer, and wound him in the belly, of which wound 
the said Breamer languished till he died ; and the two other prisoners 
were charged with being present at the time, aiding and assisting the 
prisoner Rea, in committing the said murder. 

The Attorney-General addressed the jury on the part of the prosecu- 
tion. He said, the occasion of the jury being then called together, 
arose out of the death of a person named Breamer, who had been killed 
in a duel in which the prisoner Rea was his antagonist 5 and the other 
two were seconds. The death having happened at the Cape of Good 
Hope, and there being no opportunity of bringing them to a trial at 
that place, the Commander in Chief ordered them to be sent home, 
that they might be dealt with according to law. And it was provided 
by the statute of the 33d of Henry VIII. that if treason or murder be 
committed in parts beyond the seas, the persons charged with the same 
shall be tried by a Special Commission. With respect to the law on 
this subject, it was clearly laid down, that if two persons met with 
malice aforethought, and, in order to revenge any injury which they 
conceived they had suffered in a former quarrel, fought a duel ; and 
if the death of either party ensued in consequence of such duel j the 
other was guilty of murder. If the duel took place immediately after 
the quarrel, before it could be supposed that the heat of their passion 
had time to cool, then the taking away the life of one of the parties 
amounted only to the crime of manslaughter. The malice and the 
murder consisted in the parties gojng to fight at such an interval of time 
after the quarrel, that their passion might be supposed to have sub- 
sided. Although an aft of th'rs kind was declared by law to be a mur- 
der, he must say, that in point of the moral guilt attached to it, it dif- 
fered materially from other cases of murder. They all knew, that what 
was called the law of honour still sanctioned this crime, and the severity 
of public opinion sometimes unavoidably led to the commission of it. 
Ke, therefore, felt the difficulty of the case very much. But he did not 
make these observations to lay a trap for the consciences of the jury, 
in any application they might make to the law of honour. They did 
not come there to try according to that law, but to decide according to 
the laws ot the land ; and if this law in its application was too severe, 
it was for the Legislature to interfere, and enact a different law ; and 
according to the circumstances of the case, there would always be found 
a relief from the severity of it, in the merciful interference of the Crown. 
The learned gentleman then quoted the authority of Blackstone and 
Foster on this subject, and stated the facts of the case. He said there 
was no evidence as to the cause of the quarrel between Rea and the 



TRIAL FOR MURDER. 335 

<ieceased. But he was given to understand that it originated in a trifling 
dispute, which gave rise to aggravated language. As it would appear 
that the parties, after an interval of time had passed, went deliberately 
to fight, the prisoners could not be convicted of manslaughter, and 
therefore they must be found guilty of wilful murder, or acquitted. 
With respect to the two prisoners who appeared in the characters of 
seconds, there could be no doubt upon the law with regard to Mr. 
Beaumont, the second of Rea ; but as to the second of the deceased, 
the law was not so free from doubt. Although in his mind, the parties 
who brought two men together to fight, and were present assisting 
one to kill the other, were principals in that aft, and equally guilty 
with the person committing it, yet some lawyers had made a distinc- 
tion between the second of the deceased, and that of the survivor j 
among other authorities was that of Lord Chief Justice Hale, who 
doubted whether the second of the deceased could be considered as 
guilty of the murder of his friend, whom he came to assist. 

Mr. Attorney-General then called his witnesses. The first was 
Francis Stimpson, who gave the following testimony: "I was at 
the Cape of Good Hope in the month of March last, and was servant 
to Mr. Rea. On Saturday the ijth, at four o'clock, he desired me to 
call him up at two o'clock next morning. I went on (hore that night, 
and Mr. Rea also went on shore with Mr. Beaumont $ we went 
together in a boat. Mr. Rea went to his lodgings on shore. I culled 
him next morning according to his desire. When I came into his 
room he was up, and Mr. Beaumont was with him ; he gave me a small 
bag, the contents of which I did not examine; I followed him with it 
to the Company's Gardens, which were a quarter of a mile off. Mr. 
Beaumont and my master were there at the time, and nobody else. I 
laid down on a bank and fell asleep, my master waked me, and desired 
me to go away to the top of the gardens, and not return till whistled 
for. Mr. Morgan and Mr. Breamer had then arrived. After I had 
been away about ten minutes, I heard the report of guns, but sivt 
nobody fire, 1 was too far off. I was whistled for shortly after, and 
came back. It was about five o'clock when I was ordered to go away 
to the top of the gardens. It was three when we first got to the 
gardens. When I came back Mr. Breamer was leaning on Mr. Mor- 
gan's shoulder, and my master desired me to go and assist him. Mr. 
Beaumont came to assist also. When I came back, my master said, 
" Good God, how unfortunate! he had three shots for my one." 
Mr. Breamer was bleeding from the groin. When I came back to 
the whistle, the bag was not in the fame place ; but I observed no guns 
or pistols. I carried the bag on board the shipagain, and put it in my 
master's cabin. I never opened it to see what it contained. I never 
saw any pistols in my master's possession ; the thing in this bug was 
about the size of a pistol. I do not know how long the bag renuuied 
in the cabin. Mr. Breamer died on the day following. 

Matthew Motherwell was next sworn"! was su-'geon of his 
Majesty's ship Jupiter, in March last, at the Cape of Good Hope. 
On the i4th, a little after five in the morning, Simpson, the fervant oi 
Mr. Rea, came for me. I went on shore, and found in a house near 
the Company's Gardens, Mr. Breamer, and the family of the house 
attending him. He was lying on a bed, 'and complained ot having 
received a wound, but was not able to shew it me. I took his clothes 
off, and discovered in the right groin a wound, appearing to be that 
of a ball fired from a pistol or a gun. He seemed to be apprehensive 
of the danger he was in. He asked me what I thought of the wound ? 



336 TRIAL FOR MURDER. 

I told him it was a very bad one, and that I had no great hopes of hi* 
recovery. I attended him three hours that morning. He died next day 
about half past eleven. I dissected his body, and found a ball in his 
bladder, which I traced to the orifice of the wound; and I have no 
doubt but that the ball was the cause of his death." 

The prisoners left their defence entirely to their Counsel. 

Mr. Serjeant BEST and Mr. GURNEY, as Counsel for the prisoners, 
fubmitted, that with regard to Mr. Beaumont and Mr. Morgan, this 
case was not such as should go to the Jury. In the frst place, it wa 
a disputed point of law, whether the second of the deceased was guilty 
in the same manner as the other second ; and in the next place, it did 
not appear, by any evidence then produced on the part of the prose- 
cution, which of the two,- Mr. Beaumont or Mr. Morgan, was 
second to the deceased. 

After a reply from the ATTORNEY GENERAL, several Gentlemen 
were called to speak to the characters of the prisoners. 

The first witness was a Lieutenant of the Navy, who said he had. 
known Mr. Morgan since the year 1796, and during all that time he 
had been a very orderly and humane young man ; and bore an excel- 
lent character. Mr. Rea he had known since the year 1797, and he had 
always been remarked to be a very good young man. 

Lieutenant Bennet of the Navy, sworn "I have known Mr. Mor- 
gan intimately for five or six years. I uever knew him to be quar- 
relsome ; but on the contrary, a maker up of any probable disputes. I 
can say the same of Mr. Rea as of Mr. Morgan." 

Lieutenant Symmonds of the Navy " I have known Mr. Mor- 
gan intimately for ten years, and he never was of a quarrelsome 
disposition."' 

Lieutenant Shaw of the Navy " I have known Mr. Rea three years ; 
and he was much respected by every one in the ship. Mr. Morgan 
always bore an excellent character." 

Lieutenant Lilly, of the Navy, said Mr. Rea was always a peaceable 
man never prone to quarrels ; and he knew a duel to have been pre- 
Vented by his interference. 

Captain Walsh spoke to the same effect, both of Mr. Rea and Mr. 
Morgan. 

Mr. Barnard said, he was a Purser in the Navy. He knew Mr. Rea, 
whose character was a very good one, and his company had always 
been courted. He also knew Mr. Morgan some years j and his cha- 
racter was remarkably good. 

Lieutenant Tucker, of the Navy, said the character of Mr. Rea was, 
that of a very amiable man. 

Mr. Bushel, a Purser in the Navy, said, Mr. Rea was always a 
gentlemanly humane man. He was Commanding Officer of Marines 
at the time in question, and his character, both in public and private, 
Was excellent. He gave the same character of Mr. Morgan. 

Lieutenant Knight, of the Navy, spoke in similar terms of Mr. Rea. 

Lieut. Clarke, of the Marines, said, Rea was a very tractable and or- 
derly young man. 

Captain Winthrop, of the Navy, said " T have known Mr. Beau- 
mont j he was a year and a half in the Circe, under my command, and 
he was always a humane good young man." 

The Hon. Capt. Eardley, of the Navy " I was a messmate of Mr. 
Beaumont's in 1797. I always found him of the most peaceable dis- 
position, and never knevr him to use an ill-tempered expreffion to 
any body." 



TRIAL FOR MURDER, 337 

Lieutenant Young, of the Marines, spoke very favourably of the 
three prisoners. 

Lieutenant Hextier spoke of the quiet peaceable disposition of Mr. 
Rea and Mr. Morgan, 

Mr. Morden, a Naval Officer, had known Mr. Rea for ten years ; and 
gave him a similar character. 

Mr. Baron HOTHAM then summed up the evidence to the Jury. He 
first replied to the objections of Counsel j he said, the opinions that 
had been quoted to shew that the Second of the deceased was not a 

Erincipal in the homicide, were by no means decisive they were not 
is opinion. That was however a question which could not be now 
decided. When necessary it must come before the twelve Judges. 
But with respect to the present question, who was the Second of Mr. 
Rea, there could be no doubt from the evidence, that that person was 
Mr. Beaumont ; and therefore it was a fit case to go before the Jury. 
He said, the Attorney General had, by stating the law on this case, 
relieved him from a good deal of trouble; and Mr. Attorney had also 
very truly stated that the prisoners could not be convicted of man- 
slaughter; they must either be found guilty of murder, or acquitted. 
It was very clear that the death of the deceased was caused by a. ball 
fired from a gun or a pistol ; and there could be no doubt but that it 
was fired by the prisoner Rea. But there were many facts not disclosed 
at all, which would have been very material in this case. There was 
no evidence as to the original cause of the quarrel, how the provocation 
took place, or where circumstances might have occurred, which if 
disclosed this day, would have altered the case entirely. It was pos- 
sible that at the place the duel was fought, the parties might have 
conducted themselves in such a manner as should induce the Jury to 
find a verdict of manslaughter, if that conduct had been made known. 
It was possible that the prisoner (Rea) might have endeavoured to 
prevent the duel ; and that the fatal catastrophe was occasioned by the 
obstinate and wrong-headed conduct of the deceased ; which might 
have been such as the other could not endure. The Jury were there- 
fore involved in this great and important dilemma ; that ignorant of 
any of the circumstances attending the quarrel, or the combat, they 
had only to guess at them j and therefore their verdi6t must be the 
result of extraordinary pains. The lives of three persons were at stake, 
nd it was for them to say whether they could J-hus in the dark rind 
the prisoners guilty, when there might be circumstances/ which had 
they known, they would sooner have cut their hands off, than doom 
those persons to that fate which must follow their verdict of guilty, 
Kis Lordship then dwelt on the excellent characters given of the pri- 
oners by so many respectable persons, and observed that if any 
doubt remained on the minds of the Jury, the evidence to character 
muft preponderate. 

The Jury retired for ten minutes, and found the three Defendants 
Not Guilty. These Gentlemen then bowed respectfully to the Court; 
and as they retired, their friends surrounded them, and shook them by 
the hand with every mark of joy and congratulation. They were 
dressed in their respective uniforms, and . their appearance was re- 
markably genteel. 



!. VIII. 



MONTHLY REGISTER 
or 



THE ship-owners of Stockholm, in consideration of the part taken 
in the late British Parliament, relative to the Swedish convoys, 
havevoted Mr. CHARLLS GREY, a golden medal, bearing, on one 
side his effigy, with this inscription : " CAROLUS GREY, Parliament* 
Britannia Membrum ;" and on the other, an oaken wreath, with these 
words: "Cosmopolite oftitno jura gentium marittma cararr. confessu Populi 
Britannia, die Feb. MDCCCl. streitue defendenii N 'a^vicularii Stockholmien- 
ses." The medal is to be delivered by the Swedish Agent for General 
Trade in London. 

On Friday October ist, Lord KEITH was made free of this City, 
and received a sword of the value of 100 guineas, for his gallant 
services. 

The Clyde, having on. board Sir JOHN BORLASE WARREN, the 
British Ambassador, arrived at Elsineur on the a^th of September. 

By the regulations now adopted with respect: to the ships in or- 
dinary in Hamoaze and the River Tamar, a great saving will accrue 
in the wear and tear of the Royal Navy. ( AI1 the yards, spars, running 
rigging, and gun carriages, are to be st'owed away in each ship in 
ordinary, and the boats, on being examined and reported fit for 
service, are to be placed in the Capuin's cabin, by which they will be 
preserved from the weather, and always be ready in case of sudden 
emergency. One of the Clerks of the Cheque of the Dock yard visits 
in the day time, once or twice a week, and cheques the officers and 
men of the ships in ordinary Similar visits arealso made in the night- 
time; and those officers who are absent without leave, are to be mulcted 
of their day's pay. In consequence of these strict regulations, in case 
of a future war, the ships in ordinary will be fitted for sea in a shorter 
time, and at a less expence, than heretofore. 

We are favoured with the following article by an Officer of the 
Sea Horse, the accuracy of which our readers may depend on : 

Capt. La Meme, of the French Privateer Le Nuice, in 1797, while 
cruising off Ceylon, fell in with the Ball of Cotton Rock and another 
Shoal, about the existence of which, navigators have long been doubtful, 
and by many supposed to be only ideal ; I therefore give you an account 
talcen from the observations he made. 

In 5, i? North Latitude and 8S*, zo East Longitude from Paris, there 
is a small island about 25 or 30 feet above the surface of the sea, between. 
50 and 60 feet long, and about ao in breadth : it is situated on a sand 
bank, which extends about 300 feet in a N. K. and S. W. direction : at 
hilf a mile distance from it there is no soundings with ico fathoms of 
line, and a boats length from it 20 fathoms water. 

In January 1799, Capt. Le Meme saw a shoal, probably the Ouro, and 
sent an officer to examine it, but night coming on he was prevented from 
landing; the officer reported that this reef was 9 or 10 feet above the 
surfaceof the water, and about a mile long, from east to west there are no 



MONTHLY REGISTER Ot NAVAL ETENT: 339 

soundings with 100 fathoms of line at a mile distance from it. It lies 
in about 10 Nortli latitude, and 92 East longitude from Paris. 

N. B. Le Meme is a good navigator, had several good chronometers 
and sextants on board, so that it is to be presumed the latitude and lon- 
gitude are the most accurate extant. 

MADEIRA, SEPT. 14.. 

It is with infinite concern that I relate the particulars of the loss of a 
large Portuguese; ship, named Aurora, Captain Fabricio Jone dos 
Santos: About a quarter before one o'clock on Monday morning, 
the 3oth of last month, the inhabitants of this place were dreadfully 
alarmed by a tremendous explosion, which shook, every house, and 
broke several windows, but providentially did no other damage 
in the town. Immediately after the explosion, a vessel was discovered 
to he on fire. Being in the dead of the night, little or no assistance 
could be given by the people on shore. His Majesty's ship Woolwich, 
commanded by Captain Ulick Jenniags, was at that time anchored in 
this road . Captain Jennings, on the first alarm, manned all his boats, 
and gave every assistance that intrepidity and humanity could suggest. 
All the people, thirty-four in number, perished by the explosion 
and in the flimes, except two, who were saved by the boats of 
the Woolwich ; one of them was very little hurt, but the second 
had one of his legs broken, and the other much shattered, and many 
contusions on his head. Eleven of the bodies have been since found, 
amongst whom are those of the Captain and his son. Nothing has yet 
transpired that can lead us to form a conjecture how this accident hap- 
pened ; the people saved can give no account whatever. It is probable, 
'that the accident was occasioned by the negligence of some of the men 
\vith a light near the powder-magazine. His Excellency the Governor 
has acknowledged the services of Captain Jennings and his Officers and 
rnen in very handsome terms ; they merited every praise for their 
activity and resolution in the midst of the most imminent danger. 
Captain Watson, of the ship Severn, was likewise very active on the 
occasion. 

We are happy in presenting our readers with the following extraft of 
a letter, received by the Sea Horse frigate, from a Gentleman residing at 
Madras, dated M: j .y 30, 1802 : 

" His Excellency Vice- Admiral Rainier arrived here on the a6th inst. 
from Trincomale, accompanied by the Intrepid, Captain Hargood 5 
La Sybille, Captain Adam j Trident, Captain Pulham ; Leopard, 
Captain Surridge ; Eurydice, Captain Bathurst ; and the Albatross, 
Captain Malcolm. The ships are all healthy. The Chiffonne, Captain 
Stuart, from a cruise, anchored at Bombay, on the a4.th of April. The 
Centurion, Captain Rainier, and La Virginie, Captain Astle,are in dock 
at Bombay. 

" Captain Foote,of his Majesty's ship Sea Horse, has gained the highest 
praise here, for his exertions in saving the masts and stores of Le Sensible 
frigate, to which service he had been destined by Admiral Rainier : 
the ship having filled with water to the gundcck, rendered the operations 
peculiarly difficult 5 the nautical skill of .Captain Foote, however, 
surmounted every obstacle, and every thing valuable has been saved 
from the wreck, except the provisions. The Sensible was not lost 
on the Molliwally Shoal, but a few miles to the Southward of it : 
the accident is said to have been occasioned by a strong Westerly 
current, from which the error in the reckoning arose." 



34* MONTHLY REGISTER 



RUSSIAN AMERICAN COMPANY. 

The Russian American Company continues to give more and rnare 
extent to this branch of commerce, which, in time, will undoubtedly 
become of high importance to Russia. It is now employed in a plan 
which is of the greatest consequence to the trade of Russia. It is 
going to fit out two ships, which are to sail from Petersburgh with a 
cargo of provisions, anchors, cables, rigging, &c. to sail round the 
Southern extremity of America, across the South Sea, to the North 
\yest Coast of America, and the Aleusian Islands, to supply the Russian 
establishments there with these necessaries, take in a cargo of furs, 
to be bartered in China for Chinese goods, to make by the way 
an establishment at Urup, one of the most Southerly of the Kurile 
Islands, for the greater convenience of the trade to Japan, and then to 
return from China by the Cape of Good Hope. The ships will be 
wholly manned with Russians, and the Emperor, who highly approves 
of the plan, has ordered that the best Officers and Sailors of the Navy 
Jnay be employed in the expedition. 

As this is the first voyage round the world undertaken by Russians, 
n pains are spared to ensure to the expedition a happy result. The 
command of the ships is given to Captain Krurnstern, who has been 
Jong in the East Indies, and was the first proposer of the plan. For the 
formation of the establishment at Urup, the Company have engaged an 
Englishman residing here, at an annual salary of 15,000 rubles for three 
years, and a douceur of 20,000 rubles ; he is also to superintend there 
the building of the necessary ships. Hitherto all the above necessaries 
have been transported a vast way by land carriage, at an enormous 
exjence to the Company. That no time may be lost, these two ships 
will be purchased at Hamburgh, and will sail on their voyage from that 
port in October. 



THE RUSSIAN EMBARGO. 

Exlra8 of a Letter from St. Peterjburgb, dated Auguft 1 5, 0. . 
(For the authority of this Letter we can particularly answer.) 

" Lord St. Helen's quits us in a day or two, having thus far happily 
settled many differences. 

" I have the satisraflion ro inform you, that the negociations on the 
subject of the restitution due to British merchants by the Court of 
Russia, have of late been very warmly renewed. 

" The statement delivered many months ago by Lord St. Helen's, 
the British Ambassador, having been objected to by a Committee of the 
Russian Ministry, appointed to examine with them, chiefly for the 
indemnification demanded for the shipping, it has been proposed, 
that those reclamations not liable to objection should be paid, and the 
other become subjects of future discussion and speedy termination. 

" I understand the Emperor has ordered several sums, amounting 
together to abmit 6co,- oo rubles, to be paid to Mr. Shairp, the Consul 
General, who has managed the detail of the business : it is hoped this 
will satisfy the Merchants' demands. 

" Commissioners, it is siid, are to be named to arrange with Mr. 
Shairp the other demands, on the original equitable footing of restoring 
for real losses. I hope all may soon be ended, and remain truly." 



OF NAVAL EVENTS. 341 

ffiftal Courts partial. 

AUGUST 13. 

^ COURT Martial was held at Chatham, on board the Tamer, on the Boatswain 
and his Mate, belonging to the Driver, of 18 guns. The former was ac- 
quitted, and the latter sentenced to receive ZDO lashes. 

SHEERNISS, AUGUST 1J. 

A Court Martial was held this day on board the Pbabe, at Sheerness, for the 
trial of the Gunner of the Ranger, of 18 guns, for carelessness with respect to 
the magazine, in consequence of which the ship had been nearly lost. The 
Jlangcr was at the time employed in conveying volunteers from Deptford to 
Sheerness, and providentially all the powder was taken out, except such as 
was kept for the sentinels this caught fire, and exploded with great violence, 
jetting the ship in flames, and she was saved by scuttling the decks, and half 
filling her with water. The prisoner was found guilty of' negligence, severely 
reprimanded, and mulcted four months' pay. 

POKTSMOUTH, SEPTEMBER 25. 

This morning a Court Martial was held on board the Hercule, in this har- 
bour, on JOHN SCRIVEN and GEORGE BLANCHARD, marines, of his Majesty's 
gun-brig Locust, for having, when on sentry in the night of the ijth inst. 
taken away the cutter from the said brig, and deserted to the shore ; and also 
for robbing ANDREW HANLIN, a seaman, of the said gun-vessel, of a watch 
and a bag ol clothes. The charges were proved against SCRIVEN, and he was 
sentenced to have 500 lashes; and in part proved against BLANCHARD, who 
was sentenced to have only 200. Capt. SOLOMON F&KRIS, President. 

PLYMOUTH, SEPTEMBER IO. 

A Court Martial was this day held on board the Centaur, on Lieutenant 
BUCH ANNON, first of the Peterell, for leaving the deck at sea during his watch, 
and disobedience of orders. The charges being proved he was sentenced to be 
dismissed the service. Capt. DARBY, President. 

13. At a Naval Court Martial held on board the Centaur, of 74 guns, Rear 
Admiral DACRES, in Hamoaze, Commodore DANBY, of the Sfencer, of 74 
guns, President; J. LIDDEL, Esq. Judge Advocate ; Lieut. CAJ.NON, of the 
feterell, of 18 guns, Capt. LAMBON, was tried for negled of duty on various 
occasions, and the charges being fully proved, the President and Court sen- 
tenced him to be dismissed his Majesty's service. 

27. This forenoon a signal for a Court Martial was hoisted at the fore of 
the Centaur, of 74 guns, Rear Admiral DACRES, for the trial of three of the 
mutineers ol the Albanalte, of 18 guns, Capt. NEWCOMBE, charged with being 
concerned in mutinously rising on the officers, and carrying the sfoip into a 
bpanish pore m the mediterranean, last year, and selling her and her stores to 
the enemy. 

President. Capt. O. HARDY. 

Judge Advocate J. LIDDEL, Esq. 

After the evidence for the prosecution was gone through, and the prisoner's 
defence read to the Court, and it appearing that P. KENNEDY was the princi- 
pal ringleader, he was remanded for trial separately, one seaman was acquitted, 
and one sentenced to receive 300 lashes from ship to ship. 

Otiober 5. A Court Martial was held this day on board the Centaur, of 74 
guns, Rear Admiral D*CRES, in Hamoaze, on PATRICK KENNEDY, seaman, 
of the Albumin, of 18 gun;,, Capt. NEWCOMUE, for assisting in a mutinous 
manner to run away with the said ship, and selling her and her stores to the 
Spaniards. Capt. O. HARDY, President; J. LIDDEL, i ; .?q. Judge Advocate. 
The charges being iully proved, he was sentenced by the Court to be hung at 
the fore- yard-aim, of suth ship as the Lords of the Admiralty shall direct and 
appoint m the harbour, tie was immediately committed to the custody of the 
fiovost Marshal for security. 



342 MONTHLY REGISTER 

8. This day a Court Martial was held on Mr. MITCHELL, Purser of L* 
fenarJ, of 24 guns, just arrived from the West Indies, for disobedience of 
order* to Lieut. SOUTHCOTS. Capt. O. HARDY, President; J. LIDDEL, Esq. 
Judge Advocate. After hearing the evidence for the prosecution, and 
defence of Mr. MITCHELL, he was adjudged to be dismissed the ship. A 
Court Martial, at the prosecution of Mr. MITCHELL, against Lieut. Soirrn- 
COTE, for tyranny and oppression, is about to be held on him, previous to the 
ihip being paid off. 



EAST-INDIA INTELLIGENCE. 

CF.YI.ON-, APRIL IQ. 

ON the morning of the I4th, it blew a tremendous storm from the south- 
west, with much rain, thunder, and lightning ; and about half past seven o'clock 
a dreadful whirlwind arose in the south-west quarter, which, sweeping the 
Slave Island, where the Malay battalion is quartered, tore up several large 
trees by the roots, and demolished the barracks, where fortunately but few of 
the men remained, it being the commencement of one of the Mahommcdan 
festivals; to attend the celebration of which, a great number had obtained 
leave of absence. Two men and three children were unhappily killed, and 
many maimed and bruised This toofaun, whirlwind, tornado, or whatever 
it may be called, proceeded on towards the north-east, carrying the tiles off" all 
the houses in its direction, tearing up the planks from the garret stories, and 
occasioning great apprehension and alarm. It is stated to have shewn itself in 
the form of a small black cloud, leaving in its track a thick mist, which eva- 
porated soon after its passage into the sea, between the Flag-staff Bastion and 
Blackenberg's Battery. Luckily its duration was short, or its effcds must have 
been fatal. We learn from the interior, that great devastation has been com- 
mitted in the cocoa nut groves. The roads in many places are entirely broke 
up, and the country is completely inundated for many miles round the capital. 

His Majesty's ship Victorious, Capt. Malcolm, bearing the flag of Vice. 
Admiral Rainier, arrived in Madras Roads on the azd of May, in company 
with hi? Majesty's ships Intrepid, La bybille, Leopard, Trident, Eurydice, and 
Albatross. 

The trade of the commanders and officers of the East India Company is 
gradually on the decline. '1 he private ships, which, according to the arrange- 
ments lately made, are permitted to freight from India, return thither with an 
European consignment, at all periods of the year, and thus the market is con- 
stantly kept overstocked. Within the last three months six ships of the above 
description have sailed for Bengal, and not one of the ships belonging to the 
East India Company, which are engaged this season, is yet afloat ! 

A letter received from Bombay, dated in March last, mentions, that the 
Govcinment of that Presidency had ordered troops to be received on board the 
Honourable East ludia Company's ships the Northampton. Capt. Robert Barker, 
and the Sovereign, Capt. Gilbert Mitchell. The above ships were supposed to 
kc for an expedition of a secret nature. 

Seftemter 29. A Court of Directors of the East India Company was held at 
*he India house, when the following Commanders attended, and took their 
final leave of the Court, previous to their receiving the Company's dispatches, 
viz. for the Cape of Good Hope, Madras, Bombay, and China, the Ocean, 
Ctpt. Andrew l-atten ; and the Henry Aldington, Capt. John Kirkpatrick. 
For the Cape of Good Hope, Madras, and Bengal, the Castle hden, Capt. 
Alexander Cuming ; and the Lord Duncan, Capt. Anthony Murray. The 
above are the first ships of chis season, and are appointed to be dispatched about 
the middle of next month. 

The Honourable the East India Company's ship the Dover Castle, Capt. Peter 
Ssnipson, which arrived off the Island of Lintin, China, on the aoth of March 
last, received on board from hig Majesty's ship Arrogant, Captain Osborn, a 



OF NATAL EVENTS. 343 

detachment of his Majesty's 78th regiment, and a proportion of Bengal Euro- 
pean artillery, to a& on board as marines and gunners; the sepoys from the 
Dover Castle were received on board the Admiral Rainier transport. The 
Telegraph packet, Capt Kenry Morse Damson, which sailed in October last 
for China, with the news of Peace, has, no doubt, arrived at Canton with the 
above acceptable intelligence. 

The Honourable Company's cruiser the Mornington, I ieutenant Frost, left 
Diamond Harbour on the lath of May, in prosecution of her voyajre to Ran- 
goon, whither she conveys Lieutenant-Colonel Symes, of his Majesty's 7&th 
regimert, and suite, on his embassy to the King of Ava. 

The ship Althea, Capt. A. Roberts, is hourly expected to arrive from Madras. 
The passengers by this ship are, N. P. Rees, Esq. to St. Helena and the Cape 
of Good Hope, for the benefit of his health; and Lieutenant Booth of his Ma- 
jesty's ;6th regiment, for Europe. 

We have the satisfaction to announce the safe arrival at Portsmouth, on the 
4th of October, of his Majesty's ship the Seahorse, Capt. Edward James Foots, 
which sailed from Portsmouth on the ninth of September, 1801, with the fol- 
lowing ships under convoy, viz. The Ann ; Caledonian, General Stuart, and 
Monarch, for Madras ; the Northampton and Sovereign, for Bombay ; the 
Surah Christiana and Comet, for Bengal ; the Manship,for Ceylon and Bengal ; 
and the Princess Mary, for faint Helena and Bengal. 

The Seahorse left Madras Roads on the 3ist of May last, in company with 
Anna, Capt. Scott; arrived at St. Helena the aist of August, and sailed from 
thence the a6th following, at which time not any ship was at the Island. 

The dispatches for the Hon East India Company, brought by the c eahors?, 
from the government of Fort St, George, were biought to the India House 
from Portsmouth. 

The total number of extra ships to arrive, in the service of the Honourable 
East India Company, amounts to twenty, viz. the Manship, Comet, and Prin- 
cess Nlary, from Bengal - these ships were at the Presidency in March; the 
Caledonian, General Stuart, and Ann, from Madras they were dispatched from 
Bengal, and arrived there the fourth of March; the Sovereign and the North- 
ampton, from Bombay, were loading for Europe on the third of February, but 
ordered to receive troops on board. The above eig-h: ships are of season 1801. 
The following number are to arrive of this season : eight from Bengal the 
Tellicherry, Herculean, Admiral Aplin, Lord Eldon, Sir William Eensley, 
Devaynes, Tottenham, and Minerva; the Fame and Culland's Grove, from Ben- 
coolen ; the Travers, from Bombay ; and the .-kclton Castle, from Madras. 

OffoUr 6. A Court of Directors was held at the East India House, when the 
following ships were taken up, and consigned to China direct : Warley, i,2co 
tons, Captain H.Wilson; Woodford, "ames Martin, Earl of Aberg-tvenny, 
1,200, J. Wordsworth. They are to be in the Downs the rath of April. 

Capt. N. Dance was sworn into the command of the new ship building by 
Mr. Larkin, for Bombay and China. 

Ofi. 7. The dispatches for Madras, Bombay, and China, were finally closed 
t the East India House, and delivered to the pursers of the respective ships 
Appointed to carry them. 

The following Gentlemen proceed to Bombay in the Ocean : Mr. Anthony 
Seymour, James Atlien, and William Cunliffe Whitehead, volunteers for the 
marine. 

His Majesty's ship La Sensible, according to a letter from Madras, struck 
on the third of March, at two o'clock in the morning, on a quick sand, about 
twenty miles to the southward of Moldavia, in the Island of Ceylon. Capt. 
Sauce, his oncers, and crew, exerttd every possible means to get her off, until 
seven o'clock in the evening of the fourth, when finding the water gaining fast 
on the pumps, they were obliged to quit her. The Sensible frigate had treasure 
on board to a considerable amount, the whole of which has been saved. 



344 MONTHLY REGISTER 

A letter from Madras, dated the fourth of April, say*, " It is with peculiar 
regret that we announce the total loss of the ship Fort St. George, Capt. Kemp, 
on Diamond Island ; this intelligence was received from the commander cf a 
country vssel, who fell in with one of her boats, having six men and an officer 
on board, and steering for R,T. -oon, in order to procure the means of saving 
the remainder of the Fort Saint George's officers and crew. Capt. K- np, with 
his wife fan amiable and accomplished Lady), and the whole of the crew, had, 
we are informed, reached the shore with considerable difficulty and exertion. 

The new -ship of 1,200 tons burthen, building by John Pascal Larkins, E*<j. 
for the service of the Hon. East India Company, this season, is to be called the 
Warren Hastings, the command of which is to be given to Captain Thomai 
JLarkins This ship is consigned to China dire.fl, and is appointed by the 
Court of Directors to come afloat on the 2jd of January,. a d in the Downs on 
the 1 4th of \;arch. 

The East India Company's ship the Princess Charlotte, Capt. Benjamin Ri- 
chardson, is the only ship to arrive from the Molucca Islands with spice. Thi> 
hip is supposed to have arrived at Amboyna in November. 

The Hope, Capt. James Horncastle, is the last ship to he dispatched of the 
number taken up by the Honourable East India Company this season, to pro- 
ceed to Canton; she is to be afloat on the zist day of February next, and to be 
in the Downs on the izth of April, with the Earl Spencer and the Preston, 
and a new ship of 1,200 tons, built by Henry Bonhain, Esq. 

The improvements making on the Island of St. Helena are of such a nature 
as to afford much accommodation to the settlement. A building is erected 
near the btach, for the entertainment of the sailors, who, in consequence, will 
have no occasion to pass the Sea Gate to get into the Valley. No stranger is 
suffered to go into the country, without having previously obtained a regular 
pass from the Governor of the Island. All the Company's waste land is to be 
let on lease, for the purpose of being cultivated. 

'The Company's ships the Manship. Capt John Logan ; the Comet, Capt. 
Thomas Larkins; anil the Princess Mary, Capt. Andrew Grieve, are expeAed 
daily from Bengal. They were left at the Presidency in March last, nearly 
loaded with cargoes for Europe. 

Oa. 13. A Court of Directors was held at the East India House, when Capt. 
Archibald Hamilton was vworn into the command of the Bombay Ct!e, des- 
tined to Bombay and China, in the room of Captain John Hamilton, who ha 
resigned. 

We h.ive -the satisfaction to announce the safe arrival i:i the Downs of the 
ship Althea, Capt. A Roberts, from the Presidency of Bengal, v.hich place 
he left on the first day of May last. The Purser arrived yesterday at the 
India House with his dispatches. The Althea left the Island of St. Helena on 
the 2 ist day of August, and has on board the following passengers, viz. Lieut. 
John Campbell, of his Y'ajesty's igth regiment of foot; Lieut. Booth, of the 
76th ditto. The Althea bailed from St. Helena with the China fleet, lately 
arrived. 

The following new ships, taken up by the Honourable East India Company 
this season, are now ready to launch, viz. from Randall's dock, a ship of Soo 
tons, to be commanded by Capt. T. G. Murray; a ditto of 1200 tons, to be 
commanded by Capt. M.Craig; a ditto cf 8co tons, to be commanded by 
Capt. John Price, from Perry's dock ; a ship of 1200 tons, to be commanded 
by Capt. William Tryon \Vhite, and a ditto of 800 tons, to be commanded by 
Capt. William (ieUtun. From Dudman's dock, a ship of 1200 tons, to be com- 
manded by Capt. Robert Hudson ; and a ditto of 800 tons, to be commanded 
by Capt. Charles Lennox. From Pitcher's dock, a ship of 1200 tons, to be 
commanded by Capt. Nathaniel Dance ; and a ditto of 800 tons, to be com- 
manded by Capt. Thomas Hudson. From Barnard's dock, a ship of 1200 tons, 
to be commanded by Capt. Thomas Lnrkins ; aijd a ditto of 800 tons, to be 
commanded by Capt. George Robertson. 



OK NAVAL ETENTS.' 3-4$ 

The first store-M-,;p to sail for the fsland of St. Helena this season is the new 
ship the Royal C -(.r:e, Opt. John F. Timins : she is to be in the Downs on 
the i$th of December. '1 he next shi, s to he dispatched for the said Island and 
Bengal, are the City of London, built by \ir. Curtis, and a new ship of 800 
tons, to be in the Downs on the i4th of January, 1803 ; and the last store-ship 
for St. Helena and I engai is a new ship of 800 tons, Capt William Gelsfon, 
to be dispatched on or before the 2gth of March, making in all four store ships 
this season. 

It is with rcuch concern we state the loss of the Earl Talbot East Indiaman, 
commanded by Captain John Hamilton Dempster. This ship encountered a 
violent storm in the Chinese seas about the end of the year 1800, in which the 
ship was lost, and every soul on board perisfied. Among the unhappy suf- 
ferers on that melancholy occasion was Sir James Dalrymple, Bart. ofHailcs, 
the second officer. 



PLYMOUTH REPORT, 

FROM SEPTEMBER 24 TO OCTOBER 22. 

Sept. 25. Wind E. S. E. Fair. Sailed, after having been thoroughly repaired, 
the \Vhite Eagle Danish East Indiamau, for Tranquebar ; in turning out of Cat- 
water to go into the Sound, she. anchored for the tide to wait there, but missing 
stays near Turn Chapel, she was obliged to bring to at an anchor for some hours, 
and by the exertions of the pilot, she was got intosafcty, and sailed on her out- 
ward bound passage to Tranquebar, with a fine wind at E. N. E. La Decade, 
44 guns, which came in a few days since from Jamaica, had only one days pro- 
visions on board, with the same quantity of water, being so long on htr passage. 

26. Wind S. E. Fair. A seaman saved by accident out of the Nimble 
packet boat, from this place to Portsmouth, (with 75 passengers,) off the 
Proule Head, about a fortnight since, has arrived here and made a deposition 
before the Justices ; he states, that she was ran foul of by a large ship off the 
Bolt Tail, and started a butt end at some distance from the shore, she parted 
in two. when he luckily took to the boat, and tried to save the master of ths 
Loire, of 44 guns, who held as" long by the stern as his strength would permit, 
but bdng quite exhausted, at length went downj this man was the only 
r.erson saved Drowned, Mr Bennett, the Captain of the Nimble, the Master 
of the Loire, his wife, and four children ; lieutenant Kcliy of the Royal Navy, 
oon of the Honourable Mrs. Keiiy Aunt of Lord lioringdon,) and 67 discharged 
seamen and their wives 

ay. Wind S. W. Cloudy. The Temeraire. of 98 guns, Rear Admiral 
Campbell; the Majestic, of 74 guns, Captain Go-jld ; the Audacious 74 guns, 
Captain "Peard; lately arrived from the Wesr Ind.es, took only at Port Koyai, 
Jamaica, eight weeks provisions and water; they were eleven weeks on their 
passage owing to baffiing winds, and three weeks at one quarter allowance of 
beef, bread, and water, and when they came to in Cawsaud Bay, they ha4 
scarce ciiough left for a days consumption. 

a8 Wind N> N. E. Fair. Came in the Eagle, Excise cutter. Captain 
Wfcrd, with a fine smuggling cutter called the Swift, (formerly the Bonaparte 
French privateer,) .with 500 tubs of brandy, after a long chass within the 
limits of the Dodman. failed ou a cruise against the smuggler?, the ftaqger 
cutter, Captain A. Frazer. Orders came down this day for the Audacious, 
of 74 guns, Captain Peard, to go to Portsmouch, to be paid off the iirst ia:r 
wind. 

29. Wind N. N. E Fair. Came in from a cruise against the smugglers, ths 
Galatea, uf 36 guns. Captain Wolfe A signal has been flying all day *t Mker 
Tower lor a flc-ct i'r.j:n the wsstward, supposed to be from the Straits. V ester- 
d-iy there was an amazing great sea in the Sound, which rushed iu*o ths pool, 
with .jreat violence, diid n- suddenly receded 

/8ato.<I>ron.aoI.VJH. Y v 



3^6 MONTHLY REGISTER 

3-5. Wind N. N. E. Fair. Went into Barnpool, preparatory to her going 
up. the Harbour tn be paid cfF, the Temeraire, of 98 gnus Rear Admiral Camp- 
bell. This day the Formidable* of 98 guns. Captain Grindall. was paid off, her 
crexv discharged, and laid up in ordinary. Several vessels Ivitig in Suttnn Pool 
previous to the crews going on board for the night, were boarded by a set of 
lumpers and water pirates', who got clear off with a great deal of booty 
undiscovered. 

Oc7. r. Wind N T - N. E. Fair. This day one of the mutineers of the Alba- 
raise, of 18 guns, Captain Newcombe. received a severe flogging round the 
fleet, and was afterwards sent for cure to the Royal Naval Hospital. 

2. Wind S. E. Fair. Sailed the Glenmore frigate on a cruise to the 
eastward. Last night tic-re was the mo^-t vivid lightning ever seen in the 
west of England, but fortunately it did no damage to the shipping. Came in .1 
l:irge Danish ship with timber for the dock yard from Dantzic, she went up the 
harbour to unload. By a late regulation of the Navy Board, all the yards, 
*rur, top-mas-tR, and running rigging on hoard each ship, are to be stowed 
a\vy ot; the lower gun deck ; the boat's are also to be stowed away in the 
L'apta -i.'.s state-room, and each :>;iip in ordinary is mustered once ortwicea day, 
and sometimes in the night. 

3. Wind N. K. Fair Mr. Kastl:-l:c, Coroner, took an inquest on the body 
of a seaman found drowned in the P< oi of Stitton : it is supposed he fell over 
tiic Barbican intoxicated and wa evidently robbed of his wages, as his pockets 
were turned inside out Verdict. /1,-ciJmtal Death. Yesterday the Majestic, Cap- 
tain D. Gould, wasjiaid off andlaid up in ordinary. Several seamen have been 
latfly defrauded of their hard earned wages, by a set of swindlers, pretending to 
be brokers and agents; one man lodged 6il. in an auctioneer's hand, who set off 
fur Virginia ; another sailor was swindled out of jrl. in a similar way; reward* 
for their apprehension have been offered. 

4. Wind S. W. Blow's Hard. This day near ^co Irish seamen shipped 
Ivcs for Cork, \Vnterford, Wexford, and Dublin. Went out of dock, the 

Cullod-:n, of 74 guns, after being thoroughly repaired. Went into dock, the 
Irnpetusux, of 84 guns, and remains in dock with 1 e Tonnant, of 84 guns; 
A:urs, 74 guns; Tenible, 74 guns; and Fi:,gard. 48 guns, to be repaired. 
Alongside the Jetty Head, waiting to go into dock, the i oudroyant, of 84 guns. 
Vent up the harbour to refit, the Peterell, of 18 guns, Captain Ldmborn. 

5. Wind >'. W. Blows Hard. Came in from Grenada, after a pavage 
of 7 weeKs, with turn and sugar, the Thomas Brig or' this port; the crew since 
rhc vessel was in soundings, have behaved very disorderly, T. Lockyer, Esq. 
.' ry properly discharged there all- and shipped -i new crew. 

7. Wind N. W. Showery. The Temeraire, of 98 guns, Rear-Admiral 
Campbell, was puid off this day in Hamoize, and her crew discharged. Went 
up rhe Harbour, the .Syren, ot 32 guns, to be stripped, paid off. and laid up in 
ordinary. The gth regiment of foot are expedcd here to relieve the 26th, or 
Canitronian regiment of foot, in Dock barracks; the yth embark on board the 
.Amazon, of 32 guns, Magicienne, of 36 guns, and Amelia, of 44 guns, at Long 
Reach in a few days. The seamen of the Temeraire, of 9& guns, paid off. put 
on crape hatbaiui- round their straw hats, in memory of the mutineers in 
that ship, who were executed for the mutiny in Bantry Bay last year. 

8. Winif S. W. Rain. No arrivals or departures. 

9. Wind S. ~vV. Rain. Orders caiv.e down this day for the overplus Royal 
Marines, which ure dt'charged from the ships paid orf at this port, to occupy 
Mill Bay Barracks, which are fitting up for that purpose, for 6cO rank and file. 

. additional gangs of shipwrights, are, by order of the Board of Admi- 
rj.iy. and N'-ivy Toard, to be put on that beautiful ship the Hibernia, of i Z? 
giuii, now building in this yard, by which exertions they have got in her orlop 
begins, and her lower deck floored, which are considered as the heaviest part* 
of building a ship of war. 



OF NAVAL EVENTS. 34\7 

to. Wind S. \V. Fair. Last night a gang of fresh water pirates and 
lumpers succeeded in cutting away the best bovver anchor from a brig, lying in 
the Famar Canal, Morris "'own, and got off undiscovered. Came in from a 
cruise, the Arrow, of 24 guns, and Porcupine, 24 guns ; the" latter went up the 
Harbour to be pak! off. 

11. Wind W. Fair The Mars, of 74 guns, hogged some weeks since in 
hauling out of dock to make room for the Commerce de Marseilles, of 120 
guns, broken up, is now in dock, and almost repaired. The Foudroyant. of 
84 guns, Cxsar, of 84 guns, and Sans Parcil, of 84 guns; are now hauled 
alongside the Jetty Head, preparatory to going into dock to be repaired, when 
the ships now in dock go out. Quantities o f serviceable beams, knees., and 
other timber, have been saved from the Commerce de Marseilles, broken up, 
which will be converted to many useful purposes in the repairs of the ships in 
dock. The .Syren, of 32 guns, i now quite stripped, and will be paid off in a 
few days. The dock yard artificers were this day paid six. months wages, and 
as usual had an half holiday. 

12. Wind S. W. Showery. The Porcupine, of 24 guns, arrived this day 
from the West Indiss, and went up the h.irbour to be paid off and laid up in 
ordinary. This morning four discharged seamen were committed to Exeter 
goal, for robbing a comrade of his wages. Came in from Jamaica, after a 
passage of seven weeks, last from Bantry Bay, La Topaze, of 36 guns, Captain 
Honeyman ; she left the island healthy, and the <rreater part of the ships full of 
sugars and rum, had sailed for London, Bristol, Dublin, and Liverpool. Came 
in after a very long passage, the Eari St. Vincent, with rum and sug;ir for thi> 
port; she was becalmed in trying to get through the windward passage, and 
was at length obliged to bear away for the gulph of Florida ; she was given up 
for lost, and zjl- per cent on her cargo, 4000!. aftually offlred, ani refused. 
Came down from the Admiralty, dispatches of impornnce for Vice- Admiral 
Sir R. Bickerton, Commander in Chief in the Straits; Hear Admiral Uacres 
sent them with his usual promptitude on board the Pickle Cutter, which sailed 
directly for the Straits. 

13. Wind N. W. Fair. So great a quantity of powder has been landed 
from the different ship* paid off here, that Keyhorn Point magazines arc quite 
full, and the Prudent store ship, has been fitted up in the lower part of the 
harbour to receive powder. Mr VVhitford, Coroner for Devon, took an i iqnest 
,at Yealm River, on a sailor boy, who was killed by- a cask of gin rolling over 

him. Verdid, Accidental Death 

14. Wind N. N. E. Fair. This day the Syren, of 31 Runs, was paid off 
and laid up in ordinary. Came in the /Ualantc, of 18 guns, Captain Mansfield, 
with a fine smuggling cutter of So tons called the Admiral i'olc, of i.xeter, 
with 170 ankers ot spirits, taken after a long chase; she was seized some 
months since at Weymouth for having an over quantity of spirits on board, and 
was liberated on bond being given to the Board of Customs and J-.xci^e Came 
in the Glenmore, of 36 guns, from a cruise, and anchored in Cawsand Bay ; 
she, the Giscau, of 36 guns, La Vent'irion, of 18 guns, and Childers of 14 
guns, arc to take on board for Lsith, as soon as the 9th Regiment arrives fioiu 
the Nore, the 26th, or Cameron s Regiment of Foot, now in the Dock 
Line Barracks. 

15. Wind E. S. F. Fair. This morning the death warrant signed by his Ma- 
jesty, came down from London for the execution to-morrow of P. Kennedy, 
the mutineer of the Alhanaise, of 18 guns, Capfain Newcombe, sentenced for 
death about a week since, he is to.be cxrcuud to-morrow at 10 A. M on boaid 
the Hussir, of 36 guns, Captain P. V ilkinson. hailed the Arrow, of iS guns, 
to the eastward. I hree packets were landed from the Earl St. V incent, fron^ Ja- 
maica, sent i'rom St. Domingo to Port Royal, Which were put into the Pos,t Ofhce. 
to be forwarded to Paris. One was dnecled to ttvnapartc, CbcfConfulJc la **** 
lique f rani-oil, aParii; the 2 J to TaHtywJ, .J Pan ; and the 3d to DutfMM, J ?*r&. 

16. Wind F. S. E. Pair. Came in from Crar;oa in damage, the Betsey, 
Baker, for London, wi:h mahogany and oilier wood,; on her passa-e she e- 



3-j8 * MONTHLY REGISTER. 

perienced very had weather, and in a violent gale of wind carried away her 
bowsprit and foremast, and is very leaky, she ran up Catwatcr to refit before 
she can proceed to London. This morning at 8 o'clock, the signal of the yel- 
low flag for an execution was made at the fore of the Centaur, of 74 guns, 
Reir Admiral Dacres, it was repeated on hoard the Hussar, of 36 guns, Captain 
Wilkinson; a procession of all the boats of the fleet, manned and armed, rowed 
alongside the Hussar in Hamoaze, after some time spent in prayer with Father 
Flyn, a Roman Catholic Priest, and having received extreme unction, Henry 
Kennedy, the prisoner, attended by the Provost Martial with a drawn swo'-d, 
ascended the gangway, and walked with a firm step to the platform, where 
acknowledging the ju-tness of the sentence, the fatal bow gun fired, and he was 
launched into eternity at the larboard fore-yard arm : after hanging one hour, 
he was lowered into a shell, and conveyed to the Royal Naval Hospital for 
ir.tcrmcnt. He was a finr youngman of 24 years old, and a native of Ireland, 
and was at the time of b_-ing discovered as a mutineer, confined in Bridewell 
for a robbery, b ing sentenced to six months imprisonment ; he has left his 
prize money, which is considerable, between Mr Ford, Keeper of the Bride 
well, and W. Swete, Sheriff? Officer for the County of I?evon. 

18 Wind S. W. Rain. Yesterday at St. Andrew's Church, Lieutenant 
Southcote (of La Renard, of 24 guns, Captain Cathcart,) was puhlickly excom- 
municjted from the church for not appearing, or putting in, a proper answer to 
the Citation of the .spiritual Court of the Archdeaconry of Totncss, Devon, 
for sundry charges alleged agakist him by his wife; but as he was absent on 
Fi-rvice at Jamaica, it is hoped by paying his fees, and making a proper apology 
for contempt of court, he will be restored to his former situation in society; he 
is also to be tried on a charge of tyranny and oppression to Mr. Mitchell, late 
Purser of La Renard. 

19. Wind S. W. Rain. Came in a trawl boat from the fishing ground, 
about 8 leagues S. E. of the Kdystonc, the men on board while trawling, per- 
ceived two puncheons floating towards them, they took the boat, and towed 
them alongside, it was supposed at first they were part of some wrecked Ja- 
maica-man, hut on examination, there appeared part of a. direction for Cork, 
therefore it is imagined they are part of the cargo of some Irish trader from 
London to Cork. La Topaze, of 36 guns, Captain Honeyman, sails to-mor- 
row or Wednesday, for Sheerness, to be paid off. 

20. Wind S. W. Rain. Last night and this morning it blew an hurricane 
at S. W. with a most dreadful hollow sea in the sound, by signal from the flag- 
ship, all the men of war struck yards and topmasts, as the gale increased very 
vi"lently at it P. M. and there fell the heaviest shower of hail-stones ever 
rtmembercdj in this country ; providentially the gale abated in the morning 
without the slightest damage to the shipping. Orders came down this day for 
three shijs of the line, among which is the Spencer, of 74 guns, to be got ready 
fir commission. At 10 A. M. an express arrived at the Admiral's Office, Dock, 
with di?patches said to be of importance, to be put on board two fast sailing 
vessels; the Childers, of 14 guns, Captain Delafont, and La Venturion, of 18 
puns Lieutenant J Jump, were ordered to victual for four months dire<ftly; 
all w.is hurry and bustle, Rear Admiral Dacres with his usual promptitude, 
immedhtdy put the dispatches on board these two vessels, and with them 
scaled orders with respecl to their destination, not to be opened until they got 
20 leagues S. W. off Scilly; La Venturion and the Childers sailed this after- 
noon. Went into Cawsand Bay, the Sirius, of 36 guns, Captain Prowse, to 
wait for cider?. 

21. Wind S. W. Blows Hard, Rain. Came in La Concorde, of 36 gun*, 
Captain Ward, from Spithead, she came to an anchor in Cawsand Bay, to wait 
for dispatches. Orders came down this day to get ready 3 line of battle ships 
in fins harbour for commission. Last night it blew an hurricane at S. W. the 
OiVau, of 36 guns, dragged her nnchors, and fired sevetal guns of distress, but 
the weather moderating towards the morning, craft came from the dork yard, 
and she moored again in safety. 



OF NAVAL EVENTS. 

PORTSMOUTH REPORT, 

FROM SEPTEMBER 23, TO OCTOBER 30. 



349 



September 23. This morning sailed the Glatton, of 54 guns, Captain Colnett, 
with convi&s on board for New South Wales. Went out of harbour, the 
Raven, 18 guns, Captain Swaine. She has been re-commissioned. 1 his after- 
noon sailed the Starling gun-vessel for Jersey, to fetch the stores, &c. saved 
from La Pomone, lost hi bt. Aubin s Bay, Jersey. 

24. Last night, after post, arrived the Carriere, 36 guns, Captain Maitland, 
from Malta; and the Ceres troopship, Captain Jones, from Jamaica, with part 
of tJie 6jd rsgiment on board. This morning arrived the Andromeda, 36 
guns, Captain Fielding, from Martinico. She sailed from l-'ort Royal the 2lt 
of August, where she left the Excellent, Commodore Stopford; Severn, Cap. 
tain Barker ; the Castor, Venus, and Thalia frigates; and Drake sloop of war. 
1 he luisy was lying at Trinidad, the Surinam at Tobago, and L'Heureux at 
Barbadoes. General Grinfield and suite arrived, in the Chichester, at Marti- 
nico, on the .6th ult. Also, arrived the Druid, armed en flute, with part of 
the 6jd regiment on board from Jamaica; Diamond frigate, Captain Elphin- 
stone ; and Alcmene frigate, Captain Stiles, from the Tcxel. We have the 
pleasure to learn by these ships, that the Fortunce frigate, Captain Clements, 
\vhich sunk in consequence of her striking on a sandbank in going into the 
Texel, is weighed, and is now on her way to this port, accompanied by the 
Magicienne frigate, Captain Vansittart. Came into harbour, the Atheniene, 
64 guns, Captain Sir Thomas Livingston ; and the Carriere, Captain Maitland, 
to be paid off. 

The Pomone frigate, Captain Gower, which sunk in St. Aubin's Bay, has 
been weighed, and towed into Jersey. Seveial artificers are ordered from 
the dock yard to repair her. Sailed the Phoebe, 36 guns, Hon. Captain Capel, 
for the Mediterranean : Lord Althorpe (son of Earl Spencer) and Major Hardy- 
man are gone passengers in her. The Southampton frigate, Captain Cole, wat 
paid off this morning, and laid up in ordinary. The Nimble, Plymouth passage 
vessel, which sunk off Sakombe, has been weighed, and towed into that har- 
bour. Sixty-three riggers were yesterday discharged from the dock yard. 

27. Arrived the Amphion, 32 guns, Captain Hardy, from a cruise. Sailed 
the Druid, armed en flute, Captain Cottrell, to the eastward, to be paid off; 
and the Charger and Locust gun-vessels on a cruise. The Tromp has made 
the signal to come into the harbour. The Alcmene frigate, Captain Stile*, it 
ordered to Jersey. 

28. Arrived this day, his Majesty's ship Decade, from the West Indies. 

29. Sailed for Shields, his Majesty's late hired transport Monarch, Captain 
John Joseph Hall. Came into harbour his Majesty's ships Tromp and Decade. 
The following ships with troops will sail early to-morrow, if the wind re- 
mains as it now is, S S. W. Ark, Jane, and Henry, with the pzd regiment, 
for Leith. 



OfJober i. Arrived the Starling gun-vessel, from Jersey : she will sail again 
to morrow for the same place, with two companies ot shipwrights to repair 
La Pomone. Sailed the Pylades sloop of war, Captain Burrovves, to the east- 
ward. Came into harbour, the Morgiana sloop of war, Captain Raynsford, 
to be paid off. -pfae Amphion frigate, Captain Hardy, is appointed to take the 
Ambassador to Lisbon. 

*. Captain Masefield, of the Atalanta sloop of war, yesterday sent into thi. 
port a large smuggling vessel, laden with 360 ca&s ot apirits, and ao hales of 

" . O CO O 

tnhjrcn 



Remain at Spithead and in harbour. 

Neptune - 98 Captain Drury 
L'Hercule - 4 Fcrris 



3$O MONTHLY REGISTZ* 

Donnegal - So Captain Sir R. Strachan. 

n . . < Admiral M. Milbanke. 

Blenheim . 74 < _. . n 

2 Captain Bover. 

L'Athenienc - 64 Sir T. Livingston. 

Trompe - 54 - Ratset. 

Carriere . 44 . .VI a: t land. 

Ulysses . 44 . Columbine. 

Acasta . 40 J. A. Wood. 

La Pique 40 . Cumberland. 

Diamond - 38 Elphinstone. 

Leda 3 8 J. Hardy. 

Concorde - 36 - J. Wood. 

Dryad 36 R. Williams. 

La Decade - 36 . Rntheiford. 

Penelope - 36 Broughton. 

Amphion - 32 T. M. Hardy. 

Alcmene - 32 > ' Stiles. 

Andromeda 32 " Fielding. 

1 .. Determintc 24 Skene. 

Port Mahoa - 18 Orosset. 

Racoon 18 i . Rathborne. 

Raven - 18 Swainc. 

La Sophie - 18 Rosenhagcn. 

IViilbrooke 18 Lieut. Starck. 

Morgiana - 16 Raynsford- 

Netiey - 16 Lawrence. 

Advice (tender) 6 Nourse. 

Express (tender) 6 

4. Arriycd, the Seahorse frigate, Captain Foote, in four months and five 
days, from Madras; also, the Hydra, 38 guns, lion Captain Pagct, from the 
Mediterranean; and the Glenmore, of 36 guns, Captain Maitland, from Ply- 
mouth. 

5. Yesterday morning, about a quarter past six, a sudden violent gust of 
tvind, or whirlwind, came on, and lasted about twenty minutes: it carried 
every thing almost before it, and we are concerned to state, th .t it occasioned 
the overturning the ship Thames, from the West Indies, at the back of the 
Isle of Wight, and the ship and the whole crew were in a moment lost. A 
ship or two were in sight, but felt themselves so much of the hurricane, that 
they could render no assistance. 

8. This morning arrived the Ranger sloop of war, Captain Coote, with 
new raised seameu from Depttord; and the Starling gun vessel from Jersey. 
Thi evening arrived the Haerlem, armed en flute, Captain No/they, trom the 
Mediterranean. The Carriere, Captain Maitland, and the Andromeda, Capt. 
fielding, are paid off, and laid up in ordinary. Sailed the Glenmore frigate, 
Captain Maitland, for Plymouth Came into harbour the Hydra, Hon. Captain 
Paget, and the Seahorse frigate, Captain Foote-, to be paid off. 

10. Arrived the Fairy sloop of war from the West Indies. Yesterday a sea- 
man belonging to the Ranger sloop of war, Captain Coote, at Spithtad, jumped 
overboard, with an intent to drown himself, but was prevented from effecting 
his purpose by a Black, who immediately jumped after and saved him Capt. 
Masefield, of his Majesty's ship Atalante, in the course of Ja*t week, took and 
ent into port a lugger with 170, a sloop with 120, and a large boat with 400 
ankers of spirits. By the Pallas, Chambers, from Jamaica, we learn the loss 
cf the 'J names homeward bound West Indiaman, in the dreadful hurricane of 
Monday last, at the back of the Isle of Wight, and thut every soul on board 
perished. The Pallas would have shared the same fate, had not her sails split, 
by which she r ghted. The Haerlem troop ship, which arrived last night 
from Malta, has brought home about joo troops, consisting of detathmctits of 
the 2<-th, 35 th, and 631] regiments, 



OF NAVAL EVENTS. 3^1 

n. Arrived his Majesty's ship Liberty, Lieut. Cook, from the Mediterra- 
nean, and his Majesty's ship Haerlcm, from Gibraltar, last from Cork, where 
*h; performed her quarantine. 

12. Sailed the Alcmene frigate, Captain Stiles, with troops for Jersey. 
Arrived the Fairy sloop of war, from the West Indies, and sailed again to the 
eastward, to be paid off. Arrived the Liberty brig, Lieutenant Cook, from 
a cruise. The Decade frigate, Captain Rutheriord, is paid off, and Uid up in, 
ordinary. 

13. Sailed the Sophie, iSguns, Captain Rosenhagen; Raven, 16 guns, Capt. 
Swai.'ie; with troops, for Jersey; and the Rambler brig, Captain Innes, on a 
cruise. Arrived the Aggressor gun-brig, from Plymouth. This morning 
passed by the Isle of Wight, for the Downs, the ship Alexander, James Dent, 
master, in 60 days from Grenada, bound to London. She met with a heavy 
gale of wind on the a^th tilt, which carried every thing off her deck. 

14. Arrived a store ship from the Downs. Sailed the Haerlem man of war 
to the eastward. 

15. On \Vednesday night, about twelve o'clock, an express arrived here 
from Government, with a packet, which was immediately sent on board the 
Concorde frigate, Captain Wood, who sailed early yesterday morning (Thurs- 
day), it is conjectured, for the Mediterranean. The Concorde was not under 
wiling orders ; the business, therefore, must be of the most urgent nature and 
of the last importance. Arrived the b't. l-'iorcnzo, 40 guns, Captain Bingham, 
and Constance, z8 guns, from the eastward. The Liberty cutter is ordered to 
the eastward to be paid off. 

16. Dispatches of great importance from Admiral Sir Richard Bickerton 
and Sir Alexander Bali, at M aha, were brought home in the Liberty brig t 
which arrived here on Monday last. 

18. Orders were received here yesterday to put the Apollo and La Loire 
frigates int commission immediately. This morning the Supply brig sailed 
express with sealed orders, and with such dispatch as not to have an opportu- 
nity of carrying vegetables on board. Two line of battle ships are ordered 
with all possible expedition to take in provisions and stores for the Mediterra- 
nean station. It is strongly reported this day, that three frigates, lately paid off 
and laid up in ordinary, are ordered to be commissioned, and that the Blcnhsim 
it ordered for sea. 

19. Arrived the Niger frigate, with troops from Gibraltar, and h under 
quarantine. The Hazard tloop of war is ordered to be got ready for sea im- 
mediately. 

Promotions anU appointments. 

.Capf. A. J. Griffiths is appointed to the command of the Constance frigate. 

Captain R. Curtis, of his Majesty's sloop Rattlesnake, to the Suffolk, vice 
Clarke. 

Lieutenant Brown, late of the Centaur, is promoted to the rankofCommanc'er. 

The Commander (name unknown) of the Hindostan armed ship, to the Rat- 
tlesnake, -vice Curtis, promoted. 

Lieutenant Fothergill, of the Lr.ncaster, who so nobly defended the Rattle- 
snake against the Preneusc French frigate, in Algoa Bay, to be Alaster and 
Commander of the Hindosiau. 

C-ipuin W. O'Brien Drury, to the Neptune, ,98 gurra. 

Captain Inglefield, to the Hunter. 

Captain Wudge, to the Blanche frigate. 

Captain Cathcart, to the Renard, 24 guns, vice Captain Spicer. 

The Amphion frigate, Captain Hardy, is appointed to take the Ambassador 
to Lisbon. 



352 MONTHLY REGISTER OF NAVAL EVENTS. 

BIRTHS. 

September 14, at Clifton, near Bristol, of a daughter, the Lady of Captain 
Jame* Ross, Royal Navy. 

OB Tuesday, Sept. 38, at Godalming in Surrey, the Lady of Captain Ballard, 
Royal Navy, of a daughter. 

On the 4th of October, at Elackheath, the Lady of Captain Buckle, Royal 
Navy, of a son. 

At Storehouse, Devon, the Lady of Captain H. Bright, Reyal Marines, of 
a son. 

MARRIAGES. 

At Calcutta, in May last, F. Bilbie, Esq. Purser of La Sybille, to Miss 
C. Warren. 

Tuesday, Sept. 28, Lieutenant Atkins, of his Majesty's ship Concorde, to 
Miss Martha Edgecombe, of Portsea. 

September 29, at Windlesham, in Surrey, Captain Robert Mends, of the 
Navy, to Miss 1'utler, daughter of the late James Butler, Esq. of Bagshot 
in the same county. 

On Saturday, the zd of Cftober, at Greenwich, by Dr. Taylor, Captain Cro- 
sier, to Miss Hanrah Pearson, second daughter of Sir Richard Pearson, Lieute- 
nant Governor of the Hospital. 

Lately, at Alverstoke, Lieutenant Ross, Royal Navy, to Miss. Mitchell, of 
Gosport. 

On the 8th of October, Captain Stephen Poymz, Royal Navy, to Miss F. 
Brail, of Hambletou, Hants. 

.At Ftonehouse Chapel, near Plymouth, I3th of October, Captain \Vhitby, of 
the Belleisle, to MissSymonds, daughter of the late Captain Sj mondf, of the 
Formidable, 98 guns, on the glorious izth of April 1782. 

OBITUARY. 

On the jth of August last, at the Havannah, of the yellow fever, greatly 
regretted by his parents and friends, ( ieut. Richard Payne, of the Leviathan. 

On the zzd of August last, at Port Royal, Jamaica, aged 21, Augustus Leve- 
ten Govver, Esq. Captain of his Majesty's ship Santa Margaretta, of .j6 guns, 
fourth son of the late Hon. John Levcton Gower, Rear-Admiral of the Red. 
His body was brought to Port Royal, and interred in the Church-yard. His 
funeral was attended by Admiral Sir f . T. Duckworth, K. B- and the principal 
Officers of his Majesty's ships on the station, and a detachment of the ^th bat- 
talion of the 6cth foot, who fired three vollies over the grave. 

Lately, in the Royal Naval Hospital, Plymouth, Lieutenant M. Wills, Royal 
Navy. 

"We are particularly sorry to record the untimely Death of a most promising 
young Naval Officer, theonly son of the brave and good ADMIRAL JOHN HOL- 
I.OWAY, who died lately on board the Narcissus, during her passage from Leg- 
horn to Palermo. JV'r, holloway was scarcely thirteen years of age, but had 
lerved four years and a half actually at sea. He was on board the VENERABLE 
with t. apta ; n Hood, in the actions at Algeziras and off Cadiz, and in his let- 
ter to Admiral Hoiloway, Captain Hood was pleased to say, YOUR BOY BE-. 
HAVtn AS HE OUGUT. Mr. Hoiloway was buried with becoming honours, 
by the permission of his Sicilian Majesty, in a Grotto Garden at Palermo, near 
the remains of a British Minister, Beaminster. 'I hey who best know the 
Father, will lament that so fair and correct a copy of his professional merit is 
thus lost to our country. 

Lately, at Trincomale, Lieutenant Nailor, late Second I stagnant of h:*' 
Majesty's ship Sensible. 
At Bombay, Lkuunar.t Bird of the Marine*, 




SIR THOMAS GRAVES 




o 




fubliiful by J.GolJ. 103 Shoe lane Det 1 1302. 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS OF 
SIR THOMAS GRAVES, K. B. 

REAR-ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE SQUADRON. 



Valiant and virtuous, full of haughty courage, 
And grown to noble credit by the wars. 
Not fearing death, nor shrinking from distress, 
But always resolute in most extremes. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

E have a peculiar satisfaction in recording the exploits 
of those heroes, who, as it were, have hereditarily been 
employed, and distinguished themselves, in the naval ser- 
vice of their country. Among these are branches of the 
families of Hood and Saumarez, on whose gallant aflions 
we have often dwelt with national pride and satisfaction, 
happy in the feeling of belonging to a country, which has 
produced such defenders, and secure in the conviction, that 
should the hour of danger again arrive, some of these war- 
riors, or their descendants, will appear in arms to avenge 
their country's wrongs, and vindicate her honour. 

Among the names which hold a distinguished place in the 
annals of the British Navy, that of GRAVES will long be 
mentioned with admiration and respe5h Sir Thomas 
Graves is the son of a clergyman who settled in the north of 
Ireland, and had an exceeding large family ; four of whose 
sons, viz. Samuel, John, our present subject Thomas, and 
Richard, after a considerable length of services, were ad- 
vanced to the rank of Post Captains in the Navy. It appears 
that our hero left his father at a very early period of life, 
and put himself under the protection of his uncle Admiral 
Samuel Graves, an Officer of great courage, experience, and 
integrity, with whom he served for some time, in the war 
before the American contest, as a Midshipman, on board his 
Majesty's ships Scorpion, Duke, and Venus. After the 
Peace of 1763, he was placed under, the care of his relation 
and patron, Captain, afterwards Lord, Graves*, who then 

* For the Biographical Memoirs of Admiral Lord Graves, see Vol. V 
F a g 377- 

j. <&ron. (Hoi. VIII. z z 



354 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

commanded the Antelope, and was Governor of Newfound- 
land. In the year 1765, he accompanied him to the coast 
of Africa, where he was promoted to a Lieutenancy on board 
his Majesty's ship Shannon, and continued to serve as First 
Lieutenant of her, when she Jay at Portsmouth. It is said, 
that his Commander first discovered in him those dawnings 
of a resolute spirit and enterprising genius, in the course of 
his voyage down the coast of Africa, by a very urgent and 
pressing solicitation, to be permitted a volunteer on an 
expedition up the river Gambia, to dispossess the French of 
a settlement which, contrary to treaty, they had established 
on the banks of that river, and which service was deemed to 
be very hazardous, from a belief that the French would 
defend their works. His zeal and spirit on this occasion were 
so pleasing to his relation, that he continued ever after, his 
warm friend and steady supporter. 

After the Shannon was paid off, our young Officer had 
no public opportunity to exercise his spirit of enterprise, 
until the time of the Falkland Islands armament, when we 
find him a Lieutenant on board the Arethusa at Deptford, 
where he displayed a wonderful coolness and resolution in a 
matter of service, which drew upon him a formidable at- 
tack from an enraged mob, and in which situation he ac- 
quitted himself with great honour, as he had before done 
on a similar occasion at Portsmouth, when he was Lieutenant 
of the Shannon. It is not enough, on occasions of tumult 
and mutiny, that an Officer acquits himself with courage, 
but he muft use address, and temper firmness with a spirit 
of conciliation ; our Lieutenant possessed these qualities in 
an eminent degree, and they produced the happiest efTecls. 

The reputation of our young Officer at this time stood so 
high, that he was selected by that accomplished seaman and 
philosopher, Lord Mulgrave, to be one of his Lieutenants 
on board the Racehorse, in the expedition towards the 
North Pole *. Mr. Graves strongly recommended himself 

* For an account of this voyage, sec our life of Lord Mulgrave, page 89 of 
this volume. 



OK SIR THGMAS GRAVES, K. B. 355 

to his illustrious and discerning Commander, by his uncom- 
mon resolution and firmness in the most trying; situations 
of that perilous voyage, and in which voyage such situa- 
tions very frequently occurred. It was upon this voyage 
that Lord Mulgrave interposed, and prevented Mr. Graves 
and another Officer on the expedition, who was of a similar 
disposition to himself, from fighting a duel with muskets 
and fixed bayonets, across the carcass of a white bear, which 
had been juft killed, and each party disputed as their prize. 
However, as generous minds are incapable of harbouring 
resentment long in their breasts, they were soon reconciled, 
and both went to their noble and amiable Commander, and 
returned him their thanks for his seasonable and juft inter- 
position. 

Soon after Mr. Graves returned from this voyage, we find 
him at Boston, in New England, with the command of a 
small schooner, of four two pounders and thirty men, the 
command of which, it is said, he procured from his uncle 
Admiral Samuel Graves, who had then the command in 
America, with an intention of exploring the coast of that 
continent, previous to the war that then threatened the peace 
of Great Britain and her colonies. This schooner was soon 
afterwards burnt by the rebel General Putnam, at Winni- 
si m met Ferry, after a resistance that excited in every one the 
highest astonishment and approbation. Of his gallantry on 
this occasion some idea may be formed, from a slight ac- 
count of the attack. The vessel was aground, and under the 
fire of four pieces of cannon, and three thousand men, who 
were under the cover of a small hill, within pistol shot of 
the schooner. General Putnam got under her bottom dur- 
ing the night, and, under the fire of his people, threw 
lighted combustibles on the schooner's decks, at a time when 
the Captain was sending off his wounded men from the 
other side of the schooner, and being-himself the last out of 
the vessel, he did not escape without being exceedingly 
burnt, as was also his brother, John Graves, who at that 



Jj6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

time served on board the Preston, and who came to his 
assistance in one of the Preston's boats. 

Ever anxious to distinguish himself, and animated by a 
most laudable zeal for the service of his country, Mr. Graves 
before he was quite recovered of his burnt wounds, was 
again employed at Noddle's Island, opposite to Boston, com- 
manding a gun boat, covering the boats of the squadron in 
bringing off the naval stores from that island, part of the 
houses being then in flames, which were set on fire by the 
rebels, who were in great force on the island, with an in- 
tention of destroying the King's naval stores. It was here 
that one of the Americans, more daring than the rest, ad- 
vanced nearly half way between his own people and the 
marines of the squadron, who were then posted behind some 
stone walls, in order to cover the boats' crews' who were 
employed in saving the stores, the rebels being much more 
numerous and strongly posted, as well in the remaining 
houses, as behind stone walls upon an eminence at a 
small distance. The boldness of this American excited the 
resentment of Mr. Graves, who, as he was always happy in 
having opportunities of braving danger, could not endure 
the idea of a single enemy giving so public a challenge to 
the British seamen and marines, but eagerly seized on 
the occasion of meeting the daring rebel, and after pro- 
curing a good marine musket and bayonet from Captain 
Johnson, the Commanding Officer of the marines, he went 
out to meet the American champion in single combat. 
Our British hero approached his antagonist within fifty or 
sixty yards, when perceiving that he began to decline the 
contest, he invited him not to relinquish it, telling him 
that the eyes of their respe&ive parties were all on them, 
and to remember it was himself that gave the challenge, and 
that he might now choose his distance, assuring him, that he 
was himself determined not to fire before he could feel him 
with the point of his bayonet, at the same time informing 
him too, that if the fortune of war should terminate in his 



OF SIR THOMAS CRAVES, K. E. Jrj 

favour, he should carry his scalp with him as a trophy of 
his viftory. Thus far, he said, it was necessary to tell him, 
that they might be upon an equal footing. During this 
time the gallant Graves advanced fast upon his adversary, 
who seemed now to be totally motionless through fear, from 
the uncommon coolness of the other, whose eagerness to 
close before any of the Americans came within shot (many 
of whom he perceived were stealing down), and the neces- 
sity there was for keeping a steady eye on his opponent, oc- 
casioned his stumbling into a swamp. This accident the 
other took the advantage of, and after discharging his 
musket, threw it down, and took lo his heels. The shot 
was well levelled, and narrowly missed our hero, who fired 
in return with equal disappointment of his aim, aad in his 
retreat received the fire, of all those who were concealed for 
the assistance of this redoubted American champion. 

After having displayed his prowess on this occasion to the 
admiration of all who beheld him, Mr. Graves served as a 
volunteer on many expeditions in the vicinity of Boston, 
then the focus of American rebellion. He commanded also 
one of the armed sloops belonging to the array, in covering 
the troops destined for the attack of the rebel entrenchments 
on Bunker's Hill. 

After this a&ion, he commanded the Bolton brig at Rhode 
Island, under Sir James Wallace, an Officer whose spirited 
conduct had induced Mr. Graves to get into the same ser- 
vice with him, and was present with him in all his skirmishes 
in that part of the world, until his uncle, Admiral Graves, 
was recalled from his command on the American station, 
with whom he returned to England, as Lieutenant of the 
Preston, filled with resentment at the injustice which he 
conceived was done in the recal of his kinsman. Whether 
the Lords of the Admiralty did right or not in recalling 
Admiral Graves, is a question foreign to our present sub- 
ject to examine, and we have little inclination to go over the 
dreary field of the party politics of those unhappy times j 
but we may be permitted to say, it was honourable to the 



BIOGRAPHICAL 



feelings of our hero to enter into the wrongs, real or sup- 
posed, of his relation and patron. 

Before his departure for England, when on his passage 
from Rhode Island to Boston, in order to join his uncle, 
Mr. Graves was in a small tender belonging to his Majesty's 
ship Rose, in which vessel he had an action with the 
famous American partizan, Captain Manley, in a privateer 
of very superior force, which he obliged to sheer off, and 
in all probability would have captured, but for her supe- 
riority of sailing. 

On Mr. Graves' arrival in England, he did not remain 
long inactive, but soon returned to the seat of hostilities in 
America, with Commodore Hotham, in the Preston, 
where he assisted at the reduction of New York and Rhode 
Island, being constantly employed in all the flat boat 
expeditions, and every other service of danger and fatigue. 
After the reduction of Rhode Island, continuing to be 
Lieutenant of the Preston, he greatly distinguished himself 
on various occasions in the Chesapeak. About this time he 
boarded and took a privateer with the Preston's barge and 
pinnace, in which captured vessel, and on the same day, he 
took another very valuable tobacco ship, and conduced her 
safe to New York, although guarded by a privateer of 
superior force to the vessel he was in. 

In consequence of the avowed support afforded by France 
to the revolted colonies of America, a war with that in- 
sidious power became more than probable, and Mr. Graves 
leturned to England in hopes of serving under his uncle, 
who was promised a foreign command in case of a war with 
France, and to whom he was attached by every sentiment 
of gratitude and affection. But being disappointed in his 
expectations of serving under his respected kinsman, and 
hostilities with France actually commencing, he waved his 
personal feelings, and deemed it inglorious to remain on 
shore, when his country required his professional services. 
Accordingly, we <oon after find him again in active employ- 
ment, commanding the Savage sloop in the West Indies, 



OF SIR THOMAS GRAVES, K. B. 35^ 

to which vessel he was appointed through the recommenda- 
tion of his friend and relation, Rear-Admiral Thomas 
Graves, who then commanded on that station. 

After some time spent in the West Indies without any 
opportunities of distinguishing himself, he was ordered in the 
Savage to New York, with dispatches for Admiral Arbuth- 
iiot, much about the time that the French fleet under the 
command of M. Ternay, arrived on that coast. The 
French Admiral, notwithstanding the superiority of his 
force, was apprehensive of meeting with the British squadron, 
and took refuge in Rhode Island. Of this place Mr. Graves 
had gained a pcrfeft knowledge from his former services in 
America, and, therefore, he offered his assistance to Ad- 
miral Arbuthnot, to pilot in the leading ship of his squadron 
to the attack of the French fleet, assuring him that he was 
so intimately acquainted with the navigation of Rhode 
Island, that he would engage to run the French Admiral on 
board. This offer, which was frequently repeated during 
the continuance of our squadron in the vicinity of Rhode 
Island, and of which imperious circumstances forbid the 
acceptance, was so truly consonant to the feelings of the 
good and brave old Admiral, that he made a voluntary 
offer of serving Mr. Graves, whenever an opportunity pre- 
sented. 

This offer Admiral Arbuthnot soon after made good by 
appointing Mr. Graves to be Post Captain in the Bedford, 
on the 5th of March 1781, in which ship he afterwards 
served the Admiral, as Captain, till he quitted the command 
in America. On the arrival of Sir George Brydges Rodney 
at New York, Captain Graves strongly and repeatedly 
suggested to him by letter, the propriety of making an attack 
upon the French fleet at Rhode Island, and again voluntarily 
offered to pilot in the leading ship, assuring Sir George, 
that nothing could save the French ships from the force 
then under his command, if he would but make the attack 
in the manner he proposed. The plan, however, was 
not adopted. 



360 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

A short time before Mr. Graves was promoted' into the 
Bedford from the Savage sloop, which sloop was then in the 
Chesapeak, he was sent with one or two small vessels, 
with orders to proceed as far as possible up the river Poto- 
mack, in order to prevent the Marquis de La Fayette from 
crossing with his army, who was then on his march to 
Williamsburgh. This intended expedition of the Gallo- 
American General, Captain Graves effectually prevented, 
by immediately pushing up to the rebel town of Alexandria, 
which he meditated, in the ardour of his zeal for his king 
and country, to have laid in alhes, but was unfortunately 
prevented by two of his vessels getting aground. To atone, 
however, for this disappointment, he had the satisfaction of 
destroying vast quantities of tobacco in his passages up and 
down the river Potomack, and also of ravaging the rebel 
plantations in the neighbourhood. By passing with the 
vessels under his command frequently up and down the 
Potomack, he prevented the Marquis de La Fayette from 
collecting craft for the embarkation of his troops, and in 
the end rendered the whole projedt of his campaign abortive. 
While employed on this service, our hero had various 
and frequent skirmishes with the rebel militia, who were 
appointed for the defence of the tobacco stores and craft up 
the river, on which occasions, he displayed no small share 
of military talents, though generally attended with con- 
siderable danger, having seldom less than three times his 
number to contend with, and sometimes with great loss of 
men, having once half of the people in his own boat killed 
or wounded. 

Captain Graves served in the Bedford in the aflion be- 
tween his relation and patron, Rear- Admiral Thomas 
Graves, and the Count De Grasse, off the Chesapeak *. 
'1 he ation certainly disappointed the hopes of the nation, 
and occasioned at the time no small clarrojr. In the 
opinion of Captain Graves, " it would have ended gloriously 

Vide Vol. V. page 391. 



0V SIR. THOMAS CRAVES, K. B. 361 

and fortunately for Great Britain, notwithstanding the 
decided superiority of the enemy *, had the zealous endea- 
vours and example of Admiral Graves been imitated ; and 
had the judicious signals made on that day by him, been 
obeyed as they ought, and instantly executed. That they 
were made in the most favourable and critical moment, and 
must have overthrown the enemy, who were only saved by 
the rear division of our fleet not bearing down and engaging, 
agreeable to the signals so aptly made." This opinion must 
be received with some degree of allowance and abatement, 
when we consider that Captain Graves was vindicating his 
relation's character and honour, and therefore was likely to 
use the strongest and warmest expressions. N 

On the return of this fleet to New York, to repair their 
damages after the action, Captain Graves was appointed by 
his relation, the Rear-Admiral, to the command of the 
Magicienne frigate, then fitting out at Halifax. But as there 
was at that moment a determined purpose of another action, 
with an enemy who was then of nearly one third more 
force, and which promised to be of the most serious nature, 
from the magnitude of the objeft in dispute, Captain 
Graves nobly and disinterestedly declined taking the com- 
mand of this promising frigate, preferring certain danger, 
and the pleasure of following his friend and patron upon so 
arduous an expedition, to the certainty of making a fortune 
in his new appointment. 

The same sentiments of honour and patriotism induced 
him still to postpone taking possession of the Magicienne, 
and to go to the West Indies in the Bedford, though not 
before he had sent round to Halifax, near two hundred 
men, which he raised at New York, at a very considerable 
expence of bounty out of his own pocket, Admiral Digby 
not permitting him to press seamen at that place, as it had 
been customary for othe* Officers to do. 

* Admiral Graves had only nineteen sail of the line, many of which were in 
a very ill condition for service, to oppose the French fleet consisting of twenty- 
four sail of the line, in prime condition. 

3 A 



362 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

In the West Indies, Captain Graves continued to com- 
mand the Bedford, on board which ship Commodore 
Affleck had his broad pendant. The Bedford bore a dis- 
tinguished share in the encounter between the fleets under 
Sir Samuel Hood and the Count De Grasse, on the 25th of 
January 1782, in Basse Terre Road, St. Christopher's *. 
" The enemy," says the British Commander in his official 
dispatches, " gave a preference to Commodore Affleck (the 
Bedford), but he kept up so noble a fire, and was so well 
supported by his seconds, Captain Cornwallis, and Lord 
Robert Manners, that the loss and damage sustained in those 
ships were very trifling, and they very much preserved the 
other ships in the rear." Our hero remained in the com- 
mand of the Bedford, and was in the memorable action on 
the I2th of April, under Sir George Bridges Rodney, off 
Guadaloupe. As we have given at large in another place f, 
the particulars of this engagement, so honourable to the 
British flag, we think it unnecessary to say more on the 
present occasion, than that the Bedford was one of the ships 
which took a large part in that glorious aft ion. 

The constant active spirit of Captain Graves, and his 
ardent inclination to distinguish himself, led him to offer 
his services to Admiral Rodney to head the landers of the 
fleet, a large body of men so called from their being trained 
to small arms, and under immediate orders for landing, with 
a view, as it was supposed, of retaking the island of 
St. Christophers ; and as there was neither emolument nor 
rank annexed to this command, he generously told the 
Admiral he should be happy to be employed upon it, or upon 
any other service of danger or enterprise. It does not, 
however, appear that our hero's offers of service were 
accepted. 

In the autumn of the year 1782, when Admiral Pigot's 
fleet arrived in North America, and not before, Captain 
Graves took the command of his frigate, the Magicienne ; 

Vide Vol. II. p. 16. f Vide Vol. I. p. 389. 



OF SIR THOMAS GRAVED K. B. 365 

and, as though it was. thought necessary by the Commander 
in Chief at New York, to restrain his pursuit of honour 
and enterprise, instead of receiving orders to cruise against 
the enemy, as he ardently desired, he was constantly em- 
ployed in attending convoys ; a service, though highly 
necessary to the well being of a commercial state, in which, 
a Commander has rarely any other opportunity of distin- 
guishing himself, than by his vigilance and care of the ves- 
sels under his charge. This, however, fortunately for 
Captain Graves, was not his case, for on his passage with 
one of these convoys to the West Indies, his constant desire 
of conflict was again indulged, by his meeting on the 2d 
of January 1783, with the Sybille French frigate, and an- 
other French ship of war, with whom he had one of the 
most desperate engagements that occurred in the whole 
course of the American contest. The official account of 
the action is very brief, but we shall subjoin, for the satisfac- 
tion of our readers, such further particulars as we have been 
able to obtain. 

ExtraS of a Letter from Rear-Admiral ROWLEY, Commander in Chief 
of his Majesty's Ships at Jamaica, dated the gth of February 1783, to 
Mr. Stephens. 

His Majesty's ship the Magicienne, of 32 guns, and 220 men, 
arrived here the i 7th ult. after having had a very severe aftion with 
"a French frigate, supposed to be the Sybille, in which the Magi. 
cienne lost all her masts, and was thereby prevented from pursuing 
the enemy. The Endymion, who was in sight, could not get up from 
her superiority in sailing. 

List of killed and wounded on hoard the Magicienne in the above a8ion 

Seamen killed, 13 Seamen wounded, 26 

Marines killed, 3 Marines wounded, 5 

In this account there are several gross mistakes, which the 
following narrative, written by the Second Lieutenant of the 
Magicienne, will serve to correct :^ 

Kingston^ "Jamaica, "January 18, 1783. 

His Majesty's ship Magicienne, of 32 guns, Thomas Graves, Esq.. 
Commander, has arrived here, without a single mast standing) having 



36, BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR* 

lost them in an aftion with two French ships on the 2<3 inrt. The 
following are the particulars of that brilliant affair. 

At daylight saw two strange sail in the rear of our convoy, and 
soon afterwards discovered the Endymion in chase; made sail toward'* 
them, and repeated to the Emeiald the Endymion's signal for two 
strange sail in the N. E. At half past six, the Endymion made the 
signal for a fleet, and hoisted French colours to denote they were of 
that nation. 

At nine o'clock, the Endymion brought to one of the chase, a ship 
under French colours ; soon after we came abreast of the prize, and 
hoisted out the barge to assist in taking out the prisoners. At half 
past nine, the Endymion made our signal to chase N. E. hoisted in 
the barge, and made sail ; the French fleet making all the sail thty 
could from us, except five, which hauled their wind towards us. As 
we approached them, we perceived the two headmost to be ships of 
war, the largest with a Commodore's pendant at the main- top-gal- 
lant-mast head. Took in our royals and studding sails, to let the En- 
dymion come up with us, who was then four or five miles astern. 
Unslung our lower yards, stopped the top-sail-sheets, and prepared 
for a&ion. Soon after saw three of the leeward-most ships bear up, 
and follow the convoy. Wore and stood towards the two French 
chips that were standing for us, with their colours flying, and every 
appearance of giving us battle. The Endymion made the signal to 
make more sail in line of battle, headmost ship. As we approached 
within random shot, the enemy wore, and made all the sail they could 
from us, firing at the same time their stern chases, which they con- 
tinued to do till we brought them to close a&ion. Set studding-sails, 
royals, and gave chase, firing our guns as they bore to the enemy, 
who kept close together, the smaller ship upon the larboard quarter 
of her Commodore. Endymion astern four or five miles, using every 
effort to come up with us, which we were leaving fast in the chase. 
At twenty minutes past twelve, got close up abreast of the sternmost 
ship, which, after a few discharges of our cannon and small arms, her 
ensign being down and her fire totally silenced, we hailed her to know 
whether she struck, as her pendant was still flying, but could receive- 
no distinft answer, fiom the confusion they were in, taking in their 
sails, the ship being in the wind, and her studding and small sails 
flying about in great disorder. Immediately we got on the larboard 
quarter of the headmost ship, and brought her to close aftion, where 
we continued an hour and three quarters, with our studding-sail-boom 
locked in, and our sides frequently touching ; our men heaving grape 
and other shot, and often making use of their half-pikes and rammers, 
to annoy the cnuny from loading their guns during the engagement. 



OF SIR THOMAS GRAVES, K. B. 36? 

Th small ship taking an advantage of our situation, made sail, 
hoisted her colours, and fired at us as she made off. At a quarter 
after two, when the enemy's fire was nearly silenced, and every ap- 
pearance of immediate conquest, our mi/en and main-top-mast came 
down, and unfortunately falling clear of the enemy, gave her an op- 
portunity of increasing her distance. Five minutes after, the fore and 
main- mast followed, which deprived us of the means of pursuing thr 
enemy, who instantly made off, while we fired every gun we could 
bring to bear into her stern. The enemy being to windward with all 
her sails set, the wind a little abaft the beam, she becalmed our sails 
as we advanced abreast of her, and prevented our laying her athwait 
hawse. At half past three the Endymion passed us in chase of the 
enemy, and cheered ; the enemy distant about two miles on the star- 
board beam. 

On board the Magicienne were killed three Officers, and sixteen 
seamen : Mr. John Walker, Master, Mr. Roberts and Mr. Hudson, 
Midshipmen. Wounded, T. Tyre, First Lieutenant ; G. Jones, 
Midshipman ; and Mr. Sherrard, Boatswain. Marines, Mr. Furzer, 
First Lieutenant ; Mr. Minto, second ditto ; one corporal, and two 
privates; one seaman since dead of his wounds. On the whole her 
loss in killed and wounded amounted to fifty-three men, and the 
number she had on board was only 189, being short of complement. 

The French Frigate which engaged the Magicienne, was La 
Sybille, of 40 guns, having on board, besides her own complement, 
350 chosen seamen, formerly belonging to Le Scipion, lately stranded 
in Samana Bay, which were intended to man the Guadaloupe frigate 
in the Chesapeak. The small ship mounted 24 guns, name unknown. 
The Commander of La Sybille is the hero who sent a challenge ia 
March last to his Majesty's fiigates on the North American station. 

It would be great injustice to the Commander of the En- 
dymion, a very gallant Officer, Captain, now Admiral, 
Edward Tyrell Smith, not to state that ship's share of the 
transaaions of the day, and particularly as several paragraphs 
appeared in the public prints of that time, glancing at the 
Endymion, which some of our readers may probably re- 
member. The following is an extrad from the journal of 
an Officer, who served under Captain Smith : 

January 2, 1783, at six A.M. discovered a strange saH in the 
N. W. distant about three miles ; gave chase, a/)d made the signal to 
the Emerald. Thirty mimites past six made the signal for an enemy'a 
convoy in the N. E. and repeated it with a gun. The Magicienn* 

4 



366 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

and Emerald both in chase ; at seven, perceived the Emerald had 
hauled to the eastward ; at nine, Lc Celerite struck to the Endy. 
mion ; sent a Petty Officer and nine men on board, with orders to 
join Captain Knell (the Emerald), with all possible dispatch, and give 
him the earliest intelligence of the convoy and their force. At a 
quarter past nine the Magiciennc brought to leeward ; made her signal 
to chase to the N. E. At thirty-minutes past nine, made sail, and 
stood towards the enemy, after having shifted the prisoners, who 
gave us information that the convoy was from Port-au-Prince, under 
the protection of La Sybille frigate, and Le Railleur corvette, bound 
part to Marseilles, the rest to Boston ; among the latter were two 
armed ships for the French king's fleet, under the Marquis de Vao. 
dreuill. Three quarters past nine, four of the enemy's ships stood 
towards us, which we supposed to be the frigate, corvette, and armed 
storeship. At a quarter past ten, the two storeships put before the 
wind ; at fifty minutes past ten, made the Magicienne's signal, she 
being ahead, to make more sail and bear down upon the enemy. At 
eleven, La Sybille, and Le Railleur, made all sail from us ; at three 
quarters past eleven, the Magicienne exchanged several shot with the 
Trench frigate, and at the same time fired several at the corvette in 
passing her. At twelve the corvette struck to the Magicienne. 

At half past twelve, finding our attention taken up by the frigate, 
the corvette hoisted her colours again, and hauled her wind across us ; 
fired several shot at her ; at three quarters past twelve, the frigate 
being warmly engaged, we permitted the corvette to pass, and used 
every possible effort to get into action. At half past one the Magi- 
cienne's mizen mast was shot away ; at two, her fore and main-masts 
went by the board ; at twenty- five minutes past two, spoke her in 
passing, every sail set in pursuit of La Sybille, distant E. by N. one 
mile. The only damage she received washer main-top gallant-mast 
being shot away during the action. At sun set, their being but little 
\vind, and La Sybille rather increasing her distance, it was judged 
most proper to haul our wind for the Magiciennc, who bore W. half 
S. nine or ten miles, and take her in tow ; at half past ten, heard the 
report of a gun, and saw, at times, a light to the southward, which 
we chased, supposing it to be the Magicienne. At day light, to 
every one's astonishment, it was the Emerald and her convoy, and 
HO other vessel to be seen from the mast head ; however, this can 
be said of Captain Graves, that his ill fortune kept pace with his 
gallantry, which was as conspicuous as naval history ever produced; 
and when he was hailed by the Endymion, his only sorrow seemed to 
be his incapacity of renewing the aftion, and wished the Endymioo 
to take him in tow to La Sybille. 



OF SIR THOMAS CRAVES, K. Z. 367 

To this \ve shall add the French account of the a&ion, 
which, though not remarkable for candour, modesty, or 
veracity, may serve to throw some light on the particulars 
of this severe encounter : 

P arts, the l $tb of May, 1783. 

ExtraS from the Account sent to the Marquis de Castries, Minister and 
Secretary of State for the Marine Department, by the Comte de Ker- 
garion dt Locmaria, Pott Captain^ commanding the King's Frigate 
La Sjlille. 

On the zyth of December 1782, the frigate La Sybille, of jz 
guns, sailed from St. Domingo, having under her escort a convoy of 
sixteen sail, destined for North America. 

The 2 d of January 1783, the fleet being without the channels *, 
perceived at e ; ght in the morning, two vessels in chase of the convoy. 
The Comte de Kergarion determined immediately to stand for them 
and give them battle, on purpose to facilitate the escape of the fleet. 
He ordered the sloop Le Railleur, of 14 guns, commanded by the 
Sicur Hebert, auxiliary lieutenant of frigate, to follow him ; but not- 
withstanding every effort of the Comte de Kergarion, he could not 
prevent the ship La Celerite from falling into the hands of the enemy. 
This vessel, which was on her return to Europe, had separated from 
the fleet before the strange ships were seen. The Comte de Ker- 
garion quickly perceived them to be a ship of war + and a frigate ; he 
made the signal for the fleet to colled, and to continue its course, 
.and he himself, followed by his sloop, stood for the enemy in a 
direction which drew them from the convoy. The English frigate, 
which we have learned since was the Magicienne, of the same force 
as the Sybiile, being a better sailer came up with the Railleur at half 
past twelve. The Comte de Kergarion, immediately went to his 
assistance, and covered his sloop, which hauled off to windward, 
after having received a broadside from the enemy's frigate. The two- 
frigates then found themselves very near each other, but the Comte de 
Kergarion seeing the Raiileur in safety, and the ship of war having ap- 
proached much nearer, he retook the course which he had just quitted, 
and made a running fight. 

At two o'clock, the Sybille being at a distance from the ship of 
War, the Comte de Kergaricu determined to engage the Magicienne 

The Channels formed by the islands and shoals, situated on the north coast 
{ St. Domingo. 

t The Comte called the Endymion a ship of war, or of the line, because sh 
-bad two decks, though sb.e carried only forty-four guns. > 



368 

alongside ; he closed with her very near, and the fire was very warmly- 
supported on both sides. The Magicienne had already lost her 
mizcii ma?t, when a volley of langrage shot scoured the quarter-deck 
of the Sybille, killed eleven men, and struck down the Comte de 
Kergarion, who was for some time thought to be dead. The Sieur 
Descures, Post Lieutenant, took the command in his room, re- 
established the battle, which this event had relaxed, and had the satis- 
fa&ion to see the main and fore-masts of the Magicienne successively 
fall. 

It was then half past three, the ship, which is now known to be the 
Endymion, of 50 guns, had approached very near during the engage- 
ment, which retarded the sailing of the frigates. The Sieur Des- 
cures finding that the match would not be equal, set every sail to 
escape, leaving the Magicienne motionless. The Endymion pursued 
the Sybille until eight in the evening. 

The conduft of the Comte de Kergarion in this conjuncture, the 
bold manoeuvre by which he saved the fleet, the resolution which 
he took to attack the Magicienne, although he was closely pressed by 
superior forces, merit the highest eulogiums. Nor is less due to the 
Sieur Descures, who, by his expertness and fortitude, so gloriously 
fought after the example of his Captain. 

The Comte de Kergarion gives the highest character of the courage 
of his ship's company, and of the bravery and coolness of his Officers. 
Thirteen men were killed in this engagement, twenty-nine dangerously 
wounded, and eight slightly. 

Among the Officers, the Sieur de Rix, auxiliary, was killed. 
The Comte de Kergarion, Captain ; the Sieur Descures, Post Lieu- 
tenant ; De Boisneufde la Poterie ; and De la Baronnais, auxiliary 
Lieutenant of frigate ; wounded. 

Where the Comte's narrative varies from that of the 
British Officers, it is easy to be seen to which the truth 
belongs. He exaggerates the force of the British ships, and 
diminishes his own; but it would be unjust to withhold 
from him the praise that is his due ; he preserved all the 
ships entrusted to his care, except one, which it seems had 
been parted from him, and for the capture of which blame can 
scarcely be imputed to him, and he provided for his own 
safety by a timely and judicious retreat. It may not, per- 
haps, be uninteresting to our readers to know that the Sybille 
and a great part of her convoy soon afterwards fell into th 
hands of our cruisers, and were sent into British ports. 



OF SIR THOMAS CRAVES, K. B. 369 

The following lines, not very remarkable for epigramma- 
tic wit or point, appeared in most of the newspapers of that 
time; but they are of value, as they serve to show the 
popular opinion of Captain Graves's merits, and mark the 
approbation which his conduct received from the nation at 
large, notwithstanding the very cold and languid manner in 
which his gallant behaviour had been mentioned by the 
Commander in Chief at Jamaica: 

When the Magician in an awful hour 
O'er the French Sybille cast a fiery spell, 
How her predictions sunk beneath his power, 
That Sybille's leaves to France shall sadly tell ! 

We have been informed by an Officer who was on board 
the Magicienne during the a&ion, that the distinguishing 
feature of that day was the intrepid zeal of her Commander, 
in standing so close to the first frigate, as to carry away her 
studding-sail-booms from her yard arms, and when she had 
struck, without staying to take possession of her, standing 
on after the Sybille, and running her on board likewise, his 
well-direted fire making a most dreadful slaughter. 

On the termination of the American war, the services of 
Captain Graves being no longer wanted, he, with many 
other gallant Officers, was obliged to retire from the active 
duties of a profession in which he had so highly distinguished 
himself, and which, for the time, he quitted with so much 
reputation. We must here regret our inability to follow the 
Officer before us into retired life, or to make our readers 
partake of his domestic and social happiness, amidst his 
relations and friends, during the interval of peace. We 
understand, however, that Sir Thomas Graves spent much, 
of his time, during that period, in France, either in acquir- 
ing the language of that country, or in making himself 
master of their naval ta&ics, and other branches of military 
and professional knowledge. 

Thus laudably employed in increasing his stock of in- 
formation by foreign travel, he did not solicit a command 

3st>.<zri>ron. (HoI.VTII. 3 a 



37O BIOGRAf HICAL MEMOIRS 

during the peace; but no sooner had the war commenced, 
than he was among the foremost to make an offer of his 
services. This he repeated upon every occasion, by public 
letters to the Admiralty Board, as well as by private appli- 
cations to the First Lord, but without receiving a com- 
mission, or any satisfactory answers to his applications. 
Where the blame originated it would be invidious in us to 
inquire. The First Lord of the Admiralty fills a high and 
responsible situation, and in appointing to commands, it is 
next to impossible for him to gratify all who solicit appoint- 
ments, however well they may have deserved of their 
country. It is a great hardship undoubtedly that brave 
Officers, who have gallantly fought the battles of their 
country, and are eager again to take up arms, should not be 
able to obtain employment when they seek it ; but we are 
afraid, that the evil which we here complain of, will con- 
tinue to exist under the best regulations that can be devised. 
In no family has this evil operated more fatally than in that 
of our gallant Officer, two of whose brothers have been laid 
aside*, and a third unable to obtain employment during the 
whole course of the late war. 

Sir Thomas Graves was very near sharing the fate of his 
brothers, when he came to town in the autumn of the year 
1800, insibted on being permitted to state his services, and 
was listened to with effeft. In the month of October 1800, 
he was happy in obtaining an appointment to command the 
Cumberland, of 74. guns, and as soon as she was ready for 
sea, he proceeded in her to join the Western Squadron, then 
under the command of that excellent Officer, the Earl St. 
Vincent. He had soon the honour to be noticed by the 
Commander in Chief, and was gratified in being appointed 
to make one of the chosen squadron stationed off the Black 
Rocks. 

On the great promotion which took place on the ist of 
January 1801, in honour of die Union between Great 

Thsy were put on the superannuated Rear-Admiral List in 1799, and hi 
youngest brother ha since Lctn passed over in different promotions. 



OF SIR THOMAS GRAVES, K.B. 3^1 

Britain and Ireland, our hero was raised to the rank of 
Rear-Admiral of the White, and in March he hoisted his 
flag on board the Polyphemus, of 64 guns, with orders to 
put himself under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, 
destined for the Baltic, to repel the aggressions of the 
Northern Powers, and assert the maritime rights of Great 
Britain. He soon after shifted his flag irtto the Defiauce, of 
74 guns, in which ship, on the 2d of April, he had the 
honour to be second in command to that great and illustrious 
Officer Lord Nelson, in the ever-memorable attack on the 
Danish line of defence off Copenhagen. The event of that 
glorious day must be so fresh in the memory of our readers, 
as to preclude the necessity of adding any thing on the 
present occasion> and particularly as we have elsewhere 
given very enlarged accounts of that celebrated acYion *. As 
the Defiance was in the hottest of the engagement, her loss 
in killed and wounded was very considerable, seventeen 
seamen, three marines, and two soldiers, being killed; and 
thirty-five seamen, five marines, and seven soldiers wounded. 
The whole fleet bore testimony to the bravery and good 
conduft of the Rear-Admiral on this memorable day, and 
Lord Nelson, in his public letter to the Commander in 
Chief, speaking of his colleague, makes use of the following 
flattering expressions. "It is my duty to state to you the 
high and distinguished merit and gallantry of Rear-Admiral 
Graves." 

The thanks of both Houses of Parliament were voted to 
our hero for his services on the 2d of April, and soon after- 
wards his Majesty was pleased to confer on him the most 
honourable Order of the Bath. The ceremony ofinvesture 
took place on board the St. George, in Kioge Bay, near the 
scene of aftion, and Lord Nelson, by particular command 
of his Majesty, represented the Sovereign on the occasion *. 
We cannot probably close our account of this meritorious 

See Vol. V. pages 334. 35!. 451. 

f For a full account of the ceremony, see Vol. V. p. 531. 



37Z NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

Officer, with more appropriate language, than by subjoining 
the speech which was made by Lord Nelson, on the above 
mentioned occasion. 

" Sir Thomas Graves," said tlie gallant hero of the Nile, "having 
fulfilled the commands of his Majesty, in investing you with the en- 
signs of the most honourable and Military Order of the Bath, I cannot 
but express how mucty I feel gratified that it should have fallen, to my 
lot to be directed to confer this justly merited honour, and special 
mark of royal favour upon you ; for I cannot but reflect, that I was 
an eye-witness of your high merit and distinguished gallantry on the 
memorable 2d of April, and for which you are now so honourably 
rewarded. 

" I hope that these honours conferred upon you will prove to the 
Of&cers in the Service, that a strict perseverance in the pursuit of 
glorious actions, and the imitation of your brave and laudable conduct, 
will ever insure them the favours and rewards of our most gracious 
Sovereign, and the thanks and gratitude of our country. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c. 

*IANTES JN GURG1TE VASTO. 



MR. EDITOR, 

A MITY and friendship between nations are not more 
durable than among individuals, as was experienced 
during the late war, particularly when it threatened to involve 
the Northern Powers in the contest; on which the prouuce 
of them, as timber, hemp,' tar, &c. for naval stores, advanced 
to enormous prices, with threats of total prohibition. 

This naturally causes us to look for substitutes nearer home, 
and having heard the Grampian mountains in Scotland are 
well covered with timber, though difficult of access, I learned 
whilst at Edinburgh several vcguc reports that a company 
of merchants at Hull had made great progress in this laudable 
scheme, and brought it to considerable perfection ; I took 
shipping to Hull, and found by various reports of Captains 
and other seamen, that vessels of considerable burthen had 
been built of the same at the mouth of the Spa. 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 373 

On my arrival at Hull, I learned that Mr. Osbourne was 
the principal, on whom I waited. This gentleman candidly 
and readily furnished me with the following account, which 
] here transmit, and request you will insert it in the NAVAL 
CHRONICLE, for the information of the public, and am 

Your humble Servant, 

CornbiU, ist Nov. 1802. JOHN, SEWELL. 

THE forest of Glcnmore, in which was standing about 200,000 
fir trees, some of which were from thirty-six to sixty inches diameter, 
(these large trees are from 250 to 300 years old), is situated about 
thirty miles S. E. from Inverness, and at the foot of the Grampian 
mountains ; it has a lake in its centre of about five miles in circum- 
ference. This forest belongs to his Grace the Duke of Gordon, and 
the fir timber growing thereon was sold about twenty years ago to 
William Osbourne, Esq. of Hull, for the sum of io,oool. it in gene- 
ral grew round the above-mentioned lake. This gentleman, after a very 
laborious work, has nearly got the whole of that extensive wood to 
market ; and in the course of about four years more it is expected the 
whole will be cut and got away. It is brought out of the forest by 
means of sluices and dams, so as to cause natural floods or flushes, by 
which means the wood is conveyed in large quantities to saw mills, 
built on a rivulet, called the Drue, situated about five miles below 
Glcnmore, by which brook the lake afore-mentioned empties itself 
into the river Spey, down which river the wood is carried in fast 
floats, and sometimes drove loose down the river, in what is there 
called a loose float, of 1 4.000 logs or pieces at a time, to the mouth 
of the said river, at which place it is sold and shipped for England ; 
and also at which place the said W. Osbourne has a ship-yard, with 
eveiy convenience for building large vessels, and who has now on the 
stocks seven sail of ships, from 130 to 600 tons, register measure- 
ment ; when these are launched, they will make the whole number 
this gentleman has built since the commencement of his purchase 
forty-seven sail of ships, many of which have sailed to all parts of the 
world, and are proved from experience to bear the extreme heat of 
the West Indies better than the ships built of English oak, and also 
to be as durable. This Highland pine is deemed to be the finest and 
closest texture of any pine iu the world. The knees for ship-build- 
ing are all got from the roots, and the floors, first, second, and third 
futtocks from natural grown crooks, which arc in general as crooked 
as English oak. 



374 FURTHER ACCOUNT OF THE LATE 

FURTHER ACCOUNT OF THE LATE 
ADMIRAL SIR JOHN LOCKHART ROSS *. 

[From a Correspondent.] 

And they did weep, dear was the hero to their souls; he went out to battle, 
and the foe vanished ; he returned in peace, amidst their joy. No father 
mourned his son slain in youth. No brother his brother of love. 

OSSIAN. 

How sleep the brave, who sink to rest, 

By all their country's wishes blest ! 

When spring with dewy finger cold, 

Returns to deck their hallow'd mould ; 

She thete shall dress a sweeter sod 

Than Fancy's feet have ever trod. 

By Fairy hands their knell is rung ; 

By forms unseen their dirge is sung ; 

There Honour comes a Pilgrim grey, 

To bless the turf that wraps their clay, 

And Freedom shall awhile repair 

To dwell a weepisg Hermit there ! 

COLLINS. 

The late valiant and brave Sir John Lockhart Ross, of 
Balnagown, Baronet, inclosed and subdivided with excellent 
stone dykes, about sixty acres of barren moor in the parish 
of Eddertown, which are now richly covered with bailey, 
oats, turnips, potatoes, clover, and rye grass. The whole of 
the inclosure consists of" 300 Scotch acies, of a circular form ; 
and on the outside of the circle, a deep belting of firs, ash, 
and other forest trees, enrich the view. He encouraged 
cottagers to settle on the moors, and thereby made consider- 
able additions to the arable ground. We will, for the 
gratification as well as information of our readers, give an 
extraft from Mr. Pennant's Tour through North Britain 
in 1769. 

Between the friths of Cromarty and Dornoch, is Balnagown, the 
seat of a gentleman who has most successfully converted his sword 
into a plough- share ; who, after a series of disinterested services to 
his country, by clearing the seas of privateers, the most unprofitable 

* See Naval Chronicle, Vol. VI. page i, &c, 



ADMIRAL SIR. JOHN LOCKHAR.T ROSS. 37 

of captures, has applied himself to arts not less deserving of its thanks. 
He is the best farmer and the greatest planter in the country. His 
wheat and his turnips show the one, his plantation of a million of 
pines the other. It was with great satisfaction that I observed cha- 
rafters of this kind very frequent in North Britain ; for during the 
interval of peace, every Officer of any patrimony, was fond of retiring 
to it, assumed the farmer without flinging off the gentleman, enjoyed 
rural quiet, yet ready to undergo the fatigue of war the moment his 
country claimed his services. 

The late benevolent as well as gallant Laird of Balna- 
gown, introduced sheep-farming into the Highland parishes 
of Kincardine and Criech, in order to employ his High- 
landers, and had the erecting of a village in contemplation ; 
but being called to stand forth as a defender ot" his country's 
cause and rights, his sheep in the mean time falling under 
bad management, he sold off his stock, and at his return, 
finding himself in the decline of life, he dropped his favourite 
idea. 

He presented to the parish of Kincardine a large and 
well- toned bell, which he had captured in a large French 
man of war. There are natural curiosities to be found on 
the lop of the highest mountain in Balnagown's forest, 
called Sciulm a'-Charra, many miles from the sea, and in the 
above-mentioned parish. The most astonishing of these are 
shells of different sorts of fish, some of them in beds covered 
with earth. 

Major-General Sir Charles Ross, his eldest son, has, 
within these few years, let part of his lands in the High- 
lands upon long leases to country gentlemen, who have made 
the best use of their property, by dividing it into sheep- 
farms, and have transported the English breed to the Scotch 
mountains, where they are at present successfully reared, 
and their wool brought to the greatest perfection. Those 
Highland farms, which formerly afforded the proprietor a 
mere trifle of rent, now make a. handsome income of 
themselves. 

These improvements have greatly contributed to the 
ftaimediate benefit a-nd emolument of the landholder, as well 



376 FURTHER ACCOUNT, &C. 

as the enlightening the minds of the ancient race of inha- 
bitants, by doing away their too-deeply rooted prejudices. 

Sir John had resided with his family for some months at 
his enamouring seat of Balnagown. He enjoyed in the 
endearments of domestic society and honourable retirement, 
all that can meliorate and render placid the evening of life. 
His constitution, which had suffered by a life of hardship 
and activity, had for some years been visibly declining. 

The country in general sustained a great loss in the death 
of such a renowned hero and patriot, who so eminently 
distinguished himself in the various improvements which he 
planned but, alas ! did not live to see executed. 

The remembrance of his private virtues will long be 
cherished and embalmed in the hearts of a numerous circle 
of friends, while from his country his services entitle him to 
die most distinguished tribute of public gratitude and 
esteem. 

You too, ye bards ! whom sacred raptures fire, 
To chant your heroes to your country's lyre ; 
Who consecrate in your immortal strain, 
Brave patriot souls, in righteous battle slain ; 
Securely now the tuneful task renew, 
And noblest themes in deathless songs pursue. RO\VE. 

I. M. 



I 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE NAVAL CHRONICLE. 
SIR, 

N perusing the exploits of the heroes of our own country 
and those of other nations, .particularly of France, I 
could not help taking notice how extremely different, and 
with what bombast they pen their actions, to what we do. 
I do not recollect to have read of any of their victories since 
the Revolution, that they have thanked the ALMIGHTY for, 
or even ascribed to HIS power ; what a contrast is this to 
British Commanders ! with what modesty and piety they 
record their action?, witness Lord Rodney, Lord Nelson, 
Sir James Saumarez, and various others. A remarkable 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 377 

instance of this we have also in the conduft of the present 
truly valiant Admiral Lord Duncan, which you may rely on 
being authentic, and as it is not generally known, I request 
the favour of a corner in your Chronicle for its insertion. 

Great Queen street^ Lincoln's- Inn A. 

Fields, Nov. 2, 1 802. 

ANECDOTE OF LORD DUNCAN. 

Previous to the battle off Camperdown, and during the awful mo- 
ments of preparation, he called all his Officers upon deck, and in their 
presence prostrated himself in prayer before the GOD OF HOSTS, com- 
mitting himself and them, with the cause they maintained, to his 
sovereign protection, his family to his care, his soul and body to the 
disposal of his Providence, and then rising from his knees, he gave the 
command to make the attack. 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 

The British Manner's Directory and Guide to the Trade and Naviga- 
tion of the Indian and China Seas. Containing Instructions for 
navigating from Europe to India and China , and from Port to Port 
in those Regions, and farts adjacent: with an Account of the Trade , 
Mercantile Habits, Manners, and Customs, of the Natives. By 
H. M. ELMORE, many Tears a Commander in the Country Ser- 
vice in India, and late Commander of the Varuna Extra East 
Indiaman. I Vol.^to.p. 342. 

Tl> EGARDING with the most lively interest whatever 
relates to the valuable possessions of the British empire 
in India, we took up the work before us with no incon- 
siderable share of anxiety. It had long been a subject of 
complaint, that the navigation of the Indian seas was but 
imperfectly known, and the growing commerce of Britain 
in those parts demanded every assistance that could be 
furnished it, by men of local experience, and nautical 
science. But when we considered the greatness of the under- 
taking, and the variety of qualities and extent of information 
necessary to be united in the author who should attempt to 
lay before the publick a work on the Trade and Navigation 



37$ NAVAL LITERATURE* 

of the Indian and Chinese seas, worthy of. its patronage, 
we must confess, we were not without some doubts and 
fears of our author's ability to do justice to his undertaking. 
It would have given us serious pain to have complimented 
him on the goodness of his intentions, and at the same time 
to have lamented the inadequateness of their execution; to 
have commended the subject which he had chosen for the 
exercise of his pen, and at the same time to have com- 
plained of the manner in which he treated it. 

In the work before us none of our fears have been realized, 
and in most instances our expectations have been surpassed. 
It is the result of sixteen years actual service in the parts 
which Captain Elmore describes ; of much personal obser- 
vation and experience, aided by a proper share of those 
scientific acquirements necessary to a work like the present. 
The Directors of the East India Company have fixed their 
stamp of approbation on our author's labours ; and if, after 
so high evidence to their merit, we may be permitted to 
throw in our mite of praise, we can safely affirm, that every 
page bears the strongest marks of authenticity and correct- 
ness. As a nautical man, our author appears to be an ex- 
perienced seaman, and a correct astronomer j his disquisitions 
on trade are profound, sensible, and pertinent ; and his views 
as a politician meet our warmest assent. It has seldom fallen 
to our lot to peruse a work ; which we have read throughout 
with such unmixed feelings of satisfaction as the present ; 
which has unexpectedly given us so much interesting and 
novel information ; for Captain Elmore by no means con- 
fines himself to write meagre sailing directions for the Indian 
and Chinese seas, but enters at large into the commerce, 
manners, and customs, of the people inhabiting those 
regions, and describes their character, arts, the commodities 
in which they traffic, and the precautions to be used by the 
Europeans who deal with them. On every subject our 
author is equally happy ; whether speaking theoretically or 
practically, he explains his meaning with perspicuity, and 
though we are always best pleased to meet him on the grounds 



KATAL LITERATURE. 379 

of personal observation, yet we are never dissatisfied when 
he ventures into the regions of conjecture and surmise. 

After this tribute of praise, which we bestow with great 
sincerity, we cannot better state our author's pretensions 
to the patronage of the public, than by extracting his address 
to the Directors of the East India Company, which received 
their perfect approbation, and in consequence of which his 
work made its appearance under the auspices of that ho- 
nourable body. 

Ta the Honourable the Chairman and Court of DireBors of the East 
India Company, 

Honourable Sir and Sirs, 

At the conclusion of the war in the year 1783, I quitted his Ma- 
jesty's Navy, and went to Calcutta, fourth Mate of your Hoaourable' 
Court's hired packet the Surprise, where, she being discharged from 
your service, I went into the country trade, and continued until the 
year 1796. At this period 1 was appointed to the command of your 
Honourable Court's freighted ship Varuna ; and having delivered the 
Company's cargo in this country, and returned to Calcutta, I there 
resigned the command of that ship. 

During my continuance in India I was actively employed in 
my profession ; and observed, with much concern, the deficiency in 
the printed Instructions for sailing from port to pore in that country. 

I applied, with much care, to make remarks, write directions, fix 
accurately the latitudes and longitudes of such places as I had oppor- 
tunities of doing ; and at much trouble to colled such remarks, 
directions, and instructions, from the best authorities, as would enable 
me to improve the then extant Directory. 

I have now, with much care and application, collected a number 
of remarks and instructions, which I conceive will be highly beneficial 
to the more ready and safe navigating in the Indian and China seas, 
particularly the west coast of Sumatra, Straits of Macassar, Malacca, 
Banca, Durian,and the China Sea ; as well for the use of the Honour- 
able Company's as for the Country ships. 

I beg your Honourable Court will permit me to have the honour 
of dedicating my Remarks to you, under whose influence they will 
be protedlsA, and meet the encouragement, I trust, they will be found 
to deserve. 

The latitudes and longitudes, determining the exaft situations of 
places in India, were so well known to be correct, that I was told 



380 WATAL LITERATI/HI. 

your Hydrographer, Mr. A. Dalrymple, wrote to India for them* in 
the year 1797 ; but the application was never made to me, or I would 
readily have complied with the request, and trusted to the known 
Kberality of your Honourable Court for a remuneration of my labours. 
I beg leave to observe, that my Instructions for navigating the 
Indian and China Seas, are allowed to be, by those who have used 
them, extremely correct, and of great use in navigating those seas ; 
and I have by my own experience proved them. 

In his Introduction, Captain Elmore takes notice of the 
danger to which the British commerce in India is likely to 
be exposed by means of the intrigues of France, and his 
observations on this head are extremely worthy of the atten- 
tion of persons in authority. But, we think, he exaggerates 
the political importance of Egypt, and the danger of its 
becoming a colony of France. The barbarities committed 
by the French in Egypt, during their late invasion, will 
]ong be deeply felt and remembered by the natives of that 
country; they have excited in the inhabitants of Egypt a 
looted indignation and animosity towards that turbulent 
and ambitious people ; and we have not much to dread 
from commercial establishments, which are to be supported 
by the point of the bayonet, and are insecure beyond the 
range of their cannon. 

The following extracts from the body of the work will 
enable our readers to form their own judgment of the merit 
of Captain Elmore's publication. 

REMARKS Ojf A VOYAGE TO CHINA. 

The proper season to leave the Malabar coast for Canton is from, 
the ist of April to the middle of May, by which means you will have 
sufficient time to stop in the Straits of Malacca to purchase tin, pep- 
per, beetle (areka) nut, rattans, sea swallow (called beach de mar by 
the Portuguese, and trepong by the Malays), and birds nests ; all of 
which, if well laid in, will net a handsome profit at Canton. 

The articles of trade from Bombay and the Malabar coast, are 
chiefly cotton, pepper, sandal-wood, putchink, shark fins, olibanum, 
elephants teeth, rhinoceros horns, pearls, cornelian stones, and beads. 

When you make the land, and are near the Ladroon, a Chinese 
pilot will come on board, to carry you into Macao roads, and bring 



NAVAL LITERATVRK. 381 

the ship to an anchor. The pilot will then go on shore to report to 
the head mandarine, at Macoa, of what nation you are. Should there 
be any women on board, application must be made to the bishop and 
synod of Macoa, for leave to put them on shore, as they will not be 
permitted to go to Whampoa in the ship. 

As soon as the mandarine at Macoa is satisfied in all his inquiries, 
he orders off a river pilot, who never comes on board until you have 
laid twenty- four hours in the roads *, and brings a chop (a licence) to 
pass the Bocca Tigris (the mouth of the Canton river), and carries the 
ship to Whampoa. 

The Captains and super-cargoes are allowed, as a great favour, to 
wear a flag in their boats, which passes them without stopping to be 
examined at the different hoppo houses ; but all other boats must 
stop to be searched, and have their chop examined. Some Com- 
manders who have lent their flags to others, have, by such abuse of 
the indulgence, been deprived of it for the season. 

Canton is about fifteen or sixteen miles from Whampoa, and in that 
distance are five hoppo, or chop houses, which to call and stop at are 
very troublesome, particularly if in haste to town ; for this reason, 
the indulgence of the flag ought particularly to be attended to. 

The day after your arrival at Canton, the Cohong, or directors of 
the Chinese Hong merchants, will wait upon you t. To these mer 
chants you give a manifest of your cargo. When one of them, who 
becomes security for your performance of the customs of the port, 
carries the manifest to the head tontiff (generally called John Tuck) , 
to regulate the Emperor's duties, which, however, the importer 
knows nothing of ; as the customs and duties are paid by the pur* 
chasers. He afterwards summonses a meeting of the Hong mer- 
chants; the manifest is laid before them, and they fix a price upon 
your goods ; with which you must be contented, as no other merchants 
but the Cehong are allowed to purchase. 

There are two hoppo (or custom-house boats) stationed to each 
ship, one on each side ; and when you are delivering your cargo, they 
attend, and weigh it all before it is put into the boats which convey 

* I have frequently weighed and run up to LInting, to anchor under shelter 
of that island, in the event of a tuffoon coming on. It was the- more necessary 
for me to do this, as I was always a late ship to China, never arriving before the 
latter end of October, and sometimes not before November ; for the trade upon 
the Malay coast requires you to stay as long as possible. 

f The Company of Hong Merchants consist of*' twelve, who are particularly 
Lcensed by the Government ; and the Government are security for the per- 
formance of their contracts, engagements, and payment of their debts, though 
the Government seldom perform the guarantee, arid never fully. 

t 



3z NAVAL LITERATURE. 

it to Canton ; where it is again weighed, to see if the weights agree 
with that taken on board, which is seldom or never the case, on ac- 
count of the embezzlement, which invariably happens, by the boat- 
men, between the ship and Canton, for the Chinese exceed greatly 
the watermen upon the Thames in filching and chicanery. 

If you come to market early, and expedl other ships to arrive soon 
after with the same kind of articles your cargo is composed of, I 
would advise you to take the Hong merchants' first offer, provided it is 
nearly the price you expected, as probably, by your refusal, they will 
leave you, and perhaps not return or see you for eight or ten days, 
well-knowing that you cannot dispose of your cargo to any others, 
and that from Canton you have no market left to choose or go to. 

After you have agreed about the prices, money, and time of pay- 
ment, which will be settled at seven mace two candereen per head, 
or Mexican dollar, you must insist upon the payment being made in 
one month from the delivery ; for if you are a late ship, some of your 
own payments may become due before you are in cash, or have assets 
in hand to retire them. 

Having effe&ed the sale of your cargo, the Hong merchant fur- 
nishes you with a chop to deliver your cargo, and sends boats down 
to Whampoa to receive it, in such numbers as you please to order, 
though they seldom exceed three boats (or chops) per day, being as 
many as they can well attend to during business hours, which is gene- 
rally from ten in the forenoon till two in the afternoon. 

I would recommend to have two or three of the ship's company in 
each boat to prevent plundering ; for although the boats are close 
covered and locked up, yet these Chinese watermen are so very 
dexterous at the trade of embezzlement, that, in despight of your 
greatest care, they will steal a great deal, particularly tin. I have 
experienced this article changed in the boats, and small slabs substi- 
tuted in lieu of large ones. I suffered severely once at Calcutta by 
the same kind of dexterity, of my owner's sircars, who changed the 
large for small slabs of tin : I was obliged to pay for the deficiency, 
although my Chief Mate made affidavit that the tin was weighed, 
and delivered to the sircar with the owner's weights and scales, the 
same it was purchased by. 

You have no occasion to hire warehouses at Canton for the receipt 
cf your cargo, as it is weighed and carried off immediately upon 
landing. Here the Emperor's as well as the Hong merchants' clerks 
or writers attend, check the weights, and take the account of the 
delivery. They are very fair in the weighing of your cargo, being 
done by English weights, and weights of fifty pounds (instead of 
fifty-sixes, or half-hundreds), and afterwards reduced to cattys, by 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 383 

multiplying by three, and dividing by four ; and then reduced to 
piculs, by dividing the produfl by one hundred. 

When there are ships which have not been measured at Whampoa, 
the head mandarine sends word to the Hong merchants, appointing 
a day to go down the river for the purpose of measuring the ships ; 
which is put off until there are six or more ships waiting, (for the 
mandarine will not go down in the early part of the season to measure 
a less number than six). The Hong meichant informs you, through 
your linguist, the day the tontiff means to go down ; when it is 
expefted all work shall be suspended, and the Commander of the ship, 
supercargo, and officers will attend dressed ; and the Hong merchant, 
by the comprodore *, sends tea, sweetmeats, &c. for his (the tontiff's) 
entertainment on board. The boat in which the tontiff is carried, 
is distinguished from his attendants by a yellow flag, which is the 
Imperial colours ; and as soon as he comes in sight of the ships at 
Whampoa, a boat with an officer is sent off from each ship which is 
to be measured, to attend him. Some years ago the ships used to 
salute him, but that ceremony is dispensed with since an accident hap- 
pened in the Lady Hughes in 17851 by one of the wads from her guns 
killing a Chinese ; for which the gunner of that ship (according to 
their laws) was strangled. 

As the ships invariably strip their rigging, to examine (or over- 
haul), at China, care should be taken, before the tontiff comes on 
board to measure, to have the after wedges of the fore-mast knocked 
out, the stay taken off, and the mast wedged from the foreside close 
against the after part of the partners ; the mizen-stay or tackles should 
be kept on, all the fore-mast wedges knocked out, and the mast 
boused and wedged closed forward to the fort side of the partners.' 
The reason of this is, that they measure from the centre of the fore- 
mast to the centre of the mizen-mast, for the length ; and close 
abaft the main -mast, from outside to outside, taking the extreme for 
the breadth. 

They multiply the length by the breadth, and divide by ten, which, 
they say, gives the ship's measurement, and charge according to her 
rate, whether first, second, or third rate, deducting twenty per cent. 
which the Emperor allows ; but seven per cent, is again added to make 
it touch, that is, equal to fine pure silver, from which calculation 
there is no appeal ; nor is your ship properly reported and entered 
until after this ceremony is gone through. 

The rates of ships are generally allowed-, after this measurement, 
viz. seventy-four covids, of fourteen and a half inches long, and 
twenty -three covids broad, are called first-rates. 

The Home Steward. 



2$ WAVAL LITERATURE. 

Second-rates are under seventy-four covids long and twenty three 
broad, to seventy-one covids long and twenty-one covids broad ; 
and all under seventy-one covids long and twenty-one covids broad, 
are accounted third-rates. 

The duty on first- rates are seven tale, seven mace, seven candereen, 
and seven cash, per covid. 

The new teas and china-ware seldom arrive at Canton before the 
beginning of November ; this is almost an unerring rule to guide yea 
in the purchase of your teas ; for be assured all that are offered 
before this time are the remains of the old stock from the former 
season. 

In purchasing your goods for a returning cargo, you are at liberty 
to buy, where and of whom you please, though the best teas are 
always to be had from the Hong merchants ; and in making your 
bargains never omit settling the exchange at which you pay your 
dollars ; for though you receive them from the Hong merchants at 
seven mace two candereen, you pay them away at seven mace five 
candereen, for teas, silk, musk, tutenague, sugarcandy, and soft 
sugar, lacquered ware, &c. &c. &c. by which you save four and one- 
sixth per cent* 

The Emperor's present, from ships of all descriptions, whether 
large or small, as fixed in 1754, and is now become a certain claim 
r custom, is one thousand nine hundred and fifty tales, exclusive of 
the measurement duties. 

We extraft our author's account of the character of the 
Malays, as a specimen of his talents of observation and 
description, not superior indeed to other parts in his volume, 
but probably most likely to afford amusement to our 
readers. 

As the Malays have the character of a treacherous set of men, I 
would advise all people to be on their guard while in any of their 
ports ; and when on shore, never to be without a hanger in their 
hand. Every one of them go armed with a crease (hanger), or a 
weapon something like a chopper, and very sharp. When they see 
you are prepared, they will not be so apt to insult you, which the vul- 
gar are ready enough to do. 

It is in the power of any man to kill his own slave with impunity ; 
and they ar such a dastardly set, that they have not courage to resent 
an affront personally, but will dress their slaves, and give them orders 
to kill any man they pitch upon, who, after being intoxicated with, 
opium, is insensible of any danger he runs iato, being equally at the 



KAVAL LITBRATOftE.* 38$ 

risque of his life to return without executing his master's orders, ot- 
to be cut to pieces in the attempt. 

I have always made it a rule of having my gun? loaded with round 
and grape-shot while on the Malay coatt, with a chest of good arms 
upon deck, lighted matches, and hand grenades in the tops, two sepoys 
at the gangn-ays, two lascars on the forecastle, and two more on the 
poop. The officer of the watch and seaconys go round the- ship at 
least every half hour ; and centinels and lascars to call " all's well," 
every quarter of an hour during the night. These regulations to 
commence at eight o'clock, and to continue till after the reveillie is 
beat in the morning at day-light. 

Rice, fish, and fruit, are the common food of these people, who 
eat veiy little flesh, or animal food. They drink water, toddy (a 
distillation from the palm-tree), and coffee; and they chew beetle 
constantly. They eat but two meals a day, one in the morning, and 
the other about sun-set, the latter of which is the principal ; in the 
intermediate space they refresh themselves by chewing beetle, or 
smoaking tobacco mixed with opium. They set cross legged on the 
floor at their meals, and the better sort have very low tables for their 
provisions, which are set on them in china plates, or dishes made of 
wood highly japanned ; but they use neither knives or spoons. They 
have vessels fcr the purpose of spitting in when they chew beetle or 
smoak tobacco ; and are particular in keeping their persons and the 
inside of their houses clean. They have but little furniture, except 
the necessary utensils for cooking their provisions, and carpets to 
sleep and sit upon ; but they are very ostentatious of displaying a 
great number of pillows, the ends of which are richly embroidered, 
and the whole covered with the richest silks. 

These people are so little addicted to litigious disputes, that they . 
have neither lawyers, attornies, nor bailiffs. If any disputes or differ- 
ences arise, the parties apply personally to the judge (or carrangue), 
who determines the matter with expedition and equity *. 

In some matters, particularly of a criminal nature, they are per. 
jnitted to do justice to themselves. If a man detects another in the 
commission of adultery, murder, or robbery, he has a right to exe- 

* How different, in this respeft, is the jurisprudence of our country, -where 
tie la-w's delay and uncertainty deprive the suppliant of more than half his due ; 
while its voracious retainers overwhelm whole families in misery and ruin. 
Happy will it be, as has been justly observed, " when a system of legal reform 
shall diminish the number of wretches who subsist on the vitals of their fel- 
low-creatures; and, by separating the unworthy from the deserving, protect 
the profession of the law from the indelible reproach produced by its. worthless 
pra&itioners." 

ol. VIII. 30 



386 

cute justice hfaiself, by destroying the culprit ; the weapon in these 
cases is invariably the crease or dagger. 

The Malays are all strift Mahomedans ; which religion they are 
particularly tenacious of infringing. Many of them are great pre- 
tenders to magic, and carry charms about them, on a supposition of 
their securing them from every danger. 

The common people have no other covering than a small piece of 
linen fastened round the waist ; but the better sort wear a kind of 
waistcoat made of silk or bioad-cloth, oxer which they throw a loose 
garment of silk that reaches to the knees. They also wear a pair of 
drawers, but wear neither shirt, shoes, or stockings ; and when they 
go abroad they always wear a crease or dagger, and a handkerchief 
tied in a peculiar way round the head. 

The salem, or lifting the hands to the head with the palms joined 
together, until the thumbs touch the forehead, and bending the 
body, is their mode of salutation. When they appear before their 
superiors, they raise their hands above the forehead ; and if before a 
prince, they prostrate themselves on the ground, with the forehead 
resting on their hands, which are still joined, and retire backwards 
on their knees. 

The natives pay great homage to their princes and rajas, and it 
is difficult for a stranger to get access to them ; the readiest means to 
effcft this is, by complimenting them with some valuable present ; 
and the stranger will b treated with respeft according to the present 
he makes, avarice being their mling passion. The return is generally 
made in fruit, and a few fowls ; but if the stranger, at the time of 
making the present, is a great distance from his ship, or living on 
shore near the palace, for the convenience of trade, he is sent some 
rice, pillaw, and fish, from the prince's table. 

It is an universal custom, both with men and women, to bathe in 
a river, at least once a day ; this makes them all expert swimmers ; 
which not only promotes health, but prevents that contraction of 
filth, which would be otherwise unavoidable in a hot climate. 

They are so proud and revengeful, and so indolent, that they will 
neither endeavour to improve themselves in arts, sciences, or hus- 
bandry ; but suffer tljeir manufactures to be neglected, and their lands 
to lie without cultivation. 

The Dutch have a proverb, which signifies 

They are ugly and strong, 
And will bear malice long. 

CAUTION. 

I beg leave to mention a remark, which I have made on board 
different vessels trading to the eastward, which is, the Commanders 



NAVAL LITIRATWRS. 38; 

of them negle&ing to exercise the great gun* ; and when Malay 
prowrs are alongside, instead of keeping one watch, or division of the 
crew, at the guns, with lighted matches, and the guns pointed into 
their boats, ready to sink them, they are either all at work, or 
running about the deck in perfect security. I have no doubt but 
such security has been the loss of many vessels ; when, with this pre- 
caution, the dastardly rascals dare not think of attacking you. I 
could enlarge upon this subjeft, but think, the person not capable of 
profiting by what has been already said, is not fit to be entrusted with 
any man's property, and the lives of people under his command. 
When Commanders trade with their own capital they have only to 
consider the lives of their crew ; their own lives and property they 
have the best right to dispose of. 

A Voyage up the Mediterranean in his Majesty's Ship Swjftsure, C5V. &(. 

By the Rev. COOPER WILLYAMS. 

[Concluded from Page 138. ] 

AFTER the well written account of the immortal battle 
of the Nile, which does great honour to our author's talents 
and feelings *, he proceeds to relate the transa&ions of the 
British squadron on the coast of Egypt. A shameful 
breach of faith is recorded of the French, who formed into a 
battalion, which they called the Nautic Legion, the prisoners 
that were sent on shore from the British fleet, under an 
engagement not to bear arms until regularly exchanged. 
Such proceedings cannot be too loudly reprobated, as it is 
their mischievous tendency to increase the severities of war, 
and must render future conquerors backward in showing 
their humanity to the vanquished. We should have been 
glad if our author had informed us, whether the British 
Commander remonstrated with the French General on this 
occasion, but he is silent on this head ; and similar in* 
stances of inadvertency might be produced from other parts 
of his work. 

After cruising some time off Alexandria, the Swiftsure 
was ordered to proceed to Rhodes for wine and fresh pro- 
visions. On the passage, the Swiftsure was driven by a 

* Sec page 128. 



388 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

gale of wind into the Gulf of Symea, and in great danger of 
being lost, through the unskilfulness of the pilot. Mr. 
Willvams employed his time during their stay at Rhodes, 
in examining the remains of antiquity and other curiosities 
in that celebrated city, and his description of the place, and 
particularly of the Turkish manners and customs, is lively 
and amusing. Owing to the indolence or disaffection of 
the Turks, the supplies which they received at Rhodes were 
far from answering their expectations, and the Swiftsure 
returned to the squadron off Alexandria. 

By this time the British squadron was joined by some 
Russian and Turkish men of war and gun-boats, but it 
does not appear that much good resulted from the co- 
operation of these allies. Mr. Willyams speaks in a very un- 
favourable manner of the Turkish seamen, and some amusing 
instances are related of their cowardice and extreme igno- 
rance of navigation. During their stay on the coast of 
Egypt, they had frequent negotiations with the Arabs, but 
without producing any consequential effects, and in some 
measure they appear to have been the dupes of that subtile 
people, who were either lukewarm in their attachment to 
the English, or unable to fulfil their magnificent promises. 

With the French also they had correspondence, as the 
following extraft will show : 

While on the Egyptian coast we had frequent communications with 
the enemy. At one time the Commander in Chief sent two Officers 
to offer us a supply of vegetables ; from our long cruise on this in 
hospitable coast, he concluded we must he in want of such refresh- 
ments ; yet we had the ingratitude to think that his civility was only 
a cover for his curiosity ; it was natural to suppose he wished to know 
the state we were in, and how we bore the privations attendant on 
such a long and unprofitable cruise. Being aware of this, all possible 
civilities were shonn to the French Officers, and that they might bo 
the better able to judge of our abilities to continue on that station, 
they were conducted into the several parts of the ship, even to the. 
lower decks. They could not conceal their surprise at the healthi- 
ness of our people, the cheerfulness that appeared on their counte- 
nances, and the regularity and good order that reigned throughout. 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 389 

In the course of conversation after dinner, one of them remarked, 
that we had made use of unfair weapons'during the late a&Jon, by 
which, probably, the Admiral's ship 1'On'ent was burnt ; and that 
General Bonaparte had expressed great indignation at it. In proof 
of this assertion he stated, that in the late gun boat attacks, their 
camp had twice been on fire, occasioned by balls of unextinguishablc 
matter which were fired from one of the English boats. Captain 
Hallowell instantly ordered the gunner to bring up some of those balls, 
and asked him from whence he had them. To the confusion of the 
accu?ers, he related that they were found on board of the Spartiate, 
one of the ships captured on the ist of August. 

As these balls were distinguished by particular marks, though in 
other respects alike, the Captain ordered an experiment to be made ia 
order to ascertain the nature of them. 

The next morning I accompanied Mr. Parr, the gunner, to the 
island, the first we tried proved to be a fire-ball, but of what materials 
composed, we could not ascertain. As it did not explode, which at 
first we apprehended, we rolled it into the sea, where it continued to 
burn under water ; a black pitchy substance exuding from it till only 
an iron skeleton of a shell remained. The whole had been carefully 
crusted over with, a substance that gave it the appearance of a perfect 
shell. On setting fire to the fuse of the other, which was differently 
marked, it burst into many pieces,; though somewhat alarmed, for- 
tunately none of us were hurt. 

People account differently for the fire that happened on board of 
the French Admiral ; but why may it not have arisen from some of 
these fire-balls left, perhaps, carelessly on the poop, or cabin, where 
it first broke out ? and what confirms my opinion on this head is, 
that several pieces of such shells were found sticking in the Belle- 
rophon, which she most probably received from the first fire of 
1'Orient. 

This extract is extremely curious, but we cannot help 
expressing some degree of scepticism at the fire-ball, which, 
Mr. Willyams asserts, continued to bum under water, and we 
are surprised and mortified that on a subject so interesting, 
he should have given us so little satisfactory information. 
He does not even attempt to guess at the materials of which 
these fire-balls were composed, and no inquiries seem to 
have been instituted to ascertain this important point. Had 
our author gathered his information from others, we should 



jgO NAVAt LITERATURE. 

have less wondered at the loose manner in which he treats 
of this new and singular engine of destru&ion, but he him- 
self was present at the experiments made on purpose to try 
its effecls, and had an opportunity of examining closely its 
properties. These he found contrary to the established 
laws of nature, exhibiting a phenomenon of which there 
are perhaps no well authenticated instances on record ; yet 
he passes over the subjeft without enquiry, and denies his 
readers even the slightest materials for conjecture. 

Some anecdotes are told of the conduft of the French in 
Egypt, not much to their credit, and the bravery of the 
Mamalukes is greatly extolled ; but we wish, that in this, 
as well as in other instances, Mr. Willyams had confined 
himself to report what fell under his own observation. 

The following account of Dgezzar Pacha, the Governor 
of St. Jean d'Acre, cannot fail to interest our readers, when 
they are told, that he is the same person, who, in conjunc- 
tion with Sir Sidney Smith, so gallantly defended that place 
against the attacks of Bonaparte, and finally obliged him to 
retreat with disgrace ; but we could wish that our brave 
countryman had had a more humane and civilized colleague. 

The Pacha* is a venerable old man, with a beard as white as snow, 
y<t he possessed great activity, both of mind and body, and seemed 
to be endowed with a much larger share of energy and spirit than 
characterised the generality of his countrymen ; but, on the other 
hand, he was cruel and oppressive in the extreme : several circum- 
stances happened at the time we were there, that sufficiently proved 
the former, and from Mr. Malagabat, our Consul, we learnt, that 
lately he had put to death the whole of the officers of his customs, 
whom he suspected of defrauding him in collecting his revenues. 
His mode of punishment was very summary : the unhappy objects of 
his suspicion, to the number of fifty- nine, were drawn up on the 
strand where his cavalry used daily to exercise, and on a signal given, 
the soldiers attacked them with their sabres, and slew them all, leaving 
their mangled carcasses exposed on the beach. We were also told, 

* Dgezzar had lately received the Grand Seignor's firman, creating him 
Governor of all Syria, and Commander in Chief in Upper Egypt. 
t The person a&ing as British Vice-Consul her: is an Italian. 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 39! 

that lately, in a fit of jealousy, he had put to death all his wives : a 
Frenchman having penetrated his harara was the cause ; fortunately 
for him he escaped. 

Mr. Willyams would have visited Jerusalem, which is 
only three or four days journey from Acre, and had obtained 
leave from Captain Hallowell to proceed thither; but 
Dgezzar suspected he was a Frenchman, nor could any 
thing that he urged in his behalf, persuade the Pacha to 
the contrary; our author, therefore, very wisely gave up 
his design, rinding that the old Turk's prepossession against 
him could not be removed, and justly dreading to place 
himself in the power of a monster of cruelty and oppression. 
At Acre the Swiftsure took in a plentiful supply of rice, 
and also a number of oxen, many of which, our author tells 
us, though full grown, weighed only sixty pounds. The plague 
raged at St. Jean d'Acre during the time the Swiftsure was 
there, but fortunately the contagion was not carried on 
board. 

On her return to the squadron off Alexandria, the Swift- 
sure was relieved from her tedious cruise on the coast of 
Egypt, and sailed from thence in company with a Turkish 
man of war and two Greek vessels ; but the Turk proved so 
bad a sailer, and leaky with all, that they were obliged to 
bear up for Limesol in the island of Cyprus, from whence 
they proceeded to Rhodes, where they landed M. Beauchamp, 
a French prisoner of some consequence. 

From Rhodes the Swiftsure shaped her course for Europe, 
after a cruise of seven months and four days, on the coast 
of I gypt and the adjacent parts, from the period of the 
battle of Aboukir, and soon after anchored in the Bay of 
Palermo. At this place they found Lord Nelson and the 
Neapolitan Court, from which they justly received great 
civilities ; and after a short stay there, sailed for the Bay of 
Naples, which city was then in the possession of the French. 
The operations of the British squadron in this quarter are 
amply detailed; and some circumstances are related, which 



392 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

place the Neapolitan Government In a most odious light. 
Instead of a free competition to supply the islands of Procida 
and Ischia, which had surrendered to the British arms, with 
corn, of which they were in the greatest want, and of 
which necessary article there was abundance in the island of 
Sicily, the Crown of Naples issued a grant for a courtier to 
supply them solely ; the consequence was, that it came in 
too small quantities to be of any essential service to the 
famished inhabitants, and the monopolist was so exorbitant 
in his demands, that the poor were literally starved. In 
relating this fact, which came under our reverend author's 
own observation, his humanity seems to slumber ; nor is 
his indignation awake till he comes to an event of which he 
was not a witness, which he relates on hearsay evidence, and 
which he supports with no concurrent testimony j At 
Palermo, a British subject was confined in prison three days, 
by order of the Court of Naples, without any charge being 
alleged against him, and liberated only in consequence of 
the interposition of some persons of rank of his own 
country ; but our author passes over the indignity offered 
to his countryman within his own circumspection, with the 
utmost apathy, to dwell on a transaction in Syria, which is 
in the highest degree problematical, and rests on no better 
evidence than newspaper authority. Such instances, to 
characterize them by the mildest term, of inadvertency, we 
are sorry to meet with in any writer, but more particularly 
in one who has afforded us much instruction and amuse- 
ment, and for whose talents we entertain the highest respect. 
The proceedings of the fleet off Naples are related at large, 
and some circumstances are told highly honourable to the 
British character. \V hen Naples was rescued from the do- 
minion of the French, it required the utmost exertions on 
the part of Captain Hood, who commanded on shore, to 
prevent the place being plundered by the Calabrese, Russian, 
and Turkish troops ; but his prudent and vigorous measures 
restored tranquillity, and the city was never more peaceable 



NATAL LITERATURE. 393 

than under his government. When at Naples Mr. Willyams 
visited Portici and Mount Vesuvius, both which places he 
describes. 

From Naples the Swiftsure sailed to Leghorn, where our 
Author landed, and proceeded to Pisa, Lucca, and Florence, 
the famous gallery of which last place Mr. Willyams had the 
good fortune to see before the French had despoiled it of 
some of its choicest ornaments. From Florence our author 
crossed the Appenines to Bolo