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Full text of "The Naval chronicle : containing a general and biographical history of the royal navy of the United kingdom with a variety of original papers on nautical subjects"

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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



A' /A'. 






vfoffummt Ire ct erl in Si Pauls 
f at3iedplto thpiMwnorv of tie]ai 
(' aptaiu Birliard Ihrii i] : 




. br Jctfr f,>tf.x-j.jlee Zonr.fTfft -fret 



THE 




FOR 1808: 



CONTAINING A 

GENERAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

OF 

THE ROYAL NAYY 

OF THE 



WITH A VARIETY OF ORIGINAL PAPERS ON 
NAUTICAL SUBJECTS. 

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF SEVF.RAL 

LITERARY AXD PROFESSIONAL MEN. 

VOL. XIX, 

(FROM JANUARY TO JUXE.) 



" England expects that every man will do his duty.' 1 ' 

NI.LiON AVD 'imONTB, 



LONDON: 

n AND PUBMSIIKD BY AN'l) FOft JOYCE GOLO, SHOE-tANF.: 

And sold by Messrs. LONGMAN, Hu R s T, RE F.S> and O R M K , Messrs, W i L K i E and 
&Oi NSON, Mr. SYMONDS, and Mr. WALKER, Paternoster Row; Mr. 
WHITE, FUet-ureet; Messrs. VIRNOR, HOD, and SHARPE, Poultry; Mr. 
ASPERNE, Mr. 'RICHARDS, and Messrs. RICHARDSON, Cornhill ; Messrs. 
BLACK, H. PARRY, and KINGS-BURY, Lcadenhall-sireet i Messrs, CROSBY 
and Co. Stationers' Hall Court ; Messrs. Sc AT c HA RD and LETTERMAN-, and 
Mr. LAW, Avemaria-lane ; Mr. GODDARD, Pail-Mall; Mr. ANDREWS, 
Charing Cross; Mr. MOT r L E Y, Portsmou'.h ; Messrs. CONCDON, Hex i. A ND, 
and PL ATT, Dock; Messrs. HAY DON, REES, and Cu RT i s> SM ITU, Ro-ci: R j^ 
and NETTLETON, Plymouth^ Messrs. NORTON and SON, Bristol ; Mr. 
ROBINSON, Liverpool; Messrs. MANNERS and MILLER, Mr, CREECH 
and Mr. CONSTABLE, Edinburgh; Mr. ARCHER, Dublin; <ti;d the principal 
iSooksdkrs in rfif diflwtiu SeajpoiH Towns throughout the United Kingdom, 

1808, 






TO 

GOODWIN KEATS, ESQ. 

REAR-ADMIRAL OF THE BLUE SQUADRON, 

THIS NINETEENTH VOLUME OF THE 

Batial C&romcle 

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 
DY THE PROPRIETOR JA'D EDITORS. 



PLATES IN VOLUME XIX. 

from Original Designs* 

\ Ti fiiT,~ " TS 

PLATE 

FRONTISPIECE. Monument of Captain RICHARD RINPLF. BTR- 
>, late of hjs majesty's ship the Ardent, Engraved by 



VIGNF.TTE, Portrait of the M.\RS, of 74 guns, commanded by 
the late Captain G.Duir, in the battle of Trafalgar, where 
he lost his life ; engraved on wood by C. NESBIT, from a 
Drawing by POCOCK - - 1 

ir. Portrait of Captain JOSEPH ELLISON. Engraved by 
COOK, from a Miniature in the possession cf Mrs. ELLISON ib^ 

Cl'XLIX. View of LA GCAVKA, on the Spanish Main. Engraved by 

I\ rrx Altos, from a Draw ing by G. T. ................. 49 

t.'CL. Portrait of Sir CHARLES HAKDY, Knt. Admiral of the "White 
Squadron, Engraved by II. II. COOK, from a Painting by 
KO.M.N i:v, 11. A.' " ?,\ . . 89 

CCI.L View of LISBON ROCK. Drawn and engraved by BENNT.. "138 

C'CLII. Portrait of Captain EDWAKD BPLT.ER. Engraved by II. R. 

COOK, from a Painting by M. KEELING , ,. 177 

C'CLIII. ^'iew of Captain ELLISON'S Action, off Guernsey, with an 
P.nrmy's Squadron. Engraved by RICKAKDS, from a Draw- 
inj: by J. T. LEE, Ebq ^, 317 

CCI.iV. Portrait of tlic late JOHN MA&IRIDE, Esq. Admiral of the 
.lilne S([uadron. Engraved by COOK, from a Painting by 
SMAIII ,... , ...,265 

Vic.,-.- uf the Inlands of RF.DONDA and NEVIS, in the West 
it 1 ?. Eiicraved by HALL, from a Drawing by G. T. .... 308 

T.riruit of JOHN HOLLOW AY, Esq. Vice-admiral of the Red 
> 'pjdron, k \c. Drawn and engraved by CooE .,,,,..... 358 



\ sew near BUR fits, on the Coast of Norway. Engraved 
'V 1 i A I.L, from a Draw ing by G. T. . , ." 405 

['"limit of Captain CHARLES LYDIAHD. Engraved by 
OH, trom a Painting by LIVESAY .................. 441 

cf the Harbour of Rio DF. JANEIRO. Engraved by 
vi i . from a Drawing by POCOCK , 491 

i i "Misi'iici-. to this Volume. 




F 11 E F A E 

TO TIJK NINETEENTH VOLUMK. 



HE Nineteenth Volume of the NAVAL CHKONICJ.F, 
tains various interesting documents relative to the present eventful 
crisis ; and, by its biographical memoirs, has rendered the ser- 
vices of some of our naval officers more gvaierally known. 

If it should be objected, that we do riot always select the mo*st 
renowned and distinguished of our naval heroes, it may be re* 
plied, that such officers do not so much require the adventitious 
Assistance of -the biographer, as men of equal merit though not 
of equal celebrity. At the present awful crisis of civilized Eu 
rope, amidst the general wreck and degradation of the, continent^ 
whilst the storm is still raging, and the gloom of military tyranny 
is deepening on all sides, it is devoutly to be wished, that w.ur 
eudless factions and parties would think only of employing met* 
of the most high and established professional merit. There is a 
dreadful stagnation in the service, a dead calm, hitherto unpre* 
cedented in the long and desperate contest in which we have lievejj 
engaged. The country, and its natural bulwark, the BRITJSI* 
NAVY, wants men who will dare to art and think, without thai 
eternal wavering, and looking to others for an opinion, whi.cl* 
paralyses all national exertions. A greater portion of fcaleu$ 
ought to be afloat; and we know that we deliver the general 
sentiments of our countrymen when we express a wish, that Uvo 
venerable Lord Bnrham were again stationed at the helm, &n4 
the experience and determined spirit of arl St. Vincent aggiw. 
seen and felt OR his old station off Cadiz. Beloved as that \=, 
teran admiral is by the Spaniards, and intimately connected ;>.$ 
he has long been with their Admiral, Majruredo, hp would, 



Vt PREFACE. 

ere this have placed the French and Spanish fleets out of the 
reach of Corsican perfidy and usurpation. The moment, we fear, 
has been lost, and the subjugation of Spain, notwithstanding its 
rising patriotism, will probably be the consequence. 

Amidst the BIOGRAPHY of the present volume, the Memoirs of 
Captain Ellison, of Admiral Holloway, and of Captain Lydiard, 
are fully detailed, and from sources of no common authority. 
In our CORRESPONDENCE, the reader will have noticed many in- 
teresting and valuable communications. Our friend, ]$onny~ 
Pheasant, page 38, favoured us with much additional informa- 
tion respecting Sir Edward Pellew ; and we have also to thank 
him for his extracts from the scarce and valuable Naval Specu- 
lations, by Henry Maydman (page 42), continued from our pre- 
ceding volume. With other acceptable communications, unne- 
cessary here to detail, we have particularly to notice the excellent 
correspondence of A. F. Y. which commenced at page 19G; 
the letter of Mercator (page 202); the report of Rear-Admiral 
Sir Sydney Smith, at the Dardanelles, to Sir John Duckworth, 
(pa f 4'e '2[) { 2) ; and the letter (page 287), containing Remarks on 
the Parliamentary Duties of Naval Officers. 

In the selection of NAVAL POETRY, we have to thank a 
friend fur his extract from Percy's Reliques of Ancient English 
Poetry, 77/r Untiring of Calcs (page 140) ; and most sincerely 
do \\t wi:-h_, what that excellent old ballad says 

' That ("ale-? was taken, and our brave. general 

Marched to the market-place, where lie did stand." 

r 21-1, in the extracts from the Lay of the last Minstrel, 
ito C.i, the r;uthor'.s name, Mr. Walter Scott, was inadver- 

: silly omitted. 

s'he Lr.iTKKs ON SERVICE in the present volume detail 
!;nf eViraruuir.ary instances of that daring spirit and gallantry 
iliieii - ..mimic 1 > appear throughout our navy. The judgment 
br.v.'iy of Lieutenant Tracey, commander of the Linnet 
; acknowledged by Admiral Montagu (page 82), in the 
3 a Courier French lugger privateer. 'Die courage 
Lieutenant Walter Foreman, of the Herald, Capt. 
v,-, nit. out an aimed Trabaccolo, under cover of the night, 
r under the fortress of Otranto, notwithstanding 
m (he shore and the vessel, is acknowledged by 
'.: \\ood (page 1,3,3). The capture of the Danish 
. Tieunas, Si. John, and their dependencies, by Ad- 
Sir Alexander Cochrane and General Bowyer, is detailed 
-The testimony of Vice-Admiral Dacres ta 
of Captain Douglas, of the Reindeer sloop, who 



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PREFACE. Vll 

frad captured four privateers in the space of four months,, is re- 
corded ; with an account of Captain Douglas's capture of the 
Jean Tessicr privateer (page 256). Admiral Lord Gardner, 
when transmitting the oflieial letter of Captain Mailland, of the 
Emerald (page 257), respecting his distinguished valour, in au 
attempt to cut out a large French schooner in \ ivero harbour, 
added, " an exploit which I trust their lordships will conceive 
with me to do great credit to all concerned, for their undaunted 
spirit and perseverance ; the number of men, however, killed and 
\voundcd on the occasion, is much to be lamented."- Captain 
Yco's letter, containing an account of a very gallant exploit per- 
formed in two boats, by Messrs Trist and Largue, master's 
mutes of the Confiauce, is inserted (page 59)- The judicious 
conduct and great bravery of Captain F. B. 11. Pellew, of the 
Psyche, in the capture of a Dutch corvette, of 24 guns, at the 
island of Java, with a Dutch armed brig and a large merchant 
ship, are commended by Admiral Sir Edward Pellew (page 339). 
The gallantly of Captain Peter Rainier, of the Caroline, in the 
capture of some Dutch brigs, and of the Dutch frigate the Maria, 
of 36 guns, in the Indian ocean, is narrated in a letter to the ever- 
to-be- lamented Sir Thomas Troubridge (page 341). Captain 
Rainier says, " I cannot speak too highly of Mr. Bain, the mas- 
ter, in laying me alongside the Maria, and whose accurate know- 
lodge of the seas enabled me to take the ship into Batavia." 
Captain Searle's professional character received the merited 
praise of Lord Collingwood (page 342), for his gallantry in taking 
the largest of three Spanish vessels of war, which the. Grasshop- 
per had fallen in with off Carthagena. Captain Searle spoke in 
the highest terms of the conduct of his lieutenant, Mr. Cornelius 
"VVellis. But the eminent skill and valour of Captain Searle ig 
still further displayed (page 343 345), whilst attached to a little 
Mjiuuhon under the orders of Captain Maxwell, who mentions 
Captain Searle in terms of high praise and admiration. The 
activity of Lieutenant Colin Campbell is acknowledged by Vice- 
admiral Dacrcs (page 345). Sir Alexander Cochrane records 
the promptitude and skill of Captain Selby, of the Cerberus, 
whilst commanding the blockading squadron of Point a Petre, 
Guadaloupe, as displayed in the capture of the island of Marie 
Galante in which Captain Seiby was ably assisted by a detach- 
ment of seamen and marines, under Captain Pjgot, of the Circe, 
(page 428). Captain Selby 's letter, detailing his account of the 
subsequent capture of the island of De^cada, and acknowledging 
the merit of Captains Shcrriff and Ward, is inserted (p. 430). 
The additional services of the indefatigable Captain Searle, in 
J.he capture of the two Spanish gun boats., the destruction of 



r RE JACK. 

two others, and the capture of two valuable vessel? from South 
America, are detailed (page 4S 4 2).-hCaptain Mason's lette-r, de- 
scribing the gallantry of the offku-rs and men of the ship Daphne 
and Tartarus ; loon, U . Kussel, Esq. commander, in '-titting out 
tc-n vessels in ' 'u with 'provisions, from Flodstrand, on 'lie coa>t 
of Jutland, i? inserted ([>age 43')). Captain Mason liberally e\- 
firrcssed his admiration of the steady valour and good conduct of 
lih first lieutenant, Mr. Elliot, who was wounded. Various 
other instances of valour and enterprise are recorded in tl 
Official Letters and in the Naval Anecdotes f the Nineteenth 
Volume of the CHRONICLI:. 

The Oviedo gazette, and the important news from Spain, 
broushtby Captain Tremlelt, of his niajest.'s ship the Alcmcne, 
xvill, we trust, impart fresh spirit to tlie iViends of the brave 
Spaniards; who naturally love the English, and are respected 
fy them. We fear only the superior skill and subtil ty of the 
t.'oi>h\m, and Ins myrmidons; and that s\>tcm of treachery, 
Jiuirdi-r, and falsehood, which has ever marked the progre- 
ti;e French armies. In Spain, as in Sweden, traitors strai 
nestle ainong.-t the higher ranks: and, with the exception of 
:!:,) i' two countries, the latter of which was reported to be 
M-jvering, the niter degradation of the continent is completed. 
*Ve trust, however, that the time is yet approaching, when son ie~ 
liiiii'.: like patriotism ami heroic valour may again return, and 
liurl the Corsican usurper from his throne. The legitimate 
fnnnarcli of France still retains them, and the following letter 
lint bv him in 1806, to the late king of Spain, with \\hich we 
-hall close our preface, forms a striking contrast to the general 
vf-ndtict and sentiment."! of Buonaparte. 

" si: 1 , vv rr.cn m:u, AND cor six, 

It i- \vi:!i ;> L r :'ct that T send back to your majesty the insignia of the 
k;- i'l.-tr-i.', !i:c-!i [ had received from the king your father, ot'-Jonom 
i t;-".T can he nothing in common between me, and the gu-ai 
: !;:> own audacity, aided by fortune, has placed upon my 
u >-. h;>-h he lias so cruelly defiled wi;h the pure blood of a 
ay induce me to pardon an assassin, butj.be tyrant of 
; ::!>.;-. be :ny enemy. In our present circumstances it is 
; ' iic'-t-;-\e tt:i- i-'fptre, thau to sway it.' God, i;i his i 

-. i:i:iy \ trliitps have condemned me to tini>h my days in 
iL:i.r po^tcruy, r.cr the present ;\^, sliall ever say, that 
' ' : " ' ... ... fmtid and to die upvu the tin-one <>J 



*. 




////. '/.:// I iff ", ",! J< lfif7. fa J PcM. 1C3. Slu-t Imt. Lmdon. 




The above Vignette is engraved by Nesbit, from a Drawing which Mr. Pocock favoured us 
with; and is a portrait of the Mars, of 71 guns, commanded by the late Captain George Duff,* 
in the battle of Trafalgar, whov.-as killed in the action. By the Engraver not having reversed 
the drawing, the sword improperly appears In the left, instead of the rig/it hand of the figure. 

BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR 

OF 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH ELLISON, 

OF THE ROYAL SAW. 



" Yet still I am enabled, 

To bring up, in life's rear, 
Although I'm quite disabled, 
And lie in Greenwich tier." 



DIBDIN, 



CAPTAIN JOSEPH ELLISON, the worthy officer whose 
^-^ services to his country we have now the satisfaction of com- 
mencing our MNETEKNTH volume with, was born at Ncwcastle- 
upon-Tyne, in the year 1753. He was the only son of Joseph 
Ellison, Esq. a descendant of a very respectable family in that part 
of the country. + Unfortunately, he lost his father when he was 
only six months old ; in consequence, of which he was adopted by 

* A portrait, and very interer-tisig memoir of this gallant officer were 
inserted in our fifteenth volume. 

f Many families have branched off from the Anginal stock of the 
Ellisons; as is evident from the following letter, addressed to the subject 
of this memoir, by Richard Ellison, Esq. the present member of parliament 
for the city of Lincoln. We insert it with the mere satisfaction, as it affords 

. <RoIXIX. * 



2 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

an aunt, who had no children of her own, and was removed by her 
into the neighbourhood of Portsmouth. 

We must trace, with a rapid hand, his early professional pro- 
grrss. In his ninth year, he \vent to sea with Admiral Sir Edward 
Hawkc,* in the Royal George, which was at that time command- 
ed by Captain Kennett. In the year 17G3, he was removed into 
the Rippon, of 60 guns, Captain (now Admiral) Thompson ; 
from which lie went on board the Arrogant, commanded by the 
late Admiral M'Kenzic. In 1767, he joined the Glory, Captain 
Chad; in which he remained till 1760, when he was removed into 
the Aldborongh, Captain Hawkc ; in 1770, he served in the 
Boyne, Captain Bennet ; in 1773, he went into the Ocean, Cap- 
tain Oury ; and, in 1776, into the Somerset, Captain Le Cras. 
From the last mentioned ship, he was sent, for a few months, into 
the Albion, commanded by the Honourable Levison Gowcr. 

* gratifying testimony of the general estimation in which both the public 
ami private character of Captain Ellison areholden: 

" SIR, 22, Dovtr Street, July 6, 1707. 

" I have this day received, on my return to London, the honour of a 
letter from you, but which I am persuaded is intended for some other gen- 
tleman of our common name; and I' presume for Mr. Ellison, of Park 
House, near Newcastle, who has been some time dead. Allow me to say, 
that I consider the circumstance of this letter coming into my hands, as for- 
tunate to myself. It gives me the opportunity of becoming known to you, 
and of expressing a wish for the increase of that acquaintance. If circum- 
stances should at any time bring me into the vicinity where you may be, I 
shall with pleasure avail myself of the occasion, personally to pay my 
respects to you ; and I will flatter myself, that when you visit London I 
may hope for that favour from you. My country residence is Sudbrooke 
Hall, mar Lincoln ; and if you should visit the north, I beg to extend my 
wish tor the pleasure of waiting upon you there. 'The late Mr. Ellison, of 
whom 1 have spoken, was of the same family, as are also nil the Ellisons in 
the counties of Lancaster, Durham, and Northumberland, although the 
relationship is now very distant. I have little doubt but in conversation on 
the subject, we shall be found in some degree related: in the mean time, 
permit me to congratulate you on your honourable appointment,! and to 
offer t very wish for your health and happiness. I have the honour to bfcj 
with evcrv respect, cx'c. &c. 

"RICHARD ELLISON." 

: A memoir of this officer appears in the seventh volume of the NAVAL 
CiiKOMci.r., page 453. 

t To the Marlborough. 



CAPTAIN JOSEPH ELLISOV. 

On his return to the Somerset, that ship was ordered to Boston, 
m America. Soon after her arrival there, the American war 
broke out; on which occasion, Captain Le Cras gave Mr. Ellison 
the command of three gundaloes, for the purpose of prcyenting 
the rebels from forming a junction. This was a service of great fa- 
tigue, and of no slight danger : as the persons engaged in it were 
deprived of their natural rest, and of every other comfort, and 
were fired at, and harassed continually, by the enemy. One of 
Mr. Ellison's " lucky escapes," at this time, is deserving of notice. 
While asleep, at night, an eighteen. pounder came into the larboard 
quarter, killed two men who were lying close to him, and cut the 
clews of his hammock! 

When these gundaloes were found to be no longer serviceable, 
they were discharged, and Mr. Ellison went back to the So- 
merset. 

Immediately on his arrival from England, Sir William (now 
Lord Viscount) Howe obtained information, that the enemy had 
advanced as far as the heights of Charlestown, had thrown up re- 
doubts, and were straining every nerve to oppose a vigorous resist- 
ance against the British army. Sir William having landed at 
Boston, Mr. EUison was ordered to convey him, in the Somerset's 
barge, from that port to Charlestown.* They accordingly pro- 
ceeded thither, accompanied by the army, in flat-bottomed boats, 
and Mr. Ellison assisted in setting fire to the town. On making 
good their landing, he also volunteered his services to the army ; 
but it was deemed of more consequence that he should remain in 
the barge, in case a retreat should be requisite. On the following 
morning, however, Sir William Howe, having gained a complete 
victory over the rebels at Bunker's Hill, re-imbarked in the 
Somerset's barge ; and Mr. Ellison conducted him to General 
Gage, at Boston. 

When Mr. Ellison took his leave at Sir William Howe, that 
officer, as a handsome compliment to his merit, offered him a 
military commission ; which, it is scarcely necessary to say, he 
declined, as he felt a much stronger attachment to the naval 
service. 

The Somerset returned to England in March, 1 776 ; soon after 

* For a Vie\v of Charlestown see Vol. XV ill. 



4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OT 

which Mr. Ellison was removed into the Rippon, at that time 
commanded by Captain the Hon. Wm. Waldcgravc (now Admiral 
Lord Radstock *) and bearing the pendant of Commodore Sir 
Edward Vernon. In the Ilippon, he proceeded to the East 
Indies ; and, while on that siaiion, the war broke out between 
England and France. In the month of August, 1778, Sir Edward 
Vernon's squadron, consisting of the Rippon, Coventry, Seahorse, 
and Cormorant sloop, and the Valentine and Besborongh East 
Indiamen, fell in with a French squadron, of three sail of the line, 
and two frigates, under the command of M. Tranjolly, off Pon- 
dicherry ; and, after a spirited action of two hours, in which the 
Rippon had four killed and fifteen wounded, the opponents 
parted, as it were, by consent ; the enemy retreating into Pondi- 
cherry, and the English into Madras. + 

In the month of October following, Mr. Ellison was present at 
the reduction of Pondicherry, as acting lieutenant of the Cormo- 
rant, by order of Commodore Vernon. 

In this sloop he subsequently went up the Red Sea. At Suez, 
some of the crew deserted, and turned Mahometans ; and 
Lieutenant Ellison, having been sent to recover them, was seized 
by the Turks, and taken before one of their tribunals, to be 
p'inished. On receipt of this intelligence, Captain Owen sent on, 
shore, to demand Lieutenant Ellison and the men ; and to say that, 
unless they were immediately delivered up, he would Avarp the 
sloop alongside the town, and level it with the dust; which 
threat he was actually proceeding to put into execution, when 
Lieutenant Ellison was sent on board. 

On the arrival of the Cormorant at Madras, Captain Owen 
died ; in consequence of which Lieutenant Ellison was despatched 

* A biographical memoir of his lordship is given in the tenth volume of 
the NAV.L CHRONICLE, page 265. 

I Sir F.dwurd Vernon's official account of this engagement is inserted in 
our memoir of the late Sir Andrew Mitchelj vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. 
XVF. p;i<re 91 . Sir Andrew Mitchell was at that time one of the lieutenants 
of the U.ippon; and was, immediately after, made post in the Coventry. 
A short fkotch of tlie professional services of Sir Edward Vernon alsa 
appoa;--, in our sixteenth volume, page 90. Shortly after the above men- 
tioned action, Captain Marlow, in the Coventry, captured life Sartine, 
Frrnrh frigate, of 28 guns, which caistook the British for the French 



CAPTAIN JOSEPH ELLISON. 

to Trincomalee, by Commodore Vernon, with a commission for 
Lieutenant (now Admiral Sir Charles) Pole, to take the vacant 
command. 

At Trincomalee, Captain (now Sir George) Young, of the 
navy, and Captain Rumbold, of the army (the former charged 
with despatches from Sir Edward Vernon, relating to the capture 
of Pondicherry, and the latter with the colours of the garrison) 
embarked for England in the Cormorant; and, after a passage of 
four months,* and thirteen days, arrived safely at Portsmouth. 

After his arrival, Captain Pole was appointed to the Britannia; 
and Lieutenant Ellison, who had accompanied him to England, was 
ordered to take the Cormorant round to Sheerness. He was 
then, in the course of the year l-?79, appointed to the Queen, 
Captain (afterwards Admiral) Innis. Lieutenant Ellison \vas in 
this ship when the fleet under Sir Charles Hardy was chased by 
the combined French and Spanish lleets off Plymouth. f 

On leaving the Queen, Lieutenant Ellison married Miss Collis, 
the only daughter of Thomas Collis, Esq. of Gosport ; soon after 
which, he was Appointed to la Prudente, Captain Waldcgrave, 
then fitting at Deptford. Her first voyage was up the Baltic ; 
and, after returning to Sheerness, she was ordered to Spithead, to 
join the grand fleet, under the command of Admiral Darby. La 
Prudente found the tlcet lying at single anchor, and sailed with 
them on the following day. 

On the 4th of July, 1780, as we have stated in our memoir of 
Lord Radstock, la Prudente, having been detached upon a cruise 
off Cape Ortegal, in company with the Licorne, discovered a large 
ship bearing down to them, which proved to be the French frigate 
la Capricieuse, pierced for 44 guns. La Prudente engaged her for 
four hours and a half, before the Licorne came near to afford her 
any assistance. The action commenced at half-past eleven at 



* At the time this passage was made, it was conceived to be a very 
quick run ; but so much have we improved in navigating our vessels 
since that period, that we cannot help here noticing the comparatively short 
space of time which the Medusa (commanded by Captain Sir John Gore) 
performed it in, as she was only eighty-two days, in sailing from the Ganges 
to the Lizard. For the particulars of this passage we refer our readers to 
JOHNSON'S " Oriental Voyager," published by ASPERNE, in Cornhill. 

f Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. XVIII. pa^ge 353. 



6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

night, and continued till half-past four in the morning, when the 
Capricieuse struck her colours. Lieutenant Ellison, who lost, his 
arm upon this occasion, greatly distinguished himself. Captain 
Waldegrave, in concluding his oflicial account of the engagement, 
says : 

" It is with infinite concern that I acquaint their lordships, that Lieute- 
nant Ellison stunds foremost on the list of the wounded, having been very 
severely bruised in the back, and his right arm carried off by a shot. I 
must beg leave to recommend his misfortune, aitd the great intrepidity he 
shewed during the action, to their lordships' most particular attention."* 

Lieutenant Ellison, we have been informed, received four wounds 
in his back, before his arm was struck, but could not be induced 
to go below, to have them dressed, although they occasioned a 
great loss of blood. At length an eighteen-pound shot, striking 
his elbow, shattered the bones, and left his aria hanging by the 
skin only. He was then under the necessity of going down to 
the surgeon, who ordered him to be laid on his mattress, in the 
gun-room; where, having staunched the blood, and having many 
wounded men to attend, he left him till the close of the action. 

Whilst lying in this painful situation, a shot came in through the 
side of la Prudcntc, and took off the cook of the gun-room's head ; 
which actually fell close to Lieutenant Ellison, as he was handing 
him a glass of water. Unmindful of pain, or danger, and anxious 
only for the honourable termination of the action, he desired the 
seaman who was employed at the relieving tackles, to give him 
immediate information of the enemy's surrender, promising him a 
glass of grog for his trouble. Scarcely more than a quarter of an 
hour had elapsed, when the man came to him, waving his hat, with 
the joyful news ; on which he ordered him the promised grog, 
and also took a glass himself, which, fortunately, was not produc- 
tive of any ill e fleet. At seven o'clock in the morning (two hours 
and a half after the close of the engagement) his arm was amputated 
by the French surgeon. 

On the 1 9th of July, Ja Prudente arrived at Spithead. Sir 
Charles Pole (Lieutenant Ellison's former captain, in the Conr.o- 

* For the whole of this letter, and several othpr interesting particulars 09 
the subject, the reader is referred to the tenth volume of the 

' pa^c 'jo'9, ci scq. 



CAPTAIX JOSEPH ELLISOJf* 7 

rant) (hen commanded the Hussar, which was lying at that place ; 
and. as soon as he, had ascertained the arrival of his friend, he 
went in his barge to la Prudente, with the intention of conducting 
him on shore. Lieutenant Ellison, however, though highly gra- 
tified by this mark of attention, went on shore in la Prudente'3 
boat, attended by the surgeon. He landed at Gosport, where the 
inhabitants congratulated him on his narrow escape, and sympa- 
thised with him for the loss which he had sustained. Weak and 
emaciated, from the loss of blood, this had such an effect on his 
spirits, that he was under the necessity of stopping in one of the 
houses to recover himself. In a very short time after he had 
reached his home, Captain Waldcgrave paid him a visit : thus en- 
hancing the value of the very great kindness and attention which 
he had paid to him, whilst confined to his cot on board, by offering 
him every consolation in his power. 

On the day after the arrival of la Prudente, the French officers 
were sent on shore, on parole ; but they would not be persuaded 
to leave Gosport, without making their personal inquiries after 
Lieutenant Ellison, and taking a last farewell. Indeed, the 
attention which they shewed to him, during the whole time that 
they were on board, reflected great credit on their feelings. 

Shortly afterwards, the grand fleet arrived ; when Lieutenant 
Ellison was visited by a number of officers (several of superior 
rank to himself) with whom he had no personal acquaintance 
whatever. Amongst others, the late Lord Hugh Seymour was 
particular in his attention towards him; and, in every instance 
during his life, gave proofs of the high estimation in which he held 
his professional abilities. The death of his lordship has ever been 
deeply lamented by Lieutenant Ellison, to whom he had proved 
himself a most cordial and sincere friend.* 

The general and flattering approval which Mr. Ellison expe- 
rienced had nearly proved fatal to him; as, in consequence of the 
exertion which it occasioned, the arteries of his arm burst ; and it 
was supposed that they had been bleeding upwards of three hours, 
before the accident was discovered. The surgeons, from Haslar 
hospital, with the greatest difficulty, secured them, after they had 

* A biographical memoir of Lord Hugh Seymour is in the second volume 
f the NAVAL CHRONICLE, page 357. 



fc ' tlOOttArHICAI, SfltMOlA OF 

put on the bandages three times, the blood having repeatedly 
penetrated through them. He was thus so much reduced, as to be 
under the necessity of confining himself to his chamber, and was not 
allowed to see any body but his captain. Captain Waldegrarc was 
by this time presented to his Majesty; and, consequently, had tho 
satisfaction of informing the lieutenant, that his sovereign had con- 
descended, in a most particular manner, to inquire after him ; and 
that, on Captain Waldegrave's saying, that " he was recovering 
fast, and hoped very soon to serve his Majesty again," the King 
replied, with evident satisfaction, u Is it possible !" 

The exalted opinion which Captain Waldegrave, and other per. 
sons of consideration, entertained of Mr. Ellison, will now be far. 
ther seen, by certain original letters, and extracts from others, 
which we shall lay before our readers. The first of these is from 
General Ellison, an old, and much respected officer. 

" DEAR SIK, St. James's Square, 28//< July, 1780. 

'' Tt was not till yesterday, that your favour from Gosport, though dated 
the 20th of this month, came to my hands, occasioned, as I imagine, from 
the post-mark, of its having travelled first to Newcastle, and from thence 
transmitted to me here, in London. It is now some days since, that I had 
the honour of receiving a most polite and obliging letter from your gallant 
captain, which gave me the first information, of your having had the terrible 
misfortune of being severely wounded, and having lost your right arm in 
ensiling a French frigate. You may be assured, the very melancholy 
account gave me great and most sincere concern, which is alleviated with 
the thoughts of your being, in the opinion of your physician and surgeon 
out of danger ; a confirmation of which will, believe me, afford me real 
pleasure. Captain Waldegrave, in his letter to me (a copy of which I have 
sent to Sir Thomas Clavering) speaks in the highest terms of your conduct 
and most spirited behaviour during the action, which does himsdf, a well 
as you, very great honour. Captain Waldegrave also gives me reason tr> 
believe he will exert his interest to serve you ; I wish I had any, that could 
contribute to your promotion, which you have so well merited. But I am 
not in parliament, and consequently my recommendations can have DO 
weight." 

The subjoined is from an auat of the lieutenant, to Mrs. Ellison, 

his wife : 

" MY DFAR MRS. ELLISON, 

" With the most feeling sensibility and real concern, I take up the pen 
to sympathise with you, on the melancholy news I was yesterday made 
acquainted with from Mr. Clavering; who, himself, came from Greencroft 
to Linisgre..-;; *iti the copy of a letter from' Captain Waldegrave^ 



CAPTAIN JOSEPH ELLISOX. 9 

transcribed, by General Ellison, to Sir Thomas Clavering; iufcrming him 
of the unhappy accident which had befallen our dear relation, the worthy 
partner of your heart. My son and self, who were so lately made- acquainted 
with our amiable cousin's good nature and merit, felt the shock more sen- 
sibly; yet we hope and trust in the Almightv, that the event which appears 
to us in so afflictive a light, may in the end, be not so great an evil as we at 
present see it. If the good lad recovers, though with the loss of a limb, 'tis 
what many a brave man like himself has suffered in the horrid ra<ie of vrar. 
He must, and will, I doubt not, get preferment ; for his captain speaks of 
him, not only with all the warmth of friendship, but as a spirited, brave, and 
gallant officer; and, to use his own words, in his letter, " his intention is to 
exert his interest for that promotion which our friend so truly merits." He 
likewise adds, " he is persi aded that he shall meet the general's assistance, 
not only from his being a relation, but from that natural impulse which 
every brave man feels in assisting those of a similar character with his own." 
This much, my dear, of the captain's letter I have transcribed ; knowing it 
must give you both pleasure to hear our dear cousin's conduct is so highly 
approved." 

The next which we shall present, is a letter from Sir Thomas 

Clavering, Bart, to Lieutenant Ellison : 

" SIR, AxzceH Par],; July 21, 1786. 

" Your letter by the last post found me at this place, and though I must 
lament, with the rest of your friends and acquaintances, and with the pub- 
lic at large, what has personally fallen to your lot in the Lite gallant 
action ; yet I must congratulate yodr family and evry Englishman, on the 
noble spirit and good conduct you have given an instance of. Captain 
Waldegrate, in his letter to General Kllison, has Hone you justice, and given 
you much honour. I have no doubt but he has given it in the like simple 
manner to the Lords of the Admiralty; and that from thence will flow the 
reward due to your merit. If not, the service and the public will be 
injured. In my own opinion, any private application would be hurtful. I 
believe you may remember, I presumed to no interest -with tue Admiralty 
Board ; that any trifling service I was inclined to, was by means of an indi- 
vidual, no longer at the Board; but, if he had been there at this instant of 
time, I should have been unwilling to havp suggested a doubt of the injustice 
of the Board, respecting the reward due" to your merit on this occasion. 
However, well inclined to add every mean? in my power to obtain the re- 
ward justly due to your merit, I have, by this post, written to government 
jny opinion, and my wish t!mt yo-.r service may not be overlooked. 
" I am, sir, wiih the greatest esteem, 

" and earnest wish for your perfect recovery, 

" your most obedient, and very humble serrant, 

" THOMAS CLAV 7 ERING." 

It appears, by the following friendly epistle from Captain 
Waldegrave, that, notwithstanding the unirersal approbation 



10 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR Of 

which Lieutenant Ellison's conduct experienced, there were par- 
ticular obstacles in the nay .of his immediate promotion : 

" MY DEAR ELLISOX, Falwouth, October 19. 

" I make no doubt hut your anxiety on account of your being so long 
separated from your old shipmates and friends, is great; but. take my word, 
for the present, that you are much better with your good little woman. 

" We have met with nothing but gales of wind, I think, since we left 
Spithead, and at this instant it blows a perfect hurricane. We were driven 
into this port a few days ago, and I much doubt whether we shall be able 
to get to sea again before the 23d, which is the time fixed fur our return to 
the fleet. 

" If I do not find you at my return in as high beauty, and in as <;ood case 
as when we sailed from the Nore, I shall attribute it all to your wife, and 
lecture her accordingly. 

" I am very much concerned that my last visit to Portsmouth was so 
short as not to admit of leisure to shake you by the hand, especially as I 
v. ish to t;:lk to you about your pension, and some other matters. I had a 
li-ittr tV')i:i the Duke of Dorset some time ago, in which he assures me he 
t'i ii! ta'u; the earliest opportunity of laying your case before the ministers. 
r l iu'reibro a pension ("and I hope a handsome one) you will be sure to have; 
Li:i a-; to rani:. I fear it is out of the question, as even poor Auchenleck 
R-< in:- (-niirelv forgotten. We must therefore wait patiently for better times; 
:in'l if it b-. 1 true that merit in the end is ever rewarded, I am sure you have 
( '. < rv thinj; tu expect. 

" As -icm as I hear from the Dukr of Dorset, I will again write to you; 
in tlm ii>e;!u time you must comfort yourself with the pood opinion and 
\\Mies oi' your friends for the reward of your merit. Of this number be 
:i-Mircd tin-re is none who can think more highly of you than I do, or who 
uould be more happy to see you rewarded. 
'* Jjflievc me to be, 
" my dear friend, 

" most sincerely yours, 




; ' M ;!.<-; my best compliments to your good little woman. I hope that 

v. j;l n-.t ! e offended with me for using this epithet. 

' ; \\ IK n you write to me, Maxwell will forward your letter. Pray return 
rn my thanks for the trouble he has had in collecting my other letters. 
old siiipmates desire to be kindly remembered to you." 

t Ellison's hopes of promotion, however, were not 
l . and, soon after leaving his room, he found himself 
recovered to wait upon. Lord Sandwich, at the 



ULT ol 



CAPTAIX JOSEPH ELL1SOV. 11 

Admiralty. But his application was in vain ; his lordship inform- 
ing him, that it was impossible to promote him, without promoting 
the first lieutenant of la Prudonte, with the first and second of the 
Licorne ; but, if he wished to be employed on shore, he would 
appoint him, on a vacancy, to any situation he might like. Finding 
it impracticable to perform his duty at sea, as the winter was now- 
advancing, and as his health was in a precarious state (the wounds 
in his back not being healed, and his arm, from having been ampu- 
tated according to the old-fashioned method, having a very large 
wound yet open), he requested his lordship to appoint him to. a 
rendezvous at Gosport. Lieutenant Ellison, it will be recollected, 
had been brought up in that neighbourhood; and, consequently, 
was well acquainted with the desertions, &c. which constantly took 
place there, for want of a proper look-out being kept. Lord 
Sandwich at first objected to this proposal, as there never had been 
a rendezvous at Gosport ; but, on Lieutenant Ellison's assuring 
him, that he could make it advantageous to the service, he 
acquiesced; and the appointment was found to be of so much 
utility, that it has been continued ever since. 

During the time that Mr. Ellison was employed upon this ser- 
vice, he had several narrow escapes ; one of which, in particular, 
is deserving of notice. Information having been sent, from Sir 
Thomas Pye, who was then the port admiral at Portsmouth, that 
a great number of deserters were on board an East [ndiaman, at 
Spithcad, Lieutenant Ellison, with his gang, consisting of twelve 
men, and two midshipmen, in the impress boat, proceeded on 
board ; and, on mustering the crew, he found forty-live deserters 
from the different ships, whom he with great difficulty secured, and 
carried on board the Hag-ship. Admiral Evans, who was the 
second in command at Portsmouth, made a representation of this 
service to the Admiralty ; in consequence of which, Lieutenant 
Ellison received their lordships' approbation, in a public letter. 
The affair was also productive of farther advantage to him ; as, 
soon afterwards, he received the following letter from George 
Rogers, Esq. the private secretary of Lord Keppcl, who had suc- 
ceeded to the head of the Admiralty Board : 

" SIR, 

" Lord Fcppel is much inclined to give you a step, not. more for the 
regard he has for General Ellison, rlian your own merits as tin oiiicer, but 
means you to continue in the present service you are employed upon. 



12 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

f 

Your conduct in raising men, he intends as an example; and hopes you 
will be satisfied to continue doing the duty where you ate, without putting 
the public to a greater expence than attends your present employ in it. 
Great reforms to conduct the cxpence of the impress service are now in 
agitation. I shall hope to hear from you in reply, as soon as convenient to 
you; and am, with much esteem and regard, 

" Your faithful humble servant, 
" Admiralty, June 5, 1782. GEO. ROGERS." 

Lieutenant Ellison, of course, gladly accepted his promotion, 
on the conditions proposed ; and was appointed master and com- 
mander, in the Ostrich sloop, with orders to continue on the 
impress service. On this occasion, he received the following con- 
gratulatory note, from his old friend, Captain Waldegrave : 

" MY DEAR FRIEND, Whitehall, Saturday.* 

" Believe me it gives me the most sincere pleasure imaginable, to hear 
of your promotion; and, what is a very additional satisfaction, is that it 
proceeds entirely from your own merit. 

" In a conversation i had a short time ago with Lord Keppel, he assured 
me that you had rai.-eci at least four men for any other officer's one. Go 
on, my go;>d friend, with your usual activity; and I trust, erelong, that I 
shall have the pleasure of again congratulating you. I beg my best compli- 
ments to Mrs. Ellison. Believe me to be, truly yours, 

W, WALDEGRAVE." 

In January, 1783, seven months after the above, Captain 
Ellison was appointed post to thePan(her, and ordered, as before, 
not to go on board, but to remain, on the impress service. In con- 
sequence, however, of peace taking place, that employment was 
broken up. Shortly afterwards, having been appointed to the 
Ariadne, of 20 guns, Captain Ellison received the following letter 
from Lord Keppel : 

" sir, May 8, 1783. 

" I am favoured with your letter, and though I cannot give you any 
diivrr information as to the destination of the Ariadne, I may say she will 
nor be scut abroad, if it can be avoided, which will make it unnecessary for 
her to have more provisions than for home service, unless they are aU 
icutK shipped. I am, sir, your very humble servant, 




* This was written iu June, 1782. 



CAPTAIN JOSEPH ELLISON. 13 

Captain Ellison was accordingly ordered to take the Sea Flower 
cutter (commanded by Lieutenant, now Captain II. L. Ball) un- 
der his command, and to proceed to Lough Swiily, in Ireland; 
where, agreeably to the orders of Lord Temple, then lord 
lieutenant of that kingdom, he would be joined by two Irish 
wherries, for the purpose of exploiing a fishirg bank, which was 
supposed to lie off the north-west coast of Ireland. No particular 
bank was discovered; but, in regular soundings from the land, a 
great quantity of most excellent cod, ling, and tusk, was caught; 
and Captain Ellison was of opinion, that the fishery might be turned 
to great national advantage. 

The requisite service having been performed, the Ariadne was 
ordered home, and arrived at Spithead in September, 1783. 
Shortly after his arrival, Captain Ellison received a letter from his 
relation, the general, whom we have already mentioned, of which 
the following is an extract : 

" I am much concerned to hear of yeur being in a bad state of health, 
and that your wound has broke out again, but hope it wii! *oon be healed. 
I yesterday breakfasted with Lord Keppel, who shewed me your letter to 
Mr. Stevens, with the account of your proceedings off the coast of Ireland: 
he spoke very favourably of you, and told me your conduct was perfectly 
approved of. This will give you po little satisfaction, which occasions my 
mentioning it.'' 

Of a date two days subsequent to that of the above, is the follow- 
ing from Lord Keppel :- 

*f SIR, Admiralty, September 21, 178S. 

" I am favoured with your letter of the 16th, and was sorry to under- 
stand by it that you vyas indisposed. I hope a little rest will set you soon 
to rights; more especially as your service will be wanted, upon the Dublin 
station, as well as your cutter with you. I took care that orders should be 
sent for the refitting of the Ariadne at Portsmouth, in preference to another 
port ; though the alterations you wish, in raising her gunnel, cannot be 
DOW done, even if judged proper to be done at all. 

" I fear, without much care and attention, the Ariadne will lose many of 
Jier [men] whilst in an inactive situation. 

" I am, sir, 
!' Your very obedient and humble sen-ant, 

" KEPPEL." 

Captain Ellison, finding his arm very troublesome, and con. 
eeiving that the requisite cxprtion would be greater than his health 



14 BIOGRArinCAJ, MEMOIR OF 

would enable him to bear, made an application to the Admiralty, to 
be superseded ; which, being complied with, he, for a short time, 
retired from active service. 

When he found himself sufficiently recruited, he solicited the 
command of a frigate; and, in February, 1785, on Captain 
Byron's health obliging him to quit the Druid, of 32 guns, Lord 
Howe, who was then the First Lord of the Admiralty, without 
any farther application, appointed Captain Ellison to command 
her. 

Continuing in the Druid, during the peace, he rendered important 
service to his country, by capturing several smuggling vessels ; and 
also had the satisfaction of bringing up many young men to the 
service, \vho, as officers, are now in the highest estimation. His 
first cruise was with Admiral Vandeput, to the Baltic, in May 
17S5, for the purpose of conveying his Royal Highness Prince 
Edward, now Duke of Kent, to Stadt. On his return to Sheer- 
ness, Captain Ellison, with the Druid, was ordered to Spithcad ; 
and thence, on the western station, between the Start Point and 
the Li/.ard, with the Pylades and Fairy sloops, and the Sprightly 
and Baracouta cutters, under his command, for the purpose of 
intercepting smugglers ; whose illicit proceedings were at that time 
carried on in a most daring and outrageous manner. As we have 
already stated, he succeeded in checking their unlawful trade, by- 
capturing a number of their vessels. 

Captain Ellison likewise cruised in company with the Pegasus, 
commanded by Prince William Henry; and with the Rose, com- 
manded by the present Admiral Sir Henry Hervey, off Guernsey ; 
and, during the absence of the Hebe, Captain (now Admiral) 
Thornborough, he had the whole command, from Dungcnessto the 
Lizard. At this time he was constantly cruising ; only occasionally 
coining into port for orders. At length, his three years being 
expired, the Druid was paid off; and Captain Ellison, for a short 
time, remained unemployed. 

On solirifing the Admiralty, he was again appointed to his 
favourite >hip, the Druid. After several cruises, and being 
attached (o the (loot assembled at Spithcad, during the Russian 
annarnent, &<:. lie was ordered to proceed to a certain latitude, 
\\iih scaled orders ; on opening of which, he was directed to go to 



CAPTAIN JOSEPH ELLISON. 15 

Barbailocs, and, should Captain Inglefield have been there, to 
follow him to Jamaica. This he did; but he had been at Jamaica 
only a few months, when he received Admiralty orders to return 
to England, in company with the Medusa, Captain Inglefield. 
They accordingly arrived in the Channel, in the month of Septem- 
ber, 1792; and, observing the royal standard hoisted in Portland 
Road, they went in to pay their respects to his Majesty ; vrho, 
on their landing, was walking on the Esplanade, where he was 
pleased to receive them very graciously. 

An instance of the faithfulness of his Majesty's recollection, 
which occurred on this occasion, is deserving of notice. On per- 
ceiving Captain Ellison, he called to Lady Caroline Waldegrave, 
to look out of the window, and she would see an old acquaint- 
ance, who had formerly sailed, and lost his a-m, with her bro- 
ther, Captain Waldegrave. His Majesty then asked Captain 
Ellison how long he had commanded the Druid ; and, on being 
informed upwards of seven years, he said, " Do you never mean 
to give her up?" " No, please your Majesty." rejoined Captain 
Ellison, " if you will have the goodness to make me a present of 
her." The King appeared much entertained, laughed heartily, 
and called to the Queen, who was walking at a short distance 
" Charlotte ! Charlotte ! this Ellison is asking me to give him the 
Druid ! " After paying their respects, Captain Ellison and Cap- 
tain Inglefield repaired on board their respective ships, and sailed 
for Spithead. 

On the commencement of the war, in 1793, Captain Ellison, 
who was lying in Cawsand Bay, was despatched on a cruise, off 
Cape Finisterre, for twenty days ; but, unfortunately, the wind 
proved unfavourable, and he was under the necessity of returning 
in two days, without being able to profit, in -any respect, by this 
mark of attention. 

Having revictualled his ship, the Admiralty ordered him on a 
second cruise; directing him to take Captain Sidney Yorke, in the 
Circe, under his command. He was this time more successful; as, 
during their cruise, they captured 1'Esperance, French privateer, 
of 14 guns ; and la Vaudreuil, and la Dauphine, merchant ships, 
from Cayenne, bound to Nantz. 

For a length of time ; Captain Ellison was very actively employed 



16 BIOGRAPHICAL MfcMOlft Of 

off the French coast, in company with the Flora, Sir John Warreff, 
the Fury, Captain Sotheron, and others; after which, the Druid 
was successively under the Orders of Rear- Admiral M' Bride, and 
Sir John VY r arrcn.* Iler career, however, had nearly been closed ; 
as she accidentally got on shore in Plymouth Sound, lost her 
masts, and was with difficulty rescued from destruction. 

In the spring of 1794, the Druid was again under the orders of 
Admiral M-Bride. In our memoir of Sir James Saumarez, we 
have stated, that, on the 8th of June, in that year, Sir James, 
" having under his command the Druid, of 36 guns, Captain 
Ellison, and Eurydice^ of '20 guns, Captain Cole, at dawn of day, 
when about mid-channel over, they fell in with a squadron jof the 
enemy's ships, more than treble their force, viz. the Scajvola and 
Brutu-; line-of-battle ships, with their quarter-decks cut down, 
carrying . r >4 guns on two decks, two frigates of 36 guns, the 
Danne and JFclicile, besides a corvette and brig; they were soon 
di-covers. 1 ;! to be enemies, by the fire one of the ships opened on a 
lugger commanded by Lieutenant -Barker, who was ordered to 
n-oor.iioitre." As we have obtained a drawing of the memorable 
action that ensued, in which Captain Ellison bore a distinguished 
p:n-f. wo must bo permitted, by way of illustration, to quote a few 
ai'tii'iunai linos from our memoir of Sir James Saumarez ; par- 
ti'.T.'.!!-!v :is. although an official letter was written upon the snb- 
i.-ct. it never appeared, nor has any other authentic statement 
i ^aciu'd (he public. 

*' Seeing the va>t superiority of the enemy, Sir James immediately 
or. It -red fi;e "Kurydk'o (n heavier sailer) to make all possible expedition for 
!.\;u:n-ev, v, i,il s t he himself in the Crescent and [accompanied by the] Druid 
followed under easy sail, keeping the enemy at bay. After allowing theEury- 
d.vc t > Lit 1 1 well a-head, the Crescent and Druid made sail, and joinefl her 
\\heu r=he had approached near die shore, off the back of Guernsey. At thi 
crmcal period, the whole of the enemy's squadron were crowding sail, with 
the apparent intention /)f cutting off the Druid and Eurydice, when Sir 
J;iiiu-s extricated the squadron from their perilous situation, by a bold and 
masterly manoeuvre ; he hauled his wind and stood along the French line, 
;i, t.nier to draw thi;ir attention from the two other ships, making at the 
same time the signal for them to continue their course to the southward ; 
thr deMLi'.i answered Ins expectations, the enemy pursued the Crescent, 
\\liicli they made sure of capturing, but by the assistance of an old and 
txpeiiuiccd (iucni^ey pilot, she was enabled to get through an intricate 

* t'tJv NAVAL CUUOSICLE, Vol. III. page 336 and 337, 



CAPTAIN JOSEPH ELLISOV. 1? 

pas^aje never before attempted by king's ships, and came round to the 
anchorage by the northward of the island, leaving the enemy disconcerted 
and disappointed at having been entrapped in the snare. It is worthy of 
remark, that notwithstanding our ships sustained the collected force of the 
enemy's fire for upwards of two hours, some damage in the rigging and sails 
Was the only injury tbey received." 

The general order , so gratifying to the officers concerned, which 
was issued on this occasion by Governor Small, who then com- 
manded at Guerusey, has already appeared in the NAVAL 
CHRONICLE; * consequently we shall now only subjoin the 
following note, from Sir James Saumarez to Captain Ellison : 

" Crescent, Guernsey Road, June 10, 1794. 

" Sir James Saumarez desires to return his best thanks to Captain. 
Ellison, and the officers of the ship's company, of his Majesty's ship Druid, 
for their spirited conduct and bravery on the 8th instant in having, jointly 
with the Crescent, repelled the ships of the enemy, more than treble our 
force. It is to be regretted that the bad sailing of the Eurydic* prevented 
their deriving the advantage which they otherwise would have received from 
Captain Cole and his brave ship's company." 

After this action, nothing particular occurjed whiLt Captain 
Ellison commanded the Druid. 

In June, 1795, he was appointed to the Standard, of 6-1 guns, 
under the orders of Sir John Borlase Warren, who had just 
hoisted bis broad pendant in la Pomone, as commodore of an 
expedition which had been planned against the French coast. As 
a singular indulgence, Captain Ellison was allowed to take all his 
officers, and fifty of his seamen, from the Druid. This circumstance 
is mentioned in the following letter from R. Hopkins, Esq. at that 
time one of the Lords of the Admiralty : 

" SIR, Oting, April 10, 1 795. 

" I give you thanks for your very oblising letter, informing me of your 
appointment lathe command of the Standard ; on which I heartily congra- 
tulate you. 

" Lord Spencer's permission to you to keep all your lieutenants, is very 
flattering, as it bespeaks his opinion of your merit, by a desire to comply 
with your wishes. 

" If you should come to town soon, I shall be very happy to see you, to 
assure you in persou that I am, with true regard, sir, 

" Your faithful friend and humble servant, 



Captain Elliton. 



* Vide Vol. VI. page 98. 

ftat. ijron, GoI.XIX, D 




Ig RIOGRAl'niCAL MEMOIR Ot 

Sir John Warren's squadron, with fifty troop-ships attached*, 
sailed from Yarmouth Roads, Isle of Wight, about the middle of 
June, and joined Lord Bridport's squadron, off Ushant. On the 
21st, the Galatea, Captain Keats, having been sent into Quiberon 
Bay, was chased by the French fleet, which was soon afterwards 
descried by the English. On the following morning, Sir John 
Warren, who had been making the requisite preparations, per- 
ceived that Lord Bridportwas in pursuit of the enemy. His lord- 
ship ordered Captain Ellison's ship, the Standard, with the 
Robust, and Thunderer, into his line of battle ; but, in conse- 
quence of their distance, and there being but little wind, they were 
unable to join him until the action (which took place on the 23d) 
had terminated. Three of the enemy's ships, it will be recol- 
lected, 1' Alexander, le Tigre, and le Formidable, struck to the 
British ; and the rest of them took shelter under the land, and 
the batteries of port POrient, where they anchored in the course of 
the day.* 

After this engagement, Sir John Warren's squadron parted 
company with Lord Bridport, and proceeded to Quiberon Bay, 
where they anchored on the 25th of June* Sir John, whilst he 
\ras carrying on his operations in this quarter, sent the Standard 
to the p-cat road of Bellcisle, to blockade the island, and to 
endeavour to cflect its surrender. Captain Ellison had two French 
royalist officers on board, Messrs. Puisaye and Suasse, of the 
engineers, who were authorised to treat, in conjunction with him- 
self, with the governor of Belleisle ; to whom, on his arrival, he 
despatched the following summons : 

sir, Standard, Belleisle Road, June 26, 1795. 

11 You will not be surprised at my arrival in this road, with a squadron 
of his Britannic Majesty's ships, if you are acquainted, as I make no 
doubt you are, with the important victory obtained on the 23d instant, by 
our naw over the navy of the French convention; and the powerful relief 
my kiii'j; has afforded to the royalist army in Brittany. I am sent here to 
cut otY all communication between your island and the main land, and 
oiler vnu the protection of his Britannic Majesty, ,and I hope to be so 
happv as to contribute to restore the inhabitants of Belleisle to the trau 

* 1'or full particulars of this action, the reader is referred to the NAVAL 
CniiONTn.i. Vol. 1. page 279, 280, 281, and 300; and Vol. III. page 343, 



C1PTAIJT JOSEPH ELLISO.V. 19 

^piility they must wish for, and furnish them with all the means of living 
they a:e in need of. I do not come to summon you to surrender to the 
victorious British forces. I come to propose to you to acknowledge your 
own king, Louis XVII. and to offer you die alliance and protection of Grtat 
Britain, and put an end, at least in the island where you command, to the 
distressful calamities which desolate your country. The exhausting of the 
convention's resources, which is necessarily derived from the abuses they 
have made of them ; the insurrection of the royalists in every part of France, 
and especially iu Brittany, against the oppressive and usurped power of the 
convention ; the army composed of only the French troops who have been 
landed in your sight, to join the royalists, with ammunition of every kind; 
the recent victory which has almost completed the destruction of die repub- 
lican navy, the remains of which are blockaded in the bay of 1'Orient by a 
much superior force : all these considerations ought to induce you not to 
lengthen the calamities of war in your island. Do not, &ir, fear that Bel- 
leisle may be subject to a foreign power ; it is wished only to be surren- 
dered to your lawful king, to receive only French troops, and be defended 
only by its inhabitant?. My king, in his unlimited generosity, will furnish 
them with every means of subsistence in his power, and secure, to them his 
protection. 

" You may depend, sir, upon every reward both from your king and 
mine, also the royal officers and troops under your command, and the in- 
habitants, if you resolve to submit to the royal authority. 

" I have on board two French commissioners, who are vested with 
powers from the general of the royalist army, to treat, in union with me, 
in every thing that relates to your island, and to your particular interests ; 
and I am authorised to declare to you, that the comniander-iu-chief of the 
naval forces shall ratify all die articles which may be agreed upon between 
vs. 

" The persons you may think proper to send to me will be treated with 
all due respect, therefore I shall rely on your goodness that the like atten- 
tion is paid to the ofiicer who has the honour of delivering this letter to you. 

I am, &c. 



Captain and Commander. 
To ihe Commander-in-Chief of the 
Forces in Belleisle. 

Captain Ellison's first lieutenant (Buller) was the bearer of the 
above summons. He was coadncted to the citadel, blindfolded, 
where he was received in the handsomest manner, and invited to a 
ball in the evening ; after "which he was dismissed with thi 

following answer : 



20 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

" Republic of France, 
^ One and Indivisible. 

" Head Quarters, Be/lcisle, 8f h Messidor. 

" The General of Division, Boucret, to Mr. Ellison, commander of the 
Standard man of 'war , in the road of Bdleisle. 

tl We do not want the protection and stores of the king, your master. 
We want nothing. It depends on you to be convinced of it. To live free, 
or die in defence of the republic, one and indivisible, under tlie orders of 
the convention, is my vow, and also of the brave republicans I command. 

f I salute you, 

BOUCRET." 

There being no appearance of the surrender of the island, Cap- 
tain Ellison, after the lapse of about three weeks, sent in a second, 
summons ; of which we insert the following copy, for the first time, 
-we believe, that it has met the public eye:? 

" srn, " Standard, Belleisle Road, July 16, 1795. 

" Bi;in<: convinced that the words of peace contained in the letter my 
first lieutenant, Mr. Culler, delivered to you the 27th of June, should have 
dcMminni you to your true interests, in acknowledging your lawful sove-> 
reign, -and accepting the protection and succours from mine; I have delayed 
till now e/.t;cuti;ig with rigour the prders given me to blockade Belleisle 
cio<e!v, and, from mere benevolence for its inhabitants, have let them receive 
so ;ic provisions, and continue their fishing, which I know is very profitable 
to them ; but, sir, your obstinacy, and the little regard you have paid to 
thc.-e my proceedings, put me under the necessity of entirely altering my 
conduct. 

' 1 will yet repeat to you before doing so, that both my king and your's 
\vait ohiy ; t display all their benevolence, till you have submitted volun- 
taril--, and given up the principles which, have worked the misfortunes of 
Train e. and disturbed Europe for too long a time; besides, the motives I 
o;|.'!aihcd to you in my last, and those every good Frenchman feels in hi$ 
c uuts which have passed since ought to determine you. 

f--rr, brother to Louis the Sixteenth, whom the laws of Franc* 
hi'.vr :cntulf.l to the sceptre factions have endeavoured to break, has been 
<ir!;<!;-v!crl<j: . d as King (if France, under the name of Louis the Eighteenth, 
bv r.ngliiuil :n:d all the other coalesced powers against your uqhappy 
;;cun!ry, or rather against those who for these five.years past have laid it 
\va-v. ( : v?m r.il Charette has taken arms again, and obtained already in> 
j>,)iiaiu c-iircossc-s. The royalists of Britanny, whom we have provided 
v.iih ami--, t tireaten the entire destruction of the few republican troops 
'.vhidi may yet oppose them in this province. A landing has been effected 
i:r:ii Hr;r:m. \ormandy shews forth, by assuming anus, the wish of almost 
aii i i-;:iu.! ii, a king. We are masters of the important peninsula of 
UI<;!.'.TO!I : its garrison, having voluntarily surrendered, have been treated 
( J 



CAPTAIN* JOSEPH ELLISON. 21 

with a benevolence they did not hope for, and the greatest part have 
enlisted with the royalists. 

" These events should determine you, should you not anticipate the 
time to come. The destruction of the French navy, the augmentation of 
our fleet since its victory, and the powerful reinforcements of troops which 
are expected, besides those just arrived; the impossibility of your receiving 
any succours by seas : all must induce you to think seriously of the evils a 
longer resistance must bring upon your island, ami for which the English 
and royalist u'fnerals will call you personally, sir, and the municipality, to 
n account, if they are obliged to reduce you by force. 

" I send to you, with my letter, some copies of the manifesto published 
by the general in chief of the royalists ; it must convince you of the purity 
of his designs, and desires of conciliating all interests. 

" Direct to the royalist commissioners [ have on board (in case you soon, 
submit) : they will fulfil, in unison with me, all the promises made you in. 
this declaration. \Ve are autborised,^/?^, to preserve the pay and rank to 
the officers and soldiers of your garrison who will join the royalist array. 
Secondly, to afford proper means of living in a foreign country, to those 
who, fearing revenge (which the royalists are averse to), would not be 
exposed in their own country to continual disquiet. Thirdly, to let return, 
to their families those who wjsh for the tranquility they hope to enjoy there. 
Fourthly, to reward generously those who by their influence will do yet 
greater service for their country. 

" Weigh these advantages, sir, and consider that a longer resistance will 
deprive you of them all. Enable me to follow my most ardent desire in 
contributing to make happy the inhabitants of the island where you com- 
mand. 

" I ordered Mr. Buller not to receive from you any answer to this letter, 
ns I wish to pay to the officer you may be pleased to send the same atten- 
tions you did to my first lieutenant. 

'' I have the honour of being, sir, 

" Your humble servant, 

" JOSEPH ELLISON." 

To M. Boucret, General of Division, 
Commander-in-Chief at Bellcisle. 

ANSWER. 

{' The General of Division, Boucret, to Mr. Ellison, commander of the man 
of zcar the Standard, 2Qth Messidor, the third year of the Republic, one 
and indivisible. % 

" sin, 

" You will have the goodness not to make any propositions to me hence- 
forth. My first letter must have convinced you of my sentiments. If you 
persevere, and give me opportunity, my answer shall be sustained with 
jljirty-sU pounders, 

" I salute you, 

BOUCRET." 



12 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

During the time that Captain Ellison remained before Belleisle, 
he received frequent presents of fruit and fish from the governor ; 
two of whose aides-de-camp also once visited the Standard, with 
an invitation for him to go on shore ; notwithstanding which, he 
was almost constantly annoyed by shot from the garrison. The 
British commander, it is scarcely necessary to say, declined the 
governor's polite offer. 

Captain Ellison, who, it will be recollected, had been employed 
on a similar service, off the same place, with Sir Edward Hawke, 
kept his station for many weeks, in hopes of accomplishing the 
surrender of the island ; after which, the object becoming hopelets, 
and his men suffering much from the scurvy, he was ordered to the 
island of Hcdic ; where, having landed them, he blew up the forts, 
pitched tents, and formed them into a little encampment, during 
their recovery. 

In about .six weeks, his ship's company having been restored to 
health, he received orders from Sir John Warren to sail with the 
Thunderer, Captain Bertie, to Noirmoutier, for the purpose of 
conducting the Comte d'Artois and his suite, who wished to take 
a survey of that island. During this expedition, they captured 
several American merchant vessels, which were bound to Belleisle, 
with flour, &c. Having remained at anchor, off Noirmoutier, for 
some clays, they returned to Quiberon Bay. 

At tin* close of the year, the expedition against the French 
coast having failed, the Standard was ordered to return to Ply- 
mouth Sound, where she accordingly arrived, after an absence of 
seven months. Captain Ellison then went into Uamoazc, to fit for 
foreign service. When complete, the Standard was ordered into 
Cawsaml Bay: and, soon afterwards, on the 24th of February, 
17%, she sailed with sealed orders. 

On opening l<is orders, Captain Ellison found himself directed 
to procvd to St. Helena, and to convoy to JEngland a fleet of East 
Ttidiamen which were assembling at that island. His conduct at 
St. Helena will be best estimated, after a perusal of the following 
letter, from Robert Brooke, Esq. the governor : 

To Commodore Ellison, Esq. &-c. c. 

" MR, May 31, 1796. 

"' I curmot nll.r.v you to depart without acknowledging the obligations I 
t>;;;ik the pom -(Minder to your zeal to oblige, and preserve harmony and 

g'l-j.'i order in the fleet under your charge. 



CAPTAIN JOSEPH ELLISON. 2S 

** May the continuance of your exertions meet with equal success on the 
passage home, and may you carry the whole thereof in safety, to the satis- 
faction of your country, and the Hon. Company, who are must deeply 
interested on the occasion, is the most fervent hope of him who has the 
honour to be, sir, 

" Your most faithful and obliged servant, 




Captain Ellison sailed from St. Helena on the 1st of June, 
an(J arrived safely in the Downs, with the whole of his convoy, 
nothing particular having occurred on the passage, on the 2d of 
August. Having duly announced his arrival to the Admiralty, he 
received, in answer, the following letter of thanks, from Sir Evan 
Nepean : 

" SIR, Admiralty Office, August 5, 1796. 

" Having laid before my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty your 
letter of the 2d inst. acquainting me of your arrival in the Downs with the 
ship you command, and the whole of the convoy from St. Helena; I am 
commanded by their lordships to acquaint you, that they are much satisfied 
with you for the attention you have paid to your convoy, and of all your 
proceedings since you have been employed on this service. 

" I am, sir, 
*' Your very humble servant, 




Captain Ellison, Standard, Downs. 

For this service, Captain Ellison also receired the subjoined 
thanks of the Court of Directors of the East India Company, with 
a present of four hundred guineas, for the purchase of a piece of 
plate : 

" SIR, East India House, September 1, 1796. 

" I have great pleasure in obeying the commands of the Court of 
Directors of the East ludia Company, by communicating to you their thanks 
for your care and attention in convoying from S^ Helena to England eleven 
of the Company's ships, together with several extra ships, laden with rice, 
&c. and in acquainting you that they have resolved to present you with the 



24 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

turn of four hundred guineas, for the purchase of a piece of plate, as aiif 
acknowledgment of the above services, ami that a warrant for that sum ii 
made out accordingly, and may be received any day after Wednesday 
next, I am, sir, 

u Your most obedient humble servant, 




Secretary." 
Captain Joseph Ellison, of his 
Majesty's ship Standard. 

The following is Captain Ellison's acknowledgment of the 
above : 

" sin, 

" I beg yon will be pleased to communicate to the Honourable Court of 
Directors of the East India Company my grateful- thanks for the very great 
honour they have done me in their approbation of my conduct in convoying 
their fleet from St. Helena ; and should I ever have the pleasure of being 
ftgain employed in their service, this flattering mark of their attention will be 
an additional inducement to performing my duty. I request they will also 
accept my warmest acknowledgments for the present they have had the 
goodness to bestow on me, and am respectfully, sir, 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 

" JOSEPH ELLISON." 

Shortly after Captain Ellison's return to England, he received! 
(hi- following very friendly epistle from Captain Suasse, one of his 
collc-ag'ios in the Belleisle expedition ; which will be regarded 
as no bad specimen of English composition, from a French 

soldier : 

" No. 31, Frettchr Street, Southampton, 
" DKAPL CAi'T.M.v, August 24, 1790V 

" r.Tini; me to express to you the great satisfaction I have received from 
vour safe arrival in Kngland, after so long a voyage. I should not have 
*o lii^ d'. 'Lived writing to you, had I known where to direct my letter. 
I\iy friend Pinker has just given me a proper information he received from 
our 01 vonr oiiircTs be met with in London. I know you are now in the 
na;i-t of your family, and [ must obey the dictates of my heart, in seud- 
iii-j; inv r-iiu vre-t compliments to you. Indeed, my deal' captain, I should. 
have hi en much more pleased with hearing you had brought some Dutch 
Iii(!ia:u; u v, ii.li you, than I have been with your convoying home those o 
the r,iKl:?li c-yu!])anv. However, I hope, and most ardently wish, that 




CAPTAIN JOSEPH ELLISON". 25 

tills last important service of your's will prove as useful to your promotion 
and particular interests, as it is highly beneficial to your country. 

" Pioger, who hopes to see you soon in town, will be extremely pleased 
with shaking hands with you, and expressing, riza race, what I do now by 
writing, the lirely sense of gratitude \ve shall always preserve for your 
kindness to us. That we were both indebted to Captain Ellison for many 
a happy hour, and a most comfortable situation, at the very time so many 
of our countrymen were labouring under the most afflicting distresses, will 
constantly remain deeply impressed upon our hearts. Your friendship to 
vis bids me add a few words more, concerning our present situation. We 
have remained in quarters in Southampton since our landing in January 
last. Our fate is not certainly to be pitied, and could even be envied 
by numbers, as \re are well paid, and have nothing to do here. Yet I wish 
that an active situation might furnish us with the opportunity of de- 
serving well of our new-adopted country. I shall readily embrace it, to 
whatever part of the globe I am ordered ; though I confess I am glad it 
cannot be any more to the coasts of France. The Chouan war is now at 
an end, and very fortunately, in my opinion, since it was productive of 
nothing but disasters. 

" You must have been astonished at the incredible success of the French 
armies during your absence. What will become of the continent of 
Europe, it is impossible to foresee. But England only can withstand such 
an enterprising enemy, with the help of her navy, and, I may add, of her 
excellent constitution. England alone raay, by possessing herself of all 
the means of trade, re-establish in some measure the balance of Europe, 
when ncgociations for peace will be entered upon. Thus far on politics, 
which is by no means a pleasing thsme now. Pray let me have a few Hues 
from you, and acquaint .me with the state of your health. 

" That you may enjoy an uninterrupted happiness, and still favour with 
friendship your Belleisle messmates, is the most sincere wish, my dear 
<!car captain. 

u Of your devoted and grateful servant, 

" CAPTAIN SUASSE, 
" " Of Royal F. Engineers. 

" Have the goodness to present my respects to Mrs. Ellison, and remem- 
ber me to your brother-in-law, M. M. Buller, Tonston, and the other 
officers of the Staudard," 



While in the Downs, the Standard was ordered, by telegraph, 
to proceed to Sheerness to refit. Captain Ellison's health being 
much impaired, from the heat of the climate which he had recently 
eft, and from his long and yarious employments for a series of 
cars, the Lords of the Admiralty were pleased to grant him leavef 
bsence, and even allowed an acting captain to command th 

dard, for four months. 



&ton. 8W.XIX. x 




t<J BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

After this interval of relaxation, Captain Ellison applied to Lore! 
Spencer for the Magnificent, then lying in ordinary, at Plymouth. 
His lordship promised him the first ship that should be taken into 
dock, as soon as she could be got ready for service ; but, finding 
that she was not brought forward as soon as might have been 
expected, he renewed his application, for any seventy-four that his 
lordship might be pleased to appoint him to. Accordingly, he 
soon received a commission for the Marlborough ; Captain Nicholls 
having left that ship, in consequence of the seamen having taken 
the command upon themselves at the time of the mutiny. 

Prior to this appointment, but subsequent to Lord Spencer's 
promise of giving him the command of a 74, Captain Ellison 
received a letter from his friend, Mr. Hopkins, from which the 
following is an extract : 

Bruton Street, January 31, 1797. 

" I was yesterday favoured by the receipt of your very obliging letter; 
ami, am happy, that the same account which mentioned your illness, 
informed me also of your recovery from it. Lord Spencer's attention to 
your merit does credit to himself; and I heartily congratulate you on your 
intended appointment to a good 74-gun ship." 

An acting captain was appointed to the Marlborough; and, for 
the accommodation of Captain Ellison, she was ordered into Ply- 
mouth .Sound. ;> * '' 

The Marlborough's crew had committed the most daring out- 
rages, and had evinced a spirit of disaffeetion, in a greater degree 
than that of almost any other ship ; notwithstanding which, when 
Captain Ellison took the command, he was received by them with 
marked approbation. They gave him three cheers ; said they had 
heard that he was the seaman'* friend ; and that they would 
go round the world with him. As a proof of the satisfaction 
which lie had reason to expect from them, it is worth mentioning, 
that, on their expressing a wish to have leave to go on shore, he 
gave sixty of (hem liberty at once, and not one staid beyond the 
time which I, ad been fixed for their return. 

Dining Captain Ellison's continuance in the Sound, a seaman 
am! a marine, belonging to the Saturn, were sentenced, by a cou 
Kiartial. to be hanged for mutiny ; and, as there was no other 
im-ship in (he harbour, the sentence was carried into, eff< 
board the Marlborough. 




'.CAPTAIN JOSEPH ElT.ISOJf. 27 

Captain Ellison now sailed to join Lord Bridport's fleet, which 
Was lying in Torbay. After the ship's company had received their 
"wages, a very hard gale of wind came on, at south-west ; during 
which, the Belvidere, an outward-bound East Indiaman, was 
driven into the bay, with the loss of her rudder. On perceiving 
this disaster, Lord Bridport made a signal to Captain Ellison, to 
repair on board the Indiaman, with directions to her captain 
to get under weigh, and proceed to Plymouth, to repair her 
damage. Having hung a temporary rucld r, Captain Ellison was 
ordered to take charge of her to that place ; but, unfortunately, 
off the Start Point, the gale increased, a sea carried off the substi- 
tuted rudder, and the Belvidere became unmanageable. With 
much difficulty and perseverance, however, the end of the Marl, 
borough's stream cable was sent ou board her; arid, the wind 
flowing strong westerly, she was obliged to bear up for Spithead. 
When off the Isle of Wight, the stream cable gave way, and it was 
only by the most indefatigable exertion that the hawsers were got 
on board ; as it continued to blow strong, with a heavy sea, and 
the Indiaman was every moment in danger of going on shore, ia 
which case she must inevitably have been lost. However, having 
succeeded in getting the hawsers on board, the Belvidere was towed 
into Spithead, without sustaining any farther damage. The folio ? ,v 
frg grateful letter, from the captain of the Belvidere, to Captaia 
Ellison, is here deserving of insertion : 

" DEAR SIR, " Belvidere, 18th Sept. 1797. 

" Understanding by one of your officers, that you arc ordered to Ply- 
mouth to-morrow morning, will you favour me with your company to din- 
ner to-day ? you will oblige me extremely four o'clock. Should it not be 
convenient, I have only to say, that words cannot express my sentiments so 
fully as I could wish, for the unremitted attention and assistance received 
from jour ship. 1 can only offer you my best thanks for your kindness; 
Ttiul at die same time, please to.' offer my best wishes to your officers; and, I 
frust time will not wear oft' the obligations myself and owners of the Bel- 
vulere are indebted to you and those gentlemen. I have written particularly 
to the India-House, and shall do as you required. Wishing you and the 
.gentlemen health and every happiness, 

" 1 remain, sir, your's, 

" very .sincerely, 

CHARLES CHRISTIE." 

Captain Ellison's conduct, upon this occasion, was highly 
approved by the Admiralty, by Lord Bridport, and by thaowaer* 



38 BTOGRAnilCAL MEMOIR OF 

and underwriters of the Belvidere ; who, in token of their appro* 
bafaon, presented him with a hundred gninsas, and an elegant 
gilt cup, with an appropriate inscription, relative to the service 
for which it was presented. The former compliment was an- 
nounced to him in the following letter : 

" SIR, " London, June 91, 1798. 

" I have greatly to lament, and to apologise, that, through a variety of 
unforeseen delays in procuring vouchers from Portsmouth, respecting the 
Belvidere's extensive repairs, and in arranging them for the payment of 
that part to which the insurers were liable, so long a period has elapsed. 

"Having at length laid the necessary papers before the committee of 
underwriters, together with Captain Christie's letters to me, the gentlemen 
begged me to present their very sincere thanks, for the uncommon and 
humane attention you had paid to the safety of that ship in her distresses, 
nnd to request the favour of your acceptance of a sword, of the value of 
one hundred guineas. Having replied, that I knew you had already a sword 
presented on some similar occasion, they mentioned a cup; but, on my 
laying that my father, and the owners of the Belvidere, were already 
honoured by your kind acceptance of one from them, they then directed 
me to pay the sum they had voted into the hands of your agent, or friend, 
in London, to Le applied in any way you should think proper. I have 
accordingly paid the same to Mr. J. If. Short, of Lime-street, on your 
account, and have also taken the liberty of delivering the cup to his care ; 
wishing you, most unfeigriedly, health and spirits to use it, in the Spanish 
}i. ! i,-;;e, for H thousand years. 

"It now only remains, sir, for me to assure you, that I shall, whenever 
1 find myself near you, with infinite pleasure make my personal acknow- 
.( d>:mrius for the services you have rendered to me and to ray friends; and 
lluitlani, ever, 

" Your very obliged and faithful servant, 

" HENRY BONIIAM. 
" My nest wishes attend Mrs. Ellison ami your family." 

Ti> Ci:>>t>tin Jcscp'i Ellison. 

Captain Ellison, after 'having rendered all the sonrice in his 
,-o\vt'r to tlie Belvidere, was ordcird to CawsawT Hay, where h 
put himself under the command <u : : Roger Curtis; with who s> 
v;iKuIron he soon after sailed to Beerluiven, in Ireland. They had 
In- en, however, but a short time on li.at station, when thrv \vcr 
ci\'i;Tcd to juiii Lord St. Vincent, off Cadiz. 

n- passage thither, the spirit of disaffection,^^Lh h 

'. n <> .iy (Miclled for the moment, amongst the crew of the 
Ma.'! borough, again broke forth. Their intention. as it aftr- 





CAPTAIN JOSEPH ^LLISO*. 23 

wards appeared, was to put Captain Ellison, and his officers, to 
death, though without any cause of complaint, and to carry th 
ship into Brest. Fortunately, their schemes were frustrated by 
one of the seamen ; who, having overheard their conversation, got 
ia at the quarter-galley window, at midnight, and, awakening tha 
captain, who was in his cot, made the discovery. " For God'$ 
sake, Captain Ellison, get up," said he ; " the ship is in a state of 
mutiny ; you and your officers are to hare your throats cut, ancj 
the ship is to be taken possession of !" On receiving this alarming 
intelligence, Captain Ellison immediately went upon the quarter- 
deck ; and, looking around, he saw a number of men assembled 
on the poop, more than the thatch. On asking the officer of the 
watch the reason of this, the men, perceiving that they were 
detected, returned, in the greatest confusion, over the quarters, 
and along the muzzles of the guns, to the main-deck, and got into 
their hammocks. Captain Ellison then summoned all the officers 
upon deck ; where, accompanied by them, he continued during 
the remainder of the night. At eight o'clock in the morning, th 
hands were turned up, in order to discover tha ringleaders, bat 
without effect. However, in the course of the day, a seaman, 
came forward,^ and mentioned two who had been the most active 
in the business, and they were immediately put in irons. On 
joining Lord St. Vincent's fleet, they were tried by a court mar- 
tial, condemned, and executed on board the Marlborough. A 
public letter was subsequently received by Captain Ellison, from 
the Admiralty, expressing their lordships' approbation of his con- 
duct, and that of his officers on this trying occasion. 

Captain Ellison's health having suffered much from the climate, 
and from agitation of mind, he left the Marlborongh, off Cadiz, 
and returned to England in the Blenheim, with Vice- Admiral Sh 
John Or;le. 

In ten tliys after his arrival at Plymouth, Captain Ellison, 
without solicitation, was apj^uited to regulate the impress service, 
. ravesi-nd ; where he remained r.pwards of three years, until 
the se^JPWRrokeiPu^,^|^Pconclubion of the, war, in|801. 



- r, I Kiv/.r. CHRONICLE, Vol. XI. paje 193*. Sir John came home in 
e autuiru ot' 1TS3. 



SO NAVAfc ANECDOTES^ 

After having been a short time on half- pay, he was eowmissionec! 
as third captain of Greenwich Hospital, in the room of the late 
Captain Allwright ; and, in 1805, on the death of Sir II. Pearson, 
lie became second captain, and a director of the chest of Green- 
wich. 

Captain Ellison has, ever since, resided in that agreeable 
situation ; and that he may long continue there, is the hearty wish 
of all his old shipmates and friends. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c. 



NANTES IN GURGITE VASTO. 



CHARACTER OF ENGLISH SEAMEN. f 

THE following amusing character of our brave tars is copied 
from a work called " Letters on England;"" said to be 
translated from the Spanish, but rather believed to be the pro- 
duction of Mr. Southey, the poet: 

a Voltaire has the merit of having discovered the physical cause 
of the superiority of the English at sea. The natives of the south 
of Europe navigate smooth seas ; those of the north are frozen up 
dnvinj; the winter; but the English seas are navigated in long dark 
stormy nights, when nothing but great skill, and incessant exeiS. 
tiui 1 . can preserve the vessel. Hence arises a degree of confidence 
in their sailors, which is almost incredible ; the greater the dan- 
ger, the greater i? the activity. Instead of shrinking from toil, 
ever\ mrv.i is at his post. Having no faith in miracles for their 
il; liveraiire, they almost work miracle? to deliver themselvc*; and, 
in .t;\'ul of preparing for death, strain every sinew to avoid it. 
Ad'.led to this confidence, they have also in war that which arises 
from con'-ta;it success. The English s;:i!or feels that he is master 
of the M,I. Whatever he sees, is to do him homage. He is ahvr. s 
on t!r", louV.-out, not with the ivfj^F an^Wemy brfore.his eyes, 
but like a strong pirate, with the hope of gain ; and when gcinp: \ 
info artion with an equal, or even a superior force, he calculates 
hi> profits as certainly as if the enemy were already taken, 
' Thi-ny' .vild the master of a frigate, when the captain did nofe 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. Si 

choose to engage a superior French force, because he had a con- 
<roy in charge " there." said he, with a groan, " there's seven 
hundred pounds lost to me for ever." As for fear, it is not in 
their nature. One of these men went to see a juggler exhibit his 
tricks ; there happened to be a quantity of gunpowder in the 
apartment underneath, which took fire, and blew up the house. 
The sailor was thrown into a garden behind, where he fell without 
being hurt. He stretched his arms and legs, got up, shook him- 
self, rubbed his eyes, and then cried out (conceiving what had 
happened to be only a part of the performance, and perfectly 
willing to go through the whole), " D n the fellow, I wonder 
what the devil he will do next." 

LORD NELSON'S MONUMENT, AT GLASGOW. 

inscription for the Column erected to the Memory of Lord 
NELSON, by the City of Glasgow. 

TO 

NELSON, 

The Scourge of France, 

The Avenger of his Country and of Europe; 

who, wielding the Naval Thunders of the 

EMPIRE, 

poured Destruction on the terrified Foe 
at the blazing Shores 

of 

ABOUKIR, 
COPENHAGEN, 

and 

TRAFALGAR. 

Covered with Glory and Renown^ 
in the Hour of Victory, 

THE HERO FELL, 

embalmed with the Tears, and entombed in the Hearts 

OF THE BRITISH PEOPLE. 

To perpetuate to distant Ages 

the Deeds and the Memory 

of this gallant 

SEAMAN, 
gad to stimulate Posterity to emulate his Action*, 

THE CITIZENS OF GLASGOW 

erected this Column, 
A f D. 1807. 



NAVAL AXECDOlBSy 
ANECDOTp OF ADMIRAI/ DOUGLAS. 

the last disgraceful mutiny in the nary, the admiral 
commanded the Stately, of 64 guns ; and being on shore, dining 
with Goyernor Brook, at St. Helena, his first officer told him, that 
a ship had arrived from England, and told the Stately of the 
mutiny, and that his men had come and demanded the command 
f the ship, and were then in mutiny. The admiral received the 
intelligence very coolly, and as the ship was under the guns of the 
frts, and the sails unbent, he said to the governor, li I will go im- 
mediately on board, and if in fifteen minutes after I am in the ship 
they do not return to their duty, you will fire on her ; for better 
that I go down with the ship than the men command her." This 
spirited determination he made known to the men, and added, if 
the ringleaders were not given up unconditionally, they knew 
what they were to expect. The fifteen minutes expired, and the 
fort began to fire, and thus ended the mutiny in those seas, by the 
intrepid conduct of one man. The ringleaders were given up, and 
two or three of them hanged. 

ACCOUNT OF THE RUSSIAN ADMIRAL, SINIATIIC. 

Tins officer is of one of the first families in Russia. About the 
year 1783, being then a youth, he was sent to England by the 
]l'.i>s!-.m court, who obtained permission from the British govern. 
iiiciU for his being admitted a volunteer in our navy. He was 
accordingly, by order of the Lords of the Admiralty, received 
cm b.Kird the Leander, of 50 guns, then destined for the Halifax 
station, in America, where he served about three years. lie was 
Afterwards employed for nearly the same time in the Mediterranean, 
as a volunteer midshipman, on board the Pearl frigate, then com- 
irrn.di'd by the late Honourable Seymour Finch, brother to the 
Kn; -i of Aylesford, which ship he quitted at Smyrna, in 1789, in 
Older to render to his own country the benefit of that knowledge 
and experience he had acquired from us, Russia being then 
cr-a^ed in a war with the Turks, against whom he seemed, by 
naM'-re, (o hi.- a zealous adversary. During the last war he served., 
and lieli! the rank of a post captain in the Russian navy, and was 
out of .heir fleet that wintered in the Medway ; but on that fleet 
ere*! home, and the Emjfcror Paul entering into the views 
of !,;i in >par(c, he retired, and continued in retirement until Russia 
common cause witk thw country. 



, 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 33 

NAtJTICAL ANECDOTE. 

WHEN the Count de Lille was landed at Yarmouth, from the 
Freya, Swedish frigate, he was rowed on shore by British 
sailors ; and the count, grateful for the particular attention 
shewn him, left a purse of fifteen guineas, for the tars to drink his 
health. On the matter being explained to them, not one of them 
would touch a farthing, but immediately transmitted a letter to 
Admiral Russell, expressive of their sentiments on the occasion, 
which is truly characteristic of British seamen. The following is 
a literal copy, and is said to have been read by the count with 
particular delight : 

"PLEASE YOUR HONOUR, Majestic, 6th day of Nov. 1807. 

" We holder! a talk about that there 151. that was sent us, and hope no 
offence, your honour. We dont like to take it, because as how we knows fast 
enuff that it was the true King of France that went with your honour in the 
boat, and that he and our own noble king, God bless em both, and give 
every, one his right, is good friends now ; and besides that your honour 
gived a order long ago, not to take no money from nobody, and we never 
did take none, and Mr. Leneve that steered your honour and that there 
king, says he won't have no hand in it, and so does Andrew Young, the 
proper coxen; and we hopes no offence, so we all, one and all, begs not to 
take it at all. So no more at present from your honour's dutiful servants, 

ANDREW YOUNG, Coxen, THOMAS SIMMERS, 

JAMKS MANN, THOMAS KESANE, 

LEWIS BRYAN, SIMON DUPT, 

JAMES LORD, W. FAIRCLOUGH, 

JAMES HOOD, JOHN CHURCHILL, 

W. EDWARDS, THOMAS LAWRENCE, 

JAN HOLSIIAN, JACOB GABRIEL, 

THOMAS LAURIE, WILLIAM M.UZZEY. 

SIR HOME POPIIAM'S SWORD. 

ON the 8th of January, Sir Home Popham and Sir John 
Stuart were presented with the elegant swords voted to them by 
the corporation of London. They were first presented, at Mer- 
chant Taylors' Hall, with the freedom of that company; after 
which they proceeded to Guildhall, and were presented to the 
Lord Mayor. They were accompanied by Lord Gambier and Sir 
Edward Hamilton. 

On presenting the sword to Sir John Stuart, the victor of 
Maida, the chairman of the city delivered a handsome and appro- 
priate speech ; after which, he addressed Sir Home Popham as 
follows : 

" Sir Home Popham, I give you joy ; and in the name of th Lord, 

f pron. $0!* XIX. F 



34 KATAL ASECD01EI, 

Mayor, Aldermen, and Gammon Council, assembled, return you thank* 
for your gallant conduct and important services in the capture of Buenos 
Ayres, at once opening a new source of commerce to the manufactories of 
Great Britain, and depriving her enemy of one of the richest and molt 
extensive colonies in her possession. And, by an unanimous resolution of 
the said court, I present you with a sword, as a testimony of the high 
esteem which it entertains of your very meritorious conduct. 

" Sir, When the news arrived of your achievement in South America, 
it was received by the nation with an ecstacy of joy : the artificer saw an 
increase of demand for the productions of his ingenuity ; the merchant 
began to extend his commercial views ; and every philanthropist most 
rapturously exclaimed with the poet 

Oh, stretch thy reign, fair peace, from shore to shore, 

Till conquest cease, and slavery be no more ; 

Till the proud Indians, in their native groves, 

Reap their own fruits, and woo their sable loveij 

Peru once more a race of kings behold, 

Another Mexico adorn'd with gold. 

" Such, sir, were the delightful visions in which the nation indulged, on 
the result of' a plan suggested by the wisdom of that great statesman, 
whose loss we deeply feel, and whose death we still deplore, and carried 
into effect by the prowess of yourself and your gallant associates in arms. 

" The scene, it must be confessed, is now most lamentably changed ; 
yet, though the nation has looked in vain for that extension of commerce, 
and that diffusion of British civilization, in the hopes of which she had so 
fondly indulged herself, she will ever regard the capture of Buenos Ayres, 
both from the ability with which it was planned, and from the energy and 
intrepidity with which it was effected, as an action worthy of being recorded 
in the brightest page of her history. 

'' Gentlemen, You have given ample proofs of your zeal in the cause 
of your country, and of your abilities to render it the most essential ser- 
vices ; the same cause has still further claims upon your exertions ; the foe 
with whom we have to contend has declared his determination to deprive 
us of our most valuable rights, and to sink us below the level of an inde- 
pendent nation. But I trust such threats are vain : you, gentlemen, are 
sensible that when a nation has lost her honour s\te has little else worth 
preserving! You will convince our inveterate enemv, that however de- 
sirou* your country may be to obtain a peace, she can never be forced to 
accept such a peace as shall either diminish her rights or tarnish her glory." 

Sir Home Popham replied in the following terms : 

" Sir, Tn receiring this sword from you, I cannot refrain from express- 
ing my regret at the trouble occasioned by the principle upon which it was 
originally voted nae being questioned by an honourable member of your 
court : and although I feel extremely gratified at that principle being pub- 
licly, and almost unanimously recognized, yet I cannot help regretting, 
thai the service for which the sword was given, did not meet the approba- 
tion ot 'his majesty's late government; and although I \va not fortunate 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTION!, &C. 35 

enough to receive an honourable acquittal from the court martial to which 
I was brought, I trust, nothing transpired on that occasion that could 
cause any regret in this liberal mark of distinction having been voted me by 
the city of London. I believe, the honourable gentleman who made tha 
motion against me, adopted the same cause, with respect to this sword, 
as was pursued by his Majesty's late ministers with respect to me. The 
sword, however, by being so ably defended, was most honourably ac- 
quitted, is now most handsomely presented ; and I speak with sincerity 
when I say, is most gratefully received; and, I trust, if ever I shall be 
fortunate enough to be again employed, that it will not be disgraced in my 
hands." 

Extract of an official Letter from Captain GEORGE BELL, com- 
manding his Majesty's sloop Victor, to Rear-jtdintral Sir 
EDWARD PELLEW, Bart. Commandcr-in-Chief of his Majesty's 
squadron, dated Fort Cornwallis, Prince of Wains Island, 
May 22, 1807. (From the Madras Government Gazette of 
July 23, 1807.) 

YOUR Excellency has undoubtedly ere now received one of my 
letters, respecting the capture of four brigs out of Batavia roads. 

Off Cheribon (a little to the eastward of Batavia), on the 15th 
of April, we chased, and brought too, three prows, under Dutch 
colours, at five P. M. On its falling calm, we anchored our boats, 
and sent them armed to bring the prows alongside ; two were 
brought to the larboard-side, the other hung on the quarter : got 
the prisoners out of the two alongside (amounting to near 120), 
and placed a strong guard over them, under the direction of 
Lieutenant Wemyss, as 1 intended sending them away, after over, 
hauling their cargoes. 

Lieutenant Parsons had been on board the prow, on the quar. 
ter, but returned with his people on finding it impracticable to 
get the crew from below : I instantly ordered her to be hauled 
close up under the quarter, fired a carronade into her and mus- 
ketry, which they returned by throwing spears and firing pistols, 
&c. got a gun out of the stern-ports and fired into her, the sparks 
of which most unfortunately reached some powder, which must 
have been carelessly handed out of some of the prows abaft, arid 
blew the after part of the ship up : at this alarming moment the 
guard, over the prisoners dropped their arms, and ran to extinguish 
the fire. The prisoners instantly seized their arms, and picked up 
several spears and knives, which had heen thrown on board, and 
attacked the ship ; by this time (eight P. 1\L) the fire, most pro- 
videntially, by the great exertions of officers and men, was got 
under, prow cut adrift, and the attentio,n of all, hands directed t 



36 

the defence of the ship, which was admirably performed, for in 
little more than half an hour eighty of them lay dead in a most 
mangled state, the rest driven overboard ; but sorry am I to add, 
not without a severe loss on our side, including those blown over- 
board and those who have since died of their wounds, a list of 
which I herewith enclose for your excellency's satisfaction : 
amongst the killed is Lieutenant Blaxton, who had a spear through, 
him, accompanying me, in the waist ; he died most gallantly. 
A list of the killed and wounded on the 15th April, 1807. 

Killed. Mr. II. Blaxton, lieutenant ; and 5 seamen. 

Wounded. Captain G. Bell ; Thomas Coultherd, gunner ; 1 serjeant of 
marines ; 1 private ditto ; 22 seamen ; serjeant of marines und 8 seamen 
since dead of their wounds. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

TWU. EDITOR, 

IN my former letter, on the rights of the British flag,* I pledged, 
myself to adduce proofs of the following assertions : that 
the kings of England have proclaimed themselves lords of the sea, 
by the performance of overt acts ; that they have exercised all the 
prerogatives enjoyed by the lawful possessors of the dominion of 
the sea; and that their right to exercise such prerogatives has been 
acknowledged, both tacitly and positively, by the different Eu- 
ropean powers. At the present moment, sir, when such for- 
midable attempts are making, to deprive us of our rights, by the 
grand robber of Europe, and his vassal allies, these proofs are 
of no slight importance. 

By the treaty between England and the United Netherlands, in 
1G5 }, it was covenanted, a that the ships of the United Provinces, 
us tctn'l those Jilted for zc<*r, as others, which should meet in the 
British seas any of the ships of war of England, should strike 
their flag and lower their top-sail, in such manner as had been at 
any time practised before, under any former government." This 
duty of the flag, though it maybe considered as but an indifferent 
honorary aromony, is certainly an expressive acknowledgment 
that the absolute sovereignty of the seas, in which the colours are 
required to be struck, is vested in the prince to whom that duty 
is paid. By a subsequent treaty, in 1673, instead of the <; British 
seas," then- is an enlargement to the seas between Cape Finisterrej 
t j the middle point of the land Van Staten in Norway. ' 



Vide Naval Chronicle, Vol. XVIII. p. 479. 






CORRESPONDENCE. 37 



The liberty of fishing in the English seas has been always 
requested by foreigners, particularly by the French. The admi- 
rals of Henry the Fourth of France, used to ask of Queen 
Elizabeth licenses for the French fishermen to fish in the neigh, 
bouring seas, for soles, for that prince's own table." 

Queen Mary, the consort of Philip the Second, of Spain, 
granted, for a fine, and a yearly revenue of 1000/. to be paid into 
the treasury of Ireland, a general license for the Netherlander to 
fish in the northern parts of that kingdom. Camden also, in his 
Britannia, speaking of the northern sea which washes the coasts 
of Yorkshire, says 4 < the Hollanders and Zealanders. Jirst ob- 
taining leare, according to the ancient custom, of the Governor 
of Scarborough Castle, made a very plentiful and advantageous 
herring fishing." 

Edward I. Edward II. Edward III. Richard II. Henry IV. 
Henry V. and Henry VI. Mere accustomed to grant licenses, 
or protections, to the subjects of certain states in amity with 
England, to fish in the British seas ; and the last mentioned mo- 
narch frequently gave licenses, etpecniUy to the French, to fish in 
*' his " seas, prescribing a certain time, as zzell as the size of the 
boats, which they or others were to fish in. 

In the time of Edward I. it was always a peculiar injunction 
Jaid upon his sea commanders, that they should take special care 
to vindicate and maintain the sovereignty, which his predecessors, 
the kings of England, were wont to have in the sea, concerning 
the explication and amendment, of the laws, which had been by 
them instituted for the gorernrncnt of all nations and people navi- 
gating in tlie English seas. 

That it was customary for the kings of England to grant pass- 
ports, or safe conducts, to such foreigners as desired liberty to 
pass through their seas, may be sufficiently proved from the records 
6f parliament. Henry IV. granted a passport to Ferando Urti* 
de Sarachione, a Spaniard, to sail freely from the port of Lon- 
don " through his kingdoms^ dominions, and jurisdictions, to 
the town of Rochelle." It is evident, that " dominions and ju- 
risdictions " here apply to the seas flowing between London and 
Rochelle. What operates as an additional proof of this is, that 
the Hanse towns, about the same time, petitioned for a license to 
transport corn to Rochelle, but were positively refuted; and 
were further told, that such as should presume to go beyond- a 
former licence, ct should for that bold presumption suffer the loss 
'of all their goods and effects, in case they feil into the hands of 
any of his Majesty's ships of war ; or others.' 3 



38 CORRESPONDENCE. 

Numerous other instances might be brought forward, corre. 
spomlcnt to those which I have already adduced; but, as I 
conceive that I have alread/ proved sufficient for my purpose, I 
shall not trespass longer on your room or patience. I am, &c. 

L. T. O. 

v^-,^s^^ 
MR. EDITOR, 

I AM well aware of the difficulty you must labour under, in 
publishing the biographical memoirs of officers during their 
lives; though, as you hare already observed, that, in many 
respects, is the best time to bring them forward ; as any errors may 
be corrected by themselves, or friends : I have therefore sent you 
some corrections of your late memoir of Sir Edward Pellew, ami 
also some additions ; and cannot but lament, you did not take 
more pains to examine the authenticated records of his services, 
before you sent his memoir to press. Sir Edward Pellew was cer- 
tainly born at Dover, and on the 19th of April, 1757. He received 
the first rudiments of his education at Dover, and afterwards went 
to Penzance, and was then placed for about a twelvemonth, under 
Mr. Conon, at Truro, in Cornwall, who was a schoolmaster of 
considerable repute. Sir Edward's grandfather commanded the 
Iloyal Anne, in Queen Anne's wars, and his father was captain of 
a packet, at Dover, until his death ; when the family, consisting 
of four sons and two daughters, removed to Penzauce. Sir 
Edward's earliest patron was Captain Stott, ef his Majesty's ship 
Juno, under whom he made his first voyage, which was to the 
Falkland Islands, in 177Q; he then went to the Mediterranean, 
and afterwards sailed with Captain Pownall, to America; and was 
employed on the Lakes in the Carleton, when he considerably 
distinguished himself. He served as acting lieutenant under Cap. 
tain, now Admiral Dacres; was in the convention of Saratoga ; 
and coming home by Quebec brought the first intelligence of it to 
England, but had no official despatches ; on which he was con- 
finned lieutenant. His first appointment afterwards was to the 
Licorne, Captain Bellew, and after that he served as lieutenant 
under Captain Powna.ll, in the Apollo; from which ship he was 
made commander, after an action off Ostend with a French letter 
of marque, a frigate, in which Captain Pownall was killed. The 
Apollo belonged to a squadron of frigates under the late Captain 
G. Murray, uncle to the Duke of Athol. The following account 
is given of that gallant action, by Beatson,* in his naval aud 
military memoirs: 

Vol. v. page 134. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 39 

The Apollo, being on a cruise in the North Sea, with some 

other frigates, at half-past seven in the morning of the 15th o 

June, gave chase to a cutter in the south-west quarter, in obedience 

to a signal from the Cleopatra, Captain Murray, the senior 

officer. Captain Pownall continued in chase of the cutter until 

half-past ten, when being nearly within gun-shot of her, a large 

sail was perceived, to all appearance a cruiser, standing towards 

the Apollo, whose captain made for her, and having fetched wkhin 

three miles, she hauled her wind, and crossed his ship, standing to 

the northward, the steeple of Ostend then in sight. At eleven 

o'clock she tacked, and stood to the southward. The Apollo did 

the same, until she brought the chase abaft the wejther quarter ; 

and tacked at twelve o'clock. At half-past twelve, the Apollo 

passed her close to leeward, received and returned her fire, tacked 

immediately, in a few minutes got close alongside, and engaged her 

with all sail set, she standing in for Ostend, and continuing a 

running fight. When the action had lasted upwards of an hour, 

Captain Pownall was unfortunately killed by a ball which went 

through his body. The command devolved on Lieutenant Edward 

Pellew, who, following his brave captain's example, maintained a 

well-directed fire for more than an hour longer, when finding his 

ship in only three fathoms and a half water, and but between two 

or three miles from the shore, a little to the westward of Ostend, 

he judged it prudent, with the advice of the officers of the ship, to 

wear, and bring her to, with her Lead to the northward. He 

intended to renew the action, as soon as the sails could be taken 

in, which, from the situation of the ship in chase, and action, were 

all set, much torn, and only one brace left. In a few minutes 

after this, the enemy's foremast and main-top-mast fell by th 

board, with the main-top and main-yard] and the ship was to all 

appearance aground, as she heeled very much, did not bring up to 

the wind, and was in a very shattered condition. Ostend at this 

time bore S.S.E. distant from the shore about two miles. While 

the officers were perusing the strict orders they had against violating 

the coasts of neutral powers, the enemy's ship fired a gun to 

leeward, seemingly with a design to claim protection. This was 

answered by two or three guns from the garrison. On this, Mr. 

Pellew desisted from his intention of renewing the action and 

drew off : the Apollo's masts being much wounded in several 

places, her rigging greatly damaged, and three feet water in her 

hold, occasioned by several shot which she had received between 

wind and water. The officers and crew of the Apollo behaved 

with the greatest bravery and good conduct. Besides the gallant 



40 

Captain PownalT, who was universally lamented, four seamen nnd 
one marine were killed in the action, and sixteen seamen and four 
marines were wounded. Mr. Pellew was, soon after this, made a 
master and commander. The enemy's ship was the Stanislaus,*" a 
merchant frigate, of thirty-two guris, but had only twenty-six 
twelve-pounders mounted. 

Having thus brought Sir Edward to the rank of commander, I 
will now make some further additions, and point out some errors 
in your account. 

The misunderstanding, to which you allude, with Captain Stott, 
arose between that officer, and Messrs. Pellew and Cole, the late 
Captain Franris Cole. The service rendered by Lord Hugh Sey- 
mour (page 4-12) was his enabling those midshipmen to return by 
land to England from Marseilles, where they had been cruelly dis- 
inisst-d from the ship by their captain. 

Sir Edward never commanded the Resolution cutter ; his bro- 
ther Israel did, but it was during the peace. 

Captain I]. Pellew's first appointment was to the Hazard sloop, 
of 8 guns, in the North Sea ; and he was made post on the 31st of 
May, into the Suffolk. I think you are wrong about his com- 
manding the Dictator, at the Nore, in January, 1783, but I am 
not certain : and, if my memory docs not fail me, he commanded 
a frigate before this on the Newfoundland station, which I think 
was the LowestolFc. I know, that he twice saved the life of a 
seaman, when lie served in the LowestolTe and Salisbury, by 
jumping overboard whilst the ship was at sea; and that in one of 
these instances he was not recovered from a severe illness. 

At the peace of 1783, he was employed on a farm at Treverry, 
the place that is mentioned in his patent of baronetage. 

The brave crew of his frigate, la Nymphe, mentioned in his 
official letter (page 444) as " a young ship's company;" con- 
sisted chid!}' of fishermen from Mount's Bay, where his character 
was well known and regarded. 

What you term, and Captain Schomberg, in the Naval Chro- 
nology, did the same, the Button transport, was the Button East 
Lidiav. 'P.. Captain Pellew was assisted in his humane exertions 
by JUr. T. u. Edsell, the admiral's signal midshipman, who volun- 



i>sistanrc from the shore, the Stanislaus was got off and carried into 
f>btc.;:d, where she was soon after brought to a sale, bought by the British 
c >vt riimrnt, and added to the royal navy by the name of the Proselyte ; 
.vLere M>e did excellent service, und was esteemed a remarkably quick 



CORRESPONDENCE. 41 

teered his service, and was afterwards appointed to the Cock- 
chafer lugger, belonging to the admiral. A very beautiful en- 
graving of this tremendous scene, from the pencil of Pocock, was 
published at the time, arid the Following account will illustrate 
ih 

Amongst 'the several transports employed to carry troops, were 
some East India ships (the distressful account of the loss of ninny 
of which has appeared), of which the Button, Captain Sampson, 
was one ; who was driven by stress of weather into Plymouth. 
The gales of wind continuing with increased fury, it was deemed 
advisable, for greater safety, to make for Catwater, but the buoy 
placed as a mark upon the reef off Mount Battin, having been sunk 
or broken adrift by the late storms, of which the Plymouth pilots 
had not been yet aware ; the ship touched on the tail of the reef, 
and lost her rudder. Thus disabled and ungovernable, she fell 
off, and grounded under the citadel, near the Barbican, the sea 
continually breaking completely over her, which occasioned her to 
roll so prodigiously, that at one jerk all her masts went by the 
board, and fell towards the shore, the ship heeling off iv ith her side 
towards the sea. 

As many as were active and able got safe on shore,, with the 
captain and officers ; but there still remained a considerable num. 
bcr of seamen, soldiers, and their wives ori board. Captain 
Pellew observing that the gale rather increased than abated, and 
knowing that a single rope from the ship to the shore was all the 
communication they could have with it, and that the flood tide 
would make a complete wreck of the ship ; earnestly entreated 
some of the numerous spectators to accompany him, by means of 
this single rope, on board, that he might rescue its crew from the 
inevitable fate that impended. The shore was. crowded with peo- 
ple of all descriptions, amongst whom were pilots, boatmen, and 
other sea-faring men, to whom Captain Pellew offered any money, 
if a single individual would follow his directions. The .cen.J was 
tremendous, the gale every moment increased, and one and all 
were appalled. When at length, Mr. Edsell came forward and, 
nobly volunteered his services ; (hey were accordingly fastened td 
the single rope, and were hauled on board. As they liad not dared 
to make it cumpletdy fast on shore, lest the rolling and jerking of 
the ship should break itj it may easily be conceived, that by the 
rising and falling of the rope, these brave adventurers were at 
times high above, and at others under the Water. Being got on 
board, they sent a hawser to the shore, to which travellers aud 

/3atJ. C&ron. OohXIX. G 



42 PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 

hawling lines were affixed, and by this means the whole of the 
crew were saved. Sir Edward and Mr. Edsell were the last who 
left the ship. It was reported at the time, and I believe correctly, 
that a sailor, struck with the gallantry of his deliverers, exclaimed 
" They arc damned good fellovs, and I'll not stir till 1 sec them 
saje on shore!" 

Sir Edward was member of parliament for Barnstaple, and has 
sometimes spoken in the House, particularly on Lord St. Vin- 
cent's naval administration. Pie married Miss Louisa Frowde, of 
Knowle, in Wiltshire, about 1783. I believe no portrait has ever 
been taken of him, since he was seven years old. His mother was 
Miss Constantia Langford, still living, the daughter of Edward 
Langford, Esq. of Penzance. 

Thus, Mr. Editor, I have endeavoured to set you right in your 
bearings ; which I think is the duty of every one, who has been 
amused and instructed by your Chronicle. Though I can assure 
you, that if Admiral Pellew knew that I, or any other, had sent 
you this information, he would perhaps bring me for it to the 
gangway : in which case I have no doubt, you would be good 
cMHiiigh to leave your moorings in Shoe-lane, and supply my 
p!;ia>, Yours, Mr. Editor, 

BOX NY PHEASANT, 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 

E.ilrutft from a Book entitled^ t( Naval Speculations and Mart- 
Politics ; being a modest and brief Discourse on the 
Jioi/ft/ Jw/;v/ ofEngitmdy (end of Us Economy and Government." 
By HENRY MAYDMAN. 16*91. 

[Continued from Vofc XVIII. pagf 401.] 

I! DO herein but mark out the rough lines of the projection, 
. \\hirh must be amply polished by the act of parliament, artrf 
by the Admiralty, to methodize it : it would be too tedious for me 
here; beside, it would be a presumption in me to light a candle 
TO the sun. 

I will only hint a few things necessary thereto, viz. if such orders 
were, that no merchant ship shall go to sea, but shall receive of 
the said commissioner, to every six or ten persons the ship shallf 
carry., one of these boys ; they to bring their certificate for their 
dciinn-j, a,s iYom the Custom-house, so from the commissioner ol 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPER!. 42 

this affair; and at their return, to give the said commissioner an 
account of what is become of the boys, and return them, and pay, 
or account with the commissioner for the time they had served 
with them, at the rate of so many shillings per month, as they are 
years old ; and if the commissioner and master agree, then he 
to take him for the king's term ; or else the commissioner, upon 
the receipt of his wages, out of which he is to nllow for clothes in. 
the voyage, not exceeding .five shillings per month, to order him 
elsewhere ; clothing him with the remainder, and dispose of him 
without further charge to the king, if possible: so that after the 
time he is so put abroad, whatsoever money he clears at his return, 
he must have an account, debtor and creditor, kept for him ; so 
that he must either clear so much, as the king hath been at charges 
with him, at five pence per diem, which account he must clear, 
before he receives a certificate from the said commissioner that he 
is manumised, or cleared the service : and in the mean time, if he 
serves any other master, and produces not the said certificate of his 
manumission, the said master is chargeable with the said wages, 
all, except so much as he hath received in clothes, which must not 
exceed five shillings per month ; and what he shall have gained 
beyond his charges, should also be justly paid him at his manu- 
mission. Moreover, all the king's oificers that shall take them 
for the whole term, should pay for one boy ten pounds, and 
receive them at sixteen years old ; which money should be stopped 
out of his pay ; for every one that wants servants, hath not ten 
pounds to lay down, which servants shall be paid wages by the 
king, to his master, for every year they shall serve of the inden- 
ture, so many shillings per month, as they are years old; which 
servants will be better to the officers than such as they can get 
themselves ; for they never need fear the running away of them : 
if they run, they are to be found easily, by their marks, that they 
cannot deceive any one that entertains them; the said officers 
having the same right to gain them again with their wages, for 
their absent time, as the king hath for such as he puts abroad to 
merchantmen : the same privileges to all carpenters, caulkers, 
rope-makers, &c. that shall take any of them : so that erery one 
will covet to take the king's servants, for the certainty of them ; 
and they will consequently prove better servants, knowing they 
cannot shift their services : and also there should be a respect had 
to them in the service, during their indentures, by the commission, 
crs, to see thorn not wronged by their masters: and also at the end 
of their indentures, or befpre^ according to their deserts^ they 
should be preferred. 



PAP.EF\S. 

Now every parish that hath not one boy to send to the king, 
should be joined to the next and adjacent parish, for the relief of 
the poor, \vhq sends above two boys yearly, as aforesaid ; this to 
be done by the justices of the peace, in their respective divisions, 
and every overseer and church-warden of every parish shall at 
every petty sessions, at one set time in the year, produce to the 
said justices a receipt from the sheriff, of the boys delivered the 
year past, with the names and ages of the said boys ; and also, 
the sai4 sheriff shall, at the passing his accounts for his year, 
deliver into the Exchequer a true jo.ll, or list, on parchment, of 
the boys sent that year, containing the age, name, and place of 
abode of the said boys, and when and whither sent, with the 
commissioner's receipt for them, which should be transmitted, by a 
post letter of advice, to. the commissioner ; when he sends, it 
should be answered by the commissioner, whether received, 
or not. 

In the snid roll, given into the Exchequer, their names should 
be set alphabetically, for easy finding them ; which should be there 
filled up, and kept safe, to be examined by any one that shaU 
inquire after any boy, viz. their parents, relations, friends, &c. 
who may have liberty to redeem them out of the service, paying so 
much for every year the king has been at charges with them, by 
methods ordered ; for some may have estates fallen to them or 
their parents : and also, once every year, the commissioner at the 
general hospital shall, by his clerk, transmit into the Exchequer 
a fair ledger book of all the boys entered and sent out that year, 
from whence received, and to whom bound out; that a good 
account may be had thereof, when desired : also the justice of the 
peace, at the binding the boys to the king, should take care that 
he binds none that are not sound in body; and for his guidance 
therein, should receive a presentment, signed by the minister, 
church-wardens, and overseers of the poor of that parish, contain- 
ing the age, name, and place of abode, and soundness of body and 
limbs of the said boy, and that they desire to be received into the 
Icing's service, according to the said act; and if it may be, let the 
parent, if alive, or nearest of kin, sign it also. I say, 1 do only hint 
the matter, and will hereto add, that the benefits hereby would be 
in a greater degree than I can set forth, and be of little purpose to 
rndf iv-oiir ; it would only serve to lengthen my discourse, and yet 
come s-.hort of every intelligent man's reasons, which they may 
rollcct out of their more large speculations. \Vhcrefrom I only 
*S?m, that within ten, nay seven years, would be added to our 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 45 

naval strength many thousands of good and able mariners, and 
artificers, and would be an ever-living seminary thereof; and for 
their constant employment, both in war and peace, I shall (God 
willing) shew in the sequel. 

Thirdly , The Encouragement of Fishery. 

By the fishery, I understand, this nation had their first intro- 
duction to their maritime growth, and, together with their' large 
drapery or wollen manufactures, not omitting their acquisitions 
by trade in the West Indies, and also the East; all wnich, and 
especially the former, and the latter, are now suffering under a 
very great declension. As for the latter, I can say little as yet ; 
but the former I will say it is still in our power to regain by the 
means following. 

1. That a great reason of our decay of fishery, is our laying 
aside the observation of Lent, upon the account of a religious 
observation ; the which, I fancy to be a general mistake ; for the 
institution thereof was never, in England, upon any other than a 
politic account ; 'although the church, according to the primitive 
examples, hath advised all in her community to keep some certain 
days in the week of abstinence, from the more liberal feeding, for 
the easier subduing of carnal concupiscence, and easting up their 
errors of the week, and chiefly on Friday, the day o,f our Saviour's 
suffering; -so once in the year, for the whole year's account, and 
according unto primitive institution, and in imitation or example 
of our Saviour's forty days' abstinence in the wilderness, setting it 
at the time of the year in preparation to the celebrating the com- 
memoration of that great work of our Saviour's, the redemption 
of mankind, at the Passover, or Paschal feast of the Jews ; so 
with us, the feast of Easter, at which time she advises all her 
disciples to receive the holy communion, in a more particular, and 
universal communion, and conjunction ; and invites, at that time 
especially, the catechumen, or younger Christians, to enter into 
the said communion : yet notwithstanding, I say, I do not find by 
the constitutions of the English church that she denounces any 
judgments or excommunications for the non-observance of- v the 
said Lent, or days of abstinence ; but by way of request, and 
advice thereto, for their better preparation for the receiving that 
most holy sacrament; but he whiah thinks it no means towards 
it, may not observe it, but may be under a mistake ; and he which 
thinks it may be a means, may observe it, and may be in the right : 
yet to learn of the apostle, Him that eatcth not, not to d<mphie 
him that catcth; and him {hat abstains th not, not to despite him 



49 rHirosoPHicAr, PAFERJ. 



that absfatnetJi : but, I hope, no rcligieni man will deny, but that 
days of abstinence, and general public fasts, are useful preparation* 
to holy duties ; yet so I take it, that it is the civil policy of the 
ration that enjoined the keeping of Lent, upon the account of 
encouraging the trade of fishery, to advance the naval strength, in 
the increasing of maritime people for the taking it, and the sup- 
porting of navigation, and promoting of\ foreign trade, by the 
transporting it abroad into other countries where it is acceptable, 
and for the increase of cattle, fowl^ &c. 

Now the common objections arc these two : 
First, that it is the relicks of popery and superstition. It is 
answered already, that the church makes no necessity for the 
,rcligious observation thereof. 

The second is, That our plenty of flesh requires no preser- 
vation, &c. 

I answer, that the season of the year is such, that there is not 
so great plenty of flesh at that time of the year as at others, which 
i'.esh generally is calves and lambs, who, if they were more sparingly 
s'ain for those few days, would be afterwards more mature, 
and better meat, and some more would escape the slaughter, and 
be for breed; and instead thereof we should feed, in some of the 
interim, or. fish, which would be encouragement and maintenance 
of fishermen and seamen, who are themselves to be fed all the 
rc-t of the year, by their provisions for their other voyages from 
the !.:ncl, which would take up far greater quantities of the pro- 
duct of (he -.'.aiion, viz. malt, beef, mutton, bread, butter, cheese, 
yea-e. and oatmeal, and all manner of clothinrg ; for one of these 
nt sea spc-nds thrice the value of the aferesaid products, with 
irmn'iLu'tiires of clothing, ship, and tackle, than a countryman or 
},;;-!; nulfnan doth ; and, I say, be a far more consumption of the 
} TO duct and manufacture of the nation, than the slaying for those 
; .. d.ivs v ill can=e. And moreover, be the answering the mam 
;w in hand, viz. Ihe increasing of our maritime strength, and 
i^.iion, for the more large exportation of our 
.Mures, io our great enriching, and security frm our 
ami to <he every way procuring the strength, 
appini'Sb of the nation : to which, if it were needful, 
1 a r 4reat deal more, to invite the practice thereof, 
': i ../'.uidle.-s exceptions of debasing the price of lands ; 
itly ans.vrrrd, in the foregoing, to all reasonable 
-e \ only add this 'one, that we should be able ta 
lams abroad with the product of our seasj and grasp 



IHILOSOFHICAL PAPEK8. 47 

at better part of the foreign trade, -which, of late years, hath been 
grasped from us, which may prove to our enlargement, and a stop 
to their progress ; the \vhich is a more justifiable proceeding, 
before God, than arms ; and more suitable to the practice of the 
servant in the Gospel, zzho managed his ten talents, to the gaining 
of ten more ; which entitled him to the euge bone, &c, 

Fourthly, As for the merchants' employments, for the adrance 
of seamen, and to avoid the great trouble, charges, and abuses in 
pressing of men. which hath so little effect, I have said something 
already in their carrying the king's boys. Now if all merchant- 
men, who are bound to any foreign parts, should, at their clearing 
at the Custom-house, leave a list of their ship's company, contain- 
ing the true names, surnames, and places of their usual residence, 
age, &c. of the master, and ship's company, whithej: bound, and 
* - hen cleared the Custom-house ; and also at their entrance of the 
ships at the Custom-house upon their returns, a like book, or 
list of what men she brought home with her, and signed by the 
master ; which book? shall be sent by the general Custom-house 
essenger. every \vcck, unto the Admiralty, where should be an 
expert clerk, in a particular office, only for that purpose, to 
receive the same; am; out of the said lists, to enter into books, he 
hould keep for that purpose, viz. an alphabet of books, a book 
for each letter yearly : or perhaps twenty books may contain the 
twenty-four letters, some letters being not so m~ch used, that a 
book may contain two or three, all ruled with columns, TIZ. the 
master, ship, and company's names, places of usual residence- 
<vhencccome, whither bound, when entered, inward, and outward, 
&c. And also, that the vice-admiral of every county do by him- 
self, or sufficient deputy, every year, or as often as the lord hi^h 
admiral shall direct, visit all the sea-ports, /ivers, and creeks ot 
every parish and place where maritime people inhabit ; as seamen, 
fishermen, hoymen, ferrymen, bargemen, Scc. within their sereral 
counties, and there shall send for, or summon before them, the 
church-wardens and orerseers of the poor, who shall give thorn 
account of what such men live within their precincts, their true 
names, surnames, ages, and abodes; which said accounts shall, by 
the said tice-adiniral, be drawn into a fair list, and sent unto ths 
said office, and there be entered into the said books. No-.v the 
vice-admiral might, bv his warrant, send to the said parUnes. to 
send in to him, by such a day appointed, at a most convenient 
place for their ease, the said account ; and in case any shall neg- 
lect the said duty, or conceal any man that hath used the said pnc- 



48 PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 

ticc and place for the space of six months, from between the 1 
fcges of eighteen and sixty, that are not worth one hundred pound* 
clear, when debts paid, or in such sort as the lord high admiral 
shall direct his warrant to the vice-admiral ; the nature, and sub- 
stance of the vice-admiral's to contain the substance of the high 
admiral's ; which returns, or presentments, lest they prove to b 
false by concealments, and partialities, they should be required 
tapon oath : after which, if the said vice-admiral shall upon his 
visits find false or partial, he should send to the next quarter ses- 
sions his information of that officer's perjury, under hand and 
seal, to the clerk of the peace, who should file the said information 
against that church-warden, or overseer of the poor, and proceed 
against him, in behalf of the king, as for perjury, and punished by 
the judgment of the bench. If the laws efctant are not sufficient 
to empower the lord high admiral to do these thirtgs, as here men- 
tioned, there might be a clause added to his power, as the king 
and parliament shall think meet, for the better governing of the 
maritime ailairs; by which methods aforesaid being duly observed 
and kept, il would cost the king for keeping the said office but a 
juiall matter, which would soon be saved, in the great expences for 
pressing of men ; beside the great abuses done in the counties, be 
prevented, if the vice-admiral's be good men. Also, if the said 
law were, that if any parish shall conceal any one between the 
yaid sessions, and summoned, and not bring him forth, that for 
f.rery man so concealed, and proved by the oath of one man that 
he was in the parish for the space of twenty-four hours, and not 
eizod by any of the parish, then the vice-admiral's deputy shall 
take distre.-s upon the said church-wardens, of overseers of the 
1 our, for ten shillings for every such man, and for every time 
i-uiii . .v.ik'd, to be borne by the parish equally, out of the 
parish rates. 

I only add, that if the lord high admiral's warrants to all the 
>uh she rill's of England, that they do send their warrants to the 1 
( :>:>- tables of hundreds, wapentakes, &c. and they to the petty 
r.jirt.'b'ivs, or tithing men, that they should make a like present- 
r;euf, vii. the constable of the hundred should deliver it in every 
, or poal-delivery ; which presentment the petty constables 
Mvorn to the truth thereof, before some justice of the 
p. ; . before the high constable rcceireth it, and then he should 
did-, one presentment for the hundred, to give in at the assizes ; 
- as from the petly constables, under their oaths, thus 
; out of which presentments, the clerk of the assizes 



PLATE cciiix. 4i) 

shall give the Admiralty the needful account, at the end of every 
circuit, there to be entered into the office aforesaid : for many men, 
during war, betake themselves to live with their friends in the 
inlands, and follow their occupations, and at the end of the v ars 
return to their maritime lives, or wait to make slips into mer- 
chantmen; but this being duly executed by vice-admirals, custom- 
houses, and high sheriffs, and transmitted unto such an office as 
before mentioned, and there well digested into method, and duly 
kept, it would enable the lord high admiral, at all times, <o 
give the king, his council, and parliament, when required, a true 
and certain state of the kingdom, as to maritime strength : and also 
enable him to collect them from all places, in little time, less 
charges, and lc.-s trouble to thii people, in their disquiet of the 
country : so there might be made good estimates of the increase or 
decrease of our maritime strength, at any time to be gathered out 
of the ledger books of the said office, and only communicated to 
the Admiralty ; and yet farther, at the king's, or perhaps the 
lord high admiral's order, proclamation might be made upon the 
Exchange, or put out in gazettes, requiring all merchants, owners 
of ships, &c. to signify by their letter to the said office where their 
ships were, by their last advices, and whither bound, aad where 
expected nest, with some estimate of the ship's number of men, 
b.urthcn. and some value of cargo ; that care proportionably might 
be taken for their protection and preservation ; the which may 
often prevent the sudden seizures of the subjects and wealthy 
effects of the nation ; for it is not possible that merchants, &c. 
ran be privy to the intrigues of states, which ought to have their 
paths in secret and select councils. As for the methodizing these 
things, I do not project; but only hint the basis and foundation* 
thereof; that the superstructures might be raised thereon to per- 
fection, by the skilful architects of the wise legislators and state 
politicians of the nation. 



PLATE CCXLIX. 

the drawing from which the annexed plate was engraved, 
we are indebted to our friend G. T. 
La Ciuayra is in the province of Caracas, on the Spanish main} 
is in the latitude of 10 3 37' north, latitude 60 f \vest.-it is very 
strongly fortified. 
> 

CHoI.XIX. * 



SO MARINE SCENERY. 

In the 1 year 1713, Captain Ktiowlcs (afterwards Sir Charles*), 
with a squadron under his CMr.ij-.anJ, made au unsnccessfiil attack 
on it. To (his place the mutineers, after so cruelly, murdering 
their captain, carried the Henuione, in 1797, ,'rnd were recived in 
a manner (hat did no credit to the governor. There is no harbour, 
Tmt tho road is well protected by numerous batteries, aud there are 
several strong commanding ports on the land side. 



MARINE SCENERY. 

EXTRACTS FROM GREGORY'S ECONOMY OF NATURE. 

nrillJ'] marine or sea-bow is a phenomenon sometimes observed 

I* 

in a much agitated sea, when the wind, sweeping part of the 

topb of the waves, carries them aloft, so that the sun's rays falling 
u i son iiu-: 1 .), are refracted, and paint the colours of the bow. 

Dr. 1 'alley, in <he diving bell, observed, that when he was sunk 
iii;pr, f^homs deep into the sea, the upper part of his hand, on 
uhh-ii the Mm shone, directly through the water, was red, and the 
IOWCT \r.ici n biuei.Mi green. On these phenomena, Mr. Delaval 
d'j-orvis. ('nit (he sea water abounds with heterogeneous particles, 
m.uiy ol v, l.ich approach so near in density to the water itself, 
th:ii their rel!;riive power must be very weak, though, as they are 
<>!' the sunn* density, they still. must have some dogree of 
power. Although these, therefore, may be invisible when 
uewed, yet when the forces of a great number of such 
d'.ivi arc unitt-d, their action on th<! rays of light become 
e, .sismo rays being reflected by them, while others are 
1 ' ti. rough ilicir intervals, according to the quantity of 
iviK-L'iive mailer \\ hich the rays arrive at in die internal parts of the 

AV.itlT. , 

Tin.- opacity of ( he sea, caused by the numerous reflections from 
i'- i;.l:M!;al jvirti, is so considerable, that it is not near so transput 
i .v, i-.s ofhrr water; the reilective particles, therefore, which are 
i!iMH'[-scd i!: rough the mass of sea Avater, have consequently a 
p'liiti'r iriiccsive power than those which are dispersed through the 
a';ni>--pliere. install, therefore, of reflecting a delicate blue, such 
a i nil 1,1' the sky, tin 1 sea water, by acting upon a greater portion 
oi' tiie more i . i.an^ibh'- rays, exhibits a green colour, which we 



.t;n.nr of the late Sir Charles, see our first volume of tlwv 
in. i iu.s ,)oi!.niit was "iven in the ninth volume. 



MARINE ttENERY. 5.1 

know to be a middle colour, produced by the mixture of blue 
rays with some of the less refrangible, as the yellow or orange. 

With respect to the phenomena remarked by Dr. Ilalley, it is 
easy to conceive that the light, when stripped of all the more 
refrangible rays, should produce a rose colour,- such as that he 
observed on the upper part of his hand; on the contrary, that 
which illuminated the lower part of his hand, consisted partly of 
rays reflected from the ground, and partly of those which were 
reflected from the internal parts of the sea water, which are chiefly 
blue and violet; and the mixture of these produced the greenish, 
tinge which the doctor remarked, and \vhich common experience 
shews is the predominant, colour of ti<e ocean. 

Water-spouts are among the phenomena which some philosophers 
have attempted to explain on electrical principles. A watcr-sp.-.ut 
is a most formidable phenomenon, and is indeed capable of causing 
great ravages. It commonly begins by a cloud which appears very 
small, and \vhich mariners call the squall, which augments in a 
Httle time into an enormous cloud, of a cylindrical form, or that of 
a reversed corae, and produces a noise like an agitated sea, some- 
times emitting thunder and lightning, and also large quantities of 
rain or hail, sufficient to inundate large vessels, overset trees and 
houses, and every thing which opposes its violent impetuosity. 

These water-spouts are more frequent at sea titan by land, and 
sailors are so convinced of their dangerous consequences, that 
when they perceive their approach, they frequently endeavour to 
break them, by firing a cannon before they advance too nexr tlia 
ship. They have also been known to have committed great devas- 
tations by land : though, where there is no water near, they 
generally assume the harmless form of a whirlwind. 

These phenomena are accounted for, upon electrical principles. 
It is observed that the efllue/it matter proceeds from a body actually 
electrified towards one which is not so ; and the affluent mutter 
proceeds from a body not electrified towards one which is actually 
so. These two currents occasion two motions analogous to the 
electrical attraction aiid repulsion. If the current of the affluent 
matter is more powerful than the affluent matter, which in thii 
case is composed ot particles exhaled from the earth, the particles 
of vapours which compose the cloud an; attracted by this atiiucnt 
matter, and form the cylindrical column, called the deluding 
&ater-spout f if, oil the contrary, the ailiuent matter is the 
strongest, it attracts a sufficient quantity of aqueous particles to 
form gradually into a cloud, and this is commonly termed the 
fisc ending izutti 



52 JiARINE SCENEHT. 

The above-mentioned phenomena have, however, been accounted 
for upon (he principles of hydrostatics ; and by some it has been 
imagined that there are two kinds of waterspouts, the one the 
effect of electrical attraction, and the other caused by a vacuum, 
or extreme and sudden rarefaction of the air. The -whirlwinds 
which have been observed in this country are generally supposed 
to be of the latter kind ; at least whatever was the original cause, 
the circumagitation or spiral motion of the air must have con- 
tinued long after every electrical power had ceased to act. 

It is well known, that even a common fire produces a kind of 
circulation of the air in a room, but in a different form. It is 
therefore not difficult to conceive, that when any part of the, column 
<of air upon the surface of the earth or water is rarefied, either by 
electricity or any other cause, a .vacuum, at least comparatively 
to th rest of the air, will immediately take place, and the circum- 
ambient air rushing in at once from every quarter to fill the void, 
a conflict of winds ensues, and consequently a circular motion, by 
wVirh li-lit bodies will be taken up and turned round with con- 
.-el i' i :!'>': Afiocily ; this violent rushing of the air on all sides into 
rhe vacuum then forms what. is commonly called at land a whirl* 
wind. 

Yt'hen <]I'H vacuum takes place at sea, from the nature of fluids, 
the \\ater Mil! rise (o a certain height by the pressure 'of the at- 
mosphere, as in a common pump; but as the vacuum is not quite 
perfect. t!:e water wil] be divided into drops, and as these vacuums 
are generally caused by heat, it will be rarefied wher^ it reaches 
the upper ivgions of the atmosphere, and assume the appearance of 
a cloiul. ' 

Water-spouts appear at a distance like an inverted cone, or the 
point of a .sword, which is owing to the water rising in large drops 
at the first, and being expanded as it ascends ; and a cloud is 
Ciii< rally su-pejulccl over the body of the phenomenon. The water 
v, Intl. io iaki'ii up is undoubtedly salt at the first, but, by the 
rarefaction in the superior regions, it undergoes a kind of natural 
distillation, and loses all the heavy saline particles with which it 
was charged. Water-spouts have tyeen observed at land, and 
account:, have been given of red and yellow rain, of frogs and, 
tadpoles, a::;! even -mall fishes having been rained upon the tops of 
houses. The, ivd and yellow rain was composed of the blossoms 
of uncial;!; 1 *. O r of hjaccts, |aken up by one of these aerial tubes ; 
and liie ii < :;. and fishes were probably part of the contents of seme 
UOIM!, in which the water-spout originated, or over which it might 
Iifivf pa^cd iu its perambulation. 



MARINE Si ENTRY. 53 

The point or cone of the wafer-spout is generally oblique, 
/depending on the force and direction uf the wind which drives it 
along. 

Dr. Perkins is disposed to adopt a different theory. Captain. 
Jlelling informed him, that in a voyage from the West India 
islands to Boston, a w ater-spout came across the stern of the 
1 where he then was, a flood of water fell upon him with such 
violence as almost to beat him down, and the spout immediately 
passed off with a roaring noise into the sea. The water from the 
spout, he remarked, wa- perfectly fresh. Dr. Perkins adds several 
other instances on the testimony of mariners, who all affirmed that 
they saw the water descend from the cloud through the water- 
spout into the sea, contrary to the general opinion, that it always 
ascends. 

To determine the matter, it is to be wished, that future observers 
would be careful to remark, 1st, the incipient state of a water- 
spout, and in particular whether any cloud is seen hovering over 
the part in which it commences ; and 2dly, whether the conical 
pail seems gradually to descend from the body of the cloud. 



BALI. OF FIRE. 

Ox board the Montague, under the command of Admiral Cham- 
bers, in lat. 42 48' long. 9 3', on the 4th of November, 1749, 
ab.mt ten minutes before twelve, as Mr. Chalmers was taking an 
aberration, one of the quarter-masters desired he would look to 
the windward. On directing his eye that way, he observed 'a large 
ball of blue fire, about three miles distance from them ; they 
immediately lowered the top-sails, but it caine so fast upon them, 
that before they could raise the main tack, they observed the ball 
rise almost perpendicularly, and not above forty or fifty yards 
from the main chains, when it went off with an explosion as great 
as if hundreds of cannon had been discharged at the same time, 
leaving behind it a strong sulphureous smell. By this explosion 
the main-top-mast was shattered in pieces, and the main-mast sent 
quite down to the keel. Five men were knocked down, and one 
of them was greatly bruised, and some other damage, of less 
importance, was done to the ship. Just before the explosion, the 
Uiill seemed to be of the size of a large millstone. 



54 

CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 
No. XXII. 

Again the dismal prospect opens round, 

The wreck, the shore, the dying, and the drown 'd. 

FALCONIR. 

*****~-^+ 

OFFICIAL ACCOUNT OF THE LOSS OF THE BOREAS'. 

SIR, Inconstant, in Guernsey Road, Nov. 29. 

IT is with the deepest regret I hare to acquaint you, for the in. 
formation of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that 
his Majesty's ship Boreas, iu standing towards this island yes. 
terday evening, aboirt six .o'clock, run upon the ilannois rocks, 
the wind a (. 'he time blowing very hard at N- E. 

I received information of this unfortunate event about two 
o'clock this morning, and immediately sent orders to the Brilliant 
and Jamaica (which had arrived from Spithead the preceding 
day, with the Rebuff gun brig), the Britannia cutter, and one of 
the government scouts, to proceed oil* the Ilannois, and atl'ord her 
every assistance; : their lordships will be very much concerned to 
be informed, that on the tide's flowing the ship overset, and be- 
came a complete wreck, at about two o'clock; and I am truly 
grieved to be obliged to add, that Captain Scott, with the officers 
and men, except tliose mentioned in the enclosed list, were lost 
with the ship: Lieutenant Bewick (second lieutenant), with Lien- 
tenant U ilson, of the royal marines, and six men, were sent off iu 
the j;ig, and landed in the western part of the island ; and about 
tiiirly others in the launch and large cutter, were also landed, and 
the boats returned to the ship, but have not been heard pf, an4 
there i> every reason to fear were lost on hearing her. 

Through the great exertions of Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Thomas 
Sanmare/, in colleciing the pilots and boatmen in the vicinity of 
liorquaius, about thirty seamen and marines were taken ofl' the 
rock of tL> liannois at day-light, which, I fear, are the whole 
thai, have been saved. 

The greatest praise appears to be due to Captain Scott, and all 
liis officers and men, for their steadiness and good conduct, under 
M;C!I perilous circumstances, in a dark and tempestuous night, in 
tlir micM of the most dangerous rocks that can be conceived ;- and 
have r,:osr sincerely to lament the loss of so many brave officers 
and men uiio have perished on this most melancholy occasion. 



COURECT BELATION OF SHIPWRECKS, US 

Captain Scott has been long upon this station, and has always 
shewn the greatest zeal and attachment 'for his majesty's service, 
and in him particularly his country meets a great loss, being a 
most valuable and deserving officer. 

I am, sir, 
v Your most obedient humble servant, 

JAMES SAUMAREZ." 
To the Hon. W. IP. Pole, Secretary to the Admiralty. 

List of Officers and Men, and Royal Marines, saved from the Wreck of the 
Koreas frigate, G targe Scott, Esq. Captain : 



Lieutenant Bewick 

Mr. Samuel Ileming, midshipman 

Mr. William Simpson, boatswain 



OFFICERS. 

T. Hoare, gunner 
Michael Macaun, cook. 



John Meacham 


John Coc'k^u 


Charles Dunn ' 


John Harrison 


John Doyle- 


Robert Elliott 


Robert Erwin 


Thomas Biggin 


John Gilkes 


William Tomkins 


Barnard itoss 


Joseph Unkins 


James Ilewill 


John Duley 


Benjamin Baker 


John Hudson 


James Bates 


William Troude 


Samuel Stokes 


Francis Williams 


Joseph Bell 


John Hutcbinson 


Goo. Black 


John Williams, captain's 


Thoams- Jones 


Ilobert Mitchell 


cockswain 


John Richardson 


Benjamin Kendall 


John Grey, captain's 


Richard Trounce 


John Bevis 


steward. 


Joseph Harraben 


Robert Richardson 




James Bell 
John Wells 
Thomas White 
John Bulger 
Robert Emerson 
Charles Mark 
James Thompson 
William Shane 


William Lambert 
John VVinship 
George Murray 
John Bradley 
John Bcrto 
George Rickner 
John Mason 
Edward Martin 


BOYS. 

Charles Ramsay 
William Parsons 
Joseph Minnes 
Edward Luttrell 
Francis Coquett 
George Turnbull 
Freeman Henry. 


Richard Dule 


Edward Ukes 


SUPERNUMERARY. 


Gilbert Gearson 


William Thornhill 


Michael Hurley. 


, ROYAL MARINES. 


Lieutenant Wilson 


Paul Belaur 


George Lisle 


John Finem, corporal 


Thomasj Minden 


John Dulney 


E. Edmonds, private 


John Parsons 


James Bailey 


John Scrattan 


John Maclane 





, LOSS OF THE ANSON. 

THE following account of the loss of his majesty's frigate 
Anson, Captain Lydiard, is extracted from a letter, written by 
her second lieutenant (Gill), and dated Truro, January 9 : 

" On the 27th of December, in the evening, -we saw the Isle of 






AS eoRUT-cf fttf,ATTON or SHIPWRECKS. 

Bas. We Stood off during the night about 'W. N. W. Mowing 
Tery hard. The next morning we bore up for Falmoulh, at about 
six o'clock. By our reckoning at noon, the Lizard we imagined 
N. by VV. eight or teit mile".- At otte we saw the land, which I 
think must have beett Cudden Point* We wore immediately, and 
steered S. E. by E. About three the captain thought proper to 
wear, and stand in to make the land again. We did not stand in 
niorc than ten minutes, then wore once more, and stood out about 
S. S. E. or S. by E. At four we saw land close aboard, and 
nearly right a-head, which we perceived to be the Lizard. ^\ c 
immediately wore and hauled to the Mind on the larboard tack ; 
stood on for about half an hour, then furled every thing, and let 
go the best bower. She took the cable entirely to the clench, but 
rode by it till four the next morning it then parted. We let go 
the small bower, which brought her up to the clench also. By 
this cable we rode till seven, or half past, when it was resolved to 
run her on shore." 

Tar following more detailed account is from another source : > 
<' }\\* majesty's ship Anson, of 40 guns, Captain Lydiard, after 
cor.ipU'tijig her stores of all kinds for a four months' cruise', sailed 
from Futinouth on the 24th of December, to resume her station 
oil Hivst. It coming on to blow from the W. S. W. she was 
never able to get so far to the westward ; however, Captaifi 
Lidhul persevered in his endeavours until the 28th. On the 
morning of that (lay she made the Isle dc Bas, on the French 
coast, v. .H'u the gale increasing, with every appearance of bad 
v.-i-iiintT, Captain Lydiard determined to return to port, and 
aceonliiigiy shaped a course for the Lizard, the weather coming ori 
very hazy, with an increasing gale. About three P. INI. the land 
v.-iu PC; al.out live miles west of the Lizard, but at the time not 
oxar:!} !\nov,:s, as many opinions were expressed 'as to what land 
i; v,-;; .; <!u -n in Mghi, the ship was wore to stand off at sea, but had 
run. l;);v; been on (hat tack before the land was again descried 
j ir'it a- head : it was now quite certain that the ship was embayed , 
rjul c\cry exertion was made to work her off the shore, but find- 
ii;a, she lo>t ground every tack, she was brought to an anchor in 
t-.M-ii.'y-ih e fathoms, at five P. M. with the best bower anchor 
iv. a) to two cables length ; by this anchor the ship rode in 
tremendous sea, and as heavy a gale as was ever expe- 
nut;! four A. JI. of the 29th, when the cable parted. 
::'.! i:o\vc'r anchor was then let go. and veered away to two 
i'M^ii, \\liich held her until eight A. AI. when that 



CORRECT RELATION" OF SHI^fRECKS. 57 

parted ; and, as the last resource, in order to preserve the lives of 
as many as possible, the fore-top-sail was set, and the ship run on 
shore on the saad, which forms the bar between the Loe Pool 
(about three miles from Helstone) and the sea. The tide had 
ebbed about an hour when she struck : on taking the ground she 
broached-to with her broadside to the beach, and most happily 
heeled in to the shore (had she, on the contrary, heeled off, not a 
soul could have escaped alive). Now commenced a most heart- 
rending scene to some hundreds of spectators, who had been in 
anxious suspense, and who exerted themselves to the utmost, at 
the iiir.ninsnt risk of their lives, to save those of their drowning 
fellow men ; many of those who were most forward in quitting the 
ship lost their lives, being swept away by the tremendous sea, 
which entirely went over the wreck. The main mast formed a 
floating raft from the ship to the shore ; and the greater part of 
those who escaped, passed by this medium. One of the men 
saved, reports, that Capt. Lydiard was near him on the main mast ; 
but he seemed to have lost the use of his faculties with the horror of 
the scene, and soon disappeared. At a time when no one ap- 
peared on the ship's side, and it was supposed the work of death 
had ceased, a methodist preacher, venturing his life through the 
rmrf, got on board over the wreck of the main mast, to see if any 
more remained; some honest hearts followed him. They found 
several persons still below, who could not get up ; among whom 
were two women and two children. The worthy preacher and 
his party saved the two women, and some of the men, but the 
children were lost. About two P. M. the ship went to pieces ; % 
f when a few more men emerged from the wreck. One of these 
was saved. By three o'clock no appearance of the vessel re- 
mained. The men who survived were conveyed to Jielston, 
about two miles distant, where they were taken care of by the 
magistrates, and afterwards sent to Fal mouth, in charge of the 
regulating captain at that port. Of the missing, we understand 
many are deserters, who scampered off as soon as they reached 
the shore. Among the officers saved, are Captain Siillivan, a 
passenger ; Messrs. Hill and Brailey, midshipmen ; Mr. 'Ros,s, 
assistant surgeon ; and some others." 



LOSS OF THE AMICUS. 

THE subjoined interesting account of the loss of the ABWCUS ti 
copied from a provincial paper : 

i. $ron, (B 



58 

<c At four o'clock on Tuesday morning the 8th of December, it 
blowing a tremendous gale of wind, with a heavy snow, the ship 
Amicus, Captain Simpson, of Hull, from Petersburg, with 
hemp, flax, tallow, Ac. struck on the Holderness coast, half a 
mile to the S. of the Sister Churches. At twelve o'clock, the 
captain, who was an excellent swimmer, committed himself to 
the waves, with a rope, hoping to be able to gain the shore, but 
iras overwhelmed by the breakers, and perished in the attempt. 
The mate, and another of the crew, followed his example, and 
met with a similar fate. The remaining part of the ship's com- 
pany were seen clinging to the rigging and wreck y by numerous 
spectators. After several ineffectual attempts, Mr. Giles had 
recourse to the following : he procured a leaden half pound 
weight, and making a hole through it, he fastened it to a long 
piece of whip-cord, and selected from the spectators the most 
athletic man, to cast it at the wreck. After many fruitless trials, 
the man, following a receding -wave, succeeded in throwing it 
across the vessel. The carpenter fastened the cord round his arm, 
was dragged through the surf to the shore, apparently lifeless-, 
but ai'Vrwurds recovered : the cord was again cast, and a boj 
W.-13 rescued from the vessel in the same manner. After this, a 
jjfjrsoH named John Greensides, notwithstanding the heavy surf, 
Tithed through it to the vessel, and though he was hidden re- 
peatedly from the view of the aiectators by tremendous waves, 
niid could not s\vim, succeeded in gaining the wreck, and brought 
>) land another bov ; in his passage to the shore he was twica 

1 ..I 

tiiro'.-. n doMn !., the violence 0f the back water. He again re- 



o wreck, and at the hazard of his own, sared the ( 

- ' 



ol anoth.-r seaman. At six o'clock, four persons ventured 
oiuch ihc_ vaves fo the ship, and brought away two others, 
o di."d :4:orfly after their gaining the shore. The bodies of the 

':.!;: a;iii jiuiu have been washed ashore." 



nn: AMERICAN snip GOLDEN RULE. 

'.'wing jK-coiint of the loss of this ship, and of the 
[ her crew, lias been received from one of the pas- 



::;p 'J ol.icn Ilule, Captain Austin, sailed from Wil- 




feORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 5Q 

easset, with a cargo of timber, Sept. 8. On tlic 2Cth of the 
same month she experienced a severe ga'e from the S. E. and at 
eight o'clock, A. M. we discovered she had sprung a leak, and 
had four feet water in her hold ; at nine it had increased to eight 
feet, notwithstanding we had two pumps going, and were throw- 
ing her deck load overboard, which we were enabled to do very 
slowly, from the sea driving the planks about the deck, and 
wounding the cre\v. About tea o'clock the water had increased 
to twelve feet, and the gale had evidently increased; the crew and 
all on board were quite exhausted, and, going into the cabin, we 
found she was welling fast. The main and mizen masls were now 
cut away, to prevent her upsetting, and she was quite clear of 
her deck load. At eleven o'clock she was full up to her main 
deck, and all her bulk heads were knocked away. It now 
occurred to us to endeavour to save some bread, and Mr. Boyd, 
the first mate, -with great resolution, went into the cabin, and 
gave out some bread and two bottles of rum \ but so rapidly did 
she fill, from the timber of her cargo shifting, that Ije w,as forced 
to break through the sky-light to save himself. Our small stock 
of provisions was now put into the binnacle, as a secure place. 
It had been there but a few minutes, when a tremendous sea 
struck us, and carried away the binnacle. We had now little 
hope left the wheel was broke, an^Lwe proceeded to secure 
ourselves as well as we could, J^me*lr the faretop, and the rest 
\veje. lashing themselves to the faftKftljjf before we could accom- 
lisli the latter plan, another sea, if possible more heavy than the 
ro, hurried us all from our places, and washed two of our 
j)oc;r men overboard; they were seen swimming for the ship a 
short time, when a wave buried them from our sight. We now 
endeavoured to keep the ship before the wind, which we were 
enabled partially to do through the night. The next day another 
of our men died from cold and hunger. The ship's deck was now 
blown up, and her side stove in, and we had all given ourselves 
up when, on Thursday at noon, we were roused by the cry of - 
*' A sail !" and we had the satisfaction to sec her bear down for 
us ; about three o'clock she came alongside ; she was the brig 
George, of Portland, and Captain Wildridge sent his longboat, 
and took us from the wreck, 5 ' 



1"he heart's remote recesses to explore, 

And touch its springs, vhen Prose avail'J no more. 



CLARA, 

THE MANIAC. 

COLD was the gale ; night's pensive queeu withdrew, 
And round her throne a sable mantle threw ; 
When hapless CLARA wander'd o'er the plain, 
ChilPd by the wind, and wet with drizzling rain : 
Her garments torn, her tresse/i all unbound, 
Her tender feet deforra'd with many a wound: 
Swift to the well-known beach she sped her way 
"What are thy thoughts? O child of sorrow ! say, 
Why heaves that bosom with the rending sigh ? 
Why holds despair her empire in that eye? 
Ah ! have her icy fangs benumb'd thy soul, 
And startled reason own'd the dire controul ? 
Tib so : convulsive throbs the anguish'd breast, 
The dove of peace has flown its fav'rite nest* 
"Where ersr, with love anttjpnojraicc serene, 
That oVr (he mind's horlifm lucKibcam 
The clierish'd guest a magiSjpcnarm diffus'd, 
And hope o'er fancy's vision'd rainbow mus'd, 
Transit". 1 .!, as sweet : Behold ! th' illusion bright, 
Ai fate's b!e.rn frown fades in Cimmerian night. 
lint, hush ! what sadly murm'ring 'plaints are these, 
That woo a passport from the sighing breeze ; 
"While, cavern'd echoes round the rocky shore, 
Whisp'ring, repeat the plaintive accents o'er, 
And shell-crown'd naiads, list'ning to the strain, 
I'or^et 'heir sparry grots, and sport beneath the main. 

<; A!i, see ! how wild the dashing billows rise, ' 
And, inaJ Avi'h insolence, provoke the skies : 
That vessel hanging on the dizzy height- 
I^Iow horror ! vanisli'd from my aching sight! 
Jit- ird you those moans ? Was it my soul's ador'd? 
What ! :-inkin.i; 'midst the wreck, my fond heart's lord? 
Thy (. lira'.-, h re! Why, thou infuriate wave 
]My Ileiirv yt tliy giant crush shall brave, 




NATAL POETRY. 61 

The savage demons of the storm defy, 
Though thunders roll, and light'nings glare on high. 
Oh, hasten, hasten from the tempest roar, 
These arms shall shield thee, never leave them more : 
Again to country, friends, and love return, 
For, ah ! thy loss has forc'd me long to mourn,. 
JVay, hold my heart why shudder at the blast ? 
Dost thou not know thy dreams of bliss are past? 
Hollow it sobb'd out Henry's fun'ral knell, 
His dying groan it broke the fairy spell ! 
I feel the vital stream forget to flow, 
It freezes round th' abode of cheerless woe: 
Like a benighted wanderer I stray, 
Who, drooping, pants for light's first orient ray; 
But if, perchance, enraptur'd he descry 
A trembling Hash fancies some friend is nigh ; 
Flics to o'ertake th' eluding treach'rous guide, 
Whose flitting gleams the vain pursuit deride; 
At last, he sinks exhausted nature fails, 
It disappears and tenfold gloom prevails. 
But, look ! surrounded by the seraph-choir, 
My Henry's smiles sublimer hopes inspire; 
His angel-form, soft floating on the air, 
Pointing to heaven, beckons CLARA there. 
Yes, my belov'd, the life-arresting dart 
Will soon to me each rapt'rous joy impart. 
JVot there will grief's slow venom'd blight devour 
The tender bud of sweet affection's llow'r : 
Its balmy odour breathes celestial birth, 
Its pure leaves close, and with'ring shrink from earth: 
Snateh'd from the dreary precincts of the tomb, 
Its charms restor'd, with fresher tints shall bloom ; 
Expanding flourish in its native clime, 
Above the storms of passion wrecks of time." 
Sunbury. ANNA. 

EXTRACTS 

FROM CHARLOTTE SMITH'S POEM OF 

BEACHY HEAD. 

ON thy stupendous summit, rock sublime ! 
That, o'er the channel rear'd, half way at sea 
The mariner at early moaning hails, 
I would recline ; while faucy should go forth, 



62 NAVAZ, POETRY, 

And represent the strange and awful hour 
Of vast concussion ; when th' Omnipotent 
Strctch'd forth his arm, and rent the solid hills, 
Bidding th' impet'ous main-flood rush between 
The rifted shores, and from the continent 
Eternally divided this green isle. 
Imperial lord of the high southern coast ! 
From thy projecting head-land I would mark 
Far in the east the shades of night disperse, 
Melting and thinn'd, as from the dark blue ware 
Emerging, brilliant rays of arrowy light 
Dart from th' horizon ; when the glorious sun 
Just lifts above it his resplendant orb, 
Advances now, with feathery silver touch'd 
The rippling tide of flood, glisten the sands ; 
While, inmates of the chalky clefts that scaf 
Tiiy sides precipitous, with shrill harsh cry, 
Their white wings glancing in the level beam, 
The fern:;, and gulls, and tarrocks seek their food 5 
.And fiiy rough hollows echo to the voice 
Of (he gray choughs, and ever restless daws, 
"With clamour not unlike the chiding hounds ; 
While the lone shepherd, and his baying dog, 
Drive to thy turfy crest his bleating (lock. 

The high meridian of the day is past : 
The ocean now, reflecting the calm heaven, 
!.> of cerulean hue; and murmurs low 
The tide of ebb, upon the level sands. 
The sloop, her angular canvass shifting stillj 
Catches the light and variable airs 
That but a little crisp the summer sea, 
Dimpling its tranquil surface. 



Afar off, 



And just emerging from the arch immense, 
Where, seem to part the elements, a fleet 
Of fishing vessels stretch their lesser sails; 
While more remote, and, like a dubious spat, 
Just hanging in the horizon, laden deep, 
The ship of commerce richly freighted, makes 
.Her riowrr progress, on her distant voyage, 



NAVAL POETRY. 53 

Bound to the orient climates, where the sun 

Matures the spice within its odorous shell, 

And, rivalling the gray worm's filmy toil, 

Bursts from its pod the vegetable down ; 

Which in long turban'd wreaths, from torrid heat 

Defends the brows of Asia's countless casts. 

There the earth hides, within her glowing breast, 

The beamy adamant, and the round pearl 

JSnchas'd in rugged covering ; M'hich the slave, 

With perilous and breathless toil, tears oft' 

From the rough sea-rock, deep beneath the waves. 

These are the toys of nature, and her sport, 

Of little estimate in Reason's eye : 

And they who reason, with abhorrence see 

Man, for such gaudes and baubles, violate 

The sacred freedom of his fellow 

Erroneous estimate ! As Heaven's pure air. 

Fresh as it blows on this aerial height, 

Or sound of seas upon the stony strand, 

Or, inland, the gay harmony of birds, 

And winds that wander in the leafy woods, 

Are to the unadulterate taste more worth 

Than the elaborate harmony brought out 

From fretted stop, or modulated airs 

Of vocal science so the brightest gems, 

Glancing resplendent on the regal crown, 

Or trembling in the high-born beauty's car, 

Are poor and paltry, to the lovely light 

Of the fair star, that, as the day declines, 

Attendant on her queen, the crescent moon, 

Bathes her bright tresses to the eastern wave ; 

For now the sun is verging to the sea, 

And as he westward sinks, the floating clouds, 

Suspended, move upon the evening gale, 

And, gathering round his orb, as if to shade 

Th' insufferable brightness, they resign 

Their gauzy whiteness, and, more warm'd, assume 

All hues of purple. There, transparent gold 

Mingles with ruby tints, the sapphire gleams, 

And colours, such as nature through her works 

Shews only in the ethereal canopy. 

Thither aspiring fancy fondly soars, 

Wandering sublime through visionary vales, 



64 

Where bright pavilions rise, and trophies, fann'd 
By airs celestial, and adorn'd with wreaths 
Of flow'rs that bloom amid elysian bowers. 
Now bright and brighter still the colours glow, 
Till half the lustrous orb within the flood 
Seems to retire : the flood reflecting still 
Its splendour, and in mimic glory drest ; 
Till the last ray shot upward, fires the clouds 
With blazing crimson ; then in paler light, 
Xong lines of tenderer radiance, lingering yield 
To partial darkness; and on the opposing side 
The early moon distinctly rising, throws 
Her pearly brilliance on the trembling tide. 
The fishermen, who at set seasons pass 
Many a league off at sea their toiling night, 
Now hail their comrades, from their daily task 
J{ chiming ; and make ready for their own, 
"With the next night commencing : The night tide 
Bears a dark vessel on, whose hull and sails 
.Mark her a coaster from the north. Her keel 
Xou- ploughs the sand ; and sidelong now she leans, 
While with loud clamours her athletic crew 
I'uload her : and resounds the busy hum 
Along the wave- worn rocks. Yet more remote, 
Where the rough cliff hangs beetling o'er its base, 
All breathes repose; the water's rippling sound 
Scarce heard ; but now and then the sea-snipe's cry 
Just tells that something living is abroad ; 
And sometimes crossing on the moon-bright line, 
Glimmers the skiff, faintly disccrn'd awhile, 
Then lost in shadow. 

Contemplation here 
llifih on her throne of rocks aloof may sit, 
And bid recording memory unfold 
Her scroll voluminous bid her retrace 
The period, when from Neustria's hostile shore 
The Norn. an launch'd his galleys, and the bay 
O'er which that mass of ruin* frowns e'en 
In vain and sullen menace, then receiv'd 
The new invaders : a proud martial race, 
Of Sciimlivavia the undaunted sons, 

* Fevenscy Csi&Ue; 



NAVAL POETRY. 65 



Vv'hotn Dogon, Fier-a-bras, and Humfroi led 
To conquest : while Trinacria to their power 
Yielded her wheaten garland ; and when thou. 
Parthenope, within thy fertile bay 
Receiv'd the victors. 



-In the mail'd ranks 



Of Xormans landing on the British coast, 
Rode Taillefer; and with astounding voice, 
Thunder'd the war-song daring Roland sang 
First in the fierce contention : vainly brave, 
One not inglorious struggle England made- 
But failing, saw the Saxon heptarchy 
Finish for ever. Then the holy pile,* 
Yet seen upon the field of conquest, rose ; 
Where to appease heaven's wrath for so much bleod, 
The conqueror bade unceasing prayers ascend, 
And requiems for the slayers and the slain. 
Bat let not modern Gallia form from hence 
Presumptuous hopes, that ever thou again, 
Queen of the isles 1 shalt crouch to foreign arms. 
The enervate sons of Italy may yield, 
And the Iberian, all his trophies torn 
And wrapp'd in superstition's monkish weed, 
May shelter his abasement, and put ou 
Degraded fetters. Never, never thou ! 
Imperial mistress of the obedient sea ; 
But thou , in thy integrity secure, 
Shalt now undaunted meet a world in arms. 



EFITAPH on Mr. KTRBY, Midshipman of his Majesty's ship Le~ 
viathan, who died at Port Royal^ Jamaica (written by Mr. 
M'BRIDE, school-master of that ship}; and engraven on the 
tomb-stone put over him, on the Pallisadoes^ Port 
Jamaica. 

STOP, gentle trav'ller, as you wand*er o'er 
This earthquake spar'd, but heav'n-deserted shore ; 
Here KIRBY, with ten thousand heroes lies, 
Whose loyal souls have reach'd aetherial skies ; 

* Battle Abbey. 

t The Pallisadoes is the common burial place at Port Royal. 

, ftoI.XIX. * 



6G NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807 1808. 

Poor friendless servant of the crozcn and state, 

Whose merits nois arc known, but known too Iftfc ; 

Near twice th' apprenticeship the state demands, 

He scrv'd obedient to a\\ just commands ; 

"With iioNouu-still perform'd each manly part ^ 

But hopeless died beneath a broken heart; 

Oh ! gently trav'ller ! drop one pious tear, 

T' embalm the sacred corpse which moulders here; 

And when his solid virtues you record, 

Lament that merit seldom meets rcicard. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE YEAR, 1807 1SOS. 

(December January. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

j 'T|TS Majesty's speech, delivered by commission, at the opening of the 
"- present session of parliament, will be read with considerable interest 
ami -aii-taction ; as it states the finances of the country to be in the most 
nourishing condition, and throws much light upon the present critical aspect 
or'atYuirs. On the motion for the address, no division took place in either 
hniiM.'; bur, i:i the lords, the following protest was entered against the pas- 
sa.:e reipcciiug the seizure of the Danish fleet : 

" Dl oi M I EXT, 

'' Because no proof of hostile intention on the part of Denmark has been 
adduced, nor any case of necessity made out to justify the attack upon ( o- 
penliiijjcn, without which the measure is, in our conception, discreditable to 
iiie ch.-iraclfjr and injurious to the interests of this country." 

W. FREDERICK. VASSAL HOLLAND. 
RAWDON. NORFOLK. 

LAUDERDALE. SIDMOUTM. 
GREY. 
Tor the aiu've, and various other reasons, Lord Erskine also entered a 

ill.:il:ict [T'lfcrt. 

P>y S,i Samuel Hood's despatches of the 29th of December, it will be seen 
ill-it t'.r i-!;i!ni dt' Madeira surrendered to his Majesty's arms, on the 26th 
i t!i;;t m-jiitl, ; to be iiolden for the Prince Regent of Portugal, or his heirs 
and i:ci esM),-s, till the free ingress and egress to the ports of Portugal and 
ii- colonies shall be re-established; or till the sovereignty of Portugal shall 
be c:;iuiici(.)uU'd from the controul or influence of Prance. 

Uuunapcirtc has returned to Paris, and is reported to have issued a decree, 
by \\j,k ii every neutral ship that may in future enter the ports of France, 
ishall be detained till the period of a general peace. 

O:;r relations with America are still in a state of great uncertainty ; but 

the proceedings of the senate, and of the house of representatives, as far as 

arc knoun, are rather pacific than hostile. An embargo, however, ha* 

bcui ia:il ;;pon American shipping in the ports of the United States. It is 

onjccmrcd to be the intention of the American government to confine their 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807 1808. 67 

ships to their ports until the belligerent powers abandon the restrictions 
which have beca imposed on neutral commerce. Foreign vessels are not to 
be permitted to trade with the United States, because, it is alleged the na- 
val superiority of this country would, in that case, place the American mar- 
ket entirely in the hands of England, to the exclusion of the other bellige- 
rents. The Americans are therefore to abandon all exterrral trade, in order, 
1 t is pretended, that no preference may be given cither to this country or to 
France, and it seems to be expected that the embarrassment which will be 
experienced by the states of Europe, when deprived of neutral ships as a me- 
dium of commercial intercourse, will be so great as to produce the removal 
of the existing restrictions. 

Sir Charles Cotton's expedition, having been dispersed in a gale, has been 
obliged" to return to port. 

Intelligence has been received, that the Rochefort squadron, consisting of 
RIK sail of the line, a jjsigate, and a brig, sailed on the 17th of January. 
The same clay the Etirydice frigate was chased by them, and near being 
taken, but fortunately made her (-scape, and the day following she joined 
.Sir ,T. T. Duckworth, and gave him the information. He immediately made 
"sail in quest of them in the Iloyal George, 100 guns, and the Temeraire 
and Xcptnne, 98 guns each; Tonnunt, 80 gun?, Dragon, 74 guns, and two 
frigates; leaving ihe Dreadnought oil' Brest, and despatching a brig for Sir 
Sidney Smith, and the Ann armed brig for Ireland. The flag ship of the 
fin my mounts I'.'O gijns. The squadron was supposed to be about four- 
teen leagues from Adruiral Duckworth, in the south-west quarter. 

Sir Richard Strachan's squadron was also in pursuit. 

A Danish journal, published on the. "3d of January contains the following 
estimate of what it terms the entire loss which Denmark has sustained from 
the English : 

"The number of ships of war carried away or destroyed- is stated at 
ievonty-MX,' carrying together two thousand two hundred and forty-six guns. 
The whole fleer. cousUvcd of 18 ships of the iine, lo frigates, 10 brigs, 26 
gun-boats, 4 praams, and 2 floating batteries, beside other smaller vessels, 
It is estimated, that a ship of 9ft guns costs 250,000 rix-dollars building ; 
oneof 84, '212,000; one of 74, 156,000; a frigate of 44 guns 97,000 ; and 
a ship of '24 guns, 50,000; and the smaller vessels in the same proportion: 
according to which calculation, we shall lind results a total of 5,222,000 
rix-dollars. It is likewise estimated that a ship of war, completely 
^quipped, costs at the rate of nearly 6,000 rix-dollars, Danish currency. 
It is also observed, that the immense quantity of marine stores and 
timber necessary for ship- building, collected in the magazines ot the 
Holm, and carried away or destroyed by the English, must be valued at 
thrice that sum : and if to these be added the damage occasioned to Co- 
penhagen and the country by the bombardment, fire, pillage, &c. and if 
we calculate also the loss sustained by the total stagnation of trade, the 
capture of merchant ships, and the losses suffered by Denmark out of Eu- 
rope, the whole loss may be fairly estimated- at 67,380,000 rix-dollars. 

" The ship of the line Dithmarschen, which the English had mutilated, a 
also the skeleton of a three-decker, which was left on the stocks, are now 
taking.down; as a great quantity of their timber may be made, use of ia 
the building of gun-boats," i 



68 NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, I807- I 

A pamphlet has just been published, entitled a " Discourse on our late 
Proceedings in the Baltic," which contains much curious matter, relating 
to the Danish expedition, and to the appointment of Sir Home Popham. 
We submit the following passages, without introduction or comment: 

Narrative of Measures pursued by the Officers who remonstrated against 
ceding their Rank to Sir Home Popham. 

tl The officers who felt themselves so much hurt at the appointment of 
Sir Home Popham to be captain of the fleet, as to represent their feelings 
on that occasion to the commander in chief, waited upon him, as in con- 
formity with the law and usage of the service,* and temperately, quietly, 
and respectfully made known their grievance to him. After some conver- 
sation, Admiral Gambier, though not perhaps approving the act, was so far 
from condemning the mode of application, that he said to those officers, that 
he felt himself obliged by the delicate manner in which they proceeded; and. 
recommended to them to address an official letter to him on the subject. 
This recommendation of the commander in chief produced letter No. 2. 
The officers, so far from menacing to withdraw their services from the 
fleet, as has been falsely and maliciously asserted, assured the admiral they 
were ready to proceed with the expedition ; that they should cautiously 
avoid evfrv measure that had the appearance of party or cabal ; and neither 
invite nor allow any other captains to join with them, but keep their mea- 
sures and feelings to themselves. The pledge they voluntarily gave was 
faithfully kept. The expedition sailed in a few days after, and in this si- 
tuation they proceeded to sea. 

" No official reply was ever made to letter No. 2. But during this ex- 
pedition the officers were separately shewn, by the commander in chief, a 
private letter from the First Lord of the Admiralty, in which ' he condemned 
them for their interference in the administration of naval affairs; expressing 
surprise tliat any objection should be made to the appointment of Sir Home 
I'opham. as none had ever been made to that of Commissioner Captain 
liuwcn ; and adding, he felt too much regard for the services of the officers, 
to lay their letter before the Board of Admiralty.' 

u The officers replied, that their sentiments and feelings were unchanged; 
and they felt so much aggrieved and humiliated in being called upon to 
cede- their rank to Sir Home Popham, that they must press being relieved 
from thru- painful situations as soon as the public service would allow. 

' The fall of the Danish fleet produced a promotion of admirals, which 
secured two of the officers from the grievances they complained of. The 
third, on his rcUrrn from the Baltic, was placed under orders that relieved 
him also from the painful situation. 

The grievance was removed, and in a manner flattering to the two offi- 
cers -.>. ho bore the rank of established commodores. They might justly 
have been accused of indulging a disposition rather tending to embarrass 
than rein v<- themselves from an injury, had they on their return continued' 
to uiTP ihc.r original remonstrance. It appeared essential to Sir Samuel 

. * " The articles of war provide fop the quiet and temperate regresenta< 

lion of r:icvr.nces to Uic admirul or commander in chief. ' '"' " ' 



K1VAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1807 1808. 69 

Hood and Rear -Admiral Keat?, both of whom have been in London since 
their return, to justify themselves from the imputation that appeared to be 
cast upon them in the private letter of Lord Mulgrave's, before noticed. 
That has been done, I have no doubt, in a manner perfectly satisfactory to 
JLord Mulgrave, and equally so to themselves. Their feelings have been 
tf^eir guide. Their object was never connected with party ; and tl 
moment they were placed in a situation that secured them from the indig- 
nity they complained of, and restored them to their natural seniority over 
Sir Home Popham, all personal subject of complaint was done away. 

" Note. Although it is ordered by the naval instructions, that a captain 
of the fleet shall be either a flag officer or one of the senior captains of the 
navy, the remonstrating officers were not ignorant that one * precedent 
could have been adduced of an appointment of captain of the fleet as junior 
as Sir Home Popham. But where, as in this case, the time of actual euv 
ployment has been very limited : where the officer had never served in a 
fleet; and other objections occurred; they considered, and consider, they 
Formed a fair and legitimate subject of remonstrance ; especially as two 
of them, very much his seniors, were (by the new naval restrictions), though 
Cbtablished commodores, called upon to cede their rank to him at councils 
and courts-martial." 

LETTER TO ADMIRAL G \IUBIER, &c. &c. c. 

" SIR, North- Yarmouth, July ?S, 1807. 

" We beg leave to represent to you, the extreme sorrow and concern 
with which, as senior captains in the navy, we are penetrated, in finding 
ourselves placed in situations that in any degree subject us to an inferiority 
to Captain Sir Home Popham. 

" We are sensible that it belongs to his Majesty, to establish the grada- 
tions of rank, and we have been bred to respect and venerate his authority. 
We wish simply to convey our feelings not to remark on the services or 
pretensions of any one. Waving, therefore, those of the present captain 
of the fleet, as much as circumstances will admit, and trusting that our 
regular, direct, unimpeachcd, and almost uninterrupted services, will afford 
the most unequivocal denial to the supposition of our being actuated by 
any indirect or party motives; we anxiously hbpe, sir, that you will take 
Such measures ai you may deem expedient, to relieve us from the painful 
sensations we at present experience. 

u The principles under which we have been brought up, induce us to 
make any sacrifices that the service of our country may require : we are 
ready to proceed on any immediate service ; but we rely, that as early mea- 
sures will be taken, without injury to the service, as caa be effected, to re- 

* " Captain Bowen. Tf Sir Home Popham's services had been as regular 
as those of Captain Bowen, and he had not met the public disapprobation 
of the Admiralty, and the severe censure of a court-martial, and had not 
pursued rather a speculative than a regular line of conduct, no objection 
would $yer have been made to him. 



70 NATAL HISTOttY OP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807 1808. 

lieve us from the humiliating situation in which, by the appointment of Sif 
Home Popham, as captain of the fleet, we find ourselves placed. We have 
the honour to he, sir, 

... With respect, your most obedient humble servant, 

(Signed) " SAMUEL HOOD, 

R. G. KEATS, 
To Admiral Gambler, $c. fc. " ROBERT STOPFORD." 

Comparative Services of tfie remonstrating Captains, and Sir Home Popham's, 
" The services of the three remonstrating captains have been s regular, 
s continued, and ax persevering, as that of any officers in the navy. From 
their earliest entrance into it, they had umleviatingly attached themselves 
to its plainest and fairest principles and pursuits ; a long uninterrupted 
course of service had been passed by them without blemish or suspicion ; 
they had severally served as captains under Earls Howe and St. Vincent 
under Lords Nelson, Hood, Gardner, Collingwood, and other officers of 
high rank and character. Each had commanded ships of the line in action, 
and received medals and the thanks of their country. Each had corn-* 
xnaiuled squadrons as established commodores, with the rank of rear-admi- 
rals, and acquitted themselves of their duty with approbation. At the com- 
mencement of the war with France in 1793, two of them had been eleven 
years in the command of sloops of war or frigates; and all of them three 
years post, with the rank of colonels in the army. At this period, the Cap- 
tain of the fleet commanded a merchant ship under foreign colours, him- 
self a lieutenant of the navy, and it has been said, a burgher at Ostend ; 
employed in a traffic prejudicial to the commercial rights and prosperity of 
the East India Company ! ! 

" The services of the remonstrating captains, when called upon to cede 
their rank to Sir Home Popham, were from seventeen to nineteen years pott* 
during which time they were almost constantly employed ; whilst the actual 
services of Sir Home Popham little exceeded four years He had never 
served as captain under any admiral had never been in a line of battle 
nor had ever commanded a ship in action. It is true, he had been honour- 
ed beyond all precedent with commands. His conduct in one, after meet- 
jiig the disapprobation of the admiralty, became the subject of parliament- 
ary inquiry. A second had been productive of the severe censure of a 
court-mart :nl ; from which sentence, hitherto found a bar almost insur- 
rii'niiir:i!;!e to advancement in the navy, he was raised, without precedent, 
considering these circumstances and his short services, and almost without 
a fian.-e, to a Mtualion, notwithstanding the rank and services of the re- 
ni'),:strnt:ii_' oi'iicers, that gave him a seniority over them. Under such un- 
precedented circumstances, they considered and consider themselves justi- 
f'.etl in having adopted the legitimate mode of remonstrance, to procure 
rcuix-s 01 a grievance. 

* I helieu- >ir Samuel Hood served as post captain 17 years. 

Rear- Admiral Keats also served ...... 17 years. 

Car-tain Stopford, I believe, fidl 15 years. 

Sr ilume i'oj haai little more than, I believe, . 4 year % . 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 18071838. 71 

* c The remonstrating officers acknowledge no inferiority of naval infor- 
mation or ability to Sir Home Popham. Their actions have corresponded 
with their professions: and they have not been accustomed to view with 
respect those whose conduct has been marked by speculative notions. It 
has been said, the focal knowledge of Sir Home Popham, made his appoint- 
ment, as captain of the fleet, requisite. Men of versatile talents have local 
knowledge in all parts of the world. The remonstrating captains did not 
discover any extraordinary advantage which the public service derived from 
his appointment ac Copenhagen; and on Admiral Gambler's advancing it 
as an argument at Yarmouth, he was reminded by the captains, that he 
might as easily derive all the advantages he promised himself from it, by 
taking him in a situation that would not be offensive to them, as in that in 
which he had been appointed to. 

" Note. One of the remonstrating captains, who commanded a frigate 
in 179CX, was actually employed to cruise for El "Trusco, the foreign mer- 
chant ship, commanded by Sir Home Popham, then on her outward-bound 
voyage to the East Indies. She was stopped by the Brilliant frigate, Capt. 
Mark Robinson, on her homeward-bound voyage in 1793 or 1791." 



On the 28th of January the thanks of both Houses of Parliament were 
voted to the naval and military commanders, officers, seamen, &c. employed 
in the late expedition to the Baltic. Lord Hawkesbury proposed the reso- 
lutions to this effect in the House of Lords, and Lord Castlereagh in the 
Commons. The motion was opposed in both houses, simply on the ground, 
that the enterprise was not of such a nature as to merit the proposed 
honours, for the officers by whom it was accomplished. The policy of the 
measure was not taken into discussion. The motion was carried without 
a division in the Lords ; in the Commons it was carried by 100 against 19. 



^Imperial parliament* 

HOUSE OF LORDS. 

THURSDAY, JANUARY 21. 

E Lords Commissioners, consisting of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
the Lord Chancellor, Earls Camden, Aylesford, and Dartmouth, having 
taken their places; and the Commons being in attendance, the Lord Chan- 
cellor read his Majesty's most gracious Speech, which was as follows: 

" My Lords and Gentlemen, 

- " We have received his Majesty's commands to assure you, that in calling 
you together at this important conjuncture of affairs, he entertains the most 
perfect conviction that he shall find ia you the same determination with 
which his Majesty himself is animated, to uphold the honour of his crown, 
and the just rights and interests of his people. 

" We are commanck-d by his Majesty to inform you, hat no sooner had 
the result of the negociations at Tilsit confirmed the influence and coutroul 



fr2 WAVAt HISTORY OF THE PttESENT YEAR, 1807 180& 

of France over the powers of the continent, than his Majesty was apprised 
of the intention of the enemy to combine those powers in one general con- 
federacy, to be directed either to the entire subjugation of this kingdom, or 
to the imposing upon his Majesty an insecure and ignominious peace. 

" That for this purpose, it was determined to force into hostility against 
his Majesty, states which had hitherto been allowed by France to maintain 
or to purchase their neutrality: and to bring to bear against different points 
of his Majesty's dominions the whole of the nava| force of Europe, and spe- 
cifically the fleets of Portugal and Denmark. 

" To place those fleets out of the power of such a confederacy, became 
therefore the indispensable duty of his Majesty* 

" In the execution of this rluty^ so Gar as related to the Danish fleet, his 
Majesty has commanded us to assure you, that it was with the deepest reluc- 
tance that his Majesty found himself compelled, after his earnest endeavours 
to open a negociation with the Danish Government had failed, to authorize 
bis commanders to resort to the extremity of force, but that he has tle 
greatest satisfaction in congratulating you upon the successful execution of 
this painful, but necessary service. 

" \Ve are commanded farther to acquaint you, that the course which his 
Majesty had to pursue with respect to Portugal, was happily of a nature 
more congenial to his Majesty's feelings; that the timely and unreserved 
communication by the court of Lisbon of the demands and designs of France, 
while it confirmed to his Majesty the authenticity of the advices which he had 
received from other quarters, entitled that court to his Majesty's confidence 
in the sincerity of the assurances by which that communication was accom- 
panied. 

" The fleet of Portugal was destined by France to be employed as an in- 
strument of vengeance against Great Britain. That fleet has been secured 
from the grasp of France, and is now employed in conveying to its'Amencan 
dominions the hopes and fortunes of the Portuguese Monarchy. His Ma- 
jesty implores the protection of Divine Providence upon that enterprize, re- 
joicing in the preservation of a power so long the friend and ally of Great 
Britain, and in the prospect of its establishment in the new world with aug- 
mented strength and splendor. 

" V\ e have it in command from his Majesty to inform you, that the de- 
termination of the enemy to excite hostilities betweu his Majesty and his late 
allies the Emperors of Russia and Austria, and the King of Prussia, has been . 
but too successful, and that the ministers from those powers have demanded 
and received their passports. 

This measure, on the part of Russia, has been attempted to be justified 
oy a statement of wrongs and grievances which have no real foundation. The 
Emperor of Russia had indeed proffered his mediation between his Majesty 
and France. His Majesty did not refuse that mediation, but he is confident 
you tt.ll led the propriety of its not having been accepted until his Majesty 
should have been enabled to ascertain that Russia was in a condition to me- 
diate impartially, and until the principles and the basis on which France was 
ready to negociate-were nude known to his Majesty. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YE YB, 1807 1808. 73 

" No pretence of justification has been alleged for the hostile conduct 
of the Emperor of Austria, or for that of his Prussian Majesty. His Majesty 
has not given the slightest ground of complaint to either of those sovereigns* 
nor even at the moment when they have respectively withdrawn their mi- 
nisters, have they assigned to his Majesty any distinct cause for that pro- 
ceeding. 

" His Majesty lias directed that copies of the official notes which passed 
between his Majesty's ambassador and the ministers for foreign affairs of his 
Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia, pending the negociations at Tilsit, 
as well as of the official note of the Russian minister at this court, which con- 
tain the offer of his Imperial Majesty's mediation, and of the answer returned 
to that note by his Majesty's command; and also copies of the official notes 
of the Austrian minister at this court, and of the answers which his Majesty 
commanded to be returned to them, shall be laid before you. 

It is with concern that his Majesty commands us to inform you, that 
notwithstanding his earnest wishes to terminate the war in which he is en- 
gaged with the Ottoman Porte, his Majesty's endeavours, unhappily for the 
Turkish empire, have been defeated by the machinations of France, not less 
the enemy of the Porte than of Great Britain. 

" But while the influence of France has been thus unfortunately success* 
ful in preventing the termination of existing hostilities, and in exciting new 
wars against this country, his Majesty commands us to inform you, that the 
King of Sweden has resisted every attempt to induce him to abandon his alli- 
ance with Great Britain, and that his Majesty entertains no doubt that you 
will feel with hira the sacredness of the duty which the firmness and tidelity 
of the King of Sweden impose upon his Majesty, and that- you will concur in 
enabling his Majesty to discharge it in a manner worthy of this country. 

" It remains for us, according to his Majesty's commands, to state to you 
that the treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation between his Majesty and 
the United States of America, which was concluded and signed by commis- 
sioners duly authorised for that purpose, on the 3 1st of December, 1806, has 
not taken efrect, in consequence of die refusal of the President f the United 
States to ratify that instrument. 

' For an unauthorised act of force committed against an American ship 
of war, his Majesty did not. hesitate to offer immediate and spontaneous re- 
paration; but an attempt has been made by the American government to 
connect with the question which has arisen out of this act, pretensions incon- 
sistent with the maritime rights of Great Britain ; such pretensions his Ma- 
jesty is determined never to admit. His Majesty, nevertheless, hopes that 
the American government will be actuated by the same desire to preserve 
the relations of peace and friendship between the two countries, which has 
ever influenced his Majesty's conduct, and that any difficulties in the discus- 
sion now depending may be effectually removed. 

" His Majesty has commanded us to state to yon, that in consequence of 
the decree by which France declared the whole of his Majesty's dominions 
in a state of blockade, and subjected to seizure and confiscation the produce 

. ftol. XIX. L 



74 VATAt msTOUY OF THE mESENT YEA*, 1807 1808. 

and manufactures of this kingdom, his Majesty resorted, in the first instance, 
to a, measure of mitigated retaliation ; and that this measure having proved 
ineffectual for its object, his Majesty has since found it necessary to adopt 
others of greater rigour, which, he commands us to state to you, will require 
the aid of Parliament to give them complete and effectual operation. 

" His Majesty has directed copies of the orders which he has issued with 
the advice of his privy council upon this subject to be laid before you, and 
he commands us to rec&mmend them to your early attention, 

" Gentlemen rfthe House of Commons, 

tl His Majesty has directed the estimates for the year to he laid before 
you, in the fullest confidence that your loyalty and public spirit will induce 
you to make such provision for the public service as the urgency of affairs 
may require. 

" His Majesty has great satisfaction in informing you, that, notwithstand- 
ing the difficulties which the enemy has endeavoured to impose upon the com- 
merce of his subjects, and upon their intercourse with other nations, the re- 
sources of the country have continued in the last year to be so abundant, as 
to have produced, both from the permanent and temporary revenues, a re- 
ceipt considerably larger than that of the preceding year. 

'' The satisfaction which his Majesty feels assured you will derive, in com- 
mon with his Majesty, from this proof of the solidity of these resources, can- 
not but be greatly increased, if, as his Majesty confidently hopes, it shall be 
found possible to raise the necessary supplies for the present year without 
any material addition to the public burthens. 

" My Lards and Gentlemen, 

" We are especially commanded to say toyau, in the name of his Majesty, 
that, if ever there was a just and national war, it is that which his Majesty 
is no\T compelled to prosecute. This war is in its principle purely defensive. 
His Majesty looks but to the attainment of a secure and honourable peace; 
but such a peace can only be negociated upon a footing of perfect equality. 

" The eyes of Europe and of the world are fixed upon the British par- 
liament. 

" If, as his Majesty confidently trusts, you~display in this crisis of the fate 
of the country, the characteristic spirit of the British nation, and face un- 
appallcd the unnatural combination which is gathered around us, his Majesty 
bids us to assure you of his firm persuasion, that, under the blessing of Divine 
Providence, the struggle will prove ultimately successful and glorious to 
Great Britain. 

' We are lastly commanded to assure you, that in this awful and mo- 
mentous contest, you may rely upon the firmness of his Majesty, who has no 
cause but that of his people, and that his Majesty reciprocally relies on the 
wisdom, the constancy, and the affectionate support of his parliament." 

The Speaker atjd the House of Commons having withdrawn, 

The Earl ofGalloaay moved an address of thanks to his Majesty, in whicU 

Le was seconded by Lord Kenyon. 



NAVAI, HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807 1808. 76 

The Duke of Norfolk objected to that ]Airt of the speech which related 
to the attack upon Copenhagen. No documents proving the necessity of 
that measure were before their lordships, and he therefore moved as an 
amendment, thnt the paragraph approving of that expedition should b 
omitted entirely. 

Lord Sidmouth contended that Denmark had not manifested a hostile dis- 
position towards this country. Her army was in Holstcia, and her navy in 
ordinary: she was not at the mercy of France. 

Lord Aberdeen defended the Danish expedition, on the ground of ne- 
cessity. 

Lord Grenville vehemently opposed it, directed the attention of moisten 
to Ireland, and urged the necessity of catholic emancipation. 

Lord Hawkesbury defended the attack upon Copenhagen on the ground 
that government was possessed of information that there were secret engao'e- 
ments at the treaty of Tilsit; that the view of the parties was to confede- 
rate all tiie powers of Europe, and particularly to engage or seize on the 
fleets of Denmark and Portugal to annoy this country. They'Jieard this from 
their public ministers then abroad. They heard it from their faithful ally, 
Portugal. They also received information of the hostile intentions of Den- 
mark from a quarter to which they had often been indebted for the first 
knowledge of the designs of Buonaparte; from, or rather through the dis- 
affected in Ireland. Ireland was to be attacked from two points Lisbon and 
Copenhagen; and they never found the information of these persons, how- 
ever they came by it, false. And, finally, they had a confidential commu- 
nication, that in the council of the highest authorities in Copenhagen the 
{natter wa- discussed, whether, on an option that they should join either En- 
gland or France, an option which they understood was to be put to them, 
they resolved to join France. Having learnt this, ministers would have been 
traitors if they had not secured the fleet. 

Lord Laiult'i'ihile, and Lord Bnckinglnnnshirc supported the Duke of Nor* 
folk's amendment; which was opposed by Lord .Uulgraye, and negatived 
without a division. 

Lord Grawilte then moved another amendment, declaratory of the opi- 
nion of the house, that it would neither be respectful to his Majesty, nor be- 
coming the dignity of the house, to give an opinion as to the propriety of re 
jecting the Russian mediation, till the papers relative to thutffltestion were 
before the house: this also was negatived without a division; after which 
jhc address was agreed to, and ordered to be presented. 



HOUSE OF COMMONS, 

TIIUUSBAY, JAN. 21, 

After the reading of the speech, Lord Hamilton moved an address of 
thanks to his Majesty, which was seconded by Mr. Ellis, ... 

In the course of the debate, Mr. Wlulbrcad depreciated the Copenhagen 



76 NAT At HISTORY Of THE PRESENT TEAR, 1807 1808. 

expedition ; denied' all credit to ministers for the escape of the Royal Fami- 
ly of Portugal ; contended that there was now as good an opportunity of 
making peace with France as ever; and particularly called upon ministers 
to attend to Ireland. 

Mr. Canning defended the conduct of ministers in every point alluded to 
in the royal speech. No angry discussion, lie said, had taken place with the 
court of Vienna. Strictly speaking, there was no negociation through the 
medium of Austria, nor any distinct offer from Talleyrand. No remonstran- 
ces had been received from Prussia. Every hostile appearance on her part 
was extorted by France. Injustice to the late ministers, he stated, that the 
expedition to the Dardanelles had been undertaken at the request of Russia. 
As that had not succeeded, the cause of war wiih the Porte had ceased. A 
negociation with the Porte was entered upon, and the only difficulty was the 
admission of Russia into the treaty. In the middle of this, the Russian mi- 
nister left Constantinople, and then a treaty was concluded by the Porte with 
France. As to Sweden, subsidiary negociations were carrying on with that 
power, which would be laid before the house when finished. With regard 
to America, as no right had* been claimed by Great Britain of searching ships 
of war, satisfaction was offered for the affair of the Chesapeake. But mi- 
nisters had kept that affair distinct from other matters in dispute, while the 
Americans endeavoured to blend them. He at the same time acquitted of 
any serious blame the gallant officer who had the command on the American, 
station, as his provocation was extreme. As to the policy of the orders in 
council, all agreed that there must be something of that sort, and the diffe- 
rence was only as to the degree, which was a question of inferior importance. 
It was proper to shew other powers that Great Britain might be as formida- 
ble as Buonaparte in some instances, though he admitted that our having a 
giant's strength was not a reason why we should use it like a giant. 

Similar objections were made to the address, in this house, as in the house 
of peers; but no specific amendment was proposed, and it was agreed to 
tvithout a division. 



on 

fypied verbatim from the LONDON GAZETTE, 

> 

ADMIRALTY OFFICE, JANUARY 2, 1808. 

Ertrert rf a left erf, -am Admiral the Right Hon. Lord Gardner, to the Hon. 
IF. jr. Pnfr, dated on board his Majesty's ship Ville de Paris, in Torbay, 
ih.e?>\s^ December, 1807. 



D I transmit, for their lordships' information, a letter froin 
Captain Atkins, of his Majesty's ship Seine, giving an account of the 
rapture by the above ship, on the 26th instant, of the French lugger priva- 
*rrr la Sybillc , belonging to Morlaix, pierced for fourteen guns (but only 
anc on board;, and having on board forty-three men. 



NATAL HISTORY OT THE PRESEXT YEAR, 18071808. 7f 

Scute, at Sen, December 26, 1807, in 

MY LORD, , Lut. 49. 2?<. N. Long. 8. 30'. W. 

Afte^ a short chase this afternoon, his Majesty's ship under my command 
captured a French lugger privateer, la Svhille, pierced for fourteen guns, 
(but had only one long gun on board, with swivels and musketry), and for- 
tv-thrce men. She is a very iine fast sailing new vessel, of large dimension*, 
tjelouiiiug to Aiorlaix, has been our. five days, and, I am happy to add, with- 
out making any capture. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

D. ATKINS, Captain. 
To the Right Hon. Admiral Lora Gardner, fyc. 

Copy of a letter from Vice- Admiral Dacres, to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated 
on board his Majesty's sloop Shui-k, Port Royal, \btli October, 1807. 

SIR, 

I have the honour to, enclose to you, for the information of the Lords Com- 
ipissioners of the Admiralty, the copy of a letter I have received from Cap- 
tain Inglefield, of the Bacchante, acquainting me of the capture of the 
Spanish privateer Amor de la Patria : by that ship and the Reindeer. 

I am, &c. 

J. R. DACRES. 

His Maj*siy >1 s Ship Bacchante, Yallaiis Point 
SIR, N.E. by X. three leagues, September 13, 1807. 

I have the honour to inform you, at eleven A. M. this morning, we dis- 
covered his Majesty's sloop Reindeer in chase to windward of a suspicions 
schooner coming down before the wind, and at half past one shewing Spanish 
colours; and finding she could not escape, cut off (from our being to lee- 
ward) : she struck, and proves to be the Spanish privateer Amor de la Patria, 
belonging to St. Jago, Captain Josse de Tournecy, armed with three guns, 
and sixty-three men, out five days, and, am happy to add, has not captured 
any thing. I have the honour to be, &c. 

S. \\MXGLEFIELD. 
TO J. R. Dcicres, Esq. Vice-Admiral 
of the White, $c. 

of a letter from Admiral Montagu, to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated on 
board his Majesty's Ship Royai William, at Spithead, L l3th December, 1807. 

SIR, 

Be pleased to lay before the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty the 
enclosed letter from Captain Adam, of his Majesty's ship Resistance, stating 
his having fell in with, and captured, after a chase of eight hours, 1'Aigle, 
French lugger privateer. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

G. MONTAGU. 

SIR, Resistance, Cape Earflenr, Dec. 28, 1807. 

I have to acquaint you that yesterday at sunset, the Ower's light bearing 
north four or live miles, his Majesty's ship under my command fell in with 
A large lugger privateer, and after a "chase of eight hours, I had the satisfac- 
tion to capture her, close in with Cape Barfleur. 

She proves to be 1'Aij.le, of Dieppe, Vincent Pouchin commander, of 



78 NAVAL H1STOUY OJ THE fRESE.VT YEAR, 1807 1808. 

fourteen guns, and sixty-six men, is only a few months old, and appears to 
be a very fine vessel. 

She has been three days from Barfleur, without making any capture. 

I am, &c. 

CHARLES ADAM, Captain. 
Admiral Montagu, Portsmeut/i. 

Extract of a letter from Captain Robert Holies, of his Mqjesftfs ship Lion, 
to the Hon. W. fV. Pole, dated Dozens, December '28, ' 



Ajt daylight on the 27tb, land bea.ing north about nine or ten miles dis- 
tant, which was taken for Beachy Head, a lugger appearing under our le 
that bore a very suspicious appearance, I considered it my duty to pursue 
her, and after nearly a whole day's chase, and her practising various ma- 
noeuvres to escape, was captured. She proves to be la Reciprocite French 
privateer, of fourteen guns, and sailed the 25th from Dieppe, in company 
with another of the same kind which hove in sight the latter part of the 
chase: she is two years old, a fast sailer, and her crew composed of forty- 
five men; are French, Prussians, Portuguese, Swedes, Danes, and Ameri- 
cans. These two vessels have been lying uuder Beachy Head since the 
above timp, but made no captures. 

JANUARY 9. 

Extract of a tetter from Captain Rainier, of his Majesfifs sftip Caroline, to 
Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellero, Bart, dated Malacca, Road, February 
25, 1807, and transmitted by the last mentioned Officer to the Hon. W. 
W. Pule. 

Having seen the Honourable Company's ships Perseverance and Albion 
through the Gillolo passage, I passed to the eastward of the Pellew Islands 
to insure fetching Pcllappa, on the north end of the island of Suminar, which 
pi-ace 1 looked into on the 26th ultimo, and nt seeing any vessel there, I 
was making the best of my way to the straits of St. Bernard inc. 

Early on the morning of the 27th ultimo, a strange sail was discovered oi 
our Ice beam. I immediately bore up in chase of her, and s.he ran for Alhav. 
When \ve were nearly within gun-shot of her they hoisted Spanish colours, 
and tired a gun to windward. We were coining up with her fast, when she 
was taken aback with the land wind, and she having studding-sails set oi> 
botli sides, we were close to her before she could take them in, when, either 
from their temerity, or not knowing our force, they commenced firing, and 
it \vas not until they had twenty-seven men killed and wounded that they 
hauled down thtir colours. On taking possession of her she proved to be the 
St. Raphael (alias Pallas) Spanish register ship, belonging to tilt Royal Com- 
pany oftho Philippines, mounting sixteen guns, with ninety rseven men, conir 
manded by Don Juan Baptista Montcverde, having on board upward of five 
hundred thousand Spwjiish dollars in specie, and seventeen hundred quintals 
of copper, besides a valuable cargo; she sailed from Lima on the 12th of 
November last, bound to Manilla. 

P. S. I am sorry to inform you we had seven of our men wounded, one. of 

whom i< since dead. 

JANUARY 15. 

Copy of a Ifttrr from Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pel faze, Bart. to*W'dIian\ 
Marsden, /-.V/. dntidon board his Majesty's s/iip ^ulloden, Mjidran lioads t 

S.-ii UHt't-r <>a, 1807. 

SIR, 

I Iiuvc the honour to enclose the copy of a.leUgr from Captain Lye, of h,is 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1807 1808. 79 

Majesty's ship Bombay, stating the capture of la Jaseur French nation;*! 
corvette, which you will be pleased to lay befere the Right Hon. the Lord? 
Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

I have the honour to be, &C. 

EDWARD PELLEW. 

His Majesty's Ship Bo.vbat/, at Sea, Ju ! y 11, 
1307, Carnlcitlan S. S. JV. 18 leagues, lot. 
SIR, D. R. 10. 6'. IV. long. 93. Itf. E. 

I have the honour to inform you of the capture, yesterday evening, of the 
French national brig le Jaseur, of twelve guns and fifty-live men, and com- 
manded by a lieutenant de vaisscau (the Little Andaman N. W. eight 
leagues), after a chase of nine hours, by his Majesty's ship Bombay under 
my command. 

The brig left the Isle of France the 1 5th of April, and had not made any 
capture. 

I have the honour to be, ccc. 

W. J. LYE. 
Rear-Admiral Sir Edzcard Pdlew, Bart. 

JANUARY 16. 

Copy of a letter from Vice-Admiral Douglas, to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated 

North Yarmouth, iuc llth instant. 
SIB, 

For the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, I trans- 
mit two letters from Captain Farquhar, of his Majesty's ship Ariadne, stating 
the particulars relative to the capture of the two French privateers Trente 
& Quarante, and 1'Egl^, which are arrived at this port, agreeably to Captain 
Farquliar's directions. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

B. DOUGLAS, Vice-Admiral. 

His Majesty's Ship Ariadne, Jan. 7, 1308, 
SIR, Hunt ly~ Foot It'.S. W. 11 leagues. 

I have the honour to acquaint yoir that this morning, being off Hfuntly 
cliff about four leagues, I observed one of his Majesty's brigs to the south- 
ward, at ten A. M. she bore up and made sail to the eastward, and we per- 
ceived her to be in pursuit of a lugger. 

We immediately joined in the chase, keeping the wind of the enemy, and 
at one P. M. having closed within gun-shot, we had the pleasure to see the 
lugger surrender to his Majesty's brig Ringdove, which was nearer to the. 
chtrse than the Ariadne, and had fired several shot at her. 

She is a French lugecr letter of marque, (le Trente & Quarante) com- 
manded by Monsieur Fanqueux, carrying sixteen guns, six and nine poun- 
ders, fourteen of which were mounted, with a complement of sixty-six men, 
sixty-five on board, had been sixteen days from Dunkirk, and had not made 
any capture. She is one of the largest luggers out of France, and a very finft 
vessel, only three months oft' the stocks, well found, and 1 think fit for his 
Majesty's service, 1 have sent her to Yarmouth, and have the' honour to 
be,'&c. A. FARQUIIAJt. 

Billy Douglas, Esq. Vice-Admin.il of the Blue. 



fiO NAVAt, IlI^TOUY Or THE PRESENT YEARj 1807 1808; 

Hts Jfaje.iti/'s ship Ariadne, Jan. 8, 1803,' 
SIR, Huntly J'W, fV. N. W. 0' leagues. 

I beg to inform you, that after the capture of It- Trente & Quarante, we 
stood during the night towards Flambro' Head* and at daylight th:-> morning 
another lugger was discovered in the W. N. VV. to which we inmn diately 
gave cruise; having, at the same time, made the signal No. 3, to "the 
dove, which was in company. .Soon alter eight we observed the lugger >va* 
chased by two brigs, one of which proved to be his Majesty's brii- Sappho, 
and the other belonging to the Kxcise, called the Royal George, commanded 
by Mr. Curry, and to whom the lugger surrendered at about a quarter be tore 
ten A. M. and I have satisfaction in adding that credit is clue to Mr. Curry 
for the capture, although, from the situation of his Majesty's vessels, her es- 
cape was impossible. 

The prize is a French lugger l'Egl<j, commanded by Mons. Olivier, sixteen 
guns mounted, three and four pounders, and a complement of fifty-six men; 
left Dunkirk nine days ago, has made one capture, the brig Gabriel, of Yar- 
mouth (in ballast), which she took last night off Scarborough, and scuttled 
tier. I saw her still above water this morning, and ordered the Ring-dove to 
examine her, and Captain Andrews has since reported to me, that the Ga- 
briel was sinking so fast as to make it impossible to save her ; the master and 
crew wore found on board PEgle lugger, which I have ordered to Yarmouth. 
with the oilier prize, and purpose seeing them in safety to that port. 
I have the honour to be, &C. 

A. FARQUIIAll. 
Jillli/ Douglas, Esq. Vice-Admiral of tKe Blue. 



Downing-Streety January 20, 1808. 

Captain Murphy, of the 30th regiment, Brigade-Major of his Majesty's 
forces at Madeira, has arrived at the office of Lord Viscount Castlcreagli* 
one of his Majesty's principal secretaries of state, with a despatch, of which, 
tin; following is an extract, from Major-General Beresford, dated Madeira, 
December 29, 1807. 

Extract of a despatch from Major-General Beresford to Viscount Castlereagh, 
dated Madeira, Funciutl, December 29, 1807. 

I have the satisfaction to communicate to your lordship the surrender of 
the island of Madeira, on the 24lh instant, to iiis Majesty's arms. 

We hud, previously to the ships coming to anchor, seat to the governor to 
surrender the island to his Britannic- Majesty, offering the terms we were 
authorized, which were acceded to. The troops were immediately landed, 
and before dark were in possession of all the forts, and had the 3d an*/ llth 
regiments encamped, with their field-pieces, a little to the west of the town. 

In re. an] to unanimity and cordial co-operation, it is sufficient to say, it 
was Sir Samuel Hood I had to act with, and the object, the service of his 
country. His ardent zeal communicated to all the same sentiments, and the 
utmost unanimity prevailed. 

I had the fullest reason to be satisfied with the zeal and ardour of all the 
ofticers and troops under my orders. 

1 have the honour to enclose the articles of capitulation wliich have been 
agreed upon. 

Captain Murphy, of the 83th regiment, Brigade-Major to the forces, will 
be the bearer, and can communicate any further particulars your lordship 
ni-iy be desirous of knowing ; and I humbly recommend him to his Majes- 
ty^ must gracious consecration. 

7 



SAVAL HISTORY OF THE PKESEXT YEAH, 1 807 1808. SI 

TERMS ^CAPITULATION" /w the Is'and of MnJtiru and i : s Drpcmlen- 
tvr'N, agreed ?<"<t /// his E.rcellenn/ the Goner nor and Ca -ifaL'i (Jiin'i'it/, 
Pedro Fitji'liniis li-.itcl/ur d'Antas e. Mesteres, on i/ie Part of his Royal 

Highlit as the Prince Recent of Portugal, find by Rear -Ailnrimi Sir S/i i<wl 
Hooi, Kn'^ft! of tli? Batf^ and Major-General Ben* ford, on the l\irt of 
ins 



Aniu.r.r. T. ;~ ! ;;it, on the signing of the present treaty, the island of Ma- 
deira aii(i its tJepcrtdencies shall be delivered up to the commanders of his 
Britannic Majesty's force?, and to he held and enjoyed by hi^ f - i:d M;: 
with all the rights, and privileges, and jurisdictions wjlich heretofore belonged 
to the Ci'o.vn of Portugal. 

IT. That it is agreed thr said island shall he evacuate'! and re-delivered 
to his Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal., or to his heirs and 
successor?, when the free ingress and egress to the ports of Portugal and its 
colonies shall he re-established as heretofore; and when the sovereignty of 
Portugal shul! ho emancipated from the cohtroul or influence of France. 

IIF. Tor the present the arms and ammunition of all kinds to be deli- 
vercd and placed under the possession of the British. 

IV. Public property shail be respected and re-delivered at the same time, 
and under the same circumstances with the island". His Britannic Majesty, 
during t!.e period his troops shall occupy the island, reserving the use of all 
such property, and the revenues of the island, to be applied to the mainte- 
nance of its religious, civil, ancl military establishments. For the abo'. e pur- 
pose all ihe public pronertv, of whatever description, to be formally deli- 
u red up, and received oy the comnm>a;-ies respectively appointed for that 
object. 

V. All private property on the island of Madeira, belonging to the sub- 
jects of his Royal Highnes? the Prince R-^ent of Portugal, to be respected. 

Yl. The free exercise of religious wo/ship to be maintained and pro-, 
tc-ried as at present established. 

\ II. The inhabitants to remain in the enjoyment of the civil constitu- 
tion, and of their laws, as at present established and administered. 

Done at the palace of St. Lorenzo, Funchal, Madeira, 26'th December, 
1807. 

PEDRO FAGUX8ES BACELLAR D'AXTAS E MENEUES, 
() Governador e Capitao-General da Una d;x Madeira. 
SAM. HOOD, Rear-Admiral, K. B. 
W. C. BERESFORD, Major-General. 



Admiralty Office, January W, 1808. 

A despatch, of which the following is an extract, has been received at 
this office from Renr- Admiral Sir Samuel Hood, K. B &c. addressed to the 
HOJI. \V. \V. Pole, dated ou board his Majesty's ship Centaur, Funch.il Bay, 
Madeira, ^9lh December, 1807. 

Extract of'a despa'clt fiom ^.ear-Admiral Sir Samuel Hood, K. B. dated 

Centaur, Funcfinl Bay, Madeira, %9lh December, 180?. 
SIK, 

I have the pleasure to acquaint, you, for the information of the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty, the island of Madeira has surrendered to 
iiis Majesty's forces confided to the command of Major-General Beresford 
and myself; and I have the honour to enclose you a copy of the articles of 
capitulation.* 

* Sec Major-Gen. Beresford's despatch. 
, <f)ron, (Hoi, XIX. M 



82 NAVAL HISTORY (XF TW7 PRF.S-KNT YF.AX, 1807 TS08. 

Tlv squadron named in tlic margin,* and transport?, arrived on tl in 23(1' 
olV t.hc inland of Porto Santo, and olF tliis bav in the forenoon of the I'-ltli ; 
and though ilio. ships were rather baiilcu hv the liiiht winds under the land,. 
<v*i e.lterinj the. bay, every ship was anchored conformable to my wishes; 
fld' being placed within a cable's {cnjtli of the forts, and the army ready to 
fhtipnvitork, (Ac troops were immediately allowed to land and take possession 
of tlif- principal forts.. Next day we wet the governor at t-h? palace of St. 
Lorenzo, and" arranged the articles of capitulation,, which we tip signed on the 
^tith, in preserve" of the eivil and miit.'ii v officers of the island. 

As MfOE-f>ueral JJer.esford will give all other particulars, relative to the 
isluiii.1 to hi* ^LtjestVs Secretary of Suite,* I a\\n\\ only a*M, from tlie cordial 
good understaudofS: that has subsisted between us,. as well as between tiiu- 
\Nhile of the ;.rniy and naw, Imd, there been a resistance, ev*iw thing we 
couhlhave de*ir\tf was- to ha w*p<?ct*d from both serviees. 

I have to expre^iny entire .-atisfaetion of the captains, oflicers^ and mei> 
of his Majesty's ship* on this service,, and send iny tirM; lieutanant, Ceor^e 
] lendi is-ni wiih tlws- despatch. He is a very excellent olticer, and I inns.1 
refer their lonUliips to him for any further iiifui'matiou, and 1 be^ leave to. 
H'coiniiicnd him to their lertit-liips' notice. 

its-CAKY 23, h308. 

Ci>p>/ i <!' a ,'i'(trr fi mr> j&bnirttl Minitazi/, In the ffon*. TI". W. Pole, dated on 
('/cr/; d t/tc Itai/uJ ^'i/luim, at $[>i-lln'ad,.the '20lh instant . 

MR, 

I liavf 1 ti;r honour to enethse,. for the information of my Lords Coitiniis- 
:-;MIILI-. ut' tlh' Admiralty, a letter which I haue received troni Lieut. Traeey r 
roiniinndini: the l.intiet brij:, srivinw au account uf the capture of la Courier, 
1'n.Mieh I nuger piivatssr, which shows- much judgment and gallantry in that? 
<.>fii..-er. 1 buve tbe honour to be, &c. 

G. 



His Majestf/l-Brit! Linnet ^at Sea^. 

January It5, 1808. 

the honour to>in form voro, on Saturday the 16th insk. Ca-pe Bar- 
liv \. six or seven ItMtjurs-, I saw a l-'rench lugger in chase of au 
l-'.n-!i.!i -hip and l.-i-ig: the two latter I immediately joined, and thought pro- 
I c! ;<> run in company with them until night should favour mv closing-. wi-Ph. 
the I;IL."_'> T. \\ half pant six P. iVI. the lugger commenced a lire on die ship, 
which --he -iliantlv returned.. At seven the lugger attempted to h:vul otf;.. 
but my bi-iiig withir. nnisket shot rendered his attempt friuilesja '1'eu uu- 
}\:\\ p;i-,t >< i en I ihtid a broadside of round and- grape, witii-a voHey of 
iiwisketrv, v/hich carried' away lii* bo\vsprit and main tugg\. I then hailed; 
linn to strike, iustfjtfk of which he hoisted her logg. I then commenced * 
-cidv fire, which hvsted one lour and a half, (with round; grape, andamis- 
!,'-rr\ , tiurin'j: whii/h tinu- hcciuggs were knocked down^ and as often hoist- 
i'i 'at lca-t. ten tim&s-).. l ; iAv iMuintes pajt eijjdit, being in a sinking state, 
Si ulcd she had struck ; prove* tcvlje le Courier, of Cherbourg, coiumaudcd' 
b\- (';'..|!iain Alex. lU:\ck, mounting eighteen, guns, vvidi a complement of- 
si\ty men, sirond c^^itain of which* WMS- kiUed v and three seamen wounded,, 
s ill- remarkably fast , tnt foi>r davs, made no capture, butcamo from under 
i !( l-.lt-> of Marcou :rt, eleven A. M- tius-iu*towvt^ where she anchored for 
>:u-lifr 'roin tlie late gale. 

1 am lia;>[-\ ro add we sustained no loss, and* 1 that the conduct of my offi- 
ce L> ami slnp's company merit my warmest praise. 

1 have the honour to be, &c.. 

J..TRACEY, Lieut, and Commander. 



* ( cntaur,Yurk, Captain, Intrepid, Airicaine,Shaunon, Alcesto,,andSuecess. 



Vivxc HISTORY or THE *KKr*T YE.\R I8D7 1S08. 83 



of a letter frwn Vicc-AJmlnil Rou-leif, totl'fi lion. W. Ti'. /\>4\ dated 
Majesty's n/iip Priities y,''<^r//^v,-/ the Doxi/f, l!te 19*'A i/is , 



T Imve (-he honour to transmit, for tlieir lords-la j' information, a copy of 
* letter irttm CiU'iam Sptm-e, of bis Majesty's slwop Pundorv. to Commodore 
Owen, <:ivini: sin :i<ruu:it of the capture of tlie French luggw pri\ jitocr i'Hn- 
, oJ Mitten gnus uml liftv-eijjlit men. 

die honour to be, &C. 

11. S. ROWLEY. 



Aori'// f\irc!(tn;f, W,*tt 
sin, January 14, loC'8. 

I arn happy to inform yrw, that about ten nnutes before eight o'clock 
3;\*t rveniiivi, FrtlkstOsie bearniii \. X. \V. ^ix or seven miles, I fell in vvitk 
rfiotrepreiHMit, I'lciicd privateer lusher, ol'sixtetni guns :iud fifty-eight naeu,' 
coiiniiiuidtd iiy ( apiain Blutidio, wiwcii, after u C|J:KC of an hour and forty 
minutes, \\e had the good fortune to come up \virh and capture within t\v 
null's of the French bhore, Cape (>fisnc bcHriag suutlt. 1'foiu his bcni<; s>o 
very cloie to his own coast (tlie batteries firing o*ver us), lie persevered iu 
liis attempt to e?capr, till our musketry had wounded UK-<Mprain, the second 
captain, uiul four or rive men, and would ot shorten tail till we ran alonj;- 
i>idc of him. 81 ie has been oul tiiree days from CaJjiis, and Li taken the. 
Mary brig of Sunderland. She is a very fine large uew lugger, and Miils ex- 
ceedingly fast. The Active cutter joined in the chase, and assisted in re- 
moving the prisoners. 

I hav-e, &r, 

HENRY HUAIE SPEXCE. 
Couii/iodort Oxen, Clyde. 



^ JDartial. 



AC'OrfJT Martial was held on board the Salvador Del Mundo, at 
Plvtnouth, on the surviving; otftters of the AII^OJ*, for tlie loss of that 
ship; when the whole of the oihcers, witk the exception of the master, 
were unanimously ac'jiiiued : ti*e latter ofucer was sentenced to he udmi>- 
ni.shel, for not havin-: fulfilled, to tl-e utmn.st of his power, the duties of 
iiis station. There was not on board the Aifeun uuy jjfisuRers ;i irons at 
tlit time of her lo^s, ui reported. 

On the 13th of January, 1<>08, a Court Martial was held, at Ports- 
mouth, (in Serjeant I'rsmcis Abnrrow, of tle royal marines, of Ins Ma- 
jesty's ship Slieldruke, for negligence and neglect of duty. lie was ac- 
quitted. 

On tho 15th of January a Court Martial was also liehl, at Portsmouth, 
on Lieutenant James Woodward, of his Majesty's ship fcion, for diMibe- 
lienre of orders, Th rhar;e beinj; in part proved, he was sentenced to 
Lc dismissed from his Majesty's ship Lion. 



On the 22rf of January a Court Martial was held, at Portsmouth, on. 

Mr. I). Cunningham, boatswain of his Maje>ty'- ship PIMSI rpii.e. for 
drunkenness. lie was dismissed his. ship. Captain \V. iliiiyjuii, pro 
*ident. 

9 



84 NAVAL inSTORTTOF THE PRESENT YEAH, 1807 1808. 



lpromoticn0 antf appointment. 

Captain Yeo, late of the Con'lance, is promoted to the rank of post 
captain. 

-Lieutenant Joseph Hoy, \vho so gallantly defended the Louisa tender 
against a corvette of four times her force, has been raised to the rank of 
commander. 

Captain G. Morris is appointed to the command of the Magnet, at 
Portsmouth, 

Mr. Robert Shand is promoted to the rank of surgeon, and appointed ro 
the Flechc. Mr. Richard- Lewis is appointed to be surgeon of the llin- 
dostan. Mr. Robert Chambers to be burgeon of the Spar row hawk. Mr. 
G. Proctor to Le surgeon of I'Kclair. 

Lieutenant Edward O'Brien Dairy, of the Hydra, is promoted to the 
rank of Commander. 

Captain Bayutuiu is appointed to the command of the Leviathan. 
Mr. Jului I Vice is appointed to be surgeon of the Zenubia. 

i\Ii. .Jnv pli Alexander, to be assistant surgeon of the Basilisk gun .brig. 
Mi- )!i. ' a-._-l Stewart, to be assistant surgeon of the Royal William. 

Re- ir- Admiral Otway has left his apartments at Greenwich Hospital, to 
li >.*( ri- ila.: on board the Lively frigate, Captain M'Keuley. Admiral 
OM\av i- to riiinmand under Sir Charles Cotton. 

( 'aj.'iain i'iiiliimore, commander of his Majesty's sloop Bellette, which 
biMuiIit L<;rd lluichinson from Gottenburgh, is promoted to the rank of 
jv)-t, captain. 

Mi-. William Matthias is appointed to be assistant surgeon of his Ma 
jotv's ship Implacable; Mr. John Speer, to the Guerrier ; Mr.' Peter 
Ki'iiv, to lie sui'iACon of the Druid; and Mr. William Winning, to be 
ni-i-Utjr.i ^:r<:<.'<)i! of'the Villc de Paris. 

Thomas r<>Ili.s Esq. brother of Captain Joseph Ellison, of the royal 
IIMM >i:,il at. (Ji-i.vnwich, is appointed, by Sir Edward Pellevv, commander-iii- 
cSiie. 1 ' 01' h:^ Miiji'sty's ships and vessels in India, to act as agent to thy 
n:iv;il L';-pita! at Madras. 

Captain Man.'lc 1 , son of Thomas Maude, Esq. of Downing-strect, Wc.st- 
n,;ii-!i-i. is p:-mi!.>U'd to the rank of post captain. 

Hoar-. \dir.ir.i! .*-ir Alexander Cochrane, Bart. 1C. B. comma nder-in-chicf 
o; !;i> Mii;i^tv'~ >'iips and vessels at the Leeward islands,' is nominated to 
Mini'i'd \ ; i(.-i--.\'!ir.iral James Richard Dacres as coinnuuider-in-chicf on 
ti.i- ,'ar,i;r,;.a slutu!;!. 

.Mr. ,'. A. ?iat!Ji-n is appointed to he sfur^con df the Suffolk prison ship. 

V-.f!"!' Wil^ : ':n C. 15: ii, son of the author of the Brunonian System, is 
snir ri ti;e ^'('iitc'.n-anc'aii as an assistant surgeon, to be placed at the dis- 
,.,,-,;! ,,;' il.f ii^ht Htm Lord Collingwood. 

iai-d Dacrcs, brother to Vice^Admiral Dacros, is appoiiitcd 
r>\al naval asylum in Greenwich park. 

(';ii-,tain G( or_f Karris, commander of the Baracoutta, is promoted to 
t ' , |- ;i i>k of p.i^t captain, and appointed to the command of the. Sir IMUUCIS 

\ M:I'AI', of oo ii'iiis, in India. 

Mr. Aiiilmuv 1'atrickfeoti is appointed to be an hospital mate at the royal 



NAVAL HISTORY OF TUT, PRESENT YEAR, 1807 1808. 85 

Mr. David Lewis is promoted to the rank of surgeon, and appointed tq 
his Majesty'* ship Conliance, Captain Yeo. 

Mr. John Bovven, late of the Con fiance, is appointed to the Amethyst. 

Mr. Richard Kent is appointed to be assistant surgeon of the Isis, the 
flag ship of Admiral Ilolloway, commandcr-in-chief on the Newfoundland 
Station. 

Mr. Thomas Stewart is appointed hospital mate at the royal hospital at 
Plymouth. 

Mr. William Ilannay is appointed acting surgeon of the Cheerful cutter; 
Mr. Thomas Gilderson, to be assistant surgeon of the Roval William ; Mr. 
Michael Stewart, to be acting surgeon of the Magnet sloop; Mr. P. C. Bur- 
leigh, to be assistant burgeon of the Steady gun brig. 

Sir John Thomas Duckworth, K. 13. vice-admiral of the red, is appointed, 
pro tempore, to command the channel fleet. 

Captain G. Reynolds is appointed to the command of his Majesty's ship 
Theseus ; Captain Malbon, of the lithe, to the Adamant ; Captaiu 
$fUliiders, to the Atlas ; Captain James Mi-en, to the Carnation. 

Mr. P. El I cry is appointed to be purser of the Queen, vice Reid, deceased; 
Mr. William llutchins is appointed purser of the Malta; Mr. George 
Thorne, to be purser of the Zealous ; Mr. G. Miller, to be purser of the 
ChiiFonne. 

Captain Gregory is appointed to the command of his Majesty's sloop 
Primrose; Captain Dix is appointed to the Cygnet. 

Mr. Thomas Leonard is appointed to be purser of the Curacoa ; Mr. P. 
Gillet, to be purser of the El Firme prison ship ; Mr. T. Head, to be purser 
of the Aurora. 

Lieutenant James M'Kenzie is promoted to the rank of commander. 
Captain Nortiiy is appointed regulating officer at Limerick. 
Captain E. Harvey is promoted and appointed to the Cephalus ; Captain 
G. D;Uey is appointed to the Comet. 

Mr. \V'. C. Grout is appointed purser of live Unicorn. 
Lieutenant llodge is promoted to the rank of commander. 

Mr. Thomas Evans is appointed to be surgeon of the Cossack ; and Miv 
Matthew Martin is to bo surgeon of the Surinam. 

Mr. James Garland is appointed to be lieutenant of his Majesty's ship 
Jviaita. 

Lieutenant Joseph liny is promoted to the rank of commander. 

Mr, Herbert Baker is appointed to be assistant surgeon of the Success; 
and Mr. John M'Miilan, to be surgeon of the Porpoise, at '.New South 
Wales. 

Captain William Autridge is appointed to the command of the Euribus^ 

Lieutenant Wai burton is promoted to the rank of commander. 

Captain William Maude is promoted to the command of theBelleisle, of 
84- guns, bearing the llag uf Rear-Admiral lion. Sir Alexander Cuchrane, 
JJarc. and K. B. 

Captain 11. D. Cochrane is appointed to the Alexandria, vice Hon. 
Captain King, deceased. 

Lieutenant Henry Wilder isappointed to command the Whiting schooners 

Mr. Robert Abbott is appointed to be assistant; surgeon of the Uiv* 
daunted. 



&6 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 18071808. 

Lieutenant George Seaward is appointed to the Magnet sloop. 

Mr. Joshua Jones is appointed master of the Melpomene; .Mr. Richard 
Smith is appointed master of die Pelican sloop. 

Mr. Robert Burnside is appointed surgeon of the Alonzo; and Mr. John 
Irvine to be surgeon of the Seaflower. 

Captain William Bowles is promoted to the rank of post captain. 

Lieutenant R. Balfour is promoted to the rank of commander. 

Captain Andrew King is promoted to the rank of post captain. 

Mr. Walter Steel, one of the hospital mates at the royal hospital at Ply- 
mouth, is appointed to be assistant surgeon of the Implacable. 

A list of midshipmen who passed for lieutenants at the navy office, on 
the first Wednesday in last month: F. Voller, W. R. Jackson, D. J. 
Woodriff, W. Edwards, F. C. Annesley, D. Davis, Charles Ledimere, F. G. 
Turner, J. W. Pritchard, J. B. Nelson, Henry Bourne. A. Balfour. J. W. 
Franklins;, Norris Walker, R. Hooper, William Sncll, J. W, Cecil, G. 
Garsin, J. W. \Vatsou. 

BIRTHS. 

On the 15th instant, at Deal, the lady of Captain Brian Hodgson, royal 
navy, of a son. 

Latelv, at Greenwich hospital, tlie lady of Thomas Lynne, one of the 
lieutenants of that institution, of a son. 

MARRIAGES. 

At Greenwich church, hy the Rev. P. George, on the 24th of December 
last, John Theophilus Lee, Esq. only son of the late Captain John Lee, of 
the roytl navy, to Sophia, youngest daughter of Major Law lor, of Thornton 
Place, Greenwich. 

On the -Ith'of January, at Weymouth, Captain J. R. Franklin, of the 
Hon. East India Company's service, to the eldest daughter of John Butler 
Butlers, Esq. 

At St. George's, Hanover-square, by the Rev. James Moore, Joshua 
Sydney 1 lorton, Esq. commander of his Majesty's ship Princess of Orange, 
Jo Mrs. Worwood, widow of the late Henry \Vorwood, Esq. of Hcadingtun 
House. Oxfordshire. 

At Greenwich, on the 13th instant, Lieutcriant ( Rirhrml Tooley, of the 
royal navr, to Miss Spearing, eldest daughter of George Spearing, Esq. of 
{lie royal hospital at Geeenwicb. 

On Sumhy evoiiinu the 10th of January, by special license, at iln- house 
icf Henry Mcrnck lloare, Esq. York Place, the Right lion. Lord Keith, 
K. B. and admiral of tin; white squadron of his Majesty's fleet, to Miss 
Tin-ale, eldest daughter of the late Henry Thralc, Esq. 

At Halifax, Nova Scotia, Captain Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy, Bart. 
commander of his Majesty's ship Triumph, to Miss Berklei', daughter nf 
Vice-Admiral Hon. G. C. Berkley, late commandei -in-chief on that station. 

C aptr.in James Nicholson to Miss A. Bennett, daughter of A.M. Ijeiinett, 
Esq. of Queen-squan*. 

Lieutenant Leroux to Miss Kirby, of Maryborough. 

OBITUARV. 

Intdy, at Cork, in consequence of a mortal wound received in a dut 

with Lieutenant Mcdlicutt, of the same ship, Lieutenant George Plullimorc, 



TTAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESEXT YEAR, 1807 1808. 87 

of the Polyphemus, youngest son of the Rev. Joseph Phillimone, of Orton, 
in the county of Leicester. 

On the 'JOth of Dec. 1807, at Oreat Ealiiip, Middlesex, F. Stephens, 
V.sq. F. R. and A.S- hue one of the commissioners for victualling his Mac 
jcstv's navy, aged of}. 

At Charlton, in Kent, J. Welladvice r Esq. late commander of the Hon.. 
Ea*t India Company's ship Charlton. 

On the 1st of Jan. 1808, the body of Captain Lydirvrd, of the Anson, was 
flicked up, a-nd brought to Faliuouth oft the following day for interment,. 
His remains were attended to the grave by Vice-Admiral Cotton, and all 
*hc other naval oHicers at the port, and. many of the niilitanv, among whom: 
xv ere General Spencer,, a party of marines froia, the men of war, and a 
jKjrry of the Oxford militia tired three voilies over his grave; the interment 
was a!v> attended by the mayor and corporation, a-nd most of the respect- 
able inhabitants of the town. 

,Hy the unfortunate wreck of the Anson,. Lieutenant Harries, of thai 
ship, mxi Mr. Smith, the surgy-on, found a watery grave. 

On the 8th of January, at Faliuouth,. Mr. John Ireland, purser of his 
Majesty's liospital ship Tromp, at that port- 

< >n tlie Oth of January, at the house of the Dowager Lady Frankland, 
m Edward-street,. Portman-square, Miss Harriet Franklaiul 1 , the only un- 
married daughter of the hue Admiral Sir Thomas r'rankland, Bart, and 
sister of the present Sic Thomas Frankland, of Thiskely Park, York- 
ill ire. 

On the 50th of January, of the measles, at the Admiralty, aged nearly 
three years, Charles, the son oF Robeist \Vard, Es:]^ one of the lords con;- 
imWioners of the Admirtilty. 

On Sunday night last, l?th instant, of a typhous fever, Lord Viscount 
Trafalgar : he was a youth of much prouwse, and liis prime liappiness was 
the recollection of the glorv of lis irrcat a-nd immortal uncle, lie was the> 
unly son. of the llevvEarl 2\elsou, brother to the ever to* be lamented hero 
wf i'rafalgar. 

The following was the order of procession of Lord Trafalgar^ funeral to 
ft. Paul's cathedral, which took place the iiSth of January : 
)st. A m'-in on horseback, carrying a crimson velvet cushion, with the 

viscounTs coronet, attended by a groom on eacli side, leading the horse, 

with four conductors, two before and two behind. 
t!d. The body, wit'j the hearse drawn by six horses black feathers on tu* 

hearse and horses, with ten attendants.. 
d. Mourning coach, with four horses and two pages- 

CHIEF MOU USERS. 

Attendant the coach carrying the Rev.. Archdeacon Young (uncle to the 
, deceased), Alexander Davison, Esq. William Ilazlewood, Esq. Rev. 

Dr.. Out ram. 
4th. Mourning coach with four horses (with two pages attendant) carrying 

two servants of tiie deceased. 
/Vth.. Earl Nelson's chariot, 
tith. Mr. Davison's chariot. 
7;th. Mr. Uaslewood's carriage. 

The Bishop of Chester performed the service 



8 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAlt, ISO? 1S08* 

The procession proceeded from Conduit-street: down Swallow-strrct 
into Piccadillv, down the Hayir_arket, through the Strand and Fleet-street',- 
to St. Paul's Cathedral. 

On the 21 tli Nov. 1807, of the yellow fever, at Bridge town, P,arh:i Iocs, 
Nevill Fane, Esq. of his Majesty's ship Blonde, lifih son of the late lion. 
Ilcnrv Fnne, of Fnlbcc, in Lincolnshire. 

At Barbadoes, Hon. Captain King, of Iris Majesty's ship Alexandria. 

At Monte Video, on the 1st of- 'September last, Lieutenant Dawes^ 
agent fur transports. 

At Felixtow, near Laniard Fort, Lieutenant B. Baufey. 

At Plymouth, Lieutenant Brown, commander of the iiienfaisant prison 
ihip. 

At Bath, Lieutenant Hewitt. 

In December, in the county of Northumberland, John Ramsay, a ma- 
finer, aged 1^5 years ! lie served i'i the fleet under Sir George llooke, at 
the taking of Gibraltar, in 1704; and what is remarkable at so advanced 
nn age, he continued to enjoy his faculties to ihe last, be ins? capable of 
telling a merry story, or singing a good old soug until within a short period 
of his decease. 

At Plymouth, Captain Danvers, of the marines. 

At Scorton, near Garstang, Mr. William Dickinson, mariner, in his 
tO 1st year. 

On the 10th of January, in Alfred-street, Bar!?, Phillips Cosby, Esq. ad- 
miral of tho red, in his 73:h year, upwards of sixty of which he had spci>t 
<u nn active and faithful di.-charge of his duty to his king and country, and 
highly honourable to himself, as an officer in the British navy. On the Itith 
his remains were interred in the Abbey church, at Bath, in a handsome but 
ti >t pompous manner, such being strictly forbidden bv the deceased. Rear- 
Admiral Wolseley, the admiral's nephew, Sir Ilcnrv Cosby, nnd Colonel 
JStanilfcid, attended as chief mourners, accompanied by many more of the? 
particular friends of the deceased ; imd the. pail was borne bv Admiral Sir 
Charles Knowles and Vice-Admirals Chri'-tic, M'Dowall, and Brown. Tlt 
admiral has left a truly affectionate and amiable *. ife to lament his loss, 
and a numerous acquaintance, by whom lie was most justly esteemed. lie 
j:i MU -reeded in his estate in the kingdom of Ireland by Thomas Cosby, 
J.MJ. of Strudhally, in the Queen's county, agreeably to the late entail of 
the kite Right lion. D. Cosby, Lord, Sydtrey, to whom tlie Admiral was 
iic-ar'v related, as he was likewise to the noble familv of Graft on, being 
fci'cond cousin to his grace the present duke. A port;* it, and biographical 
memoir of Admiral Cosby are given in the XIV th volume of the N AVAL 
CHUON ici.r., page 5o(J. 

r.ii-s Bc('dick, eldest daughter of II. Beddick, Esrj. agent of the royaj, 
naval ho:-piud at Plymouth. 

Jan. 0, Mr. D. S. M'Creary, lata a midshipman on board the Eclipse: 
his iltath was occasioned by the following unfortunate accident : one of 
the .-;ti!crs who was assisting in repairing some firelocks, with the armourer, 
outside the midshipmen's birth, was. examining the lock of'ajiun, which 
up) eaied not to have been in use for some considerable time (and whifth 
v. a< not (Mimed), when it unfortunately went oil". The ball took the direc- 
tirii of t!:t' midsl)i]imen's birth; passing through two deal boards, it \\eut.~ 
tiirouLih the body of Mr. I). S. M'Creary, one of the midshipmen, and 
thr(;;:j;!i the rielit thi<;h of the captain's clerk, passing between the legs of 
the j'ii'.t, it lodged in the arm of a servant bi>y. Mr. M'Creary only sur- 
\ i'- c (.! tlie i;ccidtnt tven hours; the derk and Ly are in a fair way of 




HAMBY, 




li,},ti.l,,.l f.-h- "7 Ift'fi. tv.r.(x?U.l/>i). Shof Lane Fteft Streef 



BIOGRAPHIC.lL MEMOIR 

OF THE LATE 

SIR CHARLES HARDY, KNT. 

ADMIRAL OF THE AVH1TK SQUADRON, GOVERNOR, OF GREENWICH 
HOSPITAL, &C. 



-British virtue, theme of noblest son 




Strong in LIT fleets, and iu her snmies strong, 

Like the firm cement of an ancient low'r, 

Defies the rage oi' time* and ev'ry hostile pow'r." AXON. 

TTT is not a little remarkable, that the late Sir Charles Hardy, 
-^*- his father, and his grandfather, were all in the navy ; and that 
each of them had the honour of being knighted, for his respective 
services. 

His grandfather, Sir Thomas Hardy, was a native of the island 
of Guernsey. He entered into the navy, under the patronage of 
Admiral Churchill, whom he had served in the capacity of clerk, 
and who procured for him a lieutenant's commission. He was 
made commander in the Charles fire-ship, on the Gth of January, 
1693; and, in the month of May following, he was ren.-oved into 
the Swallow prize, a small frigate, of 18 guns, which was stationed 
off Guernsey, to protect the trade of that island from the depre- 
dations of French privateers. He is believed to have attained to 
the command of a ship of the line, very soon after his entrance into 
the service, and is thought to have been never unemployed ; but 
the only mention which is made of him, during the reign of King 
William, is, that in October, 1696, when captain of the Penderinis, 
of 48 guns, he was employed to conyoy the mast ships from 
^Norway. 

Soon after the accession of Queen Anne, Captain Hardy com- 
manded the Pembroke, of 60 guns, in which he accompanied Sir 
George Rooke on the expedition against Cadiz. After the failure 
of that enterprise, Sir George, on his way to England, found his 
fleet deficient in water ; in consequence of whidi he sent Captain 
Hardy, in the Pembroke, accompanied by the Eagle, the Stirling 
Castle, and several of the transports, to water iu Logos Bay. 

. Cfjron. Sol. XIX. 



90 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

This circumstance incidentally led to the subsequent successful 
attack upon the Spanish galleons, at Vigo, under convoy of a 
French fleet. The enemy's ships, says Colliber, " consisted of 
fifteen men of war, from 76 to 42 guns, t\vo frigates, and a fire- 
ship; of which five wefe brought off by the English, and one by 
the Dutch, the rest being cither burnt or bilged. The galleons 
(which had run up the river as far as they convjniently could) 
were seventeen ; four of which were taken alioat, and two ashore, 
by the English, and five by the Dutch : the others were burnt." 

The manner in which Captain Hardy became apprised of the 
situation of the enemy, is related at length, by most of our naval 
historians. Charnoek thus briefly states it : 

" His chaplain, a Mr. Beauvoir, a native of Jersey, happening to go on 
shore at Logos, where the Eagle, Pembroke, Stirling Castle, and some 
transports, had put in to water, fell, by accident, into company with the 
1 rendi consul, who incautiously boasted of the arrival of the Spanish 
galleons, under convoy of M. Chateau llenaud, but without mentioning at 
vs hat port. Fortune still continuing in a favourable mood a day or two 
af'tcr this, a messenger arrived from Lisbon, with despatches from the 
Imperial Minister for the Prince of Hesse, who was supposed to be still on 
board the fleet. By him the intelligence was confirmed, with the addition 
that Vigo was the place where the fleet in question, consisting of thirty ships 
or' war, and twenty-two galleons, had put in for security. The chaplain 
with mucli adroitness contrived to decoy the messenger to go on board the 
Pembroke; although lie knew the Prince of Ilesse, whom he was in search 
of, had proceeded to Lisbon, in order that Captain Hardy might be the 
better satisfied of the truth of the information, and take his measures 
accordingly. The chaplain, the instant he got on board, although it was 
then the middle of the night, went to the captain, and informed him what 
he had learnt. This being confirmed in ihe morning, by the oral testimony 
of the messenger, Captain Hardy communicated the whole to Captain 
Wishart, the senior oilicer of the detachment." 

On the receipt of this gratifying intelligence, Sir George Ilooke 
bore away for Vigo, where the success which we have already 
stated, ensued. Sir George was so highly pleased with Captain 
ILinly's conduct on this occasion, that he sent him home with the 
tieus ; in consequence of which he received the honour of knight. 
hood, was presented with a thousand pounds, and was promoted 
to the command of the Bedford, a third rate, of 70 guns. His 
knighthood was thus announced in the gazette: 

" Si. James's, October 31, 1702. 

" Tier Majesty has been pleased to confer the honour of knighthood upon 
T!< onin* Hard;.-. "T.q. captain of her Majesty's ship Pembroke, in considers- 



V 



THE LATE SIR. CHARLES HARDY, KVT. 91 

tion o;" his eood service, in gaining and giving to Admiral Rooke the 
intelligence, which was the occasion of our great success at Vigo." 

In the Bedford, Sir Thomas Hardy accompanied Sir Cloudesley 
Shovel into the Mediterranean, in the following year ; and, while 
there, he had the good fortune to capture a valuable ship from St. 
Domingo, laden with sugar. 

In 1704, continuing in the same ship, he went again to the 
Mediterranean, with Sir' George Rooke ; and, in the memorable 
action off Malaga, on the 13th of August, he bore a very con- 
.spicuous part, the Bc-dford having seventy-four men killed and 
wounded.* At the close of the year, having been removed into 
the Kent, he returned te England \vith Sir Cloudesley Skovel. 

In the year 1706, he served under Sir Stafford Fairbone, in his 
expedition to the river Charente, and afterwards in that against 
Ostend. At the latter end of the same year, he commanded, as 
commodore, a small squadron which was ordered to cruise in 
soundings ; a service in which he was not very successful, a French 
letter of marque, of 20 guns, being the most considerable of his 
prizes. 

Sir Thomas continued to be engaged in this kind of service till 
the month of July, 1707, when he was ordered to escort, to a cer- 
tain latitude, and under certain restrictions, the outward bound 
Lisbon fleet. When he was about a hundred leagues from the 
Lizard, six French men of war appeared in sieht. which proved 
to be the squadron of M. du Guai Trouin. He gave chase to thp 
enemy ; but finding that he gained very Ijttle on tbeci, he called a 
council, in which fourteen captains gave it as their opinion, that he 
ghould give over the chase, and bear away to protect the convoy. 
For this conduct, Sir Thomas Hardv, on his return to England, 
was brought to a court martial. He was honourably acquitted ; 
but, in consequence of the complaint of some merchants, he was 
afterwards examined at the bar of the House of Lords, Campbell, 
however, in his " Lives of the Admirals J' says, that he "gave 
so clear an account of his conduct, that the very members who had 
promised to support this complaint, desired it might be dismissed." 

* In the XVIth volume of the NAVAL CHRONICLE, page 458, an account 
us given of the battle ort Malaga, from the Life of Sir Jvlui Leuke, a scarce 
book, of which only fifty copies were printed. 



92 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OP 

Sir Thomas, thus fully exonerated from blame, continued to 
command the Kent till the beginning of the year 1708, when he 
was appointed first captain to Sir John Lcakc, who had just before 
been invested with the chief command of the fleet bound to the 
Mediterranean.* He was indebted for this appointment, according 
to the writer of Sir John Leake's life, to the express solicitation of 
Admiral Churchill. The proceedings of the Mediterranean, fleet 
are fully related in our biographical memoir of its commander, t 
and it is here unnecessary to repeat them. . 

In the month of October following, Sir Thomas Hardy returned 
to England; and, from that time, till the beginning of 1711, he 
does not appear to have had any command. He was then pro- 
moted to the rank of rear-admiral of the blue ; and, having 
lioisted his flag on board the Canterbury, of GO guns, he was 
sent with four small ships of the line, and as many frigates, to, 
blockade the port of Dunkirk. Notwithstanding his vigilance, 
however, several ships found means to escape, and others to enter 
that harbour. This was chiefly owing to a strong southerly, and 
south-west wind, which obliged him to quit his station, and to put 
into Yarmouth Roads. In the succeeding year, whilst cruising in 
the soundings, he captured six large French merchant ships, out. 
ward bound, which were richly laden; but, although they were 
taken before any orders had been issued for a suspension of 
hostilities, the administration thought proper to give them up, 
allotting to the captors a sum of money far inferior to their 
value. 

The peace of Ryswic taking place almost immediately after this 
event, Sir Thomas Hardy struck his flag, and held no other 
appointment during the reign of Queen Anne. 

At the accession of George the First, he was invested with the 
command at Plymouth, for the purpose of forwarding the equip- 
ment of a squadron, lest any formidable attempt should be made in 
favour of the Pretender. 

In the spring of 1715, Sir Thomas Hardy, as second in command 
under Sir John Norris, sailed from the Nore, with a strong 
squadron, to join the fleets of Russia, Denmark, and Holland, ia 

* yi.de NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. XVI. page 466. 

t Ibid. 



THE LATE SIR CHARLES HACDY, KST. S3 

the Baltic, against the Swedes, who had seized and confiscated 
several English merchant vessels, under the pretence that they were 
assisting the Russians, "with whom the Swedes were then at war, 
with arms and warlike stores. The confederates met, and remained 
in the Baltic till the middle of November ; but the Swedes very 
prudi-ntly kept out of their reach ; and, the season being too far 
advanced for any farther naval operations in those seas, the 
English squadron returned home. 

According to some manuscript accounts, mentioned by Char- 
nock, Sir Thomas Hardy was, in the following year, dismissed 
from the service ; but is said to have been afterwards restored to 
his rank, and to have been made vice-admiral of the red. No 
cause whatever is assigned for the alleged dismission ; nor, were 
it not from several concurrent testimonies, would the statement, 
from its improbability, seem to be deserving of credit. However, 
Sir Thomas does not appear, after this time, to have been called 
into actual service. He died in retirement, in the month of 
August, 1732. 

The earliest notice that we find of Sir Charles Hardy, the son of 
the preceding, is that, on the 28th of June, 1709, he was made 
captain of the Dunwich, and stationed as a cruiser in the German 
Ocean. In 1710, he captured a privateer, which had done con- 
siderable mischief amongst the coasting trade ; and was afterwards 
sent to the West Indies, with the squadron under the command of 
Commodore Lyttleton. From this time, until 1718, we find no 
mention made of him ; though he is supposed to have held several 
intermediate appointments. In the year just stated, he commanded 
the Guernsey, of 50 guns, one of the squadron sent to the Baltic 
urider Sir John Norris, to act jn conjunction with the Danish fleet 
against the Swedes. He returned to England, with the squadron, 
at the latter end of the year ; and, in 1720, he was captain of the 
Defiance, a fourth rate, of 60 guns, one of the fleet again sent upon 
the same service, and under the same commander. At the end of 
the season, Sir John Norris returned home, and Captain Hardj 
quitted the Defiance. 

We are again ignorant of the services on which he was employed, 
till the year 1726, when he was appointed to the Grafton, of 70 
gunsj one of the squadron which was intended to be sent to th 



94 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

Baltic, under the orders of Sir Charles Wager, to overawe the 
Czarina; but, from illness, or some other cause, he resigned 
the command of the Grafton, before the squadron sailed. He was 
next appointed to the Stirling Castle, of 70 guns, and ordered for 
the Mediterranean, where he served, during the two succeeding 
years, under Admiral Hopson and Sir Charles Wager; the latter 
having been, in the month of January, 1727, sent out with a rein- 
forcement, and to take upon him the command, in consequence of 
the attack menaced by the Spaniards on the fortress of Gibraltar. 
The events of this expedition were unimportant. 

Captain Hardy returned to England, with Sir Charles Wager^ 
in the month of April, 1728 ; from which time, till the 6th of 
April, 1742, when he was promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral, 
the only command that he is known to have had, was that of 
the Royal Caroline yacht. Just before his promotion, he was 
invested with the honour of knighthood. On the 7th of Decem- 
ber, 17-13, he was made a vice-admiral ; and, on the 13th of the 
same month, he was appointed to be one of the commissioners of 
the Admiralty. 

Early in 1744, Sir Charles commanded a division of the Channel 
floet, under Sir John Norris ; after which, in the same year, we 
find the following statement respecting him, in Entick's Naval 
History : - 

" The Mediterranean fleet, under the command of Admiral Matthews, 
bcin^ in the utmost necessity for stores and provisions, a considerable num- 
ber of store-ships were ordered to be convoyed there by Sir Charles Hardy, 
with a squadron of eleven ships of the line, and a bomb-ketch. The vice- 
admiral, v.ith the store-ships, set sail from St. Helens on the 18th of April, 
and conducted his convoy to Lisbon, where he was detained for a con- 
siderable time ; for the French received early information of the stores to 
Lt convoyed to the Mediterranean; and as the detention of these supplies 
would prevent Admiral Matthews from attempting any thing, the French, 
\vrrc dc'.crmined to intercept or delay the passage of Vice-Admiral Hardy, 
Arrorc'in.-'v the Brest squadron, consisting of fourteen ships of the line, and 
.six frig-itos, commanded by Monsieur Rochambault, sailed out, two by two, 
:tiid mc:t in the appointed latitude; from whence they proceeded to, and- 
lilork-d up Sir Charles Hardy and the store-ships in the Tagus, who was 
afraid to put. to sea while a superior fleet was waiting to intercept the 
convoy. 

" On tin f.th of July, the Dutch squadron, of twenty men of war, com- 
i, landed \<y Admiral l?accharest, arrived on the British coast, and was 
onimd t/i Portsmouth, where a large fleet was assembled under Sir John 



THE LATE SIR CHARLES HARDY, KNt. 95 

Bulchen, who was joined on the 15th of July by the Dutch squadron. As 
soon as the British ministry received intelligence that Sir Charles Hardy and 
the store-ships were blocked up in the Tagus, Sir John Ealchen received 
orders to sail with the first favourable wind, and proceed in quest of the 
Brest squadron, to disengage Sir Charles Hardy from his detention at 
Lisbon." 

We find that, on the 7th of August, Sir John Balchen sailed 
from Spithead, with a fleet of twenty. one ships, including the 
Dutch squadron, besides frigates, &c. and a convoy of two hun- 
dred merchantmen. He arrived off Lisbon on the 9th of Septem- 
ber, released Sir Charles Hardy, and proceeded with hira 'to 
Gibraltar, to victual and reinforce the garrison of that fortress. 
Having also supplied the Mediterranean fleet with stores, Sir 
Charles Hardy returned to England. 

During his absence, he had been advanced from the blue to the 
red squadron ; but he never attained a higher rank than that of 
vice-admiral, as he died at his house, in the Admiralty, on the 
27th of November, 1744; " with the universal reputation," says 
Charnock, ' 4 of a truly honourable and worthy man." 

We now proceed to the immediate subject of this memoir, 
Sir Charles Hardy, the son of Sir Charles, whose naval services we 
have just been tracing, and the grandson of Sir Thomas. 

With the period of this gentleman's birth we are unacquainted ; 
but we understand that, on the 10th of August, 1741, he was pro- 
moted to the rank of captain, in the Rye, of 20, or 24 guns, as the 
successor of Captain Lushington. In this ship he shortly after- 
wards sailed to Carolina, where he remained till the month of 
July, 1742 ; immediately subsequent to which period, he wa 
employed in cruising off the coast of Georgia, on which colony the 
Spaniards had effected a formidable descent.* Lieutenant Suther- 

* This event is thus mentioned in the gazette, under the date of Charles- 
town, South Carolina, July 7, 1742 : 

" By an express from General Oglethorpe we have advice, that on 
Monday the 5th instant, a Spanish fleet, of 82 saij consisting of three 
ships of 20 guns, two large snows, three schooners, four sloops, the rest 
half galleys, after having hovered about the bar for seven days, and haviuor 
tHfen a strong easterly v n;d, came into Joky Sound, and that having stood 
the fire of 160 shots from the 18-pounders at St. Simon's fort, and from the 
ships and vessels that Jay under that fort, they passed through the Sound 
without once attempting to board any of our vessel*, but firing very smartly, 



9{J BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOlit Of 

land, of General Oglethorpe'S regiment, in his official acdotint of 
the proceedings at Georgia, under the date of July 22, says : 
" A few days afterwards the men of war from Charlestown came 
off Simon's Bar ; and Captain Thompson, with some volunteers 
from Carolina, one guard schooner, and two gallics, came into St. 
Simon's harbour j and Captain Hardy, of the Rye man of war, 
receiving a message from the general by Lieutenant Maxwell, who 
went on board him, sent for answer that he would take a cruise 
tvith the rest of the king's ships." 

In 1744, Captain Hardy commanded the Jersey, of 60 guns ; 
and, by commission bearing the date ftf June 9, in the same year, 
he was appointed governor, and commander in chief, of the island 
of Newfoundland, with the port of Placentia, and all its depen- 
dencies. This command appears to have been of very short dura- 
tion, as he returned to England at the conclusion of the year. 
On his passage home, some of the ships under his convoy were 
captured ; a circumstance which was investigated by a court mar- 
tial, held on the 2d of February, 1745. He had the satisfaction 
of being honourably acquitted. 

Continuing in the command of the Jersey, Captain Hardy, in 
the month of July following, had a very severe encounter, whic'k 
lasted between two and three hours, with a French man of war, 
near the Straits' mouth* The action is thus recorded in the. 
gazottc : 

proceeded up the river out of the reach of the guns, & little below Gas- 
coigne's Bay, where they landed their forces, to the number of near 5000 
men, at the same time hoisting a red flag at the mizen-top^mast head of one 
of the largest ships. Whereupon the general having done all he could to 
annoy the enemy as they landed, and having nailed up the guns, burst the 
bombs and the cohorne, &c. was at last obliged to retire with his troops 
from the camp at St. Simon's to Frederica, seven miles up the river. 

" By advice of his Majesty's council here, notice of what it above has 
been sent to the governors and commanders of his Majesty's ships of war 
in the neighbouring colonies, desiring their assistance ; and letters have beeo 
also sent to General Wentworth, Governor Trelawney, of Jamaica, and 
Admiral Vernon, on the same subject. 

" The Flamborough man of war, of 20 guns, and a row-galley belonging 
to this government, with two of his Majesty's sloops of war, the Swift and 
liawke, are already despatched from hence to the assistance of Georgia ; 
and in a day or two his Majesty's ship the Rye, of 20 guns, together witU 
another row-galley will sail to its relief," 



THE LATE R CHARLES HAttET, KVT. 97 

" Lisbon, July 28, A 7 . S. 

" His Britannic Majesty's ship, which fell in with the French man of 
war, called the St. Esprit, of 74 guns, near tie Straits' mouth, was the 
Jersey, of 60 guns, Captain Hardy. The engagement lasted from half an 
hour past six in tlie evening, till nine, when the French man of war bore 
away on her return to Cadiz to refit. We hear that the St. Esprit had lost 
her foremast, bowsprit, and twenty men, in the action." 

In 1746 and 1747 Captain Hardy served in the Mediterranean, 
under Vice- Admiral Medley ; but -whether he continued in the 
Jersey till the end of the war is uncertain. 

In July, 1749, shortly after the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, he 
married a daughter of Bartholomew Tate, of Delapree, in the 
ounty of Northampton, Esq. 

The next information respecting him is, that, in 1755, the year 
before M r ar was declared against France, he was appointed gover- 
nor of New York. On the 12th of April, in the same year, 
believed to be about the time that he received the commission just 
mentioned, his Majesty was graciously pleased to confer on him 
the honour of knighthood. 

On the 4th of June, 1756, whilst absent on his government, he" 
was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral of the blue squadron ; 
and, on the 6th of May, 1757, his rear-admiral's commission 
having been forwarded to him, at New York, he hoisted his flag 
on board the Nightingale. He afterwards removed it into the 
Sutherland, of 50 guns, and, agreeably to orders, prepared to put 
to sea with all the ships of war which he could collect, as convoy 
to the fleet of victuallers and transports, which were intended to 
convoy Lord Loudon and his troops to Halifax, preparatory to the 
intended attack upon St. Louisbourg. Sir Charles was for some 
time kept in a state of uncertainty as to the arrival of Vice. 
Admiral Holbourne, who was daily expected from England with a 
formidable fleet, and as to the situation and force of the enemy, at 
the proposed point of attack. At length, two vessels, which had 
been despatched to reconnoitre the neighbouring coast, returned^ 
without having seen any thing of the enemy ; in consequence of 
which Sir Charles immediately put to sea, from Sandy Hook, with 
the following squadron : 



58 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR O? 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

{Sir Charles Hardy, llcar-At!:; 
of the Blue. 
Captain Fu!kin<:hrmi. 

Nightingale 20 ; J. Campbell. 

Kennington '20 Dudley Digges. 

Vulture 16 S. Salt. 

Ferret _ 34 > Ar Upton. 

Sir Charles Hardy arrived safely at Halifax, with his \vhole 
charge, comprising (the ships of war included) 101 sail;* and, 
on the 9th of July, he was joined by Vicc-Admiral Ilolbourne, 
who immediately took upon himself the chief command of the 
whole force, consisting of the following ships ; Sir Charles removing 
his Hag into the Invincible, as second iu command : 

Skips. Guns. Commanders. 

{Francis Ilolhournc, Esq. Vice- 
Admiral of the Blue. 
Captain W. Ilolbourne. 
{Sir Charles Hardy, Rear-Admiral; 
of the Blue. 
Captain John Bentleyv 
J" Charles Holmes, Esq. Commodore. 

Gl ' T0 \ Captain Thomas Cornewall. 

n Terrible 74 . R. IX Collins. 

Northumberland 70 Lord Colvill. 

Orford 66 Ril. Spry. 

a Bedford 64 Thorpe Fowke. 

i Captain 64 John Amherst. 

n Nassau 64 James Sayer. 

v I )efiancc 60 Pat. Baird. 

o Kingston 60 W. Parry. 

.Nottingham 60 Samuel Marshall. 

</ Snndcrlaiui .. 60 George Mackenzie. 

Tilbury 60 . Henry Barnsley. 

u Windsor _. 60 Samuel Faulkner. 

Centurion 50 W. MantelL 

* The precise date of his arrival is doubtful. According to some ac- 
counts, he sailed from Sandy Hook on the 25th of May, and reached 
Halifax on the 5th of June ; but other statements represent him not to have 
left Sandy I look till the 20th of June, and not to have arrived at Halifax 
till the :)()th of tiie same month. The latter seems to be the more probable 
account. 

u Arrived from England, with Vice-Admiral Ilolbourne; 



THE LATE SIR CHARLES HARDY, KNT. -99 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

'Sutherland 50 Captain Edward Falkingham. 

Kenningtnn 20 Dudley Disges. 

Nightingale 20 J. Campbell. 

a Port Mahon 20 Samuel \VaIlis. 

Success 20 Paul H. Ourry. 

Winchelsea ...... 20 John lions. 

Baltimore 16 Thomas Owen. 

Jamaica 14 Samuel Thompson. 

a Haivke 1-1 Henry Bradley. 

Vulture 14 John Scaife. 

Hunter 12 John Luforey. 

-a Gibraltar's Pri/e 12 John Stott. 

Cruizer -10 Edward Parke. 

Otter 10 W. Tucker. 

Ferret 10 Ar. Upton. 

S]>y 10 W. Payne. 

Speedwell 8 R. Bond. 

Furnace, bomb 8 W. Williamstm. 

(jrenado, do 8 R Hawthorne. 

Lightning, fire-ship . - 8 Henry Martin. 

The season was now very far advanced ; notwithstanding which, 
the preparations for the attack upon Louisbourg were carried on 
by the respective commanders. It was not, however, till the 
beginning of August that the armament was ready to sail. On 
t^< 4th of that month, an express arrived from Captain Edwards, 
the governor of Newfoundland, with the information, that one of 
his cruisers had taken a vessel, from St. Louisbourg, with 
despatches ; from which lie had learnt, that the enemy's force in 
that harbour consisted of 18 sail of the line, five large frigates, and! 
about 7000. regular forces on shore. In consequence of this 
intelligence, a council of war, composed of naval and militarj 
officers, was immediately held ; and it was resolved " that, con- 
sidering the great strength of the enemy, and the advanced season 
of the year, it was expedient to postpone the attack upon Louis- 
bourg ; and that the troops should proceed to the different places 
where the public service required them." The troops were ac- 
cordingly disembarked, and marched to winter quarters. 

Some suspicions, however, arose, that the French vessel, 
alluded to above, might have been thrown into the way of the 
Newfoundland cruisers, for the purpose of being captured, in or- 



a Arrived from England, with Vice-Admiral Holbourne. 



JOO -/ BIOGRAPHICAL MtMOIK OF 

der that her despatches might impress the English with an ex- 
aggerated notion of the French force at Louisbourg. Vice- 
Admiral Holbourne, to satisfy himself upon this point, sailed from 
Halifax, on the 16th of August : on the 20th, being close in with 
the harbour of Louisbourg, he found that the enemy's force was 
fully equal to what it had been represented, and that they were 
making preparations to sail. At night he bore away for Halifax; 
where, on his arrival, on the llth of September, he found Captain 
Geary, with the following reinforcpnient, from England : 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

Somerset 64 Captain Francis Gearr. 

Devonshire 64 William Gordon. 

Eagle CO Hugh Palliser. 

York f 60 Hugh Pigot. 

This addition of strength induced the commander in chief to put 
to sea again, and to cruise off Louisbourg, under the hope that, 
should the enemy come out, he might be able to attack them to 
great advantage. Unfortunately, on the evening of the 2^th of 
September, the fleet being about twenty leagues to the southward 
of its station, the wind came on to blow hard from the east: in 
the night it veered round to the south, and blew a perfect hurri- 
cane, which continued until eleven the next day; and, had it not 
then suddenly shifted to the north, the whole fleet, in all proba- 
bility, would have incurred utter destruction, as it was then close 
in with the rocks off Cape Breton. Even under this favourable 
circumstance, the injury and loss were very severe.* 

After the storm, Vice- Admiral Holbourne collected his squadron, 

* The following is a list of the ships which particularly suffered, with the 

damages which they respectively sustained : 

Ships. Damages. 

Nmrtrk six guns thrown overboard. 

Juvincib/e lost three men, with her main and mizen-mast. 

Graj'ton lost her main-mast, mizen-mast, and rodder ; steered 

home by a machine. 

Captain dismasted. 

fa 'i f /i rland _ _ _ . do. 
Scdfoi d ...... do. 

JD< "ons/tin: . do. 

fftniliur do. 

Aflu do. arrived in England with nine feet water in the 

7 hold. 



together ; and Sir Charles Hardy, having reigned his gorerntnentj, 
returned to England with those ships which were the most 
disabled. 

On the 7th of February, 1758, he was made rear-admiral of th 
-white squadron ; and, having hoisted his flag in the Captain, of 
68 guns, he was ordered again to New York, for the purpose of 
forwarding the necessary arrangements for a second attempt upon 
Louisbourg. He for some time cruised off that t;arhour, with the 
view of intercepting any supplies which the enemy might send out ; 
but, notwithstanding his vigilance, the French, favoured by thick 
fogs and tempestuous weather, got safe into Louisbourg, with a 
strong squadron of ships of war, under the command of M. de 
' Chaffaut. Sir Charles, however, succeeded in taking the Fou- 
droyant, of 22 guns, the ship which was annually sent from France 
to Quebec, with stores and ammunition for the garrison. Cap. 
tain Boyle, in the Boreas, also captured the Diana, a French, 
frigate, of 36 guns. 

Admiral Boscawen arrived at Halifax, on the 9th of May, and 
assumed the command of the fleet ; a list of which we have given, 
in our memoir of that officer.* On the 28th of the month, the 
admiral left Halifax, for Louisbourg ; off which he was joined by 
Sir Charles Hardy, on the 14th of June. Sir Charles, on this 
occasion, had his flag on board the Royal William, of 84 guns, 
as second in command. In the course of the ensuing night, he was 
blown off to sea, by a violent gale of wind 5 but returned, without 
having experienced any disaster. 

Ships. Damages. 

Prince Frederick dismasted, and was obliged to bear away for St. Jphn' ? 
Newfoundland. 

Centurion do. and ten guns thrown overboard. v ( 

Eagle -- do. threw fifteen guns overboard, and arrived in 

England with eisrht feet water in the hold. 

Nottingham lost her mizen-mast, and twelve guns thrown overboard* 

Kingston sixteen guns thrown overboard. 

Tilbury wrecked, captain and many of the crew perished. 

Nightingale. lost her mizen-mast, four men, and twenty guns. 

Cruiser do. three men, and ten guns. 

Ferret ,,,, foundered, the crew perished. 

"the French fleet also felt the bad effects of this tempest, several of ttieir 
ships being considerably damaged. They sailed for Louisbourg in October; 
mud those which escaped our cruisers arrived at Brest, at th end of- Novera- 
bcr, in a most crippled condition. 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. YJI. page 209. 



101 mocRAritic'At, MEMOIR -or 

During the remainder of the siege, he was employed in blocking 
up the harbour, as well for the purpose of entitling in five- 
ships of the line wh'.ch were lying there, as for preventing the 
eftemy from receiving any supplies. In this service he was ex- 
tremely vigilant and active, and his success was commensurate with 
his activity ; as, excepting the Bienfaisant, which afterwards fell 
into the hands of the English, all the ships of the line were 
destroyed. The Apollo, of 50 guns ; the Fidelle, of 36 guns ; 
the Chevre, and the Biche, of 19 guns each, were sunk at the 
entrance of the harbour : the Echo, of 32 guns, in attempting to 
get out, was captured by Sir Charles ; so that, of the whole naval 
force which was in the harbour, at the period of the investiture, 
amounting to five ships of the line, one of 50 guns, four frigates, 
and two corvettes, the Comette and Bizarre frigates were all that 
got off. The latter, indeed, made her escape on the very day that 
the troops were landed; consequently, before the siege could be 
said to be formed. 

Louisbourg surrendered, by capitulation, on the 26th of July ;* 
after which, Sir Charles Hardy was detached, with seven sail of 
the line, and three frigates, to convoy three bakalions of land 
forces, and a detachment of artillery, under the command of liri- 
gadier-G encral Wolfe, to Gaspe, for the purpose of destroying thp 
French settlements in the gulf of St. Lawrence. Having accom- 
plished this service, he rejoined Admiral Boscawen ; and, in the 
nionth of October, both" of the commanders returned to England, 
with the following squadron : 

Si'iips. Guns. Ships. Gurts. 

Namur , 90 Trent WdWat . 28 

Royal William 84 Boreas 28 

Somerset 64 Echo 28 

Bienfaisant (prize) 6-4 

On the 27th of October, being in soundings, they fell in with the 
following French squadron, from Quebec, under the command of 

31. de C'liall'aut : 

* 'Ihr lion. Captain Edgccoinbe, of the mtvy, and Captain Amherst, 
ai'/i-ili'-cn,/'/. ID ( Jencral Amherst, the military commander at the siege, were 
sent to Kn Jand with the news of the surrender of Louisbourg. They were 
>JTU< r,ioly received by his Majesty, and received a present of 5001'. 
fH- h. 'Ui',' colours which were taken at Louisbourg were deposited in St. 
Pau.V c.'itliuiral. ' J ~ ' ".:-._; 



tllT. LATE SIR CHARLES HARDY, KN'T. 103 

Ships. Guns. Ships. Guns., 

le Tonnant 80 Le Prothee 6-1 

L' Intrcpide 71 Le Btilicjueux, 6-i 

L'Hero 74 

The hostile squadrons passed each other on contrary tack, anil 
exchanged broadsides ; after which, the English wore and gave 
chase ; but the enemy had so much the adyantage in sailing, that 
they got off. However, the Carnarvon, East India ship, which 
had been captured by the French on the preceding day, was 
retaken. The English squadron arrived safely at Spithead, on the 
1st of November. 

lu February, 1759, Sir Charles Hardy was promoted to the 
rank of vice-admiral of the blue squadron. This year he served as 
second in command of the Channel fleet, under Sir Edward Hawke, 
and was slightly concerned in the memorable and glorious encoun- 
ter with the French fleet under M. Conflans.* A chaplain of one of 
the ships which were present, says : " Sir Charles Hardy, in the 
Union, with the Mars, Hero, and several other ships, were crowd- 
ing to the admiral's assistance, when the retreat of the French, co- 
vered by the obscurity of the evening, put an end to the engagement." 

In 1760, Sir Charles Hardy was employed upon the same sta- 
tion ; his flag being the greater part of the year on board the 
Mars. However, the recent defeat of the French having effectually 
prevented them from putting to sea, nothing particular occurred 
to him; excepting that, in the middle of September, having sprung 
all his masts in a heavy gale of wind, he was under the necessity of 
coming into port. He put to sea again in the month of October ; 
and, on joining the commander in chief, in the Bay of Biscay, he 
shifted his flag into his old ship, the Union. 

The year 1761, during which he remained upon the same sta- 
tion, was passed in a manner equally uninteresting as the preceding. 
/ In 1762, he commanded, alternately with Sir Edward Hawkc, 
the squadrons stationed off Brest, which relieved each other 
successively, for the purpose of watching the scattered remnant of 
the French naval force. " Indeed," as Charnock observes, i( the 
history of Sir Charles is so closely implicated during 1 this period 
with that of Sir Edward, his superior in command, that the history 

* For the official details of this action, the reader is referred to the 
biographical memoir of Lord Ka\vke r in the seventh volume of the NAVAL. 
CHRONICLE, page 402, el seq, , 



BTArHICAt MEMOIK O? 

of the fonnr might in great measure- suffice for that of the latter, 
with a mere change of name.'* 

On the 21st of October, 1762, he was made vice-admiral of the 
white; and, after the conclusion of the peace, in the succeeding year, 
he enjoyed a long relaxation from the fatigues of public service. 

On the 3d of November, 1767, Sir Charles Hardy was one of 
the supporters of the canopy at the funeral of his Royal Highness 
the Duke of York ; on the 28th of October, 1770, he was pro- 
moted to the rank of admiral of the blue ; on the death of 
Admiral Holbourne, in 1771, he was appointed master and gover- 
nor of Greenwich Hospital ; in 1774, he was elected member of 
parliament for the borough of Plymouth ; on the 23d of January, 
1778, he was made admiral of the white ; and, on the 19th of 
March, 1779, on the resignation of Admiral Keppel, he wa* 
appointed commander in chief of the Channel fleet. 

At the period here mentioned, the Channel fleet was formidabl* 
in numbers ; but many of the ships were deficient in men, and in 
other respects very unfit for service.- ^lost of our readers will 
recollect, that, in August, 1779, whnTpSir Charles was thus cir- 
cumstanced, the Spanish fleer, from Cadiz, formed a junction with 
that of France, from Brest, and entered the Channel. As the do- 
cuments must be considered as curious, we shall here take the. 
opportunity of displaying the respective force of the contending 
powers, upon this occasion. The following, therefore, is 

A list of the Channel fleet * in the order of battle, on the Slst of August, 
1779, ichen it fell in with thejleets of France and Spain ;the Resolution 
to lead with the ttarboard t and the Bedford with the larboard tacks on 
board : ^ 

Ships Guns. Men. Commander*. Division, 



Hesolution 74 

Invincible 74 

Alfred 74 

Culloden 74 

Ramillies 74 

Duke 98 

Britannia 100 

Union 90 

Alexander ...... 74 

Mavlborough .... 74 

Defence 74 

lutrfpid* , , x ., . . 64 



600 Captain Sir Chaloner Ogle. 
600 John Laforey. 
600 William Bayne. 

600 George Balfour. 

600 John Moutray. ' 

750 Sir Charles Douglas. 

f George Darby, Esq. Vice-Ad- 
872 < miral of the Blue. 

CCapt. M.Pole. 

750 J. Dalrymple. 

600 Lord Longford. 

600 ^ Tayler Penny. 

600 John Simmonds. 
500 Hon. H. St. John. 








8 





O 



B 

I 
U 



THE LATE SIR CHARLES HARDY, KNT. 



105 



Ships. Gum. Men. Commanders. Division. 

{Sir J. L. Ross, Rear-Admiral 
of the Blue. 
Capt. John Colpoys. 

Thunderer 74 600 Hon. B. Walsiugham. 

Cumberland 74 600 Jos. Peyton. . 

C'ourageux 74 6/>0 Lord Mulgruve. 

Triumph 74 650 Ph. Affleck. 

London 98 750 Samuel Cornish. . " 

f Sir Charles Hardy, Admiral of 

Victory . . . 100 894 J the White - 

] 1st Captain, II. Kempenfelt. 

|_2d Captain, H. Collins. 

Foudroyant 84 700 Capt. John Jervis. 

Formidable 98 750 John Stanton. ', .( "= .t 

Terrible 74 600 . Sir R. Bickerton. $ .- "c 

Monarch 74 600 Adam Duncan. 

Berwick 74 600 Hon. K. Stewart. 

Bienfaisant 64. 500 John Macbride. 

Shrewsbury 74 600 M.Robinson. ~\. 

America 64 ^ S. Thompson. 

Hector 74 |H Sir J. Hamilton. 

Centaur 74 1500 J. N. P. Nott. 

Namur 90 760; Charles Fielding. 

pRobert Digby, Esq. Ilear-Ad- 

Prince George 98 7ti7; miral of the Blue. 

LCaptain Patten. ' ^ '"S 

Queen 90 ^ 750 Capt. Alex. Tunes. P3 "2 

Egmont 74 ' 600 J.C.Allen. ^'J 

Canada 74 600 H. Dalrymple. 

Prudent 64 500 T. Burnet. 

'Valiant /4 650 S. C. Goodall. 

Bedford 74 600 Edmund Affleck . 

Frigates, fiff. attached to each Division. 

VAN. 
Ships. Gum, Ships. Guns. 

Ambuscade 82 Infernal, fire-ship 

Triton, to repeat signals, . . . 28 Pluto, ditto 

CENTRE. 

Romney --- SO Apollo, to repeat signals .... S2 

Southampton 32 . Firebrand, fire-ship 

M ilford 28 Incendiary, do. 

lizard -- 28 Young Hazard, cutter 

Cormorant ]* Peggy, do .%.. 

Swallow 14 George, do. .......... 

Kite 12 Holderaess, do. 

Wolf 12 

. Cjjton. SJol. XIX, p 



T06 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR Of 

REAR. 

Shipt. Guns. Ships. Guns. 

Porcupine ............... 20 Salamander, fire-ship ...... 

Andromeda, to repeat signals. 32 Furnace, do. .... ......... 

The succeeding is 

A list of the combined F/ench and Spanish Jleefs, in the order of battle, 
commanded by le Comte d'Or-cilliers and Don Cordova. 

Ships. Guns. Ships. Guns. 

LeCitoyen., ............ 74 Le Neptune ............. 80 

S;*int Miguel, Espagnoi ..... 70 Yincidor, Espagnol ........ 70 

L'Auguste, chef .......... 80 Le Dcsrin ............... 74 

Le Prothee .............. 64 Le Saint Joachim, Espagnoi. 70 

Saint Pahlo Espagnoi ...... 70 Saint Isabel, chef ......... 70 

Le Veille ............... 64 Le Bourgoyne ........... 74 

Arroaante, Espagnoi ....... 70 Le Solitaire .............. 64 

LH Ville de Paris, chef ..... 100 L' Hercule .............. 74 

Le Glorieux ...... , ...... 74 Septentrion, Espagnoi ..... . 64 

Serio, Espagnoi .......... TO Le Saint Esprit, chef. ..... . 80 

Saint Pedro, Espagnoi ...... 70 L' Intrepide ___ ....... .. 74 

L' Indicn ............... 64 Saint Angel Garde, Espagnoi 70 

Saint Josef, chef .......... 70 La Biaarre .............. 64 

Le Palmier .............. 74 Le Conquerant .......... 74 

La Victoire .............. 74 El Ravo, chef Espagnoi ____ 80 

Le Zodiaque ............ 74 Saint Damas ............ 70 

Guerrero, Espagnoi ..... ... 74 L'Actionnaire ........... 64 

Saint Yinccnte, chef ....... 80 L'Alexandre .......... .. 64 

Le Scipion .............. 70 Le Brillant, chef Espagnoi .. 70 

Le Bicn Ainie ............ Y4 Saint Louis, chef Espagnoi .. 80 

L' Actif .............. ?. 74 Le Caton .............. . 64 

Saint Carlos, Espagnoi ..... 80 Le Pluton ..... . ........ 74 

Lu Bretagnc, chef" ........ 110 

Corvettes, Frigatct, Luggers, and Cutters. 

Le Mutin ........... ......... 

. Santa des Carmen ... ......... 

. ..... Santa Catharina .............. 

La Majicienne ............... 




Spanish Squadron of Observation. 

Trinidadc Espagnoi, chef ....... 116 

Monarca ................... 7O 

Saint Paschal ................ 80 

Saint Nicholas ................ 70 

Saint Rafael ................. 70 

Saint Eugenio ................ 70 

Princessa .................... 70 

Atlante ................... ... 70 

Velasco ..................... 70 

Saint Francis de PauJe ........ 70 



THE LATE SIR CHARLES HARDT, KNT. 



107 



Saint Francis d'Assise 70 

Galicia ,. 70 

Diligente 70 

Saint Isidore 70 

Astato 64 

Fcrdiriantlo 60 

Saint Lidro 6-1 

Frigates. 

Sainte Rosalia 

Saiute Gertrudis 

Liglit Squadron. 

Le Saint Michel 60 

Espa^ne 64 

La Couronne 80 

Migno 60 

Le Triton c i 



Bombs. 

Le Pluvier 

Le Sa umou 



Fire-ships. 
Le Menagere 
Le Dashwood 
Le Boiulcuse 
Santa Rasa ..... 
Jupiter 
Emeralde 



French 
Spanish 



Armed en flute. 
Regla 
Annontiation 



Spanish Hospital PJiip. 
Santa Rita .""....- 



RECAPITULATION. 

Guns. 

Squadron of Observation 1 ,'244 

"W lute and Bluv Squadron 1,088 

White Squadron 1,138 

Blue Squadron 1,066 

Light Squadron 328 

, Total 4,854 

It was, we believe, on the 15th of August, that the above fleet, 
having eluded the notice of Sir Charles Hardy, entered the 
Channel, and appeared before Plymouth. Some of the French 
frigates even anchored in Cawsand Bay, and took a few coasting 
vessels ; and, on the 16th, the Ardent, of 64 gnns, mistaking the 
enemy's fleet for the British, was also captured. Sir Charles, who 
had been forced out of the Channel, by strong easterly winds, 
entered it on the 31st ; but, reflecting that the fate of his country 
was. in a great measure, supposed to be connected with that of the 
fleet under his command, he thought it expedient, considering the 
inferiority of his force, to act merely on the defensive ; and the 
French knd Spaniards, after traversing the Channel for a short 
period, without attempting any enterprise of note, returned to 
their own ports, without any other advantage than that of not 
having been defeated. 

At the latter end of the year, the Channel fleet returned into 



108 NATAL ANECDOTES, 

'' Q 

port, to refit. In the spring, Sir Charles Hardy was preparing to 
resume the command ; but, unfortunately, an apoplectic fit sud- 
denly carried him off, at Portsmouth, on the 8th of May, 1780 : 
and the country was thus deprived of a very active and able com- 
mander. He was buried a few days after, with the customary 
honours due to his rank ; the whole fleet, 'during the procession, 
remaining with their colours half-staff up, and firing minute guns. 

Of this respected and much regretted officer, Charnock thus 
briefly sums up the character: " Brave, prudent, gallant, and 
enterprising, without the smallest ostentatious display of his noble 
qualities generous, mild, affable, and intelligent his virtues com- 
manded the most profound respect, enabling him to pass through 
days, when the rage and prejudice of party blazed with a fury 
nearly unquenchable, without exciting envy or dislike, without 
even furnishing to the most captious man of party the smallest 
ground of reprehension or complaint." 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c. 



NANTES IN GUnciTE VA3TO. 



PRESENT STATE OF THE ISLAND OF MADEIltA. 

MADEIRA was first discovered by Joas Gonzales Zarco, a 
Portuguese, on the 2d July, 1419 : it is about 55 English 
miles in length, and 10 in breadth. Funchal is the capital of the 
island, and residence of the governor. The population, forty years 
ago, was 63,913 souls. 

The weather is, in general, mild and temperate : in summer it is 
very moderate on the higher parts of the island, whither the better 
sort of people retire for the season ; and in the winter the snow 
remains there for several days, whilst it is never known to continue 
above a day or two in the lower parts. The common people of 
this island are of a tawny colour, and well shaped; though they 
have large feet, owing, perhaps, to the efforts they are obliged to 
make in climbing the craggy paths of this mountainous country. 

Their faces are oblong ; their eyes dark ; their hair naturally 
falls in ringlets, and begins to crisp in some individuals 3 which may 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLICT1ONS, &C. 109 

| 

be owing to inter-marriages with negroes : in general they are 
hard featured, but not disagreeable. Their women are too fre- 
quently ill-favoured, and destitute of the florid complexions of 
northern ladies : they are small, have prominent cheek-bones, 
large feet, an ungraceful gait, and the colour of the darkest bru- 
nette. The just proportion of their bodies, the fine form of their 
hands, and their large lively eyes, seem in some measure to com- 
pensate for these defects. 

The labouring men, in summer, wear linen trowsers, a coarse 
shirt, a large hat, and a long cloak, which they sometimes carry 
over their arm. The women wear a petticoat, and a short corselet, 
or jacket, closely fitting. their shapes, which is a simple, and often 
not an inelegant dress. Tho<e that are unmarried tie their hair on, 
the crown of their head, on which they wear no covering. The 
country people are exceedingly sober and frugal ; their diet, in, 
general, consisting of bread and onions, or other roots, and very 
little animal food. Their common drink i> water, or an infusion 
of the remaining rincl or skin of the grape (after it has passed 
through the wine pres.s), which, when fermented, acquires some 
tartness or acidity, but cannot be kept very long. The wine for 
which the island is famous, and which their own hands prepare, 
seldom, if ever, regales them. Their principal occupation is ihe 
planting and raising of the vines ; but as that branch of agriculture 
requires little attendance, as the warmth of the climate render* 
great provision against the inclemencies of the weather unnecessary ; 
these circumstances, and the ease with which the cravings of appetite 
are satisfied, must tend to render the inhabitants indolent, especially 
when not stimulated to industry by an active government. The 
vineyards are held only on an annual tenure, and the farmer reap* 
but four-tenths of the produce ; four-tenths are paid in kind to the 
owner of the land, one-tenth to the king, and one-tenth to the 
clergy. Oppressed as they are, however, they have preserved a 
high degree of cheerfulness and contentment; their labours are 
commonly alleviated with songs, and in the evening they assemble 
from different cottages to dance to the drowsy music of theguittar. 
The inhabitants of the towns are more ill-favoured than the 
country people, and often pale and lean. 

The men wear French clothes, commonly black, which do not 
seem to fit them, and have been in fashion in the polite world about 
half a century ago. Their ladies are delicate, and have agreeable 
features ; but the characteristic jealousy of the men still locks them 
up, and deprives them of a happiness which the country people, 



110 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

amidst all their distresses, enjoy. Many of the better sort of 
people are a kind of petite noblesse, which we would call gentry^ 
whose genealogical pride makes them unsociable and ignorant, and 
causes a ridiculous affectation of gravity. The landed property is 
in the hands of a few ancient families, who live at Funchal, and in 
the various towns on the island. 

Madeira consists of one large mountain, whose branches rise 
every where from the sea towards the centre of the island^ con- 
verging to the summit, in the midst of which is an excavation called 
the Val by the inhabitants, always covered with a fresh and delicate 
herbage. 

The stones on the island seem to have been in the fire, are full 
of holes, and of a blackish colour : in short, the greater part of 
them are lava. The soil of the whole island is a tarras mixed with 
some particles of clay, lime, and sand, and has much the same 
appearance as some earths on the island of Ascension. From this 
circumstance, and from the excavation on the summit of the moun- 
tain, it is probable that in some remote period a volcano has pro- 
duced the lava and the ochreous particles, and that the fal was 
formerly the crater. 

Many rivulets and brooks descend from the summits in deep 
chasms or glens, which separate the various parts of the island ; 
the beds of the brooks are in some places covered with stones of 
all sizes, carried down from the brows of the precipices by the 
violence of the winter rains or floods of melted snow. The water 
is conducted by wears or channels through the vineyards, where 
cacli proprietor has the use of it for a certain time. Plantations 
of t'ddocs are common on this island, whose roots are eaten by the 
country people, and whose leaves serve to feed the hogs. The 
sweet potatoc is planted for the same purpose, and makes a prin- 
cipal article of diet ; together with chestnuts, which grow in exten- 
sive woods on the higher parts of the island, where the vine will 
not thrive. Wheat and barley are likewise sown, especially in 
places where the vine is decaying through age; but the crops do 
not produce above three months' supply, and th inhabitants are 
obliged to have recourse to other articles of food, besides importing 
considerable quantities of provisions from North America in ex 
change for wine. 

The great produce of Madeira is the wine, from which it has 
acquired fame and support. Where the soil, exposure, and supply 
of water will admit, the vine is cultivated. One or more walks, 
about a yard or two wide, intersect each vineyard, and are include^ 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c. Ill 

by a stone wall two feet high. Along these walks, which are 
arched over with laths about seven feet high, they erect wooden, 
pillars at regular distances, to support a lattice work of bamboos, 
which slope down on each side of the walk, till it is only a foot 
and a half or two feet high, in which elevation it extends over the 
"whole vineyard. The vines in this manner are supported from 
the ground, and the people have room to root out the weeds that 
spring up among them. In the season of the vintage they creep 
under this lattice-work, cut off the grapes, and lay them into 
baskets ; some bunches of these grapes weigh six pounds and 
upwards. Ripening the grapes in the shade contributes to give 
the Madeira wines that excellent flavour and body for which they 
are so remarkable. The enclosures of the vineyards consist of 
walls, and hedges of prickly pear, pomegranates, myrtles, bram- 
bles, and wild roses. The gardens produce peaches, apricots, 
quinces, apples, pears, walnuts, chestnuts, and many other 
European fruits, together with now and then some of the tropical 
plants, such as bananas, guavas, and pine-apples. 

All the common domestic animals of Europe are likewise found 
at Madeira ; and their mutton and beef, though small, are very well 
tasted. Their horses are small, but sure-footed, and with great 
agility climb the difficult paths, which are the only means of com- 
munication in the country. They have no wheel carriages of any- 
kind ; but in the towns they use a sort of dray or sledge, formed 
of two pieces of plank joined by a cross piece, which make an 
acute angle before : these are drawn by oxen, and are used to 
transport casks of wine, and other heavy goods, to and from th 
warehouses. 

The animals of the feathered tribe, which live wild here, are 
more numerous than the wild quadrupeds ; there being only the 
common grey rabbit here, as a representative of the last-mentioned. 
elass. Tame birds, such as turkeys, geese, ducks, and hens, are 
very rare, which is, perhaps, owing to the scarcity of corn. 

There are no snakes whatsoever in Madeira ; but all the houses, 
vineyards, and gardens swarm with lizards. The friars of one of 
the convents complained to Mr. Forstcr, that these vermin destroyed 
the fruit in their gardens : they had, therefore, placed a brass' 
kettle on the ground to catch them, as they are constantly running 
about in quest of food, and as, when once in the kettle, they 
cannot get back again, on account of the smoothness of its sides. 
The shores of Madeira, and the neighbouring isles, are but very 
fcxdUFerently supplied with (l&h ; censequently, ia order to th 
7 



Ill HAVAL ANECDOTES, 

rigid observance of Lent-, they are forced to import dry fish from 
Newfoundland, and pickled herrings from Gottenburg. 

The appearance of Funchal Bay is very singular by night ai 
well as beautiful by day : the lights rising one over another up to 
the mountain chapel hare a very pleasing effect. 

The air of this island is so clear and salubrious, that there are 
always a great number of individuals from the northern parts of 
Europe residing here; especially those who have pulmouic com- 
plaints. It is not, however, exempted from fevers and other con- 
tinental diseases ; for I was told by an English physician, a resident 
on the island, that during the months of September and October, 
1802, it had been visited by the same epidemic catarrhal fever which 
made such ravages in the months of December, January, and 
February following in England, and on the continent. JOHNSON'S 
Oriental Voyager. 

EARTHQUAKE OFF LISBON. 

OFF Lisbon we had a foul wind, blowing hard all night and the 
next fort-noon, when it suddenly dropped to a calm, leaving a heavy 
cross popling swell. 

The people were all at dinner, when a general alarm spread 
quickly throughout the ship, above and below, occasioned by a 
violent tremulous motion of the ship, as if likely to shake to 
pieces. The guns and carriages actually rattled on the decks, and, 
in our more deliberate thoughts afterwards, we could compare the 
agitation of the ship to nothing but that of a vessel driven violently 
by a very strong current, or tide, over a hard gravelly bottom, 
which she raked all the way. 

The consternation in every countenance was stronger than lan- 
guage ran describe, for no one could divine the cause, though all 
expected immediate destruction. A rumbling noise accompanied 
the agitation, arising gradually, but speedily, from the bottom 
upwards. It lasted between two and three minutes ; subsided, and 
left us as if nothing had happened. 

The first thing ordered was to sound the well ; all was right 
there. The next was to try for soundings, but none were found 
vrith more than two hundred fathoms. During this the gunner 
was called on the quarter-deck and examined as to the powder 
magazine, and when any one was last there. He declared that no 
person whatever had been there that day. The 6rst lieutenant was 
ordered to go down with the gunner and examine all below, 
and I was ordered to attend them. We found every thing as it 
should be 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 113 

In the course of this search, the gunner, \vho was an old man, 
swore he knew what it was, and affirmed it to be an earthquake. 
This account, added to his being an Irishman, made us both laugh 
heartily at him, although our errand was not of a very laughable 
nature. 

In making his report to the captain, the lieutenant told him 
what the gunner said of its being an earthquake, which created 
another laugh on deck. However, the old gunner was called aft, 
and directed to explain himself. He said he was on board a mer- 
chant ship, lying at anchor in the port, at the time of the great 
earthquake at Lisbon, in 1755; and, from the effect it had on that 
vessel, he concluded this to have arisen from a similar cause. 
There was no denying the justice of this, yet not an officer on 
board could be persuaded it was probable; and, from arguing 
upon it, we deemed it impossible, from the immense body and 
weight of water, more than two hundred fathoms deep, that any 
thing afloat on the surface could be so violently and strangely 
affected by the concussion of the earth beneath. 

I have noticed the consternation that so strongly and generally 
affected all on board during the shock ; the rumbling noise 
excepted, all was still as death. But, the instant the orders were 
given by the captain to sound the well, and let the top-sail hallyards 
run, the difference between the British and foreign seamen on 
board was remarkably conspicuous. The former jumped about as 
alert as ever, seemingly rejoiced to be recovered from their panic ; 
while the other poor miserable looking dogs of Italians, and other 
roraan catholics we had shipped up the Mediterranean, were most 
of them on their knees, and sonic flat on their faces crossing them- 
selves as true devotees. Many of them AVCTC known to have re- 
peatedly committed murder and every species of villany; which 
sins having purchased absolution from, they were hardened and 
wicked enough to boast of. 

I remember one fellow in particular, who acknowledged the 
commission of seven murders, from all which he had been absolved 
by his priest. This very scoundrel, and others of the same stamp, 
as soon as they could open their mouths after the general panic 
ceased, roared out lustily to Saint Antony and other saints for 
help ; nor could any thing induce them to move, until the boat- 
swain, quite out of patience, swore he had a saint would save and 
cure them better than Saint Antony or all the saints in their 
calander; this was Saiut Rattan, whose aid he and his mat& 



114 KAVAL ANECDOTE?, 

invoked so heartily, as to recover them all in a very short time;: 
liberally and literally bestowing crosses for them to carry on their 
shoulders for sonic days. 

We were far out of sight of land ; and, when the wind sprung 
up again, some hours after \ve had been so alarmed-, it was as foul 
as before. We therefore steered for the land ; and, towards 
evening of the folio-whig day met a Dutch dogger, the waster of 
Avhich informed us, that early in the imm;ing he left the port of 
Lisbon, where the day before they experienced a dreadful earth- 
quake, that had done considerable damage on shore. The par- 
ticulars he had not hcArd, being anxious to get away with his 
\essel, as she was loaded, and the inhabitants being loo much 
alarmed to attend, to any thing but their own immediate concern. 

On remarking th-e time when they felt the .shock at Lisbon and 
we felt it at sea, our vain reasonings upon improbabilities and im- 
possibilities were obliged to yield to our okl gunner's experience 
of f,u:ts. Wonderful indeed, must have been the concussion of 
the earth beneath the. immense body of water, to have so powerful 
an eLect on our ship. It served us for much argument the* 
remainder of our voyage, whether what we experienced ought to 
be called an earthquake or waterquake, but we were not sufficient 
philosophers to decide the question. HARRIOTT'S- Struggles 
t'iruu^k Life. 

IMPORTANCE OF MALTA. 

ir is a well authenticated fact, known to every inhabitant of 
jNIalta, that while our honourable and confiding country was about 
to deliver up the island, in pursuance of the treaty of Amiens, the 
pei lidious government of France had determined to seize-it, but 
by its impatience providentially occasioned- a full discovery of the 
plot. 

Russia finds that she never can become a naval power in the 
!];ikic : because when that sea is not frozen up, and by the time 
her licet can manoeuvre in it, the weather becomes fine, the waves 
smooth, and there is little or no night. Such a sea will not make 
M ar.un. In the Black Sea, on the contrary, they can navigate the 
whole year ; and all the articles of ship-building are at hand, which 
cannot be carried to the Baltic but at a great expence. 

All the great rivers which run through the provinces that pro- 
duce n.ival stores, fall iitto- the Black Sea; so that these stores 
there descend rapidly with the current, and at a small expence. 
To the ijiiltic ports, they go partly by laud carriage, and tke other 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 115 

part of the road chiefly against the stream ; while manv of them pass 
fey on such circuitous and unfavourable courses, as to be often two 
3 - ears on the rotd, particularly masts to Riga, awd iron to St. 
Petersburg; all, however, in one single season come to the ports 
of the Black Sea. 

A just sense of these advantages has induced the Hessian 
cabinet to turn its whole attention to the Black Sea. Canals, 
ports, and cities, have suddenly appeared ; and vast sums have 
feeen expended on these works. 

Is all this without a view ? It is confessed, at the court of St. 
Petersburg, that Russia is determined to become a naval power ia 
the ttixine, and she has already become so to a considerable 
extent. But, without being in possession, or able to command the 
passage of the Dardanelles, all this will be to her of no utility. 

"While we "hold Malta, and preserve the dominion of the sea. we 
have nothing to fear. Malta enables us to block up both the 
Russian and the Turkish fleets, to guard -the entrance of the 
Adriatic, the Faro of Messina, and the passage between Sicily and 
the Barbary coast in fine, to put a naval chain across the 
Mediterranean. ETON'S Letter on the Political Relations of 
Russia, $c. 

ANCIENT CANOES IK SCOTLAND. 

Iv Locher-moss, near Dumfries, an extensive tract of swampy 
ground, through which runs the Locher, there have been dis- 
covered several canoes : one of these Pennant examined, and found 
it to be 8 feet 8 inches long, the cavity inside being 6 feet 7 inches 
ivv length ; it was two feet broad, 11 inches deep, and at one end, 
there were the remains of three pegs for the paddles ; and, it 
appeared to have been hollowed by the action of fire, in the man- 
ner of the AmcrK'an Indians. In the sam^-taorass, another canor- 
was dug up, which was 7 feet long, and dilated to a considerable 
breadth at one end ; an iron grapple, or anchor, was discovered 
with one of these canoes; and paddles and oars, and other similar 
antiquities, ha?e beea fou-Hd in Locher-mo, which is 10 miles 
long, and more than 2 miles broad. Pennant's Tour, vol. iii. 

page 93-4. Stat. Acco. vol. i. page 60; vol. v. page 3. 

The greatest of all the canoes, which were thus discovered ia 
North .Britain was that which was found in 1726, nar the influx 
of the Carron into the Forth : and was buried fifteen feet in the 
south bank of the forth ; it was 30 feet long, 4 feet 4 inches deep, 
4 iuches thick in the sides, aud it was all of one piece of solid oak, 



116 CORRESPONDENCE. 

sharp at the stem, and broad at the stern : this canoe was finely 
polished, being perfectly smooth within and without; the wood 
was ot an extraordinary hardness, and had not one knot in the 
vhole block. CIIAJLMEKS'S Caledonia. 



CORRESPON DENCE. 

MR. EDITOR, % 

THE following information, copied from GRANGER'S Diogra-t 
pltical History ftf England, may not, perhaps, be thought an 
unacceptable addition to your highly-interesting memoir of How- 
ard, Earl of Nottingham,* lord high admiral at the time of the 
Spanish armada. Yours, &c. B. 

a The suit of tapestry at the House of Lords, engraved by 
Pino, with the heads of the lord admiral and those who com- 
manded nnde; him against the Spanish armada, is a justly admired 
work. The heads, which are about the size of a half-crown, are 
in i lie borders of the plates, which exhibit the particulars of each 
day's engagement. The hangings were executed from the designs 
of Henry Cornelius Uroom. The following js an alphabetical list 
of the persons represented. Their names are spelt as they stand 
<m the prints. Christopher Baker, Sir George Becton, Sir Charles 
Blunt. Sir Robert Gary, Captain Crosse, the Earl of Cumberland, 
Sir Francis Drake, Charles Howard, Baron of Effingham, the 
lord admiral, Sir Martin Frobisher, Sir Thomas Garrat, Captain 
Pienj;i:nm Gonson, Sir John Hawkins, Sir Edward Hobye, the 
Lord Thomas Howard, Mr. Knevct, the Earl of Northumberland, 
{*ir Horatio Palvocini, Captain George Pennar, Captain Penton, 
the Lnrvi Henry Seymour, the Lord Sheffield, Sir Robert South T 
veil. Sir Thomas Sycil, Sir Roger Tounsaud, Thomas Vivasir^ 
jMr. \Viiloughby, Sir William Winter." 

-r^ > .< i > 
p.m. rniTOU, 

"jfjjERMlT a new correspondent, and an ardent friend of the 

British navy, to lay the foljou jng scraps before your readers, 

plcaiu'd from authentic and scarce publications : if they should be 

approved, they may possibly prove the precursors of many 

ROBUR. * 



t'ulc JN^VAL CHRONICLED Vol. XVIII. page 89. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 117 

Wcymouth. 

There lately passed through this place two seamen from Sallee, 
that gave the following account of their escape from thence. One 
of them, having a strong impulse on him to endeavour to regain his 
freedom, consorted with two other captives on the same design ; 
but one of them, from fear, declined it ; the other two got to the 
walls, and Avith ropes let themselves down, and travelled to 
the shore, where they hoped to find a boat, \vhich they did, but 
in the boat there were two Moors asleep, who were both killed 
by the first designer ; then they rowed from the shore to come to a 
French man of war that lay in the road ; but before they could 
reach him, though it was night, the castle discovered them, and 
fired several shot at them ; one hit the boat, but the French hearing 
ihe guns fired'from the castle, manned out their boat, and received 
them on board, and treated them very kindly. They gave an, 
account of some persons that are now slaves at Sallee, which con- 
firms the truth of this relation. These men escaped in 1681. 



September 9, 1681. This day three of his Majesty's sfcips, viz. 
the Mermaid, the Guernsey, and the Pearl, arrived at Plymouth, 
from whom we received the following account, viz. that as they 
were cruising to the westward, the Pearl, commanded by Captain 
Williams, came up with the St. Michael, of St. Jean de Luz, Cap- 
tain Jean Monfigure, commander, carrying about 18 guns, and 6O 
men, and came from Greenland, \vhom he required to strike, by 
firing three guns across her fore-foot, which the other not only 
refused, but keeping his colours aloft, bore down briskly, and 
fired a broadside at the Pearl, which was immediately returned by 
Captain Williams, and the fight continued betwixt them fro-r> time 
in the morning till near two in the afternoon, at which n.. the 
Mermaid, commanded by Captain Trotter, catr.e up to the French- 
man, which he at a distance took to be a Turk, fighting under 
French colours, and being ready to board the Monsieur, they 
then all cried for quarters, and struck their colours. Captain 
Trotter inquiring what might be the cause of so great a dispute, 
the French captain replied, that he did not know but that there 
might have been a war betwixt the two kingdoms, and therefore 
jthey designed to defend themselves. There were three men killed 
pn board the Pearl, and five wounded. The Frenchman lost five 
pr six men, and had many wounded. There being blood in the 
,case, our frigates haye brought her in hither, where she will remain 



ITS CORRESPONDENCE. 

till his Majesfy shall have been made acquainted with the whole 
matter, and his pleasure be known therein. 

This is another instance of the naval jealousy, which ever has, 
and ever will, .exist between the rival nations of England and 
France; but jealousy, force, nor the despairing cry ot " 1 want 
ships and commerce," will prevail, or obtain superiority for the 
latter over the former, while British seamen are Hearts of Oak. 



MR. EDITOR, 

A S an additional instance of the liberality of the mercantile 
-^*- society at Bombay, relating to their very generous presents 
to Sir Nathaniel Dance and his associate captains, v ho comm >nded 
the fleet of East India ships, and so gallantly attacked and put to 
iiight. Admiral Linois, with his squadron of French men of war, 
the following letters will be found deserving of a place hi your 
CUROMCLV:. The particularly meritorious conducr of Captain 
Timins, who, on that occasion, commanded the Royal George 
Last Imiiuman, was not, it appears, at the moment, understood by 
the gentlemen of Bombay j but when the very gallant manner in 
winch he led his ship into action, in consequence of being placed 
in the van, came to their knowledge, they considered it incumbent 
on them not only to give it their particular attention, but to ex- 
plain the cause of their not having in the first instance distinguished 
Iiis particular merit. 1 therefore have the pleasure of transmitting 
to you (he enclosed. I am, &c. A. D. 

7\> JOHN FORBES, Esq. and P. C. BRUCE, Esq. M.P. London. 

" r,i\TrFMr.x, " Bombay, 2d May, 1807. 

" AVe had lately the pleasure of receiving by the Huddart your 
*; roin of (lie 30th June, 1806, and its enclosures, by w'hich we 
In\e the salisfaction to perceive, that the wishes of the commercial 
meeting of this place, held on the achievement of Sir Nathaniel 
Dance and his brave associates, had been carried in to effect, except 
a.-, far as they related to Captain Timins, of the Royal George. 

" The desire which is felt here to leave no part unaccomplished 
r>! what was so sincerely and honourably intended, to convey a 
just and highly-deserved tribute of applause and gratitude from 
this community, will, we trust, be a sufficient apology for again 
co!ici(in;i your assistance towards presenting to Captain Timins a 



CORRESPONDENCE. II 9 

more adequately appropriate testimony of the high sense enter- 
tained of the very distinguished share which he bore in the action ? 
than the limited knowledge of the transactions of that memorable 
day which the meeting of the 31st March, 1804, were then in 
possession of, enabled them to determine on, 

" The information, subsequently received, of the eminent 
claim of the commander of the Royal George, whose undaunted 
and heroic braveiy, in leading into battle, and laying his ship, 
alongside of the Marengo, still excites our admiration, would at 
once have induced an earnest desire of conveying to Captain 
Timins a more conspicuous proof of the sentiments his meritorious 
conduct inspired, had it not been considered probable, that under 
the latitude afforded to you by the resolutions of the meeting, and 
having before you the official particulars of tlie engagement, li 
would have occurred to you, in the appropriation of the sum? 
remitted, to have remedied any deficiency or omission of this nature 
in the proceedings here. 

" We now beg leave to request that you will present to Captain 
Timins the sum of one thousand guineas, to be laid out in a vase, 
or such piece of plate as you may think preferable, with a suitable 
inscription, and that you will transmit it, with a letter of explana- 
tion, to Captain Timing, in which we shall be thankful if you wilt 
express those feelings of esteem and respect of the body we repre- 
sent, which we now endeavour to convey to you. We have the 
honour to be, gentlemen, your most obedient humble servants, 

" ALEXANDER ADAMSON. 
" CHARLES FORBES. 
" WILLIAM CRAWFURD." 
f *. PATRICK HADOW, Secretary to the 

Bombay Insurance Society. N, 

** To Captain TIMINS^ late Cummander of the Royal George 
East Indiaman. 

" SIR, " London, December 19, 1807. 

" We have very lately received from Bombay the letter, of 
which the enclosed is a copy, and we feel very great gratification 
and pleasure in being solicited by so respectable a community, to 
convey to you their opinion of your very gallant conduct ; and 
also their particular wish to commemorate their sense of the 
essential share which you had in the victory gained by the fleet of 
Indiamen, over a powerful squadron of. French men of war, on the 
J4th of February, 1804. 



120 COttHESPONDEffCE. 

" We beg leave to say, that very sentiment stated in fire 
letter, from our friends at Bombay, is in perfect coincidence with 
our opinion of your conduct in that very memorable action ; amt 
we shall have great satisfaction, whenever it may suit your con- 
venience, to communicate with you relative to the plate to the 
talue of one thousand guineas, which we are directed to present to 
you, from the Insurance Society, the Ship Owners, the Merchants, 
and Underwriters of Bombay, whose interests and property you 
were a principal means of essentially protecting on that occasion. 

" We have the honour to remain, with sentiments of the high- 
est personal consideration, sir, your very faithful and most 
obedient humble servants, 

JOHN FORBES, 
P. C. BRUCE." 

To JOHN FORBES, Esq. and P. C. BRUCE, Esq. M.P. 

" CKVII.KMKN, " London, December 24, 1807. 

" I have. l.;ul the honour to receive your obliging favour, con-- 
veying (he copy of a letter which had been addressed to you 
from the Merchants and Committee of the Bombay Insurance 
Society. 

" The very flattering approbation expressed of my conduct, by 
a body so highly respectable, and. the munificence with which it is 
accompanied, claim my sincere and fervent gratitude. Such 
distinguished favours are at all times valuable, but never more so 
than when they result from the deliberate investigation of an event, 
that has no longer novelty to recommend it : and the particular 
merits of which, it might be presumed, would now have ceased to 
I>L> interesting. 

" On the occasion alluded to, it was my good fortune to be 
placed in a prominent situation, wherein I only acted as I am per- 
suaded any of my brother commanders would have done, under 
similar circumstances. It was by the spirited ardour and united 
cUbrts of every individual present on that day, that the attempts 
of a powerful enemy were successfully defeated. 

" Allow me, gentlemen, to offer you my respectful thanks for 
the handsome manner in which you have honoured me with this 
communication, and to assure you, that the value of it is con- 
siderably enhanfced by the very gratifying testimony of your good 
opinion. 1 have the honour to be ? gentlemen, your most obliged 
aud obedient humble servant* 

J. F. TIMINS." 
Q 



121 
MARINE SCENERY. 

TOUR THROUGH THE ISLAND OF ST. HELENA. 
(From JOHNSON'S Oriental Voyager.) 

WE commenced by ascending Ladder-hill, a precipice which 
at first sight seems designed by nature as a barrier that 
would for ever defy the human race to scale; yet human industry 
has, by incredible cxerfions in blowing up the rocks, formed a 
zig-zag path to its summits. 

" So when proud Rome, the Afric warrior brav'd, 

And high on Alps his crimson banner wav'd; 

Though rocks on rocks their beetling brows oppose, 

With piny forests and unfathom'd snows; 

Where girt with clouds the rifted mountain yawns, 

And chills with length of shade the ^elid lawns; 

Onward he raarch'd, to I.utium's velvet ground, . 

With fires and acids burst the rocky bound, 

While o'er her weeping vales destruction hurl'd, 

And shook the rising empire of the world.'' 

About midway we stopped to take a view of the town, which, 
even from this height, looks like one in miniature, the streets re- 
sembling those formed by the little houses which we see in toy- 
shops ; the whole assuming such a mimic appearance, that a person 
would be almost tempted to think he could cover a considerable 
part of it with his hands. Looking upwards, what a contrast 
appears ! who, without emotions of terror, can behold such 
gigantic projections of rocks hanging over him, in so loose and 
disjoined a state, that the excited imagination paints them in the 
Tery act of precipitating themselves headlong down the horrid 
steeps. Accidents of this kind sometimes happen after rain, by 
the wild goats climbing along the edges of the precipices, and 
loosening small pieces of rock, which rolling down, displace others 
still larger, till at lengh whole torrents of them come thundering 
down into the valleys, to the astonishment and terror of the 
inhabitants. 

" As from some mountain's craggy forehead torn, 
A roak's round fragment flies with fury borne, 
Which from the stubborn stone a torrent rends, 
Precipitate the pond'rous mass descends; 

* J>ron (HoUXIX. R 



122 MA RISK SCENERY, 

From steep to steep the rolling ruin bound*, 

At every shock the echoing vale resounds; 

Still gathering force, it smokes; ami urged amain, 

Whirls, leaps, and thunders down impetuous to the plain."" 

ILIAD, book xnr- 

On this account no person was al to-wed to keep tame goats 01* 
the north side of the island, and a, premium is given I'o? shootim* 
uiJ -.tics.. 

On Ladiicr-hill arc mounted twenty-two or twenty-four piece* 
of cannon ; some ranged along the brow of the clift' that overhanp. 
the town, and others along that which overlooks the roads. Six 
or seven of these are mounted on depressing carriages, so as to lire 
right down inter tnc town and road's, thereby completely command- 
ing those places ; the reart are mounted on common carriages, and* 
serve the purpose of a saluting battery- Over these precipices few 
of us would veniiicc to look,. 

" Lest the brain" turn, and the deficient sight 
-* Topple down headlong." 

From hence we proceeded for High Knoll, oter a tract that 
seemed the very emblem of sterility ; every step we ascended, pre- 
senting new views of rocks and mountains, congregated on each- 
side in the wildest order, and without exhibiting an atom of vegc 
tation 1 Such is the prospect when within a few paces of the sum- 
mit of High Knoll, and which is finely contrasted by the glassy 
SRI face c;f an immense expanse of ocean, which the great height of 
tfic place enables the eye to so-rvey. 

We now ascended to the tower on the top of the Knoll, which 
we 1 no sooner reached, than all this rude scenery instantly vanished, 
like a magical illusion ! leaving- the eye to range over a series of 
beautiful little valiics, groves, and lawns, verdant as the spring, 
and affording luxuriant pasturage to the flocks and herds that 
'(rayed among them. Throughout this prospect were interspersed 
small plantations, gardens, and handsome little country houses, the 
whole .surrounded by a lofty irregnfar ridge of hills and pre- 
cipices, that formed a grand outline, and striking contrast to tlux 
p'.i-ture-qne s<vm-s they enclosed. Here our attention was chained 
for some time ; till at length, en descending the south side of the 
Knoll, which is rathec steep, we arrived at the governor's country 
residence, railed Plantation House. It is situated on the side of a 
})lea>,au Hide vai'ey, with small plantations ami gardens adjoin- 
ing ; a;;d commands a very fine prospect of" the sea. lu arjr 



MARINE SCENERY. 123 

9p"imon, however, the situation does no great credit fo the taste of 
^he person who first pitched upon it ; as it is much inferior to many 
peaces which we afterwards saw. Its prox-imity to the town wai 
probably the cause of its being preferred. 

Our road now took a winding direction, along the declivities of 
little hills, whose green sides sloping down to the principal valley 
on the left, formed a number of little glens and dells, from whose 
beauty one would be almost tempted to pronounce them the 
favourite haunts -ef fairies. We could not help stopping at 
every turn of the road, to admire this interesting landscape, whose 
prominent features were perpetually varying, '-from the different 
points of view in which they were seen. 

After a pleasant ride f about an hour, we came -to Sandy-bay 
Ridge, over which we were to pass in our way to the bay of the 
siinc name. When near its summit -we halted fer a few minutes, 
in order to take a farewell look at the .northern prospect, not ex- 
pecting to see any thing like it on the island agahi. 

" So with 'long gaae admiring eyes behold 
The varied landscape all its lights unfold; 
Huge rocks opposing o'er the stream project 
Their naked bosoms, and the -beams inflect; 
Careen sloping lawns construct the sidelong scene, 
And guide the sparkling rill that glides between; 
Dim hills behind, in pomp aerial rise, 
Lift thqir blue tops, and melt into the skies.'' 

What then must have been our surprise, when, on mounting the 
Bridge, a scene burst n,pou our view, as much superior to the one 
we had so reluctantly left, as that one was to a dreary heath ? 
But I shall not attempt to give a description of it. Had Dr. 
Johnson, when writing his Prince of Ab\ss.nia, been seated on 
Sandy-bay Ridge, he might have described from nature a valley 
more beautifully romantic than even his own fertile imagination has 
'been able to form for young Rasseias. 

Nature must certainly have been in one of her good humoured 
and most w.'umsical creative moods when she formed this bay, and 
indeed St. Helena altogether ; where she has strewed the sublime 
and beautiful with a hand liberal even to profusion, though in a 
very small s,pace.* 

* The author, .in a late tour .through Wales, for the recovery of hit 
health^ had an opportunity of seeing the most beuutilui auU romantic part' 
-ef that celebrated country, , ' 



124 MARINE SCENEB.Y, 

On this ridge we alighted, and permitted our horseg to feed for 
tome time on the rich pasture with which it is crowned, in order 
that we might surrey at leisure the romantic landscape which lay 
stretched before us, painted by the great hand of nature. 

Although 1 will not attempt to give any general description of 
ihis place, yet I cannot help taking notice of some particular partj. 
Among the rude features of the southern side, one's attention is 
arrested by two huge rocks of fantastic shapes, -which from this 
point of view seem to stand close to each other, and have got the 
names of " Lot and his wife." The former, which is by far the 
more curious of the two, shoots up to a giddy height from a rugged 
foundation near the sea, in the form of a huge natural pyramid, or 
tower, of a most singular and stupendous appearance. Whether 
this has stood here ab originc^ or was produced during some 
violent convulsions of nature, I shall not presume to decide; 
though J am inclined to think the latter has been the case, as q, 
p,ri-at many of the rocks are complete masses of lava ; and from the 
ronical forms which the hills all over the island have assumed, we 
n. ay safely pronounce them of volcanic origin. 

While sitting on this ridge, enjoying the prospect, one of the 
islanders related, among other anecdotes, the following one, 
respecting the rock which goes by the name of Lot: 

A slave belonging to one of the farmers, who had (or fancied ho 
Is :-id) l:cen maltreated by his master, seizing, one day, a small quan- 
tity of provisions, ran to this rock, and in his ardour for freedom, 
; limbed with unparalleled efforts to its very summit. Having been 
observe;! in his flight, a number of slaves were collected, and re- 
>vards offered to those who would go up and seize the fugitive. 
Jle very soon, however, routed these invaders of his newly ac- 



Amoii"; other places, he visited the valleys of Glamorganshire, Lhmgollin, 
nnj Fcs:ini(>L r : the hist of which drew from the pen of Lord Lyttelton the 
i'ollowiii"; encomium : " With the woman one loves, with the friend of 
r;iieV limit, ar.tl a good study of books, one might pass an age here, and 
flunk ii but a day. It' any one wishes to live long, and renew his youth, 
let him conic and settle at Festitjiog." Without prejudice or partiality, 
however, the author has no hesitation in asserting, that all these may 
" hule their diminished heads," when compared with Sanc}y-l>av and the 
interior valleys of St. Helena. Indeed it might not, perhaps, be too poetical 
mi id: a to ui,pose, that nature, after finishing her great work, had retired 
(.(, r.h-.s soliti, :le in the ocean, to construct at leisure a favourite scene, that 
\vo'i',.-i exhibit in miniature an assemblage of all the various features which 
?:."_ Iji.j s:;ir.uxu promiscuously over the rest qf the globe. 



MARINE SCEXEEY. 125 

quired independence, by hurling down fragments of rock, which 
forced them to fly in all directions, and with the utmost precipita- 
tion, to a considerable distance. Here, though with the prospect 
of famine before him, he preferred his solitary aerial abode, with 
liberty, to all the allurements which society and food held out to 
him in me valley, at the expence of that favourite ideal goddess ! 
As the ba^e of the rock was of considerable extent, and as they 
were obliged to keep at a respectful distance even from that, it was 
found a very difficult matter to blockade him. Accordingly he 
contrived to steal do'vn occasionally by night, and levy contribu- 
tions on the neighbouring farm-yards, with the topography of 
which he was well acquainted; taking care always to repair before 
day-light t: t his lofty citadel, where he might enjoy at leisure the 
fruit of his expeditions, without fear of being molested in his 
solitary reign. Such a predatory system, however, was attended 
with too r. . dangers to exist long ; and accordingly he was one 
night detected in his rambles : the alarm was given, and before he 
couid regain his favourite rock of liberty, poor blacky was caught, 
and condemned once more to the galling chain ! 

We now descended to the valley by a steep winding path, and 
were amply repaid for our journey by the beauty of the prospect 

from this new point of view. We left Major D 's seat on the 

right, and it appears by far the most elegant one on the island. 

About the middle of the valley, we -were met by Captain G , 

who, inviting us to his chateau (as he called it), seemed determined 
to wipe off any aspersions of inhospitality that might have been, 
cast on the inhabitants of this island, by not only preparing to 
gratify our present appetites, but by pressing us to stop and spend 
our Christmas with him. Indeed we\ began to perceive, that 
though we had feasted our imaginations most luxuriously on the 
romantic scenes which we passed, yet our selfish stomachs, so far 
from beiug satisfied with this ideal banquet, were now, on the 
contrary, become very troublesome companions; and had it not 

been for the hospitality of Captain G , I believe we should 

have returned to town in a very chapfaln condition, full of the 
mokt gloomy ruminations, and without stopping to admire a single 
beauty on the road! Be that as it may, we did n .it now hesitate 
to do ample justice to the festife board; making such repeated 
applications to our kind host's " Anno Domini," in which the 
old gentleman faithfully pledged us, that we were soon in such a 
ttate of exhilaration, that we determined to " climb the mazes of 
the mountain's top/' and prosecute our tour up to Diana's Peak, 



125 MARINE ICENERY. 

the ne plus ulira^ or highest part of St. Helena. Remounting^ 
therefore, we ascended Sandy-bay Ridge, and turning to the right, 
proceeded in an easterly direction, until the steepness and rugged- 
ness of the ascent, with the closeness of the underwood, obliged us 
to dismount. After an hour's scrambling, climbing, and tearing 
through the bushes, during which some of the party gave it up en. 
tirely, we arrived at the summit of the peak, which being nearlj 
in the centre of the island, and two thousand seven hundred feet 
above the level of the sea, commands a complete view of St. 
Helena; and a great extent of ocean, in every direction, bounded 
only by the far distant horizon. 

Here the detached scenes and prospects, which we had been 
admiring severally, were now, with many others, brought into one 
foitp d'fcil) and certainly formed a most interesting picture ; every 
paint r-f die compass presenting, as it were, a new landscape, dis- 
tinguishe;! by some striking feature in the outline, or beautiful 
little valley in front ; the whole forming a most superb panorama, 
painted by a hand which defied all human imitation. The light 
ilyi.-g clouds, which would trequently come sailing along on the 
'?. L. breeze, and involve us in a momentary gloom, considerably 
heightened the effect of this picturesque scenery, by snatching it as 
it were, for a few minutes at a time, entirely from our view; 
when again, by their sudden dispersion, the whole variegated 
prospect would lie extended before us. 

" So when lic;ht clouds on airy pinions sail, 
Flit ihc soft shadows o'er the waving vale ; 
S'mdc follows shade, as laughing zephyrs drive, 
.Ami ail the chequer 'd landscape seems alive." 

Thr sir on this peak, and indeed on all the hills of the island, 
sva- a;- raol as it usually is in the month of April in England, 
t.ho;i<:h ir was now the middle of summer here, and the sun nearly 
vertical at mi<1-day. We need not wonder at this, when we con- 
sider, th.it the pei-petual breeze, blowing over an immense extent 
of'orear., becomes quite cool before it reaches this island, whose 
derated mountains attracting and condensing the passing clouds, 
arc constantly moist; and hence too the evaporation from their 
summits is another cause of coolness in the air. We now 
d by a rugged ridge to a telegraph station, called 
'H Mount." where we were informed the celebrated Dr. 
Ilalley Lid piu hcd his tent many years ago, to observe the transit 
of Venn:, over the sun's disk. From hence we weut dowa another 



CIIROXOiOCPCAI, SKETCIT OF NATAL ETENT3. 

shattered ridge, on each side of -which there was a deep ratine, 
that made us almost dizzy to look into. At length we came to 
Side Path, a narrow road cut along the side of a deep defile, which 
Jed us at la^t to James's Valley, where we arrived at sun-set, rery 
much fatigued, yet highly gratified with our twelve hours' ex- 
cursion. 



CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH. 

OF THE 

MOST REMARKABLE NAVAL EVENTS 

OF THE YEAR 1807. 

JANUARY. 

^ >f"*\FFICIAL accounts of tbe re-capture of Buencs Ay res, on th 
^-** 12th of August last, aud the British troops therein made 
prisoners. 

28. Official accounts received of the capture of the town and harbour of 
Maldonado, in the river Plata, by the British forces under Sir Home Pt>p- 
ham. and Brigadier-General Backhouse, on the 30th of October. 

FEBRUARY. 

10. The Slave Trade Abolition- Bill was read a third time and passed in 
the House of Lords, without a division. 

21. Official Accounts received of the capture of the Dutch island of 
Curacoa, in die V^st Indies, on the 1st of January, by a small armament 
under the orders of Captain Brisbane, of the Arethusa frigate, 

MARCH. 

5. The Blanche frigate, of 32 guns, Captain Sir Thomas Laue, was lost 
en the French coast, near Brest. The captain, all the officers, ai;d the 
greater part of the crew, saved. 

6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Trial and sentence of Sir Home Popham at Portsmouth. 
9. Sailing of General Whitelocke, with a, force from Portsmouth. 

APRIL. 
5. Capture of two Dutch Indiaraen and a Dutch frigate, July 27. 

13. News of the capture of Monte Video by storm, on ti.e J of 
February. 

14. Accounts received of Vice- Admiral Sir J. T. Duckworth, K.B, having 
with the squadron under his command forced the passage of the Darda- 
nelles on the 21st of February, and afterwards arrlur ' tbe vicinity of 
Constantinople. 

20. Intelligence received that the treaty negotiated by the American and 
British commissioners in London, Las beeu reject 
Uuited States of America, 



128 CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF NAVAL EVENTS. 

25. Intelligence of Admiral Duckworth having repassed the Dardnnelfe* 
on the 3d of March v (in which his squadron received some damage from the 
Turkish batteries), without effectuating his purpose. 

MAY. 

26. Account of the capture of the island of Tenedos- by storm, by the 
Russian force in the Archipelago. 

JUNE. 

15. News of the capture and destruction of the Dutch ships in the roads 
of Batavia, by Sir E. Pellew, Nov. 27. 

24. The Swedish minister officially informs the British government, tl.it 
his Swedish Majesty has blockaded the port of Dnntzic, and of course that 
the armistice between him and the French is at an end. 

JULY. 

27. Intelligence of a conflict between his Majesty's ship Leopard, Cap- 
tain Humphries, with the American frigate the Chesapeake, Commodore 
Baron, on the 23d of June, in which six of the crew of the latter were 
killed 

23. Sailing of the first division of the Baltic fleet under Admiral Gambier. 

AUGUST. 

3. The principal division of the armament under Admiral Gambier passed 
the Sound arrive off Copenhagen. 

10. Account of the president of the United States of America issuing a 
strong and hostile proclamation, in consequence of the forcible searching 
the -'"leiican frigate Chesapeake for deserters, by liis Majesty's ship 
Leopc ]. 

16. A declaration of war issued by the government of Denmark, againrt 
Great Britain, and for the seizure of British ships, property, &c. 

19. The bombardment of the fortified city of Copenhagen commenced. 

SEPTEMBER. 

7. Copenhagen, and the navy of Denmark (18 ships of the line, and a 
number of le?ser vessels), surrendered by capitulation to the British forces 
under Vice-Admiral Gambier, and Lieutenant-General Lord Cathcart. 

12. Intelligence of an unsuccessful and disastrous attempt by the British 
fcrce? to gain possession of Buenos Ayres, on the 5th of July, which ended 
in a convention for abandoning all the British acquisitions on la Plata, and 
the removal of our troops from South America. , 

'2C. His Majesty's declaration of the motives which dictated his late mea- 
sure? in the Baltic, published. 

!^o. Intelligence of Vice-Admiral Berkeley's having caused one of the 
deserters tnkon on board the Chesapeake, American frigate, and convicted 
at Halifax. i<t be executed. 

OCTOBER. 

1. Intelligence of the Crown Prince of Denmark having refused to 
ratify tlir capitulation entered into by General Peyrnajn, for the surrender 
of Copenhagen and the Danish fleeU 



crmqxoLocicAr, SKETCH or XA.VAT, EVENTS. 128 

o. Ilagussi and the Seven Islands given up by die Russians to the 
Trench, August 14. 

10. Prussia shuts lior ports to the trade of this country, Sept. 2. 

16. Vice-Admiral Sir J. B. Warren, K. B. appointed to succeed the 
?Ion. Vice-Admiral Berkeley as cominauder-ih-chief en tlie American 
station. 

23. The British factory at Lisbon dissolved, and the merchants begin 
^to remove their persons and effects with all possible expedition. 

28. The first division of the expedition, and the Danish captured fleet, 
-arrived in Great Yarmouth Roads. 

30. Louis XVIII. of France, under the title of -Comte de Lille, arrives 
in a Swedish frigate at Great Yarmouth. 

NOVEMBER. 

4. Order in Council for issuing letters of marque and reprisal against 
Denmark and the Italian states subject to France.' 

7. His Majesty's -counter-declaration of war against Denmark pub- 
Jished. 

f 3. Intelligence of the Prince Regent of Portugal having issued, on tlie 
30th ult. a proclamation for shutting his ports against British shipping, c. 

Sir W. S. Smith sails from Portsmouth with a naval armament towards 
the south. 

16. An Order of his Majesty in Council published for a general block- 
ade of the ports of the enemy and their allies, &c. 

25. Account of the King of Denmark having issued, on the 30th of 
"October, a rigorous decree, prohibiting all commercial intercourse be- 
tween his dominions and those of Great Britain. 

27. Intelligence of the Russian Mediterranean fleet under Admiral Si- 
niavin having gotanto.the Tagus. 

28. His Majesty's ship Boreas, Captain Scott, lost, with the com- 
mander and the greater part of her crew, on the Hannois rocks near 
Guernsey. 

29. The royal family and court of Portugal, with the greater part of thrir 
navy, &c. sail from Lisbon for Brazil, accompanied by a British squadron 
tinder tlie orders of Captain Moore. 

DECEMBER. 

3. Official account of tlie Emperor of Russia having issued, on the 26tli 
of October, a declaration of war against Great Britain. 

An embargo* laid on all Russian vessels in British ports, and the 
Speshnoy Russian frigate of 44 guns seized by two of his Majesty's ships 
at Portsmouth. 

19. A considerable naval and military force sail from Plymouth, under 
the -command of Vice-Admiral Cotton and Major-General bper.ccr. 

The counter-declaration of his Majesty against Russia, issued. 

An order for letters of marque and reprisal issued by the British 
.government, against Russia. 

tfl. TJjn. QoUXIX. s 



130 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 

Captain Footers Vindication of hit Conduct ichcn Captain of .Jits 
Majesty's Ship Sea Horse and senior Officer in the Bay of Na- 

ples, in the Summer of 1799. 1807. 8ro. Pages 171. 
[Continued from Vol. XVIII. page 326.] 

SECOND EXTRACT. 

ON the evening of the 24th of June, I did myself the honour 
to wait on Lord Nelson, when his lordship was pleased to 
say, that he Mas aware I had been placed in an arduous and 
unpleasant situation ; that he gave me all possible credit for zeal, 
assiduity, and good intentions ; but that I had been imposed on by 
that worthless fellow, Cardinal Ruffo, who was endeavouring tu 
form a party hostile to the interests of his sovereign ; and his lord- 
ship desired I would give him a statement, in the form of a narrative, 
of the heads of my proceedings, from tho time the cardinal 
approached near to Naples. I respectfully observed to Lord 
Kelson, that I had indeed been placed in a most anxious situation ; 
having had more reason, among many disagreeable and trying 
circumstances, to exprct the enemy's fleet, rather than that under 
his lordship's command, in Naples bay ; that I could not be sup- 
posed to know, or even imagine, that the cardinal was acting con- 
trary to his sovereign's interest, when 1 saw him retained in his 
very high and confidential situation ; and my instructions directed 
me to co-operate, to the utmost of my power, with the royalists, 
at whose head Carc) : ual Ruffo was known to be placed, even 
before the squadron, under Sir Thomas Troubridgc, had sailed from 
Palermo. 

Lord Nelson's sending the ship I commanded to Palermo, on 
the 2Sth of June, for the purpose of embarking their Sicilian 
majesties, his lordship'g order of the 8th of July, and very 
ilatteri;ig letter of the 14th of September, 1799, to which I have 
before alluded, are, I trust, sufficient propfs, that he did not think 
any infamy attached to my conduct. Thank God! my own con- 
science acquits me of any mean or dishonourable motive on that 
occasion. I did my utmost, to the best of my abilities, to promote 
the interests of my rnuch-lpved and respected sovereign and 
country, without losing sight of those of his ally, and without 
losing sight of a becoming moderation and humanity, always due 
to vanquished and distressed fellow- creatures. With respecfc to 
9 



XAVAL LITERATURE. 131 

x. 

iheir disobedience, or rebellion against their sovereign, of these it 
was the cardinal's province to judge, and he was mere competent 
to appretiate their merits or demerits than I could possibly be ; as ? 
from his eminency's dignified rank, as well as high aitd confidon- 
tial situation, I had a right to think he was fully acquainted with 
the wishes of his Sicilian majesty ; and I am still of opinion, that 
a just and mild line of policy would have ensured the tranquility 
of the Neapolitan dominions, more effectually than ri^id, severe, 
and violent measures. 

It is possible for the most powerful to act injudiciously, by 
granting very favourable terms to the vanquished ; but I tnay be 
again allowed to say, that, surely infamy cannot be coupled with 
even an excess of mercy ! 

There was a wide difference between my situation in the Sea 
Horse, with two Neapolitan frigates, and some small vessels; the 
land force, consisting of a few regular troops, of four different 
nations, and a body of undisciplined armed men, with Cardinal 
ftuffo at thdr head; and that of Lord Nelson, with seventeen 
ships of the line! Powerful supporters in any treaty ! It was my 
duty to consider, that the getting possession of the castles of 
Uovo and Nuovo, would very much expedite the reduction of 
Fort St. Elmo, which commands the town of Naples, and was 
wholly garrisoned by French troops : besides, from all the intelli- 
gence received, I had much more reason to expect the French, 
than the British fleet in the Bay of Naples ; and, fiom whatii said 
in the last lines of the ninety-fifth page of the 13th part of the 
" Genuine Memoirs." it appears that Lord Nelson entertained 
the same idea ; " his lordship determined once more to offer him- 
self for the service of Naples, which he seems to have imagined the 
French intended to visit." 

The two grand objects were, to restore his Sicilian majesty fo 
his dominions, and to drive the French out of Italy. It will 
appear by the statement I gave to Lord Nelson, and by my letters 
to the cardinal and the Chevalier Micheroav, that I by no means 
approved of the indecision and procrastination evinced in treating 
with the castles of Uovo and Nuovo ; and that neither his eminen- 
cy's conduct, nor that of the chevalier, was, on that occasion, such 
as the commander of the forces of his Sicilian majesty's principal 
ally had a right to expect from them. I3ut considering, for the 
reasons already mentioned, that, in the then situation of affairs, it 
was of great consequence to get possession of the castles, and still 
more to prevent the least appearance of disunion^ I determined not 



132 NAVAL 

fo throw auy obstacle in the way of attaining the two grea* 
objects to which I have before alluded . 

THIRD EXTRACT- 

, .\Vith respect (o the correct statement of ail the 

facts contained- in this vindication of my conduct, I beg leave to 
appeal to Sir John Duckworth, and (he captains (some of whom? 
arc now admirals) who served at that time under Lord Ncrsou : 
but I more particularly appeal to Captain Oswald, Who then, 
commanded the Perseus Bomb ; as, from being constantly withr 
me, he knew every circumstance ; and was acquainted with the 
contents of all the papsrs I received, as well as with erery ordefi 
and letter which catne to my hand concerning the public service. 

With the most perfect assurance that the sea officers, to whom I- 
have alluded, will not allow their characters to be brought forward 
i:i vindication of any thing that has rhe-most distant appearance of 
I'aisfliootl, or even any thing equivocal, I submit to the public 
what tu'cj-'-ssity alone could have induced me to lay before a people, 
who are always feelingly alive to whatever concerns their natienai 
character, or the honour of their country. 

' APFEND1X.-N 3* 

A Copy of the Statement given by Captain FOOTE to I*ord NEE. 
SON. at Ins Lordship's desire ; in tshich are included the Terms 
af iV.f Capitulation teftk- the Forts Remgltano and Castel . 
-Marc, and the Letter &hich Captain FOOTE sent to the Garrison 
of Cartel del Uovoy zcith the Commandant's Answer. 

I shall not take any notice of the various letters which I received 
from the cardinal; they will prove, if investigated, how very 
Fit tie he knew about the force that was under my orders, or whatr 
was pc^fcible to be done by a- few small ships of war ; and that he 
ki'pt advancing, without a/ny fixed, plan, or project, trusting 
entirely to the chapter of accidents.. 

On the Oth of June, I received a letter from the cardinal, \m 
whicl: lie mentioned, that, on the 13th or 14th, he should be at the 
Tour del Greco ; and he gave me some signals, by which I was to 
It now when the royal army reached that place ; at which time, I 
was to give him all the assistance that lay in my power, by sea; 
ic'-ortUns'v ; on the 13th, I stood into the bay, and it appeared to. 



MAY At LITERATURE. 

me, that the coast from Porfici to Castel a Marc was in a state of 
insurrection ; but I saw no signals. 

Innumerable requests were made to me for assistance ; but no 
one could tell me for certain where the cardinal was. I supplied 
the chief of ihe Tour del Greco with powder, musket ball, and 
eannister ; and seeing the French and Neapolitan colours flying oa 
the Fort of Granatelli, I immediately stood for it, having the 
Neapolitan frigate Sirena, and two gun-boats, with me. This forfc 
was garrisoned by upwards of 200 men, who kept up a constant 
fire on a party of royalists, who were in the king's palace at 
Portici, and just outside of it, which they returned with musketry, 
and from one piece of artillery ; when close in with Granatelli, I 
fired a few shot at it, and the republican colours were hauled 
down, and the royalists rushed in, putting the whole of the garrison 
to the sword. Shortly after, a certain D. Constantino di Felippis 
came on board, ajid acquainted me, that he commanded about 
4,000 royalists, that he meant to attack Villema the next day,, 
when I promised to assist him as much I possibly could. 

The cardinal, as I have since J'earnt, instead of being at his ren. 
cfczvous, the Tour del Greco, at the appointed time, was at Nola; 
but as to any direct information, I had none, not receiving any 
letter from him between the 9th a-nd 17th of this month. Some 
country people informed me that the republicans had a camp of 
400 infantry and 120 cavalry, near the Tour del Annunciato, 
which was protected on the sea side by ten gun-boats and twa 
mortar-boats. I had just Avritten to the Count de Thurn for three 
galleys, which were then not much wanted at Procida; but, 
instead of their coming, I only received excuses about the weather 
(which, no doubt, was at one time threatening, but it afterwards 
cleared up) ; this caused me to write a positive order, and the- 
galleys were sent ; but the Count de Thurn at the same time 
informed me, that his instructions were quite independent of my 
orders, and that he could not receive any but from his sovereign^ 
or those who were his superiors. Reference may be had to my 
letters on this subject, but I do not wish it to be renewed, as I am, 
on very good terms with the Count de Thurn, and am perfectly 
satisfied that the evil originated in his having secret orders, which, 
if I had not acted cautiously, might, in consequence of those left 
with me, have been attended with very fatal consequences. On 
the evening of the 13th the cardinal (or rather the Russians) took 
the Fort of Villema, and the bridge of Madelana; Caracioli's 
gun-boats annoyed them a good deal, the weather preventing my 



134 NAYAL LITERATURE, 

approachingsuflicientlyclo.se with the frigates; but if (he galley? 
had been with me, I should certainly have taken some of the gun- 
boats, or caused them to retreat. On the 14th the weather was 
bad ; and it was not till the 15th, tha day the galleys joined me, 
that I could venture so deep into the bay as the Castles of Revig- 
liano and Castel a Mare, which capitulated on terms mentioned in 
my letter book (and which I \iill also insert at the end of this 
statement) ; which circumstance I considered of the utmost con- 
sequence, for if their garrisons, or friends, amounting to about 
1000 men, had availed themselves of the opportunity to concert 
with the republicans at Annunciate, and make an attack on th 
rear of the cardinal's army, his enterprise must inevitably have 
failed. 

On the 17th I informed the cardinal, that I should immediately 
join the gun-boats and mortar-boats at the Prcdi Grotla. with a 
vie-.v of attacking Castel Uovo ; and on the 18th, I sent Captain 
Oswald, of the Perseus, with a letter to the commandant of that 
fort, in the hope of its opening the way to a negotiation (a copy 
of which 1 shall also insert at the end of this). On the night of 
the 17<h, I had sent an officer to the cardinal, who told him that 
the rebels, and the French, particularly the latter, had refused to 
capitulate to an ecclesiastic ; that his means were scarce sufficient 
to reduce determined and obstinate people ; aud that he wished me 
to try what I could do, by ottering to hearken to the terms they 
niglit have to propose. I received a very insolent verbal answer 
from the commandant of Castel Uovo, which I made the cardinal 
acquainted with, and that it was my intention to attack it by every 
m ;u:s in my power; to which his eminence replied, " that it was 
no i rigor time to hearken to capitulations, and that it became 
necessary to think seriously of attacking Fort St. Elmo." 

The next day, the 19th, to my great surprise I received a letter 
from the cardinal, requesting me to cease hostilities, and not to 
recommence them whilst the flag of truce was Hying, as a nego- 
tiation had taken place. The same night I sent an officer to the 
cardui.il, to acquaint him, that the British were not accustomed 
to grant so long a snsper.tion of arms ; and that, as my sovereign 
wns a principal ally of the King of the two Sicilies, I claimed a 
rij;ht to be made acquainted with what was going on. The car- 
dinal sent back word, that the Chevalier Micheroux conducted the 
treaty, and that he had sent my letter to him, that he might inform 
Wi what steps were taken. Not receiving a line from the Chef a- 



NATAL LITERATURE. 135 

Jjer Michcroux, I informed the cardinal that I thought nothing 
could be more prejudicial to the interest of his Sicilian majesty, 
than the having such a multiplicity of chiefs, and that I knew of 
no other than his eminence who was specially charged with the 
interests of the King of Naples, and that I could act with no other 
person. The cardinal told the officer whom I sent, that he knew 
nothing of what was going on ; that he stood in great need of the 
Russians ; that he would not give them the least ground for com- 
plaint, and that it was the Russians who conducted the treaty. 
On the lytb, I received a plan of a capitulation, already signed by 
the cardinal, and tin chief of the Russians, with a request that I 
would put my name to it. In answer, I informed the cardinal, 
that I had done so, because I considered him as the confidential 
agent of his Sicilian majesty, and that some advantage would 
result from (he capitulation, otherwise he would not have signed 
it; but I could not say I approved of such a manner of treating, 
and that I could not be answerable for its consequences. I also 
made some observations relative to St. Elmo's capitulating, which 
may be seen in my letter book. 

At length, on the 22d, I received a letter from Chevalier de 
Micheroux, with the capitulation in form, already signed by the 
cardinal and the chief of the Russians. I replied to the Chevalier 
de Micheroux, that I had signed where he pointed out; but that 
I protested against every thing that could be in the least con- 
trary to the honpur and rights of my sovereign and the British 
nation. 

I signed this capitulation, lest, on a reverse of fortune, or the 
arrival of the enemy's fleet, it might have been asserted, that my 
refusal was the cause of such misfortunes as might occur, and 
because I considered that the cardinal was acquainted with the 
will and intention of his sovereign ; and the Count de Thurn had 
told me, that the Chevalier de JVIicheroux was authorized to act in 
*a diplomatic character. 

The result of all this is, that with a very small force, I hare had 
to conquer difficulties, which were only got the better of by that 
terror which the British flag inspires ; that I never was consulted 
by the cardinal relative to the capitulation ; and that I had neither 
instructions, nor any document, to assist or guide me. 



136 NAVAL Z.1TCRATUEZ. 

The Oriental Voyager. By J. JOHNSON, Esq. Surgeon in the 
Royal Navy. 

(Concluded from Vol. XVIR, page 417.) 
IT EAVING Prince of Wales's Island, Mr, Johnson, on the 1st 



of April, 1805, embarked on board his Majesty's ship 
Russel, for Madras, where he arrived on the 21st of the month, 
At this place, the jugglers greatly excited his curiosity, and he 
particularly notices the trick of swallowing the sword. 

" This sword," says he, " has some resemblance to a common 
spit in shape, except at the handle, which is merely a part of the 
Made itself, rounded and elongated into a little rod ; it is from 
twenty-two to twenty-six inches in length, about an inch in 
breadth, and about one-fifth of an inch in thickness; the edges 
and point are blunt, being rounded, and of the same thickness as 
the rest of the blade : it is made of iron or steel, smooth, and a 
little bright. 

" Having been visited by one of these conjurors, I resolved to 
?cc clearly his mode of performing this operation, and for that 
purpose ordered him to seat himself on the floor of the vcrendah, 
and having satisfied myself with respect to the sword, by attempt- 
ing to brnd it, and by striking it against a stone, I firmly grasped 
it by <>^ handle, and ordered him to proceed. 

" lie first look out a small phial of oil, and with one of his 
fingers rubbed a little of it over the surface of the instrument, 
then stretching up his neck as much as possible, and bending him- 
self a little backwards, he introduced the point of it into his 
month, and pushed it gently down his throat, until my hand, 
vhich was on the handle, came in contact with his lips ; he then. 
made a sign to me, with one of his hands, to feel the point of the 
instrument between his breast and navel, which I could plainly 
tlo, by bending him a little more backwards, and pressing mr 
lingers on his stomach, he being a very thin and lean fellow. On 
ti'tting go the handle of the sword, he instantly fixed on it a little 
machine thnt spun round, and disengaged a small firework, which, 
t'ncirrling his head with a blue flame, gave him, as he then sat, 
a truly diabolical appearance. On withdrawing the instrument, 
r-evcral piu^s of its surface were covered with blood, which shewed 
t'at he was still obliged to use a degree of violence in the intro-. 
daclioii. 



NAVAL L1TEHATUHE. 137 

'< I was, at first, a good di>al surprised at this transaction alto- 
gether, but when I came to rc-llect a little upon it. there appeared 
nothing at all improbable, much less impossible, in the business. 
He told me, on giving him a rrifle, that he had been accustomed 
from his early years, to introduce at first small elastic instruments 
down his throat and into his stomach ; tliat by degrees he had 
used larger ones, until at length he was able to use the present 
iron sword." 

The Summary Viet- of the yfythology, Religion, Manners* 
and Customs of the Hindoos , is judiciously elected from various 
authorities, and forms a very amusing chapter. 

On the 2d of June, Mr. Johnson left Madras, and embarked on 
board his Majesty's ship Howe for Vizagapatam, where he arrived 
in three days, and joined the Caroline, which, from that time till 
October was employed on the Coromandel coast, in protecting 
the commerce of the country. Sketches of the small settlements 
on the Coromandel and Malabar coasts, interspersed with miscel- 
laneous remarks, from different authors, are here given. 

In consequence of ill health, Mr. Johnson left Madras in the 
American brig Caravan, and arrived in the Ganges on the 2Ist of 
October, whence he sailed for England in his Majesty's ship Me- 
dusa, on the 3d of November. On the 14th of December, they 
passed in sight of the Cape, and steered for St. Helena, where they 
arrived on the 22d of the same month. Mr. Johnson's descrip- 
tiTe tour through St. Helena, is written with the enthu>ia>in of a 
poet; but, as its effect would be !.>t by any partial extract, 
we hare inserted the whole in another department of our 
CHRONICLE. 

tl We took leave of <his curious island (says Mr. Johnson) 
on Christmas-clay, and on the 26th of January. 1800. we saw 
the snow-topt hills of Cornwall; after a voyage ^ passage jj hitherto 
without a parallel in the annals of navigation. As the Medusa 
ran from the Ganges to the Lizard in eighty. four days, two of 
which were spent at anchor in St. Helena roads, she was conse- 
quently but eighty-two days under sail, iu which time she tra- 
versed the immense space of thirteen thousand eight hundred and 
thirty-one miles. Sir John Gore, then, may justly claim the 
merit of having made the most rapid passage that has ever yet 

Sol, XIX. T 



138 KAVAI. POETRY. 

been performed between Bcng.il and England ; while the Me- 
dusa's track >' ;! ! '\\hibit to the philosopher and to the world, a 
s iking instance of that high degree of perfection which British 
MJJI of war hare attained in every respect, not only constant vic- 
tors in the day of battle, but as couriers, almost outstripping 
the winds themselves." 

It -.vould be an act of injustice to close this article without ob- 
serving, that Mr. Johnson's book, with respect to its main ob- 
ject that of furnishing the young voyager with an agreeable and 
useful companion, on his first visit to the oriental world is 
the best and most serviceable work of the kind that we have seen. 



PLATE CCLT. 

THE Rock of Lisbon, or Cape Roca, is situated at the nor- 
thern entrance of the Tagus, in longitude 9 5' east of Ferro ; 
latitude, 38 3o' north, The rock of Lisbon also forms the most 
westerly point of the Portuguese province of Estramadura, through 
which the Tapis passes. 

The Tag*!.., it may be proper to obserre, rises in the mountains 
of Moli-i.1, which separate the kingdom of Ar. agon from Old 
Castile, passes by Ara'vjuez, Toledo, Talavera de la Reyna, 
crosses Castile, and Estramadura of Castile, enters Portugal at 
Montaivao, crosses Portuguese Estramadura, passes by Abrantes, 
Santan-m. &c. and runs into the Atlantic, about ten miles below 
Lisbon.* 



-s! JBortrp. 



The heart's remote recesses to explore, 

And touch its springs, when Prose avail'd no more. FAICCNII*. 



HAROLD. 

O LISTEN, listen, ladies gay ; 
No haughty feat of arms I tell : 
Soft is the note, and sad the lay 
That mourns the lovely Rosabelle. 

* A l.eiuuil'ul view of Lisbon harbour, and Relem Castle, by Mr. 
J':>cor!., nppeurs in the second volume of the NAVAL CHRONICLE, page 209. 
Tup \ir\v is iHtmnited by a copious historical and descriptive account of 

Lisbon, from various authorities. 



NAVAI, POETRY. 139 



** Moor 5 moor the barge, ye gallant cretv. 
And, gentle ladye, deign to stay; 

Rest thee in Castle Raveusheuch, 
Nor tempt the stormy firth to-day. 

il The black'ning wave is edg'd with white ; 

To Inch* and rock the sea-mews fly ; 
The fishers heard the water sprite, 

Whose screams forbode that wreck is nigh. 

<c Last night the gifted seer did view 
A wet shroud swath'd round ladye gay; 

Then stay thee, fair, in Ravetisheuch : 
Why cross the gloomy lirth to-day ? " 

*' 'Tis not because Lord Lindesay's heir 
To-night, at Roslin, leads the ball; 

But that my ladye mother there 
Sits lonely in her castle-hall. 

* 4 'Tis not because the ring they ride 
(And Lindesay at the ring ride:- well), 

But that my sire the wine will chide 
If 'tis not filled by Rosabelle." 

O'er Roslin, all that dreary night, 
A wondrous blaze was seen to pl^am ; 

'Twas broader than the watch-fire ligi't, 
And redder than the bright moorubeam. 

It glar'd on Roslin's castled rock, 
It ruddied all the copse-wood glen ; 

'Twas seen from Drydcn's groves of oak, 
And seen from cavern'd Hawthornden. 

Seem'd all on fire that chapel proud 
Where Roslin's chiefs uncoffin'd lie : 

Each baron, for a sable shroud, 
Sheath'd in his iron panoply. 

Seem'd all on fire within, around, 

Deep sacristy and altar's pale; 
Shone every pillar foliage-bound, 

And gUmmer'd all the deal meji's mail. 

* Inch isle. 



140 NAVAI, POETRV. 

BInz'd baltlemcnt and pinnet high, 

Blaz'd every rosc-carv'd buttress fair; 

So still they blaze, when fate is nigh 
The lordly line of hjgh St. Clair. 

%" 

There are twenty of Roslin's barons bold 
Lie buried within that, proud chapelle ; 

Each one the holy vault doth hold- 
But the sea holds lovely Rosabella ! 

And each St. Clair is buried there, 

With candle, with book, and \vith knell ; 

But the sea-caves rung, and the wild waves sung, 
The dirge of lovely llosabelle. 



THE W INNING OF CALES. 

FROM rr.Kcy's RELIQUES or ANCIENT ENGLISH POETRY (VOL. 2, PAGE 229). 

TlflllE subject of this ballad is the taking qf the city of Cadiz 
(called by our sailors corruptly Cales), on June 21, 1696, 
in a descent made on the coast of Spain, under the command of 
the Lord Howard, admiral, and the Earl of Essex, general. 

The valoar of Essex was not more distinguished on this occasion 
than his generosity : the town was carried sword in hand, but he 
stoppal the slaughter as soon as possible, and treated hisgmsoners 
with the greatest humanity, and even affability and kindness. The 
English made a rich plunder in the city, but missed a much richer } 
by the resolution which the Duke of Medina, the Spanish admiral, 
took, of setting fire to the ships, in order to prevent their falling 
inio tiic hands of the enemy. It was computed, that the loss 
\vhich the Spaniards sustained from this enterprize, amounted to 
twenty millions of ducats. (See HUME'S History.) 

The Earl of Essex knighted on this occasion not fewer than 
<;<; per?ons, which gave rise to the following sarcasm: 

A nontleinan of Wales, a knight of Calcs, 

And a laird of the north country ; 
Tiiit. a yeoman of Kent, with his yearly rent, 

"V\ ill buy them out all three. 



NAVAL POETRY. 141 

The ballad is printed from the editor's folio M.S. and seems to 
iiave been composed by some person who was concerned in the 
expedition. Most of the circumstances related in it will be found 
supported by history. 

LONG the proud Spaniards had .vaunted their conquests, 

Threat'ning our country "wilh fire and sword; 
Often preparing fheir navy raost sumptuous, 
With as great plenty as Spain could afford : 

Dub a dub, dab a dub, thus strike their drums, 
Tantara, tantara, the Englishman comes ! 

To the seas hastily went our Lord Admiral, 

With knights courageous and captains fall good ; 

The brave Earl of Essex, a prosperous general, 
With him prepared to pass the salt flood. 
Dub a dub, &c. 

At Plymouth speedily e, took they ship valiantly e, 

Braver ships never were seen under sayle, 
With their fair colours spread, and streamers o'er their head, 

Now bragging Spaniard, take heed of your tayle. 
Dub a dub, c. 

JJnto Cales cunninglye, came we most speedilye, 

Where the kinges navy securelye did ride; 
peing upon their backs, piercing their butts of sacks, 

Ere any Spaniards our coming descry'd. 
Dub a dub, &c. 

.Great was the crying, the running and ryding, 

Which at that season was made in that place ; 
The beacons were fyred, as need then required, 

To hide their great treasure they had little space. 
Dub a dub, &c. 

There you might see their ships, how they were fyred fast, 
And how their men drowned themselves in the sea; 

There you might hear them cry, wayle, and weep piteously, 
When they saw no shift to scape thence away. 
Dub a dub, &c. 



142 ifrAVAL POETRY. 

The great St. Philip, the pryde of the Spaniards, 
Was burnt to the bottom, and sunk in the sea; 

But the St. Andrew, and eke the St. Matthew, 
We took in fight manfullye, and brought away. 
Dub a dub, &c. 

The Earl of Essex most valiant and hardye, 

With horsemen and footmen march'd up to the town ; 

The Spaniards, which saw them, Merc greatlye alarmed, 
Did fly for their safety, and durst not come down. 
Dub a dub, &c. 

Now, quoth the noble Earl, courage my soldiers all, 
Fight and be valiant, the spoil you shall have ; 

And be rewarded all, from the great to the small, 
But see the women and children you save. 
Dub a dub, &c. 

The Spanyards at that sight, thinking it vain to fight, 
Hung out flags of truce, and yielded the towne; 

\Ve inarched in presentlye, decking the walls on high 
With English colours which purchased renowne. 
Dub a dub, &c. 

Entering the houses then, of the most richest men, 
For gold and treasure we searched each day ; 

In some places we did find, pyes baking left behind, 
JNicate at fire roasting, and folk run away. 
Dub a dub, &c. 

Full of rych merchandize, every shop catch'd our eyes, 
Damasks and sattens and velvets full fay re; 

Which soldiers measur'd out by the length of their swords ; 
Of all commodities each had his share. 
Dub a dub, &c. 

Thus Calcs was taken, and our brave general 

.March'd to the market place, where he did stand; 

There many prisoners fell to oar several shares, 
33 any crav'd mercye, and mercye they fonde. 
Dub a dub, &c. 



NAVAL POETIIY. 143 

When our brave general s^.w they delayed all, 

And would not ransome (heir towne as they said ; 
With (heir fair wainscots, their presses and bedsteads, 
Their joint-stools and tables a fire was made ; 
And when the town burned all in a flame, 
With tara, tantara, away we all came. 



A Tribute to the Memory of the Right Hon. Viscount NELSON, 
and the Right Hon. WILLIAM PITT. 

Ill happy pair ! If verse like mine can give 
Ktcrnal fume, for ever shall ye live. 



Now mourn indeed, thou insulate*! land, 
Where freedom m:ik s her firmest, final sland : 
Lost, lost for ever, are thy spear and shield, 
Light of the council, glory of the field, 
NELSON and PITT ! the glory of the age 
The boldest warrior, and the wisest sag. 
The wide world's wonder, polish'd Europe's prid?,. 
The state's sheet anchor, and the helm's sure guide. 

But mourn not void of hope, for why despair ? 
Britannia still is Heaven's peculiar care. 
Yet many a Pitt with patriot zeal shall,,spring, 
To counsel his belo.v'd, his gracious king ; 
Yet many a Nelson on th' ensanguin'd main 
Shall fix the destinies of France and Spain ; 
Contending parties cordially unite, 
T' illume the senate, or conduct the fight. 
While Albion shall exchange her tears for smiles, 
And reign, unrivall'd, empress of the isles. 

To late posterity shall history tell 
IJovv NELSON fought, how gloriously he fell. 
What honours Britain to her champion paid, 
What fun'ral pomp attends his mighty shade. 
Shall not like honours to the grave attend 
The dear remains of his departed friend? 
(For what he well perform'd, his patron plann'd, 
This the keen head, and that th' effective hand.) 
No On his tomb this simple truth be writ, 
*' Here lies the mortal part of WILLIAM PITT.'* 
9 



14 i NATAL IHSTOilY OF THU mi'.SENT TEAR, 180& 



Fancy's bright talisman, while millions 
Shall make each letter like a sunbeam blaze. 
Nor shall the lustre of that name expire, 
Till tombs arc bursting, and the world's on fire. 

JOSEPH WESTOX. 



The author of the above lines is now no more : he endtjd his 
days in a house for the reception of insane persons. His malady 
was caused by the extreme irregularity of his life. He possessed 
talents, whieh, had they been directed into a proper channel, 
would have reflected honour upon the unfortunate Wrston. He 
is not entirely unknoM'n to the public ; his critique on t!ie versifi- 
cation of Dryden and Pope, with his correspondence with Miss 
SewarJ upon the subject, I believe, arc well known. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 

(January February. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

FT'lHE capture- of the Danish West India islands, and the particulars of 
that service, are given in the official letters. This acquisition, as it 
tends to weaken the resources of our enemies, and to put the islands out 
01 tiie grasp of the French tyrant, is certainly of considerable importance 
to the country. 

Captain W. S. Parkinson, the bearer of the intelligence from Sir A. 
CochraiK', was one of the earliest followers of Lord Nelson, recommended 
to his notice by Admiral Sir C. Pole, Bart, and was with Captain Nelson as 
midshipman in the Boreas, when he so much distinguished himself in the 
West Indies during the years 1784, 5, 6, and 7. lie was third lieutenant 
of the Vanguard in the battle of Aboukir, and afterwards first, and returned 
to England strongly recommended for promotion by his Sicilian majesty, 
when he was made commander. This excellent officer is now raised to 
pobl rank. 

Tlfe Danes first took possession of the island of St. Thomas in 1671. 
An excellent harbour, in which 50 ships may ride with security, early 
attracted both the English and French buccaneers, who xvhencver they bad 
taken any pri/es in the lower latitudes, from which they could not make the 
Windward lahuids^pul into St. Thomas to dispose of them. It also became 
the port, whence ressels richly laden were continually sent to carry on a 
clandestine trade with the Spanish coasts. Denmark, however, for a long 
time, had no other communication with this colony, than by a single ship, 
sei.t out annu.tliy to Africa to purchase slaves, which were sold iu America. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 145 

la 1*19, their West India commerce increased by clearing the island of 
St. John, which is'adjacent to St. Thomas. Santa Cruz was not sold by 
Trance to Denmark until 173;', when if, \va!> purchased by the latter power 
for 30,7 oOl. The annual production* of the Danish West India islands con- 
sisted of a small quantity of coffee, a great deal of cotton, seventeen or 
eighteen millions weight or raw sugar, and a proportijnate quantity of 
ram. 

There is no truth whatever in the report of a relaxation having tal<en 
place in the commercial restrictions in Holland : on the contrary, Louis 
Buonaparte declares, that he thinks it his dutv to surpass in severity the 
prohibitory decrees of his brother Napoleon. lie has accordingly resorted to 
Measures far more rigid than any hitherto adopted. The ports of Holland 
are shut against all ships whatever, whether belonging to neutrals or allies, 
with the following exceptions only, viz. Armed ships of war may enter the 
ports of Holland with their prizes, and the merchant vessels belonging to 
neutral or allied powers may take refuse in the ports of Holland from the 
dangers of the sea ; but they are to be placed under the most strict and se- 
vere quar.Antine, and must put to sea as soon as the weather permits. Even 
fishing boats are forbid to go to sea without a soldier on board each of them, 
who, upon his return, is bound to make a report of what passed during the 
fishing. This decree is accompanied by a declamatory ruldressto the Dutch. 
It invites them to fit out privateers, reminds them of the actions of De 
Ruyter and Van Tromp, and asks them whether the Danes are to be the 
only people that dare to attack the English by sea? 

The King of Prussia has also been compelled to withdraw his ambassador 
from this country, and strictly to prohibit all intercourse between his sub- 
jects and iho?e of Great-Britain. 

The following article, dated Copenhagen, January 19, will, we conceive f 
be regarded as a sufficient proof of a secret understanding having prevailed 
between Denmark and France long before our attack upon the Danish fleet 
was meditated: 

" It appears that as early as the month of July last, it was supposed in 
the Isle of France, that a war must at last be unavoidable between England 
and Demnark, on which account an embargo was laid on all the Danish 
ships lying there, a hope is therefore entertained that by this measure or the 
French Government there, many of the ships of car merehantSyand trading 
companies will escape being captured." 

ILu- sia having declared war against Sweden, it is understood that a strong 
naval force will be despatched from this country to assist the lauer 
power. 

Intelligence from Constantinople, of the 19th of December, states as 
follows:" The Caoitan Pasha, with his whole fleet, is in the harbour of 
( .;t-t!tinople. The losses he suffered in the late battle tvijth the Russians 
o.T Touedos, :;re not yet entirely repaired. At t!.e same time the naval 
preparations are continued with the utmost ardour and activity, and the 
Porte will soou have a very respectable flee:." 

f2ab. r!;roru Bol. XIX. v 



146 NAVAI. HISTORY OF THE PUTS EN T YJ.AR. 1<S08. 

$ Letters have been received from Boston, in America, to-" the 14th of 
January; which mention the arrival of Mr. Uo-e, the F.wjish minister, tit. 
W'tishington, and state, that all differences v.-ere expected to be amicably 
adjusted between Great Britain and the United Stales. This intelligence is 
accompanied by an improbable report, that (jeneral Moreau, some time auo 
stated to have left New York, lind gone to the Hondas, lor the purp< 
taking possession of' these territories in the name of the French 1 Jnpcror. 
It i.s added, that tlie Rochefort squadron was understood to bo destined lo 
that part of America, having been fitted out to buppors Cieimd Moreuu i" 
the execution of this design. 



HOUSE OF LORDS. 

THURSDAY, JAXfAKY 2$. 

A VOTE of tlnnks was passed, to the naval and military commander*, 
^ * officers, camcn, soldiers, &c. employed at the capture of Copenhagen. 

(i'U/t PIILK: ?1 of the present volume.) 

MOKDAY, rr.DRUARY 8. 

T 'he 1>ul;o of Xmfolk read a variety of motions for copies of the pnocla- 
in-ition; of l.ordCatbcart and Admiral Gambicr ;. the representations of the 
1 in* i rc.^-ectin:: the state of the Danish fleet, c.. all of u'luuh were agreed 
to H'^ mace then adduced various arguments to sic w the necessity o-f 
t sill er doc ::n; uts to prove that ministers were in possession of the sub- 
it UK t !(' the Hciet articles of Tilsit, and acted in seizing the Danis4i fleet 
ii| -o;i the uomiction that Denmark either had not the means, or was no; 
<Ji.-i.i<;scd to resist the effonts <:f France to possess herself of it. This he 
toDceived lo he requisite tor the character of the nation, and he therefore 
moved accordingly. 

The Marquis of Wellesley thought it was only necessary to look at the 
utate of Kurope, to be able to decide whether it was a matter of reproach 
to our ,j iblic counsels, or whether the most vigorous and the most success* 
i it operations of the war was not as much the result of profound wisdom, as- 
u \vri-, i!;e dictate of imperious necessity. The intentions of France to 
ijosir'^ he rself of all the naval means of die continent for o^ft- annoyance 
hijc ^;i!' r been avowed. Bonaparte was too able a Soldier and statesman 
MI; ti> |(;(L'ive, that by force or intimidation the navy of Denmark must 
fall i:.to !:is hands, had we not interposed. The noble marquis then argued 
:he <u,<.'-;i(.n upon the ground of imminent danger, and on the principles of 
?!K i.i-A- -,{' nations, as applicable to such an emergency. 

L.,; : Jfu'J.iastin stated his conviction, that the Crown Prince was deter- 
:;._i:ta to ]:'.Tievcic in hi* neutrality. When the French, in December, 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PR'rsr.XT Yr.lU, 1808. 1-47 

1805, violated his territory, it was known to every foreign minister at 
Copenhagen, thnt his resolution was, in case of necessity, to abandon Hoi- 
stein and Jutland, and not a doubt existed of his ability to preserve Zealand 
with its navy. 

Lord Hawkcsbury justified the expedition to Zealand npon three grounds, 
1st, The avowed designs of France ; 2d, The impracticability of effectual 
resistance on the part of Denmark ; and, 3dly, The magnitude of the dan- 
ger to this country, should the Danish navy full into the hands of 
Bonaparte. 

Lord St. Vincent asserted, that Zealand was more defensible against an 
army in Jutland, than this country was against an invasion from Boulogne. 
He knew the state of the Danish navy for -58 years, and could aver that, it 
was during all that time kept in the same state of repair which was now 
alleged as a proof of hostile intentions against us. 

Lord Grey contended, that the expedition was founded neither in jus- 
lice nor sound policy. We had taken lf> ships in a bad condition, from 
Denmark, but had not deprived the enemy of her maritime resources. 
Bonaparte had given the Crown F'rince a million sterling to re-construct i 
ileet; and to this was to be added the- whole of the resources of Russia, aad 
most probably, in a short time, those of Sweden. 

Lord iftfulgravc said, that but fur the- capture -of the Danish navy, there 
would by this time have been fitted out against us in the Baltic a fleet of 
more than 40 sail of the line. The consequence would have been, the most 
active naval war in which we had ever been engaged, or, perhaps, struggle 
for our existence on British territory. 

Lords Darnley and Sid mouth supported the motion. 

The house then divided, for the motion, 43 against it, 105. 

MONDAY, FEBRUARY 15. 

The following motion of Lord Auckland's was negatived, by 106 against 
48: That this house resolve itself into a committee on the recent orders of 
cobncil, and afford, them its early consideration. 

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 18. 

The Brazil Trade Bill, and the bill for tlie better regulating tbe office of 
treasurer of the navy, were read a first time. 

Lord Gr-enville moved for certain documents relating to the orders in 
council. A short discussion took place, on the motion for laying before the 
house such information as might have been transmitted to government 
respecting the execution of the French- decree; which Lord HawkeSbury 
objected to, on the ground that the communications of private persons were 
not such documents as could be laid before parliament, 

After some conversation between Lords Grenville, Crev, Frskine, the 
Duke of Moiitrose, and the Lord Chancellor, the house divided 
Contents 27 Non-Contents 2:5 

Proxies 20 4? Proxies J5 -33 

Majority for Lord Grcnville's motion 9 



iifc> NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT Y^AE, 180S. 

Lord Siuinouth moved a resolution, the substance of which was That it 
was important to the honour of the country that the ships captured at 
Copenhagen should be kept in a state which might not prevent their 
eventual restoration to Denmark, upon the establishment of peace, or under 
other circumstances. 

This motion was supported by the Lords Ellcnborough, Erskine, and 
Gre.nville; and opposed by the Lords Borringdon, Eldon, Harrowby, 
Westmoreland, Hawkesbury, and Mulgrave; and, on a division, it was 
negatived by 105 to 51. 

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 19. 

The American Intercourse Bill was brought up from tlje Commons, and 
read a u'rst time, 



HOUSE OF COMMONS. 

THURSDAY, JANUARY 28. 

The thaaks of the house were voted to the naval and military com- 
manders, &c. employed in the attack upon Copenhagen. (Fide page 71 ot" 
the ]Tf-sent volume). 

Mr. Rose obtained leave to bring in a bill to continue for a limited time 
the several acts for carrying on the treaty of trade, commerce, and naviga- 
tioa ? between his Majesty and the United States of America. 

FRIDAY, JANUARY 29. 

The following motion, by Mr. Horner, with some slight modifications sug- 
gested by Mr. Ruse, was agreed to : " That an humble address be pre- 
sented to his Majesty, praying that he would be graciously pleased to direct 
that there be laid before the house a list of all licenses that have been 
;r,u)tr(I by his Majesty in council to private merchants, or others, permitting 
s-urn persons to trade in a manner that would otherwise have been illegal, 
from tiie commencement of this present war, in 1003, down to the 1st of. 
September Ia>t." 

Mr. Jf'irnrr next moved for the amount of fees paid for such licenses at 
ttu LVivy Council Oftice; and of the distribution and application thereof, 
ivui.m the same period ; which was also carried in the affirmative. 

In a committee of supply, the following sums were granted: wages of 
.scauieii (130,000, including, 31,OOQ marines) at ll. ITs. per man per mouth, 
for K; mouths, 3,12(3,5001. Provisions, 3.211,0001. Wear and tear, 
5 ; 07 0,0001. Ordnance, 591,0001. 

W-r.DXESDAY, FEBRUARY 3. 

Sir f.'. .A/. Pole moved for leave to bring in a bill, that the offices held in 
{in- \.iv:d Ahvlum shall be filled by persons who had served his Majesty ia 
ti - niivy. The officers, he observed, who had been appointed to its 
.ii;ina:.c;iu:nt, were men who had not the most distant connection with the 
i:v. v. h: i'ohr.ed out several who had meritoriously seryed their king, and, 



HISTORY Of THE PRTSENT YEAR, 1808. 149 

t>lefl in defence of their country, who had been rejected, for what cause it 
"was his object to find out. Among others, Mr. Keeue, Admiral Corn- 
walhs's surgeon, had been rejected for another person \vho had never been, 
in the navy ; even the place of matron was disposed of to u stranger, in pre- 
ference to an officer's widow. 

Mr. Rose, Mr. Thornton, and Lord Newark, on the other hand, said, 
that no undue preference had been given, and for the surgeoncy they did 
not know, nor .ever heard that Mr. Keene had applied ; and according to 
the infant state of the institution, the commissioners could not act otherwise 
with regard to the surgeon and matron, as no other candidates appeared at 
the time the election was made. 

The motion was at length agreed to be postponed, in order that the 
regulations of the institution might be laid before the house. 

Mr. Ponsonby, after entering into an extensive review of the couduct of 
ministers, respecting the Copenhagen expedition, and the negotiations 
with Russia, moved for a variety of papers connected with those subjects. 

^Ir. Canning, in reply, verv ably vindicated the measures of himself and 
his colleagues ; clearly proving the hostile intentions of Denmark against 
this country, and her utter incapability of resisting the French, had she 
been so disposed. 

After a very long debate, Mr. Ponsonby's motion was negatived, by 253 
against 108 ; leaving a majority of 245 for ministers. 

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 5. 

Mr. Perceral moved, that the orders of his Majesty in couneij, respecting 
neutral trade, be referred to the committee of ways and means. 

Lord Henry Petty immediately rose, and observed, that as serious doubts 
n-ere entertained of the legality of these orders, he considered it as the in- 
dispensable duty ef ministers in have these doubts removed, by shewing to 
the House, in the first instance, their necessity, and then by applying for an 
indemnity bill against the unconstitutional exercise of them. He contended, 
that the orders in council violated the law of nations and the municipal law 
of this country; aud farther objected, that to enforce them, 'was adopting 
a system of great impolicy. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer, in reply, insisted, that the late orders 
in council were founded an the same principle as the order of the 7th of 
January, 1807, and therefore, that it ill became tiie ministers who i^ued 
that order to contend, that those which difiered from it only by being more 
efficient, were violations of the law of nations, and the municipal law of 
the land. Their policy, he observed, consisted in the protection they 
aliorded la our commerce, and in the inconvenience and distress which the 
enemy must experience from their operation. 

Mr. Windham, Dr. Laurence, Sir Arthur Pigot, and Mr. Edsr, joined in 
condemning the orders in council. 

The Master of the Rol/s coincided with the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
j.; the view he had taken of tho<e measures. 

yii the ouestiou beiug put, it was carrie4 without a division 



ISO NAVAI, HISTORY OF TUT, PRISK.NT YEAR, 1808. 

MONDAY, FEBRUARY 0. 

The house resolved itself into a committee, to consider the extraordiim- 
ries of the navy, which 

Mr. Ward stated, would amount to considerably more than the last year. 
1,142,9591. 19s. 10d. would be wanted for the extraordinaries of the 
navy ; 235,1001. for building and repairing ; 175,1001. for wear and tear of 
transports; 281,4001. for sick and wounded; 55,5001. for prisoners of war; 
and 50,000 for sick prisoners. These sums were accordingly voted. 

The American Intercourse Bill was read a third time and passed. 

TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 9. 

Sir JV Burdctt inquired of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, whether a 
report which he had heard were true, that his Majesty had lately grants*] 
the sum of 20,0001. to the Duke of York, from the droits of admiralty. 

The Cricnccllor of the Exchequer admitted its truth; but observed, that 
the property belonged solely to his Majesty, and that such grants were not 
unusual. 

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 11. 

Sir Francis }>i;rdf.'-f moved for an account of all captures made at sea by 
his. [Majesty's naval forces, since the year 179i'; with the produce of racli 
specific capture, and its application distinctly set forth : also the amount of 
captures now remaining in the hands of the crown." 

Sir Chnrtes Pole wished that the Hon. Baronet, on a matter of so much 
national importance, had gone more into detail. Every day convinced him 
<>:" the necessity or" putting the admiralty court into a very different situation ; 
and he l:nd himself prepared a motion with reference to it. 

The Advocate General did not know distinctly what the Hon. Baronet who 
?pokn last nliudcd to, nor what application such a matter could bear to the 
pxsou; question. The subject before the h--iise ought to be correctly un- 
ccr-tfo.i. The property referred to was of two kinds : one part of it was 
i:cul --a. : c i-o.-o'ie, the other ia the office of lord high admiral. The captures 
> .Ling of general reprisals belonged to the former, the captures 
to the !s<U;r ? and these were therefore called droits ofadmiralty. 
n> usually acquired crior, the other subsequent to the declaration 
c" ; and day were consequently obtained under very different 
C'rcuiuirtaiia's. In the year 1795, whtu tSa French invaded Holland, nine 
months elapsed before the king declared war against Holland, and encou- 
r;i'_Liiicnl w;<s given to the Dutch to settle in neutral countries, or to 
< migrate to Kndand. On their compliance, their property seized in our 
ports u;;s t<> he restored to them, otherwise notice was given that it would 
be COIK!L;;I;K-<!. They did not accede to the proposal, and on the loth of 
Stpu-mbi.r. in the same year, it wns condemned. The hon. member pro- 
cculcd to shew other instances of the same kind with respect to Spanish 
Prussian, and Danish property, in 1796, 18UO, and J807, and this was that 
distinction, I ; p said, to which the king was entitled, jure corona. It might, 
I e said, be satisfactory that the mode should be explained to the house in 
v.'.xii it had been applied. The hon. Baronet who spoke last, he kne\v, 




NAVAL HISTORY OF THK PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 151 

liad the interest of the navy much at heart, and he would lenni with plea- 
sure, that two-thirds of the amount had been devoted for essential services 
rendered to the country by that important branch of the public force. One 
million had been paid a considerable tnue since, and another within the two 
L';>t years. IVoni the same source compensation had been made to persons 
who had suffered upon the commencement of hostility. ai:d whose property 
had been scattered during the former war. His Majestv, he added, had a'so 
d several sums out of it for the use and benefit of the vounger branches 
of the royal familv ; and he thought his ?>Iajesty had most undoubted riht 
to do this, unless it should be expected that he should be the only father of 
a family in this country who was not at liberty to shew pecuniary favours to 
lus offspiing. 

Mr. Lushingion, in opposing the motion, begged leave to mention one 
instance of misapplication, of a most extraordinary kind. An honourable 
member of that house, ''Sir Home Popham) obtained leave to quit the British 
service; and having so done, he purchased a ship, settled at Ostend, and 
r-xchanged the vessel so procured for another named the El Trusco. Thus 
provided, the honourable geutleruan sailed for India, where he loaded his 
ship, proceeded from thence to Dun^eness, and there ran in, or, to speak 
more intelligibly, snuggled in a part of the cargo. After some transac- 
tions, in which Lieutenant Bovven, of the Brilliant, was concerned, the ship 
came within the jurisdiction of the court of admiralty. Proceedings were 
thereupon instituted, and claims were put in by the hon. baronet, to the 
amount of 100,0001. ; and he demanded the restoration of the vessel, as 
ht;ng his own property. In that court he avoided process, and ab- 
sconded. Captain Robinson, who was the captor, received nothing; but 
in September, 1805, bis Maje*tv, in compliance svith the recommenda- 
t;on of Mr. Pitt, Mr. Long, and another lord of the treasury, made the 
hon. Baronet a present of the sum of 2o,000l. He presumed that this 
would not be reckoned among the rewards assigned for meritorious ser- 
vices : it was, in truth, a reward to an officer of the navy, foy having vio- 
lated the Jaws of his countrv. 

Sir Home rose and said, it was impossible that he could avoid com 
plaining of the manner in which he was thus made the subject of such an 
attack, which was greatly aggravated, because, being done at a sudden, 
he was quite unprepared to defend himself. He trusted, however, that 
the house would believe, that, whether in India or at home, the good of 
his country was an object nearest his heart. If he had adopted the mode 
alluded to by the hon. gentleman, be could tell him there was nothing 
derogatory in it ; it was the best that a man of his then rank in the ser- 
vice could atteir.pt, to enable him to improve in his profession. He de- 
fied the hon. gentleman, or any other person, to prove a single act that 
constituted lu'm a smuggler; and he should be happy to see all die papers 
relating to him and his conduct, from the India House, produced and laid 
before tiie public. 

The Advocate General stated, that Sir Home Popham, when in India, 
*-;u known to persons in the highest offices there, to be a British subject.; 



152 NAVAT. HISTORY OF THE P11F.SEXT YtAtt, ISOS. 

that he was very much countenanced bv them; and in consequence of 
tlie services he had rendered the East India Company, bv takinj tlitf 
soundings of Prince of Wales' i?-land, and oilier parts in those seas, he 
had received such recommendations to the court of" directors, as had 
procured him some very valuable presents from them. From India he 
had, however, sailed to China, and at Canton had trtken in a cargo of 
tea, without any license from the India company, which tendered the 
transaction a breach of the law, and as such the cargo was liable to 
forfeiture. But it was not a droit of the admiralty ; it was not what h:ul 
iallen to the King as a capture in time of war, but was merely \vh-.it 
became vested in his Majesty as a forfeiture, in consequence of the 
cargo being illegal, for want of a license from the India company. \\ lib 
this cargo of tea, the hon. baronet was proceeding to Ostend, in the ship 
El Trusco, when she was met with and seized by his Majesty's ship the 
.Brilliant; and the ship and part of the cargo were condemned, for the 
benefit of the captors; but this part of the 'cargo, which was the property 
of the hon. baronet, became vested in the King as a forfeit; and under a'l 
the circumstances of the case, it became a question whether it was a :*t 
forfeiture for ihe crown to take advantage of. On a mature and delibe- 
rate consideration of the case, he was of opinion that it was not; and there- 
lure he a-.lvi.sed the remission of it, which accordingly took place. 

After some further discussion, the Chancellor of the Exchequer subniit- 
tf\i ;'. r .i amended motion, adopting the whole of that submitted by Sir 
ViaiK -;s. excepting tiiat part which called for the statement of the uppiica- 
t.uii or' these funds since 1792. 

On a division, there appeared, 

For the amendment 82 | Against it 57 Majority 25 

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 12. 

Sir Charles P<>!e moved for an account of all ships, vessels, cargoes, and 
parts of curgc;c-, prosecuted 'as prizes in his Majesty's court of admiralty 
ni Jutland, and iiis courts of vice-admiralty elsewhere, since the begin- 
juug of the year 1LJ02, so far as the same could be made up. Also, for 
an account of all such ships as have been adjudged to l.is Majesty by the 
?aid courts as prizes, or have been seized or detained from the enemy 
previous to a declaration of war; specifying the names of such ships, the 
persons by whom seized and detained, and the amount respectively of such 
pri/es. Ordered. 

?>Ir. E/L n moved for an account of the number of neutral ships and 
ve-sels which had come, or been brought. into the ports or other places of 
breat Britain, in consequence of the orders of council, dated the llth of 
November, 1807, specifying the nations to which such ships belonged; 
.No sue!) as had commenced their voyages before they had received notice 
jf r'ie issuing of such orders, and such as had been allowed to proceed on 
tii.'ir voyage.-. Ordered. 

-Ir. Lushington moved for an account of the number of such neutral 
il:p: a: iiaJ teen compelled la .enter and were afterwards suffered to de- 



:>ATAI. HISTORY OF THE FftESCXT YEAR, 1808. 153 

part from the harbours and ports of this country since November, 1807, 
upon giving bond ; and specifying respectively the couditioiis and pemiities 
of such bonds. Ordered. 

MONDAY, FEBRUARY 15. 

Mr. Tuylcr moved for various papers relating to the expedition against 
t'ne Dardanelles. 

Mr. Canning agreed to the production of several of them ; but obsen-ed 
that, \vith respect to r .he orders given by Lord Collingwcorf he did not tii:n!c 
any public ground had been stated for their production. With regard 
to iiis own feelings on the subject, he would advise the house not to persist 
in the inquiry. 

Mr. T. Grenxllle stated the difficulties under which the late ministry 
stood, and the disadvantage under which they must inevitably labour in. 
the discussion. It was impossible for :hein to knrr.v t!.e result of the ex- 
pedition before they were deprived of office. Had t!:s enterpnze been 
completed before that period, they would in that case have had more full 
and ample information. Sir T. Louis's report, he conceived highly ne- 
cessary to be laid before parliament; though the present board of admi- 
ralty, in a late coinir.unication he had with them, considered it of no 
signification, as the object of that report had been concluded. Iiis orders 
to Lord Collingwood were, that no hostility should be resorted to till his 
Majesty's ambassador had t'eclared all amicable adjustment at an end. 

Mr. Taylor's motion was agreed to without a division. 

THURSDAY, rEBRUAr.Y 18. 

Sir Juhn Lubbock presented a petition from the company of merchants 
trading to the Levant seas. Ordered to lie on the table. 

Mr. T. Grenzlllt moved for some additional papers on the subject of 
the Dardanelles question. Ordered. 

Mr. Dint moved for a copy of the memorial of Sir Home Pophafn to his 
Majesty in 1802, praying restoration of his property condemned in the 
Eirusco. Ordered, with several other papers on the same subject. 

On the motion for the second reading of the Orders in Council Indem- 
nity bills, a debate ensued, and a division took place, 

For the second reading 214 | .Against it 94- 

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 19. 

Mr. C. Pole moved, that there be laid before the house, a copy of the 
memorial presented by Dr. Hicks, late surgeon of the Ville de Paris, to the 
trustees of the Naval Asylum, praying to be appointed surgeon to that in- 
stitution; and a copy of a letter from Dr. Kiel to the same gentlemen, 
enclosing a certificate from the Transport Office. 

After some explanation from Mr. Rose, the papers were ordered; also, 
on the motion of Mr. Rose, the date of the nomination wf the person ap- 
pointed surgeon to that institution. 

On the motion of Colonel Wood, it was ordered, that there be laid be- 
fore the house copies of all instructions transmitted by the government in 
this country to any officers in the Mediterranean, respecting the expedition* 
to Egypt and the Dardanelles. 

i2ab, S&nm. OoI.XlX. x 



154 NAVAL IHST03Y OP TI1-3 Pft-ESEN* YEA-R V 



on 

Copied verbatim from the Los DON 



ADMFRAI.TY OFFICE, .TANT T AR.T 30, 1808. 

Copy rfa hlfcr from Admiral the Jii^^it HonourabT? Lord Gardner, fyc. fo' 

tHe. Hon. W. W. Pofi-, dated the Wit Instant. 
sin, 

I "ENCLOSE herewith, for the information of the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty, the copy of a letter which I received from Captain 
Tower of the Iris, at Plymouth, giving an account of the capture by tturt 
ship, on the 24th instant, of the F reach luir^er privateer Marsouiu, of fuii:-- 
tecn cuns (whicli, with her anchors, it appears, were thrown overboard,'., 
;uid.having.a complement of sixty, men. 

Ihave the honour to bc r c. 

GARDNER. 

His Majesty's Ship Iris, Plymouth ' Sound j 
MY T.onn, y5M January, 1800. 

lu returning from the squadron under the command of Sir Richari 
King, I!art. I have the honour to 'inform your lordship I fell in, y^&terdav,. 
ofVtiic Lizard, with a French lugger jirijPOteer Marsouio, armed wirh four- 
lee. n siuns and sixty men, which we captured ; her guns and anchors wcrci 
thrown overboard during the chare. 

k appears by the journal of her last cruise (dated the S8th October, wear 
fork), mid is corroborated by tlie Role do I'Equipage, tnat in- atteioptiuj; 
ti/ board a transport, the troops- being .concealed, a volley of musketry killed 
tfic captain and tw meti, and wounded live others. 

I have the honour ta be, &c. 

J. TOWER. 
The lU^ht Hon. Lord Gardner, ^-c. Sfc. AfC. 

Copy c-f a Idler f ram Vice-Adiniral the Right lion. Lord CoUlngrcood, <^c. to- 
i fit Hun. IT. IT. Pok, dated' oi board hi* Majesty'^' s'lip Ifctan^ at- sea t 
r\'u. 10, J807. 

SIK, ?',;'!;. 

T enclose, to he laid before my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 
:i loiter which I have this day received from Captain Roaeuhagen, of ],}* 
Al'iH'bty's >,liip the \'olae, giving an account of Ins. having captured, on th* 
<ir}. infant, the French cutter Suctes, of ten guns aud fifty-nine men, cona- 
/iiandcd b\ tlie lieutenant de Vaiss'au, Bourd^ V'illel'iuet.. 

T am, Sac. COLLIXCAVOOD. 



ty's ship Votage, off Galita Island, 
MV i.onn, the 6th of' November, 1807. 

1 have the honour to acquaint you, that being on my way to join youn 
' irilship; 1 had tl'.is rnorning the good fortune to fall in with and capture- 
the French cutter Succes, of ten guns and fifty-nine men, commanded b> 
J icuifiiiint dc- Vaisscau, Bourde Villehuet. Site sailed only three days agu- 
from Toulon, and had -se*n nothing. The officer says he was going to cruise, 
M.'. -evo<;:; circum?t*nce9 incline me to. think he was charged with <le* 

- \'l 



NAVAL IHSTOUY OF THE PRESENT YEAH, 1808. 155 



some consequence, which, however, he had sufficient time to de- 
stroy. The cutter, 1 believe, was formerly i:i his Majesty's service under 
the name of the Sussex. 

, I have the honour to He, &c. 

P. L. KOS1LM1AGEX, Captain. 
To -Yiez-AduTtral Lord Co'llingxood, fyc. 

Copy of a let Ur from Vice-Admiral the Right -Hon. Lord Cotiuigirood, <$ c " 
to (he Hon. 11'. 15'. Po.V, d ted on board lla Slitjtsty* ship Oacw, at 
Syracuse, December the (it A, 1807. 

srn, 

Having sent the Herald to obtain information from Cnptnin Campbell of 
the UnitJ, of the state ef the enemy in the neighbourhood oi'-Cocfn, Cap- 
tain Hony, in the execution of this service, observed aii armed irabaccolo 
at anclior under the fortress of Otranto; and on the evening of the '^5th of 
October he despatched the boats ui>dcr ti;e direction o: ..x".itenant Walter 
Foreman, to Lrni" her ouf, which was very gallantly done, notwithstanding 
a Iicuvy-lire from tle-3itoie and tte vessel. 

She ..proved to be the'Cxsar French privateer, of four six-pounders, bound 
with supplies to'Corfu. 

i enclose, for their lordships' information, a copy oF Captain Hony'V 
Jetter, relating the circumstance, and by which it appears that Mr. Jame? 
Wood, carpenter, wounded in the boats, and three sermon on board the 
Iterald, is fcUe principal damage sustained. 1 am, sir, &c. 

COLUXGWOOD. 

His Majesty's sfcro Iltrafd, Nov. 11, 1807. 

"MY I.OED, 

'In the execution of your orders, when off Otrtnto, with his Majesty* 1 ' 
sloop under my command, on the 'Jjth of October [ observed an armed 
trabaccolo under that fortress, and cor.ceivn;^ it practicable to cut her 
out under cover of uight, despatched the borits directed by Lieutenant Wal- 
ter 1'oreman, who executed the orders ive;i him with the greatest galbn- 
try, under a heavy fire of great guiis iind musketry both from the vessel 
mri shore. 

She was -shortly brought out, anrl proves to be le Casar French priva- 
teer, >f four six-p<.-tHidcrs, =bcloning to Aryc'Jim, liaving on board a careo 
of rice and flour on account of tr.<'. r'rencu ^ovwiimeut, bound to Corfu. 
The crew defended her until the boats were aJong^ide, tvlien all excepting 
four escaped by a stern hawser. 

The sloop lias received some lirtle injjiry both in htril nn(l rigi^ins, but 
ai hap;>y to say my object wa^ obtiuiii-d, \%itli-one otlicer wounded iu tlie 
boats, and t!,ree seamen in the ship. 

I heve subjoin a list of wounded, and have the honour to be, Ctc. 

l>. M. HONY, comuKiuder. 
The Risht Hon. Lord ColHuguood, 
Vifc-AdnnrelvJ'tht Red, $c. 

Mi- James Wood, carpenter, dangerously. 

J(jhn'Swaiu, .Taints Carmichael, Samuel Huttcr (on -board), slightly. 

Extract iif'ff letter jf <n \ ice-Admiral the Right Hon. Lord ColfingtaoiHi, fff. 

to the lion. 44'. W. Pole, dated on board his Majesty* itiip Ocean, at 

Syracvff, Uffcmhcr 9, ISO7. 

On the y[>th November his Majesty's ship Olatton fell in with a number 
of small vessels carrying troops to Corfu from Otranto, and took the sol- 
diers (in number three hundred; from nine of them, and destroyed the 
.vessels j two escaped and got back to the port from whence tLey came. 



156 NAVAL IITSTOKY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 

Copy of a kltcr from Captain Uiitoi^ of hi* 'Mftjeatii's ./'/// Sybiilc, to '^e 
Hon. W. tV. fvlc, duled tht 'iblk ins ant. Lizard beating aV. If. l>y 
W.jive leagues. 

SIR, 

Be pleased to inform their Lord-hips that hi? Maje?fy*s ship under my 
command has captured the Grand Argus, French lugger privateer, Michael 
Paguinet, captain, of four pins (but pierced f.T twelve), forty-one uion, 
fifty ton?, out three days from Gmnville, on her lir-4 cruise, and hai 
juade no captures. I have the honour to be, &r. 

C. UPTON, Captain. 

FEBRUARY C. 

Extrnct of a letter from Vice-Admiral J)acrrs, ^v. fo the Him. W. W. P*>fc, 
dated an board fris Majesty* s!:iji i'eUran, Port Royai, \llth Decem- 
ber, laor. 

Having received a letter from Captain Maurice, of the Savage, ac- 
quainting me of the capture of the Quixote, Spanish privateer of eight 
{iims, and ninety-nine men on board, belonging to Porto Cavallo 5 and a-: 
she is a vc>-el of a large class, and fitted out for thp annoyance of the 
trade bound to this island, it gives me pleasure to acquaint you tlici'CwjtU. 



THE LONDON GAZETTE EXTRAORDINARY. 

FEBRUARY 9, 1808. 

fiott-ning-Strcrf, February 8, 1808. 

Captain Berkeley, first aide-de-camp to General Bowyer, arrived yester- 
day morniiiL' at the office of Viscount Castlereagh, one of his Majesty's prin- 
cipal secretaries of state, with a despatch from the general, of which the 
following is a copy : 

MY ioi;r>, Santa Cruz, Dec. 27, 1807. 

TJ( ing i;i a ^tate of preparation and readiness to move a sufficient force 
against the Danish islands in these seas, in consequence of your lordship's 
despatch of the .ith of September, no time was lost (after the arrival of his 
]Ma)"ty's final commands, signified to me by Lord Hawkesbury's letter of 
November the 3d, in your lordship's! absence, by the Fawn sloop of war, 
which arrived early on Tuesday morning the 15th instant at Barbadoes) in 
embarking tlr.> troops at Barbadoes on board the men of war appointed to 
rc-ri n e tiiem bv licar-Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, who immediately 
(io- part iitd others to the islands t leeward to take on board such qs were 
under orders in each of them, with directions to proceed to the general ren- 
fle/vous, the whole of which, except one hundred rank and file of tlie 90th 
regiment from St. Vincent's, joined the admiral before or soon after our arri- 
val on' the island of St. 'i homas, on the 2lst instant. It was then thought 
proper to sf.id a summons to Governor Von Scholtcn, in charge of Brigadier- 
(irr.f ral Slii-'li-v aru! Captain Fahie commanding his Majesty's ship Ethalion, 
to surrender the islands of St. Thomag, St. John, and their dependencies, to 
his Brirar.nic MHie>tv, which he did the next day on terms agreed upon be- 
tween Inm and Major-General Maitland and Captain Pickmore, of his Ma- 
jesty's -hip Kamilhes, which were afterwards approved of and ratified by 
.Rear- Admiral the Honourable Sir Alexander Cochrane and myself, a copy 
of which I nave the- honour to enclose, and hope they will meet with his 
Majesty's approbation. 

On die '^J'J, in the evening, after leaving a garrison, of three hnudred qien 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PUESENT YEAH, 1808. 157 

<#* the 70th regiment, with sin officer and detachment of the royal arti'Iery, 
nt St. Thomas';., under the command of Brigadier-Genera! Maclean, whom I 
liave also directed to assume the civil government of the same, until his Ma- 
jesty's pleasure is signified the icon, \ve proceeded to Santa Cru?, the Admi- 
ral naviog previously scut his Majesty'!) ship Eihalion, with Brigadier-Gene* 
/al Shipley ;md Captain Fahie toMiimnon that island; who returned the next 
morning, the 24th, with a letter from the governor, offering to surrender it to 
his Majesty, provided we wonld allow three Danish officers to vk:w on hoard 
the ships the number of troops brought against it, which we permitted, that 
his excellency's military honour might thereby not he reflected on. These 
officers having made their report to their governor, returned early the next 
morning, the 2oth, to the flag-ship with a message, that the governor was 
willing to treat for the surrender of the island, when Major-General Maitland 
and Captain Pickmore were again sent on shore to settle the terms of capitu- 
lation, a copy of which I also transmit; which being approved of by the ad- 
miral ;ind myself, troops were landed, and the forts and batteries taken pos- 
i-x-ssion of in the mime of his Majesty the King of the United Kingdoms of 
Great Britain and Ireland, a royal salute being fired on the British colours 
being hoisted. 

I should be ungrateful in the extreme did I not state to your lordship the 
great and many obligations I conceive myself, the officers, and soldiers to be 
.under to Rear-Admiral the Honourable Sir Alexander Cochrane, the cap- 
tan!* and officers of the royal navy, who have universally afforded us every 
.comfortable accommodation in their power, and I am sure much to their own 
inconvenience. 

I am convinced that had it been necessary to have called for the exertions 
of the sea and hind forces employed upon this expedition, that they would 
have added another laurel to the many already acquired by British valour 
and discipline. 

Copies of the two letters of summons, with the answers of the respective 
governors, are herewith transmitted, together with a return of ordnance, and 
ordnance stores taken possession of, both at St. Thomas's and Santa Qruz. 

This despatcii "ill be presented to your lordship by Captain Berkeley of 
the 16th infantry, an intelligent, officer, who will answer any question you 
may be pleased to ask him; and I beg leave to recommend him to your lord- 
ship's notice. 

Captain Berkeley is my first aide-de-camp. 

i have the honour to be, &c. 

HENRY BOWYER, 
General ana Commander of the Forces. 



On board fits Majcxti/s ship BeHeulc, 
SIR, off St. Thw, as, 'Dec. 20, ii',07. 

We, his Britannic Majesty's commanders in chief by land and by sea in 
thess colonies, in obedioivce to our sovereign's orders^ do summon you to sur- 
render the inland of St. Thomas and its dependencies to the forces under our 
command. 

\Ve are well aware, sir, that your bravery and loyalty to your sovereign 
nmy induce you to make resistance, which can avail but little ag;unst the 
f'ones now opposed to you; we therefore trust, to present the effusion of 
bh.nd, :ult l probably the confiscation of all property, that you will accept of 
inch terms as m:iy be proper for us to grant, and honourable for you to re- 
ceive. 

\\ e think it necessary to add; that we will certainly resent and retaliate 
ibr any injurious tixutupyut iliat tuav- be offered unjustly to any one of our 



158 NAVAt HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAH, 1808. 

ration under your government, by forcing them to take up arras against their 
iawtul 'sovereign. 

We have the honour to be, &c. 

HENRY BOWYER, 
General and Commander of the "Forces. 

ALEX. COCHRANK, 
Rear-Admiral and Commander in CUiefof the Naval Forces. 

V<t) his Excellency Celoncl Van Srholten, -Com- 
mandant, $c. fyc. $c. St. Thomas. 

SIKS, St. Thomas, Dec. 21, 1807. 

It cannot "be presumed under any circumstances, that I can think of capi- 
tulating, until t am vanquished ; or at least until I kno\v the strength of the 
sea and land forces by which I am menaced to he attacked : I therefore 
send out three officers, in order to obtain this information, and your Kxoel- 
lencies' permission to count the troops. The gentleman which your Excel- 
Knicies have sent on shore have given me their wore! of honour that no hos- 
tilities of any kind shall be committed, before my oflicers are acrain landed at 
St. Thomas, and then I siia'll immediately acquaint your Excellencies of my 
detiTin'nation, through any -sigiml which may be agreed upon on board. 

It'J should he induced to wish to capitulate, I request that persons may 
be sent on shore, for the purpose, with full authority, to sign a capitulation, 
en the btiMs: of the one concluded in 1801, and with such alterations as cir- 
cumstances may require. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

W. V. SCHOLTEX. 
To thrir fijcceltenciet tfte Commanders in Chief 

of his Rrifannlc Majesty's Naval and Land 

Forces njf 6' i' . Thomas. 



ATtTK "I T.S o/'CAPlTULATIOX/or the surrender vf the Danish islands of 
St. Thomas and St.. Johh'y, together with their dependencies, entered into 
fK'f.ifecn General Henry Bonyer, the commander of the land forces, and 
Pear- Admiral the Honourable Sir Alexander Cochrane, Knight of the 
J ?.-.'. 'A, mid commander in chief of the naval forces employed at Barbadacs 
r nid thr Leeward Islands, on the part of his Britannic Majer.tr/, and Coh'/el 
!'./?; Schoiten, commandant of the said Danish islandx, un the part oj' his 
A/I/;- ~s/y tti< T hint; of Denmark. 

Ait. I. Tho islands of St. Thomas and St. John's, and their dependencies, 
rrt' hn-cbv placed under the protection of "his Britannic Majesty. 

Answer. War being 'declared between the two nations., the islands of St. 
fhomas :r,iri St. John's, and their dependencies, must be surrendered fj tlie 
iVuvrn r,f Ins Britannic Majesty. 

Art. If. Military honmirs are to be shewn at the surrender: the ofiicers 
ki'cu and continuf to carry their swords. 

Ans\\i:r. Agreed to. 

Art. III. All the inhabitants of the said island are to enjoy the fullest se- 
curitv for tln'ir persons, property, and other rigiits, as wcH as a free exercise 
01 tht-tr religion. 

An-,\ver. All boni"t fide Danish inhabitants shall enjoy the fullest security 
f..r their persons and properties, as well as a-free exercise of their religion, 
provided iliey 60 not, in any measure, cover, or attempt to cover the pro 
prrty of the enemies of Great Britain and Ireland. By property is to be 
mi'lrr^f.oii all nif)ds and merchandise now on shore. And to render any 
fh.vhcr explanation on tliis head unnecessary, it is roquired tliat ail Daiiisb 



HISTORY OF THE PRZrENT YEAR, 180ft. 

mfiabitants. and those of other nations, not at war with Great Britain, shall 
give in, when called upon, and if demanded, o oath, a strict and impartial 
account of" all property belonging to the enemies of Great Britain, cither itv 
their own possession-, or within their knowledge r tfjcrebv fully securing the 
intention of this article. 

Art. IV. Anns and ammunition to be delivered by a commission com- 
posed of officers of both parties; also the magazines and provisions, aixt 
what else may he found in the forts, as itshalt be found to-day, according to 
returns to be drawn up.. 
Answer. Agreed to. 

Art. V. All Danish officers, and the garrison, to be conveniently and safe- 
ly conducted to their native country : und those' that mi^vrt desire to proceed 
sid America or elsewhere, to be provided with proper passports, or to re- 
main in this country if they wish. 

Answer. The garrison must be considered as prisoners of war, and con- 
veyed to Europe as speedily as possible, and every indulgence shewn them. 
Art. \ I, No military to be quartered in houses, hut in barracks and pro- 
per rooms to be aligned by the burgher council, and a commission appoint- 
ed to that end. 

Answer.. Agreed to ; but the buildings must be such as the quartermas- 
ter-general approves of. 

Art. VI I. The Danish Inws and ordinances to remain irr force. All courts 
and judicial offices to be occupied by the present officers. Delinquents 
under confinement not oo be released until their sentence is passed and 
enforced. 

Answer. The Danish laws and* ordinances shall remain in force, subject 
to the pleasure of his Britannic Majesty. The judicial offices to continue 
occupied by the present persons; but they, as well as all civil officers, must 
be subject to the approbation of the commanders in chief. The latter part 
of-this article is agreed to on the same condition. An Kivilis!, custom house 
will be established on the same basis as in the British co'-Miies. 

Art. YIII- The king's ami public treasuries, all public tipok-keepings, and 
accounts, archives, and protocols remain unmolested, under the hands of the 
respective officers, for mutual security and use. 

Answer. All public proper',}', ami all property bolonrino; to the King ot' 
Denmark, or to his government, must be given up (to liis Britannic Majes- 
ty) ; and all public papers and records must be submitted to the inspection 
ut the British. The records and papers will be allowed to renanin in the 
proper offices. 

Art. IX. His Majesty the King of Denmark, having advanced lonns to the 
planters, the said planters continue to pay 'off according to the method regu- 
lated, unto his said Majesty the King of Denmark, who retains the right of 
mortgage on the estates. 

Answer; Answered in the last article ; but any sum now due shall be paid 
without delay to such persons as shall be appointed by the commanders m 
chief (subject to the pleasure of his Britannic Majesty). 

Art. X. No inhabitant shall be compelled to carry arms, or perform duty, 
when he has made his oath of neutrality. 

Answer. Agreed to ; but they will be required to take an onth~f)f allegi- 
ance to the British government, expressing that they will not, either openly 
or secretly, do any thing hostile to the British government. 
' Art. XL The Americans shall be permitted, without constraint, to export 
the produce of the islands, and to provide them with ii-ecessities. The inha- 
bitants are allowed to ship their produce to America. 

Answer. These colonies must trade under the same laws as govern t}.-e 
British West India islands. 



160 NAVAT, HISTORY OF THS PHE5r.!?T YEAR* 1833, 

Art. XII. The free coloured people of this island shall he recorded and 
protected as heretofore unrtt-r the Danish government, and they shall not be 
forced to do any military duty. 

Answer. The Danish free coloured people will ho protected as hero-to- 
fove, and will not be forced to do any military duty; but they must take an 
oath of allegiance, conformably to the tenth article. 

Art. XIII. In the general claims of Danish and ne'.itral property to 
be respected, as belonging to its lawful owners, is also comprehended the 
vessels and all property afloat in the harbours, or what might arrive during 
the time the Danish colonies may remain in the possession of his Britannic 
Majesty. 

Answer. Answered by the reply to the third article. 

Art. XIV. Slaves to remain the undisputed property of their present kftv- 
ful owners. 

Answer. Slaves being property, this has already been settled by the an- 
swer to the third article. 

Art. XV. The police of this island continues to perform its official func- 
tions with the same authority as under the Danish government, and accord- 
ing to the laws and usages of the country. 

Answer. This has already been answered bv the reply to the seventh 
article. 

Art. XVI. The paper-money issued by his Danii-h Majesty is to remain in 
Circulation as heretofore. 

Answer. Granted, subject to the pleasure of his Britannic Mnjesty. 

All tin. 1 torts, military posts, and vessels of war, must be given up as soon 
as the capitulation is ratilied by the commanders in chief. 

S. f . Tf-.vutf, December 21, 1807. 

VAN SCHOLTEN. 
FREDERICK MA1TLAND, 

Major-General. 
FRANCIS PICK MORE, 

Captain, Ramillies, 
RATIFIED, 

HENRY BOWYER, 
General, and Coihmander of the Forces. 
ALEX AN DER COCHR AX E, 

Rear- Admiral, and Commander in Chief of his Majesty's Ships, &e. 



His Mujeshfs ship Bcllcisfe, off St. Thomas; 
?rr;, December <2 C >, 1807. 

Tin. .sh-.ri'] of St. Ti'.omas and its dependencies having been summoned, 
an.; m cuii.HJijuence surrendered to his Britannic Majesty's forces by land 
nnd i.v i-.eu in thc-ie colonies, we, the commanders thereof, in obedience to 
our 5--overfi-r.il':> orders, do likewise summon you to surrender the island or 
.Sant:i Cn>;\ an:! its dependencies. 

We offer, hii-, for your acceptance, such terms as will be honourable for 
von to receive, and such as muv be proper for us ta sjrant. Beinj; desirous to 
j revuii die pijiivaiiiiig effusion of blood, and probably the confiscation of all 
[i; o;u ITV, us we are well aware that any resistance on your part to the forces 
at pres-fi;:. under our command could not be effectual. 

It i- hfxesharv we should add, that we will certainly resent any injurious 
rcaJmeiit uniustly offered to any of our nation now under your government, 
i. . t'urcin.', thfiji to take up arms against their lawful sovereign, or by conns* 
'.-ati:i_ ;.ny Mart of their property. 



NAVAt HISTORY dF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. I6l 

Brigadier-General Shipley, and Captain Fahie, of the frigate Ethalion, will 
have the honour to deliver this, and to wait for an answer. 
We have the honour to be, &c. 

HENRY BOWYER, 
General and Commander of the Forces. 

ALEXANDER COCHRANE, 
Rear-Admiral and Commander in Chief of the Naval Forces. 

To his Excellency Governor Lillienschio? 'J, 
SfC. 4"C. 4' c - Santa Croix. 

St. Croix, Government- House, 

GENTLEMEN, December 22, 1807. 

In answer to your summons of the island of St. Croix, which has been 
transmitted to me by Brigadier-General Shipley and Captain Fahie, I have 
the honour to reply, that before I can enter into any discussion on the sub- 
ject, I must demand permission to send on board of his Britannic Majesty's 
ships three of my officers, Major Krause, Captain Holm, and Lieutenant 
Lohse, in order to ascertain the extent of the force employed against the 
island under my government. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

LILLIENSCHIOLD. 

To their Excellencies General Henri/ Bozcyer, 
and Rear-Admiral Sir Alexander Coch- 
rane, 4"C 4" c - 4' c - 

ARTICLES o/CAPITULATION/or the surrender of the Danish island of 

Santa Croix, and its dependencies, entered into between General Henry 

Bozcyer, commander of the land forces, and Rear-Admiral the Hon. Sir A. 

Cochrane, Knight of the Bath, and commander in chief of the naval forces 

employed at Barbadoes and the leeward islands, on the part of his Brttan- 

nic Majesty, and Governor Lillienschiold, of the said Danish island and 

dependencies, on the part of his Majesty the King of Denmark. 

Art. I. By delivering up the island, all military honours are to be given. 

The garrison to march out with their arms, ammunition, drums beating, and 

flying banners. The troops shall on no account whatsoever be considered as 

prisoners of war. The infantry and cavalry to remain in undisturbed po-ses- 

sion of their arms. The corps of artillery to keep ia possession two fielU- 

pieces and an ammunition waggon. 

Answer. The garrison shall march out with all the honours of war, 
as expressed, and the officers shall keep their swords; but all must be pri- 
soners of war, and all arms, except officer's swords, shall be faithfully deli- 
vered up. 

Art. II. The entire military force shall have liberty to rema'n in their 
quarters in the island, and receive their usual pay and vistuals, until the same 
through suitable means, and upon British expence, can be transported to some 
convenient place in Denmark, in possession of his Danish Majesty. None of 
the forces to be permitted to enter into the British service; and all to keep 
possession of their luggage and equipage. Should any of the officers wish to 
no to America, or any other neutral country, on their way home, they are to 
be provided with passports to that effect, and they will be permittee! to stay 
two months in the island, from the time this capitulation is signed. 

Answer. The garrison will be conveyed t* England as soon as ships caa 
conveniently be provided, and every indulgence will be shewn them. Their 
pay cannot be paid by the British, but they will receive the usual rations and 
allowances issued to prisoners of war. The officer* and men will bave their 
private property preserved to theui. Passports shall be giveuto such 

o(. XIX. Y. 



162 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 

its may require them, to go to America. Those officers who wish to remain 
two or three months, shall be allowed, and the men shall be quartered as 
long as they remain on the island. No other answer can be given to this ar- 
ticle, except that the officers may rely upon every respect and civility being 
shewn to them. 

Art. III. Those military officers, who wish to remain in the island, are 
permitted to do so. 

Answer. Agreed to. 

Art. IV. All the arms and ammunition to be delivered up by a commis- 
sion of officers of both parties} also the royal stores and provisions, and 
what else of his Majesty's property shall be found in the forts; also the mo- 
ney in the king's treasuries, all according to the specification which is to be 
made as soon as the country is surrendered. 

Answer.* Agreed to ; but a boua fide account supported by proofs shaill 
be given. 

Art. V. All churches and religious congregations shall be supported in 
their respective rights and privileges. 

Answer. Agreed to. 

Art. VI. The Danish laws and special ordinances of this country shall 
remain in full and uncontrolled vigour and execution as hitherto; and justice 
to be administered by the persons now in office Ttie appeal from the upper 
rourt, to go as usual to the high court of justice at Copenhagen. All the ci- 
vil officers are to remain in the administration of their respective offices. 
The police of this island is to be administered as hitherto, with the same 
authority as under the Danish government, according to the received usages 
of the island, and by the same persons. 

Answer. The Danish laws and ordinances shall remain in full force until 
the peace. The same officers, judicial and civil, shall remain in their seve- 
ral places, but subject to the pleasure of the commander in chief. 

The appeal from the tipper courts must go to his Britannic Majesty in 
cnuncil. The police will remain undisturbed, and exercised by the same 
persons. 

Art. YTI. All private property belonging to persons present or absent, to 
individuals, or bodies corporate, of every denomination, is to be respected, 
-cui the proprietor^ to remain in full and uncontrolled possession and admi- 
nistration of the same} by themselves, or by their attornies. 

The inhabitants of this island are to have it in their power either to 
s!i<i)(>-e of their produce here, or to ship it to England, America, or else- 
where. 

Aii'.-.vcr. All Danish property on shore (except such produce as may 
; a\e been relanded from on board ship since the blockade of the island ; and 
: icli coffee the produce of St. Dominica now stored here) shall be fully se- 
c.'.ired to the proprietors, provided they do not in any manner cover, or at- 
tempt to cover, the property of the enemies of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The latter part of this article will be referred to iu the answer to Ar- 
:iele Mil. 

Ait. VIII. No inhabitant shall be compelled on any pretence what- 
ever t>> o^ar anus against his Danish Majesty, or any other power, or per- 
1 ; :n ;>u\ military duty. The inhabitants are to keep their arms and ammu- 
iiiii >n- ihc;:o who wi-^h to remain on the island, shall swear to observe a 
trier neutrality, and those who may wish to quit it, shall be allowed to dis- 
f>i*'! (jfttit ;) pi-opiTly, or to appoint attornies for the administration of the 
anil.'. 

V M- t r. The inhabitants shall not be compelled to bear arms against 
i-> 1-ani-li ;Sl. tic-sty, but they must take an oath of allegiance, binding 

:u-(!ve u.< ti'? nothing hostile against the British government, openly or 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YtAR, 1808. 163 

They shall keep their arms, but sabject to the controul of his Britannic 
Majesty's governor. They may remain in the island, or quit it, as ttiey 
please. They may also dispose of their properties, aud appoint attornies 
tor the administration of the same. 

Art. IX. The free people of colour shall continue to enjoy their freedom 
and property, and in every respect to be treated as the other inhabi- 
tants. 

Answer. Agreed to; they taking the oalh of allegiance to the British 
government. 

Art. X. Xo officer or soldier shall be billetted on the inhabitants, every 
assistance shall be given to procure proper quarters. 

Answer. Agreed to ; but proper quarters shall he assigned to the Bri- 
tish garrison, which shall be approved of by the quartermaster-general 
of the army. 

Art. XI. The loans belonging to his Danish Majesty are to be con 
sidered, as they really are, private property. 

Answer. A*ll property whatever, which in any wny belongs to the King 
of Denmark, must be surrendered to his Britannic Majesty the King ot' 
Great Britain and Ireland; and all suras now due on loans, as well as 
what may become so, must be regularly paid to commissioners appointed 
to receive the same; but the principles of equity which have governed his 
Danish Majesty's instructions on the subject, will be observed. 

Art. XII. Aii public books, archives, and registers of government, or 
the burgher council, and all other public offices, shall be held sacred, and 
unmolested in the respective offices, under the care of the present officers. 

Answer. Agreed to; subject to the inspection of the British govern-* 
ment. 

Art. XIII. The ports of the colony shall he open ro all American and 
all ether neutral vessels, which shall be permitted to import provisions and 
supplies, and to export sugar and rum, and other colonial produce, free 
of duties. 

The inhabitants shall enjoy the same liberty of importation and exporta- 
tion in their own vesseU, and with regard to the payment of customs and 
duties on importation, be placed on a footing with the most favoured Bri- 
tish colonies. 

Answer. The colony must trade subject to the British laws, as in force 
in the British West India island?, and shall have whatever advantages aro 
allowed to the most favoured British colony. 

Art. XIV. His Danish Majesty has, for tiie use of this and the other 
Danish islands, issued a certain paper currency, whereof a considerable 
sum is now in the possession of the community. As ach paper money 
has hitheiS) passed, to the great convenience of the inhabitants, it is to, 
pass hereafter as current money, as well as joes, dollars, rials, stivers ; and 
no alteration to be made in their respective values. 

Answer. Agreed to ; subject to the pleasure of his Britannic Majesty. 

Art. XV*. Certain persons, Danes, having engaged in a dangerous con- 
spiracy, for the purpose ot" subverting, even by means of assassination, the 
existing order of things, the inquiry already instituted is to proceed against 
the persons arrested, and such others as may hereafter be detected to have 
been implicated, in the same manner as if- the colony had remained under 
the Danish flag; and when the inquiry is at an end, those persons are tu 
be sent to Denmark to take their trials. 

Answer. Agreed to; but from this time all further proceedings must 
be subject to the final orders of the King of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Art. XVI. The commanders in chief are to despatch immediately two, 
wift Easing vessels to Denmark with copies of this cMpitula.tion, 



164 V^VAI. HISTORY OF THE PHESENT YEAR, 1808. 

Answer. The commanders in chief will forward immediately, by an 
JSpglish ship of war any despatches that the governor may have via Lon- 
don. 

The forts and batteries shall be delivered up as soon as these articles 
are ratified by the commanders in chief. 

Frederickstadt, Santa Croix, December 25, 1807. 

FRED. MAITLAND, 

Major-General. 
FRAS. PICKMORE, 
Captain of his Majesty's ship Ramillies. 

LILLIENCIIIOLD. 
(RATIFIED.) 

HENRY BOWYER, 
General, and Commander of the Forces. 

ALEX. COCURANE, 
Rear-Admiral, and Commander jri chief of his Majesty's ships, &c. 

General Return of ordnance and ordnance-stores, found in the citadel and 
butteries in the. island of St. Thomas, when given up to his Britannic Ma- 
jesty's forces brought against it by Rear-Admiral Sir Alexander Coch- 
r'ine and General Henry Bowyer. 

St. Thomas, December 22, 180,7. 
IRON ORDNANCE. 

Citadel. 

8 six-pounders, mounted on garrison carriages; 16 four-pounders, mount- 
ed on ditto ; 11 four-pounders, dismounted. 

JVater battery. 

13 cighteen-pounders, on hard wood garrison carriages; 1 eighteen,- 
poundrr, on a travelling carriage; 4 four-pounders on garrison carriages ; 
12 of different calibres, from twelve-pounaers to four-pounders, dismount- 
ed ; 10 of different calibres, said to be private property. 

East battery. 
5 ei^htecn-pounders, on garrison carriages; 2 six-pounders on ditto. 

Prince Frederic battery. 

2 eipjiteen-pounders, on garrison carriages; 1 eight- pounder, on ditto ; 
1 <i\-pounder, on ditto; 7 eight-pounders, dismounted ; 1 eighteen-pound- 
er, ditto. 

Total number of guns 91. 

BRASS ORDNANCE. 

5 our-pounders, field, upon light travelling carriages, sets of harness com- 
pl< to. 

Magazine, No. \. 

41 whole barrels of gunpowder ; 7 whole barrels of ditto, fine grain; 150 
rijidtceii-pounder cartridges, filled; 3 barrels of eight-pounder cartridges, 
tilled; '2 barrels of six-pounder cartridges, filled; 550 rounds of ammuni- 
tion tor one-pounder, fixed; 800 rounds of ammunition for ditto; 12 
\\holcbarreis of ball cartridges; 1 'half barrel of tubes; 6000 musket 
balls. 

Magaiint, No. 2. 

'2 nliolr barrels of gunpowder; 1 half barrel of ditto; 1 half barrel o| 

" 



KAYAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 165 

Magazine, No. 3. 

16 whole barrels of gunpowder ; 1 half barrel of ditto ; 10 quarter bar- 
rels of ditto; 5 whole barrek of ball cartridges. 

N. B. The gunpowder, &c. contained in No. 3, is said to be the pri- 
vate property of individuals, placed there for safety. 

Hound shot on the batteries. 
720 four-pounders; 1000 eighteen-pounders ; 200 six-pounders. 

Grape Shot on the batteries. 
70 eighteen-pounders. 

Temporary Magazine. 
120 eighteen-pounder cartridges, filled; 80 six-pounder cartridges, filled. 

Shot Yard. 

Round shot. 70 twenty-four pounders ; 200 twelve-pounders ; 80G 
eight-pounders; 1400 four-pounders. 

Shells 30 five and half-inch; 60 four-inch and two-fifths. 
In the shot-yard there fire thirty-two iron gtms of small calibre, un- 
serviceable, and three carronades and seven iron six and four-pounders, 
said to be the property of individuals. 

The small stores, which seem to be in small proportion, are not enu- 
merated, and will be taken account of hereafter. 

EDWARD STEHELIN, 
Lieut. Col. commanding Royal Artillery, West Indies. 

Return of ordnance and ordnance-stores found in the island of Sf. Croix at 
its surrender to his Britannic Majesty's arms, under the command of Sir 
Alexander Cockrane, K. B. and General Henry JBoa^cr, December 25, 
1807. 

Fredcrickstadt Fort, r West End. 

Iron guns on standing carriages, complete. 

13 eighteen-pounders; 12 six-pounders; 1 eight-pounder; 5 four-pound- 
ers. 

Iron guns dismounted, and unserviceable. 
2 twelve-pounders ; 5 six-pounders : 2 one and half-pounders. 
Iron swivels, serviceable. 

1 one and half-pounders. 

Iron carronadts, serviceable. 
11 Twelve-pounders. 

Brass hozcitzers, on travelling carriages. 

2 twenty-pounders, or five inch one-fifth. 

Brass guns, on travelling carriages. 

2 three-pounders, complete; 1 waggon complete for ditto; 6 whole 
powder barrels; Q whole barrels of musket ball cartridges; 208 paper car- 
tridges, filled with 7 Ibs. of powder; 247 ditto, filled with 3 Ibs. of pow- 
der ; 80 ditto, filled with 2 Ibs. of powder. 

Round shot. 785 eighteen-pounders; 43 twelve-pounders ; 602 six- 
pounders; ?3 four pounders; 24 three-pounders, fixed to powder. 104 
three-pounders, with wooden bottoms; 212 three-pounders. 

Case shot. 32 eighteen-pounders, each containing 100 balls; 25 six- 
j>ounders; 46 four-pounders ; 24 tbree-pounders, fixed to powder. 
' Grape-shot. 48 tighteen-pounders, each containing 100 balls. 

- headed shot. 63 eightee-pounders ; each containing 100 balls. 



166 NAY AT- HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1808. 

18 twenty-pounders, or five inch one-fifth, shells, fixed ; 1 coil of rope, 
9( inches, for gun-tackles; 77 serviceable muskets, with bayonets ; 100 
repairable muskets, with ditto; 30 repairable muskets, without bayonets, 
and wooden rain rods, received from the coast of Guinea ; 40 hand gre- 
nades, fixed; serviceable musketoons; 72 cartridge boxes, with black 
slings ; 56 bayonet slings ; 77 scabbards for bayonets ; 8 drummers' 
swords, with scabbards ; 19 pikes; 35 double blocks for running out the 
guns; 36 lintstocks; 12 powder horns. 

N. B. All the sinnll stores belonging to each piece of ordnance complete, 
too minute to mention here. 

There are twenty iron guns to the right and left of the fort of Frede- 
rickstadt, dispersed along the coast in small batteries, the stores of which 
are very inconsiderable. 

Fort Christian. 

9 iron eighteen-pounders, standing upon carriages complete ; 8 iron 
four- pounders, standing upon carriages, complete; 4 iron four-pounders, 
dismounted ; 200 paper cartridges, filled with 7 Ibs. of powder; 400 pa- 
per cartridges, filled with 3 Ibs. of powder. 

Shot fixed to wooden bottoms. 600 four-pounders. 

Cnse shot fixed to ditto. 100 four-pounders. 

Shot: fixed to powder. 200 four-pounders. 

Shell?. (JO twenty-pounders. 

Shot. l/>o2 eighteen-pounders; 575 twelve-pounders. 

40 twenty-pound carcasses ; 47 unserviceable guns of different calibres, 
dismounted. 

Shot. 329 eight-pounders; 314 six-pounders; 533 four-pounders; 620 
three-pounders. 

R.'MiiuIs of grape shot. 89 twelve-pounders;- 514 three-pounders; 20 
ten-pounders. 

Shells. 39 twenty-pounders ; 665 ten-pounders. 

\\hoie barrels of musket-powder; 70 good stand of arms, with accou- 
fimuts; the furniture and accoutrements of the Danish troops of ca- 
valrv, <jo. 

Artillery barracks in the town of Chrixlianstadt. 

slnis^ ;:tiiv. i three-pounder?. 

Rra.-s nowiucrs. '2 twenty-pounders. 

Louisa Augusta battery. 

Tr.-)7i mirr;. 6 twenty-pounders; 3 six-pounders. 
i"<>:. mortars. 2 twenty-pounders. 
'0 /minds of ammunition for each piece, 220. 

Sophia Frederica battery. 
v ;ror eighteen-pounders ; 20 rounds for each gun, 80. 

South Side battery. 
i-on f.iui -pounders ; 20 rounds to each gun, 40. 

Salmon Hill battery. 
2 ,n>i. loin-pounders; 20 rounds to each gun, 40. 

Cain bay. 
i-r i.,".:! -pounders; 20 rounds to each gun, 80. 

Salt river. 
: olve -pounders ; 20 rounds to each gun, 40. 

EDWARD STEHELIN, 
I.'j'tit. Col. commanding Royal Artillery, West Indies, 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 167 

ADMIRALTY OFFICE, FEB. 9, 1808. 

Copy of a letter from Rear-. Admiral the Hon. Sir Alexander Cochrane, K. B. 
Sec. to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated on board his Majesty & ship Bellcide, 
St. Croix, December 27, 1807. 

SIR, 

Be pleased to inform the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that in 
obedience to their lordships' orders, received by his Majesty's sloop 
Fawn, no time was lost in embarking the troops previously destined for the 
expedition against the Danish islands of St. Thomas and St. Croix. As 
the artillery, ordnance, and commissary stores had been for some time on 
board of vessels hired for the purpose, we were enabled to leave Carlisle 
bay on the 16th instant, General Bowyer doing me the honour of accom- 
panying me in the Belleisle. 

On the 1 9th we reached Sandy Point, St. Christopher's, and received 
some troops from that garrison ; and on the 21st, anchored off St. Tho- 
mas, where we were joined by reinforcements from Antigua and Gre- 
nada, and the troops held in readiness to land at a moment's notice. 

Brigadier-General Shipley and Captain Fahie had been previously sent 
forward in the Ethalion, charged with a summons to the Governor,, to 
surrender the island, a copy of which, and his answer are enclosed. Soon 
after they returned, accompanied by three Danish officers, Major General 
Maitland, and Captain Pickmore of the Kamillies, were sent on shore with 
powers to negociate with the governor for capitulating, which was agreed 
to on the enclosed terms, and signed in the evening. 

Having on the morning of the 22d taken possession of the island and its 
dependencies, the first division of the troops intended for the attack of 
St. Croix was embarked in the frigates and sloops of war; and the 
same officers again sent forward, charged with a similar summons to the 
governor. On the morning of the _ 24th, they rejoined with an answer, 
and about noon the squadron anchored off the town of Frederickstadt, 
when three Danish 'officers (as at St. Thomas) came on board, and it 
was arranged that the governor should, on the following morning, 2ath, 
meet Major-General Maitland and Captain Pickmore, to settle the terms 
of capitulation, which was accordingly done, and the fort taken possession 
of by the troops in the evening ; and last night the garrison and towu 
of Christianstadt, on the other side of the island, were also given up. 

Copies of the several papers before-mentioned are herewith enclosed, 
together with returns of ordnance on both islands,* and a list of ships and 
vessels found in the harbours. 

It affords me much satisfaction that this expedition has terminated with- 
out loss to either party. Defence on the part of the enemy would only 
have been attended with unnecessary eliusion of blood, as their force 
could not have withstood that brought against them. 

I have the pleasure to state the utmost cordiality existed between the 
two services employed on this expedition ; and I feel truly sensible of the 
readiness with which General Bowyer met my wishes, in whatever related 
to the public service. 

Captain Parkinson, of his Majesty's sloop Favourite, is charged with 
this despatch, who will be able to give their lordships such farther itifoix 
uiation as they may desire., 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

ALEX. COCHRANE. 



* Tke same as thoss transmitted by General Ewwyer. 
8 



168 NAVAL HISTCHY OF THE PRESENT YEAK, I808i 

A list of vessels found in the harbour of Si. Thomas on the capitulation of 
that island, December 21, 1807. 

American ship Catherine, of 2 guns, pierced for 10, and 275 tons in bal- 
last ; Hambro' ship Sophia Magdalene, of 2 guns, and 200 tons, laden with 
150 casks of coffee, and 22 casks of sugar: English ship Fly, of 130 tons, 
laden with ship stores ; Danish ship Altona, of 250 tons, laden with ship 
stores ; American ship Elizabeth, pierced for 16 guris, and 250 tons, in 
ballast; English ship Alexander, laden with indigo, cotton, copper, and 
dry wood; Hambro ship Lucretia Margaretta, of 10 guns, and 250 tons, 
laden with 92 hogsheads of sugar, 1 10 cases of ditto, 600 bales of tobacco, 
and 13 bales of indigo; Danish brig Neptune, of 118 tons, in ballast; a 
Swedish brig, of 70 tons, in ballast? Danish brig Fame, of 112 tons, in 
ballast; English brig Navigation, of 2 guns, and 120 tons; Danish brig 
Host, of 122 tons, in ballast ; a Danish schooner, pierced for 10 guns, and- 
93 tons, in ballast ; Danish schooner Hope and Esperance, of 30 tons, in 
ballast; Danish schooner Nancy, of 14 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner 
Nancy, of 12 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner Experirtrent, of 10 tons, 
iu ballast ; Danish schooner Mary, of 20 tons, in ballast ; Danish schooner 
Amphion, of 55 tons; Danish schooner Courier, pierced for 10 guns, and 
<H tons, in ballast; Danish schooner Phrenix, pierced 1 for 16 guns, and 
100 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner Louisa, of 64 tons, in ballast; Da- 
nish schooner Ellenora, of 74 tons, in ballast ; Danish schooner William 
and George, of 30 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner Flying Fish, of 30 
tons, in ballast ; Danish schooner Alexandria, of 75 tons, in iron ballast ; 
Danish schooner I'hrcnix, of 84 tons, in ballast ; Danish schooner Dolphin, 
of o'O tons m ballast ; Danish schooner Esperance, of 24 tons, in ballast ; 
Danish schooner Joseph, of 35 tons, in ballast ; English schooner Laura, 
of 35 tons, in iron ballast ; Danish schooner Antoinette, of 64 tons, in 
ballast ; English schooner Hippomenes, of 100 tons, laden with casks ; Da- 
nish schooner Eliza, of 97 tons, laden with ship stores; Hamborough 
schooner .Tung Jacob, of 100 tons, with ballast and stores ; English schooner 
Flura, of 90 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner Betsey, of 40 tons, in bal- 
last; Danish schooner Teaser, of 42 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner Ci- 
ti/cii, of 38 tons, in ballast ; Danish schooner Lark in, of 44 tons, in bal- 
last; Danish schooner Hopej* of 20 tons, in ballast; American schooner 
j 'm -ndsliip, of 1 ()0 tons, laden with 40 bags -of cocoa, and 4 barrels of 
iiour; Danish schooner Fortune, of 32 tons, in ballast ; Danish schooner 
Harriot, of 56 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner, pierced for 10 guns, of 
'0 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner Cosmopolite, of 94 tons, in ballast ; 
J)ai:ih schooner Jenette, of 45 tons, i:> ballast ; Danish schooner, pierced 
lor 10 gniii, uf 7!5 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner Mogadore, pierced 
for o tiims, of 7tf tons, in ballast ; English schooner Matilda, pierced for 
I'' <jims, of 90 tons, laden with mill timber; Danish schooner William, 
priced Mr 1 1 gnus, and 108 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner John Wall, 
jiit-iceii fur 11 iimis, arid 90 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner Helena, 
jticicfd tor 12 nuns, and 58 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner Jane, pierced 
:'nr iy <_;uiis, and 116 tons, in ballast; Danish schooner Peggy, of 40 tons, 
in li'iiia-'t ; Danisl; sloop Favourite, of 37 tons, laden with water casks; 
Dan.-ii -1< i,i> Maria, of 36 tons, in ballast; Danish sloop Sally, of 60 tons, 
in I' i ! ;;i-t ; ijtinibh sloop Maria, of 30 tons, in ballast; Danish sloop Inde- 
].( ndini f, of ;")ij tons, in ballast; Danish sloop Fortune, of 74 tons, in hat- 
l-t>t ; Danish sloop John and Jane, of 54 tons, in ballast; Danish sloop 
JV-.t.ct. of 1'J ton-,, in ballast ; Danish sloop Mary Allcta, of 70 tons, iu 
h;vlh;::i; a. Danish sloop of 50 tons, in ballast: English sloop Maria, of 8O 
Co.",-, ia baliur-t ; sloop Antelope, pierced for 10 guns, and 70 tons, ia 
liilU.-:- ALEX. COCHHANE. 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 169 

A list of vessels jound in the harbour of Christianstadt, St. Croix, Decem- 
ber 25, 1807. 

Danish ship James, in ballast; Danish schooner Abecorie, in ballast ; 
Danish schooner Princess Carolina, in ballast; Danish schooner William, 
in ballast ; Danish schooner Dart, in ballast ; Danish schooner Frede- 
rick, in ballast; Danish schooner Dorothey, in ballast; Danish schooner 
Sincerity, in ballast ; Danish schooner Director, in ballast ; Danish 
schooner Mercury, in ballast; Danish schooner Venner, in ballast; Da- 
nish schooner La Chiir, in ballast ; Danish sloop Charlotte, in ballast ; 
Danish sloop The Sisters, in ballast; Danish sloop Evin, in ballast ; Da- 
nish sloop Caroline, in ballast ; Danish sloop Mary, in ballast; Danish, 
sloop Industry, in ballast ; Danish sloop Experiment, in ballast; Danish 
sloop Hivain, in ballast; Danish sloop Two Friends, in ballast. 

FEBRUARY 9. 

Copy of a letter from Rear- Admiral the Hon. Sir Alexander Cochrane, K. B, 
i;c. to the lion. W. W. Pole, dated on board his Majesty's ship Belleisle. 
St. Croix, December 27, 1807. 

SIR, 

The enclosed copy of a letter, which I have received from Lieutenant 
Carr, commanding the Attentive gun-brig, acquainting me with tlic capture 
of a Spanish privateer, I send for the information of the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Admiralty. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

ALEX. COCHRANE. 

His Majesty's gun-brig Attentive, Grenada, 
SIR, October 24, 1; 07. 

I beg leave to inform you of my having captured, on the 17th instant, 
between Tobago and Trinidad, the Spanish privateer lugger Neustra Se- 
nora del Carmen, commanded by Don Thomaso Lisaro, rowing 40 sweeps, 
mounting two carriage guns, with swivels, small arms, &c. and carrying 
sixty-three men, three of whom were wounded in the chase. She was only 
fifteen days from Barcelona, and had captured the sloop Harriot, of St. 
Vincent. I have the honour to be, &c. 

ROBERT CARR. 
Rear-Admiral the Hon. Sir Alex. Cochrane, K. B. fyc. 

FEBRUARY 13. 

CPy f a ^tter from Admiral Montagu, 4 c- to the Hon. W. W. Pok, dated 

on board the Royal William, at Spithead, the \\th imt. 
SIR, 

I have much pleasure in acquainting yau, for the information of the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that his Majesty's sloop Port Ma- 
hon, with a French privateer she had captured, is arrived at Spithead : 
the particulars of which are stated in the enclosed letter from Captain, 
Chambers. i have the honour to be, &c. 

GEO. MONTAGU. 

His Majesty's sloop Port Mahon, at Spithead, 
SIR, -lOtk Feb. 1808. 

On the 8th instant, at two P.M. Beachey-head bearing east six leagues, 
chase was given by tiie sloop I command to a lugger bearing S. W. whish 



170 5AVA.I, HISTORY OF THE PRK3KNT YEAR, 1&0&. 

-we came up with at ten P. M. and captured ; she proving le Furct Frenrk 
privateer, of Havre, out one day, commanded by J. B. Villain, carrying 
sixteen guns, ailcl having forty-seven men ; she had not made any capture 
this cruise, which is her second. 

I am, &c. 

S. CHAMBERS. 

7*0 George Mantapu, Esq. Admiral of the White, 
Comma iider-in- Chief, Sfc. 

FEBRUARY 23. 

Cpy of a letter from Admiral Montagu, fyc. id the Hon. W. W. Tolf r 
dated on board the Royal William, at Spithcud, the 20th iuslant. 

SIR, 

Be pleased to lay before the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
tlie enclosed letter from Lieutenant Perdricati, commanding his Ma- 
jesty's gun-brig Hardy, stating the capture of La Hcvois French li 
privateer. f have the honour lo be, &c. 

GEO. MOXTAfU'. 

His Majesty's gun-brig Hardy, off Lit lie Hump ton, 
SIP, February 19, loOJJ. 

I beg leave to acquaint you, that at eight o'clock this morning, Heachy 
Head bearing K. by N. about five leagues, I discovered a lugger close in 
shore, and made sail in chase of her. Shortly after observed a revenue 
cutter also in chase, astern of us ; and from her superior sailing, came up 
with her first. Two other cutters joined in the chase. At tea minutes 
past eleven she struck, and proved to be la Itevois, Captain^Friesmanton, 
mounting sixteen guns, from two to six-pounders, and forty-eight men ; 
left Dieppe on the 18th instant, and had made no capture. 

I have the honour to he, &c. 

STEPH. PEHDRIEAU. 
7*o George Montagu, Esq. Admiral of the White, 4'C. 



Courts Partial. 



OX "Monday, February l,a court martial was held on board the Gla- 
diator, on Captain VVoodriff, late of his Majesty's ship Calcutta, to 
account, for the loss of that ship, by being captured by the enemy. 

The following letter from Captain Woodnff to the secretary of the Ad- 
miralty, relating the circumstances which led to his being taken, was read 
to the court : 

Majcstcux, Teneriffe, November 7, 1805. 

Tn obedience to the orders of the Right Honourable the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Admiralty, I waited at St. Helena with his Majesty's ship 
Calcutta, then under my command, until the morning of the 3d of August, 
collecting such of the Honourable Company's and other ships, as might ar- 
rive, and were willing to take the protection of his Majesty's ship. On that 
morning I sailed, having under my conroy the Company's extra-ship Indus, 
from Madras ; the African, southern whaler, from Desolation ; the Fox, 
whaler, from Mosambique channel ; the Grand Sachem, whaler, from the 

7 



NAVAL HISTOKY OF THE PRE3EXT YEAH, 1808. 171 

const of Peru, bound to Milford ; all full ships : the Wilhehnina, under 
Prussian colours, detained by the Calcutta on lier passage out } and the 
Carolina, a large Swedish ship from China, which claimed my protection. 
Nothing material happened during the passage until the 14th of Septem- 
ber, when I fell in with the ship Brothers, of London, from Tobago, be- 
insi one of a very large convoy from the Leeward Islands, under the protec- 
tion of his Majesty's ship Illustrious, and from which the Brothers hud 
separated in a gale of wind, with many other ships: this ship being very 
leaky, and in much want of provisions, the master claimed my protection 
and assistance ; I accordingly gave him instructions, and sent two men to 
assist at the pumps ; but she was so ill found, and sailed so heavy, that 
she detained me and my original convoy, at least one- third of our daily di-s- 
tance. 

On the evening of the 24th, the Grand Sachem requested permission to 
part company, being bound to Milford, which she did accordingly the 
next morning. We were then to the northward in the stream of Scilly, 
and in long. 12. W At noon we saw several ships to the W. W. X. \V. it be- 
ing Chen nearly calm ; but a light breeze springing up from the westward, 
which they brought up with them, enabled them to near us last. I consi- 
dered them in pursuit, but they were soill too distant to form any positive 
idea of their being friends or enemies; and night coming on, I kept ber- 
tween them and the convoy. 

At day-light (on the <26'th) they had neared us considerably, and the 
Brothers s liling so much worse than the rest of the convoy, kept me con- 
siderably astern : had I not been unfortunately detained by this ship, all 
would have been well. At C A. M. observing the number of strange ships 
increased to thirteen, apparently large vessels, closely connected, and evi- 
dently in chase of us, I made the necessary arrangements for the escape 
of my convov, should they prove an enemy's squadron. At 11, I made 
the private signal, aud waited until noon for its being answered, which did 
not take place. I then huilcd the Indus, and informed the captain that it 
was an enemy's squadron in chase of us, and ordered him to make all 
possible s:iil a-head with the convoy; and at the same time the signal was 
made to them, ' that an enemy was KI sight.' 

The enemy nearing us fast, I soon perceived their force to be a three- 
decker, ai.d four ships of the line, with frigates and other vessels; and as 
I saw it was next to impossible lor both his Majesty's ship and the convoy 
to escape, I determined to protect the Litter, and favour their escape at all 
events. My own convoy having made all sail a-head, I again dropped 
astern to speak the Brothers, and recommended him to haul upon a wind 
to the northward, which he immediately did. I then made sail to inter- 
cept a large frigate which was drawing up fast with the convoy. At 3 
P. M. this frigate being on our starboard bow, having passed me out of gun- 
shot, began tiring her stern chase guns, which we returned with a bow 
chase. This continued until, by the frigate's shortening sail, we got 
abreast of her, when both ships opened their fire, but without any mate- 
rial enx'Ct, in consequence of the distance the frigate preserved by her su- 
perior sailing, and my leading ulTtothe southward to favour the couvoy 
escaping. This distant cannonade continued upwards of an hour, when the 
frigate hauled entirely out of gun-shot. During all this time I kept run- 
ning to the southward, in hopes of drawing the enemy's squadron after 
me ; and I am happy to find it had the desired effect, for this partial ac- 
tion brought the whole of their squadron down, except t'ae Sylph brig, 
which was detached after the Brothers. At 5, the headmost line-of-battle- 
fchip began tiring hnr bow-chase guns, which was returned by the Calcutta's 
item chase guns, still running to th? southward under all possible sail, 



172 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1808. 

but with very little wind. As the line-of-hattle-ship being close upon oar 
Starboard quarter, and the Thetis about a quarter of a mile on our larboard 
quarter, I was of opinion the sooner I attacked the line-of-battle ship 
the better, as disabling her was the onto chacce remaining of escape ; I 
immediately put the helm a-port, and when within pistol-shot commenced 
the action, which was instantly returned by the enemy, and continued with- 
out intermission for fifty minutes. 

As' I was under the necessity of bringing the ship to action under all 
possible sail, she was soon completely unrigged by the enemy's tire. Find- 
ing the ship totally unmanageable, and our escape rendered impossible, by 
the near approacli of the rest of the enemy's squadron, I saw that it would 
be only sacrificing the lives of my people to contend any longer ; and I 
tras therefore under the painful necessity of ordering his Majesty's colours 
to be hauled downi At day-light the next morning, I Lad much satis- 
faction in finding that his Majesty's ship had not been uselessly sacri- 
ficed, for the ships of the convoy bein^ all out of s:ht -'except the Bro- 
thers, which was brought in by the Sylph) I trust they will arrive in safety. 
I am further gratified, that, in consequence of their escape, information-will 
be given of this powerful squadron's cruising immediately in the track of 
OTir homeward-bound trade; and the certainty, if my convoy arrived safe, 
of a superior squadron being immediately sent after them, determined 
the commodore to quit that latitude, and run to the S. \V. but not till he 
had captured seven sail of the lllustrious's convoy, and destroyed twenty- 
four neutrals in the course of the cruise, to prevent information of his 
situation. 

During the fiction both with 1'Armede frigate, nnd la Magnanime line- 
of-battle-ship, though in the face of the squadron, the officers and men I 
had the honour to command did their duty like men, so truly courageous, 
that no superior force had power to depress them. Much praise is due 
to my first-lieutenant, Mr. J. Tuckev, to Lieutenant Richard Donovan, 
and Acting-lieutenant John Collas, for their spirited conduct and active 
exertions during the pursuit by tlie enemy and subsequent action ; and 
though his Majesty's ship has ben captured, I trust the country has been 
materially benefited by the escape of my convoy and its subsequent con- 
sequences. 

Last of the enemy's squadron. 

Guns. Men. 

La Majesteux 110, and C brass howitzers IJ50 

La Magnanime 74, and 4 ditto 700 

La Loon 74, and 4 ditto 700 

La Jcmappe 74, and 6" ditto 700 

1 a So;,firein 74, and 4 ditto 700 

*L'Armede 40, and 4 ditto 350 

La (iloire 40, and 4, ditto 350 

Ln Thetis 40, and 4 ditto 350 

Lc Svlph brig 18, 120 

Le Paltneure brig 16, K'O 

Evidence having been heard in support of the above Ittter, the Court 
agreed, that t'u> conduct of Captain VVoodrifF was that of a brave, cool, 
and i;itre'pi<] officer,; and did adjudge him, his officers, and ship's company, 
to be inns 1 honorably acquitted. Captain Har^ood, president. 

* i MIS - .ip first engaged the Calcutta; afterwards la Thetis; and then 
la Magiuinime engaged and took her. 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 173 

A court martial assembled on board the Magnanime in Sheeraess har- 
bour, to try Mr. John Brenhohn, master of his Majesty's ship Centurion, 
on charges exhibited against him by the captain of the said ship for drunk- 
enness, &c. when the charges being fully proved he was dismissed his Ma- 
jesty's service. 

A court martial lias been held on board the Magnanime, at Sheerness, 
on Mr. Albany Thomas Williams, assistant-surgeon of the Skylark, on 
charges of having absented himself from his duty as assistant-surgeon of 
that sloop. The charges were proved ; but the court, in consideration of 
his having been so short a time in the service, and his ignorance thereof, 
do only adjudge him to be dismissed the ship, and placed at the disposal 
of the Commander-in-chief. 

On Saturday a court martial was held on board the Magnanime at Sheer- 
ness, on Mr. D. Cunningham, boatswain of the Proserpine, for drunken- 
ness, &c. The court sentenced him to be dismissed his ship. Captain Har- 
good, president. 

On the 29th ult. a court martial was held on board the Magnanime, at 
Sheerness, on Lieutenant Liiivman, of the Skylark sloop, on charges pre- 
ferred by Captain Hurt of that sloop, for drunkenness and unofficer-like 
conduct; wheu there appeared a flaw in the indictment; the court, there- 
fore, did not proceed in the trial. 



IPromotions ant) appointments. 

Lieutenant Oxley is appointed to the Porpoise, at New South Wales. 

Mr. G. Parsons is appointed hospital mate at Haiiar. 

M. Thomas M'Xeece is promoted to the rank of surgeon, and appointed 
to the Pilot sloop, at Portsmouth. 

Mr. Robert Prideaux is appointed to be surgeon of the Sprightly cutter. 

Mr. Philip Lowry, late of the Sprightly, is appointed to the Erebus sloop, 
Captain Autridge, at Plymouth. 

Mr. Stephen Mason is appointed to be assistant surgeon of the Trent, 
hospital ship, at the Cove of Cork. 

Rear-admiral Sir William Sydney Smith is appointed commander in 
chief of liis Majesty's ships and vessels on the coasts of the Brazils. 

Mr. Gordon, midshipman of his Majesty's late ship Hussar, a prisoner :a 
France, and who made his escape, has been promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant. 

Mr. Stephen Jones, of the Prince Frederick, is appointed assistant sur- 
geon of the Presidente. 

Captain E. B. Bettesworth is appointed to command his Majesty's ship 
Tartar, at Deptford. 

Captain Daniel M'Leod is appointed to command his Majesty's ship Vic- 
tory ; which ship the immortal Nelson fell in the glorious victory off Tra- 
fal ij ar She is to be the flag-ship of Rear-admiral Otwav. 

O o j * 

Captain IL>n. F. P. Irby is appointed to command his Majesty's ship 
Amelia, at Sheerness. 

Captain J. Serrel is appointed to command his Majesty's ship Victory, 
vice M'Leod. 

Captain Brodie is appointed to the Hyperion, a new frigate, at Chatham. 



174 HAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 

Captain W. Hargood, who commanded the Bclloklp, in the clorious ric- 
tory off Cape Trafalgar, is appointed to command his Majesty's ship 
Northumberland. 

Captain M'Lcod is appointed to the Minotaur. 

Lieutenant Marshall is appointed to be first lieutenant of Admiral Russet's 
flag-ship, the Majestic, in Yarmouth Roads. 

Doctor Keen, late surgeon of the Ville de Paris, whilst bearing the flac; 
of the Hon. Admiral Cornwallis, is appointed to supersede Mr. Richard 
Lloyd, as surgeon of his Majesty's hospital-ship Matilda, at Woolwich. 

The Hon. Court of Directors of the East India Company have, with their 
accustomed liberality, presented Captain Richard Rolles, of his Majesty's 
ship Lion, with the sum of 500/. for the purchase of a piece of plate, a- an 
acknowledgment of his services in convoying home several valuable East 
India ships from St. Helena. 

Captain Manley Dixon is appointed to command his Majesty's ship 
Queen. 

Captain Pownall B . Pellevr, son of Sir Edward Pellew, is appointed to 
command his Majesty's ship Psyche, of 36 guns, in India. 

Mr. Jeans, midshipman of the Veteran, is promoted to be lieutenant of 
the Hunter sloop. 

Captain M'Leod is appointed to the Barfleur ; Captain Fyfie to the com- 
mand of the Hebe; and Captain Douglas tot he command of the Reindeer 

sloop. 

Mr. Stevenson Eden is appointed to be surgeon of his Majesty's Ship 
Victory ; Mr. Joseph Dallaway is appointed to be surgeon ot the Princess ; 
and Mr. David Cowan to be surgeon of the Gladiator. 

Mr. C. Matson is appointed to be purser of the Lcander ; Mr. J. Arch- 
deacon to be purser of his Majesty's ship Lion; and Mr. J. Lockhnrt to be 
purser of the Eugenie sloop. 

Captain Thomas Boys is appointed to the Saturn, and Captain Hugh 
Cameron to the Achates sloop, at Plymouth, 

Mr. Leyson Rees is appointed surgeon of the Alexandria ; Mr. Henry 
Plowman, surgeon of the Lion; Mr. Robert Riddell, to be surgeon of the 
Vengeance; and Mr. R. Cockerill, to be assistant surgeon of the Amelia. 

Mr. Emaley is appointed to be purser of the Semiramis ; Mr. W. Manlev 
to be purser of the Christian VHth. late Danish ship ; Mr. G. Mitchencr to 
Le purser of the Crown Princess Maria, late Danish ship; Mr. J. S. Hccl- 
bcrt is appointed purser of the Acklam. 

Mr. Jacob Farrington is appointed to be surgeon of t'lc Braavc. 

M. C. Waldgrave is appointed surgeon and agent for sick and wounded 
seamen, at Milford. 

Captain Parkinson, who brought the despatches from Sir Alexander 
Cochrane, rel itive to the surrender of the Danish West India islands, is 
promoted to the command of hi* Majesty's ship Ardent. 

Mr. Thomas Alexander is appointed surgeon of the RevolutionaJre; Mr. 
Britum to be surgeon of tlie Tartar ; and Mr. Burnside, surgeon of the 
Resolution. 

Mr. James Baker is appointee} to be pvtrser of the Dartmouth; 
Thomas Leonard, to be purser of the Curacoa; and Wui. HuuiiuouU to be 
VUIV..T of the Sauta Dorothea. 



K.vVAL HISTORY OF TIIE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 175 

Captain Bell is appointed to command the Shark sloop ; Captain Bayn- 
tun it> the Leviathan; and Captain Barnett to command the Africa. 

Mr. James W. Taylor is appointed surgeon of his Majesty's ship Jamaica^ 
Mr. Andrew Page to be assistant surgeon of the Turbulent, gun brig; 
and Mr. Henry Hart to Le assistant surgeon of the Orion. 

Captain Miller is appointed to command his Majesty's ship Thetis. 

Mr. John \V Atkins is appointed to be hospital mate at Mill-prison 
hospital. 
Captain II. Parker is promoted to the rank of post captain. 

Lieutenant C. Owen is appointed to the Dreadnought; Lieutenant Hen- 
derson is promoted to the rank of commander; and Mr. Jeans promoted 
to the rank or" lieutenant. 

His Majesty's ship Thisbe is ordered to he commissioned for the flag-ship 
of Vice-admiral Sir Henry Edwin Stanhope, commander in chief of his Ma- 
jesty's ships and vessels in the liner Thames. 

Captain M. Malbon is appointed to command his Majesty's ship 
Adamant. 

Mr. John Gray is appointed to be surueon of the Entreprenante cutter; 
and Mr. Patrick Donelly to be surgeon of the Wolverene. 

Captain G. Hope is appointed to command his Majesty's ship Pompee. 

Lieutenant Henderson, who was the bearer of the despatches from Rear- 
admiral Sir Samuel Hood, announcing die surrender of the island of 
Madeira, is promoted to the rank of commander. 

Mr. W. M'Kinley is appointed to be surgeon of his Majesty's sloop Cyg- 
net ; Mr. Obadiah Pine to be surgeon of his Majesty's sloop HyperJou. 

Captain \V. Bligh is recalled from the government of the colony of Xew 
South Wales. 

Captain Heathcotc is appointed to command his Majesty's ship Lion ? 
vice Rolles. 

Lieutenant Muir, on the death of Captain Sheriff, of the Curieux, is ap- 
pointed to act as commander of that sloop. 

Rear-admiral Sir William Sydney Smith has shifted his fla^ from the 
Ville de Paris to the Minotaur, and sailed from the squadron off Lisbon to 
the Brazils, being superseded by Vice-admiral Sir Charles Corfin, and Rear- 
admiral Otvvay. 

Captain J. L. O'Connor is appointed to command the Ned Elvcn, Danish 
sloop at Woolwich. 

A list of midshipmen who have passed for lieutenants : George Haye, 
John Thompson, Thomas Shapcote, F. Goodench, James Banee, William 
Leetman, David Sedley, James Shipley, Percy Simpson, Thomas Doorue, 
R. Incledon, Thomas Bradish, T. W. Carue, J. F. Chapman, Thomas Hill, 
Charles Pearson. 

BIRTHS. 

Of a son, at her apartments in Greenwich Hospital,! he lady of Frederick 
Bedford, Esq. of that institution. 

Mrs. Lawrence, daughter of Wm. Miller, Esq. of the royal navy, of a son. 

At Captain Hope's house, ia the Admiralty, Lady Ann Johnstone Hope, 
of a son, 



17(5 XAVAt HISTQRV OF "EHE PntSEN'T YEAH, 1808. 

MARRIAGES. 

Lately, at Rams^ate, W. Clarke, Esq. of Northumberland, to Miss 
Rains, eldest daughter of Captain Stephen Rains, R. N. commanding the 
sea feneibles at that place. 

Captain Bedford, of his Majesty's ship Ville de Paris, to Miss Fanshawe, 
daughter of Commissioner Fanshawe, of the dock-yard, Plymouth. 

Lately, at Kilkeedy church, Limerick, Lieutenant-Colonel Anderson, of 
the royal marines, to Miss Cooper, of Cooper-hill. 

On Thursday, at Mary-le-bont church, Captiiin Walter Bathurst, of the 
Salsette frigate, to Miss Marianne Wood, of Manchester-street, Manches- 
ter-square. 

On Monday last, at Fareham, by the Rev. John Aubrey Wools, 
Mr. Barney, to Miss Chads, the eldest daughter of Henry Chads, Esq. late 
of Chichester, captain in the royal navy. 

Lately, Lieutenant Newman, R. N. to Miss Ilocart of Weymouth. 

OBITUARY. 

On the 31st of October last, aged 17, on board the Kent man of war, 
after a few days illness, Mr. J. Armstrong, only son of the late J. Arm- 
strong, Esq. of Pimlico, Middlesex. 

Mr. Duvan, gunner of his Majesty's yacht Royal Charlotte, at Dept- 
ford. 

Lately, in the West Indies, in action with a French privateer, Captain 
Sheriff, of his Majesty's sloop Curieux, whoso manly heart was fraught with 
every generous and heroic quality. 

Mr. Richard Riley, midshipman, and Mr. Eagersfield, clerk of his Ma- 
jesty's gun-brig, Sparkler, were both drowned when that vessel was wrecked 
on the coast of Holland last month. 

Lately, in the West Indies, on board the Firefly schooner, Lieutenant 
Price, commander of that vessel, together with the whole of the crew, by 
striking on a sunken rock. 

On Sunday the 14th inst. Mi^s Martha Dewsnup, second daughter of 
Joseph Dewsnap, Esq. one of the officers of the royal hospital at Green- 
wich. 

Lieutenant Matthews of the Hunter sloop. 

Lieutenant Read (Royal Marines), of the Daedalus. 

Mr. Maude, purser of the Chichester. 

Mr. John Cole, purser of the Adamant. 

On Thursday morning, the I6th instant, at her father's house in Park- 
row, Greenwich, Miss Jessy Kerr, only daughter of Captain Robert Kerr,, 
of the royal navy. 

On Monday the 1st inst. at Glo'ster-place, Mnry-le-bone, Miss Octavia 
Ann Ilardacre, youngest daughter of H. J. Hardacre, Esq. II. N. 

Lately, at sea, Captain Deans, commander of the Prince of Wales 
packet. 

On the Q2d instant, Mrs. Williamson, of Chapel-street, Bedford-row, 
wid(Mv of the lace Captain James Wiiiiarasoa of the Ganges East Inhu- 
man. 




ULJLER 



BtOGRAPHICJb MEMOIR 

OF 

CAPTAIN EDWARD BULLER, 

OF THE ROYAL NAVY. 



" Ever faithful, vigilant, and brave." GLOVER. 

"TTT is with much pleasure that we lay before our readers the 
-**- following brief, but authentic memoir, of a gallant and much 
respected officer. 

The name of Duller has been justly celebrated, not only in the 
nary, but in the church, and in the law ; as the characters of the 
late Bishop of Exeter, uncle to Captain Buller, and the late Sir 
Francis Buller, Bart, his cousin, who was successiTely one of the 
Judges of the Court of King's Bench and of the Common Pleas, 
very amply testify. They are indeed too well known to require 
any panegyric from us. 

The Buller family is of ancient standing, and has mostly resided 
in the counties of .Devon and Cornwall, where its respective 
branches have long been in possession of considerable landed 
estates. 

Captain Edward Buller, the subject of this memoir, is the son 
of the late Mr- John Builer, who was, for many years, the second 
lord of the admiralty, and afterwards one of the lords of the 
treasury. 

He was born on the 24th of December, 1764; and he received 
his education at Westminster school. At the age of twelve, he 
commenced his naval career, as midshipman, under the particular 
auspices and protection of that able and meritorious officer, the 
late Lord Mulgrave.* He was with his lordship, on board tho 
Courageux, in Admiral KeppePs engagement with the Count 
d'Orviliicrs, on the 27th of July, 1778;+ and continued with 
him, till he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, at a very 

* A portrait and biographical memoir of Lord Mulgrave are given in the 
eighth volume of the NAVAL CHRONICLE, page 89, 

i For the particulars of this engagement, the reader is referred to the 
NAVAL CH&OMCUE, Vol. VII. page 297; and Vol. VIII. page iOl. 

. ftot. XIX. A A 



178 WOGRA.PKTCAT, MEMOIR OF 

early age; when he removed into the Sceptre, of 64 guns, thefl 
commanded by Captain Graves. The Sceptre being under orders 
for the East Indies, Lieutenant Bullcr proceeded thither, and was 
in most/of Sir Ed\vard Hughes's actions with the French admiral, 
Suffrein, in the Indian seas.* In one instance he was slightly 
wounded ; and on every occasion he displayed the most deter- 
mined gallantry and resolution. 

In 1783, he was promoted to the rank of commander, iu the 
Chaser sloop of war ; aqd, in the month of November, of the 
same year, he was exposed, in that vessel, to a dreadful hurricane, 
on the coast of Coromandel. Indeed the Chaser was supposed, 
by every person at Madras and Bombay, to have gone down, and 
that every soul on board had perished ; for, so tremendous was. 
the gale, it would have been impossible to stand the sea, with any 
hope of safety. From Captain Bullet's promptitude of judgment, 
however, and from the knowledge that he had acquired by sound- 
ings, to which he was invariably accustomed to resort, when in, 
shallow water, he was enabled to run the Chaser yp the gulf of 
JMar.ar. which divides the island of Ceylon from the Coromandel 
coast a passage which no vessel of any description had ever ven- 
tured before and thus to ride the gale out in perfect safety. 

Shortly after this event, the Chaser returned to Europe ; where, 
from her shattered and decayed state, it was scarcely expected 
that she could arrive. By unremitting exertion, however, Cap- 
tain .Buller brought her safely to England; and she was then 
immediately paid off. 

in the following year (1784) he was appointed to the Brisk, 
another sloop of war, in which he sailed, for Halifax, and was 
there' particularly active in his endeavours to suppress smuggling. 

1'rcni his arrival on the American station, to the period of his 
quitting it, comprising a space of six years, Captain Buller was 
also iudcfat^'ibly employed in surveying the different coasts, har- 
bours. &c. of which he ma-Je himself completely master. 

The foil i.! .'. i'ig incident, so truly honourable to this officer, is 
here v.tll d;,c::\ing of notice, In April, 1789, a report being in 

r >:i I'.fhsai ! Hughes's memoir and portrait will be found in the ninth 
voiii,;.f ,)t the NAVAL CHRONICLE. Accounts of the engagements here 

J::ij KJ, Linear from page 89 to page }08, 



CAPTAIN EDWARD SULLER. 179 

Circulation, that a large merchant ship had just been wrecked on 
that extremely dangerous spot, the Isle of Sable; and that part of 
the cre\v were on the island, without -any means or prospect of 
escaping from the horrors of starvation, which threatened them; 
Captain Buller, impressed with that generous sentiment of huma- 
nity, by which his conduct has been uniformly characterised, 
solicited, and obtained permission, from the commanding officer, 
to go in quest of the supposed sufferers. Accordingly, after 
anchoring his sloop within a convenient distance of the shore, 
which was entirely composed of shifting sand-banks, he endea- 
voured, at the most imminent ri-k, for three successive days, to 
land ; but, finding the probability of effecting his object to be 
quite hopeless, having in vain fired repeated signal guns from the 
ship, and having at length ascertained, that the report which had 
led him thither was altogether groundless, he relinquished the 
attempt, and returned to Halifax.* 

On the 19th of July, 1790, Captain Buller obtained post rank, 
in the Dido frigate ; and, in the same year, he received the hand 
of Miss Gertrude Van Cortlandt, the fifth daughter of Colonel Van 
Cortlandt ; a lady, as we hare been informed, of great worth, 
beauty, and accomplishments. 

After his marriage, he brought the Dido to England, and paid 
her ofF at the end of the same year. 

During the peace, in 1792, he was appointed to the command 
of the Porcupine frigate, then on Channel service ; from which hs 
\vas removed into the Adventure, of 44 guns. In the latter ship, 
he had the good fortune to escape from the French fleet (which, 



* Tlie Tile of Sable lies thirty leagues to the south-east of Cape Breton, 
in longitude 59 deg. 50 min. west of Greenwich, and io latitude 44 deg. 
15 inin. north. Having lofty sand hills, it may be seen, in clear weather, 
seven or eight leagues off. It has a sand-bank at each end, one of which 
runs north east and south-weft. 

In 1598, M. de Lery intended to settle a French colony on this island; 
but, as Father C baric voix observed, there never was a place more unfit for 
such an undertaking, it being small, and without any port, or product, 
excepting briars. The Isle of Sable is very narrow, and bears the shape of 
a bow. in the middle of it is a lake, five leagues in compass, and the 
island itself i not more than ten. For some years ps% a man and his 
whole family have resided on this desert spot, receiving, at certain seasoa* 
of the year, supplies of provisions, c. from the shore. 



180 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

were looking out for him) into Crook Haven, in Ireland ; with 
great part of a very valuable convoy, from Quebec, Halifax, and 
all the Mediterranean ports. In this convoy wsre thirteen Dutch 
vessels, with rich cargoes, which, as soon as they quitted Captain 
Buller's protection, were- captured by our cruisers, in consequence 
of an embargo having been laid upon all Dutch property. 

On his arrival in England, Captain Buller was appointed to the 
Crescent frigate ; and, with Captain Essington, in the Sceptre, he 
convoyed the India fleet to the Cape of Good Hope. On their 
passage thither, they fell in with a Spanish iinc-of-battle ship, and 
t\vo frigates, laden with specie, from the Havanna. Our ships, 
mistaking them for French, bore down, and prepared for action ; 
but, when the strange sail displayed their Spanish ensigns, the 
British pursued their former course ; no doubt to the great 
delight of the Dons, as th*y were in possession of the declaration 
of war against Spain, by this country, of which the convoy were 
then ignorant. One of them also was so deeply laden, as to be 
incapable of opening her lower deck ports. 

Shortly after Captain Buller's arrival at the Cape of Good 
Hope, whilst under the orders of Sir George Keith Elphinstone, 
he was at the capture of the Dutch fleet, in Saldanha bay.* 

Private affairs requiring his presence at home, Captain Buller 
exchanged into the America, of 64 guns, and returned to England, 
with Commodore Blanket's broad pendant. In 1797 and 1708, 
bu.-iness still detaining him on shore, he took command of the Sea 
iVncible?, from the river Lyme to Cawsand bay, including the 
whole of the southern coast of Devonshire, at the time when they 
\v ere first established; and, by his judicious arrangements, he 
placed them on the most respectable footing. f 

In 1799, Captain Buller sucseeded to the command of the 
Edgar, of 74 guns, then on Channel service; and afterwards 
removed from her into PAchille, of the same force. In these 

* For the official details of this capture, vide the biographical memoir of 
Admiral Lord Keith, NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. X. page IS, et seg. 

+ In the first volume of the NAVAL CHRONICLE, page 245, is a gazette 
letter from Captain Buller, dated Dartmouth, Jan. 10, 1799, giving an 
account of the recapture of the Susannah brig, iroml'ileureu* Speculateur, 
by ;x party of the Brixham feiicibles. 



CAPTAIN EDWARD BULLER. 181 

ships he was constantly employed in blockading the ports of Brest 
and Rochefort, until the cessation of hostilities, in 1801. 

About that time, he was returned to parliament, as one of the 
members for the borough of East Looe, in Cornwall, and was also 
chosen recorder for the same place. 

In March, 1803, on the day that his Majesty's message was 
delivered to parliament, acquainting them that he was under the 
necessity of augmenting his forces, this zealous officer was again 
called upon to serve his country afloat, and was appointed to com- 
mand the Malta, of 84 gnns ; the finest two-decker, without 
exception, in the British navy. In this ship, he assisted in the 
blockade of the ports of Brest, Rochefort, Cadiz, Cortmna, and 
Ferrol ; and, on the latter station, the Malta particularly dis. 
tinguished herself, in Sir Robert Calder's action, against the 
combined fleets of France and Spain, on the 22d of July, 1805. 
In consequence of the fog, she, ia the heat of the action, was 
separated from the fleet, and had five sail of the enemy upon her, 
at one time, who were endeavouring to cat her off. She, however, 
gallantly braved the danger, and continued this unequal conflict, 
until one of her opponents, the San Rafael, of,84 guns, struck to 
her. Shortly after, her boats also took possession of El Firme, 
of 74 guns, which had before been engaged, and nearly, if not 
entirely silenced, by some of dTir ships. 

The Malta, as we hare stated in our memoir of Sir Robert 
Colder,* had her mizeu-mast -wounded, her mizen-top-mast 
and mizen-top-sail yard shot away, her main-yard rery badly 
wounded, her fore-top-mast wounded, and her standing rigging and 
sails much cut. She had also five men killed, and forty wounded. 
For the service which, on that day, Captain Buller rendered to 
his country, his Majesty, as a signal mark of his royal approbation, 
was pleased to bestow upon him a colonelcy of marines. 

In August, 1806, Captain Buller received orders to put himself 
under the command of Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Louis ;f with 



* yide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. XVII. page 101. 

f See the biographical memoir of this brave and valuable officer, in the 
XVIth volume of the NAVAL CHRONICLE, page 191. Some additional par- 
ticulars of the late Sir Thomas Louis are ai*o given in the XVIIIth volume, 
page 84. 



ls HtOGuAriircAt MEMOIR OP 

five other sail of the line, which were to receive troops on 
for the purpose of co-operating with a formidable body of land 
forces, which had been already embarked at Plymouth and Fal- 
mouth, and destined for a secret expedition. Whilst waiting for sail- 
ing orders, an express arrived with the intelligence, that Jerome Buo- 
naparte was on his passage to England; in consequence of which, 
this well appointed squadron immediately discharged the troops, and 
sailed in quest of the enemy. The Canopus not being ready to re- 
ceive Sir Thomas Louis's flag, Captain Duller, then the oldest captain 
in the squadron, in a manner which at once indicated his zeal for 
the service, and his respect for the rear-admiral, made an immediate 
offer of the Malta, which was as cordially accepted by Sir Thomas, 
who had no expectation that the Canopus would be got riady in 
>o short a time as she really was. The squadron, however, were 
not so fortunate as to fall in with Jerome Buonaparte, he having 
effected his escape into 1'Orient. A few days after, as a slight 
fompcnsation for what they had missed, they fell in with, and 
captured, the French frigate le President, of 44 guns;* and, as 
the Malta had sprung her main-mast, she was ordered to return 
into Cawsand bay, and thence to Portsmouth, where she was taken 
into dork. 

On the 3d of November, during the time that the Malta was 
rcp.uiing, Captain Duller, at the general election, was again 
rcfm not! as one of the members for the borough of East Looe. 

On the 5th of January, 1807, he sailed in his old ship, the r 
Mai la, for the Mediterranean, where he put himself under the 
onK-rs of Lord Collingwood, who shortly after gave him the com- 
mand of the in-bhore squadron. In this service, he displayed great 
:K'iiuty and /eal, particularly in destroying the Mary transport. 
n oni Woolwich, a large ship, with a very valuable cargo of 
iiilii;.iry .-.tores, for 25,000 men. Dy some accident, she had mis- 
Mken her course, and run ashore near Cadiz; where Captain 
Bulier had the melancholy satisfaction of seeing her completely 
burnt, to prevent her from falling into the hands of the enemy. 



* i",'/V Sir Thomas Louis's official account of the capture, NAVAI 

i;oNii.u, Vol. XVI. page 31$, 



CAPTAIN EDWARD UULLER. 183 

After this, -whilst the Malta was refitting at Gibraltar, another 
instance of the humanity and intrepid bravery of this active officer 
occurred. A Portuguese frigate having been wrecked within the 
Spanish lines, Captain Buller was instrumental, at the risk of his 
pwn life, in saving many of her unfortunate crew ; and, although 
tvvica swept away by the violence of the surf, he could not be 
prevailed on to quit the spot while the hope of preserving a 
fellow-creature remained. Actions such as these should be in- 
scribed on brass ; for, while they prove the genuine hero, they 
also evince a full possession of the best virtues of humanity. 

On this occasion, however, Captain Buller's exertion of mind 
and body, added to his having been several hours in wet clothes, 
threw him into a violent fever, which had nearly cost him his life. 
On his recovery, he returned to his station off Cadiz. 

In consequence of the sudden dissolution of parliament, in the 
spring of 1807, another general election took place, at which, on 
the 10th of May, Captain Buller was, a third time, elected M.P. 
for East Looe. His recent illness, in addition to the pressing 
solicitations of his friends, induced him, about that time, to request 
the Admiralty to send a captain to succeed him in the command of 
the Malta ; a request at which he felt the less reluctance, as there 
appeared to be no prospect of the enemy's venturing to face a 
British force. 

From the situation of Captain Buller's name, on the list of 
captains, it may fairly be presumed, that, on the next promotion, 
his services will be rewarded with a flag; an honour of which he 
is highly deserving, and to which he will be justly entitled ; few 
officers having been more unremittingly employed, or more con- 
stantly at sea. The only subject of regret is, that fortune should 
jiot have been more propitious, in placing him more frequently in 
scenes where his acknowledged merit must have insured applause, 
ajid commanded admiration. 

" 'Tis not in mortals to command success, 

But we'll do more, Scjnpronius we'll deserve it !" 

ADDISOX. 



1S4 

NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, 



NANTES IN GVXGITE VASTO. 



GALLANT ACTION FOUGHT BY THE WINDSOR CAITLE PACKET. 

THE following extract of a letter conveys a clear account of a 
very gallant action, which has been much the subject of con. 

Tcrsation : 

\ 

" In the morning of the 1st of October, the man at the mast, 
head called out " a sail :" we were soon convinced that all hopes 
of escape, by swiftness, were rain. We therefore had the netting 
stuffed with hammocks and sails, the arms all prepared, and the 
hands at quarters, when the enemy began to fire at about 40 
minutes past eleven, A.M. but as his shot did not reach us, we did 
not return his fire till about half past twelve, and so continued till 
he closed, and grappled us on the starboard quarter, at about a 
quarter pa$t one. In this situation it became quite calm, and the 
vessels could not have separated even had they been inclined. As 
soon as they grappled us, our boarders were prepared with their 
pikes, but our nettings were so lofty, and so well secured, that 
they (iid not attempt to board ; our pikemen, therefore, again flew 
to their muskets , pistols, and blunderbusses ; our captain all tho 
while giving his orders with the most admirable coolness, and 
encouraging his men by his speeches, and example, in such a way, 
that there was no thought of yielding, although many of our heroes 
now by stretched upon deck in their blood ; but then we saw tho 
rnomy's deck completely covered with their dead and wounded, 
am! the fire from our great guns doing dreadful execution at every 
discharge. We now began to hear them scream, which so inspired 
ii'-'.r <;;i':hint little crew, that many of the wounded returned again 
1:> tlii'ir quarters. At length, about a quarter past three, the ras- 
c\iis ran from their quarters, when our captain, with five or six of 
iiis brave comrades, rushed on board, killed their captain, tore 
<!o\vn their colours, and drove the few remaining on deck below, 
and the privateer surrendered. Our force consisted of a small ship 
of ISO tons, mounted with six 4-pounders and two sixes, manned 
\\ith -JS people, officers and boys included, of which there were 
iuui of the latter under 17 years old. The privateer was called 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 185 

the Genii, is the most complete out of Guadaloupe, mounting six 
long sixes, and one long 18-poundcr fixed upon a swivel in the 
centre of her main-deck, and traversing upon a circle, so that this 
enormous piece of ordnance was worked just as easily as a common 
sized swivel; and having on board, at the commencement of the 
fight, 86 men, of which number 26 were killed, or died in a few 
hours afier the action, and 30 more are wounded, many of whom 
will also die : not one of their officers escaped being killed or 
wounded. Both vessels were greatly damaged in the action, and 
it was not till six o'clock that we were disengaged from each 
other. On our side we lost three brave fellows, two of whom 
were killed on the spot, and the third died the same evening ; 
another, I fear, is mortally wounded through the breast and 
shoulder. AVe had, besides, nine men woimded ; and three or four 
of them badly." 

VALUE OF THE LATE DANISH FLEET. 

THE fleet brought off by the English is valued at 4,757,000 
rix-dollars. The ship of the line, the Christian VII. of 96 guns, 
cost 240,000 rix-dollars ; the Neptune, of 84 guns, 212,000 rix- 
dollars ; the 74-gun ships cost 186,000; the 64-gun ships cost 
169,000; the 4.4-gun frigates cost 97,000 ; the smaller, 60,000 ; 
the brigs 40,000, c. &c. 

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE LATE CAPTAIN SHERRIFF.* 

THE late Captain Sherriff, upon many occasions, during his 
long service under Captain Vancouver and Lieutenant Brough- 
ton, in their voyage of discovery in the South Seas, evinced 
that he possessed a large portion of that high and enterprizing 
spirit which is the present characteristic of the British navy. 
Upon a subsequent occasion he gave a striking proof of this, 
which it is but justice to the memory of a brave officer to record. 

Lieutenant Sherriff, as agent of transports in the Asia, formerly 
an East Indiaman, was employed to convey the Maroons that had 
been transported from St. Vincent's to Nova Scotia, from the 
latter ungenial climate, to the warmer one of Sierra Leone. This 
service he executed with great humanity and success. Whilst he 

* If the unfortunate widow, or relatives, of this brave officer will fur- 
nish us with the loan of his portrait, with authentic particulars of his life, 
we shall be gratified in the opportunity of laying them before* the public. 

. 310I.XIX. B B 



186 NAVAL ANECDOTES) 

still remained at Sierra Leone in the Asia, a rebellion broke out 
in the colony, which was quelled chiefly by his personal gallantry 
and exertions, as will best appear from the following minute of 
council :-*- 

(COPY.) 

" Sierra Leone, December 24, 1800. 

" Present GEORGE LUDI.AM, Governor J. GHAV, 1st iu Council 
RICHARD BRIGHT, >d in Council. 

" The governor and council next proceeded to consider of a suitable 
acknowledgment to .Lieutenant John Sherriff, of his JIajesty'snavy, for the 
services this government received from him, in hi* military capacity, during 
the late rebellion, upon which occasion it was unanimously 

" Resolved, 

'' 1st, That Lieutenant John Slierriff has manifested his zeal for the 
welfare of this colony, in a voluntary exposure of his life and health, by 
hfiuling different detachments sent out against the rebels, especially that 
on die '_'d of October last. 

'' 'Jil, That in accepting and supporting the character of president of the 
I'ourt of Inquiry, which, at the instance and desire of this government, sat 
for inauv successive days on the rebels that were taken or surrendered, the 
v'lvenmr and council have to acknowledge to his unrernitted and patient 
investigation, and, hi conjunction witli his col leagues, Lieutenants Smith and 
'.S'oliy, judicious adaptation of the punishments recommended to be 
iii;!vted upon the prisoners, the present safety of the colony, and the means 
>.' execution with which the government was at that time provided. 

:;<!, That in receiving the said and other prisoners on board the Asia, 
fuv a considerable period of time, and thereby exonerating this government 
:rcim t!u: risk, anxiety, and charge, of securing their persons at the govern- 
uit-at-hou-e, as well as by detaining the Asia, in compliance with their 
i'.'-j'ics!. on this express service, Lieutenant Sherritt'has materially strength- 
t :cu r.he hands of the governor and council, and alTorded them leisure and 
5>: .- -uiity to deliberate on many points of great and urgent importance. 

' Ivh. That the public thanks of this board, together with a copy of the 
r .rc <-i j i. r ininuu-, be communicated to Lieutenant Sherriif, in a letter from 
.he pen of their secretary. 

' J-'xtracted from the minutes of council, January 1, 1801. 

(Signed) " A. SMITH, Secretary." ' 



(COPY.) 
1 SIR, " Free Totcn, January 1, 1801. 

" I am directed by the governor and council to transmit to you the 
enclosed minute, and to testify, on their part, the high sense tliev shall ever 
retain of your important services during the late rebellion ; they beg you to 
arrept of this public notification of their sentiments, and they shall be 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 187 

Jrappy to hear that your eminent services have not passed unnoticed by the 
Court of Directors. I have the honour to be, 

'' Your obedient humble servant, 
" Lieutenant Skcniff. (Signed) A. SMITH, Sec." 

Upon his return to England he received the thanks of the Court 
of Directors of the Sierra Leone Company, which were conveyed 
in the following resolution : 

" At a COURT OF DIRECTORS, on the loth of March, 1801. 

" Resolved, 

" That the thanks of this court be communicated by the chairman to 
Lieutenant John Sherriff, of the royal navy, agent of transports on board 
the Asia, for his able and spirited exertions in suppressing the late insur- 
rection at Sierra Leone, and that the chairman be also requested to com- 
piunicate to the lords of the admiralty the sense which the court entertains 
of Lieutenant SherrifFs services on that occasion. 

(Examined) ZACHARY MACAULAY, Sec." 
" Sierra Leone Office, l\'Lirch 6, 1861. 



This resolution was conveyed in the following letter from their 
worthy and highly respectable chairman : 

" SIR, " London, March 9, 1801. 

" I have the honour of communicating to you the enclosed resolution of 
the Court of Directors of the Sierra Leone Company, and I beg leave also 
to state, that I have this day addressed a letter to the secretary of the Board 
of Admiralty, expressing the sense which the court entertains of your services, 
in conformity to the instruction which you will perceive to have been given 
me by the court. I am, sir, 

" Your obedient humble servant, 
J. Sherriff, Esq. " HENRY THORNTON." 



It is only necessary to add, that this recommendation was unfor- 
tunately of no avail to Mr. Sherriff. It was not till 1805 that he 
was made a commander, and appointed tq the Curieux brig. r 
He went out last year to the West Indies with a convoy, where he 
to,o soon lost his life in a gallant and desperate conflict with an 
enemy's ship of very superior force, the circumstances of which, 
'3,re recorded in the following letter : - 

u Hia Majesty's Ship Curieux, Sarbadoes, 

December 5, 1807. 

" On the 2-tth of November, we sailed from Barbadoes on a cruise, in 
bones of falling in with the Superieure, which was to be under our com- 



1SS NAtAL ANECDOTES, 



On the 3d instant, we saw a strange sail standing towards us ; she 
passed almost within gun-hhot to leeward of us, and we made several bis- 
mils, which were not answered. About 12 at noon we tacked and stood 
after her, firing all the time from our bow gun. At one she tired a shot 
and hoisted French colours, at the same time making all sail from us. 
When she found she could not escape us, she shortened sail. About two 
o'clock we were abreast of her, and brought her to close action, which 
lasted an hour, when our tiller ropes, bow-lines, and braces being unfor- 
tunately shot away, the Curieux became wholly unmanageable, which the 
enemy perceiving, took advantage of, and ran us on board on the starboard 
quarter, and endeavoured to throw a vast number of men into us. In 
bravely repulsing this attempt, at the head of our boarders, Captain 
Sherriff and several others were killed and wounded, and the main-boom 
was at the same instant shot away by an 18 or 24-pound swivel, which she 
had on her forecastle. One of our men hove the grappling of the enemy 
overboard, and in the attempt received a shot, which has occasioned the 
loss of his arm. She was no sooner clear of us, which was about three 
o'clock, than she made sail close to the wind, and we, from our crippled 
state, could not follow her, with any prospect of bringing her again to 
action, notwithstanding the most zealous efforts of every man in the ship to 
repair our damages. We had the Serjeant and two private marines killed,* 
and three seamen killed, and fourteen others disabled. The loss of the 
enemy must have been very great ; her decks were covered with dead, and 
the blood ran out of her like water when washing deck. She proved to be 
the British Tar, of 30 guns, and 200 men, double the force of our little 
brig, which was but poorly manned, owing to some of our men being away 
in a prize. She was but just out of Guadaloupe, and we have heard from 
nn American that she boasted all she wished for was to fall in with an 
Knglibh frigate. It is remarkable that the commander of her had been an 
jntimate friend of Captain Sherriff's: his name was le Marc : he used fre- 
quently to mention his name. We buried Captain Sherriff at sea the morn- 
ing after the action in him we have lost a valuable friend he was a father 
to ail his ship's company, and beloved by every one." 

STEAM BOAT. 

THE follow ing extract of a letter, from a gentleman of South 
Carolina, dated September 8, 1807, gives a somewhat curious 
a r count of a. newly-invented steam-boat : 

v 

: - I have now the pleasure to state to you the particulars of a late 
fxnir-ioa to Albany in the steam-boat, made and completed under 
t!:j directions of the Hon. Rob'ert R. Livingston, and Mr. Fulton^ 
together with my remarks thereon. On the morning of the 19th 
of August, Edward P. Livingston, Esq. and myself were honoured 
Avith an invitation from the chancellor and Mr. Fulton, to proceed 
with him to Albany, in trying the first experiment up the river 



COMMEBC1AL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 189 

Hudson, in the steam-boat. She -was then lying off Claremont 
(the seat of the chancellor), where she had arrived in twenty-four 
hours from Xeiv York, being 110 miles. Precisely at thirteen, 
minutes past nine o'clock, A.M. the engine was put in motion, 
when we made a-head against the ebb-tide and head wind, blowing 
a pleasant breeze. We continued our course for about eight miles, 
when we took t3ie flood, the wind still a-head. We arrived at 
Albany about five o'clock, P.M. being a distance from Claremont 
of forty-five miles (as agreed upon by those best acquainted with, 
the river), which was performed in eight hours, without any accident 
or interruption whatever. This decidedly gave the boat upward* 
of five miles an hour, the tide sometimes against usj neither the 
sails nor any other implement but the steam used. The next 
morning we left Albany with several passengers, on the return to 
rVtnv York, the tide in favour, but a head wind. We left Albany 
at twenty-five minutes past nine, A.M. and arrived at Claremont 
in nine hours precisely, which gave us five miles an hour. The 
current, on returning, was stronger than when going up. After 
landing us at Claremont, Mr. Fulton proceeded with the passen- 
gers to Xew York. The excursion to Albany was very pleasant, 
and represented a most interesting spectacle. As we passed the 
farms on the borders of the river, every eye was intent, and from 
village to village, the heights and conspicuous places were occupied 
by the sentinels of curiosity, not viewing a thing they could 
possibly anticipate any idea of, bat conjecturing about the plau- 
sibility of the motion. As we passed and repassed the towns of 
Athens and Hudson, we were politely saluted by the inhabitants, 
and several vessels, and at Albany we were visited by his excellency 
the governor, and many citizens. Boats must be very cautious 
how they attempt to board her when under way, a? several acci- 
dents had nearly happened when boarding her : to board a-head 
will endanger a boat being crushed by the wheels, and no boat can 
board a-stern. The difference between the wake of Neptune's 
chariot, and that of a common water carriage, is very materially 
open to observation ; as when you approach the first you will be 
told by anticipation to pay respect to a lady in the chariot, as will 
be readily notified by the expansion of a wet fan, which forms the 
dimensions of her wake, but moving with great impetuosity from 
the warm repulsion. It is a curious fan ; it only spreads by an 
aquatic latchet, being sprung by the kicking of the horses. I may 
now venture to multiply and give you the sum total. The boat is 
146 feet in length, and 12 in width (merely an experimental thiug) ; 



190 NAT AT- ANECDOTES, 

draws to the depth of her wheels two feet of water; 100 feet deck 
for exercise, free of rigging or any encumbrances. She is un- 
questionably the most pleasant boat I ever went in. In her the 
mind is free from suspense. Perpetual motion authorises you to 
calculate on a certain time to laud : her works move with all the 
facility of a clock ; and the noise, when on board, is not greater 
than that of a vessel sailing with a good breeze." 

ANECDOTE OF CAPTAIN- MONTAGU, 

IN the action between Lord Anson and M. de Jonqniese, in 
J747, when the Bristol began to engage the Invincible, Captain 
Fincher, in the Pembroke, endeavoured to get in between her and 
the enemy ; but not finding room enough so to do, Captain Fin- 
cher hailed the Bristol, and requested Captain Montagu to put his 
lielm a-starboard, or the Pembroke would run foul of his ship ; 
to this Captain Montagu replied, " Run foul of me, and be 
<I (1 ; neither you, nor any man in the world, shall come between 
me and my enemy-" When the Bristol had fairly silenced the 
Invincible., Captain Montagu ordered his sails to be set, and went 
on to a fresh attack, cheering his gallant crew by saying, in the 
sportsman's style, " Come, my brave boys, we must have another 
bird of them." 

VOTE OF THANKS TO yiCE-ADMIRAL DACRE?. " 

THE following is extracted from the Jamaica Royal Gazette ; 

' MR, Spanish Tuun, Jamaica, November 26, 1807. 

" Agreeably to the order of the Honourable House of Assembly 
f this island, I herewith communicate to you its vote of thanks, 
given unanimously. I beg leave to add, that it is with the highest 
satisfaction that i have the honour of presenting you with this, 
strong testimony of public gratitude and respect to your naval 
character. 1 am, sir, with th,e utmost respect, 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 

" PHILIP REDWOOD, Speaker." 

" HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY, THURSPA^, NOVEMBER 26, 1807. 

" Resolved, nc.m. con. 

" That the thanks of this house be given to Vice-admiral Dacres, for hi^ 
particular regard aiul attention to the welfare and safety of tliis island; b^ 
whose exertions, with a very limited squadron, o^r navigation and cooi-; 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 191 

werce have been most effectually protected, and essentially benefited, not- 
withstanding the nation's being engaged in a French and Spanish war. 

By the House, " F. SMITH, 

" Clerk to tlie Assembly." 

' SIR, November 27, 1807. 

" I am to express how much I feel gratified, that in having 
attempted to my utmost to comply with the wishes of my sovereign, 
in the protection of the valuable colony he had entrusted to my 
care by sea, I have mot the approbation of the House of Assembly 
of this island, and I shall ever retain a high sense of the honour 
they have conferred upon m^. I also beg leave to return to you. 
my thanks for the handsome manner you have conveyed to me the 
tote of the house. I have the honour to be, &c. 

" J. R. DACRES." 

STATE OF THE DANISH FLEET, AT THE CAPTURE OP 
COPENHAGEN. 

AFTER having been repeatedly told, that, <c of the Danish 
navy, not a ship was rigged, and the crews were absent," it is 
quite proper that the following official letter, of Admiral Gatu- 
bier's, should be recorded, and made generally known : 

" SIR, Admiralty Office, January 28, 1808. 

" ]n answer to your letter of this day's date, I have to acquaint you, that, 
upon taking possession of the arsenal at Copenhagen, the fleet was fouadiii 
such a state, that it could be equipped and sent to sea in a very short time ; 
most of the ships were in condition for service, their lower masts were in, 
the top-masts, yards, rigging, sails, guns, aud stores of every description, 
were so arranged in the arsenal, and in compartments in the store-houses, 
that they could be put on board on the shortest notice; there was no one 
article wanting which was necessary for their equipment; and it is certain 
that the fleet could have been completely ready for sea in three weeks, or a 
month at most, as in a shorter space of time 16 sail of the line, 14 frigates 
of different classes, 8 sloops, and 2 smaller vessels, were fitted ready to be 
navigated to England by the seamen of the fleet under my command, with 
the assistance 6t' some troops. 

" There cannot be a stronger proof of the good condition of the Danish 
ships, than their having been brought to England, through much tempestuous 
weather, without suffering in their hulks in the least degree. I am, &c. 

" To the Hon. If. W. Pole, < c. GAMBIER." 

It has also been stated, on the authority of private accounts, 
that there was evidently an accumulation of stores beyond the 



192 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

possible demand of the Danish dock-yard ; and that eight thousand 
sailors izere in readiness. 



LETTERS RELATING TO THE LOJS OF THE VULCAN*. 

(Extract from the Calcutta Gazette.) 

WE have been favoured with the following copy of a letter from 
Captain C. Perkins, late commander of the Vulcan, and Mr. 
Petruce Carrapit, to Captain P. Hearing, of the Trafalgar ; togc. 
ther with Captain Mearing's reply : 

" PETER HEARING, Esq. Commander of the ship Trafalgar. 

SIR, 

" We, the undersigned, for ourselves, and in behalf of the officers and 
crew of the Vulcan, beg leave to offer you our warmest thanks for the 
humanity, zeal, and exertions you shewed, in saving us from being perished. 
We cannot reflect upon the event without raising our hands to the merciful 
Providence that sent you to our relief, at a time when we despaired of every 
hope of safety. We had but death before us. Being destitute of adequate 
expressions to convey to you the sentiments of gratitude our hearts are 
impressed with, permit us to assure you that we shall never cease acknow- 
ledging your good offices. 

" Mr. Petruce Carrapit takes the liberty of enclosing you a draft upon 
Mr. A. L. Baretto, for Spanish dollars fifteen hundred. Trifling as this 
sum is, lie requests you will accept it, as a tribute of gratitude. 

" May Providence bless you with a long life, and every manner of hap- 
piness, are our sincere wishes ; and we have the honour to subscribe 
ourselves, sir, your most obedient servants, 

" C. PERKINS, 

" Canton, Nor. 22, 180G. " PETRUCE CARRAPIT." 



' To PEIIUCE CARRAPIT, and CHRISTOPHER PERKINS, Esqrs. 

" GENTLEMEN, 

'' I acknowledge the receipt of your letter, enclosing a draft for fifteen 
hundred dollars. Believe me, gentlemen, when I assure you, that far from 
expecting any remuneration for the assistance it was in my power to afford 
you when in distress, I was thankful to Providence for having thrown me in 
the way, and giving me an opportunity to render all the assistance and com- 
iurt to vou that I had experienced myself, when nearly in a similar situa- 
tion. Accept my thanks, and believe me, gentlemen, jour most obedient 
servant, 

" Canton, November 22, 1806, P. MEARING." 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 193 

NEM'LY-DISCOVERED ISLANDS IN THE SOUTH SEA. 

IN the voyage from Manilla to Lima, the Spanish fr'gate, la 
Pala, belonging to the Philippine Company, commanded by Don 
Juan Baptiste ?\Iontevercle, discovered on the 18th of February, 
1806, a group of islands, twenty-nine in number, the southern- 
most of which is situated in 3 29' north latitude, and 1G2 5' east 
longitude, from Cadiz. 

Those islands occupy a space of ten leagues from north-east to 
south-west, and are separated from each other by channels, of one 
or two leagues in breadth. They are low, covered with -wood, 
intersected wiih rivers, and well inhabited. On a frigate coming 
in sight of the islands, the inhabitants, who are of the most pacific 
disposition, first approached her in two canoes, to the number of 
twenty-one, and having come within musket-shot, they ceased 
towing, and held up some cocoa-nuts to the Spanish sailors, at the 
sa*ue time shouting and making signs. The frigate cleared her 
sails, and hoisted her Spanish colours, which manoeuvre having 
excited some apprehensions in the islanders, 'the Spanish colours 
were struck, and a white flag hoisted, the crew at the same time 
calling and making signs to the canoes to approach. 

Fiaving come alongside, they gave the Spaniards some cocoa- 
nuts, without demanding any thing in return ; but none ol them 
could be persuaded to come on board. The crew of the -rigate 
then distributed amongst them some old knives, iron rings, and 
pieces of Ted cloth ; and this liberality excited such joy and gra- 
titude in these good people, that they immediately stripped their 
canoes to make presents to the Spaniards ; their nets, their fish- 
hooks, their cocoa-nutshells, which served (hem for drinking cups, 
their enormous hats, made of the leaves of the palm-tree, were all 
in a moment removed on board the frigate, and they at length pro- 
'ceeded to strip themselves of their only garment, fastened round 
their waist, in order to testify tlu'ir gratitude to their benefactors. 
Still they were not content with themselves, and gave the Spaniards 
to understand that they would return to their islands to letch, 
other presents,- requesting by signs, that the frigate would wait 
for them. 

These islanders were tall, well made, robust, and active. They 
are of an olive colour, have tlat noses, and black curled hair of 
considerable length. In each canoe was a venerable old man, 
naked like the others, and who appeared to be their chief. One 
very remarkable circumstance is, that these two men were white, 

, en?ton, Sol, XIX. c c 



194 NAVAL ANrCDOTES, 

had aquiline noses, and had more the air of Spaniards than of 
savages. 

Captain Monteverde observed that these islanders bore a con- 
siderable resemblance in their features and conduct to (he inha- 
bitants of the islands of St. Bartholomew, of Capa, and Ibictai, 
where he landed in the year 1800, 4hen being in the frigate la 
Philippine, commanded by Don Jaan Ibarguitia. LITKRAUY 
PANORAMA. 

PHI LIT STUBES, M. A. 

WAS the author of The Religious Seaman, fitted with proper 
devotion on all occasions, London, 169C, 8vo. This gentleman 
was first chaplain of the Royal Hospital at Greenwich, and died 
there in September, 1738. Mr. Noble, in his continuation of 
C ranger, who gives this account of him, adds, he is said to have 
obtained his Archdeaconry, by reading the service of the church 
with sn^ular devotion and accuracy, and to have improved many 
of (he clergy who heard him. 

THE LARCH, AS ifSED FOR BUILDING SHIPS. 

?JK. MALCOLM, in his Agriculture of Surrey (Vol. III. p. 257), 
has f:lven many pages to this valuable tree, which, as he observes, 
lias !).<'!! so celebrated in the natural history of Rome. In Cre- 
viei'> Paris edition of Livy, we are told, that Hannibal, with a 
uew to melt the rocks, laid the cliffs bare, and heaped up piles of 
larch for that purpose. -Before St. Petersburgh was founded, that 
is. before 1703, the Russians built all their merchantmen, as well as 
ships of war, with larch ; and I am well informed, adds Mr. Mal- 
colm, that it composes the greater part of the materials with which 
iheir present men of war arc built. The several curious models of 
ship-, buildings, bridges, &c. which adorn the museum of Peter 
the Great, are made of larch. Posts and piles, driven into the 
ground, as in Venice (where the whole city is built on them), be- 
come almost as hard as iron, and infinitely more so than oak or 
any oilier wood with which we are acquainted, will last a great 
<lrn! longer, and will bear the most incredible weights. From the 
larch we receive the agaric; the purest Venice turpentine; and a 
spec s of manna called Briancon manna. Mr. Malcolm then pro- 
is i' ohs TVC " that this county (Surrey) is becoming more and 
more h >.iv of timber every year, to a most alarming degree, is so 
noto/ir>iis as not to be disputed. As an instance of destruc- 
tion on one estate, no less than 15.000 trees have beeii cut down 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOI<I.EjCTIONS, &C. 195 

within these three years, the largest of which did not exceed ten 
feet of timber, and the greater part of them did not exceed 
four feet." 

ROYAL NAVAL ASYLUM. 

Ix a former part of oar CHRONICLE,* we have given some 
account of this institution, which, during its infancy, was carried 
on at Paddington, but has since been transferred to Pclham 
House, in Greenwich Park. Its object, as before stated, is to 
feed, clothe, and educate a thousand children, girls and boys, the 
offspring of poor mariners, from every part of the united king- 
dom. 

In consequence of some inquiries which have taken place in par. 
liament, we are now enabled to present our readers with the 
following official 

List of the Appointments and Officers of the Royal Naval 
Asylum, zcith the Amount of the Salary, Perquisites, and 
Emoluments of each Office, Appointment, or Warrant ; with 
the names of the several Officers, and the Dates of their Ap- 
pointments, ax laid before the House of Commons, and ordered 
to be printed, on the 16th of February, 1808. 

Captain RICHARD DACRES, Governor. Nominated by the 
board, Feb. 2, 1808, by commission under his Majesty's sign 
manual, not yet made out. Salary, 500/. per annum, including 
half-pay; with a residence, 190/. allowed for furniture ;- a piece of 
ground for a garden, coals and candles. 

THOMAS B. CLARKE, L. L. D. Auditor. Appointed, August 
19, 1807, by his Majesty's commission. Salary, 300/. for himself 
and clerk; with the above further allowances. 

Wai. MORGAN, A.M. Chaplain and Secretary. Appointed, 
August 19, 1807, by his Majesty's commission. Salary, 250/. with 
the above allowances. 

Mr. J, DORATT, Surgeon. Appointed, August 19, 1807, by 
his Majesty's commission. Salary, 200/. ; with a residence, 127/. 
for furniture ; coals and candles. 

Mr. C. BREWER, Stezsard. Nominated, December 17, 1807. 
Salary, 250/. for himself and clerk ; and the foregoing allow- 
ances. 



* Vol. XVIII. page 199. 



196 eORRESPOXDENCE. 



. . , Matron.* Salary, 100/. ; with a residence, 

110/. for furniture ; coals and candles. 

Mr. V. G. DOWLING, Clerk qf the Institution. Nominated, 
March 25, 1S06. Salary, 811. ; with a residence, 441. for furni- 
ture ; coals, candles, and provisions. 

T. GAIUI.YRB, Quartermaster of Instruction. Nominated, 
December 17, 1807. Salary, 3,?. per day; with a residence, 
371. for furniture; coals, candles, provisions, and clothing. 

EDWAHD DOUGLAS, Serjeant of Instruction. Nominated, 
December 17, 1807. Salary, Is. lOd. per day ; with a residence, 
Io7. 5s. for furniture; and other allowances, as quartermaster. 

A LEX AND KB RxN'CK, Boatszcain of Trade. Nominated, De- 
cembr.r 17, 1807. Salary, 2.s\ 4d. per day ; with the preceding 
allowances. 

Mrs. FLINT, Deputy Matron. Nominated, June 24, 1807. 
Salary, 501. per annum, with allowances the same as the Clerk 
of the Institution. 

Mrs. CLAIMIAM, Sempstress. Nominated, February 2, 1808, 
Sal Try, 2,~>/. with a residence, 16/. 5*. for furniture, and ditto. 

Mi".s FMNT, Reading Mistress. Nominated, Feb. 2, 1808. 
Salary 25/. with ditto. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



I-RT; : r.xr MANAGEMENT AND DISCIPLINE OF THE NAVY. 

77." - f'lHoicing Letter, relating to the Board of Admiralty, is the 
Jii'fi rf a Scries, which zee have been promised, from an 
i:?fci!,>:?i:/!t C'.i -respondent, on various Subjects appertaining to 
the ^lunagemsnt and Discipline of the Britiah Navy. 

LKTTER I. 

S T R. , 

"\^ / T ^7" ilf'X an obscure individual undertakes to write upon sub- 
jtcls, which his opportunities have not enabled him to 
t ikf 1 a vi ; v ruvir VUMV of in all their branches, he may often argue 
v,-ith:>UL jM\iper data, and be building a system without a proper 
f o'.i:i(!;t;ioM. it is, however, my intention, in this and some future 
hrr'i , to uive my free opinion on the present management and 
(A- ip'inj of i'i- navy of these kingdoms, a subject undoubtedly 

\ ;K-iUil, tioiii tiic death of Mrs. Johnson, on the lUih of January, 1308. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 197 

momentous, and perhaps to many people, who judge only from the 
brilliant actions of that navy, and the beneficial consequences 
resulting from them, it may appear superfluous to write upon. 
But far different is my opinion. I do not think that either the 
general management, or particular discipline, are what they should 
be. While 1 treat of the higher parts of the machinery which puts 
our great fleets in motion, I speak with much diffidence; but, 
when descended a little way in the system, I have the confidence 
of thirty-five years service, to make me feel a little bolder respect- 
ing my tenets. 

I begin my animadversions as high as the Board of Admiralty, as 
it is usually called ; but in this term I think the first lord should 
hardlv be included, though he appears in the same commission, and 
only marked there by being the first named in it. But in the 
practical use of the commission, it appears, that the first lord holds 
an influence and power wholly different from that of the other 
commissioners, although still somewhat superior to the old office 
of lord high admiral, as no order is legally efficient without the 
signature of three of the persons named in the commission. I do 
not mean to insinuate that the first lord should have less power 
than at present, or to wish that he should be vested with that very 
high authority possessed by the lord high admiral of old. It is 
also necessary that he should be of the cabinet council, and of 
course to conclude that he must be removed upon every general 
change of his Majesty's ministers. I, however, wish to see this 
commission so modelled, as that the removal of the first lord should 
not draw all his associates in his train, and thus turn the navy sud- 
denly over to new councils and regulations. You will observe, 
that I do not pretend to say hois this is to be brought about, but 
I am certain that the present system is highly detrimental. I aui 
well informed, that some of the very excellent officers who have 
at times assisted at the admiralty, have nearly matured plans, 
which, in their execution, would have tended very essentially to 
their country's benefit; but their sudden removal has deprived us 
of their effect. Some changes have been so rapid, that the naval 
part of the commission have not been long enough in office to learn 
hoic to do any good they meditated ; but have giren way to 
others, in perfect ignorance of what nature their ne\v employ was 
to be. For it is not to be conceived, that the longest experience 
of a seaman can fit him for the routine of a public office, or (he 
rninute regularity necessary, in order to go through its labours, 
either with ease to himself, or benefit to the public. 1 hold it to 



Iy8 CORRESPONDENCE. 

be of material consequence to the service, that its officers should 
be as little as possible attached to any party or set of men 
whatever; and it is clear to every man who has read our history, 
what mischief has always ensued from poljtics mingling with pro- 
fessional duty. Upon this account I am not a friend to so many 
captains being in parliament : it is a ready excuse for their absent- 
ing themselves from their ships, and gives them an undue influence 
with respect to many points of service, over their equally merito- 
rious brother officers. 

I am aware that it will be said, that it is requisite for the first 
lord to have such men joined with him in the commission as he can 
confide in ; but I am willing to believe, that he would always jind 
the naval officers at the board, such men as would strenuously 
assist him to serve his country, and to give him such advice on pro- 
fessional subjects, as would enable- him' to act w'rh judgment on 
them. By a little alteration in the present plan, I think it could 
not fail to h. so. while at present, the selection being made from. 
r.ioti/cs ;,: \-}?.-:iy attachment, or friendly partiality, the desired end, 
so likely to be attained. I should deem it a desivable 
that a Hit of naval officers, who united with their pro- 
i! t.ilents as seamen, habits of method and arrangement, 
with much general knowledge, sh'ould bo kept in his 
ty's council chamber, and from this list, any vacancy which 
place ,'bould be filled up ; but that the removal of the first 
iic-uid not Hcccsi-urily create a vacancy amongst the najval 
i'i;i:imisMon ; whether it should do so amongst the other 
HT>, 1 have neither wish nor opinion to offer. I believe 
:>:'< the custom, on the making out a new commission. 
r.!-, ascend in succession, and the new additions appear at 
iom of the list; if it is not, I think it should be so. I 
iroY' 1 , nur'i of the private secretary to the first lord being a 
:u ritVi'-er ;i-ul as the patron is of course to be supposed to 
.! :iv : v.i of talent, we may also suppose hjs appointment a 
': '.' ;:s oiv. Considering the increased number of our ships, I 
il-: a>o ih.U the number of lords commissioners is not sufficient 
evcc-iiU' iM-opcrly the multitudinous a Hairs of consequence which' 
'..': C.'.-r tlirir management. Much delay, and many errors in, 
''in;i::e:jln take p'ace. for want of sufficient numbers to execute. 
duiy, urn! 2,-: well of method in the few there are.'* Perhaps 



a'lii'k- in the smallest degree to the present truly respectable 
iiihmn.lry, or arty of their pi-Qdece^ors, pcrsunally ; but Oitir 



CORRRSVONDF.NCE. 199 

there should not be fewer ilianjive naval officers at any one time 
at the board. 

I shall conclude (his letter with one remark, which I hope Av'rll 
be taken in good part, and not wholly thrown away. I fancy it 
must have been under (he adm mist ration of a naval carl, (hat it 
became a custom to write such letters or orders to admirals and 
captains, as would not have been seemly, if coming from a boat- 
swain's mate to a sweeper; and most boards err, in using lan- 
guage in their joint capacity, which as individuals they would have 
been incapable of applying. But surely experience should have 
taught, that an order is not the better obeyed for being accom- 
panied by a threat ; and that a reprimand given in a passion loses 
all its useful effect. Instead of shame or contrition, the latter cre- 
ates only disgust ; and in the former, the officer is deprived of that 
great stimulus to exertion, the.pltasvye of obeying. 

My paper still admits of ona other observation. Some very 
great mistakes have been made by ill-limed coldness, or rebuke. 
I know an officer, who, landing after one of the most gallant 
actions that ever frigate was engaged in, had an interview with two 
port admirals, and two lords of the admiralty y without eUherof thoni 
mentioning his gallantry or success; and, another, who on landing 
from a ship of the line that had just excited the admiration of tho 
whole nation, opened hisjtfr.sY letter from (he admiralty, and fourd 
it a reprimand for having indicted twenty-four lashes on a culprit 
at one time.* These are inadvertencies of no small magnitude. 
Nelson would never have mounted to such a pinnacle of fame, if 
he had not led his gallant followers by conciliating their aiTeclions, 
by being the reverse oj' a tyrant. 

I remain, sir, &c. Sec. 

A. F. V. 

MR. ED1TOK 



is a letter, that has been published in The Time?. 
-**- which contains sentiments so much in unison v, ith the 
feelings of many naval officers, that you will oblige us by inserting 
the following extract. J. S. S. 

u In the debate which occurred in a distinguished assembly on 
the 9th of February, sir, it is very generally reported^ (hat a noble 

habits and education are against their possessing the method requisite fur 
t'ivil employments, except a few, whose natural talents lead them to it, 
* I only speak of this reprimand as being ill t'unsd, 



200 COnftESPONDEN'CE. 

lord, high in'his Majesty's confidence, stated to the house, that a 
great alteration had taken place in the opinion of his colleagues, 
with regard to the apprehension formerly entertained of invasion, 
by means of the flotillas, gun-boats, brigs, and other craft, which 
the enemy might collect within his creeks and harbours for that 
purpose ; and that an equal change of sentiments and councils had 
been brought about with regard to the mode of defence which had 
been prescribed by the late ever-to-be-regretted Mr. Pitt, whosi? 
talents and perspicuity, in any thing but naval affairs, it would be 
presumption and impertinence for any one to question. 

" Upon the 15th of March, 1804, your readers will remember, 
that this celebrated statesman preferred his grand charges against 
the then board of admiralty, at which the Earl of St. Vincent pre- 
sided, whose civil administration forms as memorable an epoch irt 
our naval history as that great achievement itself from which' he 
derives hi* honours, and which impressed that character upon the 
maritime service, which is now familiarly called his, and which he 
discovered and inspired in the Nelsons, the Trowbridgcs, the 
Hoods, the Pellews, the Keates's, the Strachans, &c. &c. all we 
lament or admire, all we regret or look up to as the public loss or 
hope of the empire. If you, Mr. Editor, or any of your readers, 
will turn to that memorable debate, you will find that our late 
lamented premier had made it an express charge and accusation 
against the, first admiral of this or any other age, that he was igno- 
rant of tho true method of defending the shores of England, 
against the approaching invasion from the opposite coasts of the 
Channel. * 

' I heard him myself, sir, accuse the noble commander of cri- 
minal error, in opposing the triple barrier, 1st, of sloops and 
frigates ; 2d, of ships of the line ; and 3d, of gun-brigs and boats, 
to the enemy's flotilla. I heard the walls of the House of Com- 
mons ring with these doctrines, and with a loud assent to them, 
while 1 secretly admired and grieved at -the rashness and temerity 
which preferred the naval observations of a finance minister front 
the heights of Dover and Walmer Castle, during a' month in the 
summer, to the sixty years experience of our great admiral, in 
every sea, and almost in every river of the globe ! 

" Recollecting, sir, as I do, the consternation with which I 
heiml these sentiments, and their acceptation with the house of 
] uTiamcnt. into which I had been admitted as an auditor, and 
;rv,iiv of the just deference and addiction of his Majesty's present 
ruin liters for the opinions of Mr. Pitt, it has been with me for at 



CORRESPONDENCE. 201 

considerable time past an object of vast anxiety, and o a trembling 
fcuriosity, to ascertain how far they had acceded, and how far 
they would conform in (his particular to the political testament of 
that groat minister. Upon reading the report of Lord Ilawesbury's 
speech of the 9th of February, 1 found myself discharged from a 
burthen of doubt and fear under which I had long been oppressed ; 
and, upon mentioning (with the natural elevation I felt after this 
Teliei) to some professional friends of mine, the great candour of 
Lord Ilawkcsbury upon this occasion, I have had the additional 
pleasure of learning, that it is not confined to the breast of that 
noble minister and his colleagues, but extends to other branches of 
the government, arid particularly to the civil service and depart- 
ments of the navy, which were at the aera I have alluded to, so 
peculiarly indisposed to the system of defence, and to (he plans of 
reforms instituted by the. K-vrl of St. Vincent. It is not only, sir, 
the colleagues, and friends, and followers of Mr. Pitt, who, after 
four years experience, have had the generosity and public spirit to 
admit the great error of the 15th of March, 1804, and to vindicate 
the illustrious name, which was and ever will be contrasted and 
'opposed to it; but I find that the same liberal and enlightened 
system pervades the admiralty, the navy board, and the dock- 
yards, in whreh I am assured scarcely a vestige of all that merchant 
craft, which had been purchased at the expcnce of more than half a 
million, is now to be discovered, even among the hulks condemned, 
wr in ordinary ; and it appears by Steele's Naval Register, that 
the Mediator is (I believe) the only ship to be found employed in 
the service. I find every where an entire conversion, altogether 
honourable to the boards, and to the officers *..) whom I am 
alluding. The artificers ate now at last (o be shoaled or classed, 
in some of the royal yards at least, according to the plan of the 
iioble earl,* and every >hipwright is to ba paid according to 
his individual ability and exertion. Ships of "the line have bc^n 
completed from their keel according to his suggestion, in the 
course of one year, by no more than forty-seven artificers ; and 
the insurrection of jobbers is utterly dissipated and quelled. Of 
which happy event, and of thu liberality and good sense of the 
navy board, I shall, by your leave, sir, communicate only one, 
but that, a most striking and honourable instance, and one which I 
am sure will receive the honest and free approbation of the 

* This mode is preferred by Lord Barhara and his board of revision, 

*3at er&ton, fflol.XLX. u u 



20'2 CORRESPONDENCE. 

country. This is the appointment of the master shipwright af" 
Plymouth, who had been promoted to that station by Lord St. 
Vincent, to be the chairman* of a committee, assembled at Ports- 
mouth, composed (by order of the admiralty board) of three of 
the most intelligent shipwrights, officers in his Majesty's dock- 
yards, for the purpose of FIXING PRICES, AND ESTABLISHING 

REGULATIONS, FOR THE PAY AND PERFORMANCE OF EVF.lt V 
DESCRIPTION OF WORK, TO BE EXECUTED HENCEFORWARD IN 
ANY AND ALL OF T11E ROYAL YARDS. 



MR. EDITOR, 

~[\V/jTANY complaints having recently been made respecting the 
-*-"-**- cont ] llc t O f (he persons who employ themselves in recovering 
anchors \\hich have been lost on our coasts, I beg leave to com- 
inunicaie to (lie public, through the NAVAL CHRONICLE, some 
f.u-is, which I hope will tend to rectify the mistaken notions which 
liave r, re-vailed on the subject. Yours, &c. 

MERCATOR. 

Some time ago, a notice was put up at Lloyd's, stating, that a 
j ;u:m:er of anchors, which were lost in the Downs in the violent 
Mormof the 18th of February 1807, had been recoTered and landed- 
<t Rar.isgato. I3cing the owner of two ships which drifted out of 
tin: Downs at that time, I thought that my anchors might be among 
;!IO-T mentioned in the notice, and on that account, instead of my 
,i- iial annual excursion to Brighton, I took a trip to Hamsgatc. 
\ procured a residence for myself and fajnily in Prospect-row, and 
iinding my landlord an intelligent man, and acquainted with sea 
iiil'airs, 1 inquired of him respecting the anchors which had been 
found in the Downs. We went together, and examined them ; 
l)iit i.iv anchors were not among the number. He observed, that 
mine were probably still under water, as the szzeepers were dis- 
onnazetl from searching within the jurisdiction of the Cinque 
Ports for \\lien anchors were found thero^ they were seized by the 
I. -IK! U "ardc-n's ofiicer, and the salvage would not pay the expence 
of (h;'ir recovery. The sweepers (for so the persons who search 
fur lo.it. anchors are called) he informed me, were oyster-dredgers, 

Tho is th< s;une gentleman, who, in the reign of prejudice and error, 
1 !;\ .' -;r \V. Elrbrd, in the House of Commons, to he so ignorant 
i : i ::u i:ij L LIU as not to know a man of war from a merchantman} 



CORRESPONDENCE. 203 

who having little employment in the summer months, fit out 
tiieir smacks for the sweeping season^ at a very great cxpence. 
Each boat must be provided with at least 200 fathoms of three and 
four inch hawser, and three or fouV men. The labours of these 
men have been found of the greatest utility, and as they obtain 
only a scanty profit, arising from the sale of the anchors they 
occasionally recover, it must be extremely imprudent to create 
obstacles which tend to diminish their zeal and activity in a pursuit, 
from which the public reap the greatest advantage. During the 
winter months, a great number of anchors are lost in the Downs, 
off the Forelands, in Margate Roads, and other places. These 
anchors are very injurious to the shipping, if they are permitted to 
remain under water. When a ship brings up among them, her 
cable frequently gets foul of the sunk anchors, and is in a short 
time, by the constant friction which takes place, completely cut 
through. Thus not only a great expence is incurred by the 
destruction of cables, but the vessels are exposed to the imminent 
danger of shipwreck. 

The following fact will farther prove the advantage which the 
public derives from the skill and enterprize of the men employed 
in this business : Some years ago, a number of ships of war 
belonging to the Channel fleet were driven by a gale on the coast 
of Guernsey, where most of them lost one or two anchors. The 
admiralty being informed that the anchoring ground was thus ren- 
dered very unsafe for ships which might afterwards have occasion 
1o take shelter there, advertised for persons to clear the roads. 
Some Rochester and Chatham dredgers, who were expert sweepers, 
made a tender of their services to government, on condition that 
they should be supplied with the necessary cordage, and paid for 
their trouble. P'our sail of smacks were accordingly fitted out on 
this expedition, and by their perseverance they discovered and 
landed the anchors agreeably to their contract. 

As to the legality of the practice of sweeping, my informant 
considered that as settled, by a decision which took place in one 
of the courts some time ago. A large anchor, foreign made, which 
had been recovered on the coast, was carried to London for sale, 
but was seized on its being landed. This brought on an action, 
which terminated in favour of the sweepers, the anchor being 
restored to them, with costs. Since that period these men have 
considered that they were prosecuting a business not only useful 
in itself, but sanctioned by the authority of the law. It appears, 
therefore, very unreasonable, that any opposition should now b* 



204 

made to the practice. If the encouragement arising from the sale 
of the anchors should be taken a.way, all attempts to recover them 
will be' discontinued, and consequently our shipping on the coast 
will be frequently expcscd to the greatest dangers. The anchors, 
after they are brought on shore by the sweepers, are usually kept 
for twelve months before they are sold, and exposed during that 
time to public view. These facts seem to me to bo worthy the 
attention of the shipping interest, and I hope you will permit them 
to be made kno\vn to that body through the medium of the 
NATAL CHRONICLE. 

MR. EDITOR, Plymouth, Starch 3, 1808. 

BiOG leave, through the medium of your publication, to offer 
a iVw remarks upon the present state of the Newfoundland 
iibhery, which is likely to sustain comiderable injury, from the 
v;;pnue w ith Portugal. . " lam, &c. 15. D. 

Thr- ports of Devon and Dorset are the most immediate suffer- 
ers : as all the Newfoundland ships, belonging to them, looked to 
j'oi't'.iLjal as their only foreign market. For some time, however, 
1':.- sMte of fhe fishery has been so discouraging to the merchanfs 
e.!..-n(-cl in it, as, it is presumed, may entitle them to some notice 
fi\;rn government. 

Prouously to the, war, Dartmouth alone fitted out almost as 
i,T?'iv Newfoundland ships, as now belong to that arid all the 
5-, i-hbouriug ports. Their whole number now is reduced within 
; i:.;-;!y of the merchants have been reduced, as to property, 
!;i (he 1 sav.e proportion ; and, at this moment, have more 
. iii'o-pocts before them than ever they were used to con- 
ic. \VhiM), some years since, the Yarmouth herring fishery 
, >t.i_:n;it({], for want of a foreign marketj government gave a 
?:; \'.r. commodities, by directing that herrings should be served 
a '.veek to our prisoners of war. Some such channel 
!i> -pi 1 -1. be- now opened, and the usual bounty paid as for 
-.!, !:, f.nour of government, in order to save the mer- 
::; :H ti.ia coast from the ruin which seems impending over 

ii ]);;';'' .-; A:ii of the neighbourhood, which built at its own 
: ; ': : r, v- i>L:!i proves so serviceable to his Majesty's fleet 
,l Toibay, and the. multitude of youths who are 
'i:e b:y, first in our coasting fisheries, then in the 
: . fraJo, .ancl ; finally, for the navy, 'possesses a claim 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 205 

upon the public favour, which the generosity of Englishmen can 
jiever deny. Thercare belonging to Torbay, and employed in our 
home fishery, at the present moment, 383 decked boats, which 
severally employ one man, and three boys, besides about 100 
yawls, and many other smaller open boats, which give employment 
to a considerable number more. No initiatory service can form a 
race of seamen, better adapted to promote the public accommoda- 
tion, and the national security, than that in which they are 
engaged. In the spring, after their winter rendezvous at Torbay, 
which is their home, their proprietors arrange their plans in con- 
cert sail away in divisions to different coasts of the island, and 
furnish the tables of Liverpool and London, as well as of Exeter 
and Bath, by the toils of the fishing boys of Torbay. It is 
not generally kViown, that from this prolific bay, proceeds the 
swarm of seamen which are often seen trolling in the British, the 
Bristol, and St. George's Channels, and even at the^nouthof 
the Thames; but it is a fact, that ought to be publicly known, 
and ought, in some way or other, to be publicly recognized. 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIP WRECKS. 
No. XXIII. 

Again the dismal prospect opens round, 

The wreck, the shore, the dying, and the drown'd. 

FALCONER. 

AMONG the number of a deported" persons, who, in the 
year 1798, were banished by the French directory to the 
pestilential climate of Cayenne, was Jean-Jacques Ayme, one of 
the national representatives. This unfortunate gentleman, with a 
hundred and ninety-two other persons, was embarked on board 
Ja Charente frigate, Captain Breuillac, on the 12ih of March, 
1798. La Charente, shortly after the commencement of her voy- 
age, was chased by three English frigates, and sustained c'bnsi- 
derable damage ; in consequence of which, on the 25th of April, 
the' '' deported" persons were removed into la Decade, Captain 
Villencau. After enduring a number of hardships, on th-ir pas- 
sage, through the inhumanity of Villcneau, they were landed at 
Cayenne, in the middle of June following. The insalubrity of the 
dimate, the want of proper provisions, and the severe restriction* 
under which the " deported" were placed, rendered their arrival 



205 CORlirCT RELATION OF SHIPWRECK*. 

scarcely a subject of self-congratulation. Several of them, at 
different times, effected their escape ; and, at length, Jean- Jacques 
Ayme, who was subsequently exposed to all the horrors of ship- 
wreck, formed a plan for leaving the place wliich proved the 
grave of so many of his countrymen, lie had experienced many 
acts of kindness and attention from M. BerthoHon, a settler at 
Cayenne. The wife of that gentleman, being in a consumption, 
was recommended to try the air of Europe, as the only chance 
which she had for her recovery. M. BerthoHon accordingly 
agreed with Captain Gardener, an American, whose ship was to 
sail in a few days for Gottenburgh, to cany himself, his wife, and 
their child, a little girl of two years and a half old, to Europe. 
Captain Gardener also agreed to take M. Ay mo, and two other 
o.iles, Perlet and Parizot. They at length sailed from Cayenne, 
on the 5th Brumaire (27th of October), 171)9. The whole num- 
uer of persons on board amounted to twenty-one : namely, Ber- 
<ho!lon, his wife, and child; Ayme, Perlet, and Pari/ot ; Bara- 
<Senu. <i French sailor passenger ; the captain ; and thirteen fore- 
riai-i- men. The latter included an Alsacian soldier, some Anglo- 
.Americans, a Spaniard, a Dane, a Scotchman, some Englishmen, 
and three negroes. The captain flattered them with the prospect 
of a speedy passage ; but, owing to an error in the longitude, the 
:i ;ip was curried greatly out of her course. After escaping many 
dangers, however, she was drifted, by the currents, towards the 
rorks of Norway. 

Avinr, who was happily rescued from the shipwreck which 
msiied. afterwards published an account of his sufferings and 
s'ai'.ivrs ; and from his narrative the following details are ex- 



On the. llih Xivosc (tlic latter end of December) we were," says 
ii', ' ni'.Iv a small distance from t!ie rocks of Norway, not without some 

d:rii-i.-.n of striking on them, by which we should have been irre- 
(.rai'.Jv io.-r, (he coast bciirj; barren aiid inaccessible in this part. Fortu- 

. >.\c contrived, liv din! of manoeuvring, u> reach the Cattcgat, thereto 
:!i-u (.:-.:.:( < ; lor on the 13th, at dawn of day, we were not three ships 
'. iis :Y.:m !.!;c bcaw ; scarcely I>ad we time to put about, the wind 
.ni!i_ coiitru'v to us. when we were onlv about twelve leagues from 
tciibui^ii, '.-. liieli barbour we thought we should enter in tbfe course of 
(i;:v. ']'.'R: cautai:) attempted to put into .Christiana. We approached 

:,<;ir ;ho t;>un, \v!iich was concealed from us by the rug, and as the 

! i..t 1 :'iv~!,i ;K:<!, the fear of being wrecked on the coast thickly strewn 

- in tlij.^ \ery narrow channel, determined the captain to regain 

i-. 1 . .:;r,; ;jc. ;;:i, and to take shelter in some port in Scotland, whither 

-. .: ni'i ii.(i bv '!i-j wilkl. 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS.- 207 

" VTc had just twice successively escape;! the most imminent dangers ; we 
were a hundred leagues from the port which we wished to gain. The wea- 
ther was dreadful. We were almost continually in the dark, having no 
more than six hours davlight ; and, to complete our misfortunes, we were, 
almost iu want of every tiling. The captain had affirmed that the passage 
would be performed in about six weeks; Berthollon had laid in three 
months provisions for himself, his wile, his child, l';iri/;it, Pcrlct, and me ; 
Baradeau had laid in his own ; but the captain had a very slender stock ; 
he had reckoned upon tlust of his passengers, aad it was at our expence that 
iie still subsisted his servant and his boatswain. During the first forty davs, 
she captain had been incessantly flattering us with a short passage, and we 
denied ourselves nothing. \Ye were not more careful of our water. Thence 
it happened that at the end of two months we had very little, that we had 
no more fresh meat, and but a small quantity of wine and tafia, the latter 
of which we kept to refresh the sailors when on hard duty, and that at last 
we were reduced to the daily allowance of a bi.-cuit, a bit of salt pork, and 
a glass of water. In this state of distress, which lasted a fortnight, wo were 
running, in the midst of the most terrible storm, towards the coast of Scot- 
land, with which no person on board was acquainted, having in some mea- 
sure before us only the frightful propec6 of perishing for want, or of being 
driven on shore. On the moimini! of the 13th we made the la-nd, and as w 
were carried towards it by a very violent gale, we put the vessel's head to 
the northward, in order to range along it, so as to avoid coming too near it 
till we had been able to discover some port. Standing on, we perceived', 
at the distance of a league, a vessel which had just been cast on shore, and 
which we have since learnt was entirely lost, with aH her crew. We con- 
tinued our course, and discovered a-head of us another vessel, towed by 
four boats, that were conducting her towards a place which eur captain 
took for the harbour of Montrose, nud which was that of Fraserburg. IFe 
ordered several guns to be fired, and hoisted a signal to call on board A 
coasting; pilot ; but no one having appeared, and night coming on, he stood 
into 'A bight, on the larboard hand, forming a sort of bay, in which he 
thought himself in safety. We were not a quarter of a league from th* 
land ; there were only five fathoms water; we let go the anchor, in hopes of 
entering the l^vrbour the next morning. 

" In the mean time the sea continued to be boisterous, and the v 
was tossed abput almost as much as before. The captain ordered a second 
anchor to be let go, about two o'clock in the morning of the 19th of Nivo- 
(early in January) a day, the remembrance of which T shall long bear in inv 
mind. The sea struck the vessel with so much violence, that the water 
broke in abundance upon the deck, and frequently found its way down the 
scuttle into the between-decks. This accident at first took place only eve; v 
quarter of an hour; but a'nout four o'clock it became so frequent, that tl. 
captain, being apprehensive of foundering, ordered the cables by which we 
were riding to he cut, approached within a musket-shot of ;.he coast, ami 
dropped the sheet anchor, the only one that he had left. This 
ditf not much better our fate. The waves were as frc-meut, and. 



203 COftUECT RELATION Of SHIPWRECK. 1 ?. 

so violent, that about seven o'clock the cable of this last anchor pin 
and \ve were driven on shore. We struck repeatedly, and at every stroke 
we thought that the vessel would go to pieces. Fortunately this did not 
happen ; for although we were very near the land, not one of us would have 
escaped; but the vessel having opened in several places, and the water 
rushing in on all sides, we were obliged to go upon deck, whence we di^- 
covered, at fifty yards from us, as the day appeared, the inhabitants of 
Fraserburg, who seemed very much concerned at our alarming situation, 
but none of whom durst attempt to corne to our assistance. .At this we 
were more afflicted than surprised. It in fact appeared impossible to cro.-o 
this space, full of rocks, against which the sea was breaking with the 
greatest violence. Not one of the sailors had the courage to expose him- 
self to its fury. 

" The sea was dreadful; it'was perfectly while with foam; the waves, 
which succeeded each other without interruption, rose to a prodigious 
height, and all those which were impeded by the vessel, finished by breaking 
over her, with a terrible noise. We were soon covered will) water, 
whatever precautions we took to shelter ourselves from it. About ten 
o'clock an attempt was made to get out the long-boat ; but whether slid 
wa badlv launched by our men, who were benumbed with cold, or whether 
the sea did not allow thorn tr> manage her properly, she filled. They tried 
in vain to bale her ont ; but they were under tie necessity of quitting her. 
The impulse of the sea threw her on the rocks which lined the coast, and 
against which she was dashed to pieces. 

" The waves, which were continually striking us on the starboard side, hn:l 
imperceptibly heeled the vessel, -and had obliged us to take refuge on the 
l.i'Jier side, that we might not be entirely under wateri As long as the 
(lei k presented only a gentle declivity, we could, without much difficulty) 
kt'cp ;.-!ir place; but some fresh waves having, about noon, entirely laid the 
vessel down on her beam ends, so that the main- mast was in a horizontal 
positi :m above the water, and might have served as a brow lo get very near 
the: s.h'jrc, had it not been continually covered by the waves; our situation 
became frightful. We were all hanging to the rope?, and to the rings of the 
srarhj'ird side of the vessel, and, it was only with incredible pains and 
i (MI-IS that we avoided falling down into the part that was under water. 

" Chance had nt first placed me near the companion. I held fast by a 
but I was very near an open port; the waves breaking through this 
Aered me every instant from head to foot. I was as completely 
! as if I had been wholly in the sea. To avoid this inconvenience, 
:r/i,ihle at this season, and in this climate, I thought that I might avail 
'of the short interval of the cessation of the waves, to pass beyond 
tin- port, an'i put myself a little farther on, in a place where the weather 
ijuanl-. which formed a sort of pent-house, might, afford me a little shelter. 
The distance was nut quite six feet; it was impossible for rne to cross it? 
ar.il had 1 not met with the capstan, to which I clung fast, I should have 
;Y,!r;i Dii the lower side, and have been inevitably drowned. 

' 'xurcely hud I remained a moment iu this place, when a sailor, who, 



CORRECT KELATIOX OF SHIPWRECKS. 209 

perhaps, had come there from the same motive, and in the same manner } 
incommoded me exceedingly. To complain would have been as unjust as 
useless, I again endeavoured to reach the starboard side, by means of the 
ropes which were upon deck ; this attempt was as unsuccessful as the former. 
I was carried away by the slope of the deck, and I had the good fortune 
to get fast hold of the pump, which served me for some time as a point of 
rest ; but the shaft of this pump had already started from its plase near 
three feet; the weight of my body still helped to draw it farther out. I 
quitted this dangerous post to take one where I was not much less exposed. 
I leant against the main-mast, which was cJo? by, and which, by its weight 
and position, made the planks where I was lying crack every instant. 

Such was my last asylum, in which, being no longer sheltered by the 
weather-boards, I was washed by all the waves that struck the vessel. 
Twenty times in the course of the morning I had drained the water out of 
my boots; but here I was up to my knees in it, and the upper part of my 
body was as wet as my legs. I have no idea how they escaped being 
hroken by the fall of the trunks, barrels, and other very heavy bodies which 
were floating about in the vessel, nor how I avoided being crushed to 
death by the weight of the seas which were falling on me without interrup- 
tion, in the form of water-spouts. The sailors, who spoke English, did not 
cease to implore the assistance of the numerous spectators. The latter made 
them answers which I did not understand; but I judged very well by their 
gestures, that they were exceedingly distressed at not being able to afford 
us any succour. I afterwards saw arrive on the beach twenty men carrying 
a boat on their backs. I have since been informed that they had fetched 
it from the. harbour, at the distance of upwards of a mile. This sight gave 
me some 1/ope. 

In the mean time I felt myself exhausted by fatigue and faintness; my 
strength forsook me. I glanced my eyes around me; what a spectacle 
presented itself to my view ! I first saw two negro sailors floating at iny 
feet they were dead; one of them was he who had like to have perished 
on our crossing the tropic.* I cast my looks to the left, I perceived Ber- 
thollon's wife and child; they were dead. I turned then to the right, and 
saw Parizot with his head thrown buck.. all the waves breaking over him, 
without his making the smallest movement : he was dead. I envied their 
fate, and I thought, for half an hoar, thajt my pravers were on the point of 
being heard. Already the cold, which liad benumbed me, threw me into 
convulsive agitations, that announced a very near end. Already frequent 
yawnings, which I took for the approaching signs of death, persuaded me 
that I was fast verging to the close of ray earthly career, when about three 
o'clock, andat a moment when I neither expected nor wished for assistance, 
I perceived on the beach, a young man naked, who plunged into the sea, 

* He had there imprudently thrown himself overboard, for the purpose 
of bathing; and, in consequence of the way which the ship made, he was 
left considerably behind. The vessel, however, was brought to, and he 
>vas saved. 

l?ron, ftoi, XIX. E E 



210 COUIIECT IjLELATIQN OF SHIPWRECKS. 

which \v;is become somewhat smoother. In a little time he was in the 
midst of us. 

He swam off with a rope fastened to that boat \>hich had been recently 
brought. By means of this rope, the sailors hauled on board the boat, in 
which several persons were put. Another rope fixed to the shore, served to 
draw back the bopt in a diagonal direction, and to prevent her from driving 
on the rocks which were opposite the vessel. She made a second trip, in 
which I was included ; I had not strength sufficient to quit my place ; two 
sailors took me from it, and put me into the boat, half dead. I was brought 
on shore senseless; six men carried me, like a corpse, into an inn; with 
much difficulty they forced open my teeth, to make me swallow some cor- 
dial ; they cut off all my clothes, which clung close to my body; they put 
me into a warm bed ; two naked men placed themselves by my side, in 
order to regenerate vital heat ; and by every exertion which their humanity 
could dictate, I was restored to life, 

Receive my thanks, generous George Milne, who bravedst the icy 
cold of the sea, the fury of the waves, and the representations of thy parents* 
to save us! We have been informed that his father and mother'used every 
<jTi;rt to restrain him, by the fear of the danger which he was going to 
j;i< .-in-. " Yes," said he to them, " I know that it is possible that I may 
prri-li, but I know that it is certain that those people, whom we see dying, 
will all pcri.-b. i!" they are not speedily assisted." Ife tore from their arms, 
i-:d ilunj; himself into the sea. Receive my thanks too, worthy and humane 
i:;l.abit:>!i's of Fraserburg, who have taken so much interest in our misfor- 
tune s ai:d vied wish each other in lavishing on us the most hospitable kind- 
Anil you, respected Lord Inverury, receive my thanks; yoa who, 
which our situation required, neglected nothing to 
'ortuncs! your generous and noble soul is above national 
It is sufficient to be unfortunate to have a claim to your 




ei'Jjt o'clock I had recovered my senses, and felt mj strength 
:cn I found this lord at the head of my bed. lie spoke French 
:nul said every tiling that it is possible to imagine most obliging to 
. in mv filiation. He gave me an account of some of my shipwrecked 
; jjaaitTib, v, L>, being less exposed to the waves, had suffered rather less 
.in i had ; he assured me that he would see me again the next morning, 
J n-i-,j:nincndi:d me strongly to my landlord. His recommendation was 
j <<:;,< v.iiuahle, a^ he was the principal magistrate of Fraserburg, as the 
! :ir uf liie J_)ukc of Gordon, lord lieutenant of the county of 



ury wns the first person that T saw the next morning when I 
ii p:i:,-.ed a pretty siood night; but my legs w^re bloody, and 
(. ;K'd, my hands benumbed, so as to make me fear that they 
!><H'd, and my whole body was bruised. I wished however $q 
v. Uic no person understood me, and to join my companions 
, \\iio had been received by Mr. Dnlrympie. 
; my strength permitted me to get up, this lord had the good* 



CORRECT RELATION* OF SHIPWRECKS. 211 

ness to procure me clothes, support me during the walk, and to conduct 'me 
to Berthollon, Perlet, and Haradeau, whom I found extremely fatijrued. 
The first was sunk into the mo.st profound grief. He had lost his wife and 
Ins child ; and although he was at this true sensible only to this loss, it was 
aggravated by that of part of hisfortune which had perished in our sjiipwreck. 
He was worthy of a better fate. 

The same day, the 20th Xivose, the vessel which we had seen on the 8th 
towed by some boats, and which had not bceu able to enter tlie harbour, 
was cast away by the side nf ours. One sailor perished on this occasion. 
The captain died in consequence of the fatigues and hardships which lie bad 
endured; we were told that all the coast of Scotl .nd was covered with the 
Wrecks of vessels cast away during tins gale, which lasted near a fortnight. 
Our brig went enti.ely to pieces. 

We lost almost all our property : what little was rescued from the wreck 
was extremely damaged. The captain saved a cask, containing his money, 
Lis papers and mine, which I had delivered to him on our sailing, aud in 
which I found the materials employed in this narrative. Since then I have 
seen the remains of my trunk, which had been knocked to pieces; I found 
only a shirt and a pocket-handkerchief. That is all I had left. I learnt that 
I was on the point of suffering a loss which would have involved me still 
more. All my resource was in a girdle which I wore, in order to conceal 
my money from the crews of the privateers that we were afraid of meeting. 
When I was stripped at the inn, this girdle was thrown on the rest of my 
clothes. Among the spectators was a dishonest man, who seized hold of it 
and made his escape. Fortunately it was missed in time, some persons rau 
after him, and made him give it up. It was faithfully restored to me."* 



SHIPWRECK AND SUFFERINGS OF M. DE BRISSON, AND HIS COM- 
PANIOXS, ON THE COAST OF CAPE BLANCO. 

(Translated from DURANU'S " Voyage to Senegal.'') 

IN the month of June, 1785, M. de Brisson left France, in the 
ship St. Catherine, Captain Le Ttirc, for Isle St. Louis. At 
midnight, on the 10th of July following, they found themselves 
between the coast of Africa and the Canary islands, in a sort of 
creek formed by rocks. Under an impulse of alarm, the captain 
steered the ship towards the shore, and, being driven with great 
force by the currents, she struck three times, and then remained 
vfixed and motionless. She resisted the attacks of the sea, during 
the whole of the night, although at every instant it seemed ready 

* At Fraserburg the writer first heard, from Lord Inverury, of the revo- 
lution of the 18th Brumaire, effected by Buonaparte; a revolution which 
afforded Aymt an opportunity of returning home in safety. 



Q12 CORRECT RELATION OK SHIPWRECKS. 

to. swallow her up. Towards morning the storm abated, when 
JVI. do Brisson, with all the crew, got to land; and these unfortu- 
nate people, finding themselves in ji desert and unknown country y 
ascended the highest rocks, but could perceive only ai> immense 
white sandy plain, on which a few plants, bearing a small seed, in 
shape and size resembling that of mustard, were scattered. These 
plants, which the Moors call avczoinl, and of which they make a 
sort of paste to regale themselves with, branch forth like coral. 
At a distance appeared several hillocks, which, overspread with a 
sort of wild fern, resembled a thick Avood. 

Advancing towards these hillocks, they found a number of 
camels feeding, from which they inferred that the country was 
inhabited. To the poor seamen, who were almost perishing with: 
hunger and thirst, this was an important discovery. Some of the 
native-, who were watching the camels, soon perceived the Euro- 
peans, and, giving the alarm, the latter were shortly surrounded 
by Moors, who, in the excess of their joy, uttered the most 
terrific shouts. The unfortunate sufferers, being dispersed about, 
were ferociously seized, and stripped ; those who- attempted re- 
sistance being wounded and struck to- the earth. 

At the time of this barbarous treatment, M. dc Brisson perceived 
a Moor unarmed, whom, from his dress, he recognised to be one 
of those who had accompanied the king, Alikouri, on a visit which 
he had paid him at Isle St. Louis. De Brisson therefore ran aad 
threw himself at his feet, as did M. Devoize, the second officer of 
tlie -hip, n:ul five of the crew who had not left him. They soon 
found, however, that they were as unfortunate as their compa- 
nions ; for the Moor received them with contempt, and, in an angry 
tone, inquired of M. dc Brisson, who he was, whence he came, 
and what brought them all there? He answered, by sketching the 
form of a ship on the sand, and, by the assistance of gestures, 
and a few Arabic words which he had picked up at Isle St. Louis, 
lie mad',: the Moor comprehend, that they had been shipwrecked, 
and, imploring his aid to convey them to their place of destina- 
tion, added that he had the means of compensating him for his 
trouble. The last remark was perfectly understood by the Moor, 
to wlioiii it afforded great pleasure. He immediately softened his 
features, and placed his fingers between those of M. de Brisson, as 
a proof of friendship, and that they would remain united for ever. 
The Moor now demanded the property to which M. dc Brisson- 
iiad aihnled, and received two watches, one of them a repeater, 
two diainsj a gold stock buckle, two pair of silver shoe buckles. 



CORRECT RELATION OJ SHIPWRECKS. 213 

a brilliant ring, a silrer goblet and cover, and two hundred and 
twenty livres in cash. Affecting an air of mystery, he secreted the 
treasure in his blue shirt, being more pleased with the money than 
with all the other articles, and promised M. do Brisson that he 
would never abandon him. By surrendering his property, he had 
expected to gain the kindness of those into whose hands he had 
fallen ; instead of which he found it a source of great. misfortune. 
The Moor inquired at what part M. de Brisson had been ship, 
wrecked ; and on being informed, he called several of his people, 
and made a sign to them to follow him. M. de Brisson, from the 
manner in which they approached, w r as aware that his protector 
was a man of some consequence, and he afterwards found that he 
was one of the priests, Called a Talba. 

The Moors, on reaching the sea-shore, shouted with jay ; but 
so great was their eagerness for plunder, they soon quarreled 
among themselves. Several of them swam off to the wreck, with 
the view of obtaining what they could ; those who remained or 
shore expressing their fears of not receiving their share. The 
women in particular were quite outrageous. 

The news of the shipwreck soon spread itself over the country ; 
the savages, in great numbers, made to wards the shore; and several 
lives were lost in their contentions respecting the plunder. The 
women, enraged at not being able to get to the ship, fell upon the 
unfortunate Frenchmen, and partly stripped them, disputing all 
the time who should possess the clothes of M. de Brisson, they 
being better than those of his companions. 

The Talba, who had become the master of the shipwrecked 
crew, although a priest, was a warrior by profession. Finding 
that the number cf savages increased every minute, he felt himself 
under the necessity of joining with two friends for the purpose of 
securing that portion of the plunder which he had got together. 
Arrangements having been made, both for dividing the plunder 
and the slaves, the three Moors retired from the others for the pur- 
pose of sharing their booty. The Frenchmen were then led to a 
miserable hut, covered with moss, about a league distant from the 
sea, where they were crowded together, and rigorously searched, 
lest they might have concealed some valuables. Nothing being 
found on them, they were stripped quite naked, and even robbed 
of their shirts and handkerchiefs. M. de Brisson then learned that 
the Talba, his master, was called Sidy-Mahammet-Del-Zouze, of 
the tribe of Labdesseba, the most ferocious of any in the desert, 



214 COftRECT RELATION OF 

and the irreconcilable enemy of the Wadelims, who are not much) 
their superiors in civili/ation. 

Sidy-Mahammet having buried the treasure which he had acw 
quired, in the sand, returned to the beach to get his share of the 
plunder of the ship. During his absence, a troop of Wadelims 
attacked the retreat of the Europeans, pulled them out by the 
throat and the hair of their head, and then began to fight with 
each other for the few clothes which had been left OM M. de 
Brisson. In their jealousy and rage, they not only stripped him 
to the skin, but pursued him behind some heaps of sand, knocked 
him down, almost beat him to death, and were preparing a rope to 
strangle him, when one of the men whom the Talba had left w ith 
him, came running out of breath, and accused them of having 
violated the asylum of Sidy-Mahammet, carried oSf his slave, and 
trodden under foot the sacred book of their religion. He told 
them, that the Talba, enraged at the indecency of their sacrilegious 
conduct, l.acl demanded that the old men of both parties should 
asset.- Je to try the criminals in council, and that the only means of 
aj)]n':i-ii!g his wrath would be to give up his slave. This menace 
had a good eilec;, and the captive was instantly liberated. The 
^>Ioor, who had ihus interposed in his behalf, was called Nonegem : 
ho coiHHid'cu M. de Brisson to the place where the council was 
,-;!, ; :iid, the trial immediately commencing, the liberator, 
cious as he was cunning, contended that the Frenchman 
s!- ! . \v, as he had rescued him from those who would have 
!u:,i <>:)'. IJe grounded his pretensions also ou having seen 
1 1 ivsoii give his master several articles of value. Enraged 
i'lipertinent remarks, and particularly at the exposure of 
treasure, Sidy-Mahammet cast a look of fury and indig- 
.NV/ncgem, and exclaimed, " This Christian is mine ; he 
/ into my arms of his oicn accord, and I have pro- 
protect him, and to take him to King Alikouri. I pledged 
iii.at I icould do this ; and I look up to the tribunal for 
ii iii ,, / 1/ favour, instead of for Nonegem, who ought to be 
'n'd.'" Nonegem replied, " Ax the slave cannot be 
hull die by my hand." On this he drew a poniard, 
to despatch the captive, who stood appalled with terror. 
!)e(ra\ing the least emotion, however, Sidy-Mahammet 
Vnu.vlf a sort of chaplet, of considerable length, and 
hook which hung at his waist : in an instant the 
ublKd towards M. dc Brisson ? tore him from Nonegem, 



CORRECT RELATfON OF SHIPWRECKS. 215 

and delivered him over to the enraged priest, dreading lest he 
should issue an anathema against his adversary. This conduct of 
the women, and authoritative act of (he Talba^ were immediately 
approved and applauded by the whole of the council. It should 
be observed, that the Talbas^ Marabous., or priests, always wear 
a long string, containi ig a hundred and fifteen little black balls, 
which they use in the same manner as the catholics use chaplets. 

M. de Bristol) was now taken to his companions, who were in 
the neighbourhood. He found them in a pitiable state, almost 
starving ; as, during the three days which they had been confined, 
their only food had been a small portion of wheat flour spoiled by 
sea water, mixed with some barley-meal, which had been for a 
long time kept in goat skins. While partaking of this wretched 
meal, a friend of Sidy-AJahammet came and apprized them of the 
approach of the Wadelims, advising them to hide themselves with- 
out delay, as those people were coming from all parts to seize upon 
the slaves and treasure. Profiting by this advice, the Talba, 
together with the Europeans, hid themselves behind some sand- 
hills, where they remained until some Moors of their own tribe, 
who were anxiously employed in preserving the plunder, came to 
reinforce them. A guide then set out before the Frenchmen, and, 
by erecting little pyramids of stones at certain distances, pointed 
out to them the road which they had to take. This precaution 
was adopted for the purpose of avoiding the outskirts of the enemy, 
particularly those of the Wadelims ; who, whether friends or 
enemies, are equally to be dreaded on account of their avarice. 
At break of day, all those who possessed Christian slaves came 
with them, and, having joined the Frenchmen, the whole body 
marched off for the interior of the country, where the families of 
their respective owners resided. 

To the Europeans, this journey was extremely fatiguing : they 
were almost dying with hunger and thirst, by which, on moving 
the tongue, they experienced such pain, that they were fearful of 
asking even the most simple question. Being under the necessity 
of following the steps of the camels, whose pace was hastened, 
they were exhausted by fatigue ; yet, to avoid being surprised, 
they were compelled to make several counter-marches, by which 
they occupied a fortnight in making a journey which was generally 
performed in five days. 

After having climbed mountains of a prodigious height, 
Covered with small greyish ilints, as sharp as those of muskets, 
they descended into a sandy plain, nearly covered with thistles, 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 

where the cavalcade rested. M. de Brisson having walked till his 
feet were excoriated, could proceed no farther; upon which his 
master made him get up behind him on a camel, the rough move- 
ments of which inflicted on him the most excruciating pain ; and, 
being naked, and, having no means of preventing the friction of 
the camel's hair, he was soon so chafed that his blood ran down 
the sides of the beast. This sight afforded much amusement to his 
master; who, the better to enjoy it, urged the camel to a quicker 
pace. At length, unable any longer to endure the torture, 
M. de Brfsson threw himself off upon the sand, experiencing no 
other injury by the fall than a few scratches from the thorny 
thistles. 

Towards evening they met their guide and halted, when do 
Brisson, no longer able to move, and sulFering all the horrors of 
starvation, threw himself behind a bush, and implored the tejmina- 
tion of existence. They soon forcibly pulled him from his retreat, 
to make him unload the camels ; but, tired of his life, he resisted 
their efforts, and knocked down the Moor who disturbed him ; 
on which the latter ran off and fetched his master, who, however, 
assured his captive that he had nothing to fear. 

The shipwrecked seamen, while sitting under the bushes, wit- 
nessed some preparations which appalled them with terror. The 
Moors put a quantity of stones into a brasier, and, having made 
them red hot, they lifted up a large stone, and dug a hole in the 
ground, occasionally shouting with laughter, and repeating tho 
name of Brisson. They at length called him, and made him 
approach the hole which they had digged ; but how great was his 
surprize, when he saw them draw forth from the hole, in which 
he thought they were going to bury him, a large skin full of water, 
a sack of bailey-meal, and a newly-killed goat. His alarm sub- 
sided, the sight of the provisions inspiring him with new life : he 
saw them fill a large wooden bowl with water, into which they put 
c, quantity of meal, and then, by throwifig into it the red hot 
stones, they made it boil; by which means they produced a sort 
of gruel, which they kneaded in their hands, and swallowed 
without chewing. A very small quantity of brackish water, with 
some of the same steeped meal, served for the repast of the cap- 
tives, the goat being reserved for the following day. Their guide, 
who went before them, had procured those provisions from a 
neighbouring village, and had concealed them beneath the stone. 
M. de Brisson observed, that the resentment of the Moor whom 
h^ had struck was converted into acts of kindness and attention, 



MAIUNE SCENERY. 217 

as he brought him a larger share of food than was allotted to the 
others. At the close of the meal, they all laid themselves down to 
sleep behind the bushes. 

[To be continued.] 



PLATE CCLIII. 

THE annexed plate, from a drawing by J. T. Lee^ Esq. repre- 
sents Captain Ellison's action, off Guernsey, with an enemy's 
s'juaJron, consisting of the Sceevola and Brutus line-of-battlc 
ships (\vith their quarter-decks cut down), two frigates, a corvette, 
and a brig, on the 8th of June, 1794. Notwithstanding the force 
of the enemy, which was more than three times that of the British, 
our ships sustained thtir collected fire for upwards of two hours, 
without suffering any injury but in their rigging and sails. The 
public thanks which Captain Ellison received from Sir James 
Saumarez, the commander in chief, for his spirited conduct on this 
occasion, will be seen in our memoir of the former officer ; where, 
also, are given the particulars of the action.* 



MARINE SCENERY. 

PARTICULARS OF DOUGLAS BAY ISLE OF MAN AND THE 
HERRLNG FISHERY. 

Extracts from a Tour through the Isle of Man , by DAVID 
RoiiERTsox, Esq. Published in 1794. 



EFORE sun-set, the breeze which had hitherto proved 
favourable died away, and for some time we were becalmed 
in the Bay of Douglas ; which, in the form of a crescent, extends 
for three miles from Clay Head to Douglas Promontory. The 
evening grew more and more serene: the setting sun threw a 
beautiful veil of light over the mountains, and the evening sky 
gave a ruddy tinge to the scarcely-heaving ocean. A few straggling 
fisher-boats were moving homewards. The. verdure of the fields, 
the wood-circled hamlets, the flocks scattered over the mountain?, 
and the smoke curling from the town of Douglas, improved tfee 

* Vide page 16 of this volume. 

/2atn fjnm, fflol* XIX. F F 



218 MARINE SCENERY. 

landscape, and afforded a pleasing contrast to the gloomy scenes 
we had lately passed. 

Douglas bay is spacious, and the neighbouring high lands 
render it an asylum from the tempests of the north, west, and 
south ; but to the storms of the east it is greatly exposed. Both 
points present a dangerous and rocky shore. A variety of fish is 
here caught in great abundance : the cod is a high luxury ; and 
the salmon, though small, eguals in delicacy and flavour the 
choicest in England ; and during the months of July, August, and 
September, is very plentiful. 

This fishery has been claimed by the Duke of Athol, as one 
of his manerial rights.. Since the sale of the island in 17C5, it has 
been deemed the property of the crown ; and by the Lords of the 
Treasury is at present let at a sum greatly inadequate to its value. 
When the lease expires, whether government will, at an advanced 
sum, renew it, or restore the fishery to the Duke of Athol, will 
depend on the report of the five commissioners, lately appointed 
l>y the crown, to investigate the equity of his grace's demands. 

A Her I had indulged myself for some time in viewing the 
beautiful and romantic scenery of Douglas bay, a gentle breeze 
sprung up, and we arrived at the town about nine in the 
evening. 

The entrance of the harbour is narrow and dangerous, being 
fi.'iicrd on each side by a range of precipices. In the centre of 
these ;i light-house, at once useful and ornamental, formerly stood, 
i 'hi*, Avith a great part of the quay, was destroyed by a severe 
storm in 1786 ; and in this ruinous state, highly injurious to the 
public, and fatal to many individuals, it has remained ever since. 
To enumerate the various shipwrecks this neglect has occasioned, 
would bo unnecessary; but the awful calamity which happened 
in September, 1787, is too interesting to be passed over in silence. 
I \v;is then in Douglas, and never before witnessed such a scene 
of horror. 

The preceding; day was delightfully serene ; the sky pure and 
unclouded ; and the sun shone forth jn all his strength and beauty. 
In (he morning, about four hundred fishing-boats appeared in til* 
Lay and harbour, deeply laden' with herrings, to the*amount of 
50(J(;1. Gladness smiled in every eye, and the song of mirth gave 
lien energy to labour. The earlier part of the day was passed in 
i;n!o 'ding the boats, and the remaindwr devoted to festivity. 

The herring-ground was then off Clayhead and Laxey, about 



MARINE SCENERY. 219 

three leagues from Douglas. In the evening when the boats again 
sailed thither, there were no indications of a change in the wea- 
ther ; but at midnight a brisk equinoctial gale arose; and the 
fishermen, impelled by their usual timidity, fled to the harbour of 
Douglas for refuge. 

On the ruins of the light-house is fixed a slender post, from 
which is hung a small lantern. This wretched substitute was 
thrown down by one of the first boats, in its eagerness to gain the 
harbour. The consequences were dreadful. In a few minutes all 
was horror and confusion. The darkness of the night, the raging 
of the sea, the vessels dashing against the rocks, the cries of the 
fishermen, perishing in the waves, and the shrieks of the women 
ashore, imparted such a sensation of horror, as none but a spec- 
tator can possibly conceive. When the morning came, it pre- 
sented an awful spectacle : the beach and rocks covered with 
wrecks ; and a group of dead bodies floating in the harbour. In 
some boats whole families perished. The shore was crowded witn 
women : some in all the frantic agony of grief, alternately weep, 
ing over the corses of father, brother, and husband ; and others, 
sinking in the embrace of those, whom, a moment before, they 
imagined were buried in the vva'ves. The bustle of trade ceased; 
its eagerness yielded to the feelings of nature; an awful gloom sat 
on every countenance; and every bosom either bled with its own 
anguish, or sympathized with the sufferings of others. Dreadful 
as this calamity was, it did not awaken the parental care of 
administration; and to (his hour the harbour of Douglas remains 
in the same ruinous state ; useless, in a great degree, to the pub- 
lic ; fatal to individuals ; and a monument of reproach to govern- 
ment."* 

#$%-- 5fr * -* 

Soon after our return to Douglas, I took an evening walk to 
the promontory south of the town. The weather was serene and 
delightful : the neigbouring fields were in full blossom : the win-- 
dows of St. George's chapel llamed with the setting sun ; and the 
ocean was tinged with his ruddy light. In the bay, numerous 
vessels with streamers waving in the wii:d, were waiting the com- 
pletion of their cargoes ; and at a distance, scattered along the 

f Since the above was written (1791), I have, with much pleasure, 
observed the attention of government to this subject. A new quay, on & 
plan at once beneficial and elegant, has lately been -projected; which, I 
hupe, will be executed iu the ensuing summer. 



220 MARINE SCKNERY. 

horizon for many a Jeague, were seen the while sails of four linn- 
drod fishing-boats ; while the town beneath was a crowded scene of 
business, enlivened with mirth and festivity. 

The herrings are supposed to migrate annually from the north 
of Europe in one immense body ; but on arriving at the northern 
Isle of Scotland, are broken into various huge shoals, which, after 
visiting several of the kingdoms of Europe, regularly return to the 
more northern regions. About the middle of SUIHUHT a few 
stragglers appear off this island ; but the fishery seldom commences 
till the middle of July ; and for a month or six weeks continues 
off Peele, Port-Iron, and Castlctown. The herrings, tiiough 
then in their prime, are by no means so abundant as after wards. 

About the end of August they collect from every part round the 
island, towards the north point of Douglas bay, and here, with 
increasing success, the fishery continues till tb,e middle of Septem- 
ber ; when the equinoctial gales usually intimidate the fishermen, 
and dissipate the herrings. 

The boats seldom exceed eight tons, are built with much dex- 
terity, sail swiftly, and are easily commanded. When new, they 
cost, including the nets, upwards of seventy or eighty guineas ; 
but they seldom are the sole property of the fishermen. The pro- 
duce of every night is divided into nine shares. Two belong to 
the owners of the boat; one to the proprietors of the nets; and 
the residue to the six fishermen. Two of these are generally sea- 
men ; and the rest, at the beginning of the fishery, come from the 
interior parts of the country: to which, on its close, they return 
supremely contented, if they have procured herrings ; and the 
women, in their absence, cultivate potatoes, barely adequate to' 
the maintenance of the family till next fishery. Few of the fish- 
ermen arc acquainted with the anxiety attending the possession of 
riches. The greater part of their gains is consumed during the 
fishery in feasting or ebricty ; and the remainder is usually con- 
signed to quiet some importunate creditor. 

Upwards of four hundred boats* compose the Manks fleet. 
An admiral and vice-admiral are annually elected: to the former 
of whom government allows 51. and to the other 31. for the season. 
Their boats are distinguished by a small flag at the top-mast, and 
their province is to conduct the fleet to the herring ground. +' The 

* In this number arc not included the smacks, bri^s, &c. belonging to 1 
the ishuul. . , , * ...., : , 

f During the fishery there is a penalty of 51. for every gull which is 
killed ; these bird; being supposed constantly to'altendthc herribgs. 



MARINE SCEXERY. 221 

boats sail with (he evening, and return with the morning tide. 
PI leaving the harbour, each fisherman uncovers his head, and 
appears for a few moments engaged in devotion ; but this, I pre- 
sume, is more a relic of customary superstition, than an expression 
of real piety. Under the cloud of night they shoot their nets, 
which are buoyed up by inflated bags of dog-skin, dried in the 
sun, and smeared over with tar. The herrings are caught by the 
gills; and in such abundance, that part of the nets must be fre- 
quently cut away. Many of the boats return laden with fifty, and 
some with seventy meases.* This, while it continues, occasions a 
very rapid influx of money into the country ; a successful night's 
fishing being frequently estimated at 30001. and sometimes amount- 
ing to 50001. Among the herrings arc caught great quantities of 
dog-fish, called by the Manks gabboch, which prey upon the 
herrings, and from their strength and voracity prove very destruc- 
tive to the nets. They furnish the natives with oil, and when 
dried resemble ling ; but are seldom used, except by the poorest 
of the inhabitants. 

I have already mentioned some of the superstitions of this 
country; but these were in general innocent fancies. An error 
of that nature, however, prevails during the fishery, which proves 
highly injurious to the interests of the island. Superstition, that 
foe to commerce, operating on the native indolence of the Manks, 
influences them to sacrifice at her shrine every Saturday and Sun- 
day evening, during the herring season ; the fishermen being of 
opinion, that the sale of the fish caught on the one evening, and 
the sailing of the boats on the other, would equally profane the 
Sabbath. 

Did this regard to the Sabbath proceed from a just veneration 
of the awful injunctions of Him who is so profusely conferring 
on them the blessings of the sea, it would be pious and com- 
mendable : but it is more the offspring of fear, than of gratitude 
to Heaven. It arises from a tradition, that on a Sunday evening 
of the last century, when the boats were fishing, a tremendous 
gale, accompanied with thunder and lightning arose, which de- 
stroyed a great part of the fleet ; while several of the boats, which 
had fled for refuge to a neighbouring cove, were crushed to pieces 
by the fall of the impending precipice. Whether this actually 
happened, or was only a fabrication of priestcraft, I have never 
been able to learn. It has, however, proved a real calamity to the 
r ____ , . - 

* A raease of herrings is five hundred, 



222 MARINE SCEKERT. 

country. The natives believe it an awful instance of the wrath 
of Heaven, and are thereby deterred from subjecting themselves 
to the like vengeance. This sacrifice of two days is very injurious 
to the fishery. Fro;*i PYiday to Monday evening the shoals of 
herrings move to some other ground; and frequently, as soon as 
they are discovered, the close of the week prevents any material 
advantage therefrom. 

Were the boats to sail on the Saturday evening, the fish would 
be sold on the ensuing morning; and this, in the opinion of some, 
might occasion a bustle inconsistent with tho. solemnity of the 
Sabbath. But what injury could be given to the most pious and 
enlightened mind, were the fishermen (alter having, on the Sab- 
bath-day, offered up to God in his temple the incense of grateful 
hearts), to sail with the evening tide, and gather in the blessings 
which Heaven, at this season, so copiously pours around them? 

During the fishery, the -island seems to awake from its native 
lethargy. Douglas is a scene of great festivity. This season is a 
jubilee to the firhcrmen ; and their wives and daughters come in 
groups ftom the interior parts of the country to heighten it. The 
Man ks man shakes off his wonted sloth and melancholy and 
assumes an air of gayety and mirth. The day is passed in ban- 
quoting, and flowing cups go round ; gladness smiles in every eye; 
the song echoes from every corner ; and not (infrequently dances 
conclude the festivity of the night. To a generous mind it is 
highly gratifying to observe some thousands deriving life and 
gladness from this employ. The pleasure, however, diminishes on 
reflecting, that all this gayety and exertion will soon be over; and 
that the .Manksman, when he has basked, like a summer insect, 
for a little time in the sunshine of industry, will retire to his usual 
indolence and misery, to his smoky cottage, and tattered family : 
for. till manufactures are more generally established, he will never 
know cither a continuance of the comforts of life, or the blessings 
of society. 

###*#### 

The exports of the island arc not adequate to its imports; 
although government, to promote a spirit of commercial industry 
among the Manks, has exempted from every fee and impost in 
Britain and Ireland their produce and manufactures, ^nd the 
importation of every article requisite for the culture of the lands, 
and the advancement of their manufactures and fisheries. Besides 
;U; indulgence, government has granted, a bounty of Is. a barrel 



MAKING SCEVERY. 223 

on herrings designed for British consumption, and an additional 
2s. 6d. when exported to a foreign market. 

As herring.} are at present the staple commodity of the country, 
I shall here give a sketch of the trade. During the fishery the 
price fluctuates from 2s. to 3s. a hundred; but near the close, the 
foreign smacks and red herring houses bting supplied, it rapidly 
decreases to Is. 6tl. aud sometimes even to Is. They are then 
cured fay the white herring merchants. The process is simple; 
women are chiefly employed on this occasion. By girls, from nine 
to thirteen years of age, the herrings are carried in baskets from. 
the boats ; and on being conveyed to the herring houses are, by 
the more robust women, rubbed thoroughly with salt ; after which 
they leave them to purify till next morning, when, with a layer of 
salt between each ro\v of fish they are barreled.* 

The trade is lucrative ; but it ought to be considered, that a 
certain degree of risk is incurred : from a scarcity of fish, should 
the price exceed 2s. a hundred, almost all the expensive prepa- 
rations for, and sanguine expectations from, the fishery are 
frustrated. Those designed for red herrings are first regularly 
piled up, with a layer of salt between each row, and for some days 
remain to purify. They are then washed ; and, when the water 
is sufficiently drained from them, are fixed by the mouth on small 
rods, and hung up in extensive houses built for the purpose. The 
houses arc very high : in length exceeding thirty yards, and in 
width about twenty. The length is divided into several spaces; 
and here the herring-rods are hung, reaching in rows from the 
roof of the house till within eight feet of the floor. The regularity 
of the ranks, and the lustre of the herrings, when newly hung up, 
make a very beautiful appearance. Undernealh are kindled 
several fires of the dried roots of oak, which are kept continually 
smoking for four or five weeks : when the herrings, being 
sufficiently reddened, are. barrelled, and shipped for some of the 
Mediterranean ports; from whence the vessels return with a cargo 
to Liverpool, and sometimes with a part of it for the island. The 
master of the vessel is generally ignorant of the port for which he 
is destined, till he is a few leagues from Douglas. He then opens 
his orders ; and it not unfvequcntly happens, that to one port 
many of the Manks cargoes are consigned. 

* A barrel contains about 600, which, including every expence, does not, 
Opst the curer, when landed in the English market, more than 12s. while 
the lowest sum it will command there is ll. Is. and frequently 11. 5s. 



224 MARINE SCIVERY. 

Besides the herring trade, the island exports some quantities of 
grain, cattle, butter, bacon, lead, kelp, coarse linen, and spun 
cotton. But notwithstanding the atnount of these, and the annual 
influx of wealth from the fishery, the balance of trade is against 
the island : and should the fishery considerably drcfine, from the 
present languishing state of manufactures, and the too great neg- 
lect of agriculture, this country would be almost ruined. 

Many circumstances unite to favour the establishment of manu- 
factures, and the further increase of agriculture in the island. 
The land is exempt from taxation ; the necessaries of life are 
abundant ; the country would suppl}' several manufacturing 
materials: while for the greater part of the produce of the land, 
and many of the manufactures, there would be an immediate 
demand at home ; and for the residue an easy conveyance 
(from the centrical situation of the island) ta various markets 
abroad. 

Thus, the balance of trade, which is now against the country, 
%vould be in its favour ; and a permanent fountain of wealth 
opened in its centre, which, from the influx of the fishery, would 
annually overflow. But this demands a spirit of enterprise and 
activity, hostile to the native indolence of the Manks, many of 
whom sacrifice every consideration to the pursuit of the fishery; 
and when this terminates, retire to their clay-built cottages ; 
win-re, surrounded by a squalid and tattered family, they slumber 
out the residue of the year in sloth and misery.* 

Providence has given a liberal supply of the wealth of the sea 
to this inland, and the acquisition of this, during the season, ought 
to be prosecuted with avidity ; but the remainder of the year 
should not be consumed in indolence. A society for establishing 
manufactures, and promoting a more general culture of the lands, 
would in this country be a most benevolent institution. The 
Manksman would then be roused from his lethargy ; he and his 
family amply participate of the comforts of life ; the blessings of 
society increase ; and, although the fishery should decline, these 
new channels of wealth would remain unexhausted. 



* The fishery commences in July, and usually terminates with the 
autumnal equinox. Consequently nine months of the year are by many of 
the Muuks passed in inactivity. 



22S 
HISTORICAL RETROSPECT OF NAVAL TACTICS. 



superiority of the British in naval tactics, though perhaps 
-1*- never displayed with so dazzling a splendour as at the battle 
of Trafalgar, has been proved by a long series of triumphs over 
our enemies. It is natural to ask, whence arises this superiority ? 
It cannot be considered as arising simply from skill, but must 
rather be traced to certain natural traits in the character of an 
Englishman, which are the effect of his habit, climate, and consti- 
tution.- From our insular situation, we are led to avail oursclve* 
of naval force, in some such manner as all animals are directed to 
make use of the weapons or talents with which nature has fur- 
nished them, whether for support or defence. 

It is obvious, from the great extent of our coast, the number of 
our bays, and the variety of sea-carriage which our produce 
requires, that a great proportion of our people must be bred to a 
sea-faring life. From these causes, as well as from the tempestuous 
nature of our seas, the rapidity of our tides, and the inconstancy 
of our climate, it may be expected that our mariners, besides 
being numerous, should be intrepid, dexterous, and hardy. It is 
from a combination of these circumstances, that the character of a 
British seaman is formed. He is constitutionally inirepid, hardy 
from necessity, and dexterous from habit. A prepossession in 
favour of our countrymen is natural and praiseworthy ; but, 
where they have uniformly undertaken and succeeded in great and 
extraordinary actions, it does not require the influence of national 
prejudice to conclude that they are distinguished by an extraordi- 
nary character. 

In taking a retrospective glance at the history of naval tactics, 
it may be considered as divided into four periods. The first 01 
these includes the battles of Salamis and Actinia ; but, as thoso 
engagements neither influence the destinies of nations, nor supply 
materials for modern tactics, it would be impertinent to dwell 
upon them. The second period commences with the Spanish 
armada ; comprehends the engagements between the English and 
the Dutch, the battles of Bantry Bay. and Beachy Head of ia 
Hogue in the seventeenth century, and of Malaga in 1719. Of 
none of these engagements, we believe, are there any particular- 
plans or descriptions extant. /The third period begins properly 
with those battles of which we have accurate plans and account*. 



226 HISTORICAL RETROSPECT OF NAVAI. TACTICS. 

that of Admiral Byng, in 1756 ; Sir George Pocock's, in 1758; 
that of Admiral Matthews, in 1774; and those of the American 
war, from the year 1778 to 1782 The fourth period properly 
begins with the victory of Rodney, when the attempt of cutting 
the enemy's line v-as so successfully tried. This period compre- 
hends the battles of Howe, St. Vincent, Duncan, and Nelson ; all 
of which were fought upon the system of Rodney, excepting that 
of Trafalgar. 

The first period, then, of British naval superiority, was in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth. We need not dwell upon the famous 
expeditions of Drake, Cavendish, Norris, and the Earl of Cumber- 
land, at this epoch. Where can there be a nobler example of skill 
and conduct^ than in the destruction of the armada ? In which we 
may observe, that the prudence in sustaining a defence, and 
sulTering that -immense armament to waste its force in a contention 
with winds and waves, was no less conspicuous than the intrepidity 
with which the repeated attacks were made. 

On the death of Elizabeth, the crown fell into unwarlikc hands, 
and the reign of her paciOc and inactive successor added neither to 
the glory of the British navy, nor to the renown of England. 
Commerce, however, was, at this period, pursued with indefati- 
gable enterprise-, and the spirit of maritime adventure and dis- 
covery was never more active. Thus, if James benefited our navy 
littk:, he assisted our commerce much, and the foundation of a 
pov/e; fill fleet was laid in the accumulation of a great mercantile 
marine, 

The Dutch war was the next occasion of a farther display of our 
iisvai character. But it must be observed, that whilst the English 
seamen had been so often engaged, and generally successful in 
::!ual!or battles, or rather enterprises, yet, till now, they had rarely 
Ix'cn t;iod in engagements in which a number of ships were assem- 
I;!. ;!. Notwithstanding, in the course of three dreadful wars, in 
the fii-st of which were nine regular battles, in the second five, and 
>:. tiic third six. making altogether twenty general engagements, 
t ;ev were almost uniformly conquerors against equal and mostly 
n;:3ir.'-t superior force. 

B;:t, what would now appear ridiculous and impracticable, 
i-.-ru- of the, officers, who commanded those fleets, had never been 
i i the service till they were passed the age of forty, and some even 
or n'"ry years. Of the latter number was Blake, who was re- 
ii^wr! :1 for the many obstinate actions which he had fought ? 
pa;-tir.iihrly that of the Dov/ns, where he had no more than fifteen 



HISTORICAL RETROSPECT OF NAVAL TACTICS. 227 

ships, yet did not refuse fhe combat, when attacked by forty-two 
sail of the enemy, led on by the redoubtable Van Tromp. 

In all these enterprises, whether with the Spaniards or the 
Dutch, whether in making the attack on castles, or ships in har- 
bours, or in encountering ship with ship in close action and 
formed in line of battle, we shall find British seamen, whe'.her 
equal or inferior in number, victorious or defeated, invariably 
fired with such enthusiastic courage, that these battles, though not 
always decisive, were constantly productive of important conse- 
quences, glorious in their effects to the British naval character. 

Without derogating from the gallant behaviour of the Dutch, 
which Vvas equally displayed in those wars, we are bound, from 
these proofs and examples, to conclude that British seamen are, 
by nature or habit, endued with a character peculiarly fitting them 
for maritime glory and pre-eminence; and though the spirits of 
the people might have been depressed by the unfortunate battles 
of Beachy Head and Ban try Bay, which were fought some time 
after; yet the natural impressions, so justly in favour of our sea- 
men, soon recovered our confidence, which was at length fully 
confirmed by the battle of La Jlogue, in which the superiority of 
English seamanship and courage was proved by the destruction of 
a more than equal number of our enemy. 

The long intervals between those actions, and that of the Avar in 
1743, in no degree abated the sanguine impressions respecting our 
seamen. Unfortunately, howevt-r, our maritime superiority be- 
came at this time questionable ; and some miscarriages in the 
Mediterranean, and the inexpertness of our admirals, discontented 
the nation, and checked its confidence in our sailors. At length, 
some_opportunitles offered, in which we were successful. The 
capture of the May fleet, by Admiral Hawke, revived the spirits 
of the kingdom ; and the voyage round the world, by Lord 
Anson, his attack of an AcupuLo ship, so greatly superior, and 
his capture of six French ships of the line and 1'ndiamen, yet far- 
ther heightened our expectations. But something still seemed 
wanting. We could not help remembering our glorious conflicts 
\\ith the Dutch, and the pre-eminence which we had so decidedly 
and dearly purchased. Our naval successes, at this time, were 
sufficient not to dispirit, but not enough to satisfy ; and the 
British ilag, unless unquestionably and conspicuously gl triotis, was 
considered to be tarnished. A nation, which had seen so much 
done by its ancestors, required that the existing race of British 
leamcn should not disgrace them by any appearance of inferiority. 



'128 HISTORICAL RETROSPECT OF NAVAL TACTICl. 

A full and perfect sovereignty of the ocean was now thought 
necessary, and England was unappeasable without it. 

An unpleasant contrast, however, was soon exhibited ; and, 
instead of gaining the sovereignty of the seas, we were more than 
ever in danger of losing it. What was the cause of this ill suc- 
cess, was not at that time evident, though experience has since 
justly charged it upon an error in our naval tactics. 

About this time the nation felt a severe disappointment, when it 
was known that Admiral Byng, commanding a British fleet of 
superior force, in a general engagement with the French, without 
losing a ship, almost without the loss of a man, half of his fleet 
not having fired a shot, had acknowledged himself worsted, by 
flying to Gibraltar, abandoning Minorca, and leaving the enemy 
master of the sea. It should be remarked, however, that in all 
the minor conflicts during the course of this war, in which examples 
of the most splendid and daring intrepidity were exhibited in the 
public service, the British navy, ship to ship, lost nothing of its 
ancient renown. It was in general engagements only that the 
hopes of the nation were disappointed. 

The meeting b_et\veen Havvke and Conflans could scarcely be 
termed a general engagement. The enemy fairly ran away, 
without coming to an action. The British fleet remained vic- 
torious ; but its victory was in the cowardice of the French. 
Vet though, on all these occasions, excepting the one now men- 
tioned, we had greatly the superiority, the decision which took 
place, by means of that superiority, will never destroy the force 
of the general observation ; namely, that in the lesser conflicts, or 
hi the opposition of ship to ship, the British flng had always 
triumphed ; but, in great engagements, under the old system of 
tactics, our fleets, in the two wars preceding the American war, 
and even in that war, up to the victory of Rodney, were inva- 
riably baffled, nay, worsted,, without the loss of a ship, or scarcely 
of a man. 

In remarking these circumstances, it is evident that one of these 
three things must b the fact: either, that the enemy, having 
acquired a superior knowledge, had adopted a new system of 
managing great fleets, not known, or not attended to, by us ; 
that we had persisted in following some old method or instructions, 
which, from later improvements, ought to have been rejected ; 
or, that these miscarriages, so often and so fatally repeated^ 
'an 5 * have proceeded from want of spirit in our 



HISTORICAL RETROSPECT OF NATAL TACTICS. 229 

In examining which of these inferences is true, the following 
Conclusions will hold, from a survey of every circumstance of our 
naval history, up to the period of which we are speaking : First, 
that, in bringing a ship to close action, and in conduct during 
action, British seamen have never been excelled ; secondly, that 
the instructions (by which is meant the method, practised at that 
period, of arranging great fleets, so as to bring on a general 
battle, or forcing the enemy to engage upon equal terms), after so 
many trials having been found unsuccessful, must have been 
wrong ; and, thirdly, that the French, having uniformly followed 
a mode which constantly produced the intended effect, must be 
conceived to have adopted some new system, which either we had 
not discovered, or had disdained to examine, 

It may now be asked, what was this artifice of the enemy, 
which so long checked our career of naval glory? To what 
innovation do we owe our present maritime intelligence? Is it, 
on our part, to greater courage, or to greater skill? Unquestion- 
ably, to the latter. It may also be asked, did the French, at this 
period, effect any thing decisive against us ? Did they ever, in 
any of these rencounters, take any of our ships ? Have they ever, 
presuming upon their superior skill, dared to make the attack ? 
No ! But, confident of their superiority in naval tactics, and 
relying on our want of penetration, they constantly offered us 
battle to leeward ; trusting that the impetuosity of our national 
courage would hurry us on to make the customary attack, though 
at a disadvantage almost beyond the power of calculation. Till 
this artifice was discovered, and till our system of receiving, and of 
making an attack was changed, from the necessity of counteracting 
the plan of the enemy, the British navy could scarcely maintain its 
claim to decided superiority, or be said to have reverted to its 
original lustre. 

The naval reader is aware, that all ships must be, as to each 
other, windward or leeward ; and, in their tacks, either starboard 
or larboard. A fleet to windward has invariably borne down, in 
a slanting line, on another to leeward, each ship a-brcast of the 
other, till they brought up within a proper distance for a close and 
general engagement from van to rear. A fleet to leeward, there- 
fore, desirous to avoid a general engagement, has full leisure to 
disable a windward fleet during its approach to battle ; and, when 
the latter shall have assumed a situation for close encounter, the 
former may bear away at intervals, whilst enveloped with smoke ; 
or, by making more sail, may shoot a-head, and pour its whole 



230 HISTORICAL RETROSPECT OF NAVAL TACTICS. 

fire into the opposite van, as it passes, and wear in succession to 
form a new line to leeward on the opposite tack. 

The mystery of the French tactics was formerly no more than 
this; they never made an attack, but always courted a leeward 
situation : they have thus invariably disabled the British fleet in 
coming down to action ; and, upon seeing it disabled, have made 
sail and demolished the van in passing, keeping clear of close 
engagement, and never lying ship a-breast. The English, en the 
other hand, from an irresistible desire of attack, constantly 
courted the windward position ; generally had their ships disabled 
and separated, and were seldom able to close with the enemy, or 
to make a capture. 

Such was the system which we have alluded to, and by which 
the French succeeded, from the naval engagement with Admiral 
Byng in the Mediterranean, in 1756, to the rencounter with 
Admiral Graves off the Chesapeak, in 1781. In Admiral Byron's 
engagement off Grenada, our fleet bore down to windward, whilst 
the enemy, bearing away, prevented an attack upon their rear, 
or a close engagement in the van. Our headmost ships were 
disabled in making the attack, as they received the whole fire of 
the enemy's line, as each ship of the latter passed and wore in 
succession, in order to form to leeward upon the opposite tack* 
S'o closely did the French adhere to this system, that, to avoid all 
chance of close or general engagement, they forbore even to 
intercept our disabled ships which had necessarily fallen to 
leeward. 

Such was the superiority of the enemy's tactics, that, till the 
vcar 1782, above thirty years had passed without any conspicuous 
jiaval victory; ship indeed engaging ship, the British always suc- 
ceeded; but the advantage was never extended to general engage- 
ment. Rodney set the first example of attack to leeward and 
cutting of the line ; and since that time, in all general battles, we 
have uniformly triumphed. 

Rodney opened a new aera; and, with the exception of the 
battle of the Nile, where the French fleet was at anchor, the same 
iiu'.niruvre ot attacking to leeward, and cutting the line, has 
invariably succeeded. In Lord Howe's victory, the signal was 
aiven (the first we believe that ever was given, for Rodney's is 
thought to have been rather accident than design) for the British 
Hoot to leeward to tack successively and cut the line; the two 
fleets worn instantly intermixed, the battle was that of ship to 



231 

ship, and the event proved the skill of the attack. Indeed, so 
sensible were the French of the cause of our victory, that the 
Convention passed a decree of death against the captain who 
should ever suffer the line to be cut. 

Lord St. Vincent, indeed, from having greater advantages in 
varying his plan of attack, disregarded the general system. When 
that illustrious man perceived the Spanish fleet to windward, con- 
sisting of twenty-seven sail of the line, he instantly cut off a 
division of it, though he could not. bring on a general engage- 
ment, as the enemy, in great trepidation, chose rather to fly, than 
to succour any part of their squadron. But Lord Duncan, in the 
victory off Camperdown, cut the Dutch line immediately in the 
centre. 

The battles of Howe, of St. Vincent, of Duncan, and of Nelson, 
as before observed, may all be considered as having been fought 
upon the system of Rodney ; excepting that of Trafalgar, in, 
which, though the great object was to cut the line as expeditiously 
as possible, an improvement of so much wisdom and importance 
was suggested by the illustrious hero who obtained the victory, 
that we almost hesitate whether we should not consider it as the 
foundation of a new asra in naval tactics. 

Our admirals, under the present system, can almost uniformly 
bring on a close engagenent ; and, when the line is once broken, 
victory may be regarded as decisive. With the power of com- 
pelling shjp to engage with ship, the trial is rather of courage, and 
of nautical and meehanical skill, than of what may be strictly 
termed naval science ; ar. 1 a superiority in this respect, from 
insular education, from the boisterous seas which surround our 
coast, and from the perpetual necessity of learning navigation in a 
great part of our people, in order to procure subsistence, must 
always be peculiar to the British nation. 

Upon the change in our naval system, it is unnecessary to 
dwell with any length of praise. Jts superiority is witnessed in 
its effects ; and we may rest satisfied, that no farther improve- 
ment of the enemy, unless they should be able to destroy the 
spirit of Great Britain, and annihilate our race of seamen, will 
ejer again put our maritime superiority fo hazard. 



232 
PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 



MEANS OF PRESERVING WATER SWEET, AS IlECOMMEMDED BY 
DR. BLAKE. 

THE purest water is apt to spoil by producing a putrid glare 
upon the inner surface of the cask which contains it. 
There is a great difference in this respect between a new cask, 
especially if made of moist wood, and that cask which has been 
hardened and seasoned by age and use. Several contrivances have 
been proposed for preparing the vessels that hold the water ; but 
none have been found by experience so effectual as letting them 
stand for some time full of sea water ; and it is a great advantage 
of this method, that it is so easily practicable. 

It is in few places we meet with water such as that of Bristol, 
which, in clean vessels, may be kept for any length of time. We 
may consider all water kept in wooden vessels as more or less 
liable to putrefaction ; but there is a substance, which is neither 
rare nor costly, that effectually preserves it sweet. This is quick 
lime, with which every ship should be provided, in order to put a 
pint of it into each butt when it is filled. It is probably owing to 
the small impregnation of quick lime found in Bristol water that 
it is so incorruptible. It has the advantage of not being injurious 
io health ; but, on the contrary, is rather friendly to the bowels, 
tending to prevent and check fluxes. 

In the year 1779 several ships of the line arrived in the West 
Indies from England, and they were all afflicted with the flux, 
except the Stirling Castle, which was the only ship in which quick 
lime was put into the water; nor does it spoil the water for any 
culinary purpose. Its action in preventing putrefaction consists, 
in part at least, in destroying vegetable and animal life. An addi- 
lion of putrcscent matter is produced in water by the generation 
of small insects; and the glare that collects on the sides of casks, 
anil also what collects on the surface of the water, is a species of 
logetation, of the order called by naturalists algce. Quick lime 
is a poison to this species pf vegetable life, as well as to insects : 
l)ut upon whatever principle it depends, the property of it in pre- 
serving Mater sweet is so well ascertained, that it is inexcusable ever 
to neglect the use of it. 

Quick lime is equally efficacious for this purpose, whether 
.lacked or unslacked; and though the latter form is more 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 233 

nicnt for stowage, by having less weight and bulk, yet the other 
is to be preferred for the sake of safety; for if water should by 
chance reach the unslacked lime, a great degree of heat is thereby 
produced, which has been known to give occasion to the most for- 
midable accidents. 

When the water of wells or brooks is found loaded with mud, 
the following expeditious method of filtration, described by Dr. 
Lind, has been practised with success : Let a quantity of clean. 
sand, or gravel, be put into a barrel placed on one end, without 
the head, so as to nil one half or more of it, and let another 
barrel, with both ends knocked out, of a much smaller size (or let 
it be an open cylinder of any kind), be placed erect in the middle 
of it, and almost iilled with sand or gravel. If the impure water 
be poured into the small barrel or cylinder, it will rise up through 
the sand of both barrels, and appear pure above the saad of the 
large one in the interval between it a:sd the small one. 

The following contrivance will be found to afford a sufficient 
supply of sweet water to particular messes, and may be 'considered 
as an artificial and more expeditious sort of dripping stone : Let 
the narrow mouth of a large funnel be iilled with a bit of sponge, 
over which let there be a layer of clean gravel or sand, covered 
with a piece of flannel, and over the whole another layer of 
sand. 

Muddy or offensive water being poured upon this, runs or drops' 
out clear ; and care must be taken to change the sand, sponge, c. 
frequently, as they will become loaded with the impurities of the 
water. 



ON SOUND. FllOM GREGORY. 

SOME curious experiments have been made, relative to the pro* 
pagation of sound, by Messrs, dc Thury, Maraldi, and de la 
Caille, upon a line, fourteen thousand six hundred and thirty- 
six fathoms in length, having the to-.ver of Mount Lheri at one 
end, and the pyramid of Montmartre at the other extremity of that 
distance: their observatory was pi iced between those two objects. 
The result of their observations were these: 1st, That sound 
moves one hundred and seventy-three fathoms (French) in a 
second, when the air is calm ; 2d, That sound moves wi.'h the 
same degree of swiftness, whether it be strong or weak ; for these 
gentlemen observed, that the discharge of a box of half a pound 
of gunpowder, exploded at Montmartre, was heard at Mouut 

C&tom EoLXIX. H 



2,14 NATAT, LltERATtniE. 

Lheri Jrt the same space of time as the report of a great gnrt 
charged with nearly six pounds of powder. Sdly, That the motion 
of sound is uniform; that its velocity neither accelerates nor 
diminishes through the whole course of its progress. 4th, That 
the velocity of sound is the same, whether a cannon is placed 
towards the person who hears its report, or turned a contrary way ; 
in oiher words, a great gnn fired from the Tower of London east- 
ward, would be heard at Westminster in the same interval of time, 
as if it was discharged towards the latter place. And if the gnn was 
discharged in a direction perpendicular to the horizon, it would be 
heard as soon as if dischnrged in a right line towards tho hearer. 
By other experiments, however, the progress of sound appears to 
be impeded by a strong wind, so that it travels at the rate of about 
one mile slower in a minute, against a strong wind, than with it. 

A knowledge of the progression of sound is not an article of 
mere sterile curiosity, bnt in several instances useful ; for by this 
we arc enabled to determine the distance of ships or other moving 
bodies. Suppose, for example, a vessel fires a gun, the sound 
of -uhich is heard five seconds after the flash is seen ; as sound 
mores 1,142 English feet in one second, this number multiplied by 
5 gives the distance of 5,710 feet. The same principle is appli- 
cable in storms of lightning and thunder. 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 

Accounts and Papers^ presented to the House of Commons^ pur* 
xuant to their Orders of the 3d and llth July, 1805, relating 
//i Slitps of IVar, 6fc. Ordered to be printed 22d January, 
180G. 



S assemblage of papers is divided into three parts. 
-**- No. 1, of the first part, consists of copies of directions from 
t!ie Admiralty to the Navy Board, for the repair of his Majesty's 
-inns, between the 1st of October, 1801, and March, 1803. 

No. 2. Copies of directions from the -Admiralty to the Navy 
Board, on the subject of working the shipwrights; between the 
1st of October, 1801, and April, 1803. By an order of the 3d 
oi November, 1802, the following numbers of apprentices were 
driveled to be taken, in the respective yards : Portsmouth, 20; 
r'l\ mouth, '20; Chatham, 15; Woolwich, 10; Deptford, 10; 
*Jm-nn>ss 5 R>. By an order of the 17th of March, 1803, the 



AVAL LITERATURE. 235 

*ge, for the admission of shipwrights into the king's yards, was 
extended from 28 to 35 years, till the following deficiencies of 
number should be filled tip: Deptford, 79; Woolwich, 71; 
Chatham, 177 ; Portsmouth, 78. A similar extension to other 
artificers and workmen was granted on the 23d following. 

No. 3. Co-pies of directions from the Admiralty to the Navy 
Board, between the 1st of March, 1783, and the 31st of Decem- 
ber, 178G, on the subject of working the shipwrights. 

No. 4. Copies of directions from the Admiralty to the Navy 
Board, between the 1st of October, 1801, and the 1st of March, 
1803, on the subject of laying up ships in ordinary, stowing their 
holds, and receiving the rigging, guns, and stores on board, as the 
ships were respectively repaired, or reported fit for service : also, 
correspondence with the Ordnance, and directions from the Admi- 
ralty, on the same subject, in 1783 and 1784. 

No. 5. Copies of directions from the Admiralty, between the 
1st of October, 1801, and March, 1803, for procuring timber 
from New South Wales and Trinidad, as well as for building ships 
of war in India. 

No. 6. Copies of letters and orders from the Admiralty to the 
Navy Board, between the 14th of February, 1801, and the 15th 
of May, 1804, for the erection of works and machinery to manu- 
facture copper and blocks in the dock-yards. 

No. 7. Copies of correspondence between the Admiralty and 
Navy Board, from the same dates as the preceding, on the quality, 
manufacture, and best mode of procuring good canvass for the 
navy. It appears that, in 1803, a Mr. Turner, a principal canvass 
manufacturer, in London, was appointed inspector of canvass, with 
a salary of 5001. a year during war, and 2501. a year in yeace. 

No. 8. Copies of letters from'thc master shipwrights ai\d timber 
masters of the several dock-yards, in May, 1801. to the secretary 
of the Admiralty, on the mode of receiving timber from thy 
contractors. 

No. 9. Copies of statements made by the inspector of naral 
works, respecting the erection cjf works, &c. for the manufacture 
of copper and blocks, from the llth of June, 1801, to the 3d of 
May, 1804. 

JX'os. 10 and 11 are unimportant. 

No, 1, of the second part, is a statement, shewing the extra time 
worked by the shipwrights in the king's yards, from the 1st 
6f Marchj 1783, to the 31st qf December, 17SQ ; with sc-yef4 
l&ther particulars^ 



236 NAVAL L1TKKATURE. 

No. 2.is a similar statement, from the 1st of October, 1801, to 
the 28th of February, 1S03. 

No. 3. Copies of letters and representations from the officers ol 
J>ptford yard to the Navy Board, in June, 1805, on the subject 
of defective timber cut up in that yard, and of the advances given 
to the timber merchants on their contracts for timber. 

Nos. 4 and 5 also relate to timber, in Deptford and Plymouth 
yards. 

From No. 6, it appears that a part of a transom, and a lower 
piece of stem, were all that had shifted in his Majesty's ship 
Ocean, from the time of her being laid down, in 171)0, to the 34 
of July, 1805. 

No. 7 shews the tonnage and force of his Majesty's ships 
Vestal, Narcissus, Circe, and Pallas, built in Plymouth yard, with 
th;> cost of workmanship, &c. 

No. 8. Accounts of the prices allowed (in July, 1805) to the 
several contractors in the Thames, for making masts and yards, 
vith the price for which each article can be made by the artificers 
in JA'ptlord yard. 

l>y No. 9, it appears that the following number of shipwrights 
were discharged from the king's yards in May, 1801, for riots and 
combinations : Deptford, 21; Woolwich. 19; Chatham, 34; 
Siii-'erness, 15; Portsmouth, 13; Plymouth, 26. 

No. 10 relates to the quartcrmen, shipwrights, &c. discharged 
from the different yards at the visitation in 1802 ; shewing their 
several hurts, ages, pensions, &c. Qnartermen have an annual 
pen-ion of '241. shipwrights, caulkers, &c. 201. house-carpenters, 
sail-makers, &c. }51. riggers, labourers, &c. 101. 

No. 1 1 relates to the price of canvass, from 1792 to 1805. 

No. 12. Copies of statements, by the officers of each of , the 
I;;;-' a *s yards, of the results of observations on the copper on 
iiie boitoms of such ships as had been taken into dock since the 
Ut dl January, 1801. 

No. \'J relates to stores shipped from Deptford and Woolwich 
yard . from <he 1st of April to the 30th of September, 1804 ? for 
th.' Mipj !, of the ont-ports and foreign yard^s. 

No. 11. Correspondence on the same subject. 

No. 1.5. Quarterly returns from all the yards, relating to tim- 
ber arid stores. 

No. iG. Do. from Plymouth yard. 

From No. 1, of the third part, the following appear to be the 
of shipwrights and apprentices, at the respective 



NAVAL LITERATURE, 237 

tin the 14th o r May, 1804 : Dcptford : shipwrights, 326; ap- 
prentices, 76. Woolwich : shipwrights, 266 ; apprentices, 83. 
Chatham : shipwrights, 411 ; apprentices, 123. Sheerness : ship. 
wrigiirs. 1 37; apprentices, 48. Portsmouth: shipwrights, 691 ; 
apprentices, 186. Plymouth : shipwrights, 750 ; apprentices, 
J76. 

No. 2 shews the names, &c. of all shipwrights who discharged 
themselves from Deptford and Woolwich yards between the 1st of 
June, 1804, and the 31st of May, 1805. 

No. 3 exhibits a statement of the number of men employed in 
building the Plantagenet, Ethalion, and Ocean ; and in repairing 
or fitting the Courageux, Wilhelmina, Chichester, Squirrel, 
Racoon, and Amaranthe. 



Further Accounts and Papers^ presented to the. House of Com- 
mons, relating to Ships of War., $c. Ordered to be printed 
17th and 1\st April^ 1806. 

Nq. 1 is a statement, shewing the defective or improper work- 
manship and materials, discovered in the Ajax, Achille, &c. 

No. 2 is a statement of the particulars for building a ship of 
74 guns and 1730 tons in Deptford yard, in January 1800, and 
1805, with the price per ton. At the former period, the priee 
per ton was, 221. 19s. 3d. at the latter, 27}. 4s. Id. Conse,. 
quently, the total expcnce, at the former period, was 39,7261. 2s. 
at the latter, 47,0651. 18s. id. 

No. 3 is a list of all the ships of the line, ordered to be built by 
contract from 1783 to May, 1805; specifying the price per ton, 
after all abatements, and the sums since expended on them for 
repairs. 

No. 4 is a copy of the schedule of prices, delivered by the mer- 
chant builders, for ships of the line, in January and February, 
1805 ; contrasted vyith the price, in detail, which they would cost 
in Deptford yard. The merchants' price, per ton, is 361. 1 Is. 3d. 
the cost in Dcptford yard, 251. 8s. 3|d. consequently, what would 
amount to 62,4301. Is. 8d. by the former, would be only 
43,3591. 13s. 9d. by the latter. 

No. 5 is an account of the line-of-battle ships and frignlcs in 
on the 1st of October, 18.01. 



238 NAVAL POETRY. 

farther Accounts and Papers^ presented to the House of Coin- 
inons, relating to ships of War^ $c. Ordered to be printed 
21st April) 1806. 

No. 1 relates to the tonnage, first cost, repairs, &c. of certain 
ships repaired in the merchants' yards, from 1804 to 1806. 

By No. 2, it appears that the total sum paid for copper sheets, 
from 1792 to 1804, both inclusive, was 1,070,1011. 8s. 8d. 
exclusive of 154,8701. 16s. lOd. paid for copper sheathing nails, 
in the same period. 

No. 3 consists of correspondence, relating to copper furnished 
by the Mines Royal Company, &c. 

No. 4, relates to the line-of-baltle ships which were taken to 
pieces between the 14th of February, 1801, and the 14th of 
February, 1804. 

No. 5 relates to the sale of hemp and decayed spars, in 1802. 

By No. 6, it appears that the following number of apprentices 
were entered at the respective yards, between the 1st of January, 
1802, and the 14th of May, 1 804 : Deptford, 46 ; Woolwich, 36 j 
Chatham, 79; Shcerness, 24 ; Portsmouth, 126 ; Plymouth, 79. 

No. 7 contains various proposed regulations respecting ship. 
Wrights' apprentices. 

No. 8 is an account of the sums granted by parliament to the 
Navy Board, between the 1st of January, 1792, and the 31st of 
December, 1805, for the hulls, masts, &c. of certain ships. 

No. 9 relates to the number of Avorkmen, proposed, in 1802, to 
be employed, at the different yards, on the peace establishment. 

Nos. 10 and 11 contain instructions relating to the building of 
certain ships at Bombay and Bermuda. 

No. 12, the last of the series, is a copy of an order from the 
Admiralty, dated February 24, 1803, for the erection of machU 
nor\ . for the manufacture of rope, in Woolwich yard. 



The heart's remote recesses to explore, 

Aiid touch its springs, when Prose iivail'd no mure. FALCONER, 



THE CURIEUX. 

A TEIEUTE TO VALOUR. BY JOHN MAYNE. 

WHAT mean the colours half-mast high, 
In yonder ship upon the main? 
All me ! a seaman made reply, 
Some hero of renown is slain, \ 



NAVAL JPOETUY. 239 



Yon brig is call'd the CUUIEUX, 
To Britain's foes a deadly name ; 

Her captain, SIIEUUIFF, and his crew 
No strangers in the lists of fame. 

But, in a daring enterprize, 

Tlio' glory has the conflict crown'd, 
A wreck his gallant vessel lies, 

While carnage reddens all around. 

Behold, approaching to the shore, 
The tars, lamenting, bow their head ! 

Poor SHEHRIFF wounded to the core, 
And, for his king and country, dead ! 

Ye brave companions of his life, 

Ye heroes of the CURIEUX, 
Who join'd him in th' unequal strife, 

W r ho saw him bid the world adieu- 
To honour's bed his corse convey, 

For glory was his leading star ; 
Mild as the gentlest breeze of May, 

But like a lion ia the war. 

And keep your cplours half-mast high, 
A mournful signal o'er the main I 

Seen only when th' illustrious die, 
Or are in glorious battle slain. 



EXTRACT HIOM A MOXODY WRITTEN AT MATLOCK. BY TH* 
REV. W. L. BOWLES. 

WHEN first young Hope, a golden. tressed boy, 
Most musical his early madrigal 
Sings to the whispering waters as they fall ; 
Breathing fresh airs of fragrance and of joy, 
The wild woods gently wave the morning sheds 
Her rising radiance on the mountain. heads 
Strew'd with green isles appears old ocean's reiga j 
And seen at distance rays of resting light 
Silver the farthest promontory's height: 
Then hush'd is the long murmur of the 



240 



Whilst silent o'er the slowly. crisping tides, 

Bound to some beaming spot, the bark of pi cam re glide?. 

Alas! the scenes that smile, in light array'd, 

But catch the sense, and then in darkness fade. 

We, poor adventurers, of peace bereft, 

Look back on the green hills which late we left; 

Or turn, with beating breast, and anxious eye^ 

To some faint hope that glimm'ring meets our sight, 

(Like the lone watch-tow'r in the storm of night) 

Then on the dismal waste are driv'n despairing by ! 

........ Bright bursts the sun upon the shaggy seen* 5 

The aged rocks their glittering summits grey 
Jiang beautiful amid the beams of day, 
And all the woods, with slowly-fading green, 
Yet smiling wave: severer thoughts, away ! 
The night is distant, and the lovely day 
Looks on us yet. 



EXTRACT FHOM YERSES ADDRESSED TO THE RIGHT HON. 
BURKE BY THE SAME. 



WITH joy we turn to ALBION'S happier plain, 
Where ancient freedom holds her temperate reign ; 
U here Justice sits majestic on her throne ; 
W here Mercy turns her ear to every groan. 
O ALBION ! fairest isle, whose verdant plain 
Springs beauteous from the blue and billowy main ; 
Jn peaceful pomp, whose glitt'ring cities rise, 
And Hit their crowded temples to the skies ; 
Whose navy on the broad brine awful rolls ; 
Whose commerce glows beneath the distant poles.' 
Sweet native land ! whose every haunt is dear, 
"Whose cv'ry gale is music to mine car : 
Amidst whose hills one poor retreat I sought, 
Where I might sometimes hide a sadd'ning thonght; 
And having wander'd far, and mark'd mankind 
In their vain mask, might reit and safety find; 
Oh ! still may freedom with majestic mien, 
Pacing thy rocks and the green vales, be seen ! 



NAVAL 1>OETUY. 241 

Around thy cliffs, that glitter o'er the main, 
May smiling order wiad her silver chain ; 
Whilst from thy calm abodes and r.zure skies, 
Far off the fiend of discord murmuring flies ! 

sX~X.^ 

THE LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL, 

CANTO SIXTH. 
I. 

1OREATHES there a man with soul so dead. 

lii^ 

<* '* Who never to himself hath said, 

This is my own, my native land ! 
Whose heart hath ne'er within him burn'd, 
As home his footsteps he hath turn'd, 
From wandering on a foreign strand ? 
If such there breathe, go mark him well ; 
For him no minstri'l raptures swell ; 
High though his titles, proud his name, 
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim ; 
Despite those titles, power, and pelf, 
The wretch, concentred all in self, 
Living, shall forget fair renown, 
And double dying, shall go down 
To the vile dust, from whence he sprung^ 
Unwept, unhonour'dj and unsung ! 

II. 

O Caledonia ! stern and wild, 

Meet nurse for a poetic child! 

Land of brown heath and shaggy wood, 

Land of the mountain and the flood, 

Land of my sires ! what mortal hand 

Can e'er untie the filial band, 

That knits me to thy rugged strand ! 

Still as I view each well-known scene, 

Think what is now, and what hath been, 

Seems as, to me, of all bereft, 

Sole friends thy woods and streams were left i 

And thus I love them better still, 

E'en ia extremity of ill. 

By Yarrow's stream still let me stray, 

Though none should guide my feeble way j 

. OoI.XIX. n 



543 NAY At POETRY; 

Still feel the bfeeze down Ettricke break, 
Although it chill m"y wither'd cheek ; 
Still lay ray head on Teriot stone, 
Though there^ forgotten and alone, 
The bard may draw his parting groan. 



THE SEA-BOY. 

HIGH on tho giddy bending mast, 
While tempests roar around, 
Poor Jack, regardless of the blast, 
Lies wrapt in sleep profound. 

In Vain the rolling thunder peals, 

And vivid lightnings glare ; 
Not all the storm the Sea-boy feels, 

Not all its horrors scare. 

With daily dang'rous toil o'ercome, 

A ropy coil his pillow ; 
The wind-rock'd Sea-boy dreams of home, 

Nor hears the rising billow. 

Unshielded from the midnight air, 

He dreams of absent friends ; 
To heaven for them full many a pray'r, 

Full many a blessing sends. 

In sleep some dear-lov'd father greets, 

Or tender mother clasps; 
For them, alas ! some cable meets, 

Or rocky main-mast grasps. 

The storm subsides, the morning breaks, 
While Jack his dream enjoys ; 

The hallooing boatswain's call awakes : 
The sweet illusion flies. 

Rous'd quickly from his ropy bed, 

The dreaming scene is gone; 
Hi? father, mother, home, arc fled, 

Poor Jack laments alone. 



WAVAl HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808, $43 

Again his daily toil employs. 

He whistling turns the sail ; 
Again, at night, his dream enjoys, 

Rock'd nightly by the gale. 

v^--.^^^r> 

DESCRIPTION OF A MORNING AT SEA. 

(From Drummond's " Battle of Trafalgar," an heroic Poem. 

PAIR from her ruby throne, with roseate smiles, 
The morH in glory cloth 'd the sparkling isles j 
Light o'er the billows' glassy concaves roll'd 
The playful radiance of her fluid gold ; 
The silvery surges drank the purple day, 
And rainbow colours ting'd the dashing spray ; 
The milk-white foam along the pebbly strand 
Danc'd on the surf, or fring'd the rustling sand ; 
While round and round the sportive sea-fowl flew } 
Or dipp'd their plumage in the briny dew : 
The silken pendants from the tow'ring mast, 
Stream'd o'er the wave, and wanton'd in the blast j- 
The furrowing keels the sounding ocean plough'd, 
With sailors' cries the cliffs re-echoed loud. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 18Q8 ? 

(February Mqrch. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND IVIISCELLAXEOUS. 

TVflTUCIJ conjecture has been afloat respecting the force, object, and 
situation of the enemy's squadrons which are understood to have 
escaped from Rochefort and Toulon. The general belief is, that they mean 
to attempt a descent upon Sicily; and a report is now in circulation, that 
a naval victory has been obtained by the English in the Mediterranean. 
This victory, if the report be correct, must, in all probability, have been 
achieved by Sir Richard Strachan's squadron, which is known to have 
proceeded to that quarter in pursuit of the enemy. 

The Carthagcna squadron is also understood to have put to sea, and to 
have stood up the Mediterranean; hut, in consequence of a strong 
Levanter, it was compelled to take shelter in Minorca, where it was left by 
the Hydra, about the 15th of February. The report, therefore, of the 
French and Spanish squadrons having effected a junction, previously to that 
period, is erroneous. 

Sir Sidney Smith was at Gibraltar on the 1st of March; whence, after 
victualling and -watering, he intended to proceed to the Brazils. The late 
ales had done much mischief to the shipping in the bays of Gibraltar and 
Abeziras. 



$44 NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAH, 1808. 

Our fleet from the Mediterranean, under convoy of the Sirius, were 
chased by two French men of war, offScilly, on the 17tli of March, and one 
of them is thought to have been captured: the remainder have arrived at 
Plymouth. 

Another secret expedition, of great magnitude and importance, is on 
oot; but not the least hint has been given of its object or destination. 

Upon the whole, the communication with the continent is more open than 
it had for some time been. From the severity of the win' masts 

of Norway and Sweden, many of our ships have been incapable 
but the ice has begun to give way, and it is hoped that we sh.ill be utde to 
intercept the Danish flotilla, in its intended cuort for the invasion of Sweden, 

The King of Denmark died on the 1 3th u March; and the Crown Prince 
was proclaimed kinj; on the 16th ; but no acclamations of joy took place 
on the occasion ; nor is it likely that this change will produce the slightest 
alteration in the political relations of Europe, the late king having been 
virtually dead many years. 

Evidently under the influence aud controul of France, Russia has pub- 
lished an insidious manifesto against Sweden, and an equally insidious 
proclamation, addressed to the inhabitants of Finland, _,ilculated to divert 
their allegiance from their lawful sovereign. To these instruments, the 
Swedish monarch has published a most spirited and able reply; but it i;> 
fr rux-'t that this noble-minded prir.ce, even with the aid of England, will 
not oo able to rc^.at the combined force of France, Russia, and Denmark. 
An action lias been fought in Finland; in which, according to the 
Swedish account, the Russians lost 5,000 men, and their opponents but 
5,700. It is however added, that the latter retreated after the battle. 

Admiral Berkeley, 5 a the Triumph, accompanied by the Leopard, has 
arrived from Halifax. 

The government of America is believed to have greatly lowered its tone. 
?Ir. Hose has oeen favourably received; and it is understood, that the affair 
of the Chesapeake, to wiiich alone his mission related, has been amicabh 
adjusted, 

\\"i; h respect to the other points in dispute, it is said that some proposals 
are f> be brought over to this country by Mr. Nourse ; and Congress wa,- 
expected to adjourn about the middle of March, to May, by which time the 
answer to Mr. Bourse's proposals might be returned to America. 

The embargo, which the American government laid upon their own ship 
pin.', has produced very distressing effects to commerce, throughout every 
purt of the United States. The Xon-Importation Act, a measure so 
obnoxious to this country, has, by an explanatory bill, been, in effect, repealed. 
Th:- r\ .;la:ip.tory bill permits the importation of all articles in vessels of the 
J . Viic-i! States, which left that country prior to the 14 tb of December l::.-r 
Tl.r embargo was laid the '22d of that month, and consequently no vcs i :rl- 
nre now liable to the provisions of the uon- importation law, except those 
nhi<.:h Ict'r the country between the 14th and 23d December. 

A letter from v S"a:>hi:igton of the 4th of February, says " I have not, 
jV(,t:i my political s. -Hiding, access to the official fountains it is not ninie 
'.cca!'.-ii: nnfo,itcs but information from thqse sources has descended to m- 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1808. 245 

through such channels, that I can venture to assure you, almost beyond a 
doubt, that our differences with Great Britain will be speedily and satis- 
factorily accommodated. Apprehensions of French influence upon our 
councils have been entertained, even by many of the republican party 
but that danger is nearly over. We shall have peace with Britain. War 
with France will follow ; and America and Britain will be the only obsta- 
cles to the gigantic project of Napoleon and Alexander, to divide the world 
between them. Gloomy will be the prospect, horrible will be the contest ! 
Heaven alone can save us ; and let us confidently hope that Heaven will yet 
smile on the cause of freedom.'' 

By some recent despatches from Lord Colliogwood, we learn, that the 
English brig, which was mentioned in the Dutch papers to have been 
.taken off Messina, was the Delight, commanded by Captain Hanfield, 
iwhich unfortunately got aground m attempting to defend five Sicilian 
gun-boats, which were on the point of falling into the hands of the enemy. 
When aground, she was fired upon from the shore, and most of her crew 
being killed, she was taken possession of by the French. Captain 
Secorabe, of the Glalton, who had rowed in his barge to give assistance 
to the L'elight, was wounded and taken prisoner, but afterwards liberated 
<m his parole, and sent to Messina, where, we are concerned to add, he 
died of his wounds. Captain Dunn, of the Bittern, observing the 
Delight crowded with Frenchmen, worked up towards her, and having 
driven out the enemy, set her on fire, and destroyed her. Lord Colling- 
wood was at Syracuse on the 9th of February. 

A new telegraph is erected on the west square of the inner quadrangle 
t Chelsea College, to correspond with Yarmouth, in Norfolk : the one 
it immediately corresponds with is on Highgate hill ; it is of very large 
JimensJons, more than they usually are. 

Several English subjects haveeftected their escape from Flushing, and 
are arrived at Deal and Dover. They were only detained, and not 
actually imprisoned at that place. The craft laid up by the enemy, at 
Flushing, amount to about sixty vessels. 

DROITS OF ADMIRALTY. 

IT is said, that the whole of the money paid into the Registry of the 
high court of Admiralty, from the year 1794, to March, ]88, amounlt; 

to 

of s. d. 

As d-roits of the Admiralty 474,325 11 10 

As droits to the crown 1,588,484 10 3 

A mixed account of both, out of which nothing has 

been paid to captors 1 ,05 1 ,09 1 19 $ 

Making the sum total of all the, money paid amount 

to , '. 3,113,905 1 2 

Sum total of all the money drawn by the royal war- 
rant, or otherwise ?, 539,837 19 7 

j*.nd the balance now remaining is, as above staled, 

something nioro than half a million, viz 574, P 67 1 6 

The Danish prizes are not included in this rciurp). 



246 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 

3Imp*rial parliament* 

HOUSE OF LORDS. 

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 25. 

I/^\N the second reading of the Brazil Trade Bill, Lord Bathurst observed, 



^-^ that the imports from the Brazils must enter most materially into 
comparison with those from our own colonies. The Brazils furnished tor 
exportation yearly about 73,000 hogsheads of sugar, and 310,000,000 Ibs. 
of cotton. The produce of all our colonies was, of the former article, 
280,000 hogsheads; of the latter, 46,000,000 Ibs. It, therefore, was policy 
extremely questionable to give encouragement to the importation of foreign 
colonial produce to such an extc.nt, at a period when we had a dead SUP* 
plus of 80,000 hogsheads f sugar, and immense quantities of other com- 
modities lying in the West India Dock warehouses. He did not think the 
evil would be removed by the permission to distil from sugar ; for, if the 
distilleries were confined to that article alone, the demand would not ex- 
ceed 12.000 hogsheads. 

Lord Grcnville concurred in the remarks of Lord B. on the impolicy of 
permanently encouraging the cultivation of the Brazils in such a way as to 
atYcct the interests of the West India planters; but more particularly ap- 
plied himself to shew that the inevitable tendency of such a system would 
be, not only to frustrate the Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, 
such as it was at the period of passing the act, but to revive and extend it 
in a tenfold degree. 

Earl Carlisle, alluding to the order in council of the 25th of November, 
contended that what related in it to the trade to and from the Isle of Man 
was a breach of the law, and moved a resolution to that effect, which was 
negatived. 

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 26. 

The American Intercourse Bill was read a third lime and passed, 

MONDAY, FEBRUARY 29. 

Lord St. John moved five resolutions against the Orders in Council, which 
-vcre negatived by 203 against 71. 

THURSDAY, MARCH 3. 

Jtird Dtirnley, contending that the attack on Copenhagen, and the 
-ei/.ure of the Danish fleet was a flagrant act of injustice and immorality, an 
open violation of the law of nations, and a dereliction of the principles upon 
which Oreat Britain had hitherto acted, moved an address to his Majesty, 
eetting forth the injurious tendency of that measure; to prove the necessity 
uf uhich, the documents laid on the table were wholly incompetent and 
unsatisfactory. 

Lord F.lliotl opposed the address, and read a resolution of approbation, 
v.iiii i, it -as his intention to move, if the address moved by the noble Karl 
hiiuld be negatived. 

J -.>! u Holland supported the motion, and Lord Borriiigdon opposed it j 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 247 

after which the question was put, and the house divided on Lord Darnky's 
motion, contents 51, non-contents, 1 10. 

A short debate then took place on Lord Elliott's resolution, upon which 
the house again divided, contents 125, non-contents 57. 

MONDAY, MAHCH 7. 

Lord Sidmouth, alluding to the various captures that had been made on 
the Danish commerce, previous to any declaration of war, of ships already 
in our ports, as well as of ships brought in pursuant to the Orders in Council, 
wished to be informed how the proceeds arising from these captures, which, 
lie understood amounted to two millions, were to be applied. lie was 
further anxious to be informed, whether it was intended to treat the crews 
of those ships as prisoners of war. 

Lord Hazckesbury observed, that the cargoes and owners of the Danish 
ships were to be treated in the same manner as those of other nations placed 
in similar circumstances. With respect to the crews, he was ready to say 
that they were considered as prisoners of war. A cartel had indeed been 
proposed by government, which, however, had not been acceded to. 

TUESDAY, MARCH 8. 

Lord Er&kine moved a string of resolutions, expressive of his opinion 
against the Orders in Council, which were negatived by a majority in favour 
f the previous question, of 127 against 61. 

THURSDAY, MARCH 10. 

Lord Hatckesbury laid the treaty with Sweden before the House. 

FRIDAY, MARCH 1 1. 

The Treasurer of the Navy Regulation Bill was passed. 

MONDAY, MARCH 14. 

Lord Hazckesbury, in moving the consideration of his Majesty's message 
felative to the treaty with Sweden, his Swedish Majesty was not acting under 
any suggestion from die British government. On the contrary, the latter 
had expressly communicated to him, that it would feel no dissatisfaction at 
his concluding a separate peace with the enemy, provided that it should be 
on terms not injurious to the just rights of this country. The subsidy was so 
regulated in its payments, that at no time could there be any considerable 
advance beyond what the existing occasion might seem to require. 

An address, thanking his Majesty for communicating the treaty with 
Sweden, and assuring him of their lordships' readiness to concur in giving it 
%mplete effect, was agreed to. 

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 16. 

A long argument took place, on the motion of Lord Grenville, for reject- 
.ing the Orders in Council Bill. His lordship contended, that it was a 
violation of the Standing Order of 1 702. 

Lords Harrowby, Melville, and the Lord Chancellor contended that the 
bill was not an infringement of the intent of the Standing Order. 

Lords Laudcrdale and Grey maintained the contrary opinion. 

On a division, the motion for rejecting the bill was negatived by a majority, 
f 129 to 59. 



SAVAL HISTORY OF THE PKESENT YEAR, 1803. 

THURSDAY, MARCH 17. 

Several petitions were brought up, against the Orders in Council} and 1 , 
after they had been ordered to be laid upon the table, Lord Erskine, in order 
to institute a proceeding, upon which the petitioners might be regularly 
heard, moved that the house should on Wednesday next go into 1 a committee 
to consider of the said orders. This motion, after a s!>ort conversation, was 
negatived. 

FRIDAY, MARCH 18. 

Lo'rd Sidmoulh moved for certain papers, respecting the Order* in 
Council, relating to the seizure and detention of the ships, and other pro- 
perty, belonging to ihe subjects of Denmark, previous to the commence- 
ment of hostilities. Fnderstanding that a great number of ships and ves- 
sels of this description had been seized, detained, and many of them con- 
fiscated, long before there was a prospect cf hostilities between the two 
powers, his object in moving for these papers first was, that the House 
ini^ht be in possession of that information which was most important 
upon this subject ; and, secondly, with a view hereafter to make a special 
proposition, for the consideration of their lordships. The infrr-nation 
he had received, he had reason to believe, was perfectly correct ; and it 
would astonish their lordships to know to what an extent this proceeding 
hnd been carried. The motions, after some observations from Lord 
Hawkcsbury, were carried. 

HOUSE OF COMMONS. 

MONDAY, FEBRUARY 22. 

Colonel ?tanfey presented a petition from a number of inhabitants, 
manufacturers, of Great and Little Bolton, in Lancashire, praying the* 
House to advise his Majesty to use every means aud opportunity for 
restoring the blessings of peace. 

Mr. Cunning said, he had no objection to the petition, and ministers 
would certainly keep such applications in their mind. He had every 
feeling of commiseration for the privations under which the petitioners 
laboured. Still he must contend, that those who were entrusted with 
the executive government were invested with the responsibility of com- 
mencing a negociation or not ; and it Was a point of some consideration, 
whether, if a negociation was to begin, it would terminate in a treaty of 
peace. The petition was ordered to lie on the table. 

In a committee of Ways and Means, a resolution was agreed to, pro- 
hibiting the exportation of cotton wool and Jesuit's bark. The report 
was received ; and a bill was ordered to be brought ia accordingly. 

WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 24. 

On the motion of ilia Chancellor oflfie Exchequer, a select committee 
was appointed, toconsider what relief could be afforded to the West India 
planters and merchants. 

Mr. 'Herncy moved for a committee to consider farther oa trade and 



NAVAH HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1808. 

navigation, and to throw information on the subject of the late Orders 
in Council. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer observed, that the petition of 30, 000 
persons for peace had been signed before the Orders in Council were 
issued ; and thesfe Orders were calculated to remedy, and not to aggra- 
vate, the hardships complained of in that petition. The enemy had 
already gone as far as he could in inflicting privations on us, and it only 
remained i-/r us to try the effect of inflicting similar privations on him, 
and, by counteracting him, to compel him to abandon his system ol ;' ini- 
quitous restrictions. 

Mr. Ti'erney's motion was loSl by a majority of 1 18 against 53. 

In a committee ori the American Treaty Kill, Mr. li hiibrcad made a 
severe attack upon ministers for their intention to prevent the t'xporta- 
lion of Jesuit's bark to France ; he considered this as making war upon 
the sick. If, he observe:!, it once became the policy of this country to 
Starve the continent, the evil might be \isitrd on ourselves. The ports 
of the Baltic were shut ; and we v. ere provoking a war with America, 
while we might be in want of corn. If we pressed this, they might say 
that we might starvs, and reap in that fatal vengeance the fruits of our 
own detestable policy. 

The C/'/aitce/lvr of lite Exchequer said, that the present hill only imposed 
a duty on bark. The prohibition was to be the subject of a separate bill 
But as Mr. W. had said, that no inconvenience would be ft- it from this 
on the continent, there appeared in his own view no good reason for his 
motion. 

After much conversation, the house divided upon the amendment pro- 
posed by Mr. Whitbread, that the words " Jesuit's Bark'' should be omitted. 
- For the original motion, 167 ; againsXit, 70'. 

Another division took place upon an amendment, that the words "cotton 
wool'' should be omitted, which was proposed by Mr. Tierney. For the 
original clause, 165; against it, 78. 

Sir T. Turton urged the propriety of excepting the coffee of St. Dorsinsio 
from the operations of a clause relative to a duty upon that article, on this 
ground, that several merchants had speculated to a considerable extent 
in this article, under an impression that it would not become subject to 
the provisions of the Orders in Council. With a view, therefore, to protect 
such men from ruin, he moved an amendment, in substance as follows : 

" That no goods, &c. the growth or produce of St. Domingo, which 
may come into this country under any licenses granted previous to the 
passing of this act, should be subject to the duties prescribed in tables A 
and B." After a few words from the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and 
Mr. Dent, against the proposition, the amendment was lost without a 
division. 

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 25. 

Mr. Sheridan moved for copies of the whole correspondence between 
ministers and Denmark, after the surrender cf Copenhagen, relative to 

7T, Ool, XIX. K it 



250 JJAVAL HISTORY OF TlIE PRESENT YtAU, 1808. 

bestowing Norway upon Sweden ; and of all correspondence with the 
court, of Stockholm, iu regard to that project. 

ir.IDAY, l-T.TtTU'ARY ^fi, 

Mr. Rose obtained lcave,to bring in a hill fc.r the hotter regul: 
of pilots and pilotage. His object was not only the security of the pro- 
per fy on board vessels navigating the British ea:>, but also the preserv: 
of the health mxl lives of pc^;>.vs employed on hur.nl tl 

MONDAY, t ?9. 

''Mr. Whit bread moved three resolution-, ' which was 

'- ; sever ii op- 

portunities fur n . niered 

the House felt it incumbent on 

them to '! import' nifcy of future negotiation ought 

to be f-n;b -' . ! >;i;j; debate,. t!ic re^olulioaj were all .. 

- :.:.. .; 1-10, 1 U, aad 150. 

TIir-[;?PAY, MAT.CII .'!. 

, , .'/"''; ;;r,rsun.nt. to noiire, rose to make ami ation 

..; ; ;:ii'/ .ri ;i'.>:k'r tiio c^'V.'.nir.id of Iteir- Admiral Sir ii'u,hard Straclian,. 
'i !''c r;ieir.v escaped from Rochcrbrt. It was reported, lie said, that 
i.: : . 'Ii.nt c!:ic( r, Rtar-Adiniral Sir R. Straclsan, had been oljlipcd to 
i'-j.vo !,:.; iinuorliiiit, station in Basm;e Rj;i<l>, where i.i (1 the 

e.i.: ;,'=; Sijnrai. on in RiichuV.;;, I'.rnant of stoves. If it should appear 
ii : !' tores '.vere sent to thr J-qtiadron, tlie liousr would see that the 
j u'lKc ;.cr\ kv hi-.d been retarded by neglect. ^V. l ,<.n the gallant adihital wa-* 
<,'. U ' ,! lo Ivave his statioH, and crui^ in the o'lin;:, !T uiot ihe Superb, Col- 
lo.^s, .\>CMiiator, and aiioliier s^hip of war. After taking stores from these 
^iii; ?, lie \vas obliged to proceed to the 1'errol squatlion, and obtain a 
l'.;:"J:ci' ^i:|''|;]v of pw)\ iiions before he could iJ)lio\v the enemy, AVhat 
e.\?i:sc minister* would make to the House and the public for this pal- 
]i:d.!i- i.rc''ch of dutv, lie did not know. The papers be intended to ask 
i;:i, v,t>ro^.accoiints.of all stores and provisions furnished Sir R. -Strachan'^ 
b'juadrnii, wl.ile on the Rochefort station; also, for copies of letters which 
].ar-c'l between the Admiralty, Lord Gardner, and Admiral Young re- 
su ctinu; this i.j.iadron. He was induced to req'iire the prodncuon of 
t'uj -; dor:;ments y having been informed that the squadron had been re- 
diict-d to two-thirds of their daily allowance, witli only five, days beef 
and fifteen days bread, without wine and spirits on board, before they 
v,(\-e ri'lieved by the Collossus, ccc. lie also expected tliat the gal- 
];-.nt otlicer, Sir R. Strachan, would be called to the bar of that house, to. 
stale information respecting his squadron. He understood it was the 
Intention of government to furnish papers on this subject, bnt the letters- 
u;ntto Lord (.Jardner or Sir II. Straehan were to be refused. The hon. 
incnibcr concluded his speech, by moving for accounts of stores, and the 
stare of the ships funning the squadron under Sir R. Strachan, bctwepa. 
the lit of December, 100!, and the 1st of February,. 1808- 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEABj 1808. 251 

Tne Hon. jr. Wellcf.lcy Pp'e said, the Admiralty was not inclined to 
withhold from the House and the public, information relative to tha 
points alluded tt). He should hiy before the House the state of the ships, 
and other accounts, from the period of time stated ; but he was not pre- 
pared to lay on the table extracts and copies of ail the correspondence 
between the Admiralty, Lord Gardner, Admiral Young, and Sir R. 
Strachan, upon the subject. He was enabled to describe the state of the 
squadron after the enemy escaped from Rochefort. From thedespatchcs 
received, bearing dale the 13th of January, the day subsequent to the 
escape, it appeared, that on that day the squadron under SirR. Strachan 
divided the provisions sent from England. They had then ten weeks' 
bread, six weeks' water, and other provisions; about that time they were 
employed in clearing the Mediator. She was filled with provisions, and 
fiad been sent by the orders of the Admiralty. She sailed on the 21st of 
December, and armed on the 18th of January. She had vegetables on 
board for the squudrwu, forty live bullocks, and other stock for the 
refreshment of the men. The hou. gentleman had complained, that 
a s-.iffideiit force was not sent out. On the I5tb, the squadron was 
joined by the Spencer, but, in consequence of tempestuous weather, 
she could apt be cleared of her provisions until Ihe lyth. TbeBeUeropium 
joined on the 22d, which supplied six weeks' bread and live da_>s' water. 
They also received from the Cumberland live stock. On the SJd, a 
transport arrived with provisions; and Sir IT. Strachan, so far from 
wanting provisions, sent her back, without touching her cargo. He 
denied that Sir 11. Struchaa had been cotnpclled to go to Fcrrol for 
provisions. He had left his anchorage at Basque Roads to cruise in the 
offing, rather than remain in danger of a lee-shore. By tempestuous 
weather, he might have seen the Ferrol squadron. On the 23d, he 
received the first information of the escape of the enemy ; but it was not 
until the 29th that he received certain information that they had escaped. 
He afterwards attempted to make Ferrol ; but could not gel theie incon- 
sequence of the wind. He was inclined to think the gallant officer did 
not go to the Ferrol squadron, because, in his despatches, he did not slate 
one til Lie to induce a belief to that effect. The lion, gentleman dicl not 
know the state of the country. It was kno\vn to be difficult to keep up 
the blockading squadrons. In November, twelve sail of the line were 
stationed at St. Helen's, to watch the Russian squadron; eleven sail of 
the line were sent, under Sir Sidney Smith, to the Tagus, in December, 
h> protect the royal family of Portugal; and Sir Samuel Hood was 
despatched with a squadron of three sail to the Madeiras. There never 
was more exertion shewn, thrm in relieving the blockading squadron at 
Kochcfort. As the hon. g.-ntlemau hud attacked the Adsiiiralty upon 
the subject of. the Rochefort squadron, it might l>o satisfactory to state, 
that Sir Samuel Hood w.is despatched up ti:c; M^iik'rruKTin in pursuit of 
that squadron. Brest v.as also blockaded, aud a respectable force sta- 
tioric-'i on the coast of America, to look after that country, if required. 

'Flu: resolutions, with the omission of the pri-'rUe corrcspoqdjente, \ve4jf 
l length put, ami agreed to. 



252 NAVAL HISTOUV OF THE PRLSpNT YEAR, 1808. 

MONDAY, MARCH 7. 

On the raofum of Sir 2\ Eurdttl, an account was ordered to lie Iai4 
before the Houses of the total sums iss:;cd under warrants from his 
Majesty, out of the proceeds of the droits of the courts of Admiralty, or 
of the droits of the crown, from January 1792 to the latest period to 
which the same could be made out ; and also of the balances remaining 
in the registry in the court of Admiralty out of the said droits. 

TUESDAY, MARCH 8. 

Sir f. Pole moved for leave to bring in a Bill for the Encouragement 
of the Naval Service, by regulating the Appointment of Officers in the 
Naval Asylum and in Greenwich Hospital. He slated, that the provisions 
of the charter had not been complied with, as some persons had been ap- 
pointed to these institutions who had no qualifications for the office. 

Mr. Rose answered, that prosecutions were now carrying on against 
persons who, it appeared by tfie reports of the Commissioners of Naval 
Inquiry, had been guilty of malversation in that department. 

-Mr. (('hiibread, in illustration of the abuses, said, that the barber of 
the !;o : |>!h:l, Mr. Cievv, a Swiss, employed six deputies, and derived au 
ri;-ome of 1501. per annum from his office, without having any duty to 
Forlorn, but the superintendance of the shaving of the pensioners. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Ponsonbi;, Sir C. Pole confined his motion to 
" A I?i!! for regulating Greenwich Hospital;" but some opposition 
hi'in^ sl.il! made to if, a division look place; when there were For the 
motion, 52 ; against it, 78 : majority, 26. 

FRIDAY, MARCH 1 1. 

On the motion of Mr. Dimdas, it was ordered, " That a select com- 
mliJt'O !>;; appointed to inquire 'into the present stale of the affairs of 
t!;e Mast India Company, and to report to the House their observations 
thereupon." 

iii a ccb.ife on the third reading of the Orders in Council Bill, 

IN'. r. "<v.-6' observed, that with respect to the complaint, that the 

' .:r.'.\ -vn:i merchants had suffered by the capture of their vessels, 

~h-.\ :.:;i : :i ! .i o:\iy s.'iy, that America had no pretext to insist oq that point. 

!;, !:. <i).::sc of the last v.ar, she had received no less than one million 

sr: :r\<\'.'~ as indemnity for losses sustained by British privateers. He 

! i n ;\-!y into the nature of the commercial relations between this 

< > : 'h ; ;!p.ri i:ic United Slates; and endeavoured to provt , that, a disso- 

! ;!::>;' < t :! ,-s(.' would be infinitely more detrimental to that country than 

10 .h>;. Mr. Ro.se farther observed, that the trade between this country 

:::.! r (\>:\iintnthadgreatly increased since the issuing of the Orders in 

,. i! , so much so, that if it were to continue to increase, in Ihe pro- 

!ii jivst it had done for the last nine week?, it would occasion asur-i 

!':<? end of !.!ie yc-ir, of (ft)0,000!. over the trade of last year. 

.i i .:tvl.n- i>f tue bill was carried, on a ^'vision, by iGS against 



2JATAI. HISTORY OP THB PRESENT YEAR; 1808. 253 

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 16- 

In a committee of supply, a resolution was agreed to, to eaable his 
Majesty to fulfil the convention into which he had entered with Sweden, 
to furnisii her with a subsidy of 1,200,0601. in twelve monthly instal- 
ments, to increase her navui and military defence against France and 
Russia. 

FRIDAY, MARCH 18, 

Leave was given to bring iu a Bill to indemnify Ministers for issuing 
the Orders in Council. 



^letters; on 

Copied verbatim from the LOXDON GAZETTE. 

ADMIRALTY OFFICE, MARCH 5, 1808. 

Extract of a letter from Vice-Admiral Douglas, to the Hon. William Wel- 
lesle.y Pule, dated North Yarmouth, the 4th instant. 

"TFT'XCLOSED I have the honour to transmit, for the information of the 
Jlld Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, a letter from Captain Lang- 
ford, of his Majestv's sloop Sappho, acquainting me with his having cap- 
tured the brig Admiral Yawl, commissioned, manned, and armed by the 
Danish government, 

His Jdajestyts ship Sappho, Flambrd Head, 
sin, & W.I leagues, March 2, 1808.' 

1 have the pleasing information to communicate to you the capture of 
tiie Danish armed brig Admiral Yawl, Jorgen Jorgenseu, commander, 
mounting twelve eighteen-pounder carronades on the lower deck, and 
sixteen six-pounder guns on the main deck, 'with eighty-three men, vic- 
tualled and stored for five months. 

\Vhilfe reaching to the eastward from off Scarborough this morning, I 
discovered the Admiral Yaul steering a course that seemed to have n;> 
other for its object than to cut off several vessels to leeward of her, and 
as she hud the appearance of a man of war, I steered to intercept her; 
nt half past twelve I made the signal Xo. 275, when she hoisted an 
English ensign; at half past one, bemg close up with her, I ordered a 
sliot to be fired over her, to which was returned a broadside with round 
and irrapc after the Danish colours were hoisted ; I immediately bore down 
and brought her to close action, which was obstinately sustained for half 
an hour, when- she struck to his Majesty's sloop under my command. 

I am too sensible of the able assistance of my first lieutenant, Mr. Hills, 
together with my other otiicers and men, to omit acquainting you therewith. 
Am sorry to add that Mr. Trewfell, my pilot, had his leg severely fractured 
in the action, and one other man wounded. On board the enemy the 
second olh'ctr and one man were killed. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) G. L AXGFORD, Commander. 

Douglas, Esq. Vice-admiral of the Blue, 

Cummandtr in Cidej\ $c. North Yarmouth. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAH, 1808. 
MARCH 8. 

Copy of a letter from Rear-Admiral the Hon. Sir Alexander Cnchrane, K. B. 
to the Hci. W. W. Pole, dated on board Ids Majesty's ship tiillcislc, at 
Tortola, January 5, 1303. 

SIR, 

I scud herewith the copy of a letter from Captain Spear, of his Majesty's 
sloop IS imrod, acquainting me with the capture of a privateer. 

I have the lionour to he, &c. 
(Signed) ALEX. COCHRANK, 

His Majesty** Sloop Nharod, Carlisle Hay. 

sin, Barbados, Dec. '21 , 1807. 

1 have the honour fo acquaint you, that yesterday, about twenty-leagues 
to the eastward of thi^ island, I captured laNouvelle Enterprise, a French 
schooner privateer belonging to Guadaloupe, commanded by Francis Pe- 
nand, tnounting one long twelve-pounder, and four carronades, with a 
complement qf fifty-five men. 

I have, &c. JOSEPH SPEAR. 

The. Hon. Sir A/ex. Cochrnnc, K. B, 
Rear- Admiral of ike White, fyc. 

'.rfract of a letter from Captain William Fisher, of his Majtttift sloop 
Jlac;;'><;;-i>c, to iftc Hon. W. W. Pole, dated Plymouth Sound, the 4th irist. 
I bp<; Ichve to enclose, for the information of their lordships, an extract 

of a letter to Yicc-Admirai Sir James Saumaraz, ftart. and K. 13. acquainting 

iiim of the rapture of 1'Ajniral Gautheaume French lugger privateer, of 

four guns, and twenty-eight men. 

E.i'/rac! of n letter from Captain William Fisher, of his Majesty's sloop 
l\.f;c.t licrsf. <i : sea, to Fice-Admiral Sir James Saumurcz, Bnrt,and K. Ji. 
dalcd I he Id March, 1803. 

His Majesty's sloop under my command captured, this evening, off the 
Seven Islands, TAminil Gantheaume French lugger privateer, of four 
guns, and 2o men, two days from Granville ; had not taken any thing. 

MARCH 19. 

Copy of n letter fram Vice-Admiral Russcf, to the Hon. W. JF. Pole, dated 
on b<>ard ids Majesty's skip Majestic, Yarmouth Roads, the 18th iustu:tt. 

SIR, 

1 hcrcwiih enclose a letfer from Lieutenant M'Culloch, commander of 
flu {.Vinri'ss Augusta hired cutter, giving an account of his having driven 
the Dntikf rquoip, a French privateer, on shore at Kvitwick, on the 5th 
instant; and of his having effectually destroyed her on the fHh; which 
1 bey you will lay before my lords commissioners of the Admiralty. 

J av, &c. 'i . ;\L RUSSEIX. 

His Mfjcstys hired cu'ter, Princess Aufsiisln^ 
sin, Yarmouth Ro<:d*, March 17, 18< 

T l:av( rlie honour to inform you, that whilst cruising, pursuant to your 
ordfiv, tin: 'I'exel then bearing S. 40 deg. E. distant forty miles, I fell in 
vith, on the evening of the 5th, and gave chase to a French cutter priva- 
frer, which, after a chase 'of twenty-four hours, I drove on shore at 
Katwick ; it then blowing too fresh for the boats to attack her, and pcr- 
rci\ing her crew unrigging her, I stood as close in as possible, am! 
attached her from the cutter, which she returned; but on the evening of 
thr Aih, t!\e wt;ither moderating, I sent my boats in,' and had the pleasure 
of c fl> ctually destroying her, under a heavy fire of musketry from the shore. 
she proved to be. from die infortoatiop pf thp tishcriacu, the Duukerquoi^, 



NATAi HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 255 

of Dunkirk, mounting four three-pounders, and 45 men; formerly his 
Majesty's revenue cutter Nimble, ot' Deal. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) A. M'CULLOCII. 

To T. M. Rmsel, Esq. Vice, Admiral of the 
Blue, 4'f- Yarmouth. 

MARCH 26. 

Copies of letters from Vice-Admiral J~)ncre.s, &-c. tv the Hon. W. IF- Pate r 
dutfd on board bis Majesty's skip Veteran, Port Royal, 1st January,. 
1803. 

sin, 

The enclosed copy of a letter I request you will be pleased to lay before 
my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, reporting the capture of the 
French schooner privateer Experiment, by the Rein Deer, after a chase of 
ten hours. I am, &e. 

J. R. DACRES. 

His Majesty's Sfovp Rein Deer, offTiberon, 
SIR, December 2 i, 1807. 

I have tl>c honour to inform you, that after a chase of ten hours, I came; 
up with and captured the French schooner privateer Experiment, Antoine- 
(Jorocco, captain, with two guns and forty men, and twenty-one days from 
Baracuo, and had made no captures, I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) l\ J. DOUGLAS. 

To James Richard Dacres, Esq. Vice- 
Admiral of the White, CoNUnander 
in Chief, <fyc. 

SIR, Veteran, Port Royal, January 10, 1808. 

The two tenders to my flag, which had sailed from hence to see, each of 
them, a valuable licensed trader, bound to Vera Cruz, AS far as Cape 
Antonio, fortunately fell in at the same time, on their return, with a heavy 
.Spanish privateer schooner, which they captured without loss. 

The enclosed copy of a letter from Lieutenant Boyd details the par- 
ticulars. I am, &c. 

(Signed) J. R. DACRES. 

His Majesty's Schooner Gracieuse, off Cape Antonio, 
SIR, December Sr, 1807, 

I beg leave to acquaint you, that this forenoon, his Majesty's schooner 
Gipsy in company, we fell in with and captured the Spanish privateer 
schooner Juliana, mounting four twelve-pound carronades, and one long 
brass eighteen-poumler amid-ships, with a complement of eighty-three 
men, out three mouths from Trinidad in Cuba, has not captured any 
thing. 

I have sent his Majesty's schooner Gipsy in with her, as she was the 
closest during the chase, and. suffered the most in her rigging. Though she 
was not of sufficient force to give us a Ion? action, I must request permission 
to say every person gave me the utmost satisfaction. 

It is with great pleasure I have to add, that though the enemy suffered 
materially, having eight killed and six wounded, only one man of ours was 
wounded*. 1 Lave the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed, D. BOYD, Lieut. Com. 



256 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1803. 

SIR, Vet e ran j Port Royal, January 13, 1808, 

I have the honour to enclose you, for the information of the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty, the copy of a letter I have received from Cap- 
tain Coghlan, of the Elk, acquainting nVe with the capture of a Spanish 
packet. I am, &c. 

J. R. DACRES. 

His Majesty's Brig JG/, Nu.wm, New Providence, 
SIR, \ November 7, 1807. 

I have the honour to inform you, that his Majesty's brig I command cap- 
tured, on the IPth ult. after a long chase, which led me to the CatoucUe 
Bank, the Spanish schooner Pota de Caraccas, Lcaring a letter of marque, 
from Campeachy to the Ilavannah, with a cargo of leather, bass rope, and 
twenty-four thousand dollars, which she had in freight. Her mail, with 
one gun she had mounted, were thrown overboard in the chase. 
1 have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed; JER. COGHLAN. 

To James Dfteres, Esq. Vice-Admiral 
of the White, Commander in Chief, $c. 

sin, Shark, Port Royal, February 4, 1,105. 

I have much pleasure in transmitting to you, for the information of the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, the copies of two letters I have 
received from Captain Douglas, of the Rein Deer, reporting the capture of 
two enemy's privateers. Their lord-hips will njrrew with me that Capta.-n 
Douglas has shewn a great deal of activity, and is entitled to great comnteif- 
dation; four privateers having been captured by the Rein Deer in the 
space of four months. I am, &c. 

J. R. DACRES. 

His Majesty's Shop Rein Dee r, off Point Picolet, 
sir., St. j)o>nino, Jan. 25. 

1 Iwe the honour to inform you, that, in his Majesty's sloop under my 
oommand, I fell in with and captured, after a chase of five hours, the French 
schooner privateer Lyonnaise, Jean Tessier, captain, pierced for twelve 
mms but had only five on board at the time of capture, with a complement 
of eighty-live men, out eight days from Buracao, and had not made any 
captures. ' I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) P. J. DOUGLAS, 

To James Itirhard Daeres, Esq. Vice- 
Admiral of the fVkit.e, and Comman- 
der in Chief, $c. Jamaica. 

His Majesty's Sloop Rein Deer, Port Royal, 
sin, January 28, 1808. 

Having received information that the privateers had a rendezvous under 
Fortudas, I bore up and went between the island and the main, and have 
the satisfaction to acquaint you, that I succeeded in running one of them 
iiMiore, and being deserted by her people, I brought her off with little or no 
damage. She has three guns on board, and from the number of men seen 
to land, there could not be less than fifty. Having thirty men awav iji 
prizes, and ninety prisoners on board, I thought it would not be safe to keep 
the sea, and hope my return to this anchorage will meet your approbation. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) P. J. DOUGLAS. 
/. R. Dacrcs, Esq. Vice-Admiral of the 
White, SfC. Jamaica. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 257 

Copy of a Letter from Admiral the Right Hon. Lord Gardner, to the Hun, 
W. W, Pole, dated Lupton House, the 20;A Instant. 

SIR, 

I desire you will be pleased to lay before the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty the enclosed copy of a letter which I received this day, from 
ff Ferrol, from Captain Maitland, of his Majesty's ship Emerald, reciting 
an attempt he had made to cut out of Vivero harbour, on the evening of 
the 13th instant, a large French schooner; an exploit .which [ trust their 
lordships will conceive with me to do great credit to all concerned, for 
their undaunted spirit and perseverance: the number of men, however, 
killed and wounded on the occasion (of which a list is enclosed herewith) 
is much to be lamented. 

I have the honour, to be, ike. 

GARDNER. 
> 

His Majesty's ship Emerald, off Vivero, 
MY LORD, March 14, 1808. 

I beg to state that, having fulfilled the first part of your lordship's order, 
bearing date the 18th uit. i WHS proceeding to communicate with the com- 
manding officer off Ferrol, when, in running along shore about i'.ve o'clock 
yesterday afternoon, a very large schooner was discovered at ;uu !:.ir in Vi- 
vero harbour, with a French ensign a:id pcnJant flying. 1 h ./ugh I had 
never been in that port, from its appearance, and the place laid down in 
Fossino's chart, it seemed to rue not a very difficult matter either to bring 
her out or destroy her. It was late in the day for such an undertaking, but 
as we had a full moon, and alarm <_-nns were firing from the forts and 
schooner, I without hesitation decided on putting it instantly into execu- 
tion, as they would doubtless; have been better prepared for our reception 
had it been deferred till morning At about half an hour after five P. M. 
the first fort on the right going in, consisting of eight twenty-four pounders, 
opened on the ship, as did the other (containing five of the same calibre) 
on the left, as soon as she was within range. As I saw "it was impsssi- 
ble to place the ship in a situation to act upon the batteries at the same 
time, I sent the first lieutenant, Mr. Bertram, accompanied by Lieutenants 
Meek and Husband, of the marines, and Messrs. Mildridge and Saurin, 
masters' mates, to storm the outer fort, and proceeded wiih the ship as 
near the other (which was about a mile farther in) as the depth of water 
would allow, where she was placed, the sails furled, cce. I se it Mr. W. 
Smith, the third lieutenant, with another party, to endeavour to spike the 
guns of the fort, then engaged with the Emerald, Mr. Bertram having hap- 
pily succeeded in driving the Spaniards out of the battery he had been sent 
to attack, and spiked the guns. Lieutenant Smith, almost immediately ou 
landing, was opposed by a party of soldiers, most of whom fell, and their 
officer among the number ; but before they were completely subdued they 
had led him a considerable distance into the country, being by that time 
quite dark, and from the nature of the ground, having been obliged to laud 
nearly a mile from the fort, he was under the necessity of returning without 
finding it, as it had been silenced a considerable time by our fire; it opened 
again, however, about ten o'clock, and continued engaged with the ship till 
near two hours, when she was out of range. 

While these occurrences \\ere taking place, Mr. Bertram with his party, 
had walked on over land, and joined Mr. Baird, the midshipman, who had 

I72at>, Cfnron. ftoI.XIX. L L 



238 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PIIESENT YKAH, 1808. 

been sent to take possession of the schooner, wliidi had ran on shore on the 
rocks. As soon as they made out our determination of entering the port 
on tlic road. lie w,is met !>v a party of the schooner's crew, consisting of 
about sixty men: t.hev gave and received a discharge of musketry from our 
people; but on their advancing with the pike and bayonet, took to flight, 
leaving several dead on the road. Mr. Bertram's anxiety to save the 
schooner induced him to persevere, for several hours, in attempting to pet 
her off (which was rendered impracticable, from her having gone on shore 
at high water), during which time a large body of infantry had been col- 
lected, arid galled our men so excessively with musketry, that it became ab- 
solutely necessary to set her on fire, winch was accordingly clone about one* 
A.M." when she soon blew up, and at daylight there was not a vestige o: 
her to be seen. From the papers I have in mv possession, the schooner ap- 
pears to have been a French corvette, culled 1' Apropos, commanded by 
Mons. Lagary, lieutenant dti vais-eau, which had arrived with despatches 
from the Isle of France on the '.Mill of December ; mounted eight, twelve- 
pounder carronades, but pieive. i for sixteen guns, with upwards of seventy 
men. She had yesterday put to sea, but returned to an anchor on a signal 
Cicing made for an enemy. She appeared to me the largest schooner J e\c.r 
saw ; onr officers inform me she must have been upwards of two hundred 
t'tv tons burthen, copper-bottomed, and in all respects a most com- 
plete ve>sel. T must beg leave, my loid, to request you will state Lieute- 
nant I'ci-tra in's meritorious conduct to the Lords Commissioners of the Ad- 
miralty in ttic strongest point of view ; when I hope their lordships will he 
induced, in consideration of his very gallant behaviour, and a most severe 
wound he has received, to consider him worthy of that regard which in our 
service haievcr been looked up to as the certain consequence of distinguished 
bravery. Mr. Mildridgc, ma.ster's-mate, a young man who has served the 
whole: 'if his time with me, and whose gallantry has been represented to me 
by L'euienants Bertram and William Smith as highly exemplary, I hope 
your I.mMiip will be induced to mention also as deserving of promotion. 
The conduct of Lieutenant Bertram and his party, as well as that of Lieu- 
tenant William Smith, renders it. unnecessary for me to say any tiring fur- 
ther on the subject. I shall' therefore only add, that Mr. John Smith, 
the Second Lieutenant, who 1 kept on board to assist me, as well as Mr. 
Urokensher the master, and the whole of the orlicers and ship's company 
that remained in the ship, have my warmest thanks for their cool and 
steadv conduct during an action that lasted, with intervals, for more than 
.six hour-. The ship's damages are trifling to what might have been expect- 
ed, which I account for by the enemy not being able to distinguish where t!.c 
shot fi 11, and having taken a bad elevation, most of them passed over her. 
Vr'hen the boats had returned, after firing the schooner, we weighed, antfhad 
the !:>'><! fortune: to obtain a light air of wind, tint sent us just out of the 
.-hot of ;i c butteries, when 'we were obliged again to anchor, otherwise our 
situation this morning would have been by no means pleasant, as the Spa- 
niiir.i' must by that time have unspiked the guns in the outer fortj and at 
<l;iyli;li- -;\ gunUtats were seen pulling from the westward. About eight 
A. M. a I :>_ hi breeze springing up, we weighed and made sail towards them; 
wh<-;i witiuii about two gunshots of the enemy, it fell again perfectly calm, and 
ti.Hry luiu liic temerity still to row for us; finding the ship's broadside could 
iiot he kept towards them by the boatS, I ordered the anchor to be let go 
with < i spring, and when within good reach of grape, opened a fire, which 
UK '\ uceivcd and returned with tolerable spirit for about half an Tiour, 
v, !;cu i !,<_-, made i lie be-,1 of their way into Veres bay ; and as several shots 
were seen to strike them, I have no doubt considerably damaged them. 
The total want of wind prevented me from following and destroying then*. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 259 

I cannot conclude this letter, my lo'd, without once more expressing 
how highly I appreciate the behaviour of every officer and man in the ship 
I have the honour to command, during a most arduous and fatiguing ser- 
vice, that lasted fur eighteen hours, the whole of which time they were either 
at their guns or expecting every instant to be called to them. Our loss, I 
am extremely sorry to say, is very ureat in killed and vvrmnded, and most of 
them the best men in the ship. What the OIK-IUT'S may be, from the na- 
ture or' the service it i.-> impossible to astertain, though we know it to be 
vrrv considerable. 1 enclose u list of the killed and wounded belonging to 
the Emerald. I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) F. L. MAITLAND. 

The Right Hon. Lord Gardner, $c. 

A list of killed and unnrided nn Inmrd his MaJ$ty J $ s/iip Emerald, in Vivcro 
Harbour, on the \3lli of'MttiC.h, 1808. 

killed. 

John Lyons, Boatswain's mate ; William Jonhon, veoman of the sheets ; 
John Davis ('',) captain's cockswain ; Isaac Hiirst, shop's corporal : Frederick 
Wetheral, seaman; Thomas Brown, -;eaman ; Gregory Yowel, Serjeant of 
marines ; Jos. Dawson, private ut'aiannci ; and John (Jiugg Porter, private 
of marines. 

Wnumhd. 

Lieutenant Charles Bertram, severely; Lieutenant Giles Meek, of the ma- 
rines, slightly ; Lieutenant John Husband, of ditto, slightly ; ivir. Macthew 
Mildridge, master's mate, slightly; Michael Gleeson, quartermaster, dan- 
gerously; William Kiley. seaman, ditto; George M'Allister, seaman, se- 
verely ; William More, seaman, ditto ; John West, captain's steward, ditto; 
John Lloyd, private of marines, ditto; Jo'sii Haylis, seaman, slightly; 
James Connor, seaman, ditto ; Richard Cauliield, private ot marines, ditto; 
James Dale, private of marines, ditto;- William .Mariner, private of ma- 
rines, ditto : aiul John 1'ettiper, boy, ditto. 

Total 9 killed and 1C wounded. 

(Signed; F. L. MAITLAND. 

M of a Letter from Vice-admiral Sir Charles Cot-tori, Hurt, to the Hon. 
W. Vi. Pole, dated on board the Hibtrn'ut, Feb. 17, 1308. 

SIR, 

I rt'ijucst you will lay before the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
the enclosed copy of a letter I have received from Captain Yeo, of his Ma- 
jostv's ship the C'onfiance, detailing a very gallant exploit performed in two 
boats, commanded by Messrs. Tnst and Largue, musters' mates of that 
ship; the former of whom having passed for a lieutenant, and being 
strongly recommended by Capta.n \'eo for his general good conduct, I have 
appointed to act as lieutenant on board his Majesty's ship Alfred (in room 
of another absent in a prifl-^, in order t<} mark my approbation of his con- 
duct on this particular occasion ; and which, I have no doubt, their lord- 
ships will also duly appretiute, by promoting Mr. Tnst to that rank he ap- 
pears, in my opinion, justly to deserve. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) C. COTTON. 

His Ma'iestifs ship Confiance, at fine/tor 

SIR, ffftlu: Tu^us, l\b. 14, 1808.- 

Having been informed, of a report at Lisbon that, the Russian squadron, 
was about to sail, I last night sent the cotter and jolly boat under the orders 
at' Mr. Robert Tnst, master's mate, accompanied by Mr. Largue, master's 



260 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 

mute, to row guard in the mouth of the Tagus, when Mr. Trist perceiving a 
French gun-vessel at anchor under fort St. Pedro, between forts Belem and 
St. Julien, he instantly .boarded in a most gallant manner, and, after an in- 
effectual resistance on the part of the enemy, captured her. She proves to 
be la Cannnier, No. 1, commanded by Mons. Gaudolphe, ensign de \ais- 
seau, mounting one twenty- four-pounder and two brass six-pounders, with 
one hundred stand of arms, and fifty men. 

Great praise is due to Mr. Trist and his small party for the intrepidity 
they displayed, when it is considered our boats had only sixteen men in all, 
opposed to such superior force under heary batteries, and were hailed and 
fired at, long before they reached her. I therefore beg leave to recommend 
Mr. Trist (having passed for lieutenant near twelve months). Mr. Trist 
speaks of Mr. Lanrue in terms of warm approbation, as also of Mr. Taylor, 
the'carpenter, and all the seamen and marines of the party. I am happy 
to add, it was accomplished without any loss on our side. The enemy had 
three killed and nine badly wounded. I have, &c. 

(Signed) J. L. YEO. 

Sir Charles Co! ton, Bart. Vice-admiral 
of the. Red, Sfc. 



Courts Partial 



A COURT MARTIAL was held at Spithead, on Mr. James Smith, 
master of his Majesty's sloop Speedy, for opening the spirit room, 
and taking therefrom a quantity of spirits; and for repeated drunkenness. 
The Court being of opinion the charges were fully proved, sentenced Hm 
to be dismissed his office, and to serve in such situation as the commander 
in chief at Portsmouth shall direct. 

A Court Martial was held on board the Salvador del Mundo, in 
Hamoazc, on Captain Honeyman, the officer, and crew, of his Majesty's 
late frigate Leda, of 36 guns, which went on shore in Milford Haven, and 
there, lies ;i wreck ; when the Sourt, after having deliberately considered 
the evidence adduced, unanimously acquitted them of any blame on that 



Promotions ant Appointments. 

Captain G. Miller is appointed to command the Thetis, vice Gage. 

Vice-admiral Rowley, commander in chief of his Majesty's ships and 
vessels in the *Downs, is appointed to supersede Vice-admiral James 
Richard Ducres, as commander in chief at Jamaica. 

Lieutenant Wills is appointed to the command or the El Firme prison 

ship, at Plymouth. 

Captain Martin is appointed to command the Implacable. 

Admiral Campbell is appointed commander in chief in the Downs, vice 

Ron ley. 

Mr. Stevenson Eden is appointed to be surgeon of the Victory sloop ; 
Mr Jaines Lcitch is appointed to be surgeon of the Amaranthe sloop. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 261 

Captain John Godby, son of J. Godby, Esq. of Greenwich Hospital, is 
appointed to command the Kolla sloop. 

Mr. George Fairfowl is appointed to be surgeon of the Alexandria ; Mr, 
John Anderson to be surgeon of the Galatea ; and Mr. Henry Plowman to 
be surgeon of the Barfleur. 

Captain Unwin is appointed to command the Virginia,, /': Brace. 
Captain Cockburn is appointed to command the Aboukir, at Chatham. 
Captain Seymour is appo:;.ted to command the Pallas, vice Oinmanney, 
Captain Xewman is appointed to command the Hero, at Plymouth. 
Captain A. W. Schomberg is appointed to command the Loire. 

Mr. Mark Cockburn is appointed to be surgeon of the Chiffonne; Mr. 
Charles Linton is appointed to be surgeon of the Lilly sloop ; and Mr. liar- 
pur Gamble is appointed to be assistant-surgeon of the Thalia. 

Rear-admiral Sir Edmund Xagle is appointed to supersede Sir James 
Baumarez, as commander in chief of his Majesty's ships and vessels on the 
"Guernsey station. 

Mr. John Kerr is appointed to be surgeon of the Proselyte ; Mr. John 
Gibbs is appointed to be surgeon of the Warspite. 

Captain Folke is appointed to command the Irresistible, prison ship. 
Admiral Lord Gambier is to be appointed commander in chief of the 
Channel fleet ; and Sir Home Popham to be captain of the fleet. 

Captain the Honourable Henry Blackwood is appointed to command 
the Warspite. 

Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez is appointed to command the Baltic 
fleet, to be employed for the defence of the dominions of our gallant ally, 
the King of Sweden. 

Mr. James Dobie is promoted to tlje rank of surgeon, and appointed to 
the Rolla. 

Mr. William Dickson to be surgeon of the Helena; Mr. Robert Walker 
to be surgeon of the Pallas ; Mr. Richard Goodwin to be surgeon of the 
Thetis; Mr. John M'Millan to the Aboukir; Mr. Gabriel Johnston to the 
Irresistible ; Mr. Charles Explin to be surgeon of the Kangaroo. 

Mr. Ralph Eden to be assistant- surgeon of the Victory; and Mr. Samuel 
Brailsford to be assistant-surgeon of Paington Hospital. 

Mr. David Jones to be surgeon of the Erebus. 

Mr. John Heawood to be assistant surgeon of the Blazer gun-brig; and 
Mr. John Lewis to be assistant surgeon of the Warspite. 

Captain Benjamin Hallowell, who commanded the Swiftsure, in the 
glorious battle of the Nile, is to be captain of the Baltic fleet. 

Captain Sykcs is appointed to coratn^id the Diomede, the flag-ship of 
Admiral Sir Edmund Nagle, on the Guernsey station. 

Mr. Ross is appointed to be purser of the Tartar frigate ; Mr. Hogg is 
appointed purser of the Pilt, of 74 guns. 

Lieutenant Porteous, son of Mr. Porteous, master of the king's yacht, is 
promoted to the rank of commander, and appointed to die Porpoise, at oN'evr 
South Wales. 

Mr. Rogers, the acting commander of the Windsor Castle packet, is pro- 
moted to the rank of commander of a new packet, to be built in lieu oi the 



*62 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE mnSCNT YEAR, 1808. 

Duke of Montrosc, captured in tlie West Indies. The inhabitants of Bir- 
mingham have presented him with a sword, of 400 guineas value, as a token 
of their admiration of his gallant conduct. 

Rear-admiral Sir Samuel Hood, K.B. is appointed second in command 
of the Baltic fleet. 

Rear-admiral Kcnts is appointed third in command of the Baltic fleet. 

Rear-admiral George Murray is to hoist his flag on board the Polyphe- 
mus, and Captain Heywood is to be his captain. 

Captain Dillon is appointed to the Childers sloop. 

Captain Thomas Innes is appointed to the Myrtle sloop } just launched at 
Biddeford. 

Captain Thomas Boys is appointed to command the Saturn. 

Captain Hugh Cameron to command the Achates. 

The Rev. D. Gordon is appointed chaplain of the Africa. 

Lieutenant Charles Janns is appointed to the Eclairc; Lieutenant Charles 
C. Owen is appointed to the Dreadnought. 

Rear-admiral Thomas Sotheby has hoisted his flag in the Channel fleet. 
Captain Beauman is appointed to command the Princess of Orange. 

Captain Charles Marshall Gregory is appointed to command the 

Carnation. 

Lieutenant Joseph Williams is appointed to command the Safety prison 
-'iip, at Jamaica; Lieutenant John Richards is appointed to the Malta. 

Lieutenant Thomas Pinto is promoted to the rank of commander, and 
appointed to the Dart sloop, in the West Indies. 

C'aptaia William Flint is appointed to command the Rattlesnake, in the 

La^t Indies. 

Captuin Xcvc is appointed to command the Hibernia. 

Lieutenant Thomas Napper is promoted, and appointed to the Port de- 
Espagne. 

Lieutenant James Brown is promoted, and appointed to the Dart ; 
Lieutenant Sanderson Allen is promoted, and appointed to the Nereide ; 
:UK! Lieutenant J. S. Bayly is promoted, and appointed to the Galatea. 

T icutcnant George Yinnicombe, of the royal marine artillery, is appointed 
to the Princess of Orange, the flag-ship of Admiral Campbell, in the 
Downs. 

Mr. Jo: in A. Glover is appoiuted to be purser of the Arjuilon ; Mr. 
Rn.-Murd Cotter is appointed to be purser of the Crescent, vice Glover; 
Mr. Thomas Giilct is appointed purser of the Firme prison ship, from the 
Aurora. 

Lieutenant Thomas Comyn to the Diomcde ; Lieutenant Peregrine 
Power :s appointed to the Barfleur ; Lieutenant J. R. Jackson to the 
Barfleur. 

Captain Rogers is appointed to command the Thisbc, Admiral Stanhope's- 
flag-ship. 

A list of midshipmen who have passed for lieutenants on the first 
Wednesday in March : Thomas Bourehier, John Davics, II. F. Nelson, 
T !io;i;as Bradbv, Alford Robinson, Uriah Scaly, William Strong, G. S. Phil- 
pMt, Jo in I'l-uV, Stewart Blacker, George DougiJl, T. S. Hood, James 



NAVAL HIsTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 2Q3 

BIRTHS. 

On the 27th February last, at Admiral Holioway's, the lady of Captain 
Otvvay, of the. royal navy, of a d-.iughter. 

On the 29th February, in the island of Jersey, the lady of James Gonun, 
.Esq. of the royal navy, of a daughter. 

On die 8th March, at Ilopeton House, near Edinburgh, of a son, Lady 
Jemima, Johnston Hope, dan-liter of the Earl of Huueion, and wife of Cap- 
tain George Hope, of the Pumice. 

At Chelsea, the lady of Captain Butterfield, of the royal navy, of a son. 

O:i the 24th March, in Harlev-strcct, the lady of Thomas Iloseason, FMJ. 
late naval oihcer at Madru?, of a son. 



MARRIAGES. 

On Monday last, 'ZOta February, at the Abbey Church, Bath, by the Rev. 
Mr. Murch&il, Captain Christian, of the royal navy, eldest son of the late 
Admiral Sir Hugh Christian, K.B. to Harriet, second daughter of the late 
Samuel Shutc, Esq. of Fern Hill, Isle of Wight. 

Lately, at Portsmouth, Mr. Cunningham, late master of the Guerricr, to 
Mis>s Unity Andrew, of Portsea. 

On the 17th March, at Charlton, in Kent, John Collins, Esq. commander 
of the Hou. East India Company's ship Travers, to Jane, daughter of J. L. 
Sheriff, Esq. of Deptford. 



OBITUARY. 

Lately, at sick quarters, at Swansea, Lieutenant Mudge, of the royal navy. 

.Lately, of an internal inflammation, Francis, second son of T. Matcham, 
Esq. by the sister of the deceased Lord Nelson, a very promising youth, of 
twelve years of age. 

Lately, at Morley, the Rev. Joshua Larwood, rector of Sv.anton Morley, 
in Norfolk, many years chaplain on board his Majesty's ship Britannia, and 
author of Erratics, and several useful publications, and a contributor to th 
NAVAL CHKOMCLE. 

Lately, at Ide, near Exeter, Lieutenant Ogilvie, of the royul navy, at a 
very advanced age. 

At his house, in Upper Comvay-street, Fitzroy-square, Nathaniel Tanner, 
Esq. formerly a commander in the Hon. East India Company's service, in 
the 82d year of his age. 

At Windsor, Mrs. Buckle, relict of the late Adm. Buckle, a lady in whom 
were eminently conspicuous the rare qualities of a perfect gentlewoman and a 
pious Christian ; of manners engaging, mild, and amiable ; of a m:nd culii- 
\ated, elegant, and correct ; pride and austerity were to her unknow n : with 
the true Christian spirit of charity, which teaches us to think no evil, and to 
do to others as we would lie done by, she thought ami spoke favourably of 
all ; niild, benevolent, and pious, she lived uninfluenced by the contagious 
unchristian spirit of defamation ; beloved and adored by her near connec- 
tions, revered and respected by l:er acquaintance, the benign condescending 



264 NAVAt, HIStORY O* TYlE PrtfcSENT YEAR, 1803. 

friend of her servants and dependants, she lived a bright example of the 
perfection human nature can attain to, when truly influenced by the divine 
.precepts of Christianity. 

Lately, was killed in an attack on some of the enemy's merchant ships 
at the mouth of the Rhone, Lieutenant Youge, of his Majesty's frigate Sea- 
horsc. At '.')'' same time Lord Jolm.llav, a midshipman of the said ship, 
and son of the Marquis of Tweedalc, Lost his left arm so high up as to he 
obliged to undergo the operation of amputation at the shoulder joint, which 
he bore with the most manly fortitude, although only fourteen years of age : 
he is now well, and doing his duty as midshipman on board the Seahorse. 

Lately, was killed in a most gallant attempt to defend his vessel against 
a French privateer of double her force, after an action of three hours and a 
half, Captain Dyneley, the gallant commander of his Majesty's packet the 
Duke of Montrose. Captain Dyneley was a young man of the greatest 
promise, and some time since much distinguished himself in destroying a 
force about to attack the Island of Dominica. 

Lately, on board his Majesty's s'u'p Diamond, of a fever, on the coast of 
Africa, Lieutenant Charles IJig ias, of tlu.t ship; also Air. Stuart, the 
purser, Mr. Wright, midshipman, and Mr. Pringle, master's mute, all of the 

Diamond. 

At her house, ir, Gloucester place, Portman-squnre, lady Martin, relict 
of Sir Henry Martin, Bart, formerly comptroller of the navy. 

lately, on board the Trent hospital ship> at the Cove of Cork, Mr; 
AruiiiL-cht, assistant-surgeon of that ship. 

At Ingatestonr, Essex, aged 81, Anthony Eglingron, Esq. formerly com- 
mander of the Hon. East India Company's ship Prince. During the many 
\tars of h:-> retirement his life has been a continued series of acts of 
benevolence. 

At his scat, Lady Place, Hurley, in Berkshire, in consequence of an 
apoplectic fit with which he was seized, two days preceding, Gnstavns 
Adolphns Kempenfclt, Esq. the only surviving brother of the late unfor- 
runate Rear-admiral Kempenfclt,* who lost his life in the Royal George, 
at Spithcad, in the year 1702. This gentleman preserved all his mental 
faculties to the last, although arrived at the advanced age of 87; his cheer- 
ful disposition and retentive memory rendered him a pleasant, companion to 
all \vho had the honour of his acquaintance, and his pious and charitable 
disposition a valuable member of the community. Notwithstanding he was 
L'Mremelv liberal in his donations to the poor during his life-time, and a sub- 
scriber to most of the public charities in and about London, he has bequeathed 
i.o them i't his vvil! considerable legacies, amounting in the whole to upwards 
of H,0(;0!. lie died a bachelor. 

At Plymouth, on the 14th of March, deeply regretted by his friends and 
brother uriicers, after a short but painful illness, in the 28th year of his age, 
Lieutenant James Babington, of the Hound sloop of war, son of W. Babing- 

'.on, Esq. late of Oporto. 

Lately, at the Royal Hospital at Haslar, in consequence of a wound 
rccei\ed in a duel, Lieutenant William Charlton, of the Mars. 

At Richmond, on the 17th March, Lieutenant Archibald M'Xcil, of the 

roval navy. 



* For a portrait and biographical memoir of this worthy admiral, see our 

'. r-!!th \olaiiie. 





!'T,'I ./c.y-V". 1yJ.Cvld.2f3. Shce lane. Lendert 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR 

OF THE LATE 

JOHN MAC BRIDE, ESQ. 

ADMIRAL OF THE BLUE SQUADRON. 



True to native worth, assert his claim 



To the beat diadem .' THE \VI>,E,VT UF FAME!" 

ilOBINSON. 

v IB iHIS gentleman, whose professional has often been 

-**- the theme of praise, was the descendant of an ancient Scotch 
family.' He was boru in Scotland ; but. as his father shortly 
afterwards settled in Ireland, he wa- bred ars.l educated in th:- 
latter country ; whence, at a suitable period, he passed over into 
England, with the view of entering into the naval service. 

With the early services of Mr. Macbriue, we are very slightly 
acquainted ; but, in every situation, he is known to have evinced 
uncommon skill and bravery. He was promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant on the 27th of October, 1758 ; previously to which he 
is understood to have had some successful cruises, and also to have 
been captured by a French ship of war, which carried him into 
Brest, where hj remained for some months on parole, till exchanged 
by cartel. 

The first instance in which he particularly distinguished him- 
self was in the month of August, 1761, whilst commanding the 
Grace armed cutter. Assisted by the boats of the Maids tone 
frigate, he then cut a French privateer out of Dunkirk road ; 
the official account of which exploit is given in the following- 
words : 

" Mr. Macbride being off Dunkirk, and observing a dogger privateer in 
the road, immediately left his station to join thft Maidstone, and proposed 
cutting out the privateer that night, if Captain Diggcs would let him have 
four boats manned and armed, which he very readily complied with, know- 
ing his abilities and resolution. The boats left the ships at ten o'clock at 
night, and when they came near the road, laid all their oars across, except 
two in each boat, which they muffled with baize, to prevent their being 
heard c:t a distance. They rowed in that manner till they were within mus- 
ket-shot of the privateer ; when, being hailed, they made no answer, but in 

M M 



26C BlOGTIAPniCAI. MEMOIR OF 

a few minutes boarded on both sides, and took possession of the 
without the loss of a- man killed, two only be-ing wounded. Mr. Macbride 
shot the- lieutenant of the privateer through the head with a musket, as lie 
was pointing a gun into the boat: besides this person, one common man was 
killed, and five wonndfed'' belonging to the enemy. This was done within 
half a gun-shot of a l':>rt on the ist side of the harbour, but it did not tirdr 
at them ; and when the prisoners were secured, the captors cot the cables, 
and sailed out of the road."" 

On the 7th of April, 1762, Mr. Mac-bride was made commander, 
in the Grampus fire-ship, from which lie was removed into the- 
Cruiser sloop. On the 20th of June, 1765, he obtained post rank 
in the Renown, a 30-gnn frigate;, in 1766, he commanded tUe 
Jason, of 32 guns, in which he was ordered to the Falkland 
Islands, or South Seaj and, after his return from thence, in 1768, 
he was appointed to the Seaford, a 20-gun ship, employed as a 
cruiser on the home station. In this ship he continued two years; 
and, on quitting hcrj he took the command. of the Southampton, 
of 32 |Ti;ns. 

In May, 1772, Captain Macbride sailed for Elsineur, accom- 
panied by the Seaford, Captain- Davies, and the Cruiser sloop of 
war, Captain Cummings, for the purpose of conveying the Queen 
of Denmark from thence to Stade. 

Captain Macbride removed from the Southampton, either in 
1773, or 1774 ; in 1775 he commanded the Orpheus, a frigate of 
the same force; and, in 1777, shortly after the commencement 
of the dispute with the North American colonies, he was appointed-' 
to the Bi-enfaisani, of 64 guns ; in- which he continued till the 
commencement of the year 1781, employed constantly ciiher on; 
the home station, or on services hi which the main fleet, or detach- 
ments from it, were occasionally engaged. In July, 1778, he was 
with Admiral Keppel, in his encounter with D'Orvilliers, off. 
Ushant. The Bienfaisant was stationed in the centre division, but. 
does not appear to have been materially concerned in the action.* 

Towards the close of the year 1779, at which time the late Sir 
Thomas Louis was first lieutenant of the Bionfaisant, Captain- 
Macbride was ordered to Gibraltar, with Admiral Rodney, for the 
purpose of relieving that fortress. -r As we have repeatedly had 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. XVI. page 178; and Vol. VII.. page 220. 
* i'Lk NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. I. page G7i. 



THE LATE JOHN MACBRHJE, 'ESQ. 207 

ccasicn to state, the fleet, whilst on its passage thifher,* had the 
.good fortune to capture the whole of a Spanish squadron and con- 
?oy, from St. Sebastian, bound to Cadiz, laden with naval stores, 
fee. the Guipuscoana, of 64 guns, the commanding ship of the 
squadron, surrendering to the JBienfaisant. f 

OB the 16th of .January, eight days after the above ev,enf, 
Admiral Rodney's squadron fell in with that of I'on Juan de Lan. 
gara; and, in the engagement which ensued, it was the lot of Cap- 
tain Macbride to be very particularly concerned. For the 
details of this interesting subject, which reflect so much honour 
upon the bravery and humanity of this officer, -the reader is re- 
ferred to our memoir of Sir Thomas Louis. We must observe, 
however, that the St. Domingo, at the moment of her destruction, 
was in action with the Bienfaisant; anil that, had the awful 
explosion of the former, by which every soul on board perished, 
'been retarded only a fe\v moments, -the latter must inevitably have 
shared her fate. After this event, which occurred in the midstof 
a tremendous storm, :the Bionfaisant compelled the Phoenix, of 
80 guns, Langara's flag-ship, to> surrender. Captain Macbrido 
immediately took possession of his prize; but, as the small-pox 
was on board the Bienfaisant, he felt anxious to prevent the 
infection from being spread amongst the prisoners. He therefore 
sent a proposal to the Spanish admiral, stipulating, that neither 
officers nor men should be removed from the Phoenix, provided. 
Admiral Langara would be responsible for .their conduct; that, 
in rase they should fall in with any Spanish, or French, ships of 

* On the 8th of January, 1780. 

<f Sir George Ro-.lney commissioned the Guipuecpana, and named her the 
Prince William, in compliment to his Royal Highness Prince \\illiam 
.Henry, now Duke of Clarence, in whose presence she was taken. 

The general result of this action, as stated in our memoir of the late 
Sir Thomas Louis (NAVAL CHROMICCE, Vol. XVI. page 179;, was, that one 
Spanish ship of 80 guns, and three of 70, were taken, and sent to England ; 
that two others, of 70 guns each, were also taken, but were afterwards run 
on shore, and lost near Cadiz; that one, of 30 guns (the St. Domingo), was 
blown up in the engagement; and that the remainder, consisting of four 
ships of 70 guns each, and two frigates of '2(3, escaped into Ferrol, or Cadiz. 
Stc also the biographical memoir of Admiral Rodney, NAVAL CHRONICLE, 
Vol. I. page 373, et seq. 



268 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

war, he would not suffer Lieutenant Louis, the prize-master of the 
Phoenix, to be interrupted in conducting and defending the ship to 
the last extremity, agreeably to his orders ; that if, meeting with 
superior force, the Phoenix should be retaken, and the Bicnfaisant 
fight her way clear, Don Laagara, his officers and men, should 
hold themselves prisoners of war to Captain Macbride, on their 
parole of honour ; and that, should the Bicnfaisant be retaken, 
and the Phoenix escape, the Spanish admiral, his officers, c. 
should be freed immediately. Don Langara readily assented to 
these conditions; and, from the subsequent conduct of himself and 
his officers, no doubt can be entertained of his intending most 
strictly to adhere to them. 

Excepting those who were wounded by the wreck of the St. 
Domingo, it is remarkable, that the Bicnfaisant escaped, in this 
conilict, without a single man being hurt. 

Under the guidance of Lieutenant Louis, the Phoenix was 
carried safely into Gibraltar ; and Captain Macbride was sent home 
v:ith Admiral Rodney's despatches relating to the engagement. 
In consequence, however, of the unfavourable winds which he met 
v.ith on his passage, he did not reach England until some days 
after the arrival of Captain Edward Thomson, who had been sub- 
sequently despatched with a duplicate of the intelligence. 

in the month of March, 1780, on the return of the fleet to 
England, Captain Macbride again took the command of the Bien- 
j'di-iant ; and, after the lapse of a few weeks, was ordered into St. 
George's Channel, in quest of a large private French ship of war, 
which was known to have sailed from Brest, on a cruise in that 
q.'.artcr. Until the 13fh of August, his look-out was ineffectual. 
On 'he preceding day, he had sailed from Cork, with the following 
squadron, and a large convoy : 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

Bienf:iisai:t 64 Captain John Macbride. 

Clunm 44 John Simnionds. 

Li( or.ie 82 Hon. Thomas Cadogan. 

linear 28 Charles M. Pole. 

Having been lying-to for such of the convoy as were unable 
to gft out on the 12th, Captain Macbride found himself, at day. 
light, on the morning of the 13th ; as far down as the Old Iltad 



THE LATE JOIIN MACBAISE, JESQ. 

r>4/UOal-e. Pcreciving a large ship in chase of some of tlie con- 
he immediately made sail after her; and at 7 A.M. he got 
within pistil-shot of the chase, which had hoisted English colours. 
On bei *c hailed by the Bienfaisant, she hauled them down, and 
hoist.vi French. A smart action, commenced on both sides with 
;:ow took pi ice , and, at the expiration/ of an hour and 
ten ir. he i sliip struck, having had 21 men killed, 

and $j wounded, with her rigging and sails cut to pieces. The 
Bienfaisani had 3 men killed, and 20 wounded ; and the Charon, 
whi. '<) at the close of the engagement, had one man 

wounded. The prize proved to be le Cpmte d'Artois, a private 
ship of war, of 64 guns, and 644 men, commanded by the Che- 
's alier Clonard, who Avas slightly wouuded.* 

In the succeeding irouth, Captain Macbride captured another - 
French privateer, la Comtesse d'Artois ; and, at the close of the 
year, he was removed into 1'Artois frigate, which had been taken 
from the French a few months before, and was considered to be 
the finest vessel of her class in the world. 

During the year 1781,' Captain Macbride served in the North 
Seas, in the squadron which was employed there to watch the 
motions, and to oppose any attempt that might be made by the 
Dutch squadron, which was then ready for sea, in the Texel. He 
was, consequently, present, in the month of August, at the en- 
gagement otT the Dogger Bank, between the late Sir Hyde Parker 
and Admiral Zoutman ; + after the close of which, at the request 
of the commander in chief, he removed into the Princess Amelia, 
of 80 guns, as successor to Captain Macartney, who had fallen in 
the action. This removal was highly flattering to Captain Mac- 
bride, as it took place in consequence of Sir Hyde Parker's con- 
ceiving it probable that the contest might be renewed ; in which 
case, at so critical a time, and in so excellent a ship, the services 
of this experienced officer would have been of the utmost im- 
portance. 

On the return of the squadron into port, Captain Macbride 

* A more detailed account of this engagement is given in I lie X\ Tib 
volume of the NAVAL CHIIOMCLK, page 133 and 181. 

t Vidti NAVAL CHUOKICLE, Vol. V. page 29o. 



270 IIOGUAPHICAI, MEMOIR. OT 

resumed the command of 1'Artois ; and, during the remainder f 
the year, he continued to be employed in cruising on the home 
station On the 3d of December, he fell in with, and captured, 
two very stout Dutch privateers, the Hercules and Mars. The 
following is his official account of his success on this occasion : 

" At ten o'clock yesterday morning saw them : they stood for us with much 
confidence. About two o'clock I brought them both to action, but paid 
attention only to the one on our quarter till we had effectually winged her : 
then pushed forward, and closed the other, which was -engaged on our bow. 
In about thirty minutes she struck : we sent a boat on board to take 
possession, and wore round after the ottar, who was making off, but who 
also struck on our coming up. They proved to be the Hercules and Mars,, 
two privateers belonging to Amsterdam, mounting twenty- four nine, 
.pounders and ten cohorus each ; are perfectly new, and alike ; sail as fast 
as the Artoi?, and are the completest privateers I ever saw : they -cost 
upwards of 20,0001. commanded by two Hogenboomes, father and son., 
inhabitants of Flushing, 

" The father was well known last war by the nickname of John Hardapple : 
he had a schoote privateer, with a French commission, out of Flushing, and 
did much mischief to our trade : he was sent for on purpose to command 
these privateers. They sailed from the Texel on the 30th of November, 
and had only taken one of our fishing smacks. 

" The Hercules had one hundred and sixty-four men on board: thirteen 
were killed, and twenty wounded. The Mars, one hundred and forty- 
s-ix men : nine were killed, and fifteen wounded. We had one man killed, 
and six wounded." 

Early in 1 782, Captain Macbride was ordered into the Channel ; 
and, in the month of April, he attended the fleet which was 
ordered out, under Admiral Barrington, for the purpose of inter- 
ccpting a small French squadron, that was then known to be ready 
to sail from Brest, for the East Indies. Being a-head of the fleet, 
Captain Macbride had the satisfaction of being the first who dis- 
covered the enemy, on the 20th; and in the course of that and the 
following day, nearly half the vessels, both ships of war and 
transports, of which the French armament was composed, fell iuto 
the possession of different ships of the British squadron.* 

Captain Macbride, immediately on his return into port, was 
ordered on the Irish station ; and, in consequence of considerable 
influence which he enjoyed in that kingdom, he was appointed 

* Karl Ht. Vincent, who then commanded the Foudroyant, greatly dis 
f.ine.!i:s.!i('d hinifcclf on this occasion, in capturing the Pegasc, of 74 guns, and 

'i (A) ; nc n. 



regulating officer on shore, to superintend the raising of a large 
body of men, which had been voted for the sea service, by the^ 
Irish parliament. He continued in this employment nearly the 
whole remainder of the war ; and by the exertions which he made,, 
aided by the general esteem in whiclv he was held, he greatly 
advanced the service. 

During the same period, 1'Artois remained on the Irish station, 
under the temporary command of her first lieutenant. 

On the cessation of hostilities-, Captain Macbride quitted this 
ship; and, in the month of July, 1783;, he was appointed to the- 
Druid frigate, of 3-2 guns, in which he was employed to cruise iiv 
the Irish Channel. He retained this command until the latter end 
of 1784, or the beginning of 1785 ; after which he was for some' 
time out of commission. 

Ill the last-mentioned year, he was returned to parliament, as a 
pepresentatire of the town of Plymouth. During the time that he- 
held his seat, which was till the year 17SO, he distinguished him- 
self by opposing an expensive plan, which was then in agitation,, 
for fortifying the dock-yards ; not on'y as a member of par- 
liament, but as a member of the board of officers, which was con- 
vened for the purpose of investigating the propriety of the- 
measure. lie also gave a fir-m support to every proposal whieh 
was calculated to advance the good of the service, or the welfare- 
of his brother officers ; and steadily endeavoured to remedy such- 
abuses as had crept into the civil departments of the navy. 

In 1788, Captain Macbride was appointed to the Cumberland,, 
of 74 guns, a- guard-ship, stationed at Plymouth ; in which he, 
remained during the customary period of three years. In July,- 
1 ; 790, he repaired to Torbay, with the Cumberland, as one of the 
fleet assembling there, under the orders of Lord Howe, in conse- 
quence of an apprehended rupture with Spain. 

On the 1st of February, 1793, at the commencement of the late 
war, he was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral of the blue 
squadron. His flag was some time on board his old ship, the Cutr-- 
berland, in the Channel fleet; but he afterwards shifted it into the 
Quebec, of 32 guns, and took the chief command on the Downs 
station. In the spring of this year, he was engaged in taking 
possession of Ostend, on the retreat of the French ; and in check- 
ing their progress, in the month of October, after the failure of 



272 BrositAriircAt MEMOIR OF 

the attempt on Dunkirk, by convoying thither a reinforcement of 
troops, under the command of General Sir Charles Grey. On the 
1st of December, he sailed from Portsmouth, with the following 
squadron of frigates and several tranr<p-rfs, with troops on board, 
commanded by Earl Moira, for the purpose of making a diversion 
in favour of the royalists, on the coast of Brittany and Nor- 
mandy : 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

rJohn Macbride, Esq. rear-admiral 
flora 36^ of the blue. 

*-Capt. Sir J. B. Warren. 

Triton 28 George Murray. 

Eurydice 21 - Francis Cole. 

Pury 26 Frank Southern. 

Albion, armed ship ... 20 Swatfield. 

Amphitrite, armed ship 20 R. R. Bowyt-r. 

In 1704, this officer was appointed to the command of a small 
squadron, stationed to the westward ; but, though much occupied 
in cruising, he met with no opportunity of increasing the reputa- 
tion which he had so long possessed. Unfortunately, too, he was-, 
for some time rendered incapable of taking an active part in his 
profession, from the accident of breaking his leg, whilst mounting 
his horse. On the llth of April, he was made rear-admiral of the 
red squadron ; and, on the 4th of July following, vice-admiral of 
the blue. --In the course of this year, and the following, he had 
]i!s ag on board several ships ; amongst which were, the Echo 
sloop, the Minotaur, of 74 guns, and the Sceptre, of 64. 

On the 1st of June, 1795, he was promoted to the rank of vice- 
admiral of the white squadron; and, early in 1796, he hoisted his 
flag in the Russell, of 74 guns, and was employed in the North 
Seas, to watch the motions of the Dutch fleet, then lying in the 
Tcxel; He quitted this command before the close of the year, and 
never afterwards held any other. On the 14th of February, 
1759, he was made admiral of the blue squadron; an honour 
v r -hich he enjoyed but a short time, as he died, much regretted, in 
t-io coarse of the year 1 800. 

Aduiiral Macbride, we believe, was twice married. His first 
-,'ife, by whom he had several children, was the daughter of a 
y.aral officer ; but, whether any of his offspring survive, we hare 
: ot to:n a Wo to ascertain. 
9 



273 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, 



NAXTES IN GURCITE VASTO. 



COPY OF THE ORDERS TO Sill JOHN DUCKWORTH TO PROCEED 
TO THE DARDANELLES ; DATED JAN. 13, 1807. 

(Most secret.) 

SOME late- proceedings on the part of the Turkish govern- 
ment, indicating the increasing influence of the French in 
their councils, and a disposition in the Porte to abandon the 
alliance which has happily .subsisted between that government and 
his Majesty, inducing a conduct on their part which it would be 
inconsistent with the dignity of his Majesty's crown to submit to, 
have determined the king to adopt such prompt and decisive 
measures as are suitable to the occasion. > 

On the other hand, the last accounts, of date the 13th October 
last, from his Majesty's ambassador at Constantinople, slated the 
matters of difference to have been amicably adjusted ; yet, as recent 
events may have an effect unfavourable to his Majesty's interests, 
it is necessary that a squadron, under the command of a judicious 
and skilful officer, should proceed to Constantinople, to be ready 
to act with vigour and promptitude, as circumstances and the state 
of-affairs on his arrival .ay make necessary. 

You are hereby required and directed to take under your orders 
the ships named in the margin,* which you are to collect as you 
arrive at the stations and ports where they are, and having com- 
pleted the provisions and water to four months at Gibraltar, pro- 
ceed as expeditiously as possible to the Straits df Constantinople, 
and there take such a position as will enable you to execute the 
following instructions : 

On your arrival at Constantinople, you are to communicate 
with his Majesty's ambassador as soon as possible, sending him the 

* At Sicily, Palermo ; Pompee, Kear-a<J:;.iral Sir S. Smith. In the 
Archipelago, under the orders of Rear-au'n.ir.i; oir i. Louis, Canopus, 
Tliunderer, Standard, Endvrnion, Active, .Nautilus, Delight, Royal George, 
Windsor Castle, Repulse, and Ajax. 

ol XIX. s 



274 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

accompanying despatches, and consulting with him on the measures 
necessary to be taken. 

Should the subject o-f difference hare been amiea-bly settled 
between the Turkish court and the British ambassador, as was 
stated in the last accounts from him, the relations of amity are to- 
be maintained ; should, however, the reverse be the case, or should 
the representations which Mr. Arbnthnot is instructed to make to 
the Turkish Government fail of their eftVct, you uro to act o4fcn- 
sively against Constantinople. But as from- a barbarous practice 
of the Turkish government, it may happen, that the ambassador,, 
and the persons of his suite, are forcibly detained, in such case, 
before you proceed to any actual hostility, you are to demand and 
insist on the release of that minister ami his suite, together with all 
those 'who belong to and compose part of the British factory; and 
in the event of the demand not bring complied with, you are to 
proceed to measures of hostility against the town. If Mr. Arbuth- 
not shall not have been forcibly detained, or, having been detained, 
should be released in con sequence- of your requisition, you are 
then to communicate and consult with that minister on the mea- 
sures proper to be pursued, and govern yourself in your further 
proceedings by such communications. 

Should the result of your communications with Mr. Arbuthn-ot 
de term hit 1 , and he inform you it is his opinion that hostilities should 
commence, hating previously taken all possible precaution for the 
safety of that minister, and the persons attached to hn mission, 
and having disposed the squadron under your orders in such sta- 
tions as may compel compliance, yotr arc to demand the surrender 
oi tlie Turkish fleet, together with a supply of naval stores from 
the arsenal, sufficient for its complete equipment, which demand 
you are to accompany with- a menace of immediate destruction of 
the town. 

At this crisis, should any negotiation on the subject be proposed 
by the Turkish government, as such proposition will probably be 
to gain time for preparing their resistance, or securing their ships, 
J would recommend that no negociation should be continued more 
than half an hour ; and, in the event of an absolute refusal, you are 
either to cannonade the town, or attack the fleet wherever it may 
be, holding it in mind that the getting the possession, and, next to 
that, the destruction of the Turkish fleet, is the object of the first 
consideration. On the adoption of hostilities, the communication 
oi' th;it decision to the commander in chief of the British army in 
Sicily, ami the officers commanding the squadron on the coast of 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 275 

that island, mast be as prompt and immediate as possible, sent by 
a fast sailing vessel ; and the tnore to insure this important commu- 
nication, a duplicate should follow in a very few days, orders 
having been sent to General Fox lo detach 5,000 men for the pur- 
pose of taking possession of Alexandria, as* soon as he is informed 
that hostilities have commenced ; which armament you must regard 
as acting within the sphere of your co-operation, and be prepared 
to give all the assistance to it that is in your power. 

When hostilities have been entered upon in that quarter, it will 
be of the first importance to possess a naval station in the Archi- 
pelago. The island of Milo, from its situation and the excellence 
of it's harbour, presents itself as best calculated for preserving the 
communication in the Archipelago, and such as will certainly be 
necessary in the Morea. In proceeding up the Archipelago, pilots 
arc procured at Milo, and when you are there for that purpose it 
will be a favourable opportunity for you t examine how far the 
possessing yourself of it is practicable, and what force will be 
necessary to maintain it, and make such communications to General 
Fox on this subject, and request for troops, as may be wanted to 
possess it. 

His Majesty's ship Glattoo is stationed in the bay of Smyrna, 
for the purpose of receiving on boaxd the persons and property of 
the factory resident there, whenever circumstances make it ne- 
cessary for them to embark ; and as this will depend upon the 
operations at Constantinople, you will give Captain Seccombc and 
the factors timely notice for their security. 

Having thus detailed particularly the situation of affairs at the 
Porte, and what are the instructions of his Majesty in the event of 
a war with Turkey, yet in a service of this nature many circum- 
stances will doubtless occur which cannot be foreseen, and can 
only be provided lor by an intelligent mind upon the spot ;' in your 
ability a resource will be found for every contingency ; and in 
your zeal for his Majesty's service, a security that for the full 
execution of these instructions whatever is practicable will be 
.done. 

The foree which is appointed for this service is greater than tho 
original intention, as it was expected the Russians from Corfu 
would be ready to co-operate with you ; but as its success depends 
upon the promptness with which it is executed, 1 have judged it 
proper (thaL no delay may arise from their squadron not joining) 
to increase your force by two ships. 1 have, however, written to 
Vice-admiral Sercovin. to request him to detach four ships with 



276 NATAL ANECDOTES, 

orders to put themselves under your command ; and that you may 
be possessed of all the force that can be applied to (he important 
service under your immediate direction, you are hereby authorized 
to call from the coast of Sicily whatever can be spared from the 
perfect security of tha*t inland, as well as the despatch vessels at 
Malta; but as little more naval force is at Sicily than is absolutely 
necessary for its defence, and the convoy which maybe wanted for 
the troops, a strict regard must be had that that island is not left 
in a weak state of defence j while employed on this service, you 
must take every opportunity of communicating to me your pro. 
ccedings in as full detail as possible, transmitting to me by such 
opportunities the general return and state of the squadron. 

In the event of your finding a pacific and friendly disposition in 
the Porte, so that the squadron under your orders is not required 
in hostile operation there, you are to detach a flag officer with such 
number of ships as are not wanted, which detachment being made 
up live ships of the line from those at Sicily, you will direct to pro. 
cecd off Toulon, endeavouring to fall in with any squadron of ships 
the enemy may have put to sea thence; not finding the enemy at 
sea, those ships attached to the service of Sicily arc to return to 
their stations, and the flag officer with the others are to proceed 
and join me at this rendezvous. 

I enclose for your information copies of the orders delivered to 
Rear-admiral Sir Thomas Louis, and Captain Seccombe of the 
Glatton. Given on board the Ocean, off Cadiz. 

(Signed) COLLINGWOOD. 

TRAVELS IN AMERICAN 

THE following interesting narrative is extracted from the journal 
of two 'gentlemen, who recently undertook a journey through 
Xorth America, from the Gulf of Florida to Quebec: 

" We. K-ft this place (New York) on the 25th July, 1806, 
taking with us only a change of linen, and we arrived there again 
on (he 18th of July, 1807. We travelled mostly on foot, except 
i.'g Vi here a water passage offered. My brother William employed 
hiM-sHf in taking sketches of most of the fine views and rntural 
ci'.-io-i'ies that have come in our way. Our route was first to 
Albany, the falls of the Mohawk and Niagara rivers, thence across 
I/:ik Krie, down the Alighanny river, to Piltsburg. Here we 
st.iyud for three or four weeks, having fitted up a boat peculiar to 
these rivers, called an ark, with a fire-place and sleeping-birth 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS. &C. 277 

"We laid in our stores of provisions, cooking utensils, &c. and 
commenced our voyage down the mighty rivers Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi on the 1st December, and arrived at Orleans in April, in 
our boat, in which' we had lived fourteen weeks. These arks are 
literally floating wooden houses ; the one we had was 24 feet long 
and 12 feet broad, and square at both ends. Rowing or sailing 
was out of the question: we tru^t-.'d to the current for head-way; 
we had a pair of large oars for gelding (he boat clear of rocks, 
old trees, <%c. The Ohio is geni^e and placid, unless agitated by 
storms, which are very common ; in such cases, we made our boat 
fast to a t.ee on shore. In still, serene weather, we suffered our 
vessel to lloat night and day, sleeping soundly till the morning. 
The avenge run of the current was about thr e miles an hour. 
On its banks are many handsome towns, and the country aboifnds 
in game. At Marietta were three ships of 300 tons, nearly 
finished. It is a curious fact, that ships built above 2,000 miles 
inland, should have a natural navigation to the ocean. The cha- 
racter of the Mississippi is entirely different from that of the Ohio : 
its waters very muddy and boisterous ; its banks flat and unin- 
habited for a hundred miles together, and no chance of getting 
provisions, but occasionally from the wild men of the woods. 
These harmless creatures often boarded us from their canoes ; and 
their visits were welcomed,' as they brought us venison, turkies, 
wild honey, bear-meat, &c. for which we gave them apples, bis- 
cuits, &c. These things were very grateful to us, after living four 
or five weeks upon bacon. On the Mississippi, boats seldom 
attempt to float in the night, this powerful river running in many 
places at the rate of eight miles an hour, and being very full of 
large timber, whose limbs often appear above the water, and 
against which the current roars uith the noise of a cataract. From 
New Orleans we returned by land to New York, a journey very- 
little short of three thousand miles the route we took, as we went 
considerably out of our way to see some natural curiosities. We 
travelled about fourteen days in Lower Louisiana. From the city 
of Natches, on the eastern shore of the Mississippi, to Nash- 
ville, is a wilderness of about five hundred miles, inhabited 
by two powerful nations of Indians, the" Chaitaws, and the 
Chihawaws. At Natches we purchased .a naule, and packed our 
provisions for 20 days, for the performance of this journey. We 
now entered quite a new kind of life. We slept regularly in the 
woods ; our bedding consisted of a blanket and bear-skin, with a 
thin tent, which answered the double purpose of a tnoscitietu-bar 



278 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

and a shelter from the night dews. We had a tomahawk, a flint, 
a steel, and tinder, and thus equipped we commenced our journey, 
making a fire two or three times a day, for the purpose ot boiling 
our chocolate, toasting our bacon, &c. At night, we made a good 
fire, as near as we could bear it, and with a good length of rope 
we tied our mule to a tree to graze. We had fine weather, and 
all went on very pleasantly for some time, when I was seized with 
a second-day ague. This shook and tormented me^very much, and 
at last I was obligecj to lay up in an Indian wigwam for about a 
week. These good creatures did all they could for my comfort, 
which, however, was not much, the best bed they could give me 
was a bear-skin on the ground. This happened about 200 miles 
from the abode of white men. I got something better, but the 
ague left me very weak for some time. In our route to this place, 
we came through the state of Tenessee, by the way of Nashville, 
Knoxville, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. We 
likewise passed through the federal city, Baltimore, and Phila- 
delphia ; at the former place we were gratified with a sight of Mr. 
Jefferson. lie was returning from his morning ride, unattended 
even by a single servant : this, we were told, was his usual cus- 
tom. We have planned a journey to Boston, and one to Lower 
Canada, Montreal, and Quebec, which will finish our travels in 
this land, when we shall return to visit and consult with our 
friends, as to our future proceedings." 

TESTIMONY IN FAVOUR OF CALCUTTA CANVASS. 

Tur. following extract of a letter from Captain Gilchrist, of the 
American ship Caravan, dated Prince of Wales's Island, June 24, 
3807, r,ives a very favourable representation of the quality of 

Calcutta canvass : 

a { do not forget that, on leaving Calcutta, I promised to give 
you nn account of the canvass supplied from your looms. I am 
happy <o assure you, that the service it. has undergone declares 
the excellence of its quality, which has proved far beyond even my 
sanguine expectations, and your own assurances in its favour. It 
will be sufficient to say, that I had it in constant use, from Bengal 
to America, thence to Europe, and again back to America, and 
fr<vn America (o this port, where, upon examination of my sails, 
I expect that they will carry me hence to Canton, and thence 
finally back to America. When the people of America become a 
hi i!c mure acquainted with the quality of your Sudian canvass, I 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 

have no doubt of its becoming a considerable article of importation 
from Bengal to the United States. The difference in tho price of 
your canvass, and European Duck, is incomparably greater than 
the difference iu the value of the canvass. For light sails I should 
prefer your Bengal doth to that of Europe. Coald you get your 
workmen into the way of making greater difference in the num- 
bers, and also to make the fillings considerably larger, the canvass 
would be materially improved, as the cloth invariably splits length- 
ways, owing, in my opinion, to the fillings not being sufficiently 
heavy." 

TELEMAftUE SHOAL, IN THE EAST INDIES. 

THE following account is communicated by Captain Edwards^ of 
the American ship Pallas, of Salem, who made the Telemaque 
Shoal on his passage from Boston to Calcutta, January 1 1, 1807, 
by a very good observation in lat. 38 03' south, and by account 
23 00' east, from London : - 

At 1 P.M. one of my people observing the water to be very 
much discoloured and spotted, as if passing over rocks, called all 
hands on deck, most of them being at the time below at dhyier; 1 
ran on deck myself, as soon as possible, and found the alarm was 
not Avithout foundation, the water being very white, and spotted : 
I immediately went aloft with my glass, and found that the ship 
was passing over the north-east point of the shoal, the water greatly 
discoloured, spotted, and rippling very much. I saw two places 
on which the sea broke very high, bearing from the ship W.N.W. 
and W. S. W. the former apparently being the roost dan. 
gerous. As its extent to the south eastward was beyond the reach 
of my eye, assisted by a good glass, and a very clear day, and 
from the distance run by the ship, I should suppose it to be six or 
seven leagues in length from N.E. by N. tQ S.E. by S. and as I 
could distinctly see the clear blue water on both sides, conclude it 
is narrow, not more than a mile, or a mile and a half wide, in any 
part, and it is not more than twice the length of the ship in width, 
at the north-east point, where the ship passe,d it. It is probable 
that the water is very bold all round it, as the ship, at not more 
than half a mile distance, run two or three hours in water very 
little discoloured ; there was a great rippling the whole length of 
the shoal, but po breakers, except on the two places mentioned 
before. It extended far to windward of the ship's wake, and its 
appearance was so alarming, that I thought it imprudent to heave 
9 



280 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

round, as I otherwise shortld have done, and passed to leeward of 
it: it was too dangerous to hear down upon with the ship, and 
the sea too rough to examine it with the boats. I did not sound,, 
because the situation of the ship, with a fresh nor.fh-easterly wind 
which brought it direct to leeward, prevented my hcaving-to, to 
sound, and it was not possible to get bottom when the ship was 
under way. I, with others, regret my situation prevented me 
from ascertaining it more particularly ; but can with confidence 
say, 'that it will not admit of a doubt that it is a shoal of con. 
siderable extent and danger, and I should recommend to all navi- 
gators to be very cautious, and keep a very good look-out in 
passing it. The mean of two distances of the sun and moon, 
January 4 and 5, worked up to the time when the shoalest place 
vas bearing W.N.W. makes it to lie in long. 22 58' 2 1 2" east from 
London, and by a good observation by the meridian altitude of 
the sun, in hit. 35 05' sout,h ; the longitude of tlie above place, 
by tin; wean of four reckonings, brought forward to the above 
bearing, 23 6' 45" cast from London. Was boarded five days 
after tin- discovery, by his Britannic Majesty's ship Lord Dun- 
can, Captain Hart, and his chronometer would place it about 40 
miles further westward; but his distance by sun and moon nearly 
the same. 

NAUTICAL SURVEY, IX AMERICA. 

A r-uiiVF.Y has be?n made, by order of Congress, of that 
part of the coast of North Carolina which lies between Cape 
liutteras arid Cape Fear. This survey was performed during the 
last summer by Captains Price and Coles, who have made a 
valuable report of (heir observations, accompanied by a new chart 
of i!;e cou^t. In this they consider that the shoals of Cape 
II alt era* are commonly delineated on the maps too far westward, 
thereby endangering navigation under the mask of suppo'sed 
se( i'li'y. They have found the bottom of the ocean in those parts 
to be. a loose satid, moveable by the waves, and often with gravel, 
oo/e and shells 1 , and changing its position. They have sounded 
the. <u u<t of Capes Ilatteras, Look-out, and Fear, quite to the 
ir.ar s in of the gulf stream. Through the Frying-pan shoals, off 
Cape Fear, they have discovered an opening not hitherto known, 
ten miles from the land, which may be of great importance.to the 
coa ;ii\4 navigation. This is the second survey made by order, 
and at the expence, of the American government; the first being a 
li\ dic-iap'nical survey of Long Hand Sound, completed a few 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 281 

years ago; a chart of which has since been published by two of 
the persons employed, Captains Fordick and Cahoone. The 
information furnished by the second undertaking has been followed 
by an ample provision for a maritime survey of the whole coast of 
the United States. In February, 1807, an Act of Congress was 
passed, appropriating fifty thousand dollars to enable the president 
to cause a survey to be made of the coasts, and of all the islands, 
shoals, roads, and places of anchorage, within twenty leagues of 
any part of the shores of the United States; as also the courses 
and distances between the principal capos and head-lands. 

ANNIVERSARY OF THE BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR. 

O.v this memorable day, the members of the Nelson Club dined 
at Ilealey's Hotel, Sheiaeld, in honour of the glorious memory and 
actions of that illustrious British sailor, Horatio Nelson. It is a 
pleasing reflection, that a society is established there, as well for 
benevolent purposes, as for annually paying a tribute of gratitude, 
to his beloved memory. The following toasts and sentiments, 
among many others, were enthusiastically drank by the company : 
* { The glorious and immortal memory of the late Lord Nelson." 
" The king, with three times three." " The noble and patriotic 
institution at Lloyd's, and the rest of the patriotic societies in the 
kingdom." " The British fleet, and may the spirit of Nelson, 
never desert it."'' 1 May the enemies of Great Britain never tread 
its shores. " Lord Collingwood, and the surviving heroes of 
the battle of Trafalgar." '* Admiral Gambier, and our brave 
countrymen off Copenhagen." " The Wooden Walls of Old 
England." i( Sir William Sydney Smith." " May the voyage 
across the Atlantic never make the inhabitants of America forget 
they were once the natives of Old England." 

The anniversary of the glorious victory off Trafalgar was also 
commemorated in Bristol, in a manner becoming the character of 
the country, and the solemnity of the occasion. The morning was 
ushered in by the ringing of bells ; flags were suspended from the 
different churches and public buildings, and the representation of the 
loss of our immortal hero, displayed in various parts, appeared 
rather to consecrate than to depress the emotions of national pride 
and patriotism. The Trafalgar Society met at Mr. Reves's Hotel, 
and many other parties were assembled to pay their tribute of 
respect to the memory of the achievers of our naval glory. 



282 JTAVAL ANECDOTES, 

CAPTAIN DILLON'S OFFICIAL ACCOUNT OF AN ACTION, 

TIIE CHILDERS SLOOP OF WAR, AND A DANISH SHIP, OF SL'- f 
FERIOR FORCE. 

FROM the circumstances of the case, the following letter of 
Captain Dillon's, to the Admiralty, has not appeared in the 
Gazette. The Board, however, hare signified their high approba- 
tion of his conduct, as well as that of his officers and crew, 
by official letter, and have conferred on him the rank of post 
captain : 

" SIR, " Leith, March 13, 1808. 

il I have the honour to acquaint you, that on the 14th inst. at 
four P.M. when standing in for the coast of Norway y a sail was 
discovered in-shore, and, on seeing us, appeared to be seeking a 
port in safety. We instantly gave chase, with a fresh breeze from 
the eastward. As we neared her, she was hauled among the 
rocks, out of our sight, to take shelter in the small port of Midbe, 
Immediately a number of boats came out to her assistance, I 
suppose with the intention of removing her carga. I despatched 
Mr. Wilson, acting master^ accompanied by Mr. Knight, mate, 
with the cutter well armed, to bring her out; the jolly-boat was 
also sent, with Mr. M'Nicholl, gunner, and Mr. Le Neve, purser, 
who volunteered his services. This duty was performed by Mr. 
Wilson with the utmost gallantry ; for when mixed with the boats, 
they were dispersed in all directions, leaving him at liberty to 
board the vessel, in doing- which he was opposed by the inhabitants 
with musketry, whilst others hurled down stones upon our men 
from the top of the precipice, under which she lay secured ; 
however, she was carried without any loss, to the astonishment of 
an increasing multitude, who crowded together on the surrounding 
heights. She is a galliot (name unknown, her crew having de- 
sorted her), with only part of her cargo, consisting principally of 
oil and fish. Scarcely had the galliot hove in sight from under the 
rocks, when a large brig was observed coming out of Ilitteroe. 
lie bore down on us with confidence, indicating a vessel of force, 
and apparently with the design of rescuing the prize. About six, 
he got upon our weather beam, and judging him to be within reach? 
of our guns, I sent a challenge, by firing a shot over him. He 
hauled his wind close, and kept in shore. Finding he would not 
join n.;, } made sail for the purpose of bringing him to action. 
'vhicn soon commenced at half gun shot range, distant from the 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 283 

shore half a mile, passing each other on different tacks. Whea 
he received our first broadside, he caught fire forward, and had we 
been closer at the moment, to profit by his confusion, I have no 
doubt of the result. He kept so near the land, that he was held 
from our view, so that we could only be guided in our fire by the 
flash of his guns, and were also, from this circumstance, prevented 
weathering him. We continued engaging him in this manner for 
three hours, but found he had a decided advantage over us. The 
Dane was a man of war, well appointed in every respect, carrying 
long IS-pounders, and seemingly had taken fresh courage after a 
few of our broadsides, as if aware of our inferiority to him in 
weight of metal, the Childers bearing only 12-pounder carronades : 
latterly, his guns were so well directed, that every shot did us 
mischief, particularly between wind and water. Observing, that 
nothing could be done whilst he kept so near his own port, from 
whence he might at pleasure draw fresh supplies of mca, I con- 
ceived the plan of enticing him out to sea, where the contest would 
])e more equal, by giving us an opportunity of forcing him to 
close action, which he had hitherto so repeatedly avoided. In 
order to effect this, I stood out under easy sail. It was some time 
before he relished the idea of following us ; but in jthe end he did 
so. At 1 1 he was about three miles off the land. I set the courses 
and tacks, intending to weather him. As AVC approached, the 
wind unfortunately headed us, and foiled our attempt. I there- 
fore passed under his lee, as close as it could be done without 
touching, and poured round and grape upon his decks, which I 
imagine did the Dane much damage, for we distinctly heard the 
groans of the wounded ; his gun also did us material injury, most 
of his shot taking us between wind and water; and when on the 
point of renewing the battle, it proved impossible. In the mean 
time the enemy tacked, and made sail to regain the shore, and we 
shortly after lost sight of him. I was mortified that our situation 
would not admit of our pursuing the enemy. We had five feet 
water in the hold, the magazine afloat, the lower masts wounded, 
bowsprit and mainmast badly, and 'the pumps increasing on us in 
such a way, as to make it doubtful whether we should be able to 
prevent our vessel sinking under us. In this position we bore up 
to secure our prize, with the only satisfaction left us of having 
drove a man of war, of much superior force, off the field of action, 
which we kept during the space of six hours, in the very entrance 
of his own harbour. 



284 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

> ' 

I therefore trust, that when the above particulars are seen in \ 
their proper light, it will be found that, although not successful in 
capturing the enemy, the Chttders has supported the glory of the 
navy, and the honour of the British flag. I. am happy to hare 
this opportunity of testifying the spirited conduct of my first 
lieutenant, Mr. Edmonds, as well as the other ollicers and crew, 
who on this occasion behaved with that determined courage which 
at all times distinguishes the bravery of English seamen. Mr. 
Drummond and Mr. Gordon, pilots, deserve much praise for the 
able manner in which they conducted us amorjg the rocks. The 
acting carpenter, Mr. Mason, has rendered hims-fli v.crthy of his 
appointment, by his ability in stopping the shot-holt-s. , ,>t being 
able to keep at sea, from the nature of our leaks ai.d wounded 
masts, I could not put into execution the remaining part of your 
orders; have in consequence judged it proper to return to this 
anchorage with my prize. lam, &c. 

" Rear- Admiral Vasfi-on, $c. ' " W. II. DILLON." 

P. S. " We could not possibly 'ascertain the number of guns 
on board the Dane, but having measured his length, in which he 
had considerably the advantage of us, we are all of opinion, that 
lie had, at least, nine ports on a side ; the shot on board us weigh 
20 pounds. Enclosed is a list of killed and wounded, as well as 
an account of the damage we sustained during the action." 

A List of Killed and Wounded, on loard his Majesty's Ship Childem, in the 
Jlc'i'iri with the Danish Brig, off" the Nasc of Norway, e* the I4(h of 
March, 1R08. 

Kir.r ID. Mr. Roberts, captain's clerk, shot through the body; William 
Jones, boatswain's mate, through the belly, and left leg and arm off. 

Wor\nr.D. Captain Dillon, badly in both legs his arms and shoulders 
very much contused ; Mr. Batters, midshipman, slightly on the thigh and 
bund, by a. splinter; Mr. Parker, midshipman, slightly on the belly and 
ri-rhc arm; Corporal Allander, of Marines, slightly on the head; John 
Holding, seaman, badly on the hand, lost one finger; Dennis Bark, seaman,' 
badly on the face and head; John Constable, private marine, slightly on thf 
forehead ; and John George Marshall, boy, slightly on the thigh. 

CURIOUS CAPTURE OF AX AMEUICAN YESSEL. 

Ax American vessel has lately betn captured by the Crescent 
priv.it or, which afterwards' put into Crookhaven, in the west 
of Ireland, under curious circnmstajices. The privateer belong^ 
te .Plymouth; she was prepared for her cruise so disguised as not 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 285 

to be distinguished from a French privateer in appearance ; and to 
keep up the deception more effectually, as many of her hands as 
forms a boat's crew were Frenchmen, and a respectable looking 
person on board her, a Frenchman, passed for the master. Her 
real master, when necessary, affected to be an American, and the 
entire crew wore occasionally the dress of a French privateer's 
crew. In this state of equipment, the privateer fell in with the 
American vessel alluded to. The French boat's crew, and the 
fictitious American, boarded her. Some conversation occurred 
between the latter and the master of the American vessel, in which 
he represented to him, that he had also commanded an American 
trader, but that in consequence of having touched at an English 
port, she had been captured at sea by the privateer near him, and 
sent into L'Orient ; and he at the same time intimated his appre- 
hension that the vessel he was then on board of would share a 
similar fate. The American master did not appear much alarmed 
by his anxiety, and took him into his cabin, in confidence of 
countrymanship, to explain the reason. He then communicated to 
him -that all the property he had on board was ^Spanish, and in 
confirmation^ his assertion, he turned round a clete in his cabin 
vainscotting, which never would have attracted suspicion, and 
from a small aperture, which it covered, he drew out several 
Spanish papers, ascertaining the cargo to be as he represented. 
His countryman, as he supposed, after having examined the papers, 
and being assured of the real character of the property, discovered 
himself, to his utter astonishment, to be the master of an English 
privateer. He consequently took care of the Spanish papers; 
and in his solicitude for the preservation of the property, sent the 
American vessel into Plymouth, until it could be advantageously 
disposed of ; but he relieved his American friend from any further 
concern iu it. 

ESCAPE OF FREXCII PRISONERS FROM A PRISOX SHIP. 

EARLY on Thursday morning, the 7th April, eleven French pri- 
soners made their escape out of the Vigilant prison-ship, at 
Portsmouth, by cutting a hole through one of the ports of the ship, 
and swimming to the Am phi trite, a ship in ordinary which is fitted 
up for the abode of one of the guperintendant-masters. There 
they clothed themselves with the great coats of his boat's crew, 
lowered down the boat, and went and took possession of one of 
the finest unarmed vessels in the harbour, called the master- 
attendant's buoy-boat. -They immediately got her under weigh, 



286 CORRESPONDENCE. 

and sailed out of the harbour at about five o'clock that morning, 
and, it is supposed, reached either Cherburgh or Havre in the 
evening. Several persons saw the vessel go out of the harbour, 
Irot no one suspected in whose possession she was. There were 
three men on board her, whom they have taken to France. The 
Tessel is valued at upwards of 1,0001. being in every respect well 
found. The coramissionors' yacht was sent after her, but their 
escape was not known in tiuie to make the pursuit successful: she 
returned in a few hours. 

INCREASE OF NAVAL OFFICERS. 

THE following lists will shew the increase of officers, in (Jic 
mavy. during the last thirty-five years : 

On the 1st of January, 1773. On the 1st of January, 1808. 

Admiral of the fleet ........ 1 

- of the red ......... IB 

. - of the white ....... 14 

- of the blue ........ 15 

Vice-admirals of the red . to' 

-- of the white ---- 15 



Admiral of the fleet . . 1 



" of the white ...... . 2 

-- of the blue ........ 6 

Vice-admirals of the red ____ . S 

of the white .... 5 

-- of the blue ____ 5 
Rear-admirals of the red ..... 4. 

-- of the white ____ 3 



of the blue 



Captains -327 

Commanders 120 

lieutenants 932 



of the blue 



Rear-admirals of the red ..... 11 
- 1 -- of the white ____ 115 



of the blue 29 

Captains 700 

Commanders 499 

Lieutenants . 290O 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

PRESENT MANAGEMENT AND DISCIPLINE OF THE NAVY. 

LETTER IT. 

SIR, ., '*,,? 

ONE of the prominent points in the management of the navy, 
has been, of late years, the blockading the enemy's fleets in 
Brest, Toulon, Rochefort, or Cadiz ; and much difference of opinion 
lubsisis respecting the manner in which this service is performed, 
or wh'jiher it should be performed at all. It has been my lof to 
tuv.e a-si>{ctl at the blockade of two of the al">ve ports: Toulop 
I have only seen a little of;., but though never concerned in block- 
ading an enemy's fleet La the harbour of Cadiz, I ana well ac- 



CORRESPONDENCE. 287 

xf uaintcd with it, and the coasts near it, and am of opinion, thai it 
is the only port, of those above mentioned, which can be blockaded 
to advantage. Ships in this service have for the greatest part of 
the year a fine climate and good anchorage ; though this latter 
advantage, I understand, has not been made much i:se of by the 
present commander in chief; but the monotony of tacking and 
wearing, kept up for a long series of months, to the infinite injury 
of masts, yards, rigging, sails, and ships, is truly vexatious. I will 
not descend to particulars, because I have them only from hear-say 
evidence, but 1 believe one three-decker was more than twelve 
months under sail, while a fever was prevalent on board her a con- 
siderable part of the tinn-. However, I think an enemy's fleet 
may be blockaded in Cadiz without our own ships suffering any 
thing, but from mismanagement. 

Toulon stands next in order, in point of ease of blockade, 
but I am not competent to s'peak of it from experience. 

From Brest, I conceive that a fleet which can patiently endure 
the insult of an equal or inferior fleet cruising oft the harbour, till 
a convenient opportunity to sail, will very frequently find such to 
offer. For instance upon the coming on of a strong S. W. or 
western gale, the British fleet bear up for Torbay, with the chance 
of some masts, yards, and sails being damaged. Suppose thfc 
French fleet, which has no such risk, prepares to make the first 
use of the change of wind, it starts with all the advantage of its 
distance to the westward, and a fair wind outbf the harbour, while 
the British fleet has often to beat to windsvard out of Torbay ; and 
when the intelligence arrives of the sailing of the French fleet, the 
same measures exactly must be taken, as if there had been no 
blockade at all. I would not advise that our Channel fleet should 
lie always in Torbay, or elsewhere, till the enemy has sailed; but 
I would discontinue the rigid system of blockading by a fleet of 
ships of the line in w inter, and only pay a visit off Brest occa- 
sionally, in such weathej as did not afford probability of much risk 
to our ships. I believe the officers who have been used to the 
Channel fleet, all wonder at the " hair-breadth escapes " they 
have had, in going in and out of Torbay in the winter gales. In 
the summer time I should suppose that the anchorage outskie Fal- 
mouth harbour might be used to good effect in taking in water, 
fresh provisions, c. The present mode of doing so much witit 
boats at sea, is attended with great danger, labour, an:! --.v pence, 
besides the infinite xvaste that attends many articles, by vie ''.sailers 
joining the fleet in weather when they cannot be unloaded, or 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

when by some change of position of the fleet, they are for some 
time missed. I rather believe that the noble earl, who with much 
skill and perseverance blockaded the port of Cadiz for some <ime, 
occasioned the experiment to be made of managing the fleet off 
Brest in the same way ; but those who know the different circum- 
stances attending the two services, will wonder that the same 
means of executing them could ever have been thought of. The 
risk, trouble, anxiety, expence, waste, and danger, of victualling 
a fleet at sea, should never be incurred but in cases of extreme 
necessity ; and, with respect to the fleet stationed to watch Brest, 
I think a very little management in the arrangement of the ships 
would for ever preclude such necessity. 1 conclude that there are 
obstacles which have always prevented our possessing ourselves of 
Ushant during a war, or it would have been done, as its possession 
would render the watching of Brest so very easy, with a few fri- 
gates or sloops of war, to communicate from that inland to the 
Lizard, from whence signals or telegraphs micjit convey the 
intelligence when necessary. There is a great danger, under the 
present system, of a whole fleet wanting repair at the same time, 
and such repairs as will occupy a great deal of lime. 

The noble ea.'l before alluded to is possessed of very peculiar 
talents, which have borne him through a system of discipline and 
management, for which, when he begun it, perhaps there was a 
good deal of reason, as he found a lax sort of command the order 
of the day. But when occasion has once put power in the hand 
of man, ir is I believe only a Washington who has known how to 
relinquish if. At present I shall allude only to that' part of his 
plan which mado him force labours of extreme difficulty and dan- 
ger on officers and men in boats ; and in this he has, unfortunately, 
been imitated by many who could not judge so well of the exact ser- 
vice which they could perform. I offer this remark to e?cry officer 
who may honour this with a perusal. 

Onj great error which has crept in through the same channel, 13 
the short space of time allowed the ships to refit when they come into 
port, a measure by which the country is far from being benefited. 
After the heavy service of the blockade of Brest, or Rochefort, for 
a year or more, a ship is allowed perhaps eight or nine days to refit 
in Cawsand bay, when the distance from the dock-yard alone 
occasions a very severe labour to the officers and boats' crews, and 
the short time occasions every thing to be done in a hurry ; and 
some repairs have been ordered to be completed there, which could 
not possibly be well done. Perhaps it might have been intended 
7 



CORUTISPONDEVCE. 289 

to make the stay of a ship in harbour so very uncomfortable, as to 
occasion a desire even for a cruise oft' the Black Rocks in pre- 
ference. I am of opinion, that three weeks at least should be 
allowed for such rcfittihg, as eight days have been allotted for, and 
during that time, every officer and man should have leave to go on 
shore, unless confined on board for bad conduct. This is the zcay 
to prevent desertion. A squadron of six or seven sail of the line 
should always be ready in Torbay, or off Falmouth, according to 
the season, to start in any pursuit. This service should be taken 
in succession by the ships as they have been refitted ; and, as one 
joins, the longest on that employ should join the squadron oft" 
Rochefort, and release the ship longest on that station, M hich ship 
should join the grand fleet. 

A squadron should in general be kept off Rochefort, while it is 
the fashion for the chosen flying, squadron of the enemy to make 
it their station ; though perhaps it would be cheaper to keep a 
stronger force ready (o meet them on our foreign stations, than to 
watch them in so tempestuous a sea as the Bay of Biscay, and 
where the same ease of escaping, as I have mentioned to be the 
case at Brest, takes place. Experience is, I believe, fully on my 
side in this assertion. I remain, sir, 

Your humble servant, 

A. F. y. 



ANOTHER important point to which I would gladly draw the 
attention of our naval rulers, is, an ii partial distribution of the 
duty ichtch is to be performed by our ships of icar. This is vary 
far from being the case at present. One ship, calculated for any 
variety of service, is kept constantly taking coasting convoys ; 
while another of the same class and properties has a series of ad^ 
rantageous cruises. Some ships are confined a dozen years almost 
in the East Indies; others, more than half that time in the West; 
till it is in vain for the wife or parent to. came to the shore to hail 
the return of a long absent husband or son, when at last the anchor 
is ca-t in an English port. Many seamen have deserted, and the 
disorders of many more have proved fatal, in consequence of this 
injudicious, not to say cruel want of arrangement, Nor is this 
method less improvident, with respect to the expencc attending the 
repairs of the ship abroad, than it is unjust to the men employed, 
on board her. The petty officers and scaincnj during all 

J3rt. djron. ftoi. XIX. ? ? 



250 CORRESPONDENCE. 

long and wearisome years spent in unwholesome climates, receive 
no pay ; and, from the ignorance of the executors of those who die 
abroad, and the great length of time the ships' books arc before 
they are made up at home, a large portion of the wages that should 
have gone to reward the seaman, or benefit his surviving friends, 
passes to thfc already overgrown fund of Greenwich Hospital. 
Surely this evjl, this outrage against justice and humanity, is too 
evident not to be removed when once noticed. 

With respect to pther branches of the partiality above alluded 
to, hpw many instances could be produced from the annals of any 
of our sea ports, pf the advantages allowed to young captains of 
family, in drafts of men, assistance from the dock-yard in fitting 
out, and choice of destination afterwards, over that of the older 
seaman, who had only superior experience and abilities to adduce 
in his favour. One ship, or rather captain, will be for some years 
never out of sight of the Black Rocks, except for a few days during 
the \viiiter gales, and his week of refit once a year in Cawsand Bay; 
while another has had all the advantage of the chance of honour 
and profit, which a succession of cruises with flying squadrons 
could g;vc him. 

Jt is not my intention, Mr. Editor, to bring forward particular 
instances of the grievances I allude to, as my sole wish is to attract 
the attention of thoie who have it in their power to remedy them. 
I firmly believe that very many of the instances which have offered 
themselves to my notice have been owing more to want of atten- 
lion, or want of leisure to attend to all parts of the service, than 
TO a wilful or vicious partiality; though I am too certain, that 
instances are not wanting, where even that detestable and ruinous 
prip.fi [ile has had full sway. 

1 have, in my first letter, mentioned my opinion, that there are 
not \V\M\\ Lords of the Admiralty sufficient to perform all the 
duties of that Board, as they should be ; and I was very glad to. 
lately, that a Board of Assistance had been called 
flu- a Hairs of Greenwich, which of course, would allow 
d-'.ips farther time for other business. So many officers 
are nhvjy, in town, that a board of assistance might easily 
"!>; sclceK-d any morning from the^oungcrs in the waiting rooms. 
U would also be of service to the gentlemen thus called upon, by. 
giviii;: thorn information on points of service of which most of us 
are too ignorant. 

I hope, however, the mode of payment is rather better than^ 
,\ hat J a;n told takes place with respect to the captains occasionally 
10 



CORRESPONDENCE. 291 

called in to pass examinations for lieutenants. It is said, that 
there the custom is for a porter to slip a guinea into the captain's 
hand, at going away, to pay his coach hire. But I beg^pardon for 
digressing. 

Another system of injustice, which I have sometimes seen with 
regret, is, that a ship has been kept on a disagreeable station or 
service for an unusual length of time, because her captain had dis- 
pleased his commander in chief. Now this I conceive to be an 
act of llagrant injustice, whether the captain has been right or 
wrong ; for why should the officers and crew be punished for the 
captain's error ? or why should one of his Majesty's ships be torn 
to pieces, because a captain has not been alert in his manoeuvres, 
or quick in comprehending signals ? This should not be. This 
species of injustice leads me naturally to another : in consequence 
of a faulty manoeuvre, I have known the signal for a captain to 
repair a-board the commander in chief's ship, when the fleet have 
been sailing nearly as fast as a boat could possibly sail or row, and 
the ship whose captain was summoned, far astern; and as the ship 
herself must not quit her station, the captain must set out in his 
boat. I have also seen more sail made, in order to make the 
labour the harder, and sometimes in weather in which a boat could 
not possibly be in the water without some danger to all in her. 
That a barge's crew should be kept at a full stretch of exertion for 
several hours, with the risk of drowning every minute as well, 
because a captain has not managed his ship properly, or because his 
commander in chief thinks he has not, appears to me as absurd 
and clumsy a piece of tyranny as can well be exerted. What the 
commander in chief wants is to reprimand the captain, not to 
drown the bargemen, or to row them into a fever. These inven- 
tions, Mr. Editor, spring evidently from a man with very high 
notions of power, and very slender knowledge of the way to carry 
that power into execution. 

I will not at present trespass any longer upon your pages, which 
I wish to see filled by more able pens. In such a country as ours, 
a Naval Chronicle affords an ample field for interesting narrative, 
and valuable discussion. I do not think you have been assisted as 
you ought to have been ; but I believe a pretty general diffidence 
pervades the service respecting epistolary, or any sort of literary 
communication. J only have ventured, because I observed those 
with better means and talents so backward. I wish that in future 
your materials may be so choice, as not to allow a vacant space 
for the inferior productions of A. J?. Y. 



292 

MR. EDITOH, Chatham, March 31. 

TVl/jTY attention, in common with that of the rest of the public, 
-*-^-^- having been attracted to transactions in the Levant, by the 
motions lately made in the House of Commons by the member for 
IJarnstapIe, tending to promote an inquiry into the causes of our 
late failure at Constantinople, 1 have naturally referred to all the 
papers already published connected with those operations ; and I 
have been surprised to find that so interesting and impgrtant a 
document as Rear-admiral Sir Sidney Smith's report to Vice- 
admiral Sir John Duckworth, concerning the rear-admiral's suc- 
cessful attack on the Ottoman squadron, should have been with- 
held from the public. My intercourse with the Mediterranean 
squadron having put me in possession of a genuine copy of the 
documents in question, I offer it to your valuable work, as likely 
to gratify your naval readers, and more particularly as an act of 
justice to those individuals whose merits seem to have been over- 
looked by the higher powers, although so properly noticed and 
recommended by their immediate and heroic chief, who it is sur- 
prising to see yet undecoratcd with any British* honorofic dis- 
tinction, marked as he is with the admiration of the world at 
large. Your humble servant, 

NAUTICUS. 

(COPY.) 

//' ^tlitjcslifs Ship Pompce, within the Dardanelles, 
" <-:n, February 20, 1807. 

' In reporting to yon the entire completion of the service you 
uere pleased to order should be executed by the rear division un- 
der my immediate direction, I need not inform you that the 
ships wfc-re anchored in the thick of the Turkish squadron, and in 
rloso action with them, as you must hare observed it ; but as the 
intervention of the land after you passed the point, prevented your 
seeing the subsequent operations, it is my duty to acquaint you 
therewith. 

* Sir Sidney is knight of the Swedish order of the Sword, conferred on 
liim upon the field of battle in Finland, by the late king, Gustavus III. and 
of the Sicilian order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit, which he received two 
years ago from the present king, Ferdinand IV. but he is not even an 
EnjiUbh baronet, after 33 years arduous service. 



COr.ttESPOXDENCE. 203 

il The Turk* fought desperately, like men determined to defend 
themselves and their ships as long as they could ; but the superiority 
of our fire, within musket-shot, obliged them in half an hour to run 
on shore on Point Pesquies, or Nagara Burun. As the redoubt 
on the point continued to fire, aJso as the ships kept their colours 
up, and the part of their crews which had deserted them remained 
armed on the beach, while a considerable body of Asiatic troops, 
both horse and foot, appeared on the hills, it was necessary to 
make an arrangement for boarding them, with some precaution ; 
at the same time, that it was of consequence to press them closely 
before they recovered from the impression and effect of our 
cannonade. A few shells from the Pompee dispersed the Asiatics, 
and convinced them that we commanded the ground within our 
reach, and that they could not protect the green standard they had 
hoisted, which I caused to be brought-oft' by Lieutenant Gates, of 
the Pompee marines, that they might not rally there again. The 
Standard's guns bearing best on the frigates on shore, I sent the 
Thunderer's boats to that ship, to be employed with her own, 
under the direction of Captain Harvey, making the signal to him 
to destroy the enemy's ships in the N. E. The Active's having 
been previously made to follow and destroy a frigate, which had 
cut her cable to get from under the Thunderer's and Pompee's 
fire, and ran on shore on the European side in the N.W. at the 
same time Lieutenant Beccroft, of the Pompee, was detached to 
fake possession of the line of battle ship, on which the Thunderer's 
and Pompee's guns could still bear, under the protection lik-ewise 
of the Repulse, which you had considerately sent to my aid ; that 
officer brought me the captain and second captain, the latter of 
whom was wounded, also the flag of the rear-admiral who had 
escaped on shore, ^hich I shall have the honour of presenting to 
you. The whole of the Turks were landed, in pursuance of your 
orders, including the wounded, with due attention to the sufferings 
of our misguided opponents, as I must call them, for the term 
enemy does not seem applicable, considering their evident good 
disposition towards us nationally. The ship was then set on 
fire by the Repulse's and Pompee's boats, and completely de- 
stroyed. 

" Captain Harvey, in making his report to me of the conduct of 
the boats' crews under the command of Lieutenants Cartar, Waller, 
and Colby, of his Majesty's ship Thunderer, and of the marines 
employed with them to board and burn the frigates and corvettes, 
under the command of Captain NicollSj speaks in strong terms of 



294 CORRESPONDENCE. 

the gallantry and ability of them all. The latter, whom I hale 
long known to be an intelligent and enterprising officer, after 
destroying the frigate bearing the Hag of the Captain Pasha, which 
is preserved to be presented to you, sir, landed, and, profiting by 
the consternation of the Turks from the explosions on all sides of 
them, the etfects of which occasioned no small risk to him, 
Lieutenants Fy nmorc j Boileau, and the party, he entered the 
redoubt (the Turks retreating as he approached), set fire to the 
gabions, and spiked the guns, thirty-one in number, eight of 
which are brass, carrying immensely large marble balls : as, 
however, the expected explosion of the line of battle ship made it 
impossible for the boats to stay long enough to destroy them 
effectually with their carriages, or to level the parapets, the 
vickcr of the gabions being too green to burn, I have directed 
Lieutenants Carrol and Arrabin, of his Majesty's ship Pompee, 
and lieutenant Lawrie, of the marines, to continue orl that ser- 
vice, with the Turkish corvette, and one gun-boat, which you will 
observe by the return were not destroyed, and to act under the 
protection and direction of Captain Moubray, of his Majesty's 
ship Active, whose name I cannot mention without expressing how 
highly satisfied I am with the able and gallant manner in which he 
executed my orders to stick to the frigate with which he was more 
particularly engaged, and to destroy her. Captain Talbot placed 
his ship admirably well, in support of the Pompee, thereby raking 
the line of battle ship and the frigate we were engaged with, when 
1 made his signal to anchor, as the Pompee had previously done. 
tinder the directions I gave for that purpose to Captain Dacres, 
which were promptly and ably executed ; Mr. Ires, the master, 
applying his local knowledge and experience, as I hatf a right to 
expect from his long tried abilities, while Lieutenant Smith made 
iny signals to the squadron in rapid succession, and with precision. 
Captain Harvey merits my entire approbation, for placing the 
Standard in the manner in which he did, and for completing the 
destruction of the others. Much as I must regret the loss of the 
-Ajax, as a most efficient ship in my division, I have felt that loss 
ti) be in a great degree balanced, by the presence of my gallant 
tViend, Captain Blackwood, and the surviving officers and men, 
whose zeal in their voluntary exertions on this occasion does them' 
the highest rnV.it : in short, all the captains, officers, and men con- 
corned, merit that I should mention them in high terms to you, 
sir, as their kadcr, whose example we humbly endeavoured to. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 295 

follow. The signal success that has attended the general exertion 
under your direction speaks more forcibly than words. 

" I have the honour to be, &c. 
(Signed) W. SIDNEY SMITH.'* 

Vice-admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth, K.S. 



A Return of Turkish ships and vessels taken and destroyed by a division of 
ships under the immediate direction of Rear-admiral Sir Sidney Smith, 
K.S. and orders of Vice-admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth, K. B. off 
Point Pesquies, February 19, 1807. 
Burnt. One line of battle ship, of 64 guns, four frigates, three corvettes, 

one brig, and two gun-boats. 

Taken possession of. One corvette, one gun-boat. 



A Return of killed and wovinded on board a division of ships under the 
immediate direction of Rear-admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, K.S. and 
orders of Vice-admiral Sir Jolin Thomas Duckworth, in forcing the 
passage of the Dardanelles, the subsequent engagement with, and 
destruction of r he Turkish squadron anchored off Point Pesquies, the 19th 
February. 180T. 
Standard, Captain T Fln.rvey. Mr. William Shoebridge, boatswain, 

wounded ; five men wounded. 

Pomp&e, Captain R. Dacres. Five men wounded. 

Thunderer, Captain J. Talbot. Lieutenant S. Waller, wounded; four 

nien killed, and thirteen wounded. 

Endymion, Capjain Hon. T. B. Capel. No returns. 
Active, Captain R. II. Moubray. Xo returns. 

(Signed) W. SIDNEY SMITH. 



Comparative List of the number of guns belonging to the Turks at Point 
Pesquies (or Nagara Burun) within the Dardanelles, and those be- 
longing to the rear division, commanded by Sir Sidney Smith, which con- 
tinued engaged till the final destruction of the Turkish squadron, then 
anchored to dispute the passage on the 19th of February, 1807, as directed 
by Vice-admiral Sir John Duckworth. 



Siting. Guns. 

Standard 64 

Potnpe-e 80 

Thunderer 74 

Active , 38 



Total 256 



Ships. Guns. 

Redoubt 31 

One ship of 64 

One frigate 40. 

Two do. of 3d each 72 

One of . 32 

One corvette of 22 

One do J8 

Two of 10 each 20 

One brig of 8 

Two gun-boats of 1 each 2 

Total . . 309 



2o6 
Number of guns in favour of the Turks , . , , &3 



296 CORRESPONDENCE. 

MR. EDITOR, March 3, 1808. 

IN the debates of the House of Lords, as given in a newspaper 
not long since, it was stated as an assertion of the First Lord 
of the Admiralty, when speaking on the subject of the Danish 
navy, that zee wanted shtps^ but not men. His lordship's sources 
of information are so much better than mine, that I should yield 
implicit credit to the assertion, was it not so diametrically opposite 
to what I thought, not only the general opinion, but an established 
fact, that zee have plenty of ships, if we could man them. His 
lordship alluded to the alacrity with which the protected seamen 
volunteered to bring home the Danish navy. But the greatest 
part of these protected seamen are not always in the way, and 
various important events may occur when the Greenland ships are 
amidst the ice in the north ; or if at home, the service required. 
jnay be such as their crews would not volunteer in. I under- 1 
stand also that there are now in port several ships in good repair 
(sonic housed over for the winter), and fit for service, but I do 
not hoar where the men are who could be called on to man them, 
without paying off some other ships. Perhaps some of your 
correspondents may be able to inform us, in what space of time a 
certain addition to our navy could be manned, provided the ships 
arc ready : and comfort us by elucidating this new state of affairs 
announced by Lord M. 

I remain, sir, &c. &c. 

Mil. EDITOR, 

A S you occasionally present fac-similes of the hand writing of 
-*-^*- distinguished officers, 1 lake this opportunity of transmitting 
you the signature of the late Admiral Roddam ; by inserting a copy 
of which you will preserve a memorial of a brave and much 
respected character.* It was written in October, 180C, 

J am, &c. C. D. 




* A portrait and biographical memoir of Admiral Roddam, are given in 
the IX tli volume of the NAVAL CHRONICLE., page 253. This officer, who 
vas the senior admiral of the red squadron, died at Newcastle,' oil the SJiH 

of M.'.rdij in his 89th year. . 



297 

CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 
No. XXIV. 

A;ain the dismal prospect opens round, 

The wreckj the shore, the dying, and the drown'd. 

FALCONER. 

of the Loss of the Ship AN.VE, Captain KXIGHT, on a Reef 
of Rocks, free leagues to the northward of (he southernmost 
iSoiihelcpur Island. 

APRIL 19th, 1804, at 11 P.M. the scaciinny of the Avafch 
called out that he saw the land, and before any body else 
could distinguish it, being very dark, saw the appearance of 
breakers a-head; put the helm down immediately, for the purpose 
of bringing her head to the westward, but before it could be 
effected, the ship struck on a reef of rocks, sand, and stones- 
furled all the sails to prevent her going further on the reef 
hoisted out the boats, and run the stream anchor out to the north, 
to keep her from forging ahead on the reef; sounded astern of the 
ship, and found the deepest water to the N.K.W. carried the 
small bower anchor out in a N;N.W direction, and let it go in. 
four fathoms rock, sand^ and stones; hove a great strain on the 
small bower, and finding that she did not go off', left off heaving, 
and sent the people below to heave out the stones, and stave the 
salt-water casks forward. At 12, the appearance of a squall from 
the southward, loosed all the sails, and hoisted them : at ~ past 
12 a heavy squall from the southward, with heavy rain ; hove all 
a-back, and kept heaving & great strain on the small bower, but 
without effect. Sent the people below again for the purpose of 
heaving up the stones, and at -*- past one, having lightened her con- 
siderably, hove again the small bower, but without effect : sent the 
people below again to heave out the remainder of the stones ; 
but, instead of exerting themselves, and doing what was necessary 
for the safety of the ship, many of them began to plunder 
what they could lay their hands on, sa\i!ig, that there was no 
danger, the land being very near. At three, liove again on the small 
bower, but without effect, and puri.ping out the water, started: at 
four, the gunner reported four feel water in the hold ; still kept 
heaving, and at day-light the wa;er had gained on the pumps to 
eight and a half leet ; a heavy swell tueu setting in, the ship begaa 

Cljron, dioL XIX. Q Q 



298 CORRECT RELATTON Ot 

to strike very hard, and observed several large pieces of sheathing 
and other parts of her bottom come up alongside : at live, the rud- 
der unshipped, and carried away the greatest part of the stern, and 
stove in the counter on the starboard side, the water being within 
one foot of the 'tween decks : at | past live, the ship bring bilged, 
she fell over on her starboard beam ends : finding nothing further 
could tie done for the safety of the ship, left off pumping ; the 
captain then ordered the syrang and lascars to get the masts and- 
sails in the boats, .also some rice and water for the people, which 
they refused to do, saying there was plenty on the island, and: 
began to plunder the great cabin, and the officers' chests and 
trunks, during which time the captain being below for the purpose 
of securing his papers, he heard one of the lascars (Mahomed)' 
saying to some of those who refused (o get the provision in the 
boat, that when we got oiv the island they would take the first 
opportunity of* killing the captain, officers, and seacuimicsj and 
of sei/jng the boats and going to the Malabar coast. 

In consequence of which the captain was rcsol-vcd to quit the 
wreck as soon as possible, with as many of the other party as the 
boat could carry, and to leave the pinnace for the rest, with 
instructions to- follow us : during this time, the seacunnies had got 
the long-boat's masts and sails in, with a small quantity of water 
and biscuit ; and 1 at 7, after consulting with the officers of the ship, 
who were of an opinion that nothing further could be done, 
quitted the wreck i:i the long-boat, with the following people, for 
flu 4 purpose of making the best of our way to the Malabar coast; 
at the same time the pinnace left the wreck, and was soon out of 
sight. AVhcn v.c quitted, the wreck she was lying on her starboard 
beam ends, ami nearly fall of water. 

A li-t of the people saved in the longboat: Thomas Knight, coro- 
inniHler; John Whcattall, pilot for the Red Sea; Edward Greaves, second? 
t>iiii.Tr ; John Luimcdy, giuuier; four seacunuies, and six natives. Total 14. 

An account of the reef on which the Anne struck, whose 
bearings were taken at day-light : -the extremes of the reef borq 
from S.\V. to E.N.E. the southernmost of the Souhelepar islands 
bore S.S.NV. and the northernmost ditto E.S.E. distance from the 
southernmost about six leagues, and from the northernmost four or 
five ; the extreme length of the reef ten or twelve miles, of which 
Feef uo meatiou is made in any of the charts on 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS,. 299 

LOSS OF HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP FLORA. 

PTT1HE following account of the loss of the Flora is extracted 
-**- from a letter from an officer, dated Lewarden, in FrieslaBd, 
January 26, 1603: 

u I am sorry to inform you tha-t the Flora struck upon 
Schelling Ileef last Monday, the 18th; and about nine o'clock that 
j.ight succeeded in getting her off, but lost Our rudder in the 
attempt ; and after getting her to sea, we could hardly keep her 
free with all the pumps, therefore was obliged, the next day, to rim 
her on shore again about four o'clock that afternoon. After 
making rafts, fearing that jf it came on to blow hard that night she 
would go to pieces, the Captain, Furber, Keith, Doneville, Wat- 
son, and myself, pushed off in the barge, that being the only boat 
\ve then had, with about 130 of the crew on rafts, the rest cfeoosing 
to stay by the ship ; when after rowing 18 hours, we did not 
know where, not being able to sec the land, without sustenance s 
we landed on the island of Araoland, where they made us prison- 
ers, and marched us here. After being four days and nights on 
board, the rest earae on shore on some more rafts, and 1 believe 
all are saved. I have lost every thing, as when I left the ship, 
though my bag was in my hand, I would not put it into the boat, 
as the captain would not his, nor indeed was it a time to think 
about any thing but otic's life. Those whoia we left on tiie wreck 
are at 



SHIPWRECK AND SUFFERINGS OF M. DE BRISSOV, AND HIS COM- 
PANIONS, ON THE COAST OF CAPE BLANCO. 
(Translated from DURANO'S " Vvyage to Senegal.") 
[Continued from page 217.] 

the following morning, at daylight, a signal was given for 
their departure; and M. de Brisson, with the other slaves, 
were ordered to assemble the camels and load them. This having 
been performed, the troops set off, and at noon stopped in a plain, 
which afforded not a single tree to shelter them from the rays of 
the sun. After unloading the camels, the slaves were employed in 
digging up roots to make a fire ; a labour which, from all the 
trees, roots, and grasses of this country being thorny, is exceed- 
ingly treublcsyme. At length; the iirc having imparted a sufficient 



300 CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 

degree of heat to the sand, they entirely covered the goat with it ; 
and while the slaves were keeping up the fire, their masters regaled 
themselves with the raw fat of the animal, which they seemed 
highly to enjoy. When the goat was dressed, the Moors, without 
even taking the trouble to strike off the sand, devoured it with a. 
most incredible voracity ; after which they threw the bones to tho 
slaves, telling them to make haste and get their dinner, that they 
might reload the camels. 

Towards evening they descried some tents on a little eminence. 
The inhabitants of this village, as it proved to be, came in cr wds 
to meet the travellers; but, far from "expressing compassion 
towards the unfortunate captives, they overwhelmed the H with 
insults, and subjected them to the most inhuman trea*mcv-t. Two 
of M. d<- Brisson's comrades were treated with extreme cruelty, tho 
women being more ferocious than the men. The owners made but 
slight resistance; rather congratulating themselves that the slaves, 
instead of the burthens of the camels, became th,e obji-cts of their 
attention. M. de Brisson, who was at a little distnncc from his 
camel, perceiving a man aiming at his face with a double-barrelled 
musket, presented his breast to him and told him to fire; on which 
the assassin, struck by his firmness, let the piece fall from his 
hands. At the same instant, de Brisson was struck on the head 
"by a stone, and for a moment lost his senses; but, on recovering 
liimsclf, he burst into a rage, and loudly called for vengeance. 
Terror was thus spread through the village, the offending inha- 
bitants of which took flight. One of them, however, before he 
Tan off, gave de Brisson a blow on the head with his musket, 
which made him vomit blood. The unfortunate man was unable 
o recognise the fellow who had injured him; but, by his com- 
plaints, he excited the curiosity of several of the savages, who 
seemi d pleased with the answers which he gave to their numerous 
questions. 

Tn prove that he knew the king Alikouri, and (hat he had been 
Lis friend at Isle St. Louis, de Brisson attempted to imitate the 
f^cHHis, or buffoons, whom that prince had in his suite : by this 
j:ind of drollery he afforded much pleasure to his master, who made 
him repeat his imitations several times, and at last employed him 
this wa\ <o ilivi',1 the people, who, he feared, world steal his pru- 
}>c -rr . j)c Brisson was immediately surrounded by crowds oj 
liH-n, \\ omt-n, and children, who gave him a little camel's milkj ivi 
ii reward lor his exertions. 



COUIIECT RELATION OF 3HIPWHF.CKS. 601 

The travellers, having remained one day in this village, obtained 
a supply of three or four days' provisions from the inhabitants, 
notwithstanding the cold reception which they had at first expe- 
rienced. They then proceeded eastward, passing over large 
plains, covered with white, flat, and round flints, not a single 
plant being visible : the horizon appeared to be loaded with a 
reddish vapour, which resembled, in different parts, the flames 
from volcanoes. The small pebbles, pricking the feet of the 
Frenchmen, occasioned a sensation similar to the burning occa- 
sioned by sparks. The air contained neither birds nor insects ; 
and the silence which prevailed was so profound, as to produce $ 
sort of terrific effect on the mind. If by chance a breath of air 
arose, the traveller immediately experienced an extreme lassitude, 
his lips becoming chapped, his skin parched, and his whole body- 
covered with puiniul carbuncles. The Moors, who had retired to; 
these regions in order 'o avoid the payment of certain tributes, 
were afflicted by the atmosphere as much as their slaves ; for so 
inhospitable is the country, that even the most ferocious animals 
will not enter it. 

On leaving the first of these plains, they entered another, where 
he Mind had raised the sand into hillocks, the intervals of which, 
produced a few odoriferous plants, which the half-famished camels 
voraciously devoured. They afterwards came to a valley surrounded 
by mountains, in which, for the first time, they discovered some 
brackish fetid water: such was their thirst, however, that they 
drank it with indescribable pleasure. Towards evening they had; 
the good fortune to fall in wiih a hospitable horde, from whom, 
they experienced a favourable reception, and who pointed out the 
route for the remainder of their journey ; a very seasonable picofl 
of information, as their guide had lost his way. 

The brother-in-law of de Brisson's master, one of the chiefs of 
the district, took particular cq.re of the slaves, and sent them a 
meal of ostrich flesh and camel's milk. Jle appeared affected at 
the fate of M. de Urisson, and said to him, with much tenderness, 
" Unfortunate Christian ! my brother has long been my debtor ; if 
you ~^ill attach yourself to me, I icili make arrangements nith him 
to obtain you." This proposition, though it affected de Brisson, 
made him tremble, as it indicated a long captivity, while he had 
flattered himsdf that his present state would soon be changed: he 
therefore intrcated lu's master not to consent to such an arrange- 
fnewt, " Jje suy^ rcnlied thq Moor, " you shall not leave mc^ 



30$ PHILOSOPHICAL 

unless to go to Senegal or Morocco, and that shall soon take 
place." This assurance gave indescribable joy to the captive. 

Having rested three days with the tribe called Laruussyc, they 
continued their journey towards the residence of their conductors ; 
where they arrived at the expiration of sixteen days, almost reduced 
to skeletons, after suffering the most dreadful fatigue and misery. 
On their approach, the travellers were perceived ascending a hill, 
and,several black slaves came to meet them. At a short distance, 
the children made the air resound with shouts of joy ; and the 
women placed themselves erect at the entrance of the tents, to give 
their husbands a respectful reception. As the latter approached, 
the women came forward, and, with a submissive aspect, each 
plact-d her right hand on her husband's head, which she kissed, 
after prostrating herself to the ground. At the close of this 
ceremony, they looked with much curiosity towards the slaves, 
and then insulted them in the grossest manner, spitting in their 
faces, and throwing stones at them. The children, imitating the 
example of their parents, pinched them, pulled their hair, and tore 
their flesh with their nails. 

[To be continued.] 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 

ON' THE HEAT OF THE WATER IW THE GULF-STREAM, 
BY DR. BLAGDEN, F. K. S. 

[From the Philosophical Transactions.] 

E of the most remarkable facts observed in navigating the 
ocean, is that constant and rapid current which sets along 
the coast of North America to the northward and eastward, and 
is commonly known by the name of the Gulf-stream. It seems 
justly attributed to the effect of the trade-winds, which blowing 
from the eastern quarter into the Gulf of Mexico, cause there an 
accumulation of the water above the common level of the sea ; in 
consequence of which, it is constantly running out of the channel 
where it finds least resistance, that is, through the Gulf of Florida, 
with such force as to continue a distance. Since all ships going 
i'lom Europe, to any part of North America, must cross this 
current, and are materially affected by it in their course, every cir- 
cumstance of its motion becomes an object highly interesting to the. 
seaman, as well as of great curiosity to the philosopher, Au ob 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 303 

serration which occurred to me on the spot suggests a new- 
method of investigating a matter that appears so worthy of 
attention. 

During a voyage to America, in the spring of the year 1776, I 
used frequently to examine the heat of sea water newly drawn, in 
order to compare it with that of the ajr. We made our passage 
far to the southward. In this situation, the greatest heat of the 
water which I observed was such as raised the quicksilver in 
Fahrenheit's thermometer to 77 deg. and a half. This happened 
twice, the first time on the 10th of April, in latitude 21 deg. 
10 min. N. and longitude, by our reckoning, 52 deg. W. and the 
second time, three days afterwards, in latitude 22 deg. 7 min. and 
longitude 55 deg. but, in general, the heat of the sea near the 
tropic of cancer, about the middle of April, was from 76 to 77 
degrees. 

The rendezvous appointed for the fleet being off Cape Fear, our 
course, on approaching the American coast, became north-west- 
ward. On the 23d of April the heat of the sea was 75 deg. our 
latitude at noon 28 deg. 7 min. N. Next day the heat was only 

71 deg. we were then in latitude 29 deg. 12 min. the heat of the 
water, therefore, was now lessening very fast in proportion to the 
change of latitude. The 25th, our latitude was 31 deg. 3 min. 
but though we had thus gone almost 2 deg. further to the north- 
ward, the heat of the sea was this day rather increased, it being 

72 deg. in the morning, and 72 deg. and a half in the evening. 
Next day, the 26th of April, at half after eight in the morning, I 
again plunged the thermometer into sea water, and was greatly 
surprised to see the quicksilver rise to 78 deg. higher than I had 
ever observed it, even within the tropic. As the difitsrence was 
too great to be imputed to any accidental variation, I immediately 
conceived that we must have come into the gulf-stream, the water 
of which still retained great part of the heat that it had acquired 
in the torrid zone. This idea was confirmed by the subsequent, 
regular, and quick diminution of the heat: the ship's run for a 
quarter of an hour had lessened it 2 deg. the thermometer, at 
three quarters after eight, being raised by sea water, fresh drawn, 
only to 76 deg. By nine the h^at was reduced to 73 deg. and in a 
quarter of an hour more, to 71 deg. nearly : all this time the wind 
blew fresh, and we were going seven knots an hour on a north- 
western course. The water now began to lose the fine transparent 
blue colour of the ocean, and to assume something of a greenish 
olive tinge, a well known indication of soundings. Accordingly, 

10 



304 PHILOSOPHICAL 

between four and five in the afternoon, ground was struct witft 
the lead at the depth of eighty fathoms, the heat of the sun being 
then reduced to 69 deg. In the course of the following day, aJ 
we came into shallower water and nearer the land, the temperature 
f the sea gradually suhk to 6'5 deg. which was nearly that of the 
air at the time* 

Unfortunately bad weather, oh the 26th, prevented us from 
taking an observation of the sun ; but on the 27th, though it was 
then cloudy at noon, we calculated the latitude from two altitudes, 
and found it to be 33 deg. 26 min. N. The difference of this 
latitude from that which we had observed on the 25th, being 
2 deg. 23 min. was so milch greater than could be deduced from 
the ship's run marked in the log-book, as to convince the seamen 
that we had been set many iniles to the northward by the 
current. 

On the 25th at noon, the longitude, Wy our reckoning, was 
74 deg. W. and I believe the computation to have been pretty 
ju.st ; but (lie soundings, together with the latitude, will determine 
the spot where these observations were made better than any 
reckoning from the eastward. The ship's run on the 26th, from 
nine in the morning to four in the afternoon, was about ten leagued 
OH a north-west by north course : soon afterwards we hove-to in 
wrder to sound, and, finding bottom, we went very slowly all 
tiii;lit, and (ill noon the next day. 

From these observations, I think, it may be concluded, that the 
ulf-s(reaui, about the 33d degree of north latitude, and the 75th 
degree of longitude, West of Greenwich, is, in the month of April, 
at least six degrees hotter than the water of the sea through which 
it runs. As the heat of the sea water evidently began to increase 
in the evening of the 25th, and as the observations shew that vie 
were, getting out of the current when I first tried the heat in the 
mornin;i of (lie 2Gth, it is most probable, that theship's run, during 
the night, is nearly the breadth of the stream measured obliquely 
across : thai, as it blew a fresh breeze, could not be less than, 
tuei.ly-five leugucs in fifteen hours, the distance of time between 
the two observations of the heat; and hence the breadth of the 
.stream may bu estimated at twenty leagues. The breadth of the 
(Julf of Florida, which evidently bounds the stream at its origiu, 
appear* by the charts to be two or three miles less than this, ex- 
cluding the rocks and sandbanks which surround the Bahama 
Inlands, and the shallow water that extends to a considerable 
distance from the coast of Florida; and the correspondence of 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 305 

t?icsc measures is very remarkable ; since the stream, from well- 
known principles of hydraulics, must gradually become wider as 
it gets to a greater distance fi om the channel by which it issues. 

If the heat of the Gulf of Mexico were known, many curious 
calculations might be formed by comparing it with that of the cur- 
rent. The mean heat of Spanish-town, and Kingston, in Jamaica, 
s-eems not to exceed 81 deg. that of St. Domingo on the sea coast 
may be estimated at the same, from Mons. Godiirs observations ; 
but as thy coast of the continent which bounds the gulf to the 
westward and southward is probably warmer, perhaps a degree or 
two may be allowed for the mean temperature of the climate over 
the whole bay : let it be stated at 82 or 83 deg. Now there seems 
to be groat probability in the supposition that the sea, at a certain 
comparatively small distance below its surface, agrees in heat 
pretty nearly with the average temperature of the air, during the 
whole year, in that part; and hence it may be conjectured, that 
the general heat of the water, as it issues out of the bay to form 
the stream, is about 84 deg. the small variations of temperature oa 
the surface not being sufficient to affect materially that of the 
general mass. At the tropic of cancer I found the heat to be 
77 deg. the stream, therefore, in its whole course from the Gulf 
of Florida, may be supposed to have been Constantly running 
through water from 4 to 6 deg. colder than itself, and yet it had 
lost only 4 deg. of heat, though the surrounding water, where I 
observed it, was 10 deg. below the supposed original temperature 
of the water which forms the current. From this small diminution 
of the heat, in a distance probably of three hundred miles, some 
idea may bo acquired of the vast body of fluid which sets out of the 
Gulf of Mexico, and of the great velocity of its motion. Nu- 
merous observations on the temperature of this stream, in every 
part of it, and at di fie rent seasons of the year, compared with the 
heat of the water in the surrounding seas, both within and without 
the tropic, would, I apprehend, be the best means of ascertaining 
its nature, and determining every material circumstance of its 
movement, especially if the effect of the current in pushing ships 
to the northward is carefully attended to, at the same tune with 
the observations npon the heat. 

An opinion prevails among seamen, that there is something 
peculiar in th weather about the gulf-stream. As far as I could 
judge, the heat of the air uus considerably increased by it, as 
alight be expected ; but whether to a degree or extent sufficient 

31 ok XIX. B a 



306 PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 

for producing any material changes in the atmosphere, must be 
determined by future observations. 

Perhaps other currents may be found, Avhich, issuing from 
places warmer or colder than the surrounding sea, differ from it in 
their temperature so much as to be discovered by the thermometer/ 
Should there be many such, this instrument will come to be ranked 
among the most valuable at sea; as the difficulty of ascertaining 
currents is well known to be one of the greatest defects in the pre- 
sent art of navigation. 

In the mean time, I hope the observations which have been here 
related are sufficient to prove, that in crossing the gulf-stream very 
essential advantages may be derived from the use of the thermo- 
meter; for if the master of a ship, bound to any of the southern 
provinces of North America, will be careful to try the heat of the 
sea frequently, he must discover very accurately his entrance into 
the gulf-stream, by- the sudden increase of the heat ; and a con 
tinuance of the same experiments will shew him, \vith equal 
exactness, how long he remains in it. Hence he will always be 
able to make a proper allowance for the number of miles that 
the ship is set to the northward, by multiplying the time into the 
velocity of the current. Though this velocity is hitherto very 
imperfectly known, for want of some method of determining hov* 
long the current acted upon the ships, yet all uncertainty arising 
from thence must soon cease, as a few experiments upon the heat 
of the stream, compared with the ship's run, checked by obser* 
rations of the latitude, will ascertain its motion with a sufficient 
prcri-ion. From differences in the wind, and perhaps other cir- 
cumstanccs, it is probable, that there may be some variations in 
the velocity of the current; and it will be curious to observe, 
whether these variations may not frequently be pointed out by a 
difference in its temperature ; as the quicker the current moves^ 
the less heat is likely to be lost, and consequently the hotter tat 
water v, ill he. In this observation, however, the season of the 
year must always be considered; partly, because it may, perhaps^ 
in some degree affect the original temperature of the water in the 
Culf of Mexico ; but principally, because the actual heat of the 
stream must be greater or less in proportion as the tract cf the sea 
through v> hich it has flown was warmer or colder. In winter I 
should suppose, that the heat of the stream itself would be rather 
If ss than in summer ; but that the difference between it and the 
surrounding sea would be much greater; and I can conceive that, 
m the middle of 'summer, though the stream had lost very little &f 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 307 

its original heat, yet the sea might, in some parts, acquire so nearly 
the same temperature, as to render it scarcely possible to dis- 
tinguish by the thermometer when a ship entered into the 
current. 

Besides the convenience of correcting a ship's course, by know- 
ing how to make a proper allowance for the distance she is to set 
to the northward by the current, a method of determining with 
certainty when she enters tho gulf-stream, is attended with the 
farther inestimable advantage of shewing her place upon the 
ocean in the most critical situation ; for, as the current sets along 
the coast of America at no great distance from soundings, the 
mariner, when he finds this sudden increase of heat in the sea, will 
be warned of his approach to the coast, and will thus have timely 
notice to take the necessary precautions for the security of his 
vessel. As the course of the gulf-stream comes to be more accu- 
rately known, from repeated observations of the heat and 
latitudes, this method of determining the ship's place will be pro- 
portionably more applicable to use. And it derives additional 
importance from the peculiar circumstance of the American coast, 
which, from the mouth of the Delaware to the southernmost point 
of Florida, is every where low, and beset with frequent shoals, 
running out so far into the sea that a vessel may be aground in 
many places where the shore is not to be distinguished even from 
the mast-head. The gulf-stream, therefore, which has hitherto 
served only to increase the perplexities of seamen, will now, if 
these observations are found to be just in practice, become one of 
the chief means of their preservation upon that dangerous coast. 



RAPIDITY OF THE TIDES, IN THE RIVER JlOGI,Y. 

THE river Ganges, like the Nile, long before it approaches the 
Kea, separates into two great branches, which are afterwards sub- 
divided, and enclose a large delta, or triangular space, called tho 
Sundcrlands, The western branch then takes the name of Hoogly, 
on whose banks is seated Calcutta, the capital of Bengal, and 
residence of the governor-general ; distant from the sea, about 90 
pr 100 miles. 

Men of war generally lie at Kedgaree, or Diamond harbour; at 
this latter place, which is some 40 or 50 miles below Calcutta, the 
regular Indiamen always moor, refit, and take in, or discharge- 
their cargoes. Ships, however, of any size, may lie close to tho 
Avails of Calcutta, tiay, go. perhaps a hundred miles ab.ovc it: but 



308 PLATE CCLV. 

they are first obliged to lighten, in order to pass a bar that lies a 
little above Diamond harbour. 

The tides in (his river, particularly at full and change, are 
rapid beyond belief, forming what are culled u Boars," or 
" Cores," when the stream seems as if tumbling down a steep 
descent, doing great mischief among the boats, by upsetting and 
running them over each other. Ships themselves are frequently 
dragged from their anchors, and dashed against each other, at these 
periods. They attempt to account for these torrents, by saying, 
they depend on the other small rivers that open into the main one, 
by bars, which at a certain time of the tide, allow the Maters to 
rush out, all at once, into the grand stream, and thereby so muclt 
increase its velocity. 



PLATE CCLV. 

EDOXDA, the main object in the annexed engraving, is a 
small, rocky, uninhabited island, about ten miles in circum- 
ference, with scarcely any verdure npou it. It is situated between 
Montserrat and Nevis, iu longitude 62 dcg. 20 min. west of 
Greenwich; latitude 10 deg. 55 min. north. 

Ships may approach within pistol-shot of Redonda. To the 
north, and west, there are banks, Avhcre the fishermen from 
Nevis occasionally go ; but they are not noticed in the ilnglish 
charts. A Spanish one, published in 1802, has from thirty-nine 
to seven and a half fathoms on them, at the distance of six or seven 
miles from the island. 

In pissing the south-west side, at the distance of half a mile, 
soundings were gained, in March, 1806, in thirty and forly 
fathom-, rocky bottom. 

About the island, a great number of the sea-fowl, called 
boobies, by seamen, are always to bj seen. Landing appears to 
be easy, in several places. 

The island of Nevis is situated in longitude 62 deg. 35 min. 
vc>l of Greenwich; latitude 17 deg. 14 min. north. It was dis- 
covered by Columbus, from whom it is said to have received its 
name, from an opinion that its top was covered with snow. It is 
a beautiful spot; and, though little more than a single mountain, 
whose biisc is about twenty-three miles in circumference, it is well 
watered, and, in general, fertile. 

The Island is evidently of volcanic origin^ a crater being 



MARINE DESIGNS, &C. 309 

visible on the summit, and sulphur being frequently discovered in 
the cavities of the earth. 

The English first, settled at Nevis, by a colony from St. Chris- 
topher's, in the year 16<28 ; in 1706, it was taken by the French, 
but restored by the treafy of Utrecht; and, in 1782, it was again 
taken by th^ French, but restored by the peace of 1783. It is 
divided into five parishes, and contains one town (Charles Town) 
which is lortified ; of white inhabitants, the number is reckoned to 
be upwards of C.OOO ; of negroes, 10,000: when in possession of 
the French, it was taxed, as annually producing 4,000 hogsheads 
of sugar. 



MARINE DESIGNS, Sec. 

IN THE 

EXHIBITION OF THE BRITISH INSTITUTION, 

TDK PROJIOT^G THE FIXE ARTS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. 
M,DCCC,VIII. 



THE THIRD. 



"ITII the view of promoting the arls, and of affording 
information to our readers, we have hitherto giren an 
annual list of the Marine Designs, Naval Portraits, &c. which 
appear in the Exhibition at the Royal Academy ; and, as it has 
been suggested to us, that a similar proceeding, with respect ta 
the British Institution, in Pall Mall, would be equally acceptable, 
we have determined to commence with the exhibition of the pre- 
sent year. 

The British Institution was established,* under the patronage of 
his Majesty, for the encouragement and reward of the talents of 
British artists, in the year 1805. Its object is, to collect together, 
in regular succession, for the study and contemplation of artists, 
some of the purest specimens in painting, of the ancient masters, 
which the kingdom is in possession of; and the new productions 
are annually sold, for the benefit of their respective proprietors. 

This institution is farther supported by the subscriptions of tha 
principal nobility and gentry ; and the building, which was for- 
jnerly appropriated to the Shakspeare collection, having been 



310 MARINE DESIGNS, &C. 

purchased for the exhibition of the pictures, the gallery was 
opened, fo the first time, on the 17th of February, 1806, and is 
intended to be open every year. At the close of the season, the 
pieces are delivered to their purchasers. 

The terms of admission, to the public, are precisely the same 
as those of the Royal Academy ; and the pictures, from being 
less numerous, are displayed so as to produce a superior effect. 

R. A. denotes Royal Academician, 

A.R. A. Associate of the Royal Academy. 

NORTH ROOM. WEST SIDE. 

The drowned sailor S. Drnmmund, 

A neptune (a sketch) S. Williams, 

View on the Thames, near Richmond W. Danicll, A.ll.A, 

Fishermen ; a scene from nature J. Linnelt. 

NORTH ROOM. EAST SIDE. 

View on the Shannon, near Limerick, Ireland J. Lctporte. 
A bey steering a cutter J. Pocock. 

NORTH ROOM.-souTH EXD. 
Troops embarking J. A. Atkinson. 

Sculptures and Models. 
Lord Nelson, a model in terra cotta _/. A. Goblet, 

MIDDLE ROOM. EAST SIDE. 

A sea storm J, Pocock. 
MINIATURES. 

Miranda J . Stump, 
An infant Neptune Mrs. Singleton. 

View on the river Wye, near Goodrich J. Lapoirtt* 

View in the Isle of Wight J. Laportc, 

MIDDLE ROOM. SOUTH END. 

View at Daneford, near Margate J. Laporfe. 

View at Rochester, Kent J. Laporfe. 

Sea storm. Sun-set J. Pocock. 

Cascade on Loch Lomond G. Dimsdale. 

View of Richmond bridge J. Clarendon Smith. 

MIDDLE ROOM. WEST SIDE. 
Greenwich, from Nunhead Hill tf. 



MARINE DESIGNS, &C. Sll 

Shipwrecked sailors telling their story to the farmer 

*S". Drummond. 
A sea-beach, with fishermen, boats, &c. light breeze 

W. Coze den. 

A sea beach T. Thompson^ 

A cutter bringing-to a flag of truce T. Thompson-. 

A brisk gale T. Thompson. 

A group of nymphs, with a timid bather S. Shelly. 

Fishermen at Hastings W. Hunt* 

A squall B. Hoppnei\ 

A strong gale, shipping making for port N. Pocock* 

Fishermen unloading their boat W. Coicden* 

MIDDLE ROOM. XOKTH END. 

View of the light-house, Dublin, the bay, and hill of 
Howth. A gale A. CaUandefi. 

The wizard 
i 

<l Tis thine to sing how framing hideous spells 
In Skie's lone isle the gifted wizard sits, 
And points the fatal bark his destined prey." 

Vide Collins's Ode on the Superstitions of Scotland. 

J. J. Halls* 

A boat's crew with passengers, ecaping from a wreck G. Arnold* 
Subject from Mrs. Charlotte Smith's 12th Sonnet, 

O'er the dark waves the winds tempestuous howl, 
The screaming sea-bird quits the troubled sea : 
But the wild gloomy scene has charms for me, 
And suits the mournful temper of my soul." 

R. Corbouifo 

SOUTH ROOM. EAST SIDE. 

The-Gulley of St. Vincent's, in the island of Madeira 

J. Ldporte. 

The battle of Trafalgar, as seen from the mizen- 
8tarboard shrouds of the Victory J. M. W. Turner, R.A. 

Weighing a kedge anchor /. A. Atkinson, 

Dutch barges, a calm B. Hoppncr. 

A calm T. Thompson. 

SOUTH ROOM.-^souTn END. 



Scene On the Rhine, with a float of timber -R. Frcsbttirn. 

A Dover cutter J. A. Atkinson. 

A storm Miss F. 



312 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

A view on the river Arno, between Florence and 
Pisa. Evening R. R. Reinagle* 

Bow and Arrow castle, Portland Island P. Sandby, R.A. 

An autumnal morning, on the coast of Kent J. Laporte* 

Coast of Italy. Morning 
View on the Thames, near Chertsey W. Daniell, A.R.A. 

SOUTH ROOM. WEST SIDE. 

An Italian port, with shipping N. Pocock. 

Neptune's grotto. Contiguous to Tiroli, and at a 
considerable depth amongst rocks of immense magnitude, 
is situated this cavern, from which issues the river Anio, 
after disappearing for some time R- Frccbairn* 

A moon-light view of Eddistone light-house ; effect of 
a storm -A. Callundcr. 

The castle and port of Caernarvon, taken from the 
banks of the Mcnai, near the ferry in Anglesea N. Pocock. 

On the banks of the Thames, Oxfordshire W. Delamotte. 

SOUTH ROOM. NORTH END. 

A view of Margate cliff, from the pier, with wreckers 
saving part of the wreck of the Matthew West India- 
man, lost on Margate sands, and went to pieces in Sep- 
tember, 1806 R. Cleveley. 

Model of a monument to the memory of the late Lord 
Viscount Nelson Mattheio Wyatt* 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 

y presented to the House of Commons, respecting tlie Ship 
rElrusco, ami (he IValaingham Packet. Ordered to be printed) 
ld and <ilth February, and Id and 3d March, 1808. 

"JO) Y" presenting an abstract of these papers, we shall at once 
-^ furnish some interesting addenda to our memoir of Sir Home 
Popham,* and enable the readers of the NAVAL CHRONICLE to 
form their own opinion, upon a subject which has recently excited - 
ranch attention, not only amongst professional men, but the public 
at large, 

* V'nk Vol. XVI. page 265 to 30C ; and page 353 to 379. 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 313 

The documents now before us are eleven in number. The first, 
which is dated on the 24<h of October, 1803, is a " Memorial of 
Sir Hume Popham, captain in his Majesty's navy ; praying^ for 
the reasons therein contained, that the proceeds of the ship 
Efrusco, condemned ys lawful prize to his Majesty, zchich riots 
remain in the high court of Admiralty, may be paid to the 
memorialist ; or for of her relief." The body of this memorial, 
addressed to his Majesty, is as follows : 

" That your Majesty's petitioner was bred to your royal navy, and was 
employed in it during the greater part of the American war, when he ob- 
tained the rank of lieutenant, and after the peace he was engaged in making 
a survey of the const of Caffraria, which was most graciously received by 
the Lords of the Admiralty. 

" That there being then no further employment for your petitioner in your 
Majesty's service, it was proposed to him to enter on a mercantile enter- 
prize from Ostend to tlie East Indies ; which he acceded to without any 
further consideration on the subject, than of the opportunity it would afford 
for activity and improvement in the various branches of his profession, more 
particularly practical astronomy, and marine surveying. 

" That accordingly, in March 1787, he obtained leave of absence 
from the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, for the purpose of going 
to the East Indies, on conditin of resigning his half-pay during his absence 
from the service. 

" That he thereupon proceeded to Ostend, and from thence to India, 
where he followed his commercial pursuits without interruption or restraint, 
and without being aware that he was violating any law of his country by so 
doing: That he was well known to Lord Cornwallis, then governor-general 
of Bengal, and graciously and kindly received by him; and, at his lordship's 
request, whilst lying with his foreign flag at Calcutta, he undertook to make 
a survey of Lacams channel and harbour, of which he made a report that 
obtained his lordship's approbation. 

" That during his stay in India he married, and returned with his wif to 
Ostend, where he fixed her residence : that the peace continuing, and the 
services of your Majesty's petitioner not being otherwise called for, he en- 
gaged in a second voyage to India, for which he obtained a large outfit 
from the house of Robert Charnock and Co. of Ostend, and sailed from 
thence to Calcutta in the year 1790. 

" That upon this voyage, as upon the former, he was permitted to carry 
on his trade in India, without interruption. 

" That on his arrival at Calcutta, he found the East India Cpmpany 
engaged in war with Tippoo Saib, and he immediately loaded his ship with 
a cargo of rice and grain for the use of the army on the Malabar coast, but 
a very violent monsoon obliged him to hear up for the Company's Ne^ 
Settlement on the Prince of Wales's Island, in the Straits of Malacca, 
where, whilst the damages his ship had sustained were repairing, he under. 

/2ao. eTfjron. <Eol. XIX. s s 



31$ NAVAL LITERATURE. 

took an examination of the navigation of the whole island, whereby he fTi?- 
covered a new channel to the southward, by which, in the season of 17'2, 
he carried out all the Company's ships bound to China ; and received 
from the covernor general and council a gold cup, as a testimony of the 
sen ices rendered to his country by this discovery ; and they were also 
pleased, by their letter to the Court of Directors, of the I6th of May, 179 2, 
to make the most honourable mention of these services. 

" That antecedent thereto, viz. in December' 1791, when your Majesty's 
petitioner was in habits of intimacy and intercourse with the Honourable 
Charles Stuart, the acting governor, and the rest of the members of the 
council, as well as with the principal gcr,ile,men of the settlement, and un- 
der their immediate eye, he purchased at Calcutta an American-built ship, 
called the President Washington, in lieu of the vessel he had taken out 
from Ostend, and to which he save the name of his former ship the 
Etrusco. That this purchase was made with the produce of the sale of the 
old ship, and other funds acquired by outward investments, and cost your 
Majesty's petitioner one lack and twenty thousand rupees, and the outfit 
and repairs at least forty thousand more, making together near 20,0001. 
slerli:ijr. 

' That he proceeded with this new ship to China, and there made an 
agreement for the loading of her to Europe, in conjunction with two per- 
sons then settled at Canton ; viz. Charles Samuel Constant de Rebccque, 
and John Baptiste Piron. That the cargo shipped on this joint concern at 
Canton, in December, 1792, amounted by the invoice to 126,596 new 
dollars, or3G,703l. 12s. 3d. sterling, beside which, your petitioner loaded a 
large quantity of goods on his own sole account, to the amount of about 
io.oool. That the freight bill, amounting to 2?,G38l. sterling, was the sole 
propcTfy of your Majesty's petitioner, and was to be paid on the ship's 
arrival at Ostend, which sum might have been received by your petitioner 
at Canton, but he preferred leaving it a charge on the cargo, and thus 
making it payable in Europe. 

" Tliiit your Majesty's petitioner sailed in the said ship from Canton, in 
January, 1793, and on touching at St. Helena, he there heard that a war 
had broke out between England and France. That in the continuation of 
Li- voyage lie put into Cork, and there obtained the convoy of your Majes- 
ty's, ship Diadem. In July, 1793, he arrived with his ship in safety in 
Osu-mi Jloiuls, and, after your petitioner had gone on shore, the ship and 
rargo were sci/.ed by Mark Robinson, Esq. commander of your Majesty's 
ship i'.nlliant, rind were brought away by him to the River Thames. 

That (he' ship and cargo being proceeded against as prize of war in your 
Maji sty's high court of Admiralty, a claim ou the ground of" jurisdiction 
; :ul lerrh'.'ry was made for the same on the part of his Imperial Majesty, 
nuicli was rejected by the Judge of the Admiralty, and such rejection was- 
aiiirmed by the Lords Commissioners for hearing appeals in prize causes. 

" That your Majesty's petitioner, immediately after his arrival at Ostend, 
fit. in August. 1793, came to London, and solicited his re-establi-hmeut in 
your Majesty's navy, which was readily granted him by the Earl of Chat- 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 315 

It-Am, with his former rank of lieutenant ; and your petitioner was sooa 
afterwards appointed by the Navy Hoard first agent of transports at Ostend, 
and afterwards superintendant of the inland navigation to the army on the 
continent. 

" That whilst on these services, your Majesty's petitioner obtained the 
rank of master and commander, and in March, 179o, was promoted to that 
of post captain, upon the recon-.mendation of his Royal Highness the Duke 
of York, who \vus most graciously pleased to represent to Earl Spencer the 
important services rendered by your Majesty's petitioner to his royal 
higuness's army during the two preceding years. 

" That during tins absence of your petitioner in your Majesty's service, 
the aforesaid claim of territory and jurisdiction was decided upon; and, in 
consequence thereof, a claim was made on your petitioner's behalf by 
Robert Charnock, Esq. and which, after the return of your Majesty's 
petitioner, viz. on the 14th of November, 1796, was repeated in his own 
name. 

" Of the said ship and her freight, and of the goods which were 
your petitioner's individual property, as also of his plate, linen, 
china, wines, liquors, wearing apparel, and cabin furniture, to a 
very considerable value, which had been taken on board his said 
ship : also, one-third of the joint property in the cargo loaded 
on the account of your Majesty's petitioner, and the above- 
named Constant and Piron, and another, one-third whereof was 
claimed by the said Charles Samuel Constant. 

" That in April, 1797, the cause came on for hearing, when the judge 
rejected the claims of your petitioner and the said Charles Samuel Con- 
btant, and pronounced the ship, cargo, arid treasure to have been, at the 
time of the capture and seizure thereof, subject and liable to confiscation^ 
aiut condemned the same as good and lawful prize to your Majesty, except' 
certain goods claimed by Balthazar Georgi, the flag captain, and Ins ser- 
vant, Giovanni Cullock, and which were afterwards restored to them, to the 
amount of 1,0351. 14s. lid. 

u That appeals from the said decree were interposed on behalf of your 
petitioner and other claimants, to the Lords Commissioners of Appeals in 
Prize Causes, and on the 2b'tn of November, 1798, the said appeals ca ne 
on lor hearing, when their lordships pronounced against the appeal of 
your petitioner. Their lordships, at the same time, admitted the claim of 
Charles Samuel Constant, for one-third of the joint adventure, the proceeds 
of which (the ship and cargo having been sold) were ordered to be restored 
to him : restitution was also made to Skeykinqua, a native merchant of 
Canton, of the proceeds of some goods which had been claimed on his 
account; and on the 1 Ith of August last their lordships were pleased finally 
to pronounce, that the property claimed by your petitioner was good and 
lawful prize to your Majesty. 

" That pursuant to the above mentioned decree, the said Charles 
Samuel Constant hath received from the registry of your Majesty's, 



316 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

court of Appeals the sum of 12,19?1. 18s. 8d. as the proceeds of his one* 
third of the said joint adventure, and the sum of 16,2421. 11s. 3d. hath been 
paid to the agents of the said Skeykinqua for the proceeds of his goods, 
without any deduction, in either case, of freight; and there now remains in 
the said registry the sum of 38,9531. 3s. Id. t^ie balance of the proceeds of 
the said ship and cargo. The circumstance of such remaining proceeds 
falling so far short of the original value of the property, appears to have 
arisen from its long detention, and consequent reduction in value; in par- 
ticular, the ship, which cost near 20,0001. was sold for no more than 
7,0501. 

" That the loss of your Majesty's petitioner in the ship, freight, and his 
own individual property, exclusive of his one-third .share of the jo:nt 
adventure, very greatly exceeds the sum thus remaining at your Majesty's 
most gracious disposition, the loss of the freight alone being 27,G38i. 

" That neither the judge of the high court, of Admiralty, nor the said 
Lords Commissioners of Appeals, had any doubts as to the property of your 
petitioner in the said ship and goods; but condemned the sume oa a~coimt 
of the trade being held illegal in which your petitioner had unadvisedly 
entered, believing the same to be innocent and legal, and which he had 
continued to carry on with the knowledge, and under the apparent sanction, 
of the servants of the East India Company. 

' Your petitioner further craves leave humbly to represent to your 
Majesty, that, after the return of the Duke of York's army, and the re- 
establishment of your petitioner's health, which had been greatly injured by 
his fatigue and exertions on the continent, he employed himself in forming 
a plan for raising sea fencibles, which was approved by your Majesty in 
council ; and, whilst the plan was carrying into effect, your Majesty's 
petitioner projected the expedition which was undertaken against Ostend. 
In the following year, 1799, he was sent to Russia on your Majesty's ser- 
vice, where he had the good fortune to carry all yonr Majesty's commands 
into complete and prompt execution. lie afterwards had the honour of 
being appointed naval aide-de-camp to his royal highness the commander 
in chief in Holland, and the public representations of his royal highness 
Lear testimony to his exertions on every occasion which presented itself. 
On his return from Holland, he was again directed to proceed to Peters- 
burg on a most important mission, which he effected by undertaking a 
journey, in the depth of winter, through Lapland. That immediately on 
his return he w.as appointed to your Majesty's ship Romney, and sent to 
Copenhagen, to assist, in conjunction with Lord Whitworth, in the ne^o- 
iation then carrying on. On his return from Copenhagen, he was entrusted 
with the command of a squadron destined for the Red Sea, to act in con- 
junction with the army from India, in the expulsion of the French from 
Egypt. I'o r the manner in which he performed this service, as well us his 
subsequent exertions for the advantage of the East India Company in those 
quarters, your Majesty's petitioner humbly craves leave to refer to the 
letters from the Marquis of Wellesley and the commander in chief of the 
Jrv!;;<r> army : Arid he trusts your Majesty will not be displeased at this. 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 317 

short recital of your petitioner's uniform endeavours to serve your Majesty, 
at a time when he is imploring the restitution of a-property, which, having 
been proceeded against as prize of war, has been adjudged to your Majesty, 
and is subject to your Majesty's most gracious disposal." 

No. 2, dated March 28, 1787, is a letter from the secretary of 
the Admiralty, to Lieutenant Popham, allowing him two years 
leave to reside in the Danish settlement, Fredericknagore, in the 
East Indies, on his private affairs, on relinquishing his half-pay, 
till he should return to England. 

No. 3 is a return from the Admiralty, to a precept of the 
House of Commons, of the 18th of February, 1808, demanding 
copies of all orders for the seizure and detention of the ship 
rEtrusco; in the words-?-" No orders for the above purpose 
appear to hare been issued from this office." 

No. 4 consists of the following copies of certain paragraphs of 
the public letter of the governor-general in council to the Court 
of Directors of the East India Company ; dated November 25, 
1791 : 

" Para. 92. You will observe that Mr. Popham, a lieutenant in his 
Majesty's navy, has rendered a very important service to your settlement of 
Prince of Wales Island, and to the navigation of that part of India, by 
effecting a survey of the South Channel, and Moprtahriog that vessels of any 
depth of water, not exceeding 24 t'cet, may now make their passage, and thus 
avoid a great loss of time, to which, previous 10 the survey, they were 
obliged to submit in working out of the harbour of Purlo Pinang to the 
northward, when b&und to the southward. Mr. Popham has been desired 
to deliver to us a chart of his survey upon this occasion, and we shall 
transmit it to you when we receive it, reserving a copy, to be kept in this 
country. 

" 93. The present instance is not the first of a liberal exertion made by 
Mr. Popham, in the line of his profession, for the service of the Company 
in India. At the request of government, he assisted in the year 1788, in 
the survey of New Harbour and the adjacent channel; and, to the merit 
thus acquired, he has now added that arising from the performance of a 
service likely to prove highly advantageous to your commercial interests. 

" 94. Unemployed as Mr. Popham is under the Company, his zeal, and 
the gratuitous direction of his professional talents to the advancement of 
the public good, on the two occasions we have mentioned, and especially 
the last, claimed more than common notice; and we have accordingly ex- 
pressed to him our sense of the readiness he has manifested to promote the 
interests of your service. We have also directed that a piece of plate may 
be prepared, bearing an inscription, expressive of the occasion upon which 
it is given, and we have instructed our secretary to present it to him, in the 
name of the Governor General in Council. 



318 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

" 95. Permit us to request, that the services performed by Mr. Popliara 
may be represented in tlie terms tliey merit, bv your honourable court, to 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty in England." 

No. 5 contains the memorial of Charles S. Constant, dated 
November 16, 1803: and the report of the king's proctor on the 
said memorial, relative to losses sustained on account of th 
seizure of the ship PEtrusco, dated May 16, 1801. The chief 
points of the former are : that the memorialist agreed with 
Lieutenant Popham, and Jean Baptiste Piron, to freight PKirusco 
with a cargo on joint account, to be purchased with monies jointly 
advanced, or procured on joint credit and responsibility ; that the 
said cargo amounted to the value of 123,596 new dollars, of which 
the memorialist' advanced, in cash, 53,088 dollars, Lieutenant 
Popham only 19,000 dollars, and Piron nothing ; that the me- 
morialist was equally responsible with the others, for the credit 
obtained; that, by the decision , of the high court of Appeal, the 
memorialist's interest was confined to one-third of the proceeds of (he 
goods so jo intly shipped, without reference to his actual advances ; 
that, Ihe whole property amounting to 1 C 26, 596 dollars, the advance 
el' each ought to have been 42,198 dollars ; that the memorialist, 
having advanced 53,088, had advanced 10,890 beyond his pro- 
portion ; that the moiety of which, or about l,20pl. sterling, "was 
a credit given to Mr. Popham ; that the memorialist craves his 
JMajcvfy's consideration of this point, out of any sums which he 
might be pleased to grant to Mr. Popham: aud, farther, that the 
rr.emoria!i.-t. in consequence of his joint responsibility, had been 
compelled to pay, to Messrs. Charnock and Co. a third of the loss 
^hieh had been sustained, amounting, with interest and charges, 
to upwards of 10,0001. 

In reporting upon this memorial, the proctor says, it ' appears 
to contain matter rather of private concern between the memorialist 
and Mr. .Popham, than founding any claim upon the property con- 
demned to the crown." 

\o. 6, is a copy of the report of the king's proctor, on the 
memorial of Mark Robinson, Esq. captain of his Majesty's ship 
Brilliant, praying that he, and his officers, &c. might be rewarded 
-.viih the proceeds of the prize PEtrusco. It states as follows: 

' TIM), although the capture was made without any particular exertion 
of -kill or enterprise, yet, considering the length and risk of the litigation, 
ati.l that onc-thii'i! part of the cargo claimed was the legal property of 
Mr. Pin.'n, a Frenchman, resident at Canton, the whole of the property 
-o bdu-'Xn:: to Mr. Piron may be justly expected to be lor the benefit of 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 31 9 

the captor?, ami which is already condemned to them, together with the 
unclaimed goods. And it is further submitted, that the general expenccj 
incurred by Captain Robinson, in obtaining the condemnation, should be 
apportioned upon nil the property condemned, whether to the crown or to 
the captors; and such part of the cxpences as apply to the property con- 
demned to the crown, paid out of the proceeds thereof; and that Captain 
Robinson's costs, specially arising from the claim of territory, should also 
he paid out of the proceeds of that part of the property condemned to the 
crown : the circumstances respecting it are very peculiar, and are stated in 
my report to your lordships upon the memorial of Sir Home Pophain; and, 
under the advice of the advocate general, I do most humbly submit, that the 
question, whether any part thereof shoidd be given to the captors, is a 
matter which seems entirely for the discretion of his Majesty's government, 
as no precedent sufficiently applicable to the case warrants a suggestion of 
any rule proper to be adopted." 

No. 7 is a report of the king's proctor, on the memorial of 
Sir Home Popham (No. 1) ; in which h>-says : 

" It is most humbly submitted, that the proportion of Captain Robinson's 
expenccs, applying to the condemnation of the property to the crown, and 
also his particular expenccs respecting the claim of territory, should be paid 
out of the proceeds of the said property, as stated in my report upon Captain 
Robinson's memorial transmitted herewith ; but whether under the circum- 
stances, a grant of the whole, or any part of the property so condemned, 
after payment of such expences, shall be made to the memorialist, or whe- 
ther anj part of his portion of the property shall be given to the captors, is a 
matter which seems entirely for the discretion of his Majesty's government, 
the circumstances being so peculiar, that no precedent sufficiently applicable 
to the case, warrants a suggestion of any rule proper to be adopted." 

No. 8 is a copy of the memorial of Sir Charles Hamilton, Bart, 
late commander of his Majesty's ship Dido ; and the report of the 
king's proctor thereon, relative to the capture of the Etrusco;* 
in which the proctor says, 

" That the claim of the memorialist, as a joint captor, having been set 
forth in an allegation, admitted to proof, and the facts stated in that allega- 
tion being established by evidence, he appears to be entitled to share with 
Captain Robinson as a joint captor, unless, by further proceedings in the 
court of Admiralty, his interest, as a joint captor, should be otherwise 
decided upon." 

No. 9 is a copy of the king's warrant to the procurator 
general, directing him to grant the net proceeds of the ship 

* The Dido, it appears, was in sight of the Etrusco at the time of the 
apture. 



*520 NAVAL LITEKATURE. 

Etrusco. and certain parts of her cargo, to Sir Home Pophant. 
After recapitulating the circumstances of the case, as set forth in 
Sir Home's memorial, &c. this instrument concludes as follows : 

" And whereas we are graciously pleased, by warrant under our royal 
sign majiii.il, bearing date the 12th of September, 1804, to direct you to par 
unto Captain Mark Robinson such sum as should appear to be due to him 
for the general expenccs incurred by him in obtaining the condemnation of 
the said ship and cargo, such sum to be apportioned upon all the condemned 
property, whether to the crown or to the captors, such part of the expences 
as apply to the property condemned to the crown to be paid out of the pro- 
ceeds thereof, and the costs specially arising from the claim of territory to 
be paid out of the proceeds of that part of the property condemned to the 
erown. And whereas our said commissioners have now recommended unto 
us to grant unto Sir Plome Riggs Pophnm the whole of the property so con- 
demned to us, and now remaining in the registry of the said court at our 
disposal, to which we being graciously pleased to consent, our will and 
pleasure' is, and we do hti^jiy direct, authorize, and require you, eur pro- 
curator general, to exhibit this our warrant, and you the registrar of our 
high court of Admiralty, on the same being so exhibited, to pay unto Sir 
Home Kitrus Popham, Knt. captain in our royal navy, or to his agent law- 
fully appointed to receive the same, such sum as may remain in the registry 
of the said court, as the net proceeds of the ship Etrusco, and certain parU 
of !HT cargo condemned to us, and now remaining in the registry of the 
said court at our disposal as aforesaid, after deducting the above men- 
tioned expe'.ices, and any further expences that there may have been 
incurred thereon. And this shall be to you, and to all others who shall or 
may be herein concerned, a sufficient warrant. Given at our court at St. 
James's, this 24th September, 1805; in the 45th year of our reign. 
" By his Majesty's command. 

" W. PITT. 

" BLANDFORD. 

" C. LONG." 

No. 10 is a copy of the king's warrant, of the 12th of Septem- 
ber, 1804, for the reimbursement of the expences of Captai* 
Robinson, as described above. 

JNo. 11, which is a return to an order of the House of Com- 
mons, appears to have been moved for, with a view of illustrating 
the case of the Etrusco. It consists of papers, relating to the 
decree of the high court of Admiralty, in the case of the Wal- 
singham Packet. The main circumstances appertaining to this 
subject will be seen by the following extracts from the proctor's 
reports to the treasury, dated February 25, 180.5 : 

" In obedience to your lordship's commands, signified to his Majesty's 
Ute procurator-general, by John Sargent, Esq. one of your lordship's late 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 321 

secretaries, I have perused the annexed memorial of Samuel Ilemmans, as 
ngent, as well on behalf of Thomas Louis. Esq. late commander of his 
Majesty's ship Minotaur, the officers and crew of that ship, the actual cap- 
tors of the vessel hereafter mentioned, as also on bebaif of- Admiral Lord 
Bridport, and the several other admirals and crews of a fleet of his Majesty's 
ships also interested therein; and do most humbly report to your lordships, 
that in the said memorial it is stated, that on the 26th September, 1795, 
his Majesty's said ship Minotaur, whilst cruising against his Majesty's 
enemies, fell in with a vessel called the Walsingham Packet, in the service 
of the Post Office, which had been taken by a French corvette, on her voy- 
age from Falmouth with the ma.'l to Lisbon, having also on board British 
muslins, velvets, and cottons, and other merchandizes : that the said Captain 
Louis immediately disposses-cd the French crew, and put on board a prize- 
master and men, and sent her to Plymouth in order to be proceeded 
against as prize: that on 2d November, 1795, proceedings were commenced 
in the high court of Admiralty against the said vessel and cargo, in which 
court claims were given for the sliip and goods as the property of British 
subjects; the ship was decreed to be restored to the former owners, on pay- 
ment of l-8th thereof for salvage ; but the question, as to die cargo, was 
directed to stand over until a cause that was depending before the Right 
Hon. the Lords Commissioirers for Appeals in Prizes should have boon cle 
termined : that various other proceedings were had in the said high court 
of Admiralty, ami a commission issued from that court for the sale of the 
cargo, which was executed, and the sum of 8,1831. 17s. ?d. paid in as the 
proceeds: that on the 21st January, 1804, the judge of the Admiralty 
directed the expences of the several claimants to be paid out of the said 
proceeds, in consequence of their having paid the duties upon the good:-, 
but condemned the cargo ;is prize to the king, and directed l-8th thereof 
to be paid to his Majesty's said ship Minotaur for salvage. The memo- 
rialist most huivibJy trusts, that under the circumstances of this case, your 
lordships will Ire pleased to grant the remaining 7-fJths to be d.vidtU 
amongst the said Admiral Lord Bridport and the several other admirals, 
efticers, and crews of his Majesty's said fleet, who, from the great lapse of 
time that has takwi place since the capture, will become clamorous to re- 
ceive whatever sum your lordships should think riie;u eiuitcd to." % 
******** , 

" That, althogh the property in question was not condemned as prize 
of war, but as a forfeiture to the crown for a breach of the revenue laws* 
yet it has been usual in such cases to grant an equal re- ward to the captors, 
and in that view it appears adviseable to grant to (hem one moiety of the 
remaining proceeds, all the expences on the part of his Majesty's govern- 
ment being first paid. And in respect to the memorials of Mr. Tippet and 
Mr. Silk, that although it is prohibited by la\v to export merchandize i 
packets (unless in cases avowed by the othcers of the Customs) and public 
policy may require, more particularly in time of war, that packets should 
not carrv goods by which they are impeded in 'their voyages, and 

. Qef. XIX, T x 



322 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

more exposed to capture, yet if, for the benefit of the revenue, the officers 
have been HI the habit of conniving at, though not directly allowing, such 
exportation ; or if, when seizures have been made, the government has 
usually released them, and restored the goods to the shippers, the merchant* 
and others, interested in this property, seem to have a fair claim upon the 
justice and equity of government, for the obtaining of a grant of the re- 
maining moiety of the proceeds." 



Papers^ presented to the House of Commons^ relating to the 
State and Condition of the Squadron employed off Rochcfort 9 
under the Command of Rear-admiral Sir Ri CHA HD J. STIIA en AN, 
Ordered to be printed \5th March, 1808. 



IT may be seen, by our report of the proceedings in parliament, 
that the subject to which these papers relate was brought 
f;M v.ard in the House of Commons, by Mr. Calcraft, on the 3d of 
J\ lurch.- -Mr. Calcraft, in prefacing his motion for the papers, 
ob-erv J. that Sir il. Strachan had been obliged to leave his sta- 
tion, in i;as:[iie Roads, where he blockaded the enemy's squadron 
in iior'.u'fort, for want of stores; that, whilst cruising in the 
offing, he nu^t the Superb," Colossus, Mediator, and another ship 
of v. ar, iroin which he obtained some stores ; and that, afterwards, 
iiL- was obliged to proceed to the Ferrol squadron, to obtain a 

npply of provisions, before he could follow the enemy. *. 

le., amongst a variety of statements which he made in reply, 
r.s :^:uc!, as :i reason for Sir R. Straciian's leaving his anchorage, 
in U !s^':c Itoads. his preferring to cruise in the offing, rather than 
to re:;; .-in it; danjjer of a lee shore; and he also expressed an 
opiiii >;-,. tlKit Sir i-'ichui'd had never been to the i'errol squadron. 

As i'ar .is ue are I'ojnpetent to judge, the vindicatory statements 
of Mr. i'ole, to Mhich we beg leave to refer the reader, + are 
i'nliv !; iUe out by tiie papers before us. 

U'L- art: not contending that Sir Richard's squadron sustained no 
i;ico:!\ >',;: Mire, from a shortness of provisions: on the contrary, we 
a"e fui'v ;i \va;v. that it did; but we are by no means disposed to 
ariri:)nrL' )! if inconvenience to " delinquency,''' as a certain news- 
pi'.p/r lids '!o:ie.^ but ratiier to the unfavourableness of the wea- 

^ /"u/'t ji !'j.r ,aO of the present volume. t Page 251. 

'lijc !:t'\vsn;'po:- here alluded to, is the Times, a print which certainly 
>:il;i;..- more, 1 !i!e,-;iry ability than any other daily paper. Devoted, how-f 
'vrr, tu thr si.-us uf a party, in naval affairs, it is notorious for its toi*re- 
^r'.-,ci'to.t:.jii or' . hose facts which relate to the service. 



NAT At IITF.IIATL'RE. 323 

ther, which, in many instances, retarded the sailing of the men of 
war which were intended to relieve the squadron, and of the 
transports with stores, provisions, &c. Some of them, from bad 
weather, were also obliged to return, without effecting their 
object. 

It is admitted, that the Impetueux, Donegal, Warrior, and 
Emerald frigate, respectively sailed on the 4th of June, 6th of 
August, 1 8th of July, and 7th of August, with five months' pro- 
visions. The Times asserts, " that they [the squadron, we 
presume] received no supplies whatever (except 346 tons of water, 
which, among the whole squadron, is just consumption for six- 
teen days) till the 12th of January, which is, upon an average, 
about five weeks after their original stock of provisions \vould 
have been exhausted, if they had been kept on full allowance, and 
three weeks after the date of the above, wherein Sir Richard states 
his wants." After admitting, that several ensuing papers contain 
orders for ships to sail to the relief of the Rochefort squadron, the 
Times farther asserts, that none of those orders <c are even green 
prior to the 21st of December, that is, upon the average, about a 
fortnight after the expiration of the period for which four of the 
ships had been originally provisioned." 

With the same sources of information before us as the Times 
possessed, we must take the liberty of jlatly contradicting these 
assertions. A letter from Mr. Miller, agent victualler at Ply- 
mouth, dated as early as the 5th of November, announces the 
return of Jive transports from the squadron off Kochefort, " having 
delivered their cargoes of zcerfer, coals, and candles," to that 
squadron ; and, on the 14th of the same month, ten more trans- 
ports sailed from Plymouth, laden with 552 -f tons of water, 20 
quarters of coals, and 20 fathoms of fuel wood, for Sir Richard 
Strachan's squadron. As to no orders having been given, for 
fresh ships to relieve those upon the Rochefort squadron, prior to- 
the 21st of December, we have Ldrd Gardner's authority, in the 
papers before us, for stating, that, as far back as the 30th of 
October, the Conqueror was ordered to refit, and to proceed off 
R,ochefort, expressly for that purpose, " taking with her as much 
additional provisions and as many live bullocks as the above ship 
can conveniently receive." 

Had the statement of the Times been correct, Sir Richard 
Strachan's squadron must have been in distress for provisions 
before the 1st of December ; instead of which, in a letter to Lord 
Gardner, of that date, Sir Richard saj> : " Your lordship is 



324 NATAL LITER ATUKK. 

already apprised of the want of sails, anchors, and caWcs, in (he 
squadron ; and I apprise you, it begins to be in want of provisions 
as well as water, the supply we have got by then", transports being 
very trifling." The transports here alluded to, are six, out of the 
ten which we have just mentioned ; and, from these, Sir Richard 
obtained the 346 tons of wafer, as already stated. They had beea 
in very great distress, and the other four had not joined. In this 
letter, Sir Richard admits, that he left Basque Roads, " in the 
hope of falling in with the victuallers.*' 

The subjoined letters will shew the real state of the squadron) 
and the measures which were taken to relieve it :- 

Extract of a letter from Admiral ILiird Gardner, to (he Htm. W. If. Pole ; 
dated on board the Ville de Priris, Toi bin/, December 23, 180?. (Rcccim J 
at the Admiralty, December SO, 1807J 

" You will receive herewith, for the information of my Lords Cora- 
mUiioners of the Admiralty, an abstract of the state and condition of the 
squadron employed off Rochefort! [ also transmit herewith, the copy of a 
letter which accompanied the same, from Rear- admiral Sir Richard Strachan; 
n'.ul in reference to the earnest intreaty of the rear-admiral for my altcnti'm 
to the very reduced state of the ships, I desire you will acquaint their lord* 
ships, that my letter of the 14th instant (forwarded by the Conflict gun- 
britr) will acquaint him of the steps which have been taken fur supplies 
beiii forwarded off Rochefort," 

Ertrart of a letter from Rear-admiral Sir Richard Strachan, to Admiral 
Lord Gardner; dated on board Ike, Casar, off Chasseron, Dec. 21, 1807. 

" 1 avail myself of this opportunity to enclose a state of the squadron, 
and to request your lordship's serious consideration of the now exceedingly 
mli,; (i suite of the water and provisions, particularly in the articles of 
bread and spirits, the former at two-thirds allowance." 

E.rlra<-t of a letter from Admiral Lord Gardner, to the Hon. W. W. Pole ; 
dated on board the Ville de Paris, forbay, December 28, 1807. (Received 
at the Admiralty, December 30, 180?.,) 

' In addition to my letter to you of this date, I think it necessary to lay 
before the Lords Commissioners "of the Admiralty, the enclosed copy of 
another letter, which I received also this day, via Plymouth, from Rear- 
udmirai Sir Richard Strachan. 

I observe- what their lordships state in your letter to me of the 21st inst, 
and sh.ai anxiously expect the junction of the two ships therein alluded to 
the third I presume to be the Saturn,* which joined me yesterday, and 

' ' i . .in ... . 
* The third ship was the Cumberland, 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 325 

which ship, you will acquaint their lordships, I have ordered offL'Orient tq 
relieve the Defiance; and previously to the latter going into port, 1 have 
ordered Captain Ilullmin to receive from the Glenfui Islands as much watcF 
as he can stow, ('or conveyance to the squadron off Rochefort, for Sip 
II. Strachan's disposal, as well as such provisions as he may be able tq 
spare. 

" It lias been blowing extremely hard ail this day from S.W. by W," 



Copy of a letter from Rear-admiral Sir Richard St radian, Barf, to (fie 
Hon. W. W. Pole; dated Cacxar, C/iasseron inuring JK. by N. 3 leagues, 
December <tb, 1807. (Received at the Admiral y, December 30, 1807.J 

" SIR, 

" As it is uncertaia when the commander in chief may receive myletters, 
I send a duplicate to you for their lordships' information; the reduced state 
of the provisions of the squadron, and the uncertainty at this season of the 
year of its getting a supply, rendering it proper that their lordships should 
have timely information of the state of the squadron. 

" 1 have the honour to be, &c. 
" To the Hon. W. W. Pole, 4-1-. (Signed) ' JR. J, STRACHAN,* 



Extract of a letter from Rear-admiral Sir R. Slrachan, to, Admiral Lord 
Gardner ; dated on bofird the Ccesar, Chqsseron bearing E. by N. 
leagues, V5ih December, 1807,-rttW E.S.E. 

" No material occurrence has happened since my letter of the 3d instant 
by the Foxhound ; the squadroa has contended with very blowing weather. 
I have put the squadron to two-thirds allowance of bread, but defer re- 
ducing the allowance of spirits as long as possible, as well as the other dry 
provisions, which are the articles, as you will perceive, the squadron is most 
in want of. The weather has been snch, we have not beeo able 
portion (.he remains of provisiqns to eacl ship." 



Extract of a letter from Admiral Young, to the Hon. W. W. Pole ; dated; 
on board the Salvador del Jlfundo, Hamonze, December 28, 4.807. : 
(Received at the Admiralty, December 30, 1807J 

" You will further be pleased to inform their lordships, that the 
lieutenant of the Martial having reported to me, that when he left Sit 
Richard Strachan, the squadron was on short allowance of bread, I have 
directed as much more bread as she can possibly receive, to be put on 
board the Mediator, and have ordered the commander of that ship, as soon 
33 the wind and weather will permit him, to proceed with all possible 
despatch otf Rocljefort in the first instance, and afterwards to the squadron 
offL'Orient, 

" It has blown too hard to-day to allow of any ship moving, or to ad.ciit 
f any progress being made by the ships fitting suid refitting." 



JfAVAl, tlTEUATURl?* 

The following is an 

Account of Provisions, and Pursers' Necessaries, remaining on beard exf: 
Ship of the Rochefort Squadron, on the T^d of December, 1807. 

C.ESAR. 48 days' bread, and 43 rum; 11 weeks' beef, 12 pork, 11 \ posm-, 
13| oatmeal, 7 flour, 12 suet and fruit, 3 butter and cheese* 
4 rice as cheese, ll sugar for oatmeal, and 12 vinegar; 151 tons 
of water, and 13 weeks' fuel and candles. 

SPARTIATE. 55 days' bread, and 28 rum; 10 weeks' beef and pork, 13 
pease, 8 oatmeal, 8 suet, 4 rice as cheese, 4 sugar as butter, 6 sugar 
for oatmeal, and 11 vinegar ; 134 tons of water, 1 1 weeks' fuel, and 
16 weeks' candles. 

IMPETUEUX. 15 days' bread and rum; 5 weeks' beef and pork, 3 pease, 
2 1 oatmeal, 2 flour, 4 suet and fruit, rice as cheese, and sugar as 
butter; 82f tons of water, 1 weeks' fuel, and 6 weeks* candles. 

DONEGAL. 19 days' bread, and 20 rum; 5 weeks' beef and pork, 3 pease, 
6 oatmeal, 4 flour, 5 suet and fruit, 2 rice as cheese, 1 sugar as but- 
ter, and 2 vinegar; 101 tons of water, and 3 weeks' fuel and 
candles. 

I-'DGAH. 24 days' bread and rum; 4| weeks' beef, 8| pork, 5 pease, 
63 oatmeal, 1 flour, 5 suet and fruit, and 3 vinegar; 70 tons of 
water, and 7 weeks' fuel and candles. 

AYARiuon. -JO days' bread, and 42 rum; 10 weeks' beef, pork, and 
pease, 14 oatmeal, 2 flour, 3 suet, 5 fruit, 5 rice as cheese, and 

6 siisar as butter; 6-1 1 tons of water, 7^ weeks' fuel, and lOj 
candles. 

I{E>O\VN 4T> days' bread, and 35 rum ; 7 weeks' beef and pork, 8 pease 
and oatmeal, 7 flour, 11 suet, 3 fruit, 7f rice as cheese, and 8 sugar 
a^ butter, su^ar for oatmeal, and vinegar; 97 tons of water, and 
10 weeks fuel and candles. 

INDEFATIGABLE. 46 days' bread, and 53 brandy, wine, and rum ; 8 weeks 
beef, pork, pease, and oatmeal, 7 flour, suet, and fruit, 8 butter* 
cheese, rice us cheese, sugar as butter, and vinegar) 4tt tons of 
uater, 15 weeks' fuel, and 9 candles, 

V^rr.r.Ai n. ;)0 days' bread, and 26 brandy, wine, and rum; 4 week's beef, 
5 pork, 4 pease, 5 oatmeal, 4 flour, suet, and fruit, 3 rice as cheese, 
and " sugar as butter; 19 tons of water, and 1 week's fuel and 
candles. 

Piirr.Mx. 70 days' bread and rum; 10 weeks' beef and pork, 8 pease, 
10 oatmeal, flour, suet) fruit, butter, cheese, rice as cheese, sugar, 
sugar as butter, and vinegar; 41 tons of water, 5| weeks' fuel, and 

7 candles. 

RALEIGH. 5 '2 days' bread, and rum j 7 weeks' beef, pork, pease, oatmeal, 
flour, suet, fruit, butter, cheese, sugar as butter, and vinegar; 
2',' tons of water, and 7f weeks' fuel and candles. 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 



327 



On the 30th of December, the Cumberland, Spencer, and 
Superb; and, on the 31st, the Colossus, were ordered to join Sir 
Richard Strachan, " with all possible despatch," for the purpose 
of relieving such of the ships as had been the longest on the 
Rochefort station. 

The following documents will throw additional light upon this 
interesting subject : 

Extract of a letter from Mr. Thomas Miller, Agent Victualler at Plymouth, 
to the Commissioners for -victuallijig his Majesty's Navy, dated Dec. 31. 

" On the other side hereof (below) permit me to send you an account of 
live cattle, provisions, vegetables, and purser's necessaries I have put on 
board his Majesty's store-ship Mediator, for the supply of his Majesty's 
squadron off L'Orient and Rochefort; viz. 



Oxen 40 

Cwt. q. Ib. Bags. 
Hay for cattle.. 67 3 in 189 

Potatoes 376 2 27 in 374 

Onions ...... 34 1 23 in 24 

Turnips r . 13 1 U in 11 

Biscuit 614 Bags. 

Rum 2,544 Gallons. 

Wine 1,584 Do. 

Beef 3,040 Doub. Pieces 

Pork 6,080 Do. 

Flour 22,418 Pounds. 

Suet 2,220 Do. 



Raisins . . 3,636 Pounds. 

Pease , 386 Bushels. 

Oatmeal 444 Do. 

Sugar for do. . . 3,413 Pounds 

Butter 3,036 Do. 

Cheese 6,131 Do. 

Vinegar . 509 Gallons. 

Lemon juice .. 3,384 Pounds. 
Sugar for do. . . 3,436 Do. 

Tobacco 1,591 Do. 

Coals 30 Quarters. 

Candles ...... 2,21 Pounds." 



Extract of another letter (from the same to the same) dated Jan. 6, 1808. 

" Allow me to inform you, that I have put on board his Majesty's ship 
Colossus the provisions expressed in the margin (below) for the service of 
his Majesty's squadron off Rochefort : 



Biscuit 161 Bags. 

Rum 2,240 Gallons. 

Beef 1,973 Double Pieces 

Pork 3,872 Do. 

flour - 11,340 Ibs. 

Suet 1,920 Do. 



Pease 241 Bushels. 

Oatmeal 180 Do. 

Butter 2,916 Ibs. 

Cheese. 3,076 Do. 

Rice 3,033 Do. 

Vinegar 380 Gallons." 



On the llth of January, the following provisions, and stores, 
yrcrc shipped on board two transports, fpr the use of Sir Richard 
Straclian's squadron ; 
8 



28 JfAVAI, LITERATUnE. 

" 633 cwti of biscuit, 6,095 gallons of red wine, 3,380 8lb. pieces of 
beef, 6,760 4lb. pieces of pork, 21,630 Ibs. of flour, 1,980 Ibs. of suet, 
8,375 Ibs. of raisins, 841 barrels, and 4 casks> of pease, 204 barrels of oat- 
meal, 7,122 Ibs. of butter, 1,025 gallons of vinegar, 4,099 Ibs. of tobacco, 
26 quarters of coals, and 2,580 Ibs. of candles." 

One of the transports sailed on the 15th of January ; but the 
other, with the wine, butter, Vinegar, tobacco, and part of the bis- 
cuit, coals, and candles, grounded on an anchor, and was under 
the necessity of being unladen. The one which sailed, it should be 
ebserVed, returned to Plymouth on the 2d of February, Sir 
Richard Strachan not having thought it necessary to take out any 
part of her cargo* 

K.vtract of a letter jrom Sir Richard Strachan to the tion. W. W. Pole, 
dated 0,1 board his Majesty's ship Cffvar, 10 leagues south-west of the 
'Roche Bonnes, January 16, 1808. (Received at the Admiralty, Janunfy 
2-2, 1308 ; 

" I have the honour to acquaint you, for tbcir lordships' information, 
that I have received your letter, informing me of the Superb, Spencer, and 
Cumberland being ordered to join this squadron to relieve other ships. 
The Superb and Mediator joined on the 12th, the Lavinia on the 14th, and 
the Colossus yesterday, but it was not till this morning that the weather 
\\ould permit us to communicate by boats." 

The following is the state of Sir Richard Strachan's squadron, 
as to provisions, &c. on the 18th ef January :^* 

I'.V.SAU. J8 clays' bread, 41 brandy, and 14 wine; 15 \ weeks' beef, 14 
pork, 21| pease, 23| oatmeal, 9| flour, 4 suet and fruit, 8 butter, 
4 cheese, 8 rice as cheese, 9^ oil, and sugar as oatmeal, and 14 
v-inrgar ; 102 tons of water, and 12 weeks' fuel and candles. 

Si'Aiii i AIT. 79 days* bread, and 49 brandy; 15 weeks' beef, 14 pork, 
jo pcu=e, 15 oatmeal, 16 flonr, suet, and/iuit, 5 cheese, and rice us 
clicesc, 3 sugar as butter, 4 oil, and sugar as oatmeal, and 12 vine- 
gar ; 86 tons of water, 10 weeks' fuel, and 1 1 candles. 

Toi.o-n.-s. K'6 days' bread, and brandy; 18 weeks' beef, pork, prnsi*, 
oatmeal, flour, suet, fruit, butter, cheese, rice as cheese, and sugar 
as butter; 205 tons of water, and 18 weeks' fuel and candles. 

PoNV.cAt,. 36 days' bread, 11 wine, and 14 rum ; 6 weeks' beef* 10 pork, 
6 pease, Ifj oatmeal, 6 flour, 13 suet, 6 fruit, 4 butter, 2| cheese* 
J rice as cheese, 3 sugar as butter, and 6 vjwegar ; 43 tons of watwy 
,'J weeks' fuel, and 9 candles. 

XV \:( r, KM . 47 days' bread, 3 wine, and 39 rum ; 13 weeks* beef, 16 ptrk, 
ii> pease, 9 oatmeal, 4fc flour, Csuet, and fruit, 2 butter, 4 theese> 
and nee a> cheese, and 5 sugar as butler ; ;J9 tons of' \viiter, 4 
fu-cl. and 1;> cai.-dles. 



NAVAL LITKRATURE. 329 

REXOWN. 46 days' bread, 18 wine, and 40 rum; 21 weeks' beef, 18 pork, 
13 pease, 25 oatmeal, 9 flour, 20 suet and fruit, 8 rice as cheese, 
4 sugar as butter, 13 oil, and sugar as oatmeal, and 10 vinegar; 
60 tons of water, 12 weeks 1 fuel, and 10 candies. 

SUPERB. 91 days' bread, 36 brandy, and 47 wine; 18 weeks' beef, and 
pork, 12 pease, 10 oatmeal, 13 flour, II suet, and fruit, 12 butter, 
cheese, rice as cheese, and sugar as butter, and 13 oil, sugar as oat- 
meal, and vinegar ; 165 tons of water. 10 weeks' fuel, and 9 candles. 

PHOENIX. 38 days' bread, wine, and rum; 5% weeks' bee*" and pork, 
3f pease, 5f oatmeal and flour, 4f suet and fruit, 5^ butter and 
cheese, 3 rice as cheese, and sugar as butter, and 5| as vinegar; 
16 tons of water, \\ weeks' fuel, and candles. 

LAVIMA. 94 days' bread, wine, and rum; 13 weeks' beef and pork, 
7 pease, 13 \ oatmeal, flour, suet, fruit, rice as cheese, sugar as 
butter, and vinegar; 122 tons of water, and 13^ weeks' fuel and 
candles. 

RALEIGH. 32 days' bread, and 25 rum; 4 weeks' beef, pork, pease, ont- 
meal, flour, suet, fruit, butter, cheese, sugar as butter, and vinegar; 
8 tons of water, and 3| weeks' fuel and candles. 

CONFLICT. 84 days' bread, and rum; 1* weeks' beef, pork, pease, oatmeal, 
flour, suet, butter, cheese, sugar as butter, and vinegar; 14 tons of 
water, and 12 weeks' fuel and candles. 

GROV."LER. Todays' bread, wine, ai.d rum; 10 weeks' beef, pork, pease, 
oatmeal, flour, suet, butter, cheese, rice as cheese, sugar as butter, 
and vinegar; 11 tons of water, and 11 weeks' fuel aud candles. 

TRIBUNE. Not present. 

IN BEFATIGABLE. DittO. 

ECR VOICE. Ditto. 

The subjoined statement exhibits the stowage, and weekly 
expenditure of water, ia tons, in the respective ships : 



Stowage. Expenditure- 

Caesar 300 21 

Spartiate 285 14 

Colossus v 260 15 

Donegal 300 14 

Warrior 212 J4 

Renown . SCO 15 



Stowage. Expenditure. 

Superb 300 16 

Phoenix 90 8 

Lavinia 140 7| 

Raleigh 33 3| 

Conflict 20 2 

Growler 14 1| 



We shall conclude this important article with the following 
additional extracts of letters : 

Extract of a letter from Rear-admiral Sir "Richard John Straihan, Bart, to 
the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated on board his Majesty's ship Ctesar, off th* 
Roche Bonnes, January 16, 1808. (Received at the Admiralty, 
January 22, 1808. 
" I feel most sensibfy the prompt attention zchich has been paid to tht 

wants of the squadron : the liberal relief which their Lordships have been 

pleased to send, has removed all my anxieties. 

ol. XIX, v u 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 

" The enemy bay? a shipof the Hue, which has been refitting at Rocheforf, 
added to their s-quadron at isle d'A/x, whicli gives me hopes we may have 
ityjjfctuJng to do wuli them, a> I conclude, a boon as the Jenmppe is ready, 
they will try to push to sea." 

Extract of a letter from Rear-admiral Sir RichardJohn Strachun to Ad- 
miral Lord Gardner ; duted on board the C^sar, 12 leagues S. W. of Hoc he 
Bonnes, 18th. January, I808.-~fyi>id E. N. E. Fresh ^ales. 

'* The weather has been such that we have not been able to finish 
clearing the Mediator, or resinning our station off Chasseron j I have 
therefore kept the squadron in the stream of the rendezvous, that our look- 
out frigates and others may know where to find us, and also in the track 
which I think the enemy will take, should he sail whilst we are absent. 

" We avail ourselves of its moderating to employ the bouts; and as the 
bullocks were dying, and the vegetables spoiling, I thought it best to distri- 
bute them amongst the squadron, and to clear the Mediator of ail her dis- 
posable provisions, thinking, as the Saturn had been ordered oft' L'Orient, 
that squadron would not be so much in want of supplies as this is. 

" The Conflict, which had been looking torus on the coast, joined yes- 
terday, 'and the Growler also joined from your lordsiup, and 1 have received 
all your letters, public and private, by these vessels, as well as those by the 
Lavinia, Colossus, and the Superb. I have heard nothing of the Spencer 
nnd Cumberland ; and if I had nwt received your lordship's orders respect- 
ing those ships, by their not joining, I should have supposed their destina- 
tion altered. The Donegal aiid the Warrior are the two next ships to go 
:u, and 1 propose taking the stores, water, and provisions- they can spare, a 
well as anchors and cables, which will put the remaining, ships. 00 a good 
footing." 



Copt; of a Letter from "Rear-admiral Sir Richard Strachan to the Hon. W~ 
W. Pole ; dated on board his Majesty's Ship Casar. Chasteron bearing 
N. E. 60 titiles-. Jan. 23, 1808. (Received at the Admiralty, J\6. 4, 
J808.) 

SIR, 

Herewith T enclose a ropy of my letter of this date to Sir John Duck* 
n'orth. 1 have to apologize for the haste of this, but you are aware we have 
:iot a moment to lose. I am, &c. 

J/o/i. IV. W. Pole. R. J. STRACHAN. 

(COPY.) 

Ctesar, south-west Chasseron 50 mires, 

*'"> January 23, 1808 Wind A 7 . E. 

*iiu'i' the Mediator left the squadron, I have used my utmost exertion 
to rc-ain our station off Chasseron, but stroag north-east winds have 
prevented our yetting to windward. This morning the Attack gun- 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 331 

vessel joined us, making the signal that the enemy had put to sea. She 
had atransport with provisions under convoy, and has seen us to leeward 
these two days past. Her commander acquaints me that the enemy was 
seen several leagues from the land, hy the Phoenix, on Sunday last? and 
that Captain Mudge had detached the Raleigh to England with -the 
intelligence; and that he supposes the Phoenix is to 1 the northward 
Ibpking for us; as the day is closing in, I despair of finding her, 
anti, as no time is to be lost, shall proceed according to the route 
prescribed in Lord Gardner's instructions of the 7th of June, 18C7, 
anH 22d of October following, unless in my way towards Cape Finisterro 
I gain some intelligence of the destination of the enemy ; in which case, 
if ::r water and provisions can be made to hold out, I shall follow 
wherever thev are gone. The Indefatigable is to leeward; I make her 
signal of recall, and, with the ships named in the margin,* I shall make 
sail directly. 

I have the honour to bc,&c, &c. 

(Signed) R. J. STRACIIAX. 

fice-admiral Sir J. Duckworth. 



Extract of a letter from Admiral Lord Gardner, to the Hon. W. W. Pole, 
dated at Lupton House, UrLcham, 2d February, I SOS. (Received at 
the Admiralty on the 4/A February, 1808.) 

The Donegal having arrived in Cawsand bay, I enclose herewith acopy 
of a letter from Rear-admiral Sir Richard Strachan, addressed to Sir John 
Duckworth, dated the 29th ult. not before which day, it appears, th e 
rear-admiral was aware of the enemy's escape from Rochefort. 



Extract of a letter from Jlear-admiral Sir Richard Strachan, to Vice~ 
admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth, dated on board his Majesty's 
ship Cfesar, Roche Bonnes S. W. by W. 20 leagues, 29th January, 

i see. 

" I have been prevented from getting out of the bay, in pursuance of 
my intention to get off Cape Finisterre, by the most tempestuous weather 
I ever experienced ; but the squadron has not met with any particular 
accident, except the Caesar losing the main-yard in a heavy squall, 
I have, therefore, taken the Donegal's; which ship being in course of 
pay, having a leak in her stem, and being shortest of water and provi- 
sions, I select to send in. Since I wrote by the Attack, 23d instant, we 
have had constant western winds, and no communication but by signal. 
The Cumberland fell in with us on the 24th, nearly on this bearing; but 
/it was not till this day 1 got the intelligence, a copy of which I 
enclose." 

* 'Caesar, Spartiate. Colossus, Suoerb, Donegal, Reiwwu, Warrior, and Lavinia. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 

(March April. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

fear that our gallant admirals have made an unfortunate chase of 
it after the wily enemy; for some of Lord Nelson's old Agamcm- 
nons turn their quids, and look very sour upon it. The ill success both of 
Sir Richard Strachan, and Admiral Duck worth, is certainly peculiarly hard 
just at this time. It was of the utmost importance for Europe, that either 
the certainty of the escape of the French squadron, or its destination, should 
before this time have been ascertained. 

Sir John Duckworth, after an unsuccessful cruise, comprising an extent of. 
upwards of 13,000 miles, anchored in Cawsund bay on the evening of the 
13th of April, with the following ships : 

S/iii'S. Guns. Comhiandcrs. 

Royal George 110 Vice Admiral Sir J. T. Duckworth, 

Neptune 98 Capt. Williams 

Tcim-rairc 98 .. Hamilton 

Tonnaut 80 Rear-admiral De Courey 

Dragon 74 Capt. Scott. 

It appears that Sir John directed his course for Madeira, where he made 
a short stay ; and from thence he proceeded to the West Indies. On the 
I. "t!i of February, as they were off Martinique, they fell in with Admiral 
Codirane'd squadron, which was blockading that harbour closely with six 
sail of the line, and several frigates. Gaining no information of the enemy 
thcic, the -squadron repaired to St. Kill's, and Nevis, where they watered on 
the l!5th and 19th of the same month. Then they ran down the islands as 
far as St. Domingo, but still neither heard nor saw any thing f the enemy. 
To the coast, of America they next bent their course; and, on the llth of 
Muiib, they arrived off the Chesapeake, and continued to cruise on that 
S.L.U: Jii iiiuii the 21st of that month. The Americans by no means evinced 
a tnoiuUy di- position towards our squadron ; they would. not furnish a drop 
of v. atn\ hit- tiir.tllest quantity of fresh provisions, or even common vegeta- 
ble, a'UiioiiJi the ships were on short allowance. Such being the un- 
frioiiiiiv disposition manifested towards our countrymen, the squadron 
STfcrffi, o;i the '-'1st of March, for England. In tlieir way they called at 
Newfoundland, and at the Western Islands, where they were furnished with 
a MIJ-, !y of iVchh provisions, water, &c. thence they made the coast of Ire- 
land ; ln:i t!i y heard in, thing concerning the Roehefort fleet. 

'. Duckworth's squadron as going to refit and victual directly for 
CtiruiM 1 s TV Vc'. 

Various yra the conjectures respecting the Roehefort fleet. Recent 
Btvoi:!:ts (roi i t'ie Mediterranean stale, that the Carthagena scjtia- 
(i;on ;ei'.a,r.(d al Minorca, having sustained much damage, nijd that 
t!u v wc/c wfiirht-d li <-re by Lorfl Cochranc. They also report, that the 
Tf, .'(.n \ d f h ul sailer! with troops, and that Lord Collingvood and 
^fr;:c!;:i.i vcie ;. ft" Sicily, ignorant of thedcslinatioa of the enemy. 
TJic ii)c-.-i- ill .Miuo.ca is estimated at tea sail pf the iiue ami oue thre|i 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 333 

decker, nearly ready for sea. If this statement be correct, it probably 
includes the Carthagena aad Rochefort squadrons. The French have 
besides four sail of the line at Corfu. 

A Jamaica paper, of the olh of March, states, upon the authority of 
private letter, that twelve sail of the line, Spanish and French, had 
arrived at the Havannah on the 2.5th of February. No credit, however, 
is given to this report. 

Mr. Hose, having satisfactorily adjusted the affair respecting the Leo- 
pard and Chesapeak, with the American government, reached England, 
in the Slatira frigate, ou the 22d of April. 

By a Barbadoes paper, of the 8th of March, we are informed of the 
capture of the island of Mari^ahnte, ou the 3d of that month, by the 
Cerberus, Circe, and Camilla frigates, and Express brig, under the 
command of Captain Selby The island was taken by surprise, and no 
serious resistance was attempted. Two hundred and fifty stand of arms, 
and about one hundred an4 fifty barrels of gunpowder, fell into the 
hands of the captors. 

Mari^alaiite is an island in the West Indies, discovered by Christopher 
Columbus, in the year 1493, of a circular form, and fourteen leagues uv 
circumference It was first settled bj the French in the 'year 1647, from 
whom it was twice taken by the Dutch ; in the year 1691, it was taken, 
by the English, and again in the year 1759, but restored to the French 
in the year 1763- This island abounds with tobacco, and contains a great 
many grottos, as also several rivers and ponds of fresh water. Along 
the eastern shore run high rocks, which afford shelter to vast numbers 
of tropic birds. The western shore is fiat, and tlic ground in general 
proper for cultivation. At the time of its last redaction by the British 
arms, one thousand hogsheads of sugar were manufactured yearly. 
Long. 61. 0. VV. Greenwich, lat. 16- N. 

At the date of the latest accounts from our squadron ofFLisboh, it was 
hourly expected that the "Russian fleet would attempt to put to sea, in 
consequence of the great scarcity of provisions. Bread was 16d. per Ib. 
and meat 8d. Buonaparie was endeavouring to raise 10,000,0001. in 
Portugal. The enemy's force in the Tagus consisted of nine sail of the 
tone, two frigates, and three brigs. The British squadron was amply 
supplied with water and provisions 

A complete revolution has been effected in Spain; the King having 
abdicated his throne, in favour of his son, the Prince of Asiurias. Whe- 
ther this event has been produced by the populace, or by I i.e agency of 
Buonaparte, is yet unknown. The latter is the more probable. 

Sir Edward Pellew lias proceeded on an expedition against Batavia. 

On the 7th of April, Captain Rainier, of l,<c Diadem, attended at the 
Admiralty, and reported that no intelligence mid been received of the 
Blenheim or the Java.. 

The Madras Courier of October 21, states, that Capt. Troubridge, in his 
Majesty's frigate Greyhound, hod arrived at tho isle of France, under a flag 
of truce, to inquire after the fate of the Blenheim and Java; that his II jg 
had been respecter) by General L)e Cn?, who unable to afford him any fur- 
ther intelligence <>'' thi ge 'hips, save that eneril report stnted them to ha\e 
foundered off Madaca^'car, gave him an order, addressed to all persons tinner 
the domination of the French government, directing them to impart to 
Captain Troubriri^e all they roiirht know conceniinu tiio vessels, and to 
afford him every facility during the continuance of his cruise in search of 
fijs father. 



334 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YLAR, 1808. 

Imperial parliament. 

HOUSE OF LORDS. 

TUESDAY, MARCH 22. 

IT ORD LAUDERDALE, in a speech of considerable length, argued 
jLJ against the principles on which the Orders in Council had issued : 
and contended, that they would ultimately destroy our commeaial in- 
terests with America, and the general prosperity of the country. He 
concluded by moving eight resolutions, directed against the justice and 
policy of the Orders in Council, as tiiey appeared to his lordship to dis- 
tress the commercial interest of this country, and as they seemed cal- 
culated to depress our character in the estimation o; cnilised nations. 

On a division, there appeared in favour of his lordship's resolutions, 21 ; 
against them, 56. 

MONDAY, MARCH 28. 

Tho Orders in Council Bill, having been passed on the 25th, received 
the royal assent. 

TUESDAY, MARCH 29. 

Lord Holland entered on a discussion of the general policy of the Orders 
in Council ; <m.l concladed with moving five resolutions, tending to throw 
blame upon the present ministry. 

Lords IVcxtmnreland and Harckesbury defended their conduct, and 
the expediency of the measures they had adopted. 

Lords Durti'et/, Auckland, and Lauderdale condemned them, as pre- 
judicial to the true interests of the country. 

Oi a division, the proposed resolutions were negatived by 53 against 25. 

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 6. 

Lord Gre.iiviUe gave notice, that he should move, on some day after 
die recess, the repeal of the Orders in Council BH1. 

THURSDAY, APRIL 7. 

The Bark Prohibition Exportation Bill was read a third time and passed. 

FRIDAY, APRIL 8. 

Tbr> Cotton Prohibition Exportation Bill was read a third time and 

p'.issud. 

MONDAY, APRIL 11. 

LnH GrmviUr presented a petition, signed by many respectable Catho- 
lic> of Iri'umd, similar to the Catholics' petition formerly presented. It 
^as unltTC'i to lie on the table, and to be taken into consideration on 
the JMh .M:r-. 

Tt'FSDAY, APRIL 12. 

Thr ])ukc of Cumberland presented a petition from the Mayor and 
Corponmon of Dublin, against the Catholic petition presented on the 
preceding day. Ordered to lie on the table. 

THURSDAY, APRIL 14. 

The tollo-ving bills received the royal assent by commission : 
Tiit; Corton Wool Exportation Prohibition Bill, the Irish EaFt India 
Ti.iit !;il!, the Jesuit's Biirk Exportatiou Prohibition Bill, the Irish Bark 
and \\ tMi !Ap,jiuu.ion Prohibition Bill, and the Orders in Council Indem- 
nify bill. 

,\ilj'i::ri!^d, for the holidays, to this day fortnight. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE UtESF.NT TEAR, 1808. 335 

HOUSE OF COMMONS. 

MONDAY, MARCH 21. 

Mr. Sharpe, after a long speech, moved, " That an address be pre- 
sented to his Majesty, acquainting him, that the house had taken into 
their consideration the papers relating to the expedition to Copenhagen, 
and that they haii found them iusuiiicient for the justification of ministers 
with regard to that measure." 

Mr. Stuart Wort In/, it) reply, observed, that should the present reso- 
lution be negatived, he should then move another, the purport of which 
was, "to approve of the measures which ministers had adopted." After 
a der,ate of great length, the House divided on Mr. Sharpens motion. 
Ayes 64 Noes 224. Majority 160. 

Mr. S. W&rttcy then moved a vote of the House, approving of the 
conduct of ministers respecting the Copenhagen expedition. The previous 
question was moved on this resolution, and negatived. 

The House then divided on the original motion. Noes 61 Ayes 316. 
Majority 155. 

TUESDAY, MARCH 11. 

Sir C- M. Pole moved various resolutions relative to the charter and 
management of Greenwich Hospital, which, with certain modification* 
suggested by Mr. Perceval, were agreed to. 

MONDAY, MARCH 28. 

On the motion of Sir C. Pole, a return was ordered of the offices under 
the Governor of ttie Royal Naval Asylum, and names of the persons 
employed therein. 

TUL-SDAY, MARCH 29. 

Lord Folkestone, observed, that, however justifiable our conduct to 
Denmark might be, he co-.dd not consider it an act of justice to retain 
possession of her fleet longer than the present hostile state of affairs 
demanded it; he therefore moved an address to his Majesty expressive 
of that opinion. 

Mr. S.-Thornton replied; when, after a debate of some length, the 
House divided. For the motion 44 Against it 105. 

MONDAY, APRIL 4. 

Mr. Taylor deferred his motion on the affair of the Dardanelles, till 
the 9th of May. 

THURSDAY, APRIL 4. 

The Rev. Mr. Morgan, secretary to the Royal Naval Asylum, presented 
some accounts -repeating that institution. Ordered to be printed. 

FRIDAY, APRIL 8. 

In a committee of supply, the sum of 30,0001. was moved for, towards 
carrying on the works of the Naval Asylum. 

Sir C. Pole took occasion to make many pointed observations on the 
establishment, and suggested the necessity of having an estimate . of the 
expence of the building. 

Mr. Pcrcevtil admitted the propriety of the suggestion ; and 

Sir J. Newport thought it sufficient to grant 50001. for the present 
for caryingon the building. This was agreed to. 

MONDAY, APRIL 11. 

Mr. Morgan presented at the bar certain estimates of the expences of 
the buildings and repairs of the Royal Naval Asylum. Ordered to lie on 
the table. 

Mr. Rose moved for estimates of the monies required for buildings and, 
repairs of the Naval Asylum, for the year ending 5th of May, 1809. 
Ordered. 

10 



336 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 

Sir C. Pole rose, and made his promised motion respecting that insti- 
tution ; and after various animadversions OH tiie appointment and extra- 
vagant salary of Dr. Clarke, lie concluded by moviiig, 

" That this House are of opinion, tiiat the appointment of qualified 
persons, who had served in the marine or naval service, to lioid offices 
and employments in the Royal Naval Asylum, would ho highly advan- 
tageous to the said institution, and calculated to les>en considerably the 
public expenditure in support of tlic sjinc."- 

Mr. Rose defended the appointment of Dr. Clarke; and was replied to 
by Sir f. Pofe; when the House divided: for the previous question, 
71 ; against it, 46:- -majority against the original motion, 25. 

Mr. Luakington moved for various papers respecting Sir H. Pophain 
and the ship fctrusco. Agreed to.* 

Mr. Calm-aft gave notice, that as the Kochefort papers were on the 
table, he would bring forward his motiou on the- 3d or 4th of May. 

TUESPAY, APRIL 12. 

Mr. Crnltan brought up a petition, signed by a very great number of 
Ho man Catholics in Ireland, praying for the removal of certain dis- 
abilities under which they laboured. The lion, member expressed his 
intention of moving that the petition should be taken into consideration 
on Ihe KK!I of May; but in consequence of certain informalities, he 
a- reed to withdraw it for the present, and to bring it forward again after 
the rece.ss. 

THURSDAY, AmiL 14. 

Adjourned for the holidays, to the 26th of the mouth. 



on 

Copied vcrbaliin from the Los DON GJZLTTE. 

AIiMniALTY OFFICE, APKIT, 5, 1808. 

Lxtrnrt of ,i !(!. T from I'ice-tfdiniraJ Whilshed, to the If on. JV. W. Pule, 

tint ft! mi I/nurd his Majesty's ship Trent, in Cork Harbour ', the 29/A of. 

M :.'!(!, 1HW. 

!' p : r:isf-;i to acquaint the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 
* ti!..t ins Majesty's ship Dryad arrived this day with a French pri- 
\ahvr v !'.;<:;> she captured, as stated in Captain Drummoiid's letter to 
UK', ;i c"p\ of which I have the honour to inclose. 

Dry nd, et Sea, March 22, 1808. 

1 have grcal satisfaction in reporting to you the capture of the French 
IHL', ,iri\ alt or I'cunair, by his Majesty's ship under my command, in lat. 
47 <!<. N. Kiid long. 1 1 deg. VV. *he has ports for eighteen guns, but 
i.uly mounts twelve six pounder*, and two twelve-pounder carronades; 
SUM,'.! from iioimleauxon the 101!'. instant, with a complement ofninely- 
iivi- men, i! ; !;;!! of which are Danes. She is a new vessel, and was on 
h.-r iirst .. : i:is-f ; coppered, sails very fast, and complete, with provisions 
yiid sicn > ioi- three months. The only capture she has made is a Portu- 
guese ^hoo'.kT bound to Cork, laden with salt. 

I am, &c. 

(Signed) ADAM DRUMMOXD. 

Vice-admirsl K'J^i^n-r?, $c. $c. &,c. Cork. 

* Vide page 312. 



* 

NAVAL HISTORY OP THE FR.ESENT YEAR, 1 SOSt 337 

APRIL 9. 
Extract of a letter from Rear-admiral Fashon,to the Hon. TV. TV. Pole, 

dated on board Ins Majesty's ship Te.re!, the 2d instant. 
I have to request yon will he pleased to acquaint the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Admiralty of the arrival here, last night, of his Majesty's 
sloop Ringdove, from a cruise to the northward ; and herewith I inclose 
a letter which I have received from Lieutenant George Peak, her acting 
commander, {riving an account of the capture of the Danish privateer 
brig Forden Shieold, Michael Goeff', commander, of one hundred and 
ninety tons burthen, pierced for fourteen guns, but had only ten long 
six-pounders mounted, with a complement of sixty-two men ; out four 
hours from Bergen, and had made live captures daring former cruises, v 

Ilis Majesty's sloop Ringdove, Leilh Roads, 
SIR, 2rf April, 1S08. 

I have the honour to acquaint you, that, in pursuance of the informa- 
tion I received at Balta sound, mentioned in my letter to you dated the 
29th ult. a copy of which is inclosed, respecting two privateers being 
seen off Shetland in possession of a sloop, supposed to he the Hope of 
Leith, I instantly weighed, and stood under all sail for Bergen. On the 
following day, at haif past three P.M. being in latitude 60 deg. 50 min. 
N. and longitude 3 deg. 30 min. .. Bergen bearing east, distance thir- 
teen leagues, and blowing heavy gales from the north by east, I have 
the satisfaction to acquaint you, that we saw a sail steering towards us. 
On nearing her, 1 made the private signals, supposing her to be one of 
our own cruisers ; she immediately hoisted Danish colours, and endea- 
voured to effect her escape. I wore, and soon closed with her to lee- 
ward; and although i repeatedly ordered him to shorten sail, and heave 
to, he, trusting to superior sailing, obstinately refused, which obliged me 
to fire a few shot at her, the last of which unfortunately killed one man 
and wounded two; she then surrendered; but in consequence of the 
heavy sea I could not get the prisoners on hoard till the following morn- 
ing. She proves to be the Forden Shieold, pierced for fourteen guns, 
and mounting ten ; she had on board sixty-two men, and was four hours 
from Bergen; she is copper-bottomed, well found, sails remarkably fast, 
and is four years old ; she has beeia in commission four months, and, in 
that time, made five captures, and would probably have proved a great 
pest to our trade had she not been taken. I am, &c. 

(Signed) GEO. PEAK, Acting Com. 

Rear-admiral Vashon, Leith. 

APRIL 12. 

Copy ef a fetter from Admiral Montagu, to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated 

on loard the Royal William, at Spithead, the 1 llh instant. 
SIR, 

Be pleased to lay before the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
the inclosed letter from Captain the Hon. D. P. Bouverie, of his 
Majesty's ship Medusa, stating his having, on the morning of the 4th. 
instant, fallen in with and captured 1'Actif, French lugger privateer. 
I have the honour to be, &c. GEO. MONTAGU. 

His Majesty's ship Medusa, Dunnose N. JV. 

SIR, 11 leagues, April 4, 1808. 

I have the honour to inform you, that I have this morning captured 

1'Actif, lugger privateer, of Dieppe, of fourteen guns. There were two 

other French lugger privateers in sight at the time, one of which being 

very near to leeward of us, I have every reason to expect we should have 

taken, but that it was necessary to examine four merchant vessels, 

among which the privateers were when we first saw them : one of these, 

ok XIX, x x 



333 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE rKF-SENT YEAR, 1808. 

a coasting sloop, we retook ;. the others hail not been boarded by llitr 
privateers. 

The three privateers left Cherburgh together yesterday morning ; and 
last night tool; a coasting sloop besides the one above-mentioned; which 
we have not seen. L'Actif, as it appears by her log-book, has made but 
one capture, a collier brigv tlnring her different cruises in the Channel,, 
since her first tit out iu lao beginning of December last. 

1 am r &c. 

(Signed} 1). P. BOUVEIUE. 

To George Montygu, Esq. Admiral of the 
White, 6,c. <$c. $c. 

APRIL 19. 

Copy of a letter from Captain Parker, of fits Mnjestr/'s ship Stately, to the 
Ihn. W' W. Pole, dated off Zealand* Oddc, March 25, 1808. 

Inclosed I transmit trvyoa, for the information of my Lords Commission- 
ers of the admiralty, a copy of mv letter to- Vice-admiral Ru-sell, acquaint- 
ing him with the capture and destruction of the Danisjj ship* of the line 
Prince Christian.. Frederick, of seventy-four gnns, on the night of the 22d of 
ijlarch. I have the honour to be, c:c. 

(Signed) GEORGE PARKER. 

Mis Majesty's ship Stalely, off' Zca lands 

SIP., Oddc, 25th March, 1808. 

Tt i-, with much satisfaction P htwe the honour to acquaint jou with th 
capture nnd destruction of the Danish ship of the line Prince Christian 
]'r< denck, of seventy-four guns. 

Proceeding towards the Great Belt, in company with his Majesty's ship- 
Xa.isau, at tuo P. M. an the 22(1 instant, we observed a strange sail; and 
the- s:nal being mr.de to chase, at four P. M. Greenall, on the coast of 
Jutland benring NVW. by N. distant ten miles, we discovered that it was an 
( in in y ; and at live P.M. ascertained thechase. to bea.Danish ship of the line. 
I mm saw that it was evidently the intention of the enemy to run his ship 
on shore; and as the night. w?.s approaching he might hope that, in our 
p'lrsait of him in the dark, we would have, the same fate. This,. I hava 
since l.een assured, was his design. At forty-five minutes past seven P. M. 
Captain Campbell, in the Nassau, got up with the enemy, and commenced 
the action, and in a few minutes after the Stately closed : a running fight 
\v;\- now maintained for a considerable time, the enemy fighting with great 
oi.stinacy, until we succeeded in getting very near, and gave some close 
broad -ides, on which he struck at about half past nine P. M. At this. 
moment t!:c ships were within two cables' length of the shore of Zealand; 
.Tore mv first lieutenant, who took possession of the Danish ship, could 
\--ay IKT anchor, she grounded. Fortunately this ship and the Nassau 
Jit up iH';.r to her. During the remaining part of the night we were 
\i d in taking out the prisoners; and at day-light of the 23d it was 
1 i'apo--i't)le to get the captured ship afloat, the wind blowing strong on 
,',av, and that therefore the only course I could follow was to de- 
bt r. The necessity for doing this, and for placing our own ships out 
ii<ier, soon became apparent, as the Danes were preparing their artillery - 
i til*:- coast, and as our ships were at anchor only two cables' length from 
<-'. beach, they \v</uld have done us great injury. After removing the 
NoiKTs and wounded, in doing which we experienced much difficulty 
'.nn tin: v . ind blowing strong, and a good deal of sea running, the enemy's 
,n was -i i on lire in the evening of the '23d, and in a short time blew up. 
1 ,,m happy to say our loss has been small. It is trifling indeed when 
,'iiinn'i with the enemy, where the slaughter was great, he having fifty~ 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 339 

five killed and eighty-eight wounded. We have however received consi- 
derable damage in our mats and rinsing. 

The Prince Christian Frederick was a very fine ship, copper-bolted, com- 
manded by Captain Jayson, with a complement of six hundred and twenty 
men, and had five hundred and seventy-six on boacd. 

I feel much indebted to Captain Campbell for his zeal and ability in the 
commencement and during the action, and to the officers, ship's company, 
and royal marines of his ship. JYI v warmest gratitude and praise is due to 
the Officers -and seamen, and the officer* and privates of royal marines, of 
this ship, for their brave and gallant conduct during the action, 'displaying 
throughout the cool intrepidity of British sex men-. The same spirit ani- 
mated both snips. 

I beg leave to recommend IF. tire strongest manner to the patronage of my 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, Mr. David Sloan, my firsc lieute- 
nant, to whom I am greatly indebted, not only for his brave and spirited 
conduct in the action, but also for bis unwearied exertion in removing ;he 
prisoners and wounded from the Danish ship, and setting heron fire. lie 
possesses, in an euiimcnt degree, every qu*.iity requisite to form the officer 
and seaman. 

Here with you will receive a return of the killed and wounded. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed.) GEORGE PARKER. 

To Vice Admiral Russcl, $i~ 

List of the Killed and Wounded. 

Stalely. 2 seamen, 1 2 marines killed ; 26 seamen, 2 marines, wounded. 
Total'32. 

Nassau.- 1 seaman, killed; 11 seamen, 5 marines, wounded; \ seaman, 
aiissing. Total 17. 

Officers \Vonndfd. 

Sta'eli/. Lieutenant Cole, slightly: Mr. Lemon, boatswain, severely; 
Mr. Davis, mastcr's-mate, slightly. 

Nassau. Mr. Edward j. Johnson, volunteer 1st class, slightly. 

(Signed) G. PARKER. 

APRIL 19- 

'Copy of a lellerfrom Rear-admiral Sir Edward Pcffeis:, Bart, lo Wil'ltim 
Marsden, Esq. dated on board his JUajetty 1 * ship Culloden, Madras 
iiouds, October IS, 1807, 

SIR, 

I have the honour to transmit to you, to belaid before the Right 
Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, a letter from 
Captain l-'leetwood i'ellew, of his Majesty's ship Psyche, slating the cap- 
ture of the Dutch corvette ship Sclpio, of twenty-four guns, in Samaran 
bay, in the island of Java, on the 31st August last, together with the 
Dutch armed brig Ceres, of twelve guns, a; - .d a large merchant ship 
wider their convoy from Batavia, which has since arrived in safely at 
Madras. 

1 have only to express my entire satisfaction at the judicious conduct 
of Captain. Fleehvood Pelk-w on that occasion. 

1 have tiie honour to be, &c. 

EDWARD PET, LEW. 

His Majesty's ship Psyrlie, nl >Va, off Java, 

MR, September*, isoi. 

1 have ihft honour to acquaint you, that pn-ccedhrg in the cxecu'ion 

ef your orders of the 18th of June last, his M::jrsly"s sliipx IMT!.;- ;.' 

Caroline, on the Ui'th of August, cecounoitred the port of bourajbajq. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1 80S. 



by a ship from Hatavia (captured the following day) ascertained tr.e 
ation of the enemy's line ot battleships, which arc still inactive there, 



and 

situation 

and represented as being in too bad a state to admit of repair. 

As our success in a great measure depended on the intelligence the 
enemy might receive ofoi-r appenrance on the coast, v.ol a moment v as 
lost in proceeding to Surnarary, off which port tlie Vsyche was enabled 
to anchor at midnight, the Caroline having previously parted company 
in chase by signal. At day-light 1 weighed acd stood into {he road, when 
the boats were despatched, under the direction of Lieutenant Kersleman, 
assisted by Mr. Charles f'uiJivnti, to attack and bring out the enemy's 
vessels there: this service was completely effected, in a manner highly 
creditable to the officers and men employed on it; the boats having 
taken possession of, and loved out from under a heavy lire from the 
batteries, an armed schooner of eight guns, and a large merchant brig. 
The early part of the morning had discovered to ns two ships and a hri,^ 
at anchor outside, and from one of them having the appearance of a ship 
of v.ar, not a doubt was to be.enterlained of their being enemies. To 
be rends to take advantage of the first setting in of I he sea breeze, the 
onplured vessels were destroyed, and before noon his Majesty's ship vrns 
clear of the harbour in chase of the enemy, whose vessels had weighed 
ami stood to sea. 

1 seen had the satisfaction of finding that the good sailing of his 
'.Majesty's ship afforded ire a fair prospect of closing with the ship of 
war; and at halt past three, finding us fast coming up with them, they 
all bore up, and ran on shore about nine miles to the westward of f-ama- 
rurv, opening, at the same time, a well directed fire on us, v. hich,on our 
anchoring in lliree fathoms water, was very smartly returned, though 
apparent !\ without much success; I he shoal v>ater prevented my closing 
as iHur as 1 wished. In a few minutes Ihe armed ship struck ; and at 
half past lour RM. as 1 was preparing to hoist the hoats out with an 
iiilei'tion to attempt taking possession by boarding, the ship of war sur- 
rendered ; ihc- brig shortly afterwards fired a broadside, and hauled down 
her o'iuurs. On hc-ir.g hoarded, they proved to he the Kesolulic armed 
liici -d.;;r.t siiip, of TOO tons, with a valuable cargo, having on board the 
colours and staff of the 23d Furopcan battalion in the J.uich service ; 
the Ceres, a remarkably fine brig, in the Dutch Company's service, of 
tncive JM::I.S and sc\en!y men, a month from lialavia, under the convoy 
oi the ^cipio corvette, of twenty four guns and one hundred and. lift y 
rue: 1 .-, 'lie hiitrr had sustained very considerable damage, many shot 
liming passed through the.hull, her rigging milch cut, and her com- 
!;:>, :<'rr, A'o;is;e;ir Carrcge, mortally wounded. 

; ';';[>> io add, tl:at they v.eie all got afloat the same night wilh- 
<-'-. '.' ' , i \ the persevering aciivily of my officers and men. 

!.;!, ihe Caroline not lia\ ing joined, and the ship's company 

;: : y reduced by the absence of three officers and fifty men in 

i v, ,>s iiiduced to accede to a proposal made by the governor of 

;;-,-ar\ !< r rJloning tlie prisoners to go on shore, the officers figuiug 

-'-eir ]' .-; , ;-.i (i preper receipts given for Ihe soldiers and seamen. 

I cai (( o highly praise the zeal and activity displayed by the ofTVt-ni 
;"K! n'.e;i i t : a->e the honour to command on the whole* of this sen ire;. 
;.iid i ri'-rei il.al the force of Ihe enemy did not afford a fuller scope to 

1 have the honour to be, &c. 

FLEETWOOD B. R. PE'LLEW. 

/'- ;'..: ,'!?/ Sir F.cKard Pe Heir, Ji/r/. 
--:'. -.iriii fj' tin 1 Hctf, Commander in 

'.,'-, c. vSc 1 . t-.c. .East Jnu'ics. 



NAVAL HISTOUY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1S08. 341 

APRIL 26. 

Cr>pi; of a letter from Pettr Rainier, Esq. Captain of his Majesty's ship the 
Caroline, ttdartued lo Ri-iir a'.tniiriil Sir Tlmmus Troubridiie, Bart, dated 
tfic!9tk of October, 1806, a duplicate of which has been transmitted by 
Cup tat /t Rainier to the Hon. W .W Pole. 

His Majesty's ship Caroline, off Batavia, 
SIR, October 19, 1806. 

After putting tlie former part of your orders into execution, I pro- 
ceeded to' Anger Point, where I obtained information that the enemy's line 
of battle ships were ;ill to the castward- 

On ti;e morning of the loth instant, I captured a small brig from Bantam, 
from whom I learnt that the Phcenix, a Dutch frigate, of 36 guns, was un- 
dergoing repairs at Omust; it appearing to me that she might be brought 
out, I was making the best of my way there, when between Middleby and 
Amsterdam islands, 1 discovered two men of war brigs at anchor, one of 
which I captured, the other made her escape bv being too close in shore for 
us to pursue her; the captured brig was the Zeerop, of fourteen guns, com- 
manded by Captain Grout. Whilst taking possession of her, I observed the 
Phcenix slip from Omust and run for Batavia Road. From the olhcers of 
the Zeerop we gained intelligence, that the Maria, a Dutch frigate, was 
lying in the roads, manned from the shore, being aware of our approach. 
A short time after I observed her, and likewise the William sloop of war ? 
with the brig that before escaped us. 

As I distinctly made out the frigate to be the largest ship in the road, I 
ran for her with springs on both cables ; the enemy commenced tiring at us 
as soon as we were within gun-shot, which was not returned till we came as 
close as the wind would allow us, which was within half-pistol-shot, when 
xve opened our tire. The action continued about half an hour, when the enemy 
hauled down their colours; on boarding, she proved to be the Dutch Repub- 
lican frigate Maria Reygersbergen, of thirty-six guns, eighteen-pounders 
on the main-deck*, and two hundred and seventy men, commanded by Cap- 
tain Jager (second in command). The Maria was launched in 1800, and is 
a fast sailing siiip. We had to encounter besides the frigate, the William, 
of 20 guns, Patriot of 18, and Zeeplong of 14 guns, with several gun- boats ; 
and there were thirty gun-boats lying in sbore, which did not attempt to come 
out. I beg leave to state, that when the action commenced we had short of 
complement, by men away in prizes, sick at hospitals, &c. 57 in -number. 

I am sorry to say that it was not in my power to capture either the 
Phu-nix, William, Patriot, or Zeeplong brig, as bis Majesty's ship Caroline 
and the Maria were after the action in four fathoms water, and surrounded 
by many dangerous shoals. 

I anchored both ships in the offing to repair damages. Whilst running 
out of the roads I observed the Phcenix, with the vessels above mentioned, 
and all the Dutch merchant ships run on shore. 

As the first brig I captured was of little value, and the crew very sickly, I 
put as many of the prisoners on board of her as she could carry, and most 
of the officers, and sent them to Batavia on their parole, after running with- 
out the islands. 

I have sent Mr. Lemage, my first lieutenant, in charge of the Mnria, 
whose conduct during the action I was fully satisfied with. And when the 
superior force is considered that was opposed to us, and the great loss the 
enemy have sustained, Itrust I may be permitted to recommend Lieutenant 
Cressy, who commanded on the main-deck, with acting Lieutenants Shink 
and Pcdder, their conduct meeting my highest approbation. 

I cannot speak too highly of Mr. Bain, the master, in laying me alongside 
the Maria, and whose accurate knowledge of the seas enabled me to take 
the ship into Batavia. The conduct of the warrant and petty otiicers was 
much to my satisfaction, us was the brave and steady behaviour of the sea- 
men and marines. 



NAVAT. HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAH, 18O8. 

I herewith inclose a list of our killed and wounded, with the disposition of 
the enemy's squadron in these seas, and a list of ships taken and run ou 
shore by his Majesty's ship under my command. 

I have the honour to be, ike, 

To ftis Excellency Rear-admiral Sir rhomtts P. RANILR. 

Trottbridge, ]$art.$c. Eust Indies. 

P. S. I have not been able to get a correct account of the kill* d and 
wounded on board the prize, but from the surgeon's report they had fifty 
killed and wounded. 

List of Killed and Wounded. 

Killed. John Lawson, seaman; William Williams, ditto; William 
Ricketts, ditto; four Dutch prisoners who ^ ere in the hold. 

Wounded dangerously, since drad. 

Lieutenant Williams, royal marines; William Gibbs, seaman; William 
I/)ngmore, ditto; John Terryi, ditto; Daniel Sulivan, ditto; Edward 
Barnes, marine. '^ '.: 

Wounded slightly. 

Thomas Pearson, seaman; W. M. Thomas, ditto; Jasper Howe, ditto; 
laniard Maxwell, ditto; John Lanre, ditto; Michael M'Cormac, ditto; 
John Morrison, ditto; Alexander Creighlon, ditto; Thomas Robinson, 
<iitto; Richard Brownsden, ditto; William Isby, ditto; John Lattrie, 
ditto. P. RAINIER, 

List of T)ulch ships taken and run. on shore at K(ifflvia,on the \8th of October, 

loOO, hi/ his Majcsti/s ship Caroline. 

/(crop, fourteen guns, Captain GroQX, taken ; Maria Reygersberg*ft, 
Cunnnodcr Jnger, ditto; Phoenix, thirty-six guns, Captain Vandei sutler, run 
n shore ; Maria Wilhclmina, six guus, ditto ; William, twenty ijuns, Captain 
riuci>, (iitt:>; Patriot, eigliteeii guns, ditto; Zeeplong, fourteen "tins, ditto; 
Seven merchant ships. P. RAINIER 

ti fc. frrjrom Vice-admiral the Right Hon. Lord Co!lingn>ood t to the 
IV. ti". Po!f, dated on board his Majesty's ship Ocean, at Syracuse, 



i'.n'iu'c an:! Grasshopper were stationed, in December last, off 

to watch the Spanish squadron, and when Captain Scarle was 

the look-out, he fell in with throe Spanish vessels of war, di- 

:s lofer fa copy of which I enclose); and notwithstanding the 

)!-ity (;f tiiL'ir co'iibined force, lie attacked and took the largest 

t\\o others making their escape. 

ir.nnciUiun I have great pleasure in making known to their lord- 
iii <('L- in it ;i;i instance pf that zeal and enterprise which marks 
onduct ot Captain Searle. I have the honour to be, ike. 

(Signed) , . COLLING WOOD. 

His Majesty $ shi/> Grasshopper, off 

Carthalena, IZ/.h Dec. 1807. 

nrqii^int yon, thnt yesterday, when looking out off Cape Palos, 

your <ii; i ctiDiis, 1 discovered u numbfr of the enemy's ves^i-ls 

!;.-ii'r tiic caj'i- : his Catholic Majesty's brig of war St. Joseph, 

sunders, manned with ninrty-nine men, and commanded by 

I'orrcs Tcnicnto de Naviro, got under weigh, and came 

Ins .Majcstv's sloop Grashhopj)er, under my command, 

I iiy i!ic two vessels of war, belonging to his Catholic Majesty, 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE mr^T-N'T YEAR, 1808. 343 

named in the margin;* the St. Joseph I brought to clo*e action, when, 
after 15 minutes resistance, she struck her colours, and nin on shore, 
upon which I anchored, and with the greatest exertions of the officers 
and ship's company, succeeded in getting her oft'; the other two vessels 
bore up and made all sail tVom us the moment the brig struck, or I have 
no doubt \vc should have captured the whole of them. 

J beg to observe, that I received every assistance possible from Lieu- 
tenant Cornelius Wellis, whose good conduct on th;s and every other 
occasion merit- my warmest thanks ; the conduct of all the officers and 
men gave me great satisfaction. 

In tins affair we haj two men severely wounded : the loss of the enemy 
I could not ascertain, as a number of them jumped overboard, and I 
fear a great many of them were dro/vned. 

The St. Joseph is only six years old, is copper-fastened, well found in 
every respect, sails remarkably fast, is pierced for sixteen uns, is one 
hundred aad forty-five tons burthen, and in my opinion wdil calculated 
for his Majesty's service. 

I have the the honour to be, &o. 

(Signed) ,T. SEARLE, Cajrt. 

To Sir Thomas Lirin^s'one, Barf. Captain 

of Hh Md'retti/'g Sfti[> Jtenomfrttt t and 

senior Officer at Curtita^ena. 

APRIL 26. 

Extract of a Idler front Rear- Admiral Purvis to Vice- Admiral the Right 
Han. Lord CoUingwoodf dated vn board His Majesty's ship Alias, off 
Cadiz, Aprils, Io08. 

Having directed the captains of the Mercury and Grasshopper to put 
themselves under the orders of Captain Maxwell, of the Alceite, off the 
light-house, until Sir John Gore, in the Revenge, with the Excellent, 
should return to that station, it appears by Captain Maxwell's letter to me 
of the 4th inst. that a large convoy of the enemy, was discovered puslung 
for Cadiz from the northward, under the protection of about twenty gtiu- 
boats, and a numerous train of flying artillery on the beach. At three 
P. M. the convoy being oil Rota, Captain Maxwell, with his little squadron, 
attacked them, and after having destroyed two of their gun-boats, driven 
the others away, and silenced the batteries at Rota, they captured scvea 
of the convoy, and drove many of them ashore in the surf. Captain 
Maxwell gives Captain Searle the credit of silencing the batteries at Rota, 
and speaks of him in terms of high praise and admiration for his gallant 
behaviour and skilful management in the midst of slioals, driving tlic eivemv 
from their guns with his grape-shot, and keeping a division of the gui.- 
boats in check at the same time, \vlach had come oat from Cadiz to assist 
the others engaged by the Alceste and Mercury. Captain Maxwell 
speaks of his officers and men, as well as of those belonging to the Mercury 
and Grasshopper, in exalted terms for their bravtry and cool behaviour., 
and particularizes ttie names of many officers, which your lordship will 
see in the copy of his letter, which I have the honour herewith to enclose. 

His Mujes.ty's ship Alceslc, in-shoj'c 9 

IR , off Cadiz, April*, 1808. 

I have the honour to inform you, that when at anchor to-day with his 
Majesty's shin Mercury, and Grasshopper brig, St. Sebastian's lighthouse 

St. Medusa Mcstrio, ten twenty- four-pounder*, and seventy-seven mea; 
St. Aiijle Mestrio, tight twenty-four-poundeis, and fifty men, 



344 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PHESENT YEAR, 1808. 

S. E. distant three miles, wind W. S. W. a large convoy of the enemy was 
discovered coming close along shore from the northward, under the pro- 
tection of about twenty gun-boats, and a numerous tram of flying artillery 
on the I/each. At three P. M. I made thq signal to weigh, ami attack the 
convoy, and stood directly in for the body of them, then oil' the town of 
Rota; at four, the enemy's shot and shells from the nun-boats and bat- 
teries going far over us, his Majesty's ships opened their lire, w Inch was 
kept up with great vivacity until half-past six, when we .had taken seven- 
of the convoy, and drove a great many others 01. shore on the surf; 
compelled the gun-boats to retreat, which they did very reluctantly, and 
not until two of them were destroyed ; and actually silenced the batteries 
at Rota, which latter service was performed by the extraordinary gallantry 
and good conduct of Captain Scarle, in the Grasshopper, who kept in upon 
the shoal to the southward of the town so near as to drive the enemy from 
the guns with trrape from his thirty-two-pound carronades, and at the 
same time kept in check a division 'of gun-hoats that had come out from 
Cadiz to assist the others engaged by the Alceste and Mercury. It was 
n general cry in both ships, " Only look how nobly the brig behaves !" 
The situation of our little squadron was rather a critical one, tacking 
everv fifteen minutes close on the edge of the shoal, with the wind in, 
and frequently engaged both sides; in the heat of the action, the first 
lieutenant, .Mien Stewart, volunteered to board the convoy, it' I would 
give him the boats. I wag so struck with the gallantry of the offer, 
that I could not refrain from granting them, although attended with 
great risk. Tie '.vent, accompanied with Lieutenant Pipen and Lieutenant 
llawkv, of the royal marines, who most handsomely volunteered to go, 
as their party were chiefly employed working the ship; Mr. Arscott 
and Mr. buy, master's mates, Messrs. Parker, Adair, Crooker, M'Caul, 
and M'Lcan, midshipmen ; they were soon followed by the Mercury's 
boats, under the command of the First Lieutenant W. (). Ped, accom- 
panied by Lieutenant Gordon, and Lieutenant Whylock, Mr. Ducain, 
and Mr. M. R. Cummings, master's mates. The boats, led by Lieutenant 
Stewart, pushed on in the most gallant manner, boarded and brought 
out -wen Tartans from under the very muzzles of the enemy's guns, and 
from umkr tiic protection of the barges and pinnaces of the combined 
fleet, -unic'ii had, by that time, joined the gun-boats. 1 was greatly 
indebted to Lieutenants Ilickman and Jervoise (who both wished to go 
m the boa!-) for the spirited and well-directed fire they kept up from 
the mam-deck ; also to Mr. Westlake, the master, for his great attention 
to the steering and working the ship ; and I have much pleasure in adding, 
that the other officers, seamen, and marines, behaved with the utmost 
bravery an,l coolness. Captains Gordon and Searle .(whose gallantry and 
excellent conduct it might be presumption in an officer of my standing 
jii the service to comment upon) also report upon the great bravery 
and coolness of their respective officers, seamen, and marines. It is 
with much pleasure I have to add, the frigates have received no material 
damage ; the Mercurv, an anchor shot away, her sails and rigging cut, 
though not much ; our sails and rigging in the same way; but the Grass- 
hoj-pcr, I am >O:TV to say, is a great deal damaged in the hull, the main- 
toj.'ina^t .-hot through, shrouds, sails and running rigging cut almost to 
pit es ; she had one man mortally wounded, the gunner and two others 
wounded, but not severely. 

T!JC captured vessels are all loaded on government account for the 
arsenal at Cadi/ : and, 1 am happy to say, there is a very considerable 
quantity of valuable ship timber. 

10 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 345 

The zest of tliis little service was greatly heightened by being performed 
ia the mouth of Cadiz harbour, and in the teeth of eleven sail ci' the line. 
I have, &c. 

(Signed) .MURRAY MAXWELL. 

Jlcar-Aiimirc.l Partis, 8>Y. 

iZxlract of a letter f: urn Vice ad ml r a I Da errs, Conunander in chief of his 
21ujesty*s ahi,:s iu;d wsse/s ut Jamaica, t-o the IL-n, W. W. Pelt, dated on 
board the. Shark Pvr Kuyal, Wiit of February, IUC8. 

The Dccouvcrte cruising down the south side of St. Domingo, having 
been fortunate enough to fall in with some of the enemy's privateers, has 
captured one, :uicl destroyed another and her prize ; as much credit is 
due to Lieutenant Campbell for his activity, 1 enclose you a copy of his 
letters on the occasion for the information of the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty. 

His Majesty > ickooncr Dcrourcrte, Blue-hole Bay, 
sin, Hi. Domingo, Februaiy 8, 1808. 

I beg leave to acquaint you, that at one P.M. yesterday, the 7lh instant, 
\vhcn running down between Altavclia and the Main, I discovered three 
frail in this bay, which I soon found to be two schooners (enemy's cruisers) 
and an English ship, their prize; one of the former made her escape to 
windward ; after a running fire for a considerable time, I drove the other 
and the ship on shore; the hopes of recovering the ship induced me to 
anchor all night, and sound the bay, for the purpose of getting near her ia 
the morning, which I accomplished within musket-shot, when I found her 
in possession of the enemy, covered by small-arm men from the shore ; 
after considerable firing from the Decouverte, we drove the enemy out of 
the ship, and by a Hag of truce I demanded her and whatever prisoners 
might be on board the schooner, but was refused. Finding, from circum- 
stances, it impossible to get her off, I directed Mr. M'lntire, master of the 
Decouverte, with a detachment of small arm men, to set her, if possible, on 
fire, a service which he performed in a most handsome manner, under a 
very heavy fire from the enemy ; the privateer should have shared the same 
fate had we water to get near her, but she is perfectly lost, having bilged 
on tbe rocks; the ship was the Matilda, of Halifax, bound to Jamaica. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
Vice-admiral Dacres, <J-c. (Signed) COLIN CAMPBELL. 

His Majesty's schooner Decomerte, off St. Domingo, 
SIR, February 9, 1808. 

T have the honour to inform you, that I, this morning at daylight, discovered 
a schooner in Bottomless Cove, and, after a long chase, came up with her 
at three P.M. when I found her to be an enemy's cruiser : at hatf-past 
three we commenced action with her, which continued at half pistol-shot 
from her, for forty-five minutes, when the struck to his Majesty's schooner 
under my command. I mid her to be la Dorade from St. Domingo, com- 
manded by Monsieur Netly, mounting a long eighteen-pounder, two nines, 
and seventy-two men. The enemy's lo-'S has been considerable; they left 
us the distressing duty of committing seven of them to the deep after the 
action, and about the same number 1 find were thrown over during it: their 
loss appears to have been about fourteen kil ed, and,, three wounded. I am 
sorry to be under the necessity of annexing a list of wounded belonging to 
the Decouverte, most of them, I fear, dangerously; but, when I consider 
the obstinate resistance of the enemy, I think we are, on the 'whole, fortu- 
nate. Three of our guns were, dismounted the sacond round, ou the side we 

f2ab erfenm, Siol, XIX. Y Y 



S.46 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRK9ENT YEAH, 1808. 

engaged, which gave the enemy a great advantage, as well as a superiority of 
iforceover us. I feel much satisfaction in the capture of this vessel, as frorrt 
fast sailing, and the intrepidity of her crew, she might have done much 
mischief. I beg leave to express my highest approbation of the conduct of 
Mr. M'Itire, master of the Decouverte, on this occasion. Being sen^it/lc 
of ray over deficiency in writing briefly, I hope you will forgive my intruding 
so much on your time by such long letters. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) COLIN CAMPBELL. 

TD J. JR. Dacrcs, Esq. Vice-admiral of 
the White, Commander in Chief, 4c. 

A Lint of Men wounded. 

John Tsmay, boatswain's mate, dangerously; Matthias Voss, seaman, sup- 
posed mortally ; Benjamin Hodghersoa, seaman, dangerously ; James 
Johnson, seaman, ditto ; John Bro.vn (I) seaman, not dangerously; Moses 
Page, seaman, dangerously. 

Cain/ of a letter from Vice-admiral Dacres, to the Htm. W. W. Pole, dated 
on board the Shark, Port Royal, the '2li>t February, 1!>08. 

SIR, 

I have the honour to enclose, for the information of the Lords Com- 
i.iibsioiicrs of the Admiralty, a copy of two letters I have received from 
Captain Broughton, of the Mcleacer ; one reporting the capture of a felncca- 
riL'ijcd Spanish privateer by the boat^ the other a .Spanish letter of marque, 
wkli n cargo, by the ship I am, &c. 

J. R. DACRES. 

His Majesty'* ship Meleagcr, off St. Jago de Cuba, 
<-IR. 9th February t 1808. 

I beg leave to inform you, last night the barge cutter and jolly boat, with 
fortv-one men, under the command of Lieutenant Tupman, with Lieutenant 
>.winburn, and Lieutenant Denne, of the royal marines, boarded in a very 
callant manner, and captured without loss, le llenard, French felucca- 
rigged privateer, armed with one long si.vpoundcr, a large proportion of 
intiM<ei>, and forty-seven men, eighteen of whom jumped overboard, and 
v.vam for the shore. She was perfectly prepared, expecting to be attacked 
)v the boars of a man of war brig Unit chased her in the day. Le llenard 
i-iils very fast; had been twenty-seven days at sea, and, I am happy to say, 
-viili'nit makmu a capture. I have the honour to be, &c, 

(Signed) J. BHOUG1ITON, Captain. 

I ice-Admiral ]}acres, fyc. 

Ilia Majesty's ship Mclaiser, eighteen leagues westward 
SIR, (f Si Jago, 19/A February, 1808. 

i beg leave to inform you, this morning his Majesty's ship under my 
'oininand captured the Antelope, Spanish schooner letter of marque, pierced 
for fonrtcfi) gtm?, but mounting only one long eighteen-poumier in inid- 
>Lij)S, and lour sixes, with a complement of sixty-two men, from Cadiz, 
li'-und 10 \\ ra Cm/, la^t from St. Jago, which place she left yesterday 
evening, laden with dry goods, brandy, and wine. The Antelope is a very 
:'me vessel, sails well; the four six pounders were thrown overboard in the 
chn>o. I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) J. BROUGHTON, Capt. 

71' l~icc-ad";jr>'l Dacres, Arc, 

i ' 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 347 

of another letter jrom Vice-admiral Dacrcs to the Hon. W. W. Pole, 
dated on board the Veteran, Gth March, lo'OS. 

SIR, 

I enclose you, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, the copy of a letter 1 have received from Captain Coghlan, of 
the Elk, acquainting me of the capture of a French privateer. 

I am, sir, c. J. R. D ACRES. 

His Majesty" s 'or is Elk, Nassau, New Providence, 
SIR, February 18, 1808. 

1 have much pleasure in acquainting. you with the capture of the French 
schooner privateer Harlequin, Pctre Audio, commander, by this brig, in 
the Cuicos passage, on the 12th instant, carrying two carriage nuns ^:id 
a quantity of small arms, having on board 54 men, ton days from Uarracoa ; 
she had made one capture, an American ship, (under Swedish colours) 
from cape Francois, in the island of St. Domingo, to Philadelphia, with 
a cargo of coffee and sugar. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

JEli. COGIILAX. 
Vice Admiral Dacrcs, $c. Jamaica. 



Courts partial. 

OX the 9th of April, and by adjournment, on Monday the 1 1th, a court 
martial was held on board the Salvador del iVliuido, in llamoaze, for 
the trial of five mutineers of the Kdgar, viz. Henry Chesterfield, captain of 
the main-top, John Rowlands, boatswain's mate, and George Scarr, 
Abraham Davis, and Joseph Johnston, seamen. 

Rear admiral SLTTON, President. 

It appeared by the evidence of Lieutenant Campbell, that on the 28th 
of March last, when the ship lay in Cawsand Bay, he was acquainted, while 
in the ward-room, that the ship's company were assembling in a body on 
the quarter-deck; ongoing there they demanded with one voice, "Fresh 
piptain and officers," and some of them called out, " an answer and ito 
mutiny." Lieutenant Campbell, after remonstrating with them once or 
twice, was obliged to order the marines to be drawn up on the quarter- 
deck, and was ou the point of directing them to fire, when they thought lit 
to disperse. The five prisoners were seized and put in irons directly. 
In their defence, the petty otlicers.attcmpted to prove they were intimidated 
to go on the quarter-deck by the threats of the ship's company. Their 
sentence are as follows: Chesterfield to receive 700 lashes round the fleet, 
mid to be kept in solitary confinement two years; Kowhuid, oOO lashed; 
Scarr, 5CK) lashes, and one year's solitary confinement; and Davis and 
Johnston 200 lashes each. 

On Wednesday, 13th April, a court martial was held on board the Sal- 
vador del Mundo, at Plymouth, for the trial of Mr. James Young, sub- 
lieutenant of the Snapper schooner, on the following charges : - lst,inok 
ing in the galley with the people ; 2d, absenting himself without leave in a 
gale of wind, and returning in a state of intoxication, and for takiag and 
permitting liberties with the people, derogatory to the character of au 
wiiicer. After a full examination of the charges, the court adjudged Sub- 
lieutenant Young to be severely reprimanded, a,nd he was reprimanded 
accordingly. 



3-18 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 180, 

Demotions anU appointment^. 

Captain King is appointed to die Sirius, vice Prowsc ; Captain Dixcn is 
appointed to the Aurorn, vice Seymour; Captain R. Harward is appointed 
to command the Delphenen ; Captain R. Matson is appointed to command 
the Braave, prison sh'p. 

Captain James Brisbane is appointed to command the Belle Poule- 

Captain Sir Harry Bun-aril Ncal, Bart, is appointed to the Bombay, just 
launched at Deptford. 

Lieutenant Graham is appointed to be first of the Victory, Sir James 
Saumarez' flag-ship. 

Captain Dumaresq, of the Diomcde, is appointed to command the Vic- 
tory, vice Scucll. 

Captain George Hope, of the Pompt'e, is appointed to be captain of the 
Baltic fleet. 

Mr. Squire is appointed to be master of the fleet in the Baltic. 
The Rev. Mr. Bingley is appointed chaplain of the Victory. 
Lieutenant Bewick is appointed to the Victory. 

Captain John .Smith is appointed to command the bomb-vessel, Devas- 
tation, at Woolwich. 

Mr. Seamen, Jate purser of the America,, is appointed to the Warspite. 

Captain Baldcrston is appointed to command the Pnrthean, at Deptford. 

Captain Palmer is promoted to the rank of post captain. 

Captain Dillon, of the Childers, is promoted to the rank of post captain. 

Lieutenants Barn?, Reid, Hon. G. Tournonr, Muston, Weeks, Ross, and 
Reed, are appointed to be lieutenants of the Victory. 

Captain Parkinson is promoted to the rank of post captain, and appointed 

to the Ardent. 

Rear-admiral Sothtby has hoisted his flag on board the St. George, Cap- 
tain Bertie. 

Captain Ctimly is appointed to be the flag captain with Admiral Rowley, 
on the Jamaica station. 

Captain Ball is appointed to command the Gibraltar, vice Johnson. 

Captain Carthew is appointed to the Gloire. 

Captain G. Reynolds is appointed to the Crescent, vice Carthew. 

Captain Donelly to the command of the Invincible; Captain Fraser to 
the Aboukir; Captain Cockburn to the Pompe'e. 

Captain Fraser, of the Vanguard, is appointed to command the sea feu- 
cibles at Dundee. 

Captain Newman is appointed to the Hero^; Captain Tremlett to the 
.Alcrnene, we. Brisbane ; Captain Thompson (second) to the Bonne 
Choyenne ; Captain Richard Evans to the Leveret. 

Captain George Langford, of the Sappho, is promoted to the rank of post 

captain. . . :. 

Lieutenant William Charleton is promoted to the rank of commander, 
and appointed to the Sappho, ? ice Langford. 

Rear-admiral Bertie is appointed to supersede Vice-admiral Sterling, as 
commander in chief of his Majesty's ships and vessels at the Cape of Good, 

' 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE FRESTTXT TEAR, 1808. 346 

Lieutenant Tatbam is appointed to command the gun-brig Dapper, at 
Portsmouth. 

Mr. Miller, of the Admiralty Office, is appointed to be agent pf the nav.nl 
hospital at the Cape of Good Hope, rirt-Willet, dismissed. 

Lord Viscount Neville is appointed to be a lieutenant ,of the Victory. 
Lieutenant Thomas Mansell (first) is appointed to the Victory. 

Mr. J. P. Lancy, purser of the Beaver sloop, is appointed to be secretary 
to Captain Hope, captain of the fleet. 

Captain T. G, Skinner is appointed to command the ,/Egcra. 
Captain Clephane is appointed to the Acorn. 
Lieutenant Jonathan Nicholls is appointed to the. Rolla. 
Captain Wynter is appointed to command the Cadmus sloop. 

Mr. Theobald Mills is appointed surgeon of the Champion ; Mr. Wade 
Shields to he sui-goon of the Diornede ; Mr. Valentine Duke, surgeon, to 
the Victory ; Mr. Stephen Sherlock, surgeon, to th Avenger; Mr. John 
Irvine, surgeon, to the Minotaur. 

Mr. W. M'Ewen is appointed assistant-surgeon of the Pinche, gun-brig; 
Mr. Thomas Barns to be assistant silicon of the Fisgard; Mr. Le\v 
Tcg:irt to be assistant-surgeon of the Warspite. 

Mr. Henry Radford to be hospital mate at the naval hospital at 
Yarmouth. 

Mr. Robert Shand to be surgeon of the Alcmene ; Mr. Thomas Martill 
to be surgeon of the Subtile schooner. 

Mr. J. A. Thompson to be assistant-surgeon of the Gibraltar; Mr. 
11. II. Fee fly to be assitanr-snrgcun of the Invincible ; Mr. James Napper 
to bo asMStaut-surgeon of the Thetis ; Mr. J. J. Iner to be assistant surgeon 
of the AbOukir;*Mr. G. Michell to he assistant-surgeon of the Sussex. 

Mr. GfFairfowl to be surgeon of the Invincible; Mr. Philip Lowry to 
be surgeon of the Myrtle sloop. 

Mr. T. Thomas to be assistant-surgeon of the Audacious. 

Mr. John Clerk to be surgeon of the jEgera; Mr. G. Campbell to be sur- 
econ of the Ned Riven; Mr. Robert Ricalton to he surgeon of the Galatea; 
Mr. Walker to be surgeon of the Fleche; Mr. Thomas Marchant to be sur- 
geon of the Acoru ; Mr. James Heron to be surgeon of the Delphinen; 
Mr. William Donaldson to he surgeon of the Allurt; Mr. G. Galhraith to 
be surston of the Parthcatr; Mr. William Ratty to be surgeon of tl.ie Cad- 
mus ; Mr. Douglas Kirk Jo be surgeon of the Leveret ; Mr. R. Jeflerys to be 
surgeon of the Dasher; Mr. B. Dman to be surgeon of the Psyche. 

Mr. J. E. Anderson to he assistant-surgeon of the Flying Fish ; Mr. 
R. D.Hamilton to be assistant-surgeon of the Troinp ; Mr. A. Stewart to he 
assistant-surgeon of the Locust; Mr. James Brown to be assistant-surgeon 
of the St. George; Mr. Mark Dill to be assistant-surgeon of the Princess of 
Orange; Mr. W. Kennedy to he assistant-surgeon of the Phccuix. 

Mr. W. Leaky to be hospital mate at Deal Hospital. 

Mr. Naughton to be assistant surgeon of the Chiftonne; Mr. James 
M'Connel to he assistant-surgeon of the Virgiuie; Mr. David Beatie to he 
assistant-surgeon of the Pomuee ; Mr. James O'Connor to be asvstaut-^r- 
gcon of the Trent. 

Mr. Andrew Gewmell to be surgeon of the Delphinen. 

Mr. Anderson to be assistant-surgeon of the Bellerophon, 



350 NAVAL HISTORY OF Tilt PRESENT YEAH, 1808. 

Mr. William Stuart to be surgeon of the Bonne Citoytnnc. 

Mr. John Punthorn to be assistant- surgeon of the Amethyst; Mr. 
J. Field to be assistant-surgeon of the Unicorn. 

Lieutenant C. Betty is appointed to 'the Mvrtle; Lieutenant William 
Hamilton to the Tigre ; Lieutenant Phillips, from the Pilot, to the Speedy 
.-loop ; Lieutenant Felix to the Edgar. 

Captain Nott is appointed to the Childers; Captain Welch to the Charles, 
firmed ship. 

Lieutenant PringJe is appointed to command the Rochester, prison ship ; 
Lieutenant Russel to the Kite; Lieutenant Thorn to the Bonne Citoyenne ; 
Lieutenant Shields to ditto ; Lieutenant Molesworth, from the Chitfonne, 
lo the Pilot; Lieuterfaut Gibbons to command the Alphea cutter; Lieut. 
Jackson to, the Barfleur; Lieutenant S. L. Ilatnmich to the Cambrian-; 
Lieutenant Grint, late of the Anson, to tlie Vulture; Lieutenant Belson to 
ditto; Lieutenant Sparkcs to the Irresistible; Lieutenant Montresor, from 
the Thetis, to the command of the Firm, gun-brig; Lieutenant Grarushaw, 
from the JVIaida, to the Barflcnr; Lieutenant Comvn to the Aboukir; 
Lieutenant Bayly to' the Warspite ; Lieutenant Robinson to ditto; Lieut. 
R.ayson to the Pompee ; Lieutenant Matterfall to the Tigre; Lieutenant 
Perkins to the Royal William. 

Captain R. B. Vincent* is appointed to command the Hind. 

Lieutenant Le Blanc to command the Minx, sun-brig; Lieutenant Gray 
to the Cambrian; Lieutenant Fleming to the Rolla; Lieutenant Brown to 
the Aboukir; Lieutenant Vine to the Hindostan; Lieutenant W. Eagle, 
from the Hindostan, to the Pandora; Lieutenant Worm ley to the Atlas; 
Lieutenant Unhand to the Aboukir; Lieutenant Pattie to the Gibraltar; 
Lieutenant \Vilcy to the Aboukir; Lieutenant W. llillyar, from the Niger, 
to t'ae Woolwich; Lieutenant P. Boweri to the Barfleur; Lieutenant Evans 
to the Implacable; Lieutenant M'Lead, from the Leonidas, to the Medusa; 
Lieutenant Boyre to command the Firm, gun-brig; Lieutenant Meredith to 
the Hyperion; Lieutenant Edwards to the Mutinc; Lieutenant Stuart to the 
.\vtngcr; Lieutenant Vine to the Brilliant; Lieutenant Mark Swcney to 
tlie Africa ; Lieutenant Thomas Gill to the Sultan; Lieutenant J. Donald- 
>on to the Spitfire; Lieutenant J. Bewicke is appointed to -the Victory ; 
Lieutenant W. II. Douglas to the Lion; Lieutenant C. Reid is appointed ro 
the Pompee; Lieutenant Roderick to ditto; Lieutenant James Lew to the 
Brunswick; Lieutenant W. Smith to the Alexandria. 

Captain T. Pokes is appointed to command the Zebra; Captain Lyford 
to command the Proselyte. 

Lieutenant J. Core is appointed to the Polyphemus; Lieutenant William 
Davidson to the Goliath; Lieutenant Adam White to the Seagull; Lieut. 
!'. Drake is appointed to the 8t. Gconie ; Lieutenant James Brasier to 
ditto : Lieut* nant Thomas Bramwell to the Lion; Lieutenant David Buchan 
'>'! command the Adonis cutter ; Lieutenant Gammon 10 the Proselyte; 
T.H-uri-Matit J. Uallantyne to ditto; Lieutenant Thtmms Smith, from the 
ifii.Liiiia, ro the Pompee; Lieutenant Thomas Jf'erris to the Donegal; 
:t"!>ant. J. Failom to the Cambrian; Lieutenant Jinx's Neville to the 
J 'elnhijie:: ; Lieutenant J. Jackson to the Sakellc. 

. '?. Skinner is appointed to command the Ilindoslan; Captain 
to tiie Cockatrice. 



this officer in our XVIIth volume. 



NAVAf, HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808. 3:") I 

Lieutenant Sir G. M. Keith, T>art. to command the Redbreast, eun-boat; 
Lieutenant Louis Lainli to the St. George; Lieutenant John Fulhon, from 
the Inflexible, to the Pompc'c ; Lieutenant G. IM'Pherson to the Warspite ; 
Lieutenant , I. Bo wen tu the Mars; Lieutenant Thomas Cull to the Eelle 
1'utile ; Lieutenant Thomas Frederiek to the Cambrian. 

Captain G. B. Salt is appointed to command the Dreadnougjrf, 

Lieutenant Ley to the Fury; Lieutenant Duncan, from the Princess 
Charlotte, to the Brunswick; Lieutenant ijutiiHuai't to the Aoiiillo; Lieut. 
.1. Everard to the (ioliath; Lieutenant G. Welch to the Polvpiu tuns ; 
Lieutenant Joseph Betin to the -Belle Poule; Lieutenant Hon. F. Fraser, 
from the Medusa, to the Melpomene; Lieutenant Clement to the Mediator; 
Lieutenant Leslie to the Chiffunne; Lieutrnaut Hon. A. Tournoiir, from the 
Victory, to the Diomede; Lieutenant Alner to the Barfleur; Lieutenant. 
Milne to ditto; Lieutenant Dris^s to the Invincibl ; .Lieutenant Chapman 
to ditto; Lieutenant Annesley to the Pilot ; Lieutenant Nicholis to the 
Rolla ; Lieutenant Trimmer to the I'i^ard ; Lieutenant James Dickinson 
(second) to the Ihlpetueux; Lieutenant Crawford to the Inconstant; 
Lieutenant Johnstou LO ditto ; Lieutenant Roberts to the Elizabeth ; Lieut. 
Hay to tiie Acorn. 

Captain J. D. Marklatui is appointed to command the Bustard ; Captain 
Richard Arthur to the CheroVj; Captain A. Cunningham to the Vesuvius. 

Capiain R. J Willoughhy is promoted to the rank of commander, and 
appointed to the Otter sloop. 

Lieutenant W. J. Innes is promoted, and appointed to die Atnlante: 
Lieutenant Henry A 'Court to command the Sandwich schooner; Lieutenant: 
C. Bertie to the Leopard; Lieutenant Henry Lynne to the Leopard ; and 
Lieutenant Henry Rhodes to the Trident. 

Lieutenant Bust, late of the Sandwich schooner, is promoted, and 
appointed to the Shark sloop. 

Mr. J. Sherrard to be purser of the Leviathan. 

The Right lion. Lord Gambier kissed hands, at his Majesty's levee, on 
Wednesday the 27th of April, on bein^ appointed commander in chief oi" 
the Channel fleet. Admiral Domett is expected to succeed his lordship at 
the Admiralty. 

A list of midshipmen who have passed for lieutenants at the navy office, 
the first Wednesday in last month : Charles Cooper Bennett, Thomas 
Chrystie, William Beckett, Thomas Bant, Francis Edward Seymour, 
William Sturgess, George Fincombe, William Buckle, John Coriycrs, 
Arthur Morrell, Horatia Smith, Joseph Acott, Thomas Eborall. 



BIRTHS. 

Lately, at Plymouth Dock, the lady of Commodore Sir Richard King, 
Bart, of a daughter. 

April 10, at Mill Bank, ^Westminster, the wife of Captain Henry 
Ommanney, of the royal navy, of a daughter. 



MARRIAGES. 

On the 19th April, at Woodlands, Cornwall, Captain Thomas Ball 
Sullivan, of the royal imvy, to Miss Henrietta James, youngest daughter of 
Captain B. James, of the royal navy. 



352 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PKESEVT YEAR, 1808. 

At Minster, in the county of Kent, S. R. Harmon, Esq. of Charlotte 
Street, Fitzroy-square, to Miss Cooke, only daughter of Captain John Cookc, 
of the royal navy. 

Lately, at Bath, Rev. D. Lloyd, chaplain of his Majesty's ship Pompi'e, 
to Emily, relict of General Goldic. 

William Manwarinj,', Esq. chaplain in the Company's naval service :it 
Bombay, to Miss Conncll, daughter of Major-General J. J. Connell, in the 
Service ot'tlie Queen of Portugal. 

At Milton House, Scotland, G. F. Crown, Esq, eldest son of Sir Robert 
Crown, admiral in tiie navy of his Imperial Majesty the Emperor ot all the 
Ilussias, to Mrs. CampUcll, relict of General iletcher Campbell, of Saltou 
and Boquhan. 

Captain lieu-son, of the royal navy, to Miss Marshall, daughter of 
W. Marshall, Esq. of Great Grimsby.. 

E. O'Brif iv, rear-admiral of the blue, to Mrs. Bradby, both of Catisfiel'l, 
in Hampshire, 

OBITUARY. 

Lately, was killed on the coast of Calabria, in assisting in his Majesty's 
ship Delight, which was on shore under the enemy's batteries, Captain 
Thomas Seccombe, of his Marty's ship GlattOB. 

Lately, was killed in a gallant attack on a French privateer and four 
merchant vessels, in the port of Ahueria, Lieutenant Caulfield, first of his 
Majesty's ship Impereuse, Captain Hon. Lord Cochranc. 

At Plymouth, Lieutenant Harrison, of the royal navy, agent for 
transports. 

At his lodgings, at York, far advanced in years, Stephen Foster, Esq. a 
captain m the royal navy ;- he was at the tailing of Gibraltar in 1754. 

Lately, Robert Roddam, Esq. senior admiral of the red, at his residence 
at lloddam, in Northumberland. 

Latclv, the eccentric Mary Ann Talhot, who served five years in the 
royal navy as a sailor; she enjoyed till her death a pension which was 
granted in consideration of a wound she had received when in action. 

At Clifton, of a mortification in his foot, Charles Wolseley, Esq. admiral 
of the red, aged 67 ; he was the only surviving brother of Sir William 
"Wotaelcy, Bart, of Staffordshire. 

Lately, at Hill, near Southampton, Miss Catherine Brownlow Bertie, 
second daughter of Hcar-admiral Bertie, commander in chief of his 
Majesty's ships and vessels at the Cape of Good Hope. Though she had 
for some time been in a declining way, her death was at last very sudden 
and unexpected. 

On the 21st April, after a short illness, at her house in Edward- street, 
Portman-square, in the possession of the full exercise of her active and 
powerful understanding, at the advanced age of <\4 years, the Dowager 
Lady Frankland, widow of the late Admiral Sir Thomas Frank land, Bart, 
and mother of the present Sir Thomas Frankland, Bart, of Thirkleby Park, 
in the county of York. 

Lately, at Bath, Admiral Rainier. 




&-R.O>"~iu. crsailt 1 




HOILLOWAT ESQ? 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR 

OF 

JOHN HOLLO WAY, ESQ. 

MIKAL OF THE HKI), GOVr.llXOP. Of THE IM.-VND OF NEWFOUND- 
LAND, AM) COMMANDLU IX CI1IM'' OX THAT STATIO-V. 



" An honest Man "s !/:c noblest work of God." POPE. 

1TF ever any one deserved that high character, without any ful- 
-**- some compliment, it i* the subject of the following memoir: 
who after having been placed in very delicate and arduous situations, 
has obtained the friendship of all who have served with him, and 
has kept up the discipline of the navy, without creating a single 



Mr. John Ilolloway was born at Wells, in Somersetshire, the 
present residence of his family. During the year 17GO, when he 
was about 13, he resolved to drvoie himself to the royal navy ; 
and his intention being sanctioned by his father, and recommended 
by Mr. James Grenville, he was sent on board the Antelope, of 
50 guns, Captain Webb, and afterwards, in 1761, sailed in her to 
Newfoundland, with Captain, the late Lord Graves ; who had 
been appointed governor of the. island, and commander in chief 
on that station. Mr. Holluway then served for (wo years under 
Sir Hugh Palliser ; and also, with a vu-\v of promotion, embarked 
with Admiral Durell, appointed commander in chief at Halifax : 
but that officer dying soon after his arrival in America, Mr. IIollo- 
Avay was, in 1768, taken under the patronage of Commodore 
Samuel Hood, in the llomney. 

During the period of Mr. Hollo way's services as a midshipman, 
no opportunity offered to distinguish himself by any brilliant or 
daring exploit. He however laid the foundation of a permanent 
and lasting character, by acquiring a fund of nautical experience, 
\>y establishing a prompt and obedient disposition, and by gaining 
the good opinion of his superior officers. 

Mr. Holloway was advanced to the rank of lieutenant during 
the year 1771 ; and he returned to England, soon after Commodore 
Hood had been relieved at Halifax by Admiral Montagu. Cap- 
iain Hood being appointed to the Marlborough guard-ship, of 

tfJso. Gfcrom ffiolt XIX. zz 



354 ' moGiiAPiiic.YL MKMoin or 

71 guns, at Portsmouth, invited Lieutenant Holloway to fill a 
vacancy in that ship; \vhcrc he (bund as messmates the present 
Admiral Brine, Commissioner Jnglefield, and the late Admiral 
Hugh Christian. Captain S. Hood resided principally at Gathering* 
ton, and the hospitality of his house, with the pleasantry of the 
society that frequented it, will be long remembered by naval men* 
On the breaking out of the American war, Lieutenant Holloway, 
anxious to be actively employed, was appointed to the Perseus, 
Captain Kcilh Elphinstone; and Mr. Christian quitted the Marl- 
borough at the same time, to go to America. The Perseus was an 
active ship, and Lieutenant Holfoway remained in her one year. 
He afterwards was taken by Commodore Hotham,* on board the 
Preston, of 0guns ; and was first lieutenant of that ship, in 1778, 
when attached to Lord Howe's fleet in America, at the time he 
pursued d'Estaing to Rhode Island. On the same night, August IS, 
1778, in which d'Estaing had been nearly taken by the Renown, 
Captain Dawson, the Preston crossed the Tonnant, of 80 guns, 
with only her main-mast standing after the late heavy gale, 
and immediately attacke(J her. The engagement lasted for some 
hours ; a great many of the Tonnant's men were killed, and if the 
iiring had not brought a part of the French squadron to her rdief, 
the Tonnant would have been compelled to surrender to so infe-* 
rior a force. 

Towards the end of 1778, Lieutenant Holloway accompanied 
Commodore Hotham, with his pendant on board the Preston, to 
the West Indies ; who had been ordered to sail to the Leeward 
Islands, with 5.000 troops, and reinforcements for Admiral Bar. 
rington. On their arrival, December 10, the reduction of St. 
Lucia was immediately determined on, and accomplished.' But 
for an account of these proceedings the reader is referred to the 
biographical memoir of Admiral Barrington.f Commodore Ho- 
tham particularly attended to the debarkation of the troops ; and 

* The present Lord Hotham, who, on the 28th of March, 1759, when 
ronun:uulinir the Molampe, had particularly distinguished himself in au 
iicciuu with the Danae French frigate. 

1 Vol. IV. page 1C9. Tin; reinforcement consisted, besides the Preston, 
of thu ^i. Albaus, Xonsuch, Isis, Centurion, Carcass bomb-ketch, and 

5!) transports, 



JOHN HOLLOWAY, ESQ. 355 

in the execution of that important service, both himself and officer? 
acquired considerable credit. During the ensuing year, 1779, the 
Preston was principally employed off Barbadoes, with a small 
detached squadron. 

Soon afterwards Commodore Hotham shifted his pendant to the 
Vengeance, of 74 guns, and took Mr. Holloway with him as first 
lieutenant. In the year 17KO, he left that ship, and went on 
board the Princess Royal, with Admiral Parker, who made him a 
commander; and soon afterwards, being advanced, to the rank of 
post captain, he returned to his friend Commodore Hotham, as 
commander of the Vengeance, attached to Sir George Rodney's 
fleet. Captain Holloway remained in the Vengeance during all 
the three first actions, or rather negative battles of Admiral Rod- 
ney, off the i land of Martinique, with the Count dc Guichen, 
on the 17th of April,* and the loth and 19th of May, 1780. In 
these battles, the dexterity of manoeuvering seems to have been 
chiefly considered. The principal one, which had the most 
appearance of being an exception to this remark, was that which 
took place on the 19th of May, when Commodore Hotham did his 
utmost to bring on ah engagement ; having been stationed to lead 
the fleet, although there were three flag officers, and commodore 
Collingwood, who were his seniors : the merit which the Commo- 
dore displayed, justified this preference. Captain Bowyer also, of 

* Forau account of the action on the 17th of April, see the biographical 
memoir of Lord Rodney, Vol. I. page 311 , to which our present narrative 
may serve as a supplement. -This action is considered by Mr. Clerk, of 
Eirlon, in his Naval Tactics (Part I. page 77), who there says " Sir George 
lias told us, that he had given notice by public signal, that his intention was 
to attack the enemy's rear with his whole force; and then he afterwards 
says, at eleven o'clock, A.M. I made the signal for every ship to bear 
down, and steer for her opposite in the enemy's line. Why did .Sir George 
change his resolution ? liacl he carried the intention of his first signal into 
execution, it is more than probable that he might have taken or destroyed 
fcix or eight ships at least of the enemy's rear; and it has been said, that 
the French admiral, upon perceiving the approach of the British fleet, 
according to their first intention, broke out with an exclamation, that six 
w seven of his ships mere gone : but Sir George, by carrying down his whole 
line (every ship steering upon his opposite, according to the intention of the 
last signal;, from the experience of former engagements, might have been 
assured of getting every ship so disabled by the raking fire of the enemy, us 
to be incapable of any future pursuit." 



356 BIOGRAPHIC AT, SIEMOTB, or 

the Albion, was second ship to the Vengeance, and particularly 
distinguished himself. But a considerable sh;ire of the merit 
was certainly due to Captain Ilolloway, \vho commanded the 
Vengeance under Commodore llotbam. The following account 
of this action is taken from Mr. Beatson, 1780: * 

" The two hostile fleets kept maneuvering in sight of each other, but 
nothing material happened until the 19th, when the Count de Guichcn had 
an opportunity of returning in some mpasurc tlie deception that had beeu 
practised on him, on the 15th, and finally of obtaining his point, and 
reaching Fort Royal Bay, in Martinique. Both fleets being formed in lines 
of battle on opposite tacks, tiic French approached very near the British 
fleet, which was then led by Commodore Ilotham, and began a warm 
cannonade. Admiral Rodney flattered "himself that the enemy meant to 
risk a gencrid. action; but M. de Guichen had no such intentions: ior when 
the headmost ship of the French van reached the centre division of tlie 
British, she suddenly hauled her wind, and was followed in regular suc- 
cession by the whole of the enemy's fleet. The van division of the British 
fleet suffered most severely, and from the method in which the enurny 
managed this rencounter, it could rt-ceive but little assistance from the cen- 
tre and reai divisions. The Albion, and Conqueror (Admiral J. Rowley), 
\vere much damaged, as were several other ships, and the loss of men was 
considerable." f 

'- Naval and Military Memoirs, 6 Vols. (Vol. V. page (>1 .) 
t List of Killed and Wounded, May Wth, 1780. 
Shins, Commanders. Killed. Wounded, 

Intrepid Hon. Capt. II. St. John 1 

SulVolk Capt. A. Crespin 1 21 

Triumph Ph. Affleck.. 4 It 

Vigilant .... Sir George Hume ...9 .... 15 
Jtc-dway W.Affleck 2 11 

f Commodore Hotham ... 1 . 

Vengeance . . 1 \ 1 JQ 

1. Captain J. Holloway . , . . J 

IMiiirniiicent . . Capt. J. Elphinstone 5 .... 23 

Conqueror . . . Admiral J. Rowley 3 .... 10 

Alhiun Capt. G. Bowyer 12 til 

tVrrible .... - .F.Douglas 3 9 

Cornwall .... Tim. Edwards 4 10 

Preston W. Truscott 3 

Officers Killed and Wounded, 

1 ''mi in; /.'--Lieutenant Twycrbgs, wounded. 

Ht.gniftri d Lieutenant Flight, 87th regiment, wounded. 

i'onqii- wr Lieutenant Watson, lost lus arm, and afterwards died. 

Albion Jinisign Curry, 5th regjment, killed ; Mr. Paven, ma$ter ; 
wounded. 

Cj.'-?jw" Lieutenant Douglas, lost $ leg. 



JOHN HOLLOWAY, ESQ. 357 

Two days after this action, Sir George Rodney was said to have 
told Captain ilolloway, " That he never expected to see the 
Vengeance come safe out of action." " Ah, sir," replied the 
blunt seaman, " Why did you, &ir George^ confine us to that 
mode oj attack?"" 

The following is the account -which the French published of this 
action in their gazettes ; 

" The Count de Guichcn continued his course northward, to get to wind- 
ward of Martinique, and kept on that course until the 19th. If, durin^ thai 
interval, the English had chosen to make sail, and avail themselves of the 
changes of wind, they might have attempted to gain it of the king's fleet; 
but it appeared their project was to keep on the watch. The 19th, in the 
morning, the English fleet was to the S.VV. one fourth west, and at the dis- 
tance of between four and five leagues in the wake of the French fleet 5 the 
enemy seemed then resolved to gain the wind, and advanced with crowded 
sail: the king's fleet added none, to give the English hopes of getting to 
windward, and let them thus engage, since they constantly avoided to fi"ht 
to Joe ward. At half past two, the Count cle Guichcn, seeing that the enemy 
could no longer decline thecombat, without entirely retreating, ordered the 
s>!;ips ahead to steer so as to pass before the English line, to bear upon thfc 
van, and enter into action. At half past three the firo began between the 
two leading ships of the file, the English being obliged to come up, and 
pass to leeward. The action became successively general between the two 
lines, on opposite tacks ; but at half past four, the headmost ships of the 
I'Veiich line having taken sea-room to fight closer, and the other having 
followed in the wake of the former, the admiral made a signal to rally, that, 
in keeping their wind, and in tacking altogether, the line might be formed 
to wind" ard of the enemy, if they should attempt to tack upon our rear. 
At three quarters past, four, several English ships having tacked, and 
advancing with crowded sail on the hindmost ships of the French line, which 
was still engaged, the Count de Guichen made the white squadron t:u:k 
all at once before the wind, and then the blue squadron, and he left the 
blue and nhite to continue their course, the rear of which was still engaged. 
The movement was scarcely executed by the white squadron, when the 
English ships that advanced, nine in number, tacked immediately and 
joined the squadron. 

" At half past five, the king's squadron presented itself again in (he best 
order, and the English, by falling back to their ships, to lecwaro, at lengtii 
put themselves in order of battle. 

" At a quarter past six, the two fleets were drawn up in two lines, 
almost parallel, at the distance of two cannon shot ; but in the night the 
English, according to custom, straggled at large; and on the 20th, at day- 
break, they were UVD leagues to leeward. They continued to roam, and at 
half past three in the at'u-nioon, they were no longer seen but from the 
topmast head. On the 2 1st there was no knowledge of them, and the 



358 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

Count dc Giiichen judging they had retired to Barhadoes, or St. Lurin, 
steered for Martinique. It appeared that the van of the English* had been 
roughly handled : the advices from St. Lucia mention that four ships had 
arrived there completely shattered, and a fifth absolutely unfit for service. 
The rest of the English fleet is put into Barbadoes." 

Sir George Rodney, in his letter to the Admiralty, dated 
Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, May 31, 1780; after giving much praise 
to the gallant Captain Bowyer, who led the van squadron on the 
15th of May, added 

" The enemy kept an awful distance, until the 19th instant, when I was 
in hopes that I should have weathered them ; but had the mortification to 
be disappointed. However, as they were convinced their rear could not 
*>-;cape action, they seemed to have taken a resolution of risking a general 
one ; and when their van had weathered us, they bore away along our line 
to windward, and began a heavy cannonade; but at such a distance, as to 
do little or no execution. However, their rear could not escape, being 
cloely ai tacked by the ships of the van, then led by Commodore Hothatn ; 
and uith pleasure I can say, that the fire of his Majesty's ships was far 
superior to that of the enemy, uho must have received great damage by the 
rencounter." 

In the month of September, 1780, when Sir George Rodney 
sailed for North America, the command at the Leeward Islands 
devolved on Commodore Hothara ; who during the ensuing hurri- 
cane months had to contend with one of the most dreadful tem- 
pests that had ever rased in the West Indies. The following 
Ii.-i.tors fro:n the commodore to the Admiralty, will shew the 
aruuons service which Captain Holloway had to discharge. During 
these sreurs of horror, he displayed that coolness and firmness, 
ivh'u-Ii I:ave, a! ways marked his character. The commodore's first 
ii-iier i-, dated Vengeance, Carenage, St. Lucia, Oct. 23, 1780. 

' On the n't'JLi of the JOth there arose a hurricane at N. E. which 
increased !.y the: morning to a degree of violence that is not to be described. 
The /\JH:-, Mniita-u, and Eginont, which had been anchored before the 
entrance of the harbour, were, before daylight, all forced to sea, as was 
the A 1 ,:: iv MI soon after; and the Deal Castle and Camelion, which had 
FK :>:*, f.!ati<>iu.'d iii (. : nis lslc:t Bay, for the protection of the hospitals, shared 
the sin. ie fate. Tin: Vengeance, with the Etna and Vesuvius bombs, and 
tl'.u i-i'.n Vnieente Snow, were moored within the Carenage. and prepared 
vis!-, tvery caution that could be taken to withstand the tempest, which had 
already |i!it <-evoral transports on shore, and by this time blew with irre- 
liU 1 '!. tin';"; ait'.-a.led with an incessant flood of rain. A little after twelve 



JOKV HOLLOWAY, ESQ. 359 

o'clock, the Vengeance parted her cable, and tailed upon the rocks. It 
now became absolutely requisite to cut away her masts, the loss of which, 
with the help of a number of puns that were got forward, eased con- 
siderably the force with which she struck; and by the wind's fortunately 
shirting two or three points farther to the eastward, her stern swung off the 
rocks, and she was, beyond every expectation, saved: for it now blew, if 
possible, with redoubled violence, and nothing was to be seen or expected 
but ruin, desolation, and destruction in rvery part. The San Vincents 
Snow, with many of the transports, victuallers, and traders, were dismasted, 
and taostly all on shore ; in short, no description can equal the scene of 
distress that appeared before us. 

" The storm continued with incredible vehemence during the whole day; 
but the weather, about midnight, became more moderate ; and by the next 
morning the wind was totally abated. The direction of it was from N.N.E. 
to E.S.E. of twenty-nine hours duration. 

" On the 18th the Montagu anchored before the harbour, without a 
mast or bowsprit standing, eight feet water in her hold, and all her powder 
damaged. Every assistance was given her to get into Carenage, where 
she is now secured in safety. The Ajax returned to this anchorage on the 
21st, with the loss of her main-yard, main-top-mast., and mizen-mast. The 
Beaver's prize being on her passage to Rarbttdocs, was unfortunately 
wrecked on the back of this island, near Vicux Fort ; and it gives me pain 
to add, that all her officers and crew, except seventeen men, perished. 

" The preservation of the Amazon was so singular and extraordinary, 
that I herewith transmit a copy of the account given of it by Captain 
1-inch. I am, &c. 

W. IIOTHAM." 

" SIR, " Amazon, English Harbour, October !?//>, 1780. 

" I am at a loss whether to express, in the strongest terms, mv regret 
for the misfortunes that have happened to his Majesty's ship under my 
command, or my satisfaction in having got her in safety to this port. 

" I flatter myself, you saw the necessity we were under of putting to sea 
the morning after the commencement of the gale. We then stood under 
our storm-stay-sails, W. by N. from the Carenage ; it was but for a shurtr 
time the canvass held; after that the ship behaved perfectly well, and 
appeared to every person on board as capable of standing the gale that 
ensued, as was possible for any ship. About seven o'clock at night the 
gale increased to a degree that caa better be conceived from the conse- 
quences, than any description I can give. There was an evident necessity 
of doing something to relieve the ship, but I was unwilling to cut away the 
lower masts till the last extremity, and accordingly ordered the people up, 
to cut away the main-top-mast : my orders were attempted to be put in 
execution with the utmosfc alacrity, but before it could be accomplished, I 
found it necessary to call them down to cut away the main-mast. Whilst 
I was waiting for the men to come down, a sudden gust overset the ship ; 
most of the officers, with mysc-lf, and a number of the ship's company, got 



SCO BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIft OF 

upon the side of the ship ; the wheel on the quarter-deck was then under 
writer. In tliat situation, I could perceive the ship settle bodily some- feet, 
until the water was up to the after part of the sides of the caiTonadefl, on 
the weather side. Notwithstanding the ship was so far gone, upon the 
masts, bowsprit, &c. going away, she righted us far as to bring the lee 
gunwale even with the water's edge. By the exertions of all the ullicers 
and men, we soon got the lee quarter-deck gui:s and carrouades overboard, 
and soon after one of the forecastle guns and sheet anchor cut away; 
which had so good an effect, that we were enabled to get to the pumps, and 
lee guns, on the main deck ; the throwing them overboard was, in our 
situation, a work of great difficulty, and I could perceive the ship was going 
down by the stern. This arduous task was accomplished under the direc- 
tion of Lieutenant Pakenham, whose great experience and determined per- 
severance marked him out as, perhaps, the only individual to whom. 
(amidst such great exertions) a pre-eminence could be given ; and I do not 
think it possible for greater exertions to be made. The water was above 
the cables on the orlop deck, with a vast quantity between decks ; and the 
stump of ihe main-mast falling out of the step, occasioned one ol the chain 
pumps to he rendered useless, as was the other soon after. By the great 
activity of the two carpenter's mates, they were alternately cleared. 
Upon my representing this to Commissioner Laforey, he has appointed 
them both to act as carpenters (one in the Amazon, the other in the 
Antigua,) till your pleasure is known. Besides the loss of our masts, &c. 
the ship has suffered considerable damages, the particulars of which I 
cannot send, until a survey has been held upon the ship. The books and 
paper, arc totally destroyed, so that it is not in my power particularly to 
ascertain the loss we have suffered in men; I believe twenty drowned, 
besides a number wounded. For further particulars, I refer you to the 
gentleman who will deliver this letter to you. The carpenter was the only 
oth'ccT lust upon this occasion. 

" I have the honour to be, &c. 

" WILLIAM CLEMENT FINCH." 
" To Commodore Ilotham" 

In a subsequent letter, dated Ajax, Carcnage, St. Lucia, 
November :">, 1780, Commodore Ilotham informed the Board, 
;c that on tin: 2.j(h of October, the governor of Martinique sent 
over in a lla^ of truce, thirty-one m,n, of the crews of the Andro- 
niedj and Lanrol. The former overset, and foundered about six 
league* to windward of that island ; and, by the account \thich the 
pil .>'. of her gives, who was one of the people saved, there is little 
exjjemtioti that the Endymion* can have escaped; as he says, 

Dismasted, and obliged to run down to Jamaica, 



JOHN HOLLOWAY, ESQ. 361 

from her situation when he last saw her, and the direction of the 
wind at that time, it was impossible for her to have cleared the 
island upon i-ithcr tack. The Laurel was driven on shore, and 
very soon went to pieces. The Marquis do Bouille would not 
consider mui, who had the force of the elements to cope 
with, in the light of enemies. The hurricane, by every account, 
has been more fata! to the French i.-lands than to ours." In addi- 
tion to the melancholy loss of the Laurel, of 28 guns, the Blanche, 
32, and Cam -lion, 14, foundered at sea, and all on board perished. 
The Doal Castle was also wrecked on the island of Porto Rico, 
but only 'wo men were drowned. 

The Vengeance returned to England in the spring of 1781,* 
with another line of battle ship, and three frigates, as convoy to 
a fleet of 34 ships, richly laden, chiefly Dutch, bound to Europe, 
which had been captured at St. Etistatia; and falling in, on the 2d 
of May, with a French squadron of six ships of the line besides 
frigates, tinder the command of M. de la Mothe Piquet, sent out 
on the 26th of April for the express purpose of intercepting the 
convoy, the utmost skill and dexterity were necessary, to obtain 
even a partial success. Owing, however, to the wise measures 
which the commodore immediately adopted, ami to the able 
assistance of Captain Holloway, fce preserved his own ships, 
and saved a considerable part of the merchant vessels; the 
remainder, of considerable value, fell in'o the hands of th 
enemy, who themselves narrowly escaped. On the 29th of June 
the Vengeance arrived at Spithrad, and was paid off. After 
remaining some time at Wells, Captain Holloway was appointed 
to the command of the Cambridge, ar.d went off the Texel with 
Lord Howe. He was next removed into the Buffalo, of 60 guns, 
attached to the fleet under that admiral, which, on the llth of 
September, 1782, sailed for the relief of Gibraltar. On the llth 
of October our fleet appeared in the offing. The wind blo-ving 
strong from W.N.W. only four oi the transports, tituirr the c-re 
of the Latona, reached their destined anchorage. The combined 
fleets stan (ing out of Algisiras, Lord Uov\e sent for Captaia 
llolluway on board the Victory, and verbally ordered him to take 



s to tins, v.a f ;-uti ii<jllu\va_y had married a lady of Antigua 
named sValdrou, of an old English family. 

/Sab, Cjjron. aid, XIX. 3 A 



362 uioGRArmcAL MEMOIR or 

the store-ships under his protection, and proceed with them fa 
the Zafarine Isles, or L'Oriston, in Sardinia, hi case he should be 
driven past Cape Tres Forcas ; and to use his own judgment for 
bringing them back to relieve the garrison of Gibraltar. Two days 
after the Buffalo had parted from the British fleet, she fell in w ifli 
four of the enemy's ships, which had come out of Malaga to join 
the combined fleets, and with her convoy had a very narrow 
escape. One victualler was taken at midnight, not a mile from the 
Buffalo; bat from the darkness of the night, ami being close upon 
the coast of Barbary, within half a mile, the rest fortunately 
escaped. Capt. Holloway then resolved to remain in that situation, 
until the wind should become fair. On the fifth or sixth day, he 
came in sight of the British fleet at anchor : when Lord Howe was 
informed that the Buffalo and store-ships were in sight, and was 
congratulated by Captain L. Gower on the event, he replied, " The 
captain of the Buffalo has done his duty." The transports got 
*afe to Gibraltar : the Buffalo anchored, landed a party of troops, 
and powdiT, and put to sea immediately ; when the combined fleets 
were announced by sjgnal to be in sight. 

The anonymous author of the Naval Atlantis, Nauticus Junior^ 
in drawing the character of Captain Holloway, has been severe on 
the commander in chief* for selecting the Buffalo on this occasion : 
i: It must first be mentioned," says he, " that the Buffalo had 
for a long time been stationed as a flag-ship in the Downs, on 
account of her being considered as unfit for sea ; secondly, that 
bho was badly manned ; and thirdly, placed as the last ship ia the 
rear division of that fleet which Great Britain had thought fit to 
infrust to his lordship's charge. Captain Holloway, byhisjudi- 
dou :'oTi<Hc f , though driven with his convoy up the Mediterranean 
bv a violent jyalc of wind, and separated from the fleet, happily 
iv^aimO. th - Hock, and saw his store-ships into the garrison. 
This service performed, the Buffalo took her station in the rear 
ilivi-um of the fleet commanded by Admiral Miibanke, and, during 
the action that took place, was for a long time so pointed an 
obi--< t for the enemy's heavy ships, that they had nearly sunk 
her." It i well known that the centre of the combined fleets was 

* Tart II. page 90. printed in 1789. 



JOHN HOLLOWAY, ESQ. 363 

opposed to the rear of the British ; and the Santissima Trinidada, 
supported by two French throe-deckers, was opposite to the 
Buffalo, when the Spaniard opened his fire: on the first broadside, 
the Buffalo had eight men killed and wounded on the quarter- 
deck. One of the officers, the master, jumped over the side; and 
afterwards was proved to have been on the chain plates, under the 
channels : all the men upon the deck were panic-struck, and 
shrunk from their quarters. However, a good fire was kept up 
from the lower deck, and by keeping close to the ship ahead, the 
Naraur, they continued in their station, until the action ceased: 
the men on the main-deck had been brought back to their quarters, 
about ten minutes before that time. The Buffalo being much 
damaged, was the next day ordered to sail for England: Captain 
Holloway was promised a better ship on his arrival in port, and he 
was accordingly appointed to the -Vigilant ; but the peace taking 
place, she was paid off. 

He continued unemployed until 1787, when he was appointed 
to the Soie&ay frigate, and was sent to the Leeward Islands, 
where Captain Horatio Nelson, of the Boreas, as senior officer, 
had the command, on the return of Admiral Sir R. Hughes. A 
friendship soon commenced betweea the captains of the Boreas 
and Solebay. 

Capt. Holloway, whilst remaining on this station, commenced h'rs 
acquaintance with his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence, then 
captain of the Pegasus ; and though the peace did not allow Cap- 
tain Holloway to display either the resources or valour of his 
mind, he considerably increased, by a faithful discharge of duly, 
his naval reputation, afld became more generally known for sound 
integrity, and independence. The plainness and rigid honesty of 
his character soon attracted the discriminating abilities of the 
Duke of Clarence; and that prince stewed the goodness of his 
heart, by encouraging and allowing the blunt sincerity of his 
friend ; who sometimes ventured to give that disinterested and 
manly advice, which too seldom reaches the cars of the great and 
powerful. On one of these occasions, when his royal highness 
had thought that the. remonstrance of Captain Holloway savoured 
too much of quaintness, and a rigid attention to form, and was 
better adapted to the pulpit than a man of war, the prince, after 



364 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR Ot 

vainly remonstrating -with the inflexible disposition of his friend^ 
'happened to observe a Bible, which remained open on the rudder 
head, tf Why, Jack," he exclaimed, " you art 1 always reading the 
Bible! are you going to write a commentary on it? " *' No, sir," 
replied Captain Holloway, " but. the longer I r.^arl that book, the 
greater is my eagerness to return again to its perusal : I find in it 
all the principles of my duty ; and amongst other things, To 
put my trust fn God, and not in any child of man." Captain 
HoMoway, with Captain Nelson, and some o'her officers, attended 
the Duke of Clarence in his visit to all the i^'ands; and had also 
the honour of again accompanying his royal highness, when he 
afterwards made a second tour. 

During the Russian and Spanish armaments, Captain Hol'oway 
returned to his friend Admin 1 .! Ilotham, arul was his captain in the 
Princess Ilo)al ; and afterwards went with the admiral to the 
Mediterranean, who was second in command under Lord flood, 
in the same capacity on board the Britannia, at the commence-' 
inert of the French war, in 1793. During the month of June, 
17!, the Britannia was left by Lord Hood, with a detached 
sqiu ;;ron, to watch and block dp the remains of the French 
Mediterranean .fleet, which had put to sea from Toulon, on the 
5th ; and had been driven by the Briiish ships, amongst whom was 
Caprain Nelson, in the Agamemnon, within the shoals in the bay 
of Courjv'an, where they were protected by the Fmich batteries 
on the MaiMs of - ; t. llonora and St. Margarctta, as well as on 
Cape GaioujjC. When Lord JJoou struck bis flag, Admiral 
Hoth;ni succeeded to the command on that station, from the close 
of 1791. to November, 1705, and appointed Mr. Holloway cap. ' 
tain of the fleet, in which situation he gave general satisfaction. 
During tlu- perirrl of Admiral Ilotham's command, two engage- 
ments toon ;..;..; with the French fleet. The fust was on the 1 1th 
of .Marr'i ; and the following is the official account that was sent 
home by tiic admiral : 

" S:R, " Britannia, id sea, March 1C, 1705. 

" You will please to inform their lordships, that oil the 8th iust. l>ein< 
thrn in L< i_!r>rn rond, I receiver! an express from Genoa, that the French 
fleet, (on-i-tins: 'iffiueen S'.iil of the line and three fngntcs, were seen two 
<h\"-. l.i fore off MI- iblt; of M;irj;aretta; which intelligence corresponded, 
wjih u b-^nai made from the Moselle, then iu the ol'iuig, for a sleet in the 



JOH\ IIOLLOWAY, ESQ. 365 

north-west quarter. I immediately caused the squadron to be unmoored, 
and at daybreak, the following morning, we put to sea with a strong breeze 
from ti, E.N.F,. 

" The Most lie previously returned to me with the information, that the 
fleet she had seen was steering to the southward, and supposed to be the 
enemy : in consr-quence of which I shaped my course for Corsica, lest their 
destination should he against that island, and despatched the Tarleton brit^ 
to St. Fiorenzo, with orders for the Berwick to join me with all possible 
expedition off Cape Corse; but in the course of the night, she returned to 
me with the unwelcome intelligence of that ship's having been captured two 
days before by the enemy's fleet. 

' To trespass as little as possible upon their lordships' time, I shall not 
enter into a detail of our proceedings, until the two squadrons got sight of 
each other, and the prospect opened of forcing the enemy to action; every 
movement, that was made being directed to that object, and that alone. 

" Although the French ships were seen by our advanced frigates daily, 
yet the two squadrons did not get sight of each other until the 12th, whcu 
that of the enemy was discovered to windward. Observing them on the 
morning following still in that direction, without any apparent intention of 
coming down, the signal was made for a general ciiase : in the course of 
v.lnch, the weather be;ng squally, and blowing very fresh, we discovered 
one of their line-ot'-hattle ships to be without her topmasts; which afforded 
toCaptain Freemantle, of the Inconstant frigate, who was then far advanced 
on the chase, an opportunity of shewing a good proof of British enterprise, 
by his attacking, raking, and harassing her until the coming up of tire 
Agamemnon; when he was most abiy seconded by Captain Nelson, who 
did her so much damage as to disable her from putting herself to rights 
again : but they were at this time so far detached from our own fleet, that 
they were obliged to quit her, as other ships of tlte enemy were coming up 
to her assistance, by one of which she was soon after taken in tow. Finding 
that our heavy ships did not gain on the enemy during the chase, I made 
the signal for the squadron to form on the larboard line of bearing, in which 
order we continued for the night. 

u At daylight the next morning ("the 14th), being about six or seven leagues 
to the south-west of Genoa, we observed the enemy's disabled ship, with the 
one that had her in tow, to be so far to the leeward and separated from 
their own squadron, as to afford a probable chance of our cutting them off. 
The opportunity was not lost ; all sail was made to effect that purpose, 
which reduced the enemy to the alternative of abandoning those ships, or 
coming to battle. 

" Although the latter did not appear to be their choice, they yet came 
down, on the contrary tack to which we were, with a view of supporting 
them; but the Caumin. arid Bedford, who-e signals were made to attack 
the enemy's disabled ship, and' her companion, were so far'advanced, and 
so closely supported by the other ships of our van, as to cut them off 
effectually from any assistance that could be given them : the conflict ended 
jn the enemy'- abandoning them, and firing upon our line, as they passed 



366 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OJT 

"with a light air of wind. The two ships that fell, proved to be the C'a-Ira, 
formerly the Couronne, of 80 guns, and the Censeur, of 74 guns. 

Our van ships suffered so much by this attack, particularly the Illustrious 
and Courageux, having each lost their main and mizen-mast, that it became 
impossible for anything further to be effected. I ha\ , I owevr, good rea- 
son to hope, from the enemy's steering to the westward, after having passed 
our fleet, that whatever might have been their design, their intentions are for 
the present frustrated. 

" The French fleet were loaded with troops, the Ca-ira having thirteen 
hundred men on board, and the Censeur one thousand ; o' whom, by their 
obstinate defence, they lost in killed and wounded between three and four 
hundred. The efforts of our squadron to second my wishes for an i.ntne- 
diate and effectual attack upon the enemy, were so spirited and unani- 
mous, that I feel peculiar satisfaction in offering to their lordships my cor- 
dial coinn-.endatiou of all ranks collectively. It is ditncult to specify parti- 
cular dtsert, where emulation was common to all, and zeal for his Majesty's 
service the general description of the fleet. 

" It is, however, an act of justice, to express the sense I entertain of the 
services of Captain Hollo way, of the Britannia: during a long friendship 
with that officer, I have had repeated proofs of his personal and professional 
talents, and on this recent demand for experience and information, his zeal 
afforded me the most beneficial and satisfactory assistance. 

" Herewith I transmit a list of the killed and wounded on board the 
different ships of the squadron; and have to lament the loss of Captain 
Link-join, of the Berwick, who, I understand, from some of her men that 
were retaken in the Caira, was unfortunately killed on the morning of thai 
ship's being captured ; by which misfortune his Majesty lias lost a most 
valuable and experienced officer. I have only to add, that he has left a 
widow and four small children. I am, ir, 

u Your most obedient humble servant, 

W. HOTIIAM." 



ORDER OF BATTLE. 

ENGLISH FLEET. 

Van Squadron. Vice-admiral GOODAU. 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

Captain 74 Captain Reeve. 

Bedford 74 Gould. 

Tancrcdi 74 Chev. CaraccioiL 

_ f Admiral Goodall. 
Princess Royal.. . 90 < . D 

^Captain Purvis. 

Agamemnon . .... 64 > Ncisoo* 



Britannia 100 <! ^ 

V. ^ 



JOKNT UOLLOWAY, ESQ. 3&7 

Ccn'.re Squadron. Vice admiral HOTHAM, and Rear-admiral LINZEE. 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

Illustrious 74 Captain Frederick. 

Couragcux 74 Montgomery. 

Admiral llotham. 
.Captain Holloway. 
Egmont 74 Sutton. 

w i r, .1 nr . f Admiral Linzee. 

\VmdsorCastIe .. 90 < 

L Captain John Gore. 

Rear Squadron. Admiral Sir H. PARKER, 
Diadem 64 Captain Tyler. 

St. George 90 (* dmir . al Sir J 1 ! Parker ' 

\ Captain T. Foley. 

Terrible 74 George Campbell. 

Fortitude 74 'Young. 

Total 1,090 guns, and 7,650 men. '} 

List of Killed and Wounded. 
Total return : 75 killed, and 280 wounded. 

frigates attached to each Squadron. 
VAN. 
Guns. 

Minerva, a Neapolitan . . 32 Capt J. Almago. 
.Palade 
Lowestoffe, repeating ... 82 Capt. C. Cnunin^hara, 

Poulette .' 26 R. W. filler. 

Tarleton 

CENTRE. 
Guns. 

Inconstant 36 Capt. T. F. Freemantle. 

Melcagar, repeating .... 32 G. Cockburn. 

REAR. 

Guns. 

Romulus, repeating . 36 Capt. G. Hope. 
Fox cutter. 

NAMES OF THE SHIPS COMPOSING THE FREXCH SQUADROJT. 

Complement On board at the 

Names. Guns. of Men. time of action. 

Le Sans Culottes 120 1200 3000 

La Victoire . . - 80 950 1300 Late Languedoc. 

LeTonnant... 80 950 1300 

Le Gucrrier . . . 74 730 1000 

LeCouquerant. 74 780 1000 

Le Mercure ... 74 730 1000 

LeBarras . 74 730 1000 



388 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR Of 



Complement On board at th 


Ifames. Guns. of Men. time of action- 


He Genereux . . 


74 


730 


1000 


L'Heureux 


74 


730 


1000 


Le Duquesne . . 


74 


730 


1000 


Le Timoleon . . 


74 


730 


1000 k 1 ** Commerce de Bourdevfct. 


Le Cu-ira 


80 


950 


1300 Taken. 


L'Alcide ..... 


74 


730 


1000 


Ie Souverain . . 


74 


730 


1000 


Le Censetir . . . 


71 


730 


1000 Taken 


La Vcstale .... 


32 


250 




La Minerve ... 


40 


300 




L'i Tamise 


40 


300 


. 


L'Alceste ..... 


32 


250' 




Scout 


13 


320 ...I... 




L'llazurd 


20 .... 


120 . 





Tola! . IGctiguns, and 14,420 men. 

Admiral Ilofham's licet, with their two prizes, arrived safely, 
after a severe gale, in the Gulf of Spezia on the 18th, and -the 
Coura.jux, dismasted, reached Leghorn the same day. On the 
19th the Bombay Castle and Blenheim, with the convoy from 
England, arrived also at Leghorn ; a circumstance 01 the utmost 
Importance to the fleet, since, besides the seasonable reinforcement 
of twu ship* of the line, all kinds of stores had been sent out fo* 
repair. 

On (ho IGih of April. 1795, the thanks of the House of Com- 
mons. r.:ui on the 14th, the thanks of the House of Lords, were 
voted to Admiral llotham, to the Admirals Goodall, Parker, and 
Liuzee, and (o the several officers, seamen, and marines of the fleet; 
and the Admiralty, in transmitting these thanks, expressed the 
satisfaction which they felt, at the spirited and zealous exertions of 
the oilicers and men. Mr. Dundas prefaced his motion for the 
thanks of the House on this victory, in a manner very flattering to 
ths admiral. ii The late, victory is not more honourable to the 
}ji-i(i>h nation, than the account given of it by Admiral Hotham is 
modest. I certainly, sir, do not mean to compare this victory to 
many former ones, particularly to that of the first of June ; but it 
has still been a victory of the most brilliant ki'id for the British 
arms, and it has most probably disconcerted the projects of the 
enemy. The British fleet, in the Mediterranean, had been for 
2G,uv. tune at sea, and long employed in a severe service: yet that 



JOHX HOLLOWAY, ESQ. 369 

very fleet met the squadron of the enemy in full preparation, just 
Come out of port, and had not only not avoided, but endea- 
voured to bring them to action: the endeavour, however, was 
fruitless an action having been cautiously avoided. The only 
thing, therefore, that could be done, was to cut off two of the 
enemy's ships, which happily was effected." 

In addition to what Air., Dunclas thus said, and the thanks of 
both houses of parliament, Admiral Ho'ham and his officers had 
the satisfaction to receive the following from the Viceroy of 
Corsica : 

" SIR, " East la, April G, !f05. 

" I have the honour to transmit to you a letter from the president of the 
parliament nf Corsica, enclosing the vote of thanks of the chamber of par- 
liament to you, sir, and to the officers and ine:i wilder your com uand, for 
UK -i^iuil and important victory obtained over the French fleet on the 14th 
of March. 

*' I am happy in this opportunity of expressing to you, and entreating you 
to convey ;<> the licet, mv own exulted sense of the lustre added to his 
Majes-tv'i anus, an i f the honour acqui:e>'l to our country, by the 
gallantry and good conduct displayed on the 13th and 14th of March. 

4< I am .iot less sensible of the deep and solid obligations which this 
country, and all who have a regard for i:s security and happiness, owe to 
the important events of those days, and to the brave and able men who 
had a sh-rc. in them : and I am sure, that I can on no occasion more truly 
represent his Majesty, than by expressing, not only that general veneration 
and affection which I always feel towards the British navy, but the par- 
ticular applause which is merited by your 1-ite honouraUe and successful 
contest. I have the honour to be, with the highest respect and con- 
sideration, sir, your most obedient, faithful, humble servant, 

" Wee-Admiral Hotham, $c. n " GILBERT ELLIOT." 

Nothing of any importance occurred in the operations of the 
fleet, from the above action, to the succeeding month of July, 
1795 ; when, the French fleet having again ventured to sea, 
another engagement took place, which is thus detailed by the ad- 
miral in his oilicial letter. 

Extract of a letter from Admiral Hrfham, dated Britannia, at sea, 
July 14, 1795. 

" You will be pleased to inform their lordships, that I despatched on the 
4th instant from St. Fioreuzo, the ships Agamemnon, .Meleager, Ariadne, 
Moselle, and jVlutis.e cutter, under the orders of Captain Nelson; whom I 



370 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF 

directed to call off Genoa for the Inconstant and Southampton frigates that 
were lying there, and to take them with him ; if, from the intelligence lie 
might there obtain, he should find it necessary. 

" On the morning of the. 7th, I was much surprised to learn that the 
above squadron was seen in the offing, returning into that port, pursued by 
the enemy's fleet; which, by General de Vins' letter, the latest account I 
had received, I had reason to suppose was certainly at Toulon. 

Immediately on the enemy's appearance, I made every preparation to 
put to sea after them ; and notwithstanding the unpleasant predicament we 
were in, most of the ships being in the midst of watering and refitting, I 
was yet enabled, by the zeal and extraordinary exertions of the ofliccrs and 
men, to get the whole of the fleet under weigh that night, as soon as the 
land wind permitted us to move: from which time we neither saw nor 
heard any thing of the enemy, until the 12th, when being to the eastward, 
and within sight of the Hieres islands, two vessels were j-pokcn with by 
Captain Hothmn, of the Cyclops, and Captain Boys, of la Fleche, \\lio ac- 
quainted them that they had seen the French fleet, not many hours before, 
to the southward of those islands: upon which information, I made the 
signal before night to prepare for battle, as an indication to our fleet that 
the enemy was near. 

" Yesterday, at day-break, we discovered them to leeward of us, on the 
larboard tack, consisting of twenty-three sail, seventeen of which proved to 
be of the line : the wind at this time blew very hard from the \V.\.\V. 
attendee! with a heavy swell, and six of our ships had to bend main-top- 
sails, in the room of those that were split by the gale in the course of the 
night. 

" T caused the fleet, however, to be formed with all possible expedition, 
on the larboard line of bearing; carrying all sail possible to preserve that 
order, and tn keep the wind of the enemy, in the hopes of cutting them off 
tVuin the laud, from which we were only five leagues distant. 

' At flight o'clock, finding they had no other view but. that of endeavour- 
ing to get from us, I made the signal for a general chase, and for the ships 
; > tal.e suitaUe stations for their mutual support, and to engage the enemy 
KS arriving r.p with them in succession: but the baffling winds and vex- 
.'!;(>u uilms, which render every naval operation in this country doubtful, 
.-(joii afterwards took place, and allowed a few only of our van ships to 
j;i.;t up witli the enemy's rear about noon ; which they attacked so warmly, 
(hut, in the course of an hour after, we had the satisfaction to find one of 
their ^cnmiost bliips, viz. 1'Alcide, of 74 guns, had struck; the rest of this 
licet, faujincd by a shift of wind to the eastward (that placed them now 
to windward of us), had got so far into FrejasBay, whilst the major part of 
ourV wa? becalmed in the offing, that it became impossible for any thing 
further to be effected ; and those of one ships which were engaged, had 
approached so near to the shore, that I judged it proper to call them off by 
nul. 

" ft" rhe result of the day has not been so completely satisfactory as the 
imnencement promised, it it my duty to state, that no exertions could be 



JOI1X HOLLOWAY, ESQ. 371 

more unanimous limn those of the fleet under rny command; and it would 
be injustice to the general merit of all, to select individual instances of 
commendation, had not superiority of sailing placed some of the ships in an 
advanced situation, of which they availed themselves in the most dis- 
tinguished and honourable manner; and among the number was the Vic- 
tory, having Rear-admiiral Man on board, who had shifted his fiag to that 
skip upon this occasion. 

" I am sorry to say that the Alcidc-, about half an hour after she had 
struck, by some accident caught fire in her fore-top, before she was taken 
possession of, and the flames spread with such rapidity, that the whole 
ship was soon in a blaze ; several bwats from the fleet were despatched as 
quickly as possible, to rescue as many of the people as they could save 
frftm the destruction that awaited them, and three hundred of them were in 
consequence preserved: wlien the ship blew up with the most awful and 
tremendous explosion, and between three and four hundred people are sup- 
posed to have perished. 

'' Enclosed herewith is a list of the killed and wounded on board the 
different ships that were engnged, by which their lordships will perceive our 
loss lias not been great; and I have the pleasure to add, that the damages 
sustained by those ships have been such as can easily be remedied. 

" Had we fortunately fallen in with the enemy any distance from the 
land, I flatter myself we should have given a decisive blow to their naval 
fyrce in those seas ; and although the advantage of yesterday may not 
appear to be of any great moment, I yet hope it will have served as a check 
upon their present operations, be they what they may." 

flctum of the offifcrs and men killed and wott/ulcd, in action with the 
French fleet on the 13th of July. 

Victory. 1 midshipman, 3 marines, killed; 11 seamen wounded. 
Captain. I seaman killed. 

Culioden. 2 seamen killed ; first lieutenant, T. Whitter, and 4 seamen, 
wounded. 

Bhn'ieim. ?, seamen killed ; 2 do. wounded. 
Defence. 1 seaman killud; 6 do. wounded. 

The prompt manner in which thy admiral put to sea with his 
squadron, to follow the French fleet, and hie conduct throughout 
the action, was certainly honourable to his professional character: 
and although navy officers were offended at the discontinuance of 
the partial action which had commenced with some of the flying 
ships of the enemy (whence an opinion, too hastily formed, was 
encouraged by a party at home, hostile to the long and meritorious 
services of Admiral Hothain), that gallant officer, on Ms return, 
was deservedly honoured by a distinguished mark of his sorereign's 
favour, and raided to the dignity of an Irish peer, by the title of 



372 BIOGHArillCAL MEMOIR OF 

Baron Hotham. Thus much is due from us, as honest Chroniclers, 
to assert ; and more particularly in this place, as Captain Flollo\vay 
was so intimately and eminently concerned in (he whole of these 
proceedings. After the action the admiral sailed to St. Fiorenzo, 
and thence proceeded to Leghorn. In September the fleet cruised 
before Toulon, into which port the French squadron had again 
escaped: and on the arrival of Sir John Jervis at the close of 
the year, Admiral Hotham returned to England. 

Captain Holloway, soon after Sir John Jcryis had taken tho 
command, was appointed to tho Duke, and afterwards to the St. 
(George, until he was advanced to the rank of rear-admiral in 
17'9 : nor was it long before he hoisted his fia.g. Lord Spencer 
sent him to Portsmouth, as second in command at that port, to 
assist A'!in>,\il 3,Iilbanke; and, in June 1800, his ilag was on 
board tlxj braukel, of 64 guns, the late Captain George Clarke. 
Admiral II >llo\vay was kept on this service long after the BraakcJ 
Lad -uiileti for the Mediterranean, until the peace ; and though he 
aril n'.iy wished for a wider sphere of duty, in which he might 
incase, his Same, and pursue the career of glory that was opened 
to ^0 man) other officers ; his attention and assiduity in the depart- 
n.cnt to which he had been appointed, and rigidly kept, contrary, 
r> u iuTieve, to his earnest solicitations, were found to be truly 
focm-i: -ia! to the service. ' 

(*n the renewal of the war, he again was sent to his former 
iodines tluiy at Portsmouth, under Admiral Lord Gardner; where 
lit :. coniiiuied until he was made a vice-admiral in 180 J. lie was 
'.-,<)(' :i afterwards ordered to hoist his Hag in the Downs, and his 
co .'.d -.(.::, M hilst at Deal, Droved him to bell zealous servant of the 
rrov. M. aid an able officer : during his continuance there, \ve have 
l:ct n inT'inncd, that he was offered a seat at the Admiralty Board, 
wi:ieii lie declined. In 1807, he was made governor of JNewfouncl- 
!an!, ar.cl commander in chief on that station, with his Ilag 
on bo;>rd the isis. of 50 guns; an appointment in which he 
ha- disolay.'d his wonted ability ; and has endeavoured, by every" 
means, to conciliate the affections of such of the Indians as live 
on the iilii'id. Its interior is at present but little known, and 
is rendered impassable by the quantity of spruce fir which 
on it. A considerable part of its coast has never been 



JOHN HOLLO WAY, ESQ. 373 

surveyed. One of the best accounts of Newfoundland that has 
appeared was published by Mr. Reeves. 

Whilst the admiral remained unemployed in 1803, he received 
the following letter from his friend Admiral Lord Nels~on, dated 
off Toulon, August 22. 

<; MY DEAR IIOLLOWAY, 

" Your letter, by Mr. Taylor, I received from Admiral Campbell, Mr. 
Taylor being gone to Malta, a place probably I shall never see during my 
command. However, I shall be happy in shewing every attention to your 
recommendation. I am sorry you are not employed, but I think it must 
come at last, for, as you observe, your nerves are good, and your head I 
never heard disputed. The Narcissus not having joined, I have not had an 
opportunity of seeing your nephew Lyons. Your son-in-law, Captain 
Otway, will get a ship, and I hope his Culloden : and that you may both be 
soon actively employed, is the sincere wish of, my dear Ilolloway, your 
'obliged and faithful friend, 

" NELSON AND BRONTE." 

There is one part of this admiral's professional character which 
still merits our notice, and that is, the impartial and solemn manner 
in which he presides at a court martial. This was more par- 
ticularly remarked by those persons who were present at the trial 
of the mutineers in the fiermione, in 1805, whilst Adir.iral 
Ilolloway remained at Portsmouth. His address to the pdsoiu-rs 
was firm without violence, and devout, without any leaven or cant 
of methodism. He invariably preserved the scales of justice with 
an even hand, and by his example, taught the younger members of 
the court to attend to, and to respect its proceedings. 

Such is the general outline of the services and charac(er of 
this naval officer; who by plain sailing, and keeping a steady 
course, has gained a high character in his profession, and preserved 
the confidence of government, amidst the vicissitudes and cabal- of 
party. Truer than the compass, he has throughout ii^e displayed 
no variation. As the anonymous author of the Arlanti.s, already 
cited, said, " John Holloway comprises the genuine character of 
a true i5ritish tar. and a gallant officer. Honest \vidiout \\n-i- ise, 
bra e without Ostentation, and independent without being <ts. 
suming, he merits ivory thing that can be said iu his iavour 5 as 
a deserving naval commander." 



374 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, 



NANTES IN 01' HO ITS VA8TO. 



RECENT DESCRIPTION OF TOULON'.* 

E following account of the arsenal of Toulon, as it appeared 
in 1804, is extracted from FISCHER'S Travels in the South oj 
France : 

Ci The arsenal lies between the haven and the parade. Pity 
Ihat the fine entrance is situated in a narrow and remote street. 
When you have passed the forms of admission by the officer cu 
guard, yon find yourself in an open square, from which you can 
pass to the different parts of the arsenal. The first object that 
attracted our attention was the ruins of the grand magazine work, 
destroyed by the English in 1793. We hastened over the foundry 
and rope-grounds, on our right side, that we might spend the 
more time among the ships in the dock-yard, where we found our- 
selves, on all sides, encompassed with marines, sailors, and galley- 
laves ; on all sides surrounded with maritime bustle and activity. 

From thence we proceeded to the famous dock, whose construc- 
tion will surely immortalize the name of Grognard. It is a deep 
basin, enclosed in brick work, in the haven of the arsenal ; its 
form is that of a line-of-battle ship, its length is 180, its breadth 
$0, and its depth 13 French feet. 

In the front is a sluice-gate or lock, capable of being opened and 
shut at pleasure ; and in t'jeback a building, with 84 large pumps; 
toy means of the former, the basin is filled with water for bringing 
the s'.,ips in ; by means of the latter, it is emptied for repairing 
them. The inner side of the basin is provided with steps, at pro- 
per distances, for the purpose of getting more conveniently to all 
parts of the vessel; it is also furnished with many flights of steps 
leading from the bottom up to the quays. 

From ht'nco we passed through a strongly-guarded gate to the 
galleys, "where we found other prisoners besides slaves. These 
galleys are old ships of war unrigged, and unmasted, having their 
decks enlarged, and covered with a roof of about five or six feet 
high ; they are encompassed with a gallery, and have, in the fore 
part, steps, which lead to the shore. The whole is painted red, 
and has the appearance of a barrack. 

* F",r an ewllrat view of Toulon, by Pococke, see Vol. II. p. 4C1. 



NATAL ANECDOTK3, &C. 575 

^ Having shewn our tickets to the captain, we received imme- 
diate permission to enter the largest of the galleys ; the internal 
part was divided off by two long rows of benches, leaving a wide 
path in the middle; each bench contained four galley-slaves, and 
had a hole opposite for the admission of air. In the back part was 
a kitchen, and OR each side an apartment for inspectors. The 
whole appeared to be much more cleanly, airy, and capacious, 
than is generally imagined. Each galley contains 1,200 pri- 
soners, whose lot, though hard enough, is by no means equal to 
the representations given of it. 

" It is true, the slaves are mostly chained two and two, hare 
no other bi-d than the bare ground, no other covering than coarse 
rags ; no nourishment, except what is usually allowed in prisons, 
and arc, notwithstanding, doomed to the severest labour. Still 
there are a variety of modifications, by which the situation is ren- 
dered supportable. 

" First, the slaves are compelled to labour only every third 
day, on which they receive a larger portion of food. Secondly, if 
they behave well, they are, at the expiration of six, eight, twelve, 
or sixteen months, freed from their heavy chains, and confined 
only by a light ring at the foot; the slaves, thus far emancipated., 
work by pairs, but are no longer chained together. Thirdly, 
every one is at liberty to procure, either by his own labour, or the 
bounty of others, whatever necessaries a galley permits him to 
enjoy. 

" He may, for example, purchase for himself a mattress, better 
linen, clothes, &c. and when it is his turn to labour, he may be ex. 
empt by paying another to work for him ; he can send for meat, 
and even wine in moderation, and lessen the rigours of his situation 
in a variety of other ways. 

" Each galley receives properly five hundred active slaves on 
board, and as they are paid by their employers and the sailors for 
extra labour, the very poorest may always relieve himself to a cer- 
tain extent. 

" Among the slaves living on their fortunes are frequently 
found men who have formerly filled the most respectable situations. 
The galley we visited contained of this description, among others, 
a general, who had sold false dismissals to banished persons ; a 
lieutenant of marines, who had been found guilty on a charge of 
insubordination; a commissary of war, who had defrauded the 
treasury ; and a secretary of the marine, who had given in, false 
estimates. 



376 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

" To these (who were condemned for twenty or thirty years), 
the upper apartments were appropriated ; they were distinguishable 
from the rest of the slaves by their dress, cleanliness, &c. and had 
laid out for their amusement little gardens, filled with orange and 
lemon trees. 

" Among the slaves who live by their own exertions are fre- 
quently found very skilful artisans, and professional men. Oil 
board the galley of which we are now speaking, was an engraver, 
a musician, a watch maker, and a goldsmith ; of whom the inspec- 
tors spoke in high terms Every galley, besides half a dozen 
buffoons, has *en or twelve men who wash, an equal number of 
cooks, and at least four barbers. 

li We left the galley (where all 'the gradations of the passions 
may be traced in the varions features of the inhabitants), and 
hastem-d lo inspect the remaining parts of the arsenal ; comprising 
the smith's, cooper's, and sail-maker's shops; the foundry and 
ropo-rrounds, the mast-maker's, baker's, and other places, which 
cannot be properly described without plates. 

" Adjoining to the smith's, we were shewn a small cabinet, 
filled with a variety of nautical curiosities ; and in the marine school 
a i"jO!r>, containing models for s*hips, and instruments for teaching 
navig.t'ion, ship-building, -&c. 

" Tl;e Model of the basin, vessels, &c. was very interesting, as 
it ccnveyo?! a most perfect idea of the original, and appeared to 
have been cxecnt-d with uncommon precision ; yet we found in 
some oth.-rs a great want of that cleanliness and elegance which 
distin" !;- 'i the Dufjch and English models. 

" Having examined the diiferent parts of the arsenal, we saw 
that, notwithstanding the irregularity of its appearance, its form 
i-, a perivct quadrangle, open on one side, having a dork and 
haven in the centre. A spirit of zeal and diligence seemed preva- 
lent in every department, as well as a spirit of order and method ; 
there appeared to us a greater want of hands than of materials for 
manufacturing ; and we left the place with the conviction, that, 
although a most excellent commencement is made, yet a marine 
force is not to be raised like an- army of conscripts ; because in the 
former case, the greatest enthusiasm can never make good the . 
want of experience. 

" This conviction was confirmed on the following morning, 
when we saw the fleet I) ing in the roads ready for sailing. We 
first went on board the admiral's ship, and were very cordially 
received by the famous JLatouche; we visited many other vessels, 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 377 

and were treated with great politeness ; we discovered throughout 
the whole, much order and discipline among the crews, but yet a 
want of dexterity : this remark was allowed to be just, even by 
the admiral himself." 



OUTRAGE AT SEA. 
Extract of a letter from Penzance, dated May 13, 1808. 

A TRANSACTION has just occurred in the English Channel, 
which, in the circumstances of cowardice and barbarity attending 
it, will perhaps seek in rain for a parallel in any age or country, 
and which at the same -time affords an instance of the almost 
miraculous intervention of Providence. 

A few days since, a beautiful little yacht, of about twenty tons, 
belonging to Messrs. Perrings, of this place, sailed for London, 
having on board themselves and one of the most expert and able 
seamen of the port. 

On Monday last, the 9th, about seven in the evening, between 
Portland and St. Albans, the wind 1 about W.S.W. they saw a large 
brig beating down Channel, standing towards the land ; when she 
tacked and stood off, she passed ahead of the yacht, at about half 
a mile distance, hauled up her ports, and fired a shot. One of the 
gentlemen was at the helm, and called to the seaman that a gua 
had been fired as a signal to hoist the colours ; while in the act of 
bending them, another shot was fired, which passed close over 
their heads ; scarcely were the colours hoisted when a third shot 
carried away the mizen. Utterly at a loss to account for this pro- 
ceeding, they stood on so as to be able to get under the brig's 
stern, and receive her commands ; but on her continuing to fire, 
no resource seemed left them but to haul down the sails, and lie 
completely at mercy ; the foresail and mainsail were accordingly 
hauled down, and they at the same time went forward, pulled off 
their hats, and intrcated them to cease firing. By this time they 
were much nearer the brig, and distinctly heard them hail, 
" What arc ye? " to which they answered, " A pleasure boat," 
accompanied with every action and assurance they thought likely 
to satisfy their assailants. While in this situation they saw the 
match applied, and another discharge proved they had not suc- 
ceeded. In this helpless state, the brig continued to fire round 
and case shot, unt^il at length the yacht was nearly under the 
muzzle of her guns, when, in the midst of their supplications to 

. ftol. XIX. 3 c 



378 XAVAL ANECDOTES, 

know what they should do, another shot was fired, and they wertf 
ordered to put out their boat and. come aboard : this they did with 
all possible expedition, amidst th'e threats to fire unless theyMiiade 
haste. One of the gentlemen and the seaman went on board the 
vessel, which they found to be a brig of ten twelve-pounders, the 
crew armed with muskets, sabres, &c. The captain demanded 
who they were : on being told that she was a gentleman's yacht, 
he exclaimed, it was a lie, that she was a privateer, and full of 
Frenchmen. Mr. Perring then produced the register, and begged- 
them to ascertain if there was any one left on board but his bro- 
ther ; abserving also that she was sinking, and that not a moment 
must be lost in saving him: the information was too true, for Mr. 
Perring was seen stript to his trowsers, and ready to swim in case- 
the boat did not return in time ; this she fortunately did : he 
jumped into the boat with a writing desk, the only thing that could 
be saved, and before the boat could* return to the brig, the yacht' 
went clown. It seems- incredible that no one should have been 
killed or wounded, which must be regarded as a most happy cir- 
cumstance for the captain. The brig is a Belfast trader; 

BEN THE SAILOR. 

A SHORT time ago, a seaman, who seemed to have stowed away 
more grog than he could steadily carry, was brought before the 
.sitting alderman, at the Mansion House, by a publican, at 'whose 
hou.e he lodged, charging him with having broken his windows, 
and assaulted him. Honest Ben, a veteran near 60, who appeared 
to have weathered many a hard gale, and was a good deal shattered, 
both hi hull and rigging, after hearing the charge against him. 
and being asked what he had to say in his defence, turned his quid, 
hitched up his trousers, and addressing tho worthy alderman in the 
true forecastle dialect, said, " Why, your honour, i)clike I 
in-lit have come athwart this here man in a breeze, and mauled 
Jhiiii a little, fore and aft ; but he has forgot to tell your honour 
as Isow ho began first; so your honour must overhaul him a*bit 
before you .send me to the bilboes. Your honour must know, I 
am a cu-tomer at his house, and take my birth there, and he's my 
>,>;:i>er. and all that: but he has forgot to tell you as how that h 
*:o\( me overboard last night, and shattered my head rails and 

u-r tinkers before I begun and stove in his lights. And does 
our honour think that I, who have been a seaman in his Majesty's 

-ice, man and boy, these 40 years, will ever take such rough 
Iroin e'er a lubber iu Europe, without giving him battle ? 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, ScC. f'79 

If I do, then say I am no seaman," This harangue produced a 
good deal of laughter, and honest Ben was dismissed,' upon a pro- 
mise that he would not strike his landlord again, unless his laud- 
lord struck him first. 

DEBATING SOCIETY. 

THE question, a Are there not cases that justify a lady in 
making the first advances to the man she loves ? " afforded a most 
entertaining debate at the Forum, in Liverpool, lately : the com- 
pany were respectable, the speakers numerous, and the question 
carried in the affirmative by a very large majority. Amongst many 
eccentric opinions, one gentleman observed, that though a lady 
might not be justifiable in making a verbal or written avowal of 
her attachment, yet there were modes equally communicative, such 
as nods, winks, leers, and ogles : upon which a seafaring gen- 
tleman made the following pointed reply : '" If the last speaker 
depends upon nods, winks, leers, and ogles, he may be deceived, 
and instead of a matrimonial frigate, run foul of a piratical 
cruiser; no, sir! let him take an English sailor's advice, and not 
wait for signals of distress, but fire the first shot ; if she won't 
heave to, pour iu a broadside, and depend upon't she'll strike her 
colours." 

LTEUTEXANT WILLIAM PEAUCE. . 

THE crew of his Majesty's ship Foudroyant have presented a 
very elegant sword to Lieutenant Pearce, in testimony of their 
esteem and gratitude to him for the very gallant manner in which 
he saved the lives of four of their brother seamen, at a time when 
there was so great a storm that none but himself dared venture to 
their rescue. 

ANECDOTE OF A BRITISH SAILOR. 

SIR, Port Royal, Jamaica, February 1803. 

THE following interesting and extraordinary anecdote of a 
British sailor in the moments of dissolution, I am sure you will 
think worthy of insertion. With respect, I am, sir, 

PARC JR. 

His Majesty's brig Wolf, Captain Hall, whilst on a cruise to 
the Spanish main, fell in with several of the enemy's gun-vessels ort 
the 31st of October, 1807, near the Isles or Keys of St. Bernardo. 
on the coast of Cartha'iern, and in a most enllant manner engaged 
them for upwards of two hours ; daring which time the Wjlf hud 



380 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

several men wounded, from the well -directed fire of the enemy ; 
among the number was Thomas M'Gharty, a fine youth of one 
and twenty, who was returning to the main-top from the top-sail- 
yard (where he had been active in knotting the top-sail-braces 
tiiat were shot away), when a shot severed his thigh from his body 
close to the hip, suspending it only by the skin of the back part ; 
he was lowered from the top in this situation, presenting a most 
shocking spectacle of human misery : when taken below, he ap- 
peared quite sensible, and requested the doctor to attend to the 
other unfortunate sufferers, as he was certain his dissolution was 
approaching, but that he felt happy in dying for his king and 
country. The surgeon (Mr. Clark, a most deserving and worthy 
yoking IIUITI), saw from the state a^id nature of the wound, that it 
v.-.is imuoj-.-vble he could survive many moments longer, and there- 
K;P' K> ft ill':; to his unhappy fate; he at this moment appeared 
:u-{l, and articulated in a faint voice the words of the 
dear Poll, I die for love of thee," &c. and continued 
so to do fill his last breath closed the truly melancholy scene. 

SIR THOMAS LOUIS'S SWORD. 

AT a court of common council, held at Guildhall on the 6th 
of M;iy. the chamberlain of the city stated to the court, that the 
ft \voi\l \\hich had been voted to Admiral Sir Thomas Louis had 
r.of l:tvn presented to the admiral, his country having lost the ser- 
*;;,.- of that gallant officer by his death, previously to the sword 
Jhi\!i! b-.vn made. It was thereupon unanimously resolved to 
])re.'-L':it iho swo.-il to Sir John Louis, a post captain in his Majes- 
ty's service, and son of the deceased. 

A rriAvru TO BE USED IN THE SWEDISH CHURCHES DURING 

THE WAK.- 

Ar ,',::r;i:Tv, just, and eternal God, look mercifully uppn, thy 
p?.';pie. \v!io put their hope and trust in thee alone. 

\'\\- :::i; .lore thy protection and defence; for faithless enemies 
have u!ijiis;!y made war upon us. Thou art just, O God: 
"VYn.u an encouraging consolation this, in our rightful cause! ~ 
Th;>i! ari omnipotent : what invincible aid may we not thea 

v ; :c>i-i. -'iaril, strengthen, and endue with thy special grace 
;! ^ i our a;ood and beloved sovereign, under all his cares 
' e::'ire ;uiu defence of his kingdom. Grant him prosperity 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 381 

and success in all his proceedings and endeavours to frustrate the 
wicked plots of our enemies. 

Inspire, O Almighty God, all our hearts with one mind, so that, 
with the bravery and courage of our forefathers, we may go forth 
hand in hand, and with united strength, for the defence of all that 
is dear to us our beloved native land! and manfully resist the 
insidious foes of its prosperity and independence ; drive back the 
enemies from our frontiers, crown our armies with victory, and 
restore peace and quiet to our habitations. 

Be thou with us, O God, as thou wast with our forefathers : 
they implored thy help in the hour of danger, and thou didst hear 
their prayers ; AVC will then never forget to give glory to thy 
name, thou Most High. We will teach our children that thoa 
alone art the Lord, mighty to save, in whom thy people may place 
their certain hope and trust. Vouchsafe to hear us, and accept 
our supplications, for the sake of thy dear son, our Saviour, 
Jesus Christ. Amen. 

CURIOUS PRIVILEGE TO THE SHIP OF THE KING'S PAINTER; 
FROM THE LATIN. 

JAMES, by the grace of God, King of Scots, to all and singular 
whom knowledge of these presents interest, or may interest, 
safety. We desire it to be known, and testified to you by these 
presents, that the ship called the Sun, coaster, John Johnson, of 
France, pertains by right to Hadrian Wanson, our painter,* a 
eitizen of Edinburgh : wishing to request you, all and singular 
preserving to each his' dignity, that the said ship of the above 
citizen, our servant and painter, may be acknowledged as his pro- 
perty : and it, with its freight, sailors, merchandize, and all its 
apparel, with your grace and favour, anil other kind offices usually 
paid by friendly nations, may on our account be honoured and 
respected. And' whatever labour or favour to our said painter 
(whom for many reasons we greatly favour, and wih him well) 
may be granted or indulged by you in this business, we shall 
esteem as rendered to ourselves. 

Given under our signet, from our palace of Holyrood House, 
the 20th clay of November, the year of grace, 1594. 

JACOBUS R. 

* " Ad Hadrianum Vv'ansoniiun pictorem nostrum." This high favour 
could hardly be bestowed on a house painter. 'The name seems to be Vaa 
Son, of which there are later pointers of Antwerp. 



382 CORRESPONDENCE. 



ADMIRAL RAINIER'-S 

THE late Admiral Rainier hasMeft property to the amount of 
nearly '250,0001. and after providing amply for his near relations, 
has made the following bequest: 

" I bequeath one-tenth" part of my personal property to the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer for the time being, towards the reduction of the national 
debt, in acknowledgment of the generous bounty of the national establish- 
ment of the royal navy, in which I have acquired the principal part of the 
fortune I now have, which hai exceeded my merit and pretensions.'" 



CORRESPON DENCE. 

PRESENT MANAGEMENT AND DISCIPLINE OF THE NAVY. 

LETTER IV. 
SIR, 

SOMK ^presentations which I have lately received, induce me 
to enter upon a subject which I would not willingly engage 
in, but its importance is so great, that it cannot be too seriously 
n-ilcrterl upon by those whom it may concern. I believe there is 
no country in Europe where a greater deference is paid to here- 
ciifary honours than in England ; and this is all as it should be, 
T,heu it is a voluntary offering, and not an evidently assumed 
right. But this distinction ought to vanish upon service. When a 
peer, lur.vever high his rank, becomes a military man, either by 
land or sea, he should pretend to no more attention upon service, 
than ho i-i entitled to by his rank in that service. 1 think this 
rule should hold good even in the highest conceivable circum- 
5';iT!r<'s. u hic'i is, where a prince of the blood joins his fellow sub- 
ji-fis in ai-Tns. The prospect of future advantages, and the cus- 
tomary attentions paid to a title, will produce a sufficient quantum 
<iT r ->!.!> \> i.'ho-st any endeavours of thej>erson himself to enforce 
i. a : J lio should never consider himself as more than his military 
r;;i-.iv mala 1 -; him. \Vc have in our naval service, Mr. Editor, 
many im-n of v-.iry high rank, of the most tried gallantry and 
rinhuT.i :,':' UK'S. Many of these noble personage; are superior to 
;.;v assumption, and can be only the finished gentlemen 
iViCi'rr; in '.vhatt-ver they do. But there are others who appear 
iHTPi l::.-J snyin^ to themselves, " Behold, I urn a lord!" 
,rn c,r u.!>.y fnendly connection, with their officers j and. 



COIUIKSPONDEXCE. 383 

pretend (o a harshness of discipline, which, without their titles, they 
never would have dreamt of. According to my original determi- 
nation, I do not mean to point at an individual, even indirectly : 
ray only aim is to draw attention to any particular subject, in the 
hopes of inducing its consideration ; and having just glanced at it, 
quit it Avith the pleasing rejection, that there are so many 
honourable exceptions to contrast with the few contrary instances. 

The new instructions for the navy contain very many excellent 
regulations, but few pleased me better than those which more 
rigidly enforce the servitude as midshipmen, and Jix a time in which 
it is necessary every officer should remain a lieutenant and comman- 
der. This will prevent that very rapid passage over tlie subordinate 
stages, which has -very often placed officers in the command of post 
ships, before they could at all know the importance of their trusty 
Avhile they felt too much the importance of their elevation. Yet 
the^se checks upon a too rapid adrancement are not such as will 
prevent officers in the prime of life from attaining to Hie highest 
ranks of the service. The ignorance which most abounds in our 
service, though it is by no means peculiar to it, is that of hunwn 
nature. For want of knowledge in this difficult science, little 
attention is paid to lead men by their minds, instead of being con- 
tented with having their bodies reduced to machines. The very 
rapid progress through the inferior stations above mentioned, pre- 
cluded the possibility of much proficiency, and the education of 
youth of the higher ranks, to whom rapid promotion is chiefly con- 
fined, is not very capable of affording it. I believe few officers,, 
either in the army or navy, who in their early situations have mixed 
much with the common men, have failed to remark it as a usual 
expression, when discontented under an idea of being ill treated, 
" Treat me like a man : Jlog me if you- think I deserve it, biU 
treat me like a man." There is vast force in the expression, and 
it should be followed up to the utmost. I have in my early da)&- 
been so situated, as to have heard all the complaints and opinion* 
of seamen in their full freedom. I hardly know one who could 
not discriminate between the merit of strict^ and the folly anil 
injustice of harsh or severe discipline ; and they all allow themselves 
to be happier, where a regalarly strict order is maintained, than 
where a lax and uncertaiu command obtains. They know witll 
great accuracy when an order that gives them a great deal of 
trouble, is the effect of necessity or caprice, and obey it accord- 
ingly, either with the full and manly effort of a good will, or the 
reluctant movement of constraint. I am sure that tke reasoning 



384 CORRESPONDENCE. 

faculties of seamen are not done justice to, by many who command 
them, for they are by no means to be despised. During these 
latter times particularly, a spirit of inquiry into the right or wrong 
of all measures has been predominant, and a change of manners in 
the lower classes has in a great degree taken place. I beg those, 
who see that the love of grog has prevailed equally at all times, 
not to think that all the other tastes and sentiments of seamen have 
remained unchanged. Very considerable ones have taken place, 
and if they have not as yet produced any great improvement, they 
are capable of leading to it. There is an old story in every sailor's 
mouth, that when a boatswain asked his officer, what the ship's 
company should be set to work about, he was answered, " let 
them knot yarns, and make spun-yarn." The boatswain replied, 
that u all the rope-yarns had been already made into spun-yarn." 
*' Then ir.:;ke tha spun-yarn into rope-yarn" was the order. 
iSfo-v. fl<; sort Af management, the very cogent reason given for 
wiihv ;- SJ..H i,. *' keeps, the devil out of the rascals' minds," is very 
coi:T.! :i'!i ijiuicT various shapes. This contrivance of artificial 
labiv,:; ; ;n.;rii detested, and has occasioned mutinous conduct and 
desert io-,1 fi;!l oft. The spokesmen in the bay, on these occasions, 
ray. ihal il docs not. answer the purpose of keeping the old gen- 
UcTsrni <;ii', but rca!!y affords him the rich food of discontented 
min;l > v/nrk upon. And perhaps they are right; for if after a 
dec!, i.<; r. a; ,-. :is clean as a drawing room, a man is put to rub it 
.vitli a >.!<.. iii: hour longer, he cannot feel satisfied, any more 
f;Ki'i i:, i..; ;v<>e-varn from spun-yarn. To increase the mass 

i.iinvSiv, appears as evidently the intent, as it is the 
duly if eac.h iruiivkhial. avid probably a commander of a ship of 
v. ar luii i;; , 'o.isi\e power to effect this, than most other men. 
it is wo ,:h'n"ii! how easy it is to lead a set of happy mortals, to 
-\ li:i' i i> to v'rive a set of discontented ones ; and I certainly would 
sooi:;-.' >,( t> a si ip's crew employed in mending or making their 
clotii ft\;;iin^. '5cc. than in making rope-yarns cut of spun-yarn. 
V 'lien IL is (viKi'Itieil, Mr. Editor, how few hours in the day, even 
in tin!.'.- , : ihf prt-atcst leisure, are free from the necessary duties 
of c'r.: iinc; iho ships, squaring the yards, working the boats, drying 
sails, '::(. it >,c'ins lo me to require some ingenuity to collect a very 
modi ;;;.!;' poriicjn of time to the crew, for their comfort and 
u;i,u; :,Uiit. iii (udd of exerting it to make perfect cleanliness more 
cVai ; / . . oi- i;i making ro*pe-yarns out of spun-yarn. I thank 
God, ;.ir. Lclitcr, the happy medium between a lax and harfh 



COHIIESPONDENCE. 385 

command is beginning to spread extensively through the navy, 
but there are not wanting so0ie to whom the foregoing hints may 
,be valuable. I am, sir, &c. 

A. F. Y. 

ERRATUM. In A. F. Y.'s first letter, page 197, line 17, for 
superior read inferior. 

*^.^>.^ i> 

MR. EDITOK, 

" T \7'OU must be a devilish lucky fellow, or else a precious con- 
-*- jurer, if you ever get my old friend Tom Hardy to send you 
a memoir of his life: for I tee you have hung 'tim up, with a 
variety of other intended officers, on the wrapper of your last 
CHRONICLE. However, as no officer better deserves to have his 
name recorded in your work, I send ydu nis for a fac-simile. 




Another officer, whose name you have mentioned, you will find 
equally difficult for your intended purpose : and i would advice 
you, Mr. Editor, to pluck up ali the courage that can be fo>,nd 
in Shoe Lane, before you venture to propose to him to give yon a 
memoir of i'.is services. He is one of the first officers in the navy, 
and as diffident of his own merit as he is brave. He lately com- 
manded one of the king's yachts-; but I trust he will soon be ap- 
pointed to more active service. You. have already given some 
extracts from a paiapulut he was compelled to publish, -which is 
now out of print. His name is 



, OtoI.XIX. 




385 CORRESPONDENCE. 

It would giro me pleasure to see inserted the following copy of 
Captain Foote's letter, announcing the capture of la Sensible : 

Captain Footers letter on service to Earl St. Vincent, commander in chief iff 
the Mediterranean, dated Sea Horse, June 27, 1798 : at 7 A.M. Isk of 
Pantellaria W.N.W. 12 leagues. 

" MY LORD, 

" After a chase of twelve hours, and a close action of eight minutes, hisr 
Majesty's ship under ray command, this morning at four o'clock, captured 
the Sensible, a French six-and-thirty gun frigate, twelve-pounders, and 300 
men, commanded by Mons. Bourde, capitaine de vaisseau; the frigate i* 
new coppered, copper-fastened, and had a thorough repair at Toulon two 
months ago. A general of division, Baraguey d'Hilliers, with his suite, 
were on board, going to Toulon, with an account of the capture of Malta, 
The Sea Horse's officers and men conducted themselves much to my satis- 
faction, c.nd I received that assistance from Mr. Wilhnott, my first lieute- 
nant, which I might naturally expect from an officer, who had been in nine 
actions, and received eight wounds. t 

" The master's mate, and nine men belonging to the Culloden, evinced the 
3ame steady courage as the crew of that ship has done on every occasion, 
The enclosed is a list of killed and 1 wounded. 

" Sea Horse. Mr. Willmott, first lieutenant, slightly wounded; one sa- 
.vian, one drummer, killed; 13 seamen, one corporal of marines, and one 
private, wounded. 

I. a Sensible. Mons. Bourde, capitaine de raisseau,. wounded ;. second 
aptaioj and 35 seamen, do. eighteen killed. 

" 1 have the rumour to remain, 

" Your lordship's most obedient servant, 

EDWARD JAMES FOOTE." 



But I wiil not close this letter without sending you another 
name, to add to your fac-similes, of one of the worthiest and most 
ra'laat seamen that ever lived* He has distinguished himself en a 
variety of occasions, and was wounded with the great Nelson, 
-whose intimate friendship he enjoyed, and by whose side he fought 
st the attack on Teneriffbj in 1797. The officer I mean is. 
Captain 




CORRESPONDENCE. 

REMARKS ON THE PARLIAMENTARY DUTIES OF NAVAL 
OFFICERS. 

LETTER I. 
SIR, April 21,1808. 

NCE I read the paragraph in A. F. Y.'s letter in a pre- 
ceding part of the present relume,* where he disapproves of 
officers being members of parliament, I have given the subject 
much serious consideration, and I believe him to be perfectly 
right in his objection, whether it be considered as regarding the 
profession in particular, or the country in general. As I con- 
clude that your correspondent A. F. Y. in his promised con. 
tinuation, will consider those circums;ances in which this measure 
affects the naval service in particular, 1 will oiler you some obser- 
vations on its consequence to thy public. 

I conclude, Mr. Editor, that a work comprising so many 
interesting matters as your Chronicle, is read by a very large 
majority of the people of these islands, and by nearly all those who 
cither belong to, fir have connection with the navy. If this letter, 
or any other I may offer you on thu subject, meets the eye of any 
of my brother sailors, who, as well as fighting the battles of their 
country, are either called upon, or have volunteered their service* 
to legislate for her, I request them to take my hints in good part ; 
and to believe that it is not under a presumption of superior 
patriotism, or equal abilities, that I venture to address myself to> 
their notice, but from an idea that circumstances have put me in 
the way of knowing more of the sense of the people of Englnnd 
on public affairs, than can come before officers in general. It is 
the more frequent case with naval officers, who are confined the 
greatest part of their time afloat, within the rigid bounds of 
military discipline, to pass their hours of relaxation on shore, 
either in the metropolis, or in or near some sea port town ; in 
neither of which situations, are the genuine notions, or the true 
interests of honest John Bull to be learned. 

It is natural to suppose, that men bred up in habits of strict 
military discipline, and feeling from infancy the necessity of sup- 
porting the full power of command, should loan a little to tiir 
support of ministers, and gam a bias to one side ; thus entering 
into their career of hereditary legislators, or representatives of the 
people, with a partiality which it is absolutely necessary to tiis. 
card, before a fair view can be taken of any subject. 

* See vsa;e 198. 



388 CORRESPONDENCE. 

It is also the nature of man to be swayed by self interest., whi<Jt 
in this case, has at least full as many motives to attach the officer 
to the train of the minister as can any where be found. 

In order therefore to be an unbiassed and efficient member of 
either house of parliament, a naval officer has to attain a knowledge 
of the interests and opinions of the great mass of the people^ 
which the usual tenor of his life has made it absolutely impossible 
he should be acquainted with. lie has been bred up in habits of 
obedience to, or of enforcing military laws, which though highly 
necessary in their proper place, run exactly counter to the spirit 
of the laws of a free people; and he has also the strong bias of 
self interest to counteract, or at least to lose sight of, before he 
can give an impartial vote. These are obstacles of a very serious 
nature to surmount, but what every honest man will take com- 
pletely into consideration, before he is satisfied that he does his 
duty ;is he ought. Surely, Mr. Editor, those m-n who have so 
often braved danger and death for their country on the ocean, who 
have there so nobly exerted themselves in the defence of libtrty 
and Old England^ will be careful not to give a vote in favour of 
any naa.-u.-e which may tend to infringe upon that liberty, or to 
in nire the interests of that country ; yet they will always run the 
ru.k of so doing, if they are not careful to make themselves 
masters of both sides of the question before them. Men who hold 
their honour so dear, will of course observe every caution to pre- 
vrnt (heir giving a vote, with wiiich that honour, on subsequent 
reflection, would be at all dissatisfied. 

Of (he integrity of my brother sailors, I have as high an opinion 
as of their gallantry, (can I say more?) but 1 have not an opinion, 
that when they cuter either house of parliament, they have always 
sufficiently weighed the true and serious nature of their new 
employ, or that they are in general possessed of the requisite 
inf'M-mution. Observe, Mr. Editor, that I speak of these de- 
iick'iiri s, as TT.e;v!y arising from the nature of things, "not from 
eUh<T mr;il or intellectual failure; and J mention them, not as 
arcu>ation.s, but as hints for consideration. Many years retire- 
ment from the service, has opened a new field of observation to mo, 
and ! tn;r-t that most of those gallant officers vtho are now in par. 
Jiament, will be so constantly employed \:\ their profession, that 
thry will not have the experience of county meeting';, or pari-h 
v;>:rie<, to give Ihrm the information 1 think 1 have acquired. 
An I wrong therefore in endeavouring to alfo.d them that