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THE LIBRARY 

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THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

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THE 




Chronicle, 



FOR 1809: 

CONTAINING A 

GENERAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

OF 

THE ROYAL NAVY 

OF THE 



WITH A VARIETY OF ORIGINAL PAPERS ON 
NAUTICAL SUBJECTS. 



UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF SEVERAL 

LITERARY AND PROFESSIONAL MEN. 



VOL. XXI. 

(FROM JANUARY TO 



AS YOU VALUE THE GLOnY AND SAFETY OF BRITAIN, SUPPORT THE SPANIARD* 
WHILST THliBE REMAINS A PATRIOT STANDARD TO BALLY BOUND. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY AND FOR JOYCE GOLD, SHOE-LANE; 

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P JR E F A E 

TO THE TWENTY-FIRST VOLUME. 



" Magna est veritas." 

vv E sliall endeavour to make the NAVAL 
" CHRONICLE an useful and interesting library of 
" itself to seamen, and an acceptable work to every 
" one who partakes of the glory acquired by our own 
" countrymen on their own element, or experiences 
" the security derived from their valour. 

" Our leading principle will be to adhere strictly 
" unto truth ; to render justice unto naval merit, pre- 
" sent and departed, both when it has met with suc- 
" cess, and also, (which is of the greatest importance) 
" when it has unsuccessfully struggled with unfavour- 
" able events. We shall not palliate enormities, 
" should any such present themselves to our view in 
" the course of our labours; nor shall we permit pre- 
" judice, unnoticed, to overwhelm misfortune when 
" tin aggravated by misconduct." 

This is the engagement we contracted with the 
public in the introduction of our first Volume, on 
New Year's Day, 1799 ; and after mo re than ten years 
have revolved, we confidently appeal to the suffrages 
of our professional, as well as of our literary patrons, 
whether we have redeemed our pledge ; and whether 
we have not contributed abundantly, as well as usefully, 
towards the naval annals of our country during that 

i Jo 

period. 

Conscious of the rectitude of our intentions, and 
(we will venture to add) of our merit in their execu- 
tion, we shall detain the reader by only one more 
general remark. 



Vl PREFACE. 

The committee, appointed by the Royal Society to 
direct the publication of the Philosophical Transac- 
tions, never omit annually to repeat the declaration, 
that it is an established rule of the Society never to 
give their opinion, as a body, upon any subject that 
comes before thein. And therefore the thanks fre- 
quently given to the authors of such papers as are 
read at tkeir accustomed meetings, or to the persons 
exhibiting projects, inventions, or curiosities to the 
Society, are to be considered in no other light than 
as a civility due for those communications, without the 
Society pretending to answer for the certainty of the 
facts, or propriety of the reasonings contained in their 
'publication; which must rest on the credit or judg- 
ment of their respective authors. 

We beg leave in our humbler sphere to make appli- 
cation of the preceding notice, mutatis mutandis, to 
the NAVAL CHRONICLE ; as our apology for freedom 
of discussion, with reference either to persons or 
things, and as our justification for the apparent con- 
tradictions by which the pages of our work are occa- 
sionally checquered ; by the insertion of lucubrations 
in some instances trivial, of arguments not always 
tenable, or of criticism not always just. At least 
controversy is maintained, and that is generally no 
less effectual to establish truth, than the collision of 
flint and steel is to produce light. Our object is the 
advancement of knowledge on practical subjects ; and 
the dissemination of authentic information. In re- 
cording facts relative to the dead or the living, we 
seek not to violate the sanctity of the tomb, nor to 
wound the individual feelings of our contemporaries. 
TRUTH, we must again repeat, is the object to which 
our compass points; and while the NAVAL CHRO- 
NICLE will ever vindicate the liberty of the English 
press, against any living authority or influence, it shall 
never incur tha reproach of shewing an example of 
its license. 

In the succeeding sheets, many subjects of consider- 
able importance to the British navy have been occa- 
sionally discussed, and with much ability, by our Cor- 
respondents. The letter by our friend A. F. Y. is 



PREFACE. Vli 

admirably written, and like bis otber communications 
reflects great credit on this Correspondent. We trust 
he will long continue to honour the pages of the 
CHRONICLE. His remarks have in a considerable 
degree served * to elucidate the true and national na- 
ture of discipline in the various gradations of rank in 
our service. An ample field of untrodden interest is 
still open to this Correspondent. Our worthy friend 
E. G. F. in the next place, claims our thanks and 
apologies, (page 35.) We never intended what we 
presumed to say, in the literal sense he has taken it. 
His bark is neither old nor crazy, or at least if old, it 
seems like the Old Billy at Spithead, whose timbers, 
of nearly the standing of a century, are still sound. 
We only meant to direct the attention of this Cor- 
respondent entirely to naval subjects ; and in con- 
sidering the Parliamentary Duties of Naval Officers, 
we wished him to confine himself to such remarks as 
were alone connected with naval men ; and much 
anecdote and interesting observation will be found by 
him in that line. If this Correspondent would allow 
us to suggest an improvement in his plan, it would 
be by recommending him, to take any leading or 
important naval speech in either House of Parliament, 
and to form his letters by commenting on some of the 
most important features in the speech. He would thus 
render a most essential service to the CHRONICLE, 
since, owing to the press of other articles, we are often 
obliged to compress or neglect the naval debates. 

Our new, and valuable Correspondent, Raleigh, 
is eminently entitled to our thanks, for his excellent 
account of Naval Transactions on the Coast of Por- 
tugal, (page 377). 

Our thanks are also due to an anonymous Corres- 
pondent, who rendered our pages essential service, 
by his description of Captain JBolton's Jury Mast, 
(page 399-) Nauticus, at page 401, communicated 
more correct information than had before appeared 
respecting South America. The well written letter of 
F. F. F. (page 408) on catamarans, fire devils, &c. 

* Sec page 201. 



PREFACE. 

will be perused with much pleasure by naval men. 
Captain Rickets's valuable communications are inserted 
at pages 38, 211, 398; and Sir Joseph Senhouse's 
important communication respecting his discovery of 
a species of timber to which the salt worm will hot 
adhere, is given at page 113. There are likewise 
many other Correspondents, whose assistance we are 
unable to notice as it deserves. 

We feel particularly indebted to the friends of those 
Officers, (whose Memoirs are inserted in this Volume) 
for their kind assistance in furnishing us with mate- 
rials for drawing up the same. 

The naval part of an eventful period is, in some 
measure, comprised within the present Volume of our 
CHROMCLE. The efforts of our tars have accom- 
plished some great, glorious, and important objects ; 
and, though no second victory of Trafalgar has 
crowned their dauntless spirit of enterprise, they may 
boast, that they have given the enemy ample cause to 
remember their prowess, in the earlier parts of 1 809- 

Our squadron in the West Indies has particularly 
distinguished itself, by the capture of Martinique, 
(page 323) and of the Saints (page 50Q). The W r est 
Indies have also been the scene of several brilliant 
actions, on a smaller scale.* 

The embarkation of the British troops at Corunna 
(page 79) ; the reduction of Cayenne, (page 337) ; 
the taking of Vigo (page 333) ; and, though last, not 
least, the destruction of the French Fleet, in Basque 
Roads (page 344) ; are all services, of a nature,wcll cal- 
culated to support, and elevate, the character of the 
British Navy. 

Of the single actions recorded in this Volume, none 
ranks superior to that between the Amethyst and the 
Niemen (page 343) ; in which the gallant Captain 
Seymour, who, but a few months before, had signa- 
lised himself by the capture of the Thetis, again proved 
himself superior to the most determined efforts of the 
enemy. 

Communications, &c. intended for insertion in the NAVAL CHRONIGLC, 
are rcq listed to he sent to Mr. GOLD, 103, Shoe-lane, London. 

* See the account of the capture of the Topaze, (page 318) and 
of le d'llautpoult, (page 436.) 




The above engraving, by Xffibit, is from a drawing by Pocock. It is an accurate reprt* 
scntation of The Bow of the fforge, a Danish ship, of 74 guns. Fora more particular dtscrip- 
lion we refer to one of the Anecdotes. 



MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES 

OF 

CAPTAIN HUGH DOWNMAN, 

OF THE ROYAt NAVY. 



" Thesf are thy triumphs, Britain ! Thine alone, 

Great guardian of the altar and the throne, 

To speak in thunder to the world around, 

And grasp the trident of the deep profound." AKO\. 

CAPTAIN HUGH DOWNMAN, a brief memoir of whose 
public services is here submitted to the reader, is descended 
from a respectable family in Devonshire, of which his father was a 
younger branch. His great-grandfather was a man of considerable 
property in that county ; and he is related to Dr. Dowmnan, of 
Exeter, to Colonel Downr.ian, of the artillery, and to Mr. Down- 
man, the artist. To the two last mentioned gentlemen he bears the 
relationship of first cousin, and of second to the first. 

He was born near Plymouth, about the year 1765 : and, in 
October 1776. at the early agu of eleven, he entered into the 
navy, under the auspices of Captain Michael Graham, in the 
Hcl. XXI. 



ft MEMOIR Of THE PUBLIC SERVICES of 

Thetis frigate. IIo\v long he remained in that ship, or on wlist 
station he was employed in her, we are uninformed. 

In August, 1778, he joined (he Arethusa, Captain Marshal ; 
in which, in the month of March following, lie had the misfortune 
to be cast away, on the coast of France. The Arethusa was lost 
upon the rocks, near Ushant, while in pursuit of an enemy ; but 
the crew were all saved, and experienced the most humane treat- 
ment from the French. 

Mr. Downman remained a prisoner in France till the month of 
January, 1780, when he was exchanged. On his return to 
England, he embarked with his former captain, Marshal, in the 
Emerald, and continued with him till May, 1782 ; when, on 
Commodore Hotham's hoisting his broad pendant On board the 
Edgar, of 74 guns, he removed into that ship. He was conse- 
quently present at the memorable relief of Gibraltar, in which 
Cotfmiodcrc Hotham commanded the van squadron.* 

In the Edgar, Mr. Downraan continued till the peace of 1783, 
when that ship was paid off. He next served three years with 
Admiral Montagu, in the Queen ; and afterwards with Lord 
Hood in the Triumph and Barficur. 

In the mouth of February, 1789$ shortly after Commodore 
Cornwallis had bee;i appointed comrnander-in-chief in the East 
Indies, Mr. Downman sailed with that officer, in the Crown, 
The nature of the service in which he was employed, on the India 
station, will be seen in our biographical memoir of the commander- 
in-chief, t It was not such as afforded the young seaman any par- 
ticular opportunity of distinguishing himself. There is no doubt, 
however, that he conducted himself with the strictest propriety, 
and attention to the duties of his profession ; as, on the 5th of 
March, 1790, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, in the 
Perseverance. 

He returned to England in the Crown, in May, 1792, and, for 
some months, was on half pay. In January, 1793, he was 
appointed fourth lieutenant of the Alcide, Captain Linzee, and! 
went to the Mediterranean. In this ship he was engaged in somg 
yery smart service. Captain Linzee, soon after his arrival in the 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. IX. page 350, 
4 Ibid. Vol. VII. page 17. 




HUGH 



. fyJ.Gold.2e3, 



CAPTAIN HUGH DOWNMAN. , 3 

Mediterranean, was made a commodore ; and, at the pressing 
solicitation of General Paoli to Lord Hood, for assistance, he was 
despatched to Corsica, with the following squadron : 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

., -, . ("Commodore Robert Linzee. 

Alcide 7M , 

(.Captain J. Wooclley. 

Couragcux ..... 74 J. Mathews. 

Ardent . . 64 R. M. Sutton. 

Lowestoffe , , 3<2 W. Wolseley. 

Nemesis ... , 28 Lord A. Beauclerc. 

On the 2!ri of September, the squadron entered the gulf of St. 
Fiorenzo iud on the 30th, before day-break, the ships brought 
up in their stations, and opened a heavy cannonade on the redoubt 
of Fniuelli, which continued without intermission till nearly eight 
o'clock. At that time, no visible impression had been made on the 
enemy's works; and the ships (particularly the Ardent) were so 
much damaged, by a heavy raking fire from the town of Fiorenzo, 
whence Commodore Linzee had been given to understand he was 
out of the range of shot, that he found himseif obliged to retire. 
In this action, the Alcide had nine of her men wounded j and the 
squadron altogether sustained a loss of 16 killed, and 39 wounded. 

One cause of the failure of this attack was the want of co- 
operation on the part of the Corsicans, who had promised to stornx 
the posts on the land side. 

From Corsica, Commodore Linzee sailed to Tunis, with the 
intention of seizing le Duquesne, a French ship of 74 guns, and 
some gun-boats, which were lying there; but on his arrival, ha 
found that the Bey would not permit the neutrality of his port to 
be violated, and he was obliged to return without accomplishing 
his object. 

On the llth of April, 1794, Commodore Linzee was promoted 
to the rank of rear-admiral of the white squadron ; and when, in 
consequence of his promotion, he hoisted his flag in the Windsor 
Castle, Mr. Downman went with him into that ship, as second 
lieutenant. 

In the month of October following, he was reraored into the 
Victory, Lord Hood's flag-ship, and returned to England with his 
lordship, in December. 

Jli the ensuing spring, Lord Hood, aa we have stated in our 



4 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OP 

memoir of that distinguished officer,* had prepared to resume his 
command in the Mediterranean, \vithare-enforcement, when, most 
unexpectedly, on the 2d of May, he was ordered to strike his flag. 
The Victory, however, in which Lieutenant Downman remained, 
immediately proceeded to the Mediterranean, as a private ship. 
Soon after her arrival on that station, .she received the flag of Sir 
John Jervis, who had sailed from England in a frigate, to super- 
sede Admiral Hotham,+ as commander-in-chief. 

Lieutenant Downman retained his appointment, in the Victory, 
and had the satisfaction of participating in the glorious battle of 
the 14th of February, 1797. j 

On the removal of Sir John Jervis into the Ville de Paris, Mr. 
Downman accompanied him, as first lieutenant ; and, on the 4th 
of June following, he was made commander in the Speedy sloop. 

All the time that he commanded that ship, he was stationed off 
Oporto, to protect the tradj ; and he had the satisfaction of taking 
and destroying a number of small privateers, and, in one instance, 
of beating off an enemy of superior force. This was on the 3d 
of February, 1798. While cruising off Vigo, the Speedy fell in 
with a French brig privateer, which Captain Downman afterwards 
learned was le Papillon, pierced for 18 guns, and mounting 14, 
ten and twelve-pounders, with a complement of 160 men. A 
Tery sharp action ensued, in which the Speedy had five of her crew 
killed, and five badly wounded. Amongst the former were 
Lieutenant Dutton, and Mr. Johnstone, the boatswain. The 
Frenchman at length succeeded in crippling the Speedy, and then 
effected his escape, by superiority of sailing. At the commence- 
ment of the combat, ^Captain Downman had a prize in company, 
which the privateer took, but he afterwards recaptured her. 

The credit which he acquired on this and on other occasions 
was such, that he received the thanks of the factory at Oporto, 
accompanied by a piece of plate, as an acknowledgment of his 
services. The following letter, with its subjoined enclosure, was 
transmitted to him, by Mr. Whitehead, the British Consul : 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. II. p. 45. 
t Ibid. Vol. IV. p. 32. 

+ For the particulars of this memorable action, the reader is referred t* 
the IVtli volume of the NAVAL CHRONICLE, page 35, et ej. 



CAPTAIN HUGH DOWNMAJJ. 5 

*rn, " Porto, 5th Jtfay, 1798. 

" I send with pleasure a resolution of the Factory, taken this day at 
their meeting. I am, Sir> 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 
H.Dozcnman,Esq. " J. WHITEHEAD." 

" RESOLVED, " Meeting, Porto, 5th May, 1798. 

*' That our thanks be given to Captain Hugh Downnaan, of his majesty's 
f.1iip Speedy, for the protection of our trade, and particularly for his late 
gallant action, in engaging and beating off a privateer of the enemy of 
superior force ; and, as a token of our gratitude, we beg his acceptance of 
a piece of plate, of the value of fifty pounds. 

" Mr. Consul is requested to send a copy of this resolution to Mr. Secre- 
tary Nepean, 

" J. WHITEHEAD, Consul." 

'* Stafford, Swanns, Kjiowsley, and Stafford. 

Bearsley and Webb. 

Quarles, Harris, and Co. 

Perry, Frend, Nassau, and Thomson. 

Proc. of Samuel Abbott, 

William Nassau. 
Thompson, Croft, and Co. 
Campion, Offley, Ilesketh, and Co. 
Pennel, Smith, and Co. 
Babington, Tedswell, and Co. 
Warre and Co. 
Stephenson, Searle, and Son. 
George Wye find Son. 
Newman, Land, and Hunt, 
Charles Page. 
Thomas Snow and Co. 
Lambert, Kingston, and Co. 
Proc. of H. Burmester, Nash, and Co. 

James Butler." 

For his services in the Speedy, Captain Downman was also made 
post in the Santa Dorotea frigate, on the 1st of September, 1798 ; 
in which ship he continued to be actively employed, in the Medi- 
terranean, and on the coast of Portugal, till the peace of 1801, 
when he went, as Sir James Sauniarez' captain^ into the Cassar. 

Amongst the captures which he made, while commanding the 
Santa Dorotea, may be mentioned the following : On the 28<h 
of November, 1798, in company with the Strombolo, Perseus, and 
J3ull Dog, he took the Spanish corvette, San Leon, of 16 guns, 



$ MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES O* 

and 88 men ;* on the IHh of January, 1800, by the exertions of 
the ship's boats, he cut out a brig, laden with wheat, from under 
the batteries of Bordiguera ; and, on the llth of the succeeding 
month, he cut out the Santa Anna, armed ship, mounting ten guns, 
from under the batteries of Hospitallier. Several other ships, we 
"helieve, were taken by him in a similar manner ; but his services, 
respecting the two which we have last mentioned, were acknow- 
ledged by the following very handsome letter, from his Commander- 
in-chief, Lord Keith : 

SIR> " Audacious, Leghorn Roads, 3d April, 1800. 

" I have received your letter of the 29th January last, acquainting me 
with your having, on tlie llth, cut out a brig loaded with wheat, from 
under the batteries of Bordiguera ; and also that of 27th February, to Cap- 
tain Louis, of the Minotaur (which has been by him transmitted to me) 
acquainting him of your having, on the night of the llth of that month, cut 
out, from under the batteries of Hospitallier, the armed ship, Santa Anna, 
of ten guns. I am much pleased with your success on these occasions, and 
with the good conduct of Lieutenant Aubridge, and your boats' crews ; and 
am sorry for the loss which was sustained in the execution of these ser- 
vices. I am, sir, 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 
Captain Vownman, " KEITH." 

Sanla Dorotea" 

In the spring of 1800, subsequently to the loss of the Queen 
Charlotte, by fire,+ Lord Keith proceeded with part of his fleet 
off Genoa. Captain Downman accompanied his lordship on this 
occasion, and assisted in the blockade of Genoa, which was then 
besieged by the Austrian general, Melas, till the beginning of June ; 
when, reduced by famine, the French army evacuated that city, andi 
the whole of the Genoese territory. 



* Vide NAVAT. CHRONICLE, Vol. I. p. 337. 

t Ibid. Vol. X. p. 22. 

+ Whilst the blockade of Genoa was kept up, the city and Mole were 
frequently bombarded by the British flotilla. In one of these assaults, 
Captain Philip Beaver, of tin; Aurora, in a most spirited and gallant man- 
ner, under a smart fire of cannon and musketry from the Mole and the 
enemy's armed vessels, attacked, boarded, carried, and brought off their 
largest galley, la Prima, of 50 onrs, and f <;57 men, armed, mounted with. 
two brass 3b'-pounders, and 30 brass swivels in her hold. In pcrfonnioj 
rhis service, only four men \vre wounded. 



CAPTAIN HOail DOWNMAIO. 7 

During a part of this time, however, Captain Downman was 
employed on what might be considered a detached service ; as, in 
company with the Neapolitan brig, Strombolo, Captain Settimo, 
and the Chamelion, commanded by Lieutenant Jackson, ho was 
entrusted with the blockade of the important fortress of Savona, 
which, having been reduced by famine, surrendered on the 16th of 
May.* On this occasion, as will be seen by the following letter 
from Lord Keith, Captain Downir.an, as the senior officer, signed 
the articles of capitulation : 

SIR, " Minotaur, off Genoa, 16th May, 1300. 

" The fortress of Savons having surrendered to the allied forces, and the 
articles of capitulation having been seen, and approved of by me, I have to 
desire that you sign the same, on ray authority, as the commanding ollicer 
of his majesty's ships in Vado Bay, Major-general Compte de Sc. Julian 
kaving first signed, us an ofiicer of superior rank to you. 

" I am, sir, 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 
" Captain Dcvcnjium^ " KEITH.* 1 

or 

" The Senior Officer cfhis Majesty's Shipt 
and Vessels in Vado By.''t 

Notwithstanding the exertions of the British and Austrian forces, 
the French were destined to b^ successful ; and, in the month of 
October following, in consequence of the loss of the fatal battle of 
larengo, Leghorn and the whole of Tuscany again fell under 
their dominion. After the surrender of Genoa to the French* 
Captain Downman was sent to destroy the fortifications at Port 
Aspeccio ; a service which he executed in the most satisfactor/ 
manner. He also preserved the valuable gallery of Florence from 
falling into the hands of the euemy, by receiving it on board the 
Santa Dorotea, and conveying it in safety to Palermo. Hott well 
he executed this mission, will best be seen by the following grateful 
and highly-flattering testimonials : 

* Savona, situated 2<2 miles west-south-west from Genoa, was, next cu 
tlue capital, the best belonging to the republic. Besiries its regular fortifi- 
cations, it was defended by a citadel, standing on a high rock ; and the har- 
bour had been partly choked up, to hinder the approach of large ship*. 

t Vado Bay is situated three miles to the south 



S MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OP 

(TRANSLATIONS.) 

' Palermo, November 18, 1800. 

" I beg of you, Captain Downman, to accept one hundred zecchins, to 
distribute among your seamen, as a trifling acknowledgment of the trouble 
which my equipage occasioned them. 

" In regard to yourself, it has already been my care to take advantage of 
an extraordinary courier sent by the imperial ambassador to Vienna, to 
inform my sovereign of the important service you have rendered to him and 
to Tuscany, by placing the most valuable possessions of his royal gallery in 
safety ; and I feel assured that his royal highness will publicly testify hie 
thanks. 

" On my own account, I owe you much more. You have preserved 
reliques which have formed, and will continue to form, much of my happi- 
ness, and you also entertained me while on board with unexampled polite- 
ness and urbanity. For the present, be assured of my lively and sincere 
acknowledgments. In more happy times, I may recompense the obligation 
at Florence, where, in appreciating the works of art which you have pre- 
served, you will be sensible of the importance of your services, and the 
weight of my obligations. 

" In this hope I remain, with perfect esteem, respect, and gratitude, 
" Your friend and servant, 

TOMMASO PUCCINI." 

"Vienna, March 3, ISO I. 

" The assiduous attention with which Captain Downman, of the English 
frigate, Santa Dorotea, has conveyed from Leghorn to Palermo, various 
valuable effects belonging to his royal highness the Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany, my sovereign, which were accompanied by Signor Tommaso Puccini, 
has been stated to his royal highness. 

" His royal highness, understanding that orders to this effect were given 
by Admiral Lord Keith, desires me to request you will convey to the same 
his royal thanks. 

" It will also be gratifying to his royal highness, if you will condescend 
to forward to Captain Downman a diamond ring, which will be conveyed 
to jrou by Signor Brigadier Giovanno del Bava, as a testimony of the high 
sense which his royal highness has of the delicate attention with which 
Captain Downman executed this commission. 

" It remains that I should assure your excellency, that my royal master 
i\ persuaded that your official ..orders have not a little contributed to influ- 
ence Admiral Lord Keith, to take especial care for the safe conveyance of 
the above-mentioned effects. His royal highness has therefore deigned, 
in his commands dated 6th February, to signify to me those acknowledg- 
ments of obligation which I have the honour of declaring to you. 

" Mr. JTyndham:' G. RAIXOLDI* 



CAPlAIN HUGH DOWN SI AN*. 9 

"MOST ILLUSTRIOUS SIGNOR, " Trieste, March 20, 1801. 

" I have received the honour of your note, accompanied by a diamond 
ting, which his royal highness the Grand Duke of Tuscany condescends to 
present to Captain Downman, of his Britannic Majesty's frigate, Santa 
Dorotea, for the care with which he conveyed various effects belonging to 
his royal highness from Leghorn to Palermo ; and I feel myself happy in. 
being deputed to testify to my brave and worthy friend so honourable a tes- 
timony of his royal highness s approbation. 

" I shall not fail to send it to him, with a copy of your Excellency's 
letter, by the first courier that sets out for London, being very uncertain 
where the Santa Dorotea may be met with at sea. 

" I shall do myself the honour of writing to Admiral Lord Keit! > 
announcing to him those professions of acknowledgment from the Grand 
Duke, which cannot fail to be highly gratifying to him, and to impress him 
with sentiments of respect and gratitude. 

" Respecting what his royal highness has desired you to signify to me 
concerning the official orders that may have contributed to the safety of the 
effects in question, I beg of you to assure his royal highness of my hearty 
acknowledgments, and to testify to him, that I cannot experience a greater 
satisfaction, than when my time and my actions are employed in his ser- 
vice ; having a respectful attachment to, and high veneration for his royal 
highness, and the royal family. 

"Accept my thanks for the gracious and polite manner in which you 
have executed the commands of your royal master, and I request you to 
believe, that I have the honour to be, &c. &c. &c. 

" Sigwr G. Rainoldi." " W. WYNDHAM." 

At the same time that Captain Downman took the Florence 
gallery on board his ship, he also received the present king and 
queen of Sardinia, and suite, and landed them at Naples. For his 
very sedulous and obliging attentions during the passage, her 
majesty presented him with a handsome diamond ring; and the 
king, then Duke of Savoy, wrote to him the following letter^ 
gratefully expressive of his obligations : 

(TRANSLATION.) 
"SIR, 

" I cannot sufficiently express the extent of my gratitude, and that of my 
wife, for the extraordinary care and trouble which you have so willingly 
taken, during our passage from Leghorn to Naples. It is to your solicitude; 
in shortening, as much as possible, the sufferings which the bad weather 
might have occasioned to a woman, in the ninth month of her pregnancy, 
that my wifV is indebted, for not having eventually suffered from those 
shocks, which might perhaps have occasioned an irreparable loss to our 
family, had she been exposed to them twenty-four hours longer. Our gra- 

. er&ron. (Hot* XXI. c 



10 MEMOIR. OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF CAPT. DOW.VMAN. 

tittidc will consequently be proportionate to the obligation which you have 
conferred upon us-; and it will always be with pleasure that we shal. 
remember our acquaintance with an officer of merit and capacity, in all 
respects like yourself. 

" I flatter myself that you will be convinced of the sincerity of tliese sen- 
timents; as well as of the constant interest which I shall take, in every 
tiling that may concern you ; and that I shall esteem myself happy in being 
able to distinguish you upon every occasion. 

" It is with these sentiments that I am, sir, 

" VICTOR EMANUEL DE SAVOIE." 

At the peace, as has been already stated, Captain Downman, 
after his return from the Mediterranean, went into the Caesar, as- 
Sir James Saumarez' captain. He remained in that ship till 
August, 1802, when he was paid off, and was not employed againr 
till January, 1804. He was then appointed to the Diomede, the 
flag-ship of his former admiral, Sir James Saumarez, in which he 
served fourteen months on the Guernsey- station, lie was after- 
wards employed on the North Sea station, in the same ship, till 
the sailing of Sir Home Popham's expedition against the Cape of 
Good Hope, at the latter end of the year 1805 * Captain Down. 
man joined the expedition, we believe, at Madeira ; and, Sir Home 
Popham having hoisted his broad pendant, as commodore, in the 
Diadem, he sailed with him in that ship, as his captaim He was- 
consequently at the capture of the Cape, and was sent home'Vith 
the despatches, announcing that event, in the Espoir. Having 
executed that mission, he sailed fur South America, and 1 resumed 
the command of his old ship, the Diomede, in the River Plate. 
After the capture of Monte Yidea, he returned to England, and 
was paid off, in June, 1807. 

We have only to add, that, in the month of August or Septem- 
ber following, he was appointed to the Assistance prison-ship, at 
.Portsmouth, and has since been removed into the V r eugeance at 
the same port, where he at present remains. 

The subjoined is a fac-simile of Captain Downman's hand 
writing. 




* Vile NAVAL CURONI-CL r, Vol. XVf. page 372. 



11 

NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, 






NANTES IN GURBITE VA3TO. 



THE LATE CAPTAIN HAUDIXGE. 

THE notices we have received in honour to the memory of the 
lata Captain Hardingc are so numerous, and so well authen- 
ticated, that our difficulty is where to choose ; but we can ven- 
ture to assert, that nothing has transpired since the country was 
deprired of that hero, more to his honour, and more brilliant in 
itself, than a letter which has just been received from a correspon- 
dent at Bombay. It is. we apprehend (and forms one glory of the 
incident), a circumstance of the first impression, that a gentleman, 
holding the supreme judicial office in a district of such opulence and 
weight in our settlements, has taken so high-spirited a part in a 
public appeal to the inhabitants of the community, for the purpose 
of suggesting honours to a naval hero's memory and fame. 

But the mode of the appeal improves even upon its principle^ 
'for it will be found, by the severest critics of taste and of eloquence, 
that more spirit, grace, and effect were never compressed into 
such brevity of expression, or touched with such interesting sim- 
.plicity. 

We congratulate Bombay on its possession of such powers, and 
such feelings, upon a judicial seat of criminal justice. 

(COPY,) 
To the EtUtor tf the. Bombay Courier. 

" SIR, " Bombay, March SI, 1808. 

" Yielding to the first impulse of those feelings which the heroic death 
>>f Captain HAUDIXGE has impressed upon me, I take the liberty of pro- 
posing to the British inhabitants of this presidency, a subscription for his 
monument in the church of Bombay. 

" A generous and grateful nation will doubtless place his monument by 
the side of that of Nelson, But tlte memorials of heroic valour cannot be 
too multiplied. 

"Captain HARDIXGE fell for Britain; but more especially he fell for 
British India. 

" I should feel myself ashamed of presuming to suggest reasons for such 
fi measure. They will abundantly occur, to the honour of their country. 

(Signed) JAMES MACKINTOSH' 

Upwards of two thousand pounds sterling had been raised whea 
the last advices were scut, 



12 NIVAL ANECDOTES, 

u From the Bombay Courier, of April 23, 1808. 

" We yesterday witnessed, but with mixed feelings of regret and pride, 
the animating and gratifying spectacle of la Piedmontaise entering the har- 
bour, under tlie charge of the St. Fiorenzo. 

" She came in under jury masts, and was towed in by the boats of the 
tnen-of-war from the mouth of the harbour to her mooring ground. The 
flags of all the vessels in the harbour were hoisted half-mast high, and 
minute guns corresponding to the age of the excellent, brave, and lamented. 
Captain Hardinge, were fired from the flag-ship, the Powerful.'' 



" Extract from a Letter of a Merchant at Colombo, to a natal Captain 
just returned from the East. 

" Colombo, March 25, 1808. 

" The great sensation here is the late action between the San Fiorenzo 
and Piedmontaise, which is allowed on all hands to have been the hardest 
fought that was ever known. 

" I yesterday visited the two ships, and was really confounded at their 
shattered condition. The San Fiorenzo was damaged most in her hull, and 
I counted on her larboard side alone eleven great shot-holes, between wind 
and water, which they were busily patching up with sheet lead. 

" The Piedmontaise had every mast shot away ten feet above the deck, 
and all three of them cut at near the same height. 

" But it was dreadful to see the effect of the grape shot on both shins- 
the whole of their sides, from stem to stern, stuck thick over with them; 
iul in contemplating them, one is amazed how any one exposed to so 
destructive a fire could have remained alive," 



WHIMSICAL ECCENTRICITIES OF THE LATE CAPTAIN MONTAGUF. 

P r jTlHE Hon. Captain William Montague, familiarly called Mad 
-^- Montague, was distinguished by an eccentricity of conduct, 
of which the following instances arc highly amusing : 

In coming up the Channel, during the time that he commanded 
the Bristol, about the year }746 or 1747, he fell in with a very 
numerous' fleet of outward-bound Dutch merchantmen. He fired 
at several in order to compel them to bring to, q, measure autho- 
rised by custom and his general instructions. The Dutch, aided 
by a fair wind, hoped by its assistance to escape the disagreeable 
delay of being searched or overhauled, and held on their way: 
Captain Montague pursued, but, on overtaking them, took no other 
satisfaction than that of mapning and sending out his two cutters 
Sviih a carpenter's mate in each, ordering them to cut off tweiva 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 13 

of the ugliest heads they could find in the whole fleet, from among 
those with which, as it is well known, those people are accustomed 
to ornament the extremity of their rudders. When these were 
brought on board, he caused them to be disposed on brackets round 
his cabin, contrasting them in the most ludicrous manner his vein 
of humour could invent, and writing under them the names of the 
twelve Caesars. 

Another anecdote is, that being once at Lisbon, and having got 
into a night affray with the people on shore, he received in the 
scuffle what is usually termed a black eye. On the succeeding day, 
previously to his going on shore, he compelled each of his boat's 
crew to black with cork one of their eyes, so as to resemble a 
natural injury ; the starboard rowers the right eye, the larboard 
rowers the left, and the cockswain both : the whimsical effect may 
be easily conceived. 

When under the orders of Sir Edward Hawke, in 1755, he soli- 
cited permission to repair to town. The admiral, aware of the im- 
propriety of such a request, and at the same time wishing to palliate 
reftis.il by imposing, on his permission, a condition he conceived 
impossible to be undertaken, even by a man of Mr. Montague's 
harmless, though extravagant turn ef mind, jestingly said, *' The 
complexion of affairs was so serious, that he could not grant him 
leave to go farther from his ship than where his barge could carry 
him." Mr. Montague, not to be foiled or abashed, is said to have 
immediately repaired to Portsmouth, where he gave orders for the 
construction of a carriage on a truck, to be drawn with horses, on 
which he meant to row his barge ; and having previously stored it 
with provisions and necessaries requisite for three days, to proceed 
to London. Having lashed it to the carriage, the crew was 
instructed to imitate the action of rowing with the same solemnity 
as if they had been actually coming into the harbour from Spit- 
head. Sir Edward, as it is said, received intelligence of his inten- 
tion soon after the boat and its contents were landed, and imme- 
diately sent him permission to proceed to London in whatever 
jnanner he thought proper. 

LORD CHARLES FITZGERALD. 

(From (he Naval Aialantis, Part 2 ; by Nauticus Junior, published in 1789J 

THIS gallant young nobleman is descended from the great Earl 
ef Jvildare, in the kingdom of Ireland, and is next brother to the 
present Duke of Leinster. His lordship made a very conspicuous 



f4 KAYAt, ANECDOTE*, 

figure daring the late war, in the several ranks of lieutenant, mas- 
ter and commander, and post captain, in the royal navy. Captain 
Marshall had the satisfaction to receive Lord Charles as junior 
Jieutcnant on board the Arethusa frigate, which ship had the 
honour to strike the first, blow last war, in an engagement with the 
Belle Poule French frigate, now in the British service; during; 
which action, his lordship displayed all the native bravery of his 
illustrious ancestors, but was unfortunately wounded. We next 
find his lordship employed as commander of his majesty's cutter 
ihe Tapageur, which had been recently captured from the enemy. 
This vessel gave Lord Charles the rank of master and commander, 
and she was sent to the West Indies with despatches for Lord 
Rodney, but had the misfortune to strike upon the rocks in the 
careenage at St. Lucia, where she was lost; but happily his lord- 
ship and the crew were saved. Not long after this accident he 
was made post into the Sphynx, of 24 guns, which was for some 
lime an attendant frigate on the Leeward Island squadron. Rear, 
admiral Parker being ordered home, hoisted his flag in the Med- 
vay, which, with the Centurion and Sphynx, convoyed to England 
a very valuable fleet of merchant ships. The same fatality which 
happened to his lordship on the rocks of St. Lucia, had nearly 
befallen him on those of Scilly, from which he had a miraculous 
escape. Such was the ardour of this distinguished youth, that he 
scarcely allowed himself time to visit his noble family and numerous 
friends, before he obtained the command of the Sybil frigate, and 
immediately returned to the great theatre of war in the West 
Indies, where he rendered himself active at the capture of Saint 
Eustatius, particularly in chasing the Dutch admiral and the ships 
which were endeavouring to escape, and which, by the exertions 
of his lordship under the captains, Reynolds (now Lord Ducie) 
and Harvey, were added to the number of prizes taken in the road 
of Statia. The various gallant actions of Lord Charles Fitzgerald 
arc too eminently on record to need any further praise ; but there 
is one in particular, which reflects so much honour on his lord- 
ship's bravery and humanity, that it would be injustice to withhold 
the knowledge of it from the public. It unfortunately happened, 
that a sailor fell from the main yard into the sea, when the 
ship was absolutely going through the water at a great rate ; his 
lordship observing the circumstance, pulled off his coat, imme- 
diately jumped overboard, and heroically saved the man's life, at 
the extreme hazard of his own ; thereby illustrating in its fullest 
force, the motto of the Leinster family, " (Joom a-boo," which 
signifies " Help in distress." 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, UECOLLECTIOXS, &C. 15 

It is needless to say more, than that Lord Fitzgerald is a 
nobleman of the most social virtues, and an officer of the most 
distinguished merit. 

THE LATE LOHIT ROBERT MANN CHS. 

(From the same.) 

IN forming this heroic nobleman, nature combined every mentaf 
grace with the most captivating elegance of person. Laurels 
gathered round his ripening years so thick, that h'eaven itserf was 
envious of his worth, and snatched him in early youth from the 
height of this world's fame, to place him on that immortal pinnacle 
of glory, where godlike heroes only are enthroned. 

Lord Robert " inherited all his father's virtues." He was the- 
second son of the late Marquis of Granby, and only brother to the- 
late Duke of Rutland. As soon as he was capable of judging 
vhich line to pursue in the career of military fame, he made choice 
of the navy ; and so great was hi lordship's attachment to that 
profession, that instead of engagiag in those fashionable scenes of 
pleasure for which he was so eminently formed by his birth, years 
and accomplishments, he devoted all his time to nautical study and 
practical seamanship, in which he excelled most of his youthful 
to rape Li tors. 

At the commencement of the late war, this lamented hero served- 
as a volunteer in the Victory, with Admiral Keppel ; and although 
the success of that fleet did not equal the sanguine expectations of 
the nation, Lord Robert nevertheless displayed during that period 
those promising seeds of growing ardour which so rapidly shot up 
into maturity. 

His lordship-'s further progress to the rank of post captain, and 
afterwards, was marked with a thirst of fame and disregard of 
life, which certainly accelerated the period of his days, and laid 
him so early in the bed of honour ; for during the action on the 
glorious 12th of April, in the West Indies (on which occasion his 
lordship received his death wound, when commanding the Resolu- 
tion, of 74 gaus) such was his extraordinary regard for the 
wounded seamen of his ship's company, who all adored their 
gallant captain, that he would not suffer his own wounds to be 
dressed until theirs had been under the surgeon's hands ; by which 
amiable attention (having then lost a leg and an arm) the British 
navy eventually sustained an irreparable loss; he lived, however, 
to Hear the shouts of victory, and then, like the immortal 
declared he should die con teat, 



IS NAVAL ANECDOTIC 

Some slender hopes were entertained by tlie naval physician and 
surgeons of saving his life, provided he could be conveyed soon to 
England; for which purpose his lordship was removed, "with 
trembling care," by his weeping crew, on board the Andromache' 
frigate, commanded by his amiable and gallant friend, Captain 
Byton, who was ordered home with the account of the defeat of 
the French fleet. 

Captain Byron's assiduous and humane attention to his noble 
friend, gave his lordship occasionally such spirits, that he would 
humorously say, if his relations did not provide for him when 
arrived in England, he should make a capital figure as a beggar in 
the streets of London, with a wooden leg and crutches, &c. 
However, in one fatal moment on his passage, his heroic soul took 
its flight into eternity, with that serenity and resignation, whicli 
the afflicted Byron declared, made such a death truly enviable. 

Thus Great Britain lost, in the bloom of youth, arid fulness of 
glory, one of her brightest ornaments, -whose actions alone are 
sufficient to perpetuate his memory ; a grateful nation has never- 
theless thought fit to strengthen the remembrance of his virtues by 
a magnificent monument, which is now erecting in Westminster 
Abbey, in honour of his lordship, and the Captains Bayne and- 
Blair, who fell in the same action. 

Let the young patricians who thirst for fame, go imitate the 
godlike Manners ! " Pour y parvenir."* 

GALLANT ACTION IN THE WEST INDIES'. 

THE Cornwallis packet, Anthony, recently arrived from the 
West Indies, on her outward-bound voyage, sustained a most 
gallant action with a large French schooner privateer. On the 
24th of September, in lat. 13 deg. 41 min. long. 56 deg. 13 min. 
Barbadoes distant about 200 miles, the schooner fell in with the 
packet at daylight, and immediately gave chase. Captain Anthony, 
finding the schooner came up fast, and being all prepared for 
action, shortened sail, and fired a shot at the schooner, which was 
returned by a broadside. The action then commenced, and was 
continued for two hours and a quarter with great fury, when the 
schooner, having had enough of it, sheered off, leaving the packet 
a complete wreck, with her main-mast cut through by a double- 
headed shot, and almost all the shrouds on that and the fore-mast 

* The motto of the Rutland family. 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 17 

carried away, her braces, and nearly all the running rigging and 
sails, cut to pieces, with two men killed, and the mate and a 
passenger \vounded. Captain Anthony would have pursued the 
privateer, if he had not been so much cut up in his rigging. The 
packet arrived at Barbadoes next day, and repaired her damages. 
A handsome subscription was collected by the merchants at Bar- 
badoes, and presented to the gallant crew of the Cornwallis, whose 
bravery merits every reward they can have. On the packet's 
arrival at Dominica, two captains of vessels who had just arrived 
there from Martinique, informed Captain Anthony, that the pri- 
vateer which he had engaged was called la Duquesne, of 1 1 guns, 
and one long 18-pounder on a traverse. She arrived at Marti- 
nique in a very shattered state ; and acknowledged her loss to be 
14 killed and 30 wounded. 

CAPTAIN ANTHONY. 

A FEW merchants of Barbadoes have transmitted 631. for a silver 
cup, to be presented to Captain Anthony, of the Cornwallis 
packet, as a testimony of their high sense of his very gallant con- 
duct in the defence of his ship, when attacked to windward of that 
island by a French schooner privateer, of very superior force, on 
the 24th September last. We hope the committee of the West 
India merchants will follow the example, and vote a handsome sum 
to Captain Anthony and his gallant crew. 

THE LATE ADMIRAL MACBRIDE. 

THE following characteristic sketch of this gallant officer, whilst 
he was a captain, appeared in the Westminster Magazine for 
March 1779, shortly after the memorable trial of Admiral Keppel, 
by a court martial : * 

" Captain Macbride is a most liberal, brave, and spirited 
officer, accounted so from proof, and not from conjecture, and 
whose conduct on the late occasion did him singular honour. The 
regard and the reverence he professed for the injured admiral, was 
such as made him the friend of every good man. He saw through 
the cabal that was formed against him, and he spoke of it with 
that warmth of indignation which such conduct was likely to arouse 
in the bosom of a brave honest nian. He considered the attempt 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. VII. page 304 and &$9- 
. Bol. XXI. j> 



18 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

on the honour of Admiral Keppel as a blow levelled ultimately, .at 
the sacred character of the British navy in general ; and he jus.tly 
considered it so, reflecting on the hand from whence it came, and 
remembering the many attempts of a similar nature that the same 
board had,uiade before. The unprecedented attack they had made 
on the honour of the navy, -when they strove to put the navy 
board before the royal captains in the precession at the naval re- 
view ; the resistance they had made to the increase of the half.pay 
of captains and lieutenants ; and a thousand other instances, 
equally strong, pressing upon his mind, convinced him it was 
another secret blow darted at the whole navy, and he resisted it 
with a spirit becoming the dignity of a British seaman."* 

GALLANTRY OF THE CREW OF AN ENGLISH MERCHANT SHIP I!t 
THE TEAR 16'96. 

I.v the year 1696 an English merchant ship, of ten guns, belong- 
ing to- London, arrived in the river Thames from FayalJ 1 , and 
entered at .the Custom-house, being laden with wines ; she was 
manned when she went out with fifteen men and two boys, but 
three of them ran away at Fayall. 

In her voyage home, about three leagues from the Lizard, she 
met ami fought a French privateer belonging to St. Maloes, of six 
guns, four partercroes, and sixty-four men. The first broadside 
she made at the Caper split one of his guns, killed the gunner, 
and wounded nine others. Then the French bore up close, and 
boarded the English ship with thirty men, of which number was 
the lieutenant and the owner's son. However, the English, though 
they consisted but of twelve men 'and' two boys, maintained a fight 
of two hours with them, by which' they had killed twenty-four of 
the enemy that were put on board them, and made the other six 
prisoners, among which was the lieutenant and the owner's son. 
And they had killed six more on board, and wounded twenty, 
eight, so that of all the French crew there were but six that were 
not killed or wounded. Upon which the privateer was satisfied 
with the conflict, and begun to sheer off, leaving the merchant ship, 
iu peace to pursue her voyage. 

When the French lieutenant saw his captain bearing away, he. 
called to him to take him oft'; he, shaking his head, replied he had. 

* A jxjrtrait and biographical memoir of Admiral Macbride are given in. 
fhe XlXth volume of the NAVAL CHRONICLE, page 265 ; and, at jjage 473. 
;';!;_' same volume, arc some additional particulars relating to him,. 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 19 

enough of it, and did not dare to attempt it. Then the Frenck 
lieutenant prayed the English commander to give him one broad- 
side, for if you do, said he, the dog will strike; but the English cap- 
tain did not look upon it to be his business to follow him, but ra- 
ther to bring in his ship safe, and so he steered his course straight 
home. The French lieutenant was so enraged at last against his 
officer, that he desired he might have a musquetoon to make one 
shot at the cowardly dog, as he called him. 

During all this heroic and brave action the English had not one 
rnan killed; the captain was wounded in the right hand, but he 
took up his sword in his left, and fought very boldly. The super- 
cargo man had three shots through his hat, and a hand granado 
fell upon his shoulder, but as it fell down, he clapped his hand upon 
the fuse before it burst, without any other hurt than burning his 
liand a little ; another of the crew had both his hands shot off, and 
one was shot in the belly. 

Extracted from an old book in possession of your occasional 
correspondent, ROBUll. 

PROVIDENTIAL PRESERVATION Oi 1 A SEAMAN. 

THE following miraculous preservation of a seaman (says Mr. 
Clarke, in his Naufragia) occurred whilst his majesty's ship the 
Jupiter, Commodore J. W. Payne, was waiting off Cuxhaven for 
the Princess Caroline of Brunswick. Being myself on b'oard, I 
can vouch for its accuracy : 

C On the 9th of March, 1795, .the severe weather we had 
endured became more moderate ; and during the day, a poor sea- 
man was taken from off a piece of ice that had floated out to sea 
by one of the Blackness pilot boats. Being "brought on shore at 
Cuxhaven, he gave the following account of his sufferings. lie 
had belonged to a Hambro trader, laden with groceries, bound 
from London to the above place. During the passage, his vessel 
was lost .(January 28th) amidst the ice, on a sand bank, off Cux- 
haven. The master, with a boy, and this sailor, got upon the 
sand, at that time covered with ice; ajid preserved life with some 
wine and biscuit, which they had saved from the wreck. At the 
end of eleven days, the master and boy died. The survivor, with, 
an unshaken resolution and reliance on Divine Providence, would 
not allow himself to despond. Every night he reposed upon one of 
the dead bodies of his shipmates, and put the other corpse over 
IKta : the intense raid kept them from being offensive. 4a this 



20 WAVAfc ANECDOTES, 

forlorn and melancholy state he slept ; and declared, that he con- 
stantly received great consolation from dreams, which invariably 
promised his deliverance. 

The wine and biscuit being at length consumed, he discovered 
onie cockles on a part of the sand not covered with ice, upon 
which he existed until the month of March ; when Providence sent 
lino. thS following relief. In the morning, when he awoke, to his 
utter dismay he found the mass of ice on which he had so long 
sojourned was separated from the rest, and drifting out to sea. 
Jlis anguish cannot be described. When lo ! the very means by 
which he appeared hurried on to destruction evenfually caused 1m 
deliverance. He was thus carried within sight of the Blackness 
fUhing boats, who immediately hastened to his succour. 

On his iirst landing at Cuxhaven, the warmth of the house in 
which he was received created an agony of pain, and it was some 
time before the above facts could be detailed. Nor did his narra- 
tive gain credit from many, before he had produced the bills of 
lading, and had reminded them of a vessel answering the description 
he gave of his own, which they knew had been wrecked. 

ACCOUNT OF THE NEWFOUNDLAND FISHERY. 

As the nature of the Newfoundland Cod Fishery, which employs 
many thousands of people from England and Ireland, and is of 
vast importance to the nation, is not generally understood, the 
following short account of it may be found acceptable : 

After crossing the Atlantic with every requisite necessary to pro- 
ceed on the fishing voyage (leaving England about the beginning 
of March), the ships generally come to single anchor, on what 
are termed " the Banks of Newfoundland," in the month of 
April, which are in length from 150 to 200 miles ; in breadth, 
they may be considered narrow. There arc two fishing banks, the 
outer, and the inner; the outer bank is about 150 miles or more 
off the land; the inner is from 80 to 100 miles off the shore. 
They seldom fish on the outer bank, from the great depth of 
water, being from 90 to 100 fathoms deep, unless it is when they 
cannot find any fish on the inner bank. They generally cast 
anchor, and fish, in about 45 and 50 fathoms of water, with two, 
and some with three lv>oks to each line, and dreadful work it 
is, at so early a period of the year, from the severity of the 
climate, the great fogs natural to that part of the world, and the 
yjteose coldness of the water, they being obliged to haul the fish, 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 21 

from such a depth as 40 and 50 fathoms. There are pounds or 
enclosures made on the deck, for each fisherman to throw in what 
he catches; the best places for fishing aresupposed to be the larboard 
how and the larboard quarter: at the latter place the mate fishes, 
and the boatswain on the bow. A little stage is erected in the 
midships of the vessel, on the starboard side, at which sit in a 
barrel the headder and splitter^ men who are engaged for that 
very purpose, and who do not fish ; the headder cuts open the 
fish, tears up its entrails, and forcing the fish against the edg(3 of 
the stage, breaks off its head, and drives the fish over to the 
splitter opposite him, who immediately, ' with his sharp splitting 
knife, lays it dexterously open, and cuts up the sound bone from 
the back of the fish, when he lets it slip off from the stage on a 
shoot, which conveys them down into the hold of the vessel, where 
there is a man stationed ready to receive them, who is termed the 
saltcr ; he immediately lays them spread out regularly in rows, 
and throws strong bay and St. Ubes salt on them, in which they 
generally lie about a month, or until the vessel has a good cargo of 
them. The liver is separated from the fish on the platform, and 
falls through the stage into large casks, to make oil from. The 
head, garbage, and sound bones fall beneath the platform or 
stage, and are kept on the deck until they become a burden by 
their weight, in causing the vessel to heel much on her side, and 
when there is a great sea running, they make the vessel ride at her 
anchor very disagreeably. It is usual, when they throw this offal 
overboard, to weigh anchor, and run two or three miles from it ; 
for if they throw it overboard where they fish, the fish will follow 
what is thrown overboard, prey upon it, and neglect the bait 
which the fishermen use to decoy the fish to the hook. When the 
vessel has got a sufficiency, she comes into her port to get rid of 
her burden. The fish are thrown into what is called a ram's-honi 
(a square wooden thing, perforated with holes, to admit the water 
to pass), when the fish are tumbled about and well washed, 
afterwards thrown up on a stage or wharf, and laid out again by 
men employee! in the fishery on the shore. After the fish has lain 
some little time on the stage, it is taken on hand-barrows, and 
carried on the flakes, places erected about nine feet above the 
ground, so as to admit a current of air to pass under, and covered 
over with fir-boughs and other branches of trees, on which it is 
placed to dry, day after day, until it becomes sufficiently cured and 
solid, so as to keep for a considerable period of time. Every 
night, during its process ; it is brought into round piles, covered 



22 NAVAL ANECDOTIC 

over with birch-rinds, -with weights on it, to keep the wet and 
damp out. It is curious to see how extremely busy the people 
are when it is likely to rain, or on a shower coming on, to gather 
Tip the fish, as the rain materially injures it. The vessels generally 
stay but three days in the harbour, before they go out again on the 
tanks to prosecute their voyage. They make about four, some 
fivej trips for cargoes during the season, which usually closes about 
the latter end of September. The equinoctial gales frequently put 
a stop to it, by causing the loss of cables and anchors, and other- 
wise disabling the vessels ; as the sea runs in those gales tremen- 
dously high, and many vessels have been known to founder at their 
anchors at this closing season of the year. 

The poor fellows, in some vessels, fish from four o'clock in the 
morning till eight at night, and then keep watch regularly after- 
wards ; so that when fish are plentiful, they are almost worn out; 
for those who keep watch, whilst the other party sleep the little 
time they have to go below, fish during the night. 

In other vessels, where the captain is a humane man, he will let 
the fishermen have their proper rest by night, and fish by day, ex- 
cepting a small watch that must be kept up, to see whether the 
vessel drives, by the anchor giving way. 

On Sunday (a day which ought to be devoted to pious exercises 
and religion), the men are employed in regulating and fixing their 
fishing tackle during the morning, and in the afternoon go to their 
cabins, or else catch squids, a squalid kind of fish, which, during 
the latter part of the fishing voyage, is used to bait the cod lines 
with. 

The diet which these hardy men have, is nearly the same every 
clay (during the time they arc on the fishery), namely, what is 
called chozctlet'y for breakfast, dinner, and supper. This is made 
in the following manner : a fish, just caught, is hung up, and the 
fins stripped off'; it is then skinned, cut up in large pieces, and put 
into a kettle, under which is laid some rashers of salt pork or beef, 
and some broken pieces oi" biscuit; then the whole is just covered 
with water, and boiled about ten minutes, with some dry herbs, if 
they have any, and a little thickening. This mess is palatable, and 
extremely nutritious ; and the men employed in the fishery get very 
fat upon it. 

Sundays they are allowed some beef and pudding, but the beef 
is generally Irish, excessively salt, and, when boiled, dry and 
hard, having scarcely any fat to it. In some vessels they aru 
allowed this on Thursdays. 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c. *%$ 

There is what is called the shore fishery ; which is carried on by 
large open boats, called shallops, which go out and return nearly 
every day, and fish very near the shores : the fish which these boafs 
take are small in size, well cured, and are, in general, flic best. 
Though the bank fish are much the largest, they are not so muck 
esteemed as those which are caught close to the shores. 

Those vessels which go to the land early iu the year, have to 
make their way through islands of ice, and sometimes are in great 
danger, through the great beds of ice which float along that iron- 
bound shore to the southward. 

The island, on approaching it, has a rough appearance, rugged 
and mountainous ; at the same time covered with thick wood, and 
scarcely a field to be seen all along the shore. 

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FRENCH ANI> ENGLISH GUNPOWDER. 

IN the summer of 1808, a comparison was made at Bombay, of 
the qualify of British and French powder, used in the late gallant 
Action of his majesty's ship San FLorenzo. with the French frigate la 
Piedmontaise ; and we are happy to exhibit a decisive proof of the 
superiority of the former, so essential an ingredient in British, 
thunder. From a 7-inch brass mortar, with three ounces of pow- 
der, a GOlb. brass ball was projected, at an angle of 45 deg. and 
an average of three trials gave 595 feet to the San Fiorenzo, and 
516 feet to la Piedmontaise, making a difference in favour of the 
British powder, of 79 feet. After such an experiment, it must 
appear singular that the French should be so partial to a long 
<but. 

SEVERE ACTION' BETWEEN HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP TEUPSICHOJIE AND. 
A TRENCH TRIG ATE, IN THE INDIAN SEAS. 

(From the CEYLON" GAZETTE.^) 

e * CAPTAIN MONTAGUE left Point de Galle on the llth of 
March, for Madras, and on the 16th fell in with a French frigate, 
which from her appearance, having 14 ports on a side, was sup- 
posed to be the Canonier, and, by disguising, the Terpsichore was 
fortunate enough to bring the enemy to action at seven P.M. when, 
after lying six-and-fifty minutes close alongside, and at the very 
moment that Captain Montague imagined his exertions had been, 
crowned by the most complete success, the enemy's fire having for 
the last 20 minutes considerably slackened^ and at times wholly 



24 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

ceased, he experienced the mortification of seeing her make sail, 
lie endeavoured immediately to follow, but found that the enemy's 
fire, which had been principally directed at the masts and rigging, 
had nearly reduced the Terpsichore to a perfect wreck; her fore 
and main-stays, top-mast-stays, and many of her lower and top- 
mast-shrouds, her braces, bowlines, tacks, and sheets, without a 
single exception, were each cut in several places ; the leach-rope 
of the main and- main-top-sail cut, and the sails split across, besides 
many others for a time rendered useless. The enemy, perceiving 
the ungovernable state of his majesty's ship, bore across her bows, 
the wind blowing fresh from N.E. The Terpsichore immediately 
wore, and endeavoured to close) which was carefully avoided. 
At nine she had every thing set in chase, the enemy continuing 
under all sail before the wind, and keeping up an occasional fire 
from her stern chasers, till out of gun-shot, which she effected by 
10 P.M. The next morning, finding she had not gained much 
on them, Captain Montague continued after her, in hopes some 
fortunate event might again enable him to get alongside, but she 
kept running with a fresh wind to the southward. On approach- 
ing the line, they experienced light winds and partial squalls, 
which sometimes brought the Terpsichore nearly within gun-shot 
before the enemy derived the smallest advantage, but when she did, 
she left them immediately. On the 20th, during a heavy squall, 
they got close to jier ; she commenced a fire from her stern chasers, 
and cut away her boats, and from several of her ports floating 
past, Captain Montague was led to imagine she must have thrown 
some of her guns overboard. The light winds again commencing, 
she ran ahead considerably during the night of the 20th, which 
was dark and squally, and was entirely lost sight of. At two 
o'clock in the morning of the 21st, they discovered a sail ahead, 
which was supposed to be the chase, but on firing the first gun she 
hove to, and on boarding proved to be the brig Cadry, prize to la 
Picdmontaise, which was taken possession of, and sent to Madras. 
At daylight, being unable to perceive any thing of the enemy, 
Captain Montague hauled to the eastward. 

" Captain Montague speaks in the highest terms of the verj 
able assistance he had met with from every officer under his com- 
mand ; and of the spirited and persevering conduct of the whole of 
the ship's company. Their loss, we are sorry to say, has been 
very considerable ; Lieutenant C. Tanes and '20 men killed, and 
22 men wounded, two of whom are since dead. The Terpsichore 
has returned to Point d Ga!Ie." 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 25 

Another account adds, that during the action a gun burst on 
board the Terpsichore, by which 20 of her crew were killed and 
wounded. 

THE ISLAND OF CAPRI. 

SOME of the nesvspapers have affected to disguise the importance 
of the late successful attack of the enemy on the island of Capri, 
in the gulf of Naples. One of them actually made the follow ing 
fcomment on the French account : ' A pompous description is 
given in the French papers of the capture of the inland of Capri, 
a station we never before heard of," &c. Now, any school-boy, 
who has ever read Tacitus or Suetonius, has heard of Capra? ; its 
more modern history is to be found in Swinburne and Brydone ; 
and as a test of its actual importance, we shall only observe, that 
Buonaparte and his generals do not waste their means, in useless 
enterprises ; and what furnishes matter for exultation at Paris, may 
be pretty generally deplored in London. We shall annex to these 
remarks a summary sketch of the circumstances leading to and 
attending our occupation of the island in question, selected from 
original correspondence : 

On the 9th of May, 1806, a small squadron," utu!er the com- 
mand of Rear-admiral Sir Sidney Smith, left Gaeta (then besieged 
by the French), and cruised for a day off the gulf of Naples. On 
the llth, the rear-admiral sent a summons to the French com- 
mandant of Capri to surrender the island, offering, in case it was 
given up before midnight, that the garrison should not be made 
prisoners of Avar. This was answered in the negative. The 
marines of the squadron were immediately landed, to the number 
of 250, supported by his majesty's ship Eagle, of 74 guns, Captain 
Rowley, clearing the beach by repeated broadsides of grape and 
rannistcr shot. After a contest, which lasted from 8 P.M. till 
half-past 1 1, in which we lost one seaman and one marine, and the 
French about ten men, besides their commandant (who was killed 
hand to hand by Captain Stanntis, of the Athenienne's marines), 
the surviving commander claimed the condition contained in the 
admiral's summons, and surrendered a few minutes before twelve 
o'clock. The enemy's force was found to consist of about 200 
men. Sir Sidney Smith placed a temporary garrison of about 100 
marines and sailors in the island, and remained there till the 18th, 
in order to augment the means of defence ; during which time, our 
officer* made several excursions on shqrc, aod the following i* tho 
result of their observations : 

?atj. Cfcrou, QoLXXI. E 



2C N.1V.YJ. ANU.DOTtS, 

Capri is a desirable place of rendezvous for a fbct, during fhe~ 
occupation of the Neapolitan territory by an enemy, there being 
an excellent watt-ring place. It is also tlie only place of shelter 
for gun-boats, /6-///tm?, speronarocs, and other coasting craft, all 
the way from Gaeta. The approaches to it are very difficult, and 
defensible by a very few men : but the terror struck into the 
enemy by the Eagle's broadside at first, the circumstance of night, 
and the death of the commandant, gave us possession of what (by 
daylight) five times the number .of the besiegers could not have 
effected. In short, it was well that the French surrendered as 
they did, for their position was almost inaccessible. The island 
produces wine of a good quality, and oil ; there are some curious 
remains of antiquity upon it : and several palaces are still extant, 
whither Tiberius used to retire to indulge in his debaucheries. 
Coins and medals of the Roman emperors are frequently picked 
up. Quails are so abundant in the season, as not only to afford 
amusement to the sportsman, but an important addition to the sub. 
sistence of the islanders, who are a hardy race of mariners and 
fishermen. There is a Carthusian monastery, whose prcsen tinha- 
bitants were found by our travellers to be generally composed of 
liberal, enlightened, as well as devout characters. Some antique 
alabaster vases of exquisite beauty are in possession of these 
monks. 

AMPHITRITE ISLAM) AND SI1OAL3. 

THE following extract from the log-book of the brig Voador 
marks the situation of a dangerous shoal which, not being laid 
down with certainty in any chart, may furnish an acceptable piecp 
of information to those w r ho have occasion to navigate the China 
seas : 

" The brig Voador left Macao roads the 13th of July, 1807 r 
and on the '20th of July was in lat. 17 deg. 4 min. N. long, by 
chronometer, 112 deg. 00 min. E. Accot. Ill dcg. 41 min. ran 
15 miles S. by W. 7 S.W. by S. when the Amphitrite island bore 
east about eight miles. From hence she ran 38 miles about S.S.E. 
and saw breakers from the deck, bearing S.E. to S.S.W. hauled to 
the northward, and stood JN T . E. about 3G miles, when the 
Amphitrite island bore E. 15 miles'. During that time no bottom 
was attained at 70 fathoms ; there was a heavy swell from the 
eastward. The Amphitrite island has only one tree on it, which 
looks like a ship at anchor, and is seen before the land is made. 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 27 

There appear to be five low islands, three of which are covered 
with herbage; the two smallest are barren sand, which is of a dark 
red on the beach. The largest island is about three miles long ; 
they be.ir of each other N. by E. and S. by YV. and are divided by 
small channels of half or three quarters of a mile in width." 

DESCRIPTION OF THE HEAD OF THE DANISH SHIP NORGE.* 

THE bow of this ship is finished round to the stem, without a. 
square forecastle, the deck of which is carried over the bows, to 
the scrowl at the top of the knee of the head, and forms a platform 
over it. The rails of the head have little spread, and allow the 
bow gun on the main deck to be used in chase. 

The bowsprit, being some feet higher than usual, slips on the 
main instead of the lower deck, and has not so much stove as is 
usual. The sheild displays the arms of Norway. The whole head 
appears particularly light and handsome, and the high bow, fur 
strength and pitching in a deep sea, whether at anchor or under 
way, is certainly preferable to the square forecastle ; but it is 
attended by considerable inconvenience to the ship's company. 
This, however, may be easily removed, by letting the people go 
over the bows, as is the practice in our East Indiamen ; which 
would be attended by the advantage of keeping dry the sick bay, 
and main deck in general, and of preventing the perpetual con- 
course of people from passing through the galleys, which all na\al 
onlcers know to be a very great nuisance. 

DESTRUCTION OF THE SHIP ALBIOX, BY FIRE. 

THE Albion, Captain James Robertson, was burnt at Whampoa, 
in China, in December, 1807, under the following circumstances : 
On the morning of the 4th, the Hon. Company's treasure left 
Canton, and Captain Robertson proceeded down the river with a 
quantity of money belonging to the owners, but did not reach the 
ship until about half-past six in the evening. Going over the 
gangway, he observed (o the officer, who at this time was employed 
in receiving the Hon. Company's treasure, and had then upwards 
of one million and a half of dollars on board, that (here was a strong 
smell of fire. He went below to discern if possible \\hence it pro- 
ceeded ; and, observing the people at work in the main hatch ,vay, 
he inquired whether or not they perceived, any smell of fire : to 

* Vide page 1, the vignette head-piece cf the volume. 



28 

which they replied in the negative. Captain R. then went to the 
fore hatchway, uncovered it, and removed the hatches, when the 
flame burst forth with great fury, so high as the main stay. He 
ordered the hatches to be put on again, and used every endeavour 
to smother the flames, but without effect. At three A.M. of tho 
5th, the ebb tide having made, she went over on her broadside: 
the decks by this time were so much heated, as to oblige the peo- 
ple to quit her. At four in the afternoon she was completely 
burnt to the water's edge. Such was the fury of the flames, that 
the treasure between decks was run into masses of from two to ten 
thousand dollars weight. Suspicion of misconduct, or careless- 
ness, fell on the people on board, and it was said, that a scacunny 
had dropped a candle in the fore-hold, and concealed the accident 
through fear ; but as there was no desertion among the people, 
this was not believed. A later account states authentically, that 
the loss of the Albion was not occasioned through carelessness, as 
had been conjectured, but in consequence of some paper umbrellas^ 
received on board as cargo, packed up not thoroughly rfry, which 
had caught fire in the hold. Similar accidents have occurred 
through the same means^ 



CORRESPON DENCE. 



PRESENT MANAGEMENT AND DISCIPLINE OF THE NAVY, 

LtTTER X. 
SIR, 

FROM the sentiments expressed in my foregoing letters, I trust 
that it will appear that I ain a zealous friend not only to 
necessary discipline, but to genuine and rational liberty, and that 
my great aim has been to inculcate the advantages which will arise 
from giving full effect to the latter without infringing upon the 
former. If then I shall ever appear to use any argument, or 
maintain an opinion which seems to militate against either of these 
separately, I roust request my readers not to attribute it to any 
derilection of opinion or principle, but to the unavoidable imper- 
fection of all human establishments. 

That the house of a British subject is his castle, has ever sinco 
the glorious days of Magna Charta, and the more glorious epoch 
when the revolution had nearly reduced it into solid practice, been 
a Briton's boast. How devoutly, Mr. Editor, is it to be wished. 



eORRF.SPONDE.VCE. 29 

that the reality of this boast had never been infringed upon, and 
still more seriously threatened ; that our taxes could be levied 
without the humiliating disgrace of having onr windows counted 
by circumambulating surveyors, and our cellars w::tched by 
intruding excisemen! \Vhen. shall we see a patriot statesman 
arise, who while his duty obliges him to enforce the levy of 
millions, his feelings as a Briton will rouse his energies to tho 
adoption of a plan winch will apply to our purses without wound. 
ing our minds, and ukimately degrading our characters, by a gra- 
dual submission to intrusions which the spirit of freedom revolts 
at. This is the object so devoutly to be wished for. We will load 
our guns with our gold and silver rather than suflbr a tyrant or a 
conqueror to soil the British shores ; but let us entreat those who 
direct the ample means and generous hearts in the sister island, to 
guard as much as possible against any system, which, while ic re- 
duces the one, may degenerate the other. 

Another digression, Mr. Editor; butyou know that liberty and 
old England is our motto, and that " England expects every man 
to do his duty ;" we mast therefore not only act, but on all occa- 
sions, think, speak) and -xrite with the freedom such a motto and 
such a sentiment imposes on our character. 

I was writing on the subject of every Briton's liouse being his 
castle, when I was led into the foregoing digression. I was about 
fo regret that this principle cannot be carried into practice in the 
Anterior of a shin of war, to such a degree as British feelings lead 
us to wish. J am led into reflection on this feeling by observing 
a great mistake, some (otherwise) excellent officers have fallen, 
into. When retired into their berth, their cabin, or even ward- 
room, it has been conceived that the same unbounded liberty of 
speech may take place, as if they were in their houses on shore. 
It may be desirable (hat we could contrive bulkheads or screens, 
which were as impervious to sound, as they are to light, or that the 
servants to officers, and the sentjnels near their cabins and mess 
places could be selected from the unfortunate deaf persons in his 
majesty's dominions. But these valuablfc ideas cannot be realised. 
Space will not admit of mm-transmittiug bulkheads, and my worthy- 
friends of the cockpit or wardroom love full well to be heard by 
their attendants, whether they ./// cut to have their hammocks 
Lung up, or a fresh bottle drawn oil' from the trusty supporters of 
the wardroom store. I must therefore give up my beautiful sys- 
tem, and earnestly advise all the parties concerned, to reflect upon 
vhe vast mischief that may ensue ; and indeed that has ensued, from 



30 CORRESPONDENCE. 

officers speaking with disrespect of their superiors, or grumbling 
at their destinations before the servants and sentinels. A good 
officer will here submit to the most difficult of all disciplines, that 
of the tongue. If at table, an officer finds fault with the order or 
regulations of his captain, while perhaps a midshipman is at table 
with him, and half a score marines and boys attending round it ; 
lie from that moment ought not to think it a fault, if the gentlemen 
of the cockpit make equally free with his conduct in the station he 
may fill, nor feel surprise, though he may shame, if he hears that 
the messes between decks have retailed what has been reported from 
ihe wardroom, or officers' berths. No rank is privileged while on 
service to shew anger, contempt, or discontent at the conduct of 
its superiors; and the officer who would severely reprobate the 
seaman who was to utter a disrespectful word of, or to him, has no 
more right than the seaman to speak in a disrespectful way of his 
superiors in rank. Yet I fear that the contrary conduct is too 
common, and what would have been styled mutiny in seamen and 
marines, has often been the conversation of the wardroom and 
quarter-deck, and conceived <o bo only a proper freedom of 
speech. I am afraid this unoilicer-like, this unpatriotic conduct, 
was very common towards the end of the last war, when the sin- 
gular position of our enemy prevented the ships from being paid off 
as soon as the hopes of the officers and crews led them to expect. 
In general, much more excuse may be made for the seaman or 
marine, than for the officer, independant of the sentiment which 
education and expectations may be expected to produce. All as 
men claim an equal allowance to be made for the feeling which 
prompts the desire for an early return to their families ; but the 
former have the additional plea of interest, as it is of consequence 
to be early in their offers to get good situations and wages in the 
merchant service, while the latter will be reduced to half pay. 
But I trust we shall never hear again of officers being humbugged 
and kidnapped^ and all those childish and disgraceful winnings 
which were too vile at the time before alluded to, but that all will 
act up to the true spirit of the twenty-first article of war. 

I could give some good advice to captains on the same subject, 
though they may say I am now coming close to my own feelings. 
I will, however, venture (perhaps in self-defence) to recommend, 
that if iu a visit to the flag-ship, or by any other means, they 
should make any curious sexual discoveries, they should not imme- 
diately on their return to their ships proclaim in public that the 
admiral is an old woman; or if they arc ornithologists; they need 



CORRESPONDENT!:. 31 

not Inform the officers that he is an old goose. We have certainly 
instances of several gallant females serving on board ship, and if 
any of them arrive at their flag, most likely indeed they will be 
old women; but in general their sex has been discovered early, and 
their promotion stopped : should, however, the sex be discovered, 
after arriving at the rank of admiral, the same should be qnictlr 
made known, agreeably to the article of war above mentioned, iu 
order that a masculine successor may be appointed, and the old 
lady suffered to retire in peace. 

I remain, sir ? yours, &c. 

A. F. Y. 

1EMARKS ON THE PARLIAMENTARY DUTIES OF 
NAVAL OFFICERS. 

LETTER VIII. 

SIR, 

"TTJEFORE I enter on the intended subject of my letter, I 
-1*-^ think it necessary to make some reply to your note on part 
of the postscript of my last. J can most truly assert, that no on& 
is more positively averse " from unnecessarily wounding the feel- 
ings of indi-ciduah " than I am, and I join with you in opinion on 
that subject with all my heart. But with all due deference, Mr, 
Editor, I cannot at all think, that a man entrusted with a high 
command, during which matters of weighty national import have 
occurred, and concerning which the national feelings have been 
warmly agitated, is to be suffered to remain in calm repose for fear 
of wounding the feelings of the individual. I will not meddle 
with his private concerns, but if I am to be silent about those 
which clearly belong to the public, the liberty of the press and the 
li-berty of the people arc both annihilated, and the feelings of 
millions of individuals arc Koundcd. The part of your note 
printed in italics appears to coincide with part of the answer read 
by Lord Hawkesbury to the address of the city of London (see 
page 354, line eight from bottom) : in me, the demand for inquiry 
is said to " pronounce judgment," and you are " anxious that 
sentence should not be passed previously to inquiry." Certainly,, 
judgment cannot be given, nor sentence passed previous to trial 
(I have no good opinion of the use of inauiry)) but there mn.st bs 
accusation, or complaint, or rumour, in order to lead to a trial j 
and the opinions of the accusers or complainerSj however strong 
against the supposed delinquent, can by n a means be called passing 



Jfc CORRESPONDENCE.* 

ir; . .,,,, Th c letters I have seen are certainly not before tits' 
public, therefore it may uot have fallen in your way t6 have seen 
the complaints and accusations which have met ray eye, and for 
this reason, though not for those. I have above noticed, you arc 
quite right in omitting the sentence I had quoted, and indeed it so 
far deviated from the sort of opinions which I think all periodical 
papers should be open to, that it ought only to come into notice 
under a real signature ; I therefore request you to accept my 
thanks for your judicious amendment of my letter. Should th:> 
last sentence of your note be verified on the present occasion, what 
c;m we wish for more ? But is not the expectation rather 
Utopian ? Perhaps we may have to remark concerning it, where 
we know the issue of the never-to-be-forgotten Board of Inquiry 
on the Cintra generals ! May you and I, Sir, live in that ctfuntry 
where " justice will take its coarse, innocence will triumph, and 
guilt or imbecility will be punished or disgraced ;" or rather let me 
pray that such may be the character of the country we live in. 

Before this letter meets the eyes of your readers, Parliament 
will have met, and a variety of information may have enlightened 
the public on matters on which we are now groping in the dark ; 
I shall therefore confine my present advice to my brother sailors in 
either house, to such concerns as are not likely to be changed 
either by the royal speech or the debates on it. 

I do not exactly know when it began to be the fashion to speak 
of millions of money as mere trifles with respect to the nation ; iti 
the days, and from the mouth of Air. Pitt, this language was very 
rife, and certainly ilowed from him with becoming grace, from the 
consistency between his words and actions. Millions were then 
certaiuly lavished, as if they were nothing to a nation. There may 
be objects worth attaining, at the expeuce of many millions, but 
unfortunately, even under the au-pices of that eminent man, we 
were constantly lavishing the millions without attaining the object ; 
need we then wonder that his successors have only succeeded in 
that which he found easy, and failed in that which even he could 
not accomplish. Now, Sir, as we have been worked up to almost 
our last shift to raise foreign armies for Napoleon to scatter like 
dust before a whirlwind, to send our own gallant soldiers to the 
new world under incompetent generals^ to send others under a 
choice commander to the North, under such circumstances as to 
be sent back again, and a thousand other items known to all the 
world, I want to resort to a very old maxim, " to take care of 
thf pence.) and the pounds will take care of themselves." When 



CORRESPONDENCE. 33 

the Parliament assembles, I have not the least doubt but that the 
mutiny bill, and all matters relative to the revenue, will be passed 
in due order, and f am prepared to be very thankful for all the 
other national benefits which may result from the session. Mean, 
while, 1 submit the following hints to my naval friends, who will 
share in the honour which may result. I frequently hear great 
exultation Jn the state of the nation, because we now raise near 
sixty millions annually, and but few years have elapsed since 
twenty millions were conceived too great a burden to bear increase ; 
yet we see palaces rising, and improvements advance as rapidly as 
ever. A melancholy tri'th, Air. Editor. It is not the rich, the 
noble, the princes of the land, on whom the weight of the heavy 
burden is laid, but on those who never see the inside of palaces, 
and who know nothing of those decorations and improvements 
which so captivate the eyes and delude the senses of the admirers 
of the times. They have their merit, Mr. Editor, but this is not 
the view in which we should expect to find their real advantages. 

I now descend to my humble recommendations. It is a fact, that 
in many parts of the kingdom, the poor go without their wonted 
meal of meat or fish, in consequence of the heavy tax on salt. The 
Chancellor of the Exchequer will say, and perhaps truly, as matters 
are managed, that so far from taking off a tax, he will have to add. 
Be it so, if requisite ; but I want to propose, that as all sinecure 
places are given to the great and powerful, many of them no doubt 
paid from that very tax which reduces hundreds of their fellow 
men to the same mess with their pigs, that all such places should, 
be entirely abolished, and the duty on salt lowered by their amount. 
I can hardly think the justice of this measure can be called in 
question, though it may be Utopian. The heavy duties on malt 
have also entirely deprived many thousands of labourers in the 
country, of the power of procuring beer. As the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer cannot take off the tax on malt, let the experiment 
be tried how much it might be reduced by abolishing that mean and 
selfish privilege ot franking letters, and lessening the malt duty by 
the amount. If there was at all a proper feeling in the right place, 
I think this petty remnant of vails and perquisites could not be 
retained a single moment ; and whence could the proposal come 
with more propriety, than from the well known liberality of sen. 
ti" ent of a Briti-h sailor. He will net think a moment of the 
paltry pecuniary advantage, and even forego with pleasure the 
more agreeable part of the privilege, that of franking letters far tL.* 

, 801, XXI. j 



34 CORRESPONDENCE. 

ladies and his officers. As times go, there is a glaring absurdity in 
the rich and noble having their letters free of expence, when the 
middle and lower classes can scarcely afford to hear occasionally of 
their absent friends. Peers have a sufficiently high privilege in 
their hereditary seats in the upper house, and when it is surmised 
that seats in another place may be procured for money, or paid 
for by balls, buildings, chandeliers, newspapers, rates and taxes, 
&c. &c. there can be no possible reason why such a sneaking per- 
quisite as franking should be retained. It is understood also, that 
the correspondence respecting borough matters is now carried on 
through the medium of the middle men^ and that the members and 
the nominal constituents have nothing to say to each other. 

I remain, Sir, yours, &c. 

E. G. F. 



LETTER IX. 

sin/ 

S the writers of long books look anxiously for the rising of 
the reviewers above the political horizon, so do the writers of 
long letters in your Chronicle look earnestly for the periodical 
appearance of your prefaces, that they may see in what way their 
labours have been taken, and be enabled to apportion their future 
exertions according to the quantum of the plus or minus of appro- 
bation they may there meet with. A great book, we have been 
told, is a great evil, and I perceive that a letter, which occupies 
five or six pages, is accounted somewhat of an intrusion ; although 
if the number of pages were the greatest or only fault, it would be 
easy to divide the bulky concern into parts, and publish them at 
different times. But that I may not again encroach on those pages, 
which may be fillet! by superior ability, or more useful inforrna. 
tion, I proceed to that part of your late preface which relates to 
n;y letters. 

It was in sober and well intentioncd earnestness that I formed 
the resolution of offering my thoughts on the duties of members of 
Parliament to my brother sailors, through the medium of your 
work. In my first letters are truly detailed the subjects of the 
conversations and opinions M'hich first suggested the propriety of 
so doing. Under the blessing of heaven, the high state of opulence 
and power to which our little island has risen, has been owing to 
the singular and admirable character of our constitution of govern- 
ment ; and the pre-eminently happy part of it is the way in which 
the popular portion of it is blended with the monarchical and 



CORRESPONDENCE* 35 

aristocratical. I conceive, that if this popular portion loses its 
due weight, and becomes subservient to the other branches, that 
we should be under the very worst species of government which a 
nation could be afflicted with. Now, Sir, if it be true that we 
approach towards, or are in danger of approaching an event to be 
so earnestly deprecated ; if from certain combinations, and from 
the executive power being the fount of honour and profit both to 
the lords spiritual and temporal, the ministers for the time being 
have an undue and powerful influence in one house ; and if owing 
to the system of boroughs as now managed, that house has an 
undue and very powerful influence in the other, and the ministers 
in power a still greater ; why then, Sir, I conceive that ihe vessel 
of the state may be said to be in jeopardy, and that it becomes the 
doty of every honest sailor (o save her from shipwreck. 

I am of opinion, Mr. Editor, that our heroes, whether military 
or naval, do not sufficiently consider the mixed nature of our con- 
stitution ; but in consequence of their early acquaintance with the 
absolute nature of a military code, look almost wholly to the 
executive part with which they are principally connected. Under 
these impressions, I have endeavoured to point out the corruption 
which disgraces and endangers us, and to shew the consequence of 
those national feelings being attended to, which will make every 
Briton a hero, and his house a castle, and to express my convic- 
tion, that it has been owing to the absence of these feelings, that 
Europe has offered so trifling a resistance to the arms of the 
tyrant. 

In my chase after this very important prize, and in my endca- 
Yours to -.'ollect proper arguments and illustrations to prove the 
legality of the capture, I am not aware of having i/mred from the 
proper course, though perhaps I might have sometimes carried 
more canvass, and got fresher way through the water. But my 
bark is getting old and crazy, and the upper works much out of 
repair ; it is necessary to prop the ship, and set up additional 
backstays, even while making a voyage in the trade winds; I must 
therefore, by the assistance of your excellent correspondent, Tim 
Weatherside, to carry a press of sail, make short board, and 
endeavour to make prizes of all the anecdotes, whether of gallant 
actions or borough politics, which he can grapple with, and 
knows so well how to deposit in the safe harbour of your 
Chronicle. 

I have already thanked you for your impartiality in admitting 
opinions which militate so strongly agaiust your own } but ij is to 



36 CORRESPONDENCE* 

be considered, that discussion is the clear way to truth, and &<t 
such should always he admitted into periodical publications. I 
have also admitted great merits in the two noble lords to whoiA 
you attribute such superior attainments, and consider as the great 
palladium of our service, but in truth, Sir, I do assure you, that 
my former and unshaken opinion is confirmed by very many of 
those to whom I think I may justly apply the titles of the " first 
characters in the service and the state." 

Before I conclude, I must express my thanks to you for your 
Very judicious choice of a dedication, and for your animating and 
excellent address on the subject of the Spanish patriots. Against 
such a powerful enemy it must be expected to prove a work of 
years to gain the very important object in view. My great dread 
is, that the Junta have been ill advised in making the rallying 
words " our beloved Ferdinand" instead of " our beloved 
country." It is not conceivable to me that Ferdinand can be 
beloved after his weak submission, and unmanly abdication. If a 
cortes had been assembled, and a limited monarchy declared to be 
the determined result, after the enemy had been chased from the 
country, I firmly believe Buonaparte would never have entered 
Madrid. We shall soon hear the opinions of the Parliamentary 
leaders on this important subject, and also on the result of the 
memorable board of inquiry. The (hanks of the country are 
justly due to Lord Moira for his explanatory dissent. Before th 
division in opinion was known, it appeared to have passed 
unanimously, that Sir A. W. was right in his gallant deter- 
mination to pursue the beaten foe ; and that Sir H. B. was as 
correct in ordering him to desist ; and that Sir II. D. was also not 
in an error in granting a convention, which Junot thinks was te 
him an important victory. 

I remain, Sir, yours, &c. 

E. G. F. 

Admiral Trident., to the Right Hon. Lord Mulgrate. First Lord 
of the Admiralty^ $c. 

MY LORD, 

fjIlrlE days, the best days of old Trident, have long been num. 
J*- bered with the past; but his youth is revived (thanks be to 
him who hath lengthened those days), his youth is revived, in the 
vigour and valorous achievements of his sons. 

I have served. Lord Mulgrave, when the brave were more 
3 



CORRESPONDENCE* 27 

Honoured. I have served in the fleets of our Hawke and Boscawen. 
I have fought when the British flag has been nobly triumphant, 
and I hare seen it as basely depressed, but never (let a father 
exult), never till these times, have I heard of such triumphs, as 
the glorious, the unalloyed triumphs of my sons. 

My Lord, the old and gracious proclamation of his majesty 
(God bless him!) joined with honour, had ever been our polar star. 
By that we learned, in youth, that -when the hard earned rank 
arrived, the harvest ot" our lives would come a late, but pledged 
reward for all our blood ind toils. "Why, then, let a veteran ask, 
why was that ancient sacred compact broken?* Have my sons 
not done their parts ? Have they who should lead your fleets 
been found astern ? Turn, my lord, turn, I pray, and traverse 
every ocean, or turn and see these wounds, these shattered limbs, 
these venerable locks, then, let our sovereign harshly say again, 
" Old man, thy services have been too well rewarded." Too 
well rewarded ! Ah, my king, what then have others been ! 

My Lord, you are a soldier, and, if my sons have heard aright, 
a man, too, of exemplary honour. Deal then but with us as a man. 
of honour ought. My sons, you know, are poorly paid ; they 
have no perquisites but what their blood must buy they feed no 
crews they clothe no men : if, then, reform be needful, do unto 
them as a soldier would be done unto, do that, and we are 
content. 

My Lord, we see you fill a high official station ; and, if the 
world may be believed, y6u rank among our most enlightened 
statesmen. Deal then but with my family as a statesman would- 
we ask no more. 

When placemen or pensioners should be discharged from service, 
what, may we ask, what do our most enlightened statesmen grant 
them ? What. but//r, \)\\tjnst, and liberal remuneration ? 

If sinecure?, if long established fees must be suppressed, what, 
let us sailors ask, what would be our oldest statesman's answer ? 
Would your voice not be, my Lord, for fair, for just, for ample 
remuneration ? 

If, then, Lord Mulgrave, the country that we live in, and that 
we love to defend, may not be relieved in the hour of distress, by 
discharging from its service a band of tawdry and unprofitable 
supernumeraries ; if, when the poor old ship is labouring under a 



By a late regulation, one-tliird of the admirals' and captains' prize 
ej has been taken from then, and given to the seamen. 



38 

pressure of sail, neither tack, nor sheet, nor haulyards, can eref 
be started to case her ; if none of these things can be done without 
granting remuneration, liberal, ample remuneration to all who are 
rated ; why, then, I ask (excuse an old man's warmth), I ask, iit 
the name of that God, whose orders are justice, by what plea, by 
what right you take, without compensation, from the arms of my 
gallant boys their dearest earnings ? Is it, say you, from generosity 
to your tars, to their humbler brethren ? Your tars (God prosper 
them) they are dear to these aged arms, but beware, my Lord, of 
such generosity ; no property is safe within its reach. 

Generosity, true generosity, is the companion of courage and 
greatness ; it grows up with the sailor, and is dear to his soul. 
There is but one generosity that my sons understand. Need I 
deSne it ? It is not, believe me, that generosity which rewards 
them at the expcnce of a brother ! Introduce not, I beseech you, 
among us the passions that may be baneful to your prosperity and 
our peace. 

If indeed, you would reward, where reward is so abundantly 
due, take an old man's advice look to the Droits the Droits of 
Admiralty, won by their toils. Ah, Lord Mulgrave, why, why- 
were not those Droits of Admiralty so meritoriously employed ? 

TRIDENT, Admiral, &c. 



HEW NIPl'EH. 

MR- EDtTOHj Folkstone, January 15,. 1809. 

IT has been objected to the new nipper, which I had the honour 
of submitting to the officers of the navy in your last volume,*' 
that whatever might be ils efficacy when used, the real utility would 
be of little account, as the additional purchase, it supposes, is but 
tarely resorted to. I might, perhaps, be justified by quoting 
against such an observation, the emphatic language of a very 
distinguished officer on a similar occasion : " If we cannot have 
all we want, let us have all we can get." But I rather choose to 
answer this objection by observing, that if the additional purchase 
has hitherto been but rarely resorted to, it may probably be owing 
to an apprehension of having to encounter those very difficulties 
which it is the sole object of this expedient to obviate. It has also 



?ee page 



COKKESPOSDEXCE. 39 

been remarked, by those whose judgment is entitled to much con. 
sideration, that the manner of passing the under, or common 
nipper, and the salvage, is by no means the best that could be 
devised. To these remarks, Sir, it may be sufficient to reply, 
that, as a sailor, I am too well acquainted with the advantages 
of practice, to suppose that the result of any closet speculations 
can be perfect ; that while first making the nipper public, I pro- 
fessedly relied on the " liberal aid" of the profession, and that, hi 
so doing, little to me could remain in view, but the hope of that 
gratification which arises from the idea of having suggested a bene- 
ficial improvement. If, therefore, by a more skilful application, 
the nipper proposed can be rendered still more beneficial, it 
unavoidably follows, that the measure of my gratification must be 
still more increased. Fully convinced as I am that great advan- 
tages may be obtained by extending the uses of the above nipper to 
more general purposes, there should be no hesitation on my part, 
in recommending that, in every case where the greasiness of the 
cable presents a considerable obstacle, immediate recourse be had 
to its aid. But in order to make myself completely understood on 
this subject, I must refer your readers to the accompanying sketch 
of the method recommended (founded, it must be confessed, on very 
inadequate trials), by attending to which, there appears reason to 
hope, that with only one piece of rope, and two of the nippers 
alluded to, an anchor in many difficult situations may with safety- 
be weighed. 

At A, in the sketch below, may be seen the representation of a 
double tailed nipper ; the operation of which (however well 
known) I hope to be excused for explaining. 

The double tailed, nipper, when supplying the place of those 
commonly used, is first to have the tails of the after end secured to 
the messenger ; the single part is then to be passed, as many times 
as may be practicable, round both the cable and messenger, and 
the remaining tails to be secured to the cable before it, which being 
done, it is distinctly evident, that so long as the ends are pulled in. 
opposite directions, both the cable and messenger will be bound 
together by the single part that surrounds them, and that so long 
as the tails retain their hold, the power of the nipper will be in. 
creasing, in proportion to the increase of compression. 

But it is equally obvious, that the value of a nipper so applied, 
entirely depends on the security of the tails, and this security ig, 
ja some cases, exceedingly difficult to accomplish. Several foreign 
Cations have had recourse to a mouse, at certain intervals, on the 



messenger, whilst others object to such a remedy, but all agree, 
that some practicable substitute for a mouse would be of infinite 
utility on the cable. Such a substitute, or temporary mouse, may, 
it appears to me, be easily obtained, for it seems extremely clear, 
on reflection, that if the new nipper may be made to hold when 
used with a purchase, it may be uiade to hold nearly as well, by 
applying the tails in the room of a salvage ; at least, it may be 
made sufficiently stationary to answer the purpose. 

I have before, Sir, had to lament, that local circumstances for- * 
bid my making any trial on a scale sufficiently large ; but from 
what has been seen, it is necessary to say, that particular care 
should at all times be taken, while passing the tails, that the first 
turns round the zcocd may not produce the effect of removing it 
sideways, so as to prevent its bearing on the crosses beneath ; 
which, it is thought, may be guarded against, by taking at Jirst^ 
a complete turn round either the nearest cable or messenger, as 
may be seen in the sketch, at 13. 

I shall now conclude with observing, what the first trial will 
sufficiently evince, that whether the salvage or the tails be used as 
a binder to the nipper, it is equally necessary, that all the turns 
should be taught, and applied as nearly as possible to the pins at 
tail. 




MR. EDITOR, 

lE preservation of seamen from the scurvy, and even th 
cure of that disease, so far as it has yet been investigated, 
being best effected by fresh succulent vegetables, you will oblige 
me by the insertion of the enclosed letter from Mr. Charles 
Edmund, surgeon of his majesty's ship Russell, as shewing, in a 



CORRESPONDENCE, 41 

dear and distinct manner, the practicability of employing the 
Kew Nopal, as it is called here, for that valuable purpose, to 
which it appears peculiarly adapted, by being so far an air plant 
as to preserve life, and the capacity of vegetation, for months 
after an entire removal from the earth or watering gardens. 

J. ANDERSON. 1 SOS. 

" His Majesty's Ship Russell, Madras Roads, 
"SIR, March. 3, 1808. 

" The plant, by the name of Kew Nopal, which you were so 
polite as to furnish me with to try its effects in scurry, that was so 
general among the crew of his majesty's ship Russell, after a 
cruise of three months, entirely confined to sea diet, I have the 
pleasure to say, proved so agreeable to those who had it given 
them in its raw state, that they compared it to sorrell, and I have 
no doubt but it would have proved highly useful could it have been, 
continued; but owing to a diarrhoea, which generally occurs on 
the first use of every kind of fresh diet, I was obliged to desist 
from giving the nopal or any other succulent vegetable, and to 
pay attention to the state of the bowels by opiates, and occasionally 
by a little creta or some absorbent to correct the acidity in the 
stomach. As I considered the whole of the crew as being more 
or less affected with the scurvy, and the necessity of their having 
regetables with their boiled fresh meat, I made use of the nopal in 
a manner more admissible, which was, to put a proportion every 
day in the coppers with their soup ; this I think is a preferable 
mode, it being less likely to affect the bowels than in a raw state. 
Having been so little able to speak of its benefit:, from our not 
having quitted the coast, I can only say, that from a knowledge 
of the. utility of vegetables in scurvy, I will endeavour to obviate 
any effects on the bowels by opiates, and hope by the next time I 
have the pleasure of writing to you on the subject, to be able to 
speak of the benefit obtained, as it is so easily taken care of by 
keeping it in the air. Therefore request you will furnish me with 
a, further supply, as we have nothing that will keep so long in a 
fresh succulent state. 

" I have the honour to be, sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

CHARLES EDMUND, 

" Surgeon of his majesty's ship R.ussell.'" 

. Eol. XXI. - 



42 CORRESPONDENCE. 

Society of Arts j fyc. Adelphi, London* 

SIR, January 23, 1809; 

JY direction of the Society instituted for the Encouragement 
' of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, I return their thanks 
to you for your obliging present to them of the XXth Volume of 
your publication, entitled the NAVAL CHRONICLE, which has 
been ordered to be carefully preserved in their library, along with 
the preceding volumes with which you have favoured them. 

I cannot help thinking it a part of my duty to notice to you the 
general approbation with which these volumes have been received, 
and the pleasure with which they have been perused by the mem- 
bers of this society. I assure you, it is my sincere wish that the 
work may meet with that patronage and encouragement from the 
public which it appears to me to be so well entitled to, and I have 
no doubt but that it will excite an emulation amongst our gallant 
sailors to follow the noble examples you have recorded. 

As a tribute of respect to the memory of a youth whom I knew, 
I have taken the liberty of sending you the following anecdote, 
which you may take such notice of as you may think proper: 

About the year 1779, a privateer, called the Amazon, was fitted 
'out upon a cruise from the port of Liverpool : two youths, about 
17 years of age, apprentices to Mr. Benjamin Hallworth, acallen. 
derman, at Manchester, eloped from their master, and entered on 
Aboard the privateer, who, during her cruise, fell in with a vessel of 
considerable force, and engaged her. 

Early in the engagement one of the youths above mentioned had 
his leg and part of the thigh shot off by a cannon ball, and fell by 
the side of his companion. The mind of the wounded youth 
appeared to be regardless of his situation, and only intent upon 
the event of the action. He called out to his companion, whose 
name was William, " H r ill, hozo go zee on, shall zee beat them?" 
an answer was returned by his friend, that he hoped so. The 
question was repeated several times, but in weaker tones of voice, 
whilst the blood flowed from him in a torrent ; the probability of 
success was announced in similar answers. At last, raising hi? 
head a little, he with a very feeble voice again requested to know 
what success. His companion called out, The enemy havs 
struck. 1 ' A sudden gleam of joy seemed to diffuse itself over the 
countenance of the dying youth, who, stretching himself out, 
gallantly exclaimed, " Then I die contented^ and expired with- 
out A groan. 



MARINE SCENERY. 43 

These circumstances were related to me by the companion who 
was present during the whole transaction, and who afterwards 
returned to his master's service in Manchester. 

I remain, with much esteem, sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

CHARLES TAYLOR, M.D. 

Secretary to the Society of Arts, &c. 
To Mr. Joyce Gold. 

MR. EDITOR, 

THE geographers in every part of Europe, in their charts, 
have laid down Cape Frio, on the coast of Brazil, as being 
in the latitude 22 deg. 34 min. This error ought to be rectified : 
several vessels bound to Rio de Janeiro having been in consequence 
of it, embayed ; and every one knows, that it is necessary to make 
Cape Frio, before he can get to Rio de Janeiro. This error has 
been rectified in Arrowsmith's map of the coast of Brazil, which 
will be shortly published. This geographer makes the exact 
latitude 23 deg. 2 min. and S. longitude 49 deg. 59 min. 

TIM. WEATHERSIDE, 



MARINE SCENERY. 



THE NORTH CAPE. 
(From Acerbi's Travels,) 

9 1 illE North Cape is an enormous rock, which, projecting far 
-1- into the ocean, and being exposed to all the fury of the 
waves and the outrage of tempests, crumbles every year more and 
more into ruins. Here every thing is solitary, every thing is 
sterile, every thing sad and despondent. The shadowy forest no 
longer adorns the brow of the mountain ; the singing of birds, 
which enlivened even the woods of Lapland, is no longer heard in 
this scene of desolation ; the ruggedness of the dark grey rock is 
not covered by a single shrub ; the only music is the hoarse mur- 
muring of the waves, ever and anon renewing their assaults on tho 
huge masses that oppose them. The northern sun, creeping, at 
midnight, at the distance, of live diameters along the horizon, and, 
the immeasurable ocean in apparent contact with the skies, form 
the grand outlines in the sublime picture presented to the astonished 



44 PLATE CCLXXV. 

spectator. The incessant cares and pursuits of anxious mortals 
are recollected as a dream ; the various forms aud energies of 
animated nature are forgotten ; the earth is contemplated only in, 
its elements, and as constituting a part of the solar system. 



PLATE CCLXXV. 

Description of Incc Castle^ situated on the borders of Cornzcall) 
adjoining to Devonshire. 

AS a marine villa, the view of Ince Castle may well be entitled 
to a place in the NAVAL CHUONICLE; the truly romantic? 
peninsula on which it stands is a long promontory, -which con- 
tains upwards ef one hundred acres, and is connected with the 
continent only by t\vo fields ; it possesses all the advantages of an 
inland as well as a marine situation.; for though nearly encom- 
passed by the sea, it has beautiful woods and plantations, that 
thrive in great luxuriance, through which arc cut rides and walks, 
in some parts impervious to the sun. 

It is distant from Plymouth Dock only four miles by water, 
and when you open the St. Germain's water at Hamoaze (whence 
this view is taken) Ince Castle breaks upon you as a stately man. 
gion, situated on the top of a Nole (seemingly an island rising out 
of the sea), with a boundary of rock of some height, resembling a' 
}iigh wall, on the edge of which, one half in view to the left, at 
the proper season, .appears to have a fringe of go'id and silver, 
from the blossoms of the various shrubs on its verge, while the 
other half presents to the eye the plantation and wood, through 
which a carriage road from the lower landing place carries you, 
round an extensive lawn by an easy zig-zag assent to the house. 
Two large boat-houses are also seen on the left side, from each of 
which a jetfy runs into the sea for the convenience of landing. 

The stable^ and coach-houses, upon a large scale, are at a pro- 
per distance from the house, but completely planted ont j and at a 
further distance is the farm-yard, with barns, &c. likewise screened 
by trees. The house is gothic, with four towers, and is said to 
have been built by K UK-grew, the favourite of Chailes II. on the 
site of an old castle ; indeed, from the vestiges and remains of old 
walls which are seen at low water, it bears the appearance of 
having been an ancient military station ; and as Ince in the Saxon, 
denoted an island, Ince Castle might in those times have been 3, 
stronghold; but what makes this more probable is, the labou;- 



1PLATE CCLXXY. 45 

which seems to have been bestowed upon it, by cutting away rock* 
and forming the land to its present beautiful slopes, which work 
Appears more considerable than could be undertaken by an indi- 
yidual ; in some respects it answers to Fenelon's description of 
Calypso's island, in Telemachus, having most picturesque romantic 
scenery, and many delightful retreats, in the recesses of the rocks 
which surround it. 

The road from the house, as far as the extent of the grounds, 
towards the turnpike, is along a ridge, from which the land 
regularly falls on each side till it comes to the rocks which form 
the bounds all round, and at the edge are seen hollies and thorns, 
which, as well as the myrtle, here grow to an uncommon size ; 
also the American thorn are in abundance, of the size of small 
timber; nor can it be accounted for, how this continued verdure 
could remain so near the sea, but from its being at a distance sur- 
younded by such high hills as keep oft" all harsh winds. To the 
s.ame cause, ?nd the constant flux and reflux of the tide, may like- 
wise be attributed the great hcalthfulness of the situation ; for so 
mild is the winter on this little spot, that snow never lies on the 
ground ; so that, to its picturesque beauties, may be added a cli- 
mate peculiar to itself, both for mildness in winter, and for cool- 
ness ju summer ; from which it has been found remarkably favour, 
able to persons whose lungs hare been affected. 

Its distance from Saltash on the land side, by a good road a ft 
four miles ; but here, immediately you leave the grounds, you 
have to ascend the hill, which on that side forms its shelter from 
the south-west winds; the beautiful and varied scenery of sea, of 
ships, of hills, and of woods, which meet the eye from the summit, 
is truly grand. 

The estate has been in the possession of proprietors, who not 
pnly possessed the means, but who have shewn great taste in the 
improvement of its natural beauties (for every part indicates that 
no labour or expense has been spared, either for convenience or 
decoration), by many works of art, of which the, drains under the 
.house, cut out of the solid rock,, are not the least remarkable j 
and the great drain, which the fall of the land carries in some 
parts twenty feet under the surface, though cut through the solid 
rock with an arch, is so wide and lofty, that a cart may pass 
along; but this possibly in ancient times was a way from the old 
castle, of which the present ad vantage may have been taken by the 
architect. 

Inclusive of three enormous welh ; suuk deep in the rock 3 anijl 



4<f PLATE CCtXXV. 

which afford a never-failing supply of the finest water, every fieltf 
likewise has its spring equally good, which is remarkable, so sur- 
rounded as it is by the sea : this renders the land most fertile. 
A further convenience in former times was, that every field had a 
quay for the landing of manure from barges, but of these, only 
three now remain : however, at this time, the greatest d;-u f t by 
cart does not exceed a quarter of a mile, which is a circumstance 
lew farms can boast. 

This little paradise was long the residence of the family of the 
JVeals, from whom it descended to the Neals of Tollerton, in Not, 
tinghamshirc, but finding it so far distant from their constant 
residence, they seldom went to it; and. being of later years only 
inhabited by servants, both house and land had greatly gone to 
decay, which induced them to part with it about four years back, 
when it was purchased by Edward Smith, Esq. the present pro- 
prietor, who with infinite labour and expence, has put the house 
into substantial repair, and has brought the land into good con- 
dition ; the whole being now laid down in pasture. It before 
possessed a very fine open bath, but he has added a close bath, 
with a bathing-house, which in that respect renders it very 
complete. 

The surrounding waters abound in fish, of which the estate 
possesses the right of fishing, and the oysters of Ince ar^ famous in 
those parts ; there are likewise abundance of cockles, muscles, 
&c. on the shores ; and in the rocky clifts are to be found great 
numbers of rabbits, which afford very fine sport. 

It is a curious circumstance, that such a house, with such land, 
having three orchards, and abounding with every other conve- 
nience, should never have had a walled garden ; but such is the 
fact, though one of the fields produces the only good earth for 
bricks near Plymouth, the excellence of which is shewn by the 
bricks of which the house is constructed ; and though the estate 
has likewssc the advantage of a very fine stone quarry for building 
purposes. Thus the garden (ia the midst of which is a good vine- 
house) has its fruit only growing on espaliers, though the trees are 
all of the most choice kinds. In the midst of the hanging wood 
is a fine level bowling green, with an elegant alcove, which com- 
mands the whole, but in which, when you arc seated, there is not 
an object in view which can impress upon the mind the idea of 
being near the water. 

The prospects from the house, whether looking towards the land 
cr the sea 3 are beautiful beyond description, and in (he latter are 



CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF NATAL EVENTS. 47 

the men of war lying at Hamoaze, with a continued movement 
of vessels and boats up and down the St. Germain's Water for near 
objects, as also those up and down the Tamar at a distance. 

Thus the inhabitants of this little peninsula may be said to have 
in their option, either a most delightful retreat from the world, 
with a fund of rural amusements, or the advantages of society to 
any extent they may wish : indeed, they may enjoy both at the 
fame time. 



CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH 

OF THE 

MOST REMARKABLE NAVAL EVENTS 

OF THE YEAR 1308. 



G 



JANUARY. 

LEXERAL MOORE, with part of the troops under his com- 
mand, arrived at Portsmouth from Sicily (30th ult.) 
2. Accounts arrived of the loss of the Anson frigate, Captain Lydiard, 
on the Bar Sand, near Hebtone, on the 28th nit. 

4. French papers were received, containing a copy of the French decree, 
dated 17th December, declaring neutral vessels, which might submit to be 
visited by English vessel.*, under the Orders in Council of November 11, ta 
be denationalized, and not entitled to the protection of their government. 

6. A copy of Sir Sidney Smith's declaration arrived, dated the 22d of 
November, off Lisbon, declaring Lisbon and the Tagus to be in a state of 
blockade, in consequence of their being in possession of the French. 

20. Intelligence was received of the island of Madeira having surren- 
dered to the British sea and land forces on the 24th ult. in trust for tbc 
royal family of Portugal. 

21. Parliament met, pursuant to his majesty's proclamation. 

23. Intelligence arrived of the embargo having been laid on all American 
Vessels in their own harbours, in consequence of the president's message to 
Congress of the 7th ulr. 

^5. The Prince Regent of Portugal landed at Bahia, where be remained 
a short time, and afterwards proceeded for Rio Janeiro. 

FEBRUARY. 

7. Advices were received that the Danish islands of St. Thomas and St. 
John had surrendered to the British on the 22d of December, and Santa 
Cruz on the 28th. 

8. A treaty of alliance and subsidy was concluded between Great Britain 
And Sweden. 



49 CHttoBrotOalcAL SKETCH OF NAVAL EVEHTSV 

15. Admiral Duckworth arrived at Martinique, in search of the Roche* 
fort squadron. 

15. The King of Prussia, in a proclamation, renounced all connection, 
commercial and political) with England, in compliance with the 27th article 
of the treaty of Tilsit. 

MARCH. 

8. The Piedmontaise French ship of war was captured hy the St, 
Tiorenzo, Captain Hardinge, in the Indian seas. Captain Hardinge killed. 

16. Frederick Vlth proclaimed King of Denmark,, his father Christian 
Having died on the 13th. 

19. Charles IV. abdicated the crown of Spain in favour of his son, Fer- 
dinand VII. at the request of the hereditary nobility. 
30. The island of Dcseada taken hy the French. 

APRIL. 

I. By an ukase 'of the Emperor of Russia, of this date, all foreign 
manufactured goods are prohibited from being imported into the Russian 
dominions ; and Russian ships, coming from England, loaded, to be pre- 
vented from landing their cargoes. 

10. The Rochefort squadron, after eluding the vigilance of the British 
cruisers, entered Toulon. 

12. General Oakes sailed for Malta, to take the chief command sf that 
island. 

16. Captain Shipley, of the Nymplje frigate, was killed in an unsuccessful 
attempt to cut out an enemy's vessel from the mouth of the Tagus. 

18. Sir John Duckworth arrived with his squadron, after an unsuccessful 
cruise in search of the Rochefort squadron, in the West Indies, &c. 

22. Mr. Rose arrived from his mission to America. 
28. Lord Gardner surrendered the command of the Channel fleet to 
Lord Gambier. 

MAY. 

1. The Prince Regent of Portugal, at Rio Janeiro, declared war against 
France, in consequence of the French troops having invaded Portugal, &c. 

2. An embargo laid on all American ships lying in the harbours of 
France. 

3. The town and harbour of Sweabourg surrendered to the Russians. 
6. Junot laid an embargo on all the ships in the harbours of Portugal. 
- . A fleet, destined for the Brazils, sailed under convoy from Ports- 
mouth. 

10. The expedition under Sir John Moore sailed from Yarmouth, under 
convoy of Admiral Keats. 

17. General Moore, with his troops, arrived at Gottenburgh. 

19. The Guelderland Dutch frigate, of 36 guns, was captured off Ireland 
by his majesty's ship Virginie, Captain Brace. 

24. The Duchy of Tuscany, with all the sea port towns on the Mediter- 
ranean; were united to France, by a decree of the French senate, upon ths 



CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF NAVAL EVENTS. 49 

ground that such a measure would tend to exclude the English from the 
'continent. 

S5. Captain Bettesworth, of the Tartar frigate, was unfortunately killed 
in endeavouring to cut oue of the enemy's East induuuen from off Bergen. 

JUNE. 

10. The Spanish forts opened their fire on the French squadron uuder 
Admiral Rosilly, in the harbour of Cadiz. 

14. Admiral Rosilly surrendered his squadron to General Morla. 

17. Government ordered 309,000 dollars to be shipped from die Bank, 
for the use of the Spanish provinces which had revolted against France. 

22. The court of common council of the city of Londou addressed his 
majesty, thanking him for the assistance he had afforded to Spain. 

29. General Moore arrived from Sweden, with the army under his 
command. 

. Intelligence arrived of the destruction of four Dutch ships of war, 
in the East Indies, "by Sir Edward Pellew, in Griesse harbour, in the island 
f Java. 

JULY. 

4. The Parliament was this day prorogued by commission. 

. The British government issued a proclamation of peace with all the 
provinces of Spain. 

5. The Turkish ship of war Badere Zaffer, of 52 guns, and 500 men, was 
captured in the Adriatic by the Sea Horse frigate, Captain Stewart, after a 
severe action. 

12. The expedition under General Sir Arthur Wellesley sailed from 
Cork. 

If. The governor of Cuba refused to acknowledge the sovereignty of 
Joseph Buonaparte, and proclaimed peace \vith Great Britain. 

23. Lord Strangford, the British ambassador, arrived at the court of 

Brazil. 

- ^ 

31. The expedition under Sir Harry Burrard sailed from St. Helen's. 

AUGUST. 

19. The brigade of British troops under General A nstruther landed ia 
ortugal, and joined Sir Arthur Wellesley. 

2$. General Sir Hew Dalrymple landed in Portugal, and rook the chief 
command of the British army. Shortly afterwards, tiie French general of 
division, Kellerman, arrived at the British camp, with proposals frotnr 
General Junot, for concluding a convent! .11 for the evacuation of Portugal 
by the French army, and, after some consultation, a armistice was con- 
cluded between the two armies. 

25. Sir Samuel Hood, with two British ships of the line, assisted by a 
Swedish squadron, attacked and defeated a Russian fleet of superior force. 
The Sewold, a ship of the line, was destroyed, and the remainder escaped 
iiiio port. 

f?:on. SoI.XXI. ti 



50 CHRONOLOGICAL' SKETCH OF NATAL EVENTS, 

27. Island of Mariegalante retaken from the French. 

SO. After repeated discussions, a convention was concluded at Cintra, 
between Admiral Sir Cliarles Cotton and Admiral Siniavin, whereby the 
Russian fleet, of nine sail of the line and one frigate, which were lying in 
the Tagus, were delivered ap to the British, to be by them kept as a deposit 
till six months after peace, and the Russian officers and seamen were to be 
sent home in British ships. 

SEPTEMBER. 

6. Buonaparte issued a decree, prohibiting the importation of colonial 
produce into any part of his dominions till further orders. 

15. The French army finally evacuated Portugal, in pursuance of the 
convention of Cintra. 

16. The Marquis de la Romana itnd suite landed at Yarmouth from the 
Baltic. 

30. The Marquis de la Romana's army were safely landed at Corunns, 
from the British transports. 

OCTOBER. 

4. Sir Arthur Wellesley arrived at Plymouth from Portugal. 

5. The island of Capri, with a small British garrison, surrendered to a 
body of French troops sent from Naples. 

9. Expedition under Sir David Baird, consisting of 13,000 troops, sailed 
from Falmouth. 

13. The expedition under Sir David Baird arrived at Corunna. 

10. Sir Hew Dalryrrtple arrived at Portsmouth from Portugal, whence he 
was recalled by government. 

NOVEMBER, 

10i Ills majesty's ship Amethyst, of 36 guns, Captain Seymour, fell m 
with the Thetis, French ship, of 44 guns, which she captured, after one of 
the most sanguinary engagements ever known. 

DECEMBER. 

10. At a meeting of the merchants, &c. of the City of London, held this 
day, to consider of the propriety of opening a subscription for furnishing 
clothing and other necessaries for the use of the Spanish patriots, 15,0001. 
were immediately subscribed. 

15. The British government published a declaration, stating, that the 
late overtures from France, for a peace, were inadmissible, and only 
intended to excite distrust in our allies. 

30. Accounts received of a junction, formed at Benevcnto, between the 
armies under Sir John Moore and Sir David Eaird. 



51 

PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 



NAUSCOPY; 

OR, 

THE ART OF DISCOVERING SHIPS AT A GREAT DISTANCE 
FROM LAND. 

NAUSCOPY" is the art of discovering the approach of ships, 
on the neighbourhood of lands, at a considerable distance. 

This knowledge is not derived either from the undulation of 
waves, or from the subtilty of sight ; but merely from observation 
of the horizon, which discovers signs indicating the proximity of 
large objects. On the approximation of a ship towards the land, 
or towards another ship, there appears in the atmosphere a meteor 
of a particular nature, which, with a little attention, is visible to 
any person. 

M. Bottineau (a native of the island of Bourbon) laid this dis- 
covery before M. de Castries, in 1784. The minister sent him 
back to the island to continue his observations there, under the 
inspection and superintendance of the government. 

M. Bottineau engaged, that not a single ship should arrive at the 
island without his having sent information of it several days before. 

An exact register of his communications was kept in the secre- 
tary's office. All his reports were compared with the ships' books 
as soon as they arrived, to see whether the variations ot weather, 
calms which retarded them, kc. <fcc. were such as agreed with his 
reports. 

It must be observed, that when his reports were made, the 
watchmen, stationed on the mountains, could never perceive any 
appearance of ships ; for M. Bottineau announced their approach 
when they were more than a hundred leagues distant. 

From the authenticated journal of his reports, which has been, 
published, it appears that he was wonderfully accurate. AVithin 
eight months, and in sixty-two reports, he announced the arrival 
of one hundred and fifty ships of different descriptions. 

Of the fact there can be no reasonable doubt, because every 
method Avas adopted to prevent deception, and his informations 
were not only registered, as soon as they were made, it the 
government office, but were also publicly known over the whole 
island. The officers of government, moreover, were far from 



52 THILOSOFHICAr- PAPERS, 

being partial to M. Bottineau ; on the contrary, they were dis- 
pleased with him for obstinately refusing to sell them his secret, 
which they wanted to purchase at a high price, so that he could 
expect no favour from their representations. Truth, however, 
obliged them to give abundant testimony to the reality of his 
extraordinary talent, in their letter to the French minister, which 
is published in a " Memoire sur In Nauscopte, par M. Boltineau" 
The following are two of the reports extracted from thii 
memoir : 

" On the 20th of August, 1784, I discovered some vessels at the distance 
of four days sail from the island. On the following day, the number mul- 
tiplied considerably to my sight. This induced me to send information of 
many vessels; but though they were only at four days distance, I never- 
theless stated in my report, that no settled time could be fixed on for their 
arrival, as they were detained by a calm. On the 25th the ,calm was so 
complete, as to make me thinly for a few hours, that the fleet had disap- 
peared, and gone to some other place. I soon after perceived again the 
presence of the fleet, by the revived signs. It was still in the same state of 
inaction, of which I sent information. From the 20th of August to the 10th 
of September, 1 did not cease to announce, in my reports, the continuation 
of the calm. On tlie 13th I sent word that the fleet was no longer becalmed, 
and that it would arrive at the island within forty-eight hours. Accordingly, 
to the surprise of the whole island, M. de Regular's fleet arrived at Port 
Louisa on the loth. The general astonishment was greatly increased, when 
it was known that this fleet had been becalmed since the 20th of August, 
near Rodriguez islands, which was precisely the distance that I had pointed 
out in my reports." 

" I soon had another opportunity of shewing the certainty of my observa- 
tions. A few days before the arrival of M. de Regmer's fleet, I announced 
the appearance of another fleet, which became perceptible to me. This 
created a great deal of uneasiness, because as no other French fleet was 
expected, that which I discovered might be English ships. 1 was ordered 
to repeat my observations with accuracy. I clearly perceived the passage 
of several ships, and declared they were not bound for our island, but were 
taking another course. In consequence of this information, the Naiade 
frigate and the Due de Chartres cutter were suddenly despatched to 
M. de Suffrein. The cutter actually saw and avoided the English fleet, in 
the ninth degree, but unfortunately did not find M. de Suffrein in the bay of 
Trincomalee. The report of the cutter efieciualty convinced the incred^- 
lous of the reality of my discovery.'* 

The last circumstance, of despatching the frigate and cutter, 
plainly shews the confidence which the French officers must have 
put in the information of M. Bottineau, It shews also that he- 
deserved their confidence, 



JHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS. 53 

Ccnyeclures respecting the Phenomenon on rshich the preceding 
Observations zzere fuunded. 

The wafers of the ocean form an immense gulf, in which sub- 
stances of all kinds are swallowed up. 

The innumerable multitude of animals, fish, birds, Tegetable 
and mineral productions, which decay, and are decomposed in that 
vast basin, produce a fermentation abounding in spirits, salts, oil, 
sulphur, &c. &c. The existence of these is sufficiently apparent 
by the disagreeable smell and flavour of sea water, which can only 
bo rendered drinkable by distillation, and by the evaporation of 
those heterogeneous particles which infect it. 

The spirits, intimately united to the sea -waters, continue umlis- 
turbed as long as those waters remain in a state of tranquillity; 
or, at least, they experience only an internal agitation, which is 
slightly manifested externally. 

But when the waters of the sea are set into motion by storms, 
or by the introduction of an active mass which rides upon their 
surface, with violence and rapidity, the volatile vapours contained 
in the bosom of the sea escape, and rise up a fine mist, which forms 
an atmosphere round the vessel. 

This atmosphere advances with the vessel, and is increased every 
moment by fresh emanations rising from the bottom of the water. 

These emanations appear like so many small clouds, which, 
joining each other, form a kind of sheet projecting forward, one 
extremity of which touches the ship, whilst the other advauces in 
fhe sea, to a considerable distance. 

But this train of vapours is not visible to the sight; it escapes 
observation by the transparency of its particles, and is confounded 
with other fluids which compose the atmosphere, 

But as soon as the vessel arrives within a circumference where 
it meets with other homogeneous vapours, such as those which 
escape from land, this sheet, which till that time had been so lim- 
pid and subtile, is suddenly seen to acquire consistence and colour, 
by the mixture of the two opposite columns. 

This change begins at the prolonged extremities, which by their 
contact are united, and acquire a colour and strength ; afterwards, 
in proportion to the progression of the vessel, the metamorphosis 
increases and reaches the centre: at last the phenomenon becomes 
the more manifest, and the ship makes its appearancp. MONTH. 
MAG. 



The heart's remote recesses to explore, 
Andtouch'd its springs, when prose avail'd no more. 

FALCONER. 



ODE FOR THE NEW YEAR, 1809. 

BY HENRY JAM1S PYE, ESQ. P. L. 

PULL orb'd in equinoxial skies, 
When the pale m'oon malignant rides, 
And bids the howling tempests rise, 

And swells the ocean's briny tides, 
Dreadful against the sounding shore 
The winds and waves tumultuous roar, 
The torrent-braving mound in vain 
The stormy inroad would restrain, 
The surges with resistless sway 
Force o'er the labour'd mole their way, 
Scorn every weak resource of human toil, 
O'erwhelm the peopled town, and waste the cultur'd soil, 

But when, by native fences barr'd 

From billowy rage, the happier land, 

And rocky cliffs for ever stand 
To the wide-water'd coast a guard, 
Such as on Vecta's southern steep 
Look down defiance on the raging deep, 
Such as on Dover's breezy down 
On Gallia's hostile borders frown, 
Tho' billows urging billows roar 
And idly beat against the shore, 
While from the heights sublime the swain 
Mocks the vain efforts of the foaming main, 
Till nature bids the deluged surge subside, 
Hush'd is the tempest's voice, and refluent rolls the tide. 

So o'er Europa's ravag'd plain 

We saw the torrent wile of war 
Resistless spread its iron reign, 

And scatter ruin wide and far; 



NAVAL POETRY. 

- 

Th' embattled wall, the warlike 

Vainly the Tyrant's course withstand : 

Before the impious sons of Gaul 

The legions fly, the bulwarks fall; 

Yet Britain's floating castles sweep 

Invasion from her subject deep. 

Yet by her rocks secure from harm. 

Securer by her patriot arm, 

Iberia turns the battle's tide, 

Resists th' injurious Tyrant's pride. 

While, freely floating ia the ambient sky, 

Sacred to freedom's cause, their mingled ensigns fly. 



APOSTROPHE TO THE RIVER NITII, 

BY JOIIX MA.VXE. 

HAIL, gentle stream ! for ever dear 
Thy rudest murmurs to mine ear! 
Torn from thy banks, tho' far I rove. 
The slave of poverty and love, 
Ne'er shall thy bard, where'er he be, 
"Without a sigh remember thee ! 
For there my infant years began, 
And there my happiest minutes ran; 
And there, to love and friendship true, 
The blossoms of affection grew ! 

Blythe on thy banks, thou sweetest stream 

That ever nurs'd a poet's dream I 

Oft have I, in forbidden time, 

(If youth could sanctify a crime) 

With hazel-rod, and frandful fly, 

Ensnar'd thy unsuspecting fry ; 

Jn pairs have dragg'd them from their den, 

Till, chas'd by lurking fishermen, 

Away I've flown, as fleet as wind, 

My lagging followers far behind I 

Aud, when the vain pursuit was o'er, 

Returu'd successful as before ! 



56 NA.VAL POETRYi 

Prologue to the Tragedy of DOUGLAS, and Farce of the 
PADLOCK, performed by the Young Gentlemen of Mn Ma- 
jesty's Ship Albion, in February, 1808. 



welcome all It is my lot to-day, 
-ML To be sent forth as prologue to the play, 
Such as it is, we hope you'll kindly bear it, 

Considering we've had trouble to prepare it ; 

And that we'll grieve to find those cares were vain. 

If our endeavours fail to entertain, 
The good intention must all blame remove, 

If onr poor efforts should abortive prove. 
Then for our theatre but let that alone, 

Its inconvenience is already known ; 

And for the scenery, yon (sad obligation) 

Must paint it, partly, in imagination ; 

This for the stage and play : but now eadi play'r^ 

With trembling hope bids me put up his pray'r ; 

We seek not, sirs, they cry, theatric fame 

(Some other way each fain would raise hi? name), 

Yet eager wish to bear our parts with spirit, 

And that wish constitutes our greatest ineritj 

For, wanting skill, we have not the assurance 

To look for more than just your bare endurance. 

But most our females your indulgence claim, 

If they should fail, 'tis nature you must blame j 

She, from the tone of their organization, 

Will sufier but a cold representation ; 

Hoping to please, they willingly come forth, 

Well knowing failure cannot taint their worth j 

For, in their bosoms still, a sacred flame 

Burns emulative of a Nelson's fame. 

Under each plaid,* we trust, you'll find a heart 

That fain would act a more important part 

[Going off } returns again stiddenfy* 

But stop, a word or two before I go ; 

Here, where each breast with loyalty doth glow, 

Sounds dear to all shall thro' our theatre ring : 

Music ! strike up aloud " God save the King!" 

[Muticplayt " God save the King." 

* An allusion, to the Highland dress worn in Douglas. 



NAVAL POETRY. 57 

Prologue to OTHELLO, and the CITIZEX, performed by the 
Young Gentlemen of his Majesty's Ship Albion, Murch 9 

1808. 



EFORE the tragic muse begins her course, 

By way of Prologue I'm sent out perforce, 
To make some few apologies, and say 
Something t' excuse our mangling Shakspeare's play : 
Th' excuse for choosing it I fain would smother, 
But truth will out why, we could find no other: 
Believe me, we should heartily rejoice, 
Had circumstance permitted fitter choice ; 
But such as 'tis, we hope you'll kindly bear, 
Nay, be contented with our homely fare : 
So shall we deem some leisure hours well spent, 
If our endeavours answer our intent. 
We strive to please not to draw plaudits forth, 
Success or failure cannot change our worth : 
We may succeed, but yet by fears oppress'd, 
Expect your bare endurance at the best; 
And, dreading failure, to prevent our shame, 
We own our weakness, and indulgence claim: 
If, as we fear, our strength should prove too small,; 
Let interposing pity break our fall. 
If we succeed, there's but one wish behind, 
The fervent wish of each true British mind : 
From war's alarms may Britain soon be free, 
Her commerce flourish, and her name still be, 
* The world-envied sovereign of the sea.' 
But, when the sword is drawn in her dear cause, 
Still may th' event prove tragic to her foes : 
Her sons, in this deep drama, all unite; 
And may the Albions yet throw in their mite. 
Firm and undaunted, then, each swelling heart 
Will eager strive to take a foremost part : 
Deem themselves blest in meeting wat'ry graves, 
Proclaiming to the world that Britain rules the. zsaves. 

" Rule Britannia" piayed in full chorus\ 
Bombay ) June 16, 1808, Z* 

9aO. C&rom fflok XXT. -4 



I. 



51 NATAL POETRY. 

MARMION. 

WE request permission to make a few more extracts from 
Mr. W. Scott's beautiful poem of Marmion. Such of our 
readers as have watched the waving, in endlcsss variety, of the 
colours on the ensign-staff', will admire the following passage: 

tf It George's banner, broad and gay, 
Now faded, as the fading ray 

Less bright, and less, was flung; 
The evening gale had scarce the pow'r 
To wave it on the Doajon tower, 

So heavily it hung." 

NELSON. 

lc Lo, here his grave, 
Who victor died on gadite wave; 
To him, as to the burning levin, 
Short, bright, resistless course was given ; 
Where'er his country's foes were found, 
Was heard the fated thunder's sound ; 
'Till burst the bolt on yonder shore, 
Iloll'd, blaz'd, destroy'd and was no more." 



The following allusions to marine scenery occur in the admir- 
able description of the battle of Flodden Field. 

XXVII. 

11 And in the smoke the pennons flew, 
As in the storm the white sea-mew : 
Then marked they dashing broad and far, 
The broken billows of the war, 
And plumed crests of chieftains brave, 
Floating like foam upon the wave. 



XXVIII. 

Cl Advanc'd fjrc'd back now low, now 

These pennons sunk and rose; 
A.S bends the bark's mast in the gale, 
When rent are rigging, shrouds, and sail ? 
Jit warcr'd 'in// the foes, 



NATAL POETRY. 
XXXV. 

a Then skilful Surrey's sage commands 
Led back from strife his shatler'd bands ; 

And from the charge they drew, 
As mountain waves, from wasted lands, 

Sweep back to ocean blue." 



In the introduction to the second canto, the genius of the poet 
rises superior to all that criticism has ventured to pronounce in bis 
description of the mountain lake Lock-skene, the character ef 
whose scenery, he informs us, is uncommonly savage. 

u And when that mountain sound I heard, 
Which bids us be for storm prepar'd, 
The distant rustling of his wings, 
As up by force the tempest brings, 
'Twere sweet, ere yet his terrors rave, 
To sit upon the wizard's grave 
Thence view the lake, with sullen roar, 
Heave her broad billows to the shore; 
And mark the wild swans mount the gal?, 
Spread wide through mist their snowy sail, 
And ever stoop again, to lave 
Their bosoms on the surging wave- 
Yet him, whose heart is ill at ease, 
Such peaceful solitudes displease: 
He loves to drown his bosom's jar 
Amid the elemental war: 

Like that which frowns round dark Lock-skene, 

There eagles scream from isle to shore, 

Down all the rocks the torrents roar ; 

O'er the black waves incessant driven, 

Dark mists infect the summer heaven ; 

Through the rude barrier* of the lake 

Away its hurrying waters break, 

Faster and whiter dash and curl,. 

'Till down yon dark abyss they hurl : 

Rises the fog-smoke white as snow, 

Thunders the viewless stream below. "-* 



60 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808-9. 

(December January. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

FROM the great interest and importanceof the subject to the country 
at large, we have been induced to give the military as well as the 
naval details of the Gazette, relating to the disastrous, though glorious, 
battle of Corunna, on the 1 6th of January. 

It will be seen, that Sir John Moore, the gallant comrnancler-in-chief 
of the British army, with several other distinguished officers, fell in the 
sanguinary conflict ; and, according to report, we had previously lost not 
fewer than 7, 000 men, in the course of our retreat to Lugo, and thence 
to Corunna. 

Much as we deplore the loss, the great and heavy loss, which we have 
sustained, we have the satisfaction of knowing, that not the slightest 
blame attaches to any of the officers or men concerned. The retreat 
of Sir John Moore is justly considered as one of the most masterly upon 
record. 

The peninsular form of Spain presenls an excellent opportunity for 
carrying on the war, -agreeably to a plan which the late Lord Nelson so 
often and anxiously pressed on the attention of government: which was, 
to embark the army when hard pressed by a superior enemy, and land 
them on some other part of the coast, where it could act with a greater 
prospect of success; and to continue repeating this plan of attack, as a 
sure means of harassing and separating the great armies which the French 
can bring into the field. 

A plan of this nature it was, in all probability, Sir John Moore's 
intention to pursue ; but, in consequence of the great loss and fatigues 
of the army, it has been found expedient for it to return to England. 
"Whether, when recruited, it will be again sent out, is doubtful. 

In the royal speech, at J.he opening of Parliament, it was intimated, 
that the most vigorous assistance would continue to be afforded to Spain, 
as long as that country should continue true to itself; and, as recently 
as the 26th of January, since the distressing news of the battle of 
Corunna arrived, Lord Mulgrave has, in the most decisive manner, 
repeated that declaration. 

Jf it be true, however, that the British officers have brought back the 
army upon their own responsibility, and contrary to the expectation of 
m nisters, it seems to intimate that the affairs of Spain are in a very 
hopeless state ; and we trust that, before another man shall be sent from 
o.ur shores, the most satisfactory information will be received of the 
will, as well as of the power, ot the Spaniards to co-operate, with the 
utmost cordiality, in resisting, and endeavouring to exterminate, the 
usurper. 

The Jast accounts from the Spanish coast were brought by a ship 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PUT.SENT YEAR, 18081809. 61 

which -was off Conmna on the IRlh of January ; at which time, it is said, 
the whole town wa* in flames. It is conjectured, that the Spaniards had 
resisted the entrance of the French ; and that, from motives of revenge, 
the sanguinary invaders had set fire to the place. 

A French officer of high rank, supposed to be either Souk or Junot, 
is said to have fallen in thehattle of Corunna. 

We lament to state, that we have sustained considerable injury from 
the elements as well as from the sword ; some of our transports 
returning from Spain with troops, having been entirely lost, and others 
greatly damaged. 

His majesty's brig Primrose, of 18 guns, commandedby Captain ?>Icfn, 
was wrecked on the Manacle Rocks, in a heavy gale, on the night of 
Jan. 22, and the ^hole of (he otTkers and crew, with the exception of ^ 
lad, perished. The Primrose was esteemed one of the handsomest 
vessel* of her class in his mr.jcsly's service : she was fitted out at Ply- 
mouth at the same time with the Carnation, which was lately captured 
in the West Indies. 

Ptymottfli, Jan. 23. 

Arrived this morning the Earfleur, of 100 guns, Rear-admiral Hoods 
Tonnnnt, of 80 guns, Rear-admiral de Courcy ; Victory, of 100 guns ; 
Implacable, Resolution, Xorge, Elizabeth, and Zealous, of 74 guns each ; 
Amazon, Unicorn, and Endymion frigates; Mediator sf ore-ship ; and 
Parthian sloop of war, from Corunna ; whence they sailed on Wednesday 
last, with about 400 sail of transports under convoy : nearly 100 of the 
latter have arrived here in the course of the day, with troops ; the 
remainder are in channel, under convoy of four sail of the line, and the 
greater part will probably put in here. The troops are greatly in want 
of necessaries. When the fleet left Corunna, on Wednesday last, a heavy 
cannonade was heard, which was supposed to be the bombardment of 
Corunna by the French, who, it is slated, had succeeded in scttiifg the 
town on fire; but it is stated, that the Spaniards still held out, though it 
was understood that 30,000 men had reinforced Soult and Junot's army, 
after the British had re-embarked. The killed, wounded, and missing of 
the Brilish troops since they left England, are estimated at between 
seven and eight thousand. Arrived the Scorpion and Raleigh sloops of 
war, on a cruise. Sailed the Medusa, of 50 guns, for Spain ; and Plover 
sloop of war, to the westward. Arrived the French lugger privateer la 
Clarisse, pierced for 16 guns with 60 men, from St. Maloes, captured bv 
the Indefatigable frigale ; also the French schooner General Junot, 
laden with flour and other provisions, captured by the Raleigh sloop of 
war. Arrived the Sally, Captain Cooke, from Newfoundland, laden 
with fish, last from Corunna, whence she sailed, on Wednesday last, 
with the transports which are arrived here; the master of this vessel 
slates, that the French troops were bearing down upon Corunna in ail 
directions, and that the inhabitants had nearly all ficd from the town. 
Sir David Baird is stated to be iu a very dangerous stale. 



62 XAVAT, HISTORY or THE rnrsENt YEAH, 180S 1S09. 

The following particulars respecting the capture of his majesty's 
schooner Rook, v.'erc communicated in a letter from the master, who 
succeeded Lieutenant Lawrence in the command of the ship, a -id from the 
mouth of the only survivor of the unfortunate crew who lias hitherto 
reached England, and who himself was shot through the wrist aiid 
shoulder, beside* some wounds with a cutlass ; 

" The Hook, Lieutenant James Lawrence, sailed from Plymouth, 
nnder tiie orders of Admiral Young, on the 24th of June, 1803, with 
despatches for the West Indies. After a fine passage, she arrived at 
Jamaica, from whence, after having waited a few da) 3 to refit, and take 
in specie, she sailed for England, August 13th. For two days they 
were followed by a 'French schooner (which is pretty generally the case 
when a ship has anj money on board, and of which intelligence is soon 
;uncd at some of the French islands), but whom they beat off. On the 
SSth of August, at day-light, they fell in with two French schooners, 
and immediately cleared for action: on the largest vessel coming along- 
side with English colours, and not answering when hailed, but immedi- 
ately hoisting French colours? Lieutenant Lawrence shot the French 
captain, when a most desperate action commenced; after an hour's hard 
fighting, Lieutenant Lawrence received his last wound by a musket-ball, 
and the Koo'.i was immediately carried by boarding, the French officers 
repeatedly calling to the men to give no quarter. 

4t Mr. Stewart, the master, received seven most desperate wounds 
Tfith a cutlass, of which he afterwards recovered, but 1 am sorry to atKl 
is since dead of the yellow fever. Mr. Donnelly, the clerk, was also 
dangerously wounded in the groin, but is now recovered. Mr. George 
Heed, an Officer in (he royal artillery, who has served his country on the 
b!a,nd of Jaipaica for twenty years, and who was related by marriage to 
Lieutenant Lawrence, was induced to embark on board the Rook, with 
a very considerable property, in hopes to re-visit his native country, but 
T;VS inhumaiHy killed by the enemy when boarding; and so eager were 
they to get possession of a valuable ring which he happened to ha- e on 
his tinker, that they nearly cut his hand off to attain it. The survivors 
were stripped naked, put in their boat, and turned adrift; but by the 
exertions of four who were not wounded, they reached land, and were 
most hospitably received by the natives. The Rook was so much 
damaged, that the enemy could not get her into port, aud therefore set 
lire, to her. 



" Ilehlon, Jan. 22, 1S09. 

" It is with extreme regret I inform you of the sorrowful tidings of 
the loss of the Despatch transport and the Primrose sloop of war, the 
former from Cori:;ma, and the latter outward-bound. The Despatch had 
oa baard a detachment of the lib. Light Dragoons, amounting in ali 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808 1809. 63 

with the crew, to 100 people. Out of this number, only seven have 
been saved from a watery grave. These brave fellows, 1 am told, ar 
the same who distinguished themselves so eminently under Lord Pagel. 
The officers lost on this unhappy occasion are, Major Cavendish, Caot. 
Duncanfield, and Lieutenant Waldegrave. 

*' The loss of the Primrose, of 18 guns, is not less to be regretted 
than that of the Despatch. She was driven by the tempestuous weather 
upon the Manacle Rocks, about a mile from the spot where the trans- 
port foundered. On this occasion every soul on board perished, except a 
little boy. Both these melancholy events happened this morning at 
about six o'clock. The Despatch transport belonged to Shields.'' 

The Primrose, Captain James Mein, sailed from Portsmouth a few 
days ago, with a fleet of transports, consisting of about sail, (he des- 
tination of which we have not yet heard of. They had troops and storei 
on board. 

The Active armeil cutter lately captured a small French lugger, 
mounting one gun, and manned with IS^men, having on board several 
packets of French papers, to be distributed about the coast. The cap- 
ture of this vessel explains a circumstance which certainly appeared sin- 
gular by what means casks with newspapers were made to float so di- 
rectly from Boulogne ?<_ the Kentish coast. It now appears, that the 
French send over vessels in the evening, to throw the casks containing 
the papers within reach of the current that sets into the coast at certaia 
periods of the tide. 

" His majesty's brigs Reindeer and Pert, arrived in Port Royal, brings 
us the tidings of the capture of Samana, that famous rendezvous for a 
horde of privateers, by his majesty's frigates Franchise, Aurora, and 
Da?dalus, and Reindeer and Pert brigs. On the lOlli inst. these ves<ei 
anchored off the town, when the alarm was soon spread -, and at the 
sight of such a superior force, the principal part of the inhabitants, 
consisting of upwards of- POO men, women, and children, sought refuge 
on board the PExchange privateer of 14 guns and 100 men, and another 
privateer lying in the harbour, expecting they would be able to effect 
their escape to St. Domingo, with the assistance of their sweeps. The 
men of war, perceiving their intention, immediately despatched four 
boats, well manned, in pursuit of them, which soon came up with, and 
captured them In the mean time several other boats proceeded to 
storm the fort, which was accomplished after a slight resistance. \Ve 
regret, however, to add> that Captain Dyer, of the Aurora, was dan- 
gerously vfounded in the head by a musket-ball, while landing the 
party. Four vessels, lying in the harbour, ladett with coffee, &c. alo 
fell into the hands of the captors. A vessel was shortly after despatched 
lo Porto Rico with the intelligence, and requesting a sufficient number 
of troops to be sent from thence to garrison ihe place. 

The following is an extract of a letter received at Portsmouth from 



01 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE .PRESENT YEAH, 18081809. 

Mr. Thomas Mason, late clerk of his majesty's ship Crescent, relative 
to the melancholy loss of that ship. We give it publicity for the satis- 
faction of the friends of the survivors, and to terminate the dreadful 
state of jjusper.83 in which many must be on the occasion. 

" On the 5th hist. (Dec.) we struck on the coast of Jutland, near 
Bobsuout, and were completely wrecked, with the loss of 22 people. 
The survivors, 60 in number, were saved; the major part on a raft, 
the remainder in the jolly-boat. Our situation was truly dreadful, even 
worse than at the old ship's (Anson) loss. We have been removed 
from Robsnout to this place (Aalborg), in waggons, about 32 miles. 
We have as yet been treated very well expect soon to be released. 

List of Survivors. 

Neilson Williamson, master. 

John Weaver, first lieutenant of marines. 

Francis Houg-hton, midshipman,! , . c , 

Thomas Mas & on, clerk, ) late of his Utj' 

J. R. Lavender, midshipman. 

John Munro, ditto. 

llathew Walker, boatswain. 



Complement 272 men 



1 passenger 
C women 
1 child 



Lost 212 men 



1 passenger 
6 women 
1 child 



280 Total. 220 Souls lost. 

The letters from America are full of complaints against the piracy 
and cruelty committed upon American subjects and property by the 
" French villains," as they are termed, who infest the ocean. A cata- 
logue of captures is inserted in the American papers, which sufficiently 
justifies the clamours of the people against the government for not 
avenging the indignities hourly committed upon their trade. The in- 
stances alluded to are, where American vessels, having received per- 
mission from the president to sail from their respective ports, have 
been captured by French privateers, their cargoes confiscated, and their. 
crews put in prison in France. 

The following letters brought from France by the Union American 
ship, and written by two American captains, will serve to shew the 
treatment now experienced by the trade and subjects of the United 
State* from the enemy : 

. Extract of a Letter from Captain Nicholas Owings, of the dniericay 
Brig President, J.rom the Canary Islands, dated 



"St. rullery, Nov. 28, 1808. 

" It is with the greatest regret I inform you of my being captured, 
on the 17th instant, close under the Isle of Wight, and seat in to tin* 
place. I have ever since been, under a guard i& aa inu, aud am not 



NAVAL illsTOltY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1S08 1809. 65 

allowed to go out of my room without some person to guard me, a 
thing which lias never before been known to have been done in France. 
I impute it to there not being any neutral vessels brought in here." 

Copy of a Letter from the Captain of the Mary. 

" Boulogne Castle, 1st Dec. 1808. 

I have the misfortune to acquaint you, that the brig Mary, of Phi- 
ladelphia, under my command, was captured on the 19th ult. by tlie 
French lugger privateer Grand Napoleon, of this port, and carried in 
here. The Mary Avas captured between the port and the English shore. 
The cargo, consisting of 192 tons of sweet oil, has already been dis- 
charged; and lam, as well as my crew, kept as yet in prison, though! 
have reason to suppose we shall soon he released. 1 have riot been able 
to ascertain the motives of this government for capturing American 
property, and detaining the subjects of the United States as prisoners; 
out time and patience will unfold them, and afford us redress." 

The influence of the French minister at the court of St. Petersburg!* 
was lately strongly manifested in the case of an English gentleman, of 
the name of Elphinstone, a captain in the Russian navy. Mr. Elphin- 
atone, who is related to several persons of consideration in this country, 
commanded the Russian frigate Venus, and on the breaking out of the 
war with England, returned with Admiral Greig, Captain Bailey, and 
others, who relinquished their commands in the Tagus, to St. Peters- 
burgh. It was some time since reported to the French minister, Cauliu- 
<ourt, that Captain Elphinstone had spoken in terms of reproof of 
Buonaparte's conduct and politics; some fictitious charges were im- 
mediately preferred against him, and he was sentenced, by a court-mar- 
tial composed of Caulincourt's creatures, to he shot. The Emperor 
Alexander, however, alarmed at so gross a violation of justice^ yet at 
the same time dreading to offend the imperial representative, commuted 
the punishment to banishment into Siberia. 

Formerly 2,000 ships used annually to arrive at and leave Dantzic 
port ; but during last year there were hut two arrivals. 

The effects of the gales of Tuesday night the 24th of January, have 
been severely felt among our shipping on the coast. Two very valuable 
outward bound East Indiamcn have been totally lost on the Goodwin 
Sands, besides other vessels; of which we believe the following particu- 
lars will be found to be accurate. On the evening mentioned, great 
apprehensions were entertained for the fate of the Indiamen proceeding 
through the Downs; but nothing was known of their situation till the 
following morning, when a most distressing scene presented itself to the 
spectators from Deal. Three large ships were seen on the Goodwin 
Sands, with only their foremast standing, hoisting signals of distress, 
and the sea was dashing over them mountains high. The crews were all 
collected on the poops, waiting for that relief which the Deal boatmen 

f3at). STIjron. SJo! XXI. K 



66 NAVAL 1II5TORY OF THE PRESENT YLAR, 1808 1809, 

seemed anxious to afford them. These men, by their indefatigable 
exertions, and at the imminent hazard of their lives, reached the wrecks 
of the Indiamen, and took out ot the Admiral Gardner the whole of 
her crew. 

The boatmen from Ramsgate and Broad-stairs joined those from Deal, 
and removed into their boats the people from the Britannia, previous to 
which this last ship had lost of her crew thrc lascars and twenty-four 
seamen, and one died in one of the Deal boats from fatigue. 

Of the crew of the Admiral Gardner, it is feared that four have been 
lost ; for in the night one of the seamen having been washed overboard, 
the third mate and three seamen volunteered their services to endeavour 
to pick him up in the ship's-boat, which was never after heard of. 

Other accounts estimate the Joss of the Britannia at only seven men. 

We regret to state, that the boatmen were not in time to save a single 
man belonging to the third ship (a large brig), and all the hands 
on board perished. There were proper pilots on board the Indiamen, 
but the violence of the weather baffled all their skill. 

The Admiral Gardner was the first vessel driven upon the sands; and 
as soon as the pilot of the Britannia found that that ship shoaled 
her water, he let go one anchor, and after that two more, but such \vas 
the violence of the gale, that she was driven on the sand with three 
anchors a-head. 

Yice-sdmiral Campbell, at day-light, sent two gun-brigs, a lugger, 
and a cutter, to anchor as near as possible, in order to render the. 
sufferers every assistance in their power. If the weather abated soon, 
it was expected that part of the cargoes might be saved. The loss has 
been estimated at 200,0001. 

After the gale the Cuffnells, we understand, returned to her station 
dismasted. 



31mp*rial parliament, 

HOUSE OF LORDS. 

THURSDAY, JANBART 19. 

THE session of Parliament was opened this day by commission ; the 
Commissioners were, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord 
Chancellor, the Earl of Camdcn (president of the council), and the Duke 
of Montrose (master of the horse). 

The usual forms having been gone through, the Lord Chancellor "read 
the following speech : 

" My Lords and Gentlemen, 

" We have it in command from his majesty to state to you, that hi 
majesty has ^called you together, in perfect confidence that you are 
prepared cordially to support his majesty in the prosecution of a war 
which there is no hope of terminating safely and honourably, except 
through vigorous and persevering exertion. 



NAVAL I ISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 18081809. 67 

" We are to acquaint you, that his majesty has directed to be laid 
before you copies of the proposals lor opening a negotiation, which 
were transmitted to his majesty from Erfurth, and of the correspondence 
which thereupon took place with the governments of Russia and of 
France; together with the declaration issued by his majesty's command 
on the termination of that correspondence. 

" His majesty is persuaded, that you will participate in the feelings 
which were expressed by his majesty, when it was required that his 
majesty should consent to commence the negotiation by abandoning the 
cause of Spain, which he had so recently and solemnly espoused. 

" We are commanded to inform you, that his majesty continues to 
receive from the Spanish government the strongest assurances of their 
determined perseverance in the cause of the legitimate monarchy, and 
of the national independence of Spain; and to assure you, that so long 
as the people of Spain shall remain true to themselves, his majesty will 
continue to them his most strenuous assistance and support. 

" His majesty has renewed to the Spanish nation, in the moment of 
its difficulties and reverses, the engagements which he voluntarily con- 
traded at the outset of its struggle against the usurpation and tyranny 
of France; and we are commanded lo acquaint you, that these en- 
gagements have been reduced into the form of a treaty of alliance ; 
which treaty, so soon as the ratification shall have been exchanged, his 
majesty will cause to be laid before you. 

" His majesty commands us to state to you, that while his majesty 
contemplated with the liveliest satisfaction, the achievements of his 
forces in the commencement of the campaign in Portugal, and the 
deliverance of the kingdom of his ally from the presence and oppressions 
of the French army, his majesty most deeply regretted the termination 
of that campaign by an armistice and convention, of some of the 
articles of which his majesty has felt himself obliged formally to de- 
clare his disapprobation. 

" We are to express to you his majesty's reliance on your disposition 
to enable hi- majesty to continue the aid afforded by his majesty to 
the King of Sweden, That monarch derives a peculiar claim to his 
majesty's support, iu the present exigency of his affairs, from having 
concurred with his majesty in the propriety of rejecting any proposal 
for negociation to which the government of Spain was not to be admitted 
as a party. 

" Gentlemen of the House of Commons, 

i: We are commanded by his majesty to inform you, that he has 
directed the estimates of the current year to be laid before you. His ma- 
jesly relics upon your zeal and affection to make such further provision 
of supply as ths vigorous prosecution of the war may render necessary; 
aiul he trusts lliat you may be enabled to find the means of providing 
such s.ipply without any great or immediate increase of the existing 
Burthens upon his people, 



68 NAVAL HISTORY Of HIE PiirSENHT YEAR, 1808 180G. 

" His majesty feels assured, that it will be highly satisfactory for you 
to learn, that notwithstanding the measures resorted to hy the enemj 
fur the purpose of destroying the commerce and resources of this king-: 
dom, the public revenue has continued in a course of progressive im-: 
provement. 

'? My Lords and Gentlemen, 

" We are directed to inform you, that the measure adopted by Par- 
liament in the last session for establishing a local militia, has been 
already attended with the happiest success, aud promises to be extensively 
and permanently beneficial to the country. 

" We have received his majesty's commands most especially to re^ 
commend to you, that, duly weighing the immense interests which are 
at stake in the war nov? carrying on, you should proceed with as 
little delay as possible, to consider of the most effectal measures for 
the augmentation of the regular army, in order that his majesty may 
be the better enabled, withou impairing the means of defence at home, 
to avail himself of the military power of his dominions in the great 
contest in which he is engaged 5 and to conduct that contest, under the 
blessing of divine Providence, to a conclusion compatible with the 
honour of his majesty's crown, and with the interests of his allies, 
of Europe, and of the world." 

The Earl of Bridgcwater moved an address of thanks to his majesty; 
which was seconded by Lord Sheffield; after which Earl St. Vincent 
observed, that he could not suffer the^question to be put on the address, 
without claiming their lordships' attention for a few moments. Though 
he could not concur in every part of it, yet it was not his intention to 
propose any amendment. His principal motive for rising was, to express 
his unqualified disapprobation of the whole of the conduct of ministers; 
of every thing they had done with respect to Spain, of every thing they 
had done with respect to Portugal, of almost every thing they had done 
since they cavne into power, and particularly for the last six months. The 
noble lord who seconded the address had talked of the vigour and efficacy 
of their measures. Vigour and efficacy indeed! when their whole con- 
duct was marked by vacillation and incompetence. If such men, so 
notoriously incapable, were not immediately removed, the country was 
undone. There was one part, however, of the address and of the speech 
in which he cordially agreed that which condemned the armistice and 
convention. It was the greatest disgrace that had befallen the British 
arms, the greatest stain that had been affixed to the honour of the coun- 
try since the Revolution. He was not at present disposed to enter into 
an examination of the manner in which the naval part of that expedition 
had been conducted : opportunity would arise for discussing the extra- 
ordinary arrangement that had been made respecting the fleet in the 
Tagus. He would not withhold from ministers whatever praise might be 
due to them. He would give them credit for providing plenty of trans- 
ports 5 but what was the merit of these exertiyiis ? Any one who offered 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PUESENT YEAR, 1808 1809. 69 

fc little more than the common market price might hire as many as he 
pleased ; but ministers not only offered that market price, but a great 
deal more than they should have done. And how were these employed ? 
Why, in conveying Junot and his runaway ruffians, with their plunder 
and exactions, all the plate and precious stones, and rare exhibitions of 
art, the fruits of their robberies of churches, palaces, and private houses, 
to France. It was with shame and sorrow that he saw men of the high- 
est rank in the British army and navy superintending the embarkation 
of this enormous fund of rapine and confiscation, and conducting it, and 
the devils who had thus acquired a property in it, to those parts of 
France nearest to Spain, who were thus enabled to enler that country 
sooner than the brave fellows to whom they surrendered, and were now 
actually engaged in chasing Sir John Moore from the peninsula ! If 
they jneant really to assist the Spaniards, why did not ministers send 
troops iu the first instance to the north of Spain ? Why did they send one 
part of them to Lisbon, and another to Corunna, from which points no 
junction could be effected, without being exposed to toilsome marches, 
and such privations as could hardly be conceived by persons not 
acquainted with those countries? It seemed to him as if they were 
totally ignorant of the geography of the country they appeared soenger 
and zealous to defend. He had, indeed, heard of a " heaven-boru" 
minister, who, at the, first cabinet council he attended, asked, whether 
Port Mahpn was an island, or on the continent. This, to be sure, was 
bad enough ; but it did not betray half the ignorance that the conduct 
of ministers did in every measure relating to Spain and Portugal, He 
would say to his majesty, that if these men were not removed, the 
kingdom was lost. There was no part of the conduct of ministers liable 
to greater censure than that which related to the command of the army. 
He would be the last man in the kingdom who would wish to detract 
from the professional character of the officers employed ; but on so 
momentous an occasion, he wished to see some of the princes of the 
blood, wlio had been trained to arms from their youth, and many of 
whom had seen a great deal of arduous and dangerous service : he 
alluded particularly to one (the Duke of Kent) who would have fallen 
the victim of his zeal in the West Indies, had he not been forcibly sent 
Lome from that pernicious climate by himself and Sir Charles Grey, 
These were the proper men to command the British army on thij occasion. 
If it was not thought proper to employ these illustrious persons, there 
were others to whom the country and the army looked up. There was 
one (the Earl ofMoira, we believe) who, from his early career ofglorv, 
from his princely munificence, and from the unbounded confidence which 
the army would place in him, whether they were ordered to advance or 
r*'troat, who was peculiarly qualified for a command of this description 
-a man who possibly might prove a second Earl of Peterborough 
a man, in short, who would have acted from himself, and who would 
have acted vigorously and successfully. The noble earl next adverted to 
the court of inquiry, which he considered as an expedient rather tp cover 



70 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PllESEXr YEAR, 1808 1809. 

some blot in their own conduct, than to do justice to the officers whd 
were the ostensible objects of its proceedings, or to satisfy the country. 
The case of the senior officer on that occasion was particularly hard : he 
was to be responsible for every thing, and yet he was to do nothing with- 
out consulting the third in command. He was fettered by his instruc- 
tions ; he was, in fact, to have no will, no discretion of his own. 
This odious restraint did not, to be sure, appear on the face of his 
instructions ; but it was conveyed in a manner equally binding upon him, 
in the suspicious form of a private letter, a letter of counsel and recom- 
mendation a detestable mode of proceeding, to which he never had, or 
would have recourse. An attempt had been made to justify the 
convention of Cintra, by stating, that the French could have crossed the 
Tagus, and got into Spain in defiance of any exertions of the army 
by which they were beaten. The French cross the Tagus I If they did, 
he would he bold to say, that every man of them must have passed 
under the yoke. They would have to fight their way through as brave 
a population as any in Europe. The Portuguese were not inferior in 
bravery to the Spaniards, and there were no men more gallant than the 
Fatter. He spoke of the Portuguese peasantry, for he would admit that 
there were no people in the world upon whom less reliance for a vigorous 
resistance could be placed than on the inhabitants of Lisbon. He begged 
pardon for having taken up so much of their lordships' time; but he 
could not refrain from expressing his decided disapprobation of the 
conduct of ministers. If the House would do their duty, they would go 
in that dignified manner that became them to the foot of the throne, 
and implore his majesty to remove from his councils those men whose 
measures would bring inevitable ruin on the country. In earnestly 
recommending this, he was not swayed by personal considerations, la 
a few hours he would enter into his seventy-fifth year, sixty-one of which 
he had been in his. majesty's service. At this time of life, and under the 
existing and increasing embarrassments of the country, he could not be 
inspected of being very anxious to return to office. He should trespass 
no longer upon their lordships' patience. He thanked God for having 
given him strength to communicate his sentiments on the very critical 
situation of the country ; and thanked the House for the indulgence it 
had shewn h;m. He would offer no amendment, but content himself 
with expressing his dissent from the address. 

Lord Crcnvillc joined in censuring the conduct of ministers with 
respect to Spain. He never conceived that there was such a prospect 
as justified the sending an army into that country. We might have 
furnished the Spaniards with arms, ammunition, &"c. and if they had 
evinced a capability of resisting Buonaparte with effect, we might have 
followed up their efforts. His lordship deprecated the unprecedented 
manner in which the Russian fleet had been obtained, at Lisbon. It 
should, in conformity to our old system, have been either captured, 
burnt, sunk, or destroyed. His lordship also censured the orders ia 
Council, as having been the cause of the American embargo. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESE.VT YEAR, 1808 1809. 71 

Several other members delivered their sentiments ; and the Earl of 
Liverpool having entered into a general defence of ministers, the address 
was agreed to nem. dis. 



HOUSE OF COMMONS. 

THCRSDAY, JAN. 19. 

The usual forms at the commencement of a session having been gone 
through, Mr. Robinson moved an address of thanksfor the royal speech ; 
which was seconded by Mr. S. Lushington; and, after a debate of con- 
siderable length, it was agreed to, without a division or an amendment, 



on 

Copied verbatim from the LONDON GAZETTE; 

ADMIRALTT-OFFICE, DECEMBER 13, 1808. 

Copy of a Letter from Vice-admiral Rowley, Commander-in-chief of Ms 
Majesty's Ships and Vessels at Jamaica, to the lion. W. W. Pole, ^dated 
at Port Royal, the 1*4 h October, 1808. 

I enclose a copy of a letter from Captain Lillicrap, giving an account 
of the capture of a small French privateer belonging to Guadaloupe, by 
his majesty's sloop the Despatch. 

His Majesty's Sloop Despatch, Port Royal, 
SIB, October 13, 1808. 

1 have the satisfaction to inform you, I captured, on the night of the 
tid instant, off Nevis, the small French schooner privateer Uorade, 
belonging to Guadaloupe, mounting one brass gun, with small arms, ami 
twenty men. 

I have the honour to be, &c t 

J. LILLICRAP, 
Vice-admiral Iioidfy t t$c. 

DECEMBER 31. 

Copy of a Letter from Captain Hole, of his Majesty" s Sloop the Egeria, to 
Vice-admiral Douglas, Commander-in-chief at Yarmouth, and transmitted 
ky the latter to the Hon. W. W. Pole. 

His Majesty's Sloop Ezcria, Yarmouth 
SIR Roads, Dec. 27, 1808. 

I have the honour to inform you, that, on the 21st instant, the Scaw 
bearing S. by E. twelve leagues, I fell in with and, after a chase of two 
hours, captured the Danish schooner privateer Ncesois, of ten guns, Gier 
mund Holm, master, with a complement of thirty-six men, hut had on board 
only twenty-six; out from Fridricksvern one day, without taking any 
thing. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

LWIS HOLE. 



72 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PKESfiNT YEAR, 18081809. 

Eztract of a Letter from Captain Dundus, of his Majesty's Ship Na'md, W 
Captain Btresford, of the Theseus, dated <>ff the 'Entrance of the Loire, the 
Mth Instant, and transmitted by the latter to the Hon. W'. W. Pole. 
I beg leave to acquaint you, for the information of the commander-in- 
ch ief that last evening at eight, the Naiad and Narcissus being close in with- 
Noinnountier, we discovered and soon captured the French privateer brig 
Fanny, of sixteen guns and eighty paen, commanded by C'barle* llamon, am- 
only a few liours from Nantz, and consequently had made no capture. She 
was intended to cruise off the coast of Ireland ; and at Midnight we captured 
the French sloop Superb, letter of marque, of four guns and twenty men, 
with a cargo of sundries for Martinique. Mr. Ilamon lately commanded 
tlie Venus privateer, that did great injury to our trade. 

JANUARY 3, 1809. 

Vice-admiral Lord CoUingwbocLhas, with his letter of the 95th of October 
last, transmitted to the Hon. W. W. Pole a letter from Captain Pearse, of 
his majesty's sloop the Halcyon, giving an account of the capture of the 
whole of a convoy belonging to the enemy under the town of Diamante, on 
the 8th of September, by the above sloop, the Wea/le, (Captain Prescott), 
and a Neapolitan galley, with a detachment of the British army under the 
command of Lieutenant-colonel Bryce. 

Lord Collingwood commends the zeal and dexterity of Captains Pearse and 
Prescott, as also the ability with which the co-operation of the army was 
conducted on the above enterprise, which was achieved without any lo*s 
on our part. 

N.B. The particulars of the above affair are contained in the letter and 
enplosure from Lieutenant-general Sir John Stuart, inserted iu the gazette 
of the 13th ultimo. 

Copy of a Letter from Captain Thomas Ilarcey, of his Majesty's Ship the 
Standard, dated off Corfu, 26th June, 1808, to Vice-admiral Lord Colling' 
wood, Commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean, and transmitted by the 
latter to the Hon. W. W. Pole. 

MY LORI), 

At day-light this morning T fell in with la Volpe, Italian gun-boat, 
commanded by Ensign de Vaisseau Micheli Mangin, carrying an iron four- 
pounder, with twenty men well armed. The la Legcra, French despatch 
boat, with a well armed crew of fourteen men, was with la Volpc. At nine, 
the wind failing, I sent the pinnace with Lieutenant Richard Cull, and 
the eight-oared cutter with Captain Nicholis of the royal marines (both 
volunteers) in chase. After two hours' rowing, the weather very hot, they 
approached la Volpe, who commenced a fire of musketry on them, which 
was returned with the swivda, and, when near, with muskets. On the boats 
approaching each quarter to board, the gun-boat pulled short round, and 
fired at the cutter both round and grape; the bo^ts dashed at him, when 
lie struck, and was taken possession of by Captain Nicholls; Lieutenant 
Cull immediately pushed on in chase of la Lcgera. Some time previous to- 
this I had despatched the yawi, with Lieutenant John Alexander, to be 
ready to cut her off; which affording him the opportunity of obliging hrr to 
run on shore about four miles northward of Cape St. Mary, the crew 
formed on the rocks above her, and endeavoured to prevent the yawl's . 
approach ; hut she was taken possession of by Lieutenant Alexander, who 
was immediately after joined by Lieutenant Cull and Captain Nicholls ; 
they towed her out under a fire of musketry from the shore, which was 
returned by our marines in the boats with great spirit ; one of the Frech 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808 1809. 73 

inen was seen killed. A French ensign de vaisseau was passenger in 
4a T,egera. I was much gratified on the return of the boats in learning we 
had not suffered. 

Tii this little atfair, the gallantry and good conduct of the officers and men 
concerned gave me very great satisfaction : both Captain Nichollsand Lieu- 
tenant Cull speak in high terms of the assistance they received from Messrs. 
Hahies and Parker, master's mates of the Standard: 

Monsieur Monier, ensign de vaisseau, on the staff of General Dougelet 
f Corfu, was taken in la Volpi. 1 burnt bdth vessels. 

I remain, &c. 

THOMAS HARVEY. 

Th-s Right Hon. Lord CoUingKOod, dfc. 

JANUARY 7. 

Copy of a Letter from lire- admiral Lord CoUingwood, Commander-in-chief 
of his Majesty's Ships and Vessels in the Mediterranean, to the Hon. ft r . 
fr. Pole, dated on board the Ocean, cff Toulon, the 19th of October, 1803. 

SIR, 

T enclose a letter which I have just received from the Right Hon. Lord 
Cochrane, captain of the Imperteuse, stating the services which he has 
been employed in on the coast of Langnedoc. 

Nothing can exceed the activity and ieal with which his lordship pursues 
the enemy. The success which attends his enterprises clearly indicates 
with what skill and ability they are conducted; besides keeping the coast in 
constant alarm, causing a total suspension of the trade, and harassing a 
body of troops employed in opposing him, he has, probably, prevented those 
troops, which were intended for Figueras, from advancing into Spain, by 
giving them employment in the defence of their own coasts. 

On the coast towards Genoa the enemy has been equally annoyed by the 
Kent and Wizard. Those ships have had that station some time to prevent 
the French ship sailing from Genoa, and have almost entirely stopped the 
only trade the enemy had, which is in very small vessels ; during their 
cruise there they have taken and destroyed twenty-three of those coasters. 
I enclose the letter of Captain Rogers, giving an account of the attack-made 
ut Noli, and the capture of the vessels in the road. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

COLLINGWOOD. 

Iinperieuse, G ulf of Lyons, 

MY LORD, 28<A Sdpt. 1808. 

V>'ith varying opposition, but with unvaried success, the re'>vly construct- 
ed Semaphoric telagraphs, which are of the utmost consequence to the 
safety of the numerous convoys that pass along the coast of France, 
at Bourdique, la Pinede, St. Magnirc, I rontignan, Canet and Foy, have 
been blown up and completely demolished, together with their telegraph- 
urteen barracks of the gens-d'arms, or Donanes, one batter)', 
and the strong tower upon the lake of Frontignan. 

'Mr. Mapleton, first lieutenant, had command of those expeditions; lieu- 
renant Johnson had charge of the field- pieces, and Lieutenant Hore of the 
royal marines. To them and to Mr. Gilbert, assistant-surgeon; Mr. 
Burr.ey, gunner, Messrs. Stewart and Stovin, midshipmen, is due whatever 
credit may arise from such mischief, and for having with ?o small a force 
drawn about two thousand troops from the important: fortress of Figueras in 
Spain, to the defence of their owa coast. 

/9stJ. etynm. 2101, XXI. t, 



74 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE TRIDENT YLAB, 1805 1809, 

The conduct of Lieutenants Mapleton, Johnson, and Hore deserves mf 
best praise, as well as that of the other officers, royal marines, and seamen. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

COCHRANE. 
The Right lion. Lord ColKngreood, $c. 

tmperieusc None killed ; none wounded ; one singed blowing up a 

battery. 
French One commanding ofliser of troops killed; how many other* 

uukuown. 



His Majesty's Ship Kent, off' 
STRr 2J August, 1808. 

1 beg leave to acquaint you, that yesterday, niniving along the coast from 
Genoa towards Cape del Melle, we discovered a convoy of ten sail oi 
coasters deeply laden, under the protection of a gun-bout, at an anchor 
close to the beach abreast of the town of Noli ; and as there appeared a 
fair prospect of bringing them out by a prompt attack, before the enemy 
had time to collect his force, I instantly determined to send in the boats of 
the Kent and Wizard ; and as there was but little wind, I directed Captain 
Ferris, of the Wizard, to tow in and cover the boats, which immediately put 
off, and, by great exertion, soon towed her close to the vessels, when 
it was found impossible to bring them out without landing, most 
of them being fastened to the shore by ropes from their keels and 3 
mast-heads, the boats therefore pulled to the beach with great resolution,. 
exposed to the fire of two guns in the bow of the gun-boat, two-field pieces 
placed in a grove which ffitnked the beach, a heavy gun in front of the town, 
and a continued fire of musketry from the bouse*: but these were no check 
to the ardour and intrepidity of British seamen and marines, who leaped 1 
from the boats, and rushed upon the enemy with a fearless zeal that was 
not to be resisted. The gun in front of the town was soon taken and spiked" 
by Lieutenant Chasman, second of the Kent, who commanded the seamen, 
and Lieutenant Hanlon the royal marines; and the enemy, who had drawn 
up a considerable force of regular troops in the grove to defend the two field- 
pieces, was dislodged by Captain Rea, who commanded the royal marines, 
and Lieutenant Grant of that corps, who took possession of the field-pieces. 
and brought them off. In the mean time, Lieutenants Lindsay and Moresby 
of the Kent, and Lieutenant B:s?ett of the Wizard, who had equally distin- 
guished themselves in driving the enemy from the beach, were actively 
employed in taking possession of the gun-boat, and freeing the vessels fron; 
their fasts to the shore; and I had soon the satisfaction to sec our people 
embark, and the whole oi the vessels coming out under the protecting tire 
of the Wizard, which, by the judicious conduct of Captain Ferris, con- 
tributed very essentially to keep the enemy in check, both in the advance 
and retreat of the boats. 

I should have pleasure in noticing the midshipmen and other* who were 
conspicuous in this little enterprise, but I fear that I have already given a. 
longer detail than it may be thought worthy of, and shall therefore only beg; 
leave to add, that one seaman killed, and one badly wounded, (since dead) 
both of the Kent, is all the loss we sustained. The enemy left many dead 
on the ground. 

The gun-boat was a national vessel, called la Vigilante r commanded by 
an enseigne de vaisseau, with a complement of forty-five men. 

I have the honour to be, ccc 

THOMAS RO' 

f Esq. Vice-admiral of the Whit 9, Ac. 



JTAVAL HISTORY OP Tire PRESENT YEAR, ItJOS 1809. 75 

Silted, 

James Skinner, captain of forerop. 

Wounded. 

William Palmer, able seaman, since dead. 

P.S. Since writing the above, the boats of the Kent and Wiisard have 
brought out without mischief, from under the guns of a fort near Leghorn, 
where they had taken shelter, three laden vessels, and burnt a fourth, which 
was aground and could not be got off. 

Copy afa Letter from Rear-admiral the Honourable. Sir Alexander Cochrane, 
JL B. Commander in-chiff of his Majesty's Ships and Vessels at the 
Leeward Inlands, to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated on board the Neptune, 
vff Point Salines, Martinique, Xovcxiber 10, 1B08. 

SIR, 

I have great satisfaction in enclosing, for the information of the Lords 
.Commissioners of the Admiralty, a copy of a letter from Captain Pigot, of 
his majesty's ship Circe, acquainting me with the capture of the French cor- 
vette Palineur; the last of the two which were so gallantly beaten by his 
majesty's sloop Goree, commanded by Captain Spear, the other having becu 
brought in by tlie Poinpee some time siu.ce. 

I am, &G. 

ALEX. COCIIRAXr. 

Tfis Mf>^.stji/s Ship Circe, off" Fort Royal, 
SIR, Martinique, October 31, 1U08. 

I have the pleasure of acquwnting you, that at day-light I observed a hrjg 
uadcr jury-masts coming before, the wind, and on my making sail, hauled 
close round the Diamond rock. It being nearly calm, she was enabled, 
with her sweeps antl a boat, to get under the protection of a battery on 
Point Solomon before we came up with her: when, after an action often 
or fifteen minutes, she struck her colours. 

She proves to be the Palineur, commanded by Monsieur Fourniers, a. 
French national bri^, of fourteen twenty-four pounder carronades, and two 
pix-pounder guns, had but sevcnty-nuie men on board, most of whom were 
woops of the 8'2d regiment. I have to regret the loss of one man killed and 
one wounded ; tlie enemy, seven killed and eight wounded. The battery 
was so much above us, that few, if any, shots were fired at it, 

I am, &c. 

II. PIGOT, Captain, 
fo Rear-tttlitiirul the Hon. Sir Aksandcf 
Cochrane, K.B. fyf. 

Copy of another Letter from Rcnr-admintl the lion. Sir Alexander Cochrane, 
K.B. to ike lion. W. IT. Pole, dalal Bdltistf, to Windward if Point 
Suli'ics, Martinique, November i>, 



SIR, 

The enclosed copy of a letter from Captain Cockburn, of his majesty's 
Jiip Pompee, will acquaint you, for tlie information of the Lords CommisM 
sioners of the Admiralty, with the capture of the Pylades, a French brig 
Corvette of sixteen guns. 

I am, &C. 

ALEX, COCHRANE, 



76 NAVAL H-isiony or THE PHESEST YEAR, 1Q08 1SQ9, 

His Majesty^ Ship Pmnpec, Barbadoes, 
SIK, 'October 22, 1808. 

I have great pleasure in informing you, that his majesty's ship under my 
command, on her passage litre, on the 20th October, fell in with, and after 
a long chase of eighteen hours came up with untl captured le Fylade, a 
Trench forij; corvette, mounting fourteen twenty-four-pounder carronades 
and two long nine-pounders, commanded by Monsieur Cocherel, lieutenant 
de vuisseau, and having on board one hundred and nine men. 

She was eight days from Martinique, but had not made any capture. She 
is only three years old, in perfect good state, and in every respect fit for His 
majesty's service. I am also assured by her officers, she is the fastest sail- 
ing vessel the French had in these seas. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

E. COCK BURN*, Captain. 
To Sir A. Cochrane, K.B. 'Rear-admiral of the Red, $c. 

Copy of another Letter from R far-admiral the Hon. Sir Alexander Cnchranc, 
' K. B. fyc. to the Hon. fV. W. Pale, dated on board {he Northumberland, 
to Windward of Point Salines, Martinique, the %d of November, 1803. 

SIR, 

I enclose the copy of a letter from the master of his majesty's late brig 
Maria, giving an account of her capture, by a large French corvette ship, ot 
twenty-two heavy guns. 

The Maria was a small brig, of twelve twelve-pounder carronades, and 
two long fours, and sixty-five men. The oilicers and crew, however, fought 
her well, and did not strike until she was near sinking. When the enemy 
took possession they were obliged to run her on shore and destroy her. 

I regret the loss of her commander, Lieutenant Bennett, who was an 
officer of long standing, and of great merit; Mr. O'Donndl, midshipman, 
was also killed, and four seamen, and nine others are wounded. 

I am, &c. ALEX. COCHRAXE. 

SIR, Roseau, Dominica, Oct. 18, 1803. 

I have taken the earliest opportunity of acquainting yon of the loss of his 
majesty's brig Maria, Lieutenant Bennett, late commander. 

Wishing to join you as soon as possible 1 , I made application for a cartel, 
which was granted for four officers and myself, bv General Emeu? 
Dominica, where we arrived this morning, on the 29th September, Point 
Antigua Grand Tierre bearing S.W. At 6 A.M. saw a sail br-aring S.E. by 
S, Made all sail to cut her of}' the land. When we came within a mile of 
the chase, she seemed to hard more tor the land. Lieutenant Bennett sup- 
posed her to be a French letter of man|nc. When we came within aun- 
hot, shewed our ensiiiu and pendant, still keeping within her and the Land. 
A flaw from the land took us aback ; and fell dead calm, which exposed us 
to her broadside. .She then hoisted her French ensign and pendant, up 
ports and raked us fore and afc. Lieutenant Bennett used every exertion 
in ordering sweeps to be got out, which was instantly done ; but we 
received her second broadside in the like manner. We kept up a constant 
fire when our broadside would bear; it still continued calm ; finding it im- 
possible to save his majesty's brig by attempting to run, and from the state 
of our masts, and yards, and rigging, then making much water. from shot 
received in our hull, still kept up the action. Our ensign haulyards being 
shot away, the French captain asked, " Had we struck r" was answered in 
the negative by Lieutenant Bennett, who was shortly after killed by three 
grape shot he received in his body. I still ordered the (ire to be kept up, 
until I found his majesty's brig iu a sinking condition ; struck. 



HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YE All, 1808 1809. 77 

Whether from the confusion of the enemy, or from the situation she wrsi 
then in, they, shortly after taking possession of his majesty's brig, ran her 
on shore, and left her an entire wreck. 

She is the French national vessel le Sards, mounting twenty-two guns, 
and one swivel. 

On her main-deck, sixteen thirty-two pound carronades, and four Jong 
twelve pounder HU-.IS. On her quarter deck, two nine-pounders* 

I am sorry to add the loss on board his majesty's brig, Maria, was James 
Bennett, lieutenant, commander; Robert O'Donnell, midshipman ; and 
four seamen, killed; and nine wounded, now in Point a Petre hospital, iu 
a fair way of recovery. It would have given pleasure both to officers and 
seamen to have captured her. From her superiority in force \vas compelled 
to strike. 

I have, cx'c. 

JOSEPH DYASON, master; 

To the ll'^n. Sir Alexander Cochrane, K.B. 4'C. 

JANUARY 14. 

C(y" of a Letter from Rear-admiral the Hon. Sir Alexander Cochrane, K.B. 
Commander- tn^chif^f <>f his JUtnetty't Ships and Firsst/s at t/ie Leeuard 
1st: H -it. H . If'". Pole, dated on board the Belleiele, at Barbu- 

docs, Octubtr 21, Io08. 

sin, 

I enclose, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty, the copy of a letter from Captain Sanders, of his majesty's sioop 
Bcilette, giving an account of his capturing a large schooner privatetr of 
seven guns and seventy men. 

} am, &c. 

ALEX. CQCflRAXE. 

IJh 3/ty'ctf/s Sloop Bellette, at Sea. 

B, 23d August, 1808. 

I have the honour to inform you, that Ins majesty's sloop Bellette, under 
my command, has raptured, alter a chase of four hours, the French 
schooner privateer Coufiance, mounting seven guns, (pierced for sixteen) 
with a complement of seventy men ; three days from Cayenne. 

I have the honour to be. &c. 

GEO. SANDERS. 
Hon. Sir Alexander Cochrane, K.B. Commander in-fhitf. 

Extract of a Letter f:om Rear-admiral Sir I?. G. Keats, K.B. addressed to 
Vice-admiral Sir Junns Suiin/urez, Ba>t. and K.B. and transmitted to the 
Hon. If. IF. Pole, dated' on board his AJujtsty's Ship the Superb, off 
Coftenburg. 

I have the honour hercw'th to transmit a letter which has been addressed 
to Captain Sir Archibald Uickson, of the Orion, by Captain Morris, of the 
>Iai;uer, reporting to him the capture, off the island of Bornhohn, of 
the Danish cutter privateer Paulina, mounting ten guiiSj and with a corps 
of fort) -two "men. 

His 3Tajestys Shop Magnet, off" Bornholm, 
SIR, December 5, 1808. 

I have to inform you that, cruising in obedience to your orders, I discover- 
ed at aoou a cuucr under BornhoJin, and, by disguising his majesty's bng 



78 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 18081805. 

under my command, succeeded in drawing her off the land, when I chased 
and came up with her at dusk, the north end of Bornhohn bearing S. S. E. 
two miles. 

She is called the Paulina, a Danish privateer, mounting ten guns (four 
and eight pouuders). and manned with forty. two men ; from Copenhagen 
twelve days, and had not made any capture ; her guns, except three, were 
thrown overboard during the chase. 

I have the honour to he, &c. 

GEORGE MORRIS. 
To Sir A. C. Dickson, Bart. Captain of 
his Majesty's Ship Orion. 

Copt/ of a Letter from Charles Gill, Esq. Commander of his Majesty's Sloop 
Onyx, to the Hon. W. W, Pole, dated Hull Roads, January 10, 1309. 

SIR, 

I beg leave to inform you, for the information of my Lords Commission- 
ers of the Admiralty, that on the morning of the first instant, at day-light, 
when in lat. 53 deg. 30 min, long. 3 deg. we discovered a strange brig on the 
lee bow, standing to the southward, on which we made the private signal. 
She immediately shewed Dutch colours, and hoved to, as if prepared for 
battle. We kept our wind until eight o'clock, when, being perfectly ready, 
we bore down and brought her to close action. The enemy attempted 
several times to rake us, but, from our superior sailing, we were enabled to 
foil every attempt. At half past ten she struck her colours, being much cut 
up in her sails and rigging, and having most of her guns disabled by the 
superior fire kept up by the Oynx, which, considering the very heavy sea, 
displayed a cool and steady conduct, by far beyond any thing I could expect 
from so young a ship's company, and merits my warmest commendations. 
She proved to be the Dutch national brig Manly, formerly British, and cap- 
tured by the Dutch in the river Ems. She mounts twelve eightecn-pounder 
carronades, and four long brass six-pounders, with a complement of ninety- 
four men ; commanded by Captain-lieutenant J. W. Heneyman of the 
Dutch navy. 

I am happy to say our loss is much more trifling than might be expected: 
from so long and close a conflict, which can only be accounted for by the 
very heavy sea running the whole of the time, having only three wounded, 
and the enemy five killed and six wounded. 

I feel more pleasure in announcing her capture, as she sailed from the 
Texel, in company with another brig, for the sole purpose of annoying and 
intercepting our trade with Heligoland. She has made one small capture 
from Embden, laden with oats, supposed to be for England. 

I beg leave to recommend to their lordships' notice my first lieutenant, 
Mr. E. W. Garretr, who is an old and very deserving otticer, and to whose 
advice and assistance I feel much indebted ; also Mr. W. Trewren, the 
second lieutenant, who is a deserving good officer, and to whose zeal and 
activity the service is much indebted. I cannot pass over in silence the 
assistance I received from Mr. G. D. Louis, acting master, whose exertions 
in manoeuvring the brig, so as to completely foil the enemy's schemes to 
rake, evinced a great display of professional skill, aitcl who>e conduct tna 
whole of the time was highly meritorious, as well as that of Mr. Z. Webb. 
the Purser, who volunteered his- services in the direction of the small 
ar:n men aud marines. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

CHARLES GILL 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1S08 1809. 7$ 

A List of Killed and Wounded on board liis Majesty's Sloop Onvx, and the 
Dutch jiational B/ig Manly, during (he Action of the lit January, 
1809. 

Oni/Xj 10 guns and 76 men. 

None killed; Thomas Smith, seaman, badly wounded; James Harlow, 
(1) slightly wounded; James Langworth, hoy, badly wounded, since dead. 

, Manly, 16 suns and 94 men. 

Five killed and six wounded. 

CHARLES GILL, Captain. 

JANUARY 21. 

Rear-admiral d'Auvergne, Prince of Bouillon, has transmitted to the 
Hon. W. W. Pole a letter from Captain Pringie, of his majesty's sloop 
bparrowhawk, dated oft Cherbourg the 12th instant, giving an account 
of his having, that day, captured the French privateer cutter 1'Esperance, 
of fourteen guns and fifty four men. 

Captain O'Comrbr, commander of his majesty's sloop the Ned Elwin, 
has transmitted to the Hon. W. W. Pole a copy of a letter addressed by 
him to Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez, giving an account of his 
having, on the 17th of December, captured the General Kapp, Preach 
privateer brig, of eight guns and forty-one men, which had left Dantzic 
Ihe evening before. 



LONDON GAZETTE EXTRAORDINARY. 

DOWNING-BTRCET, JAN. 24, 1809. 

The Hoa. Captain Hope arrived late last night with a despatch from 
Lieutenant-general Sir David Baird to Lord Viscount Castlereagh, one of 
his majesty's principal secretaries of state, of which the following is a 
copy: 

His Majesty' s Sliip Ville de Paris, 
MY LORD, at Sea, Jan. 18. 

By the much lamented death of Lieutenant-general Sir John Moore, 
who fell in action with the enemy oa the 16th instant, it has become my 
duty to acquaint your lordship, that the French army attacked the 
British troops in the position they occupied in front of Corunna, 
at about two o'clock in the afternoon of that day. A severe wound 
which compelled me to quit the field a short time previous to the fall 
of Sir John Moore, obliges me to refer your lordship for the particulars 
of the action, which was long and obstinately contested, to the enclosed 
report of Lieutenant-general Hope, who succeeded to the command of 
the army, and to whose ability and exertions, in direction of the ardent 
zeal and unconquerable valour of his majesty's troops, is to be attributed, 
under Providence, the success of the day, which terminated in the com- 
plete and entire repulse and defeat of the enemy at every point of 
attack. The Honourable Captain Gordon, my aide-de-camp, will have 
the honour of delivering this despatch, and will be able to give your 
lordship any further information which may be required. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

D. BAIRD, Lieut, Gen. 
Right ff&n. Lord rtscount Castlereagh* 



8$ NAVAL HISTORY os 1 THE PRESENT YEAUJ 1808 

His Majesty's Ship Audacious, ojf 

i R Corunna, Jan. 18. 

I 

In compliance with the desire contained in your communication of 
jesterday, 1 avail myself of the first moment 1 have been able to cvm- 
rnand, to detail to you the occurrences of the action which took place- 
in front of Corunna on the 16th instant. It will be in your recollection, 
that about one in the afternoon of that day, the enemy, v ho had in the 
morning received reinforcements, and who had placed sonic guns in front 
of the right and left of his line, was observed to be moving troops 
towards his left flank, and forming various columns of attack at that 
extremity of the strong and commanding position which on the morn- 
ing of the 13th he had taken in our immediate front. This indication 
of his intention was immediately succeeded by the rapid and determined 
attack which he made upon your division which occupied the right of our 
position. The events which occurred during that period of the action 
you are fully acquainted with. The first effort of the enemy was met 
by the commander of the forces, and by yourself, at the head of the 42d 
regiment, and the brigade under Major-general Lord William Bentinck. 
The village on your right became an object of obstinate contest. I 
lament to say, that soon after the severe wound which deprived the 
army of your services, Lieutenant-general Sir John Moore, who had just 
directed the most able disposition, fell by a cannon-shot. The troops, 
though not unacquainted with the irreparable loss they had sustained, 
were not dismayed, but by the most determined bravery not only repelled 
every attempt of the enemy to gain ground, but actually forced him to 
retire, although he had brought up fresh troops in support of those 
originally engaged. 

The enemy finding himself foiled in every attempt to force the right of the 
position, endeavoured by numbers to turn it. A judicious and well-timed 
movement which was made by Major-general Paget with the reserve, which 
corps had moved out of its cantonments to support the right of the army, 
t>y a vigorous attack, defeated this intention. The major-general having 
pushed forward the 95th (rifle corps) and 1st battalion 52d regiments, drove 
the enemy before him, and in his rapid and judicious advance, threatened 
the left of the enemy's position. This circumstance, with the position of 
Lieutenant-general Fraser's division (calculated to give still further security 
to the right of the line) induced the enemy to relax his efforts in that 
quarter. They were however more forcibly directed towards the centre, 
where they were again successfully resisted by the brigade under Major ge- 
neral Manningham, forming the left of your division, and a part of that 
tinder Major-general Leigh, forming the right of the division under 
my orders. Upon the left, the enemy at first contented himself with 
an attack upon our piquets, which, however, in general maintained their 

f round. Finding, however, his efforts unavailing on the right and centre, 
e seemed determined to render the attack upon the left more serious, and 
Lad succeeded in obtaining possession of the village through which the 
great road to Madrid passes, and which was situated in front of that part 
of the line. From this pose, however, he was soon expelled, with consider- 
able loss, by a gallant attack of some companies of the 2d battalion 
14th regiment, under Lieutenant- colonel Nicholls; before five in the even- 
ing, we had not only successfully repelled every attack made upon the posi- 
tion, but had gained ground in almost all points, and occupied a more 
forward line than at the commencement of the action, whilst the enemy 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1803 1809. Si 

confined his operations to a cannonnde, and the fire of his Ii;;ht troops, 
with a view to draw off his Other corps. At six the firing entirely coasod. 
1 'he different brigades were re-assembled nn the ground ilicy occupied in 
the morning, and the piquets and advanced posts resumed their original 
stations. Notwithstanding the decided and marked superiority which at 
this moment the gallantry of the troops had given them over an enemy, who, 
from his numbers, and the commahdiug advantages of his position, no 
doubt expected nn easy victory, 1 did not, on reviewing all circumstances, 
conceive that I should be warranted in departing from what I knew w:is 
the fixed and previous determination of the late commander of the forces 
to withdraw the army on the evening of the 16th, for the purpose of embark- 
ation, the previous arrangements for which had already been made by his 
order, and were in fact far advanced at the commencement of the action. 
The troops quitted their position about ten at night, with a degtee of order 
that did them credit. The whole of the artillery that remained un- 
embarked having been withdrawn, the troops followed in the order 
prescribed, arid marched to their respective points of embarkation in the 
town and neighborhood of Corunna. The piquets remained at their posts 
until five on the morning of the l?th, when they were also withdrawn with 
similar orders, and without the enemy having discovered the movement. 

By the unremitted exertions of Captains the Honourable H. Curzon, 
Gosselin, Boys, Rainier, Serret, Hawkins, Dighy, Garden, and Mackenzie, 
of the royal navy, who in pursuance of the orders of Rear-admiral da 
Courcey, were entrusted with the service of embarking the army; and in 
consequence of the arrangements made by Commissioner Bowen, Captains 
Bowen and Shepherd, and the other agents for transports, the whole of the 
army was embarked with an expedition that has seldom been equalled. 
With the exception of the brigades under Major-generals Hill and 
Beresford, which were destined to remain on shore, until the movements of 
the enemy should become manifest, the whole was afloat before day-light. 
The brigade of Major-general Beresford, which was alternately to form our 
rear-guard, occupied the land front of the town of Corunna; and that 
under Major-general Hill was stationed in reserve on the promontory 
in rear of the town. The enemy pushed his light troops toward the town 
soon after eight o'clock in the morning of the 17th, and shortly after 
occupied the heights of St. Lucia, which command the harbour. B'ut not- 
withstanding this circumstance, and the manifold defects of the place, 
there being no apprehension that the rear-guard could be forced; and the 
disposition of the Spaniards appearing to be good, the embarkation of 
Major-general Hill's brigade was commenced and completed by three in the 
afterooon. Major-general Beresford, with that zeal and ability which is so 
well known to yourself and the whole army, having fully explained, to the 
satisfaction of the Spanish governor, the nature o o .r ruovempijt, and having 
made every previous arrangement, withdrew his corps from the land front of 
the town, soon after dark, and was, with all the wounded that had not been 
previously moved, embarked before one this morning. Circumstances 
forbid us to indulge the hope, that the victory with which it lias pleased 
Providence to crown the efforts of the army, can be attended with un* very 
brilliant consequences to Great Britain. It is clouded by the loss of one of 
her best soldiers. It has been achieved at the termination of a long and 
harassing service. The superior numbers and advantageous position of ther 
enemy, not less than the actual situation of this army, did not admit of any 
advantage being reaped from success. It must be, however, to you, to the 
army, and to our country, the sweetest reSection that the imtre of 

. 2JoI. XXI. u 



82 NAT A-Ii HISTOHY Of TEHE PRESENT YEAR, 1808 1809;, 

the British arms has been maintained, amidst many disadvantageous circum- 
stances. The army which had entered Spain, amidst the fairest prospects, 
had no sooner completed its junction, than, owing to the multiplied 
disasters that dispersed the native armies round us, it was left to its 
own resources. The advance of the Britibh corps from the Ducro afforded 
the hest hope that the south of Spain might be relieved, but this generous 
effort to save the unfortunate people, also afrbrcled the enemy the oppor- 
tunity of directing; every effort of his numerous troops, and concentrating 
all his principal resources for the destruction of the only regular force in the 
north of Spain. You are well aware with what diligence this system 
has been pursued. These circumstances produced the necessity of rapid 
and harassing marches, which had diminished the numbers, exhausted the 
strength; and impaired the equipment of the army. Notwithstanding 
all these disadvantages, and those more immediately attached to a definitive 
position, which the imperious necessity of covering the harbour of Corunna, 
for a time, had rendered indispensable to assume, the native and undaunted 
valour of British troops was never more conspicuous, and must have 
exceeded even what your own experience of that invaluable quality, so 
inherent in them, may have taught you to expect. When every one that 
had an opportunity, seemed to vie in improving it, it is difficult for me, in. 
making this report, to select particular instances for your approbation. The 
corps chiefly engaged were the brigades under Major-generals Lord William 
Bentinck, and Manniugham and Leigh; and the brigade of guards under 
Major-general Warde. 

To these officers, and the troops under their immediate orders, the 
greatest praise is due. Major-general Hill aud Colonel Catlin Craufurd, 
with their brigades on the left of the position, ably supported their advanced 
posts. The brunt of the action fell upon the 4th, 42d, 50th, and 81st regi- 
ments, with parts of the brigade of guards, and the 26th regiment. From 
Lieutenant-colonel Murray, quarter-master-general, and the officers of the 
general-staff, I received the most marked assistance. I had reason to regret, 
that the illness of Brigadier-general Clinton,, adjutant-general, deprived me 
of his aid. I was indebted to Brigadier-general Slade during the action, 
for a zealous offer of his personal services, although the cavalry were 
embarked. The greatest part of the fleet having gone to sea yesterday 
evening^ the whole being under weigh, and the corps in the embarkation 
necessarily much mixed pn board, it is impossible at present to lay before 
you a return of our casualties. I hope the loss in numbers is not so con- 
siderable as might have been expected. If I was obliged to form an. 
estimate, I should say, that I believe it did not exceed in killed iiuci 
wounded from seven to eight hundred ; that of the enemy must remain un- 
known,, but many circumstances induce me to rate it at nearly double the 
above number. We have some prisoners, bat I have not been able to 
obtain an account of the number ; it is not, however, considerable. Several 
officers of rank have fallen or been wounded, among whom i am only at 
present enabled to state the names of Lieutenant colonel Napier, 92d regi- 
ment, Majors Napier and Stanhope, 58th regiment, killed; Lieutenant, 
colonel Winch, 4th regiment, Lieutenant-colonel Maxwell, 26th regiment, 
Lieutenant-colonel Fane, 59th regiment, Lieutenant-colonel Griffith, guards, 
Majors Miller and Williams, 81st regiment, wounded. To you, who are 
well acquainted with the excellent qualities of Lieutenant-general Sir John. 
Moore, I need not expatiate on the loss the army and his country have 
sustained by his death. His fall has deprived me of a valuable friend, to 
whom long experience of his worth had sincerely attached me. But 
it is chiefly on public grounds that I lament the blow. It will be the conver* 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808 1809. 85 

sation of every one who loved or respected his manly character, that, after 
conducting the army through an arduous retreat with consummate firmness, 
-he has terminated a career of distinguished honour by a death that has given 
the enemy additional reason to respect the name of a British soldier. Like 
the immortal Wolfe, he is snatched from his country at an early period of 
a life spent in her service ; like Wolfe, his last moments were gilded by the 
prospect of success, and cheered by the acclamation of victory ; like Wolfe 
also, his memory will for ever remain sacred in that country which he sin- 
cerely loved, and which he had so faithfully served. It remains for me only 
to express my hope, that you will speedily he restored to the service of 
your country, and to lament the unfortunate circumstance that removed you 
from your station in the field, and threw the momentary command into far 
less able hands. I have the honour to be. &c. 

To Lieut. Gen. Sir D. Baird. JOHN HOPE, Lieut Geu. 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE LONDON GAZETTE EXTRAORDINARY. 

ADMIRALTY-OFFICE, JAN; 24, 1609. 

Copy of a Letter from the Hon. Michael de Courcy, Rear-admiral of the 
IV hi e, to the Hon. W. JV. Pole, dated on board his Majesty's Ship the 
Tvnnant, at Corunna, the nth and IQlh, instant. 

SIR, January 17, 1809. 

Having it in design to detach the Cossack to England as soon as x her 
boats shall cease to be essential to the embarkation of the troops, I seize a 
moment to acquaint you, for the information of the Lords Commissieners of 
the Admiralty, that the ships of war, as per margin,* and transports, under 
the orders of llear-admiral Sir Samuel Hood and Commissioner Bowen, 
arrived at this anchorage from Vigo on the 14th*and 15th instant, the Alfred 
and Hiudostan, with some transports, were left at Vigo to receive a brigade 
of 3,500 men, that had taken chat route under the Generals Alten and 
Crawford. 

In the vicinity of Corunna the enemy have pressed upon the British 
in great force. The embarkation of the sick, the cavalry, and the stores 
went on. The night of the 16th was appointed for the general embarkation 
of the infantry; and, mean time, the enemy prepared for attack. At three, 
P.M. an action commenced; the enemy, which had been ported on a lofty 
hill, endeavouring to force the British on another hill of inferior height, and 
nearer the town. The enemy were driven back with great slaughter ; but 
very sorry am I to add, that the British, though triumphant, have suffered 
severe losses. I am unable to communicate further particulars, than that 
Sir John Moore received a mortal wound of whicli he died at night; 
that Sir David Baird lost an arm ; that several officers and many men have 
been killed and wounded; and that the ships of war have received all such 
of the latter as they could accommodate the remainder being sent to 
transports. 

The weather is now tempestuous, and the difficulties of embarkation are 
<:reat. All except the rear guard are embarked, consisting perhaps at the 
present moment of 2,000 men. The enemy having brought cannon to a hill 

* Vilifi de Paris, Victory, Barfleur, Zealous, Implacable, Elizabeth, 
,Xorge, PUwrageaet, Resolution, Audacious, Endymion, Mediator. 



84 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808 1809. 

overhanging the beach, have forced a majority of the transports to cut or 
s'ip. Embarkation being no longer practicable at tlie town, the boats have 
been ordered to a sandy beach near the light-house, and it is hoped that the 
greater part, if not all, will still be embarked, the ships of war having drop- 
ped out to facilitate embarkation. 

Jan. 18. The embarkation of the troops having occupied the greater 
part of last night, it has not been in my power to detach the Cossack before 
this day : and it is with satisfaction I am able to add, that, in consequence 
of the good order maintained by the troops, and the unwearied exertions of 
Commissioner Boven, the captains, and other officers of the navy, 
the agents, as well as the boats' crews, many of whom were for two 
days without food, and without repose, the army have been embarked to the 
last man, and the ships are now in the offing, preparatory to steering 
for England. The great body of the transports having lost their anchors, 
ran to sea without the troops they were ordered to receive, in consequence 
of which there are some thousands on board the ships of war. Several 
transports, through mismanagement, ran on shore. The seamen appeared 
to have abandoned them, two being brought out by the boats' crews of the 
men of war, two were burnt, and five were bilged. I cannot conclude this 
hasty statement without expressing my great obligations to Rear-admiral Sir 
Samuel Hood, whose eye was every where, and whose exertions were 
Unremitted. 

I have the hono\ir to be, &c. 

M. DE COURCY. 

Hazy weather rendering the Cossack obscure, I detach the Gleaner wklj 
this despatch. 



Courts; partial. 



A COURT MARTIAL was held on Wednesday, the 10th inst. on board 
the Salvador del Mundo, Admiral Young, in Hamoaze, to try Captain 
Baker, his officers and ship's company, for the loss of the Jupiter, of SO 
guns, under his command, in Vigo Bay. Captain Baker read a narrative of 
the circumstances of the case, and alter a full investigation as to the cause 
of the loss of the Jupiter, the court adjudged him to be admonished to act 
with more precaution for the future, Captain Baker not having endeavoured 
to get a pilot, or bring the ship to an anchor. Captain Baker was admo- 
nished accordingly. 

A court martial was also held on John Brown, a seaman of the Raven, 
Captain Grant, who was tried on a charge of murder, by kicking R. Nelson 
so violently in the belly, when " skylarking," that he died in consequence of 
the blow.' After hearing the evidence for the prosecution, and the prisoner 
m his defence, the court acquitted him of the murder, but sentenced him to 
200 lashes round the fleet, as an admonition against " skylarking." 



anU 



The king has been pleased to appoint the Right Hon. Cuthbert Lord Col- 
Jingwood, vice-admiral of the red, to be major-general of his majesty's royui 
marine Orces, in the room of Admiral Lord Gardner, deceased. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1803 1809. 85 

The king 1ms been pleased, by warrant, under his royal signet and simi 
rnanuel, to give and grant unto Henry Clement Thompson, Esq. a comman- 
der in the royal navy, his royal license and permission, that he may, in com- 
pliance with the desire of his majesty, Gustavus Adolphus Iv. Kin-: of 
Sweden, accept and wear the insignia of a knight of the royal Swedish 
military order of the Sword, conferred upon him by that sovereign, as a tes- 
timony of his royal approbation of the services of the said II. C. Thompson, 
in the engagement with the Russian flotilla in the Gulf of Finland, on the 
26th of August last. 

His royal highness the Prince of the Brazils has conferred on Captain 
James Walker, of his majesty's ship Bedford, and on Captain Thomas 
Western, of his majesty's ship London, the dignity of knights of the order 
of Fidelity, of which order he has also appointed the gallant Rear-admiral 
Sir Sydney Smith to be commander. 

Rear-admiral Hon. Allan Gardner lias succeeded to the title of Lord 
Gardner, by the death of his father, late an admiral of the blue squadron of 
his majesty's fleet. 

Captain Browell, of the royal hospital at Greenwich, is appointed to suc- 
ceed the late Captain Bouchier, as lieutenant-governor of that iastitution. 

Captain Jahleel Brenton, son of the late Admiral Brcnton, is appointed 
to command his majesty's ship Fame ; Captain Richard Thomas to the 
Spartan, vice Brenton ; Captain William Roberts to the Castor; Captain 
John Bastard to the St. Fiorenzo ; Captain Graham Eden Hamond, son of 
Sir Andrew Hamond, late comptroller of his majesty's navy, to the Victo- 
rious ; Captain Frederick Watkins to the Majestic ; Captain George 
Trollope, brother of Captain Sir Henry Trollope, Bart, from the Electra to 
the Zebra bomb; Captain Donald M'Lead to the Isis, rice Langhorne ; 
and Captain Buckland Sterling Bluett to the Magnet. 

Captain Keith Maxwell has been appointed to the Nymphen, of 36 guns, 
at Chatham. This frigate was captured from the Danes, and is one of the 
finest of her class in the service. We feel much satisfaction in announcing 
the appointment of this gallant officer. Our readers will recollect, that 
Captain Keith Maxwell, when a lieutenant in the Beaulieu frigate, led the 
party (nominally commanded by Lieutenant Losack) that cut the French 
national ship la Chevrette out of Camaret B.iy, in July 1801 ; for which 
Earl .St. Vincent sent him a commission, as master and commander, accom- 
panied by a very handsome complimentary letter.* 

Lieutenants appointed. 

Lieutenant John Russel to the Leviathan ; Timothy Scriven to the Ves- 
tal ; Edward Brazier to the Plover ; George Troke to the Dolphin ; James 
Basbford to the Princess Carolina ; Richard Charles Phillips to the Com- 
batant; James Neville to the Eclipse; John Thomas Jeans to the Night- 
ingale ; Edward Reading to the Drake; Aaron Fozer to the Victorious; 
James Nayce to the Dannemark ; David' Patterson to the Cornelia; 
Robert Brues to the Tigress cutter ; James Brown ('2) to the Mornnouth ; 
Michael Matthews to the Cornelia; Joseph Ramsay to the Brilliant; 
Charles J*-lL-rys to the Opossum ; Thomas Wm. Caihc to the Princess* 



* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. VI. pages 61, 73, aud 74; Vol. VII. 
pa^e 210 and 319 ; ani Vol. XX. pages 92 and 93. 



S6 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808 1809. 

Carolina ; W. S. Fuller to the Blake ; Samuel Jehn Hall to the Agincourt ; 
Thomas Jaff to the Minstrel; Philip Stimpson to the Rattler; Itobert 
Wariehope to the Blake ; William Norman to the Sirius ; William Smith 
(5) to the Castor; Richard Burton to the Tickler cutter ; and Marmaduke 
Smith to the Royalist sloop. 

List of midshipmen passed for lieutenants on the first Wednesday in the 
month: Joseph Eastwood, J. G. Harrington, Richard Piercy, Thomas 
j William Poore, John Hatton, and Daniel Daley. 



Surgeons and assistants appointed. 

Mr. Gladstone, one of the assistant-surgeons of the Royal Hospital at 
Greenwich, is appointed by the Lords of the Admiralty to be surgeon of 
the royal division of marines at Woolwich, vice Anderson, deceased. 

Mr. Thomas Hooper is appointed to be surgeon of his majesty's sloop 
Saracen; John Neill to the Blonde; John Julius Inger from the Phipps to 
the Cygnet; Thomas Cochrane to the Forrester; Charles Lin con to the 
Glomen ; Gregory Odell to the Cesar ; Joseph White to the Drake ; 
Richard Thompson to the Vilk de Paris; George Pructor to t^e Orestes 
sloop ; Edward Hopley to the Nymphen ; Henry Ewing to the Resistance ; 
Robert Marks to be surgeon of the Lark ; and A. B. Grenville to proceed 
to the East Indies, to be at the disposal of the commam!er-in-cluef. 

The following arc promoted to the rank of surgeons, to proceed to the 
Jamaica and Leeward Island stations : John Marpole, John Heawood, 
T. P. Davis, John Wm. Latham, Win. M'Kinley, James Dobie, John Paw- 
son, George Lyon Guild, and James Young. 

Mr. Gladstone, surgeon of the division of marines at Woolwich, is 
Rppointed to be surgeon of the Royal Naval Asylum in Greenwich Park. 

Assistants appointed. 

Thomas Stewart, te be assistant-surgeon of the Amethyst; John Dun- 
thorn to be hospital mate of the Royal Hospital at Plymouth ; J. R. Arm- 
strong to be hospital mate of the naval hospital at Jamaica; J. E. Gray to 
be assistant-surgeon of the Acute gun-brig ; John Johns to the Fervent 
gun-brig ; J.Godard to the Blazer gun-brig; P. Ramsay to the Dannemark ; 
Wm. Porteous (2) to the Alphea ; Wm. Hector to die Castor; M. Camth 
to the Victorious ; John Baiston to the Iphegenia ; Charles Miller to the 
Eagle ; Wm. Duncan to the St. Albans ; Robert Bateman to the Standard ; 
Wm. M'Masters to the Argonaut, hospital ship; Robert Brown to the 
Defence; C. W. Vandeuberg to the Majestic; and Thomas Lodt-n to the 
Safeguard. 



BIRTHS. 

On the 10th of January, in Bentinck-street, the Hon. Mrs. Gourtenay 
Boyle, lady of the Hon. Captain Boyle, commander of his majesty's ship 
William. 



On the 8th of January, the lady of Captain Walter Bathurst, of the royal 
navy, of a son, 

On the 4th of January, the lady of Captain Butt, of the royal navy, of a 
still-horn child. 

In Great Mary-la-bonne street, on the 19th of January, the lady of Major 
M'Cleverty, of the royal marines, of a son. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1808 1809. 87 

On the 17th of January, in Bentinck-street, the lady of Captain M. II. 
Scott, of the royal navy, of a daughter. 

On the 10th of January, at Liverpool, Mrs. Sydney Horton, wife of Cap- 
tain S. Horton, of the royal navy, of a daughter. 



MARRIAGES. 

Captain Hollingworth, of the royal navy, son of Wm. Hollingworth, Esq; 
late of the Admiralty, to Miss Jackson, daughter of John Jackson, Esq. 
master attendant at his majesty's dock-yard at Plymouth. 

William Larke, Esq. governor of the naval hospital at Yarmouth, to the 
widow of ths late John Worship, Esq. of Runham, Norfolk. 

On the 13th January, at Mary-la-bonne Church, Capt. P. Malcolm, of the 
royal navy, to Miss Elphinstone, eldest daughter of the Honourable William 
Fullarton Elphinstone. 



DEATHS. 

Lately, at Ipswich, Rear-admirnl Uvedale. 

At Portsmouth, Lieutenant-colonel Archbold, of the royal marines. 

On Monday, the 12th of December, at Osborne's hotel, Lieutenant Wm. 
Skelton, of the royal navy, aged 27 ; he was third son of the late Arnoldus 
Jones Skelton, Esq. of Papcastle, in the county of Cumberland, and first 
cousin to the present Marquis Cornvtallis. 

In the month of May last, as Mr. Drury, first lieutenant of his majesty's 
ship Modeste, was proceeding from Diamond harbour to the Precidency 
(Madras), the boat which he was iu, from a sudden gust of wind, suddenly 
upset, when he perished with several others. 

Lately, Mrs. Cranstoun, widow of the late Captain Cranstoun, of the 
royal navy. 

Lately, was drowned, on the coast of Jutland, together with the greatest 
part of his crew, Captain Temple, of his majesty's ship Crescent. 

On the 30th December, at his apartments in the royal hospital at Green- 
wich, Captain Bouchier, lieutenant-governor of that institution. It has 
been stated in several of the papers, that Captain Bouchier died in conse- 
quence of a wound which he received 35 years ago, and which had never 
been perfectly cured. This statement is incorrect. After the glorious 
action in the West Indies in 1782, Captain Bouchier was appointed to the 
Hector, of 64 guns, one of the French prizes, and ordered t bnng her 
home. The Hector had suffered much in the action, and still more in the 
dreadful storm which happened soon after, in which the Ville de Paris, the 
Centaur, and several other vessels were lost, when she was attacked during 
the night, on her passage home, by two large French frigates. Although 
his ship was nearly a wreck, Captain Bouchier defended her with the 
greatest bravery, and succeeded in beating off the frigates ; but the Hector 
suffered so much, that she sunk the next day, and the whole crew must have 
perished, if a Danish merchantman had not fortunately hove in sight, on 
board of which they were saved. It was in tUis gallant action that Captain 
Bouchier received the wound which disqualified him for active service. 

On the 1st of January, at Bath, Admiral Lord Gardner, in the 66th year 
cf his age. He was uaiversally allowed to be a most able and judicious 



88 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PltESE'NT YEAR, 1808 1809, 

commander: he was born at Uttoxeter, in Staffordshire; his father was a 
Jieutenant-colonel in the llth regiment of Dragoon Guards, and a native 
of Coieraine, in the north of Ireland. He was afterwards in ten glorious 
actions, in all of which he displayed such courage, skill, and magnanimity,- 
as were rewarded ultimately by his sovereign, with the appointment of 
admiral of the blue, major-general of marines, created a baron of the 
united kingdom, and had the honour of receiving from the hand of his 
majesty a gold chain, in approbation of his conduct on the 20th of May 
and 1st of June, 1794. He married in the year 1?69, Miss Hyde, of 
Jamaica, and has left by her ladyship, who survives him, a very numerous- 
family, including two sons in the navy.* 

On the 18th of December, at Cattesfteld, near Fareham, Hants, Rear- 
admiral Edward O'Brien. 
/ 

On the 19th of January, at his house in Marlborotigh Building?, Bath, 
after a life of honour, ardent zeal in his country's good, Christian virtue and 
private benevolence, General Edward Smith, colonel of the 43d regiment 
of foot, and governor of Fort Charles, Jamaica. The general was uncle to 
the gallant Admiral Sir Sydney Smith, and among the few surviving officers 
who were present when the immortal Wolfe fell. 

Lately, at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Lieutenant Crawford, of the royal 
navy. He was a long time last war governor of the naval hospital at 
Gibraltar. 

On the 20th of January, the infant daughter of Captain H. M. Scott, of 
the royal navy. 

At Titchfield, county of Hants, Rear-admiral Jonathan Faulknor. 

On the 17th instant, in Frith-street, Soho, Dr. John Anderson, surgeon 
of the royal division of marines at Woolwich. 

The following distressing statement is copied from The Plymouth Teh- 
graph of January 21 : 

" On Sunday last arrived the Frankfort transport, Captain John Thread- 
geld, from Quebec, with invalids from the different regiments at that place, 
after a most tedious passage of ten weeks. She brought home the widow 
and children of the late Captain Thomas Windsor, of the 10th, or Royal 
Veteran Battalion, who died at Quebec in May last, and left Mrs. Windsor 
and four fine children, to lament the loss of the best of husbands, and most 
tender and indulgent father. But, oh, the dreadful story is to come ! 
After their encountering storms and tempestuous weather, for so many 
weeks, on Wednesday, the llth instant, being about six leagues from the 
land, and a fine day, the eldpst daughter, a most beautiful and amiable 
young ladv, about 10 years of age, sat herself down on the starboard quar- 
ter, and leaning against a rail to read, the rail not being well fastened, sud- 
denly gave way, and she fell overboard ; there being at the same lime a 
great swell, and the boats full of soldiers' beds, baggage, &c. could not be 
got out in time to save the unfortunate young lady, though she floated on 
the merciless waves for 15 minutes, waving her hands with the most dread- 
ful shrieks, and she went down just as the boat got near her. The most 
distracted mother was prevented from throwing herself overboard, by the 
great exertions of Lieutenant Jones, and the other officers and gentlemen 
on board. 



* For a portrait and biographical memoir of Admiral Lord Gardner, vide 
NAVAL CuuoMCi.E, Vol. \ 111. 



MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES 

OF 

CAPTAIN MICHAEL SEYMOUR, 

OF THE KOYAL NAVY. 



" Vile latent virtus : quid enim tubmersa tenebris 
Proderit obscuro ?" CLAUD, iv. CONS. HON. 

Virtue conceal'd is but of little worth: 
For wbat of good, in dark obscurity. 
Can it produce ? 

A T a time when the undaunted firmness and bravery of anation 
-*~ "*- become essential securities against the insults, barbarities, 
and tyranny of a power that seeks for universal dominion, to 
record the particular acts of prowess performed by our gallant 
countrymen, is a duty so fit, just, and necessary, that no question 
can arise as to its propriety, whether it be considered as a grateful 
acknowledgment to bravery, or as holding out an example of 
emulation. To this mark of distinction Captain Michael Seymour, 
the gallant captor of the Thetis, is highly entitled ; and it is with 
particular pleasure that we seize on the opportunity afforded us of 
presenting the public with a shqrt, but we believe, accurate sketch 
of that officer's services. 

For his birth, Captain Seymour is indebted to the sister island, 
now happily forming a component part of the British empire. 
He was born on the 8th of November, 1768, at the Glebe House, 
at Palace, in the county of Limerick ; and if the descent from vir- 
tuous and honourable parents be gratifying, he is in that respect 
indeed eminently fortunate. At thy time of his birth, the Rev. 
John Seymour was rector of Palace a man of exemplary piety, of 
a most amiable and benevolent disposition, and endowed with con- 
siderable learning. lie A\as beloved, esteemed, and venerated by 
his neighbours by tliat society, of which he might justly be re< 
garded the centre. 

. Sol. XXI. K 



PO MEMOIR OF THE 1'UIJLIC SERVICES OV 

For his talents, and many amiable qualities, he was voluntarily 
selected by Dr. Cox, the then Archbishop of Cashel, as one of his 
domestic chaplains. Dr. Cox, who was as zealous to reward, as 
he was capable of appreciating superior merit, soon afterwards 
offered him a valuable living ; but, as a tribute to departed virtue, 
it deserves to be told, that he refused to accept the offer until the 
senior chaplains should be provided for. Preferment, however, 
was at length bestowed ; and Mr. Seymour died, in the month of 
July, 1795, rector of Abington, which he held with the chan- 
cellorship of Emjy. It would be well that all would aspire to the 
propriety of his life. 

Captain Seymour's mother, who is still living, was the youngest 
of two daughters of William Hobart, Esq. of High Mount, in the 
county of Cork. She had five children ; the first of whom was 
William Hobart Seymour, an officer of the 60th regiment, vyhe 
died in the West Indies, in the year 1797 ; having, two yaais 
before, made an extraordinary escape from the French prison-ship 
at Point a Petre, in Guadaloupe, by swimming from her in the 
evening, in company with the master of a Bermudan vessel. 
Having reached the beach, and finding a canoe, they pushed ofl', 
and on the following day, at noon, were taken up by the Bellona 
man of war, off the Saints Isles. The second child of Mr. and 
Mrs. Seymour was Michael, the subject of this memoir ; the third, 
the RCT. John Seymour, a most exemplary man, now rector of 
Ulloa, in the county of Tipperary, in the diocese of Cashel ; the 
fourth was Frances, who died in 1F05 ; and the fifth, Richard, 
who was killed in March, 1806, at the close of the action between 
the Amazon frigate, Captain Parker (of which he. was the first 
lieutenant) and the Belle Poule, French frigate. He was a brave 
and an excellent officer. The testimonies of those who knew him 
best are loud in his praise. 

We have no earlier account of the subject of our memoir than 
the commencement of his professional career, which took place in, 
November, 1780. lie had just then completed his twelfth year, 
and entered the service under the auspices of his gallant and kind 
friend the Hon. Captain James Luttrcll, who then was in the 
command of the Merlin sloop of war. On his quitting this sloop, 
he successively served with the same officer in the Portland}, 



CAPTAIN MICHAEL SEYMOUR. $1 

Mediator, and Ganges, being all the ships Captain laittrell ever 
commanded.* 

In the winter of 1782, whilst serving in the Mediator, of 44 
guns, he participated in a very warm action between that ship and 
fire French armed ships, mounting, in the whole, 136 guns. 

As this was the first engagement o consequence which Mr. Sey- 
mour witnessed, and as its coriduct and result reflected great credit 
on the commander, officers, and crew of the Mediator, the follow- 
ing short account of it will not, it is presumed, bfe regarded as 
tiniriteresting. 

It was on the 12th of December, at seven o'clock in the morn- 
ling, while cruising in the Bay of Biscay, that the Mediator, dis- 
covering five sail of large vessels to leeward, bore up and gare 
rhase. On her approach, they shortened sail; and, standing un- 
der top-sails, formed into the following line-of-battle ahead : 

Ships. Guns. Men. Commanders. 

Eugene 36 133 M. Le Baudin. 

American (brig) 14 70 

Menagere (urmbe en Jiute~) 34 212 M. de Toligne. 

Alexandra 24 102 M.Gregory. 

Dauphin Royal 28 1 20 

Total. 136 637 

Captain Lutlrell, not intimidated by the formidable appearance 
of the enemy, stood resolutely on till ten o'clock, when, as he 
passed along their line, they opened their fire, which was returned 
from the Mediator with so much steadiness and effect, that, in 
half an hour, their line was broken. The three largest of the 
ships wore, under an easy sail, and continued to engage the 
Mediator with much briskness, till eleven, when, by a skilful 
manoeuvre, and superior fire, Captain Luttrell cut off PAlexandre, 
and compelled her to strike. Witnessing her fate, and fearing 
that it might be their own, her companions instantly went off 
before the wind, under a crowd of sail. At half-past twelve, 
having secured his prize, Captain Luttrell renewed the chase, and 
the enemy separated. At five in the evening, he got within gun-. 

* The Hon. Captain Luttrell attained post rank on the 23d of February, 
1781; and, in the year 1789, the country was unfortunately deprived of 
kis service?, by a consumption, which carried him ofij in the oriole of life. 



31 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

shot of Ie Menagere, and commenced a smart running fight, which 
continued till nine ; when, on his ranging up close alongside of 
her, she hauled down her colours. Thus two sail out of the fire 
were captured. On the following morning, at day-break, the 
brig and le Dauphin Royal were seen in the offing ; but, being 
close in with the Spanish coast, and having 340 prisoners onboard, 
with only 190 of his own men to guard them, Captain Luttrell 
thought it most prudent to steer for England with his prizes. 

In this action, I'Alexandre had six men killed and nine wounded; 
and le Mcnagere had four killed and eight wounded ; but, in con- 
sequence of the enemy having directed their fire chiefly at the masts 
and rigging of the Mediator, not a man on board that ship was 
hurt. 

On the second night after the engagement, Captain Luttrell was 
alarmed by a violent explosion, and cry of fire ; which, on inquiry, 
he found to have been occasioned by one of the lower-deck guns 
having been fired off by Captain Gregory, the commander of 
PAlexandre, who had laid a plot with the prisoners to rise and take 
the Mediator. The firing of the gun was the signal which had 
been agreed upon by the conspirators to execute their design ; but, 
by the most prompt and indefatigable exertions of the officers, who 
instantly placed additional sentinels over the hatchways, and 
secured them by capstan bars, the accomplishment of this des- 
perate scheme was prevented without bloodshed. The intentions 
of Captain Gregory having been fully proved, Captain Luttrell 
considered him to be no longer entitled to his parole ; and, with 
some of his accomplices, he was confined in irons during the 
remainder of the passage to England. 

Under such an officer as Captain Luttrell, professional principles 
the most satisfactory were likely to be imbibed ; and that the early 
impression of an action so bravely determined on, and, so skilfully 
conducted, was not to be lost on the mind of our young midship- 
man, subsequent events have proved. 

From the time that he left the Ganges, in 1783, till the conclu- 
sion of the late war, he was almost constantly employed in the 
Europa, Antelope, Janus, Ariol, Pogase, Magnificent, and Marl- 
borough. In the month of November, 1790, he received his pro- 
motion, as lieutenant, in the Magnificent ; and in Lord Howe's 
memorable action of the first of June, 1794, we find Mr. Seymour 



CAPTAIN MICHAEL SEYMOUR. 93 

junior lieutenant on board the Marlborough, commanded by the 
Hon. Captain (now Admiral) Berkeley.* In this action he was 
so severely wounded, that he suffered the loss of his left arm. We 
believe his sufferings were marked with particular severity. 

The next step our reader may expect us to trace will, no doubt, 
be his immediate promotion ; but here a blank intervenes, atul 
Mr. Seymour's applications were disregarded, with ll official tran- 
quility," until Earl Spencer's administration, when that distin- 
guished nobleman promoted him to the rank of master and com- 
mander, and in a few months added his further testimony of ap- 
probation, by appointing him to the Spitfire sloop of war. In 
this sloop Captain Seymour continued four years ; but during this 
period of active service we have no extraordinary tatcs of wonder 
to relate, nor no violent praise to bestow. We wish, however, to 
observe, that though no particular opportunity occurred for daring 
enterprise or gallant heroism, yet every cruise afforded ample tes- 
timony, both summer and winter, amidst calms and storms, that 
the Spitfire was in active duty. 

It may be remarked, as the best proof of constant exertion, that 
whatever Captain Seymour may have happily added to his fortune, 
has not been by the casual accident of one rich prize, but by the 
accumulation of numerous small ones ; for whatever would tend 
to harass the enemy, even from the smallest capture to that of a 
proud frigate, each in its turn has been seized on with the ardour 
of a zealous and brave officer. 

At the end of four years, and not till then, Captain Sey- 
mour solicited further promotion. Lord Spencer still pre- 
sided at the Admiralty, and with the same propriety and 
romptness of attention which (happily for the navy) uniformly 
marked his lordship's conduct during his administration, Captain 
Seymour's application was directly attended to, by his promotion 
to the rank of post captain. It is delightful to record facts of 
this description, and we hope every year will multiply them ; for 
what can support our gallant countrymen, who patiently submit 
to every privation, in the execution of their anxious and laborious 
duties, but the expectation of reward for their faithful services ? 

Soon after this time the contest of war ceased, and Captain Sey- 
mour remained unemployed ; but immediately on the renewal of 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol.'Xtt. p-jre 1.00.* 



94 MEMOlft O* THE PUBLIC SERVICED OF 

hostilities, he again offered his services. Some time, indeed, elapscS 
before he received employment of any kind, and when it did come, 
it was that of acting captain ; in which capacity he patiently served 
in six successive ships Budging, we suppose, that the discipline of* 
obedience should subdue all other feelings of the mind, and that 
the best reproof to commands, if (by accident) improperly direct, 
ed, was the patient observance of them. At length, however, in 
1806, on Lord Bar ham's taking charge of the naval administra- 
tion, Captain Seymour was appointed by his lordship to that frigate 
<>f which he has proved himself so worthy. 

This brings us to the period of the action of the Amethyst with 
the French frigate la Thetis. 

The Amethyst had been cruising off I/Orient fourteen weeks : 
during this time violent gales of wind had prevailed, and cons e-' 
quently added to the perils of a coast at all times, we believe, suf- 
ficiently dangerous. 

On the night of the 10th of November, 1808, we find the Ame- 
thyst, however, iti the watchful perseverance of her duty, standing 1 
so close in to the north-west point of Groa, that it became impossible 
for an enemy to escape ; the proof of which has been fully exem- 
plified, by the ineffectual endeavours of the Frerich frigate. The 
night was unusually dark, not a star to be seen, and every thingf 
indeed favoured the attempt. About seven the flash and report of 
cannon were distinctly seen and heard from a battery on the 
French coast, in a direction contiguous to the alarm atid signal' 
post. The conjecture of the moment supposed rt in consequence 
of the near approach of the Amethyst ; but it was in reality directed! 
against their own frigate, of the sailing of 1 which they were igno- 
rant. About half-past seven a sail was descried just ahead : it was 
supposed a small armed vessel, or something still more contempti- 
ble, and the deception of night favoured the supposition. A mus- 
ket was ordered to be fired : no notice was taken : she grew 
larger. The Amethyst still continued under an easy press of 
sail. A gun was now fired, and the crackling noise of this shot 
was heard as it passed through the cabin windows. This by the 
enemy was instantly returned, and the veil of darkness which had 
hitherto obscured her was now removed, by the lights flying in. 
every part of her ; every inch of canvass was set ; her boat cut 
from her stern, and a ship of war appeared anxious for escape. 



APTAIN MICHAEL SEYMOUR. 5 

Chough capable of resistance. The Amethyst immediately spread 
more canvass, but allowed her to gain a little, lest her apprehen- 
sions might induce her to run on that shore which was then so near 
.them. About nine, however, those apprehensions were at an end, 
and the Amethyst closed fast. Her adversary, now finding all hopes 
of escape at an end, made her best dispositions to receive the 
Amethyst, and before tea o'clock the action commenced, which 
continued, with very little intermission, until about twenty minutes 
after twelve. The French ship fell on board the Amethyst a 
little after ten. She extricated herself from that situation ; but, 
at a quarter past eleven, she intentionally laid the Amethyst on 
board; and from that time, until the moment of her surrender, 
which was about an hour, the contending ships were locked 
together, the fluke of the Amethyst's best bower anchor having 
entered the foremost main-deck port of la Thetis. After great 
slaughter, la, Thetis was boarded and taken possession of, and 
some prisoners were received from her, before the ships were dis- 
engaged. The Triumph, commanded by Sir Thomas Hardy, 
shortly afterwards came up ; and, subsequently, the Shannon, 
which took la Thetis in tow. 

In this long and sharply contested action, the rigging of the 
Amethyst was much cut; and 19 of her crew were killed, and 51 
wounded. The loss of the Thetis, however, was still more shock- 
ing to humanity ; as, exclusively of her captain, she had 172 men 
killed, and 102 wounded ; amongst "whom were all her officers, 
excepting three.* 

When the great disparity of force between the Amethyst and 
Thetis is considered, the conquest achieved is marked by particular 
brilliancy. The Amethyst mounted only 36 guns, the Thetis 44 ; 
consequently, from her larger size, her metal was of superior 
weight; her crew, consisting of 360 men, besides 106 soldiers, had 
served for years together; added to this, Mons. Pinsun, entrusted 
with the command of la Thetis, was a man of approved courage, 
much beloved by his men, and deserving in every respect the com- 
mendation of an excellent officer. Indeed, there are but few 
instances on record, in which a French ship is known to have sup- 

* The number of wounded on board la Thetis, according to Captain Sey- 
mour's ofticial letter, at page 418 of the preceding volume, was 132; but 
it has since been ascertained, that the number was 172, as here stated. 



96 MEMOIR Of THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF CAPT. M. SEYMOUR. 

ported so long, so spirited, and so determined a conflict. But the 
contest was never for a moment doubtful all were animated with 
the glorious spirit that leads to victory, and the guns were served 
with the same zeal and alacrity the last hour 6f the fight as in the 
first. Such is the simple detail of this distinguished action, which 
for gallantry, skill, and bravery has never been exceeded ; which 
whilst it holds up anew the character of our country, must elicit 
praise from every tongue, and gratitude from every heart. 

High and distinguished as Captain Seymour's public character 
appears, in private it is also marked with every virtue that makes 
it estimable. 

His majesty has been graciously pleased to signify his approba- 
tion, by presenting him with the gold medal. 

The mayor, aldermen, sheriffs, and common council of the city of 
Limerick voted him the freedom of that city, in a heart of oak box, 
lined and ornamented with gold ; * and he has also received the free- 
dom of the city of Cork, in a silver box, " for his very great gallan- 
try and ability in the capture of the Thetis." 

The committee of the Patriotic Fund, at Lloyd's, voted him the 
sum of one hundred guineas, for the purchase of a piece of plate, 
commemorative of the event. 

HERALDIC PARTICULARS. 

During the time that Captain Seymour commanded the Spitfire, 
he married Jane, the third daughter of the late brave and much 
respected Captain James Hawker, of the royal navy ; by which lady 
he has a family of seven children ; five sons, and two daughters. 

ARMS. Argent two wings conjoined in lure, tips downwards, gujes. 

CREST. On a wreath of the colours two torches in saltire, thereon an 
eagle, with wings elevated, looking towards the sun, a.11 proper. 

MOTTO. Foy pour Devoir. 

The following is a fac-simile of Captain Seymours 
writing. 




Vide the Retrospect, in a subsequent 



97 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &r. 



NANTES IV GUROITK VASTO, 



ADMIRAL BLAKE. 

Extracts from GiJpius Ohscrcrttions on the Western Parts of England,) 

^ J ,alHERE was very little in Bridgewater, -which was our next 
stage, worth a traveller's attention. Its great boast is the 
celebrated Blake, one of Cromwell's admirals, who was born in 
this town, and represented it in several parliaments. 

The name of Blake can hardly occur to an Englishman without 
suggesting respect. If ever any man was a lover of his country^ 
without being actuated by party, or by any other sinister motive, 
it was Blake. Whether, in a divided commonwealth, one side or 
the other should be cordially chosen by every citizen, is a nice 
question. Some of the ancient moralists have held the affirmative. 
But a man may see such errors on both sides, as may render a 
choice difficult. This seems to have been Blake's case. The glory 
of his country, therefore, was the only part he espoused. He 
fought indeed under Cromwell ; but it was merely, he would say, 
to aggrandize old England : he often disliked the Protector's 
politics. With the death of Charles he was particularly displeased, 
and was heard to mutter, that to have saved the king's life, he 
would freely have ventured his own. But still he fought on ; took 
an immense treasure from the Portuguese, beat the Dutch in two 
or three desperate engagements, burnt the Dey of Tunis's fleet, 
awed the piratical states ; and above all, destroyed the Spanish 
plate-fleet in the harbour of Saata Cruz, which was thought a 
piece of the most gallant seamanship that ever was performed. 
Something in the mean time havpened at home which he did not 
like, particularly Cromwell's treatment of the Parliament ; but he 
still fought on : and would say to his captains, It is not for us to 
mind state matters, but to keep foreigners from fooling us. 
What is singular in this commander is, that all his knowledge in 
maritime affairs was acquired after he was fifty years of age. He 
bad the theory of his profession, as it were, by intuition ; and 
crowded as many gallant actions into nine or te-a years, as might 
fcave immortalized as many commanders. One personal singularity 



2&c. Cljron. (HcUXXI. 



58 WAV At. ANECDOTES, 

is recorded, which gives us a sort of portrait of him. When hif 
choler was raised, and he was bent on some desperate undertaking, 
it was his custom to twirl his whiskers with his fore-finger. When- 
ever that sign appeared, those about him well knew something 
dreadful was in agitation. 

REMARK .A BIT? ENGAGEMENT BETWEEN 1IIS MAJESTY'S StOOf 
KITE, AND A DANIsH FLOTILLA. 

THE following particulars have been furnished by an officer l>e. 
longing to the Kite : 

** On the 3d of September, 1808, being at anchor off the island 
of Spro, near Nyborg, at ten o'clock in the evening, the moon 
shining bright, observed we were enclosed in a half circle of Danish 
gun-boats, to the number of 22 or 24. The Minx gun-brig being in 
t ompany, cut her cable and made sail, as the only means of saving 
herself j we being nearer to Nyborg, from whence they came, 
sustained nearly their whole attack ; almost at the instant in which 
we first perceived them, they opened a tremendous fire of round 
and grape shot from their whole line of three divisions. Of onr 
crew, nearly one half were absent (some in prizes, the rest lately 
taken prisoners in the boats), those on board the least to be de- 
pended upon ; we, however, manned the guns, and kept up a fire 
for some time, but finding it impossible to withstand a force at 
least seven times that of our own (for three of them are equal 
to a sloop of war in a calm, which it then was), wecut our cable ; 
the ship lay now unmanageable for want of wind, whilst the enemy, 
who were by this time within musket range, struck us every time 
they fired. At this moment our friend, Mr. Thomas, the purser, 
and my servant, \vcre killed, the ship became leaky, the rigging 
much cut, and several of the sails falling do\vn upon deck. Our 
situation became now the most critical that ever was experienced, 
when a light breeze most providentially sprung up, but a gun-boat 
belonging to ourselves, out of which we had succeeded in getting 
our people, and cut away, got unfortunately uudcr our bows, and 
prevented the ship from getting before the wind ; the round shot t 
the splinters, and the iangrage, were flying in every direction ; the 
U-aks increased, the enemy within hail in several places ; tin; masts- 
and square sails, however, were still standing. The first lieutenant, 
the only one on board, as a last resource, jumped with a few brave 
fellows into this gun-boat, and happily succeeded in pushing her 
, which immediately enabled as to get before the wind ; the 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS. &C. 99 

enemy's fire now became more excessive, in consequence of our 
having to take the people from the guns to trim sails ; the breeze, 
however, freshened, our lads strain manned their guns, and the 
smoke being tolerably cleared away, enabled them to take better 
aim : one of the enemy's boats, with about 70 men. was soon after 
this sunk by our quarter-deck guns, and the enemy, thinking we 
Jiad sent men in our gun-boat, which now dropped astern, directed 
part of their fire to her so effectually, that she sunk ; this desertion 
was of much use to us, and -with the fine little breeze we now 
enjoyed we drew considerably away from them; they followed for 
some distance, still tiring, but now our crew having only to attend 
to the guns, our lire became much more brisk, and considerably 
galled the enemy. At half-past 11, making just an hour and a 
half, they burnt a blue light, the signal of retreat, and we were 
unable to follow. We steered for an English 64-guu ship, which 
vas within about 12 miles of us, and anchored near to her. At 
daylight we found the ship a perfect wreck, two killed, as before 
mentioned, and 13 wounded, being one out of every three of all oa 
board. Six large shots through the tottering main-mast, fire through 
the fore-top-sail alone, and in the hull too many to be conve- 
niently numbered ; tha main boom shot through, and lying across 
the deck, and much water in the hold. During the whole of this 
affair we had IS Danish prisoners on board since the .Nyborg action, 
which required some of our hands, together with the sick people}- 
to prevent them from rising, and assisting their countrymen. " 

RUSSIAN OFFICIAL ACCOUNT OF THF LATE NAVAL ACTION IN 
THE HALTIC. 

O.v the 9th of August, Admiral Xauckhoff set sail from Hangudd 
with his squadron, composed of nine sail of the line and nine 
frigates, for Jungfrusund, for the purpose of reconnoitring the 
enemy's position, and to form his plan of operations. He found 
the enemy's fleet at anchor in Jungfrusund, among the cliffs, con- 
sisting of 18 sail, partly line-of-ba(tle ships, and partly frigates. 
Admiral Nauckhoif was cruising off Jungfrusund until the 13th, 
when his headmost shin made the signal that the enemy's ift>et was 
weighing anchor. Admiral Nauckhoff immediately detached a 
corvette to observe the enemy's movements, formed his fleet in 
order of battle, and beat about to the eastward, in order not to 
be cut olF from his port, being determined to give battle. 

The same day the enemy's fleet was -observed from the masthead 
working up towards oar squadron, in company with two English 



K)0 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

sail of the line. Admiral Nauckhoff resolved to attack the enemy 
the following day, and beat about the whole night, in order not to 
lose the wind. At break of day, being oft' Baltic Port, he dis- 
covered to leeward the enemy's fleet, composed of 13 sail of the 
line and five large frigates ; among the former were two English 
ships, one of which was a three-decker, and bore the admiral's 
pendant, and the other was a two-decker of the largest size ; and 
among the Swedish ships was also a three-decker. The enemy's 
van, headed by the two English sail of the line, neared our rear, and 
at five o'clock in the morning the two English ships attacked suc- 
cessively the stcrnmost ship of our line, the Sewolad, which had 
somewhat fallen to leeward. When Admiral Nauckhoff saw the 
manoeuvres of the enemy, he bore down on him with the whole of. 
his squadron. The English, fearful to be cut off from their line, 
tacked, and were followed by the Swedes. Captain Rudnew, 
commander of the Sewolad, with the utmost gallantry, beat off 
twice the enemy's attack, but suffered considerably in his tackle 
and rigging. The main-top-mast and yard were shattered by the 
enemy's lire, the fore-top-gallant-mast was split, and the Sewolad 
was no longer able to maintain her place in the line, of which 
Captain Rudnew informed the commander-in-chief by signal. 
Admiral Nauckhoff, who witnessed the above facts, permitted him, 
to run into Baltic Port, and a frigate convoyed him thither. By 
this means our line, before a general engagement could be com- 
menced, had lost one ship, and another, the Severnja Swesda 
(North Star), received on a sudden so much damage in her fore- 
top-mast, that she would not carry her fore-top-sail, and was con- 
sequently also disabled duly to maintain her place in the line. 

By this circumstance the enemy gained a great superiority of 
strength, and Admiral Nauckhoff found it accordingly expedient 
to stand with his squadron for Baltic Port. The enemy stood, in 
consequence thereof, on the same coui'ie, keeping their wind; and 
the English ships displayed all their skill to cut off our damaged 
ship Sewolad, which was no longer able to keep up with our line. 
In order to frustrate this plan of the enemy, Admiral Xauckhoff 
made signal for the rear to cover the said ship, and afford her all 
possible assistance j but owing to her having fallen considerably to 
leeward, she was not able, In spite of the utmost exertions made by 
her own commander, as well as by the captains of the other ships, 
to round the north point of Baltic Port, and enter that hirbour in 
company with the rest of our ships, but necessitated to drop anchor 
on the north side of this island., close in, with the shore. 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 101 

In the mean time the commander-in-chief entered the above port, 
brought up in line-of-battle, and made all necessary arrangement 
to repulse the enemy, who, however, made no attack, but stood 
out to sea with his whole fleet. 

Admiral Nauckhoffimmediately ordered those experienced officers 
Captain- Lieutenants Miniskoy and Fuludjew, to put off with all 
the row-boats of the squadron, to the assistance of the Sewolad, 
and to endeavour t0 bring her back to the fleet. These two 
gallant officers used their best efforts for that purpose, bat the two 
English ships of the line coming up, successively attacked the 
Sewolad, and dispersed the row-boats, which Captain-Lieutenant 
Miniskoy, however, succeeded to rally, and rejoined with them the 
squadron. 

Captain Rudnew, undismayed by their retreat, continued to make 
the most vigorous resistance, constantly and closely engaged with 
one of the two English ships, vr'-uich suffered severely, and the 
slaughter was groat on both sides ; nor would the conflict have 
been ended, but with the total destruction of the combatants, had 
not the other English ship also come up with the Sewolad and given 
his broadside, by which she was completely disabled from con- 
tinuing the contest any longer. It was but then that the English 
were able to render themselves master of the Sewolad, or rather 
her wreck, covered with dead bodies ; 56 of her crew saved them- 
selves by swimming, and the rest were taken prisoners by the 
English. Rear-admiral Hood has sent back 37 of them, who were 
wounded, and state, that the loss on board the two English ships 
has also been very great. 

GALLANTRY AXI> DEATH OF CAPTAIN COOMBE, ^T GUADALOUPI, 
IN NOVEMBER, 1808. 

CAPTAIN COOMBE, of the Heureux, had received information, 
on which he could depend, that there Jay in the harbour of Bay 
Mahaut (Gaudaloupe) seven vessels of different descriptions, some 
loaded and ready for sea, and others loading ; he also received an 
account of the strength and situation of the batteries ; he had a 
pilot to carry the boats in, and a guide to conduct the storming 
parties. The attack took place on the morning of the 29th of 
^November, as follows : Captain Cuombe in his barge, and 19 men, 
to board the shipping ; Lieutenant Lawrence inthe 
men, to storm a battery of two 24-pounders ; and !Mr. Daly, the 
purser, in the pinnace, and 22 men, to storm a lattery of one 24- 



102 NAVAL AMCDOTES, 

pounder, within the town ; the signal of cither party having sue* 
ceeded was three cheers ; the boats, after rowing six miles, lay on 
their oars until the moon went down. At four o'clock A.M. they 
dashed on, and after a few minutes of desperate fighting, the wel- 
come signal of success was given by all three parties cheering at 
the same moment. Captain Coombe carried a schooner of two 
guns mounted, and 39 seamen and soldiers on board. Lieutenant 
Laurence having spiked the guns on the batteries with Mr. Daly, 
proceeded to board the remaining vessels, in which they succeeded ; 
the enemy lined the shore with musketry, got three field-pieces to 
bear, and kept up a very sharp fire on a brig and a schooner, 
which was returned by the marines and the guns on board them ; 
while carrying them out, they both unfortunately grounded, and 
thus became fixed objects for the enemy's fire, which was further 
increased by a 24-pounder. Finding it impossible to get the 
ressels off, the running riggingveut to pieces, the standing rigging 
much wounded, and it being daylight, orders were given to aban- 
don, and soon after Captain Coombe was struck with a 24-pound 
round shot in iiis left side, and fell dead. The boats got out of 
the reach of the fire of the enemy about six o'cock A.M. The ac- 
tion continued about an hour and three quarters. The loss of the 
British was trifling, except that of Captain Coombe killed, and 
Lieutenant Lawrence wounded by a musket ball in the arm ; the 
enemy's loss was great in the attack of the batteries and on board- 
ing there were about forty killed ; the number drowned must 
have been very great, as must have been their loss on shore ; there 
was a Serjeant's party on board the vessels, besides the crews. 

PEATH OF LIEUTENANT G. A. SPEARING, IN AN UNSUCCESSFUL 
ATTACK ON THE ISLAND OF ST. MARTIN. 

ST. Martin's Island having long been considered as a shelter for 
the numerous French privateers which infest the West Indies, and 
obstruct the trade of the country, it became a desirable object to 
rxtirpate them. Accordingly, at the commencement of July, his 
majesty's schooners, Subtle, Balahou, and Elizabeth, with the 
Wanderer sloop of war, made an atterrfpt to carry the island by a 
coup de main. Owing, however, to some false information 
respecting the enemy's strength, the effort failed. About 130 sea- 
men and marines, headed by Lieutenant Spearing, of the Subtle, 
landed, and soon obtained possession of the lower fort, of six guns, 
which were instantly spiked. Their loss so far was trifling ; bat 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 10S 

on ascending the rocky heights, covered -with the prickly pear, 
the superiority of the enemy was severely felt: as a number of 
brave fellows fell, among whom was Lieutenant Spearing, who was 
shot through the chest within ten yards of the upper fort, and 
almost instantly expired. His fall occasioned much consternation 
among his companions, who reluctantly retreated to their boats, 
but were obliged to surrender. Captain Crofton, of the Wanderer, 
finding the fire from the fort so tremendous and incessant, sent a 
flag of truce on shore, which was accepted, and the whole of the 
prisoners who could be removed with safety were given up. 

Thus fell, in the prime of life, in a most daring and gallant 
attempt, a promising active officer, whose long services in his pro- 
fes^.ion entitled him to the notice of his country ; in whose cause 
he had received 11 wounds, particularly at the battle of Copenha- 
gen, and in the West Indies. He closed a career of glory, ani- 
mating his men by his example, on the batteries of St. Martin's. 

Nothing can better erince the admiration which even his enemies 
entertained of his conduct on this occasion, than the tribute which 
they conferred on his remains : he was interred with all the honours 
of war; the French commandant himself attending, and also per- 
mitting part of the gallant crew of the Subtle to pay their last sad 
duty to their beloved commander. 

It afterwards appeared, that the enemy had received informatioa 
of the intended attack, and were prepared accordingly ; upwards 
of 900 troops being in the fort, while the storming party consisted 
only of ^35 men. Out of 43 sent from the Subtle, seven were 
killed and seventeen wounded. 

The following is a copy of the order which was issued on this 
melancholy occasion, by Captain Crofton, of his majesty's ship 
Wanderer : 

" To the Commanding Officers of hit M-jesty's Schooners Subtle and 

HullaLou. 

<l You all well know the melancholy though glorious death of Lieutenant 
G. A. Spearing, late commander of his majesty's schooner Subtic, who fell 
fighting for his king and country ; his corpse this evening is to receive the 
honours of war, conferred by Ins enemies, admirers of his gallantry and 
courage : you will join, on a signal from ice 'wh-jn the fort shall have fired 
a shotted gun), to fiie minute guns.' J 

" DatedtthJult/ : offSi. Martins," 



104 KAVAtr ANECDOTES, 

JEWISH FORTITUDE. 

ABOUT the year 1796, two or three Jews came over front 
Poland, for the purpose of trade, of which second-hand clothing 
formed a considerable part. After having made their purchase, 
they shipped it on board a Prussian vessel, bound from London 
to Dantzic, and accompanied it for their better security. At 
the distance of thirty or forty leagues from the English coast, in 
a dark night, the vessel was ran on board by a large ship, the 
shock of which was so violent, that the terrified captain and crew 
sought their safety by leaping on boa,rdthe larger vessel, expecting 
their own to go down, leaving the Jews the only persons on board. 
The latter, recovering in some degree from the consternation into 
which they wore thrown on discovering themselves abandoned by 
the crew, totally ignorant of navigation, and exposed to the mercy 
of the winds and waves, still had the satisfaction of finding that the 
ship was tight. A consultation was thereupon held, in which the 
most experienced of them suggested, that he had observed the 
point of the compass, and their course, on leaving the coast of 
Yarmouth, that if they could by any means put the ship about, and 
endeavour to retrace their course, that they should inevitably fall 
in again with the English coast. In this they succeeded ; and, by 
the help of pilots, were brought in safety into the port of Yar- 
mouth. There they were, to their great surprise, met by the 
original captain and ciew, who gladly came on board, and resumed 
the direction of the vessel. These circumstances produced a con- 
siderable charge on the cargo, in which many persons were 
interested, and of which the Jews must have borne a considerable 
share. They, however, thought it hard to suffer in this way, after 
having been the means of preserving both ship and cargo, to the 
advantage of all concerned. But the captain was deaf to all 
accommodation, and refused them any remuneration for their 
tronble and risk. The Well-known characters of Messrs. Ben- 
jamin and Abraham Goldsraid, induced the Jews to lay this 
peculiar case before them : and as it appeared to these gentlemen 
that there were sufficient grounds to claim a salvage of the ship and 
cargo, they resolved to defend and support the cause of their 
stranger brethren. A long and expensive process in the Admiralty 
Court was, however, prevented ; and, by the mediation of some 
mercantile friends with Messrs. Goldsmid, it was agreed, that the 
sum of 3001. should be allowed to these poor men, which they re- 
ceived with thankfulness, and their generous friends experienced 
that pleasure, which must ever be felt by those whose benevolent 
fxcrtious are attended by equal success. 



COMMERCIAL MINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 105 

NEW VOLCANO AT THE AZORES. 

THE subjoined interesting letter upon this subject, dated Faya), 
June 25, 1808, was addressed by John B. Dabney, Esq. Consul 
of the United States of America, to one of his friends .it Sr. 
Michael's : 

" DEAR SIR, 

<c A phenomenon has occurred here not unusual in former flgcw,, 
but of which there has been no example of late years; it was well 
calculated to inspire terror, and has been attended with the destruc- 
tion of lives and property. On Sunday, the 1st of Ma)', at one 
P.M. walking in the balcony of my house, at St. Anthonio, I heard 
noises like the report of heavy cannon at a distance, and concluded 
there was some sea engagement in the vicinity of the island. But 
soon after, casting my eyes towards the island of St. George, ten 
leagues distant, I perceived a dense column of smoke rising to an 
immense height ; it was soon judged that a volcano had burst out 
about the centre of that island, and this was rendered certain when 
night came on, the fire exhibiting an awful appearance. 

" Being desirous of viewing this wonderful exertion of nature, 
I embarked on the 3d of May, accompanied by the British consul, 
and ten other gentlemen, for St. George's ; we ran over in five 
hours, and arrived at Vellas, the principal town, at eleven A.M* 
We found the, poor inhabitants perfectly panic-struck, and wholly 
givrn up to religious ceremonies and devotion. We learned that 
the fire of the 1st of May had broken out in a ditch, in the midst 
of fertile pastures, three leagues S.E. of Vellas, and had immediately 
formed a crater, in size about 24 acres. In two days it had thrown 
out cinders or small pumice stones, that a strong iS'.E. wind had 
propelled southerly : and which, independent of the mass accu- 
mulated round the crater, had covered the earth from one foot to 
four in depth, half a league in width, and three leagues in length; 
then passing the channel five leagues, had done some injury to the 
east point of Pico. The fire of this large crater had nearly sub- 
sided, but in the evening preceding our arrival, another small crater 
had opened, one league north of the large one, and only two 
leagues from Vellas. 

" After taking some refreshment, we visited the second crater; 
the sulphureous smoke of which, driven southerly, rendered it 
impracticable to attempt approaching the large one. When we 
came within a mile of the crater, we found the earth rent in every 

Jato, Spron, 21 pi. XXI. p 



106 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

direction, and, as we approached nearer, some of the chasms were 
six feet wide ; by leaping over some. of these chasms, and making 
windings to avoid the larger ones, we at length arrived within two 
hundred yards of the spot; and saw it, in the middle of a pasture, 
distinctly, at intervals, when the thick smoke which swept the 
earth lighted up a little. The mouth of it was only about fifty 
yards in circumference; the fire seemed struggling for vent ; the 
force with which a pale blue flame issued forth, resembled a pow, 
erful steam engine, multiplied a hundred fold ; the noise was 
deafening ; the earth where we stood had a tremulous motion ; the. 
whole island seemed convulsed, horrid bel'owings were occasion-? 
ally heard from the bowels of the earth, and earthquakes were 
frequent. 

ii Alter remaining here about ten minutes we returned to town; 
the inhabitants had mostly quitted thtir houses, and remained in 
the open air or under tents. We passed the. night at Vellas, and 
the next morning went by water to Ursulina, a small sea-port 
town, two leagues suth of Vellas, and viewed that part of the 
country covered with the cinders before mentioned, and which has 
turned the most valuable vineyards in the island into a frightful 
desert. On the same day (the 4th of May), we returned to Fayal, 
and on the 5th and succeeding days, from 12 to 15, small volca- 
noes broke out in the fields Ave had traversed on the 3d, from the 
chasms before described, and threw out a quantity of lava, which 
travelled on slowly towards Vellas. 

" The fire of those small craters subsided, and the lava ceased 
running about the llth of May ; on which day the large volcano, 
that had lain dormant for nine days, burst forth again like a roar- 
ing lion, with horrid belchings, distinctly heard at twelve leagues 
distance, throwing up prodigious large stones, and an immense 
quantity of lava, illuminating at night the whole island. This con- 
tinued with tremendous force, until the 5th of June, exhibiting the 
awful yet magnificent spectacle of a perfect river on fire (distinctly 
seen from Fayal) running into the sea. On that day (the 5th) we 
experienced that its force began to fail, and, in a few days after, it 
ceased entirely. The distance of the crater from the sea is about 
four miles, and its elevation about 3,500 feet. 

" The lava inundated and swept away the town of Ursulina, 
and country-houses and cottages adjacent, as well as the farm- 
houses, throughout its course. It, as usual, gave timely notice of 
its approach, and most of the inhabitants tied ; some few, however, 
remained in the vicinity of it too long, endeavouring to save their 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 107 

furniture and effects, and were scalded by flashes of steam, which, 
without injuring their clothes, took oft' not only their skin but 
their flesh. About sixty persons were thus miserably scalded, 
some of whom died on the spot, or in a few days after. Numbers 
of cattle shared the same fate. The judge and principal inhabitants 
left the island very early. The consternation and anxiety were for 
some days so great among the people, that even their domestic 
concerns were abandoned, and, amidst plenty, they were in danger 
of starving. Supplies of ready-baked bread were sent from hence 
to their relief, and large boats were sent to bring away the inha- 
bitants who had lost their dwellings. In short, the island, hereto- 
fore rich in cattle, corn, and wine, is nearly ruined, and a scene of 
greater desolation and distress has seldom been, witnessed in any 
country." 

CANNIBALS OF NEW ZEALAND. 

A SHORT time since, the Venus, a vessel which had been seized 
and carried off by some convicts at Port Dalrymple to New Zea- 
land, was there taken by the natives, who killed and ate all the 
people. The vessel itself they drew on shore, and burnt it for the 
sake of the iron. This information was communicated to the Mer- 
cury (TL vessel that touched at New Zealand, and was in danger of 
being taken) by one Druse, a man who deserted from the Lady Nel- 
son about two years ago, and who is now become a chief, tattooed 
from head to foot, and has a number of natives under his command. 

LORD NELSON ANO THE HAMBURGH WINE-MERCHANT. 

" A CIRCUMSTANCE of great singularity," says one of Lord 
Nelson's biographers, " occurred when his lordship was at Ham- 
burgh, relative to a wine-merchant. This gentleman, who was 
more than 70 years of age, and of a very respectable appearance, 
had requested to speak with Lady Hamilton. Her ladyship 
accordingly admitted him to a private audience, when he informed 
her, through the medium of a Mr. Oliver, who interpreted for both 
parties, that he had some excellent old Rhenish wine of the vintage 
of 1625, and which had been in his own possession more than fifty 
years. This, he said, had been preserved for some very extraor- 
dinary occasions ; and one had now arrived, far beyond any he 
could ever have expected. In short, he flattered himself, that by 
the kind recommendation of her ladyship, the great and glorious 
Lord Nelson might be prevailed on to accept six dozen bottles of 



108 NAVAL ANECDOTES, &c. 

this incomparable wine, part of which, he observed, would then 
have the honour to flow with the heart's blood of that immortal 
hero ; a reflection which could not fail to render himself the most 
fortunate man in existence, during the remainder of his days. His 
lordship, being informed of these curious particulars, immediately 
came into the apartment, and took the old gentleman kindly by 
the hand, but politely declined his present. He was, however, 
finally persuaded to accept of six bottles, on condition that the 
worthy wine-merchant should dine with him next day. This 
being readily agreed to, a dozen bottles were sent ; and his lordship, 
jocosely remarking, that he yet hoped to have half a dozen more 
great victories, protested he would keep six bottles of his Ham- 
burgh friend's wine, purposely to drink a bottle after each. This 
his lordship did not fail to remember, on coming home after the 
battle of Copenhagen, when he ' devoutly drank the donor.'' It 
is said, that this wine-merchant, soon after Lord Nelson had first 
taken him by the hand, happening to meet with an old triend, who 
was about to salute him in a similar way, immediately declined the 
intended kindness, and said he could not suffer any person to touch 
the hand which had been so highly honoured by receiving that of 
Lord Nelson. Certain it is, that this man felt so overcome by 
excessive sensibility, that he literally shed tears of joy during the 
time he was in our hero's presence.'' 

ANNIVERSARY OF THE AMERICAN EMBARGO ACT. 

NOTWITHSTANDING all the demonstrations of hostility and of 
inveterate hatred which appear in America against Great Britain, 
the popular discontent at the embargo, and the other measures so 
hastily adopted, cannot be concealed. At Gloucester, a singular 
instance of dissatisfaction at the conduct of government and Con- 
gress was evinced in the latter end of December, in the following 
way, as described in the American papers : " Monday, the 26th 
of December, being the anniversary of the embargo laid on the 
shipping of this port, was ushered in by the tolling of the bell at 
sun-rise, which continued for half an hour. At eleven o'clock 
A.M. a procession of marines, about 250 in number, formed on 
one of the principal wharfs : a ship, rigge|i in all the emblems of 
distress, occupied the centre, with the motto, " Commerce 
destroyed," on her bows, and on her stern, " Effects of the 
Embargo ." She was navigated by a master, boatswain, &c. her 
colours -were displayed at half-mast, as were those of the shipping 



CORRESPONDENCE. 109 

in the harbour. The procession moved through the principal 
streets in the town, during which time the bell tolled, minute guns 
of distress were discharged, the sky zsas enveloped in clouds ^ a 
drum muffled in black crape was beat to a solemn dirge; the 
movement of the procession was slow and silent, melancholy was 
depicted on all countenances, and nothing broke the awful silence 
but the sound of cannon, the tolling of bells, the mournful drum, 
or boatswain's whistle: indeed every emblem significant of distress, 
such as heaving the lead, tolling the ship's bell, the boatswain's 
call, and master's orders, were executed in a manner so appro- 
priate, that it seemed to be rather the reality than the picture. At 
sun-set the bell tolled for half an hour, a cannon was discharged, 
and the colours hauled down. No disorder, discord, or murmur 
was heard during the day." 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

PRESENT MANAGEMENT AND DISCIPLINE OF THE NAVY. 

LETTEE XI. 
SIR, 

nriHERE has existed a great difference of opinion in the minds 
-&- of officers respecting popularity ; and upon this subject f 
have sometimes differed from very valuable and respectable men ; 
but although their holding a different opinion makes me naturally 
diffident of my own, yet both my feelings and reason, unite in pre- 
venting my being convinced that they are right in theirs. 

It may not be amiss in this place to remark, that by different 
characters the same objects may apparently be attained by very 
different means, and I am not about to recommend attempts at 
exact imitations of systems or manners even of the highest charac- 
ters. Whatever is done in the natural character of a man, will be 
the best done, provided the judgment is clear, and the intentions 
are upright. Great examples are to be kept in view for the 
attainment of great ends, and by the same general tneans^ but no 
attempt should be made to copy the little details of characters and 
discipline, otherwise, the unfortunate copiers will too often find 
themselves like " the bear in the boat," or " the ass that thought 
proper to imitate the lap-dog." Let every officer who reads the 
account of the victories of Nelson, and hears that while all th 



110 COKUESPOXDEJTCr. 

avenues which led toward strict discipline were guarded against 
relaxation, he had so won the confidence and affection of those 
under him, that, like his immortal predecessor 

" Wolf, where'er he fought r 

Put: so much of his heart into his act, 

That his example had a magnet's force, 

And all were swift to follow, whom all lov'd. 

These SUDS are set Oh rise some other such !" COWPER. 

Let him, I say, sedulously einolate the same great results by the 
ame noble means ; but this he must do in his own natural man- 
ner : he may attain to the glory, and rival the virtues of Nelson, 
without any imitation of minute particulars. It is, however, to 
be lamented, that those who require example most to lead them 
right, are in general only capable of copying the trifling detail of 
service, but cannot take in the finished whole. Weak minds are 
also timid, and dread to be candid and open, for fear of exposure ; 
therefore, if they have before them an example of the tyranny of 
such a man as was nicknamed Frederick the Great) or of an 
Amurath immured in his seraglio, they can assume the martinet 
severity of the former, as a cloak for their ignorance, and conceive, 
that by imitating the gloomy seclusion of the latter, they may 
as well as the vanity, attain the value of a jewel. Precious 
jewels ! 

But I fear it is too true, Mr. Editor, that the characters whose 
excellence makes them most worthy of imitation, are either set 
too far out of the reach of the powers of such as are not self-depen- 
dent; or that genuine worth can only be truly estimated by those 
who already possess an adequate portion ; whilst the harshness of 
tyranny, or the gloom of a despot, may be easily assumed by any 
person possessed of power, let his abilities be ever so mean and 
pitiful. I therefore advise all those who find themselves placed 
(where most of us arc) in that class of men who are certain to see 
around them persons of dazzling and superior abilities, to adopt 
any attempts at imitation with caution ; striving only as before 
recommended at the great general result of gallant and honourable 
conduct; but in the detail, to abide by their own inherent charac- 
ter and disposition ; by following the honest bent of which, and 
guarding against the weakest parts, they will in the mest natural, 
and therefore in the very best manner, pursue a steady course of 
conduct, and arrive at a happy termination of their service. 
Whilst it is most difficult to attain excellence by imitation, it is. 



CORRESPONDENCE. ill 

however, unfortunately, but too easy to copy the faults of those 
around us. The failings of men in high situations are very easily 
copied by those possessed of a similar degree of power, though it 
should ever be remembered, that the error adopted by the imitator, 
is not only more unpardonable than in the original, wbere it has 
its rise in natural weakness or depravity, but usually causes more 
abundant mischief, from the deep contempt, as well as detestation, 
in which such a wretch is held by those unfortunately under him. 
But power, that dangerous possession even in the hands of the 
moderate and wise, is so apt to dazzle the eyes and mislead the 
judgment, that whenever we see it carried to a great height with 
impunity, it is then that the servile herd of imitators begin to 
bestir themselves. That the malicious or half-witted should act 
thus we are not to be surprised, but I have seen men, whose 
natural characters wore mild, and their geueral understandings 
above par, adopt all the tyrannical measures of a man in every 
respect their inferior but in rank ; and, from the absurd fear of 
lessening the imaginary dignity of high birth or temporary power, 
sink their real and truly estimable dignity of character to a low 
ebb indeed ! Let us, therefore, Mr. Editor, each man a carry on 
fhe war" in his own way, while we adhere to the great end of the 
public welfare, and seek to attain true glory by the pure means of 
genuine honour. 

I will now return to the subject proposed in the beginning of 
my letter, from which I have deviated farther than I had intended. 
1 am so far fond of popularity, that T could not for a moment feel 
easy if I thought any man under my command cou'd with justice 
accuse me of having acted injuriously or unkindly towards him, 
nor would I be content with mere negative satisfaction. I would 
have my mind convinced, that every man under my command 
depended upon me, not cn'v for the strictest justice, but the most 
active benevolence of kindacss on all occasions within my power; 
all this appears to me to be the duty of every commander, and the 
natural bias of every good mind. In this conviction on the part 
of the officers and crew depends the true popularity of the com. 
mander ; and who would not wish to possess it ? Yet I have heard 
some valuable officers assert, that they had no wish to be beloved 
by their ship's companies ; and I am not sure whether I have not 
heard more than one proceed still further, and assert that a good 
officer cannot be popular or beloved by those about him ; and that 
discipline wholly consists of that rigid mechanical system, which 
Frederick of Prussia and his school would approve. That cha- 



112 CORRESPONDENCE. 

Tacter which can "be attained by a lax discipline, or an indulgence 
of vice and indolence, does not merit the name of popularity, but 
is a sort of affection whence respect and esteem must be wholly 
wanting; and I conclude that it must be only this spurious sort of 
popularity which is deprecated by the officers I have alluded to, 
and that they will all join with me in the admiration of the 
genuine. The opinion I have heard, however, has not been con- 
fined to the lower classes, but embraced the uhole, maintaining 
that the affections of neither men nor officers were of any avail ; 
<l J zstll do. my own duty, they shall do theirs." This is right : but 
there is so much difference within the narrow precincts of a ship, 
whether it be the determination of every officer and man that he 
Kill do his duty, or it is only the determination of the commander 
that they shall, o.r that they tc/# because they rcill, and not merely 
because they must, that I wonder there should exist a difference of 
opinion, 

A ship's company should look up for paternal care and strict 
justice to their commander. In order to do all the good which his 
situation admits of he should not appear too frequently in the 
common transaction of duty, but as much as possible reserve him- 
self for particular occasions, when, as I have known a very judi- 
cious officer observe, " his voico should be heard like thunder," 
not indeed from the degree of noise, but with the same attentive 
awe which, should cause his orders to be obeyed as quick as 
lightning. 

Upon this subject my pen is not easily restrained from stating 
many eminent examples, where the most strict discipline, united 
with the most watchful and benevolent care of all under their com- 
mand, have raised them most justly to the utmost height of genuine 
popularity ; where every requisite exertion on trying occasions 
was made with tenfold more vigour and success than in the best 
regulated of those ships where the most minute precision of order 
took place, without the prevailing sentiment of acting from prin- 
ciple; that noble sentiment, which serves as a general mind to the 
whole crew, and renders a ship under such circumstances, as much 
superior to the other, as man, the noblest jsork of God, is to an 
automaton, the most ingenious work of man. 

I remain, sir, yours, &c. 

A. F. Y. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 113 

MR. EDITOR, IVIiilehaven, February 9, 1809. 

I HAVE long been of opinion, that those who have had the 
good fortune to invent or discover any thing that they may 
imagine will, by the disclosure, prove beneficial to mankind, are 
very blameable if they conceal it within their own breasts, instead 
of making it public. 

Actuated by this idea, I took the liberty, in November last, to 
transmit to you my thoughts upon light-houses, which you have 
been so obliging as to insert in the NAVAL CHRONICLE.* 

I now beg leave to inform you of a discovery I'made, many years 
ago, of a species of timber, which, I trust, from the experiments 
I tried, will bid defiance to the pernicious effects of the salt water 
worm, and prove an object of great importance in the art of ship 
building. , 

Having formerly spent a few years, very pleasantly, in the hos- 
pitable region of the British West Indies, amongst other pursuits, 
I made some inquiries into the various kinds of wood with which 
that country abounds, and procured samples of many that might be 
converted into very beautiful furniture, &c. 

When I had nearly finished my collection, a friend, who was 
informed of my design, told me, he apprehended he had procured a 
sort of timber more extraordinary than any I had met with. I 
replied, that might perhaps be the case, and requested he would 
be so good as to acquaint me with the properties it possessed. 
Upon which he informed me, that he had used it in making boxes 
and drawers, and he found that neither ants, cockroaches, nor scor- 
pions, &c. would approach, or when thrown in, would remain 
within them ; nay, he supposed that there was something in its 
nature so obnoxious to these insects, that even by putting some of 
its shavings or saw-dust into boxes, &c. constructed of any other 
sort of timber, they would carefully avoid them. 

It immediately occurred to me, that if none of these vermin, 
living in air, would approach it, there was some probability that 
the salt water worm also would not touch it. I therefore resolved 
on making the experiment, requesting he would favour me with 
some of it, and he very obligingly sent me a small piece of a plank, 
eight inches long, four wide, and half an inch thick. 

This piece was fastened, on the first day of December, 1778, to 
the mooring chain of the Custom-house boat, within the Mole 

* See Vol. XX. page 381. 
. <Bol. XXI. 



114 

Head, at Bridge Town, in Barbadoes, in salt water, where the sra 
worms are very numerous and destructive ; and having continued 
under water for near 6 months, I had it taken up again, on May 
the 29th, 1779. Upon examination, I found it had not been in 
the smallest degree injured by the worms ; neither was there any 
grass, barnacles, or other shells, adhering to it ; notwithstanding 
there were several barnacles sticking to the iron chain which held 
the Custom-house boat. 

Although I might reasonably suppose the above trial might be 
considered sufficiently satisfactory, nevertheless, having in my 
possession another piece of the same kind of wood, of a larger 
size, I got it nailed to the bottom of the Philip and Mary, John 
Bell, master, in the harbour of Mary-port. This brig went to 
Barbadoes, and returned back to the above mentioned harbour, by 
the way of London, where she discharged a cargo of sugar, &c 
being afloat all that time. 

When the tide of ebb had left this vessel dry, the piece was taken 
off and brought to me, and, upon inspection, I perceived it had 
not, as in the former trial, received the least injury from the sea 
-worms ; though the brig's bottetn was much eaten by them ; nor 
were there any shells or grass adhering to it. The only alteration 
I found in both of my experiments, appeared on the outside of 
them, which was turned of a greenish colour. 

This wood is called serrawabolla, and grows at Demerara, in 
South America ; but as I never was in that colony (now in the 
possession of Great Britain), I am unable either to compose or 
obtain the natural history of that tree; but from what I have been 
informed concerning it, I understand it grows to a large size, is 
easily worked, and I presume will answer excellently well for 
sheathing of ships. 

The specimens I procured are of a yellowish colour, and have 
an agreeable smell, somewhat resembling the fragrance of Marechal 
powder. If I am not misinformed, there are two sorts of this tim- 
ter in that plantation, which are known by the same name. 

1 am, sir, 
Your obedient humble servant, 




/ 

P.S-. I forgot to mention to you, in my letter concerning light- 
houses, or pharoses., that in case the apertures of the lights are not 



CORRESPONDENCE. 115 

sufficiently distinguishable in the day-time, I would recommend 
some boards to be fixed occasionally on the outside of them, and 
painted either white or black, so as to make the greatest contrast 
with the colour of the building, by which means an observer will 
the more readily take the angle, when he is desirous of knowing 
what distance he is from it. 



MR. EDITOR, Chatham, January 16, 1809. 

IEVERAL false reports being in circulation respecting a late 
visit of the crew of the Standard to London, and their appli- 
cation to the Lords of the Admiralty, 1 send you the following 
account, the correctness of which you may depend on : 

The Standard and Thunderer arrived here together from the 
Mediterranean ; the Thunderer's crew were paid off, and had liberty 
for fourteen days ; the Standard's crew, conceiving they had a right 
to the same indulgence, both ships having been on the same station, 
petitioned the Lords of the Admiralty to that effect, and their ap- 
plication was granted. Thinking their commander was tardy in 
complying with the order of the Lords of the Admiralty, when 
called upon, on Wednesday se'nnighr, to wash decks and scrub the 
ship, they refused, and went aft in a body to the quarter-deck ; 
they requested to know why their leave was kept back, and 
entreated it should be immediately granted. The first lieutenant 
told them it was the captain's wish (who was absent on leave) that 
only a watch should have liberty at once, and on their return, the 
other watch should have the same indulgence. They replied in 
one voice, " No, all or none.' 1 On Thursday, the whole of the 
crew were granted fourteen days' liberty, but were not paid off. 
On their getting on shore they formed into a body, and marched 
for London, with a drum and fife, and union jack flying many 
of the poor fellows without a farthing in their pockets. On their 
arrival at the Admiralty, they sent their petty officers forward, 
with a petition, stating the hardship of being allowed liberty with- 
ont receiving a part of their pay. They were told it was unusual 
to grant liberty, except when the ship was paid off, but from the 
good character their captain had given them, it was granted to 
them, and they must return immediately to Chatham ; that orders 
should be sent that night for payment to be made to them next 
morning, and entreated they would conduct themselves peaceably 
and quietly ; that they would be accommodated for that day ou 



116 CORRESPONDENCE. 

board the receiving ship off the Tower, and be supplied Afith pro- 
visions ; and that also the Gravesend boats should be engaged to 
take them down by that night's tide. They complied in the most 
orderly manner, and arrived at Chatham on Saturday morning ; 
but the ship's books not being made up, they were informed they 
could not be paid until Monday last. They appeared satisfied, 
and said they wished for no more indulgence than the Thunderer's 
crew had received. Their conduct has been perfectly peaceable 
throughout. 



PAINE'S SYSTEM OF NATIONAL DEFENCE. 

MR. EDITOR, 

TTF the name of Paine should not operate as a repellent, some 
"^ useful ideas may be derived from a perusal of the following 
recent production of that writer. He does not appear fully to 
comprehend the subject in all its points ; but several of his 
remarks are deserving of notice; and the information which he 
gives, relative to the expenses of ship-building in America, will, I 
doubt not, prove acceptable to -many of your readers. 

I am, &c. . H. L. 

" Natural defence, by men, is common to all nations ; but 
artificial defence, as an auxiliary to human strength, must be 
adapted to the local conditions and circumstances of a country. 

" What may be suitable to one country, or in one state of cir- 
cumstances, may not be so in another. 

li The United States have a long line of coast, of more than two 
thousand miles, every part of which requires defence, because 
every part is approachable by water. 

" The right principle for the United States to go upon, as a 
defence for the coast, is that of combining the greatest practical 
power with the least possible bulk, that the whole quantity of 
power may be better distributed through the several parts of such 
an extensive coast. 

" The power of a ship of war is altogether in the number and 
size of the guns she carries, for the ship of itself has no power. 

' Ships cannot struggle with each other like animals; and be- 
sides this, as half her guns are on one side of the ship, and half on 
the other ; and as she can use only the guns on one side at a time, 
her real power \a only equal to half her number of guns. A 



CORUESPONDENCE, 117 

seventy-four can use only thirty-seven guns. She must tack about 
to bring the other half into action, and Avhile she is doing this she 
is defenceless and exposed. 

" As this is the case with ships of war, a question naturally 
arises therefrom, which is, whether seventy-four guns, or any othcf 
number, cannot be more effectually employed, and that with much, 
less expense, than by putting them all into one ship of such au 
enormous bulk, that it cannot approach a shore either to defend 
it or attack it ; and though the ship can change its place, the 
whole number of guns can be only at one place at a time, and only 
half that number can be used at a time. 

u This is a true statement of the case between ships of war and 
gun-boats, for the defence of a coast, and of towns situated near a 
coast. 

" But the case often is, that men are led. away by the greatness 
of an idea, and not by the justness of it ! This is always the case 
with those who are advocates for natives and large ships. 

*' A gun-boat, carrying as heavy metal as a ship of 100 guns 
can carry, is a one gun ship of the line ; and seventy-i'our of them, 
which would cost much less than a 74 gun-ship would cost, would 
be able to blow a 74 gun-ship out of theAvater. They have in the 
use of their guns double the power of the ship, that is, they have 
the use of their whole number of seventy-four to thirty-seven. 

" Having thus stated the general outlines of the subject, I come 
to particulars. 

" That I might have correct data to go upon with respect t 
ships and gun-boats, I wrote to the head of one of the departments 
at Washington for information on the subject. 

" The following is the answer I received : 

" Calculating the cost of a 74 or 100 gun-ship, from the actual cost of 
the ship United States, of 44 guns, built at Philadelphia, between the years 
1795 aiid 1798, which amounted to 300,000 dollars, it may be presumed, 
that a 74 gun-ship would cost 500,000 dollars, and a 100 gun-ship 700,000 
dollars. 

"Gun-boats, calculated merely for the defence of harbours and rivers, 
will, on an average, cost about 4,000 dollars each, when fit to receive the 
crew and provisions. 5 ' 

" On the data here given I proceed to state comparative calcu- 
lations respecting ships and gun-boats. 

" The ship United States cost 300,000 dollars, gun-boats cost 
4,000 dollars each, consequently the 300,000 dollars expended on 
the ship, for the purpose of getting the use of -44 guns, aud those 



118 CORRESFOND-ENCX. 

most heavy metal, would have built seventy-five gun-boats, each 
carrying a cannon of the same weight of metal that a ship of 100 
guns can carry. 

" The difference therefore is, that the gun-boats give the use of 
thirty-one guns, heavy metal, more than can be obtained by the 
ship, and the expense in both cases equal. 

** A 74 gun-ship costs 500,000 dollars. The same money 
would build 125 gun-boats. The gain by gun-boats is the use of 
forty-one more guns than can be obtained by expending the money 
on a ship of 74 guns. 

" The cost of an 100 gun-ship is 700,000 dollars. This money 
would build 175 gun-boats; the gain therefore by the boats is the 
use of seventy-five guns more than by the ship. 

" Though I had a general impression, ever since I had the 
knowledge of gun-boats, that any given sum would go farther in 
building" gun-boats than in building ships of war, and that gun- 
boats were preferable to ships for home defence; I did not suppose 
the difference was so great as the calculations above given prove 
them to be, for it is almost double in favour of gun-boats. It is 
as 175 to 100. The cause of this difference is easily explained. 
The fact is, that all that part of the expense in building a ship from 
the deck upward, including masts, yards, sails, and rigging, is 
saved by building gun-boats, which are moved by oars, or a 
light sail occasionally. 

<c The difference also in point of repairs, between ships of war 
and gun-boats, is not only great, but it is greater in proportion 
than in their first cost. The repair of ships of war is annually 
from one-fourteenth to one-tenth of their first cost. The annual 
expense of repairs of a ship that cost 300,000 dollars, will be above 
21,000 dollars ; the greatest part of this expense is in her sails and 
rigging, which gun-boats are free from. 

" The difference also in point of duration is great. 

" Gun-boats, when not in use, can b put under shelter, and 
preserved from the weather, but ships cannot ; or boats can be 
sunk in the water or mud. This is the way the nuts of cider mills 
for grinding apples are preserved. Were they to be exposed to 
the dry and hot air, after coining wet from the mill, they would 
crack and split, and be good for nothing. But timber under water 
wil! continue sound several hundred years, provided there be no 
worms. 

" Another advantage in favour of gun-boats, is the expedition 
with which a great number of them can be built at once. A hun- 



CORRESPONDENCE. 119 

ilred may be built as soon as one, if there be hands enough to set 
about them separately. They do not require preparations for 
building them that ships require, nor deep water to launch them 
in. They can be built on the shore of shallow waters ; or they 
might be framed in the woods or forests, and the parts brought 
separately down and put together on the shore. But ships tak 
up a long time in building. 

* e The ship United States took up two whole years, 1798 and 
1797, and part of the years 1795 and 1798, and all this for the 
purpose of getting the use of 44 guns, and those not heavy metal. 

61 This foolish aflair was not in the days of the present admi- 
nistration. 

<c Ships and gun-boats are for different services. Ships are for 
distant expeditions ; gun-boats for home defence. The one for 
the ocean, the other for the shore. 

" Gun-boats, being moved by oars, cannot be deprived of motion 
by calms, for the calmer the weather the better for the boat. But 
a hostile ship becalmed in any of our waters can be taken by gun. 
boats moved by oars, let the rate of the ship be what it may. A 
IQO-gim man-of-xar becalmed is like a giant in a dead palsy ; 
ei-ery little fellow can kick him. 

" The United States ought to have 500 gun-boats stationed in 
different parts of the coast, each carrying a thirty-two or thirty- 
*ix pounder. Hostile ships would not then venture to lie within 
our Abaters, were it only for the certainty of being sometimes be- 
calme d. They would then become prize, and the insulting bullies 
on the ocean become prisoners in our own waters. 

" II \ving thus stated the comparative powers and expense of 
<hips of war and gun-boats, I come to speak of fortifications. 
" For tifications may be comprehended under two general head3. 
"First. Fortified towns ; that is, towns enclosed within a for- 
iified poly on, of which there are many on the continent of Europe, 
but not an}' in England. 

" Second. Y. Simple forts and batteries. These are not formed on 
the regular p tinciples of fortification ; that is, they are not formed 
for the purpos of standing a sk'ge as a fortified polygon, is. They 
are for the pur pose of obstructing or annoying the progress of an 
enemy by land vr water. 

" Batteries ai e formidable in defending narrow passes by land, 
such as the passage of a bridge, or of a road cut through a rough 
and craggy mount, vn, that cannot be passed any where else. But 
they are not formit. 'abler in defending water-passes, because a ship, 



120 , . CORRESPONDENCE,' 

with a brisk wind and tide, running at the rate of ten miles an 
hour, will be out of the reach of the fire of the battery in fifteen 
or twenty minutes ; and being a swift moving object all the time, 
it would be a mere chance that any shot struck her. 

" When the object of a ship is that of passing a battery, for the 
purpose of attaining or attacking some other object, it is not cus- 
tomary for the ship to fire at the battery, lest it should disturb her 
course. Three or four men are kept on deck to attend the helm, 
and the rest, having nothing to do, go below. 

" Duckworth, in passing the Dardanelles up to Constantinople, 
did not fire at the batteries. 

f( When batteries, for the defence of water-passes, can be 
erected without any great expense, and the men not exposed to 
capture, it may be very proper to have them. They may keep off 
small piratical vessels, but they are not to be trusted to for 
defence. 

li Fortifications give, in general, a delusive idea of protection : 
all our principal losses in the revolutionary war were occasioned by 
trusting to fortifications. 

" Fort Washington, with a garrison of 2,500 men, was taken 
in less than four hours, and the men prisoners of war. The same 
fate had befallen Fort Lee, on the opposite shore, if General Lee 
had not moved hastily off, and gained Hackimsack bridge. General 
Lincoln fortified Charleston, in South Carolina, and himself and 
his army were made prisoners of war. 

" General Washington began fortifying New York, in 177& 
General Howe passed up the east river, landed his army at Frog's 
Point, about twenty miles above the city, and marched down upon 
it ; and had not General Washington stole silently and suddenly 
off on the north river side of York island, himself and Ms army 
had also been prisoners. 

" Trust not to fortifications, otherwise than as batteries, that 
can be abandoned at discretion. 

" The case, however, is, that battteries, as a water defence 
against the passage of ships, cannot do much. Were any given 
number of guns to be put in a battery for that purpose, and aa 
equal number of the same weight of metal put in gun-boats for the, 
anie purpose, those in the bo'ats would be more effectual than those- 
in the battery. 

" The reason of this is obvious. A battery i$ stationary. Its, 
fire is limited to about two miles, and there its power ceases. But 
every guu-bo^t moved by. oars is a moveable fortification, that caa 



CORRESPONDENCE. 121 

follow up its fire, and change its place and its position as circum- 
stances may require ; arid besides this, gun-boats in calms are the 
sovereigns of ships. 

u As the matter interests the public, and most probably will 
come before Congress at its next meeting, if the printers in any of 
the States, after publishing it in their newspapers, have a mind to 
publish it in a pamphlet form, together with my former piece on 
gun-boats, tlu:y have my consent frtely. 

" I neither take copy-right nor pnjit from any thing I 
publish. 

" THOMAS PAINE." 

MR. ED I tO R, 

E following relation of a surprising circumstance was handed 
to me by one of the officers of his majesty's ship Daedalus, 
on board of which ship it happened, whilst laying at Samana, St. 
Domingo : 

" Several sharks were seen swimming about the ship early on 
the forenoon of the 20th of November, 1808, waiting their prey. 
A hook and bait were put overboard, which one of them imme- 
diately seized with voraciousness. Its attempts to escape were frus- 
trated by a rope being passed over its fins, with which it was 
hoisted on board, by no less a number of men than twenty : in its 
maw was found a calf that had been hove overboard a few hours 
previously to its being caught : its length from the snout to the ex- 
tremity of the tail was ten feet, and the circumference of the body 
proportionate: the jaws, when extended, passed over the body of 
the stoutest man in the ship. Three others were successively 
caught, of equal size with the first; in the last of which was found 
sixty-two young ones, a turkey, and a live hawk's-bill turtle) 
measuring two feet six inches in length, and one foot nine inches 
in breadth : it swam about immediately after its release, in a tub 
of water, apparently not the least injured by its singular con- 
finement." 

An instance of so extraordinary a nature deserves to be re- 
corded ; and it may be said without deviating from the truth, that 
with one hook, sixty-three sharks were caught at one time, and 

all alive. 

A CORRESPONDENT. 

Jamaica, 1st January, 1809. 

ol, XXL R 



122 CORRESPONDENCE. 

LETTER X. 
SIR, February 4, 1809. 

I HAD no intention of again troubling you with any remarks 
which might allude to measures proper to be pursued in Par- 
liament, but some passing occurrences appear so strikingly deserv- 
ing of parliamentary discussion, that after my former observations, 
I could not consistently let them pass unnoticed. I trust the first 
matter I mean to submit to your consideration, may prove to be a 
false report ; but when such a report is in circulation, it is of 
sufficient magnitude to merit inquiry, and of sufficient consequence 
to require either refutation or examination. 

I am informed that the captains of the navy at the sea-ports 
have lately thought proper to petition, in a proper and respectful 
manner, for an increase of pay, on the plea of the high prices of 
all the necessaries of life, and the recent diminution of their pro- 
portion of prize-money. Now, Sir, it matters not whether the 
petition be well timed, or whether the prayer of it should b 
granted or denied ; as surely there exists an undoubted right in the 
subjects of these kingdoms to petition, whenever they judge it ex- 
pedient, and it is only a disrespectful or unconstitutional manner 
of wording or presenting it, which could merit either rebuke or 
punishment ; nor will any one man in his sound senses atlirm, that 
the petitioners are a body of men whom either justice or policy 
would treat with harshness or contempt. As the good citizens of 
London met with a severe rebuke on a late occasion, so on the 
present it is said that a more arbitrary mark of displeasure has 
taken place; no less than the dismissal of the late admirable and 
worthy commander-in-chief at Portsmouth from his command, for 
merely having forwarded this petition to the Admiralty, or perhaps 
to the General who commands at that Board. Are such things so, 
and this the land of constitutional freedom ? 

I now beg leave to refer you to the letter in your 17th volume, 
without signature See page 46, line 12, et seq. and let us ob- 
serve the encouragement the navy receives from the government. 
In Gobbet's Weekly Register of January 21, amongst other mat- 
ter well worth the consideration of the naval legislator (for it is 
time for us to speak for ourselves), is the following sentence : 
" The island of St. Croix it is well known was taken about a year 
ago, by Sir Alexander Cochrane and General Bowyer, who 
jointly, according to the usual custom in such cases, made appoint- 
ments of harbour masters and naval officers. They bestowed the 
four offices upon three persons, in' the following manner : Cap- 



CORRESPONDENCE. 123 

tain T. Cochrane, of the navy, son to the admiral, was appointed 
harbour-master of the two ports ; Captain Pickmere, of the navy, 
was made naval officer of the port of Fredericksted ; and Brigadier- 
general Ramsay naval officer of the port of Christiansted : all these 
appointments were set aside by Lord Castlereagh, and the four 
ojjices united in the person of his uncle^ Lord G. Seymour," 
&c. &c. There is much more in the same number, of great naval 
interest ; and perhaps you may think it right to add another ex- 
tract or two of what is merely to that effect. 

If a branch of the noble family of Seymour is to have public sup- 
port, i should think it would at least spurn with indignation the 
act of taking it from the brave soldiers and seamen who had borne 
the dangers of the battle and the climate; and 1 trust, that when 
this affair comes into discussion before Parliament, no seltish mo- 
tives will prevent every member connected with it from support- 
ing the cause of justice and right, against oppression, partiality, 
aud wrong. 

I perceive also that the government of New South Wales is 
transferred to the army from the navy, although a volume of sound 
reasons might be produced to shew the appointment should take 
place from the latter. 

1 trust that some able advocate will appear to defend the cause 
of the naval service, which I must consider as ill used and oppressed 
in various instances ; and that the tried loyalty and patriotic exer- 
tions of the great bulwark of Britain, will receive from a grateful 
country a due attention to its proper interests. 

i remain, Sir, yours, &c. 

E. G, F. 

N.B. I fear you will be fired of my correspondence, but in the 
light the subjects mentioned above struck me, 1 thought they could 
not too soon be oft'ered to public notice in your work, in the 
course of which I have ever had reason to believe you the seaman's 
friend* 

MR. EDITOR, 

f II ^HE discipline of our navy is now in so perfect a state, that it 
-*- rarely indeed happens that examples of severity are necessary 
to maintain it. Before this desirable end was accomplished, the case 
must have been otherwise, as it was indispensable to let the coward 
feel more than disgrace and contempt, when it seemed probable or 
possible his conduct might prove infectious among a brave crew ; 
but when a commander or his officers exhibited symptoms of fear, 



124 CORRESPONDENCE. 

every consideration demanded instant punishmentTit has been 
promptly and rigidly inflicted, and we are now enjoying the happy 
consequences of the stern patriotic virtue of our ancestors for 
instance : a court martial was held on board his majesty's yacht, 
September 16, 1670, " called the Bezan, in the river of Thames, 
near Tower Wharf, for the trial of Captain John Pierce, com- 
mander of his majesty's ship the Saphire, unfortunately lost the 
31st of March last, upon the coast of Sicily, and of his lieutenant, 
Andrew Logan; when, upon diligent examination and inquisition, 
it was fully and clearly evidenced, by the testimony of twelve cre- 
dible witnesses upon oath, that the said ship was basely and shame- 
fully lost through the default and cowardice of the said captain 
and lieutenant, who upon the approach of four sail, supposed to 
be Turks men of war, being possessed of a panic fear, ordered the 
ship to run from them, refusing to let go the anchor, till the ship 
was struck, contrary to the sense, not only of the master and pur- 
ser, who persuaded them to fight, the ship being in a fit posture, 
but of the whole company, who declared their readiness and desire 
of it by their cheerful acclamations. Upon these and other 
evidences, the said captain and lieutenant were, by a general and 
unanimous consent, adjudged and sentenced to be shot to duath, on 
Monday the 26th instant, on board any of his majesty's ships or 
vessels of war, according as the president of that court, Sir 
Jeremiah Smith, should direct." 

Such was {he disgraceful termination of the naval career of 
Messrs. Pierce and Logan, whose conduct affords a disgusting con- 
trast with that of the brave Clark and his hardy crew, fit associates 
for those of the Saphire, an account of which follows. The author 
of this narrative dates his information from Cadiz, and adds : 
Here is now riding in this bay the Holmes frigate, Captain Henry 
Clark, commander, lately come in from the coast of Barbary, before 
Sallec, where having been cruising, on the 5th instant, about 
twelve of the clock, he discovered two sail coming along by the 
shore from the southward, with the wind at north-west ; one of 
them, a man of war, kept the offing, and weathered the Holmes 
about musket-shot, whereupon the captain tacked upon the broad- 
side of her, and kept there for the space of an hour ; firing many 
broadsides upon her ; it afterwards proving little wind, arid that 
shifting to the southward of the west, the Sallee man got large 
from him, and afterwards forced it to Sallee over the bar very 
much shattered ; the captain then bore up for the other vessel, 
which was under the shore, supposed to be a prize, which imme- 



CORRESPONDENCE. 125 

diately run on shore, and there struck, and that night overset, and 
staved to pieces. 

" The 14th instant, about six in the morning, he discovered three 
sail coming in from sea, having but little wind from south, standing 
in, in hopes to weather him ; between seven and eight they met 
together, within musket-shot, or less, at which time it proved a 
dead culm, two of these proved to be the admiral and vice-admiral 
of Sallee, having each of them about eight guns, and as many 
pederos, and very full of men : before eight of the clock in the 
forenoon, they begun to engage, and continued in fight until six in 
the afternoon, in all which time the captain could not (with all the 
arts he could use) get aboard either of them ; between five and six 
in the afternoon, the vice-admiral being very much shattered ami 
torn, ran on shore with the third ship, supposed to be a prize, 
when they both immediately struck, the vice-admiral oversetting ; 
the admiral came to an anchor just without the creek of the shore, 
whom the captain presently ?)eat from his anchor, after which he 
ran to the southward, just without the creek, whither, it being now 
night, the captain thought not fit to follow, being also desirous to 
see the other wholly destroyed. The next day the admiral was 
seen riding within a ledge of rocks, about six leagues to the 
southward of Sallee ; but then the captain, finding his ammunition 
spent to three rounds of powder, and his ship somewhat disordered 
by the former service, thought it more convenient to return for this 
port ; in this fight he had but two men killed outright, and ten 
hurt, of which three are supposed to be in danger." 

Yours, &c. ROBUR. 



Letter from Captain GEOUSE BYNG, of the Belliqueux, to Sir 
EDWARD PELLEW, Bart, relating the Result of an Attack on a 
Malay Prors. 

Belliqueux, Macassar Straits, 
SIR, 29M August, 1807. 

I HAVE a most painful task in informing you, that in conse- 
quence of boarding a Malay prow in the Straits of Macassar, 
I have the mortification to have killed, Mr. Turner, doing duty as 
acting lieutenant, and six men, the particulars of which are as 
follows : 

On the 26th of August, in the forenoon, discovered three 
Malay prows to windward; gave chase, and brought them to about 



128 CORRESPONDENCE. 

five P.M. and had them all within pistol shot ; as the day was fast 
closing, and the night dark, to prevent any unnecessary delay, I 
ordered out three J)oats, armed, and a lieutenant in each, to examine 
them, and if they had reason to believe they had Dutch property 
or papers, to return and acquaint me, giving the officers every 
caution to guard against the treachery of the Malays. 

The rear one, boarded by Mr. Turner, he had dismissed, and 
she made sail. Mr. Turner having a servant of mine that could 
speak the Malay language, on his return back he called on board 
the one boarded by my fourth lieutenant, Passmore, to aid him in 
his inquiries. 

My third lieutenant, Carew, who boarded the other, returned 
on board, saying he had found Dutch colours, which looking sus- 
picious, I directed him to go back immediately (night closing fast) 
and anchor the vessel, and send the boat to direct the same to the 
other, and 1 came to an anchor myself; I had just sent him away 
when I discovered a confusion in the prow Lieutenant Passmore 
was on board, and our people jumping overboard. I had my 
launch and pinnace got out with an expedition that did credit to 
my crew, and sent my first lieutenant, Fellows, and second 
lieutenant, Stanton, in them, well armed and manned with marines, 
and with orders to attack, and if possible, carry her. Though at 
this time she was under my guns, yet 1 saw one of my boats along- 
side, and being totally ignorant of the situation of my people, I did 
not like to fire into her, and by the time the pinnace and launch 
had got near her, it was near dark ; but 1 saw my boats were close 
to her, and a smart fire kept up on both sides. It began to blow 
fresh, and she had got sail on her, though the boats got hold 
more than once, from the velocity of her way. The boats returned 
about eleven o'clock, with one man killed and three wounded, not 
having succeeded. 

In the mean time, I sent the barge with a reinforcement to 
Lieutenant Carew, and to prevent a similar business or escape, 
brought her alongside ; I found she had below upwards of thirty 
men, all armed, and six brass pieces mounted. In getting the war- 
like implements out of her, intending to dismiss her afterwards 
with her crew, much sea running, she bilged, and filled before it 
was fully accomplished. 

Lieutenant Passmore's statement is as follows : Seeing the 
Malays attempt to throw a box or two overboard, which he pre- 
rented, and was in the act of opening one, when thirty or forty 
Malays, armed, rushed up from below, and attacked them most 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPER. 127 

furiously, killed Mr. Turner and four men, and drove the rest 
overboard. The jolly boat alongside, with two men in, they 
immediately threw heavy weights, &c. into her, knocked the men 
down, and swamped the boat before they had power to get clear. 

From every investigation I have been enabled to make, I have 
reason to believe the above is a true statement, and that not the 
least offence on the part of my officers and men was given, and 
that they were absolutely three piratical vessels. The cargo of the 
one sunk being chiefly matts and rattan cane. 

Though the vessel was not carried by the pinnace and launch, I 
am perfectly satisfied with the gallant conduct and endeavours of 
the officers and men in them. 

The daring way the Malays faced our fire, and threw their 
spears, is spoken of with admiration as to their bravery, by the 
officers in the boats, and though numbers were killed, fell over- 
board, and passed our boats, yet their places were directly supplied. 
They appeared to have upwards 'of seventy men on board the 
said prow. 

Mr. Turner had served five years under my command ; a more 
steady and worthy officer could not exist, and I shall ever respect 
his memory and regret his loss. 

The 28th I stood in for Borneo, and landed the Malay pri- 
soners. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

GEORGE BYNG. , 

To his Excellency Sir Edward Pellcx, Bart, 
rear-admiral of' the red, fyc. 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPER. 

SEA SERPENT.* 

f IplHE following subject being altogether uncommon, and the 
-**- existence of the creature described having been considered as 
problematical by most, and even derided by many, we are induced 
to insert such accounts of it, as may dissipate all further doubt. 
We are happy to find that it has been inquired into by scientific 
men, whose names authenticate the report : 

" At a late meeting of the Wernerian Natural History Society, 

* This curious and interesting paper is copied from the LITERARY 
PANORAMA, 



128 PHILOSOPHICAL PAriR, 

Mr. P. Neill read an account of a great sea snake, lately cast 
ashore in Orkney, This curious animal, it appears, was stranded 
in Rothsolm Bay, in the island of Stronsa. Malcolm Laing, Esq. 
M.P. being in Orkney at the time, communicated the circumstance 
to his brother. Gilbert Laing, Esq. advocate, at Edinburgh, on 
whose property the animal had been cast. Through this authentic 
channel, Mr. Neill received his information. The body measured 
fifty-five feet in length, and the circumference of the thickest part 
might be equal to the girth of an Orkney poney. The head was 
not larger than that of a seal, and \vas furnished with two blow 
holes. From the back a number of filaments (resembling in tex- 
ture the fishing tackle known by the name of silkworm gut) hung 
down like a mane. On each side of the body were three large 
fins, shaped like paws, and jointed. The body was unluckily 
knocked to pieces by a tempest; but the fragments have been 
collected by Mr. Laing, and are to be transmitted to the museum 
at Edinburgh. Mr. Neill concluded with remarking, that no 
doubt could be entertained that this was the kind of animal de- 
scribed by Ramus, Egede, and Pontoppidan, but which scientific 
and systematic naturalists had hitherto rejected as spurious and 
ideal." 

We confidently hope, that the particulars of this event will 
appear at full, in the Transactions of the Wernerian Society, 
when published. In the mean time, we add another letter that ha* 
appeared in print, which, though written in a style and manner 
hardly proper to a naturalist, yet contains some additional points 
of information.. 

The following account is communicated by an intelligent 
naturalist resident at Edinburgh, to a gentleman at Norwich : 

" The Serpens Marinus Magnus^ of Pontoppidan, has hitherto 
been considered as a fabulous monster, and denied ' a local habita- 
tion and a name ' by all scientific and systematic naturalists, who 
have affected to pity the credulity of the good bishop of Bergen. 
One of these monsters, however (indignant, may I not say, at the 
scepticism of the disciples of the Linnean school ?) has, effectually 
to prove its existence, been heroic enough to wreck himself on 
the Orkney islands. He came ashore at Rothsolm, or Rougom 
Bay, in Stronsa, near to Shearers. It was 55 feet long ; but the 
tail seemed to have been broken by dashing among the rocks : so 
it was calculated to have been 60 feet in the whole. Where 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPER. 129 

thickest, it might equal the girth of an Orkney horso, which, you. 
know, is a starved English poney. The head was not larger than 
a seal's, and had two spiracles or blow holes. From the back 
hung down numerous filaments, eighteen inches long (the inane 
described by Pontoppidan). These filaments bear the most per- 
fect resemblance to the silkworm gut, or India sea-grass used in 
fronting. The monster had three pair of fins, or rather paws ; the 
first pair 5~ feet long, with a joint at the distance of four feet 
from the body. Alas ! a tempest beat the carcass to pieces before 
men and ropes could be collected ; and only a fragment (about five 
ieet) of the back bone, and a whole paw, are presarved. M. 
Laing, Esq. M. P. has got these, and is to send them to our 
University Museum." 

These accounts are completely in conformity to what had been 
already communicated by writers on natural history : and they 
happily vindicate the veracity of such writers, who, because they 
have related instances of rare occurrence, have been treated as 
incapable of just discernment, if not as immoral ; for such is the 
nature of the accusation of attempting to impose on their readers 
fiction instead of truth. 

What has been published on this subject, is supported by the 
following testimony : 

Egede (a very reputable author) says, that " on the 6th day of 
July, 17 34, a large and frightful sea monster raised itself so high 
out of the water, that its head reached above the main-top-mast of 
the ship ; that it had a long sharp snout, broad paws, and spouted 
water like a whale; that the body seemed to be covered with 
scales ; the skin was uneven and wrinkled, and the lower part was 
formed like a snake. The bpdy of this monster is said to be as 
thick as a hogshead ; his skin is variegated like a tortoise-shell ; 
and his excrement, which floats on the surface of the water, is 
corrosive, and blisters the hands of the seamen if they handle it." 

In 175G, one of them was shot by a master of a ship; its head 
resembling that of the horse ; the mouth was large and black, as 
were the eyes ; a white mane hanging from its neck, it floated on 
the surface of the water, and held its head at least two feet out of 
the sea ; between the head and neck were seven or eight folds, 
which were very thick ; and the length of this snake was more than 
i hundred yards, some say fathoms. Thoy have a remarkable 

ffiafc. ertton. (Hoi. XXI. s 




130 fniLosormcA! PAPER; 



aversion to the smell of castor ; for which reason, ship, boat, and 
bark-masters provide themselves with quantities of that drug, to 
prevent being overset, the serpent's olfactory nerves being 
remarkably exquisite. The particulars related of this animal would 
be incredible, were they not attested upon oath. 

Every particular here mentioned may be corroborated by the 
sea-serpent stranded in Rothsolm Bay : the blow holes, out of 
which it certainly could have "spouted water like a whale;" 
the "long sharp snout" and the "broad paws;" which prove- 
to be jointed ; and this is as remarkable a particular as any that is 
mentioned. As naturalists, we are doubtful as to the propriety of 
classing this creature among serpents : although we know that th 
collecting link between the lizard and the serpent tribes, has pro- 
jecting members, which some call feet. The Seps, and the Chalcide^ 
which are found in Italy, are clear instances of this conformation : 
these are sometimes two or three feet in length, and have four short 
Jeer. 

The Slang Hagedis, or serpent described by Vosmaer (Amster- 
dam, 1774) from a living specimen in the Prince of Orange's 
cabinet at the Hague ; with the worm Hagedis, from the Cape of 
Good Hope (in the same plate), may also be referred to. The 
first has four projecting long scales rather than feet ; the second 
has four feet, but apparently of feeble powers. Of biped rep- 
tiles, Count de la Cepede gives two specimens, of very small 
dimensions, found in South America. The whole of the lizard 
tribe have four feet, but this mighty inhabitant of the waters, has,- 
it appears, six feet, or fins j but rather feet, if the terms be correct, 
<{ shaped like paws, and jointed;" the joint "being four feet 
distant from the body." This singularity seems to imply tke 
power of crawling along the bottom of the sea, climbing up rocks, 
and holding strongly by such protuberant masses as it has occasion 
to pass. We shall be glad to find that some delineation of it from 
the real subject has been preserved. 

The Laccrta Syren, of Linnaeus, found by Dr. Garden in Caro* 
Jina, should not be forgotten on this occasion. 

This sea-serpent does not seem to be a creature prepared for 
carnage and devastation ; and whether it may possess venom of 
any kind, probably was not examined by those who discovered it. 
We rather think it to be slow, languid, aud quiet: like the whale, 



MARINE SCENERY. 431 

which it resembles in its power of ejecting water through its 
'blow-holes. 

It remains that we'hint at the inquiry whether this specimen, of 
the length of 60 feet, had attained the full size of its species. We 
rather incline to think it was but a small one : seeing that every 
other particular of those who formerly described this creature has 
been justified, we see no reason for impeaching their correctness, 
in the estimation they made of its dimensions. We observe, too, 
that a body the thickness of a hogshead, is but in proportion for 
one for a hundred yards in length, to a body the thickness of a 
poney for one of sixty feet. 

We rtay also add, that in the regions of which it is native, pos- 
sibly it meets with but few enemies capable of shortening its life : 
and MC have every reason for believing Pliny, who describes 
whales of 120 feet and upwards in length, as being formerly extant 
in the North Seas, although we now find the same description of 
fish seldom attain the length of 60 feet. The cause is the interested 
necessity of man, which does not allow them to attain their full 
growth, but destroys them before their time. The skeleton of a 
whale was some time ago found on the western coast of North 
America, that was 105 feet in length. This contributes to vindi- 
cate Pliny : and even the correctness of his account of the pro- 
digious serpent slain by Regulus, is strongly vouched for by such 
discoveries. 

We say nothing on the support this yields to the accounts of 
other immense inhabitants of the waters: the inference cannot 
escape the reader. Accident may throw a Kraken on our coast. 
As to the spots on the body of this serpent, we know that the 
skin of each species of serpent is distinguished by a peculiar pat- 
tern ; some of which are extremely handsome. 



MARINE SCENERY. 

GILPIiN's WESTERN COUNTIES. 

THE exhibition we just nad of the fogs leaving the Welch coast 
was a pleasing one, but Avhere there is a coincidence of grand 
objects under such circumstances the exhibition is often sublime. 
One of the grandest I remember to have. met with, was presented 
at the sieg^ of Gibraltar.* 

* See Drinkwater's Journal. 



132 MARINE SCENKIIY. 

It was near daybreak on the 12th of April, 1781, when a 
message was brought from the signal-house at the summit of the 
rock, that the long-expected fleet, under Admiral Darby, was in 
sight. Innumerable masts were just discerned from that lofty 
situation ; but could not be seen from the lower parts of the 
castle, being obscured by a thick fog, which had set in from the 
west, and totally over>prcad the opening of the straits. In this 
uncertainty the garrison remained for some time ; while the fleet, 
invested in obscurity, moved slowly towards the castle. In the 
mean time, the sun becoming powerful, the fog rose like the cur. 
tain of a vast theatre, and discovered at once the whole fleet, full 
and distinct before the eye. The convoy, consisting of near three 
hundred vessels, were in a compact body, led on by twenty-eight 
sail of the line, and a number of tenders and other smaller vessels, 
A gentle wind just filled their sails, and brought them forward with 
a slow and solemn motion. Had all this grand exhibition been 
presented gradually, the sublimity of it would have been injured 
by the acquaintance the eye would have made with it, during its 
approach ; but the appearance of it in all its greatness at once, 
before the eye had examined the detail, had a wonderful effect. 

To this account of a grand effect from the clearing away of a 
foe, I shall subjoin another, which, though of the horrid kind, is 
grand and sublime in the highest degree. It is taken from Captain 
jNIeares's voyage from China to the northern latitudes of America. 
That navigator having gained the inhospitable coast he >vas in pur- 
suit of, was sailing among unknown bays and gulfs, when he was 
suddenly immersed i;i HO thick a fog, that the seamen could not 
even discern an object from one end of the ship to the other. 
Ni^ht too came on, which rendered every thing still more dismal. 
While the unhappy crew were ruminating on the variety of dis- 
tresses that surrounded them, about midnight they were alarmed, 
with the sound of waves bursting and dashing amongst rocks, 
within a little distance of the head of the ship. Instantly turning 
the helm, they tacked about. But they had sailed only a short way 
in this new direction, when they were terrified with the same dread, 
ful sound a second time. They altered their course again: but 
the same tremendous noise again recurred. At length day cams 
on ; but the fog continuing as intense* as before, they could see 
uolV:ir~. All they knew was, that they were surrounded by rocks 
on every side ; but how to escape they had no idea. Once, during 
a momentary interruption of the fog, they got a glimpse of the 
summit of an immense cliff, covered with snow, towering over the 



PL ATE CCLXXYII. J33 

rnast, but the fog instantly shut it in. A more dreadful situation 
cannot easily be conceived. They had steered in every direction, 
but always found they were land-locked, and though they were 
continually close to the shore, on sounding they could find no 
bottom. Their anchors, therefore, \vere of no use. Four days 
they continued in this dreadful suspense, tacking from side to side : 
on the fifth the fog cleared away, and they had a view at once of 
the terrors that surrouuded them. They had by some strange 
accident, found their way into a bay, environed on all sides with 
precipices of immense height, covered with snow, and falling down 
to the water, in lofty rocks, which were every where perpendicular, 
except in some parts where the constant beating of the surge had 
hollowed them into caverns. The sound they heard was from the 
waters swelling and rushing into these caverns, which absorbing 
them, drove them out again with great fury against the rocks at 
their mouths, dashing them into foam with a tremendous sound. 
Captain Meares now perceived the passage, through which he had 
Jjeen driven into this scene ol horrors, and made his escape. 



PLATE CCLXXVIJ. 

THE annexed view of Ilfracombe, taken from the vcstward, 
is from a drawing by Mr. Pocock, engraved by Rickards. 

Ilfracombe, or Ilfordcombe, is a seaport and market town in 
Devonshire, 48 miles north-west by north from Exeter, and 1S1 
west by south from London. It consists chiefly of one irregular 
street, from the church to the sea-side, upwards of a mile long, 
and is a neat, well-built, populous, and thriving place. 

The harbour is very commodiously situated ; so that ships can 
run in there, when it would be dangerous to go> to Bideford or 
Barnstaple ; consequently, several of the traders of the latter town 
do a great deal of their port business at Ilfracombe. The vessel* 
belonging to this place are chiefly employed as coasters, in carrying- 
ore, corn, c. from Cornwall and Devonshire to Bristol, and in 
fishing. 

For the security of the harbour, and the protection of shipping, 
A pier was long since built, and a light-house erected; but tho*sc 
accommodations were made solely at the expence of the owner of 
the soil ; and, some disputes arising about the customary duties to 
be paid to the lord of the manor, it was found necessary to apply 
to the legislature for settling those duties. An act of Parliament 



131 CORRECT RELAT10X OF SHIPWRECKS. 

was accordingly obtained, in the year 1781, making them payable 
to the lord of the manor, and providing that all the money raised 
by them, or recovered by forfeitures under the act, shall be laid 
out in repairing and supporting the pier, light-house, warp, warp, 
house, boats, and harbour j so that an ample fund has been 
established for keeping them in excellent condition. The pier 
forms a quay upwards of 800 feet in length. Outside the pier are 
several coves admirably adapted for bathing, for which purpose 
convenient machines are kept. 

There are packets ftom Ilfracombe to Bristol, Swansea, Milford 
Haven, &c. 

On a high point near the bay, Sir Bourchicr Wray, the lord of 
the manor, some time ago built a summer house, which commands 
a beautiful and extensive prospect of the ocean. 

Ilfracombe church, which is a large plain structure, contains a 
monument to the memory of Captain Thomas Bowen, who was 
killed in the unsuccessful attack upon Teneriffe, where he acted 
with Lord Nelson. This monument was erected at the expense of 
the nation. 

On the 22d of February, 1797, three French frigates -appeared 
off Ilfracombe, scuttled several merchantmen, and attempted to 
destroy the shipping in the harbour. They also landed 1,400 
troops, and soon after set sail, leaving the men to be taken 
prisoners. 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 
No. XXXIII. . 

Again the dismal prospect opens round, 

The wreck, the shore, the dying, and die drwn'd. 

FALCONER. 

SUFFERINGS OF THE CREW OF A PORTUGUESE SLOOP, WRECKED 
NEAR TUB CALAMIAN ISLANDS, IN THE YEAR 1688. 



EMELLI CARRERI, a Neapolitan, was one of the most 
enlightened navigators that have sailed round the globe. 
Having arrived at Canton, in the month of January, 1696, he was 
under the necessity of passing several weeks in that city, and even 
returning a second time in March the same year. He also visited 
Macao, and after seeing every thing worthy of notice in that town, 
he crossed over to the Green Island, at that time belonging to the 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 135 

college of Jesuits. It is situated at a small distance from Macao, 
and is only a mile in circumference. Though nothing more than 
a. sterile rock, the Jesuits had erected there a delightful pleasure- 
house. They had likewise succeeded in rearing plantains, bananas, 
and several other fruit-trees, which surround the edifice. Among 
other Jesuits who resided there was one equally esteemed for his 
piety and the charms of his conversation. In the different inter- 
views which Carreri had with him, he was highly gratified by 
receiving from his mouth the confirmation of a$ extraordinary 
event, of which he had before heard, but without being able to 
ascertain the degree of credit that was due to it. 

In 1688, a Portuguese sloop, bound from the coast of Corotnan- 
del to the Philippines, anchored in safety in the port of Cavite, 
and sailed again soon afterwards, laden with the commodities of 
the country. The vessel had on board about sixty persons, Moors, 
Gentoos, and Portuguese, among whom was the Jesuit missionary 
found by Ccrreri on the Green Island. The captain and pilot 
were not sufficiently vigilant while navigating the sea of the 
Philippines, which is extremely dangerous, from the multitude of 
rocks : the sloop struck on a sand-bank near the Calamian islands, 
and instantly went to pieces. The Moors and Gentoos, of whom 
the greatest part of the crew was composed, immediately seized the 
long-boat, with a view to get on shore on a neighbouring island, 
but a violent gale arising during their passage, the boat foundered, 
and every person was entombed in a watery grave. The others, 
who had the good fortune to keep their station upon the sand, 
took advantage of a quantity of planks floating near them to reach 
successively the nearest island, distant two miles from the spot 
where they were wrecked. After a minute search, they found it 
was destitute of water. The success of their first attempt induced 
them to endeavour to pass over to another island, at the distance 
of about three leagues. They arrived there in safety by tha 
method they had before employed. This island, however, was like 
the former, very small, low, and without wood or water. For 
four (lays they were obliged to drink the blood of tortoises to allay 
their thirst. Necessity at length supplied them with invention ; 
they employed their planks to make- trenches level with the surface 
of the water. That which remained in them, lost in a few days 
part of its saltness. The (aste was at first disgusting; but finding 
that it was not pernicious, tht-y soon overcame the dislike they at 
first took to drink it. Providence, in conducting to this island 
the sraajl number of persons who had escaped from the wreck, had 



136 COIlilKCT UKtATION* OP SHir-WttECKS. 

supplied them on this barren spot with resources against t7i6 
cravings of hunger and thirst: the latter, in the manner we hare 
already seen, and the former in the extraordinary abundance of tur- 
tles, it being then the season of laying. They flocked every night 
from the sea to deposit their eggs in the sand. The mariners 
matched them, and as soon as they were at a little distance from 
the water, they threw them on their backs ; from the facility of 
killing them, they procured such a number as to supply them with 
foftd during six months. 

Provisions began to run short, and they had scarcely sufficient 
for a few days, when they saw a large species of sea-bird, called 
boobies, arrive on the island. They came regularly every year to 
these islands, to build their nests and lay their eggs. The eggs 
and the young were a twofold resource to the unfortunate Por- 
tuguese, who likewise killed many of the parent birds. They used 
pieces of the planks to kill them, and they laid up a store sufficient 
for half a year. Thus the turiles and the boobies .furnished them 
regularly with provisions for the two parts of the year, without 
any other preparation than drying their flesh in the sun. They 
likewise ate it fresh, stewed in vessels made of a kind of earth. 
These they had succeeded in moulding after many attempts, but 
they could not use them more than once, either from the want of 
a furnace, or because the earth they employed was not sufficiently 
argillaceous. 

Sickness, and the hardships of tfceir situation, had reduced the 
number of these unfortunate exiles to eighteen. Their clothes 
were worn out in time, when they contrived to sew together the 
skins of the birds they killed, with needles, which one of them 
chanced to have about him when the vessel was east away. A few 
small scattered palm-trees, at a small distance from the coast, fur- 
nished them with a kind of thread for the purpose. Upon the 
approach of winter, they retired to skreen themselves from the 
cold, into subterraneous grottos which they had scooped out with 
their hands. They were situated on a gentle ascent facing the 
south. 

Several years elapsed without any change in the situation of these 
unhappy men. They sometimes perceived vessels in full sail very 
near their island. In vain they claimed relief by their cries ; in vain 
they waved skins in the air, and made fires on the elevations. 
Doubtless the fear of the sands and shallows deterred the pilots : 
all passed without bringing to. By the quantity of planks and 
other fragments thrown upon the sand, during this long interval, 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 137 

they even conjectured that shipwrecks were frequent in these seas, 
and that they alone were not condemned to misfortune. 

The annual return of the turtles and birds, which furnished them 
with a certain subsistence, caused them to endure their melancholy 
fate with courage for six years. At the beginning of the seventh, 
their hopes were still kept alive by the arrival of the turtles, which 
appeared in the same abundance as ever ; but in the second season 
they were cruelly disappointed. The boobies, undoubtedly terri- 
fied by the incessant persecution on this spot for several years, 
returned in such small numbers, that the shipwrecked troop was 
soon seized with the utmost consternation. At the same time two 
of them, sinking beneath the wright of the evils that overwhelmed 
them, and the dreary prospects of the future, ended their days in 
the land of exile. The others, being reduced in number to sixteen, 
grew so meagre that they appeared like spectres rather than men. 
In the agitation of their minds some resigned themselves to despair, 
"while others still retained in their bosoms a spark of hope. 

By degrees, however, all recovered their tranquility, and having 
assembled, they, after some debate, resolved, as the last expedient* 
to quit the island, with the chance of landing a second time ou 
some uninhabited coast. They instantly fell to work, and, with, 
the planks and fragments of vessels thrown upon the shore by the 
sea, they in a few days constructed a kind of vessel, or rather a 
box. This they caulked with a mixture of feathers, sand, and 
turtle fat: the rigging was composed of the nerves of turtles 
doubled several times, and the sails of boobies' skins, sewed 
together. Though the construction was rude, yet the bark made 
no water, and yielded to the impulse either of wind or of oars. 
They took on board with them the small quantity of provisions 
that remained. 

^Vith these slender resource? they set sail, on a fine day, im- 
ploring the assistance of Heaven. An uncertain navigation of 
eight days, under the guidance of the winds and waves alone, 
brought them to the island of Hayman, off the south coast of 
China. After landing on a shore which they perceived to be 
inhabited, their first care was to pour forth the grateful effusions 
of their hearts to Divine Providence ; after which they proceeded 
up the country. The first natives who descried them were terriiied, 
and tied with precipitation. However, some of the Portuguese, 
who understood the Chinese language, increasing their pace, those 
of the inhabitants who were least alarmed, qbserved that the 

er&ion, ftci.XXI. X 



138 IMPROVEMEXTS IX NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. 

strangers were without arms, and waited for them. A brief recital of 
their misfortunes drew tears from their eyes, they immediately 
offered them provisions, and shewed them a spring of fresh water. 
After th'.y had satisfied the pressing necessities of thirst, they were 
conducted to the mandarin of the island, who with eager solicitude 
provided lodgings, and supplied them with every thing their situa- 
tion required. He afterwards procured them the means of return, 
ing to their families. The Portuguese, who were not far from. 
Macao, arrived there in a few days. One of them, who was sup- 
posed by his wife to be dead, was surprised to find her married 
again. Their mutual friends prevailed upon him to forgive a levity 
which seven years absence rendered very excusable. 

The missionary, who confirmed the truth of this event, had been 
sent to the Green Island to recover from the hardships he had 
endured, and though he had resided there above a year, his health 
and strength had scarcely begun to be re-established. 




IMPROVEMENTS IN NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. 

THE following remarks on an article which appeared in our 
NAVAL CHRONICLE for November last, having appeared in 
a contemporary work* of great literary and scientific merit, we are 
induced, for the further elucidation of the subject, and the gratifi- 
cation of our naval readers, to insert them. 

An Examination of tlie Notion entertained by Seamen, that the Weakness 
or Looseness of a Vessel's Frame makes her sail foster. By Captain Malcolm 
Coican." NAVAL CHRONICLE, No. 120. 

Captain Cowan observes, that the generality of seamen have an 
idea that the strength of ships is an impediment to their sailing, 
which makes them give too ready an assent to any objection that 
may be made to the improvements in naval architecture, which 
have been contrived for strengthening ships, and consequently 
adding to their safety ; not considering how many are interested 
in the continuation of ancient errors and absurdities, and enriched 
by the existing abuses in the construction and equipment of ships. 
This is a subject in which seamen are more particularly interested, 
from being liable to be the greatest sufferers by any mistake relative 
to it, and which therefore demands their peculiar attention. 

* Athenaeum for February, 1809 



IMPROVEMENTS I Jf NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. 139 

Captain Cowan supposes the notion to be erroneous, that the 
part of ships immersed in the water can twist or bend in any way 
to effect their sailing, as they are too firmly bound by the decks 
and knees, to admit of any sufficient motion in this way for this 
effect ; he however admits the possibility of this twisting and bend- 
ing, in order to investigate the consequences of it on the sailing, 
and to shew that they would be nearly the reverse of what is com- 
monly supposed. 

If a vessel should bend upwards or downwards, she would make 
more resistance to the water, by opposing a greater surface to it 
transversely ; a hollow or concave keel is well known to be one 
of the greatest impediments to a vessel's sailing : and if the vessel, 
on the contrary, is sunk lower in the middle, it is evident the 
transverse section of her immersed part must be proportionably 
increased in depth, along with her resistance to forward motion, 
which depends on it. 

If the bend or fwist should be sideways, the transverse section 
would be increased in breadth, and the resistance become propor- 
tionably greater ; besides this, it would make a resistance diagonally 
to the proper course, which would operate to make the vessel steer 
in the direction of the bend at the head. These reasons Captain 
Cowan justly supposes are conclusive, but they are rendered more 
apparent by drawings, which he has made of ships twisted as sea- 
men suppose they may be : a single inspection of the roughest 
sketch of this kind is sufficient to demonstrate the absurdity of the 
idea (to any but the obstinately ignorant), that such twisting can 
be an advantage. 

Captain Cowan attributes the effect which takes place on the 
sailing of vessels by cutting through the gunnels (which is prac- 
tised sometimes in small privateers), entirely to the loosening of 
the upper tzorks, and thereby giving more play to the masts and 
sails. It often happens, that by slacking the rigging, a vessel's 
sailing is improved ; and it is usual in cutters to slack the runners 
and tackles (which support the mast) when in chase, in order to 
give the mast as much play or motion as possible; in large, and 
particularly in lofty ships, the rolling motion causes the sides to 
bend over somewhat from their natural position, and this causes 
a material alteration in the position of the masts and sails, besides 
giving them more play, as the length of the masts multiplies the 
alteration of place at the sails, in proportion to their distance from 
the centre of motion. 

By cutting through a vessel's gunnels, the upper works may be 



140 IMPROVKMEtfTS IN JJATAL ARCHITECTURE. 

made very loose ; but as the deck must keep every part beneath it 
under water from bending or twisting so as to affect the sailing, 
it must be entirely from the effect which the looseness of the 
upper works has on the masts and sails, that any alteration in. 
sailing can arise. 

Captain Cowan observes, in concluding, that ships sometimes sail 
faster when new and firm, than when they get old and weak ; that 
the best sailing trim of a vessel must depend entirely on the draught 
of water, the stowage of the hold, and the position and trim of the 
masts, sails, and rigging, as no improvement in the sailing of a ship 
can be produced by her bending or twisting beneath the surface 
of the water, however weak or loose she may be. 

It is easy to demonstrate that when any part of the frame of a 
ship loosens, so as to be capable of motion on the neighbouring 
parts, from that moment the vessel begins to decay; and it is all a 
matter of chance whether her destruction should be gradual, by a 
progressive loosening and wearing of the whole frame, or whether 
the partial motion of a single timber may not start a plank, and 
send her and her crew, and cargo, at once to the bottom. Captain 
Cowan has therefore done a singular service to seamen in pointing 
out their errors on this subject, by shewing, that it is the part of 
the vessel above water which affects the sailing by its action on the 
masts and yards, and not the alteration of the shape of the im- 
mersed part, as was falsely imagined. 

The effect which the giving play or motion to the masts has on 
the sailing, we are convinced, arises entirely from the greater 
spring or elasticity which they are then capable of exercising. It 
has been long since proved, that the springs added to wheel 
carriages enable a given force to produce a greater effect in moving 
them forward, and prevent impediments on the road from diminish, 
ing their velocity of motion in a very great degree, if not entirely. 
The waves on the sea may be considered as forming obstructions 
to the velocity of a ship, in a similar manner to that which obsta- 
cles on a road do to the motion of a carriage; and it may easily be 
conceived, that the introduction of the principle of the spring, 
in making the motion of the ship more uniform, must be equally 
beneficial. 

But surely the dangerous expedient of damaging the vessel, by 
the process of loosening it, as it is called, cannot be absolutely 
necessary to give this spring ; or granting that it aids somewhat in 
this way ; yet certainly many better methods can be devised, and 



IMPROVEMENTS IN NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. 141 

certainly none worse, and it is evidently a disgrace to the ingenuity 
of seameR, not to be able to contrive a better expedient than tha 
very barbarous one which they have adopted. Springs have been 
added to the blocks for the sheets and halyards, in several American, 
vessels, according to the contrivance of Mr. Hopkinson, and have 
been found of great utility : there can be no donht but that the 
slings of the yards might be also attached to springs, and tha.t the 
effect would not only be beneficial to the sailing of the ship, but 
also in preventing the sails from being rent by sudden squalls. 
The wind varies likewise, from the intensity of its action on the 
sail for momentary intervals at other times, as well as in squalls ; 
and the action of the ship in pitching and rolling tends also to 
make the operation of the w ind on the sail very variable, increasing 
it as the mast rolls towards the wind, and diminishing it as it rolls 
from it. Springs at the slings and at the halyard blocks would 
equalize this action of the wind more effectually than cutting the 
gunnels, or loosening the rig-ing, so as to endanger the masts 
being brought by the board. All unprejudiced persons will at 
least grant that this, and every other safe expedient, should be 
tried for the purpose, before the very dangerous methods above- 
mentioned should be attempted. 

It has been proved by experimental philosophers, that a pyra- 
midical or conoidal body of wood, forced into the water, will 
react in the same manner as a spring ; this principle may be also 
adopted to give the action of a spring to the masts, without injuring 
the ship, for its hull may be so shaped, that, both in rolling and 
pitching, the resistance may gradually increase, as it inclines from, 
the veriical position, and that the reaction may be in the same pro- 
portion : the wedge shape which many ships have vertically at the 
head and stern, is well calculated for this purpose, and if the sides 
were made so as to project as they rose, instead of inclining in. 
wards, or tumbling home, as it is called, the vessel would have 
the best form for this purpose, and one which would be very good 
in other respects also. Much depends upon ballasting the ship, in 
making the operation of its immersed part have the operation of a 
spring on the masts : for if the ballast is too low, this effect would 
be injured by its rendering, as it were, the spring too stiff; and if, 
on the contrary, the centre of gravity is placed too high, the spring 
will be too weak, besides risking the upsetting of the ship. 

As a proof that the stiffness of the framing of a ship can in no 
wise affect the sailing, we have to state the example of the ship 
Economy, described in a former number, which is so stiffened by 



142 IMPROVEMENTS IN NATAL ARCHITECTURE. 

her internal framing, that she can neither twist nor bend in any 
direction ; and yet she has sailed in all her voyages much better 
than most merchant vessels on a wood sheathing, and has fre- 
quently outsailed coppered ships. 

The interest which. Captain Cowan remarks-, many take in the 
continuation of ancient errors in the construction and equipment of 
ships, is a melancholy consideration, when the fate of the nation 
depends so much on its naval superiority : especially as some, who 
favour those errors, unfortunately have the power, from their sta- 
tions, to continue them ; which power they now exert, not only 
in discouraging and rejecting proposed improvements, bat even hi 
persecuting those who bring them forward. 

We have before stated, in the account of the ship Economy, an 
instance of the system that influences those at the head of the naval 
department, in the rejection of improvements ; we are sorry that 
the instance of persecution on a similar account, which we have to 
state, should be that of Captain Cowan himself. The captain 
respectfully remonstrated to the navy board, for the impediments 
and delays (and the various other modes of rendering an improve- 
ment of no avail, which cannot be openly rejected) which have 
been used, in preventing the introduction in ships of war of his 
patent method of reefing sails,* and other improvements respecting 
them, to the extent they deserved, notwithstanding their being ap- 
proved of universally by all the naval captains who have tried 
them fairly; and for this just remonstrance, the captain has been 
officially censured by the Board of Admiralty. It would open toe* 
large a discussion at present, to enter on the subject of the legal 
powers of this board ; but certainly it most materially behoves all 
naval officers to do so, and to have it decided, whether they can 
justly receive a censure^ or other punishment, from any body sub- 
ordinate to the legislature, zstthout a court-martial, or ttny legal 
trial whatsoever, to investigate whether such censure would be 
deserved, or would merely be the result of arbitrary, and perhaps 
assumed power. 

The fate of Captain Cartier should open the eyes of naval offi- 
cers to what they have to trust. Is it possible that they are unac- 
quainted with ii? The public at large, we hope, will soon be 
informed of this disgraceful business, and those who were the 
authors of the injustice he has experienced meet that abhorrence 
they deserve. 

We trust our readers will excuse the length of this note, on 

* Vide NAVAL CIIROXICLE, Vol. XV. p. 333; Vol. XVIII. p. 389; and 
Vol. XX. p. 373. 



IMPROVEMENTS IN NATAL ARCHITECTURE. 143 

account of the national importance of the subject. If, in its own 
nature, improvement in all arts, particularly in those which con. 
tribute to the defence of the state, is not thought of sufficiently 
obvious use and importance to demand attention, we have to urge 
in its favour a proof of the most tremendous kind: let the enemies 
to improvement seriously consider to what the French chiefly owe 
their rapid conquests on the continent; every improvement in the 
art of war, and in every other art which can assist it, has -been 
encouraged, rewarded, and put in practice by them; and those who 
obstinately rejected improvement, and discouraged and persecuted 
its advocates, and adhered pertinaciously to old systems, have uni- 
formly fallen before their arms with a most disgraceful facility. 
Fas est et ab hoste doceri. 

As yet the seas are our own, but if the same system which has 
ruined the continent, is pursued in our naval departments, and if 
all improvement be obstinately rejected there, while our inveterate 
enemies eagerly and diligently encourage it in their service, no 
gift of prophecy is required to foretell what must in time be the 
event. No idea can be more false, than that the construction and 
management of ships are brought to the full perfection of which 
they are capable. We laugh at the Chinese, for holding this 
opinion with regard to their junks: but in us it is much more 
ridiculous, for a wise policy prevents foreign commerce to that 
nation, to whom it is worth nothing, or worse, though to us it is 
every thing. Art ij so far from being exhausted on this subject, 
that it is no exaggeration to say, that it is yet completely withia. 
its limits to diminish the dangers of the sea to navigators, fully one 
half of what they are at present. And in no country in the 
world could men be found more capable of making improvements 
in those arts, than in this; but as yet they meet only with dis- 
couragement, loss, and censure. 

" Let those that stand take heed lest they fall :" the system 
which has been so successful at land to our enemies may prove 
equally so to them at sea, when their rulers have leisure to bend 
their energies to nautical improvement, if this is not counteracted 
by equal vigilance, activity, and attention to improvement in our 
naval service. If this country is to escape the general wreck, as 
we trust it will, it must arise from our learning wisdom from th.0 
fate of other nations, and carefully avoiding their errors; and we 
should ever hold in remembrance, that the kingdoms of Europe 
have fallen by adhering blindly to old systems, and rejecting the 
aid of art; while the French have risen to their present pre-em,U 
nence, by encouraging and rewarding every art and science which 
can assist their arms. 



144 

Abstract of u Voyage for the Discovery of a north-west Passage 
into the South Sea, performed in the Years 1631 and 1632, by 
Captain THOMAS JAMES. 

[Continued from Vol. XI. page 38?.] 

rjflHE 18th, wind and weather being more favourable, stood in 


-J*- again south. Came into eight, seven, and six fathom, and 

then stood off again, it growing foggy. 

The 19th, being clear weather, stood in again. In the evening, 
the wind came up at W. and then we stood E. S. E. into ten and 
eight, and afterwards S. E. as our depth did guide us by our lead, 
and the colour of the water, into seven and six fathoms. 

The 20th, at six in the morning, says Captain James, we saw 
the land, it being a very low flat land. We stood into five fathoms, 
to make it the batter, and so stood along it. At noon M'e were in 
lat. 57. 00. We named it the New Principality of South Wales, 
and drank a health in the best liquor we had to Prince Charles, his 
highness, whom God preserve ! We stood along it, and came to a 
point where it tends to the southward, near to which point there 
are two small islands. In the evening it was calm, and we came to 
an anchor; the tide set as aforesaid : there we rid all that night 
and the next day, by reason the wind was contrary. There was a 
chopping short sea. and the ship did labour at it exceedingly, 
leaping in sprit-sail-yard, forecastle and all ; for as yet we had not 
trimmed her well to ride. About nine at night it was very dark, 
and it did blow hard. We did perceive by the lead that the ship 
did drive ; wherefore, bringing the cable to capstan, to heave in 
our cable (for we did think we had lost our anchor), the anchor 
hitched again, and upon the chopping of a sea, threw the men 
from the capstan. A small rope in the dark had gotten foul about 
the cable, and about the master's leg too, but, with the help of 
G?cd, he did cleaj himself, though not without sore bruising. The 
two mates were hurt, the one in the head, the other in the arm. 
One of our lustiest men was stricken on the breast with a bar, 
that he lay sprawling for life; another had his head betwixt the 
cable, and hardly escaped. The rest were flung where they Avere 
sore bruised; but our gunner (an honest and a diligent man) had 
his leg taken between the cable and the capstan, which wrung off 
his foot, and tore all the flesh off his leg, and crushed the bone to 
pieces, and sorely withal bruised all his whole body; in which 
miserable manner he remained crying till we had recovered our* 



ABSTRACT OF A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY. 145 

Delves, our memory) and strength, to clear him. Whilst \ve were 
putting him and the rest down to the chirurgeon, the ship drove 
into shoal water, which put- us all in tear, we being so sorely 
weakened by this blow, which had hurt eight of our men. It 
pleased God that the anchor held again, and she rid it out all night. 
iJy midnight the chirurgeon had taken off the gunner's leg at the 
gartering place, and dressed the others that wore hurt and bruised j 
after which we comforted each other as well as we could. 

The 22d, weighed and stood off into deeper water. In the after- 
noon, the wind being favourable, stood in and along shore. 

The 26th, sprung up a fine gale at W. but very thick weather. 
At noon, it cleared, and we could see that we were embayed in a 
little bay, the land being almost round about us. 

We stood out of it, and so along it, in sight, says the journalist, 
till the 27th in the morning, when we came to higher land than 
any we had yet seen since we came from Nottingham Island. We 
stood in to it, and came to an anchor in five fathoms. I sent off the 
boat, well manned and armed, with orders in writing what they 
were to do, and a charge to return again before sunset. The even- 
ing came, and no news of our boat ; we shot and made false fires, 
but had no answer, which did much perplex us, doubting that 
there had been some disaster befallen her, through carelessness; 
and in her we should lose all. We aboard, at present, were not 
able to weigh our anchor, nor sail the ship. At last we saw a fire 
upon the shore, which made us the more doubtful, because they 
did not answer our shot, nor false fires, with the like. We thought 
withal that it had been the savages, who did now triumph in their 
conquest. At length they came, all and well; and excused them- 
selves in that, upon their coming ashore, it did ebb so suddenly, 
that a bank of sand was so presently dry without them, as they 
could not come away, till that was covered again ; and with that 
they pacilied me. They reported that there was great store of 
drift-wood on the shore, and a good quantity growing on the 
land. That they saw the tracks of deer and bears, good store of 
fowl (of which they had killed gome), but no sign of people : that 
they passed over two little rivers, and came to a third, which they 
could not pass : that it did flow near three fathoms sometimes, as 
appeared by the shore: that it was low water at four o'clock : 
that the flood came from the N. W. and that it flowed half tida, 
which both' they and we had perceived by the ship. At low water 
we had but three fathoms where we did ride. The wind began to 

2a. f>ron, OJol, XXL u 




146 ABSTRACT or A VOYAGE o? DISCOTTERY. 

blow hard at E. whereupon we weighed and stood to the north* 
ward, till midnight, then in again ; and, in the morning, we saw 
the land, and then it began to blow hard, and as* we stood off, it 
increased to a very storm, so that at length we could not maintain 
a pair of courses, but tried under our main course all day and all 
night; some time turning her head to the landward, some time to 
the offing. 

The 29th, in the morning, we made account we had driven 
back again some 16 or 18 leagues; and, in the morning (as it 
cleared), we saw a ship to leeward of us some three or four 
leagues; so we made sail, and bore up with her. She was then at 
anchor in 13 fathoms water. It was his majesty's ship, and Cap- 
tain Fox commanded in her. 

I saluted him according to the manner of the sea, and received 
the like of him. So I stood in to sec the land, and thought to tack 
about, and keep weather of him, and send my boat on board of 
him ; but the wind shifted, so that, for some time, I could not. 
In the evening,, I came to weather of him, and sent my boat on 
board of him, who presently weighed, and stood off with me till 
midnight, and then we stood in again. 

In the morning, Captain Fox and his friends came on board me, 
where I entertained them fn the best manner I conld, and \vith 
such fresh meat as I had gotten from the shore. I told him how I 
had named the land (he Principality of South Hales. I shewed 
him how far I had been to the eastward, where I had landed ; and, 
in brkf, I made known to him all the dangers of this coast, as far 
as I had been. He told me how he himself had been in Port Nelson, 
and had made but a cursory discovery hitherto ; and that he had 
not been a-land, nor had not many times seen the land. In the 
evening, after I had given his men some necessaries, with tobacco 
*nd other things which they wanted, he departed on board his ship, 
and, the next morning, stood away S. S. W. since which time I 
never saw him. The wind something favouring me, I stood in for 
the shore, and so proceeded along it in sight. 

The month of August ended with snow and hail. 

The 1st of September, the surgeon gave the information that 
divers of the men were tainted with sickness. 

The 2d, we found the land to trend S. S. E. and S. so that we 
knew we were at a cape land, and named it Cape Henrietta Murin y 
by her majesty's name, who had before named our ship. At noon, 
we were in lat. 55. 05. and that is the height of the cape. 

The 4th ? in the evening, there came a great rolling Sea out of 



ABSTRACT OT A YOYAGF. OF PJSCOVLRV. 147 

the N. iV. E. and by eight o'clock it blew very hard at S. E. We 
shipped many seas, hut one most dangerous, which raked us fore 
and aft. The ship laboured terribly. 

The 5th, in the morning, the wind shifted to S. W. but conti- 
nued as high as ever, in the afternoon, it shifted again to the N. W. 
At eight in .the evening the storm broke up. 

The fith, the wind was at S. W. so that we could do no good to 
the westward ; therefore employed the time in trimming the ship. 

The 7th, in the morning, the wind came up at S. E. and we 
stood away S. W. under all the sail we could make. In this course, 
we sav, an Hand, came close about it, and had twenty fathoms 
vatrr. Tins island stands in lat. 54. 10. In the afternoon, stood 
away S. W. and, in the evening, had the shoaling of the western 
fchoi o in ten, eight, and seven fathom ; but it was so thick that we 
conld not sec the land. It is about 14 leagues between this island 
and the m 'in. 

The IGth, made the land, finding it an island of about eight or 
nine leagues long, in lat. 53. 5. about fifteen leagues from the 
western shore. The part of it that we coasted trends W. N. W. 
Nar ied it 3/y Lord IVeston's Island. Stood still away to the east- 
ward. In the afternoon descried land to the eastward of us, which 
made like three hills or hammocks. Sailed towards them. At 
length also saw land to the southward of us. Luffed up, and now 
made for that, by course as we had set it in the thick dark fog. 
Came among sueh low "broken grounds, breaches, and rocks, that 
we knew not which way to turn. The night proved calm and fair, 
and we rid quietly. 

The llth, in the morning, the captain went ashore in the boat, 
but found the island " utterly barren of all goodness." There was 
neither scurvy-grass, sorrel, or any herb to refresh the sick peo- 
ple. The captain returned on board, and sent many of the sick 
men to another part of the island, but they were equally unsuc- 
cessful. At noon in lat. 52. 45. In the evening weighed, and stood 
to the westward, coming to an anchor under another island, in 
20 fathoms. 

The 12th, in the morning, says the journalist, it began to blow 
hard at S. E. which was partly off the shore, and the ship began 
to drive, it being soft ground. We heaved in our anchor there- 
upon, and came to sail under two courses. Whilst the most were 
busy in heaving out of topsails, some that should have had special 
care of the ship, saw her ashore upon the rocks, out of mere care- 
in looking cut and about; or heaving of the lead after 



148 ABSTRACT OF A VOYAGE OF DISCOTEKY. 

they had seen the land all night long, and might even then liif 
seen it, if they had not been blinded with self conceit, and been 
enviously opposite in opinions. The first blow struck me out of a 
deep sleep ; and I, running out of my cabin, thought no other at 
first but I had been wakened (when 1 saw our danger) to provide 
myself for another world. 

After I had controuled a little passion in myself, and had check- 
ed some bad counsel that was given me, to revenge myself upon 
those that had committed this error, I ordered what should be 
done to get off these rocks and stones. First, we hauled all our 
sails a-back-stays; but that did no good, but made her beat the 
harder : whereupon we struck all our sails a-main, and furled them 
up close, tearing down our stern, to bring the cable through the 
cabin to the capstan, and so laid out an anchor to heave her astern. 
I made all the -rater in the hold to be staved, and set some to the 
pumps to pump it out, and did intend to do the same with our 
Leer. Others I put to throw out all our boats, which was soon 
arid speedily done. We coiled out our cables into the long boat; 
all this while the ship beating so fearfully that we saw some of the 
sheathing swim by us. Then stood we, as many as we could tathe 
capstan, and heaved with such a good will, that the cable brake, 
and we lost our anchor. Out, with all speed, therefore, we put 
another. We could not now perceive whether she did leak or no ; 
and that by reason we were employed in pumping out the water, 
which we had bulged in the hold ; though we much doubted that 
she had received her death's wound; wherefore, we put into the 
boat the carpenter's tools, a barrel of bread, a barrel of powder, 
six muskets^ with some match, and a tinder-box, fish-hooks and 
lines, pitch and oakum ; and, to be brief, whatever could be 
thought on in such an extremity. All this we sent ashore, to pro- 
long a miserable life for a few days. We were five hours thus beat- 
ing, in which time she struck 100 blows, insomuch that we thought 
every stroke had been the last that it was possible she pould have 
endured. The water we could not perceive, in all this time, to flow- 
any thing at all ; at length it pleased God she beat over all the 
rocks, though yet we kne\v not whether she were staunch. Where- 
upon to pumping we gp, on all hands, till we made the pumps suck, 
and then we saw how much water she did make in a glass. We 
found her to be very leaky; but we went to prayer, and gave God 
thanks it was m> worse; and so fitted all things again, and got 
further off, and came to an anchor. In the evening, it began tc 
blow very hard af W. S. W. which Jf it had done while w.e were on 



ABSTRACT OF A VOYAGE OF DISCOTEUY. 149 

the rocks, we hart lost our ship without any redemption. With 
much ado v. weighed our anchor, and let her drive to the cast- 
ward amongst the broken grounds and rocks, the boat going be- 
fore sounding. At length we came amongst breaches, and the boat 
made signs to us thai there was no going farther. Amongst the 
rocks, therefore, we again came to an anchor, where we did ride 
all night, and where our men, who were tired out with extreme 

O 7 W 

labour, were indifferently well refreshed. Here I first noted that 
when the wind was at S. it flowed very little or no water at all, 
so that we could not bring our ship a-ground to look to her, for 
we did pump almost continually. 

The 13th. at noon, we weighed and stood to the westward ; but 
in that course it was all broken grounds, shoals and sunken rocks, 
so that we wondered with ourselves how we came in amongst them 
in a thick fog. Then we shaped our course to the northward, and 
after some consultation with my associates, I resolved to get about 
this land, and so to go dow.i into the bottom of Hudson's Bay, 
and see if I could discover a way in the river of Canada, and, if I 
failed -of that, then to winter on the main land, where there is 
more comfort to be expected, than among rocks or islands. We 
stood along the shore, insight of many breaches: when it was 
night we stood under our fore-sail, the lead still going. At last, 
the water shoaled upon us to ten fathoms, and it began to blow 
hard. \Ve tacked about, and it did deepen to 12 or 14 fathoms, 
but by and by it shoaled again to 8 fathoms. Then we tacked about 
again, and suddenly it shoaled to 6 and 5 fathoms, so we struck 
our sail a-main, and chopt to an anchor, resolving to ride it out 
for life and death. We rid all night a great stress, so that our bits 
did rise, and we thought that they would have been torn to pieces. 

At break of day, the 14th, we were joyful men; and, when we 
could look about, we descried an island some two leagues o(T, at 
W. by N. and this was the shoal that lay about it. Here did run a 
detracted, but yet a very quick tide, of which we taking the op- 
portunity, got up our anchor, and stood N. W. to clear ourselves 
of this shoal. In the afternoon, the wind came up at N. E. and we 
stood along the eastern shore in sight of a multitude of breaches. In 
the afternoon, it began to blow a storm not sail-worthy, and the 
ea went very high, and was all in a breach. Our shallop whieh we 
did now tow at stern, being moored with two hawsers, was sunk, 
and did spin by her mooring Avith her keel up, twenty times in an 
hour. This made our ship to hull very broad, so that the sea did con- 
tinually over-rake us. yet we endured it, and thought to recover 



!50 ABSTRACT OF A VOYAGE OF DISCOTERY. 

her. All the night the storm continued with violence, and with some 
rain in the morning, it then being very thick weather. The water 
shoaled apace, with such an overgrown sea withal, that her sail 
was not to be endured ; and what was as ill there was no trusting 
to an anchor. Now, therefore, began we to prepare ourselves how 
to make a good end of a miserable life. About noon, as it cleared 
up, we saw two islands under our lee, "whereupon M - e bare up to 
<hem, and, seeing an opening betwixt them, we endeavoured to get 
into it before night ; therefore, come life, come death, we must 
run this hazard. We found it to be a good sound, where we rid all 
night safely, and recovered our strengths a.'.ain, which were much 
impaired with continual labour. But before we could get into this 
good place, our shallop broke away (being moored with two 
hawsers), and we lost her to our great grief. Thus now had we 
but the ship's boat, and she was all torn and bruised too. This 
island was the same that we had formerly coasted the western side 
of, and named my Lord Weston's island. Here we remained till 
the 19th, in which time it did nothing but snow and blow ex- 
tremely, insomuch that we durst not put our boat overboard. 

The 19th, the wind shifted N.N.E. and we weighed and stood 
to the southward ; but by noon the wind came up at S. and so we 
came to an anchor under another island, on which J went ashore, 
and named it the Earl of Bristol's Island. The carpenter wrought 
hard in repairing our boat; whilst I wandered up and down on 
this desert island. I could not perceive that ever there had been 
any savages on it ; and in brief, we could neither find fish, fowl, 
nor herb upon it, so that I returned comfortless on board again. 
The tides rise high about some six feet, now that the wind is nor- 
therly. The flood comes from the north, and it doth flow half 
tide. The full sea this day was at one o'clock. Here seeing the 
wipds continue so northerly, that we could not get about to get 
iatQr Hudson's Bay, we considered again what was best to do to 
look out for a watering place. Some advised me to go for Port 
Nelson, because we were certain there was a cove, where we 
might bring in our ship. I liked not that counsel ; for that it is 
a most perilous place, and that it might be so long ere we could 
get thither, that we might be debarred by the ice : moreover, 
seeing it was so cold here, as that every night our rigging did 
freeze, and that sometimes in the morning we did shovel away the 
snow half a foot deep off our decks, and in that latitude too; I 
thought it far worse in the other place. I resolved thereupon to 
stand again to the southward, there to look for some little creel; 
ox cove for our ship. 



ABSTRACT OF A YOYAGE OF DISCOVERY. 151 

The 21st the wind came up at N. and we weighed, although it 
was a very thick fog, and stood away S.W. to clear ourselves of 
the shoals that were on the point of this island, which is in lat. 
53 10. ' When we cleared, we steered away S. 

The 22d, in (he morning, proceeds Captain James, when we 
could look about us, we saw an island under our lee, some 
leagues off, all being shoals and breaches betwixt us and it. At 
noon (with the help of the windward tide,) we attempted to heave 
up our anchor, although the sea still went very lofty. Joinifyn- 
all our strengths therefore with our best skill, God be thanked*! 
we got it up; but before we could set our sails, we were driven 
into nine fathom. Endeavouring thereupon to double a point, to 
get under the lee of this island, the water shoaled, to seven, six, 
and five fathom, but when we were about, it did deepen again, and 
we came to an anchor in a very good place ; and it was very good 
for us that we did, for the wind increased to a very great storm. 
Here we rid well all the night, took good rest, and recovered our 
spent strengths again. The last night, and this morning, it did 
snow and hail, and was very cold : nevertheless, I took the boat, 
and went ashore, to look for some creek or cove, to hove in our 
ship, for she was very leaky, and the company become sickly and 
weak, with much pumping and extreme labour. This island, 
when we came to the shore, was nothing but ledges of rocks 
and banks of sand, and there went a very great surf on them. 
Nevertheless, I made them row throughout it, and ashore I got 
with two more, and made them row off without the breaches, and 
there to come to an anchor, and there to stay for me; I made 
what speed I couM to the top of a hill, to discover about, but could 
not see what we looked for. Thus, because it began to blow hard, 
I made haste towards the boat again, I found that it had ebbed so 
low, that the boat could not by any means come near the shore for 
me; so that we were fain to wade through the surf and breaches 
to her; in which some took such a cold, that they did complain 
of it to their dying day. But now it began to blow hard, so that 
we could not get but little to windward toward onr ship, for the 
wind was shifted since we went ashore ; and return to the shore we 
could not, by reason of the surf. Well, we row for life ; they in 
the ship let out a buoy by a long warp, and by God's assistance 
we got to it, and so haled up to the ship, where we were well 
welcomed, and we all rejoiced together. This was a precaution 
to us, to be careful how we sent off the ooat, for that it was win- 
ter weather already. I named this island Sir Thomas Roe's 



152 NAVAL POETRY. 

Island. It is full of small wood, but in other benefits not very 
rich, and stands in hit. 'S~l dcg. 10 min. At noon, we weighed, 
seeing an island that bore S.S.E. of us, for some leagues off, 
which was the highest land we had yet seen in this bay ; but as we 
came near it, it suddenly shoaled to six, five, and four fathoms, 
wherefore we struck our sails amain, and chopt to an anchor ; but 
it was very foul ground, and when the ship was winded up, we 
had but three fathom at her stern. As it cleared, we could see 
the breaches all along under our lee ; not holding it safe therefor* 
to stay long here, we settled every thing in order, for the ship to 
fall the right way. We had up our anchor, got into deep water, 
and stood over again for Sir Thomas Roe's Island, which by night 
we brought in. the wind of us, some two leagues off, which did well 
shelter us, the tides run very quick here amongst these shoals; 
and their times of running ebb or flood be very uncertain. Their 
currents are likewise so distracted, that in the night there is no 
sailing by the compass ; wherefore we were fain to seek every 
night some new place of security to come to an anchor. 
|_To be continued.] 



"IT 
L 



$afcal 

The heart's remote recesses to explore, 

Aud touch U; springs, when probe avail'd no more. 

FALCONER. 



MU. EDITOR^, Dover, 14th February, 1809. 

AM induced, by mention made, in the Obituary of the NAVA& 
CHRONICLE (page SS), of the late General Edward Smith, to 
communicate some information concerning another naval member 
of that same family (namely, the general's father, an intrepid sailor 
like lus grandson, Sir Sidney Smith). And in the first place I beg 
leave to refer you to the following article in the London Magazine 
for 1743: 

Extract of a Let Icr from Antigua, 1st April. 

" By tetters from Captain John Osborue, of 'Lieutenant-general Dalzell's 
rcjimcnt, dattd on board the Burford, at Curacoa, to our Governor-general 
Miiihews, we have the following account : That on the 19th February 
about 1 P.2\I. Commodore Knowlcs>'s squadron attacked the forts ac la 
Guuira, on the C.irracca coast ; hut that a great swell prevented their going 
nearer than half a mile of the forts. About five the Burford, having re- 



NAVAL POETRY. 153 

ceiveil nineteen shot iu her hull, one in her bowsprit, one in her main-yard, 
and one in her rudder, mostly 42-pounders, and her commander, Captain 
F. Lushington, being struck on the thigh with a cannon ball, she was forced 
to slip her cable ; which the commodore observing, made a signal for the 
Norwich to slip also and assist her, which that ship accordingly did; and 
they both went for Curacoa, where Captain Lushington was landed, and 
died in about half an hour afterwards. The Norwich is very much damaged, 
has several of her men killed and wounded ; among the latter is Captain 
Gregory. The Assistance, Captain Smith Callace, and the Eltham, Captain 
Edward Smith, arrived at Curacoa, both very much damaged : the latter 
had no less than 70 of her crew killed and wounded ; and among the wounded 
is Captain Smith himself." 

The preceding is the brief chronicle of the catastrophe to which 
the following lines, by the late Thomas Delamain, Esq. relate : and 
perhaps, as commemorating the fall of a distinguished naval 
(officer, -whose military virtues have been inherited by his lion- 
hearted* grandson, you may deem them deserving of being rescued 
from the usual oblivion that awaits fugitive effusions, by granting 
thcjn an asylum amongst the naval poetry of your instructive and 
interesting work. Yours, c. 

A FREEMAN OF DOVER. 

To Mrs. EMZABETH SMITH, zzith an Epitaph on her Husband, 
Captain EDWARD SMITH, of Dover, v:ho died at Antigua, June 
the 2.1st) 1743, Commander of his Majesty's Ship the Bur- 
ford, CJ'C. 

E A Til ! What is death ? A nothing which we make 
A something, and a shade for substance take : 



Why at thy image feels the soul such awe, 

For who yet death beyond its image saw ? 

In vain the straining foresight tires the mind. 

We fail to tell the secret when we find. 

Is it the palid visage, mourner's suit, 

The m'let eye, or friend in sorrow mute. 

The winding sheet, the widow's nightly lamp, 

The grave, the skull are these the heart's sick damp ? 

No for they move not, Smith. Say, what is life? 

Converse with men, a country, friend, a wife : 

Then death's no more than quitting life with men. 

To end our business or be born again. 

The homage at the passport gate we lay : 

As the soul journeys to eternity, 

in augmentation of his 



* Sir Sidney Smith's motto, granted by the king, in au 
family arms atter the defence of Acre, is " CO-.U.T de, Lion, 



. fl&ton. (Hoi. XXI. 



154 NAVAL POETRY. 

That length of waste*, where joyless ghosts unblcst 
Wander, still restless for some place of rest; 
Or fleet o'er moonlight seas, in flames, now run, 
Now plunge for ease in frost, now freeze, now burn. 
That scene, where spirits of the virtuous stray, 
Through worlds of bliss, gilt with perpetual day, 
la various joys employed. Some sacred praise, 
Some nature's -view to heavenly raptures raise; 
Or, friends toman, the virtuous make their care, 
And are, perhaps, our guardian-angels here. 
Whence then the grief, but absence that's unkind, 
Our friend goes first, and leaves his friend behind. 
Thus to myself I thought, when you assign'd, 
O SMITH, a task, my sorrow had declin'd ; 
But that I judg'd, when strangers drop a tear, 
A friend should not refuse a larger share ; 
Yet to th' indebted work I see no end, 
So many virtues prompt me to commend, 
la the bright crowd what fifst what last to choose. 
So large the subject, so urwkill'd the muse. 

Sometimes affected with poetic zeal, 
All nature speaks a sorrow at the tale, 
The weeping pleiads in dark splendour rise, 
And sit in tears the mourners of the skies : 
Big heavy clouds hang o'er the blacken'ddecp, 
And ravens croak above th' impending steep. 
Shrill notes the lakes, hoarse groans the caverns send, 
And frighted nymphs their mountain cedars rend. 
Now in the midst of ocean move along, 
Neptune, and all his gods in funeral song : 
Sea- weeds with coral M'ave around 'em hung, 
With ill-tun'd strains their harps to sorrow strung $ 
The shell that held the god is changed to jet, 
His horses black, their manes the chariot wet. 
Thetis, with all her maids, in mourning veils. 
Follows behind : then last Britannia sails; 
And, weeping, reads the monumental stone. 
The Tritons' horns are wrcath'd of blackest shell, 
The tortoise scale, which scarce thro' grief they swell; 
The sad procession thro' the deep moves slow. 
To music's sympathy in sounds of woe; 



NAVAL POETRY. 155 

The passing waves haste to each distant shore, 
And catch the dying note that SMITH'S no morej 
Whilst Dover's sea nymphs in their chalky cave, 
Sigh plaintive to the tale of ev'ry wave. 
Another time, when I his life pursue, 
And brave, wise, active, loyal, him review, 
My country's loss I mourn, and think to paint 
In lines more bold the hero and the saint ; 
The battle's fought, the vent'rous prize is won, 
The danger's past, and age unblemish'd run. 
But M hilst to deeds abroad I wish to roam, 
The tend'rest subject keeps me still at home; 
You and his mourning children to me rise, 
Like blasted poplars in the black disguise; 
And fain my care would that high office reach, 
To temper virtue, and each sorrow teach 
The pious duty to his laurclPd urn ; 
Not less to know your grief, but less to mourn ; 
Tho' in all else you best advice could lend, 
Yet I presume one pardon of a friend, 
For sorrow shews thy sense in faitest light, 
As stars shine brightest through the darkest night. 

" If the quick soul still lives, 'twas that yon lov'd : 
Death's then but absence, or but sight remov'd. 
Jleav'ii well has taught yon absence age to bear, 
And soon life's minutes run you'll meet him there. 
With mildness Heaven its strict commissions deals 
Pains by degrees, and as it wounds it heals ; 
Tho' oft' the virtuous grave they seldom fall, 
And tho' it largely takes, it takes not all. 
So for a while, tho' Ileav'n deprives you of him, 
It leaves his children you, and gives you them. 
Your worldly care, for him you must regard, 
"With Ileav'n, perhaps, meant there your last reward. 
() may his sons, true copies of his face, 
llecall the father in each manly grace ; 
Jn every virtue with his honour vie, 
And live as well, to learn as well <o die. 
And may thy daughter's mind, which like a ray, 
Shot from the pmpling c;i-t. gives signs of day; 
Strengthen in sense, as she in. form grows bright. 
Till all the virgin shiucs in virtue's light: 



156 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

Whilst the plcas'd mother sorrow's care beguiles, 
And, in her daughter, on her image smiles : 
Yet, not to shun the debt fame 's bound to pay, 
This epitaph we'll o'er his ashes lay. 



THE EPITAPH. 

On a Slab, in St. John's Cliurch~yard t Antigua, 

Britons ! whoe'er, through various seas and toil, 
Strays from your happy to this fatal soil, 
Slacken your sails, and pay a fuu'ral tear 
In duty to a true-born Briton here : 
Here rests the soldier in eternal peace, 
Here from the ills of life a saint 's at ease. 
Sedate in tumults, in the tempest calm, 
Health to the valiant, to the wounded balm; 
Amidst the battle, at the council brave, 
Gay to the virtuous, to the vicious grave; 
A patriot husband, father, brother, friend, 
"Who even scandal did like praise commend : 
To death well known, yet sole to heav'n resign'd 
He fell alone by heav'n but heav'n was kind. 

Note. Mrs. Elizabeth Smith, to whom the preceding lines were addressed, 
was daughter of Captain John Douglas, royal navy, of his majesty's ship 
Content, in King William's reign. lie was a twin, and 22d child of Lord 
John Douglas, survived all his brothers and sisters, and yet died at the early 
age of 34, at St. Helena, in 1701. 

Captain Smith, the hero of the tale, was appointed post-captain of the 
Eltham frigate, 16th November, 1739, and died of wounds at Antigua, ^Ist 
June, 1743, in the command of his majesty's ship Burford. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESEN 7 T YEAR, 1809. 

(January February. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

ESCAPE OF THE BREST FLEET. 

(From MOTTLEY'S " Telegraph," Portsmouth, Saturday, Feb. 25, 1809.) 
npUHS morning arrived the Kacoon sloop of war, Captain Welsh, Mitli 
intelligenfcc of the Escape of the French Fleet at Brest. 
The Kncoon was on her passage to Cadiz, when, on Thursday noon 
ast, off Ushant, she fell in with the Lyra sloop of war, Captain Beivaus, 



NAVAL HISTOUY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. \b7 

tvhich sliip had been just despatched to Plymouth, by the reconnoitring 
frigate stationed off Brest, -with intelligence, that all the ships of war 
ihat were ready for sea in Brest had escaped out, either on Monday night 
last, or early on Tuesday morning. They had not been seen by any of 
the ships on that station the course they steered is not known, nor \s 
their destination the wind was northerly. Captain Welsh conceiving it 
to be of essential importance that early information should be commn- 
nicated to the Admiralty of the circumstance, made every possible haste 
to this port : on his arrival here, it was immediately communicated la 
London by telegraph. 

It is supposed that, as Lord Gambler, who sailed from Torbay 
on Tuesday afternoon, was not in his station on Thursday, his lordship 
had received the information, and had gone in pursuit. The opinion as 
to their destination is divided between Cadiz and Martinique. It is 
apprehended that they will be joined by the six sail of the line, two of 
Afhich are three deckers) which the French took possession of at Ferrol. 
The following ships sailed from Torbay with Lord Gambier, viz. 
Caledonia, 110, Admiral Lord Gambier, Captain Sir II. Burrard Xcale 
(captain of the fleet), Captain Bedford ; Royal George, 100, Vice- 
admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth, Captain Dunn ; St. George, 98, 
It ear-admiral fcliab Harvey, Captain Hillyar; Dreadnaiight, 98, Rear- 
admiral Sotheby, Captain Salt ; Temerairc, 9S, Sir C, Hamilton; 
Achille, 74, Sir Rkhard Kiug ; Impetueux, 74, Captain Lawfordi 
Christian Vllth, Captain J. Hancock, acting ; Warspite, "4, Hon. 
Captain Black wood. The Hero, 74, Captain Newman, looked into 
Torbay on Wednesday, and then proceeded for the station <>rt' Ushant, 
to join his lordship. The Brest fieet is believed to consist often sail of 
the line and several frigates. 

The Barfleur, 9S, Captain Linzee ; Zealous, 74, Captain Boys; and 
the Elizabeth, 74, Hon. Captain Curzon, sailed from Plymouth ou 
Jlonday, to cruise off Ferrol. 



At a meeting of the common council of the city of Limerick, "held 
the 13th day of February, 1S09, the following resolution was unani- 
mously agreed to: 

" That the freedom of the city be presented to Captain Michael Sey- 
mour, of his majesty's ship Amethyst, in a heart of oak box, orua- 
mcnted with gold, accompanied with the following address: 

*' SIR, 

" Tho freedom of this ancient and loyal city hns been "Unanimously 
voted by us, the mayor, aldermen, sheriffs, and common council, to be 
presented to you in a heart of oak box, ornamented with gold, a*> 
emblematic of the glorious profession YOU fill, with so much honour io 
yourself and advantage to your country. 

" The engagement between his majesty's ship Atnethyst, under your 
command, and the French ship TJielis, in which you triumphed over a 



158 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

very superior force, rnnks amongst the most brilliant exploits that haTC 
raised our navy to such unrivalled fame. 

" To the satisfaetion we feel in offering 1 this -ivdl-earned tribute i* 
added the pride of knowing, that it is to, our fellow-citizen it is paid. 

(Signed') " JOHN CRIPS, Mayor. 

" EDWARD PARKER, Town-clerk." 



The principal event in the naval history of the preceding mor>th. ha* 
been the rejection by the Board of Admiralty, of the ca:>t;iv. v .s* petition 
for an increase of pay, which was sent in through Admiral Montagu, 
Every article of life has certainly of late years experienced a mojt i:\tr.ior- 
dinary rise; and, according tq a statement which we i>ave see, the ihare 
of prize money that a captain now receives, when compared with niiar he 
had a right to in 1793, at the beginning of the French war. has betn re- 
duced, bv subsequent regulations, nearly one half. Admiral Montagu has 
been succeeded at Portsmouth by Sir It. Curtis. Previous to the former 
oilicer's leaving that port, where he has been so generally respected, be 
hail, it is said, proposed to Government, to fit out all tiic Danish ships of 
war as transports; offering to restore them to their original state, after 
they had thus been employed, at a trifling expcnce. 

In South America, its independence has been proclaimed tinder General 
Uniers, as their chief, which will probably give a new turn to the present 
eventful war. A treaty has, it is said, been signed between this country 
and tl>e king of Spain, which was lately mentioned by Mr. Canning in the 
house. The prospect of peace with France seems, if possible, nu>;- .istant 
than ever. As Lord Grosvemn- said, in his speech on the state <>t the 
nation, February 7, " This nation has now suffered for seventeen years, 
with the intermission of only a few months, the calamities of war. The 
question was not whether peace with France, as France now is, would be a 
benefit. For himself, he entertained no hope of peace :is Ions; us the hos- 
tile mind existed in the ruler of that country. What advantage had been 
derived from the last peace? Was it not a peace of distress, of suspicion, 
of expcncc? Was there any thing dosira-Me in a peace o: llmt description J 
No: we must make up our minds to a long and arduous struggle. In any 
peace that we should make with France, constituted as she at present is, 
all her energy would be directed in the interval to prepare the means of 
new hostility, to sap the foundation of our commerce, and to diminish our 
revenues and our maritime preponderance, both of which were the result 
of that commerce. The system of France was regular and undcviating. 
The vast power she has arquired within these few years was as much owing 
to her political dexterity as the victories she has obtained. The way for 
her triumphs was prepared by the total overthrow of the moral and political 
feelings of the countries whose subjugation she meditated. See what in- 
fluence Buonaparte has acquired over the Emperor of Russia how he has 
induced him to view with complacency acts from which a liberal mind 
would have shrunk back with horror how he has induced him to sign tl e 
letter which w.is lately laid on tfje table ! The calamities of Europe are 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE JPUF.SENT YEAR, 1809. 159 

ascribed in that letter to the stagnation of maritime commerce. Is it to the 
stagnation of maritime commerce that the overthrow or" the German Empire 
the incorporation of Italy, the subjugation of Switzerland, the ovi rthrow of 
the independence of Holland, the war between Sweden and Ilnsia, the 
distracted state of the Ottoman Empire, and the atrocious attack upou Spain, 
are to be attributed? Is it to these, or to the insatiable ambition of evcrv 
government which has been in France bince the commencement of the 
revolution." 



It is reported, that a traitorous commerce, to a considerable extent, 
lias lately been carried on by British speculators, in British ships, with 
the enemy's settlements in the West Indies. Several vessels have been 
sent to Antigua, and other of our islands, attempting to enter Giia.- 
daloupe and Martinique. 

An officer of rank, in a letter of a late date, writes as follows : 
" We are all ardent in our desire to distinguish ourselves in the oppor- 
tunity before us of reducing Martinique ; and so excellent in all respects 
are Ihe arrangements, and the appointments for theattack, that we have 
no reasonable ground to doabt success, save only from the treasonable 
supplies afforded to the enemy. Provisions of every kind, warlike 
stores, &.C. are thrown into the out barges, for which such high con- 
sideration is made, as to induce the owners of such vessels even to throw 
themselves into the ivay of being taken by the French, rather than fall 
into the hands of our cruizers. This evil is said to arise in a great mea- 
sure from there being no fund applicable to reward informers ; and after 
the condemnation of a prize, the amount of its sale goes directly to the 
captors, whilst the party who has led to the discovery is left to the risks 
and odium attached to the information he has given. Is it not desirable 
that ministers should consider this matter ? and is it not probable that 
Parliament would adopt some measure to create a fund from which a 
proportionable reward might be afforded to persons giving such informa- 
tion ? la the American war, much treasonable speculation was carried 
on, but I understand was at last suppressed by measures resorted to; 
what they were, as I am just arrived, 1 have not been able to learn, fur- 
ther than that the most liberal considerations were made to procure 
information." 

We are sorry to learn, that, since the above was written, the expedi- 
tioa against Martinique has been abandoned, in consequence of the sup- 
plies and reinforcements which the French have found the means of 
throwing in. 

The public revenue, notwithstanding we are shut out from almost 
the whole of the continent of Europe, and entirely from the United 
States, has increased to a degree never expected, even by those per- 
son* who were most sanguine in their hope of the extent of our national 
resources. 



1GO NAVAr, HISTORY OF THET PRESENT YKAR, 18017. 

The surplus of ways and means this year (beyond the 

esti mate) , for three quarters, ending the Mb January, 

was 2,747,531 16 <? 

Surplus on the lotteries, which was estimated at 

300,0001. for 0,000 tickets (40,000 tickets having 

exceeded that estimate) w ill be about .......... 1 65,000 ft 



2,912,551 16 10 

So that the surplus for the whole year may be taken at least for four 
millions; besides which one million and a half raised last year for the 
Kast India Company will not be wanted this year ; making in the whole 
a reduction of five millions and a half from the sum of nineteen millions 
raised in various ways last year. 

The Amiable, Captain Hon. G. Stewart, lias taken and sent into Yar- 
mouth Roads, the French corvette Joste, of 22 guns and 200 men, with z 
cargo of about ^00 barrels of flour. This vessel had also on board 
a. chest of dollars for paying the troops at Martinique. This the French 
crew broke open on being captured, and partly emptied of its contents.- 
She sailed from Dunkirk on the 3d, in company with a brig, which 
went north-about. The Joste was captured the day following her 
departure. 

Provisions, to the amount of upwards of one million five hundred, 
thousand pounds, were exported from YVaterford in the course of last 
year. 

So great a want of the necessaries of life is said to prevail in the island 
of Corfu, that it is much to be feared that the garrison and inhabitants 
will see themselves forced to surrender. 

On the 5th of February, a coroner's inquest was held at the house of 
Mr. Dykes, the Five Bells, at New-cross, Deptford,on the body of Lieu- 
tenant John Johnson, of the navy, who was found about seven o'clock 
on the morning of the preceding Saturday in a ditch near Mr. Hard- 
castle's mansion-house, most inhumanly murdered. 

Mr. Blanchard, surgeon, at 1'cckham, set out the state of the deceased 
when he saw him. His throat was cut from ear to ear, and his head 
nearly severed from his body. lie had nine wounds about his face, and 
in particular the lower part : at the back of his head were several con- 
tusions and cuts, and his left thumb was nearly cut off. There 
could be no doubt that the wounds he received were the cause of his 
death. 

Several witnesses were examined concerning persons who were seen 
near the spot on the morning of the murder, but nothing material arose 
from their testimony. II appears, that the deceased was a lieutenant in 
the navy, about forty-five years old, and belonging to the ship Eydercen, 
Captain Pengelly, now lying at the Nore. It is supposed that he had 
about live or six pounds in his pocket j he was a man of great persona.! 
courage, and most probably made great resistance when attacked, 

A verdict of Wilful Murder against persons unknown, was returned, 



KAVAL HtSTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1S09. 161 

In the thanks given by the House of Commons to the officers that had so 
much distinguished themselves in Spain, the SPEAKER thus addressed Sir 
Samud Hood. 

" Sir Samuel Hood The various and brilliant services you have ren 
dered to your country, in the long and splendid career of glory that has so 
eminently distingtiished your name, have several times obtained for you the 
cordial thanks of this house. Your late eminent services at Corunna, in the 
prompt and effectual assistance rendered by you for the complete embark- 
ation of his majesty's troops, have been considered by this House fully to en- 
title you to a repetition of their thanks, as a just tribute of their applause. 
I now, therefore, in the name of the commons, &c. thank you for your emi- 
nent services on that occasion." 

Sir S. Hoot). " I bee; leave to return my sincere thanks for the honour 
how done me by the House of Commons, and it affords me the highest satis- 
faction if, in doing that which was only my duty to my sovereign and my 
country, I h^.ve obtained the approbation of this House. I hope the House 
vvill give me credit rbr a due sense of its favour, and that you, sir, will ac- 
cept rriy thanks fdr the handsome manner in wliich you have communicated 
to me the thanks of the House." 

Among the emigrants of distinction who left Cornnna on the embarkation 
of the British army, was the Duke de Vera Aguas. This title alone does not 
Suggest those feelings of sympathy and respect which will be excited by the 
information that this illustrious nobleman is the lineal descendant of, per- 
haps, the greatest man Spain ever produced, Christopher Columbus. The 
duke met with an asylum on board Admiral de Courcy's ship, the Tonnant. 

On the 10th of February, a boat, with a crew of 22 persons, belonging 
to the Barfleur, Captain Linzee, was upset in a heavy sea, when attempt- 
ing to cross the bridge of rocks between Mount Edgecumbe and St. Nicho- 
las's Island, by which 17 persons were unfortunately drowned, among whom 
was Mr. Foot, a lieutenant of marines, and Mr. le Mesurier, a master's 
mate. It appears that the boat was proceeding from Cawsand-bay to the 
Salvador del Mundo, in Hamoaze, svith two prisoners, John Sennet, sea- 
man, and William Jones, carpenter's mate of the Barfieur, who were to take 
their trial the next morning on a charge of having rttutinously expressed their 
desire to have a new captain. Jones was among the drowned, as were also 
many of the witnesses ; but Bennet was one of the five that were saved. 
Before the court was formed, the surviving prisoner had the option of post- 
poning his trial, but, though exhausted from lying in the water, he request- 
ed to be tried immediately. A long investigation took place, when the court 
adjudged that the charge was not proved, and the prisoner was acquitted. 
Many of the officers of the ship came forward, and gave the prisoner an ex- 
cellent churacter. It appeared in evidence that, in consequence of a letter 
having been sent to the Admiralty against the captain, he turned the hands 
up, to inquire what complaint they hud against him. The general answer 
was" A new captain." That the prisoner, having sailed with Captain Lin, 
zee for some time, was particularly asked his complaint, when he said, in a 

ol XXI, Y 



162 NAVAL HISTOTIY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

respectful way, he had been wrongfully punished ; and went the length of 
observing he did 1 not wish to sail with the captain again. The prisoner read 
a written defence, which seemed to make a due impression on the ciurt. It 
is remarkable that the paper was in his pocket during the time he was in 
the water. We trust the unnecessary sacrifice of so many valuable lives wiU 
not be suffered to pass unnoticed ; this passage is so notoriously dangerous, 
in bad weather, that we hope steps will ere long be taken to prevent the 
fatal accidents that so frequently occur. 

The body of the unfortunate Lieut. Foot was picked up on the 13th, and 
on the 16th, an inquest was held on it, when the jury returned a verdict 
Accidentally drowned. 

Some experiments were lately repeated upon Mr. Lamb's patent 
machine for rendering sea-water fresh, in the presence of a number of 
gentlemen, at Mr. Rutherford's manufactory, East Smithfield, and gave 
great satisfaction. The machine, which is designed for the island of 
Antigua, produced pure fresh writer from the water of the ocean, at 
the rate of from fifty to sixty gallons per hour. Great ingenuity is disco- 
vered in the manner of obtaining fresh water ; and the improvements which 
Mr. Lamb has introduced in the manufactory of fire hearths, with condens- 
ing apparatus attached to them, promise to be of great utility in his majes- 
ty's navy, and merchantmen in general. 



lletfers? on 

Copied verbatim from the LONDON GAZETTE. 

ADMIRALTY-OFFICE, JANUARY 28, 1809. 

Copy of a Letter from Vice-admiral Rorcley, Commander-in-chief of his 
Majesty's Ships and Vessels at Jamaica, to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated at 
Port Royal, the 2%d of November, 1808. 

SIR, 

T HAVE the honour to transmit, for the information of the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty, a copy of a letter which I nave received 
from Captain Cumby, oftiis majesty's ship Polyphemus, reporting the cap- 
ture, by Lieutenant Joseph Daly, in that ship's barge, of the French 
national schooner Colibry, of three guns, commanded by a lieutenant de 
vaisseau, and having a complement of sixtv- three men. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

B. 8. ROWLEY- 

Polt/phemns, off the City of St. Domingo* 
SIR, 14th November, 1808. 

Having detached the boats of his majesty's ship under my command at 
half-past eight o'clock this morning, in chase of a schooner that -.v a - 
attempting to enter the harbour, I had the satisfaction, at twenty minutes 
bast nine, to see her boarded and carried in the most handsome manner by 
Lieutenant Joseph Daly, in the barge, under as brisk a lire of grape and 
musketry us the impetuosity with which our boatb advanced would allow the. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

enemy to keep up. She proves to be the French national schooner Colibry, 
of three carriage guns, commanded by Mons. Deyrisse, lieutenant de 
vaisaeau, with a complement of sixty-three men; reputed the fastest sailing 
vessel attached to this colony, and, I trust, may be found well calcui ;ted 
for his majesty's service. 

In the execution of this service I have to regret the loss of one marine 
(Samuel Crompton) killed in the barge; and on the part ef the enemy, one 
killed and the severely wounded. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

W. PRYCE CUMBY, Captain. 
JB. S. Rowley, Esq. Vice-admiral of 
the White, #c. 

Copy of another Letter from Vice-admiral Rowley to the Hon. W. W. Pole, 

dated at Port Royal, the 3d December, 1808. 
SIR, 

The enclosed copy of a letter which I have received from Captain Dash- 
wood, of his majesty's ship Franchise, will acquaint the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty with the capture of the French privateers Ouerrier and 
Exchange, and some other vessels, in the harbour of Samana, by the ships 
named in the margin;* and I have no doubt that their lordships will be 
pleased with the promptitude and decision by which the enemy have been 
dispossessed of almost the la.st port of refuge for their privateers in those 
seas. I have tlie honour to be, Ike. 

B. S. ROWLEY. 

His JUajesty't Ship Franchise, Port Royal, 
SIR, December 1, 1()8. 

His majesty's ships named in the margin* having accidentally met on the 
10th ultimo, and conceiving the taking of the town and port of Samana 
would facilitate the operations of the Spanish patriots blockading the city of 
St. Domingo, I the nest morning entered and took possession of the har- 
bour without any opposition, together with the vessels, agreeably to the list 
which I have the honour of enclosing. 

I have very sincere pleasure in reporting, that, in addition to the 
assistance rendered our allies, I have every reason to suppose the com- 
merce of his majesty's subjects will now pass unmolested, as Samana was 
the last refuge for the host of privateers which have so long infested the 
various passages to windward of bt. Domingo ; particularly so, as the enemy 
were in the act of erecting batteries for their permanent establishment, 
which, had they been completed, would, from -iheir position, have soon 
rendered the place tenable against almost any force which might attack it. 

I have allowed the French inhabitants to remain on their plantations, and 
assured them that their persons and property will be respected by the Spa- 
niards, for \\hich purpose 1 have entered into an agreement with Don Diego 
de Lira, a Spanish ofjjcer, and authorised him to hoist Spanish colours, and 
to keep the place, in trust, until your further pleasure is known. 

I have supplied them with euch arms and ammunition as were taken in 
the privateers ; and Don Diego deems himself competent to repel any 
force which the common enemy might be enabled to bring against him. 

I have, &c. 
Vice-admiral Ron-ley, $f. C. DASHVv'OOD, Captain. 



* Franchise, Aurora, Dsedalus, Rein Deer, Pert. 



$64 WAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

List of Vessels captured by a Squadron of his Majesty's Ships and Vessels at 
Samana, between 10th and 17th November, 1808. 

French schooner privateer Exchange ? Louis Teljn, master, of 100 tons, 
five guns, and 110 men. 

French schooner privateer Guerner, Dominique, master, of 90 tons, five 
guns, and 104 men. 

French schooner Diane, of 160 tons, laden with fish, ptc. 

French brig, name unknown, of 160 tons, laden with fish, &rc. 

French sloop Brutus, of 50 tons and five men, laden with coffee, &c. 

The following Vessels were recaptured at the. Mouth of the Bay by the. Rein 
Deer and Pert, on the Morning if the Ifttk November, when running for 
the Harbour. 

English ship Jeannet, R. Bradshaw, master, of 10 guns and 185 tons^ 
bound from London to the Havanna, with bale goods, &c. 

Spanish ship St. Erasmo, A. Gerona, master, of 350 tons, from Malaga 
to the Havanua, with wine, bale goods, &c. 

C. DASHWOOD, 
Captain and senior Officer. 

Copy of a Letter from Vice-admiral Campbell, Commander-in-chief of his 
Majesty's Ships and Vessels in Hie Downs, to the Hon. W- \V. 1'olt, dated, 
on board the Princess of Orange, January 27, 1809. 

SIR, 

Enclosed I transmit, for their lordships' information, a letter I have re- 
ceived through Commodore Owen from Captain Ncwcombe, of the Beagle, 
stating his having captured le Vengcur French privateer, of 16 guns and 
48 men, being the second this active of lice r lias captured within a very short 
period. 

On 'examining her log, If; appears this privateer has made no captures, and 
that she has been repeatedly chased ; ftbieh will shew that our cruisers are 
constantly on the alert when at sea. 

I have the honour to he, &c. 

G. CAMPBELL. 

SIR, His Majesty 1 * Ship Beagle, at Sea, January 24, 1R09. 

I beg leave to state, that last night, his majesty's ship under my com- 
mand chased two of the enemy's privateers, South Foreland bearing about 
N.N.E. five leagues, the one, named le Vengeur, of 16 amis, and 43 men, 
was captured; but such was the temerity of her commander (Captain 
Bourgnie), who was wounded, with another of his crew, that he did not 
yield until the Beagle ran him on board ; the other vessel, the Grand 
Napoleon, I am sorry to observe, made her escape; they were both from 
Boulogne, and had not made any captures. 

I have the honour to he, &c. 

To Commodore Owen, 4r. F. MEWCOMBE. 

Admiral Lord Gambicr, commander- in-chief of a squadron of his 
majesty's .*hips and vessels employed in the Channel, Soundings, cvc. has 
transmitted to the lion. William Wcllesley Pole a letter his lordship had 
received from Captain Ilodd, of his majesty's ship Indefatigable, giving an 
account of tlie capture, on the 14th instant, of la Claris-e French lugger 
privateer, pierced for fourteen guns, only three mounted, and forty-eisrht 
men on board. She sailed from St. Maloes the uight preceding her cap- 
ture, and had not made any prize. 



KAVAJL HI5TOB.Y OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 165 

JANUARY 31. 

fxtract of a Letter from Vice-admiral Lord Collingroood, Commander-in~ 

chief of his Majesty 3 s Ships and Vessels in the Mediterranean, to the Hon. 

W. W. Pole, dated on lourd tke Ocean, oft* Tvulon, the 1st of' I)fce/K~ 

ber, 1808. 

The Excellent, having been relieved on the service at Rosas by tl 
Fame, joined me on the 2<ith, and Captain West gave me a relation of 
icvents that have lately occurred there, in his letter dated the 21st ultimo, 
which I enclose, together with a list of killed and wounded seamen and 
marines of that ship and the Meteor bomb, employed on the same service. 

But for the presence of his majesty's ships in that bay, and the powerful 
assistance which Captain West, with the companies of those ships, afforded 
the Spaniards, both on shore and by the fire from them, there is every reason 
to believe the citadel of Ro^as and castle of the Trinity would both have 
fallen; they were ill provided with every thing necessary to a siege; the 
works of the citadel in bad repair, and the garrison not sufficiently numerous 
for the duties of its defence. 

Captain West's ability, and the valour and perseverance of his officers 
and men, removed as many of those defects as it was possible, and gave such 
severe checks to the enemy as made it necessary they should proceed by 
rules of art against a place that with their great force they intended to take 
by a cou}>-dc~T)udn, which has given ample time for the Spanish government 
to reinforce the garrison, and replenish the stores, &c. of this important 
post. 

The French have on this occasion practised those arts which Frenchmen 
are very expert in. A person was employed, it seems, to intercept the 
letters written by Colonel O'Daly, the commandant of the garrison of Roj-tts, 
to the Supreme Junta of Giroiui ; and they were two or three weeks with- 
out having any kno%vledge of what was passing: at the same time their 
emissaries gave out that the English had taken possession of the fortress, 
and suspended the Spanish otlicer from the duties of his office. The Junta 
wrote to Captain West, informing him of part of those reports, and begging 
he woujd inform them of the circumstances which had caused this change. 
It was afterwards discovered to be an artitice of the enemy to prevent rein- 
forcements coming 

In another instance the French have shewn much art, by abandoning their 
-.usual system of terror, deflation, and plunder; and in the neighbourhood 
of FtguernsandBosas have lately treated the Spanish inhabitants with more 
kindness to their persons, and forbearance of their property, endeavouring 
to attach them by a feigned moderation. 

The Spaniards are very sensible and very grateful for the support given 
to them by the English ; the animating example of Captain West, his skill, 
and the gallantry of his officers and men, is deserving of every praise; in 
the sortie he made at the head of his seamen and marines, when they 
attacked the enemy's advanced post, and rescued the miquelets, their con- 
duct and their couraire were admirable; several men were wounded, and 
Captain West's horse wa* shot under him, before they were obliged to re- 
tire, to prevent being cut oft' by the cavalry, which was advancing for that 
purpose. Captain Collins, of the Meteor, conducted the bombardment 
with great ability, and was indefatigable in the annoyance he gave the enemy 
by it. Lieutenant Howe, of the royal marines, belonging to the Excellent, 
commanded a detachment of that corps, which was thrown into the castle 
of Trinity for its defence ; and in two assaults made by the enemy with large 
bodies of troops, this officer, and the marines under his command, were 
highly distinguished for the gallantry which they displayed, and the resources 
they found, where almost every thing was wanting. 

The enemy suffered a very considerable loss of men. in tliese assaults; 



166 NAVAt HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

but unless measures have been taken to raise the siege, I am apprehensive 
this very important post will be reduced. 

His Majesty's Ship Excellent, Rosas Bay, 
MY LORD, November 21, 1808. 

I have anxiously waited an opportunity to inform your lordship of the 
investment of this port by the enemy, with a force computed at live or six 
thousand men. 

On the evening of the 6th instant, the enemy was first observed in motion 
between Figueras and Castillern, and, on the following morning, was in 
complete possession of the heights that encompass this bay. On the same 
day at noon, a small body of the enemy entered the town of Rosas, which, 
in an instant, was cleared of its inhabitants, who either fled to their boats or 
the citadel for protection ; but a well directed fire from the Excellent and 
Meteor bomb, both within point-blank shot of the town, obliged the enemy 
precipitately to retire. On the first appearance of the enemy, Colonel 
O'Daly, governor of this fortress, made application to me for assistance, 
when I immediately reinforced his garrison witli the marines of the 
Excellent (with the exception of an officer and twenty-five men, who had 
been previously detached to Fort Trinite"), and an officer and fifty seamen. 
On the 7th, the enemy took possession of several houses and ruins in the 
rear of the town as an advanced post, from which he 1-as been repeatedly 
dislodged by the citadel and the guns and shells of his majesty's ships in the 
bay. On the 8th at noon, observing a body of miqnelets hard pressed by 
the enemy from their advanced posts, I was induced to make a sortie from 
the citadel with the seamen and marines, and the officers commanding 
them, but the very superior force of the enemy, who endeavoured to sur- 
round us, obliged us to retire, but not till my officers and men bad dis- 
played a spirit and courage which gave me the most lively satisfaction. I 
am sorry I am obliged by this little affair to send your lordship a return of 
wounded men. 

Late on the evening of the 9th I received from the governor the unplea- 
sant advice, that a large breach was made in -the rampart of the citadel by 
a part of the bulwark falling down, sufficiently capacious to admit twenty- 
five men ahreait. I proffered to the governor every assistance that the 
urgency of the moment required, and directed Captain Collins to imme- 
diately weigh and place the Meteor as near the shoal as possible, to ilauk 
the breach in the event of an attack I sent at the same time two boats to 
enfilade the beach with the cannonades ; fortunately the latciics- of the hour 
precluded the enemy gaining information of the event. The following 
morning 1 sent an ofiicer and a party of seamen to assist in repairing the 
breach, directing the senmen and marines in the citadel to be employed on 
the same service. I3y every exertion the rampart was placed in a state of 
security for the night, the defence of which was entrusted to an officer and 
forty seamen, whom f sent on shore for that purpose. On the 3d flay I 
was happy to see the repair completed, and the work as defensible as it was 
previous to the disaster. 

On the morning of the 15th instant, at eight o'clock, the enemy made a 
most resolute assault on tlie Fort Trinite with about two hundred men, ami 
a reserve of about two thousand to support diem. The etiemy was bravely 
repulsed; but in a moment again advanced in greater force, when two of 
the outt.r gates were broke open ; but by a most galling and steady lire of 
musketry and hand-grenades from the fort, the enemy was a second time 
obliged to retire with great loss, leaving their leader, a chief of brigade, and 
many others, dead under its walls, and the second in command carried ot? 
desperately wounded. Expecting a third assault would be made, I threw 
i.u a reinforcement of thirty marines, with a captain and subaltern, by means 



NAVAL HTSTOIIY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 167 

fa rope ladder, which was effected without loss, and with one man but 
slightly wounded, during an incessant fire of musketry. 

I cannot speak in terms of sufficient praise of the officers and men in 
their glorious defence of Fort Trinite', on \Vhich occasion five marines were 
tvounded, and one Spaniard ; but I have the satisfaction to enclose to your 
lordship a letter I have received from the Spanish officer commanding its' 
garrison, which does him great honour. 

No further attempt was made on this fort till the 20th instant, when the 
enemy opened a battery of three heavy guns from a height commanding it ; 
but as yet has made no impression on its \valls. The Lucifer bomb had 
been throwing her shells the two preceding days to prevent the enemy 
making a lodgment on this height; but was compelled to retire, after being 
struck three times by the battery. During the previous night the enemy 
threw up an extensive intrenchment three hundred yards from the citadel, 
and at daybreak opened a fire upon the ships in the bay from three large 
mortars, which obliged us to retire out of their reach: the bomb vessels, 
from having a longer range of shells than the enemy, were enabled to throw 
them with effect. 

Fort Trinite, from its insulated situation and strength, I am of opinion, 
may stand a long siege. But I am not so sanguine with respect to the 
citadel, whose garrison is very inadequate to its defence, and having, as I 
conceive, a vulnerable point. I waited on the governor on Sunday last, to 
take my leave, when he informed me, that he was in expectation of a rein- 
forcement; but I am apprehensive the blockade of the enemy in Barcelona 
will prove an obstacle to his expected success. 

I beg leave to conclude this despatch to your lordship, by expressing how 
highly satisfied I have been with the conduct of the officers and company 
of the ship I have the honour to command, as likewise of those of the 
Meteor and Lucifer bombs, commanded by Captains Collins and Hall, 
whose great exertions, during the arduous and most fatiguing service they 
have imperiously been called upon to perform, reflect the greatest credit 
upon them. I have, &c. 

JOHN WEST. 

Right Hon. Vice-admiral Lord Collingwood, fyc. 

List of Men belonging to his Majesty's Ship the Excellent, who inert 
wounded in Action with the Enemy between the 8th and I6tk days of No- 
vember. 1808, in Rosas Bay. 

Robert Palmer, seaman ; John Sands, ditto ; Francis D. Coke, ditto, dan- 
gerously ; James Lambe, marine ; Deliffe Closhin, ditto, badly ; John 
Jtl'Xeal, seaman, slightly ; W. Brown, Serjeant of marines, slightly ; Ed- 
ward Magennis, seaman ; James Roberts, marine ; Peter Hyson, ditto ; 
James Martin, seaman, slightly; John Burrows, ditto, badly ; John Smith, 
marine ; John Brady, ditto, dangerously; William Wilson, ditto, died 16th 
November, 1808 ; Joseph Hanwood, ditto, slightly ; John Richardson, 
ditto, slightly ; John M'Clarty, seaman, slightly ; Dennis Garrett, ditto, 
ladly. Total, 19. 

List ofJlfen wounded in his Majesty's Ship Meteor, while engaging the Enemy 
in the Bay of Rosas, between the 7th and 20tk days of November, 1808. 

David Kerr, gunner of the royal marine artillery, lost both arms ; George 
Gale, ditto, slightly ; Jos. Ilaynes, ditto, slightly ; Thomas Johnson, seaman, 
a fracture ; Bastian Rausatto, ditto, slightly; George Ransden, quarter- 
jnaster. Total, 6. 



168 FAVAZ. HISTORY OP THE ^RESZNT YEAR, I8C&* 

Extract of another Letfer from Vice-admiral Lord Collinzwood, to the 
Hon^W* W. Pok, dated on board the Ocean, December 14, 1808. 

My letter of the 1st instant would inform you of the enemy having laid 
ttege to the -.astle of Rosas, and of the measures taken by the British ships 
in that bay in ai-1 of the Spaniards fur its defence. The Scout joined the 
squadron off Toulon on the 7th, and by her I received further accounts 
from Captain Bennett, of the Fame, of the progress the enemy wns making 
against that important fortress. Captain Lord Cochrane has maintained 
himself in the possession of Trinity Castle with great ability and heroism; 
altho!":'i the fort is laid open by the breach in its works, he lias sustained 
and repelled several assaults, having firmed a sort of rampart within the 
breach, with Ins ship's hammock cloths, awnings, &c. filled with sand and 
rubbish. The 2eal and energy, with which he has maintained that fortress, 
excites the highest admiration. His resources for every exigency have no 
nd. The Spanish governor of this castle is wounded, and on board the 
Meteor. 

FEBRUARY 4. 

Copy of a letter from. Rear-admiral the IJon. Sir Alexander Cocfiranc, K. R 
Commander-in-chief of his Majesty'* Ships and Vessels at the Leeward 
Islands, to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated on board the Neptune t at Barba* 
does, 19th December, 1808. 

SIR, 

I enclose, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty, the copy of a letter which I have received from Captain Collier, of* 
his majesty's ship Circe, the senior officer of the blockading squadron sta- 
tioned from the Diamond to the Pearl Rocks, Martinique, giving an account 
of the destruction of the French corvette le Cygne, whi;:h had sailed from 
Cherbourg on the 12th November, with the Papillon, another corvette, and 
la Verrus, la Junon, and TAmphitrite frigates. 

In performing this service 1 ara sorry to send the enclosed report of the 
loss which has been sustained by the several vessels engaged, owing to the 
corvette having been supported by the batteries, field pieces, and musketry 
from the shore, in her attempt to reach St. Pierre's ; but the object is fully 
accomplished, as she is bilged in such a situation as to render it impossible 
to recover the vessel, or the flour with which she was loaded. One of the 
schooners in company with her was burnti and the other drove on shore and 
destroyed ; each of them also having been loaded with flour and pro- 
visions. 

Captain Collier deserves great praise for his perseverance in overcoming 
the obstacles which the enemy presented by the numerous batteries which 
lined the shore in that part of the coast ; and he speaks in the highest terms 
of Captain Brenton, of the Amaranthe, as well as of the gallantry and good 
conduct of Lieutenant Wright, and a party of the Royal York Rangers, whe 
ttere serving as marines. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

ALEX. COCIIRANE. 

His Majesty's Ship Circe, off" St. Pierre's, Martinique, 
sin, December 14, 1808. 

On Monday, at eleven A.M. his majesty's brig Morne Fortune^ informed 
me by signal that an enemy's brig and two schooners were at anchor off 
the Pearl. I immediately recalled the look-out vessels named as per mar- 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 169 

gin,* and made all sail towards the enemy. On our ncaring St. Pierre's, I 
perceived a Inrge French schooner towing along shore, under cover of a 
number of troops. The schooner finding it impossible to get between St. 
Pierre's and the Circe, the Stork closing fast, they run her on shore under 
u buttery of four guns, flanked by two smaller ones, and the beach lined 
with troops. The signal was then inude to close with t;,e enemy, and 
engage in succession, the Circe leading, followed bv the Stork and Morne 
Fortunee ; being within pistol-shot the small batteries were soon silenced, 
and the troops driven from the beach. Seeing the brig and schooner un- 
loading, I directed the M< rne I ortunee to watch the schooner in shore, and 
to >;ive ?i'nilar orders to. the Epervier on her coming up. We then made 
svd towards the brig and the other schooner, which were lying well to wind- 
ward close to the beach, under cover of four batteries, and an immense 
number of troops and field p;ece~, which they had brought down on the 
beach to protect her. Having placed the barge and two cutters under the 
command of Lieutenant Crook, Mr. Collman, purser, Mr. Smith, master, 
and Mr. Thomas, carpenter, who handsomely rolunteered with sixty-eight 
men to bring the brig out, I then made sail with the Stork and Express to- 
wards her, and directed the bi^ats to lie off until the brig's tire slackened. 
It getting late, the vessels lying close in with the rocks, and having no pilot 
on board, T stood in, and was handsomely seconded by Captain le Geyc of" 
the Stork. The ships did not commence action until our men were wounded 
from the beach with musketry. We then bore up under a heavy fire of great 
guns and small arms. Having passed the batteries and the brig, the Circe's 
boats, not waiting for the Stork's to come up, boarded in the most gallant 
manner; and it is with extreme concern I have to add, that their gallantry 
(fid not meet with its reward ; they wrre beat back with dreadful slaughter; 
one boat taken and one sunk, the other entirely disabled. Our loss in the 
boats are killed, wounded, and missing, fifty-six. By tins time it was dark; 
I stood off until day-light, determining to persevere and destroy the brig, 
if possible. In the evening I was joined by the Amarauthe, who watched the 
brig during the night. 

At eight A.M. we perceived she had weighed; Captain Brenton, in the 
most handsome manner, volunteering to bring heir out, she was then towing 
and sweeping close in shore towards St. Pierre's ; the boats of the Circe and 
Stork, and men trotn the Express were sent to tow the Amaranthe up, who 
xvas at this time sweeping and using every exertion to close with the enemy. 
At ten, the French brig grounded near several batteries, to the northward 
of St. Pierre's; the Amara'.uhe tacked and worked in under a heavy fire 
from the batteries and brig, from which she suffered considerably, having 
one killed and five wounded, followed by the Circe, the rest of the squadron 
engaging the batteries to leeward. From the Amaranthe's well directed fire, 
she soon obliged them to quit tiie brig. Lieutenant Hay, of the Amaranthe, 
on tiiis service distinguished himself very much, and speaks of the gallantry 
of Messrs. Biooke and Rigmaidcn of the same sloop, in vfry handsome 
terms, who, with the boats of the Circe, Amaranthe, and Stork, bourderl 
her under a heavy fire from the batteries and troops on shore. Lieutenant 
Hay, finding her bilged, and impossible to get her off, effectually destroyed 
her in the evening. Captain Brenton again volunteered to destroy the 
schooner then on shore; I ordered Lieutenant George Robinson, second of 
the Amaranthe, but acting first of the Circe, with inv order, on this occa- 
sion, to follow the directions of Captain Brenton. At nine o'clock I bad 
the pleasure to see her on fire, and burnt to the water's edge. 1 am sorry to 
sdd that, on this service, Jilr. Jones, master of the Amnranihc, was \vouin!. 
ed.; and one seiimau killed, and three wounded, belonging to the F-Npres*. 

* Stork, Epcrvier, and Express 

, <S"Uon. vjlcl, XXI. z 



170 HAYAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

The captains, officers, and crews of the squadron you did me the honouf 
to place under my command behaved with that coolness and intrepidity 
inherent in British seamen, particularly the Amaranthe, whose gallant con- 
duct was noticed by the whole squadron. From the troops of the Royal 
York Rangers, under the command of Lieutenant Wright, doing duty as 
marines, I received every assistance. Lieutenant Crook, who commanded 
the boats, I am sorry to say, is severely wounded in four places; the loss of 
this gallant young man's services are severely felt on board the Circe. I am 
likewise sorry to add, that Mr. Colemau, purser, is among the number that 
is dangerously wounded; his conduct on this, and other occasions, deserves 
my warmest approbation. 

On boarding, we discovered the brig destroyed was la Cygnc, of eighteen 
guns, and one hundred and forty men, with flour, guns, and cartridge paper, 
for the relief of Martinique. The two schooners had likewise flour, and were 
armed; I have not yet learnt their force or names; I am happy to say that 
the one left off the Pearl is on shore bilged. 

In the performance of this service, our loss in killed and wounded, I am 
sorry to say, has been very great ; but I have the consolation to think that 
it was in the execution of an indispensable duty; and the grand object of 
cutting off the supplies of the enemy, will, I trust, justify the means which 
I have adopted, if not afford a small consolation to the relatives of those 
who fell. I have the honour to be, &c. 

F. A. COLLIER. 
Rear-admiral Sir A. Cochrane, $c. 

A List of killed and wounded on board the Squadron under the command of 
Francis A. Collier, Esq. in Action with the Enemy off" Martinique, the 
12th and I3ih Days of December, 1808. 
Circe 9 killed, 2 1 wounded, 26 missing. 56. 
Amaranthe 1 killed, 6 wounded. 7. 
Stork 1 killed, 1 wounded. 2. 
Express 1 killed,' 3 wounded. 4. 
Eficniier None killed or wounded. 
Morne Fortunte None killed or wounded. 
Total 12 killed, 31 wounded, 26 missing. 69. 

F. A. COLLIER, Captain. 

Copy of another Letter from Rear-admiral the. Hon. Sir Alex. Cochrane, 
K. B. to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated on board the Neptune, at Earbadoes, 
the Zlst of December, 1808. 

S1K, 

I enclose, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty, the copy of a letter from Captain Sanders, of his majesty's sloop 
Bellette, acquainting me with the capture of a French letter of marque, 
laden with provisions, from Bourdeaux. 

I also enclose Captain Spear's letter, of the Goree, which I had not before 
received, giving an account of the capture of a French letter of marque 
bound to Bourdeaux from Martinique. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

ALEX. COCHRANE. 

His Majesty's Sloop Bellette, at Sea, 

8IR > 'December, 5, 1808. 

I have the honour to inform you, that his majesty's sloop Bellette, under 
fhy command, has captured the French brig letter of marque Revanche, of 
six tuns, 12-pounders, pierced for eighteen, with a complement of forty- 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 171 

four men, laden with provisions, from Bourdeaux, bound to Guadaloupe, 
She has been a very successful privateer all this war, and was intended for 
a cruiser in those seas. I have the honour to be, &c. 

GEO. SANDERS. 

To the Hon. Sir Alexander Cochrane, K. B. 
I&ar-admiral of the Red, i$-c. 

fits Majesty^s Sloop Goree, Barbadoes, 

SIR, 30th November, 1808. 

I have the honour to acquaint yon, on the 24th instant, thirty leagues 
west of Guadaloupe, I captured, in his majesty's sloop under my command, 
the Admiral Villaret, a French ship letter of marque, mounting eight guns 
(four of which she threw overboard in the chase), and a complement of 
thirty-two men , from Martinique bound to Bourdeaux, laden with sugar, 
coffee, and cotton. I am, &c. 

JOSEPH SPEAR. 
Rear-admirat Sir Alex. Cochrane, K. B, fyc. 

Copy of a Letter from Admiral Lord Gambler, Commander-iri'chief of his 
Majesty s Ships and Vessels in the Channel, Soundings, fyc. to the Hon. 
W. ,W. Pole., dated on board the Caledonia, in Torbay, the 30th of last 

Month. 

SIR, 

I enclose herewith, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty, a letter I have this day received from Captain Broke, dated 
llifi 27th instant, acquainting me with the capture of the French cutter pri- 
vateer Poramereuil. of fourteen guns, and sixty men, by his majesty's ship 
Shannon, under his command. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

GAMBIER. 
i 

H is Majesty's Ship Shannon, off" Isle Bas, 
MY LORD, 17th January, 1809. 

I have the honour to inform you, the Shannon captured this day, after a 
long chase to leeward, the French cutter Pommereuil, of fourteen guns, 
and sixty men, commanded by Felix 1 Allemande; fourteen days out from 
Havre de Grace, and had only captured a transport with troops, which she 
released. 

I have sent the prize to Plymouth. She is a fine new vessel, coppered, 
and well found. J have the honour to be, &c. 

P. B. V. BROKE. 
To the Right Hon. Lord Gambier, 
Cowmanderrin-chiej', $c. 

FEBRUARY 11. 

Copy <?/* Letter addressed by Lord George Stuart, Captain of his Majesty's 
Ship l'Aimable,to the senior Officer oj'.his Majesty's Ships ami Vessels off 
the Texel, dated the 7th inst. and transmitted to the Hon. W. W. Pole, by 
Rear-admiral Sir Edmund Naglc. 

SIR, 

i beg leave to acquaint you, on the 2d inst. while standing to the south- 
ward to regain my station, his majesty's ship under my command being 
driven by the late tempestuous weather from off the Texelon the Welbank, 
I perceived, at eleven A.M. a strange sail on the weather quarter, standing 
w the northward and eastward ; concluding from this that she was an enemy, 



172 NAVAL HISTORY OP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

I immediately wore round and made' all sail, and after a chase of twenty- 
eight hours, at four P. M. on the 3d instant, (Aberdeen bearing north 'I'i 
deg. W. distance 30 leagues.) came alongside of her, and having exchanged 
broadsides, continued a running fig'it, and in a few minutes she struck. 
She proved to be 1'Iris, French national 24-2un ship, commanded by Mon- 
sieur Minuet, capitainc de frigate, but capable of carrying 32 trun*, had 
only 24 when taken, twenty-two 24-pounder cannonades, and two long 
twelves, a complement of 140 men. She is only ten months old, copper 
fastened, and I think in every respect qualified for his majesty's service. 
She sailed from Dunkirk on the 29th. ultimo, bound to Martinique, with 640 
casks of Hour on board, besides being victualled and stored with every 
specie- for four months. I am happy to say, only two men were slightly 
wounded ; the enemy lost two killed and eight wounded. I am concerned 
to add, we suffered materially in our masts and rigging ; the mainmast shot 
in the head, main-yard shot away in the slings, the m zen-mast head and 
xnizen-topmast shot away, also the try-sail-mast and the rigging aud sails 
greatly cut up. 

I have, c. G. STUART. 

List of wounded. 

Anthony Nelson, seaman ; Jacques Magra, marine. 

Extract of a Letter from Cup fain Schomberg, of Ins Majesty Ship Loire, to 
the Hon. William FV dies ley Pole, dated at Sea, the 6th instant. 

I have the honour to inform you, that yesterday at noon, in latitude 39 
deg. 24 rain, and lontritude 11 cleg. 41 min. W. his majesty's ship under my 
command hud the good fortune to fall in with a French national ship of 
war, in the act of taking a ship and a brig. On the Loire's approach she 
bore up and made all sail, deserting her prizes, and Uaving the brig des- 
titute of men. Every exertion was made in this ship to come up with the 
enemy ; and much was necessary, I assure you, from the weather being 
thick and squally. 

At eight at night we got alongside of her, and brought her to close 
action. She was defended for about twenty minutes, when she struck to 
his majesty's ship. She proved to be le Hebe French national ship of war, 
frigate-built, mounting eighteen 24- pounders, carronades, and two long 
twelves, with a complement of lo'O men ; commanded by Monsieur le 
Bretonneuiore, lieutenant de vaisseau. She had been out thirty-eight days 
from Bourdeau.x, with 600 barrels of flour, bound to St. Domingo. She 
has taken the English vessels as per mar-rin. * 

Le Hebe is a very fine vessel, about 450 tons, quite new, and appears to 
me a ship that may be serviceable to his majesty. I am most happy to 
say not a man was hurt in the Loire. 

FEBRUARY 14. 

Copy of a Letter from Thomas James Ma/ing, Esq. Captain of his fifajestyts 
Ship Undaunted, to the Honourable W. W. Pole, dated on board that Ship 
at Spithead, the 13th instant. 

sin, 
You will please to inform their lordships, that the Undaunted captured 

the San Josephe yesterday forenoon, after a hard run of fotir hours. She 

* Brig Enterprise, from Liverpool; brig Lord Mulgrave, bound to Vio; 
irig Bacchus, bound to Gibraltar. 



KAVAL HISTORY OP THE PRESENT YEAH, 1809. 173 

Is a fine copper bottomed privateer, out four days from St. Maloes, stored 
for two mouths, icrccd for 18 guns, (but mounting only 14,) and a com- 
plement oi iiiiu iy-bix men. The San Josephe is nearly new, is reckoned 
the fastest sailer out of St. Muloes, and is a desirable vessel for his majesty's 
service. We met with her at dawn of day too near us to e^ape. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

T. J. MALING. 

FEBRUARY 21. 

Copy of a Letter front Captain Netccombe, of his Majesty's Sloop JBeugfe, 
addressed to Commodore Orcen. and transmitted by Vice- admiral, Camiibcll, 
Coutmaitdcr-in-fhief of his Majesty's Ships and Vessels in the Dozens, to 
the Honourable W. W. Pole, dated the IQth instant. 

SIR, 

I beg leave to acquaint you, that early this morninp, (Boulogne bearing 
about S.S.E. six leagues,) his majesty's sloop under my command captured 
a French privateer, named la Fortune, of 14 guns and 68 men, and com- 
manded by Captain Tucker. She was from Calais, two days on her cruise, 
and had not made any capture. 

From their -usual intrepidity, they did not surrender until the Beagle ran 
her alongside, notwithstanding it blew strong with a heavy sea. One of 
their crew was mortally wounded. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

To Commodore Owen, 4 c. FRAS. NEWCOMBE, 



Promstton0 anU appointments* 

Admiral Sir Roger Curtis is appointed commander-in-chief at Portsmouth, 
vice Admiral Montague . 

Captain the Honourable Henry Dawson is appointed by Rear-admiral Sir 
Edward Pel lew, commander-in-chief on the India station, to act as governor 
of the naval hospital at Madras. 

Captain William Browcll, of the royal hospital at Greenwich, is appoint- 
ed to be lieutenant-governor of that institution, and a director of the hospi 
tal and cliest of Greenwich, rice Captain Boachier deceased. 

Captain William Edge is appointed to the royal hospital at Greenwich, 
vi<~e Captain Browcll appointed lieutenant-governor of that institution. 

His majesty the King of Sweden has been pleased, for the gallant conduct 
displayed by Captain \V. H. Wibley, of the Centaur, in the late action with 
the Russian fleet, off' Rogerwjck, in the Baltic, to confer on him the honour 
of one of the knights companions of the most honourable military order of 
the S ord. 

His majesty the King of Sweden has also been pleased to confer on Cap- 
tain T. B. Martin, the honour of the Swedish order of the Sword. 

Captain Joseph Hanwcil is appointed to be commissioner of the navy for 
the payment of seamen's wages, at the port of Sheerness, vice Mansfield. 
Captain Garrett, of [he royal navy, brother-in-law of Sir T. B. Thompson, 
Bart, comptroller of the r?ayy, is appointed to preside over the victualling 
department at Deptfprd, rice Mr. Cooper. 

Captain Frederick CottereJl is appointed to the Nyaden, late Danish fri- 
gate of 38 guns; Captain John Gourly to the San Juan prison ship ; Cap- 
fain Francis Augustus Collier to the Circe; Captain Lucius Curtis, eldest 



174 NATAL HISTORY Of THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

son of Admiral Sir Roger Curtis, to the Magicienne; Captain Dilkes, of 
the Hazard sloop, to the Neptune, Admiral Cochrane's flag ship; Captain 
Fahie, of. the Ethalion frigate, to the Belleisle; Captain Thomas Cochrane, 
of the Jason, to the Etlialion; Captain William Maude, of the Ulysses, to 
the Jason ; Captain Edward Woolcombe, of the Belleisle, to the Ulysses; 
Captain Wood, of the Latona, to the Captain ; Captain Pigot, of the Circe, 
to the Latona; Captain Patterson, of the Hawke, to the Star; Captain 
Bouchier, of the Demerary, to the Hawke; Captain Pinto, of the Dart, to 
the Achates sloop; Captain Cameron, of the Achates, to the Hazard; Cap- 
tain Selby, to the Owen Gletidower, a new frigate of 36 guns; Captain 
Davis to (he Tyrian ; Captain Boyce to the Bienfaisant prison-ship; Cap- 
tain George Moubray, to the Rhodian; Captain Cunningham to the Ber- 
muda sloop; Captain John Parish to the Onyx, vice Gill promoted; Captain 
John M. Hauchett to the Raven. 

Lieutenant Dowers, son of the governor of Deal hospital, is appointed 
to command the Demerary; Captain Steuart, of the Port d'Espagne, to 
the Snap ; and Lieutenant Kennedy of the Pompee, to command the Port 
d'Espagne. 

Captain Charles Gill, for his gallant action in the Onyx with the Manly 
Dutch national brig of war, is posted. 

Captain the Hon. Warwick Lake is appointed, by Admiral Rowley, td 
act in the Intrepid. 

Captain Wells, of his majesty's ship Captain, is appointed commissioner 
of the navy, at Jamaica. 

Mr. Cooper, late agent victualler at Deptford, is appointed by the Ad- 
miralty to be storekeeper of the dock-yard at Chatham. 

Lieutenants appointed. 

Lieutenant John Longchamp is appointed to the Cordelia; Henry Rowe 
to the Primrose: Henry Pryce to the Nymphen; Hon. Wm. Sommerville to 
ditto; W. T. Chamberline to the Defence; Edward Stevenson to the Clio; 
George Tnpman to the Magicienne; James Meara to ditto; Robert Wau- 
chope to ditto; George Spence to the Blake; Archibald Hamilton to the 
Repulse; John James Maxwell to the Rose; John Smith (9) to the Dread- 
nought ; George Franklyn to the Victorious; James Walker to the Gibral- 
tar; Richard Williams (2) to ditto; Robert Thomas to the Childers; 
Charles Phillips to the Princess of Orange ; Robert Smith (?) to the Mon- 
mouth; William Harris Smith to the Merope ; Edward Collier to the 
Thames: Robert Foster to the Owen Glendower; Thomas L. Peake to do. 
Frederick William Botirgoyne, son of the late celebrated general, to com. 
mand the Defende gun^brig ; John Worth to the Roebuck ; Thomas Mit- 
chell (2) to the Zebra ; Charles Day to the Norge ; John M'Kirdy to the 
Alcmene ; Gilbert Broomhead to the Dolphin ; Samuel Hoare to the Cajsar ; 
Robert Forder to the Dannemark ; Evan M'Kenzie to the St. Albans; John 
Rude to the Standard ; Edward Medley to ditto ; Lewis Davis to the Op- 
possum; James Stone (3) to the Vanguard; George Johnstone to the Ey- 
deren; Joseph Eastwood to the Pluto; Alexander Ingram to the Mon- 
tnouth; Charles Delancey to the Zealous; Alexander Young to the Dic- 
tator ; James Meara to the Alexandria, commission for the Magicienne 
cancelled; George Read to the Sybille; Thomas Lcvell to the Little Belt; 
James Wilcox to the Hero; Hon. A. de Courcy to the Raven; Richard 
Phillips to the Vanguard ; Peter Crawford to the Fury bomb ; Wm. James 
Scott to the Triumph ; George Heacock to the Chanticleer ; Philip Duma- 
resque to the Eclipse; William Carter to command the Mackarcl schooner; 



HISTORY OP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1800. 175 

Robert Folliot to the Barfleur ; Mr. M'Milian, midshipman of his majesty's 
ship Neptune, is appointed to be a lieutenant of the Pompee ; Messrs. 
Odger and Speck, midshipmen of the Neptune, to be lieutenants of the 
Belleisle. 

List of midshipmen passed for lieutenants on the first Wednesday in the 
month : William Robins, Augustus Cannon, Joseph Treglohan, John 
Willison, Henry Shiffher, David Price, P. H. Trant, B. 11. Borough, John 
Dade, Samuel Hodgson. 

Surgeons appointed. 

Dr. Bell, late surgeon of his majesty's ship Edgar, is appointed to be sur- 
geon of the royal marines, at Woolwich, vice Gladstone appointed to the 
royal asylum at Greenwich park. 

Mr. Bryan M'Laughlin, surgeon, is appointed by the Lords of the Admi- 
ralty to be an assistant surgeon of the royal hospital at Greenwich, vice 
Gladstone appointed to the marines at Woolwich. 

Mr. Thomas Hooper is appeinted to be surgeon of his majesty's sloop 
Zenobia; Mr. John Neill to the Victorious ; John Julius Inger to the Cyg- 
net; Themas Cochrane to the Forrester; Charles Linton to the Glomen ; 
Gregory Odell to the Caesar; Joseph White to the Drake; Richard Thomp- 
son to the Ville de Paris; George Proctor to the Orestes; Edward Hopley 
to- the Nymphen; Henry Ewing to the Resistance; Robert Marks to thtf 
Lark; John Stckoe to the Magicienne; John Morgan to the Hibernia; 
George Proctor to the Bustard; Robert Mulberry to the Ville de Paris ; vice 
Thompson; Henry Parkin to the Caledonia; Duncan Campbell to the Ir.i- 
petueux; George Wardiaw to the Weasel; William Norman to the Owen 
Glendower; Thomas Dickson to the Nyaden ; George Pearson to the Sar- 
pen, Henry William Bull to the Tyrian. 

Assistants appointed. 

Mr. Thomas Stewart is appointed assistant surgeon of the Amethyst; Mr. 
John Dunthorn to be an hospital mate at the royal hospital at Plymouth; 
S. R. Armstrong to be hospital mate of the naval hospital at Jamaica; J. E. 
Gray to be assistant of the Acute gun-brig; John Johns to the Fervent <iun- 
brig; J. Godard to the Blazer; P. Ramsay to the Dannemark ; William 
Porteous to the Alphea cutter ; William Hector to the Castor ; Montgomery 
Camth to the Victorious; John Baiston to the Iphigenia; Charles Miller to 
the Eagle; William Duncan to the St. Albans; Robert Bateman to the Star- 
dard; William M'Masters to the Argonaut hospital ship; Robert Brown to 
the Defence; C. W. Vandenburg to the Majestic; Thomas Soden to the. 
Safeguard gun-brig ; C. "Woolley to the Dannemark; Robert Muir to the 
East Indies on promotion ; William Leslie to the Amazon : George M'Clure 
to the Hibernia; George Roe from t the Redbreast to the Salvador del Mun- 
do; Alexander Rae to the Bombay; Daniel Godbchere to the Royal Wil- 
liam; William Miller to the Earnest gun-brig, 



BIRTHS. 

Of a daughter, at the apartments of her father, Lieutenant Spearing of 
the royal hospital at Greenwich, Mrs. Ann Tooley, widow of the late Lieut. 
Richard Tooley, of the royal navy. 

On the 4th of February, in Upper Bedford-place, the wife of Captai^ 
Jonathan Birch, of the Hon. East India Company's service, of a son. 



176 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PlltSBNT YEAR, 1809* 

On the 9th instant, at her apartments in the royal hospital at Greenwich, 
Mrs. Frederick Bedford, wife of Lieut. Bedford, of that institution, of a 
son. 



MARRIAGES. 

lately, Mr. Alexander M'Coy, purser of his majesty's ship Brazen, to 
Miss Elizabeth Catherine Aylward, of Portsmouth. 

On the 26th of January, at Kingstoo., near Portsmouth, Lieutenant Tho- 
jnas Button, of the royal navy, to M:ss Priscilla Edgcumbe, of Tavistock- 
jjlace, Russel-square. 



DEATHS. 

Lately, in Pulteney-strcct, Ball), Mrs. Peyton, wife of Rear-admiral 
Peyton. 

At Mount Tamar, the lady of Captain White, of the royal navy, and 4th 
daughter of Commissioner Fanshaw, of his majesty's dock yard, Plymouth. 

Lately, in the West Indies, of the yellow fever, Mr. S. W. Salmon, pur- 
ser in the royal navy, aged 19 years, onh 7 son of Mr. 8. Salmon, of Portsea, 
Hants. He was made a purser, and appointed to a ship on the 9th of No- 
vember, 1808, and died the Hth of the same month, much lamented by his 
friends and acquaintance. 

Lately, at Mil ford Haven, Lieutenant Walter Jewell, of the royal navy. 

On the 5th of February, at Edinburgh, much rcgrerted, James Ross Far- 
quarhson, Esq. of TnvercauM. captain in the royal nuw, and second son of 
tiie late Vice-admiral Sir John Lockhart Ross, of Balnagoun, Bart. 

On the 23d of January, at Huntingdon, Captain Thomas Stephenson, of 
the royal navy, aged 34. 

Lately was drowned, in coming from Spain, on the Manacle Rocks, the 
Hon. Lieutenant Watdcgravc, son of Admiral Lord lladstock. 

At nearly the same time, Captain James Mein, of !>is majesty's late sloop 
die Primrose, was lost on the said rocks, together with the greater part of 
the crew of the said sloop. 

Lately, in the West Indies, Mr. J. Stodart, surgeon of his majesty's ship 
Resistance. 

Lately was killed, in a most gallant attack on some cf the enemy's vessels 
at Martinique, Captaia Co'jmbe, of bis majesty's ship lleureux, and nephew 
of C. Coombe, Esq. of tl.c Admiralty-office. 

On the 7th of February, was barbarously murdered, after a desperate 
resistance, on the Greenwich road, near the Five Ik-.iis public-house, Lieut, f 
John Johnstone, of his majesty's sloop Eyderen, Captain Charles Pengelly. 

At his house, in Troy Town, Rochester, the lady of Captain A. Anderson, 
of the royal marines. 

In the royal hospital at Haslar, Mr. Gill, surgeon of the Royals. 

On the 16th November, on his passage from Jamaica, Mr. John Hall, 
surgeon in the royal navy. 

In November List, at the naval hospital at Baibadoes, Mr. Samuel Price, 
surgeon of his majesty's sloop Achates. 



THE LATE Sill HUGH CLOBERUY CHRISTIAN, K.B. 185 

the columns reached with success their directed stations, but the centre 
columns, having met with some unexpected difficulty, did not elioct their 
junction. 

" The Madras, Bcaulieu, Pelican, and Victorieuse were to support this 
attack ; the Beaulieu had three seamen slightly wounded, and the head of 
her foremast injured. The attack on shore not having been successful, the 
Madras and Beaulieu have returned to Marigot des Rousseaux, to co- 
operate with Major-general Morshead." 

Sir Hugh Christian closes his letter with the following compli- 
mentary tribute to the officers serving under him :* 

" It would be unjust to the merit of Captain M'Doual, of the Ganges, 
nnd the officers acting under him at Bay Longueville, were I to omit report- 
ing their just claim- to my commendation ; Captain Rvves, of the Bull Do?, 
and Captain Meares, of the transport department, commanded the division 
of boats at Longueville bay. Captains Evans, of the Fury, Dobree, of the 
Woolwich, and Captain Hill and Lieutenant Skipsey, of the transport 
service, commanded the several divisions of flat boats at the Choc and 
Ance la Rare landing, and I had good reason to be satisfied with their 
assiduity and proper exertions. 

" The natural strength of this country is such, that time and great 
exertion will be necessary for its reduction. There exists the most perfect 
desire on the part of the officers and seamen of the squadron to share (he 
fatigue and hazard with the army ; and I trust that this desire may be kept 
awake to essential advantage." 

Notwithstanding the difficulties which the assailants had to en- 
counter, the blockade and siege of Morne Fortune was carried on 
with such vigour and success, that, on the 24th of May, the enemy 
desired a suspension of arms. On the following morning, a capi- 
tulation for the whole island ensued ; and on the 26th, his majes- 
ty's troops took possession of. Morne Fortune : the garrison of 
which, at that time, amounted to 2,000 men. Captain Lane, of 
the Astrea, was sent to England with the following despatches 
from Sir II. C. Christian, announcing the event : 

" Thunderer, Choc Bay, St. Lucia, 
" SIR, June 1, 1796. 

tf I ana to communicate to you, for the information of my Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty, that the island of St. Lucia and its dependen- 

* Another letter from Sir Hugh C. Christian, of. the same date (May 4), 
encloses Captain Parr's account of the surrender of the Dutch settlement 
of Dcmerara, and its dependencies, to his majesty's farces, under Majur- 
general Whyte, and Captain Parr, en the '_'2d of April. The colony of 
Berbice surrendered to the same officers on the 2d of May. 

tfJ.nto, CJjrom dol. XXI. B B 



186 MfeMOIU OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

cics surrendered by capitulation on the 25th of May, and that the Morn* 
was taken possession of by his majesty's troops on the 26th, at noon. 

" In the progress of the siege great difficulties were to be surmounted, 
and much service of fatigue undertaken. The more effectually to assist the 
operations of the army, I directed eight hundred seamen to land, under the 
command of Captain Lane, of the Astrea, and Captain Ryves, of the Bull 
Dog: the merit of their services will be better reported by the commander-- 
in-chief of his majesty's troops ; but I feel it an indispensable duty to 
acquaint their lordships, that the conduct of the officers and seamen 
equalled my most sanguine expectations, and that it has been in every 
instance highly meritorious. 

" Captain Lane, of the Astrea, is charged with my despatches ; that 
officer, having served at St. Lucia from the moment of my arrival, will be 
enabled to afford their lordships correct information of the naval occur- 
rences connected with the siege. 

" The state of the Astrea, by Captain Lane's report to me, is such, that 
her proceeding to England became a necessary measure. 

" Captain Ryves, of the Bull Dog, will proceed immediately to join his 
ship; but I should be unjust to the merits of his exertion, were I to omit 
recommending him to their lordships' notice and protection. 

" I stated to their lordships, in my letter of the 4th instant, the services 
of Captain Searle, of the Pelican, on the first landing ; since that period he 
has with unremitting diligence and ability effectually blocked the ports of 
the Carenage. 

" The Madras, under the command of Captain Dilkes, had been, in the 
first arrangements, detached to land, and co-operate with a division of 
troops on the left wing of the army, anchored for that purpose at Marrigot 
des Rosseaux, where his exertion and assiduity have been highly com- 
mendable : he look possession of a point at the southern entrance of the 
grand Cul de Sac, with great labour and perseverance, placed upon the pin- 
nacle of the hill two eighteen-pounders and two carronades, from which he 
considerably annoyed the batteries of Sisseron and Agille. The general 
wishing to establish batteries on the southern side of the grand Cul de Sac, 
Captain Wolley, of the Arethusa, was detached to join Captain Dilkes, and 
directed to land a proportion of seamen to assist this service, which was 
very speedily and cheerfully executed. More exertion 1ms not been 
evinced, and 1 believe there never lias occurred an instance of more cordial 
co-operation, than has subsisted between the army and navy during this 
siege. Great have been the services of fatigue, considering the nature of 
the country and the situation of tiie Morne, and very rapidly have thej 
Jjeen brought to effect the reduction of the island. 

" On the morning of the enemy's attack on the 24th instant, with a view- 
to re-possess themselves of the advanced post from the Morne, it became 
necessary to detach the 14th regiment to the support of the troops employed 
at that post, in consequence of which 320 marines were landed to take thfc 
iud occupied by the 14th. The conduct of the marines upon this, a 
.upon all other occasion,*, was most perfectly correct. 



THE LATE SIR HUGH CLOBERRY CHRISTIAN, K.B. 187 

" The general's opinion of the conduct of the seamen and marines will 
he best understood }>y the sentiments expressed in his public orders, an ex- 
tract of which is herewith transmitted. 

" I transmit a list of the small vessels found at this anchorage ; 
" And have the honour to be, sir, 

" Your most obedient bumbie servant, 
" Evan Ncpean, Esq. " HUGH C. CHRISTIAN." 

" Ilcud Quarters, St. Lu.ia, May 27, 1796, 
" EXTRACT OF GENEKAL ORDERS. 

" During the services which '.are been carried on in the island of St. 
Lucia, all the courage an r l every exertion of the army would have proved 
ineffectual, if Rear- ad mi nil Sir H. C. Christian, and the royal navy, had 
not stepped forward witli the alacrity "-h.ch ^uj been so couspicuous in for- 
warding the most arduous part of the public service : to the r skill and un- 
remitting labour is in a great measure owing t.ie success which has attended 
his majesty's arms. It will atfor.l the commander-iu-chief the greatest 
satisfaction to be able to lay before his majesty the eminent services waich 
have, on this occasion, been performed by the royal navy, and Admiral Sir 
Hugh Cloberry Christian will confer a particular obligation on Lieutenant- 
general Sir Ralph Abercromby, and the army at large, if he will be so 
obliging as to communicate to the royal navy, and in particular to Captains 
Lane, Ryves, and Stephenson, and the other fficers who acted on shore, 
and to the corps of marines, the great obligation which they consider them* 
selves under to them. 

" T. BUSBY, Assistant-Adj. Gen." 

Sir Ralph Abercromby, in his despatch of the 31st of May, 
announcing the surrender of St. Lucia, also says : * 

" Rear-admiral Sir Hugh Christian, and the royal navy, have never ceased 
to shew the utmost alacrity in forwarding the public service. To their skill 
and unremitting labour the success which has attended his majesty's arms 
i? in a great measure due. By their efforts alone the artillery was advauced 
to the batteries, and every co-operation, which could possibly be expected 
or desired, has been afforded in the fullest mauqer." 

The shipping alluded to by Admiral Christian, in his official 
letter, consisted of a ship, three brigs, five schooners, and a 
shallop, which were taken in the Carenage. A great quantity of 
ordnance, ammunition, and military stores, was found in the 
several batteries. 

After the reduction of the island of St. Lucia, Sir Hugh 
Christian detached the following little squadron of frigates, under 
tae command of Captain Wollcy, to co-operate with Sir Ralph 



183 MEM01H OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

Abercromby, in quelling the insurrections, which raged with gvcat 
virulence in the islands of St. Vincent and Grenada : 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

Aretlmsn ........ 38 Captain Thomas Wolley. 

Hebe ^8 M. H. Scott. 

Mermaid 32 < 11. W. Otway. 

pelican (brig) .... 16 T. C. Searle. 

Beaver 16 S. G. Warucr. 

The insurgents were chiefly Charibs, and people of colour; 
and after an obstinate resistance, they laid down their arms, and 
surrendered by capitulation. On this service, two seamen be- 
longing to the Arethusa, who were acting with the troops on 
shore, were killed ; and at Grenada, seven seamen r/ere killed, 
and five wounded, on board the Mermaid, by the bursting of one 
of her main-deck guns. 

Towards the latter end of June, Rear-admiral Hervey arrived at 
Martinique, in the Prince of Wales ; and in the month of October 
following, having resigned the command of the fleet to that 
officer, Sir Hugh returned to England in the Beaulieu frigate. 

On the 20th of February, 17S7, he was made rear-admiral of 
the white ; and in the course of the year, he sailed to the Cape of 
Good Hope, as second in command on that station, in the Vir- 
ginie, of 44 guns. In the following year, he succeeded Admiral 
Pringle, as Commander-in-chief at tho Cape ; but he enjoyed that 
post only a very short time, as he died, rather suddenly we 
believe, in November, 1798. His services, though not generally 
of the most brilliant description, had been arduous and useful; 
and by his death, the country lost an attentive, able, and excellent 
officer. His remains were interred at the Cape. 

Sir Hugh Christian's lady, whose bealth was in so critical a,state 
when the admiral left England, that she despaired of ever seeing 
him again, survived him about two months; but died, at the Isle 
of Wight, before the intelligence had arrived of the death of her 
husband. 



HERA-LD1C PARTICULARS. 

Hugh Christian, the admiral's grandfather, was born in 1679, 
and dLd about the year 1740, having married Letitia Awsitcr, the 



THE LATE SIR HUGH CLOBERUY CHRISTIAN, K.B. 189 

only child of Anthony Brucer, of Hock Norton, in the county of 
Oxford, Esq. by Mary his wife, daughter of Thomas Awsiter, of 
Southall, in the county of Middlesex, Esq. and by her (who after 
his decease married Thomas Mascall, but had no issue by him) had 
issue Hugh and Anne, who both died young, and Thomas, the 
father of the admiral. This Thomas was born at Liverpool, about 
the year 1716, and died in 1751, having raarriftl Anne, the daugh- 
ter ot O\voii Hughes, of Bangor, Esq. by whom (who after his 
death married, secondly, Mr. Penny, of Oxfordshire, and died 
without issue by him. in February, 1785) he had issue an only 
child, viz. the late Sir Hugh Cloberry Christian, K.B. the subject 
of the preceding memoir, who married Anne, the only daughter of 
Barnabas Leigh, of Thorley, in the Isle of Wight, Esq, on the 
6th of March, 1775. She died at West Hill, in that island, on the 
22d of January, 1799, and was buried at Northwood, in the same 
island, leaving issue as follows: 1st, Anne, born on the C 21st of 
November, 1775, married in 1799 to Major-general Frederick 
Baron Hompesch, and died in December, 1807, leaving issue ; 
2d, Mary, born on the 21st of August, 1781, married, in 1803, 
Count William Byland, a colonel in the army, and was living in 
1807, with issue ; 3d, Hood Hanway Christian, eldest son, born 
on the 23d of July, 1784, now a captain in the royal navy, iu 
which he obtained post rank on the 30th of January, 1806; 
4th, Hugh George, second son, born on the 23d of November, 
1787, now in the East India Company's civil service, on the Bengal 
establishment ; 5th, Johanna, born in 1794, and living in 1807. 

ARMS. Azure a cheveron, humetty between three covered cups 
or, on a canton argent, an anchor erect, with part of the cable 
round the stock proper. 

CREST. Out of a naval coronet, or, an unicorn's head, argent, 
collared gules. 

The above arms and crest, granted by patent under the hands 
of Garter and Clarenceux Kings of Arms, dated 5th March, 1796. 

SUPPORTERS. On each side an unicorn, argent, collared gules, 
pendent, therefrom a shield, azure, charged with a covered 
cup, or. 

Granted by patent under the hand and seal of Garter principal 
King of Arms, 7th March, 1796. 

MOTTO. foluisscj sat, est. 



150 

NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, 



NANTES IW GURSITE VASTO. 



CAPTAIN THOMAS PUINGLE.*' 

T has been frequently remarked, that the dispositions of our 
fellow-snbjects born in the tropical countries, are in a greak 
degree similar to the genial warmth of those climates. This remark 
is very strongly exemplified in the character of Captain Pringle, 
who is a native of the Antilles, and possesses all the fire and bene- 
volence of heart so peculiar to the West Indies. 

The events of this worthy officer's life have been always marked 
with most consummate zeal, bravery, and propriety. To a sound 
judgment, he joins a well informed mind, and a disposition alive to 
every friendly virtue. Having received the principal parts of his 
nautical instructions from his distinguished patron, Admiral Bar- 
rington, it cannot be supposed that he is in any respect unfinished 
as a naval character. 

Captain Pringle, during a part of the late war, commanded the 
armed vessels employed against the rebels on the vast lake of 
Champlain, Ontario, &c. in North America; upon which service 
his exertions were uncommonly great ; nor were his zeal and bra- 
very less conspicuous, when captain of the Ariadne frigate, on the 
Leeward Island station. 

This gallant officer returned to England after his various ser- 
vices on the other side the Atlantic, and was appointed to the com- 
mand of his majesty's ship Daedalus, and was again ordered to the 
coasts of America, being stationed for some time to cruise off 
Quebec, Newfoundland, and the adjacent seas. 

Captain Pringle's conduct throughout the whole of the war 
illustrated his character in the highest degree, and will prove a 
lasting testimony of his exalted Afrorth. 

CAI-TAIX ROBEKT FANSHAW, M.P. 

Is one of the ablest officers the British fleet can boast ; cool, 
collected, brave, and active ; ever ready for service when called 
upon, and rigidly attentive to the most trivial, as well as the more 
important duties of his station. It may with truth be observed of 
him, that his ship is like his mansion the ship's company his 

* This and the following articles are from The NAVAL ATALAXTIS, pub- 
lished in 1789, 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, &C. 191 

family : the former in a constant state of regularity and neatness, 
the latter governed by a rigid, but a just hand. A scrupulous ob- 
server of the relative duties he owes his country, as a citizen and 
a soldier, Captain Fanshaw exacts a like conduct on the part of all 
with whom he may have any concern, whether civil or military. 

The conduct of this gallant officer throughout the whole of the 
late war is spoken of in terms of infinite praise. On the coast of 
America he was ever most active and diligent. In the West In- 
dies, his conduct as commander of his majesty's ship Monmouth, 
in the engagement between the fleets of Admiral Byron and Comte 
d'Estaing was truly gallant, nor was it less so in the Egmont, 
which he afterwards commanded." 

When Sir George (now Lord) Rodney was about to sail from 
Plymouth, with a squadron for the West Indies ; the commander 
of the Namur, of 90 guns, having desired to be superseded, Cap. 
tain Fanshaw, v, no then lived at that port with his family, and 
was out of employ, being sent to at the dead of night to fill up the 
Tacancy, he immediately arose, and having arranged his family 
affairs, embarked on board the Namur without delay, and proved 
one of Admiral Rodney's most distinguished supporters on tbe 
glorious 12th of April. 

At the late election for Plymouth, the freemen of that borough 
(of which Captain Fanshaw is one), unanimously made choice of 
this brave veteran to serve as one of their representatives in Par- 
liament. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL MARSHALL 

Is the officer who struck the first blow last war as commander 
of tlve Arethusa frigate, which engaged the Most Christian King's 
ship la Belle Poule, and thereby brought on a commencement of 
general hostilities between Great Britain and France. 

Captain Marshall is deservedly esteemed a very excellent officer, 
and an experienced seaman. He served throughout the war with 
great credit and reputation ; first in the Aretbusa, which was sta- 
tioned as a Channel cruiser, and afterwards in another frigate on 
the West India station. 

On his return from the West Indies, he retired from service, it 
is said on account of his health being impaired, and was not 
employed again till some time after the establishment of peace had 
taken place. He was then appointed to the command of hi* 
majesty's ship le Pegase, a guard-ship at Portsmouth. 

A vacancy for a commissioner of the Victualling Office having 
j and it biog a rule that one of them should be aa expe 



NATAL ANECDOTES, 

rienced captain in the navy, this officer gave up the command of 
the Pegasc, and succeeded to the vacancy at the Victualling Board, 
where his abilities and integrity must render him every May 
qualified to fill the office with credit to himself and to the advantage 
of his country. 

THE CONSTANT WARWICK. 

MR. PEPYS says, that " the Constant Warwick was the first 
frigate built in England. She was built in 1649, by Mr. Peter 
Pett, for a privateer for the Earl of Warwick, and was sold by 
to the States. Mr. Pett took his model of a frigate from a French 
frigate which he had seen in the Thames, as his son, Sir Phineas 
Pett, acknowledged to me." His being styled the inventor of 
frigates, in the inscription on his monument, in St. Nicholas 
Church, Dept ford, is therefore not strictly true. Fuller, in his 
Worthies of England, gives a similar account of the origin of 
frigates in our navy. Surely then, the name of the Constant 
Warwick should, on this account, be preserved in our navy. To 
fhe above anecdote it may be added, that the old Hermione 
frigate was taken from the French in 1757, by Captain Moore, of 
the Unicorn. The Modeste and Terneraire were taken by Admiral 
Uoscawen's fleet in 1759. (See the description of them, Gent. 
Mag. vol. 29, page 4 3 9.) 

DESCRIPTION OF SIR WILLIAM CLARSES' IMPROVED LIFE-BOAT. 

SIR W. CLARGES, Bart, has constructed a life-boat on an 
improved principle, the leading features of which are, that she will 
not upset, sink, or be water-logged; that she affords cabin room, 
and is like a man-of-war's launch, well built for rowing, the oars 
not on a curve, but nearly in a right line, and low to the water, 
of which she draws little. The description of this boat is as 
follows : her length is thirty feet, her breadth ten, her depth three 
feet, six inches. The space between her timbers is fitted up with 
pine wood : this is done with a view to prevent the water lodging 
there ; the pine wood is well caulked and paid ; she is buoyed up 
by eight metal cases, four on each side: these are water tight, and 
independent of each other. They will serve to buoy up six tons, 
but all the buoyant parts of the boat, taken collectively, will buoy 
up ten tons. The cases are securely decked over, and boarded at 
the sides with pine ; there is a scuttle to cacli case, to put goods 
in ; the edges are lined with baize ; and over each scuttle in the 
case, is one of wood of a larger size, the margin of which is lined 



X 

COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 193 

m the same manner to exclude the water : between the cases are 
Norwegian balks, bolted to the bottom, fastened to each other by 
iron clamps, and decked over. The depth of her keel is nine 
inches below the garboard streak, the dead rising is four inches; 
her heel is narrow at the under part, and wide above, for the pur- 
pose of giving the timber a good bed, which will support the 
boats, in case a necessity should arise to encounter sand-banks. 
In sailing oVer a. bar, or in places where the water is shallow, 
the rndder will, with ease, draw up even with the keel, and when, 
in deep water, it will let down easily, and with equal facility, a foot 
below it; in consequence of which advantage the boat is found to 
steiT remarkably well. The forecastle of the boat forms a cabin ten 
feet wide, six feet long, and four feet deep, into which women, 
children, and disabled persons may be put ; it is amply supplied 
with air, by means of two copper ventilators : it is furnished be- 
sides with two grapnels, very proper to be thrown out on board a 
wreck, to ride by ; the grapnel ropes will assist the sufferers to 
remove and escape from the wreck to the boat. She is likewise 
equipped with masts and sails, and is as manageable with them as 
any boat of her dimensions can possibly be : in a tempest, how- 
ever, she must be dismasted, and rowed by fourteen men, with oars 
sixteen feet long, double banked ; the men are all fastened to the 
thwarts by ropes, and cannot be washed fiom their seats, [a his 
observations on this boat, Sir William says, " Having stated the 
leading features of my boat, I need not dwell on a few secondary 
points, which, however, it would be improper not to mention : 
these are her being provided with small ropes, or lines, fastened to 
hooks on the gunwale, and each having a piece of cork painted red 
at the extremity ; intended not only for persons who fall over- 
board, or swim from a wreck, to see and catch hold of, but to 
tow those for whom there may not be room in the boat; and her 
having a very powerful rudder. The copper cases, though afford- 
ing additional Security to those who choose to be at the expense, 
arc no more a necessary point of my plan, than coppering her 
bottom. The wood-work alone, if well executed and properly 
attended to, may be kept quite air-tight. If the assistance of 
cork were to be called in, it appears to me that it might be better 
applied than in other boats, by filling the cases with cork jackets, 
to take to a crowded wreck ; in going off to which the cases would 
not be wanted for any other purpose, and the jackets would not 
be an incumbrance. Every one must be aware of the iniportau.ee 

. fflol. XXI. c c 



164 NATAL ANECDOTES, 

of flie side cabins or cases, for stowing valuable goods, from a 
richly laden vessel. A boat of this kind, but somewhat smaller 
dimensions, would be exceedingly useful to ships on voyages of 
discovery ; and indeed to any large vessels, as it would not only 
answer for wooding and watering, but is peculiarly adapted for 
excursions up rivers or small inlets of the sea, or exploring clusters 
of islands. As a pleasure boat she answers extremely well; and 
with respect to her safety, I can say that I have sailed in her from 
Brighton, round the Cornish coast to Conway in North Wales, 
without any accident, though we experienced some very dreadful 
\veather on the voyage." 

ANECDOTE OF THE tATE ADMIRAL CALMADY. 

IN the war raging at the accession of his present majesty, two 
gallant sea-bred sons of a Captain Everett, in the royal navy, got 
commands. One of them, Michael, was killed onboard the Ruby, 
in the American war, many years after ; the other, Charles, in his 
early years of post captain, had the Solebay, a small frigate ; and, 
cruising near Weymouth, fell in with two very heavy French pri- 
vateers ; he engaged both, winged one, and immediately closing 
with the second, took her, and then at his leisure picked up the 
first. This was much admired at the time. 

Charles, from a lad, had a fiery red nose, but was always ready 
to cry out " scaldings" with his messmates, whether the kettle of 
boiling water was in sight, or his own fierce phiz. He married an 
heiress in mid-life, and took, her name of Calmady. 

After acquiring the rank of admiral, he was one day at a public 
dinner of the Hampshire Hunt; and whilst the bottle was circu- 
lating, up came a waiter to say " a poor sailor below wished to 
speak with Admiral Calmady." The admiral was not allowed to 
leave the room, and the chairman requested of him that the man. 
should come up. Acccordingly, old Jack, very much in dishabille, 
made his appearance ; and the chairman ordered him to find out 
the admiral, if they had ever sailed together : now all the gen- 
tlemen were in the same uniform of the hunt. Jack moved round 
to Calmady's ehair : "Sailed together he knows all that, but 
Charles Everett was his name then, God bless him." The admiral 
looked at him, without recollection of his face : " No tricks upon 
travellers; I remember nothing about you." " But, admiral, you 
han't forgot poor Johnson, the marine : J was in the after-guard, 
close to him, on board the Solebay." " Well, what of Johnson, 
the marine?" " Why, admiral, don't you recollect when the 
Frenchmen were peppering at us, that Johnson, the marine, burst 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECoiLECtioxs, &c. 195 

out a laughing, and rapt out an oath, hov narrowly they had 
missed a certain person's d d red note!'' 

Here the whole company enjoyed (he story ; and Calmady 
laughed with the rest. " Well, what then, old boy ? " " Why, 
you turned about as sharp as fire, and promised poor Johnson a 
d d good do/en as soon as the action was over." 

The admiral asked no more questions, gave his old shipmate 
half-a-crown, and all the gentlemen did the same. Jack went 
down to get a skinful of good liquor, and to laugh again amongst 
the party-coloured lads in livery about Admiral Calrnady's red 
nose. 

LORD COCHRAXE. 

THE Spanish Gerona Gazette, when inserting a letter from Lord 
Cochraue, January 1, 1809, subjoins the following liberal testi- 
mony to his noble conduct : 

" This gallant Englishman has been entitled to the admiration, 
and gratitude of this country, from the first moment of its political 
resurrection. His generosity in co-operating with our earliest 
efforts, the encouragement we received from the interest he took 
with the commanders of the Balearic islands, to induce them to 
succour us with troops and ammunition, can never be erased from, 
our recollection. The extraordinary services which we owe to his 
indefatigable activity, particularly this city and the adjacent coast, 
in protecting us from the attempts of the enemy, are too well 
known to be repeated here. It is a sufficient eulogium upon his 
character to mention, that in the defence of the castle of Trinidad, 
when the Spanish flag, hoisted on the wall, fell into the ditch, 
under a most dreadful fire from the enemy, his lordship was the 
only person, who, regardless of the shower of balls flying about 
him, descended into the ditch, returned Avith the flag, and happily 
succeeded in placing it where it was." 

NEW DOCKS AT PURFLEET. 

Ox the 28th of February, a member moved for leave in the 
House of Commons to bring in bills to confirm an agreement 
between government and Samuel Whitbread, Esq. for certain lands 
purchased of him at Purfleet, and also to make compensation for 
certain other lands and hereditaments, purchased in the same place 
for the purpose of having docks there, which leave was given. 
We believe that this important establishment of a new naval depot, 
Originated with Mr. Whidbcy, the master attendant at Sheerness, 
during the administration of Earl St. Vincent. We hope soon to 
give a farther account. 



196 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 



SHIPS EXPECTED TO BE LAUNCHED IN THE COURSE 
OF THE YEAR 1809. 







-s 




DIMENSIONS. 


N ES. 


G,.n. 


Where building. 


When expected 
to be 


Length 


Length 
of keel 


| 













launched. 


gun- 


for ton- 


s 


Depth. 













deck. 


nage. 


K 




h 










Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In! 


Ft. In. 




Q .*n Charlotte 


100 


Peptford Yard. 


October. 


yo o 


156 5 


52 4 


22 10 


OO-T) 


Hoyne 


93 


Portsmouth Yard. 


s'ov#mber. 


186 


U3 1 


51 3 


22 


213S 


\;.1X - 


74 


BlaekvpU. 


April. 


17ti 


145 1 


47 6 


21 


1741 


Vnnada 


7* 
7t 


Turncbapel, Devon. 
Blaetaradl. 


December. 
December. 


176 
176 


US 1 
145 1 


47 6 
47 C 


21 
21 


1741 
1741 


Cressey - 


74 


C t'rinihurv, (near Chat-l 
!,am.) i 


December. 


176 


145 1 


47 6 


21 


mi 


GUI;,' urgh 


74 


fKotherhiilu, (Mr. \ 
Brent's Yard.) j 


December. 


170 


145 1 


47 6 


21 


1741 


Hannibal - 


74 


f Bucklershard, (near ) 
1 Southampton.) J 


December. 


175 


144 1J 


47 6 


29 6 


1730 


Poictiers - 


74 


Kiver Medway. 


December. 


176 


145 1 


47 6 


21 


1741 


Royal Oak 


74 


fDeptftjrd, (Mr. Dedo 
man's.) J 


Laun. 4 March. 


175 2 


144 1 


47 11 


20 6 


175! 


Rodney - 


74 


( Deptford, fBarnard > 

I and Co.) j 


November. 


176 


145 1 


47 6 


21 


1741 


St. Domingo - 


74 


WoolwicbYard. 


Laim. 3d March 


180 


147 8 


48 1 


20 10 


1819 


S'engeur - 


74 


Harwich. 


December 


176 


145 1 


47 6 


21 


1741 


Curacoa - 


36 


( Noitham, (near South-" 
t ampton.) 


September 


145 


121 9i 


38 2 


13 3 


944 


Hotspur - 


36 


i Warsash, (near South- 
I anipton.) J 


December. 


145 


121 9i 


38 2 


13 3 


944 


Orpheus - 


36 


Deptfont Yard. 


Mav. 


145 


121 9i 


3S 4 


13 3 


944 


Pyramus - 


.'36 


Portsmouth Yard. 


October. 


145 


115 11] 


38 2 


11 11 


89!) 


Saldanha - 


36 


Soutli Shields. 


June. 


145 


121 9J 


38 2 


13 3 


944 


Theban 


30 


i Warsash, (near South- > 
< anipton.) 


July. 


145 


121 94 


38 S 


13 3 


944 


Nereus - - 


32 


South Shields. 


March. 


144 1 


121 8 


37 8 


12 5 


918 


Perseus 


22 


Kingmore, Devon. 


July. 


118 


98 7 


31 6 


10 3 


520 


(SLOOPS.) 


















Partridge - 


22 


Dartmouth. 


April. 


108 4 


31 10 


29 7 


9 


423 


Jalouse 


2 


Plymouth Yard. 


May. 


108 4 


yo 10 


29 7 


9 


423 


(BRIGS.) 


















Beaver 


22 


Ipswich. 


Laun. 1 6th Feb 


89 7 


73 1 


27 7 


11 1 


236 


Crane 


22 


t Frinsbury, (near Chat- ^ 
<. ham.) j 


August. 


100 


77 Si 


30 6 


1? 9 


3S2 


Arachne - 


82 


Sandwich. 


March. 


100 21 


77 9 


30 7 


13 !) 


386 


Charybdis 


22 


fHythe, (near South--) 
I ampton.) 


July. 


100 


7 / i 


30 6 


12 9 


382 


Castilian - 


22 


Sandwich. 


May. 


100 


77 3} 


30 6 


12 9 


382 


Echo 
Hecate 


22 
22 


Krinsbury. 
Diver Medway. 


September. 
Aueust. 


100 
100 


77 3} 

77 3! 


30 6 
30 fi 


19 9 
12 9 


382 


IVraian 


22 


Cowes, Isle o'i' Wight. 


May. 


100 


77 3i 


30 6 


12 9 


SS2 


KiPeman - 


C2 


Medwav. 


August. 


100 


77 .15 


SO 6 


12 9 


382 


Soilllit; 


22 


Frinsbury. 


September. 


100 


77 3i 


30 6 


12 9 


S82 


ScvlU. 
Tliracian - 


22 

aa 


Topsham. 
l-'rinsbury. 


June. 
July. 


100 
100 


77 3} 
77 Si 


30 (i 

r.o (i 


12 9 

12 9 


3S2 


Xrplivr - 


24 


Portsmouth Yard. 


June. 


f)2 


7* Si 


25 6 


K' ft 


> 1 


Trinculo - 


22 


Burslcdon. 


June. 


100 


77 31 


30 6 


12 9 


S*2 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. IQ7 

THE FOLLOWING IS TIIF. ANSWER THAT WAS RETURNED BY THE 
BOARD TO THE REJECTED PETITION OF THE CAPTAINS IN TIJE 
BOYAL NAVY. 

SIR, Admiralty Office, January 6, 1809. 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commis?ioncrs of the Admiralty 
to signify their direction to you, to acquaint the captains and com- 
manders who signed the memorials which you transmitted to me 
on the 22d of last month, that their lordships, upon a full exami- 
nation of the contents of the said memorials, consider the prayer 
therein contained to be wholly inadmissible. The pay of the cap. 
tains and commanders of his majesty's fleet, in common with the 
pay of all ranks of officers in his majesty's navy, and of the petty- 
officers and seamen, was increased, by the king-^s order in council 
of the 23d of April, 1806, in such proportions as were considered 
to be just, after the most mature deliberation ; and nothing has 
occurred within the very short period that has since elapsed, to 
induce their lordships to think it expedient to recommend a farther 
increase of pay to the captains and commanders of his majesty's 
ships. I have their lordships' further commands to acquaint you, 
that they regret that an application of this nature should have 
been preferred so recently, after his majesty had extended his 
gracious bounty to all ranks in the navy, and that you should 
have been the channel through which a memorial, so ill-timed and 
inadmissible, has been transmitted. I am, c. 

W. W. POLE. 

THE FOLLOWING IS THE REPLY OF THE CAPTAINS TO THE 
SECRETARY. 

SIR, January 10, 1809. 

THE undersigned captains and commanders of his majesty's 
navy, who signed a memorial for the increase of their pay and 
emoluments, on the 22d ult. having laid before them the senti- 
ments of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty thereon, con- 
veyed through you, beg leave, with proper respect to their lord- 
ships, both personally and from their office, to express their grief 
and surprize, that their memorial, couched as it ivas in respoct- 
ful language, as well as the matter of it undeniable, should be 
considered wholly inadmissible ; and farther, that it should be 
stated to have been preferred so recently after the extension of his 
majesty's gracious bounty to all ranks of his navy, insinuating 
thereby that it was indecorous. They think it right respectfully 



198 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

to observe, that the " inadraissibility " of the memorial is, and 
can only be, in the breast of their lordships ; and that the gra- 
cious bounty of his majesty was in fact putting into one hand what 
was^taken out of the other by the Income Tax, and that a charge 
of five per cent, was made on their prize-money paid into Green- 
wich, and ultimately a third of it taken away altogether, without 
their rank being consulted, except in a very slight degree, s'.nce 
such bounty Avas extended to them. 

The extraordinary rise in every article, from that of the first 
necessity to those that may be dispensed with, it is scarcely 
necessary to advert to ; their lordships and yourself feeling such 
pressure on their incomes, in common with the rest of his majesty's 
subjects. 

The undersigned, however, wish to impress upon their lordships, 
and request with your usual ability you will do it, that they have 
been operated upon by no other motive than a wish to make known, 
in a proper and respectful manner, the extent of their pecuniary 
situation. We are, &c. 

In Volume XV of our CHRONICLE, page 195, is a letter from 
c A Poor Post Captain,' relating to the pay of officers of that 
rank. 

BUAZILS. 

THE following letter affordi us the hope that the sovereign of 
the Brazils, should he be driven to assume this as his only efficient 
title, will, in that character, shew himself a vigorous and formidable 
adversary to his persecutor in Europe : 

" Extract of a leticr, dated Slatzrock, December 31, 1808. 

cc By the Dolphin schooner, from Surinam, we have the impor- 
tant and pleasing intelligence of a Portuguese expedition from the 
Brazils against Cayenne having actually arrived in that latitude. 
A Portuguese gun-boat wbich had dropped to leeward has put 
into Surinam, and communicated the information. It was first 
supposed that this expedition might be partly British, under Sir 
Sidney Smith ; but it is stated to be wholly Portuguese, and to 
consist of seven thousand men. The above boat has seventy 
Indians on board, and three or four cannon, one of which is a 
24-pounder. Several attempts were made to beat her up, that she 
might join in the glory of her companions, but in vain. The plan 
is said to be, to land a chosen body of Indians (good marksmen) 
to windward of Cayennej to penetrate through the bushes, while 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



the grand attack is made by the gun-boats, &c. on the batteries. 
Victor Hughes is said to hare a garrison of five hundred men ; but 
his ordnance is in a bad state, many of the cannon being dis- 
mounted. The Portuguese were very confident of success, and 
we hope to have the pleasure of stating it in our next." 

I 

SAN DOMINGO.* 

A 74, of great beauty, was launched at Deptford, on the 3d 
of March ; she was first laid down in 1806. The wood is said to 
have been obtained from Germany. We are unable to discover 
why such a name was given her, which sounds more like that of a 
West Indiaman. Sir Home Popham is appointed to command her. 
Nothing is so little attended to, as giving appropriate names, and 
such as have long been distinguished in naval history, to our ships. 
The name of an individual should never be adopted, unless when 
his heroism and naval service had been unprecedented. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

PRESENT MANAGEMENT AND DISCIPLINE OF THE NAVY. 

LETTER XII. 
SIR, 

I fear that the patience both of yourself and your readers will 
begin to fail at my lengthened correspondence, and that you 
wish me above all other qualifications, the power of compressing my 
thoughts and opinions within more limited bounds. I rely, how- 
ever, on the importance of the matters I have been discussing, as 
the only excuse for my intrusion, being fully aware how inadequate 
my manner of performing the task I have volunteered, is to the 
consequence of its being well performed. In my last letter T con. 
sidcred the difference of opinion which exists respecting popularity^ 
and I intend at present to offer a few observations with regard to 
follorzerS) a subject which has also found many warm advocates as 
well as opponents, and which I must allow from experience admits 
almost beyond all others, " much to be said on both sides." Yet 
that there should be any drawback upon a system so attractive as 
that of being surrounded by old and faithful adherents, is much to 

* For her dimension 5 , &<:. see page l?c>. 



200 CORRESPONDENCE 

be lamented, and it appears so unreasonable that any such should 
exist, that I cannot help thinking some better management might 
be adopted, by means of which the evils of the system might be 
obviated, and its benefits enlarged. 

One rule should be invariable, that in cases of petty officers and 
seamen being permitted to remove from one ship to another with 
their captain, both parties should have their option ; and when the 
captain has selected his allowed number, the question should be 
openly put, whether the men he has chosen are perfectly willing 
or desirous of the proposed change. A captain should be always 
indulged in his choice of a first lieutenant and master, whenever it 
is possible, as it is of great importance that full confidence should 
be placed in these officers. Young gentlemen under the care of a 
captain can hardly ever be refused to be removed with him. 

I conclude, that there are few captains so unconnected, as not 
to be able, in the event of a war breaking out, to raise many men 
on the terms of their being allowed to sail under his command as 
long as the service could possibly admit of it, and of course of 
being removed with him from one ship to another. I should think 
that this measure would save a considerable expense in rendezvous 
and the impress service, and certainly be more congenial to British 
feelings, than the present mode, by which men are considered to 
enter for the service at large, and not for the ship or captain of 
their choice, and in consequence very many volunteers are kept 
back from the navy. It damps that ardour of attachment, which, 
stimulates to a proper pride of action, and deadens the genuine 
fire of emulation, which is of such essential moment. In the pre- 
sent mode we are reduced to the disgrace of having our between- 
decks too often filled up by the off-scourings of jails, and the re- 
fuse of the parishes. 1 am aware, that after the gallant, the heroic 
exploits which have been performed, and are performing, by our 
gallant tars under the present system, it may seem a presumption, 
if not a folly, to attempt even a proposal of innovation ; and that 
we should rest satisfied with whatever mode it may be which pro- 
duces men, who, under the guidance of their officers, perform such 
noble acts of valour and bold daring. But Britons,' raised in any 
other way, would undoubtedly be fully equal to whatever is now 
done, and if to an equal degree of bodily exertion and energy of cou- 
rage, we could add to the moral worth of our crews, and in a great 
measure put an end to the prevalence of desertion, a crime so mor- 
tifying to the officer, and so expensive to the country, very essen- 
tial benefit would ensue. A small number of chosen men wouM 



CORRESPONDENCE. 201 

answer the purpose of a larger, in which many weak and worthless 
are included, and the great article of health would be considerably 
improved. After a considerable degree of attention with which I 
have considered this important subject, I should be desirous, in 
addition to the mode of volunteers before mentioned, to try to man. 
our fleets as much as possible according to the admirable plan of 
limited service proposed by Mr. Windham for the army. In- 
creased pay, and other advantages, at the expiration of every seven 
years of actual service, with the cheering certainty of a competence 
in old age for all those " who weather the storm," would, I should 
conceive, very soon make that ever hateful, however now unfor- 
tunately necessary tyranny of the impress, only like a tale that is 
told, and the next generation would hardly credit its having beea 
really in existence. 

A plan qf this immense importance, however, requires very 
mature deliberation, and at present I only offer the above sugges- 
tion, in the hopes that some one of your readers, of more ability 
than myself, would endeavour to improve it into a practicable shape. 
Should I be disappointed in my expectations, I shall probv.bly ven- 
ture at an attempt to reduce my present crude ideas into some pro- 
posal for a pla,n of such very high importance to this country. 

The article followers, Mr. Editor, stands the last in the memo- 
randum of the subjects I had allotted myself, when I first deter- 
mined to offer any thing like a series of observations on the state 
and discipline of the navy, and your indulgence has encouraged me 
till I perceive my communications amount to a a round dozen ;" 
and if the infliction of the punishment of reading twelve pretty 
long letters, proves of any benefit to yourself and your subscribers, 
I shall feel great and_ lively satisfaction. They have been written 
with the most sincere good intentions, and not without some hope 
that they might draw serious and attentive consideration to many 
points of service, which are too often passed over as matters of 
course; and as affairs of daily recurrence, are not thought worthy 
of daily examination. But this shouM not be the case, for the 
very important duties both of command and obedience, require no 
small portion of accurate consideration and constant care, that they 
may be performed upon a proper principle, in order that they may 
lead to the most useful result. 

Should my expectations and hopes be well founded, that my 
remarks have in any degree served to elucidate the true and 
rational nature of discipline in the various gradations of rank in 

\ 

/9a&, 1811. (Hoi. XXL D 



202 CORRESPONDENCE. 

our service ; that they may benefit my readers by my recommen- 
dation of a general feeling of benevolence to all our fellow crea- 
tures, how low soever some of their stations may be ; and that my 
expressed trust that the crews of the ships of the British navy are 
improving in moral worth, and above all, in Christian excellence, 
may be confirmed, then will the most heartfelt gratifications result 
to your Correspondent, 

A. F. Y. 

ERRATA. Present Vol. page 29, line 14, for island read islands; line 
three from bottom, for store read stove ; page 30, line nine from bottom, 
for vile read rife ; page 31, line eight from bottom, for me read one ; page 
S4, bottom line, leave out, of it; page 35, line ten from the bottom, for 
prop re&dfrap ; line eight from bottom, for by read beg; same page, line 
seven from bottom, for board read boards. 



THE BREST FLEET. 
MR. EDITOR, 

Brest fleet has left its port, and although now blockaded 
by ours of the Channel, in the neighbourhood of Rochefort, 
may, before the expiration of another month, be again at liberty 
on the ocean. Towards which point then is it destined to steer ? 
To Ferrol, to Cadiz, to Ceuta, to the Balearic isles, to Marti- 
nique, or to Spanish America ? All these have been conjectured 
and named, and despatches, it is said, indicating their approach to 
the Antilles., have lately been intercepted. 

To such despatches, whether fabricated for the purpose or not, 
the critical situation of several islands appear to give weight ; but 
if we properly keep in mincl the uniform conduct of Buonaparte, 
at momentous periods like this, if we recollect his utter contempt 
for distant possessions, whenever their wants have clashed with the 
interest of his battles for empire ; if we reckon up the months 
that have been lost, while his fleets have continued in inactivity, 
and now compare the aspect of Europe, with the actual appear- 
ance of a fleet on the seas, we shall, in spite of these despatches, 
and of various movements by his squadron, be unavoidably led to 
conclude, that the object kept in view by the Brest fleet, is no 
way, unless for the purposes of deception, connected with any 
remote expedition. Among the conjectures that lean to the Con- 
tinent, Ferrol, from its proximity, from the naval force it con- 
tains, and from the interest created by recent events, is precisely 
the conjecture, of all others, that possesses a claim to priority of 



CORRESPONDENCE. 203 

attention. At Ferrol, it is understood, there is now lying a naval 
force, which to every maritime power trn-vl appear a desirable ac- 
quisition. But is it, I would ask, before MO proceed, is : t at the 
same ti-ne understood, that those ship* are at present in a condition 
for sai' : n,i r is it even believed, that a single Spanish sailor can be 
brought forward for the purpci ?. of equipping them? Or if sailors 
could \",-i procured, is it not probable that several weeks mu- n- 
tervt-ne, befou; f!i e enemy could possibly be benefited by AT 
actual co-operation ? And in that case, considering the activity of 
ou; Hcvts, and that favourable weather is rapidly advancing, would 
they not, in all human probability, be successfully blockaded? 

Tin- troops of r ranee we are told, are in tranquil possession of 
the port where the shipping are lying. Where then is the necessity 
of risking a fleet to secure them ? Or if their co-operation be 
wanted, where are the seamen to navigate them ; for, if even the 
Spaniards are to be bribed into traitors, is the " ra/y Cor&ican" 
so shallow a dupe as to trust them? Now, taking the opposite 
side to that which has been premised, let us suppose, with many 
politicians, that Buonaparte is on the eve of withdrawing his troops 
into Germany, how then will the entrance of his fleet into Ferrol 
at such a time be consistent with policy ? Can Cadiz be forgotten, 
can he hope, on the retreat of his troops, for any better result 
than capture by the English, or unconditional surrender to the 
Spaniards. The improbability of Cadiz, Ceuta, the Balearic isles, 
or any port in the Spanish peninsula, being its principal destina- 
tion, may be argued in nearly a similar manner ; for, unless trea- 
chery has bet n most triumphantly at work, there does not appear 
any adequate object on this side of Toulon. But with whatever 
justice this reasoning may apply to the islands and ports in the 
lower Mediterranean, the jut bl the arguments becomes essentially 
different, as we advance towards the kingdom of Naples ; for it is 
in such countries as the kingdom of IN' a pies, that usurpers may 
calculate. There, calculations may safely be relied on ; for 
there, man is truly degenerate. It may safely be said, that, 
except, in the mountains of Calabria, nothing remains of the 
masters of the world but the vices which subdued them. The whole 
of the territory of Naples, it is sufficiently known, has long since 
been bowed down to the sway of the Buonapartes, while the 
beautiful island of Sicily, so nearly united, and so closely con- 
nected by individual and political relations, has hitherto bidden 
successful defiance to the decrees and machinations of the enemy. 
This island^ so endeared by classic and scientific recollections, has 



204 COURESPONDENCE, 

in all ages been an object of contention among the powers of the 
Mediterranean, m<l in France, so long ago as immediately after 
the assault of Alexandria, it became a subject of notorious regret, 
thai the invasion , of Egypt, and Malta, should have been pre- 
ferred by the directory, to those of Sicily and Greece. And 
indeed, if*we consider the prodigious advantage of its geographical 
position, the extent of its surface (9,400 square miles), the num- 
ber and excellence of its ports, created as it were to control at 
once the seas of the Adriatic and Levant ; that astonishing fertility 
of soil, that constituted it so long the granary of Rome; the value 
of its additional exports, its sugar, silk, cotton, oil, salt, sulphur, 
amber, and precious stones, with all the rich variety of its wines ; 
if we properly estimate these, together with the articles consumed 
by the natives, and take also into just consideration, the osten- 
tatious pledge of that decree, which was said to hurl Ferdinand 
from his throne, the late insurrection in Calabria, the battle of 
Maida, with the numerous troops which the residence of the 
sovereign at Palermo, and the presence of a British army, make 
absolutely necessary for the security of Naples, we shall, 
I think, hardly be able to express our surprise, that some 
great and extraordinary efforts have not long before this been 
made at invasion. But if to those reflections, we add the incon- 
trovertible fact, that vast preparations for such a purpose, at 
different parts of the coast, have been daily accumulating; that a 
nezzi and martial king, or, as the French call him, the brilliant 
Murat, at this moment professes to head an army assembled for 
the enterprise; that the capture of Capri is held out as a specimen ; 
and to crown all, that nothing but the fear of our naval superiority 
has hitherto deterred the fleet at Toulon from covering the opera- 
tion ; we shall, most assuredly, I say, in spite of our Ferrol and 
western predilection, be forcibly led to decide, that the sailing of 
the Brest fleet is principally or solely directed to the subjugation 
of Sicily. Now let us see in what respect, and in what degree,^- 
the prosecution of this invasion interferes with the great and imme- 
diate energies of the enemy. In every former continental war it 
has been his uniform policy, disregarding all remote considera- 
tions, to bring together from every part an overwhelming supe- 
riority, wherever the decisive battle was likely to be fought with 
the enemy. In pursuit of this object, Naples has been twice 
altogether, or nearly abandoned, and the sea coast of France and 
Holland left almost defenceless. But let it be recollected, that on 
the latter coast 3 unless some great preparation were exposed to 4 



CORRESPONDENCE. 205 

CQ8p-de-main from the English, there was in reality little or 
nothing to be apprehended, and such places as Boulogne, it may 
be presumed, were adequately defended ; for what but insanity 
could carry an army for the mere purpose of devastation, and 
what would be the immediate effect of such depredations ? What, 
but furious irritation against the burners of their dwellings, and an 
enthusiastic resort to those very measures of local defence, which 
even the power of Buonaparte is cautious of commanding ? With 
respect to the former abandonment of Naples, the ground on 
which it was ordered, was essentially different from that which the 
question rests on at present. At first, that country was amused 
with the name of an independant republic, and republics, it was 
presumed, should readily arm themselves for their defence; since 
then, the crown has been placed on the head of a Frenchman, and 
on this consideration, a small proportion of troops, even in the 
greatest emergency, were left by the enemy for its defence. But 
the insurrection of the Calabrians, and the battle of Maida, have 
shown their insufficiency. A large army has been subsequently 
cantoned there, and as long as there is the slightest pretence for 
calling Ferdinand their King, a considerable military force will be 
required to overawe them. The events in Spain, among a people 
similarly situated, must have added considerably to the distrust ; 
and unless the Emperor of France, who aims at the force and the 
character of a destiny among nations, is willing to see his predic- 
tions and decrees stripped of all their illusions, he must not, at this 
critical conjuncture, venture upon withdrawing the army from 
Italy, or not till he has successfully availed himself of the means he 
possesses for invasion. 

It is now of importance to consider what will be the consequence 
of his attempt at invasion. Let us take for granted that his means 
are already prepared, and that he only waits the protection of a 
naval force to insure him a landing. Let us suppose, that the fleet 
at Rochefort has escaped during the approaching gales that ours 
has pursued them towards Cadiz, or the West Indies ; while they, 
choosing their course, have entered the Straits, and steered either 
direct for Naples, or to form a junction with the fleet that is ex- 
pecting them at Toulon. If our ships are blockading Toulon, the 
Frenchmen, aware of the fact, will proceed without opposition to 
cover the invasion ; if, on the contrary, they arc assembled for the 
protection of the island, the French fleet will proceed to the 
junction, and afterwards have nothing to fear, from their num. 
bers. Now supposing them lauded superior in numbers to the 



206 COURESPONDENCK. 

English they will have to encounter, if they obtain possession of 
Messina, and the land that is nearest to Calabria, a port of safety 
will be found for (heir ships, while an uninterrupted intercourse 
with Naples from the possession of both shores, will be constantly 
maintained ; here then, even during the struggle, they will bo 
gainers ; for it is evident, that the same army that may be equal to 
coping with an enemy in Sicily, might be glaringly insufficient to 
protect, an extensive range of coast from their desultory warfare: 
and if, as they confidently expect, they should succeed in the con- 
flict, less troops may be found necessary to garrison it, and a great 
army, comparatively,' set at liberty, by cutting up at the roots, iu 
Palermo, the source of insurrection ir. Calabria. It is extremely, 
natural, for persons unacquainted with the government, and the 
flagitious oppressions of the feudal Barons in Sicily, to suppose, 
that some assis.'ance might be expected by our armies from the 
population which surrounds them. It is very natural to conclude, 
-that the inhabitants o! an island, thrice chosen as an asylum by 
fugitive royalty, must be eminently conspicuous, if riot for the 
milder virtues, at least for their bravery, or if not for their bra- 
very, for a virtue s'.ill dearer to kings, unquenchable loyalty ; 
but alas! how miserably erroneous are ail such conclusions ! This 
fugitive, but happy monarch happy, because his gratifications are 
inciependant of royalty ; * this persecuted Ferdinand, who, one 
would imagine, was adored by the subjects he flew to, has twice 
been received by them, as a man whose necessities had forced him 
to their dwellings, as one, who when his circumstances will no 
longer admit of extortion by viceroys, returns to his domains 
escorted by foreigners, to play the part of a viceroy, and plunder 
them himself. Such is the tone of feeling which prevails among this 
suffering population : such are the feelings which have prepared 
1,300.000 souls to look on Avith indifference, or to hail with joy, 
the army of invaders ; while an army of foreigners, rioting in lux- 
uries in the midst of their privations ; boasting of their freedom 
while sanctioning oppression, shame by comparison, and insult by 

* Ferdinand, King of ilie Two Sicilies, is extraordinarily fond of fishing 
and shooting, and it is said, that on the approach of the French army to 
Naples, when, while all was tumult in the city, he and his court sought re- 
fuge in the ship of' Lord Nelson ; the gallant admiral, who felt deeply for 
his misfortunes, had prepared to escort him with an air indicative of his 
feelings ; but what must have been the astonishment of our immortal hero, 
when the fugitive monarch, hurrying into the cabin, eagerly demanded, f 
any of the fish' he was so fond of had been provided jor his suppsr! 



CORRESPONDENCE. 207 

comment, their silent apathy, and speaking miseries. Let the men 
who expect energy from such a people, in the defence of royalty, 
look to the gilded swarm of Iocuts, which in the name of nobility, 
eat up every green herb reared by their industry ; Irt them look 
to the chit-Is of the Baronies, who tax at their own pleasure, the 
very necessaries of life produced by the toil of the peasant and his 
family ; a race of tyrants, who are even tenacious of the rights^ 
by which they can condemn hundreds of families to starvation, 
while every other district in the island is rebelling in abundance. 
Let them go higher, to the general government; let them see the 
accused who never knows the accus. r ; let them follow that 
accused into the dreary dungeon, where his protestations of inno- 
cence, and his prayers for a trial, are never heard but by his 
Maker ; or let them, relieved from these horrible doings, 
follow with gladdened heart the joyous steps of the emaciated 
wretch, whose friends have bribed for his trial; let them see the 
horrid conversion of smiling hope to dreadful agony, as .they 
behold this climax of infamy Sicilian justice^ founded on Sicilian 
TORTUKE; then, let them say Will Sicily be defended ? Equally 
erroneous is the expectation that some defence will be made by the 
army, and those nobility who fatten by the oppressions. * The prin- 
cipal nobility have estates in the territory of Naples, but they are 
an effeminate generation ; their fears and their property alike impel 
them to wish evil to the men whose presence perpetuates the 
disunion. As to the army, it is notorious, that wheu the King of 
Naples made the greatest exertions for his safety, the greater part 
of the commissions for officers were~bought by the French minister, 
and given to men avowedly attached to their cause. Of the pri, 
vateSj I shall conclude Avith an anecdote, worth a thousand argu- 
ments, to prove how r little the pride or honour of a soldier is che- 
rished among them. During the time a British ship of war was 
lying at I\lessina, nothing was more common than for half disguised 
soldiers to come and ofl'er themselves for sailors; so much so, that 
guards were placed for the purpose of preventing desertion, and it 
actually happened, that one, fully accoutred, having entered a 
boat, refused to go back to his post, though a corporal's guard 
came in much form to claim him ; in the course of the exclama- 
tions and interrogatories put ny the corporal, it appeared that the 
poor wreio.i had bsen enticed by the promise of eight dollars, 
which he had heard some of the seamen say would be given fee 
volunteers. iVo sooner was this sum mentioned, than the coun- 
tenance of. the corporal and the \vhole guard underwent an install- 



208 CORRESPONDENCE. 

taneous change. Eight dollars, he exclaimed, and prize money (o 
boot ! Holy virgin ! comrades, what can we better do ? And it 
is an absolute fact, that the partly instantly piled their arms, and 
it was only by shoving the boat away from the wharf, that the 
-officer was able to reach his ship without this extraordinary 
cargo. 

F. F. F. 
^.^.^ 

MR. EDITOR, 

IT is now three years since Parliament voted that 90,0001. should 
be placed in the hands of certain commissioners, for the pur. 
pose of purchasing a mansion and estate to be annexed to the title 
of Earl Nelson. In common with the rest of my countryman, I 
have long felt anxious to hear that the sum thus voted has been 
applied to the end proposed. But as nothing has transpired upon 
the subject, I can no longer resist the temptation which 1 feel to 
inquire, through the medium of your work, what steps have been 
taken by the commissioners, and whjBther they are, or have been, 
in. treaty for any property in consequence of the powers which 
they received from Parliament in 1806 ? You, Mr. Editor, may 
perhaps possess some information upon this point. If such be the 
case, I must beg you to communicate it to the public. Every 
Englishman, I firmly believe, most heartily rejoiced at the grant 
made by Parliament, and many would have been still better pleased, 
had even a larger sum been voted ; but all are surprised at the 
delay which has taken place, and are anxious to see the heir of 
their beloved hero the possessor of a mansion, presented to him by 
the British nation, instead of being the secluded inhabitant of a 
Prebcndal dwelling at Canterbury. 

I am, <tc. 

TRAFALGARIENSIS. 

*** We have not the means of giving a perfectly satisfactory 
answer to our Correspondent, " TUAFALGARIENSIS." Itis known, 
however, that numerous advertisements have, from time to ti>ne, 
appeared, calling upon the possessors of such estates as might be 
thought fit for the purpose (if disposed to part with them) to send 
in their terms to the commissioners ; but not one is supposed to 
have been yet offered, corresponding with the munificent intention 
of Parliament. In the mean time, Earl Nelson is understood 
regularly to receive the interest of the money voted by Parliament, 
which, if our memory deceive us not, was 100,0001. instead of 
80,000. Ez>. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 209 



XI. 
MR. EDITOR, March 3, 1809. 

HAVING in a former letter stated to you the opinions I had 
seen and heard respecting the conduct of our late naval com. 
rnander-in-chief in Portugal, I should be wanting in justice if I did 
not acknowledge, that in the course of the late debate in Par- 
liament, there appeared some exculpations which were not before 
in the possession of the public. It appears that he was not the 
original inventor of the abominable naval convention, but only 
retains the demerit of having applied it to practice, when the vic- 
tory of VimeirU) and other circumstances, had totally changed the 
relative situations of the parties. This appears to me a very great 
and important error in judgment. Now it is not long since, Air. 
Editor, that Sir Robert Calder beat an enemy superior in force to 
the fleet under his command, and captured two sail of the line. 
The hopes and expectations of the nation, however, raised as they 
had been to a high pitch from the recollection of former splendid 
naval victories, were disappointed ; a LEGAL trial quickly ens iu-d, 
and the victorious admiral was severely reprimanded for an error 
in judgment^ in not having made a proper use of his victory : and 
although I am of opinion that a different conduct was due to 
an old, faithful, and meritorious officer, he has not since had an 
opportunity afforded him of correcting the error that he was cen- 
sured for committing. Now the admiral in his defence jiavo some 
very cogent reasons, which might well have influenced hi'.i in the 
conduct he pursued;* but what could have influenced Sir H. 
Burrard to refuse to follow up the victory gained by Sir A. Wei. 
lesley, even when urged to do so by the victorious general, whose 
valour and abilities he had witnessed ? In a late debate in the 
lower house of Parliament, it was said (according to the newspa- 
pers) by one of his majesty's present ministers, that there was no 
specific charge against either of the generals, and that the opinion 
that had been asked of certain officers ought to satisfy the nation. 
These said ministers may have some reasons not to bring forward 
a charge, but after a diligent perusal of the proceedings of the 
board of inquiry, I feel, and the country sorely feels, that there 
lies a very heavy and serious charge against Sir Harry, in not 
following up the victory, and in consequence being the great, if 

* The more frequently I peruse die trial of this meritorious officer, the 
less am I enabled to discover how the sentence given could have been pro- 
duced from the evidence which appears in the minutes. Surely Sir R. C. has 
had hard measure dealt to him. Vide NA.V. CHRON. Vol. XVII, p. 99, et seg, 

. (Hoi. XXI. E E 



210 CORRESPONDENCE. 

not sole cause, of the subsequent conventions, of our ships bearing 
their disgraceful burdens to the ports of France, and of Junot 
being so soon at the head of a division of the French troops in 
Spain. Where does a shadow of blame attach to Sir R. Calder, 
without the heaviest clouds of error hanging over Sir H. Burrard ? 
The latter had no long coast to guard, no enemy in his rear, no 
dread of his movements allowing the enemy to land in Ireland ! 
He had no orders but what propelled him onwards ; the plain road 
to glory and national advantage was clearly before him, and he did 
not pursue it. Sir R. Calder demanded a trial ; Sir II. Burrard 
appears content with the opinion of certain officers, that he was 
right not to follow up a victory, contrary to the remonstrance of 
the general who had gained it ! ! ! Surely here is at least an error 
in judgment. The convention of Cintra, even in the speech from 
the throne, is admitted at least to bear the same stamp, bat we 
have no trials on these important military cases ! The opinion of 
some generals, some of whose names were now for the first time 
known to the public, was indeed requested, and a long and very 
odd opinion they have given, in my comprehension. Whence this' 
difference ? Why is a naval officer only to be brought to legal 
trial, and the ten million times more important errors of the 
military, made a mere matter of opinion ? Are we to argue from 
hence that the navy is indeed our true constitutional defence, and 
the navy of the nation, while the army belongs to the executive 
alone ? Do not the premises warrant the conclusion, that such aa 
erroneous opinion must somewhere exist ? 

I felt very sincere satisfaction in the thanks of the two houses 
of Parliament to our brave armies ; they merit all the eulogium, 
and all the more substantial reward, which an admiring and grateful 
country can bestow ; for did they not by their own innate valour, 
their genuine British spirit, gallantly enlighten us by two brilliant 
rays of exultation, emanating from amidst the darkest gloom of 
misfortune and mismanagement that ever lowered over our national 
concerns ? They have presented us with two short but gratifying 
pauses of intermission to our harrassed feelings,, which would 
otherwise have been too shame and sorrow struck to have been 
endured. Give then to our gallant soldiers all their merited praise 
(they need no more) ; but let not the glare of their victories so daz- 
ele and bewilderthe minds of our legislators, as to induce them to give 
the credit of them to ministers, whose want of judgment would 
have doomed any other armies to certain and entire destruction. 

In the late memorable debate respecting the convention, where ? 
AS far as my understanding could penetrate, the argument lay all 



CORRESPONDENCE. 211 

on one side, and the majority of votes on the other, the question 
appears to be set at rest. But that appearance is delusive. The 
effect of the disgust at that measure, which filled the public mind, 
has not been the less for not having been vented in addresses or 
remonstrances ; as it was sufficiently evident that addresses from, 
every county and corporate body would instantly have been laid 
before the throne, had they not been suppressed by the strong 
power of ministerial influence, and checked by the two prevalent 
courtiership of the times. The difference of the manner in which 
the address of thanks or praise had been a short time before 
sanctioned and urged, is sufficiently remarkable. I therefore con- 
clude, that the practice of addressing the throne is at an end, as 
when people are not permitted the use of the language of reasonable 
disapprobation, they will surely be very chary of their praise, 
even if a tolerable occasion should, " by some kind stroke of 
smiling chance," occur. But pray, Mr. Editor, although the 
people in general were not permitted openly to complain of the 
convention, or to remonstrate on the reply read by Lord Liver- 
pool to the city of London,* yet while the sentiment that there 
was cause to complain was so prevalent, by what policy did the 
ministry refrain from consoling us with the information, that his 
majesty by no means approved of that convention ? The news 
M-ould have had a soothing effect, and softened down a good deal 
of that asperity of feeling, which the prevalence of a contrary opi- 
nion had produced. 

It has been curious to observe how many men, who were loud 
in their censure of the measures above stated, out of doors , have 
within the walls of St. Stephen's " kept silence even from good 
words while the ministers were in sight." When we consider the 
bad policy just before mentioned, and the mischief they have done 
to the cause of their client in the unhappy matter now in suspence, 
I cannot help exclaiming, from such ministers or advocates good 
fortune deliver your correspondent, E. G. f , 

^v^f.^ 

MR. EDITOR, Folk&tone, -February 15, 1809. 

CURING the time that I commanded a brig in the late war, 
<J we so often, while weighing the anchor in boisterous weather, 
experienced a want of power from the precarious hold which the 
feet of the seamen had on the deck, that I cannot help thinking 

* It has been remarked, that this reply is remarkably like one given 
to the Parliament of Paris in 1787. 



COnRESPONDENCE. 



a considerable advantage would be obtained in small vessels, hy 
adopting the expedient which I am now about to propose. At the 
heads of piers, and at the capstans in many places on shore, may 
be seen strong battens nailed to the platforms on which they s.tand, 
against which battens the people employed at the bars place the 
soles of their feet, and thereby acquire a certain addition of power. 
Now, if these battens are of great use on rough boards, and on 
immoveable horizontal planes, how much more valuable must they 
prove on the surface of polished and ascending planks, such as 
from the motion of a ship, in spito of sand, the deck sq often be- 
comes ? This advantage, I am told by an officer of much experi- 
ence (Lieutenant Platt) has, on board some merchantmen, been 
realised, as far as it relates to the hoisting in of cargoes ; but as in 
such instances the battens arc permanent, and consequently intrude 
on the walk of the deck, they cannot be brought here as examples 
to prove the advantages of them afloat. What I would now 
suggest is, that battens, of a similar description, might be made to 
ship and unship at pleasure, like the capstan. bars ; and it appears 
to me that this might very easily be done ; for, either b,y cutting 
mortices in the rise on which the capstan stands, and in the planks 
at the sides, or by nailing pieces of wood to form artificial ones 
(so that they might be made to slip up and down), a certain num- 
ber would be readily provided, and the ingenuity of (he carpenter 
would supply the rest. I am so well convinced of the easy prac- 
ticability, and great utility, of this simple expedient, that i hope 
some of the officers of our gun. brigs will undertake to give it a 
trial ; and should they be able to anchor off Folkstone, I should 
feel particularly happy in hearing their report. 



B 




Plan of the capstan, and part 
of the shifting battens fitted in 
mortices : 

A. Rise on which the capstan 

stands. 

B. Gunwa'e with mortices. 1 

C. Ditts abaft the mast. 

D. Battens on the deck. 
e. Mortices. 



A 



CORKi;srON T pENCE. 213 

MR. EDITOR, 

S your biographical memoirs arc professedly intended to 
rescue modest merit from oblivion, I make no apology for 
observing, that, in the opinion of naval men, acquainted with the 
circumstances attending Captain Downman's action off Oporto, 
the public prints have never yet done sufficient, or even bare jus- 
tice to its deserts. I remember it was said at the time, that after 
all the shot of the Speedy had been fired awav, Captain D. had 
recourse to the water-casks, the hoops of which were converted 
into shot for the occasion. J do not mean to vouch for the authen- 
ticity of this report ; but at all events it deserves to be known as a 
curious resource in distress; and, whether true or false, serves to 
mark the distinguished perseverance with which that action was 
fought. It is something extraordinary, that the same little Speedy 
should, In the course of the same war, have been engaged in three 
most unequal and brilliant contests ; for that off Oporto is 
indubitably one ; the second was fought by Captain Jahleel Bren- 
ton, when he defeated the gun-boats from Algesiras, and elicited 
the admiration of all Gibraltar ; the third and last a most excellent 
climax had Lord Cochrane for ifs hero, when he combated and 
overcame his gigantic antagonist, El Gamo. I am led to this latter 
recital, not more perhaps from the pleasure which we feel in re- 
counting gallant actions, than from that sort of indefinable interest, 
which a sailor always takes in the services of the vessel vyhich 
first bore him upon the ocean. The Speedy mounted 14 four- 
pounders. 

\V. R. 

MIX. r.DJTOR, 

IT is said that Captain Bolton, who commands the Fisgard, 
has invented some valuable substitute for a lower mast, which 
may be resorted to under every disadvantage of weather. As the 
great utility of such an invention depends on its publicity, I hope 
some officer will favour us with a description of it in the NAVAL 
CHRONICLE. 

Ax OFFICER IN TIIE ROYAL NAVY. 



PLATE CCLXX1X. 

THE town of Valetta, or Cltta Nuora, the capital of the 
island of Malta, derives its name from the Grand Master, 
Frederick John de Valetta, by whom it was built in the year 



514 PLATE CCLXXIX. 

1566. It stands upon a hill, in the form of a neck of land, ex. 
tending itself into the sea. Its wall, on which several batteries are 
planted, is of large square stones, dug out of the rock. 

On the point, towards the sea, stands the Castle of St. Elmo, a 
fortress which commands the two harbours of Valetta. One of 
these, called Marsa Mascictto^ lies at the entrance from the sea to 
the right of the town, and incloses a small island, on which stand 
a fort and a lazaretto. 

The other harbour, on the left side, is simply called Marsa, 
or the Great Harbour; as it is the largest, safest, and most com* 
modious, in the island. Its entrance, of which the annexed plate 
presents a view, besides the Castle of St. Elmo, is guarded by Fort 
Ricasole, standing on the Punta del Orsa, to the left. The town 
of VaJetta lies on its right ; and on its left, the towns, il Borgo,, 
or Vittoriosa, and Senglea. 

The town of Valetta contains a handsome palace, the residence 
of the Grand Master, before which is a spacious area for exer. 
cises. The principal church is dedicated to St. John the Baptist. 
Formerly the Jesuits had a college at Valetta ; and there are still 
several convents, a large hospital, aud a building in which Turkish 
slaves are kept. 

A gentleman, who has lately returned to England, after a 
three years residence at Malta ? has furnished the following re- 
marks : 

" It is no less curious th,an amusing, to view the diversities of 
dress and appearance among the motley crowd which business daily 
assembles on the Marina, or shore of the harbour of Valetta. 
Besides the English soldiers, sailors, and merchants (many of 
whom have their warehouses placed there), one sees Barbaresque 
traders wrapped in their long shawls, and adorned with waistcoats 
of most splendid embroidery, with vehite or green turbans, black 
bushy beards, yellow gipsy-like countenances, and dark sparkling 
eyes. They generally sit down with pipes, a yard long, in their 
mouths, or walk up and down very leisurely, while they negotiate 
matters of business. Their settled gravity is contrasted with the 
noise of the Maltese boatmen and porters, who are a lively set of 
people, having much more of the Italian than of the African cha- 
racter, although some of them evidently appear to be of the latter 
origin. These men wear the peculiar dress of the lower classes of 
Maltese, a bcrrctta^ or cap, red or black, a checked shirt, com- 
monly tucked up to the elbows, a coarse cotton waistcoat and 



H.ATE CCLTXIX. 215 

trowscrs, generally ornamented with a set of globular silver but- 
tons, a girdle of various colours bound round the loins ; their feet 
are either bare or protected by a rude kind of sandals; and to 
protect them from rough weather, they wear in the colder season. 
a grego, or thick shaggy great coat, with a hood, which gives 
them a very wild and barbarous appearance. There are also 
about the harbour some few Maltese, of a superior class, such as 
the port captains, the officers of the Sancta, and others, who imi- 
tate the English ; but it is easy to distinguish them, not only by 
their dingy countenances, but by their broad cocked hats, large 
silver buckles, and other articles of dress, by no means of the 
newest London mode. Before the present war with Turkey, the 
Greeks, whose ships frequented this port, added greatly to the 
diversity of the scene. They were a race of men exceedingly 
distinguishable from the others; tall, and commanding in mien, 
with long mustachios and bushy hair : on the crown of the head 
they wore a small skull-cap, with a black silk tassel ; often a 
flower stuck behind the ear ; and always a rosary depending from 
the neck ; with loose jackets and broad trowsers, the leg being 
bare from the knee downwards. At a still earlier period, one 
might have seen here the natives of every nation trading in the 
Mediterranean ; Russians, Swedes, Danes, Americans, Spaniards, 
Italians, Dalmatians, Ragusans. These indeed bore in their dress 
and personal appearance no very striking characteristics ; but the 
various forms of their shipping, and colours of their pendants, 
gave an additional liveliness and picturesque effect to the harbour. 
The events of the war have unfortunately banished most of the 
foreign flags ; but have by no means limitted, in an equal degree, 
the trade which they used to carry on at Malta. Circuitous modes 
of conveyance are now found out ; and though no doubt the 
tyrannical edicts of the oppressor of Europe have loaded commerce 
with numberless difficulties and impediments, yet unless he should 
attain an absolutely unlimitted controul over every part of the 
Continent, and should continually direct the most severe and vigi- 
lant attention to this single object, means would undoubtedly be 
discovered to carry on a contraband trade, for which the situation 
of Malta is so peculiarly favourable." 



216 

BLACK SEA. 

DY A MEMBER OF THE LEVANT COMPANY. 



" NaateSj dales, and facts."'' 

Cobbett's worts. Passim. 

EDICATED as the NAVAL CHRONICLE is to the propagation 
of maritime knowledge in all its branches, little apology cart 
be requisite to bespeak a place on its pages for the state papers to 
which this article serves for preface ; inasmuch as they relate to 
the increase of British navigation, and contain a body of informa- 
tion by no means immaterial, particularly at the present con- 
juncture. 

At length an end has been put to the reluctant hostilities pro- 
duced partly by hostile influence, and partly by mismanagement, 
between England and Turkey. Having now to begin over again 
in that empire, after the interruption of an amicable intercourse of 
two centuries, it is to be hop.'d we shall retrieve past errors. 
Political misfortune is but another name for misconduct. With 
the terms of the treaty of peace concluded on the 5th of January, 
we are not likely to be made acquainted until after the ratification. 
But there is one point which we may take for granted cannot have 
been neglected in framing the instructions for the negotiation, and 
to which the attention of our merchants, ship-owners, and mariners, 
cannot be too early directed, namely, the freedom of the Black 
Sea, as established in favour of this country in 1799. Those 
waters have been strangely overlooked by statesmen in our days, 
as a sort of blank upon the map. In fact, the Genoese and the 
Venetian republics seem to have been the only powers of modern 
Europe thoroughly aware of the importance of access to the very 
heart of the continent, afforded by that inlet ; although the policy 
of the Romans, on that head, is discoverable, in the war against 
Mithridatcs. The principal treaty extant between the Crown of 
England and the Ottoman Sultans, does indeed shew some vestiges 
of our having had footing there in the days of Queen Elizabeth, 
or James I. but when we ceased to frequent the Black Sea is not 
ascertained. All the information upon record seems to be made 



BLACK SEA. 217 

use of in the first of the three documents annexed ; which is the 
memorial whereby Mr. Smith, his majesty's minister plenipoten- 
tiary at the Porte, solicited a fresh recognition, tantamount to a 
new creation, of the right of access, in favour of the British flag, 
already alluded to. This was speedily obtained, as appears by the 
second document, which declares the assent of the late Sultan 
Selim thereto. By one of those eccentric movements, which cha- 
racterise English diplomacy, that minister was superseded a few 
weeks afterwards by the Earl of Elgin, who was invested with the 
rank of ambassador extraordinary. But it was not until after the 
noble Earl had been replaced by Mr. Straton, in the character of 
ckarge-d* affaires, that the third and last document of the series 
was published in the London Gazette of 14th September, 1802. 
Concerning which dilatory notice of a grant, so replete with 
interest to the commercial Avorld at large, and to the Levant Com- 
pany in particular, that acute and spirited writer, Mr. Cobbctt, 
makes the following comment in his Political Register for that 
year, Vol. II. page 348. 

" To the treaty (of peace) between France and the PertCj we now add 
a note from the Reis-Effeudi, addressed to our minister at that court, dated 
29th July last, by which we also are permitted to navigate and trade in the 
Black Sea, a privilege obtained by France in the treaty above mentioned. 
That we, who have been the saviours of Turkey, should obtain from her 
favours, equal to those obtained by a power which, in the mi. 1st of profuuud 
peace, invaded her territory, and endeavoured to subvert ner government, 
is certainly no very great proof of the vigilance, the skill, or the conse- 
quence, of our diplomatic persons in that country: but what shall be said 
of Lord Elgin, when it is known that, had it not been for his reflect, what 
has nozo been granted to put us upon a level with the French, we should 
have been in full enjoyment of more than two years ago ? Jt was the sub- 
ject of an application from our ambassador in 1799, and the grant was 
communicated, in nearly the same manner that it is now, on the 30th of 
October of that year. All that was wanted was to settle the mode of 
execution, the Custom-house rates, c. &c. This Lord E. never did> 
the right remained unenjoyed ; and we have now had to beg it as a new 
favour, which, by hazard, we have obtained. ' 

To what extent the enjoyment of our privilege, thus renovated, 
was carried during the subsequent embassy of Air. Drummond, is 
not precisely known : at last, however, a total interruption of 
this beneficial pursuit, in its still infant state, was one of the la- 

/9atJ, T$ron ffiol* XXI. r i? 



218 6LACK SEA. 

niontablc consequences, amongst others, of Mr. Arbutlinofsi 
unaccountable Hegira from Constantinople in 1807, (on board 
the Endymion frigate). 

Although it may not be habitually within the province of the 
NAVAL CHRONICLE, to trace political effects to their causes, yet 
this slight retrospect has already introduced such a catalogue of 
names, as it is impossible to take leave of without a word of 
regret that the pernicious influence of what is by common consent, 
called interest (although a more appropriate epithet might be 
employed), should be found to extend its discouraging effects to 
the filling important foreign missions with novices ; while ministers, 
regularly brought up in the diplomatic school, are laid upon the 
shelf like yellow admirals. With the two exceptions of the gen- 
tlemen first named, Mr. Smith, and of Mr. Stratou, both of whom 
compleated their servitude in the subaltern ranks of the foreign 
line (the former as secretary, under Mr. Liston, when ambassador 
at Constantinople in 1793, and the latter under Sir R. M. Keith, 
at Vienna, in 1788,) the other representatives of his majesty at 
ihe Porte, during the interval under review, cannot be considered 
as qualified either by professional education, by official experience, 
or by local residence, to manage our concerns in the Levant. 
Even down to the very last appointment, to a special mission thi- 
ther, destined to treat with a country convulsed by internal coin- 
motions, can it be said that personal knowledge of the Orientals 
was in the slightest degree attended to ? It is not the aim of this 
allusion ad hontincm, to detract from the possible merit of the 
candidate, nor to withhold approbation from the useful employ- 
ment of his abilities: although something might be said upon the 
palpable combination of the Turkish negotiation with the change 
of system, in one, at least, of the imperial courts : otherwise the 
preservation of amity, with a power so critically situated in its 
interior, as well as iu i!s exterior relations, as the Ottoman 
Porte, would be precarious indeed. But the general respecta- 
bility of the choice, any more than the success attending the 
experiment, cannot militate against the fact that, with the third 
report of the finance- committee laying on the table of the House of 
Commons, in the appendix to which (No. 63, dated 15th March, 
are registered the names of five ex-diplomatists, who had 



BLACK SEA. 219 

served in that quarter, and arc pensioned off to the amount of 
8,9501. annually : with the contingent pension list thus charged, 
Mr. Adair was sent to set foot in Turkey for the first time in his 
life. 

To conclude. After re-organising our old establishments on this 
side of the Bosphorus, we shall, iu all probability, have to form 
new ones in the Euxine regions. \Ve have .the successful ex- 
ample of our natural rivals before our eye-, as to the advan- 
tages derivable from preliminary information, whether statis- 
tical, geographical, or hydrographical, in the intercourse with 
foreign countries. Every intelligent traveller knows how inde- 
fatigable the French are in the acquisition, and how methodical in 
the application, of all those branches of local knowledge to the pur- 
poses of war or peace. This department of study is too much left 
to chance amongst us. In proportion to our population, we 
possess a greater number of well informed individuals than any 
other country, perhaps, except parts of Germany. But our pro. 
gressive knowledge of the globe is not digested into convenient 
and authentic form. Our marine charts, some local surveys attached 
to expensive publications excepted, are in general so defective as 
to disgrace a naval nation. One map-maker copies the antiquated 
blunders of another : and thus is error perpetuated by each suc- 
eeding publication ; in which the map-seller is more attentive to 
the workman-like appearance of the article, than to the scientific 
merit of the performance. The revival of Levantine navigation 
offers a desirable opportunity for rectifying the hydrography of 
the Black Sea. If the readers and correspondents of the NAVAL 
CHRONICLE would take the trouble of communicating, through 
the same medium, such details as they may have collected, a 
tolerable stock of materials might soon ba formed. To which 
shall be added the occasional contribution of 

MERCATOR, 

Join's Coffee- House, 9lh March, 1809. 



Memorial to the Sublime Ottoman Porte. 

His Britannic Majesty's minister plenipotentiary has already 

taken occasion to apprise the Sublime Ottoman Porte of a petition 

;>g been presented to his majesty's government on the part cf 



220 BLACK SLA. 

an anticnt corporation (not unknown to the illustrious Ottoman 
ministry) cntituled by Royal charter, " the Company of Merchants 
of England trading into the Levant Seas." The prayer of -which 
petition is to obtain from the Sublime Porte the same advantages as 
are enjoyed within the Ottoman empire, by other more favoured 
nations, meaning thereby, in express terms, the privilege suc- 
cessively recognised in favour of the Russians and Germans, 
relative to the navigation of the Black Sea. In addition to the 
earliest communication of the fact, the English minister thought 
it expedient to avail himself of the friendly intercourse arising out 
of the mutual dutios of alliance, in order to prepare the Ottoman 
ministers of state tor the more formal agitation of the question, by 
previous confidential explanation of the opinion entertained by 
his superiors upon its merits. He is glad of this public opportu. 
nity to acknowledge) the favourable reception of those preliminary 
overtures, which it is now become his duty to authenticate, as 
well as to substantiate his verbal arguments, by the present detailed 
exposition. 

Prior to the treaty of defensive alliance concluded on the 5th 
of January, 17&9, the political relations of the two empires rested 
on the basis of " THE SACKED CAPITULATIONS AND ARTICLES OF THE 
PEACE," as th y have been digested in the times of several ambassa- 
dors : * and as they have been revised and amplified in 1661-2 by the 
Earl of Wiu chelsea, T ambassador extraerdinary from King Charles 
II. And also as they have been since augmented and renewed at 
Adrianople in 1086, A.H. 1675, A.O. by Sir John Finch, Knt. 
ambassador in ordinary from his said Majesty to the Emperor 
Sultan Mahommed Khaan. 

This treaty contains several articles which apply with peculiar 
force to the present case, viz. 1. 4. 7. 18. 22. 27. 36. and 38.+ to 
which the under- igned begs leave respectfully to refer. 

The text of articles 1. 4. and 7. sets forth in general, but in most 
comprehensive terms, that " the English subjects and dependants 
may, with their merchandise and faculties, freely pass and repass 
into all parts of the Ottoman dominions; and that their ships 

* Amongst whom are named Sir Thomas Roe, Knt. Sir Sackvill Crow, 
Bart, and Sir Thomas Bendish. 

f Stiled in the text Sir Heneage Finch, Knt. Earl of Winchelsea, Viscount 
Maidston, Baron Fit/herbert. of Eastwell, Lord of the Royal Manor of 
Wye, Lieutenant of the county of Kent, and city of Canterbury. 

See Appendix. 



BLACK SEA. 221 

may come and harbour in any of the ports or scales* of the same." 
Article 22. recapitulating the preceding permission to " na-igate 
and abide, buy and sell all leg A! merchandise," enumerates prohi- 
bited commodities. Article 18. sufficiently secures to the English 
<i all privileges granted to other nations : " but (o make the point 
more clear, it is corroborated by the prospective language of 
article 27. which declares that the u privileges granted by divers 
imperial decrees, whether before or after the date of these capitu- 
lations, shall always be understood and interpreted in favour of 
the English nation." Article 36. distinctly defines the general 
permission of ingress and egress to enable " the English merchants, 
and all under their banner, to go by the way of the 7b/jai**+ into 
Moscovia ; and also to and from Persia ; and to traffic, by land or 
by sea., through all those confines." Finally, as if it were decreed 
that not a shadow of doubt should remain respecting the extent of 
of our navigation, article 38 contains the following remarkable 
maritime provision, viz. ' If English ships, bound to Consian- 
tinople, shall be forced by stress of weather into Coffa.^ or to such 
like port, they are not to be compelled to break bulk arbitrarily," 
&:. &c. The local description given by this and the preceding 
article can need no comment. 

This is our case, as far as it rests on historical testimony ; w Inch 
incontrovertibly proves that, in point of fact, the English have 
once enjoyed a right, recognised by an authentic instrument, 
afterwards reduced by the vicissitudes of human affairs to a dormant 
state; but never extinguished: nicer disuse, occasioned by the 
varying circumstances of succeeding times, is surely very different 
from renunciation or forfeiture. 

But supposing that the implied riant to equality of favour was 
not so explicitly admitted as it is by article 18 ; supposing farther, 
that the fact of the waters of the Ivrimca had not been so specifically 
established as it is by article 38 ; nay, that England could produce 
no title at all in support of this claim, there are other arguments to 
influence the decision of the question in our favour, derived from 

* Scale. Term employed in the levant factories from Scald in the 
lingua Franca dialect, or from the Turkish word Iskeli, signifying literally a 
ladder or stairs, and figuratively a commercial quay. 

t 7Wi'<:'j>>or Don, a river of llu-shi falling ir.to the sea of Azof, or Pa'us- 
Mczo'is: accessible only from the Black Sea by the straight of Tuman or 
Yimi-Kalch, formerly tlie Cimmerian Bospliorus. 

+ Ctffit, Knffu, Kfffcfi, alias Tlicodosia, a port in the Black .Sea, on the 
S.E. coast of Kriinea, formerly il;c Tunnc 



BLACK J-EA. 

the liberal system of (lie Subliir. [ \me jtsclf in Us foreign relation^ 
from the fitness of things, and connected wuh the interests of this 
empire. 

In the daily transactions between the chancery of state and the 
clifferentEjropeauiegations,hovr often do pretensions come under dis. 
cussion which arc unsupported by conventions ad hoc. Theinvariable 
practice is to refer all such doubtful cases to the tcot of antient usage, 
which is almost always considered as equivalent ; and lapse of lime so 
far rendering precedent obsolete, generally stamps it with additional 
value in the eyes of the Porte. In proof of which may be cited the 
conduct of the Ilsii^-EJfendi towards the English embassy in 1795, 
when certain reforms were projected in the custom-house tariff^ 
by which the duties on foreign merchandise were collected, ad va- 
lorem^ in order to bring the chargeable valuation nearer to the 
current prices of the day. The two Imperial courts not acceding 
to the proposed change, on the ground of their commercial tariff's 
forming an integral part of the text of their respective treaties of 
peace, the Sublime Porte desisted from the measure with respect 
to them : and, although we could not make the same plea (inasmuch 
as our tariff stood upon the ground of a simple contract between 
the customer of Constantinople and the English factory, with the 
exception of very few articles enumerated in the capitulations), 
yet, for the sole reason above-mentioned, Rashid Eiiemli, then 
in office, voluntarily and formally exempted Mr. Listen from any 
farther discussion of the subject. A memorable instance of that 
exemplary good faith manifested by the Ottoman government in 
the observance of treaties, and particularly shewing its equitable 
construction of their meaning relative to the English. 

Since the time when the Black Sea formed, as it were, a lake 
encircled by the Turkish territory, circumstances, unnecessary to 
retrace here, have transferred a part of the Kuxine coasts to 
Russia: and collateral causes have rendered the house of Austria a 
participator in -the same privilege of access to the Black Sea, al- 
though not possessing, like the former power, any territorial pro. 
perty in its shores. However natural it might be for any power 
which was sole possessor of the key of those inland waters to con- 
reive iis duty as guardian of the commerce and navigation of i's 
subjects best fulfilled by a rigid exclusion of strangers; yet, 
the ice once broken, by the admission of a single foreign flag, the 
argument s for the original system of monopoly, not only cease <o 
be tenable, but actually change their bearing in favour of ano<h , 
order of things, whereby the .excessive benefit of the first grantee 



BLACK SEA. 223 

shall be shared and subdivided with one or more competitors, 
leaving the particular shades of their rival ity out of the question. 
So far from the Turkish coasting trade being interfered with by 
the direct voyages of foreign vessels, it is rather to be expected 
that the seamanship of the Ottoman mariners would be improved 
by the example of a naval nation like the English, and the ship, 
builders be advanced in their art by the inspection of more perfect 
models. The. government can always keep the concourse of foreign, 
shipping within due bounds by navigation laws ; while the trea- 
sury cannot but feel the beneficial effects of the transit by Con- 
stantinople. The commodities furnished by the trade with Eng- 
land are of admitted utility to all classes of this nation, and of 
prime necessity to some. By enabling the English navigator to 
penetrate the deep gulfs of the Black Sea, and thus rendering the 
remotest districts accessible to the English merchant, instead of the 
present languid routine of a single factory superintending two or 
throe annual cargoes assorted according to the Ihnitted consumption 
of the metropolis, with the refuse of which the provincial traders 
are scantily furnished at second and third hand, we shall see whole 
fleets laden with the richest productions of the old and new world. 
British capital and credit would attract flourishing establishments in 
the solitary harbours of Anatolia; from whence the adjacent citi-s 
would receive less indirect supplies ; and where the land owners 
would find a more ready exchange for their produce. Sinope ami 
Trebizoud would again emuhiu the prosperity and poj uLuion of 
Aleppo and Smyrna. The Abuses* Laies, and other turbulent 
hordes who inhabit the mountainous fastnesses, by mixing more 
frequently with their fellow-subjects at those marts, could not fail 
to learn their real interest to be. inseparable from the performance 
of their duty. 

After this solution of the problem, in one sense, there are still 
some other substantial reasons, to evnect the Ottoman ministry 
will consent to an arrangement, tending to consolidate more and 
more, the c.oisii.-ctioii it has pleased the Supreme Providence to 
ordain between the two empires: but the most elevated ground of 
hope is found in the magnanimous sentiments of his Imperial 
Majesty. That monarch will MI rely not suffer the ancient and 
unalterable friend, the zealou and devoted ally of his empire, to 
sustain a disadvantageous comparison with any other power, ia 
point of the enjoyment oi' immunities within his dominions ; on 
the contrary, the English Minister .ndulgcs himself in the Haltering 
persuasion, that even v.y.s this tjuestio: ".ew ecu- 



221 BLACK SEA. 

cession in favour of his countrymen, provided their desires were 
not unreasonable in themselves, nor incompatible with the essen- 
tial interests of the Ottoman empire : it would encounter no 
difficulty on the part of -the Emperor; whereas, what is solicited, 
is the revival of the dead letter of a venerable compact; the 
favourable interpretation of an ancient grant, become equivocal by 
change of circumstances ; the restoration of a privilege, become 
questionable, solely for Avant of exercise. It is suggested, to 
seize the present auspicious moment, for assimilating that 
banner which is the victorious antagonist of the enemies of 
the Ottoman name, the violators of its territory, to the flags 
of its neighbours and friends, not less the friends of England. 
Can Russia, for instance, take umbrage at any arrangement that 
would open its southern ports to those who are the harbingers 
of abundance and wealth, to the northern provinces of that 
empire ? 

Nor are certain moral effects inseparable from such a cause as 
the arrangement in question, to be overlooked by governments, in 
the cultivation of political relations ; for although diplomatic 
contracts may organize the body, yet national feeling must 
animate the soul of alliance. It is impossible, but that such an 
unequivocal proof of the interest taken by the Emperor, in the 
welfare of the King's subjects, must make the most lively and 
lasting impression on his majesty's mind ; and must augment, if 
possible, the just confidence he already entertains in the person and 
government of his august ally. The people of England, distin- 
guished as they are by active industry and speculative habits, will 
fully appreciate a concession at once so valuable and so seasonable. 
Public opinion will derive therefrom that additional intensity and 
permanent direction, in favour of the connection between the two 
countries, no less desirable to ensure its durability, than requisite 
mutually to realise all its immediate benefits. To appropriate the 
enterprising energies of a warlike people, is no unfair equivalent 
for mercantile encouragement: the cordial voice of an independent 
nation is no unworthy return for an act of grace. British gratitude . 
will pay this tribute to Sultan Selim. 

Here closes the case which the English minister, in obedience to 
his instructions, has the honour to submit to the consideration of 
the illustrious ministry. In the first place, he has endeavoured to 
bring the existence of the privilege within the scope of historical 
evidence, as a claim of unextinguished right. Secondly, he has 
discussed the question upon the ground of political expediency. And 



BLACK SEA. 225 

lastly, solicits the imperial assent as a national boon. The re- 
liance that he places in the justice and -wisdom of the Sublime 
Porte; and, above all, in 'the generosity of the Emperor, hardly 
permits him to harbour a doubt adverse to the issue of a nego- 
ciation, which, if committed to feeble hands, is founded on such 
a solid basis. 

It now becomes the duty of the undersigned to state, in the 
name of his court, the distinct object of this memorial : namely, 
the promulgation of an imperial Fermaan (edict), enacting the 
re-establishment of the English navigation in the Black Sea, on the 
footing it appears, by the sacred capitulations, to have been in 
the reign of Sultan Mahommed Khaan, the most puissant Emperor 
of the Ottomans, and of Queen Elizabeth of glorious memory, 
or of her immediate royal successors. It is more particularly 
wished to move the Sublime Porte to decree the same, according to 
the tenor of its treaty with Russia, dated at Constantinople, 10th 
June, 1783, of the Christian aera ; confirmed by the treaty of 
peace concluded at Yassy* on the 9th January, 1792, from 
article 17 to article 35 inclusive; subject, nevertheless, to such 
provisions as existing circumstances may render expedient. To 
which end the proper officers on both sides shall be instructed to 
take arrangements in concert, consulting the regulations for the 
passage of the Sound into the Baltic Sea, or such other acts de 
transita as obtain authority in the public or maritime law of 
Europe. 

Individually, there remains one other duty for the undersigned 
to" fulfil ; and that is, to offer his most respectful thanks to the 
illustrious Ottoman ministry, for the courteous attention always 
paid to his representations, in transacting the business of the 
station he has the honour to hold, and especially on the present 
affair ; as well as for the ready access allowed him on all occasions. 
Also to renew the assurances of that conscientious discharge of 
duty towards the court where he is sent to reside, of which he 
trusts the labours of his ministry, in critical times, have furnished 
too frequent and ample testimony for those assurances not to be 
accepted as sincere by the Sublime Porte. 

(Signed) I. S. SMITH. 

Heli'grad) near Constantinople, 
1st September, 1799. 

* Yassv, or lassi, the capital of Moldivia, a frontier province of Turkey, 
the governor or Vdivoda of which is always selected from the Greek oobility. 

JRJato, Gfrom Ool* XXI. G e 



225 BLACK SE*. 

APPENDIX TO MEMORIAL. 

Extract from the Treaty, entitled Hie Capitulations or Articles of tke- 
Peace. 

ARTICLE 1. 

Fifst, That the said nation and the English merchants, and any other 
nation or merchants which are or shall come under the English banner and 
protection, with their ships small and great, merchandise, faculties, and aH 
other their goods, may always pass safe in our seas, and freely and in all 
security may come and go into any part of the imperial limits of our 
dominions in such sort, that neither any of the nation, their goods' and 
faculties, shall receive any hindrance or molestation from any person what- 
ever. 

ARTICLE 4. 

All English ships or vessels, small or great, shall and may at any time 
safely and securely come and harbour in any of the scales and ports of our 
dominions, and likewise may from thence depart at their pleasure, without 
detention or hindrance of any man. 

ARTICLE 7. 

The English merchants, interpreters, brokers, and all other subjects 
of that nation, whether by sea or land, may freely and safely come and go 
in all the ports of our dominions ; or, returning; into their own country, al! our 
bezlcrbegs, ministers., governors, and other officers, captains by sea of ship*, 
and others whomsoever our slaves and subjects, we command that none of 
them do or shall lay hands upon their persons, or faculties, or upon any 
pretence shall do them any hindrance or injury. 

ARTICLE 18. 

All those particular privileges and capitulations, which in former times 
have been granted to the French, Venetians, or any other Christian nation, 
whose king is in peace and friendship with the Porte, in like manner, the 
same were granted, and given to the said English nation ; to the end, that 
in time to come, the tenor of this our imperial capitulation may be always 
observed by all men ; and that none may, in any manner, upon any pretence, 
presume to contradict, or violate it. 

ARTICLE 22. 

The English nation, and all those that come under their banner, their 
vessels, small or great, shall and may navigate, traffic, buy, sell, and abide 
in all parts of our dominions, arid, excepting arms, gunpowder, and other 
such prohibited commodities, they may load, and carry away in their ship*, 
whatsoever of our merchandize, at their own pleasure, without the 
impeachment or trouble of any man ; and their ships and vessels may come 
safely and securely to anchor at all times and traffic at all limes in any part 
of our dominions, and with their money buy victuals, and all other things, 
without any contradiction or hindrance of any maix 



BLACK SFA. 227 

ARTICLE 2". 

.AH these privileges, and ot!>cr liberties granted to the English nation, 
and those who come under their protection, by divers imperial commands, 
whether Jbeforc or after the date of tiiese imperial capitulations, shall be 
ahvays obeyed and observed, and shall always be understood and interpreted 
in favour of t!ie English nation, according to the tenor and true contents 
thereof. 

ARTICLE 3G. 

The English merchants, and all under their banner, shall and may safelv, 
throughout o-.ir dominion, tra<ie, buy, sell, (except only commodities pro- 
hibited) all sorts of merchandise ; likewise either by land or sea, they maj 
go and traffic, or by the way of the river Timais, in Moscavia, or by Russia, 
and from thence may bring their merchandise into our empire; also to and 
from Persia they may <io and trade, and through all that part newly by us 
conquered, and throusli those confines, without the impediment or molesta- 
tion of any of our ministers : and they shall pay the custom or other duties 
of that country, and nothing more. 

ARTICLE 38. - 

The English ships which shall come to this our city of Constantinople, if 
by fortune of seas, or ill weather, they shall be forced to Coffii, or to such 
like port, as long as the English will not unlade or sell their own merchan- 
dise and " goods, no man shall enforce nor give them any trouble or an- 
noyance : but in all places of danger the Caddtcs, or other of our ministers, 
shall alwavs protect and defend the said English ships, men, and goods; 
that no damage may come unto them : and with their money may buy 
victuals and other necessaries: and desiring also with their money to hire 
carts or vessels, which before were not hired by any other, to transport their 
goods from place to place ; no man shall do them any hindrance or trouble 
whatsoever.'' 



TRANSLATION 

Of the Original Grunt of the Freedom of the Black Sea, as ddhered 
to I. S. SMITH, Esq. and recorded in the Public Register of' the Ciiancery, 
of the British Factory at Constantinople. 

The friendship and good intelligence which subsist sines the most remote 
times, between the Sublime Porte, of solid glory, and the court of England, 
being now crowned by an alliance founded on principles of the most invi- 
olable sincerity and cordiality; and these new bands thus strengthened 
between the two courts having hitherto produced a series of reciprocal ad- 
vantages, it is not presumptuous to suppose, that their salutary fruits will 
be reaped stiii more abundantly in time to come. New, after mature 
reflection on the representations that the English minister plenipotentiary 
residing, at the Sublime Porte, our very esteemed friend, has made relative 
to the privilege of navigation in tiip Black Ser^ for the merchant vessels cf 



228 BLACK SEA. 

liis nation; representations that he lias reiterated, both in writing and ver- 
bally, in conformity to his instructions, and with a just confidence in the 
lively attachment of the Porte towards his court: therefore, to give a new 
proof of these sentiments, as well as of the hopes entertained by the Sublime 
Porte, of seeing henceforward a multiplicity of new fruits spring from the 
connection that has been renewed between the two courts, the assent 
granted to the before-named minister's solicitations is hereby sanctioned as 
a sovereign concession and gratuitous act on the part of his Imperial Ma- 
jesty ; and to take full and entire effect as soon as farther amicable con- 
ferences shall have taken place with the minister our friend, for the purpose 
of determining the burthen of the English vessels, the mode of transit by 
the canal of Constantinople, and such other regulations and conventions as 
appertain to the object; and which shall be as exactly maintained and 
observed with regard to the English navigation, as towards any other the 
most favoured nation. A"d in order that the minister, our friend, do 
inform his court of this valuable grant, the present rescript has been drawn 
up, and is delivered to him, 

Constantinople, I Jemazi'ul-Evrell, A. H. 1214. 
30 October, A.D. 1799. 



TRANSLATION. 

Official Note delivered by the REIS EFFENDI to ALEXANDER STRATON, Esq. 
at a Conference in his Excellency's House on the Canal, the '29t/i 
July, 1802, 

It behoves the character of true friendship, all sincere regard to promote 
with cheerfulness, all such affairs and objects as may be reciprocally useful, 
and may have a rank among the salutary fruits of those steady bonds of 
alliance and perfect good harmony, which happily subsists between the Sub- 
lime Porte and the court of Great Britain ; and as permission has heretofore 
been granted for the English merchants ships to navigate in the Black Sea 
for the purposes of trade, the same having been a voluntary trait of his 
Imperial Majesty's own gracious heart, as more amply appears by an offi- 
cial note presented to our friend, the English minister, residing at the Sub- 
lime Porte, dated 1 Jemazi-ul-Akhir t 1214,* this present Takrir\ is 
issued ; the imperial court hereby engaging, that the same treatment shall 
be observed towards the English merchant ships coming to that sea, as i s 
offered to ships of powers most favoured by the Sublime Porte, oil the 
score of that navigation. 

23 R6bi-ul-Ewcl, 1217. 
23 July, 1802. 



* 00th October, 1799. } Official note. 



229 

MARINE SCENERY. 

THE FEUOE ISLANDS. 
(Translated from the Danish.) 

STfTlHE Feroe Islands are situated in the North Sea, between the 
Jl_ latitude of 61 deg. 15 min. and 62 deg. 21 min. In regard 
to longitude, the town of Thorsharn lies 19 deg. 15 rain. 15 sec. 
west from Copenhagen, and 9 deg. 47 min. 45 sec, east from 
Tencriffe. They are eighty-four miles distant from the coast of 
Norway on the eastern side, and forty-five miles from the Shet- 
land isles towards the south-west. 

These islands are in number twenty-two, seventeen of which are 
inhabited. They occupy, in a direction from north to south, 
fifteen miles; extend in breadth, from cast to west, ten miles; 
and contain altogether nearly twenty-three and a half square miles- 
They consist of a group of steep rocks or hills, rising from the sea, 
chiefly of a conical form, and placed for the most part close to 
each other, some of which proceed with an even declivity to the 
shore ; but the greater part of these declivities have two, three, or 
more sloping terraces, formed by projecting rocks, and covered 
with a thin stratum of earth, which produces grass. Close to the 
sea, however, the land in general consists of perpendicular rocks, 
from two to three hundred fathoms in height. The highest of all 
the hills in these islands, and that first seen by navigators, particu- 
larly from the west, is Skaelling, which lies in the southern part ef 
Nordstromoc. Its perpendicular height is 400 Danish fathoms, or 
2,240 English feet; and though it is the steepest of all these hills, 
jt is possible to ascend to the top of it. When viewed from the 
bottom, it appears to terminate in a long sharp point ; but when 
you have climbed up to its summit, you find a pretty level plain 
covered with moss, about three hundred ells in length, and a hun- 
dred in breadth. When the weather is clear, the whole of the 
Ferae islands may be scfcn from it. 

The hills lie so close to each other, that the termination of the 
bottom of one is the commencement of the bottom of another, 
being separated merely by a brook or rivulet. There are no 
vallies of any extent between them : in the higher ground between 
their summits a few dales, covered with wretched grass, are some- 
times seen ; but these arc not letel, being interrupted sometime* 



230 M.VKTNE fcCENEHY. 

by collections of large loo.se stones, which have the appearance of 
being thrown together by a volcanic eruption. On some heights 
there are found considerable tracts covered with rubbish, which 
seems to be effloresced matter thrown down from the rocks ; and 
these tracts produce no grass, for the finer mould, fit for the pur- 
poses of vegetation, which might be collected in them, is swept 
away by the violence of the winds, or washed down by the rain 
and snow-water. Some moist places, less exposed to the impetuo- 
sity of the winds, a!Tord a scanty nourishment to the Ka'nigia 
islundica, and the drisr spots produce the Saxijraga oppositifoiia, 
and the Stalicc Armeria. But such is the smoothness and steep- 
ness of many parts of these hills, that no earth can remain on them ; 
and, in general, the stratum of earth by which the rocks of the 
Fcroe islands are covered is so thin, that it is sometimes no more 
than a quarter of an ell in depth ; and in the vall.es, where the 
land is arable, it never exceeds two ells. 

The form of the hills is different, according to their situation, 
whether more to the north or to the south. Those in Sudcroe 
exhibit, in general, an evener surface; but those in Stromoe and 
Ostcroc have on their side several sloping terraces and hillocks, 
lying close to each other. These hillocks present nearly the same 
appearance; so that when viewed at some distance, particularly 
from another hill or eminence, they resemble a camp consisting of 
pitched tents ; and when these hillocks are covered with snow, 
which is often the case when there is no snow in the lower regions, 
this resemblance is still more striking ; but the case with Norderoc 
is entirely diifercnt ; the hills are steeper, and of a more conical 
form ; and they have rough ridges on their summits, beset with 
projecting paps and asperities. 

The rocks in general consist of trap, almost every where hit; r- 
mixed with feld-spar, some glimmer, and small grains of zeolite. 
The ridges of the hills sometimes exhibit cle'ts or fissures, which 
the inhabitants call skaurc ; and very often these fissures may be 
traced, in a strait line, through other islands, notwithstanding the 
interposition of the sea. 

No certain traces of any crater or signs of volcanic eruption are 
here to be found ; nor did I ever observe any pumice-stone or 
lava in these islands, unless basaltes can be considered as belonging 
to that kind of production. 

Besides the large collections of stones already mentioned, which 
'arc occasionally found in the hills, there are seen sometimes in thw 
Tallies single stones, three, four, or five ells in diameter, but lii 



MARINE SCEVEirY. 531 

places where it is Impossible they could have fallen down from the 
hills. Such stones are found also here and there at a considerable 
height in the hills, where there is no other eminence in the neigh- 
bourhood from which they might have rolled down. On the side 
of many of the hills, and particularly on the lower projecting de- 
clivities, there are often found great heaps of stones, among which 
there are some large ones ; but it may be plainly perceived that 
these have been thrown down from (he higher projections, in the 
fissures of which the rain-water lodges, and when it freezes in win- 
tor it splits the rock by its expansion, and on a thaw taking place 
these fragments tumble down, and by their fall destroy the grass 
plats below. But the stones thrown down in this manner arc 
tlifierent from those before mentioned ; for the latter have two 
sides, which stand at a right angle, or, at least, they have one or 
more flat surfaces ; whereas the former are in general round. 

In some of the hills there are strata of basaltic columns, standing 
in a perpendicular position ; in other places they have an oblique 
direction. At Fredeboe, in Suderoe, is a series of these columns, 
the bottoms of which are concealed ; but their summits are all 
visible. It extends to a considerable height in the side of the hill 
proceeding north to north-west, but sinks down towards the shore 
in a south or south-east direction ; and at the bottom of the hill 
these columns stretch out several fathoms into the sea, always 
sinking lower, till they at length disappear beneath the water. 

In several parts of those islands may be seen lofty columns, 
bearing large arches, which support huge masses of rock; and 
under these arches there are large apertures 0r cavities, six, eight, 
or more ells in length and breadth, the bottoms of which are 
covered by the sea. There are also in some places narrower 
cavities, but these extend to a greater distance within the hills, 
and produce a very loud echo when a person calls out before the 
mouth of them. Some of these cavities, which serve as places of 
retreat for the seals, are of such length, that one can proceed for- 
wards in them with a boat from thirty to a hundred fathoms. 
Others extend quite through the hill, so as to be open at both 
ends; and some of them stretch across a whole island. 

In some siyall creeks at the bottom of the steep lulls, or which 
form indentations in them, there are frequently seen tall rugged 
rocks, of a pyramidal form, some of them like towers, and at *uch 
a distance from the parent rock, that a boat can row betwcca 
them. These rocks, to which the inhabitants gave the name of 
are of various heights, for some of them rise scarcely to 



MARINE SCENERY. 

the fourth part or half the height of the parent rock, while other* 
rise to the same height. But these rocks are not confined merely 
to the creeks ; some of them are found at the projecting extremities 
of the islands ; others stand close to the. sides of the hills, at the dis- 
tance of a few fathoms from the land : and some so close, that the 
water can scarcely find passage between them ; but it is cvidenfly 
seen that they have once formed a part of the coast from which 
tluy have by some means or other been torn. 

At the bottom of the rocks there are sometimes seen immense 
columns, between some of which and the rock there is a vacant 
space towards the foot of them, while the tops, bent towards the 
rock, are united with it, as if they had been raised on purpose to 
support it, and prevent it from falling into the sea. Others of 
them arc connected with the hill at the bottom, and have their tops 
entirely free and disengaged from it. 

The Fcroe islands contain a great many streams and rivulets, 
but none of considerable size. At most seasons of the year they 
arc all fordable, and may be crossed with safety, except at the 
time of heavy rains, when they receive such an addition of water 1 
that they become impassable. Some of them produce trout, which 
are caught after rain, by angling for them with a rod and line. 
Sometimes the inhabitants kill them by striking them with a stick, 
or take them by groping with their hands in the holes under the 
banks. This kind of fishing, however, is of very little importance. 
There are some fresh-\vater lak^s also between the hills, where 
trout are canght, but seldom in any considerable quantity. The 
largest lake, and that most abundant in fish, as far as I could learn, 
is iu Vaagoc, to the north of Midwaag ; it is about two miles in 
circumference. Leinum, and some smaller pieces of water in. 
Nordstromoe, contain a few fish ; and in the latter is found a spe- 
cies of trout, which are red on the belly ; on that account they are 
called red-bellies. Some rivulets and small lakes afford likewise 
a few eels, but they seldom attain to a large size. These are the 
only kinds of fresh water fish in these islands with which I am 
acquainted. 

As the hills are for the most part steep, the streams pour down 
their sides with great impetuosity, and some of them form small 
water-falls, which are very convenient to the inhabitants, parti- 
cularly when they are in the neighbourhood of villages, as they 
afford them the means of erecting water-mills. 

Some of these falls appear only after a heavy rain, and precipitate 
themselves ftora the bare rocks, m places where, at other 



MARINE SCENERY. 231 

tbsre is no appearance of them. If a strong wind happens at the 
same period to blow towards the rock, the water is dispersed, and 
falls down in the form of small rain ; but if the wind increases to 
a hurricane, none of the water falls down ; the whole being forced 
tip into the atmosphere, it assumes the appearance of a thick mist 
or smoke, in which a rainbow of the most vivid colours is some- 
times observed. The most remarkable water-fall which I ever had 
an opportunity of seeing in these islands is Fosaa, between Qualvig 
and Haldervig, in Nordstromoe. It consists properly of two 
falls, one above the other, each of which, judging by the eye, for 
I did not measure them, is from twelve to sixteen fathoms in height; 
and the higher one projects so far from the rock, that a person can 
walk between it and the rock without being wet. An inhabitant 
of Qualvig assured me, that he had stood and seen trouts work 
themselves up this impetuous fall ; a circumstance which, if true, 
appears to be very remarkable. The water of the rivulets here is 
in general pure, wholesome, and well tasted, or rather has no taste 
at all. But there are two exceptions ; that is, when the water 
becomes turbid after a few hours rain, or when a small stream runs 
through ground that is muddy, or abundant in cupreous particles ; 
for in these cases the water becomes noxious and ill tasted. Some 
times these small streams run into the larger rivulets which sup- 
ply the inhabitants with water ; but the quantity of corrupted 
water they contain is too small, when mixed with that of the larger 
rivulet, to produce any bad effect. 

These islands abound also in springs, some of which rise from 
deep cavities in the fields, or burst out at the bottoms of the hills, 
and, making their way through the fissures in the rocks, flow 
incessantly, even during the driest weather. They are of two 
kinds, cold and warm ; but the greater part of them belong to the 
former class. They produce excellent water, which in some places 
is said to be endowed with the property of strengthening the sto- 
mach and checking diarrhoea. 

The most remarkable of the warm springs is Vermakielde, fn 
Osteroe, which spouts out from a bank of earth in the neighbour- 
hood of the sea. It is said to be so warm in winter, that if a lira- 
pet (patella testudinalis) be put into it, the animal will be sepa- 
rated froKi its shell. In the mouth of Noveaiber, at which time I 
*aw it, I found it to be almost milk warm ; the bottom of it is 
covered with that species of moss called Fontintdis antipyretica. 
In former times people were accustomed to assemble here at Mid 

/2it>. C&ton. QoU XXI. H H 



334 SATAL STATE PAPERS. 

summer, partly to amuse themselves with singing, dancing, and 
various sports, and partly to use the water as a remedy for different 
disorders. It is still frequented by a few, but the confidence in it# 
healing qualities is much lessened. 



NAVAL STATE PAPERS. 

Papers presenfed to the House of Commons, relative to the 
Rustiajt Fleet in the Tagus, and to the Contention concluded 
teith the Russian Admiral. Ordered to be printed on the Qth 
if February ) 1809. 

HO. 1 is the following extract of an order, from the Admiralty 
to Sir Charles Cotton, dated on the 9th of December, 

1807 : 

" Whereas since thr orders given to Rear-admiral Sir Sydney Smith, in- 
formation has been received of the entrance of a Russian squadron, consist- 
ing of seven sail of the line and two frigates, into the river Tagus, and orders 
have been issued for seizing and sending into port all Russian ships of war 
and merchant ships ; and whereas it has in consequence become necessary, 
that the officer commanding his majesty's ships off the Tagus should be fur- 
nished with further instructions : We do hereby require and direct you, if 
the Portuguese government should recur to its original intention of pro-, 
reeding to the Bra/ils, but should represent to you that the Russian squadron 
interposes an obstacle to their departure, to demand possession of the prin- 
cipal forts upon the Tagus^ as you may deem necessary for the safe passage 
of the squadron under your orders ; and having obtained it, to proceed up 
the river for the purpose of attacking the Russian squadron, and conveying 
the Portuguese fleet out of the Tagus. 

" And where/is, in consequence of the recent conduct of the court of 
Russia, in renouncing ail intercqurse with his Majesty, the capture of the 
Russian squadron in the Tagus has become an object of the greatest im- 
portance, and Major-general Spencer, with a corps of seven thousand men, 
who is destined for Sicily, is directed to proceed with you off Lisbon on his 
way thither, to co-operate with you for the attainment of that object, and 
to put himself under the command of Lieutenant-general Sir John Mooref 
who may be expected on that station with a similar force from Sicily, and 
with whom Rear-admiral Sir William Sydney Smith was by our secretary's 
letter of the 7th ultimo, directed to co-operate; we herewith transmit to 
you a copy of the instructions which have been given to the Lieutenar/r- 
ccncral by Lord Hawkcsbury, one of his Majesty's principal secretaries of 
state, and do hereby require and direct you to co-operate with the 
Lieutenant-general, or in his absence, with Major-general Spencer, for th* 
purpose of effecting the capture of die Russian squadron above-mentioned. 



NAVAL STATE PAPERS. 235 

** In the event of its not being judged prudent or practicable to make aix 
attack on the ships in the Ta^us, or in the event of the failure of such 
attack, you are to continue with tiie fleet off that river, for the purpose of 
maintaining and enforcing a strict blockade thereof, so as to prevent the 
entrance of any supplies whatever, even of provisions. 

" Siiould the Portuguese government, in consequence of the strictness of 
the blockade, surrender to th-j fleet under your com nand the Portuguese 
and Russian squadrons*, you are in timt case (hut in no other) to relax th* 
blockade of the Tagus, so far as relates to the supply of provisions to the 
inhabitants, and in that case only." 

No. 2 consists of instructions to Sir Charles Cotton, for pro* 
curing the surrender of the Russian fleet. A letter from Mr. Can- 
ping to Lord Castlereagh, dated December 28, 1807, says : 

" It also appears from Lord Strangford's information, that the Russian 
fleet in the Taus must shortly be reduced by the continuance of the block- 
ade, to a state of the utmost distress ; and as, iu such a state, it maybe not 
impossible that a proposal for the surrender of that fleet, upon honourable 
conditions, might be listened to by the Russian admiral, it might be desirable 
that instructions should be sent to the commander of his Majesty's fleet, to 
convey to the Russian admiral a proposal for the surrender of the fleet to 
his Majesty, offering as a condition, that the officers and men shall not b 
considered as prisoners of war, but shall be conveyed to Russia by thf 
earliest opportunity, at the expense of Great Britain." 

No. 3 is a copy of a letter from Sir C. Cotton to Mr. Pole, 
dated January 25, 1808, enclosing a copy of a letter from him to 
Vice-admiral ^eniavin, and stating the difficulties under which lie 
laboured, wiih regard to communication with that admiral 

No. 4, a letter from Sir C. Cotton to Mr. Pole, dated Hibernia, 
off the Tagus, February 8, 1808, mentions the arrival of two 
Russian, and one French, officers, in a tlag of truce. From one 
of the former having found means to separate them, he understood 
the Russians to be extremely dissatisfied witri their situation, sub- 
ject as they were to the immediate controul of the French, who 
had possession of all the old batteries on the banks of the Tagus, 
and were daily erecting new ones. " The Russian ships," saya 
Sir Charles, " are said to be full of provisions of every descrip- 
tion, completed to ten months ; all the Irish provision*, &c. that 
were in store previous to the entry of a French army, having, in 
preference to its falling a prey to them, been sent to the Russian 
squadron. The port of St. Ubes and coast to the southward, is, 
I understand, to be immediately occupied by French troops, in, 
ijrder to prevent a possibility of any supplies being seat tOj o? 



23(5 JJAVAL STATE PAPER. 

communication whatever held with, the squadron under fliy 
command." 

No. 5 is a letter from Sir C. Cotton to Mr. Pole, dated Marcb 
29, 1808, stating that Mr. Setarro, (formerly contractor, or agent 
for supplying the British army and navy with provisions, but now 
commissary to the French army) had come on board the Hibernia, 
to request permission for the importation of flour, for the relief of 
the suffering inhabitants of Lisbon. To this request Sir Charles 
gave a decided negative. Mr. Setarro also requested permission 
for about fifteen merchant vessels, which were lying in the Tagus, 
to proceed to the Brazils. Sir Charles replied, that all persons of 
respectability attached to their Prince would meet with no obstacle 
to their intention of proceeding, but that they must first pass under 
an examination. 

No. 6. Sir Charles Cotton, in a letter to Mr. Pole, dated 
April 1, intimates a probability that the Russian squadron will 
come out, in consequence of their disagreeing with the French. 

Nos. 7 and 8, relate to the following order from the Admi- 
ralty to Sir Charles Cotton, for the provisional relaxation of th,e 
blockade of the Tagus : 

" Whereas the Right Honourable Lord Castlereagh, one of his Majesty's 
principal secretaries of state, hath by his letter of this day's date signified 
to us the King's pleasure, that in consequence of the application made to 
you by Mr. Setarro. as represented in your letter of the 29th of last month, 
for allowing the entrance into the Tagus of vessels laden with flour for the 
use of the inh bitants of Portugal, we should give you instructions for your 
further proceedings; we do in pursuance of his Majesty's pleasure signified 
to us as aforesaid, hereby require and direct you immediately to open a 
communication by a flag of truce with the existing government at Lisbcyi, 
and to conform to the following instructions. 

As it does not appear by your letter above-mentioned, by what authority 
Mr. Setarro was commissioned to solicit you tp permit the importation of 
flour for the support of the native inhabitants of Portugal, nor whether he 
professed to speak on the part jointly of the French commander and of the 
Portuguese government, it is, in either case material, that the proposals 
which you are herein directed to make should if possible be transmitted at 
the same time to the Portuguese commander, (Don Gomes Frero) to the 
Civil government of Lisbon, and to Vice-admiral Seniavin ; and lastly 
(should Mr. Setarro have come to you on the part of General Junot) to the 
French commander also. 

" In the communications above mentioned, you are expressly to declare, 
that the blockade of the ports of Portugal lias not been established with any 
view of inflicting the calamity of famine on the natives of Portugal, but on 
the contrary, that you deeply lament their sufferings, as the inevitable cooi 



KAVAL STATE PAPERS. 237 

equence of a necessary operation of war ; that Lisbon, having become in 
the bands of the enemy a port of equipment tor the invasion of his Majesty's 
dominions, the rigid enforcement of a strict blockade has followed as an 
indispensible measure of self defence, a measure which can neither be with- 
drawn or relaxed whilst the port of Lisbon shall retain that character . 
that the relief of the suffering inhabitants of Portugal rests, therefore, en- 
tirely with those who exercise the powers of government at Lisbon ; that 
the interest and compassion with which his Majesty considers these sutler- 
ings, have induced him to authorize you to offer the most liberal terms of 
maritime capitulation, by which the pressure of blockade may be removed, 
and the people be entirely relieved from distress ; but, that in the event of 
the rejection of the terms proposed, you are at the same time commanded 
to render the blockade still more rigorous. 

" You are then to proceed to state, that in consideration of the urgency 
of distress which has been represented, you are authorized to open at once, 
the full extent of liberal terms which you are prepared to grant, as the con- 
dition of raising the strict blockade of the ports of Portugal. 

" You are to accompany the foregoing declaration with the drafts of 
article? of convention in due form, and to the following effect : 
- " 1st. The ships of war of the Emperor of Russia, now in the Tagus, 
shall be delivered immediately to you, to be held as a deposit by his 
Majesty, and to be restored to his Imperial Majesty within six months after 
thtf conclusion of a peace between his Majesty and the King of Sweden* 
together witli any other powers, being the allies of his Majesty at the time, 
and the Emperor of Russia. 

" 2dly. Vice-admiral Seniavin, with the officers, sailors, and marines 
Vnder his command, to return .to Russia without any condition or stipula- 
tion respecting their future services. 

" 3diy. The Portuguese ships of war and merchant vessels to be 
delivered over to you, with all their stores, sails, and equipment, subject only 
to such arrangements respecting such ships of war and merchant vessels, as 
shall be subsequently agreed upon and concluded on the part of his 
Majesty, and on that of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent of 
Portugal. 

" 4thly. All merchant vessels belonging to the enemy, now in the 
Tagus, shall be taken in deposit to be restored to the powers to which they 
ihall respectively belong on the conclusion of peace. 

" Sthly. All neutral vessels actually in the Tagus, to be required to saif 
cut in ballast, or with such cargoes, destined for Great Britain or the Bra- 
zils, as shall be specified in a schedule to be annexed to the convention, the 
cargoes of such neutral ships to be verified by examination either under 
your direction, or in some British port to which the vessel shall be sent for 
that fiirpose. 

" 6thly. On the part of his Majesty, you shall suffer the free entry of 
provisions, not being enemy's property, into the several ports of Portugal, 
jtnd shall relax the strict military blockade of such ports. 

f? The foregoing draft or a convention contains the full extent of the 



<23S KAVAL STATE PAPER*. 

terms which you are hen by authorized to offer on the part of his Majesty . 
but as it may possibly happen that the Russian Admiral may not consider 
himself at liberty to negotiate for the surrender of ti.e ships under his coiu- 
mand, although the Portuguese inhabitants may prevail with the French 
Commander to allow of the surrender of any other enemy's ships, and of 
the Portuguese ships, for the purpose of procuring a supply which may 
avert the dreadful calamity of famine ; you are hereby further required and 
directed (in the event of every condition of the terms proposed by you being 
admitted, with the exception of the suiTt-mler of ihe llussian tleei) in that 
case to conclude a convention xvith that exception, and to permit the intro- 
duction of provisions into the ports of Portugal. 

" But as this arrangement would render it necessary still to maintain a 
large force off the Rock of Lisbon to watch the Russian squadron, to the 
manifest detriment'of other important services, you are on no account to 
open this arrangement as a proposal on your part, but are only hereby 
authorized to agree to it ys a suggestion from the enemy, in tiie event of the 
failure of the more general surrender of the maritime means collected ia 
the Tagus. Given, &c. 16th April, IbOS. 

MULGRAVE, 
" R, BICKERTON, 
W. J. HOPE. 1 ' 

u Sir Charles Cotton, Bar!. Vice-admiral 
of the Red, Sfc. off the Tugus. 

" By command of their Lordships, 

" VV. W. POLE." 

No. 9 acknowledges the receipt of the above order, by Sir 
C. Cotton. 

No. 10 encloses to Mr. Pole, the copy of a proclamation whicli 
Sir C. Cotton had issued to the Portuguese, on the 28th of April, 
pointing out the means by which they might obtain, a relief from 
blockade. 

No. 11 is a letter from Sir C. Cotton to Mr. Pole, dated May 
18, stating the events which had been occasioned by the above 
mentioned proclamation. The following is an extract :- 

" I request you will please to acquaint the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, that in consequence of the proclamation issued by me, copy 
of which I had the honour to transmit to you on the 28th ult. Mr. Setarro 
this day came on board the Ilibernia^ and declared that he was sent express, 
by General Junot, to say, that one of my proclamations had reached him 
on Thursday the 12th inst. which had immediately been transmitted tc 
Bayonne, and orders thereupon requested from the Emperor of the French, 
whose answer might be shortly expected ; that in the mean time, if I had, 
any thing to propose, as stated in the proclamation, respecting a maritime 
capitulation, it might accelerate the business by communicatinj; the same tq 
feyii (Mr. Setarro.) 



NAVAL STATE PAPERS. 233 

' To which I replied, that General Junot must be aware that all com- 
munications of the nature solicited, between respective comrnanders-in- 
chief', usually pass through officers of rank ; and b.e having thought proper to 
prohibit the entry of flags of truce, threatening to destroy one, and when 
employer! upon purposes of humanity regarding his own wounded country- 
men, prevented my sending a flag of truce ; but if his assurance in writing 
was conveyed to me by an officer of rank, that a flag of truce should meet 
due respect in the Tagus, an officer should be sent to communicate the 
terms for a maritime capitulation, by which the blockade of the .ports of 
Portugal may be immediately raised, and a free entry of provisions per- 
mitted; terms the most liberal, influenced solely by the lively interest and 
great compassion his Britannic Majesty felt for the sufferings of an unfor- 
tunate people, whose present misery and probable increase of calamity from 
approaching scarcity, Mr. Sctarro took infinite pains to depict. 

" With respect to Vice-admiral Senia'vin, and the Russian squadron, 
Mr. Setarro said the following questions had been agitated:' What would 
be the conduct of the Russian Admiral if the French met with a disaster in 
Spain, and were opposed in Portugal ?' To which the generally ascribed 
reply is, ' That Russia, not being at war with Spain or Portugal, the flceV 
could not act in any manner hostile to either of those countries.' 

" ' What would be the conduct of the Russian Admiral should the 
British fleet enter the Tagus ?' To which the reply ascribed in like manner 
is, ' Unless a very commanding and superior force rendered such a mea- 
sure improper light them.' " 

No. 12 is a lottcr from Sir C. Cotton to Mr. Pole, dated June 
12, recommending that .5 or 6,000 British troops should be landed) 
to occupy the forts on the Tagus (as, from intelligence received, 
the French had not above 4,000 men at Lisbon), to enable the 
fleet to enter and take possession of the maritime means in the 
Tagus. 

No. 13. Sir C. Cotton states his having requested 5 or 6,000 
men from Sir Hew Dalrymple, for the purpose above mentioned. 

No. 14. A letter from Sir C. Cotton to Mr. Pole, encloses the 
convention entered into with Vice-admiral Seniavin relating to the 
Russian fleet. Vide NAVAL CHUOMCLE, Vol. XX. page 245. 

No. 15 is the following letter from Sir C. Cotton to Mr. Pole, 
with additional proposals made by the Russian admiral : 

sin, " Hibernia,in the Tagis, 1th September, 1808. 

" I have the honour to enclose herewith, for the information of the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, copy of the translation of two 
additional proposals, made by the Russian Vice-admiral Seniavin, since my 
letter to you of the -1th instant, which being of so unimportant a nature, 
in order to gratify the Vice-admiral, I havf acceeded to without hesitation. 

"I beg leave further tu observe to their Lordships, iu. additiuif w mj 



240 NAVAL STATE PAPERS. % 

before-mentioned letter, that upon the whole, the Russian squadron having 
entered the Tagus previous to the departure of the Prince Regent of Por- 
tugal ; having committed no act of hostility against Portugal, or joined the 
French in opposing us, as they were repeatedly requested to do; and 
having their Lordships' instructions for ray conduct towards them upon a 
former occasion (the supposed famine in Portugal) I feel satisfied their 
Lordship* will approve of the favourable terms that have been granted. 
" I have the honour to be, Sir, 

*' Your most obedient humble servant, 

" C. COTTON." 
" Hon. W. WeUesky Pole, $c." 

" P.S. No account or charge has been taken of the stores on board the 
Russian ships, it being understood, that the fame will be delivered up to 
the proper officers on their arrival at Spithcad." 



" The colours of his Imperial Majesty on board the flag-ship, or on board 
any of the others, are not to be struck until tho admiral quits the ship, or 
until the respective captains do the same. 

" At the conclusion of a peace, the ships and the frigate will be restored 
to his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias in the same state in which 
they arc actually delivered up. 

*' Of the nine ships the Yaroslarf and Rafael * will remain in the Tagus^ 
and their crews be distributed amongst the other seven ships that proceed 
to England. 

" The above two articles will be regarded as forming part of the conven- 
tion concluded and signed 3d September, 1808. 

" Given and concluded on board the ship Twerdoy in the Tagus, and OR 
board the Hibernia at the mouth of the said river, 4th September, 1808. 

" DE SENIAVIN, 
" C. COTTON." 
" By command of the Admiral, 

J. SASS, 
" Assesseur de College. 

" By command of the Admiral, 

u JAMES KENNEDY, 
" Secretary.** 

No, H6 announces the sailing of Admiral Tyler from the 
Tagus, with the Russian squadron. 

No. 17 is the following letter from the Secretary of the Admi- 
ralty to Sir C. Cotton : 

" sin, " Admiralty-Office, 17th. September, 18,08. 

" I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to ac- 
Icnovs ledge the receipt of your despatches of the 3d and 4th instant, togethef 

* These iliips uot sea-ivorUy. 



* 

NAVAL STATE PAPER. 241 

vrith the articles of agreement concluded between you and the Russian 
Admiral Seniavin. 

" Their Lordships, comparing those articles with the articles of an 
armistice and basis of convention, signed at the head quarters of the British 
army on the 22d August, and transmitted to you for your concurrence, have 
commanded me to express their fullest approbation of your having rejected 
the stipulation of the neutrality of the Tagus fur the Russian fleet: their 
Lordships observe with regret, in the convention which you have concluded 
with the Russian admiral, the adoption of a new principle of maritime sur- 
render, by the qualified detention and eventual restoration of the ships of 
war of the enemy. Their Lordships, however, taking into their considera- 
tion all the circumstances of the moment at which these conditions were 
adopted, and that you may have acted under a misapprehension of the na- 
ture of their temporary instructions of the 16th April last, which were issued 
solely with an anxious desire to relieve the people of Lisbon from the 
pressure of famine, are not prepared to mark the transaction with their 
disapprobation, trusting that the measure will not be drawn into a prece- 
dent on any future occasion. 

" I am directed by their Lordships, to express their entire approbation 
of the zeal, vigilance, and discretion, manifested by you during your com- 
mand off the coast of Portugal, as well in the judicious measures with which 
you have met the political events that have arisen in that kingdom, as in 
the maintenance of the diflicult blockade of the Tagus. 

" I am, Sir, &c. 

" Admiral Sir Charles Cotton:' " W. W. POLE." 

No. 18 is the following order from the Admiralty, to Rear, 
admiral Tyler, respecting the additional articles agreed to by Sir 
C. Cotton with the Russian admiral. 

" Whereas Admiral Sir Charles Cotton, bart. hath transmitted to us, 
with his letter of the 7th instant, two articles whichjVke-admiral Seniaviu, 
late commanding the Russian squadron in the Tagus, had proposed to him 
subsequent to the convention concluded between them on the 3d instant, 
for the surrender of the said squadron in deposit to his Majesty, and at the 
same time acquainted us, that he had, for the reasons therein mentioned, 
agreed thereto. And whereas the Right Hun. Lord Viscount Castlereagh, 
one of his Majesty's principal secretaries of state, by his letter to us of this 
day's date, luuh by the King's command acquainted us, that the two arti- 
cles which have thus arisen subsequent to the conclusion, signature, and 
exchange of the original convention, cannot be admitted as forming a part 
of that instrument, inasmuch as the said articles do not bear the character 
of explanatory articles, but on the contrary, are in form and substance of 
the nature of a distinct snti supplementary convention, a measure which the 
parties contracting were not at liberty to negociate and conclude, after the 
exchange of a perfect instrument and its transmission to the Government, 
by which the provisions of the said convention were to be carried into 

. J$ion. (Hoi. XXI. 1 1 



212 KAf At KJETRT, 

effect, and that bis Majesty cannot allow the flag of an hosttle power to be 
displayed in the ports and harbours of his dominions ; we do therefore 
hereby require, and direct you to cate the flag of his Imperial Majesty to- 
be removed from the mast-heads, and flag-staves of the said ships as soon a* 
they shall have come to an anchor, but not to order any other colours to be 
displayed on board them; and you are to acquaint their respective com- 
manders, that they are at liberty to land, and remain on shore until the 
period of their return to Russia, and you are to take such measures, as iu 
your judgment may be best calculated to secure the stores on board the said 
ships from- injury, embezzlement, or loss of any kind whatever. Given, 
&c. 30th September 1808. 

* MULGRAVE, 
" R. WARD, 

W. DOMETT. 
" Charles Tyler, Esq r Rear-atfiniral 
of the Blue, &-c, at sea." 

" By command of their k>?dshrps> 
" W.W. POLE," 

No. 19 is a letter from the Secretary of the Admiralty, of 
the same date as above, and announcing its purport, to Sir 
C. Cotton. 

No. 20 announces the arrival of the Russian squadron at 
pithead. 

No. 21 is a copy of a letter from Sir C. Cotton to Mr. Pole, 
inclosing reports of survey on two Russian ships represented imser. 
viceable, and stating his intention to get them repaired, to enable 
them to proceed to England in the next spring. 



The heart's remote recesses to explore, 

And touch its springs, when prose avail'd BO more. 

FAI.COSEE. 

A SHIPWRECK. 

(From Poems ly RICHARD WESTALL, Esq. Rjl*} 

I. 

AWAY with sloth ! for I would climb 
With cautious steps, the rock sublime, 
What, thouch the snow hath all the night 
Been falling fast, and cover'd light 
With a pale mantle, hill and plain, 
the ploughshare of the swain : 



NATAL P02TRT. 

I know the path that leads on high, 
Where the bold Pilot's signals fly ; 
While vent'rous, they with daring hand 
Launch their Hght vessels from the land, 
And change the distant ship's distress 
To safety, and to happiness. 
'Tis in its wint'ry garb, the most 
I love upon our rocky coast 
To stand, and from the mountains height 
Muse on the vast, the solemn sight. 

If. 

Deep at my feet, with sullen roar, 
The dark waves roll upon the shore ; 
And far beyond the stretching eye 
The broad the boundless waters lie, 
Meeting with mighty line the bellied sky. 
Here thou, my country thou, my pride, 
The God of battles on thy side, 
Insulting Europe hath defied 
Full oft; and fill'd with dare alarm, 
Europe hath fled thy lifted arm ; 
Each struggle shall but fix thy reign, 
Sole empress of the circling main ; 
Till fell ambition's rage shall cease, 
And the wide wprld repose jn peace. 

III. 

When first I gain'd the mouatain's brow, 
One only vessel rode below ; 
I saw her anchor rais'd, and heard, 
Or seem'd to hear, the vows preferr'd 
By those, whom iat'rest, anxious care, 
Or love more anxious, gather'd near. 
The sailor, long in battle tried, 
Call'd by his country, left his bride : 
" Farewell, my love ! (he seem'd to say) 
We'll meet again some happier day : 
Farewell ! farewell ! "The op'ning sails 5 
Bending caught the rising gales. 
But ot't, as gentler roll'd the swell, 
Methought I heard, farewell ! farewell ? 
Slow from the shore, with heavy heart,, 
I saw the kindred group depart, 



244 NAVAL FOETRY. 

One fairest form, with head reclin'd, 
Lingering fond, was still behind, 
And trembled at the passing wind : 
She trembled then, when all was calm, 
And love alone could feel alarm. 

IV. 

Now from the north, with vengeful force, 
The wild winds drive their destin'd course j 
The vex'd sea lifts its monstrous form, 
And raging, meets the raging storm ; 
The welUtrimm'd ship, that rode butlate, 
(Proud of her strength) in gallant state, 
That buoyant on the treach'rous seas, 
Spread wide her sails and caught the breeze ; 
Now, with those sails defaced and torn, 
By adverse winds like light'ning borne ; 
Full on yon rock (a sullen throne 
"Where desolation sits alone) 
Unheeding feels the steersman's hand, 
Who shudd'ring at the dreadful land, 
Strains every nerve ; the hardy crew, 
By danger prcss'd, again renew 
Their utmost effort, and again 
Urge her torn head to meet the main. 

V. 

The effort fails, like corn unmown, 
Swept by the rage of autumn, down, 
'Down come her masts ! with horrid shock 
The liquid mountains 'gainst the rock 
Crash her vast hulk! her bulging side 
Drinks deep the dark unpitying tide. 
More loud the wild chaotic rdar, 
Sweeps o'er the main and rends the shore; 
She parts, she sinks ! the troubled air 
Rings with the scream of deep dispair ! 
Fierce, and more fierce the billows rise, 
Spout tlu'ir white foam amid the skies, 
And hide the ruin from my eyes. 

VI. 

Ah ! wherefore turn'd my search below ? 
There once again the form I know. 



NAVAL POETRY. 245 



The lovely form with head reclin'd, 
Who liog'ring fond was ?till i ehind, 
And trembled at the passim' wind; 
She trembled then, when all was calm, 
And only love could feel alarm. 
What doth she now ? nor groans, nor sighs ! 
She faints, she falls ! she dies, she dies ! 
O'er their lost child an aged pair, 
Low bending, tear their rev'rend hair, 
While pale, around, their kindred train 
Pour wide an agonizing strain. 
The mingled horrors fill my heart, 
And n:v biood chills in ev'ry part. 
Swift down the fatal steep I haste, 
And trembling quit the wat'ry waste; 
And press with fault'ring steps the plain, 
And mourning, reach my home again. 

VII. 

There, tho' the crackling faggots sound, 

There, tho' the merry flask goes round; 

There, tho' the sparkling sallies flit, 

New from the ready tongue of wit ; 

Awhile to cheer me tries the jest 

In vain, and vainly smiles the feast ; 

My thoughts o'er ev'ry joy prevail, 

And vain appears each soothing tale : 

Till anxious friendship, by degrees, 

Pours o'er my soul a kind of ease; 

Won by her voice, I strive to join 

The mirth, and lose my cares in wine. 

But when the dying embers fade, 

And I upon my couch am laid, 

Memory then asserts her sway ; 

And all the misery of the day 

I feel with added force again 

Whirl round my dream distemper'd brain; 

Nor those alone which late I knew, 

But other horrors cross my view ; 

E'en now, methinks, the south wind blows, 

E'en now, perhaps, the melted snows, 

From the hoar mountain's rugged side. 

Spread impetuous ruiu wide: 



NAVAL POETRY. 

I hear pale terror's thrilling cry, 
I feel the groan of agony ! 
On yonder bank the mourner stand- 
With fixed eyes and clasped hands, 
The wild waves rolling at her feet, 
Roll o'er her lately blest retreat, 
Roll o'er the husband of her soul, 
O'er her lost children, dreadful roll. 

IX. 

No more ray fever'd spirit bears 
Fast flowing fall the healing tears ; 
And as they fall, my thoughts revolve ; 
The visions fly ! the dreams dissolve ! 
List'ning J stand the stream remains 
Fast bound in winter's icy chains ; 
Bright shine the stars, and .shining show 
The plains all wrapt in crisped snow ; 
The new moon sinks beneath yon hill, 
Hush'd are the winds, and all is still. 

X. 

And be thou hush'd, my troubled soul ! 
Lo ! the calm scene, with soft controul, 
Steals o'er my frame, all languid grown, 
And weighs my weary eye-lids down : 
No more I muse on human coil, 
On short-Iiv'd joys, or lasting toilj 
My alter'd spirit, void of fear, 
Rises above its mortal sphere, 
And wing'd with strength, but newly given, 
Looks upwards and aspires to Heav'n. 



MR. EDITOR, 

A S an addition to your memoir of the late Admiral Barring- 
~^*- ton,* it may, perhaps, gratify many of your readcri to be 
informed, that his remains were interred in the family vault, at 
Shrivenham, in the county of Berks ; and that a monument to his 
memory has since been erected in Shrivenham church, bearing the 
following inscription, the poetical part of which is from the pen 
of the well-known Miss Hannah More. 

I am, &c. H. 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. IV. page 169. 



NAVAL iTlSTORY OF THE PRESENT YKAR, 1809. 247 



Sacred to the Memory of the Honourable SAMUEL 

Admiral of the White, and General of Marines. Born Feb- 
ruary 15, 1730; died August 16, 1800. 

Here rests the hero, who, in glory's page, 
Wrote his fair deeds for more than half an age. 
Here rests the patriot, who, for England's good, 
Each toil encounter'd, and each clime withstood. 
Here rests the Christian ; his the loftier theme 
To seize the conquest, yet renounce the fame. 
He, when his arm St. Lucia's trophies boasts a 
Ascribes the glory to the Lord of hosts; 
And, when the harder task remain'd behind, 
The passive courage, and the will resign'd ; 
Patient the veteran victor yields his breath, 
Secure in Him who conquer'd sin and death. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

(February March. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 



great object on which the House of Commons have been so long 
- engaged, on the motion of Mr. Wardle, has so entirely taken up the 
attention of the public, that little else has been thought of during these 
important proceedings. His Royal Highness the Duke of York has re- 
signed, and Sir David Dundas U appointed his successoi. 

We still direct our attention towards Spain with considerable interest 
and hope. Saragossa, notwithstanding all the lies which the French pub- 
liah under the title of bulletins, was defended in a most noble and gallant 
ruanuer by the Spanish hero Palafox, who is thought to have been poisoned 
or murdered by the French tyrant. In a private letter, which he addressed 
to one of the Spaniards of rank in this country, and which has not been 
published, was the following beautiful passage .Saragossa has been lom- 
barded seren days and seven nights; two thirds of the city is now in ashes. 
But whilst there remains a single house, standing, so long shall Saragossa 
atund against the French. Palafox began the siege with about 200 regular 
troops ; and the amount of the money in the public treasury was little more 
than 251. English. An excellent account of tlie various Spanish state 
papers which have been issued by the different Juntas, and of the opinions 
that have been given by different writers in our own country, respecting 
the Spanish patriots, forms the first article in the new QUARTERLY RE- 
VIEW that lias been published. 

A complete revolution has been very suddenly effected in Sweden. The 



248 NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1800, 

king has been deposed, and is in close confinement; and the reins of go- 
vernment have been assumed by his uncle, the Duke of Sudermania. The 
particulars of these events have riot yet reached us ; but we understand 
that the king was attacked in his palace, and that he wounded several of 
his assailants before he was secured. 

The following letter contains some of the latest information respecting 
the court of Rio de Janeiro. There are some parts which do not entirely 
agree with what we had heard respecting Sir S. Smith. The Diana frigate 
conveyed Admiral De Courcy from Plymouth to the Brazils, to succeed Sir 
Sydney. We regret that the intelligence is so slight concerning the affairs 
of South America, which are every day rising in importance. 

" Rio dc Janeiro, Dec. 18. 

" The affairs of the Spanish colonies have produced very serious mis- 
understandings at the palace. The princess was desirous to go in the 
Spanish frigate to Monte Video, in order, it is supposed, to promote some 
plan of obtaining possession of the settlements on the north of the river. 
The prince applied to Sir Sydney Smith for his advice on the projected 
journey of the princess, who of course resisted strongly giving support to 
any thing which might alarm the Spaniards. The prince followed his ad- 
vice, and the princess and Sir Sydney have been very cool. Sir Sydney 
ordered the squadron to prepare for sea, but the voyage was delayed from 
day to day, and they are now, I believe, on better terms. Sir Sydney was 
at court yesterday (being the queen's birth-day) for the first time since 
the dispute, and was presented with a grand cross of the Order of the 
Tower, and the sword of a new created order. Lord Strangford had the 
same; and thecaptains of the squadron were presented with commanderies 
of the order; and all the first lieutenants of the fleet were made knights of 
the order. 

" Accounts from the River Plata are very uncertain. Two ves s els have 
lately been allowed to land their cargoes, and deposit them, with liberty to 
dispose of one third thereof to pay for rrpairs,&c. This is the state of affairs 
at Monte Video; and at Buenos Ayres things are much worse, for Liniers 
is taking every step to render Ellis, the governor of Monte Video, un- 
popular. We are anxious to hear what steps the new governor will take 
on his arrival." 

The last accounts from Portugal, dated the 20th of February, stale, 
that Sir Robert Wilson, with a division, consisting of Portuguese, and some 
Spanish cavalry, had taken considerable property, in money, provisions, and 
horses, collected by the French at Zamora. Portugal itself, up to the 
20th, had no accounts of French movements towards that country. 

Private letters from Holland report, that according to a secret article 
of the recent treaty between Great Britain and Turkey, the Porte is to join 
with Austria in the war against France, and Great Britain is to furnish the 
Turkish government with arms and ammunition at Malta or the Morea. 
This intelligence, it is said, comes from Malta. 

It is stated in the foreign papers, that the treaty with Mr. Adair was 
signed on the part of the Turkish government by Ilakki Pacha. Such may 
have beep the fact; but, at the time of Mr, Adair's arrival ia the Parda- 



fl.SVAt, HISTORY OP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 249 

s, Hakki war, in disgrace, having been banished by Bairactar to the 
to the Isle of Leinnos, to make room for Selim Schambli Ratib, who was 
entrusted by the Vizier with the command of the castles of the Dardanelles 
and from whom Mr. Adair received much attention and facility in the. 
business of his mission. 

The Vienna Gazette contains the following article, under the head of 
Turkey: 

" Ou the 5th of January peace was concluded between England and the 
Sublime Porte, by the English Minister Mr. Adair, and Hakki Eilendi; 
in consequence of which all the ports in the Turkish empire are open to 
the English ships. This important intelligence was immediately trans- 
mitted to the principal commercial towns in Eurupe, Asia, and Africa; 
and a great change may be expected in the trade of the great towns of the 
Levant, and the price of most commodities." 

Early on the morning of the 2-1-th of February, the enemy's squadron, 
which had escaped from Brest, consisting of eight sail of the line, ap- 
peared off Rochefort, in a widely extended semi-circle. Their first object, 
there is no doubt, was to capture the squadron of three sail of the line 
under Captain Beresfordj which had been at anchor in Basque Jloads. 
But Captain Bercsford had fortunately learnt the precedirg day, that the 
French admiral had struck his flag, and gone to L'Orient to bring out the 
squadron Jying there, in order to join in the attack upon the British Squa- 
dron off Rochefort. In consequence of this information, Captain Beres- 
ford got under weigh, and stood off, and very soon after he observed the 
entrance into the bay of the .French squadron. Here the enemy was joined 
by three sail of the line lying in Rochefort, which, exclusively of smaller 
vessels, make his force consist of eleven sail of the line. 

Towards the latter end of February, the Medusa frigate having sailed 
from Falmouth, in company with his Majesty's &h:ps Resistance and Are- 
thusa, to cruise off Brest; the Arethusa stood into that harbour to recon- 
noitre, and found that the French squadron had sailed : she immediately 
proceeded in quest of the Channel fleet, but could not meet with them. 
The French fleet consisted of ten sail of the line; the English seven, five 
of which are three deckers. The Medusa having fallen in with the Lyra 
gun-brig, Lieutenant Bevians, immediately despatched her home with the 
intelligence. A messenger was immediately sent off to town, and a 
telegraphic communication made to the Admiralty. 

The Brest fleet had or. the 26'th been joined by three large ships from 
Rochefort; when joined by the whole of the squadron there, it would con- 
sist of 14 sail of the ' : ne (two of which are three-deckers) two 50-gim 
ships, 10 frigates, and several small vessels. 

An official report baa been made concerning the escape of the Brest 
squadron ; and the enemy triumphs in the succeps which attended the 
artifice by which " Captain Tronde'has been able to run out with his 
division to fulfil the mission which the emperor had entrusted to him." 
This is the division met by the Surveillante, and which it has been guessed 
is destined to attempt effecting a counter-revolution in South "America. 
The frigates which were chased under the batteries in the roads of Sables, 

2iol, XXI. ' K * 



250 NAVAL HISTORY OP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

we are told, drove away four ships ; but their being themselves drive* 
aground is wisely concealed. 

Lord Gambier, in the Caledonia, took the command of the blockading 
squadron off Rochefort, on 8th of March. 

Should the squadron from L'Orient have proceeded to the West Indies, 
they will probably fall in with Sir John Duckworth's squadron, which there 
is no doubt has proceeded in that direction in search of the Brest fleet. 

The escape of the fleet which had been so long weather-bound at Oporto, 
and which crossed the Bar on the 23d ult. is a matter of consolation, con- 
sidering the menaced condition of that country. The property on board is 
estimated at the value of 400,0001. and hisurances have been done at 
Lloyd's to that amount. There are from eight to ten thousand pipes of 
wine in the fleet. 

At Constantinople an occurrence has taken place, which may throw some 
light upon the situation of Austria. The Austrian Internuwcio, Baron Von 
Sturmer, had, on occasion of the marriage of one of his kinsmen, given a 
dinner, and invited to it the secretary of the English legation. The French 
charge d'affaires, M. Latour-Mauburg, who was also invited, wrote to M. Von 
Sturmer that he could not be present at any entertainment while an enemy 
of France was of the party. M. Von Stunner not answering this letter, M. 
Latour-Mauburg communicated the circumstance to the diplomatic agents, 
and invited them to break off all intercourse with M. Von Sturmer; whicii 
all the agents who were at Constantinople have carried into effect. 

The Dutch papers, as well as the private letters from Holland, state the 
capture of his Majesty's frigate Proserpine, in the Mediterranean, by two 
French frigates, la Penelope and la Pauline: she was carried into Toulon. 
From the French official accounts, it appears- that the Proserpine had been 
very audacious, frequently standing so close to the shore as to look into the 
port. of Toulon. This provoked the French admiral, who sent out against her 
the two abovementioned frigates. Once she escaped by flight, but on a second 
occasion her pursuers came up with her about half past four o'clock in the 
morning. An engagement ensued, whieh was fought close alongside for 
three quarters of an hour; at length the Proserpine struck to her two 
opponents. The enemy states the Proserpine to have had 11 men killed, 
arid 15 wounded, and that both the French frigates came out of the action 
without the loss of a man killed or wounded. 

Private accounts from Holland state, that the crews of two Danish ships 
of the line lyiug at Flushing had refused to obey the orders of the French 
government. They were ordered to sail for Brest, but the captains de- 
clined compliance till they received instructions f;;nn their government; 
upon which they were arrested. The crews having likewise declared their 
resolution to refuse obedience, a representation of the affair was at lenjth 
sent to the Danish government. 

The Hon. John Hope has resigned his appointment as one of the Lords of 
the Admiralty, and has set off for Scotland. Captain Moorsom has suc- 
'ceeded him. 

The Emperor Alexander has recently issued an Ukase, ordering that ail 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 251 

commerce with Finland shall he carried on agreeably to the laws already in 
existence as to the other dominions of his empire. 

The Topaze French frigate, of 40 guns and 360 men, from Brest, was 
captured on the 22d of January at anchor at Point Noire, Guadaloupe, by 
the Cleopatra frigate and Hazard sloop of war, after an action of 45 
minutes. The Topaze had 10 men killed and 19 wounded; the Cleopatra 
two killed and one wounded. 

The French brigs Napoleon and Josephine, from Bayonne to Martinique, 
with wines, flour, &c. were captured in January off Martinique by the Wol- 
verine and Dominica sloops of war, and carried into Barbadoes. 

Sir James Saumarez is to have the chief command of a large fleet, which 
is to be sent to the Baltic, and Sir Samuel Hood is to accompany him. 
They will hoist their flags on board the Victory and Centaur. The fol- 
lowing litre of battle ships are to compose part of the fleet : 

Vanguard . 74 guns, Captain Glynn. 

Minotaur 74- Thompson. 

Standard 64 Harvey. 

Ardent 64 Vashon. 

Dictator .......... 64 Pierson. 

Ruby 64 Hall. 

Africa 64 Barrett. 

Besides several frigates and bomb-vessels. 

The reports of an early adjustment of the differences which snbsist be- 
tween Kussia and England, had induced a considerable reduction in the 
price of colonial produce in the former country. Sugar, in particular, had 
fallen near 30 per cent, namely, from 78 to 56, and 53 rubles per pud 
of40lb. 

The following is an account of the last convoy which sailed from Carls- 
crona the 22d of December, bou:id to England, consisting of five English 
ships of war, three Swedish ships of war, and twelve merchant vessels, 
principally large Prussians. British vessels of war, viz. 

" Salcctte friate, drifted from the Mahno channel, among the ice in 
the Baltic, without anchors or cables; Magnet gun-brig, totally wrecked 
the llth of January, near Malnio, crew saved; Argent gun-brig, sent round 
by the Baltic with despatches, the 28th of December; Fama, brig-cutter, 
totally lost in Bornholm, on the 23d of December, with her commander 
and three of her crew ; Sacorner, sloop-cutter, totally lost near Ystadtj 
crew saved ; Camilla, frigate, drifted into the Baltic, from the Mahno 
Channel, without anchors, &c. Wen tali t a brig-cutter, drifted through the 
.Sound the 6th of January, and got into the Swedish port Toreko; Frauh- 
ton, brig-cutter, drifted through the Sound the 6ih of January, and got 
into the Swedish port \Varberg. 

" The names of the merchant vessels chiefly loaded from different Rus- 
sian ports, with hemp, &c. Recommencement, Captain Kruger burnt 
while on shore in the Mahno Channel by the Danes, on the 17th January; 
Britannia, Anderson, taken by the Danes the 9th; JoshinaFortunaUsshen- 
dorf, drifted into the Baltic with Daues on board; Satisfaction, Becker, 



252 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

drifted through the Sound the 6th of January, and not since heard of; 
Four Friends, Grenson, an English vessel, taken by the Danes the 6th of 
January; Three Davids, Bulk, stranded nearSkani, cargo saved; Minorca, 
Wegner, taken by the Danes the 10th of January; Nadicashda, Dottas, 
drifted into the Baltic without anchors, and returned with Danes on board, 
and sunk near Malino, crew saved ; Yeschkenshal, Sandboy, burnt by the 
Danes while on shore near Malmo, the iSth of January ; Eneykeil, Eliza- 
beth, and another galliot, taken by the Danes near Ilornbeck." 



ADJUDICATION OF PRIZE CAUSES, IN THE ADMIRALTY 
COURT. 

DOCTORS'-COIIMONS, MARCH 1. 

RANGER, Henderson, master. This was a question of salvage. The, 
vessel, under British colours, was captured by a French privateer, and 
afterwards recaptured by the exertions of the mate and a boy, the only 
part of the crew that were suffered to remain on board, who, when the 
Frenchmen were below, threw the companion-hatch over them, and 
steered for the English coast, when they were met by one of his 
majesty's ships, who took possession of her, and claimed as joint salvors. 
The Court pronounced for the usual salvage, and directed that the male 
should be paid SOI. and the boy 101. thereof, and the remainder to be 
equally shared amongst the other salvors. 

THE ADVENTURE, Lisby, master. This British vessel was also cap- 
tured by a French privateer, and recaptured by a British cruiser. The 
Court pronounced for one-sixth salvage. 

ECONOMIE. This was a Danish vessel bound from Petersburg!! to Lis- 
bon, and the question was respecting a claim for a certain quantity of 
goods on board. The Court rejected the claim. 

ANNA DOROTHEA, Schroeder, master. This vessel was under Prussian 
colours, in ballast, at the time of capture. Ship condemned. 



^Imperial parliament, 

HOUSE OF LORDS. 

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 25. 

thanks of the House were unanimously voted to Rear-admirals 
De Courcy and Sir Samuel Hood, and to the captains and officers of 
the fleet under their command, for the assistance which they had af 
forded to the British array at Corunna. 

THURSDAY, JANUARY 26. 

An address of thanks was unanimously voted to his Majesty, for his 
communication of the papers relating to the negotialion for peace, pro- 
posed by the Emperor of Russia, and Buonaparte, at Erfurth. 



MAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 253 

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 17. 

Lord Grenville made his promised motion on the Orders in Council, 
(recommending conciliatory measures towards America, and the rescind- 
ing the Orders ; assuring his Majesty at the same time, that the House 
was disposed to resist all novel claims on the part of America, and to 
maintain the maritime rights of his Majesty. 

Lord Bathurst went into a discussion of the French decrees, that ave 
rise to the Orders of Council, and justified the expediency of the latter, 
which he said the late ministry had themselves admitted by the Orders 
pf Council issued on the 7th of January, 1807. He said, that whenever 
the object of those Orders in Council should be effected, that of brin^- 
ing France to reason, and inducing her to repeal her decree against our 
commerce, then would his Majesty rescind the Orders in Council. 

When the question was put, the House divided on Lord Grenville'g 
motion Contents 70 Non-contents 115 Majority against the motion 
45. 

HOUSE OF COMMON'S. 
WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 25. 

The thanks of the House were unanimously voted to Rear-admirals 
De Courcy and Sir Samuel Hood, and to the captains, officers, seamen, 
and marines of the fleet which they commanded, for the assistance 
which they had afforded in the embarkation of the British troops at 
Corunna. 

TUESDAY, JANUARY 31. 

Mr. Canning moved an address to his Majesty, thanking him for his 
communication of the papers, &c. respecting the proposal of peace made 
from Erfurth. 

Mr. Whilliread moved an amendment, importing a censure on minis- 
try for their answer to the overture, as unwise, impolitic, intemperate, 
&c. 

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 3. 

Mr. Ward moved, in a Committee of Supply, 130,000 seamen for 
1809, including 31,400 marines. 
Wages for 130,000 seamen and marines, for 13 months, 

at ll. 17s. per man per month ...=3,126,000 

Wear and tear of ships during the same period, at ll. 19s. 

per man per month ......... 3,295,500 

Victuals for ditto, at 2l. 19s. per man per month 4,985,500 

Agreed to. 

MONDAY, FEBRUARY 20. 

Mr. Pole presented several papers from the Admiralty, one of which 
related to the circumstance of Admiral Montague, declaring, if the 
Russian Admiral, in the Tagus, did not haul down his colours before sun- 
set, he would send him on shore, and never suffer them to be hoisted 
again, 



254 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

MOMDAY, FEBRUARY 27. 

Sir C. M. Pole, referring to the Navy Estimates upon the table, ob- 
served, that an additional commissioner had been appointed at the Pay 
Board ; he would ask then how it was, that the crew of a 64 gun ship 
bad lately paraded the streets of London for want of pay, and had been 
sent back to their ship? He thought he could shew that of late, in many 
departments of the navy, several appointments had taken place, in which 
patronage was more consulted than the interests of the public service. 
He should be happy to hear that there were other reasons for such ap- 
pointments, than being merely a relative, a brother-in-law of some 
personage high in office. (Hear! Hear!} 

Mr. Wcllesley Pole said, he was perfectly ready to meet the hon. 
l>aronet on these points. The hon. baronet had been pleased to represent 
a ship's company (the Standard), as assailing the Admiralty, almost in a 
state of mutiny, for their pay ; but the fact, when it came to be 
explained, would shew there was no foundation for such insinuation. The 
present lords of the Admiralty had lately made a regulation, that when a 
ship's company had been long at sea, on their coming home they should 
receive their pay, and leave to visit their friends. The Standard, after 
feeing long on a foreign station, had come home to England, and the 
ship's crew got leave of absence, without receiving an advance of pay, 
in consequence of their not coming exactly within the general regulation 
laid down by the Admiralty. They came to London, and represented" 
their case to thelAdmiralty in the most respectful manner. They were 
told that their case should be considered, and also desired to return to 
their ship, which they did in the most orderly way. Their case was 
taken into consideration, and they obtained an advance of pay. He 
would not libel the character of British seamen, by saying there was any 
thing like a mutiny on that occasion. The honourable baronet had also 
thrown out a broad insinuation against Lord Mulgrave, to the effect that 
he had made various appointments rather from personal favour to indivi- 
duals that a sense of public duty. He denied the charge. The appoint- 
ment to the office of commissioners at the Navy Board had been made 
from lists given in by the other lords of the Admiralty, containing the 
names of many captains : and the appointments had taken place from 
seniority alone, without the persons themselves being so much as known 
by the noble lord, lie could also stale, that the business at the Victual- 
ling Board had been lately carried on upon the most vicious and 
faulty system; and it was absolutely necessary, in order to abolish 
the system, that those at the head of it should be removed. This had 
been done, and successors to them appointed in the manner he had stated 
above. The persons now appointed were a Peter Brown, who had been 
long a purser in the navy, and a Mr. Overs, of whom the noble lord at 
the head of the Admiralty had no personal knowledge whatever. When 
the hon. baronet thought fit to mention a brother-in-law, he conceived 
^he allusion must Lave been to Cplonel Walsh, who is married to a sister 



KAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 255 

f Lady Mulgrave. Now the fact was, that Mr. Harrison, the gentleman 
whom Colonel Walsh succeeded, had long wished to resign from old age, 
and he was permitted to retire with a pension of 5001. a-year. Colonel 
Walsh, who was appointed in his room, was an officer who had b'een long 
in active service in India, a man perfectly conversant in business, and 
likely, from his habits and talents, to be of public service. Was there 
anything like a job in this, as had been insinuated ? Unless a person was 
bound to exclude his friends and relations from all offices to which he 
had the appointment (a doctrine certainly which was quite absurd), he 
did not see that Lord Mulgrave had much to answer for in this appoint- 
ment. 

FRIDAT, MARCH 3. 

The Attorney General obtained leave to bring in a bill for altering 
and amending the Police of Plymouth Dock. 

MONDAY, MARCH 6. 

Mr. JVhitbread made the following motion relating to America : 
" That an humble address be presented to his majesty, representing to 
his majesty, that in consequence of the decree of Berlin of the enemy, 
the orders in Council had been issued by his majesty's government, both 
equally contrary to the usages of nations; that, however, it had been at 
the same time vested in his majesty to rescind these orders as circum- 
stances might require; that America, feeling the danger likely to accrue 
from those measures to the neutral trade, had laid an embargo on her 
ports, prohibiting all commercial intercourse with foreign states; that 
America, willing to put an end to these inconveniences, and finding the 
enemy to persist in his Berlin decree, had made an offer to this country 
to remove the embargo with respect to us, should we, on the other hand, 
consent to rescind the orders in Council ; that this offer, on the part of 
America, was Justin its principle, and advantageous to Great Britain, a* 
it would infallibly secure to us the trade of America: though this offer 
had not at first been accepted, that we still believe it is in the power of 
his majesty's government to restore a good understanding between the 
two countries ; and that therefore we heartily pray his majesty may be 
pleased to adopt such measures as are calculated to restore a good under- 
standing, and to re-establish the commercial intercourse between thi* 
country and America." 

This motion was negatived by 1-15 against 83. 

THURSDAY, MARCH 16. 

In a committee on the Marine Mutiny bill, Mr. /?- Jl r ard rose to answer 
*ome observations made by an hon. baronet (Sir C. Pole), on a former 
night, respecting the pay captains of the marines. The statement of the 
hon. baronet was totally fallacious. Those paymasters were established 
under the administration of Lord St. Vincent ; they were selected from 
the oldest captains in that service; and in consideration of the duty of 
paymaster allotted them, they were exempted from all duty afloat, and 
kad nothing to do but to attend courts-martial in the places where they 



256 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAft, ISO?. 

were quartered ; and instead of having imposed on them the duty of 
paying the whole body of marines, amounting to 32,000 men, they had 
not above one-fourth, or perhaps one-sixth of the whole, for the 
remainder were always afloat, and the pay was only to be issued to 
divisions occasionally landing, even for this purpose they had Pay- 
masters'-serjeants allowed them, and had only toconlroul their accounts. 
With respect to the stoppages of one day's pay in a year from the marines 
to Chelsea Hospital, from which they derived no advantage, he found no 
stoppage whatever was made from the privates, except for Greenwich 
Hospital, to the benefits of which they were entitled, in common with 
seamen ; and as to the stoppage of a day's pay in each year, and the 
poundage of five per cent, upon the pay of officers, it was handed over 
to the War Office for the benefit of the Widows'* Fund ; which the relicts 
of marine officers enjoyed in common with those of officers of the line f 
but those stoppages had never been made since the year 1806, as the pay 
was issued net, to all officers under the rank of colonel, on the same oot- 
ing as the other officers of the army. 

Sir Cliarfca Pole said, he still held the same opinion with respect to the 
situation of the pay captains. He was wel! informed, they had a regular 
ledger account to keep with every man and boy in the marine service, for 
which they had no remuneration, although the captains of marine artil- 
lery, for only paying their own companies, had 2s. per day additional 
pay. Besides, those old officers, in any branch of the service, would have 
been entitled to majorities, and many of theui now would have been old 
field-officers. 

Mr. Wellesley Pole said, it was the intention of the present Board of 
Admiralty to afford to the marine corps every practicable and reasonable 
indulgence. But there was a mistake with respect to the stoppages front 
the pay of marine officers in general for the Widow's Fund. No such 
stoppages were now made but from officers who retired on full pay ; 
and the widows of the marine officers received their pensions at the War 
Office, paid by the public. With respect to the situation of the pay 
captains, he begged leave to refer the hon. baronet to a petition, pre- 
sented by those very officers to the Admiralty, when he himself was at 
that board, praying for this very allowance, which the hon. baronet now 
sought to obtain for them ; and the answer then given to their petition 
was, that the birth was a pretty good one, and it was very desirable it 
should continue to exist ; but if they did not like it with full p;vy, and 
exemption from all other duty, they might take their turns of service: 
ever since, they had been pretty well satisfied to remain as they were. 
With respect to the Compassionate List, for which there was a bill now 
in progress, it was only for such widows and orphans as were not entitled 
to any provision otherwise; nor was it ever thought of before the esta- 
blishment of the present Admiralty Boaid; and it was his intention, in 
the committee on this bill, to place the widows of marine officers on 
the same footing in this respect with those of the officers of the navy and 
army. 



JTAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 257 



on 

Copied verbatim from the LONDON GAZETTE. 

ADMIRALTY-OFFICE, MARCE 4, 1809. 

Copy of a Letter from Captain Worth, of his Myesty's Sloop Helena, 
dated at Sta, 28M February 1809, to Admiral Young, Commander 
in Chief at Plymouth, and transmitted by the latter to the Hon. W. 
W. Pole. 



T HAVE the honour to acquaint you, that before day-light this morning; a 
suspicious vessel was seen coming from under the Dodman, and standing 
for the convoy under my protection. The wind being very light, I sent the 
boats after her. She proved to be I'Auguste, of St. Maloes, armed with two 
carriage guns, large swivels, and twenty-four men; out six days without 
making any captures. She sailed in company with the Speculator lugger, of 
10 guns, and seventy men, parted from her yesterday; the Speculator 
had that day captured two brigs, which are now in sight. " I lost no time in 
dispatching my First Lieutenant, who was in charge of a fast sailing brig, 
which I had previously captured, after one, and the master, with a suffi- 
cient number of men, in the privateer, after the other. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

J. A. WORTH. 

MARCH 7. 

Copy qfa Letter from the Hon. Robert Stopford, Rear-Admiral of the Slue, 
to the Hon. William Wellesley Pole, dated on board his Majesty's ship 
the Caesar, at Anchor, Baleine Light-House, N.E.byN. Four Miles, 
Chussiron S.S.E. Ten, the 27th February, 1809. 

SIR, 

You will be pleased to acquaint my Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty, that on the 23d instant, being at anchor to the N.W. of the Chassiron, 
light-house, with the ships named in the margin,* the Amethyst looking out 
in the N.W. the wind being to the eastward, about ten P.M. I observed 
several rockets in the N.W. quarter, which induced me to get under sail, 
and stand towards them. At eleven observed several strange sail to the 
eastward, to which I gave chase with the squadron until day-light next 
morning; at which time the strange ships were standing into the Pertuis 
d'Antioche, consisting of eight sail of the line, one of them a three decker, 
and two frigates. They hoisted French colours, and conceiving them to be 
the squadron from Brest, I immediately detached the Naiad by signal, to 
acquaint Admiral Lord Gambier. 

The Naiad having stood a few miles to the N.W. made the signal for 
three sail appearing suspicious, I immediately chased them with the squa- 
dron under my command, Heaving the Amethyst and Emerald to watch 
the enemy,) and I soon discovered them to be three French frigates 
standing in for the Sable d'Olonne; I was at the same time joined by the 
Amelia and Dotterel. 

* Caesar, Defiance, Donegal, Emerald, Naiad. 



258 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

The French frigates having anchored in a position which I thought s&- 
tackahle, I stood in with the Caesar, Defiance, Donegal, and Amelia, and 
opened our fire in passing as near as the depth of the water would permit 
the Caesar and Donegal to go. The Defiance being of much less draught 
of water, anchored within half a mile of them ; in which situation, so judi- 
ciously chosen by Captain Hothatn, the fire of the Defiance and the other 
ships obliged two of the frigates to cut their cables and go on shore. The / 
ebb tide making, and the water falling fast, obliged the Defiance to get 
under sail, and all the ships to stand out ; leaving all the frigates ashore, 
two of them heeling much. They have been noticed closely, and from 
Captain Rodd's report yesterday afternoon, they appeared with all their 
topmasts on deck, sails unbent, main- yards rigged for getting guns out, and 
several boats clearing them. I fancy they will endeavour to get over 
the bar into a small pier, but I am informed by the pilots that it is 
scarcely practicable. 

The batteries protecting these frigates are strong and numerous. The 
Caesar had her bowsprit wounded and rigging cut. The Defiance has all 
her masts badly wounded; two men killed, and twenty-five wounded. 
Donegal, one killed and six wounded. 

The French frigates had been out from POrient two days; and, by Cap- 
tain Irby's report, appear to be the Italienne, Calypso, and Furieuse. I 
am very confident they will never go to sea again. I\Jy chief object in 
attacking tLese frigates so near a superior force of the enemy, was to en- 
deavour to draw them out, and to give our squadron more time to assemble; 
but in this I was disappointed. I returned to the Chassiron at sun-set, and 
observed the enemy anchored in Basque roads. 

On the 25th I was joined by Captain Beresford, in the Theseus, with the 
Triumph, Revenge, Valiant, and Indefatigable, I therefore resumed the 
blockade of the enemy's ships in Basque Roads, and shall continue it till 
further orders. 

The enemy's force consists of eleven sail of the line, four frigates, and 
the Calcutta. The force under my command consists of seven sail of tiie 
line and five frigates. 

* I have the honour to be, &c. 

ROB. STOPFORD. 

"Extract of a Letter from Contain Seymour, of his Majesty's ship Amethyst, 
to Rear-Admiral Stafford, dated near Chassiron, Feb. 27, 1000. 

Yesterday the 26th the whole weighed from Basque Roads, and proceeded 
to the Isle d'Aix anchorage, one frigate excepted, which run aground on 
the shoals near Isle Madame, called les Palles, and after endeavouring to 
force her off by press of sail she failed, and unrigged. 

The enemy are anchored from, to the southward of the Isle of Aix, to the 
northward of the end of the Boyart, with top gallant y^arcls across, but not 
in a line of battle, or apparent order of defence ; and, I conclude, gone in 
from not knowing our force; but seeing our numbers increased, they have 
a third cable bent to the anchor in the main chains, and stopped along their 
side. No movement to-day. 

MARCH 1 1. 

Copy cf a Letter from Vice-admiral Lord Colling&ood, Commander-in-chief 
of hit Majesty i Ships and VeastU in the Meditei ranean, to the Hon. W, 
W, PolCf. dated oil board the Ocean, at Malta, the 20th of January, 
J8Q9. 

si a, 
The Iinperieuse having, with other ships, been employed in the Bay of 



NAVAL HISTOIIY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 259 

Rosas, to assist the Spaniards in defending that fortress, and Captain Lord 
{Jochrane taken on him the defence of Trinity Castle, an outwork of that 
garrison, I have received from him a letter, dated the 5th December, a. 
<;opy of which is inclosed, stating the surrender of the citadel of Rosas by 
the Spaniards on that day, and of his having embarked the garrison of 
Trinity Castle on board the ships, which castle he had however 
destroyed. 

The heroic spirit and ability which has been evinced by Lord Cochrane 
in defending this castle, although so shattered in its works, against the 
repeated attacks of the enemy, is an admirable instance of his Lordship's 
zeal; and the distinguished conduct of Lieutenants Johnson and Hoare, of 
the royal marines, and the officers and men employed in this affair 
tinder his Lordship, will doubtless be very gratifying to my Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty. 

I have, &c. COLLTNGWOOD. 

Laperieutf, Bay of Rosas, 

MY LORD, December 5, 1808. 

The Fortress of Rosas being attacked by an army of Italians in the ser- 
vice of France, in pursuance of discretionary orders that your lordship had 
given me, to assist the Spaniards wherever it could be dune with the most 
effect, I hastened here. The citadel, on the 22d ultimo, was already half 
invested, and the en-emy making his approaches towards the south-west 
bastion, which your lordship knows was blown down last war by the ex- 
plosion of a magazine, and tumbled into the ditch; a few thin planks and 
dry stones had been put up by the Spanish engineers, perhaps to hide the 
defect; all things were in the most deplorable state, both without and 
within; even measures for their powder, and saws for their fusees were not 
to be had hats and axtrs supplied their place. The castle of Trinidad, 
.situated on an eminence, but commanded by heights, was also invested; 
three twenty-four pounders battered in breach, to which a fourth was after- 
wards added, and a passage through the wall to the lower bomb proof being 
nearly erlected, on the 53d the marines of the Fame were withdrawn. I. 
went to examine the state of the castle, and, as the senior officer in the bay 
had not officially altered the orders I received from your Lordship, to give 
every possible assistance to the Spaniards, I thought this a good oppor- 
tunity, bv occupying a post on which the acknowledged safety of the citadel 
depended, to render tticni an effectual service. The garrison then consisted 
of about eighty Spaniards, and were on the point of surrendering; accord- 
ingly I threw nivself into it, with fifty seamen and thirty marines of the 
linperieuse. The arrangement made I need not dotsiil to your Lordship ; 
suffice it to say, that about one thousand bags, besides barrels and pali- 
sadoes, supplied the place of walls and ditches; and that the enemy, who 
assaulted the castle on the 30th, with a thousand picked men, were repulsed 
with the l-.ss of their commanding othcer, storming equipage, and all who 
had attempted to mount the breaclu The Spanish garrison being changed, 
gave good assistance; and Lieutenant Botmnao, of the regiment of Ulto- 
,nia, who succeeded to the command of the Spanish soldiers in the castle, 
on Captain Fitzgerald's being wounded in the hand, deserves every thing 
his country can do for an active and gallant officer. Inocenti Maranger, 
cadet of the same regiment, particularly distinguished himself by his ztal 
and vigilance. As to the officers, seamen, and marines of this ship, the 
fatigues they underwent, and the gallant manner in which they behaved, 
deserve every praise. 1 must, however, particularly mention Lieutenant 
Johnson of the navy, Lieutenant Hoare of the marines, Mr. Bnrney, 
gunner, Mr. Lodwick, carpenter, and Messrs. Stewart, Stovin, and Maryat, 
midshipmen. 



260 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

Captain Hall, of the Lucifer, at all times and in every way, gave his 
zealous assistance. I feel also indebted to Captain Collins, of the Meteor, 
for his aid. 

The citadel of Rosas capitulated at twelve o'clock this day. Seeing, my 
Lord, further resistance in the castle of Trinidad useless and impracticable 
against the whole army, the attention of which had naturally turned to its 
reduction, after firing the trains for exploding the magazines, we embarked 
in the boats of the Magnificent, Impeneuse, and Fame. 

I have, &c. COCHRANE. 

List of Killed and Wounded, between the 23d November and 5th Decem- 
ber, 1808. 

John Lloyd, marine, killed ; John Hitchins, ditto, ditto; William Fawkes, 
ditto, ditto; four seamen and three marines wounded. 

Spaniards of the Regiment of Ultonia. 
Two killed, five wounded. 

Extract of a Letter from the Honourable Rear- Admiral Stafford to the 
Honourable W. W. Pole, dated Cassar, at Anchor, March 2/1809, Ckas- 
siron Light House S. E. \ S. Eleven Miles } Balcine Light House N.E. 
Four Miles. Wind North. 

The enemy's ships remain at Tsle d'Aix. On the 28th I closely recon- 
noitred them in the Caesar, and only counted ten sail of the line, four fri- 
gates, and the Calcutta. The eleventh ship of the line was observed on her 
beam ends, with all her masts gone, and apparently bilged. She grounded 
upon the shoal called les Palles, within PIsle d'Aix; and is the same ship 
mentioned in my letter of the 27th ultimo, supposed by Captain Seymour 
to have been a frigate. From many circumstances, I apprehend this ship 
is the Warsaw, a new eighty. There are two rear-admiral's flags and a 
broad pendant at the main. One rear-admiral is on board the three 
decker. 

The enemy's frigates remain at the Sables d'Olonne. One of them is 
abandoned by the crew, and bilged upon the beach; another is hauled up 
close to the opening of a small inlet, but grounding every tide; and the 
third is in the same situation, but not quite so near the inlet. These two 
sail appear to float at high water, but are on their beam ends at low water; 
a western swell, which has set in, will completely destroy them. 

The loss of a French line-of-battle ship is confirmed by the masters of 
three doggers which came out of the Charante, and were boarded in the 
night by our frigates, but they did not know her name. 

I st-nd this account to England by the King George cutter, and a similar 
report for the information of Admiral Lord Gambier, in the event of the 
latter falling in with his lordship on her passage. 

MARCH 14. 

Vice-admiral Doyglr.s, commandcr-in-chief at Yarmouth, has transmitted 
to the Hon. William Wellesley Pole, a letter from Captain Hole, of his 
Majesty's sloop the Egeria, giving an account of his having captured on the 
2d instant off the Scaxv, the Danish national cutter Aalborg, of six guns, 
and twenty-five men, bound to Norway with army clothing. 

Mr. Stewart, commander of the Lord Nelson packet, had brought the 
above vessel to close action, and assisted in her capture. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 261 

Copy of a Letter from Vice-admiral Sir J. B. Warren, Barf, and K. B. 
Commander in Chief of -his Majesty" s Ships and Vessels at Halifax, to the 
tion. W. W. Pole, dated Bermuda, January 27, 1809. 

SIR, 

I have the honour herewith to enclose, for their lordships' information, 
the copy of a letter I have received from Captain Wales giving; an account 
of the French privateer Becune having been captured by the Ferret. 

I hare the honour to be, &c. 

J. B. WARREN. 

SIR, His Majesty's Sloop Ferret, Oct. 27, 1808. 

I have the honour to acquaint you, that yesterday his Majesty's sloop 
under my command, after a chase of four hours, came up with and cap- 
tured la Becune, French privateer schooner, mounting one long nine- 
pounder amidships, and two carronades. small arms, &c. with a complement 
of thirty-eight men. She is coppered, and sails very fast; out ten days 
from Martinique on a three months' cruize, and has one made capture. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

11. WALES. 

To the Right Hon. Sir J. B. Warren, Bart. K. B, 
Vice-admiral of the White, and Commander in 
Chief, 4-c. 4-c. $<-. 

Copy of another Letter from Vice-admiral Sir J. B. Warren, Bart, and K.B. 
to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated Bermuda, the Id of February last. 

SIR, 

I have inclosed a letter for their lordships' information from Captain 
Hawker, of his Majesty's ship Melampus, who, with his usual activity and 
zeal, has captured, after some resistance, the French corvette Colibri, of 
fourteen twenty-four pounder carronades and two long eight-pounders, 
with a complement of ninety-two men, commanded by Lieutenant de 
Vaisseau des Landes, and having on board 570 barrels of Hour, and a great 
quantity of gunpowder, for the relief of the enemy's islands. The above 
vessel is new off the stocks, and of a superior class of workmanship; 
coppered and fastened, and appears well calculated for his Majesty's service. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

J. B. WARREN, 

jflis Majesty's Ship Melampus, at Sea t 

SJTR, 29th January, 1809. 

Having seen the transports in safety to Barbadoes agreeably to your 
orders, ami. being on my return to the northward on the 16th instant, in lat. 
19 deg. 30 rain. long. 59 deg. 39 min. the Melampus captured the French 
national brig le Colibri, Mons. Desjandes, lieutenant de vaisseau, com- 
mander, of sixteen twenty-four pounder carronades and ninety-two men, 
three of which were killed, a lieutenant with eleven wounded, through the 
persevering endeavours of her commander to escape, who had the temerity 
to return our fire for a short time when fairly alongside. She is quite new; 
from Cherbourg, bound with a cargo of flour and gunpowder for the relief 
of St. Domingo; had taken and sunk two English brigs from Newfoundland 
to Lisbon, (the Hannibal and Priscilla of Dartmouth.) 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

E. HAWKER. 

Vice-Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren, Bart. $c. 



562 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1809. 

ipromotions anU appointments* 

Captain Moorsom, private secretary to Lord Mulgravc, has succeeded 
Captain Hope, as one of the Lords of the Admiralty. 

Captain Hamond is appointed to the Victorious ; Captain John Bligh to 
the Valiant, vice Kerr, acting ; Captain Alexander Robert Kerr to the Re- 
venge; Captain Cocks to the Naiad, vice Dundas; Captain Edward Ster- 
ling Dickson to the Inconstant; Captain Serrel to the Helder, late Guel- 
derland, Dutch frigate captured by the Phoenix; Captain Morris of the 
Magnet, to the command of the sea-fencibles at Lynn, in Norfolk; Cap- 
tain Bvam, late of the Bermuda, to the Oppossum; Captain Thompson of 
the Minotaur to the Perlin ; Captain Phillip Sommerville, of the Nemesis, 
to die Rosa; Captain Henderson to the Champion, vice Crawford; Captain 
Henry Whitby to the Cerberus;" Capt. Richard If. Pearson, eldest son of 
the late Sir Richard Pearson, lieutenant-governor of Greenwich hospital, 
to the Dictator; Captain Zachariah Mudge, to the Phoenix; Captain Major 
Henniker to the Mermaid; Captain Hugh Cook to the Diomede; Captaiu 
W. Ferris, to the Nemesis; Captain R. T. Hancock to the Foudroyant; 
Captain Jos. Bi"gham, to the Sceptre; Captain Thomas Usher to the Ley- 
den ; Captain Hew Steuart to the Renard ; Capt. Jos. R. Watson to the 
Alfred ; Captain William Mather to the Rapid; Captain W. Sanders to the 
Vesuvius ; and Captain Alexander Renney to the Alert. 

Colonel Richard Williams, of the royal marines, is appointed to be 2d 
colonel commandant of the Plymouth division; Colonel L. Desborough to 
be 2d commandant at Chatham ; Colonel James Meredith to be ad com- 
mandant at Portsmouth ; and Colonel Richard Hill Fanner to be 2d com- 
mandant at Woolwich, 

Majors Robert Moncreet, James CasscI, and Lewis Charles Mears are 
appointed lieutenant-colonels of the Plymouth division; and Major John 
M'Intosh, lieutenant-colonel at Portsmouth. 

. Captain Thomas Davey is appointed to be a major of the Woolwich di- 
vision; Captain Robert Smith, ditto at Woolwich; Captain Richard Wil- 
liams, late commander of the royal marine artillery, to be a major of the 
Portsmouth division; and Captain James Errol Gordon, to be a major of 
Woolwich ditto. / 



Lieutenants appointed. 

Lieutenant Thomas Davis is appointed to the Weasel; the Hon. J. A. 
Maude to the Ville de Paris; Henry Gary to ditto; James Brasier to the 
Alfred; James N. Taylcr to the Victorious; Robert John Fayrer to the Ni- 
jaden; Edward Kelly to the Lynx; Charles Adams to the St. George ; John 
Rude to the Implacable ; Samuel Mann to the Standard ; John Hi^gins to 
the Badger; George Hay to the Vulture; G. B. Maxwell to the Victory; 
Richard Williams (2) to the Helder; James M'Ghie to ditto; Michael No- 
vosielski to the Repulse; James Thomas to the Raven; Charles C. Dobson 
to the Brevdrageren ; Henry Rokeby to the Crocus; John Armstrong to the 
Illustrious; Edward Fliu to the Castor; D. Philpot to the Myrtle; Richard 
Welch to the Surly cutter; Thomas John Ley to the Standard; William 
Pearce (2) to ditto; Charles Letch to the Plover; John Boulton to the 1m- 
petueuxj E. Turner to the Ruby; C. Ilaultain to the Decade; Edward S. 
Cotgrave to the Achates; William Webb (2) to the Dreadnought; William 
Nicholson to the Resolution; Wm. C. Hillyar to the llovalist ; John Bucke 
to the Impetuetix ; Samuel Slout to the Champion ; John Alexander (2) to 
the Glomen ; William M. Wyatt to the Sparrow-hawk; Matthew Daven- 
hill to the Childers; John Roberts (2) to the Gluckstadt; John R. Colraau 



NAVAL H-ISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 263 

to tbe Princess of Orange; Edmund Bennett to the Africa; George Young 
to the Bermuda; Thomas Kingston to the Tyrian ; Lewis Campbell to die 
Phcenix; Doweil O'Reilly to the Tisiphone; Walter Croker to the Aided ; 
Wm. Broad water to the Princess; Thomas Carter to the Minotaur; Magnes 
M* Kelly to the Phoenix; Ethelbert Turner to the Rota, commission for the 
Ruby cancelled ; William Hoe Walker to the Euryalus; Charles Augustus 
Baumgart to the Gibraltar; James G. Harrington to the Eagle; Charles Hill 
to the Rota; Henry L. Baker to the Ea-^le; George Elliott to the Dictator; 
John Greeiilaw to the Naiad; John Mann to the Ephira; John Ellis to the 
Vesuvius. 

Lieutenants A. Anderson, II. Garthwaite, Frederick Delmont and T. J. 
Matthews are appointed captains of the royal marines; and 2d Lieutenants 
Henry Doswell, G. J. Richardso-), W. L. Wigg, and Wm. Gray 1st lieu- 
tenants of the said corps. 

List of midshipmen passed for lieutenants on the first Wednesday in the 
month: William Wade West, Robert Speirs, Edward William Pitt, Thos. 
Robbins, William Henry Rowcroft, Richard Langdon; William Roberts, 
Charles Butts, George Peters Browne, Charles Coppen, George Renny, 
Jarnes Reid, Wm. Syfrett, Jos. Churchill, Simon Edward Antram, J. G. 
Gordon. 

Surgeons appointed. 

Mr. W.H. Bull is promoted to the rank of surgeon, and appointed to the 
Tyrian sloop; Andrew Gewmel to the Cherokee; Richard Thompson to 
the Impetueux ; Stephen Jones t the Rhodian; John Oickson, from the 
Zebra, to the Bermuda; Walter Steel, assistant of the Implacable, surgeon 
of the Achates; Jhn Adams to the Raven; Francis Jotmstoue to the Hel- 
der; H. Baillie to the Lavinia; John Edwards to the Rapid sloop; Cuthbert 
Eden to the Galgo; William Davis to the Thetis; J. S. L. Miehad to the 
Linnet; Hugh Monk to the Phcenix ; James Wade to 1' Argus; William 
Dingwall, from the Nemesis, to the Rota; Evau Edwards to the Eagle; 
H. Hutchison to the Crown prison ship; Joseph Arnold to the Hindostan; 
William M'Laughlin, from the Brunswick, to the Sceptre; Jos. Olliver to 
the Tigress; James Carroll to the Pluto sloop ; L. Armstrong to the Clyde; 
D.James to the Cerberus; H. Baillie to the Naiad; Jarnes Hoi brook to 
the Wrangler; John Adams to the Helder; William Wilson to the Neme- 
sis; James Milligan, from the Trusty, to the Princess of Oraijge. 

Mr. Robert Mulberry, surgeon of the Ville de Paris, who performed the 
operation on Lieutenant-general Sir David Baird, after the battle of Co- 
runna, is appointed, by the Lords of die Admiralty, to be surgeon of the 
division of royal marines, at Chatham. 

A. Dalrymple, Esq. purser of his Majesty's hospital ship Tromp, is ap- 
pointed to the The ban, a new frigate. 

Assistants appointed. 

Mr. G.T. Webb is appointed to be assistant surgeon of his Majesty's ship 
Eagle; Mr. J. Dunthorn, from Plymouth hospital, to the Gibraltar; Win. 
Hector to ditto; Wm. Porteous, from the Alpaca cutter, to be an hospital 
mate at Haslar; Wm. Bland, to be an hospital mate at Plymouth; Archi- 
bald Robertson to be an assistant of the Caledonia; J. F. Bailey to the 
Protector gun-brig; H. D. Morrison to be an hospital mute at Barbadoes 
hospital; Win. Chrichton to be an hospital mate at Plymouth; Alexander 
Osborue to be an assistant surgeon on board the Bellona; James Forrie to 
the Victory; James Carrol to the Martial gun-brig; S. J. Dickeuson to 
the Thetis; and Richard Morgan to be au hospital mate at Haslar. 



264 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809* 

BIRTHS. 

Lately, at Blackheath, the lady of Captain Thomas Larkins, of the HOD. 
East India Company's service, of a daughter. 

On the 6th of March, the lady of Captain Hawtayne, of the royal navy, 
of a daughter. 

Lately, the lady of Captain Pultney Malcolm, of a son. 

In Charles-street, St. James's-square, the lady of Robert Mitford, 
Esq. brother to Captain Mitford who was unfortunately lost in his Majes- 
ty's ship York, of a son. 



MARRIAGES. 

At St. Mary-le-bone church, Captain Peter Parker, of his Majesty's ship 
Melpomene, son of the late Vice-admiral C. Parker, and grandson of Sir 
Peter Parker, admiral of the fleet, to Miss Marrianue Dallas, second 
daughter of Sir George Dallas, Bart. 

At Winterhorhe, in Wilts, by the Rev. Mr. Goddard, Lieutenant Henry 
Haytfard Budd, of the royal navy, to Miss Turkey, daughter to John Tur- 
key, Esq. of that place. 

On the 16th of March, at Mary-le-bone church, Captain Woodley Lo- 
sack, of the royal navy, to Miss Gordon, only daughter of the late George 
Gordon, Esq. Viscount Melville gave Miss Gordon away. 

On the 18th of March, by his Grace the Archbishop of York, Captain T. 
le M. Gosselin, of the royal navy, to Miss Hadsley, eldest daughter of the 
late J. II. Hadsley, Esq. of Ware Priory, Herts. 



OBITUARY. 

On the 5th of March, at his mother's house in South Wales, Maurice 
Beauchamp Bissel, Esq. of the royal navv, nephew to Walter Bagenal, 
Esq. M. P. 

Lately, after a long and painful illness, which she bore with unshaken 
fortitude, Miss Percival, only sister of Lieutenant Thomas Percival, of his 
Majesty's ship Valiant. 

Lately, was unfortunately drowned at Bermuda, by the boat upsetting, 
Lieutenant Ram of the royal navy, brother of Lieutenant Ram, who fell in 
the glorious victory, off Trafalgar, on board the Victory. 

Also, at the same time, Captain Peake, of the royal marines. 

On the 4th of March, in consequence of a duel with P. Powell, Esq. the 
Right Hon. Lord Viscount Falkland, a captain in his Majesty's navy, and 
premier viscount of Scotland. He is succeeded, in his titles, by his eldest 
son, who is about live years old. 

Lately, at Chatham, Mr. Skinner, surgeon of the royal marine infirmary, 
at that place. 

In the royal hospital at Haslar, on the 18th of March, of a typhus fever, 
Mr. William Bragg, surgeon of his Majesty's prison ship San Antonio. He 
had been upwards of 20 years a surgeon in the royal navy, and was much 
respected for his gentlemanly conduct. 






; 




Street. 



MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES 



OF 



ADMIRAL SIR C. M, POLE, BART. 3VI.P. 



" Spotless Integrity in a brave and a firm mind." 



men have served their conntry more faithfully than this 
officer, and still fewer in this age of egotism and vanity, have 
taken so little pains to make (heir services known. 

Mr. C. Pole, the son of Reginald Pole, Esq. of Stoke Damarell, 
in Devonshire, and of Anne, second daughter of John Francis 
Buller, Esq. of Morval, in Cornwall, was born at Stoke on the 
18th of January, 1757. He is a descendant from the eminent 
family of Pole, belonging to Shute, in Devonshire, being great 
grandson of Sir John Pole, the third baronet, and of Anne }/ 
youngest daughter of Sir William Morice, Krrt. one of the secre- 
taries of state to Charles II. 

Mr. Charles Pole received the first rudiments of his education at 
<he grammar school at Plympton, and thence was entered at tliti 
Royal Academy at Portsmouth, June 18, 1770. After having 
gone through the plan, which is prescribed for the midshipmen 
brought up at that institution, he embarked with the early patron 
of Nelson, Captain Locker, in his Majesty's ship Thames,* of 32 
guns, in which he served until December 1773 ; when he was dis- 
charged into the Salisbury. It was on board this ship that Sir 
E. Hughes afterwards hoisted his broad pendant, Captain G. R. 
Walters, and proceeded to the East Indies in 1774. Previous to 
the sailing of the squadron, Mr. Pole commenced an intimate 
friendship with a young seaman, Horatio Nelson, -who was then 
in the Seahorse. Captain Farmer. Mr. Pole afterwards received 
liis first commission as lieutenant of the Seahorse, then commanded 
by that most able officer, Captain Panton. Soon after Sir Edward 
Vernon arrived in India to supsrcede Commodore 1 Hughes, a 
war with France commenced, when Lieutenant Pole was removed 

* NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. V. page 112. 
Jfcac. eijjron, Slot. XXL w M 



266 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

from the Seahorse to the commodore's ship the Rippon. The first 
operations of that campaign in India being the attack of Pondi- 
cherry, the squadron proceeded immediately to blockade that port 
by sea, whilst the army under Sir Hector Munro completely sur- 
rounded it by land. On Sir Edward Vernon's approach, the 
French squadron, under the command of Mons. Tronjolly, was 
descried on the 8th of August, 1778, consisting of the Brilliant, 
of 64 guns, Pourvoyeuse, of 36 guns, eighteen-pounders, the Sar- 
tine,* of 32 guns, and two of their country ships armed as men 
of war. There being such light airs of wind, they could not near 
the enemy until the 10th, when at 6 A.M. they saw the above- 
mentioned five ships, bearing down in a regular line abreast. Sir 
Edward stood for them, forming his line ahead with the Rippon, 
Coventry, Seahorse, and Valentine India ship, and having the 
Cormorant sloop in company ; and at noon brought to, ready to 
receive the enemy. At three quarters past noon, the breeze shift- 
ing to the seaward gave Sir Edward the weather gage, when he 
immediately made the signal to bear down upon the enemy, who 
had formed upon the starboard tack. Mons. Tronjolly afterwards 
made sail upon a wind to the S.W. and 'nothing decisive was 
effected. Mons. Tronjolly, however, left Pondicherry and tha 
coast to take care of themselves. Sir Edward then anchored on 
the 20th, between Pondicherry and Cuddajore, and on the 25th 
the Sartinc frigate was captured by the Seahorse. During the 
ensuing siege, Lieutenant Pole was sent on shore to command the 
seamen and marines that were landed to assist in reducing Pondi- 
clierry, which offered to surrender on the 16th of October, 1778, 
ami the articles of capitulation were signed on the 17th. During 
the siege our ships took three small vessels bound to that port. 
Lieutenant Pole was immediately afterwards appointed to thu 
command of the Cormorant, which sloop brought home the 
despatches to England. ( He arrived there on the 12th of March, 
1779. On the 2'2d he was advanced to post rank, and appointed 
to his Majesty's ship Britannia, destined for Vice-admiral Darby's 
flag ; in which situation Captain Pole remained, until a favourable 

* Another French ship is mentioned, but not named in Sir Edward Ver- 
non's official letter, as being teen wn tlic ptli, but sh did ngt bear down, 
with tle rest. 



ADMIRAL SIR C. M. POLE, BART. M.P. 267 

opportunity offered of obtaining a more active situation, in the 
command of the Hussar, of 28 guns. When on a cruise near 
home, Mr. Beatson in his Memoirs * informs us, that the Hussar, 
Captain Pole, in 1780, fell in with three French luggers, to which 
he immediately gave chase. He took two of them, le Jcune Lion 
and le Renard, and having twelve guns, eight swivels, and 44 men. 
Previous to this, Captain Pole had sailed from Corke, as convoy 
to a fleet of victuallers, with the Charon, of 44 guns, and Licorne 
frigate, which sailed frv;n that port on the 20th of August, Cap- 
tain Pole was afterwards sent in the Hussar to America, and was 
scarcely arrived on that station, when he had the misfortune to 
lose the Hussar on the Pot-Rock in the passage of Hell Gates, 
whilst under the charge of a pilot. The passage, so called, is a 
narrow part of the channel of the East River, which communicates 
with and forms the passage to North Island Sound, N.E. from 
New York. Ott his return thither, the Commander-in-chief, 
Vice-admiral Arbulhnot, delivered his public despatches to Cap- 
tain Pole, for his Majesty's government. 

Soon after his return to England, Captain Pole was appointed 
to the Success frigate, then on the stocks at Liverpool, which ship 
he commissioned; and in 1782 fought a most gallant action in her 
against the Santa Catalina, a Spanish frigate. The following account 
of which, is given by Mr. Beatson in his Naval and Military 
Memoirs : + 

" At daylight, on the 16th of March, 1782, the Success frigate, Captain 
Charles Morice Pole, in latitude 55 cleg. 40 min. N. Cape Spartel bearing 
E.N.E. distant eighteen leagues, and the wind at S.W. was standing lor the 
Gut, and had the Vernon storeship,+ bound for Gibraltar, under his con- 
voy, when he discovered a sail ri^ht ahead, close hauled on the larboard 
tack. The weather being hazy, she appeared to be a ship of the line. The 
two ships made sail from her, on which she gave chase, which continued 
until half-past two in the afternoou. Captain Pole then perceiving, that the 
strange sail gained ground on the ''ernon, shortened sail, dropped astern, 
came nearer tlie ship in chase, and then brought to, in hopes of drawing hei 

* Vol. V. page 141. 

t Vol. V. page 070. 

+ The Vernon carried 22 guns, six-pounders, and had on board 
Lieutenant-colonel Gladstone?, four captains, seven subalterns, and 100 
privates, belonging to the reginieiiu in Gibraltar; besides her captain, Mr. 
John Falconer, two mates, and 3U acumen. 



268 MEMOIR Of THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

attention from the storeship. The weather clearing up, she was discovered 
to be a large frigate with a poop ; and a little after five, she hoisted a 
Spanish ensign with a broad pendant, and fired a gun. At six, being within 
random shot, the Success wore, and stemmed for the enemy's lee-bow, 
until she had just distance sufficient to weather her, then hauled close 
athwart her forefoot, and poured her whole fire into her within half pistol 
shot. The Success passed close to windward, engaging, while the Spaniards, 
having expected the attack to be made to leeward, were firing their lee guns 
into the water. The enemy were thrown into great disorder by the first 
broadside from the Success; and their confusion increased, by a smart fire 
from the Vernon, which, having wore, came up and engaged very closely. 
Both the British ships got into most advantageous positions, and poured into 
their opponent an incessant and well-directed fire until twenty minutes past 
eight, when she struck. They then took possession of the Santa Catalina, 
a frigate belonging to the King of Spain, mounting 3-1 guns, viz. 26 twelve- 
pounders on the main-deck, and eight six-pounders on the quarter-deck, 
and having upwards of three hundred men. She was commanded by Don 
Miguel Tacon, who was a captain in the line, had a distinguishing pendant 
as such, and was senior officer of the Spanish frigates cruising off the Straits' 
mouth. lie had been furnished with a very particular description of the 
Success, for which he was particularly instructed to look out, and had been 
cruising for her three weeks. lie had seen the Success and Vernon four 
times, and chased them twice with his squadron, which then consisted of 
four frigates and six sail of xebeques, from which he had parted two days 
before he was taken. He spoke with much displeasure of the behaviour of 
his officers and men. The enemy had twenty-five men killed, and only 
eight wounded in the action : the prisoners amounted to two hundred and 
eighty-six. The Success had only one man killed and four wounded. The 
Yernori had but one man wounded. Captain Pole was extremely well pleased 
with the behaviour of his officers and crew, both before and after the en- 
gagement. The smallness of their numbers had encouraged the prisoners 
to form a plan for rising on them, which was fortunately discovered, and, 
"by their alertness, prevented from being put into execution. Lieutenant* 
colonel Gladstanes, of the 72d regiment, who, with several other officers, 
and about one hundred recruits, was on board of the Vernon storeship, had 
very great merit, as well as Mr. Falconer, the master of that vessel, and his 
crew, for the conspicuous bravery and good conduct which they displayed 
in the action, and for the assistance which they afforded in securing the 
prisoners. Captain Pole sent his first lieutenant, Mr. Oakley, to take 
possession of the Santa Catahna, which had suffered severely in hull, masts, 
and rigging. He was indefatigable in clearing away the wreck. Her mizen- 
mast had fallen a short time before she struck : her main-mast fell imme- 
diately after that, and her foremast must have shared the same fate, if the 
sea had not been remarkably smooth. Her hull was like a sieve, the shot 
having gone through both sides. From the disabled state of the prize, small 
hopes were entertained of being able to conduct her to port. On the 18th 
at daylight, when the Success had scarcely had time to repair her own 
damages, which were considerable, in her yards, masts, and sails, and wlnlaE 



ADMIRAL SIR C. M. POLE, BART. M.P. 269 

borne of her men were endeavouring to secure the foremast of her prize, six 
sail appeared in sight: from these, two frigate- had been detached ahead, 
which seemed to be reconnoitring. Captain Pole, unable to combat 
such a force, ordered the Vernon to make all the sail she could, hoisted 
out all his boats, sent on board the Santa Catalina fjr Lieutenant Oakley 
and the seamen, and gave orders that before leaving her they should set her 
on fire. She blew up in a quarter of an hour : she was coppered, and was 
the largest frigate in the Spanish navy.* The wind being at S.E. the cap- 
tain made sail from the strange ships : and, as the Vernon was in want of 
water and provision?, he determined to proceed with her to Madeira. From 
the reports marie to Captain Pole, of the state of the Santa Catalina, it ap- 
peared, that if he had not been obliged to set her on fire, she must have 
sunk ; for a gale of wind soon came on, which obliged the Success to lay- 
to, under a storm-stay-sail." 

The strange sail afterwards proved to be his Majesty's ships 
the Apollo, and Cerberus frigates, with four transports. Captain 
Pole's friend, the then Captain Sir Horatio Nelson, on perusing 
(he unassuming manner in which the captain of the Hussar spoke 
of this action in his official letter, observed (when writing to theif 
former commander, Captain Locker), " I am exceedingly happy 
at Charles Pole's success. In his seamanship he shewed himself as 
superior to the Don as in his gallantry, and no man in the world, 
was ever so modest in his account of it." And afterwards, in 
another letter to Captain Locker (who then was Lieutenant, 
governor of Greenwich Hospital) Captain Nelson added Never 
icas there <i young man zcho bore his ozsn merits zcilh so muck 
modesty. I esteem him as a brother. The Success afterwards 
made sail for England. 

During the peace which commenced in 1783, Captain Pole com- 
inaiuled the Crown guard-ship; and, upon occasion of the Spanish 
arm am -.in, was appointed to the Melampus, at that time the largest 
and most approved frigate in the navy. While the discussion* 
with the Spanish government existed, he was wholly employed off 



* Dimensions of the Santa Catalina. 

Fee/. Inches. 

Length of the keel 133 11 

Length of the deck 3jl 1 

Jixti erne breadth ^9 4 

Height of the middle port, when victualled 

for i'utir month* 8 



270 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

Brest to watch the motions of the French. From the Mclampus 
he went into the Illustrious, and was afterwards appointed to 
command the Colossus, in which ship he accompanied Lord Hood 
to the Mediterranean, and was present at the surrender of Toulon. 
He was promoted to the rank of admiral in 1795, and hoisted his 
flag on board the Colossus. 

Admiral Pole afterwards proceeded to the West Indies, with 
his flag on board the Carnatic, as second in command, and took 
an able part in the various important services on which that squadron 
was engaged. After his return home, he was, in 1798, appointed 
captain of the Channel fleet under Lord Bridport; and the 
arrangements made by Admiral Pole for the discipline, health, and 
support of the fleet, did him the greatest credit, and gave general 
satisfaction. On the 27th of June, 1799, when Lord Bridport 
struck his flag, Admiral Pole, as we learn from Captain Schom- 
berg's Chronology,* hoisted bis flag on board the Royal George, 
and put to sea from Cawsand Bay, in company with the Sulphur, 
Explosion, and Volcano bombs. " On the 1st of July he joined 
Admiral Berkeley off the Isle of Rhe, and the next day proceeded 
to the attack of the five Spanish ships of the line, which had taken, 
shelter under the protection of the batteries on that island, and a 
floating mortar battery which was moored in the passage between 
a shoal and the Isle of Oleron. The squadron having anchored 
at eleven o'clock in Basque Road, the bomb ketches took their 
stations under cover of the frigatts, commanded by Captain Keates, 
and opened their fire upon the Spanish ships, which was continued 
with great briskness for three hours : but with no effect, the 
Spanish squadron being at too great a distance. The batteries 
from the Isle of Aix, during this time, kept up an incessant can. 
onade. The wind dying away, and the enemy having brought 
forward several gun. boats, the admiral called off the ships engaged, 
got under weigh, and stood to sea. Soon after Rear-admiral 
Berkeley returned to Plymouth with three sail of the line and the 
bomb ketches, whilst Admiral Pole remained off Rochefort to pre- 
vent the Spaniards escaping." 

Admiral Pole's services were now directed to another object, 

* Vol. IK. page 200. 



ADMIRAL SIR c. M. POLE, BART. M.P. 271 

on being appointed governor and commander-in-chief at New- 
foundland, to which station he sailed in 1800, with his flag on 
board the Agincourt, of 64 guns, as vice-admiral of the blue. 
From this duty, he was called on to succeed his early friend, 
Lord Nelson, during the month of July, 1801, in the important 
command of the Baltic fleet : as that great officer, after the fatigue 
and severe service he had experienced, both during the battle of 
Copenhagen and afterwards, had transmitted the most earnest 
solicitations to be relieved. To succeed such an officer, who was 
the beloved hero of that fleet, and of every other he had commanded, 
was no common task, nor inconsiderable honour. Admiral Pol* 
sailed in the Blonde frigate, and hoisting his flag on board the St. 
George, executed this arduous service with his wonted ability. 
During the performance of it, he rendered an essential service to 
his country, by exploring the passage of the Great Belt, which 
has since been of advantage to our operations in those seas. Qu 
his return to Spithead with his fleet, August 10, 1801, his Majesty 
on the 18th was pleased to confer on him the honour of a 
Baronetcy, as a mark of his gracious approbation of his conduct. 
Sir Charles was immediately ordered off Cadiz, where he arrived 
at the end of August, and where nothing material * occurred until 
the signing of the preliminaries of peace, when he returned in De- 
cember to England. 

In 1802 he was elected a member of Parliament for Newark ; 
and when it was deemed necessary to bring in a bill to appoint 
commissioners for inquiring into the abuse? in the civil branches of 
the navy, Admiral Sir C. Pole was named by the House of Com- 
mons chairman of that commission ; in which highly distinguished 
and important situation he remained until February, 1806. Of 
the labours of that valuable commission it is not necessary to say 
more, than that the [louse of Commons passed a vote of approba- 
tion of the conduct of its members, which was communicated to 
them by the Speaker in his usual handsome manner. 

In February 1S06 he resigned his seat as chairman of the Naval 
Inquiry, being called by Mr. Grey (now Lord Grey) to take a 
place at the Board of Admiralty, where Sit Charles rendered 

An official letter ironi him, giving an account of two captures that had 
been made by his squadron, was ituerteJ in Vol. VI. page 4.04. 



MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OP 

essential service to his profession, and increased that experience 
or knowledge of the interests of his profession, which lie has since 
so uniformly supported in Parliament. He left the Admiralty in. 
October, on the change which then took place in the administra- 
tion. Daring the short period in which he had remained at the 
Board, it afforded his noble mind particular gratification to assist 
in that wise measure which was then adopted, of increasing tho 
petty officers of the navy, and augmenting the pay of every class, 
It was during this time, under the auspices of Mr. Grey, that a 
considerable superannuation list was added to the captains, com- 
manders, and lieutenants. Under the same auspices, a bill was 
brought into Parliament enabling the pensioners of the chest to 
receive their pay at their own homes, as had been recommended 
by the Commissioners of Naval Inquiry ; and the pay of this 
suffering and meritorious class of men was augmented from 71. to 
181, per annum. 

We come in the next place to consider the public services of 
this officer, as an eminent and most valuable naval member of the 
House of Commons ; where he has appeared as an example to such 
of his profession, as may there wish to serve its interests and to 
support their own independence. The continued exertions of Sir 
Charles Pole in the House on naval subjects, have acquired him a 
general and well merited popularity. We can only dwell on 
some of the most important of his speeches ; and this we are the 
more glad to do, as owing to the press of other matter at the time, 
we have not hitherto been able to notice these debates as they 
merited. 

In the debate on the Droits of Admiralty (February 11, 1808), 
on the motion, that there be laid before the House fin account of 
all captures made at sea by the naval forces of this country, 
which zcere claimed to remain, and rchich did remain, at the dis- 
posal of the Crown, since the year 1792, specifying each capture 
and its amount, Kith the particular appropriation of the proceeds 
thereof Sir Charles observed, ii that all his reflections on the sub- 
ject convinced him, that the Admiralty Court ought to be upon a 
new footing." At the close of this debate, he disapproved of both 
the original motion and the amendment by Mr. Huskisson, and 
proposed a motion of his own, by which the gross proceeds* and 

* COBBETT'S Debates, Vol. X. pages 450, and 460. 



ADMIRAL SIR C. M. POLE, BART. M.P. 275 

n*t proceeds were required to be stated in distinct columns, &c. 
Alluding to the delay in the distribution of prize money, he 
instanced an officer who had received only in the month of May, 
1807, his share of prize money for a vessel captured twenty years 
before. 

In the months of February, and March, 1808,* Sir Charlel 
endeavoured to call the attention of the House of Commons, to the 
Appointments in Greenwich Hospital and the Nai-al Asylum; 
and proposed to bring in a bill to preclude the chusing of any, 
but persons connected with the naval service, or holding situations 
in either. In this measure he was defeated. The following is the 
interesting debate which took place on so important a moment 
to the navy : 

" House of Commons,^ March 8. Sir C. Pole, pursuant to notice, rose to 
submit his motion to the House, founded upon the 14th Report of the 
Commissioners of Naval Inquiry. The object of the bill which he had to 
propose, was to carry into effect both the spirit and letter of the charter of 
Greenwich Hospital. Before he proceeded to make las motion, he begged 
that the report of the commissioners who had been appointed on a former 
occasion to inquire into the state of that Hospital should be read. Bv the 
charter of the Hospital, which was granted in the IGth Gco. HI. it was re- 
quired, that all the officers of the Hospital should be persons who had 
served his Majesty in the navy, and had lost limbs or been disabled in the 
service. The provisions of the charter it appeared haci not been complied 
with ; but it was not the object of his bill to interfere with any of the 
existing appointments or emoluments; its sole purpose being to provide 
that the charter should in future be complied with, both in letter and in 
spirit. .Another part of his bill would provide for a public saving,* by re- 
quiring persons holding such offices to give up their halt-pay. His bill was 
also to extend to the institution of the Naval Asylum, which had been 
established for the encouragement of the naval service : and if ever there 
had been a time, when they ought to do every thing consistent with economy 
and the interest of the service for that object, it was the present. These 
were the clau-es which he intended to introduce into this bill; and there 
was also another, to provide that the bjll should not extend to any persons 
holding offices at this moment, cither in the Naval Asylum or Greenwich 
Hospital, though it was to provide, that in future no persons but such as 
had served a certain number of years in the navy, or been disabled in the 
service, should hold any office in either establishment. It bad also been hj& 

* Sir C. Pole was twice returned member for Newark ; and has been 
twice returned for Plymouth, for which place he at present holds his seat, 

* COBBETT'S Debates, Vol. X. page 97C. 

ol* XXL * H 



274 MEMOIR OP THE PUBLIC SERVICES O7 

intention to introduce a clause to provide, that all sums panted for 
t'ic use of Greenwich Hospital, should be paid into the Bank of England;: 
but as he understood that regulations were to Be adopted, which would 
render that clause unnecessary, Tie should not press it. lie therefore 
moved for leave to bring in a bill for the encouragement of his Majesty 7 * 
naval service, by regulating the appointment to officers in the Naval Asylum* 
and in Greenwich Hospital. 

Mr. Rose, (Treasurer of the Navy) stated, that immediately after his 
appointment to the office he then held, he iiad inquired into the lacts stated 
in the Report of the Commissioners of Naval Inquiry; and that in conse- 
quence of the representation made by him to the Admiralty, prosecution* 
were now carrying on against the persons who had l>cen guilty- of wtalversw- 
tion in that department. But having said this, he did- not think that the 
lion. Baronet had made out any case to induce the House to accede to his 
motion. About thirty years ago, an inquiry had been made into the state 
and management of Greenwich Hospital ; but no legislative enactment wat 
thought necessary. There were various offices, such as that of Organist, 
Surveyor, and Architect, which persons of naval education would not be 
competent to fill* The Auditor was an officer who required' a competent 
skill in the law. The noble lord who now held that office had succeeded 
Lord Thurlow, who must be allowed to have been skilled in the law. 
Besides, the revenues of the Hospital exceeded 760,0001.- per annum, and 
the receiver would require other qualifications than a naval education. A 
to the question respecting the Naval Asylum, he thought that the Hoii. 
Baronet would do well to wait for the report from the commissioners oa 
that head. He was as desirous as any person, that none bust those who 
had served in the navy, should be employed in the offices of that institution, 

* We wonder that a person of Mr. Rose's experience, who has bee 
acquainted with many eminent naval characters; and from his situation at 
Treasurer of the Navy, may be supposed to be possessed, of" much informa- 
tion on such a subject, should have advanced such an opinion. There ace 
many seamen, who from having been in the various bauds belonging to 
captains of ships, possess a competent knowledge of music, and would cer- 
tainly fill the situation of Organist with- credit ; or if none could be found 
amongst the common men, there doubtless might amongst superannuated 
midshipmen, or even the lieutenants. Some of our great Architects^ who 
have figured away and amassed great riches in the fashionable world, hate 
been carpenters ; and we see no reason why lull as able men might not ba 
found amongst our very skilful ship carpenters, when they arc worn out, or 
liave had their health injured in the service of their country. Many of tliiB 
masters in the navy, who greatly demand attention, would make excellent 
Hurvfi/ors. Naval situations should undoubtedly, in^ point of justice, he 
always occupied by naval men ; and with all our respect for the HOIK G. 
Rose, we think that the situation of Treasurer of the. Navy should be 
expressly given to some eminent naval servant of his country. Sir 
Nepean, and man; others, would fill it wilh jyeat credit^ 



ADMHlAL SIR C. M. ?O1E, BABT. M.P. 275 

for which they would be qualified ; and if, when the regulations of tiie com- 
missioner* should he produced, the Hon. Baronet should not be satisfied 
with them, it would be perfectly competent to him to move for such a 
measure as the present. 

" Mr. Wliitbreud was of opinion, that -many musical persons were disa- 
bled in the navy, who might be competent to the office of Organist ; and 
observed, that the Right Hon. Gentleman who had just sat down, and 
another Gentleman, a member of that House, were proofs that a naval 
education did not vender persons unfit for such offices as those he had men- 
tioned At any rate scctfuring men 7iiigkt /told sinecure offices as veil as any 
!hcr description of persone ; and -it appeared that the barber of the Hos- 
pital, Mr. Henry Clew, a Swiss, employed six deputies, and derived an 
income of 1501. per annum from his office, without any duty to perform, 
bnt the superintendence of the shaving of the pensioners. He highly 
praised the labours of the Naval .Commissioners, and of the Hon. B:ronet 
in particular, and he was decidedly of opinion, I/tut no person should be 
ailowed to hotd any office in either the Naval Asylum, or Greenwich Hos- 
Jh'ul, wh'.i a- 1 is not a seafaring mati. 

" Mr. Lwkiiurt regretted that the Hon. Baronet had connected the two 
.establishments, which were so different in their object and nature. The 
Naval Asylum had been instituted by public spirited persons, as strongly 
attached to the naval service as the Hon. Baronet, who had subscribed a 
sum of 50,0001. for the establishment. The proposal of the Hon. Baronet 
went to shew a distrust that men having acted under such motives, would 
not make regulations for ks management in the same spirit. Such distrust 
might excite discontent in the navy, and a lukevvarmness in those who had 
originated and promoted the institution. The commissioners were coin- 
j .' :i of 17 gentlemen of the navy, and 11 who had not been of that pro- 
fcssion. The latter could not dictate anv thing inimical to the interests of 
the navy; ond he therefore thought that those who had framed the institu- 
tion in favour of the navy, should not be deprived of their influence upon it 
ky the vote of the Hon. Baronet. 

" 3J.r. pontonby observed, that the arguments employed applied only to 
that part of the motion which concerned the Naval Asylum, and not 
against that which applied -to the carrying into effect the charter of Grcei> 
wirh Hospital. That charter had, k appeared, been departed from, and 
therefore there was a necessity for the interference of Parliament. He 
suggested to the Hon. Baronet, whether he ought not to separate the ob- 
jects of his bill, and move, Jn the first instance, for a bill to regulate 
Greenwich Hospital; and afterwards, if it should be necessary, bring for- 
ward si motion to regulate the Naval Asylum. 

Sir C. Pole acceded tojhe suggestion of the Right Hon. Gentleman, and 
onfmcd his motion to the first object. 

" The CfunicelLn- nf the. Exchequer, as the question had been narrowed, 
should then only say, with respect to the Naval Asylum, that it v/ould be 
competent to the Hon. Baronet to move an address to his Majesty for the 
regulations of the comm' -loners, and to make the or the subject of any tup. 



276 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SEIlVICtS OF 

ther proceeding be might think necessary. But as to the remaining part of 
his motion, he did not think the House could agree to it, without having the 
charter of the Hospital before it. It was as much the duty of the trustees, 
under the charter, to correct any abuses that might exist, as it would if an 
act of Parliament were to pass for the purpose. But the question was, 
whether it would be desirable, if only a single candidate, who had been con- 
nected with the navy, should offer for an oftice, who might not be as well 
qualified as other candidates, that any peremptory order for his appoint- 
ment should be enacted. He contended that there was no necessity for an 
act of Parliament. The Hon. Baronet himself had been, whilst in the 
office of a Lord of the Admiralty, in a situation to correct these abuses, and 
if he had not done so, it was not a matter of blame to him, as he had. 
followed the course pursued by his predecessors; and if any mischief had 
arisen, it must have been only from inadvertency on his part. The House 
lie was sure would not accede to the motion, until it should have the charter 
of the Hospital before it. 

" Sir John Nezrport contended, that every statement of the Right Hon. 
Gentleman shewed the necessity of the bill. As abuses existed, it was 
highly necessary that an act of Parliament should be made to correct them. 
And many of the trustees would be glad to be protected against the appli- 
cations of their frie'nds, by the provisions of an act of Parliament. The 
IJon. Baronet appeared to him to deserve the thanks of the House and the 
country, fur his accurate attention to the interests of a profession to which 
he was an ornament; and as to the unfitness of naval men for the offices in 
the Hospital, he never could forget that the late Lord Chancellor hud been 
in that profession. 

" Mr. Pole Curew contended, that either there were rules in the charter 
requiring persons holding offices to be seafaring men, or there were not ; 
and that in either case it would be necessary for the House to interfere, to 
ailow qualified persons to be appointed, or to prevent persons not qualified 
from being appointed. 

" Admiral Sir John Ord could not agree to the motion, as he thought it 
could neither be consistent with justice, nor promote the advanlai>es of the 
institution, to take it out of the hands of t lie trustees, 

" Sir F. Burdctt was extremely surprised at the opposition given to 
this bill, which was to remedy gross abuses acknowledged to be existing. 
All that had been said, applied solely to the bill, the exceptionable parts 
of which, if any, might be left out. The principal object he had in rising, 
was to thank the lion. Baronet for the course he was pursuing in spite of 
all obstacles. He could not suppose that the House could object to the 
introduction of the bill, because no negative had been given to the state- 
ment of the Hon. Baronet. He never had been more astonished, than at 
the frivolous objections which had been made to the motion. The object 
of the bill was to inflict a penalty on those who should violate the pi ^visions 
of the charter; and he did hope that the House would never come to any 
determination that would preclude the Hon. Baronet from bringing forward 
his bill. A division then look place For the motion, 52 .Against it, 78. 
Majority, 2o." 



. M- POLE, BAjaT. M,P. 277 

This measure of Sir Charles Pole being thus defeated, Ije sooa 
afterwards proposed, and carried an address to his Majesty, pray, 
jug, he would be pleased to dirept, that the charter of Greenwich 
Hospital should be so amended, or a new charter drawn, which 
might prevent the recurrence of abuses now complained of. The 
following is what passed on that occasion in the House of Com- 
mons, March 22 (18Q8) : 

" Sir C. Pole, pursuant to notice, called the attention of the House to 
some appointments on the establishment of Greenwich Hospital, in which 
due regard was not had, to the preference that ought to be shewn to per- 
sons who had served in the navy. He cited all the commissions relative t9 
Greenwich Hospital, from the first under William and Mary, to shew that 
such a preference ought always to be given ; and concluded with moving an 
address to his Majesty, praying, that he would be graciously pleased to gir 
directions, that all appointments belonging to the said Hospital, should 
henceforth be filled with persons who had served in the navy. 

" The Chancellor of the Exchequer said, it must be the object of .every 
one to promote as much as possible what the Hon. Baronet was desirous to 
accomplish. But there were offices, for which persons properly qualified 
could not be found in the navy, such as Clerk of the Works, who should be 
an architect; Auditor, who should be a lawyer; Organist, Brewer, Clerk 
of the Cheque, Surveyor, and other?. Wich these exceptions, lie thought 
110 other office should be filled otherwise than from the navy; except when 
after a months notice in the newspapers, no naval person should present 
himself with proper qualifications to fill the office vacant. He should pro- 
pose an amendment, adopting the Hon. Baronet's idea, with this limitation; 
and he should, in the event of the amendment being adopted, propose an 
address to his Majesty, praying that he would cause a corresponding altera- 
tion to be made in the charter of Greenwich Hospital. 

After some observations from Mr. Whitbread, Mr. Rose, Mr. N. Calvert, 
and Mr. R. Ward, Sir C. Pole agreed to the exceptions proposed by the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the motions were passed accordingly."* 

." House of Commons, April Jl.t Sir Charles Pole rose, in pursuance of 
his notice, to move a certain Resolution relative to the Royal Naval Asylum, 
somewhat similar to that which he had lately proposed as to Greenwich 
Hospital. He knew it would be objected to what he was about to propose, 
that this charitable institution had been originally supported by private 
voluntary donations; but it appeared to him to be now under the immediate 
management of government, the more especially as Parliament had been 
cailed^on to vote considerable sums of money for its support. No doubt 
the private donations from other individuals were very important; but still 

* COBBETX'S DEBATES, Vol. X. page 1243. i Ibid. Vol. XI. page 3. 



178 MEM01U OF THE PUBLIC SEAT ICES Of 

there appeared no reason for separating its mode of management from that 
p{ Greenwich Hospital, as described in the charter. Here the IIoiv 
Baronet gave a statement of the post important public and private contrir 
billions to this Asylum, lie observed, that a very large- portion of that 
called prhate contribution, was given from the Patriotic Fund, which was 
avowedly for the purpose of relieving the distresses of the relations of thosa 
xvho fell in the naval battles of their country. ' Surely, then,' heexclaimeo^ 
* the offices of this charitable and naval institution could not be better 
bestowed than upon those who had survived these battles, but unfortunately 
were disabled. The sum subscribed by the Patriotic Fund amounted to 
40,0001. and such being the intention of that fund, it surely never could be 
supposed, that other persons subscribing small sums, could mean that their 
donations should be bestowed otherwise, than upon individuals connected 
with the navy. They could, never imagine, that they were subscribing 
towards the relief of persons, such as those already appointed to offices in 
that Asylum, who were as far removed from the naval service as Jhe Great 
.Mogul. The House was formerly told, that the office of Auditor of Green- 
\vich Hospital must be filled by a lawyer, that Hospital possessing great 
sugar estates, and also great estates of other descriptions in the north ; but 
in the present case, what was there of law business to transact for the 
Naval Asylum. It was not, however, a lawyer that had been appointed to 
the As\lum, but a wealthy clergyman, who, for doing little or nothing, was 
to enjoy, in addition to other incoine, a salary of 3001. a year as Auditor. 
Besides which, he was to possess a free house and garden, and a very large 
sum of money had been laid out in repairing a house for his residence, 
amounting, he believed, to about 1,7001. and added to ajl this, even furni? 
ture to the house. I really, Sir, am convinced the duties of the office I 
allude to, might be performed by some poor worn out or disabled naval qr 
marine officer, at a salary less than 1001. a year ; but instead of this, no 
less than 7001. was thus squandered away upon a spiritual gentleman, who 
had no occasion for any assistance whatever. Another thing he should obr 
ject to upon this establishment, was, the appointment of a surgeon, u'/io had 
ewr been at sea during his life, and inducing him by a great salary, to give 
up his private practice, instead of appointing a naval surgeon, who would, 
lie less expensive, and more thankful for the favour bestowed upon him. 
There were various other appointments, which he thought objectionable, 
such as the Clerk of the Institution, the Clerk of Instructions, &c. but 
the rhief ones were those I have mentioned, the Auditor and Surgeon. I 
have no difficulty, Sir, in saving, that the persons who have appointed an 
Irish clergyman to the office of Auditor of the Nava! Asylum, have done 
wrong, if they knew that he was already possessed of four church livings in 
Ireland, and a glebe land so extensive as to contain 540 Irish acres. The 
gentleman he alluded to was Dr. Thomas Brooke Clarke, to whom besides 
there had been granted several very large sums, by resolutions of the House, 
as might be seen by their journals.' (Here certain resolutions were read 
by the clerk at the desire of the Hon. Baronet. Amongst these was the 
'sum of 5561. grautcd to Dr. Tljomas Brooke Clarke, fur his trouble in en* 



ADMIRAL siu c. M. POLE, BAIIT. nr.p. 97$ 

Jtfrcing tks residence of the Clergyi whilst he himself hi 'ended lo establish 
hi* residence at tlit N&vai Asylum, instead of biing at air/ <f liis li;-i:igs in 
Ireland.) Had all this been known, continued Sir Charles, when thii 
reverend divine was rccommeiuled, I certainly do thin!; he could not have 
been appointed to that .lucrative situation". There are many of the old 
disabled oriicers of the navy, with lar^e families, who would have been most 
thankful and grateful for the appointments of Auditor, Surgeon, or Clerks 
to the Institution. I shall now, Sir, sit down, with the hope that the Reso- 
lution which I shall propose may meet with some consideration; for in doing 
this we are saving the public money, and adding to the comforts of those 
really entitled to relief, and who would ever be grateful for the favour 
bestowed.- It is with this view that I propose this Resolution That it ap- 
pears to this House, that the ajipointinent of competent and qualified pcrsunt 
from the naval and marine service, to hold offices and employment* in the 
ttterul departments of the Royal Naval Asylum, will le. productive vf much 
advantage, to the empire, by materially encouraging tite naral service, and 
diminishing the public expenditure. This Resolution the Hon. Baronet said, 
if acceded to, he should follow up with another, for an address to hi* 
Majesty, praying that he would be graciously pleased to take the most sum- 
mary ineaus of carrying that object into effect." After a long debate the 
H.OUSC divided, for the Resolution, 46, against it, 78. Majority, 25. 

Previous to the debate* on the Rochfort squadron (May 9th, 
I SOS) which succeeded what had passed in the House ou the samo 
evening, respecting the expedition to the Dardanelles, Sir Charles 
Pole had shewn a laudable anxiety for the fame of a brother 
officer, by observing, That the question respecting the Rochfort 
squadron, ought not to be brought on in the absence of S/r 
H. Strachan, or of some person qualified and authorised lo defend. 
his conduct, as far at it might be implicated in the question. 
Mr. Calcraft, in rising to bring forward the motion of which he 
had given notice, declared that nothing was more distant from his 
intention, than to throw out the slightest reflection upon the con- 
duct of Sir Richard Strachan, for whose character both as a naval 
officer and a man, he entertained the highest veneration; and 
nothing which had fallen from the Right Hon. Baronet went to 
impute to him any such intention. All that the Hon. Baronet had 
said was, that the testimony of Sir R. Strachan would be very 
material in guiding the decision of the House upon the question 
which he was now bringing before it, and in this he perfectly agreed 
with him. After going at large into the state of Sir R. Strachan's 
squadron, as to iis means not only of remaining on the blockading 

* COLBBTT'S Debates, Vol. XI. page 13?. 



28O WEMOItl Ot filt PUBLIC SEUTICES Of 

service on which it had been employed, but also of following ff? 
enemy ; Mr. Calcraft declared that Sir R. Strachan wds reduced to 
such distress for provisions, that instead of addressing his letters, 
as he had been in the habit of doing, lo Lord Gardner, lie wrote 
directly to the Admiralty, to make his distress knoivrn to that 
Board j a state of distress to which lie could not IUITC been reduced 
tvithout the grossest negligence in that department of government. 
Mr. CaJcraft, after fully discussing this subject, moved fire Resolu- 
tions, rising out of the question he had brought forward. When, 
after Mr. Wellesley Pole had spoken in defence of the conduct of 
the Admiralty, and been called to order by Mr. Tierney, for 
offering to read a paper not regularly before the House, and Mr. 
"VV. Pole had replied, 

" Sir Charles Pole arose, He totally differed from the Hon. Gentleman 
who had just sat down, both as to the facts themselves, and the inferences 
which he drew from them. He read extracts from many different letters on 
the tahle, by which he shewed that the fleet off Ilochfort was very badly 
provided, and could not have followed the enemy more than three or four 
days. The power of despatching ships to relieve Sir R. Strachan, it wa& 
plain, was not vested in Lord Gardner; else he surely would not have sent 
oiF five different and anxious letters to the Admiralty on the subject, lie 
read extracts from a letter dated 11th of December, stating to the Admi- 
ralty the distress of the fleet, which letter was answered by the Admiralty 
on the 18th, sending a supply of provisions in one victualling ship : 
although this ship was intended for the supply of three squadrons, namely, 
that off L 'Orient, off Ferrol and Ilochfort, yet she did not convey more than 
sixteen days bread for the line-of-battle ships off Ilochfort alone. He said, 
if every pound of bread which had been so sent, had been received by the 
Ilochfort fleet alone, it would not have put it in a situation to follow the 
enemy. Such inattention on the part of the Admiralty was the greatest 
blow England could receive, as it would be the greatest triumph the enemy 
could obtain. That day was perilous to us indeed, when we found our- 
selves unable to furnish seven sail of the line sufficiently to keep their sta- 
tion. He could not conceive what was meant by sending one store-ship out 
to supply such a fleet with bread, wine, and water. He could not foretel 
what would be the decision of the House, but he knew well what would be 
the sense of the country on such conduct. The House might divide threo 
to one in its favour, but the nation would not be a whit the more con- 
unced. He then read an extract from a letter to the Board of Admiralty, 
dated the loth December, in which it was declared, that the fleet was in 
total waut both of sails, water, and every other necessary with which a fleet 
should be provided. In consequence of such a situation, Sir Richard 
Strac'lmn was compelled to quit his anchorage, to look out for victuallers. 
"What was the event? The enemy, taking the advantage of his absence^ 



AHMIUAf. SIR C. M. POLE, BAUT. M.P* 281 

escaped out of Rochforr, which tliev never could have done, nor would 
have attempted, had Sir Richard heen sufficiently provided to have kept his 
station in Basque Road*. At length, however, lie did obtain a supply of' 
340 tons oi' water, which exactly provided his fleet for 26 days; and although 
he admitted that the Superb and Colossus further increased his store, stiil 
they did not so increase it, as to enable him to pursue the enemy with 
safety. On the 2Cth the Admiralty had an acknowledgment from the fleet 
of 23 days bread, 45 days water, and 24 days wine; this supply added to 
the former supplies, made a total of right weeks and three days provisions; 
awd he would ask, was that a sufficiency for a pursuit, for instance, to the 
Cape of Good Hope ? The present Board of Admiralty might be actuated 
by as pure and praise-worthy a zeal as possible; but he lamented their 
talents were not equal to their zeal. He said as to Sir Richard StrachanV 
squadron quitting Basque Roads, he believed there was a reason for it, but 
too serious for him to state in that House. As to the transports which it 
had been stated were sent to relieve the squadron, although three had been, 
sent, still but one arrived. He complained loudly of the mischief which 
would ensue, from keeping ships at sea on urgent duty, waiting for the 
arrival of transports ; they should be so situated as totally to feel abova 
contingencies; but here so fatal was the adoption of a contrary course, that 
even had our blockading admiral seen the fleet which he blockaded standing 
out to sea on the 21st of January, he could not have chased them twenty 
leagues from land ! From the very weekly accounts laid upon the table for 
the perusal of the country, it appeared that there was at that time on board 
the fleet, only bread for 1 6'days, and water for 25 days ! The Hon. Baronet - 
declared he did not wish idly to declaim against the measures of any man, 
or set of men, but he solemnly did assert, that had a charge of the nature 
of this inquiry, been brought before a court martial, with no other justifica- 
tion than what the papers on the table of the House offered, he shouid have 
no hesitation in deciding on his oath, that the British squadron otfRochfort 
had not been supplied in the manner in which the exigency of the service 
required, and the safety of the country demanded. He could not conceive 
how men could bring themselves lo sport thus with the feelings of a gallant 
and deserving officer. What must those feelings have been, when, after 
all his hope, his anxiety, and fatigue, he had seen the French stealing out of 
llochfort, unable to follow and defeat them from the unmerited neglect 
with which he had been treated. The arrival of the Colossus and Superb, 
had, however, been much dwelt upon ; and after all, even when they 
divided their supplies among the fleet, what provision had it ? Exactly seven 
days bread, 63 days wine and spirits, and 40 days water! He was ashamed 
to take up the time and trouble of the House in detailing such broad and 
simple facts as these, when in truth any observation on the subject was ren- 
dered quite unnecessary, by the able statement of the Hon. Gentleman who 
opened the debate. This was a question to which the House should give 
all its attention. It involved the dearest interests, of the country, whose 
afety was identified with the welfare of the fleet. As to the new system 
which the Hon. Gentleman (Mr. Yv . Pole) had broached to-night, he was . 

/Rat!, fffcron. tBof, XXI. o o 



282 MEMOHl OF THE PUBLIC SERVICED OP 

sorry to see any such attempted; if its effects were to be the allowing a sliip 
to remain at sea for eleven months, and when she had remained at home 
only as many days, sending her out again if such were to be its effects, he 
disclaimed and denounced such a measure : the name of the ship so treated 
was the Defiance. He deprecated leaving ships so long, and so ill provided' 
at sea, for such a length of time.. He did not profess himself friendly to- 
a vote of censure on the Admiralty, however ho might have thought them 
inefficient; before such a measure was adopted, evidence should be heard 
tit the bar of the House; and then, and not until then, a-censure could be 
warrantably passed on so public and respectable a Board ; but what must 
the squadron off Rochfort think, what must be the feelings of the whole 
British fleet, and of the country at large, when an impartialand temperate 
examination of the papers laid on the table of the House by the Admiralty, 
proved, that the blockading squadron had been cruelly neglected? And 
admitting for the sake of argument, that every pound) of bread, and every 
gallon of wine, and spirits, which reached Sir Richard Straohan before the 
departure of the French squadron,, had been correctly distributed, still ic 
WRS most notorious, that the British squadron would not have been in astute 
to have followed the enemy.'' 

After a speech from Mr. Ward in defence of the Board, Mr. 
G. Ponsonby closed the debate by observing, That the Resolution 
went to say, that Sir R. Strachan was not supplied with provisions, 
and that was proved by the documents ou the table beyond a 
question. Mr. Ponsonby concluded a very spirited speech by 
declaring, that he did not charge the Board of Admiralty with in- 
tentional neglect, but he charged them with want of judgment. 
The House then divided on the previous question. Ayes^ 146. 
Noes, 69. Majority against the Resolution, 77. 

In the same session this indefatigable guardian of the welfare of 
the British navy, on the 14th of June, 1808, endeavoured to call 
the attention of the House of Commons to the office of King's 
Proctor; and moved an adiltess to his* Majesty, praying, that he 
would appoint two or more proctors, in order that the naval service 
might have an option. y The following is the speech which he made- 
on that occasion : 

" He declared,* thnt ke rose in pursuance of the notice which he had 
given, to call the attention of the House and the country to the mode of coiv 
ducting the business of the jiavy in the High Court of Admiralty. It was a 
subject which he had considered of the first importance tO' his Majesty's 
naval service, and on which he had more than once endeavoured to express 
iis sentiments to the House, ami to urge ancl pray for amendment; but he 
was sorry to say, the influence which the Right Hon. and Hon. Member 

* COBBHTI'S Debates, Vol. II. page 8vO. 



AUMIRAL Sill C. M. frOLT, BART. M.P. 283 

< onnected whli that Court possessed, had hitherto effectually prevented the 
alteration required. Yet thisshould not deter him from exerting his utmost 
to correct evils which were notorious, and which must continue to exist 
whilst the Court was-conducted as at present. It was his intention to move 
two Resolutions, the one purporting that 'the duties of the King's Proctor, 
or Procurator General were so numerous, that no one perion was equal to 
discharge them; tl>e other that an humble address be presented to his 
Majesty, praying that he would appoint three or more persons to be 
employed as Proctors in the High Court of Admiralty, and High Court of 
Appeal. It would require little argument to satisfy any impartial mind, 
with the necessity of these Resolutions, without meaning to cast the smallest 
censure on the character of the individual who held the office of proctor, or 
those connected with him. On the -contrary, he was ready to give them 
due credit for exerting themselves to the utmost ; but the business of that 
Court was so increased since the establishment of one proctor was deemed 
sufficient, that it was impossible it could be executed in a manner to do 
justice to the individuals in his Majesty's navy. Great delays, enormous 
charges, and injustice, must be the natural, and is the actual consequence. 
In the course of the last four years, more than 3000 ships have beea 
;libelled by the King's Proctor; on an average, each of those ships may be 
5aid to produce three distinct causes, which would encrease them to 9000. 
Be it always remembered by the House, that the whole of what he was now 
stating, and about to state, is the special duty of the King's Proctor, ztr.'io is 
.exclusively employed for the whole navy of England in all matters of prize, 
.besides all cases in uliich the interest of Ids Majesty is agitated ; in all 
appeals to the privi/ council, as well a$ in all memorials and reports : the 
number of appeal cases in the last four years have not been less than 500, 
.all of which are under his immediate direction, and on many of them very in- 
.tricate and diilicult questions arise; the papers upon the table of the House 
shew the number of ships Hbelled in the last four years by the King's proc- 
,tor, are above 3000 ; there are other papers on the table which shew the 
-amount of the proctor's bills on ships condemned as droits. If Gentlejnen 
will take the trouble to average those bills, they will find them to give -an 
average of 951. on each case; but faking the average profit of the proctor's 
bill at less than a moiety of that sum, the .500 appeal cases at an average of 
1001. would produce a sum which he was satisfied the House would deem 
sufficient for at least three or foqr King's proctors. To the cases of ships 
libelled, and appeals to the privy council, must be added the numerous list 
of memorials and reports, which make a large portion of the profits of the 
office. But it was not the enormity of the sum that he so much objected 
.to, it was the impossibility of justice being rendered to the British navy, by 
the system now persevered in, that induced him to offer his Resolutions ; 
and if he were not so fortunntu as to succeed this day, he still flattered him- 
self the period was not far oiF, when his Majesty's government would see 
the necessity of revising this Court. He was aware he should be told, that 
vessels captured by men of war, did not belong to the captors, but to the 
erovvn,$ therefore his Resolution and- Address were. an improper iittererciu 



281 MLMOIK OF THE 1'DBLIC SERVICES 01' 

with the prerogative. Most sincerely should he regret such an objection to 
rendering justice to a most valuable portion of his Majesty's subjects. The 
delays and cxpences of the Admiralty Court, and the numerous evils and 
abuses which have occurred, were so well known to almost every individual 
connected with the navy, that he had not troubled the House with a long list 
of them in detad, meaning to rest the expediency of his motion on what 
must be obvious to every impartial man, in or out of that House ; namely, 
the impossibility of one Proctor executing the duties allotted to him. He had 
uever been able to collect any substantial objection to the appointment by 
Lis Majesty of three or more learned and discreet proctors, ft) officiate as 
King's proctors in the said Courts. With this view of the subject, he 
should take the liberty of moving the Resolution and Address as before 
recited." 

The Advocate General feltit necessary to oppose the Resolutions, 
as injurious to the interests of the nation and of the navy itself. Mr. 
II. Martin supported the motion. Neither the prerogative of the 
crown, nor the interests of the nation, would be at all injured by the 
appointment of more than one proctor, for all the proceedings would 
be as much under the eye of government a^ before. The proctor 
considered himself as totally independent of the captors : it would 
be much better for the navy that they should be enabled to choose 
a proctor who would be responsible to themselves. Mr. Stephens 
observed, that the business could not be better managed, than it 
vas by the King's proctor and his assistants. Mr. Bastard, in the 
course of his speech, replied to some arguments adduced on the 
opposite side, "It has been said, Sir, that the interests of the navy 
itself were better provided for by the present practice; but the 
contrary was the impression universally felt in the navy, though 
most unwarrantable measures had been employed by the Admiralty 
to stille their complaint*. I know the fact^ because a petition has 
been put into my hands, complaining of gross abuses, and signed 
by many of the most respectable persons in the navy ; some of 
ivhora had withdrawn their names, in consequence of their having 
been menaced with the vengeance of the Admiralty, and I refused 
to present the petition afterwards, lest I should thereby draw down 
that vengeance on the parties." Mr. Whitbread spoke in support 
of the Resolutions. Sir Samuel Romilly thought that the best 
time to reform the constitution of a court of justice was "when the 
offices in the court were respectably and unexccptionaWy filled; 
because, at such a time) all personal and parly motives must 



ADMIRAL sift c. M. POLE, BART. M.P. 285 

necessarily be excluded. He did not pretend to be intimately ac- 
quainted with the mode of proceeding in the Admiralty Courts ; 
but he conceived it to be a very extraordinary principle, and one 
contrary to that which was recognised in all other courts, that one 
person, however able and however distinguished, cither by his 
talents or integrity, should engross the whole practice of the 
Court. 

Sir Charles Pole made a short reply, in which he stated, that 
some causes had been pending in the Admiralty Courts more than 
ten years ; and that a majority had been pending more than seven 
years. He should think that he was wanting in his duty, if he did 
not take the sense of the House upon the motion -which he had the 
honour to have proposed. The House then divided upon the Hon. 
Barojiefs motion, Ayes, 16, Noes, 35. Majority, 19. 

The next instance in which this valuable and patriotic officer 
displayed his political courage and vigilance was on the succeeding 
17th of July, ( 1808) when opposing the Grant moved for by the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, " Towards carrying on the building 
of the Naval Asylum at Greenwich." 

Sir C. Pole opposed the Grant; for which he said the trustees ought not 
to have applied to Parliament whilst they had in their hands a sum of 
50,0001. towards carrying on the purposes of that Institution; no account 
of the application of which was laid before the House, nor the interest of 
that sum, which ought also to be applied to the purposes of the establish- 
ment. He said, that a great wast of public money already granted had 
been committed, in paying a large salary and allowances to an useless and 
unnecessary officer, namely, the Auditor ; and expended in building for him 
a house, with extensive gardens, and ounces. There was no such officer in 
the military Asylum, and he thought this a wasteful profusion of public 
money ; and towards a clergyman too, who- possessed two valuable livings 
in Ireland, upon which it was his duty to reside, and which in the spirit of 
the Act lately passed in that House, he ought to be obliged to reside. He 
objected also to the employment of a surgeon with a large saliiry, house, and 
othces, who never had been in the navy; because he thought that all officer* 
of a naval in-titut:on ought to be naval men, and that this institution, by 
employing men wholly unconnected with the navy, was rather a discou- 
racement to the navy than otherwise, 

" Mr. Roue expressed his astonishment, that the Hon. Baronet could 
expect that a sum of 50,0001. which was the donation of private persons, 
and i^iven expressly on the condition of providing for such children of sea- 
men^s they should recommend, was to be applied, in the first instance, 
for the quite different purpose of carrying on the building now adopted bv 



MEMOIK OF THE 1'UBLI* SERVICES O7 

tiis Majesty, and sanctioned by Parliament. lie was ready to give the Hes. 
Admiral credit for the .friendship he had always professed towards the 
navy ; but was utterly at a loss to reconcile that profession with the Hon. 
Admiral's opposition to the means of carrying on the building of an Institu- 
tion, where a thousand children, the orphans of seamen, were to be pro. 
vided for, and which must actually be stopt, if the means were not imme- 
diately granted for continuing the business of architecture ; and this merely 
because two gentlemen were employed as officers in the Institution, who 
were not actually naval men. He was utterly at a loss to account for thi* 
persevering opposition from the Hon. Admiral, who, while he professed a 
jreal for the interests of officers in the navy, was actually, in effect, endea- 
vouring to impede objects most interesting to the feelings of those officers. 
There was a school instituted at Greenwich Hospital, designed originally 
for the tons of naval officers, to the number of 200. That school was now 
full, but nol entirely with the children of officers, of whom there were but 
73, the rest being the son* of common seamen ; an-d for want of room, the 
son of an Admiral was now obliged to sleep in the same bed with one of 
those common boys. It was designed to remove from the school to tho 
Asylum, all the children of common seamen, so as to leave the Institution 
free for the full number of officers' children ; and yet to this intention, the 
Hon. Admiral was, in effect, offering every opposition in his power. As to 
the gentleman who filled the office of auditor, he was not employed by the 
present Commissioners, they found him in the employment, while under 
private direction, and they thought it not right to discontinue him. But he 
begged leave to s:iy, there was an officer in the Military Asylum to execute 
the same duties, but he was under the denomination of treasurer. The 
auditor was personally quite a stranger to him, except in his official capa- 
city, and he had himself inspected the house and garden allotted, ami 
thought them by no means unreasonable for the person who filled the 
situation. But as to his livings in Ireland, and his own residence there, it 
had nothing to do with this question, so long as he was obliged by the strict 
rules of the Asylum, to be constantly resident there, or resign his situation. 

" The House then resolved into the Committee, and on tlie Chancellor 
of the Exchequer moving for the sum of 3o,000l. for the Asylum, 

" Sir C. Pole said, that his motives for persevering were the same which 
had actuated him with respect to Greenwich Hospital; namely, to preserve 
the exclusive right of the navy to the official appointments originally intended 
for them, but which principle had been shamefully violated in the case of 
Greenwich Hospital. The like violation of principle had commenced in 
the Naval Asvlum, and if it were not resisted in the outset, he should expect 
shortly to see the governorship there, conferred perhaps upon some Ger- 
man captain of cavalry, and the minor situations filled by Hanoverian 
subalterns or Serjeants, instead of British naval officers. He would not, 
however, divide the committee, 

"Mr. Windliam vindicated the motives of the lion. Admiral, withouf 
entering into the examination of his objections. The Resolution was then 
put and carried.'' 



ADMIRAL SIH C. M. POLK, BAUT. M.f. 287 

On the 16th of March, in the present year, 1809, Mr. Robert 
Ward rose to answer somc'-observations made by Sir C. Pole ou a 
former night, respecting the Pay Captains of the Marines. 

" The statement of the Hon. TCaronet was totally fallacious. Those pay- 
masters were established under the administration of Earl St. Vincent ; 
they were selected fraia the oldest raptaius in that service ; and in considera- 
tion of the duty of paymaster allotted them, tliey were exempted from all 
duty afloat, and had nothing else to do than merely to attend courts martial 
til the places where they were quartered ; and instead of having imposed 
on them the duty of paying tlie whole body of marines, amounting to 32,CGQ 
men, t!;cv had not ahove one-fourth, OH perhaps one-sixth of the wh.>le, for 
the remainder were always afloat, and the pay was only to be issued to 
division; 01 rationally landing : even for this purpose (hey had payraasters'- 
serjeaius allowed them, and had only to controul their accounts. Willi 
refptct to the stoppages of one day's pay in a year from the marines t 
(. i.:'i=ea Hospital, from which they derived no advan'aae, he found no stop- 
page whatever was made from the privates, except for Greenwich Hospital, 
to the benefits of which they were entitled, in common with seamen ; and 
as to the stoppage of a day's pay in each venr, and the poundage of five per 
ceut. upon the pay of officers, it was handed over to the War Office for the 
benefit of the Widow's Fund ; which the relicts of marine officers enjsyed 
in common with those of officer* of the line ; but those stoppages had never 
been made since the year 180G, as the pay was issued net, to all officers 
under the rank of colonel, on the same footing as the other officers of 'the 
army. 

" Sir Charles Pole said, if the Hon. Gentleman had given this exphmatioa 
as to the stoppages of pay before, it would have altered his own view of the 
subject. But he still held the same opinion with respect to the situation of 
the Pay Captains. He was wall informed they had a regulaj- ledger account 
Co keep with every mm and boy in the marine sen ice, for which they hnd 
BO remuneration, although the captain? of marine artillery, for only paying 
their own companies, had 2s. per day additional pay. Besides those old 
officers, in any branch of the service, would have been entitled to majorities, 
and many of them now would have been old field officers. Any advantage, 
therefore, which could be given them, without great expence to the public, 
ought not to be withheld from a brave class of men, whose existence was 
scarcely known to their country except by their brilliant services in he* 
cause. 

" Mr. Ward explained. 

" Mr. Calcraft felt it his duty to state, that it wns understood rery 
generally, that the stoppages from the marine troops were as stated by th 
Hon. Baronet; and it now seemed the power actually did exist for leaking 
those stoppages, although it was not exercised to the extent supposed, but 
confined to Marine officers and towards the Widow's Fund. But he saw 
no reason why U*e Marine Oaioers should not have a distinct Widow's Fund 
9* their ywa. 



288 .MEMOIR OF THE PUULIC SERVICES OF 

" Mr. Wclleslf.)/ Pole, said, it was the intention of the present Bonn? of 
Admiralty to afford to the marine corps every practicable and reasonable 
indulgence. But there was a mistake with respect to the stoppages from 
the pay of marjne officers in general for the Widow's Fund. No such stop- 
pages were now made but from officers who retired on full pay ; and the 
widows of the marine officers received their pensions at the War Office, paid 
by the public. With respect to the situation of the Pay Captains, he begged 
leave to refer the lion. Baronet to a petition presented by those very officers 
to the Admiralty, when he himself was at that Board, praying for this very 
allowance, which the Hon. Baronet now sought to obtain for them, and the 
answer then given to their petition was, that the berth was a pretty good 
one, and it was very desirable it should continue to exist; but if they did 
not like it with full pay, and exemption from all other duty, they might 
take their turns of service : ever since, they had been pretty well satisfied 
to remain as they were. With respect to the Compassionate List, for which 
there was a bill now in progress, it was only for such widows and orphans 
as were not entitled to any provision otherwise, nor was it ever thought of 
before the establishment of the present Admiralty Board; and it was his 
intention in the committee on this bill, to place the widows of marine officer* 
on the same footing in this respect with thost; of the officers of the navy and. 
army. 

" Sir C. Po/t'had no recollection of the petition from the pay captains just 
mentioned. 

" Mr. Hutc/iinson said, that an opinion had been very generally enter- 
tained by marine officers, that the corps !md contributed by stoppages, 
some 30,0001. to Chelsea Hospital, without receiving any advantage. 

" Mr. Ward said, that no trace of such stoppages could be found in thq 
navy books since the year 175.5. 

" After some further conversation, in which Mr. Pole, Colouel Bastard, 
nnd Sir Charles Pole spoke, the House went into committee on the bill, 
made several amendments, and it was ordered to be reported on the next 
day." 

On the 2Ist of March, Sir Charles Pole brought another 
important object before the House, which again shewed a neglect 
of naval officers in those {situations at the Victualling Board, which 
they had generally been allowed to occupy, and which Sir Charles 
was particularly induced to make, from circumstances that had 
been brought to light by the report of the Commissioners of Naval 
Revision. 

" House of Commons, March 21, 1809. -Sir C. Pole, pursuant to notice, 
rose to call the attention of the House to the necessity which existed on the 
part of the Board of Admiralty, of selecting such members only for appoint- 
ment to this Bo.Td as were men of professional experience, ability, integrity, 
and indefatigable industry, in the duties of their office; and to the inc.onvc- 
iiienceii-aud losses whigh obviously had, and unavoidably must continue to 



ABMIRAL BIR C, M, POLE, BAIIT. M.F. 289 

accrae to the public service, and to the country, from the want of due 
attention to this salutary principle. The lion. Baronet, in support of his 
position, recurred to a long series of documents in the Reports of the Com- 
mittees of Finance and of Naval Revision, and took an historical view of 
the state of the navy at different periods, in order as well to shew that that 
state was always affected either by the possession or the want of pro- 
fessional experience in those who at different times undertook its manage- 
ment, and directed its operations, as to prove, that within the present reign, 
for the want of such experience, ability, and industry in those who at 
different periods superintended the various branches of naval expenditure, 
the most gross and flagitious profusion, improvidence, and peculation had 
prevailed in our dock-yards at home, and our fleets in foreign service; and 
that the public accounts in that department had been suffered to run into 
such arrear and confusion, a to render the audit of them totally imprac- 
ticable, for a series of twenty years together, to the preclusion of all effectual 
means to check the progress of peculation .and fraud. In no one branch of 
the naval department had tkis system of inefficiency more mischievously 
prevailed than in that of the Victualling Board, where, it appcaif-J by one 
f the latest Reports of the Commissioners of Naval Revision, that accounts 
to a very considerable extent had continued in arrear for above twenty years 
without liquidation. But it was not merely of late years that such com- 
plaints had existed in this department; for ever since the reign of Queen 
Anne t!e Victualling Office accounts had been always in arrear, and at the 
time of the last Report of tlie Commissioners of Naval Revision, there 
were actually accounts to die amount of nine millions unsettled. He 
trusted, however, that since that Report had been laid upon the table, no 
new arrears of account had been suffered to accumulate. At a time when 
tlie urgent affairs of this country called for great expenditure, and conse- 
quently for a heavy pressure of taxation on the people, it was but right and 
reasonable that the people should be convinced that a scrupulous and effi- 
cient vigilance was exerted in every department of office, in order to secure 
the fair application of every shilling granted for the public service ; and his 
principal motive for BOW calling the attention of the House to this subject, 
was, not to cast any blame oa the present Board of Admiralty, but in order 
to record on the Journals of the House a resolution which he should have 
the honour to propose now, before the Navy Estimates came to be voted, 
in order to prove that die House coincided with the recommendation stated 
in thd Reports of the Commissioners of Naval Revision. He concluded-by 
moving a Resolution, " That it is the opinion of tl-js House that neither live 
plan recommended by the Commissioners of Naval Revision, respecting the 
Victualling Board, nor any other plan can be effectual, if that Board be 
.composed of any other than men of extensive experience, knowledge, 
ability, integrity, and indefatigable j>erseverance in their duties." 

" Mr. R. Ward spoke at considerable length, in answer to the lion. 
Baronet. He said that he should be totally at a loss to understand the real 
.object of the Honourable Baronet's motion from his speech this night, if h 
Jia'd not heard the conversations both within and without those walls, which 

el. XXI, P * 



2DO MEMOIll OF THE PUBLIC 8EIIVICES OF 

had their origin in the suggestions of the lion. Baronet, and were calculated 
to throw blame on the present Board of Admiralty. This, he conceived, to 
be the true motive of the Hon. Baronet for wishing now to enter upon the 
Journals of the House the Resolution which he proposed ; the truth of 
which no man cr-uld deny, and which was the very ground laid for what 
the present Board of Admiralty had done, towards the very system of reform 
in the naval department, now urged by the Honi" Baronet. lie must, there- 
fore, be excused from imputing the motion of the Hon. Baronet merely to 
the motives he avowed. He must call tilings by their right names, and 
freely avow his own conviction, that the true object of the Hon. Baronet's 
motion was to cast an indirect censure on the Board of Admiralty; and, 
therefore, without dissenting from the truth of the Resolution, he would 
oppose it by the previous question. It would have been more honourable 
and manly to name the persons to whose appointments he had objected, and 
thereby give to the friends of those gentlemen the opportunity of defending 
them fairly and openly. The Hon. Member then named severally the 
different Members of the Victualling Board, to whose characters he paid 
hi^h encomiums, and wished the lion. Baronet to state to which, if to any 
of them, he could personally object. The persons at that Board, against 
whom he conceived the Hon. Baronet's motion chiefly directed, were 
Colonel Welsh and Captain Stuart, and this for no other cause than that 
they were military men, and therefore in the Hon. Baronet's estimation 
unfit to sit at the Victualling Board. He (Mr. Ward) however conceived 
that military experience was as necessary as naval experience to the 
efficiency of that Board; inasmuch as ever since the year 1793, by a new 
arrangement of the Board, with increased salaries, additional clerks, and the 
appointment of a military inspector of provisions, the duty of purchasing 
victualling stores for the army in foreign stations, as well as for the navy, 
devolved upon them, although the victualling of both branches of the public 
force was carried on under distinct departments, was different in kind, and 
distributed differently on shipboard, and in garrison. The Commi-.sioners 
of Revision had said there should be some military and some civilians. 
There could be no objection, nor was there any to Colonel Welsh, other 
than his being appointed by Lord Mulgrave, and every one but the Hon. 
Baronet allowed his merits. All he had said of Colonel Welsh was equally 
applicable to Captain Stuart; and in point of justice the Hon. Baronet 
ought to get up and state, that they have no abilities and no integrity, if he 
wished to throw blame on the Admiralty for these appointments. The 
motion went to charge the Admiralty with blame, without a single argu- 
ment in support of it. He was, therefore, compelled to move the previous 
question. 

Mr. H. Martin said he had never heard more warmth nor less argument 
than in the speech just delivered by the Hon. Gentleman. The fact was, 
the Admiralty had dismissed, or allowed to retire, Mr. Marsh, who pre- 
sided at the Victualling Board, under the pretence of his age and in- 
firmities, because the accounts were in a mar, and had appointed a person 
hmch the senior of him they had removed: and the person so appointed. 



ADMIllAZ. SIR C. M. POLE, BART. M.P. 291 

had been longer in the Victualling Office than any other, so that if 
bad habits were an objection, they applied in full force to him. Mr. 
Budge had also been removed, without any application on his part; 
and Mr. Moody, who was allowed to be one of the best accountants in the 
country; and if it were true that the accounts of the office were so 
tremendously in arrear as had been represented, it was very extraordinary 
they should grt rid of such a man, who was in all respects so capable 
of forwarding them. 

Mr. Bus'anl said he could not but feel indignant at the manner in which 
the Hon. Gentleman (Mr. Ward) had treated the motion of the Hon, 
Baronet, to whom he thought the House and the country were highly in- 
debted for bringing it forward, as well as for many other services he had 
done to the puhlic. Public Boards were not the masters of that House, 
but ought to be their servants, and liable to their controul; and the Hon. 
Gentleman would have done well to have recollected the benefits the 
country had received from a Board, of which the Hon. Baronet had been 
an active member. The Commissioners of Naval Inquiry had said 
many reports had been made a-> to the conduct of the Victualling Board, 
but not one had been acted on. It. was the duty of the House to enforce 
such a resolution as the present, which might probably prevent such 
neglects in future. It was not the Hon. Baronet, but the Naval Commis- 
sioners who asserted this to be necessary; and though it might be a 
truism, it came before the House in a much more apposite shape 
than many others had done. In saying this, he meant no slur on the 
Admiralty, and the Hon. Gentleman hud gone very far out of his 
way in saying so much on the appointment of Colonel Welsh. He thought 
the Hon. Baronet was actuated by the best motives: he hoped he would 
persist in his present conduct, and he should give the motion his 
cordial support. 

Mr. Welksley Pole defended, at considerable length, the several 
removals, and the appointments made in their stead. He thought, however, 
that what the Hon. Baronet had now brought forward did not call for what 
his Hon. Friend (Mr. Ward) had said upon it. He was glad the Hon. 
Baronet had stated the matter as he had done, which allowed that 
the system of the Victualling Board was so vicious as loudly to call 
for alteration and reform. There was, however, another Report, which the 
Hon. Baronet ought to attend to, viz. the llth, which particularly related 
to the outports, and which stated that in the Victualling Board at Plymouth 
he had been charged with 4000 tons of casks more than by his account he 
ought to be charged with, and another with 4000 tons of casks less than he 
ought, and yet both accounts had been passed as right. When the Hon. 
Baronet looked to the various Boards with so jealous an eye, he could have 
wished the Hon. Baronet had not suffered his own Report, as a Com- 
missioner of Naval Inquiry, to remain for ten months a mere dead letter, 
though he was all that time in office, and might have brought it into action; 
and during that period there were no less than eleven millions of accounts 
i his o2ke which were never looked to by the. Board. Many of tUos 



MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC StUVICES OP 

accounts had been standing 25 years, and many nearly that, and those of 
16 had been reported ready for inspection, but no notice had been taken 
of them by that Board, of which the Hon. Barowet was a member. Mr. 
Marsh, the Deputy Chairman of the Victualling Board, had been allowed 
to retire at his own request on three-fourths of his salary. Mr. Moody was 
as incapable of discharging the duties of his office, as if he was defunct. 
From all the inquiries he had made, it was universally agreed that he was 
incapable of leading the Board to carry into effect those reforms which had 
been recommended by the Naval Commissioners. He had also been 
allowed, after 49 years service, to retire on three-fourJhs of his salary; and 
the Victualling Board was at present constituted in the exact manner 
recommended by the Commissioners of Revision. The lion. Gentleman 
concluded by saying, that as there appeared no shadow of ground for 
the present motion, he would vote for the previous question. 

Mr. Wlndham said, in his opinion, the whole case lay in th* short 
compass of how far it was necessary to remove some officers, and put others 
in their place; he could not see the necessity of this; but it seemed 
the Hon. Gentleman thought a reform necessary, and so he began, not by 
changing principles, but by changing men a very commodious system 
of reform; he knew none of the officers- but Mr. Marsh, sind coukl see 
no change in him which could warrant his removal ; time, however,, might 
have an effect on his mind, which it had not on his body. He defended tlis 
motion of Sir C. Pole. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer denied that a change of persons 
only was intended, but a radical reform of system in the most economical 
way possible. He contended the Right Hon. Gentleman hatl formed his 
opinion on partial parts of the report and deduced therefrom general 
propositions, which could not be denied in the abstract, bat which, when 
particularly applied, were defective. He would, therefore, support the 
previous question. He believed Mr, Marsh was a very zealous officer, but 
he was incapacitated by age from active service. This was also the case 
with respect to Mr. Moody. 

Mr. Whitkread defended the motion of the Hon. Baronet, and said 
he had never heard the present Board of Admiralty praised by any 
but themselves, with whose testimony on the subject it was not to 
be expected he should be satisfied. They abused the Hon. Baronet for not 
doing every thing in ten months, and yet they, at the end of two years, had 
only commenced a reform. 

Mr. Peter Moore panegyrised the Hon. Baronet, and defended his 
motion. 

Admiral Markfiam supported the Hon. Baronet's motion, as he thought 
hit arguments fully bore him out. 

Sir C. Pole shortly replied, and the previous question was then carried 
without a division. 

In the present Session, this truly independent and patriotic 
Member has been also occupied; with endeavouring to call tho 



ADMIRAL SIR C. M. POLE, BART. M.P. 293 

attention of the House of Commons to a subject, which was parti- 
cularly recommended to him by his late friend Admiral Lord Nel- 
son, The encouragement of a Marine Corps of Artillery^ to avoid 
a return of those quarrels which had prevailed in the Mediterra- 
nean, whilst Lord Nelson had the command in 1803 : in conse- 
quence of some young artillery officers refusing to allow such of 
their men as were embarked on board the bombs, to assist in case 
of emergency to support the labours of the crew. Sir C. Pole's ob- 
ject also, in calling the attention of Parliament to the Marine Corps, 
is to establish a Fund for the orphans of its officers, to augment 
the field officers, and to put the Royal Marine Artillery on a more 
rational and respectable plan; endeavouring that some young men 
should be purposely educated at Woolwich for that purpose* 
We trust that we shall have very considerable additions to add to 
this memoir, both as regarding his professional and senatorial du- 
ties, in which we have endeavoured to direct the attention of our 
readers to a subject, already glanced at by our sensible and worthy 
Correspondent, E. G. F. The Parliamentary Duties of Naral 
Officers. The subject at the present moment, particularly, is of 
vast importance, and of great national interest : and we trust our 
Correspondent will direct and confine his attention to naval par- 
liamentary subjects alone, and a discussion of the various specche* 
that have been thus made by officers in both Houses. 

Such has been, and such we trust will long continue Admiral 
Sir C. Pole. The early associate and intimate friend of the ever 
to be lamented Nelson ; the great example to all naval officers in 
Parliament, to whom the profession and ftie country may safely 
look up for integrity and independence. By principle a strict 
disciplinarian, by nature brave and enterprising, yet unassuming ; 
simple in his manners, open in his character, and uniform in his 
friendship. This may be the language of eulogy, but it is also the 
language of truth. We trust he will resolutely stem the current he 
has so nobly opposed, and support the hitherto-neglected interests 
of the British navy in the House of Commons. And instead of 
crouching, like too many whom we could mention, to men in 
power for professional employment, or holding a situation in Par. 
liament from motives of party or self interest, will keep on his 
steady course with a press of canvass ; and though unfavourable 



MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

winds may sometimes retard Ms progress, or the three deckers oT 
ministry may open their broadsides upon him, and fire stink pots 
into his rigging ; still we trust, like an experienced and able sea- 
man as he is, he will luff up and rake his opposcrs. We trust 
that dijring many succeeding sessions, he will continue to burn 
blue lights to caution other officers, when he thinks the good old 
ship is standing into danger; or her crew, like that of a privateer, 
becoming slovenly and thinking only of prize money, fall to 
squabling amongst themselves ; and thus forget to scrub the decks, 
and to square the yards, and allow the purser to serve out oakura 
for tobacco, and the dust of corrupted maggots for burgoo. 

*.* Sir Charles Pole has been many years one of the Grooms 
of the Bedchamber to Admiral his Royal Highness the Duke of 
Clarence. 

HERALDIC PARTICULARS. 

The family of Pole is of great antiquify in Devonshire. Sir 
John Pole, of Shute, in that county, was created a Baronet by 
patent dated 12th September, Ui2S. His grandson, Sir John 
Pole, married Anne, youngest daughter of Sir William Morice, of 
Werington, Knight, and had issue, 1st, William, his successor in 
the title of Baronet ; 2d, John, an officer in the army, who died 
unmarried; 3d, Charles, who died young; and 4th, the Rev. 
Carolus Pole, rector of St. Breoch, in Cornwall, grandfa- 
ther of the present Admiral ; which Carolus married Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Jonathan Rashleigh, of Meuabilly, in Cornwall, Esq. by 
Jane, daughter and at length coheir of Sir John Carew, of 
Anthony, in the same county, and by her had issue a daughter, 
Jane, who married Philip Rashleigh, of Menabilly, Esq. and two 
sons, viz. 1st, Reginald; 2d, John, rector of Faccumb cum Tang- 
ley, Southampton, who died unmarried in 1750. 

Reginald Pole, the eldest son, father of the subject of this 
memoir, was of Stoke Damarell, in the county of Devon, and died 
1 1th November, 1769, at the age of 53, leaving issue by Anne his 
wife (2d daughter of John Francis Buller, of Mortal, Esq. which, 
lady died 25th April, 1758) three sons and two daughters, of 
whom Anne was 2d wife of Charles Cox, Lord Sommers, and 
Sarah, married Henry Hippesley Coxe, Esq. of Stone Easton> in 
Somersetshire, and died iu August 1787. The sons were, 1st, the 
Right Honourable Reginald Pole Carevr, of Anthony, in t* 



ADMIRAL SIR C. M. POLE, BART. M.P. 

county of Cornwall, one of his Majesty's most honourable Privy 
Council, and M.P. for Fowey, who was born 28th July, 1753, 
and assumed the surname and arms of Carcw, by Act of Par- 
Jiament, pursuant to the will of Sir Coventry Carcw. He married 
iu November, 1784, Jemima^ only child of the Hon. John Yorke, 
4th son of Philip, 1st Earl of Hardwicke ? by whom he had several 
children. 

2d, Sir Charles Morice Pole, Baronet, (so created by patent 
dated 12th September, 1801) an Admiral in the Royal Navy, 
born 18th January, 1757, married 8th June, 1792, Henrietta, 3d 
daughter of John Goddard, Esq. formerly of Rotterdam, and late 
of Woodford Hall, in Essex, and niece of Henry Hope, Esq. late 
of Amsterdam, but now of Harley Street, and by her has issue 5 
Henrrietra-Maria-Sarah, born 7th November, 1799. 

3d, Edward Pole, Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. , 

ARMS. Azure ) a lion rampant, argent, within an orle of 9 
Fieurs de 15s, or. 

SUPPORTERS. Granted by his Majesty's Especial Royal War. 
rant, dated 2d November, 1801. On the dexter a stag, gules^ 
attired, or ; and on the sinister a griffin, atrwre, beaked, legged, 
and ducally gorged, or. 

MOTTO. Pallet Virtus. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, 



NANTES IN GURGITE VASTO. 



GALLANTRY OF THE SANDWICH LUGGER. 

ON New Year's Day, a very gallant and severe actios was 
fought by the Sandwich lugger. She fell in with a large 
JFrench lugger, soon after four o'clock in the afternoon, off the 
Isle of Bass, which she engaged nearly two hours ; and so close 
was the contest, that the enemy's main-sail caught fire two or three 
times, from the fire of the Sandwich : it was evidently the intention 
of the enemy to board, being full of men (it is supposed nearly 
100), and for that purpose she ran her bowsprit between the 
Sandwich's fore and main-masts; but the brisk fire of round and 
cannister kept up by the brave crew of the Sandwich, prevented 
her accomplishing this design. At length she disengaged herself, 



295 KAVAI. ANECDOTES, 

and sheered off: the Sandwich pursued her, bat the weather being 
dark and heavy, and the wind failing, she out with her sweeps, 
and made her escape. The long and brisk cannonade kept up by 
the Sandwich must have made great havoc among the enemy's 
crew, and it is certain she must have been so much shattered as to 
reach the shore with difficulty. The Sandwich had cm-, n iiii killed 
and seven wounded : two of them so dangerously iLit th^y are not 
expected to live. Lieutenant Atkins, the brave ..^inmander of the 
Sandwich, received a ball in the upper part of his right arm, near 
the shoulder; but it has been extracted. Mr. Phillips, the master, 
was dangerously wounded ; a musket ball entered his right breast, 
and passed out at his back. The first mate was wounded by a 
ball passing through his leg. The Sandwich mounts 14 guns, and 
had 50 men on board. 

PRESENT STATE OF MALACCA. 

THE fort wails at Malacca, were built by a colony from China, 
at least three centuries before the Portuguese obtained possession 
of the place in 1512. They are by no means so strong as has been 
generally supposed, but they serve to strike terror into the Malays, 
who have a superstitious veneration for them. Preparations are 
now making to blow up the works ; mines are excavated along the 
side facing the sea, some of which are charged. Two were ex- 
ploded with great skill and precision, on the 16th of October, 1807. 
The wall was completely overturned on both sides, with a very 
trilling explosion, and without injuring a building or a tree. The 
country round Malacca to the distance of eight or ten miles from 
the fort, is a pleasant and most productive spot. The rising 
grounds are barren and rocky, and the acclivities have been used 
by the Chinese, for places of sepulture. Redoubts are also raised 
on the Bocca China, and St. Jonas. On the sides of the hills are 
innumerable trees of a variety of species, including the sepharce 
and the arcca, or betel-nut tree ; other fences of the fields are 
bamboo, rattan, acacia, &c. Since the English took possession 
of the place in 1793, the vajlies produce rice and sugar canes in. 
great abundance, the cultivation of which, under a settled and 
permanent government, might be much extended. The revenues 
bring to the Company 80,000 dollars a year for land rents, taxes, 
and customs. The latter are farmed, and there is a considerable 
trade with the buggesses from Borneo, in the season between the 
monsoons. They also trade with Sumatra, Rhio, and many of 
the rivers of the Peninsula, both to the east and west, and hays 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C, 297 

frequent communications with Java ; whence they import teak- 
wood, pepper, and other productions. They procure spars fit for 
masts from Stack and Arroes, but these growing in a low, marshy 
country, are of inferior quality. In the river which runs close by 
the walls of the fort, small vessels of 120 tons have been built. 
They have good timber, including what they procure from 
Samarang and Java, and skilful carpenters. Under the lee of the 
island nearest to the fort, there is a kind of harbour, where in the 
south-west monsoon, they can carry and secure vessels drawing 
16 feet. The cultivators, sugar-makers, distillers, and farmers of 
the customs are Chinese. 

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

AMONG the extraordinary phenomena of the present age, so fer. 
tile in revolutions political and national, may be justly reckoned 
the formation of a new empire, and the introduction of European 
civilization into the remote islands scattered over the yast expanse 
of the Pacific Ocean. We are assured that Tahama, chief or 
sovereign of the island O-Avy-hee, has not only subjected to his 
dominion the surrounding islands, but is actively employed in ex. 
tending his power on every side. This chieftain, the Buonaparte 
of the Pacific, though he can neither write nor read, is, neverthe- 
less, endowed with distinguished abilities, energy, and ambition. 
Numbers of British and of French renegadoes, or deserters, are 
employed in facilitating his projects of commerce and of conquest. 
Already it is certain that he carries on a trade with China, with 
some of the dependencies of Japan, with the Ladrone islands, and 
Tinian ; nor is it doubted that he will soon navigate the South Sea 
in the opposite direction, to the western shores of Mexico, Peru, 
and Chili. However incredible it may appear, we are assured that 
he possesses a marine consisting of nine vessels ; among which are 
two armed and copper-bottomed. Tahama, it is believed, will 
subject the Society and Friendly Islands, as well as many of the 
others in that quarter of the globe. When we reflect on the 
geographical position of the Sandwich islands, placed as it'were by 
nature, to connect America with Asia; and competent to carry on 
the most extensive commerce at once with the Philippines, China, 
and Japan, on one hand ; no less than with 'California, Acapulco, 
Lima, and the parts of Chili on the other side of the Pacific ; w 
are lost in contemplating or calculating the results which may take 
place in the course of a few years from this event. 0-wy-hee and 

t C$nmI XXI. Q 



298 



NAVAT, ANECDOTEi, 



Hayti, may both, in (he lapse of the IDth century, occupy a dis- 
tinguished place in the history of the world ; and the dynasties of 
Tahama or of Pction, like those of Buonaparte and Murat, may 
arise to replace the distinguished families that antecedently ruled 
in Europe or in America, 

ADDITIONAL HONOURS CONFERRED ON SIR SIDNEY SMITH BY 

THE COURT OF PORTUGAL. 

THE public papers have lately contained many contradictory 
accounts of the state of afiairs at the court of Brazil, but we arc 
as yet very scantily supplied with genuine intelligence ; we therefore 
Conceive the following document will be read with interest, as 
authentic testimony of the sentiments of that court relative to the 
person and services of the British admiral commanding in those 
seas. It is somewhat singular that Sir Sidney Smith's conduct 
should be viewed in so different a light at the Admiralty from 
what it is by our ally, that he has just been unexpectedly super- 
seded in a manner, which we fear will be considered by the Avorthy 
admiral as the most abrupt. 

" Palace of Rio de Janeiro, Glh August, 1808. 
(COPY.) 

" His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, our Sovereign Lord, being 
desirous to shew the estimation in which he holds the high merit, abilities, 
and valour of Sir Sidney Smith, rear-admiral and commander.in-chicf of his 
Britannic majesty's naval forces in the Southern Seas; his royal highness has 
been pleased to grant him the honour of enabling him to bear the arms of 
Portugal, quartered with his own, and to bear them as the French express 
it, oti shield and banner,* that he, and his descendants, may use them, and 
in default of issue, his representatives in both the male and female lines : 
but as the said Sir Sidney Smith cannot do this without his Britannic 
majesty's licence, his royal highness orders that your excellency will request 
this faculty through Mr. Canning, his minister of state for foreign affairs, 
signifying the great pleasure and satisfaction his royal highness will receive 
by his Britannic majesty's being pleased to accede to this his particular 
desire. Your excellency will make known this minister's answer as soon 
as possible. His royal highness flattering himself that this just request will 
not meet any difficulty. God preserve your excellency. 

" D. RODRIGO DE SOUZA CONTINHO." 

*' To Don Domingos Antonio de 
Souza Continho. London. 

* En (tusson ft banniere. 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 299 

INSCRIPTION' AND DIMENSIONS OF THE LOWLSTOFF UNIMMERGIBLE 
LIFE-BOAT.* 

Feet. Inches, 



Breadth a-raidships 10 

Depth 3 6 

Exclusive of amoveable wash strakeof O 8 
The form the same as the yawls of that coast ; the stern post 
nearly upright. 

External gunwales hollow, forming an oblique section of a 
parabola with the side of the boat, and projecting nine inches from 
it on each side : these gunwales are reduced a little in their pro- 
jection towards their ends, and are first formed by brackets and 
thin boards, covered at top and bottom with one thickness of good 
sound cork, and the extremity or apex of the projection having 
two thicknesses of cork, the better to defend it from any violent 
blows it may meet with in hard service. The depth of these gun. 
wales from top to bottom was fifteen inches, and the whole 
covered with very strong canvas, laid on with strong cement to 
resist the water, and that will not stick to anything laid upon it. 

A false keel of wrought iron three inches deep, made of t'nrerc 
bars rivetted together, ami bolted under the common keel, which 
it greatly strengthens, and makes a very essential part of her 
ballast; b.'ing fixed so much below the floor, it has nearly double 
the power the same weight would have if laid on the floor, and 
therefore much preferable to any other ballast that can be used for 
sailing boats. 

Thwarts and gang-board as usual : three masts and lugg sails, 
and twelve short oars. 

In this state, this boat is much safer than any common boat of 
the same dimensions, will carry more sail, and bear more weather : 
but to make it completely unimmergible, empty casks, of about 
twenty-two inches diameter, were ranged along withinside of the 
gunwales, lashed firmly to the boat, lying even with the tops of 
the gunwales, and resting upon brackets fastened to the timbers 
for that purpose ; also two such casks in the head, and two in the 
stern, and all removable in a short time, if desired ; there were 
also some empty casks placed under the gang-board; these woul 
be an addition to the boat's buoyancy if empty, and an, increase to. 
her ballast if full. 

* For an account of the first launching of the kowestoff life-boat, on the 
1 9th of Nov<jmber ; 1607, vide NAVAL CuRCWCLfi, Vol. XIX. page 458., 



SCO 



PLATE CCLXXXL 

THE Island of Bombay, about seven leagues in circumference, 
is situated in longitude 72 cleg. 38 min. east of Greenwich, 
latitude 18 deg. 57 inin. north. It was first settled by the Portu- 
guese, who gave it to Charles II. King of England, as a marriage 
portion with the infanta Catherine. Its trade flourished exceed- 
ingly; but its revenues were inadequate to the expence of keeping 
it; in consequence of which, and of other political and commercial 
reasons, the crown made it over to the East India Company, in 
whose hands it remains. 

The principal town is nearly a mile long ; and, within these 
few years, the general appearance of the houses has been con- 
siderably improved. The soil is barren, and the water is bad ; 
notwithstanding which, there are some fine groves of cocoa-nut 
trees on the island, and the gardens produce inargoes, jacks, and 
other Indian fruits. 

Salt, in large quantities, is made at Bombay, by letting the sea 
into pits, and suffering it to evaporate by the heat of the sun. 

The air and climate 'of iliis island are rather unhealthy, subject- 
ing Europeans, on their first arrival, to fevers, fluxes, scrophulous 
disorders, &c. Persons seasoned to the country, however, fre- 
quently live to a good old age. Afte the rains, a number of 
venomous creatures appear, and attain an extraordinary size. 

Bombay Castle, of which the annexed engraving, by Baily, from 
a. drawing by W. Westal, is an accurate representation, stands in, 
and forms part of the Fort of Bombay, which is by far the strongest, 
and the most regular fortification in India. All, the arms, and 
naval stores, for the Malabar coast, are kept in this castle. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

MR. EDITOR, 

AS you profess to be a faithful chronicler of naval events for 
the future historian, you should candidly insert, as indeed 
you have often done, the different naval documents that have cir- 
culated amongst us in manuscript, but are in general little known 
to the public. In your second volume, ,page 500, you inserted 
Lord Nelson's remarks on his ship the Captain, February 14, 
1797 } which first appearedjn the Sun : but you have never in. 



CORUESPONDENCE. 301 

sorted the letter which those remarks produced from Admiral W. 
Parker, of the St. George. I have therefore sent you a copy. 

LIEUTENANT H. 

" DEAR BiNGir.vxr, " Blenheim, off" Cadiz, September 1,1797. 

u I have heard some time back, by some of my friends in 
England, that from a statement of the action of the 14th February, 
by then Commodore Nelson, I had not that credit that properly 
belonged to ran. 

" I have had no power to do myself the justice I might be en-* 
titled to, for want of a sight of that letter, which I did not get 
until the 20th of July. 

*' It is of no moment to me to make any observations further 
than concerns myself; I have written to him upon the subject, 
which, least any of my friends may not have considered me in the 
situation I really stood, in the success of that day from that cause 
also, I here send you the copy of what I have written, with his 
answer. 

" lie was absent from the fleet at the time I wrote, and when 
he returned had lost his arm. I had no immediate answer ; it was 
left with the commander-in-chief, by whom he de<ired it to be 
delivered to me after he was gone to England, as I was told to pre- 
vent a rejoinder ; but with assurances that no offence was meant 
by him to me, and (hat he never thought it could be understood 
that both ships had struck to him. 

" This answer is little to the purpose, though after what he had 
written it could not be much otherwise. He has got my observa- 
tions as far as respects myself; and I receive in words what I sup- 
pose was thought he should not commit to paper, for I believe he 
had advice upon the occasion. 

" 1 have no other object or wish than to be considered by my 
friends in the way I am entitled, or any intention of making com- 
ments upon Admiral Nelson's letter, but what concerned my own 
situation, and the ships he did not mention. 

u Dear Bingham, 
" Your friend and well-wisher, 

W. PARKER." 

" P.S. You may shew this, with its enclosure, to any of my 
friends w-ho.m you may suppose have read Admiral Nelson's 
letter." 



302 CORRESPONDENCE. 

" MY DEAR SIR, " Blenheim, off Cadiz, 25th July, 1797. 

<c It was not until the 21st of this inst. July, that I saw the 
letter in the Sun, dated the 20th March, with remarks upon the 
proceedings of his Majesty's ship the Captain, in the action of the 
14th February, to the whole of which, from a near situation, J 
was an eye witness. 

" I very readily admit that you have all the credit (hat belongs 
to an able officer and a brave man ; but in support of myself, the 
officers of the Prince George, and Orion (and Blenheim, previous 
to your acknowledging her) I cannot but express my surprize at 
the statement contained in your letter. 

" You say, after wearing, that at a quarter past one o'clock 
you were engaged, and immediately joined, and most nobly sup- 
ported by the Cullodcn, Captain Troubridgc, for near an hour. 
Did the Culloden and Captain support this apparently, though 
not really, unequal contest, when the Blenheim passing between 
you and the enemy, gave you a respite', &c. 

" I must here take the opportunity of pointing out to you, that 
after passing through the tnemy's disordered line upon the star- 
board tack, viz. the Culloden, Blenheim, Prince George, Orion, 
and Colossus, the Culloden and Colossus more to windward than 
the other three ships, which were in an exact line close to each 
other, tacked per signal in succession, and stood after the enemy 
upon the larboard tack in the following order, viz. Culloden, 
Blenheim, Prince George, and Orion, the Colossus having lost her 
fore and fore-top-sail yards, missed stays, and remained astern ; 
during the progress towards tho enemy upon the larboard tack, 
you were observed to wear from the rear of our line, and stand 
towards the enemy also, the Culloden by the minutes on board the 
Prince George, began to engage first, viz. twenty minutes past one 
o'clock, and you fell in ahead of her some time after, and began 
to engage at hall-past one. Soon after you began, the Blenheim, 
was advanced upon the Culloden's larboard quarter as far ahead 
as she could be, keeping out of her fire, and began also; and not 
Iftng afterwards the Prince George was the same with respect to 
the Blenheim, and Orion with respect to the Prince George. 
The Prince George began at thirty-five minutes past one, but for 
some time could not get advanced enough to bring her broadside 
to bear without yawing, occasionally ; the Orion in the Prince 
George's rear began as soon as she could get sufficiently advanced ; 
therefore, so different to your statement, very soon after you 
commenced your fire, you had four ships pressing on, almost oa 



CORRESPONDENCE. 303 

board of each other, close in your rear ; but the ships thus prcssino- 
upon each other, and the two latter not far enough ahead to fire 
with proper effect, besides having none of the enemy's shipsHeft in 
the rear for our succeeding ships, at thirteen minutes past one I 
made the signal, No. 66 (fill and stand on), the most applicable 
as I thought to the occasion, which, though occasionally shot 
au-ay, was re-hoistcd, and kept flying the greater part of Ihc 
action. 

*' From the time stated that the Prince George began to engage 
the enemy upon the larboard tack, until the San Josef struck her 
colours (say about five or ten minutes past four), after falling on 
board the San Nicholas, the fire of the Prince George was without 
intermission, except a small space of time, edging under your lee 
when dividing from the San Josef, her then antagonist, not being 
able to pass to windward of your ship, and the San Nicholas, 
then on board each other, viz. your larboard, bow upon her lee 
quarter, the San Josef mizen-mast being gone, and main-top-mast 
head below the rigging shot away, fell on board the San Nicholas 
to windward, the Prince George in the mean time edging to 
leeward of you and the San Nicholas, and advancing sufficiently 
ahead of the Captain to fire clear of her, re-commenced her fire 
both upon the San Nicholas and San Josef, from receiving shot 
from the San Nicholas upon passing ahead of the Captain, then 
on board of her ; this continued pretty heavy eight or ten minutes, 
until the San Josef struck her colours; then, upon ceasing to fire, 
we were hailed from the Captain, saying both ships had struck. 
The Prince George endeavoured to proceed on ahead, leaving the 
San Josef, as also the other, to be taken possession of by you, 
assisted by such succeeding ships as the commander-in-chief, who 
had arrived up, might direct. 

" The first ship that came within my observation, except the 
five ships alluded to, was the Excellent, whose captain neither 
requires your testimony or mine in proof of his bravery and good 
conduct ; he closed with the San Isidro at twelve minutes past 
three, and she soon struck : he had all his sails set, passing on 
ahead ; the Namur some time after came up, fired at SO:DC ship in 
the rear, and passed on ahaud also; and about this time the Orion, 
in my rear, lowered her boat down to take possession of a three- 
decker (the Salvador), which she had been some time opposed to, 
after the Prince George had passed her ; this was, I think, about 
the time the Prince George was edging under your lee, and the 
commander-in.chief arriving up. 



304 CORRESPONDENCE. 

" Of this action, my dear Sir, I felt conscious at the time, and 
feel so nowj that every exertion was used on my part as a flag 
officer, and by the captain and officers, and company of the 
Prince George, in which I was embarked, to take and destroy the 
enemy, and believe me, neither they or myself expected to meet an 
account so different to the real statement of that action, as is ob- 
served in your letter. I am well aware that people in action know 
but little of occurrences in their rear, yet when a letter is written 
to be exposed to public view, positive assertions should be made 
with great circumspection. 

" I observed nothing but gallantry and good conduct in every 
ship that came under my observation, from first to last, and think 
myself equally entitled to an acknowledgment of a proportion of 
the success of that day, with any man present at it. 

<c I feel much concern at the occasion of this letter, but 
remain, &c. 

W. PARKER." 

" To Admiral Nelson." 

Rear-admiral Nelson's answer, written with his left hand :< 

"DEAR SIR, "August 19. 

" I must acknowledge the receipt of your fetter of the 25th 
July; and after declaring, that I know nothing of the Prince 
George till she was hailed from the forecastle of the San Nicholas, 
it is impossible I can enter into the subject of your letter, &c. 

" HORATIO NELSON." 



Narrative of the Proceedings of his Majcftifs Fleet under the 
command of Admiral Sir JOHN JERVIS, K,B. and Commander- 
in-chief, Sfc. the 14th of February, 1797. 

Ct In the night of the 13,th we heard the signal guns of the 
enemy, and at day-light the signal to prepare for battle. The 
morning being pretty hazy, vrc did not get sight of them by our 
frigates until seven o'clock, and then only partially ; at thirty- 
eight minutes past nine, the signal for general chase ; at half-past 
ten a frigate made known, per signal, twenty-five sail of the line 
were in sight, and soon after, eight sail more ; at a quarter past 
eleven the signal for the order of battle, without regard to the or- 
der prescribed, the enemy now being open to our view, and in 
disordered line upon the larboard tack, the King's fleet upon the 
starboard; at forty-two mjnutes past eleven, the signal to cut 



CORRESPONDENCE. 305 

through the enemy's line, I being the only flag officer in the van ; 
this was effected by the Culloden, Blenheim, myself in the Prince 
George, Orion, and Colossus, the Culloden passed through, 
leaving some ships of the enemy between the Prince George and 
herself, the other four of us -were close after each other, which 
occasioned the enemy's ships left in their rear, though the two 
headmost were three-deckers, to tack, and soon after they wore 
about, and made a good deal of sail. At forty-eight minutes past 
eleven, the signal to engage, which continued during our passing; 
through a number of the enemy's ships upon the contrary tack, in 
no regular order, close on board of some, and others more distant ; 
and until eighteen minutes past twelve, when we tacked, per sig- 
nal, in which time the Colossus lost her fore and fore-top-sail 
yards, ar.d the enemy u good deal disabled ; and at twenty minutes 
past one o'clock, the signal to cut back through the enemy's line 
and engage them to leeward : when we tacked, the two three- 
deckers tacked after us, and which the rest of the enemy's rear 
were about to do; but the commander-in-chief, with the ships of 
centre and rear, following close, covered us from their attack upou 
the rear of the ships with me, and obliged them to re-tack, 
engaging that part of the enemy's fleet, and effectually divided it; 
Commodore Nelson ? in the Captain, being in the rear of our line 
upon the starboard tack, tacked, ar.d joined the ships with me in. 
the van. The enemy's van, now consisting of considerably the 
larger number of their fleet, in great disorder, we got up with, 
and began to engage upon the larboard tack ; at half-past on 
o'clock do e on board of them ; at forty-three minutes past one, 
the signal, per my order, for the ships ahead to fill and stand on, 
and which I found necessary again to repeat at three o'clock 
the commander-iu-chief arriving up in the rear of the Orion, my 
second astern, at a quarter past repeated it also. This part of the 
action was supported until this time by the Culloden, Captain, 
Blenheim, Prince George, and Orion, during which time the enemy 
never formed ; therefore, though we sometimes had the fire of two 
or three ships together, yet, from their disordered state, our fire 
had great effect upon them, for it could not be lost, even if it 
had not the full effect upon the ship we happened to be most par- 
ticularly opposed to ; they were generally huddled together in a 
very irregular manner, and I have no doubt but they did each 
other a great deal of injury. By this time five of them became 
very muck disabled, and at twenty-three minutes past three, toe 

n, &OI.XXI. a R 



30(5 CORRESPONDENCE* 

Excellent, Captain Collingwood, coming up closer with one of 
them most to windward, and she struck her colours ; and at half- 
past the Victory up astern of the Orion, when one of the three- 
declo.Ts which we had engaged, and left in a rear very much 
disabled, struck her colours, I believe, to the Victory ; soon after, 
from the disabled state of the Captain, fore-top-mast gone, she 
fell on board one of Ihe ships she had been opposed to ; but whe- 
ther froui the exact intention of Commodore Nelson, I am to 
learn, however, he boarded her and made her strike; and a three- 
decker, bearing a rear-admiral's flag, struck to the fire of the 
Prince George, and, from her disabled state, fell on board the 
same Spanish ship Commodore Nelson was on board of, upon the 
quarter on the other side. The Namur by this time came up to 
windward and passed between the Prince George, Cullodcn, and 
the St. Trinidad, of 130 guns, Don Cordeva, the commander, 
in-chief, which ship was very much beaten at that time, and in ap- 
parently a sinking state. But the support very opportunely given 
to her by the tsvo three-deckers in the early part alluded to, just 
arriving up, saved her from the necessity of striking, though it 
has been asserted she did strike. The four ships that we iu the 
Tan had left in our rear that had struck, were taken possession of 
by our succeeding ships : at sun-set the signal to wear and come 
to the wind upon the other tack, and soon after to form in order 
of battle, in close order to cover the prizes. Too much cannot be 
said of the bravery displayed in the conduct of the ships with me, 
and I certainly feel it incumbent on me to say, that the Captain, 
Culloden, and Blenheim, but more particularly the two former, 
bore more of the brant of the action than the Prince George and 
Orion, from their being more in the van. The eommandcr-in- 
chief certainly displayed great naval abilities in conducting this 
attack, and management throughout, and I do not believe the 
King has a more competent officer. I am in the full belief that 
more acts of gallantry and good conduct were displayed than 
possibly could come within my observation. 

" W. PARKER." 

<c MEW. The Prince George expended 197 barrels of powder; 
lost ten men killed and nine badly wounded, slightly wounded 
innumerable." 

BRITISH NAVY. Number of their guns, 1,244. 
SJ-ANISH NAVY. Number of tbeir guns, 2 5 4Q8, 



CORBESPONDE.XOE. 307 

MR. EDITOR, 

U have given The Answer thai teas returned by the 
Admiralty Board, to tlit rejected Petitions of the Captains 
in the Royal ftavy, soliciting -in incrcu -e of Pay j and also The 
Reply of the Captains to the Secretary of the Admiralty, on that 
subject;* but, as you have not inserted the Original Memorials 
of the Captain?, alluded to in those papers, and as many of your 
readers may wish to see them preserved, I do myself the pleasure 
of transmitting them to you, for that purpose. 

ONE OF THE POOR MAJORITY OF POST CAPTAINS. 

To the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, $c. 

<c We, the undersigned Captains and Commanders of his Ma- 
jesty's Nary, finding our p-'.y utterly inadequate, however econo- 
mically used, to support the r.ink we have the honour to hold, take 
the liberty of submitting to the consideration of your Lordships the 
djfficulties under which we labour, and of praying such relief as may 
enable us to meet the various expences to which, whilst engaged in 
the arduous service of our country, we are subjected by our abso- 
lute duty, and by what may be considered nearly as imperiou's, the 
necessity of keeping a suitable table. 

u The deduction of the Income Tax, the extravagant price of 
every article, and, among other matters of less moment, even the 
postage of letters ; the increased value and enlarged consumption 
of stationary, the rise of servants' wages, &c. all combine to render 
it impossible for us to support that respectability of appearauce 
(without which, it is obvious, the service cannot be carried on) 
otherwise than by a contiaual and heavy expenditure of the private 
fortunes of the few who have any ; or by a ruinous accumulation 
of debts upon the majority of us, who have nothing more than our 
pay. It may indeed be remarked, ' that our entrance into the ser- 
vice was voluntary, and that most of these difficulties arc such as 
might have been expected..' This argument could have been ad- 
duced in times of less importance than the present ; and we beg 
leave to observe, that the augmented price of provisions, and every 
other article of life, naturally Cijlls for a corresponding increase of 
salaries in general : in addition to which, in our particular case, 
we have suffered a most material diminution of our accustomed 
emoluments, by the late deductions from our share of prize-money ; 
the only source, however precarious and uncertain, from whence 

* Vide page 1 97 of the present Volume, 



308 CORRESPONDENCE. 

we had heretofore hoped for relief, from (he difficulties we experi- 
ence. For this eventual loss, although most important to us 
and beneficial to others, we receive no compensation ; neither 
would we ask any, were we not compelled by imperious necessity, 
to lay this our petition before your Lordships, in the confident 
hope that, through the interposition of your Lordships, his Ma- 
jesty's paternal care of all his subjects may be graciously extended 
to us, and afford that relief which we solicit. 

" Signed by authority of, &c." 

A general negative was given to the prayer of the above, in 
consequence of which the following was transmitted : 

To the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiral fy, Sfc. 

* c We, the undersigned Captains and Commanders of his Ma. 
jesty's Navy, emboldened by the distressing insufficiency of our 
pay, venture, with all possible respect, to lay a statement of our 
case before your Lordships, and most humbly, but most earnestly, 
solicit the consideration which it merits. 

il Long custom has made it imperative upon the captain to keep 
a constant table, while serving afloat, as a social intercourse with 
his officers, and as the best means of knowing them. He who 
would venture to break through this good custom, however urged 
by strong necessity, would not only sacrifice a great portion of the 
respectability of his situation, but that happy connective influence, 
which generates regard, cements the various links in the service, 
and not a little tends to regularity and discipline. 

** Submitting this most humbly to your Lordships, shall we not 
be pardoned, if we ask, how, in the present hard times, and with 
all the accumulated expence of live stock at sea, and unavoidable 
waste of every other article beyond, what it would be on shore, 
with all practicable economy, can this be done, without involving 
the whole of a captain's pay ibr his table alone, and without forcing 
him, for the rest of his expenditure, to borrow ? 

u Among the many increased expences, we might enumerate the 
rise of servants' wages ; and trifling as the articles of postage and, 
stationary once were, they have now swelled to a heavy charge. 
Stationary has greatly increased in price, while the consumption 
has been much enlarged; and it is seldom that a captain, on his 
arrival from sea, has not an enormous postage to pay for letters 
that do not individually concern him, and which arc written by the 
wives and parents of sailors to solicit tidings of their husbands, ojf 



CORRESPONDENCE. 309 

sons, who have been negligent in their correspondence, and from 
whose negligence the letters are thus frequently addressed to the 
captain. 

" We might, perhaps, rest our claim upon the well known fact, 
tli at very few years ago, there is scarcely an article of life which 
might not have been obtained for about half the sum that must now 
be its purchase ; this, without any other corroborative circum- 
stance, reduces the value of our pay from what it once was to 
a moiety. 

" But we trust your Lordships will suffer us to observe, pressing 
as this circumstance is upon means that were before sufficiently 
slender, when the Income Tax ten per cent, came, it fell upon a 
great majority among us, who have not private fortunes, with aforce 
that was almost destructive, and the effects of which could alone 
be palliated for a period, by incurring debts, and living upon hope. 

" There was a time when this hope was not without founda- 
tion : an occasional prize did, in former days, not unfrequently 
reward the toils of a few fortunate individuals ; and although we 
rejoice at the cause, although we rejoice that naval gallantry, skill, 
and energy, have swept the seas of the foes of Britain, and given 
security to these realms, yet, even this event, so happy for our 
country, is to us, who were the instruments of that happiness, an 
additional cause of pecuniary distress. 

li And without presuming to canvass what has been so lately 
done, we may perhaps be suffered to add, thateven when a maritime 
prize is taken, (as fortuitous an event now, as a prize in the lottery) 
the captain finds a heavy defalcation from the share which was for- 
merly considered his due, not only for the long and persevering- 
service that brought him to the rank he holds, not only as a 
necessary means to assist in the support of that rank, but because, 
in the case of the detension, loss, and non-condemnation of a vessel, 
he alone is the responsible individual, while the other ranks of the 
navy pat take of his success, but are exonerated from his mis- 
fortunes. 

" \Ve also most humbly entreat, that your Lordships will take 
into consideration the pecuniary insignificance and embarrassment 
to which we are banished when our services are no longer re- 
quired ; and that an augmentation may be made to our half-pay, 
proportioned to the period we have served, the rank we respec- 
tively bear, and the value of what it was with comparative price of 
all the articles of life at the time it was first established. 

" Should a supposition be possible, after the innumerable proofs 



310 CORRESPONDENCE. 

of the contrary, that in rendering our retirement more respectable 
and comfortable than the present half-pay will admit, it might 
damp that ardour for active service which is essential to the wel- 
fare of the state, we beg permission to observe, that we can trace 
but a very few instances indeed, (if any) in which a captain or 
commander has been less solicitous for professional employment, 
after the acquisition of fortune, than he was before. It has, we 
believe, rather proved, that competence has been an additional 
siimulous to bo active in the pursuit of honours ; and age or infir- 
mity have alone, in general, checked that perseverance, which is 
the characteristic of the British Navy, and which the love of our 
happy country will never fail to support. 

a Urged, therefore, by distress, and emboldened by the melan- 
choly prospect of what mast eventually be the consequence of debt 
to a large majority of naval Captains, who have little or nothing 
beyond their pay, we humbly entreat that your Lordfchips will be- 
come our mediators w ith his Majesty, to remove the depressions 
tinder which we struggle when retired on half-pay ; and that he 
will be graciously pleased to enable those, while in the active ser- 
vice of their country, by an addition to their full pay, to support 
the honourable rank they bear; whose pride it is, and whose 
pride it ever will be, to give glory to the British Hag, or die in the 
defence of it." 



LETTEK, XII, 

MR. EDITOR, 

ALTHOUGH at the time when the city address on the Cintra 
convention met the very memorable repulse, no remonstrance 
from the petitioners was carried up to the throne, yet some very 
strong and proper resolutions were entered upon the city journals ; 
and I think it equally proper, that some observations should 
appear in your CHRONICLE respecting the late sharp refusal of the 
petition of the captains in the royal navy. Enclosed with this, I 
send you a letter addressed to the First Lord of the Admiralty, 
the insertion of which will oblige your Correspondent, 

E. G. F. 

tc MY LORI), 

" I conclude that although I have no reason in the world to 
believe that your Lordship has any predilection for naval men, or 
talents for naval offices, they being so foreign to your habits and 
education, yet I will conclude, that as yon have been taken from 



CORRESPONDENCE. 3J J 

yoor own profession, to be put at the head of another, you may 
condescend sometimes to look into the NAVAL CHRONICLE ; in, 
this expectation, I have thought it the most proper vehicle in which 
to convey to your Lordship some remarks on a late very important 
transaction. I know well my Lord what little notice is taken by 
a great man of a letter which comes to his hands by the usual 
channel of the post, if the contents arc not adulatory or pleasin^ 
but in this open mode of conveyance your Lordship will be certain 
that my epistle will be read also by many thousands of your 
fellow subjects, who will pass their judgment on its merit and 
importance. 

It is necessary that I should state why I address my letter to 
your Lordship, instead of the Board at which you preside. My 
reasons are, that in the public opinion you reign at that Board 
with far more absolute sway than any of your predecessors, and I 
was confirmed in this opinion, by the manner in which the Hon. 
Secretary to the Admiralty spoke of your fellow commissioners in 
a late debate of the House of Commons (if rightly detailed in the 
newspapers) ; he there calls the naval Lords Commissioners your 
Lordships naval advisers ! This does appear my Lord something 
like a Lord High Admiral and a Council, instead of a commission 
to several persons to execute an office. 

That your Lordship may not mistake the debate alluded to, I 
will describe it as that on which one of your land advisers, and 
I believe a relative of your Lordship, gave such a notable scold to 
the truly worthy and respectable Baronet who would check all 
public abuses if he could. Another reason of my addressing this 
solely to your Lordship, is the utter impossibility of believing that 
your naval advisers could have joined in opinion with you respect- 
ing the answer to the late petition of captains and commanders for 
an increase of pay, which answer occasions the present letter. 
I thought, my Lord, that the manner and language of the array 
had been so correctly disciplined, that such a reply would hardly 
have been made to the petition of a dram boy, a reply which- the 
gentlemanlike manners of each individual of your Board would 
Lave precluded the possibility of his writing, and which confirms a 
sentiment I have seen somewhere expressed in ti-is work, that a 
Board in its collective capacity will say and do, what the charac- 
ters of the members as gentlemen would have utterly prevented 
their saying or doing separately. But I beg pardon ; I forgot 
that I have been taught by experience, and the Hon. Secretary, to 
consider your, Lordship as possessed of full power, with naval ad- 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

to apply to if you think proper, although in the present 
instance I am led to believe that you hare not applied for their 
advice. Your reply then, my Lord, like tha*. lately given to the citi- 
zens of London, appears to deny to the British subject the right of 
petitioning, for if the prayer of the petition alluded to, be indeed 
inadmistiblC) can we expect that any petition will be deemed 
admissible^ unless it was to pray for your Lordship's continuance 
in office; the return of the late commander-in-chief to power, or 
thanks to Sir II. Burrard for not fighting. Your reply, my Lord, 
has driven a most respectable and highly esteemed officer from 
employ; and in shewing how inimical you are to the officers of the 
navy, I do not think you will have the applause of your country 
at large, ever willing to do justice to its prime defenders. Your 
Lordship's strong military partialities, will hardly allow you to 
deny that this is a true character. It is true, my Lord, that had it 
been in my way to have offered advice respecting the petition, there 
are two points which I should have proposed to omit; the mention 
of the property tax, and the late regulation of prize-money. 
With respect to the former, these are times of imminent danger, 
and necessary deprivation, and it is much to be regretted that 
princes and nobles do not feel their share of these deprivations, but 
allow them to crush the middle rank of life with unequal and 
almost unbearable pressure. My Lord, had the officers of the 
nary, or any class of men with life incomes only, petitioned that 
the tax should be justly apportioned, and be indeed a property tax, 
that what is worth ten or twelve years purchase, should not pay as 
much as that which is worth thirty years, it would be right, but the 
mention of the tax did not come in well on the present occasion. 
With respect to prize-money, I hold it to be totally irrelevant, 
and to be considered merely as a gracious gift of the crown, and a 
reward for arduous service, but has nothing to do with the pay, 
which should be equal to the maintenance of all ranks of officers in. 
a respectable competency. There are- many, very many officers, the 
nature of whose employs precludes the chance of prize-money, and 
a large number of most excellent officers also who have gone through 
the service without the good fortune of meeting a golden opportunity. 
Now, my Lord, as you deem the prayer of the petition inadmissible, 
and have thus placed yourself in the gap between the naval officers 
and justice, for had the petition found its way to the throne there 
is no doubt of having received it, I will just point out to your 
Lordship, who of course knows nothing of naval matters, when 
that pay was established which you tell us has been so elL-ctually 



enlarged lately. In 1700, the pay of naval captains was fixed 
from 11. to 8s. per diem, and it is now from I/. 3s. to 12s. pet- 
diem. The half pay in the same time has been, I believe, only in- 
creased from 10?. and 6s. to 12*. and 7s. per diem, the other emo- 
luments, which form part of a captain's income, remaining the sama 
very nearly. Now I leave your Lordship and our fellow subjects 
to judge, whether this increase in 109 years is at all adequate 
to the increased demand. If you know the circumstance, I am 
aware that you will reply, that now the officers have their wine and 
spirits free of duty when serving tttoat ; but you will also recollect, 
that when the pay was fixed in 1700 there was little or no duty to 
pay, and duty excluded, perhaps the price of these arucles t'lL-n, 
were not more than a quarter of the present. In the petition, 
which you deem inadmissible, stationary and postage are men- 
tioned, and amidst the official abundance of the former, and never 
experiencing the latter, your Lordship may not be aware of the 
great and increased expcnce of these articles to the petitioners. 
Since 1700, the business of a captain's clerk's office, and the con. 
sumption of stationary, has been quadrupled at least, and every 
new law which has been made for the benefit of the navy in 
general, has borne hard upon the captains in that particular. 
With regard to postage, not only the increase of the number of 
men in our larg. ships, and the high rate of postage itself, but some 
new regulations I understand bear peculiarly hard upon the 
officers (and particularly of course on the captains) of the navy, as 
their duty frequently requires their sailing at a moment's warning, 
and their letters sent after them to the port they are bound to, have 
an additional charge ; not unlikely, their stay at this port may bo 
too short to admit of the letters' arrival in time, but follow them 
to another, at a still increased expence. This is a case of peculiar 
hardship, if truly stated, as I believe it to be from information. 
Your franking privilege, my Lord, exempts you from a feeling 
knowledge of this burden; and let me request you to consider 
whether, " under existing circumstances," this said business of 
franking be not a mean perquisite of title, and pray my Lord do 
yourself the honour of proposing its abolition; it would be a 
liberal act, and you will thank me for my advice, which a. proper 
degree of pride would induce you to follow. I will not delay 
your Lordship any longer than just to remark, that although I 
have only mentioned captains, the pay of all classes of officers re- 
quires attentive consideration, and if 1 hear of no steps on your 

Jof> XXI. 



314 COREESPONPENCfi. 

part towards this act of justice, I shall advise a respectful petition! 
to the House of Commons for their interference, on the equitable 
ground that your Lordship has prevented a petition from reaching 
the throne. One word more of well meant advice. The refusal 
to hear or to answer petitions^ or perhaps the deeming them inad- 
missiblC) gave rise to the great mutiny and the election of delegates. 
At present, because you have to deal with men of liberal and 
generous minds, genuine- loyalty, and firm patriotism do not try 
the experiment how much contempt and neglect they can bear, 
because they know how to bear like good subjects, and men 
of honour. Wishing your Lordship speedy and high renown at 
the head of a division of the army, I remain, &c. 



MR. EDITOR, 

OM the general scarcity, and complaint of the high price of 
oak timber, every substitute that can be proposed for that 
valuable article merits attention. I therefore beg leave to submit 
to the public, through the medium of your valuable CHRONICLE, 
the following observations upon fir-built ships. The writer (M. 
Ducrest, of Copenhagen) does not specify whether the red or 
white fir be preferable ; but, from the superior elasticity, hardness, 
and durability of the former, it is presumed that there need be no 
hesitation in the choice. I am, &c. 

C. D. 

te I built, at Copenhagen, in 1799, a vessel of 500 tons, entirely 
of fir-planks, one inch and a half thick. For three years suc- 
cessively it has navigated the North Seas, which are reckoned the 
most boisterous in Europe ; and it weathered a tremendous gale 
in the Baltic in November, 1801, when a great number of mer- 
chant ships perished. On entering the port of Havre, the follow- 
ing year, it struck on the pier, and no one on board expected to 
be saved. However, the ship righted and entered the harbour, 
without having staved a single plank or sprung a nail. 

" The expence of building this vessel was just half what it 
would have cost, had it been built of oak. The hull does not 
weigh above half of that of a common merchantman, which, when 
of 400 tons burthen, is said to weigh 200 tons. Thus by diminish, 
ing the weight we should have, with the same cargo, vessels which, 
when well constructed, ought to sail as fast as the best frigates. 
An objection having been made that vessels thus built could not 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAH, 1809. 315 

last long, as the intermediate planks, by wanting air. would heat 
and soon rot, I had one of the ports opened, and found that th 
inside planks were much sounder than the others. 

" Building with fir-planks is incomparably more solid than build- 
ing with squared timber ; and by being as cheap again, we might 
employ our immense furests in the Pyrennees and the V r osges to 
great advantage. The danger arising from springing leaks is 
entirely avoided: and by the lightness of the timber, our armed 
vessels might be made to sail as fast as our present frigates. In 
short the use of oak timber might be entirely confined to the navy, 
consequently we should have it much cheaper; and the economy 
in the construction of merchantmen is a very material object, as 
they might not require any repairs for twelve or fifteen years. 
Though line-of battle ship, could not be built of fir, yet the navy 
might use it for vessels armed en flute, and for hospital ships a> 
tachcd to a squadron." 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

(March April. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

TTT will be seen, in our succeeding " Letters on Service," that four 
sail of the Brest fleet were totally destroyed, in Basque Roads, on the 
12th of April (the anniversary of Rodney's brilliant victory in the West 
Indies) by the frigates, fire-ships, and bomb vessels of Admiral Gam- 
bier's fleet, under the immediate command of Captain Lord Cochrane. 
Sir Harry Neale, the captain of the fleet, reached town with this interest- 
ing and important intelligence on the 2-lst ; and, for two succeeding 
evenings, the Admiralty, Horse Guards, Treasury, Somerset House, 
&c. were brilliantly illuminated. 

Official advices had previously been received of the complete surren- 
der of the Island of Martinique to his Majesty's arms. Several single 
actions, of distinguished gallantry, have also recently occurred ; amongst 
which ought to be particularly noticed the capture of le Niemen, French 
frigate, of 44 guns, by the Amethyst, Captain Seymour, who, but a few 
months ago, after a very brilliant and hard-fought action, succeeded 
in taking the Thetis, another French frigate, of superior force to the 
Amethyst.* 

We much doubt, whether all the vaunted land victories of Buonaparte 
are found to compensate his feelings for the mortification which they 

* A portrait, and memoir of the professional services of Captain Sey- 
mour, appear in the present Volume ; vide page 89. 



318' NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1809. 

uniformly sustain in every movement attempted by llie shattered remains 
of liis naval force. " Ships, colonies, and commerce," was his anxiouf 
cry ; for " ships, colonies, and commerce," he seemed willing, and de- 
termined, to make almost every sacrifice ; how deeply then must he be 
chagrined, at perceiving their constant diminution ; on finding them gra? 
dually recede from his view, till, at the last, he may expect them all to 
vanish into empty air ! 

Hostilities are understood to haveT)een commenced by Austria against 
France ; the former power having sent forward a formidable force 
towards the Bavarian frontier. 

The United States of America, in a spirit of inveterate hostility towards 
this country, have passed the Non-Intercourse Act, as a substitute for 
the Embargo, which has been removed. All commercial intercourse 
with England and France, on the part of America, is thus precluded; 
but, as the United States have thought proper to consider Holland as a 
neutral and independent State, it is evident that they expect, through 
that really vassal country, to give France every commercial advantage 
vhich she might be able to derive from a direct trade. Now is the time 
to prove the value and efficacy of the British Orders in Council ! 

The 1st of May has been appointed for the trial of Rear-admiral Har- 
vey, by court martial, on a charge of breach of discipline. It is said, 
that upon Lord Cochrane's joining the fleet, Admiral Gambier gave or- 
ders, that a boat, boat's crew, and an officer, should instantly be pro- 
vided by every ship under his command ; the whole of the men being 
required to volunteer. Upon receiving these orders, Admiral Harvey 
addressed his ship's company, and, after stating the nature of them, de- 
clared, that he himself in his own person volt/Steered, and invited as 
many as chose to follow his example ; in consequence of which the 
greater part of his officers and men enrolled themselves along with him. 
A list of these being conveyed to the Caledonia, Lord Gambier's flag- 
ship, his Lordship is reported to have stated, that these were not 
generally the kind of volunteers he wanted ; as Lord Cochranc was to 
command the expedition, of which appointment he (Lord Gambier) had 
himself some reason to complain, inasmuch as it seemed to indicate that 
there was no officer in his fleet fit to take charge of the service ; but 
that Admiralty Orders to this effect had been received, which of courso 
he must obey. Hereupon Admiral Harvey is stated to have expressed 
the greatest dissatisfaction, and to have bestowed upon Lord Gambier 
himself, epithets descriptive of other qualities than those which he has 
evinced in his profession, such as Jesuit, Mdhodisl, and Psalm-singer ; 
and all this in the presence of Captain Bedford, of the Caledonia, who 
desired to know if it were meant, that this reply should be conveyed to 
the Commander-in-chief : to which the other answering, in the heat of 
passion, in the affirmative, the communication accordingly took place, 
and the letter for a court marlial was the result. 

An expedition is reported to have been sent to Archangel, to destroy 
ipverul mca of war which are building in the dockyards at that place. 



HA.VAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 317 



on 

Copied verbatim from the Loxuox GAZETTE. 

ADMIRALTY-OFFICE, MARCH 28, 1809. 

Copy of a Letter from the Hon. P.far-adairalSir Alexander Cochrane, K.B, 
Commander-in-chief of his Majesty's Ships and Vessels at the Leeward 
Islands, to the Hon. W. W. Po/'c, dated on board the Neptune, offMurti* 
niqve, the 4th of February, 18o9. 

SIR, 

Having on the 20th January received a letter from Lieutenant-genera"! 
Beckwith, informing me that in consequence of some alteration of cir- 
cumstances he was induced to proceed on tfie attack of Martinique, and 
expressing a wish to see me at Barbadoes, in order to make the final ar- 
rangements, T lost no time in meeting him there for that purpose; and 
having embarked all the troops, I committed the principal landing of the 
army intended to be put on shore at Bay Robert, to Captain Beaver, of 
his Majesty's ship Acasta, who had Lieutenant-general "Beckwith, the com- 
mander of the forces, with him ; Major-general Sir George Prevost, com- 
manding the division, being embarked on board the Penelope, By the en- 
closed letter from Captain Beaver, their Lordships will see that he com- 
pleted this service, with his usual ability, on the 30th of January, and 
morning of the 31st, whilst the other division, under Major-general Mait- 
land, was landed on the 30th at Saint Luce, under the snperintendance of 
Cptain Fahie, of the Belleisle, who had formed the most judicious arrange- 
ments for the purpose. 

About six hundred men \vere detached on board his Majesty's ship York, 
under the command of Major Henderson, of the Royal York Rangers, to 
take possession of the battery at Point Solomon, in order to secure a safe 
anchorage for the men of war and transports : after effecting this the Ran- 
gers pushed on, and invested the fort of Pigeon Island, on which a mortar 
was brought to bear so early as the 1st instant, bat not finding the fire of 
that sufficient, nine others, including howitzers, were landed, five of which 
were got up to the top of a commanding height, by the very great exertions 
of Captain Cockburn, of thePompee, and the seamen under his orders, who 
ably gave support to Brigadier generals Sir Charles Shipley and Stchelin, in 
completing the batteries, which opened last night, at six o'clock, with sucli 
effect, as to oblige the enemy to capitulate this morning; and one hundred 
and thirty-six persons that wcrp in the fort, surrendered themselves prison- 
ers of war. Our loss consisted of two seamen killed, and one soldier of the 
ttoyal York Rangers wounded. The enemy's of five killed and several 
wounded. 

In order to cut off tha retreat of the enemy, I previously sent the jEolus 
and Cleopatra frigates, and the Recruit sloop of war, to the upper part of 
Fort Royal Bay; when this was perceived, the enemy set lire to, and 
destroyed the Am phi trite frigate, of forty-four guns, and all the shipping in 
the harbour ; having, on our first landing, burnt the Carnation at Marin, 
also a corvette at St. Pierrcs on the following night. 

The nrmv under Lieutenant-general Beckwith having advanced towards 
the heights'of Surirey, fell in with the enemy on the 1st instant, who was 
defeated with considerable loss ; since then two actions have taken place, 
which has given to his Majesty's forces possession of the before-mentioned 
Heights, commanding Fort Bourbon. The enemy upon this abandoned the 



318 NAVAL HUTOUY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

lower fort, or Fort de France, having destroyed the guns, and from the 
different explosions 1 suppose they have blown up the magazines. 

Major-general Maitland reached Sainantin on the 2d without opposition, 
and has since formed a junction with the lieutenant-general. I am now 
moving the squadron to the Fort Royal side of the Bay, so as to embrace 
the double view of an early communication with the head quarters of the 
army, and affording the supplies necessary for the siege of Fort Bourbon on 
both sides. 

From the zeal which has manifested itself in eacli service, I make no 
doubt but the batteries will soon be in a fit state to open upon the enemy, 
and I hope before lang, that I shall have the satisfaction to communicate to 
their Lordships that the fort has surrendered. 

The militia, who were forced to serve, have returned to their homes. 
I have tlie honour to be, &c. 

ALEX. COCHRANE. 

Copy of another Letter from the Hon. Pear-admiral Sir Alexander Cochrnne, 
K.B. 4~c. to the l/o??. W. W. Pole, dated on board the Neptune, off Mar- 
tinique, the 5th February, 1809. 

SIR, 

Having left Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, about noon on the 28th January, 
with the expedition for the attack of this island, I had the pleasure, on the 
evening of the same day, to meet with his Majesty's ship Cleopatra, and the 
French frigate la Topaze in company; when Captain Pechell gave me the 
letter, of which the enclosed is a copy, stating the manner of her capture ; 
and on my arrival off here, the Hazard joined with Captain Maude of the 
Jason's report, which I also enclose. 

Captain Pechell, in the Cleopatra, from his advanced position, closed the 
enemy first, and bore the brunt of the action. He placed his ship in a 
situation to attack with advantage, and in such a manner as did credit to 
his intrepidity and judgment, and evinced also the high state of discipline 
and steadiness of his officers and crew. 

Captain Maude, of the Jason, lost not a moment in getting into action, 
and I had every thing to expect from his zeal and gallantry, which I have 
witnessed for a series of years. 

Particular credit is also due to Captain Cameron, of his Majesty's sloop 
Hazard, for boldly chasing, with a determination to bring to action, an ene- 
my's frigate of the largest class, before any of the other ships were in 
sight. 1 have the honour to be, &c. 

ALEX. COCHRANE. 

His Majesty's ship Cleopatra, off Basseterre, Guadaloupe, 
SIR, January 23, 1809. 

In consequence of separating from his Majesty's ship Jason, and there 
being no probability of communication either with Captain Maude, or Cap- 
tain Pigot, of the Latona, and senior officer of the blockading squadron, I 
beg to inform you, that yesterday, in obedience to the signals made to me 
by Captain Maude, I chased a ship in the N.N.W. which I shortly after- 
wards made ou< to be a French frigate, who, on seeing us, hauled close in 
shore, and anchored under a small battery a little to the southward of 
Point Noir, having ascertained that they were securing her (by springs on 
her cables, and others fast to the trees on shore) as well as her situation 
would permit, I made every preparation for attacking her, the wind being 
at this time from the southward and westward, but very light and variable ; 
at half-past two P.M. we ot the true breeze, aisd turned up to windward 
till within a cable's length of the shore, utul half musket-shot distant from 



NATAL HISTORY OP THE PRESENT YEAK, 1809. 

the enemy, which was effected at five o'clock, when his firing commenced. 
I saw from the shape of the land and the shoal water hetween us, that I 
could not close without danger of being raked, I was therefore obliged to 
anchor in six fathoms and a half, and returned his fire, which fortunately 
cut away his outside spring, when he swung in shore with his head towards 
us, giving us the advantage I refused him before ; this T so effectually pre- 
served, that he never afterwards got more than half his broadside to hear ; 
we thus engaged for forty minutes, when the Jason and Hazard came up, 
the former having taken a position on her starboard quarter, and firing her 
bow guns, the Hazard at the same time directing hers to the fort, the 
enemy hauled down his colours, finding he was not able to sustain so une- 
qual a combat. 

She proves to be the French national frigate Topaze, carrying forty-eight 
guns, eighteen, twenty-four, and thirty-six pounders, commanded by 
Mons. Lahalle, capitaine rie frigate, with a complement of three hundred 
and thirty men ; she has been from Brest forty-seven days, and had on 
board one hundred troops and eleven hundred barrels of flour for Cayenne, 
but meeting with superior force off that port, she was obliged to push for 
Guadaloupe. 

Our loss is comparatively small with that of the enemy, having only two 
killed and one wounded, as his guns were chiefly pointed at our masts and 
rigging, which he succeeded in cutting very much, most of our fore and 
main rigging shot away, and had we been under sail must have lost our 
main-top-mast; on the other side twelve killed and fourteen wounded, as 
near as can be ascertained, for the instant her colours were hauled down, 
one-third at least took to the water, and several were either killed or drowned 
in attempting to effect their escape. 

Having thus, Sir, given you the detail, it becomes a pleasing duty to me 
to represent the zeal with which Captain Cameron, of the Hazard, offered 
Ins services before the action, and had the wind allowed him to get up 
sooner, would have attacked the fort, and thereby prevented many of the 
troops getting on shore. 

I am happy, also, in having an opportunity of bearing testimony to the 
gallantry displayed by the officers and crew of his Majesty's ship under my 
command ; and beg leave to" recommend my first lieutenant Simpson to 
their Lordship's notice ; also Lieutenants Puckingham and Lambert as good 
officers, and erery way deserving their Lordship's favour. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

SAM. JOHN PECHELL. 
"Rear-admiral Sir A. Cochrane, Bart. $c. 

*4 Return of Killed and Wounded on board his Majesty's Ship Cleopatra, 
in Action with the French National Frigate la Topaze, ^d January, 1809. 
Alexander M'Cloud and John Simms, killed. 
John Francis, wounded. 

SAM. JOHN PECHELL. 

His Majesty's Ship Jason, off" Basseterre, Guadaloupe, 
SIB, January 23, 1809. 

I beg leave to acquaint you, that while cruising off Basseterre, in pursu- 
ance of your orders, to blockade the French frigate at that anchorage, on 
the morning of the 22d the Cleopatra made the signal for a suspicious sail 
bearing north, which I immediately directed her to reconnoitre, and soon 
after marie sail in the Jason in that direction; she was in a short time dis- 
covered to be an enemy's frigate, standing in for the land, where she effected 
ber purpose of anchoring close under a small battery. As I perceived by 



320 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809,4 

the Cleopatra's motions, it was Captain PecheU's intention to bring her to 
action as early as possible, I considered it unnecessary to make any signals 
to him; and he most fully anticipated my wishes, by bringing his ship to 
anchor on the frigate's starboard bow, and opened a heavy (ire, which was- 
warmly returned and kept up by the enemy, till the Jason came to on his 
quarter, and commenced her fire from the bow guns, soon after which she 
struck her colours. After "silencing the battery she was taken possession 
of, and proved to be the national frigate in Topaze, of forty-eight guns 
(long eignteens and thirty-two pounder carronades) and four hundred men, 
many of whom, with some troops site had 611 board, had escaped on shore 
from Rochefort, loaci-l \viih flour for the supply of the French colonies, 
commanded by Monsieur Laualie, capitaine de frcgatc, and officer of the 
Legion of Honour. 

Captain Pechell speaks in high terms of commendation of the conduct of 
his officers and ship's company ; and 1 have also every reason to be satisfied 
with that of those of my own ship, and only regret a fuller opportunity for 
their exertions was not afforded them. 

Injustice to Captain Cameron, of the Hazard, I conceive it my duty to 
inform you that (notwithstanding the disparity of force, and the uncertainty 
of falling in immediately with any of our cruiser's) the enemy's ship was 
chased by him from day-light, and that nothing but the baffling winds 
prevented his coming into action, and taking the station assigned him. 

Being anxious to regain my station off Basseterre to prevent the escape 
of the other frigate, which I had in the afternoon despatched the Cherub to 
watch, I left the prize in charge of the Cleopatra and Hazard ; and the ser- 
vice on which I have since been employed not having permitted me to com- 
municate with them, I am ignorant of the number killed and wounded on 
board the French ship. The Cleopatra, I am sorry to say, had two badly 
wounded (since dead) ; this ship not a man hurt. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

\VM. MAUDE. 

To Hugh Pigot, Esq. Captain of his Majesty's Ship 
Lutona, and senior Officer off Guadaloupe. 

His Majesty'' s Ship Acasta, Bay Robert, 
SIR, iils< Jtmitary, 1809. 

I have the honour to inform you, that, at day-dawn of yesterday, the di- 
vision of transports carrying the army under the command of Lieutenant- 
general Beckwith, were four leagues to windward of the Carvel Rock. 

I immediately bore up with it for Bay Robert, being joined in my way 
thither by the Ethalion, Forrester, Ring-Dove, Haughty, and Eclair, the 
Eurydice having joined me the preceding evening. 

The weather was uncommonly windy and squally, and there was a very 
considerable swell as f;ir out as Loup Garou, neither of the small frigates 
(the Cleopatra or Circe) had joined, to go in with the transports, and, not 
knowing what opposition might be marie to a landing, J determined to enter 
the Cul de Sac with all the men of war, that I might effectually protect the 
landing, if occasion required, which I could not possibly have done had I 
anchored as far out as Loup Garon. 

Having therefore placed boats with fings, at a graplin under the edges of 
the shoals, I led in with the Acasta, followed by the Penelope aud trans- 
ports, and anchored the whole of them about noon. 

This decision, I trust, Sir, you will approve, as it enabled me to land ths 
first and second brigades, amounting to four thousand five hundred men, 
with a certain proportion of artillery and horses, before sunset, which I could, 
not otherwise have done, aud this morning by seven o'clock all the reserve 
were landed, 



NAVAL HISTOUY OP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 321 

To Captains Cochrane of the Ethalion, and Bradshaw of the Eurydice, 
I am indebted for arranging the boats for the first landing, and more par- 
ticularly to Captain Dick, of the Penelope, for superintending that arrange- 
ment, and leading in the transports, which he did with great judgment. 

From Captain Withers, the principal agent lor transports, I received all 
that assistance iu the various arrangements which I had to make, which 
could be expectf-d from an officer of great zeal and clear comprehension ; 
and Lieutenant Senhouse, whom you did me the honour to appoint as my 
adjutant for this expedition, rendered me very essential service in carrying 
on the detailed duties of the squadron. I have the honour to be, ccc. 

P. BEAVER. 

To the Hon. Sir Alex. Cockrant, K.B. Rear- 
admiral of the Red, Commander'in-chief,$c. 

Extract of a Letter from Captain Browne, of his Majesty's Sloop the Plover, 
to Admiral Younf!, Commander-in-chief at Plymouth, and transmitted by 
the latter to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated at Sea, the 22rf instant. 

I beg to report to you, that his Majesty's sloop under my command, this 
day at 10 P.M. captured, after a pursuit of thirty-six hours, the French 
ketch privateer, 1'Amiral Martin, of Bayonne, mounting four eightceu- 
pounder guns, with a complement of one hundred and" four men. 

Extract of a Letter from Captain APKinleif, of his Majesty's Ship the 
Lively, to the Han. W. W. Pole, dated Villa Garcia, March 'l5, 1809. 

I beg lea\e to state to you, for the information of my Lords Commission- 
ers of the Admiralty, that since my last letter of the 6th instant (which I 
had the honour of transmitting by the Statira), en the 7th instant, a bod/ 
of French troops entered the towns of Carril and Villagarcia, and having 
killed some old men and women whom they saw in the streets, and set fire 
to a few houses of the people whom they judge inimical to them, they re- 
treated to Paden. 

On the 9th a party of eighty infantry and four cavalry, under the com- 
mand of three officers from Pontivedra, entered Marin, but a fire being 
opened on them from this ship and the Plover, and the carronade from the 
launch, they made a most precipitate retreat; the commanding officer on a 
good horse, and the four cavalry benefiting by their being mounted, left 
their companions, who outrunning their officer?, a captain and lieutenanl 
fell into the hands of the Spaniards, who delivered them to me. 

It is with the most heartfelt satisfaction that I can witli confidence assure 
their Lordships that the spirit of the Gallicians is u reused to the most enthusi- 
astic ardour, governed by a cool and determined courage, wh;ch the feelings 
of loyalty and patriotism naturally inspire, and they confidently look for aid 
to the generosity of the British government speedily to succour them with 
arms and ammunition to enable them to succeed in the glorious and just 
cause which they have undertaken, to expel the perfidious invaders of their 
country. 

Thc'enemy is much distressed by a malignant fever; not less than two 
cart loads are buried daily from the head quarters at St. lago ; the military 
overnor and commanding officer of artillery, with a number of other 
officers, have fallen victims to it. 

Skirmishes daily take place between the peasants and the enemy, which 
render their procuring provisions both difficult and harassing, and many 
fall victims to fatigue. In this perpetual warfare, the enemy invariably 
sufter, particularly un tii '*2d instant, when one hundred and five Frenchmen 
were pillaging the'convent of St. Bernardo de San Claudio, where Don Ber- 

. fcol. XXI. T x 



UAVA-t HISTORY OF ThE PttESE.VT YEAR, 1809. 

nardo Goncales, with thirty-two Spaniards, attacked them, toyk many; 
horses laden with pillage, and only sixteen of the enemy escaped. On the 
9th, 10th, and llth instant, the French attacked the peasants of Deza and 
Trasdeza, sustained by those of Banos ai:d Tabeiros, and were obliged 
to retreat with the loss of one hundred and fourteen men and an officer. 

The appearance of his Majesty's ship has very much gratified the 
Spaniards, who are incessant in their praise and gratitude to the British 
government. 

On my coming to this place on the llth instant, I left the Plover at 
Marin, the French being at Pontevedra, but have received information to- 
day, that a division of the Spanish army, under the command of the Mar- 
quis de Valladares, was attacked on the llth by Marshal Soult, who has 
since retired to Tuy, and ordered all his detachments in the vicinity of Vigo 
to join him by forced marches; I would not therefore detain her longer. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

GEO. M'KINLEY. 

APRIL 1, 1809. 

Copy of a Letter from Vice-admiral Rozclcy, Commander-in-chief of his 
Majesty's Ships and Vessels at Jamaica, to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated 
on board his Majesty's Ship Polyphemus, Port Royal, the 24th January^ 
1809. 
SIR, 

I have the honour to enclose, for their Lordship's information, a copy of 
a letter which I have received from Captain Dashwood, of his Majesty's 
ship Franchise, giving an account of the capture of -the French letter of 
marque brig 1'Iphigenie, bound from Bayonne to Guadaloupe, with naval 
Stores and provisions* I have the honour to be, &c. 

B. S. ROWLEY* 

SIR, His Majesty's Ship Franchise, at Sea, 16th January, 1809. 

I beg to acquaint you, that I have this day captured the French letter of 
marque 1'Ephigenie, pierced for eighteen guns, but had only six mounted, 
and twenty-six men, from Bayonne to Guadaloupe, laden with naval stores 
and various merchandize. She is coppered, and sails remarkably fast, 
haviitg been pursued several times during her passage, and led the Franchise 
a chase of thirty hours in her favourite point of sailing, during which time 
she threw her guns overboard, and cut away her anchors, in order to effect 
herescape. She was built at Bayonne, and launched about two months 
ago, for the express purpose of a privateer in the West Indies, and, in my 
numble opinion, is calculated for his Majesty's service. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
Vice-admiral -Rotvley, <$-c. C. DASHWOOD, Captain. 

Copy of a Letter from Vice-admiral Bertie, Commander-in-chief of his 
Majesty's Ships and Vessels at the Cape of Good 'Hope, to the Hon. W. 
W. Pole, dated on board the Caledon, in Table Bay, the 19th January, 
1809. 

SIR, ^ 

I have the honour to transmit herewith, for the information of their 
Lordships, a copy of a letter from Captain Corbett, of his Majesty's ship 
Nereide, informing me of the capture of the French Imperial corvette la 
6obe Mouehe. I have the honour to be ; &c. 

A. BERTIE. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 32 J 

SIR > Nereide, off the Isle of France, December 18, 1808. 

The chase of this morning, which I captured at eleven A.M. proves la 
Gobe Mouche Imperial corvette, pierced for twelve guns, but most thrown 
overboard^ during the chase, commanded by Enseigne de Vaissean Sugor, 
from the Seychelles, bound to Port Louis with despatches, which he threw 
overboard, but were saved" by the activity of our boat's crew, at least a 
considerable part of them, which I send herewith. Her complement was 
eighty men, but from manning prizes off Mozambique last cruise, ar$ 
reduced to thirty at this time. J am, Sir, &c. 

Vice admiral Ber lie, $c. R. CORBETT. 



THE LONDON GAZETTE EXTRAORDINARY, 

ADMIRALTY-OFFICE, APRIL 12, 1809. 

Captain Joseph Spear, of his Majesty's sloop the Wolverine, arrived at 
this office this morning with despatches from Rear-admiral the Hon. Sir 
Alexander Cochrane, K.B. commander-in-chief of his Majesty's ships and 
vessels at the Leeward Islands, addressed to the Hon. William WellesJey 
Pole, of which the following are copies : 

Neptune, Fart-Royal Bay, Martinique, 
SIR, February 25, 1809. 

By my letter of the 18th, a duplicate of which accompanies this, together 
with one of the 4th, the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty will hava 
been informed, that it was intended to open a lire on the enemy from four 
batteries on the succeeding day, ii> addition to his own guns turned upon 
him from Fort Edward, winch was accordingly done at half-past four in the 
afternoon, the time appointed. 

The enemy at first returned the fire with spirit, but it gradually slackened 
until the following morning, and then entirely ceased, except at long interr 
vals, which made it evident he was beaten from his guns. 

While the batteries were kept constantly iiriug on the enemy from the 
western side, Captains Barton and Neshain, of the York and Intrepid, with 
about four hundred seamen and marines, continued to be employed in 
getting the heavy cannon, mortars, and howitzers up to Mount Surirey from 
the eastern side of the fort, which was a service of the utmost labour and 
ditiiculty, owing to the rains and deepness of the roads ; but notwithstand- 
ing which, a battery of four twenty-four pounders and four mortars was 
finished by the '2'ld, and the guns mounted ready for service. 

On the following day several more guns were got up, and ready to be 
placed in an advanced battery, intended to consist of eight twenty-four- 
pounders; a similar battery was preparing to the westward, and the whole 
would have been in a state to open on the enemy by the 26th, had not a flag 
of truce been sent from the Fort on the ^3d, with proposals for a surrender, 
pn the principle of being sent to France on parole ; but Lieutenant-general 
Beckwith, the conjina.nder of the forces, and myself, not judging it proper 
to accede to snch terms, the batteries, which had before opened their fire, 
recommenced the attack at half-past eight o'clock in the evening, and con- 
tinued it without intermission during the night. 

TheTtext morning, a little past six o'clock, one of the magazines in the 
fort blow up with a great explosion, and soon afterwards three flags of truce 
were hoisted by the enemy, and hostilities ceased on our part. 

A letter was then received from the Captain -general Viil 
Requesting that commissioners might be appointed on both sides to 



324 XAVAI. HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1809. 

the terms of capitulation, which was agreed to, and Lieutenant-general Sir 
George Prevost and Major-general Maitland were named by the commander 
of the forces, ami Commodore Cockburn by me. These officers were met 
by the general of artillery, Villaret (the Captain-general's brother), and 
Colonels Montfort and Boyer, in a tent erected for the purpose between 
the advanced piquets on each side, when the terms were settled and ratified 
fiefore midnight ; a copy of which I have the honour to enclose. 

This morning a detachment of troops took possession of the Bouille Re- 
doubt, and the ravelines and gateway of Fort Bourbon on the hind side ; 
and the garrison (a return of which, as well as the rest of the prisorfers 
taken since the commencement of the siege, is enclosed) will be embarked 
in the course of eight days in transports, and his Majesty's ships Belleisle 
nnd Ulysses will proceed with them as a guard to Europe. 

I now beg leave to congratulate their Lordships on the happy termination 
of a siege, which was, by the "uncommon exertions of the army and navy, 
brought to a close within twenty-eight days from the sailing of the expe- 
dition from Barbadoes, 

The fire kept up by the batteries was irresistible, the enemy was driven 
from his defences, his cannon dismounted, and the wh<;lc of the interior of 
the work ploughed up by the shot and shells, within five days after the bat- 
teries opened. 

Never did more unanimity prevail between the two services than on the 
present occasion. One sentiment, one wish pervaded the whole; and 
they looked with confidence to a speedy and glorious termination of their 
toils. 

I had on this service the happiness to act with I ieutenant-general Beck- 
with, an officer I have long been in the habits of intimacy with, from whose 
2eal I had every thing to expect, and which the recent events have so fully 
realized. He did me the honour to consult me on various occasions, and his 
communications and co-operations were friendly and cordial, which, on all 
conjunct expeditions, is the surest pledge of succes* 

1 have already informed their Lordships, chat I ei, usted the whole of 
the naval arrangements on shore to Commodore Cockbu. a. His exertions 
have been unremitting, .and his merit beyond my praise He speaks in 
terms of high approbation of the able support and assistance he received 
from Captains Barton, Nesham, and Brenton, whom I had selected to act 
with him. To all these officers, and the lieutenants and other officers^petty 
officers, seamen and marines immediately under their commands, I feel truly 
obliged, for performing the arduous duties imposed upon them. The seven- 
gun battery at Folville was entirely fought by seamen, from which the enemy 
suffered severely. 

I have also the fullest reason to he thankful to the other officers and men 
of the squadron employed on the blockade and reduction of the island, for 
their general activity and emulation. 

I subjoin a list of the several returns and papers which I have been able 
to collect, and send herewith. 

For any other information I beg to refer their Lordships to Captain Spear, 
of the Wolverine, an old and deserving commander, whom I have entrusted 
With this despatch. I have the honour to bo, &c. 

ALEX. COC1IRANE. 

ENCLOSURES.* 

Terms of Capitulation. & 

Return of the French Garrison. 

* The Articles of Capitulation, &c. are inserted at the end of Sir A. Coch* 
fane's General Memorandum. 



NAVAL HI6TOHY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 325 

Return of the Batteries erected. 

Return of killed and wounded in the squadron. 

Return of the squadron. 

General Memorandum issued to the squadron. 

The return of ordnance, ordnance stores, commissary stores, &c. has not 
yet been completed. 

Colonies French Empire Army of Martinique. 

Head-Quarters, Fort Desaix, February Q5, 1809. 

STAFF. 

List of Men capable of being embarked. 
Staff 1 superior officer, 6 officers. 

26th Reg. 2 superior officers, 30 officers, 450 subalterns and soldiers. 
82d Reg. 2 superior officers, 50 officers, 1100 subalterns and soldiers. 
Artillery 2 superior officers, 7 officers, 171 subalterns and soldiers. 
Artificers 2 officers, 57 subalterns and soldiers. 
Horse Chasseurs 2 officers, 42 subalterns and soldiers. 
Engineers 1 superior officer, 2 officers. 
Colonial Gendarmerie 7 subalterns and soldiers. 
Seamen 1 superior officer, 23 officers, 242 seamen. 
Administration 5 superior officers, 19 officers. 

Total 14 superior officers, 141 officers, 1827 subalterns and soldiers, 
242 seamen. 

BOYER, Chef d'Etat Major-Geueral. 

Jlclurn of the Batteries erected and intended to be erected against Tort 
Bourbon, in the Inland of Martinique, 

Batteries corr^ 'eted. 

1. Tartenson 4 thirteen-inch mortars, 4 howitzers. 

2. Folville 4 ten-inch, 3 eight-inch, 4 five and half-inch mortars, 
2 howitzer mortars, 7 twenty-four-pounder guns. 

3. L'Arche 1 thirteen-inch mortar, 1 howitzer mortar. 

4. Clrilcctt Ridge 2 ten-inch mortars, 2 howitzer mortars, 4 twenty- 
/our-pounder guns. 

5. Fort Louis 4 thirtccn-inch mortars, 4 twenty- four-pounder guns. 
Total 9 thirteen-inch, 6 ten-inch, 3 eight-inch, 4 live and half-inch 

mortars, 5 howitzer mortars, 4 howitzers, 15 twenty-four-pouiider 
guns. 

Batteries not completed. 

Courville 8 twenty-four-pounder guns. 
Bexons 8 tvventy-tour-pounder guns. 

Bexons Advance 1 ten-inch, 2 tight-inch mortars, 1 twenty-four- 
pounder gun. 

Fauche 2 eight-inch, 2 five and half-inch mortars. 
Morne Vannier 3 thirteen-inch mortars. 

Total 3 thirteen-inch, 1 ten-inch, 4 eight-inch, 2 five and hall-inch 
mortars, 17 twenty-four-pounder guns. 

ALEX. COCIIRANE. 
* 

Return of Officers and Seamen lulled and rcounded whilst seroing on short 
under the Orders of Commodore Cockburn, at the Reduction of Martinique. 
Neptune None killed ; 2 badly, 1 slightly wounded. 



326 JiAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

Pompce 3 killed ; 3 badly, 3 slightly wounded. 
Belleisle None killed; 1 badly, 3 slightly wounded. 
Araaranthe 3 killed ; 4 badly, 2 slightly wounded. 
Total 6 killed ; 10 badly, 9 slightly wounded. 

G. COCKBURN, Commodore. 
Names of Officers wounded. 

Amaranthe Mr. Thomas Wickland, boatswain ; Mr. Thompson, gunner, 
slightly. 

Pompe'e Mr. James Scott, master's mate, slightly; Mr. Thomas Mills, 
midshipman, slightly ; Mr. John Edevearn, gunner, badly. 

Names of Men killed. 

Pompee Robert Rundle, carpenter's crew ; Moses Butler, able ; Patrick 
Mackey, landman. 

Amaranthe John Kerr, coxswain ; William Roberts, boy. 

G. COCKBURN, Commodore, 
Martinique, FebruanySd, 1809. 



List of the Squadron employed in the Reduction of Martinique? 

, Ships of the Line. 
Neptune, Pompee, Beljeisle, York, Captain, and Intrepid. 

Frig&tet, 

Acasta, Penelope, Ethalion, TEolus, Circe, Ulysses, and Eurydice. 

Sloops, 4-c. 

Goree, Wolverine, Cherub, Stork, Amaranthe, Haughty, Express* 
Swinger, Forrester, Recruit, Star, Eclair, and Frolic. 

ALEX. COCIIRANE. 



Neptune, Firf-Rm/al Bay, Martinique, 
February %6, io09. 

GENERAL MEMORANDUM. 

I have great satisfaction in announcing to the squadron the surrender of 
the Fort Bourbon, which event was finally concluded, and the terms of ca- 
pitulation ratified, on Friday ni^ht ; and yesterday the British troops 
marched in, and took possesssion of the principal defences of that fortress; 
by which the sovereignty of this important island, has been secured to Great 
Britain. 

When I reflect on the labour and difficulcies the commodore, the several 
captains and officers, petty officers, senmen and marines, have encountered, 
and on the short time in which this service has been accomplished, I am 
impressed with the highest sense of their perseverance and courage ; 
and I shall not fail to report the same to my Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty. 

I have also viewed with admiration the bravery and discipline of the 
army; but British troops, led on by such oitirer$ as we have had the hap. 
piness of serving with in the reduction of this island, are invincible^, and it 
is with no little pride I have witnessed the cordiality hich lias so uninter- 
ruptedly subsisted between the land and sea forces, which, on all combined 
expeditions^ is the surest means of leading to success. 

I request that Commodore Cockburn and the several captains will do me 
the honour to accept my warmest thanks for then- exertions, also the othct 



*AVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809.. 327 

officers and petty officers, seamen, and marines; and that the captains will 
communicate the s,ame to the latter in a suitable manner. 

ALEX. COCHRANE. 
To the Commodore, the respective Captains, 
Commanders, $c. 



ARTICLES of CAPITULATION between Lieutenant General George 
Beckwith, Commander of hi< Britannic Mujeni^s Lund Forces, mid Rear- 
admiral the Honourable Sir Alexander Cocfirane, K B. Commundtr-in- 
chief of his Britannic JlAyes//s Squadron, upon a. joint Expedition against 
the French Colony of Martinique, on the one Part, and General Vitlaret, 
Captain-general in the Service of France, on the other Part. 

Fort Desaix shall be given up to the troops of his Britannic Majesty on 
the following conditions. 

Art. 1 . The garrison of Fort Desaix shall march out in order to be em- 
barked and conveyed to one of the ports of France, between Bourdeaux 
and L'Orient, on the days and at the hours which shall be agreed upon, with 
all the honours of war, viz. drums beating, colours flying, and matches 
lighted, having in their front four field-pieces, with their artillery men. 
The officers, civil and military, of the marine, and every one belonging to 
this department, shall be also conveyed to the same port. 

Answer. The Garrison shall march out with all the honours of war de- 
manded, but must ground their arms beyond the Glacis. Officers shall keep 
their swords, fn answer to the rest of this article, it is agreed that the forces 
of France shall be embarked in proper vessels as prisoners of war : thac 
they shall proceed to Quiberon Bay, under guard of some English ships of 
war. There an exchange shall take place between the two nations, rank 
for rank ; but from the high respect and esteem with whiqh his Excellency 
the Captain-general Vi'laret Joyeuse is held by all, it is admitted, that 
himself and Ins Aides-de-camp shall be sent to France free from any 
restriction. 

Art. II. The Captain-general, the Colonial Prefect, the general officers, 
and those of the staff, of the artillery and engineers, the officers, non-com- 
manding officers and soldiers of the land service, the officers, troops, and 
crews of the navy, the chief of the civil staff, the commissaries, and others 
employed in the administration of the marine and colonies, shall carry awav 
their arms, their personal effects and every thing belonging to them : they 
shall besides have leave to dispose of their private property of every kind', 
and full security assured to the purchasers. 

Answer. Granted, excepting in what it differs from the answer to the 
preceding article. 

Art. Jit. The garrison shall be embarked at the expence of his Britannic 
Majesty by battalions and companies; each person belonging to the military, 
or officer or other person employed in the civil staff shall receive, during the 
passage, the ration allowed to each rank according to the French laws and, 
regulations. 

Answer. Granted, but to be victualled according to the English ration. 

Art. IV. The necessary number of carriages and boats for transporting 
and embarking the personal effects, papers, and other property of the cap- 
tains general, of the colonial prefect, of the general officers, commissaries, 
and chiefs of corps, of the officers of the administration of the iuncl und sea 
service, and particularly the papers of the council of administration of corps, 
of the paymaster of the colony, and of other persons in c:v;i and iniiitRry 
employments. These papers shall not be subject to any search or inspec- 
tion, under the guarantee, that they contain nothing foreign, to the pubuc 
duties of these agents, 



328 NAVAL HISTORY OP THE PRESBN Y T YEAR, 1809. 

Answer. Granted, it being understood that this is hot to protect 
public papers or property. 

Art. V. The sick and wounded, as well those in the hospitals al 
the period of the attack of the Colony, as those who have since en- 
tered them, shall be attended at the expence of his Britannic Majesty until 
their cure, and shall share the fale of the garrison. Those who are 
able, shall be immediately embarked along vvith it. The sick and wounded 
remaining, shall he confided to the honour of the English commander. A 
sufficient number of French officers of health, and an oiticer of the 
Civil Staff shall remain to take care of them. 

Answer. Granted. 

Art. VI. The garrison of Pigeon Island, as well as all others, officers and 
agents of the military Civil Staff, who are at this moment out ot 
fort Desaix, shall share the fat of the garrison, and shall be sent back to 
France in the same manner. 

Answer. It is not objected that the garrison of Pigeon Island shall be 
treated in the same manner as the rest of the garrison. 

Art. VII. The fortifications of fort Desaix shall not be demolished until 
after a treaty of Peace to be concluded between tbt two powers. 

Answer. The British government alone can reply to this article. 

Art. VIIT. There shall be prepared a report of the state of the fort, of its 
establishments and magazines, which shall be formally compared and 
signed by the Commissioners charged with the execution of the 'present 
capitulation. 

Answer. Granted. 

Art. IX. As soon as the present capitulation shall be concluded, 
the Redoubt of Bouille shall be occupied, partly by English and partly by 
French troops. Their number shall be regulated by the Commissioners. 
The French garrison shall continue to occupy fort Desaix until its embark- 
ation, having its communication with the town free. The period and the 
mode of evacuating it shall be regulated by the Commissioners. The sick 
and wounded actually within fort Desaix shall be removed to the 
Hospital de France, and the means of transport shall be provided for this 
purpose. The garrison, until the moment of embarking, shall be subsisted 
from their own magazines, and by the French Agents. 

Answer. Granted ; but it is required that possession should be given 
also of the Sally Port of the North Front, and of the Demi Lune 3 as soon as 
the articles are ratified by the respective commanders in chief. 

Art. X. The officers and all others employed in the military or 
civil service who are married, may take on board with them their wives and 
children. Those who have property or business in Martinique shall 
be permitted to remain tkcre six months. The English commanders 
will give them every protection for this purpose during their stay in 
the Colony. They shall afterwards share the fate of the garrison, and be 
conducted to France at the expence of his Britannic Majesty. 

Answer. Granted, and those officers who remain for a time shall 
be assisted with passages as convenient. 

Art. XI. The officers of health, and all others who have been attached 
for the moment, and by order, to the service of the French army, shall 
be permitted to return to their homes without being molested- 

Answer. Granted. 

Art. XII. The colonists and inhabitants v.ho wish to follow the fate 
of the garrison, and to go to France with their property, shall be permitted 
to do so: All the individuals, of whatever nation they may be, who 
are inhabitants of the isle of Martinique, shall not be troubled, molested, or 



NAVAL H1STOHY OF THE PKESENT YEAR, 1S09. 329 

questioned on account of tkeir political opinion. Those who may have 
been arrested under this pretext shall be immediately set at liberty. " 

Answer Granted. 

Art. XIII. The persons and property of all the inhabitants of the island 
of Martinique shall be respected. The laws which are there actually 
in force shall be maintained until a peace between the two nations. The 
organization of the tribunals shall remain as it actually stands. The 
exercise of the Catholic religion shall be preserved in its present state. Its 
ministers shall be protected and respected. The national property appro- 
priated for their maintenance shall be strictly applied to that purpose. 

Answer Granted; subject to such alterations as his Britannic Majesty 
may judge necessary. 

Art. XIV. In consideration of the state of distress to which the Colony 
is reduced, the inhabitants shall remain exempt from all taxes for twj 
years. 

Answer Xot granted ; but every consideration will be had for the state 
of the Colony. 

Art. XV 7 . The General in Chief of the French army shall be permitted to 
send immediately an olh'ccr to his Majesty the Emperor and Kins, with the 
account of the present capitulation. A vessel shall be provided bv the 
English Admiral to convey this officer to Bourdeaux, Kochefutt, or 
1'Orient. 

Answer. Granted. 

Art. XVI. If any doubt should arise as to the meaning of any article, it 
shall be interpreted in the most favourable manner for the Erench 
garrison. 

Answer. Granted. 

Art. XVII. Hostages of the rank of Field officers, shall be delivered on 
the part of the English army anil tleet, and on the part of the French army, 
for the reciprocal guarantee of the present capitulation. The officer of the 
English army shall be restored when the articles relative to the garrison have 
been executed, and the officer of the licet after the debarkation of the 
troops in Trance, the same shall take place on the part of the French 
garrison. 

Answer. Xo hostages arc necessary. 

Art. XVIII. His excellency Admiral Cochrane shall be invited to rccieve 
on board the line-of- battle ships and frigates of his excellency, the Captain 
General, the Colonial Prelect, and the other officers of the French 
army. 

Answer. Granted, and a ship of war will be provided for the Captain 
General and his suite. 

Art. XIX. The embarkation* of the French troops shall take place 
at soonest in eight, Mid at furthest in fifteen days, according as his 
excellency Admiral Cochrane can prepare the transports. 

Answer. Granted. 

Art. XX. The articles of the present capitulation shall be ratified as soon 
as possible, and not later than this evening at ten o'clock. 

Answer. The present capitulation is signed by the commissioners 
appointed by Lieutenant-general George Be: xuith, connpftadcr of the 
forces of hi? Britannic Majesty, and by Rear-admiral Sir Alexander 
Cochrane, K.S. commander in chief of his Uriun/nc Majesty's squadron, on 
the one part, tiiat is to buy, Lieutenant-general .Sir Gcjr-ic Prevost, Bart. 
Major-general Maitland, and Comraodoie Coekuirn, ;uut of i.ic commis- 
sioners appointed by General Villarer, Captain-general in the service 
of France, on the other part, that is to say, the General of brigade Viilartt 

/2sB. C&ron, (Bel. XXI. u u 



330 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE rilESEXT YKAR, 1809. 

\ Joyeusc, Colonel Mont fort of tlic 82d Regiment, and Lieutenant- colonel 
Buyer, chief of the staff. 

Done at the advance posts ibis 2 1th day of February, 1309. 

fJF.O. 1'RF.VOST, Lieutenant-general. 
FRED. MAITLAND, Major-general. 
G. COCKBl RN\ Comrooiore. 
YILLARhT JOYEUSE, Gen. Brigade. 
MONTH )RT, Col. V>'><\ resjimtn*. 
BOYEK, Chief of the Suit. 

(Ratified) 

CEO. BECKWITII. 
A. COCIIRANE. 
YD .LA R ET, Captain-general. 

Colonies French Empire Army of Martinique. 

Ih-iifl-Qnartcrs, Fort Dcsakr, Fab. 25, 1G09 , 
GENKRA.L STAFF. 

List of Men capable of being embarked. 

Gcneraf Staff 1 general ofllcer, 6 officers. 
2dth regiment. 2 superior officers, 30 officers,. 450 petty officers or 

soldiers. 
02d regiment. 2 superior officers, 50 officers, 1 100- petty oiliccrs or 

soldiers. 

Artillery. 5 officers, 171' petty officers or soldiers. 
Artificers. '2 officers, 57 petty officers or soldiers. 
Horse Chasseurs. 2 officers, 42 petty oiliccrs or soldiers-. 
Engineers' Department. J superior officer, 2 officers. 
Artillery Department. 1 general officer, 1 superior officer, 2 officers 
Colonial Gendarmerie. 7 petty officers or soldiers. 
Marines. 1 superior oflicer, 23 officers, 212 marines. 
Civil Staff. 5 superior officers, 19 officers. 

Total. 2 general officers, 12 superior officers, 111 officers, 182-7 petty 
officers or soldiers, 212 marines. 

The chief of the genera4 staff. 

BOYER. 



Return of Ordnance and Stores found in Fort Dt'Stiijc and its Dependencies, 
.Martinique, Feb. 26, 1U09. 

Brass guns. 9 serviceable, I unserviceable, 24-pounder (Field-piece* 
complete) 10; 3 serviceable, 1 unserviceable, 16-pnuiulers 4; 2 ser- 
viceable 12-pounders (carriages all good) ; 3 serviceable, 1 unserviceable, 
S-pounders (carriages all good except one) t; G serviceable 4-pounders, 
(four large .chambers). 

Brass Mortars. 5 serviceable 12 inch, (1 smallj; 1 unserviceable fi 
inch. 

Brass howitzers. 1 unserviceable 8 inch ; 5 serviceable 6 inch. 

Iron Guns. 17 serviceable, 2 unserviceable,. 24-pounders 19; 14 
serviceable iy-pounders; 14 serviceable, 3 unserviceable, 12 pounders 
17.; 19 serviceable, 2 unserviceable, C-poiuiders 21; 8 serviceable 
12 inch iron mortars; 4 serviceable 36-pounder iron carronades; 900 
serviceable bright muskets, quite new; 500,000 serviceable musket ball 
cartridges; 1670 barrels of serviceable powder, single of lOOlb. each; CO 
fesirrels of seviceable powdtr, double of 200lb. each. 



NAVAL 1HSTORY Off THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 331 

Carriages. 23 serviceable,^ 15 unserviceable, 24-pounders "S- 11 
serviceable, 10 unserviceable, 8-pounders 21; 5 serviceable, ] unser- 
viceable, l(5-pounders 6; 13 serviceable 5 unserviceable, 12-pounders 
18 j 15 serviceable, 12 unserviceable, 8-[;ouaders '27; 8 serviceable 
4-poundcrs. 

Mortar Beds. 10 serviceable, 3 unserviceable 12 inch 13; 1 service- 
able, 1 unserviceable 8 inch?. 

Howitzer Carriages. 1 serviceable, 1 unserviceable 8 inch 2; 5 
serviceable, 2 unserviceable 6 inch 7. 

Round Shut. 10,000 serviceable 24-pounders ; 7,500 serviceable 18- 
potinders; 1,600 serviceable 1(3 pounders; 7, 5UO serviceable 12-pounders; 
4,000 .serviceable 8-pOundfrs; (300 serviceable 6-pounders ; 3,500 service- 
able 4-poundere. 

Mortar Shells. 1,500 serviceable 1 2 inch ; 1,700 serviceable 8 inch. 

.Howitzer She!!;. 2000 serviceable {' inch; 000 serviceable 6 inch. 

Case or Grape Shot, 200 serviceable 3<3-pounders ; 600 serviceable 24- 
pounders; 250 serviceable Ib-pouiulers; 120 serviceab'e IG-ponnders ; 
400 serviceable 12-pounders; (500 serviceable B-pounders; 800 serviceable 
1-pomulcrs; JJO serviceable cartridges filled with powder, fur 24 and 
i 8-pounders; (30 serviceable cartridges for mortars; 70 cwt. of w/rviceable 
slow match; 200,(/00 serviceable musket flints; 30 reams of serviceable 
ranium cartridge paper ; 80 reams of serviceable musket cartridge paper; 
-000 rounds or serviceable ammunition for ncld-pieces, in 100 boxes, con- 
taining rounds each; 700 serviceable tubes; 200 serviceable fuzees.; 
'200lbs. of serviceable saltpetre ; 10,000 serviceable empty paper cartridges; 
12 J do/ens of serviceable portfires. 

I'idgeou Island. o serviceable 30 pounder iron puns; 1 serviceable, 
2 unserviceable, 24-pounder iron i;uns 3 ; 2 serviceable 8-pounder iron 
guns; 1 serviceable 12 inch brass-mortar; 2 serviceable 12 inch iron 
mortars. 

Trinite. 4 serviceable 2-1-pounder iron guns; i unserviceable 12 inch 
brass mortur. 

St. Pierre. 14 serviceable, 3 unserviceable, 2J-poundcr iron guns 
17 ; 2 serviceable Vi inch iron-mortars; 1 serviceable 9 and three- 
quarter inch brass-mortar. 

N.B. Carriages bad ; 100 shot for the gans; no powder at any of tlte 
out- posts; 1 sponge, for each. 

Point. Xeero. 2 serviceable 3(3-pounders iron guns; 6 serviceable 2i 
pounder iron guns; I serviceable 1'J inch iron-mortar. 

(ionorau. 2 unserviceable 24-pounders ivon guns. 

Point Catherine. 4 unserviceable i."l-pounders iron gnus. 

Carparanc Redoubt. 3 serviceable' o-poundcrs iron guns. 

Ponicis Itedoiibt. 2 serviceable 12 pounders iron-guns; 2 serviceable 
cight-pouru'ers iron-guns. 

Morne \"irogiee. 2 serviceable 4-pounders brass-guns. 

Coumac. 2 serviceable 8-poundcrs iron gun*. 

N.B. 30 round shot and 20 case for each piece. 

Fort Edward. Guns. 10 serviceable GUr pounder 5; 1-1 serviceable 24- 
pounders; 8 serviceable Kj-poundersj .3 serviceable J2-pounders; 2 ser- 
vt'-cable o-pounders, 

IMortars. 4 serviceable 13 inch. 

Shot. H0,000 serviceable 3o-poundors ; 76,000 serviceable 24 poun- 
ders ; 6,000 serviceable 16-ponndcr.-,; 4^00 iervjcejibfe 12-poUHders5 12O 
serviceable o-pouniicrs; 50 1 serviceable, 57 unserviceable, loose muskets. 
ofil; 414 serviceable muskets, in Cu^e*.; i,loO s-rviceablc nuskat 
fliots. 



332 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1S09. 

.Arsenal. 5 serviceable 4-pound er brass-guns, 2 of them and cnrringes 
are in the canal ; 5 serviceable 5-pnunders brass-swivels; 2 serviceable 8- 
pounders iron-guns; 8 serviceable O-pounders iron-guns; 4 serviceable 4 
-pounders iron guns. 

Sliot. 500 serviceable 24-pou rulers; 495 serviceable 18-pounders; 7O 
serviceable 16-pounders ; 706 serviceable 12-pouudcrs; 550 serviceable 8- 
pounders. 

Shells. 26 serviceable 12-incli ; 498 serviceable 8-poundcrs; 1,000 ser- 
viceable, 250 unserviceable muskets; 6 unserviceable chests of muskets ; 
12 kegs and 1 box serviceable musket flints; 1 24-pounder serviceable 
gun-carriage; 4 4-poundcr serviceable gun-carriages ; 2 serviceable gins 
triangle; !i serviceable limbers; 2 serviceable devil carts; 1 serviceable 
petard ; 17 hogsheads serviceable slow matches. 

EDWARD STKHELIN. 
Brig. Gen. Comm. Hoy. Artil. W. Indies. 



Fort Royal, Martinique, Feb. 27, 1809. 
Return of Engineer's Stores fowul in the Ordnance Arsenal at Fort- 

7J / 

Jtieytu, 

Intrenching tools. 3 serviceable earth rammers. 9 serviceable large 
matts of wood 19 serviceable scaling ladders, joints of 6 feet. 30 
serviceable picks. 40 serviceable pick-axes. 40 serviceable mattocks. 

Lumber. 250 serviceable of 2 inch running feet piank. 34 serviceable 
12 feet long pieces of 4 inch plank. 9 serviceable 24 feet long pieces of 4 
inch plank. 8 serviceable sawed scantling pieces. 20 serviceable timber 
pieces, 

Eight serviceable spars, 6 inches diameter, (50 feet long. 5 serviceable 
pieces of hardwood plank. 950 serviceable staves of \\hitc oak. 22 
serviceable bundles hazel hoops. 

Smith's tools. 13 serviceable and 4 unserviceable spare elevating screws, 
3 ton 10 cwt. serviceable in bars of sorts. 25 serviceable spare axle trees. 
120 serviceable tires for wheels. 8 serviceable large vires. 8 serviceable 
anvils., 8 serviceable forge bellows. 8 serviceable tongs. 6 serviceable 
pincers. 3 serviceable beck irons. 1 serviceable mandril. 3 serviceable 
sledge hammers. 

Gun Carriage Work. 60 serviceable naves for wheels. 57 serviceable 
fellies for wheels. 100 serviceable spokes for wlicels. 3 serviceable 
cheeks for gun-carriages. 14 serviceable, 20 reparable, and 23 unservice- 
able spare wheel*. 

Nine serviceable noingle trees. J serviceable grindstone with trough. 4 
serviceable grindstones without troughs. 

CHALKS SHIPLEY. 

Brig. Gen. commanding the Royal Mug. W.I.I?. 
SAM. LAWRENCE, Connn. of Eng. btores. 

G. B. 

Fort Dcsai.r, February 27, 1S09. 

There appears to be about 200 pick-axes, the like number of shovels arid 
spades, and about 50 wheelbarrows, some filled sand bags, &c. dispersed 
upon the different works. 

CHARLES SHIPLEY, 
Brisr. Gen. and Comm. Roy. Eng. W.I.R. 
SAMUEL LAWRENCE, Corntu. of Eii s . Stores 

G. B. 



XAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 333 

Martinique, February 26th 1809. 

Return of Pro-t-hiotis, Rum, <$-c. in Fort Dcsair, this Day. 
1300 barrels flour; 2500 pounds biscuit; 300 tierces salt beef- 93 
barrels salt pork; 112,600 pounds sugar; 10,000 pounds coffee; W,000 
pints rum; COO pints brandy; 2,00*' pints claret; 2,000 pints vinegar; 
J,COO pounds salt; 500 pounds sweet oil; 150 pounds fish oil; 650 cords 
wood fuel; 1,000 pounds candles. 
N.B. Five oxen, strayed, not included in the above. 

J. H. VAUX, Assist. Com. 

Return nf Sid: and Wounded in Jus Majesties General Hospital at 
Martinico, br.ticeen the 1st and 11th February 1809, inclusive. 

Total. gun-shot wounds 380, fevers 172, fluxes 244, Ulcers 9, casualties 
6, debility 4. Total 815. 



of ft Letter fnnn Captain George M'Kinley, of his Majesty's Ship Lively, 
to tlic Htm. II. IT. Pole, dated on board that Ship, Vieo. the 29M 'of 
March 1809. 

MB, 

As I have thoneht it of importance that my Lords Commissioners of tie 
Admiralty should have the earliest intelligence of the surrender of Vigo, I 
have despatched Mr. T. Furbcr, senior lieutenant of this ship, (in a vessel 
hired for the purpose,) with a copy of my letter on that subject to the lion, 
Vice-Admiral Berkeley. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

GEORGE Al'KINLEY. 

sin, Lively, Vigo, March 29, 1809. 

In consequence of a Jetrcr I received at Yillagarcia from Captain Craw- 
ford, of the Venus, off Vigo, informing me that the loyal peasantry were in 
considerable force around the castle and town of Vigo, and that the pre- 
sence of another frigate would very much contribute to the surrender of 
that fortress, I joined him on tl.e evening of the 23d instant. 

The next morning I went to the head quarters of Don Joao de Almada 
de Sanzo e Silva, who commanded the patriots. At the instant, a summons 
was sent to the Governor of Vigo to surrender at discretion, which led to a 
iiegociation between him and the French, which continued till the 26th, 
when Don Pablo Murillo,' commanding a regular force of 1500 men, com- 
posed of retired soldiers in this province, arrived, and sent in a summons to 
surrender. In consequence of which, on the following day, the proposals 
(No. I.) were brougnt en board by Don Pablo Murillo, accompanied by 
three French officers. The answers to them (No. U.) were delivered at five 
P.M. by Captain Crawford, who concluded the capitulation which I have 
the honour to inclose; and the whole of the garrison, consisting qf a colo- 
nel, forty-five officers, and about thirteen or fourteen hundred men, were 
embarked the next morning. 

I should be wanting in every feeling of an officer, were I not to acknow- 
ledge the liberal attention and zealous services of Captain Crawford. 

It also becomes most gratifying that I am enabled to inform you of the 
spirit and determination of the Spaniards, to expel from their counfy, the 
invaders of all that is dear to a brave and loyal people. No doubt of suc- 
cess could have arisen, had the enemy persisted in holding out, from the 
able and prompt conduct of Don Pablo Mariilo, and the good order of his 



334 NATAI. HisTonv or xnc PILESENT YEAR, 1809. 

troops, the strongest proof of his zeal in tlic just, cause of his king and 
country, and the ardour of the peasantry is beyond all description. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

GEO11GE M'KINLEY. 
The Honourable Vice-Admiral Berkeley, $c. 

P.S. I beg to inclose as correct a statement of the French force as time 
would allow me to procure. GEORGE M'KINLEY. 

No, I, 

TOWN OF VIGO, 

This flay, the 27th of March IfiOO, at eight o'clock in the morning, the 
garrison of the town and forts of \ igo, commanded bv [Monsieur Chalot, 
Chef d'Escadron, Governor of the Town, assembled and represented by its 
body of ofiicers, in pursuance of orders from th Governor, for the purpose 
of entering into an honourable capitulation, according to what is required 
by the circumstances of the general blockade by land and ?ca, by the British, 
Spanish, and Portuguese forces, and of the several summonses which have 
bcc'ii made by these forces for the surrender of the town and torts at discrer 
tion. The following articles, after having been maturely and deliberately 
Considered and discussed, have been unanimously agreed upon: 

I. The garrison shall inarch out of the town and forts with their arms and 
fcaggnge, and with the honours of war. 

II. The officers and men shall be embarked in English vessels, and 
conveyed to the nearest French port, on parole not to bear arms 
against Spain and her allies until exchanged, or until peace shall take place. 

III. The ofiicers, and persons employed in the military, shall keep their 
arms and the whole of their equipages: they shall take with them their con* 
ridential attendants and .servant.-. 

IV. The money belonging to the French government, and destined for 
the payment of the troops of the second corps, shall remain in the hands of 
the principal paymaster, who is accountable for it. The papers relating to 
the accounts ot the regiments shall be preserved. 

V. The troops shall not lay down their arms till the moment of embark- 
ing, and then under the protection of the British; that is to say, that 
each division or section shall successively lay down their arms when re- 
ppectively embarking. 

VI. The inhabitants of the town of Vigo shall be respected. 

V1T. The two hospitals, containing about three hundred sick, shall be 
taken rare of by the inhabitants of the town, under ihe British and Spanish 
protection. 

VIM. The place and the forts 'shall only be delivered up at the moment 
of embarking, to a number of the blockading troops, consisting of three of- 
ficers and fifty subalterns and soldiers. 

IX. The present capitulation will only take effect when ratified on one 
part by Monsieur Chalot the Governor, and on the other by the commandants 
of the blockading land and sea forces, and guaranteed in all its articles by 
tlir British commanding otljcers. 

Done at Vigo, the day, month, and year above mentioned. 
J. CONSCIFA( '];,' Paymaster. 
L'ARMIXGTj Captain 30th, 

LArouu.F. 

tiMOSIN, Captain. 
})i: LA MO'ITE, 1'aymastrr. 
MONTAL \\T, Officer, '- ; d Redmcnt, 7th Legion. 
1H'. \VATKO\VII.LK, Lieutenant '2d. 
T. M. YABLANC, Captain of Engineers. 
H-IIMX, Lieutenant. 
])li CR \UZOT, Oliicer lOth. 
BEHKTTRE, Lieutenant. 
KELM, Lieutenant. 



NATAL HISTOKY OF THE PRE3EKT YEAK, 1809. 325 



George M/Kinley, Ksq. Captain of his firitsunic Majesty's ship Lively, 
and senior officer before Vigo, and Don Pablo Murillo, commandant eu 
xete of the Spanish forces forming the siege of Vigo, having considered tha 
articles of capitulation proposed for the surrender of Vi<_o> hy Moiii. Char- 
lot, chef d'escadron, governor of the city, and by the otucers of the gar- 
rison under his command, have agreed on the' following answers to d,c 
said articles : 

Answer to Art. I. The garrison of Vimi will lie allowed to march (Hit of 
the forts with the honours of war to the ( Jlacis, where they will ground Their 
arms, and surrender themselves prisoners of war, the om'ccr keeping dieir 
avvords and tln-ir \vearin2 apparel. 

Answer to Art. II. Refused. 

Answer to Art. III. Answered in the first article. 

Answer to Art. IV. First part refused; public accounts shall be pre- 
served. 

Answer to Art. V. Answered in tiie first article. 

Answer to Art. VI. The inhabitants of Vigo shall be respected, accord- 
ing to the laws of Spain. 

Answer to Art. VII. The prisoners shall be treated as the laws of hu- 
manity require. 

Answer to Art. VIII. On the French troops laying down their arm*, the 
Spanish troops shall march in and relieve the guards, taking possession of 
the place and forts. 

Answer to Art. IX. One hour -after the receipt of the articles of capi- 
tulation, they shall be ratified, or hostilities will recommence, and no fur- 
ther conference will be permitted. 

The town and forts to be put into the possession of the Spanish troop* 
immediately after the ratification. 

Colonel Chalot must be well satisfied, that die power of the combined 
forces which surround him will make resistance vain, and must himself 
be responsible for the further effusion of blood. 

Given on board the Lively, off Vigo, March 27, 1809. 

GF.OKGE M'KTXLKY. 
PABLO MU1ULLO. 



CAPITULATION of the Town and Forts of J'lgo, occupM ly tfie De- 
pot o/' the Regiment* forming purl of ttic Seci.-ftd Corps vt' the French 
Army of Spain. 

This day, the 27th of March 1809, at sk o'clock in the evening, we, 
Jacques A'ntoine Chalot, chef d'escadron, governor and commandant of the 
French troops in the town and forts of Vigo, on one part, nnd James Coutts 
Crawford, Esq. captain of the British frigate the Veavs, dc-puted by George 
M'Kiuley, Esq. commanding officer before \ i:ro, and Don i'ablo Murillo, 
colonel-commandant of the Spanish troops before the town, on the other, 
Lave concluded the articles of capitulation for the French garrison iu th 
town and forts of Vigo, in the following terms, viz. 

Art. L The garrison shall march out of the towu and forts with their arms 
and baggage, and with the honours of war. 

Answer. The garrison of Vigo will be allowed to march out of tbc forts 
with the hcnours of war, to the Glacis, where they will ground their arui, 
and surrender themselves prisoners of war , the officers keeping their swoidi 
and their wearing apparel. 

Art. II, The officers aad mec shall be embarked iu English Tessels, and 



336 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

conveyed to the nearest French port,' on parole, not to bear arms against., 
Spain and her allies until exchanged, or until peace shall take place. 

Answer. The prisoners shall be conducted to an English port. 

Art. III. The officers and persons employed in the military shall keep 
their arms, and the whole of their equipages: they shall take with them 
their confidential attendants and servant*. 

Answer. Answered in the first Article. 

Art. IV. The money belonging to the Trench government, and destined 
for the payment of the troops of the second corps, shall remain in the hands 
of the principal paymaster, who is accountable fur it. The papers relating 
to the accounts of the regiment shall be preserved. 

Answer. Public accounts shall be preserved. 

Art. V. The troops shall not lay down their arms till the moment of cm- 
barking, and then under the protection of the British; that is to say, 
that each division or section shall successively lay down their arms wheu 
respectively embarking. 

Answer. Answered in the first article. 

VI. The inhabitants of the town of Vigo shall be respected. 
Answer. Granted, according to the laws ot Spain. 

VII. The two hospitals, containing about three hundred sick, shall be 
taken care of by the inhabitant) of the town, under the British and Spanish 
protection. 

Answer. The prisoners shall be treated as the laws of humanity require. 

VIII. The place and the forts shall only be delivered up at the moment 
of embarking, to a number of the blockading troopi, consisting of three 
officers and tifry subalterns and soldiers. 

Answer. Iteferred to the first and last articles. 

IX. The present capitulation will only take ciYoct when ratified on one 
part by Mons. Chalot, the governor, and on the other by the commandants 
of the blockading land and sea forces, and guaranteed in all its articles by 
the British commanding officer. 

Done at Vigo, the day, month, and year as above-mentioned 

CHALOT. 

J. COUTTS CRAWFORD. 
PABLO MU1ULLO. 



Statement of the French Forces, $c. surrendered by Capitulation at Vigo t 
'27th March 1809, to his Majesty's ships Lively and Venus, and the Forces 
of his Ctit/iolic Majesty Ferdinand the Seventh. 

46 officers; 958 inferior officers and privates fit for duty; 300 sick.- 
Total, 1304 men. 

447 horses; 62 carriages, covered waggons, aiid carts. Military chest, 
containing 117,153 francs in French specie. 

The returns of the garrison cannon field pieces, muskets, ammunition, 
ordnance stores, c. c. not yet received, but the whole together, with 
the horses, carriages, aud specie, have been delivered to Don Pedro Mu- 
rillo, commander in xefe of the forces of his Catholic Majesty Ferdinand 
the Seventh. 

GEORGE M'KINLEY. 

Copy of another Letter from Captain JH'Kinley, of his Mcijcsty^s ship 

Lively, to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated March 29, 1809. 
SIH, 

I have the honour to inform you, for the information of my Lords Com- 
f tin; Admiralty, that in the act of embarking the French garri- 



NAVAL HISTORY OF TIIE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 337 

ion, advice was received of a French force approaching, when Don Pablo 
JS'lurillo immediately inarched, attacked, totally routed them, and made 
many prisoners, who informed me they were a detachment of oOO men 
from Fuy, for the relief of Vigo. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

GEORGE M'KINLEY. 

APRIL 15. 

Captain James Lucas Yeo, of his Majesty's ship the Confiance, has. with 
his letter dated at Cayenne, the 9th February last, transmitted to the Hon. 
William Welleslcy Pole, copies of his letters to Rear-Admiral Si;- Vv iliiaiu 
Sidney Smith, detailing his proceedings ia the expedition against the 
above settlement. 

Having, in conjunction with the Portuguese land forces, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant-colonel Manner! Marques, tuken possession, on the 8th 
December lust, of the district of Oyapok, and on the 15th of the s;\;ne 
month, with the Contiance and a Portuguese sloop and cutter, reduced tir.it 
of Approaque; Captain Yco, together with the lieiuenant-colonel, pro- 
ceeded to the attack of the island of Cayenne with the Confiance, two Por- 
tuguese sloops, and some smaller vessels, having on board five hundred and 
fifty Portuguese troops. The following is u copy of Captain Yeo's letter ou 
this subject. 

His Majesty's Shi:) Confiance, Cayenne Harbour, 
SIR, 15;.'; Junuary, 1809. 

My last letters to you of the 2Gth ult. informed you of the arrival of the 
Portuguese troops at Approaque. On the 4th inst. it was -determined by 
Lieutenant-colonel Manoel Masques and myself, to make a descent on the 
east side of the island of Cayenne. Accordingly all the troops were enj- 
barked on board the small vessels, amounting to 550, and SO seamen and 
marines from the Confiance, aiid a party of marines from the Voador aud 
Infante brigs. On the morning of the 6th all dropt into the mouth of the 
river. In the evening I proceeded with ten canoes and about 250 men, to 
endeavour to gain possession of two batteries: the one Fort Diatoaiit, 
which commands the en trance of the river Muhuree, the other Grand Cane, 
commanding the great road to the town of Cayenne. The vessels, with the 
remainder of the troops, I entrusted to Captain Salgado, of the Voador, 
with orders to follow me after dusk, to anchor in the mouth of the river 
Mahuree, and wait until I gained the before-mentioned batteries; when, on 
my making the signal agreed on, he was to enter the river and disembark 
with all possible despatch. I reached Point Mahuree at three o'clock next 
morning, with five canoes; the others being heavy could not keep up. Vte 
then landed in a bay half way between the two latteries. TUt surge was so 
great, that our boats soon went to pieces. 1 ordered Major Joaqoun Manoel 
Pinto, with a detachment of Portuguese troops, to proceed to thr- lefr, and 
take Grand Cane; while myself, accompanied by Lieutenants Mill-caster, 
Blyth, and Read (of the royal marines) ; Messrs. Savory, XVilliuiu Taylor, 
Forder, and Irwin, proceeded to the right with a party of the Confiance, 
to take Fort Diamant, which was so..n in our possession, mounting tuo 
twenty. four and one brass nine-pounder, and fifty men. I am sorry to add, 
that Lieutenant John Read, of the ro\al marines, a meritorious young offi- 
cer, was mortally wounded, as also one seaman and live mnrinc- badly. 
The French captain and commandant, with three soldiers, killcci, and four 
wounded. The major had the same success: the fort mounting LWO brass 
nine-pounden* and forty men ; two of the enemy were killed. The en- 
trance of the river being in our possession, the signal agreed on was made, 
and by noon all were disembarked. At the same time I received ipfor- 

i CJoI.XXL x x 



338 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE MIESEVT YEAR, 1809. 

niation of General Victor Hugues having quitted Cayenne, at the head of a 
thousand troops, to dispossess us of our posts. Our force being too sm;\!J 
to be divided, and the distance between the two posts being great, and only 
twelve miles from Cayenne, it was determined to di suiantlc Fort Diamant, 
and collect all our forces at Grand Cane. 1 ther .j left my first lieute- 
nant, Mr. Mulcaster, with a party of the Confiance, to perform that ser- 
vice, and then join me. On arriving at Grand Cane, I perceived two 
other batteries about a mile up the river, on opposite sides, and within 
half gun-shot of each other: the one on the right bank called Treo, on 
an eminence commanding the creek leading to Cayenne; the other, at 
the opposite side, at the entrance of the creek leading to the house and 
plantation of General Victor Hugues, and evidently erected for no other 
purpose than its defence. At three o'clock I anchored the Lion and Vin- 
ganza cutters abreast of them, when a smart action commenced on both 
sides for an hour; when finding the enemy's metal and position so superior 
to ours, the cutters having only four-pounders, and many of our men falling 
from the incessant shower of grape-shot, I determined to storm them, and 
therefore directed Mr. Savory (the purser,) to accompany a party of Portu- 
guese to land at General Hugues' battery ; at the same time proceeding my- 
self, accompanied by Lieutenant Blyth, my gig's crew, and a party of Por- 
tuguese troops, to that of Treo; and though both parties had to land at the 
very muzzles of the guns keeping up a continual fire of grape and musketry, 
the cool bravery of the men soon carried them, and put the enemy to flight: 
each fort mounted two brass nine-pounders and fifty men. This service 
was scarcely accomplished, before the French troops from Cayenne attacked 
the colonel at Grand Cane. Our force then much dispersed, I therefore, 
without waiting an instant, ordered every body to the boats, and proceeded 
to the aid of the colonel, who, with his small force, had withstood the ene- 
my ; and after a smart action of three hours, they retreated to Cayenne. 
At tle same time, 250 of the enemy appeared before Fort Diamant ; but 
perceiving Lieutenant Mulcaster prepared to receive them, and imagining 
his force much greater thim it was, they, on hearing the defeat of their 
general, followed his example. There was yet the strongest post of the 
enemy to be taken, which was the private house of General Victor 
Hugues: he had, besides the fort above-mentioned, planted before his house 
a field-piece and a swivel, with an hundred of his best troops. It is situ- 
ated on the main, between two and three miles in the interior, at the end 
f an avenue the same length from the river; on the right of which is a 
thick wood, and on the left the creek Fouillc. I have also to remark, that 
there is nothing near appertaining to government, or for the defence of the 
colony. On the morning of the 8th I proceeded, accompanied by Lieute- 
nant Mulcaster, Messrs. Savory and Forder, with some seamen and marines 
of the Contiauce, and a party of Portuguese troops, with a field-piece, to 
take the said post; but as my only object was to take the troops prisoners,, 
by which the garrison of Cayenne would be much weakened, I despatched 
Lieutenant Mulcaster in my gig, with a flag of truce, to acquaint the officer 
commanding, that my only object was to take the post, for which I had 
force sufficient; -and though I might lose some men in taking it, there could 
be no doubt as to the result: I therefore requested, for the sake of huma- 
nity, he would not attempt to defend a place not tenable ; but that I was 
determined, if lie made a useless resistance in defending a private habi- 
tation, against which I gave him my honour no harm was intended, I 
should consider it as a fortress, and would level it to the ground. The 
enemy's advanced guard allowed the flag of truce to approach them within 
a boat's length ; then fired two vollies at them, and retreated. I then 
lauded; but reflecting it was possible this outrage was committed from th 



STAY At HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 339 

ignorance of an inferior officer, I sent Lieutenant Mulcaster a second time, 
v hen on \u> u, n roaching the tiou:-e, they fired the field-piece at hitu. Finding 
ail commun cat;ou 'hat way inufectual, yet wishing to preserve the private 
property of .I^L-IIM.V '.fli.-cr, who was perhaps ignorant and innocent of his 
officer' ! ,ct, 1 se .t one of the general's slaves to the officer with the 

same raev <i o. \vtui returned with an answer that any thing I had to commu- 
nir.x P uiust L-e .-i writing; at the same instant he fired his field-piece as a 
sipi.u 1 to his troops, who were in ambush on our right in the wood, to tire, 
kn:. l-.-.s. up a steady rind well-directed fire from his field piece at the house. 
It was my mrent.on to have advanced with my field-piece; but finding he 
ha*! made several fosses, in the roa-i, and the wood being lined with mus- 
keti v nut a man of whom we could see, and the field-piece in front, I or- 
de;c i uure to he thrown into a fosse, when our men, with cheers, advanced 
will) i IKS ai'.l bayonet, took the enemy's guni they retreated in the house, 
aiul kt],L n,> u smart iiie from the windows; but on our entering they flew 
through Me back premises into the wood, firing as they retreated. Every 
tiling ;.s levdk-.l with the ground, except the habitations of the slaves. 
As we received information that about 400 of the enemy were about to 
take possession of Beauregard Plain, on an eminence which commands the 
several roads to and from Cayenne, it was determined between the lieute- 
nant-colonel and mysei i be before hand with the enemy, ami march our 
whole force there direct. We gained the situation on the enemy on the 
9th, and on the 10th Lieutenant Mulcaster and a. Portuguese officer, 
(Lieutenant Bernardo Mikillis,) were sent into the town wit.'i a summons 
(No. f.j to the general. Tu the evening these officers returned, accompanied 
by Victor Ilui,ues's uid-de-camp, requesting an armistice for twenty-four 
hours, to arrange thearticies of capitulation. This being granted, and hos- 
t;i.cs exchanged, on the llth the lieutenant-colonel and myself met the 
general, and partly arranged the articles. A second meeting on the morn- 
ing of the J2th finally fixed them, (No. II.) and on the morning of the 
I4ih, the Portuguese iroops and British seamen and marines marched into 
Cayenne, and took possession of the town. The enemy, amounting to 400, 
laid down their arms on the parade, and were immediately embarked on 
board the several vessels belonging to the expedition; at the same time the 
militia, amounting to 600, together with 200 blacks, who had been incor- 
porated with the regular troops, delivered in their arms. 

It is with pleasure I observe, that throughout the expedition the utmost 
unanimity has prevailed between the Portuguese and British, and I have 
myself experienced the most friendly intercourse with Lieutenant-colonel 
>lanoel Marques. 

The conduct of Captain Salgado of the Voader in the post I assigned 
him was that of a zealous and energetic officer, and I feel I should do him 
an injustice were I to withhold my testimony of his merit. ImustaUo 
acknowledge with satisfaction the services of Lieutenant Joze Pedro 
Schultz, who landed the Voader's marines, and indeed every individual 
belonging to the Portuguese squadron. 

It has always been with the highest gratification to my feelings, that I 
have had to mention the good conduct of the officers, seamen, and marines 
of the ship I have the honour to command, but during the whole course of 
my service I have never witnessed such persevering resolution as they have 
displayed from the commencement of the campaign to the reduction of 
Cayenne. 

To my first lieutenant, Mr. William Howe Mulcaster I feel myself prin- 
cipally indebted for the very able support 1 have received from bin* 
throughout, though it was no more than I expected froui ao officer of his 
known merit in the service. 



340 XAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

Lieutenant Samuel Blyth continued his exertions, notwithstanding fci 
wounds, and the assistance I derived from his active intrepidity can never 
be forgotten. 

I must here pay a tribute to the memory of a very zealous and gallant 
young ofiiccr, the fate Lieutenant John Read, of the rpyal marines. His 
conduct was always exemplary, and whenever we landed, his exertions 
wore most strenuous. He was mortally wounded, us before observed, in 
leading the marines into fort Diamant. His memory will long be cherished 
by his brother oriicers. 

To Mr. Thomas Savory ("the purser), who has made himself remarkably 
useiul on various occasions, and who, from my having so few officers on so 
detached a service as this has been, was of the greatest utility to me, 1 feel 
myself much indented. 

:\T. James Luujnc (master's mate), to whom I gave charge of the gun- 
boat j\o. 1, conducted her much to my satisfaction ; and James Thompson 
(gunner's mote), who had charge of the gun-boat No. 2, is entitled to an 
equal share of commendation. 

To Messrs. William Taylor (carpenter), George Forder, and David 
Irvin, midshipmen, Mr. Thomns Silvester, assistant-surgeon, who gave par- 
ticular attention to the wounded, my warmest thanks are due. 

It is but just that I should take notice of the exertions of Mr. J. Acott 
(acting) master, who has passed for lieutenant, whom I left in charge of the 
ship, and who proved himself worthy of the confidence reposed in him. 
The Topaze French frigate appeared in the offing on the 13th, with a rein- 
forcement for the garrison, though with only twenty-five Englishmen and 
twenty negroes, and no other officers than two young gentlemen, Messrs. 
George Yeo and Edward Bryant, he contrived, by his skilful manoeuvres, 
to drhe her off the coast. 

As to tl)c seamen and marines, all praise I can bestow falls short of 
their merit ; from the 15th of December they never slept in their beds; 
the weather wa,s constantly both boisterous and rainy; the roads almost 
impassable; and from the time we landed until the surrender of the place 
they had not the least cessation from fatigue. 

I have the honour to inclose a statement of the killed and wounded on 
board the Confiancc (twenty- four) ; also a list of the returns of ordnance, 
stores, &e. The Portuguese land and sea forces, one killed and ei^bt 
wounded; French, one captain and fifteen privates killed, and twenty 
wounded. 

I have now, sir, the happiness to congratulate you on the final success 
of the expedition, and I trust the steps I have taken will insure me your 
approbation. I am ; &c. 

JAMES LUCAS YEO. 

To Rear- Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, K.S. 
Commander in Chief, $c. 

Caniluldtion. proposed tu Victor Tlvgacs, Officer of the Legion of Honi>r, 
Cfinnrisaioner of his Mcyn;t> t /tic lmper.vr find Hi"^, Comn>ander t -in-chiff 




of 
^ the Miliic.i 7; Order </; Saint. J>t >;rl' a" Avie t Lieutenant-colonel in Ch'tff 

and JJin- -<> <J i/ic Cur pa (>j Ai: t illcry of 1'ura, commanding i.hc advanced 

A rrtr j '.'/ l he -k' 1 "'* ugucse. 

.Although the advanced posts have been carried, and that the com- 
missioner of the Kmperor and King is reduced with his garrison to 
the town, he owes it to those seiiiimcius of honour which have always 



NAVAL HISTORY OP THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 311 

distinguished him, to the valour and good conduct of the officers and 
soldiers under his command, to the attachment of the inhabitants of 
the Colony for his Majesty ilie Emperor and King, to declare publicly, that 
he surrenders less to the force than to the destructive system of liberating 
all the slaves who should join the enemy, and of burning all the plantations 
and ports where there should be any re.-istance. 

The commissioner of the Emperor commanding in chiefj after having 
witnessed the bnrni ,.; of several plantations, particularly his own, the most 
considerable of the CJony, had attributed it at first to the casualties 
of war, and the disorganization of the gangs, and the liberation of the slaves 
appeared to him a .v.omentary nuisance: Lut being assured in writing that 
the Euglish and ['= iinguest officers acted in virtue of the orders of his 
.Royal Highness the Pricrc Regent, and ia wishing to save the Colony from 
total destruction, a 1;1 | to preserve his august master's subjects, who 
had given him *n f their attachment and fidelity, the commis- 

sioner of his Imperial and Royal Majesty surrenders the Colony to 
the forces of his il:^al Highness the Prince Regent on the following condi- 
tions : 

Article I. The garrison shall march out with their arms and baggage, and 
all the honours of war; the officers ;hull retain their side arms, and those 
of the staff their horses. The garrison shall lay down their arm?, and 
angage not to serve against his Royal Highness and his allies during one 
year. 

II. Vessels shall be furnished at the cxpence of his Royal Highness the 
Prince Recent, to carry the garrison, the officers civil and military, and all 
those employed in the service, with their families and effects, direct 
to France with as little delay as possible. 

III. A convenient vessel shall be furnished to convey to France the 
commissioner of the Emperor commanding in chief, his family, his officers, 
his suite, and ciiects, t;,c chief of the administration of finances, the com- 
mander oi' the troops, the inspector, and the commandant of the artillery, 
with I heir families, 

IV. A convenient delay shall he granted to the officers who have 
property in the Colony to bcttle their affairs. 

V. The arsenals, batteries, and every thing belonging to the artillery, the 
small arms and powder magazines, and the provision stores, shall be given 
up by inventory, and in the state in which they now are, and the same shall 
be pointed out. 

VI. The slaves on both sides shall be disarmed and sent to their 
respective plantations. The French negroes whom the commanders 
by sea and laud of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent have engaged for 
the sen ice during the war, and to whom, in virtue of their orders, they have 
given their freedom, shall be sent out of the Colony, as they can only 
remain there in future an object of trouble and dissension. The com- 
manders engage, ab they have promised, to solicit of his Royal Highness the 
Prince Recent the replacing of those slaves, or an indemnity in favour 
of the inhabitants to v\hom they belong. 

VII. The papers, plans, and other articles belonging to the engineer 
department, shall be equally iven up. 

VI II. The sick and wounded who are obliged to remain in the Colony 



may leave it, with all that belongs to them, as soon as they are in a situation 
to do so; in the mean time they shall be treated as they have been 
hitherto. . . , , 

IN. Private property, of whatsoever nature or description, sna 
respected, and the inhabitants may dispose of it as heretofore. 

X Ttie inhabitants of jjie Colony bhull preserve their properties, 



342 VAVAt HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

reside there, conforming to the orders and forms established by the 
sovereign under which they remain ; they shall be at liberty to sell their 
properties and retire wherever it may suit them, without any obstacle. 

XL The Civil laws, known in France under the title of the Napolean 
code, and in force in the Colony, shall be observed and executed until the 
peace between the two nations ; the magistrates shall only decide on 
the interests of individuals and differences connected with them in virtue of 
the said laws. 

XII. The debts acknowledged by individuals during or previous to the 
time fixed by the preceding article, shall be exacted agreeably to the basis 
determined by the same article. 

XIII. The papers concerning the controul and matriculation of the 
troops shall be carried away by the quarter-master. 

XIV. Desirous of preserving the spice plantation called La Gabrielle in 
all its splendour and agriculture, it is stipulated that neither it nor any of 
the plantation trees or plants shall be destroyed, but that it shall be 
preserved in the state in which it is given up to the commanders of 
his Royal Highness the Prince Regent. 

XV. All the papers of the stores, of inspection, of the customs, or of any 
responsibility whatever, shall be deposited in the Secretaries' office, or 
in any other place that may be agreed on to be referred to when there is- 
occasion : the whole shall be under the seal of the two governments, and at 
the disposal of his Imperial and Royal majesty. 

XVI. The present capitulation shall be written in the three languages, 
and signed by the three officers stipulating. 

At the advanced posts of Bourde, this 12th January 1009. 

VICTOR IIUGUES. 
JAMES LUC AS YEO. 
MANUEL MARQUES. 

List of Killed and Wounded of his Majesty's Ship Confiunce, James Lucas 
Yeo, Esq ; Captain, between December 16, 1808, and January 14, 1809. 

Mr. John Read, lieutenant of royal marines, mortally wounded ; died 
January 8, 1809 ; Mr. Samuel Blyth, lieutenant, dangerously wounded in 
five places ; James Thompson, quarter-master's mate, dangerously wound- 
ed; Hans Matteson, able ditto; William Neale, coxswain, ditto; John Le 
Grandeure ditto; Charles Christopher, killed; Thomas James, landman 
badly wounded ; Thomas Roberts, able, ditto; Samuel Gardner, able, ditto ; 
Nicholas Glowmaw, able, slightly wounded; Thomas Bunie, ordinary, ditto; 
John Wells, ordinary, ditto ; Thomas Wolley, landman, ditto ; Jolm Sinnot, 
ordinary, ditto; George Leader, able, ditto. 

Marines. 

William Bateman, private, mortally wounded; died January 14, 1809; 
llugh Carrogan, corporal, dangerously wounded; John Lear, private, ditto; 
David Daniels, private, ditto ; Richard Davis, private, ditto ; Jacob 
Osterlony, private, slightly wounded: Robert Luscombe, private, ditto; 
James Simpson, Serjeant, ditto. 

Total. 1 killed,' 23 wounded. 

JAMES LUCAS YEO, Captain. 
THO. SEVESTRE, Surgeon. 

ADMIRALTY-OFFICE, APRIL 15, 1809. 

Copy of a Letter from Admiral Young, Commander-in-chief at Plymouth, to 
the Hon. IV. W. Pole, dated the IStA instant. 

sin, 
Xhave great pleasure in transmitting, fur the information of the Lords 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 343 

Commissioners of the Admiralty, the copy of a letter from Captain 
Seymour, of his Majesty's ship Amethyst, to Admiral Lord Gambier, giving 
his lordship an account of the Amethyst having taken another of th& 
enemy's frigates. 

I am, &c. W. YOUNG. 

MY LORD, Amethyst, off Ushant, April 1 2, 1809, 

I have very sincere pleasure in acquainting you of the capture of 
le Niemen, a fine new French frigate of forty-four guns, twenty eight 
of which are eighteen-pounders on the main deck, and three hundred and. 
nineteen men, copper fastened, two days from Verdun Roads, with 
six months provisions and naval stores on board, and bound to the Isle of 
France, commanded by Mcns. Dupotet, capitaine de fregate, a distinguished 
officer, who defended his ship with great ability and resolution. 

At eleven in the forenoon of the 5th instant, the wind at east, Emerald 
north within signal distance, Cordovan bearing E. by N. 42 leagues, a ship 
was perceived in the E. S. E. coming down, steering to the westward ; 
which hauled to the S. S .E. on making us out. She was immediately 
chased, but at twenty minutes past seven we lost sight of her and, 
the Emerald, and had not gained on the chace. 

After dark the Amethyst's course was shaped to meet the probable route 
of an enemy> when, at half-past nine, we crossed one, but though within 
half gunshot at eleven, from which time till one the bow and the stern 
chasers were exchanging, her extraordinary sailing prevented our effecting 
any thing serious. From one till past three A.M. on the th, the action was 
severe, after which the enemy's main and mizen-masts fell, his fire became 
faint, was just silenced, while ours continued as lively as ever, when 
the Arethusa appeared, and on her firing, be immediately made a signal of 
having surrendered, and proved to be the same frigate recommended to my 
notice in your lordship's order of the 9th ultimo. She fell on board us once 
in the contest; she had forty seven killed and seventy tliree wounded. 
The main and mizen-masts of the Amethyst fell at the close of the action , 
and she had eight killed and thirty seven wounded. 

To render just praise to the brave and admirable conduct of every 
officer and man of this ship's company (of whom two officers and thirty 
seven men were absent in prices, the prisoners from which, sixty nine, were 
on board; I am perfectly unequal. The great exertions and experience of 
the first lieutenant, Mr. William Hill, and Mr. Robert Fair, the master, I 
am particularly indebted for. Lieutenants Waring and Prytherch, of the 
royal marines, deserve my best thanks. 

The prize's foremast fell next day, and I left her in tow of the Arethusa, 
who afforded us in every instance the most prompt assistance, and by 
Captain Mend's desire I write. 

In justice to a most vigilant officer, I have to observe, that from 

the Emerald's situation, even Captain Maitland's skill would not avail him 

jn getting up to the enemy, and the darkaess and squally weather in the 

early part of the night precluded all hope of his keeping sight of the 

Amethyst. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

M. SEYMOUR. 

R'ght Honourable Lord Gambler, 4'C. 

Seamen Killed. 

John Ridgway, ordinary; Magnus Slater, ditto; John Copes, able; 
George Lime, ordinary; "John Calcombe, landoian, John Aledlyn, or- 
dinary. 



344 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESCXT YEAR,' 1809. 

Seamen dangerously Wounded. 

Daniel Butler, ordinary: Gideon Dodgeon, quarter-master's mate; John 
White, carpenter's crew ; James Long, able ; James Carmichael, ditto ; 
Alexander Cooper, armourer's mate; William Mitchell, ordinary; Mr. 
Boulton, gunner; Murk Tack, landman. 

Seamen severely Wounded. 

William Woodward, boatswain's mate ; James Marsh, landman ; John 
$1 'Donald (1), captain of the maintop; John Fitzgerald, able; John For* 
syth, landman ; Andrew Grey, yeoman of the sheets. 

Stamen slightly Wounded. 

Mr. Lacey, boatswain; Samuel Roberts, a'/ie; Stephen Woodland, ordi- 
nary; Chris. Laudebaugb, laiiHman ; Charles Field, ditto ; Michael Cowry, 
ordinary; James Tair, able; Anthony Martin, supernumerary; James 
Campbell, quarter gunner; Anthony de Vos, carpenter's crew. 

Marines Killsd. 
Edward Burridge, private; Joseph Fou'.kes, ditto. 

Marines dangerously Wounded. 

William Binder, corporal ; James Barrage, private ; James Britain, ditto. 
Marines severely Wounded. 

Mr. S. Prytheroh, second lieutenant; John flutter, Serjeant; John Wells, 
private; William Taylor, ditto; Daniel Mears, ditto; Thomas Bestbeach, 
ditto ; John Baldwin, ditto ; Robert Sullinger, ditto. 

Marine slightly Wounded. 
Mr. Henry Waring, first lieutenant. 

Admiral Lord Gambier has transmitted to the Hon. W. W.Pole a letter 
from Captain Adam, of his Majesty's ship Resistance, Diving an account 
of the destruction of a French armed schooner and a chasse maree, in the 
port of Anchove, near Cape Machicaco, on the 8th of March last, by the 
boats of that ship, under the direction of Lieutenant Corbyn, who had 
previously carried a battery of four guns, which commanded the harbour. 

APRIL 21, J8C9. 

Sir Harry Keale, Bart. First Captain to Admiral Lord Gambier, Com- 
mander-in-chief of his Majesty's ships and vessels employed in the Channel 
Soundings, &c. arrived here this morning with a despatch from his lordship 
to the Hon. William Wellesley Pole, of which the following is a copy: 

Caledonia, at Anchor, in Basque Roads, 
SIR, April 14, 1809. 

The Almighty's favour to his Majesty and the nation, has been strongly 
marked in the success he has been pleased to give to the operations of his 
Majesty's fleet under my command ; and I have the satisfaction to acquaint 
you, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that 
the four ships of the enemy named in the margin * have been destroyed at 

* Ville de Varsovie, of 30 guus; Tonnerre, of 74 guns; Aquilon, of 74 
guns; and Calcutta, of 56 guns. 



XAYAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 345 

their anchorage, and several others, from getting O n shore, if not rendered 
altogether unserviceable, are at least disabled for a considerable time. 

The arrangement of the fire vessels placed under the direction of Captain 
the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane was made as fully as the srate of the wea- 
ther would admit, according to his lordship's plan, on the evenina of the 
llth irist. ; and at eight o'clock on the same night they proceeded to the at- 
tack under a favourable strong wiud from the northward, and flood-tide, 
(preceded by some vessels rilled with powder and shells, as proposed by his 
lordship, with a view to explosion), and led on in the most undaunted and 
determined manner by Capt. Wooldridge, in the Mediator tire ship, the 
others following in succession, but owing to the darkness of the night se- 
veral mistook their course and failed. 

On their approach to the enemy's ships, it was discovered that a boom 
was placed in front of the r line for a defence. This however the weight of 
the Mediator soon broke, and the usual intrepidity and bravery of British 
seamen overcame alldifficulties. Advancing under a heavy fire fro:n the fort3 
in the Isle of Aix, as well as from the enemy's ships, most of which cut or 
slipt their cables, and from the confined anchorage, got on shore, and thus 
avoided taking tire. 

At daylight the following morning, Lord Cochrane communicated to me 
by Telegraph, that seven of the enemy's ships were on shore, and might be 
destroyed. I immediately made the signal for the fleet to unmoor and 
weigh, intending to proceed with it to etfect their destruction. The wind 
however being fresh from the northward, and the flood-tide running, ren- 
dered it too hazardous to run into Aix Roads, (from its shallow water), I 
therefore anchored again at the distance of about three miles from the forts 
on tbe island. 

As the tide suited, the enemy evinced great activity in endeavouring to 
warp their ships (which had grounded) into deep water, and succeeded in 
getting all but five of the line towards the entrance of the Charente, before 
it became practicable to attack them. 

I gave orders to Captain iiligh, of the Valiant, to proceed with that ship, 
the Revenge, frigates, bombs, and small vessels, named in the margin *, to 
anchor near the Hovart Shoal, in readiness for the attack. At twenty mi- 
nutes past two P. M. Lord Cochrane advanced in the Imperieuse with his 
accustomed gallantry and spirit, and opened a well-directed fire upon the 
Calcutta, which struck her colours to the Imperieuse ; the ships and vessels 
above-mentioned soon after joined in the attack upon the Viile de Varsovie 
and Aquilon, and obliged them, before five o'clock, after sustaining a heavy 
cannonade, to strike their colours, when they were taken uossessiim of by the 
boats of the advanced squadron. As soon as the prisoners were removed, they 
were set on fire, as was also the Tonnerre, a short time after by the enemy: 
I afterwards detached. Rear-admiral the Hon. Robert Stopford in the 
Ciesar with the Theseus, three additional fire ships (which were hasfly pre- 
pared in the course of the day), and all the boats of the fleet, with Mr. 
Conreve's rockets, to conduct the further operations of the night against 
any of the ships which lay exposed to an attack. On the morning oi the 
13th, the rear-admiral reported to me, that as the Caesar and other line-of- 
battle ships had grounded and were in a dangerous situatio". he thought it 
' adviseable to order them all out, particularly as the remaining part of the ser- 
vice could be performed by frigates and small vc-seh oidy; and, I wa 
happy t ) find that they were extricated from clieir perilous situation. 

Captain UHi has since informed me, that it was found impracticable to 



to 



* Indefatigable, Aigle, Emerald, Pallas,^ Beagle, /Etna bomb, Insolent 
jun-brig, Conflict, Encounter, Fervent, and Growler. 
(Hoi. XXI. Tf Y 



346 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

destroy the three-decked ship, and the others which were lying near the 
entrance of the Charente, as the former, being the outer one, was piotected 
by three lines of boats placed in advance tVoin her. 

This ship and all the others, except four of the lin* and a frigate, have 
now moved up the river Charente. If any further attempt to destroy them 
is practicable, I should not fail to use every means in my power to accom- 
plish it. 

I have great satisfaction in stating to their lordships how much I feel 
obliged to the zealous co-operation of Rear-admiral Stopford, under whose 
arrangement the boats of the fleet were placed ; and I must U!M> express 
to their lordships the high sense I have of the assistance I received from ihc 
abilities and unremitted attention of Sir Harry Neale, Bart, the captain of 
the fleet, as well as of the animated exertions of the captains, officers, sea- 
men, and marines under my command, and their forwardness to volunteer 
upon any service that might lie allotted to them ; particularly the Zealand 
activity shewn by the captains of line-of-battle ships in preparing the fire 
vessels. 

I cannot speak in sufficient terms of admiration and applause, of the vi- 
gorous and gallant attack made by Lord Cochrane upon the French liae-of- 
battle ships which were on shore, as well as of his judicious manner of ap- 
proaching them, and placing his ship in the position most advantageous to 
annoy the enemy, and preserve his own ship; which could not be exceeded 
by any feat of valour hitherto atchieved by the British navy. 

It is due to Rear admiral Stop ford, and Sir Harry Neale, that I should 
here take the opportunity of acquainting their lordships of the handsome 
and earnest manner in which both these meritorious officers had volunteered 
their services before the arrival of Lord Cochrane to undertake au attack 
upon the enemy with fire ships 5 and that had not their lordships fixed upon 
him to conduct the enterprise, I have full confidence that the result of their 
efforts would have been highly creditable to them. 

I should feel that I did not do justice to the services of Captain Godfred 
of the ./Etna, in bombarding the enemy's =hips on the 12th, and nearly all 
the day of the 13th, if I did not recommend him to their lordships' notice ; 
and I cannot omit bearing due testimony to the anxious desire expressed by 
' Mr. Congreve to be employed wherever I might conceive his services in the 
management of his rockets would be useful; some of them were placedin 
the fire ships with effect* and I have every reason to he satisfied with the 
artillerymen and others who had the management of them, under Mr. Con- 
greve's direction. 

I send herewith a return of the killed, wounded, and missing of the fleet, 
which, I am happy to observe, is comparatively small. I have not yet re- 
ceived the returns of the number of prisoners taken, but I conceive they 
amount to between four and five hundred. 

I have charged Sir Harry Xeale with this despatch, (by the Imperieusc) 
and I beg leave to refer their lordships to him, as also to Lord Cochrane, 
for any further particulars of which they may wish to be informed. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) GAMBIER. 

15th April. 

P. S. This morning three of the enemy's line-of-battle ships are observed 
to be still on shore under Fouras, and one of them is in a dangerous situa- 
tion. One of their frigates (L'Indienne), also on shore, has fallen over, and 
they are now dismantling her. As the tides will take off in a day or two, 
there is every probability that she will be destroyed. 

Since writing the foregoing, I have learnt that the Hon. Lieut.*Co2on&l 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 347 

Cochrane (Lord Cochrane's brother), and Lieut. Bissett of the navy, were 
volunteers i:i the Imperieuse, and rendered themselves extremely useful, 
the former by commanding -some of her guns on the main-deck, and the 
latter in conducting one of the explosion vessels. 



Names of the Ships in Aix Roads, previous to the Attack on the 11 th 
April, 1309. 

L'Ocean, 190 guns, Vice-admiral Allemande, Captain Roland. Repaired 
in 1806, on shore under Founts. 

Foudrovant, 80 guns, Rear-admiral Gourdon, Captain Henri. -Five years 
old ; on shore under Fouras. 

Cassard, 74 guns, Captain Faure, Commodore. Three years old; on 
shore under Fouras. 

Tourville, 74 guns, Captain La Caille. Old ; on shore in the river. 

Regulus, 74 guns, Captain Lucas. Five years old; on shore under 
Madame. 

Patriotc, 74 guns, Captain Mahee. Repaired in 1803. 

Jemu t :pe, 74 guns, Captain Fauvau. On shore under Madame. 

Tonnc-rre, 74 guns, Captain Clenuent de la Rouciere. Nine months old, 
never at sea. 

Aquilon, 74 guns, Captain Maingon. Old. 

Vilie de Varsovie, 80 guns. Captain Cuvillier. New, never at sea, 

Calcutta, 56 guns, Captain La Tonie. Loaded with flour and military 
stores. 

Frigates. 

Indienne, Captain Porteau. On shore near Isle D'Enet, on her beam 
ends. 

Elbe, Captain Perengier. 

Pallas, Captain Le Bigot. 

Horten.se, Captain Allgand. 

N. B. One of the three last frigates on shore under Isle Madame. 



/ 

'Return of the Names of Officers, Seamen? and Marines killed, wounded, and 

missing, belonging to the Jlre* under the command of Admiral the Right 

Hon. Lord Gcnilnrr, Cmm/taiuler-in-chief, $c. between the' llth and \^th 

of April 1809, inclusive. 

Calidon'ui. Mr. Edward Fairfax, master of the fleet; contusion of th? 
flip. 

CsEwr. William Flinr.off, acting lieutenant; killed. 

Thomas Maiidox, able ; ditto. 

Jolm Nelson, nbie ; ditto. 

John Ellis (2d), able ; missing, nnd supposed to be drowned. 

Theseus. Richard Francis Jowers, master's-mate ; severely wounded m 
the head and hands by powder in the fire ship. 

John Podney, marine; wounded in the scrotum. 

Thomas Williams, boy; wounded in the hand and arm. 

Imperieuse. Henry Crookman, captain of the forecastle; killed,. 

Peter Darouk, boatswain's mate; ditto. 

John Marsoviok, seaman; ditto. 

James Mason, seaman ; severely wounded. 

John Solomon, seaman ; slightly wounded, 

Mr. Gilbert, surgeon's assistant; ditto. 

M. Marsden, purser; ditto. 

John Gordon, seaman; ditto. 

John Sheridan, seaman; ditto. 



348 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

John Hunter, seaman ; ditto. 

John Wheelan, seaman; ditto. 

Matthew GoucJ, seaman ; ditto. 

William Meuchenton, marine; ditto. 

John Budd, marine; ditto. 

Revenge. Henry Johnson, landman; killed. 

Thomas Cranmer,. marine ; ditto. 

Thomas Pessey, marine boy ; ditto. 

James Garland, lieutenant ; severe contusion of the shoulder and side. 

James Cooke ( 1), ordinary; left thigh amputated, and a very dangerous 
wound of the right foot. 

Thomas Whittock, landman; wound in the head. 

The mas Tyler, landman ; wound of eye. 

Dennis Grey, ordinary ; contusion of back. 

Thomas Triuworlli, ordinary . cuiitu-ion and wound of right foot. 

Charles Chew, marine ; right thigh amputated, and a very dangerous and 
extensive wound of left leg ami ti igi:. 

Thomas Berry, mari-e ; febntusion ef thigh. 

John Wiseman, marine; contusion of shoulder. 

Timothy Burn, marine ; cenitubkmuf thigh. 

George Skeily, marine; contusion of shoulder. 

Joseph Week's, marine boy ; wound of thigh, and contusion of back. 

John Cooper, marine ; contusion of head and arm. 

Jarnes Hughes, corporal of mantles ; contusion of back. 

Jfihn Ward, marine; contusion of arm. 

Mediator. James Seggess, gunner; killed. 

James Wooldridge, cap;ain ; very much burnt. 

Nicholas Brent Clements, lieutenant ; slightly burnt. 

James Pearl, lieutenant ; ditto. 

Michael Gibson, seaman ; ditto. 

N. 13. The last four blown out of the Mediator after ^he was set on fire. 

Cibratiar. John Couyers, master's mate ; very badly scorched in the 
face and hands. 

Total 2 officers, 8 men, killed ; 9 officers, 2(3 men, wounded; 1 
man missing. Total 46. 

GAJIBIER. 

Received since the above was written. 
Beagle. James Sutherland, seaman ; wounded. 
J,tna. luchard, W. Charston, midshipman; slightly wounded. 



His Majesty's ship Laurel is taken by the French frigate Cannoniere, 
and carried into the Isle of France. It is stated that the killed and wounded 
onboard the Cannoniere amounted to 180; the Laurel 5 killed and 14 
wounded. The Canuoniere had 44 twenty-four pounders, the Laurel 22 
uinc-pounders, and was totally dismasted before she' struck. 

An open boat, with eleven deserters from Flushing, was picked up at 
sea, by the fly sloop of war, and carried into the Downs. They consist of 
four seamen, two Danish and two Dutch, belonging to the Dutch admiral's 
flag-ship; the remainder was a corporal's guard, consisting of the corporal 
and six privates. It appears that the sailors had formed a plan with the 
soldiers, while on guard, to attempt their escape : iu which they succeeded, 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 349 

without having experienced even a pursuit. These men state, that the 
fleet in Flushing ready for sea consists often i ail of the line, all seventy- 
fours ; but that ihcy are very badly manned, as their crews comprise many 
raw conscripts, and the Danes who had been sent on board were dissatisfied, 
and persist n> r ! ieir refusal to serve on board French or Dutch ships. The 
discontent was further increased by a great scarcity of provisions in the 
fleet. They add, that a great number of seamen and soldiers would gladly 
follow their example, had they an opportunity. They had been three days 
and nights at sea, ^ith srHrcely any sustenance. 

In addition to ShrapnelPs shells and Congreve's rockets, another new, 
and, as is said, more destructive engine for the demolition of ships, was 
lately presented to the Ordnance Board by Captain Ouseley, of the foreign 
depot. This thunder and lightning machine has been exhibited at Wool- 
wich, to a vast number of general officers, officers of artillery, and engi- 
neers. The experiments were made on a flag-staff, rigged out by several 
ropes, and representing a mast and rigging. On the first trial the mast and 
rigiug fell to the ground with an instant crash, involved in flames. The 
second trial was not so perfect, owing to some irregularity in disposing 
the materials. The fire on the third trial clung to the mast and rigging, 
and burnt with the same astonishing fury as the first. The other trials 
were equally successful, in shewing the effect of the model of this engine, 
which is no larger than a couple of pint decanters united. Captain Ouse- 
ley was on the ground, and assisted in the management of it. 



promotions anU gppointmenta* 

The King has been pleased to grant the dignity of a baronet of the 
united kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, unto Sir Samuel Hood, 
knight of the most honourable order of the Bath, and rear-admiral of 
the white squadron of his Majesty's fleet, and the heirs male of his 
body lawfully begotten, with remainder to Alexander Hood, Esq. ne- 
phew of the said Sir Samuel Hood, and the heirs male of his body law- 
fully begotten. 

His Majesty, on the 26th of April, was pleased to invest Captain Lord 
Cochraue with the honourable order of the Bath. 

We have much pleasure in announcing, that the gallant Captain Sey- 
mour will shortly be raised to the dignity of a baronet of the united 
kingdom. 

Captain the Hon. Courtney Boyle, commander of the Royal William, 
bearing the flag of Admiral Sir Koger Curtis, Bart, and sou to the Earl 
of Cork, is appointed; by the Lords of the Treasury, a commissioner of 
the Transport Board, vice G. H. Towry, deceased. 

Captain James Prevost, who brought home, in the Saracen, the 
account of peace having been concluded with the Ottoman empire, is 
promoted to the rank of post captain. 



Capt 



Captain Charles Felly is appointed to the Bucephalus, at Chatham; 
ptain Richard Smith, to the Diligence, fitting at Woolwich; Captaia 



350 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PREStNT YEAR, 1809. 

Buck'and Sterling Bluett, to succeed Captain Prevost in the Saracen ; 
Captain ?t;>clq>oo!e to the Phoebe ; Captain J. Tancock to the Curlew; 
Captain Charles Gill, late of the Onyx, to the St. Domingo; Captain 
Searlo to thc'PretterecUsU'in, late Danish frigate; Captain G. M. Bligh 
to the Py lades; Captain Sayer to the Galatea ; Captain L. O'Bland, late 
of the flora, to the Africa, of 84 guns, destined to be anchored in the 
Baltic, as a protection to the British trade; Captain Simpson, late of the 
Wolverine, to the Goree ; Captain Richard Spear to the Wolverine; 
Captain F. L. Clay to the Temeraire ; Captain J. W. Dundas to the 
Stat::i ; Captain Edw. Barker to Ihe Alonzo ; Captain R. Honcyman 
to the Ardent ; Captain Robert Balfbur to the Fury ; Captain A. P. 
Holies to the Standard ; Captain Dod, of the Merope sloop, to the 
]VIonmouth. 

Captain O'Brien to be private secretary to the Right Hon. Lord Mul- 
o-rave, first Lord of the Admiralty, vice Captain Moorsom, appointed one 
of the Lords. 

Lieutenant Ellary is appointed to command the Desperate gun-brig, 
in the Downs. 

Lieutenants appointed. 

Lieutenant Michael Bell is appointed to the Perlin ; John Pike to the 
Minotaur ; W. E. fiott to the Mermaid ; John Wyborn to the Sceptre; 
lucius H. Gifford to the Blake ; Daniel J. Woodriff to the Solebay ; 
Thomas Ball to the Clio ; Charles JoIIey to the Rapid ; Whitwell Butler 
to the Phe&sant ; Thomas Chapman to the Cossack ; Richard Cox to the 
Mosquito ; Jonas Dade to the Minotaur ; John Orkney to the Africa; 
W. B. Charap : on to the Kite; R. I). PrUchard to the Avenger ; Samuel 
Radford *o O.e Aboukir; John George Phillips to the Majestic; William 
Ferris 'o the Nemesis; Charles Hill to the iTota; George Lllioit to the 
Dictator; J. ?. A. Dennis to the Alon?o ; Henry George Massie to the 
Africa; Charles Farvt!l to the JNrd l<',lvei>; Waiter Croker to tlie 
Alfred; lewis Campbell to the PJuenix ; Tir>iTi; s Ki'i^.toii to the 
Tyrian ; Thomas Gardiner to the Hhodian; John Bticke to command 
the Acute gr.t- vesse' ; John Man to the Fphira; George Elliott (o the 
Dictator ; William li. Dickson to the liuby ; R. S. Gamage to the St. 
Alba 1 '* Geo { e *'ro!;e, from the Dolphin, to the Africa; Gordon 
Stewart, from the Ariadne, to tiio .Ardent; John Cameron (1). from 
the Galatea, to the Leyden ; George Williamson to Ihe Defiance. 

A list of ra'dshipmen passed for lieutenants the first Wednesday in li;e 
mo-.ith George ?immond, William K. Nicholas, Churk-s ir'omerville, 
"William Martin Collins, Thomas B. Clowes, William I irman, James 
Storey, William i-.arricolt, Jacob S. Potier, Thomas W. Cope, Hutton 
Dawson, Robert Harmer, Jos. VV r . Shepherd, Luke Waller, John Mof- 
fall, Charles B. isouce, John E. Lane, Alexander Galloway. 

Surgeons appointed. 

Mr. Andrew L. Jack is appointed to be surgeon of the Ardent; Mr. 
John Neill to the Sceptre; William M'Laughlin to tha Victorious; 
Alexander Denmark to the San Antonio; William Xormanto the Miuo- 
taur; John W illiams to the Perlin; William Macf'arlane to the Africa; 
Jr.mes Cra ,i<' to tfea Cromedarj ; William Evans to the President; 
Jan.es Dick'son to the Lynx ; Jos. Oilier to the Kite ; P. C. Blackett i<> 
the Tiiisbe ; Samuel Vvcalherail to the Vestal; John W 7 ebb to the 
Tigress cutter: Jarr.es Carroll to t!ie Sarpedon ; William Boyce to thft 
Meriuaid ; Bob. Blake to the Devastation; Cuthbert Eden to the Sand- 



NAVAI. HISTORY OF THE PllESEVT YEAll, 1809. 3cl 

wich prison ship; Edward Pelt to the Niger ; B. W. West to the Ley- 
den; Joseph Cullcrne to the Triumph ; David Lewis to the Ned Elviu; 
Charles Slormouth to the Nemesis ; WiiKr.m Wilson to the Bucephalus; 
George Gilbert to tlis Orestes; James Carroll to the Alonzo; Charles 
Heynes to the Diligence ; J. S. Hasted to the Planta^enet ; Francis 
Forbitt to the Reynard; Michael Stewart to the Curlew sloop; Alexan- 
der Forbitt, from the Triumph, to the St. Domingo. 

Assistants appointed. 

James Hunter is appointed to the Victory; William' Cuddie is ap- 
pointed an hospital mate at Mill Prison ; John Corson an hospital mat* 
at Deal; John Melligan hospital m'ate at Plymouth; Robert Dick 
assistant surgeon of the St. Albans; Patrick Blaike to the Majestic; 
John Craig to the Ruby; James Veitch to the Cerberus; William 
Cowling to the Salvador del Mundo; James Black to the Tribune; 
J. M. Parrott to the Sussex hospital ship ; James Soulter to the Victory ; 
Anthony Adams to the ftyadea; George Swann to be an hospital mate 
at Forton prison hospital ; John Shaw to the East Indies, as an assistant 
surgeon; Anthony Adams to the Standard; James Hamilton to the Sta- 
tira ; John Calian to the Defiance; \Viiliain M'Masters to the Sceptre; 
William Birch an hospital mate at Haslar ; S. J. Dickensoa assistant to 
the Jamaica; John Farley to the Euruihs ; Thomas Hayes to the 
Diligent store ship ; Charles Sherratt to the Camel store ship ; William 
Morgan to the Rota; David Lawsou an hospital mate at Forton prison, 
hospital; William Boyd assistant to the Volontaire ; H. E. Uudiand to 
the Quebec; Jokn Hately to the Surveillante. 



The Lords of the Admiralty have been pleased to direct, in pursuance 
of his Majesty's order in council of the 13th instant, that the salaries of 
the officers of the royal hospitals at Deal, Yarmouth, and Paiugton, 
in consequence of their inadequacy, shall be increased as follows: 

The governors at Deal and Yarmouth to have 3003. a-year each, and 
151. for house-rent. 

The physicians to have GOOl. per annum, and 50l. for house-rent. 

The surgeons to have 5001. per aaaum, and 50l for house-rent. 

The agents, 2501. per annum, and 40l. for house-rent. 

The dispensers, 2501. per annum, and 401. for house-rent. 

The clerk to the agent, 1301. per annum, and ICs, 6d. per week in lion 
of a house. 

BIRTHS. 

On Sunday, the 9th of April, at Brighton, the lady of Captain Ken- 
nedy, of the royal navy, of a daughter. 

On Monday, the 10th of April, in Portman-sqnare, of a daoghter, Latfy 
Emily Drummond, eldest daughter of the Duke of Athol, and wife of 
Captain Adam Drummond, of the royal navy. 



MARRIAGES. 

On the 13th instant, at Iver church, by the Rev. John San ford, 
Spurgeon Farrer, Esq. of Cole Bray-field, in the county o!" Backs, to Mrs. 
Mitford, relict of Captain Henry Mitford, R.N. who was unfortunately 
lost 'in his Majesty's iate ship the York, and daughter of the Hon. David 
Anitruther, of H untsmore Park, Berks. 



352 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAK, 1809. 

On the 10th of April, at Whitehall, by the Lord Bishop of Norwich, 
Rear-admiral the Right Hon. Lord Gardner, to the Hon. Charlotte 
Smith, daughter to the Right Hon. Lord Carrington. 

On the llth of April, Miss Eliza Brathwaite, second daughter of Mrs. 
Brathwaite, one of the matrons of the royal hospital ai Greenwich, to 
Dr. Locker, only sou of Locker, Esq. of Plymouth. 

On the21sl of March, at St. Clement's Danes, London, Janes Popple- 
well, Esq. of the royal navy, to Miss Mary-Ann Sallwell, eldest daughter 
of Captain Saltweil, of the Hon. East India Company's service, and of 
Hoisted, in Essex. 



OBITUARY. 

Lately, at Plymouth, Nicholas Vincent, Esq. senior admiral of the 
red. 

On the 6th instant, at Dover, John Bazely, Esq. admiral of the blue, 
aged 69. 

On Sunday, the Oth instant, of a quinzy, George Henry Towry, Esq. 
brother-in-laiv of Lord Ellen borough, and only son of Commissioner 
G. Towry, deputy-chairman of the Victualling Board, an old post 
captain, and junior commissioner of the Transport Board. He com- 
manded the Dido at the capture of the Minecvc ; and a'*:> the Diadem, 
on the 14th of February, 1797. He w s an active and valuable officer, 
and is sincerely lamented by a large circle of his brother officers. 

Lately, at Deal, the infant son of Alexander Copland Hutchinson, Esq. 
surgeon of the royal hospital at that port. 

Lately, on board the Hindostan,at Spithead, Mr. J. Jackson, surgeon 
of that ship. 

On the 19th of March, at Dublin, Major Daniel Gahan, brother-in-law 
of Captain T. Bayley, of the royal navy. 

Lately was killed, Lieutenant Hamilton, of the Unicorn, in one of 
the boats of that ship, in reconnovtering the French fleet in Basque 
Roads. 

Lately was drowned, in coming on shore at Table Bay, Cape of 
Good Hope, by the boat upsetting, Captain Culvcrhouse, R. N. and his 
wife. 

Lately, Mr. Harry Maybce, a surgeon in the royal navy. 

Lieutenant John Reid, of the royal marines, was killed at the taking 
of Cayenne, in storming Fort Diamant and Victor Hugues's house and 
plantation. 

Lately, at Antigua, Mr. Alexander, surgeon of his Majesty's sloop the 
Wanderer. 

Mr. William Flintoft, acting lieutenant of his Majesty's ship Ciesar, 
was killed at the attack on the enemy's fleet in Basque Roads, on the 
12th instant. 

Mr. James Sergess, gunner of the Mediator fire-ship, was killed at the 
same time. 

On the 5th of April, at Stonehouse, Devonshire, ageil 5T, Mrs. Cle- 
ments, widow of the late Peter Clements, I'sq. a captain in the royal 
navy, and daughter and heir of the late Sir John Dalston, Bart, of the 
royal marines. 









I:R H r :KIH ' i , t > i ; K uu 




//,/<// ./W Marti .'>'/ I,-;i > fa-./ Gold. 103. Slr,'f.Leou.2.cndon. 



MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES 

OF THE LATE 

SIR HUGH CLOEERRY CHRISTIAN, K.B. 

REAR-ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE SQUADRON. 



" What frequent tears the patriot muse has shed ; 

A nation's tribute to her mighty dead ! 

AY hat suns have set in glory's radiant way* 

To gild with cloudless beams a brighter day !" CocKi.E. 

A CCORDLVG to a family tradition, the late Admiral Sir 
*^*- Hugh Cloberry Christian was a descendant from the ancient 
4'amily of Christian, which was seated at Milntown, in the Isle Q 
Man. His father, Thomas Christian, Esq. who died in the year 
1751, at the early age of 35, was a captain in the royal navy. 
His mother was the daughter of Owen Hughes, Esq. of Bangor. 

Sir H. C. Christian, who, from his birth, is believed to have 
been destined for the naval service, was born in Buckingham- 
street, York Buildings, London, in the year 1747. With the 
period at which he entered into the naval service, and with his 
early progress, we are unacquainted ; but he received a lieutenant's 
commission on the 21st of January, 1771 ; and on the 9th of 
August, 1778, having previously been advanced to the rank of 
master and commander, we find hi:n in the Vigilant armed ship, 
of 20 guns, in the fleet under Lord Howe, off Rhode Island. 
This was shortly after the time when, in contradiction to all the 
declarations of the French court, the Comte d'Estaing had ap- 
peared, with a large force of line-of-battle ships in complete con. 
dition, off Sandy Hook.* On the 29th of July, d'Estaing's fleet 
having arrived off Rhode Island, a squadron of his frigates entered 
the Scaunnet passage, where the Kingslisher sloop of war and two 
gallics were at anchor : their commanders, finding that they could 
iiot escape, set fire to the vessels, and went ashore with the crews. 
On the 8th of August, d'Estaing, with a part of his fleet, stood 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. I. p. 16. 
A A 



178 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES or 

into the harbour of Newport ; and, anchoring between Goat 
Island and Conanicut, the captains of his majesty's ships, which 
were lying in the harbour, also found themselves under the 
necessity of destroying them to avoid capture.'* On the following 
day, having obtained a reinforcement, Lord Howe made his 
appearance off Rhode Island ; and on the 10th, d'Estaing put to 
sea, with a fresh breeze from the north-east, and bore down on the 
British fleet. The English commander edged away, to draw the 
enemy off the land, in the hope of gaining the advantage of the 
wind, but it continued adverse. On the 12th, notwithstanding 
the inferiority of his force, Lord Howe determined to risk an ac- 
tion ; but, scarcely had the respective fleets been arranged in the 
Order of battle, when the wind began to blow with great violence, 
and soon increased to a dreadful gale, in which both the English 
and French ships were dispersed, without any engagement taking 
place. 

In the succeeding month Lord Howe returned to England ; and 
Captain Christian either accompanied him, or returned about the 
same time. 

On the 8th of December, in this year (1778), he x obtained post 
rank ; and on the 25th of the same month, he sailed from Spithead 
in the Suffolk, of 74 guns, in which Commodore Rowley had 
hoisted his broad pendant, with the fleet under the command of 
Lord Shuldham, to escort the trade to America, and to the East 
and West Indies. The Suffolk proceeded with the West India, 
convoy. 

Captain Christian remained some years in the West Indies, 
where he was engaged in much active and arduous service. In 
Admiral Byron's memorable action with d'Estaing, off Grenada, 
on the 6th of July, 1779,t his ship, the Suffolk, sustained a loss 
of seven killed, and 25 wounded. J 
. j . . * - 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. XX. page 82. 

+ Ibid. VoL IV. pagelSti; Vol. VIL page 10; Vol. VIII. page 180; 
and Vol. XX. page 341. 

* The total loss of the English in this action amounted to 183 killed, 
and 34(j wounded ; of whom four officers were iu each list. The loss of the 
Fi imuh, owing to the great number of troops on board their ships, was pro- 
digious ; the lowest estimate slating it at 2,700, of which the killed 
amounted to 1,200. 



THE LATE SIR HUGH CLOBERRY CHRISTIAN, K.B. 179 

Soon after this action, Vice-admiral Byron returned to England, 
and the chief command devolved on Rear-admiral Hyde Parker.* 
Captain Christian remained in the Suffolk, with Mr. Rowley, now 
a, rear-admiral of the blue squadron. Towards the latter end of 
the year 1779, intelligence having been received at St. Lucia that 
three large ships had been seen from the Morne, steering to the 
northward, the commander-in-chief detached Rear-admiral Row- 
ley M'ith the following squadron in pursuit of them : 

Ships. Guns. Commanders, 

f Rear-admiral Rowley. 

:olk 74 \Captain H. C. Christian. 

Magnificent 74 John Elphiustone. 

Vengeance .... 74 

Stirling Castle.. . 64 Ph. Carket. 

The enemy M'ere soon descried, and, after a chase of several 
hours, were all captured. They proved to be three large French 
frigates.: la Fortunee, of 42 guns, and 247 men; la Blanche, of 
36 guns, and 212 men ; and the Ellis, of 28 guns, and 68 men ; 
all of which were added to the royal navy. 

On the 18th of December, Captain Christian assisted in the 
destruction and capture of a considerable French convoy, off 
Martinique, t The convoy was from Marseilles ; and the follow- 
ing were the ships, laden with provisions and merchandise, which 
fell into the hands of the English : 

Ships. Guns. Men. Tons. 

Le President 30 160 550 

LeBethun 30 160 550 

Le Menauere + 30 160 COO 

L'Hercule 30 160 550 

Le Mareschal de Erisac 22 150 400 

LcJuste 10 35 200 

LaClerie 8 35 180 

Le Jean Henrieitc ,-- 2 30 160 

In the spring of 1780, Sir George R'odney joined Rear-admiral 
Parker, in Gros-islet Bay, St. Lucia ; and in the succeeding 
actions with de Gnichen, on the 17th of April, and the 15th and 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. XX. page 341. 
t Ibid, page 342. 

* Taken into the English service, and named the Albcmarle, 



180 MEMOIR OF TllE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

IQth of May,* Captain Christian had the honour of bearing a 
part. In the first of these actions, the Suffolk had 12 men 
wounded ; in the second, none either killed or wounded ; and, m 
the third, one killed and 21 wounded. 

Admiral Rowley having shifted his flag into the Conqueror, 
Captain Christian was appointed to the Fortunee, of 38 guns, one 
of the French frigates in the capture of which he had formerly 
assisted. When Sir Samuel Hood's fleet was attacked by de Grasse, 
at anchor off St. Kitt's, in January, 1782, -f theFortuuee was one 
of the frigates attached to the centre division. 

On the 9th and 12th of April following, the Fortunee was 
attached to the white division of Sir George Rodney's fleet, in the 
memorable defeat of de Grasse, + but was not present during the* 
action. 

On the 21st of July, Captain Christian sailed from Jamaica, 
with Admiral Pigol's licet, and on the 5th of September, he arrived 
at New York. He returned to Port Royal, with Rear-admiral 
Lord Hood, on the 6th of February, 1783, having been cruising 
some time off Hispaniola, on the passage. In the succeeding 
months of March and April he continued to be employed in 
Lord Hood's squadron, in cruising off Capes Francois and Nichola 
Mole. On the 26th of April lie sailed from Port Royal, for 
England, with Lord Hood, and is supposed to have been paid off 
shortly after his arrival ; as we do not find his name mentioned 
again, till the Spanish armament of 1790, when he was appointed 
second captain of Lord How-j's Sag-ship, the Queen Charlotte. 

At the commencement of the late war, Captain Christian was 
again appointed to the same ship, under the same comman- 
der : he was, consequently, with Lord Howe, in the bay, when 
he fell in with a French squadron, on the 18th of Novemhcr, 
1793. Chase was immediately given ; but the enemy being con- 
siderably to windward, and the weather thick and squally, they 
effected their escape. 

Shortly after this period, Captain Christian left the Queen 



* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. I. page 377. 
+ Ibid. Vol. II. page 15, ct sfj, 
+ Ibid. Vol. I. page 389. 
Ibid page IS. 



THE LATE SIR. HUGH cr.OBEKRY CHRISTIAN, K.H. 181 

Charlotte, and docs not appear to have held any subsequent 
command as a private captain. 

On the 1st of June, 1795, he was promoted to the rank of* 
rear-admiral of the blue squadron ; and on the 16th of Novem- 
ber, in the same year, having hoisted his flag in the Prince George, 
of 98 guns, he sailed from St. Helen's, with a squadron of ships of 
war, and a convoy of more than 200 sail of transports and West 
Indiamen, on board of which -were embarked upwards of 16,000 
troops. The late period of the season to which this expedition, 
destined against the French and Dutch settlements in the West 
Indies, had been protracted, occasioned the most disastrous result. 
On the second night after Admiral Christian sailed, the wind 
shifted to the westward, and blew a violent gale, which separated 
the fleet : many of the ships put into Torbay, others into Port- 
land, and some returned to Spithead with the admiral. The gale 
continued with unceasing fury the -whole of the 18th ; several of 
the transports and merchantmen foundered, and were wrecked f 
and above two hundred dead bodies were taken up on the coast 
between Portland and Bridport.* 

Having repaired the damage which they had sustained, the 
following squadron sailed again from St. Helen's, on the 9th of 
December ; Admiral Christian having shifted his flag into the 
Glory, the Prince George being in too bad a condition to under- 
take the voyage : 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

{II. C. Christian, Esq. rear-admiral 
of the blue. 
Capt. J. Bowen. 
Impregnable 98 John Thomas. 

{C. M. Pole, Esq. rear-admiral of 
the blue. 
Capt. H. Jenkins. 

Alfred 74 Thomas Drury. 

Irresistible 74 George Murray. 

Trident 6-1 Ed. O. Osborne. 

Dictator 64 Thomas Totty. 

Lion C4 Edm. Crawlcy. 

Abcrgfivemiy . . 54 E. T. Smith. 

* During this tremendous gale, a shpck of an earthquake .was felft in 
several parts of the kingdom. 



MEMOIR Of THE PUBLIC SERVICES O7 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

Hindostan .... 50 Thomas Bertie. 

Grampus 50 John Williamson. 

Malabar 50 Thomas Parr. 

Alcmene 32 William Browne. 

Babet 24 W. G. Lobb. 

Dover (A. T.) - - Lieutenant T. H. Wilson. 

Ulysses (A.T.) - G. Lempriere. 

This ill-fated squadron was again dispersed by a violent storm. 
On the 29th of January, 1796, the Glory, Impregnable, Colossus, 
Irresistible, Trident', Lion, Alcmene, and Prompte, andtheVesu- 
Tius bomb, with about fifty sail of transports and merchantmen, 
were obliged to return to Spithead ; many of them in a very dis- 
abled condition, having for seven weeks encountered weather of 
the most dreadfully tempestuous description. The rest of the ships 
of war, and several of the merchant vessels, arrived safely at their 
places of destination , but others, less fortunate, were either lost, 
or taken by the enemy's cruisers. 

On the 17th of February, Admiral Christian had the honour of 
being invested with the insignia of the most honourable military 
order of the Bath, at St. James's, previously to his going out ta 
assume the chief command in the West Indies. 

On the 20th of March, having hoisted his flag in the Thun- 
derer, he sailed from Spithead with the following squadron ; con* 
roying such of the transports and merchantmen as were ready, to 
that station :- 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

{Sir II. C. Christian, K.B. rear- 
admiral of the blue. 
Capt. J. Bowen. 

Invincible 74 William Cayley. 

Grampus 54 John Williamson. 

La Prompte 20 George Eyre. 

Swallow, brig. .. 18 George Fowke. 

Allbicore 16 R. Winthorpe. 

Terror, bomb .. 8 lion. D.Douglas. 

Sir H. C. Christian arrived in Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, on the 
21st of April, and joined Admiral Sir John Laforey, who, on the 
following day, sailed with the fleet of men-of-war and transports, 



THE LA.TE SIR HUGH CLOBERttY CHRISTIAN, K.B. 183 

for Marin Bay, Martinico, where he anchored on the 23d, and 
resigned the command on the 24th.* 

On the evening of the 26th, Sir Hugh proceeded with the 

following squadron, and a number of transports, having on board 

a large body of troops, under the command of Lieutenant-general 

Sir Ralph Abercromby, to the attack of the island of St. Lucia : 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

[ Sir II. C. Christian, K.B. rear- 

Thunderer 74-j admiral of the blue. 

[_ Capt. J. Bow-en. 

Canada 74 Geo. Bowen. 

Vengeance 74 - T. M. Russell. 

Minotaur 74 Tho. Louis. 

Ganges 74 R. M'Douall. 

Alfred *. . 74 Thomas Durrj. 

Hindostan 54 Thomas Bertie. 

Madras 54 J. Dilkes. 

Abergavenny ,.54 Ed. T. Smith. 

Charon 44 J. Stevenson. 

Beaulieu 40 L. Skinner. 

Arethusa 33 Thomas Wolley. 

Hebe 38 M. H. Scott. 

Undaunted .... 36 H.Roberts. 

Astrea 32 R. Lane. 

Laurel 03 R. R u es . 

Fury 16 H.Evans. 

Bull Dog 16 G. F. Ryves. 

Pelican, brig 16 J. C. Searle. 

Victorieuse, do. . 14 J. Maimvaring. 

Woolwich (S. S.) 44 Dan. Dobree. 

Tourterelle 20 Ed. Fellows. 

Beaver .'_ ... 16 S. G. Warren. 

Terror, bomb 8 Hon. D. Douglas. 

The disposition for landing the troops having been previously 
arranged, the debarkation of two divisions was speedily efiecteJ, 
with very little opposition, in Choc Bay, under cover of the 
Vengeance, Ganges, Alfred, Arethusa, Beaulieu, Hebe, Astrea, 
Pelican, and Victorieuse brig. Sir Hugh Christian, in his despatch 
to the Admiralty, dated Thunderer, Choc Bay, St. Lucia, May 
4, 1796, says : 

" The time for preparation was but short, the admiral (Sir John Lafo'rey) 
having proposed to make his arrangement for the expedition in Mai'in Bay; 

* Sir Joha Laforev returned to England in the Majestic. 



184 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

but I felt the necessity of prompt exertion, and therefore ventured upon a 
hasty arrangement rather than delay the ardour of the troops, or lose time 
fn so advanced a season. The general's plan of attack required support in 
three separate divisions, by ships of force ; the first was to take place in 
Longueville Bay, at Ancc la Cap and A nee Bequene; the second in the 
Choc Bay ; and the third at Ance la Have, some distance to the southward 
of theCul deSac. 

" The first point of landing was commanded by a battery of five guns, 
placed on the low point of Pigeon Island ; and it was supposed that another 
lattery commanded the hay of I.ongucville. 

" I therefore directed the Vengeance, Ganges, Ilcbe, and Pelican, brig, 
to cover this landing, with instructions for the Hebe to lead into Ance la 
Cap, the Ganges to support her, and the Pelican to anchor in the Ance* 
Bequene. The Vengeance I kept upon the weather-beam of the Astrea, in 
order that she might, if necessary, cover the Ganges, by anchoring in the 
ngle of Pigeon Island lattery. The position was taken by the three ships 
with reat spirit and judgment : the fire from the ships kept the battery at 
check, dismounted one of tl>e guns, and the troops landed without opposi- 
tion. The second division was directed to be led by the Alfred to the 
'anchorage of Choc Bay; the third by Captain Dilkcs, of the Madras, sup- 
ported by the Beaulieu. A strong !ee current had driven the body of the 
transports so far to leeward, that it was not possible to effect the landing in 
Choc Bay, and the one intended for Ance la Raye was, for the same rea- 
son?, deferred ; but the Vengeance, Arethusa, and Victorieuse brig were 
ordered to take the several covering stations in Choc Bay at break of day 
on the 2< th, when the landing was eiiected at half past ten A.M. and equally 
without opposition. The signal was made at the sume time to Capta'n 
DilkoP to put his orders into execution, but this division did not land until 
the 2: 

At the time here mentioned, the whole of the troops were 
landed, and they immediately proceeded to the attack of the 
enemy's different posts, which were of considerable strength, and 
defended with the greatest obstinacy. At length, driven from one 
to the other, they retreated into Morne Fortune. 

" The enemy," says the admiral, in his official letter, " retreated from 
their distant posts, and have entered the Morne Fortune, which height the 
general is surrounding and preparing to attack; to assist the measure, I 
have, iu consequence of the rrencral's requisition to that effect, lauded 300 
-seamen, under the command of Captain Lane, of the Astrea, and Captain 
Kyves, of the Bull Dcg. 

" The ger.eral directed, on the 2d instant, nn attack to be made against 
the batteries on the northern side of the graud Cul cje Sac, with a view to 
obtain that anchorage, and thereby facilitate the landing artillery and 
erecting batteries: the attack was proposed to take place at day-break on 
t!ie 3d by three columns, commanded by Major-general Mori-head ; two o 




Tin-; 



uhd Tfay.aLlBOQ. fyJ.Gclcl. Sfu-e Lane, fleet Street-, 



MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES 

OF THE 

RIGHT HOX. ALAN HYDE LORD GARDNER. 

HEAn-ADMIUAL OF THE BLUE SQUADRON. 



" A noble scyon of a noble stock.*' A.NOX. 

THE Right Honourable Lord Gardner, whose public services 
have already reflected so much credit on himself, and on the 
professional tuition of his late respected father, was born on the 
6th of February, in the year 1772. He is the eldest son of the 
late Admiral Lord Gardner, by Susanna Hyde, the only daughter 
and heiress of Francis Gale, Esq. of Liguania, in the island of 
Jamaica.* 

Of the late Admiral, we observed, that, like most persons who 
have obtained an eminent rank in the navy, he entered into the 
service at an early period of life. His son, in 1781, while only in 
his tenth year, commenced his naval progress. He first embarked in 
the Duke, and served in that ship, under the auspices of his father, 
in the memorable action of the 12th of April, 1782. " On this 
glorious day, the Duke was second to the Formidable, the flag- 
skip of Sir George Rodney, and Captain Gardner had the honour 
first to break through the enemy's line of battle." t Our young 
midshipman, who served as captain's aid-du-camp on this occasion, 
received an early proof, in his own person, of the dangers to which, 
his profession exposed him ; as, in the course of the engagement, 
he received a wound, which, though it might have been thought 
Hghtly oi" by a veteran, must have been sufficiently alarming to a 
boy who had only just completed his tenth year. 

After the conclusion of the war, Mr. Gardner continued to serve 
in various ships ; and in the year 1787, was promoted to the rank 

* See the heraldic particulars, relating to the family or' Lord Gard- 
ner, affixed to our biographical memoir of his father, the iate admiral. 

NAVAL CIUIOXICLE, Vol. VIII. page 197. His lordship died at Bath, 

*m the 1st of January, in the present year. Vide page 37 of this volume. 

t Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. VIII. page 191. 

, Cferon. flol. XXI. z z 



358 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

of lieutenant. In 1789, he was made commander ; and in the 
general promotion of 1790, was farther advanced to the rank of 
post captain, by commission bearing date November 12, in that 
year. 

Captain Gardner -was now appointed, by the Admiralty, to 
command the Daphne, of 20 guns ; but was soon removed from 
that ship into the Circe, of 28 guns ; in which he continued till the 
breaking out of the late war with France, when he was appointed 
to the Heroine, of 32 guns. 

Early in the year 1793, he proceeded with a squadron of ships, 
under the command of Rear-admiral Gardner, to the attack of 
Martinique, in the West Indies ;* but subsequently to the capture 
of Tobago, which had been effected before the Rear-admiral's 
arrival, nothing of importance was achieved against the possessions 
of the enemy, on that station., during the season ; and in the autumn, 
Captain Gardner accompanied the squadron on its return to 
England t 

Remaining in the Heroine, he was soon afterwards ordered to 
India, where for some time he was actively employed in protecting 
the trade against the enemy's cruisers. Commodore (the late 
Admiral) Peter Rainier was, at this time, commander-in-chief on 

* Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. VIII. page 193. 

-r Rear-admiral Gardner succeeded Sir John Laforey in the command, on 
the Leeward Island station. Encouraged by the disputes which existed 
between the Royalists and Republicans, at Martinique, the expedition had 
been fitted out; and invited by the former, Admiral Gardner, and Major- 
general Bruce, attempted a descent on the island. On the 16th of June, 
under cover of the ships of war, the General landed, with a body of about 
3000 British troops ; but, finding the republican party too strong, he was 
obliged to reimbark, on the 21st, with considerable loss, particularly to the 
royalists, many of whom could not be taken on board the ships, and were 
unavoidably left to perish by the hands of their implacable enemies. The 
Ferine, a French ship of 74 guns, conimanded'by the Vicomte de Riviere, 
and the Calypso frigate, of 36 guns, put themselves under the orders of 
Admiral Gardner, and saved a number of their unfortunate countrymen 
from destruction, with whom they proceeded to Trinidad. The ships, 
commanded by French officers, were taken into the Spanish service. Mar- 
tinique was taken in the following year, by Sir John Jervis and Sir C. Grey. 
Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. IV. page 13. For a map of the island, by 
Arrowsmith, accompanied by an historical and descriptive account, vide also 
Vol. XIII. page 474. 



THE RIGHT HON. ALAN HYDE LORD GARDNER. 359 

the India station. In the month of July, 1795, the Cape of Good 
Hope was taken, by Admiral Keith's squadron ; and, no sooner 
was Commodore Rainier* apprised of hostilities having been com- 
menced against the Dutch, than he disposed of his shipst in such a 
manner as might most effectually annoy their trade; and, in con- 
junction with the Presidency of Madras, he adopted the most 
judicious plans for the reduction of their settlements. His first 
object, in the accomplishment of which Captain Gardner partici- 
pated, was to secure the port of Trincomale, and the other valuable 
possessions which the Dutch held in the island of Ceylon. This 
service occupies a portion of naval history, not yet, we believe, 
adverted to in our Chronicle; and, as Captain Gardner was en- 
gaged in nearly the whole of the proceedings, occasionally as a 
principal, the following summary sketch may not be thought un- 
conducive to the general interest of this memoir. 

The expedition against Trincomale having been determined on, 
Lord Hobart, the governor of Madras, and Commodore Rainier, 
despatched Captain Gardner in the Heroine, with Major Agnew, 
to Columbo, to explain its object to the governor-general of Cey- 
lon. In the mean time, a body of troops, under the command of 
General Stuart, with ammunition and stores, were embarked on 
board the ships of war and transports. The expedition sailed from 

* The commodore was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral of the blue 
squadron, in the month of June, 1795. 

f The following appear to have been the whole of the squadron at this 
time under Commodore Rainier's command : 

Shijj$. Guns. Con^munde.rt. 

F P. Rainier, Esq. Commodore. 
Suffolk 74 \ Captain R. Lambert. 

* Arrogant 74 Richard Lucas. 

* Victorious...... 74 W.Clarke. 

i Centurion 50 Samuel Oshorne. 

* Resistance 44 Ed. Pakenliam. 

4 Diomcde. ...... 44 Matthew Smith. 

t Heroine 52 A. H. Gardner. 

* Orpheus 32 Henry Newcorae. 

Swift 16 J. Doling. 

* Joined in 

+ At ttie taking of Trincomale. 
At the taking oi' Malacca. 



SCO MEMOIH OK THE FUBUC SERVICES OF 

Madras on the 21st of July ; and, at the same time, the Commo- 
dore detached Captain Edward Pakenhain. in the Resistance, \vith 
Ihe Suffolk's tender, and a transport, having a party of European, 
and native troops on board, to assist at the reduction of Malacca. 
On the 23d, the squadron arrived off Negapatnam, where it took 
on boa'rd some additional troops that had been destined for the ser- 
vice, and proceeded thence to the place of its destination, on the 
25th. On the 1st of August, the expedition anchored in Back 
Bay; having been joined, on the preceding day, by (he Heroine, 
with Captain Gardner and Major Agnew. The major had brought 
with him an order, from the governor general of Ceylon to the 
commandant of Trincomale, to admit 300 of his Britannic Majes- 
ty's troops to garrison FortOstenburgh ; but, when the order was 
presented, the commandant, under the pretence of an informality 
in the instrument, refused obedience. Nearly two days having 
been spent in useless remonstrances, it was resolved to land the 
troops ; and, to facilitate the disembarkation, the ships of war and 
transports -were ordered to n)ove nearer to the shore. In per- 
forming this service, the Diomedc, with a transport in tow, struck 
upon a sunken rock with such violence, that there was scarcely 
time to save the crew before she foundered, with all her stores on 
board. Notwithstanding the most vigorous exertions of the 
officers and men, who had to encounter much danger from the 
violence of an extraordinarily high surf, occasioned by a continu- 
ance of a string land wind, ten days had elapsed before the whole 
of the troops, provisions, and stores were landed. 

At length, on the 18th of the month (August) the troops com- 
menced their march, under cover of the guns from the shipping, 
and without any molestation from the enemy. On the 23d, the 
batteries were completed ; and a fire was opened with such effect, 
that, before noon, on the 26th, a practicable breach was made. 
The garrison was then summoned to surrender ; but, as the com- 
mandant demanded terms which were considered inadmissible, and 
refused to accede to those which were sent in return, hostilities 
were necessarily recommenced. Three hundred seamen and ma- 
rines were also landed, under the command of Captain Smith, late 
of the Diomede, with Lieutenants Page and Hay ward, of thena.vy } 
and Lieutenants M 'Gibbon and Perceval, of the marines, for the 



THE RIGHT HON. ALAN IITDE LORD GARDNER. 361 

purpose of assisting to storm the breach, should the enemy deter- 
mine to hold out. In a fe\v minutes, however, the white flag was 
displayed from the ramparts, and the Dutch commandant accepted 
the terms which had been offered. Fort Ostenburgh held out 
until the 31st; but then surrendered on the same terms as those 
which had been granted to Trincomale. 

The loss which was sustained by the English upon this occasion, 
amounted to one seaman killed, and six wounded ; and fifteen 
soldiers killed ; one major, one captain, one lieutenant, one ensign, 
and 48 men wounded. 

The Dutch settlement at Malacca had previously surrendered, 
by capitulation, to Captain Newcome, of the Orpheus, on the 
17th of August. 

The next service which occupied the attention of Admiral 
Rainier, was the expedition against the Molucca Islands ; and, 
when he sailed from Madras, for the purpose of attacking those 
settlements, he left Captain Gardner as senior officer of his 
Majesty's ships and vessels on the coast of Coromandel and 
Malabar.* 

Captain Gardner had now the satisfaction of being entrusted 
with the conduct of the naval part of an expedition, though only 
on a small scale, himself. Early in 1796, he was detached, with 
the following squadron, to co-operate with a body of troops, under 
Colonel Stuart, iu the reduction of Columbo, on the island of 
Ceylon : 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

Heroine ...... 32 Captain A. II. Gardner. 

Rattlesnake 16 Edward Ilamage. 

Echo.. 16' Andrew Todd. 



* On the 16th of February, 179(5, Admiral Rainier reduced the settle- 
ment of Amboyjia, and its dependencies; and, on the 8th of March, Banda 
was also delivered up to him. In the treasury at Amboyna lie found 
81.1!',' rix dollars, and in store, 515,940 pounds weight of cloves. In the 
treasury at Banda, he found 66,075 rix dollars, 84,777 pounds of nutmegs, 
19,587 pounds of mace, and merchandise and other stores of great value. 
Banda is the principal of a group of islands in the eastern sea, lying to the 
eastward of the Celebes. Their chief produce is nutmegs, with which they 
are thought to be capable of supplying the wants of all the world. 



862 MEM01K OF THE TUBLIC SERTICtS OF 

Shipt. Gunf. Commanders. 

Swift 16 J. S. Rainier. 

* Bombay frigate ... 20 

* Drake, brig 14 

* Queen, ketch 12 

f Bombay Castle ... 24 
i Prince of Wales . . 24 

On the 5th of February, this squadron having anchored off 
Ncgombo, about eighteen miles to the northward of Columbo a 
small body of troops was landed, under Major Barbert, who im- 
mediately took possession of a fort which had been evacuated by 
the enemy. By the evening of the 6th, the whole army had dis- 
embarked. Colonel Stuart then proceeded, with a part of his 
force, against a strong post on the south bank of the Matual 
river, which he carried on the morning of the 12th ; at which 
time, Captain Gardner brought the squadron to anchor, about two 
miles from the fortress of Columbo, where he landed some guns, 
ptores, &c. with the view of commencing and carrying on the 
eiege ; and, on the 14th, in conjunction with Colonel Stuart, he 
summoned the governor to surrender. A capitulation was ac-? 
cordingly agreed to on the following day, by which Columbo, and 
the remaining possessions of the Dutch in Ceylon, submitted te> 
Jus Majesty's arms. 

Immediately that the object of the expedition had been accom- 
plished, Captain Gardner sent the following despatch home, 
overland, by his first lieutenant, Mr. John Davies : 

" His Majesty's ship Heroine, Columbo Road, 
" SIR, February 16, 179C. 

" Having receired directions from Sir George Keith Elphinstone, com- 
inander-in-chief of his Majesty's ships and vessels in these seas, to take 
under my orders the ships of his Majesty, and those of the Honourable 
United East India Company, named in the margin, + and to co-operate 
with Colonel Stuart, commander of the land forces, in the reduction of 
Columbo, it is with peculiar satisfaction I announce to you the surrenderor 
that fortress, with the remaining possessions under the Dutch authority oil 
the island of Ceylon, on the 15th instant. I have the honour to transmit 
herewith the terms on which these places have become part of his Majesty's 
dominions. 

* Belonging tu the East India Company's Marine. 

+ East India ships. 

1 v 

Rattlesnake, Echo, Prince of Wales, Bombay Castle, Bomjbay frigate^ 

Drake brig, Queen ketch, and Ssvift. 



fHE RIGHT HOK. ALAV HYDE LORD GARDNER. 3Q3 

** The transports having been collected off Negombo, an anchorage 
eighteen miles to the northward of this place, on the 5th instant, and that 
fort having been evacuated by the enemy, was taken possession of hv Major 
Barbert on the same day, and the whole of the army landed by the eveniij"- 
of the 6rh instant. 

" The inland navigation from Neeombo to Columbo not being found 
adequate to the purpose of carrying the stores, provisions, &c. to the ground 
necessary for the army to occupy previous to opening our batteries, Colonel 
Stuart marched, with a part of his force, to possess itim>elf of a strop.^ no-t 
which the enemy opposed to him on the south bank of the Mutual river 
which, from his judicious and able conduct, was happily carried on the 
monrng of the 12th, with little loss on our side, and considerable to the 
enemy, who fled tor protection under the walls of the for:, and enabled th 
Colonel to take up his final position before Columbo on the evening of 
the same day. 

" I ako anchored, on the morning of the 1 2th, with the ships of war and 
transports, about two miles from tlie fortress, in a very favourable situation 
for binding the guns, &c. of which there being a sufficient number put on 
shore, on the 14rh Colonel Stuart and mysel f summoned the fort to surren- 
der, and its success will be fully explained by the articles of capitulation 
which I have before alluded to, and which I humbly hope may meet his 
Majesty's approbation. 

" It becomes me, and is a very pleasing part of my duty, to mal;e known 
to you for his Majesty's information, the zeal and activity which have 
actuated every description of officers and men employed under my orders ; 
and I am happy to inform you, that three seamen of the Swift, wounded, 
are the only casualties of the siege. First lieutenant Davies, of the llroirif , 
an officer of great merit, who has given me every assistance on this service 
which his relative situation enabled him to do, will have the honour of 
delivering to you this despatch ; and I beg leave to recommend him to your 
favourable notice and protection. 

" I have the honour to be, &c. 

" A. 11. GARDNER.* 

* By the articles of capitulation, mentioned in the above despatch, and 
signed on the 15th of February, the fortress of Columbo was, with its de- 
pendencies, surrendered the next morning by Governor Van Angelbeck, to 
his Britannic Majesty's forces. The garrison was to inarch out and pile 
their arms, and become prisoners of war; private property was declared 
safe, but public property (belonging to the Dutch East India Company) 
was all to be taken possession of by tne captors. The value of the pepper, 
cinnamon, and ether merchandize only, independent of the ships, military 
and naval stores, was stated in the capitulation at 23 lacks of rupees, at the 
lowest. The inhabitants of the country, submitting to the dominion of hi 
Majesty, were declared free in their persons and property ; the funds of 
charitable foundations, &c. were to remain untouched, and for their peculiar 
appropriations ; and certain promissory notes recently issued for inonej 
borrowed of the servants of the Dutch Company, were engaged to be con- 
tidered to the amount of 50,OOOL us a dtbt of Great Britain. 



SG4 MEMOIR OF THE fUBUC SERVICES OF 

Caplain Gardner also succeeded in reducing the Dutch settlement 
of Cochin, on the coast of Malabar. 

Shortly after the completion! of this service, in March 1796, he 
united himself, in marriage, with Miss Maria Adderley, the daugh- 
ter of Baroness Hobart ; whose husband, Lord Hobart, now Eari 
of Buckinghamshire, was at that time governor of Madras.* 
This marriage has since been dissolved by Act of Parliament. 

Captain Gardner returned to England in the course of the year ; 
and, in January, 1797, was appointed to the Ruby, of 64 guns, 
in which he joined the Channel fleet, under Lord Bridport, when 
that officer assumed the chief command. + From the Ruby he was 
soon afterwards promoted to the Resolution, of 74 guns ; and in 
that ship he continued to serve, in the same fleet, until the con- 
clusion of the war, in 1802, when she was paid oft' at Chatham. 

Except in the event of a general engagement taking place, the 
commander of a linc-of-battlc ship has seldom much opportunity 
of distinguishing himself in the Channel fleet ; and, were it not for 
the satisfaction which arises from a conscientious discharge of pub- 
lic duty, the dull routine of the service would, we conceive, be 
almost insupportable. It may be thought, however, to reflect 
some credit upon Captain Gardner, that the crew of the Resolu- 
tion, while under his command, distinguished themselves by their 
steady and loyal conduct, during the mutiny which broke out in 
Bantry Bay, at the close of the year 1801. + The marines also of 
that ship were publicly thanked by the Admiralty, for having 
volunteered their services to reduce the disorderly crews to a pro- 
per sense of their duty. 

* The lather of Miss Adderlcj was Thomas Adderley, Esq. oflnnishaimon, 
county of Cork. The lady was an only daughter. 

t This was in the month of April, on the resignation of Lord Howe. At 
that time, Vice-admiral Sir Alan Gardner became second in command, 
Vide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. I. page '.23 ; and Vol. VIII. page i96. 

+ The Resolution had been ordered to Bantry Bay, in the month of No- 
vember, with a detachment from the Channel fleet, under Vice-admiral Sir 
A. Mitchell, K.B. and, after cruising there for some time, the Resolution, 
Temeraire, Formidable, Majestic, Vengeance, and Orion, were ordered 
to the West Indies. In consequence, however, of the mutiny which broke 
out on board the Temeraire, Rear-admiral Campbell's flag-ship, the sailing 
of those ships was suspended,. J "vie. NAVAL CHROMCLK, Vol. XVI. page 
105; aud Vol. VII. page 46. 



THE RIGHT HON. ALAN HYDE LORD GARDNER. 365 

When the present war broke out, Captain Gardner, as an 
officer of tried abilities, was appointed to the Hero, of 74 guns, ia 
which he joined the Channel fleet, then under the command of 
Lord Bridport. 

In Sir Robert Calder's action with the combined fleets of France 
and Spain, on the 22d of July, 1S05, Captain Gardner had the 
honour to lead the van squadron ; and, in so judicious and masterly 
a style did he perform that service, that his conduct was noticed 
by the admiral, in his public despatch.* On this occasion, it will 
be recollected, the Rafael, of 84 guns, and the Firme, of 74, were 
both captured, f 

It was afterwards the good fortune of Captain Gardner to be 
ene of the squadron which was detached from the Channel fleet, 
under the orders of Captain (now Rear-admiral) Shr Richard 
Strachan ; which, it will be well remembered, after a severe battle, 
on the 4th of November, 1805, captured an equal number of 
ships, one of which bore a rear-admiral's flag, t In this action, as 
well as in that of Sir Robert Calder, Captain Gardner had the 
honour to lead ; and he was some time engaged with the Formi- 
ilable, the French flag-ship, of 80 guns, before the Namur, Cap- 
tain Hals ted, came up with the rest of the squadron. The total 
loss sustained by the English was small ; a circumstance accounted 
for, by Sir Richard Strachan, by " the enemy firing high, and we 
closing suddenly ;" but Captain Gardner's ship (the Hero) had 

* The Hon. Captain Gardner, of the Hero," says Sir Robert Calder, 
" led the van squadron in a most masterly and officer-like manner, to whom 
I feel mi/self particularly indebted." The Hero, on this occasion, had one 
iiian ki'lied, and tour wounded. Tide NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. XIV. 
page I6'J. 

f For the official accounts of this action, the reader is referred to thq 
XlVth volume of the NAVAL CHRONICLE, page 163; for Minutes of the 
Action," &c. also see Vol. XIV. page 168 ; for Admiral V.lleneuve's 
despatches to the French government, see Vol. XIV. page 170; and, for a 
biographical memoir of Sir Robert Calder, with farther particulars, se 
Vol. XVII. page 99. 

+ M Dumnnoir le Pelley, who was woundei in the action ; for the 
official particulars of which, vide NAVAL CHROJUCLK, Vol. XIV. page 420, 
et sej. 

JoU XXI. 3 A 



S68 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

10 men killed, and 51 wounded ; numbers amounting to nearly 
half the total of each. 

For this service, he, with his brave associates, received the 
thanks of Parliament, and was honoured with a gold medal, 
similar to that which was first struck, by order of his Majesty, 
commemorative of the glorious victory of the 1st of June, 1794. 
A valuable sword was also awarded to him by the members of the 
Patriotic Fund at Lloyd's. 

Continuing in the Hero, Captain Gardner was employed, in the 
early part of the year 1806, with the squadron under the command 
of Sir John Borlase; Warren, in search of the enemy's squadron 
which had escaped from Rochefort ; and was consequently present 
at the capture of the Marengo and the Belle Poule, the former 
of which bore the flag of Admiral Linois, on the 13th of 
March.* 

In the year 1807, Captain Gardner was appointed captain of 
the Channel fleet; an appointment which he continued to hold, 
till the retirement, from ill health, of the late lamented Lord Gard- 
ner, the commander-in.chief. 

Soon afterwards (on the 28th of April, 1808) he was promoted 
to the rank of rear-admiral of the blue squadron, and immediately 
hoisted his flag on board the Bellerophon, of 74 guns ; since which 
he has been employed, with a squadron, in watching the motions 
of the enemy in the Scheldt; and, at present, he is engaged in the 
dull, but necessary service, of blockading the Dutch fleet in the 
Tex el. That the enemy may speedily give him an opportunity of 
fighting, instead of blockading, we have no doubt the admiral, as 



* Sir John Warren's official account of tlnVaction is given in the XVth 
Volume of the NAVAL CHRONICLE, page 433. It was, we believe, about the 
14th of January, that the Admiral sailed from Portsmouth, with a squadron 
of seven sail of the line, two frigates, two brigs, and a cutter. He arrived 
off Madeira on the 15th of the following month, and continued cruising for 
some time off the Cape de Verd Islands ]t was on the morning of the 
13th of March that two strange sail were descried, which afterwards proved 
to be the Marengo and the Belle 'Poule, returning from the East Indies 
An action ensued, which terminated in their capture. Sir John Warren 
then put into Port Praya, in the island of St. Jago, to refit; and, after 
encountering a dangerous storm, in which the Marengo lost all her masts, 
be arrived safe at Spithead, with his prizes, on the 14th of May. 



THE RIGHT HON. ALAN HYDE LORD GARDNER. 367 

trell as every one of the brave tars under him, most cordially 
wishes. 

We have only to add, that at the commencement of the present 
year, on the death of the late Lord Gardner, as has been already 
stated, the gallant subject of this memoir succeeded to the family 
honours and estates. May he long enjoy them, to. the credit and 
advantage of himself and of his country. 



HERALDIC PARTICULARS. 

For a full account of this family AVC must refer our readers to the 
life of his lordship's father, in Volume VIII. page 197 ; and in this 
place have merely to state, that his lordship was born on the 6th of 
February, 1771, and married in 1796 Maria Elizabeth, only- 
daughter of Thomas Adderley, of Innishannon, in the county of 
Cork, Esq. some time member of Parliament for that county : his 
. lordship married secondly, on the 10th of April, 1809, the Hon. 
Charlotte Smith, daughter of Lord Carrington. 

His lordship's brother, William Henry, married 20th February, 
1803, to Eliza Lydia, third daughter of Colonel Fyers, command- 
ing Royal Engineer at Gibraltar, by whom he has issue Anne- 
Europa, born 10th December, 1804, and Eliza, born January 
17, 1806. 

The Hon. Herbert Gardner, another of his lordship's brothers, 
married 7th November, 1804, the youngest daughter of the late 
John Cornwall, Esq. 

ARMS. Or, on a cheveron, gules, between three Griffins' heads 
erazed, azure ; an anchor erect, with a piece of cable supported 
by two lions, ch'everon-ways of the field. 

CREST. A Demi-Griffin, azure, collared and chained, or, sup- 
porting an anchor as in the arms. 

SUPPORTERS. On either side a Griffin, azure, gorged with a 
naval coronet, or, the dexter paw resting on an anchor, sable. 

MOTTO. Valet anclwra virtus. 



3G8 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c. 



XANTE3 IN GURGITE VASTO. 



I 



GALLANTRY OF LOUD COCHRANI. 

T is not very surprising, perhaps, that the appointment of so 
young an officer as Lord Cochrane, to a service so important 
as that in which he recently acquired so much honour, should ex- 
cite a degree of jealousy in the navy ; particularly when it is con- 
sidered, that he was not even attached to the lleet, under whos* 
commander he was appointed to act. If there were any blame, 
however, in the appointment, it was by no means imputable to his 
lordship ; who, on the contrary, is entitled to the highest praise, 
not only for the wisdom of the plan, but for the promptness and 
efficacy of its execution ; and it would be ungenerous in the ex- 
treme to deprive him of any portion of that glory, which he has so 
nobly earned. With this feeling, therefore, and disclaiming every 
party sentiment on the subject, we transcribe the following article 
from a Morning Paper. The w r riter is evidently not over friendly 
to the present system of naval management; but, without inquiring 
into the justness of his opinions or allusions on that point, we con- 
sider the narrative part of his matter, as relating to the professional 
conduct of Lord Cochrane, to be too important to withhold from