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Full text of "The Naval chronicle : containing a general and biographical history of the royal navy of the United kingdom with a variety of original papers on nautical subjects"

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THE UNIVERSITY 

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THE 




FOU 1809: ' 

containing'a 

GENERAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

OF 

THE MOYAIL NAYY 

OF THE 

WITH A VARIETY OF ORIGINAL PAPERS ON 
NAUTICAL SUBJECTS. 



UNDER THE GUIDA>fCE OF SEVERAI, 

LITERARY AND PROFESSIONAL MEN, 



VOL. XXII. 

(from JULY TO DECEMBER.) 



" O'er many Nations alt thou set, to deal 

The Goods of Fortune with impartial hand; 
And ever watchful of the publit k wtal, 

C/nnumbei'd Witnesses around tliec stand. 
. . . In generous purposes confirm thy breast. 

Nor dread Expenses that will grace iliy name; 
But scorning sordid and unprincely gain 

Spread all thy bounteous Sails, and launch into the Main." 

U'esVs Pindar, Pi/iliean Odes, 1, Decade xix. 



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PREFACE 

TO THE TWENTY-SECOND VOLUME. 



JL HE destruction of the French ships and transports by 
Admiral G. Martin, under the orders of Lord Colhngwood, as 
given in our Letters on Service (page 500) must have proved a 
severe blow to the enemy, and have given renewed spirit to the 
exertions of the Spanish patriots, whose cause, however despe- 
rate, still preserves a prolonged chaiacter of determined resist- 
ance, which but ill agrees with the vaunting threats of the 
Corsican. Nor docs the defeat of the ai:my of La Mancha, 
under General Areizaga, however great his loss, tend to destroy 
the hopes we have so long cherished, that the cause of liberty will 
eventually triumph in the noblest part of Continental Europe. 

The protests of the Princess of the Brazils, and of her cou- 
sin, the Spanish Prince, with the Declaration of Don Pedro 
Carlos de Bourbon y Braganza, the Portuguese Great Admiral, 
are inserted (page 34 — 42) and are interesting documents : to 
our worthy Correspondent that transmitted them, and was at the 
trouble of translating the same, we are under particular obligations. 
The death of the Duke of Portland during the period this 
Volume embraces, has certainly been a great loss to the 
country : he was a nobleman of upright integritv, and of a most 
amiable character. The disputes which have agitated the cabinet 
for so many months, as detailed in Mr. Canning's letter in the 
public prints, must have been viewed with exultation at Paris, 
and given the wily Usurper a mean idea of our wisdom and 
patriotism. In the mean time the Marquis Wellcsley has 
arrived in the Donnegal, and succeeded Mr. Canning; and Lord 
Grenville has followed the Duke of Portland in the Chancellor- 
ship of the University of Oxford. We think the political horizon 
looks black and dirty, and expect to hear of violent squalls and 
hurricanes during the winter fiom the St. Stephen's State Vessel. 
Whilst Buonap'arte continues to puisiie one undeviating line of 
policy, our state dissensions and cabals continually check and 
interrupt whatever system had been adopted by our cabinet, and 
inevitably give considerable advantages to our enemies. How- 



VI PREFACE. 

ever, amidst the late convulsion, the Admiralty, excepting the 
secession of Lord Pahuerston and Mr. Pole, coniinues in the 
same state. When the whole of the Walcheren Expedition 
shall be laid before Parliament, we shall have an opporlunity of 
examining more minutely the conduct of the Board on diat 
lamentable occasion, and of ascertaining the disputes which are 
said to have existed between our naval and military commanders. 

Amidst the Naval Biography in this Volume, we have 
given memoirs of ihe public services of Lord Cochrane, of Cap- 
tain Palmer, of the late Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, of Sir 
Chaloner Ogle, of Admiral Whitshed, and of Sn" William Row- 
ley. These will be followed, and if possible in our next 
Volume, M'ith memoirs of the public services of the late Sir 
Alexander Ball, Governor of Malta, and of his successor the 
present Admiral Sir R. G. Keats : and we request such officers 
as have served with either to favour us with their comnmnica- 
tions. The life of the late Sir Richard Pearson, so long pro- 
mised, has not been forgotten. We are anxious to procure ma- 
terials for a memoir of that excellent officer. Commodore Owen. 

In our CoHUESPONDENCE wc trust many letters have been 
inserted in the present Volume of utility and interest to pro- 
fessional men, and to readers in general. It is in this depart- 
ment of our work, that we particularly request the assistance of 
our friends. We are much obliged to Pluladelphus, from 
Dover, (page 29) for correcting an error of Sir J. Carr's respect- 
ing Sir Sidney Smith : if we are not mistaken, Philadelpl>us is 
in possession of many facts respecting the Turkish navy, which, 
if he would occasionally communicate, would add much to our 
pages. To Amerigo J espucci we have to reply, that the autho- 
rity on which Tim Weatherside (Vol. 21, page 43) placed the 
noted land fall, Cape Frio, was that of Arrowsmith, w ho gave it 
from undoubted authority. Bronles, and other Correspondents 
on the Rocket System, will accept our thanks for their commu- 
nications. Our Correspondent E.M. in his letter respecting the 
Siege of Acre, (page 33) has not given suflicient credit to the 
French engineer, PhelUpeaux, who arranged and conducted the 
whole siege, and died in consequence of the fatigue he experi- 
enced. Mr. Clarke, in the life of Lord Nelson, which he has 
lately published, in conjunction with ISIr. INi'Arthur, treats on 
this subject, (Vol. 2, page IQO) and informs us, that " Colonel 
Phellipeaux had studied at the Military College with Buona- 
parte, in all their public examinations had invariably borne off 
the p ilm, and been acknowledged his superior. At Acre their 
respective talents \iere again tried, and the same superiority dis- 
played by this distinguished Royalist ; who having entirely 
baffled the force of Buonaparte, and arrested his career, died 
soon afterwards of a decline, from the fatigue he had expe- 
rienced." — The letters of A. F. Y. ure always interesting ; his 



PREFACE. Vn 

13th and 14th, on the present Management and Discipline of 
the Navy, appear at pages 104 and 464. A short one from th^ 
same Correspondent is inserted at page £91. We also thank 
our friend E. G. F. for his letter inserted at page 473. C. D. L. 
lias conferred a favour on us (page 375) by transmitting a more 
detailed account of the beneficial use of the Kew ISopa/, in the 
cure of scurvy, than what had appeared in Dr. Anderson's com- 
munication (Vol. 21, page 40). The Journal by Dr. W. Culleii 
Brown, of the iEtna bomb, of the various transactions which 
took place at Flushing (page 295) has enabled us to preserve 
a valuable document for the future historian, and to correct 
many of those vague accounts which had appealed. Mr. Bos- 
well's communications are always acceptable ; at page 29S, and 
under the head of Naval Improvements, we have inserted his 
communications respecting the ship Economy s as built on Mr. 
Bosweli's patent plan. And at page 300, is inserted Captain 
Malcolm Cowan's communication to the Navy Board, respect- 
ing the dangers to which his Majesty's ships and vessels are 
exposed, from the present mode of making sails in the navy. 
Mr. Fairfax rendered us an essential service by transmitting a 
copy of his chart of the position of the French tleet in A\x. 
Roads, on the 1 1th and 12th of April, whence our engraving was 
taken, (page 48). We are also much obliged to Sir Joseph 
Senhouse and many ©ther Correspondents, for their assistance 
and favours. 

Ami'dst the Philosophical Papers in the present 
Volume, which the press of various naval papers has obliged 
us in some numbers to omit, will be found, " Remarks on the 
best means of recovering persons apparently drowned, or who 
have been exposed to vapours and extreme cold," (page Qo). 
"Account of a newly-invented Windlass, by Mr. Fairless, of 
South Shields/' (page 9B). " Letters on the tendencv of 
Currents in the Atlantic Ocean from East to West," (page 191) 
*' Letter respecting Coal to be fi^'ind in the neiglibourhood of 
the Metropolis," (page 200). " Observations on Water Spouts, 
as seen from Nice, by M. Michaud, Correspondent of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences at Turin," (page 328). " Account of a 
fact in Hydrostatics, lately discovered by Mr. Roswell, and of 
an application of it in the formation of a ship's run, or angle of 
termuiation," (page 390). 

Under the head of Naval Poetry are preserved in the 
present Volume, many of the excellent ballads of the late Cap- 
tain E. Thompson, (pages oSo, 337, 406, and 407-) There are 
also some others, not generally known, which our friends would 
much oblige us by forwarding. "In our extracts from Mr. 
Walter Scott's beautiful poem of Marmion, as given in a for- 
mer Volume, we omitted to insert an allusion of his to our attack 
pn Copenhagen,, by which we oblained possession of the Danisk 



VlU PREFACE. 

fleet ; an allusion which is not generally known (Canto III. 
Stanza 26) : — 

'Tis said, that, in that awful night, 
Remoter visions met his siglit, 
Foreshowing future conquests far, 
When our s<;rib' sons wage northern war ; 
A Royal City, tower and spire, 
Redden'd the midnight sky with -fire; . 
And shouting crews her Navy bore, 
Triumphant, to the victor shore. 
Such signs may learned clerks explain, 
They pass the wit o{ simple swain." 

JNIr. Scott is at present occupied on another pocm^ styled, as we 
have heard, ^' The Lady of the Lake ; " which we hope will 
afford some further extracts connected with the subject of our 
Chronicle. — ^Joel Barlow's Poem of the Columbiad has 
been republished at Philadelphia in 1807 : we remember reading 
it, and with a good deal of pleasure, so far back as 1 790 : it has 
since undergone great alterations, but not always for the better. 

A greater portion of our Chronicle than we generally 
allot for the purpose, has been taken up by the Courts Martial ; 
that of the late Lord Camelford we have given complete in the 
present Volume — it is, we believe, almost ur.precedeuted, of an 
ofiicer being tried luider such circumstances : to the gentleman 
that so obligingly furnished us with the copy, we return our 
best thanks. 

Oiu' Letters on Service, which, combined, form a 
valuable digest of Naval Hist.^ry from 1799> are brought up in 
this Volume to the 5th of December. They contaui many 
splendid feats of heroism, on which we have not at present an 
opportunity to enlarge. We wish that officers would, on great 
occasions, send a copy of their original letter to the Chroni- 
cle. Li the Gazette it is frequently curtailed, and of late ViC 
have observed, as in the article dated " Adniiralty-Oiiice, No- 
vember 28," that the original letter is merely referred to, viz. 
f ice-admiral Hollozcay has transmitted to Jolt it IVUliam 
Croker, Esp a Letter from Captain Sir William Bolton, 
giving an Account, S;c. — jIIso a Letter from Captain E/ace, 
giving an account, &)X. — Jnd also a Letter from Captain 
(Forth, stating the capture, iSr. In these and other similar 
iiisances, the communication of a copy of the original letter to 
the Chronicle, would be of considerable service to subse- 
quent writers. 

At the instant of concluding this Preface, we hear of another 
attempt of the Corsican to regain his lost colonics, and rebuild 
his navy, by eudeavouriHg to^ajole us into a peace. Tiie pro- 
posal for a congress is said to have been received from the 
Austrian ambassador at Paris. We trust our ministers will 
rep'iy iii the words of a King, who resolving to pursue his des- 
tined purpose, would not be delayed by the messengers of the 
enemy — "■ What hast thuu to do with Peace; get thee behind me." 



THE 1 



('APT? JuOKD 




jll©^'»if*i 



.rMvrHjTl.\XiK.. 'K.:B.,sh 



PuUuhcJ Aiuf^lldCQ. U'J.CroUJ03. S)u,f Imu FIrH Shnt 




Tlie above Vignette Engraving by Nesbit, from a Drawing by Podock, represents the situa- 
tion of his Majesty's ship St. Fiorenzo,* with lier prize the Piedmontaise, as thej- appeared 
after the last tliree successive engagements olf the Island of Ceylon on the 8th of Marcii, 



MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES 

OF 

THE RIGHT HON. LORD COCHRANE, K.B. 

CAPTAIN IN THE ROYAL NAVY, &C. 



" A!! my ck'!i[rlit on deedes of armes is sctf,' 
To liiint out pcrillcs and adventures hard, 

Ti\ sea, by liind, wliereso ihey may be iticit, 
Oiiely for honour and for high le'jard, 
^\i'.llOut respect of ricliesse or rcuaid." — 



-Spe: 



njlIIAT spirit of bold cmpriso, by wliich Lord Corlirane, 
-^ from his earliest youth, has been disting'.ushed, has rendt^-rod 
him an object of interest to our readtTs, His late brilliant exjiloit — 
the destruction of the French fleet, ia Basque Roads — has brouglit 
him before the ptib'ie in a more conspicuous light than ever; we 
therefore feel sati:>faction, in submitting the present account of his 
lordship's professional services. 

The Right Hon. Thomas Lord Cochrane is the eldest son of the 
Earl of Dundonald, by his first lady, Anne, daughter of Captain 

* For the biographical memoir of the late gallant Cap;ain Hardinge, who coni- 
manded tlie St. Fiorenzo, see Vol. XX. of the Naval Chronicci, as also the 
fflicial and private accounts of the action and capture of the PieJniontaisk'. 



■* MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

Gilchrist, an officer of considerable eroineiice in the royal nary.* 
Ilis lordship's first ennobled ancestor was William Cochrane, who, 
in the year 1667, was created Baron Cochrane, and, in 1669, Earl 
of Dundoiiald. From his eldest son descended seven Earls of 
Dundonald, when that br:\nch of the family became extinct, and the 
title fell to Thomas, a descendant of John, the younger sOn of 
the first Earl. By his second wife, a daughter of Archibald 
Stuart, Esq. he had twelve sons, and a daughter, amongst whom 
were Archibald, the present Earl, and Alexander, a rear-admiral, 
and kni^rht of (he Bath. 



* One action in which Captain Gilchrist was engaged, while commanding 
the Southampton, ot" 32 uunis, excited much notice at the time. — On the 28th 
ofMnrch, 1?53, the Southiimpton, in company with the Melampe, of 24 
guns, Captain Ilotham, wliile cruising in tlie North Sea, gave cliase to two 
French frigates. The Melampe, being the better sailer, came up with, and 
engaged thcai hoth, for three quarters of an hour, before the Southampton 
could render lier any assistance. When Captain Gilchrist came up, one of 
the French frigates made sail and got oft"; and the Melampe, which was too 
much damaged iu her rigging to be able to pursue, fell astern ; consequently, 
the Southampton was left alone to contend with the enemy. " Now," 
says a letter which we have seen, that was written shortly after the action, 
" began one of the most obstinate engagements that has happened 
tliis war : they fired with equal fury on both sides, and both captains 
behaved with that bravery which became their stations; but the courage 
and resolution of Captain Gilchrist, animated his men to such a degree, that 
they exceeded any thing I have heard of, and at last, obliged the French to 
strike their colours. The Southampton's people boarded, and found the 
French ship to be the Danae, of 40 guns, and 340 men. She was a King's 
ship, and was bound with another, north about, to Canada with stores. 
The Southampton laid alongside of her about six glasses, and notwithstand- 
ing it was so sharp an engagement, she had but one man killed, and ten 
wounded ; among the latter is the brave Captain Gilchrist, who was shot 
through the shoulder with a pound ball, and went ashore at Yarmouth, 
TV here he was attended by all the physicians and surgeons in the town. 
The Danae lost her first and second captains, and the people of the South- 
ampton imagine about eighty men, as they found seven or eight dead at 
some of the guns. The French captain was the same man who fought the 
Lion, Captain Brett, so valiantly in the last war. — During the action, the 
Melampe laid by to refit, and was coming up just as the Danae struck. By 
the great care and skill of tlie surgeons. Captain Gilchrist was at length per- 
fectly recovered." 

We have long been promised the loan of a portrait of Captain Gilchrist, 
with an account of his professional services, which we shall be happy to re- 
ceive, as early as it may be convenient. 



THE RIGHT Iioy. LORD COCHRANE, K.B. S 

The Earl himself, as well as liis brother Alexander, was originally 
intended for the navy, in which he passed some of the earlier years 
of his life. He served as a midshipman, under Captain Sfair 
Douglas, and afterwards, as acting lieutenant, on the coast of 
Guinea ; and, while so employed, we hare heard it mentioned, as 
a peculiarity of his lordship, that, unless actually on duty, he was 
always seen bare headed. 

From what motive we are unacquainted, but, after his return 
from the coast of Guinea, his lordship relinquished the naval ser- 
vice, and, for some time, we believe, held a commission in the 
army. His favourite pursuits, however, w^erc of a scientific nature. 
In his youth, his attention had been directed to chemical esperi- 
ments ; the brilliant discoveries of Dr. Black operated as stimu- 
lants to his active and capacious mind ; and, for many years, even 
to the injury of his private fortune, his lordship's studies have been 
almost entirely devoted to chemical and mechanical experiments, 
conducive to the general interests of society.* 

Lord Cochrane was born on the 14th of Decem.ber, 1775 ; and, 
evincing an early predilection for the naval service, he was taken 
under the immediate protection of his respected relative and god- 
father, the present Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane. He was not 
more tlian ten or twelve years old when he first went to sea ; but, 
as his uncle had taken care to procure an able tutor for him, he 
was fortunately enabled to acquire a sufficient portion of scholastic 
knowledge, at the time that he was inuring himself to tlie duties of 
his profession. At this period, he is said to have displayed great 
vigour and susceptibility of mind. We have also heard it men- 
tioned, that, to common observers, his resolution and activity, 
while a youth, appeared temerity; and that the relation of many 
of his achievements, when in the B:'.y of Biscay, in the NVest 
Indies, and on the home station, before he passed for a lieutenant, 

_* One of theearl^? inventitnis of Earl Dundonakl was that of a method for 
pvescrvini; ships from being worm-eaten, in warm climates. While servii g 
upon the coar,t of Africa, lie witnessed the destructive ravages committed 
upon ships' bottoms, by worms; and, from his chemical knowledge, it 
occurred to iiim, that an extract from pil-coal, in the form of tar, mi2,lit be 
advantageously employed, as a preventive ol" this evil. Some experiments 
wore consequently made, by paving ships' bottoms with his lordship's pre- 
paration ; and, as it was found perfectly to answer the intended purpose, 



4 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICLS O I- 

■would be regarded as a tissue of gross exaggerations, if not of 
absolute falsehoods. His more recent actions, however, afford the 
strongest presumptive proofs of the undaunted hardihood of his 
earlier adventures. 

Notwithstanding his arduous and unremitting exertions, his 



tlie practice was adopted, not only in this country, but in Holland, and the 
North. Had not the coppering of vessels become shortly afterwards very 
common, this discovery must have proved of incalculable value ; and, in 
the short, and. coasting trade, in which it is resorted to, as less expensive 
than copperintr, its advantageous effects are still witnessed.— A necessary 
consequence of the discovery of pit-coal tar, was that of the inflammable 
gas, which was emitted in the process; and which, through the efl'orts of a 
speculating project'vr, has, for the last two or three years, been an object 
of much curious attention in the metropolis. 

In 178o, Lord Dundouald published a treatise upon the manufacture of 
salt, recommending the refuse of that article, as a manure. In 1795, his 
lordship also published a work upon agriculture ; in which, amongst many 
useful suggestions, and much salutary advice, the conversion of peat-moss 
into good soil, and the malting of grain, for the purpose of feeding cattle, 
nrc particularly discussed. 

In 1801, his lordship, after numerous experiments, succeeded in pro- 
ducing, from the useless plants called lichens, which grow upon the bark of 
trees, on stones, &c. a substitute for the gum-senegal, which is used in con- 
siderable quantities by calico printers. This discovery was of the greater 
utility, as it was made at a period when the gum was particularly scarce and 
dear. — The philosophical researches of Lord Dundonald were next directed 
to the manufacture of alum, in which he introduced some material , 
improvements. 

His lordship's most successful project, for which he obtained a patent, in 
the year 1803, is a new and improved mode of preparing hemp and flax ; 
by the adoption of which, the manufacture of sail-cloth has, in this country, 
attained an unrivalled excellence. Lord Dundonald submitted his process, 
with samples of cloth manufactured agreeably to his directions, to the 
Admiralty; and so sensible was diat Board of the advantages of his lord- 
ship's plan, that it has been for some time stipulated, in evei-y contract, that 
the hemp shall be steeped and boiled in tiie manner which he recommended. 
In the year 1804, not fewer than sixty-three manufacturers of sail cloth had 
adopted his lordship's method ; and, since that period, the use of cloth so 
manufactured has become general, in t!ie merchant service, as well as in 
that of the navy. 

' Lord Dundonald, we have been given to understand, is at present occu- 
pied in the prosecution of some experiments, relating to our woollen manu- 
facture, which, should they prove successful, will be productive of eminent 
advantage to the community. 

I 



THE RIGHT HON. LORD COCHUANEj JC.B. 5 

youth prevented him from attaining the rank of lieutenant, till 
towards the close of last war. Since that period, his lordship's 
progress has been signal and rapid. — In the month of December, 
1799, while serving in Lord Keith's flag-ship, the Queen Char, 
lotte, he was intrusted with the admiral's cutter, and sent to 
relieve the Lady Nelson, in the Bay of Algeziras, at the time that 
that ship was surrounded and attacked by French privateers and 
Spanish gun-boats. On this occasion, Lord Cochrane greatly dis- 
tinguished himself. He chased the privateers under the cannon of 
the harbour, and it was only in consequence of the darkness of the 
night, that they were enabled to effect their escape.* This action 
attracted the particular notice and admiration of Lord Keith, who, 
in September, ISOO, made him master and commander, in the 
Speedy sloop, of 14 guns. 

In this vessel, Lord Cochrane continued to be employed, in the 
Mediterranean, under the orders of Lord Keith, till nearly the 
end of the war. His exertions, in annoying the enemy, and in 
making numerous captures, were eminently successful. In 
February, 1801, he took the French brig, la Caroline, laden with 
ordnance stores, + and, in April, some Spanish xebecs. + His 



* " On the 21st of December in the evening, the Lady Nelson cutter 
was observed off Cabareta Point, surrounded by, and engaging several French 
privateers and gun-vessels. Lord Keith, who was lying in Gibraltar Bay, 
immediatoly despatched the boats of the Queen Charlotte and Emerald, to 
row towards the enemy, in hopes it miglit encourage the cutter to resist 
until she could get under the guns of the ships ; but in the interim she was 
boarded and taken in tow by two of the French privateers, in which situation 
Lieutenant Bainbridgc, in the Queen Charlotte's barge, with 16 men, ran 
alongside the cutter, boarded her with the greatest impetuosity, and after a 
sharp conflict carried her, taking seven French officers, and twenty-seven 
men, prisoners ; six or seven others were killed, or knocked overboard in 
the scuffle : the privateers instantly cut the tow-ropes, and made off under 
Algeziras, pursued and attacked by Lord Cochrane, in the Queen Char- 
lotte's cutter. The darkness of the night prevented the boats acting in 
concert, otherwise all the privateers would have been taken. _ Lieutenant 
Bainbridge was severely wounded on the head by the stroke of a sabre, and 
slightly in other places. Some of the men were also wounded in this gallant 
conflict." — Vide Schomb erg's Naval ChronobgT/, Vol. III. page 333. 

+ Fide Naval Ceronicle, Vol. VI. page -ila. 

:}: Ibid, page 41(5. 



6 MEMOIR or THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

most extraordinary display of courage, however, while command- 
ing the Speedy, was in the attack and capture of the Spanish frigate 
El Gamo, off Barcelona, on the 6th of May ; * in which the 
difference in size, weight of metal, and number of men, in the con- 
tending ships, is particularly deserving of notice. The Spaniard 
mounted 32 guns ; of which twenty-two were long 12-p.unders, 
eight nines, and two heavy carronades ; and she was manned with 
274 officers, seamen, boys, and supernumeraries, and 45 marines, 
making a total of 319 : whilst the Speedy mounted only fourteen 
4-pounders ; and, including officers, men, and boys, had only 
54 on board. The frigate was carried by boarding. " The great 
disparity of force," says Lord Cochrane, in his official letter, 
*' rendered it necessary to adopt some measure that might prove 
decisive; I resolved to board, and, with Lieutenant Parker, the 
lion. Mr. Cochrane, the boatswain, and crew, boarded ; when, 
by the impetuosity of the attack, we forced them instantly to 
strike their colours." Lieutenant Parker was severely wounded, 
and one seaman lost in the act of boarding. The total loss of the 
Speedy, in this spirited conflict, was three killed, and ei^ht 
Avoundcd ; that of El Gamo, fourteen killed, and forty-one 
vv'ounded — a greater number than the crew of the Speedy f cou- 
sisteo. of. 

In this vessel, accompanied by the Kangaroo, Captain Pulling, 
Lord Cochrane, soon after the capture of El Gamo, destroyed a 
Xebec, of 20 guns, two or three gun-boats, and part of a convoy, 
which sought protection under a battery of heavy ordnance. — It 
was on the 1st of June, while cruising off Barcelona, that tlie 
Speedy fell in with the Kangaroo; and, in consequence of infor- 
mation which they obtained from a Minorquin privateer, it was 
determined to go in pursuit of a Spanish convoy, consisting of 
twelve sail, and five armed vessels, then three days' sail ahead. 
On the morning of the 9th, they got sight of them, at anchor, un- 
der the battery of Oropeso. " Having so able and gallant an 

* Vide Naval Chronicle, Vol. VI. page 151. 

+ In compliment to the gallantry of Lord Cochrane, Mr. N. Pocock, ira 
tjic year 1805, exhibited a water-colour view of tlie action between the 
Speedy and EI Gamo, at the rooms in Lower BrooV. Street- 



THE UIGIIT HON. LORD COCHRANE, K.B. 7 

officer as his lordship," says Captain Pulling,* '' fo lead into the 
Bay, I hesitated not a moment to make the attack : we approached 
within half gun-shot of the enemy by noon Avith both brigs, and 
came to an anchor, though opposed by the battery, which is a 
large square tower, and appears to Jiave twelve guns, a xebec, of 
20 guns, and three gun-boats, all of which kept up a brisk liru 
until two o'clock, when it considerably decreased, but again 
recommenced, encouraged by a felucca, of twelve guns, and two 
gun-boats, that came to their assistance : by half-past three, the 
xebec and one of the gun-boats sunk, and shortly after another 
gun-boat shared the same fate. The tower, with the remaining 
gun-boat, assisted by the three in the offing, continued to annoy 
us on both sides till about half-past six, when the fire of the whole 
slackened ; and on the Kangaroo cutting her cables, and running 
nearer to the tower, the gun-boats in the offing fled, and by seven 
the tower was silenced. We were annoyed by a heavy fire of mus- 
ketry in different directions till midnight, during which time the 
boats of both brigs were employed in cutting out the vessels that 
were found afloat, under the direction of Mr. Thomas P'oulerton, 
the first lieutenant of the Kangaroo, assisted by Lieutenant War- 
burton, of the Speedy, the Hon. M. A. Cochrane, and Messrs. 
Dean and Taylor, midshipmen ; they succeeded in bringing out 
three brigs laden with wine, rice, and bread. When Lord 
Cochrane, with his usual ^cal, took the same officers under his 
command, and went in shore again in the hope of bringing away 
more, but the remainder were either sunk or driven on 
shore." 

It appears by this account, that, from the commencement of the 
attack, till the completion of the service, at least twelve hours of 
incessant and laborious exertion had elapsed. " I cannot," says 
Captain Pulling, " express myself snfficiently grateful to Lord 
Cochrane for his assistance during this long contest, as Aveil as on 
the day before, when we found it necessary, for the honour of his 
Britannic Majesty's arms, to blow up the tower of Almanara, 
mounting two brass four-pounders, which would not surrender, 



* Vide Captain Pulling's official letter, in the Vlth Volume of the Naval 
CaRONiCLE, page 320. 



S MEMOIU OF Tirt: PUBLIC SEIIA'ICES OF 

though repeatedly summoned."— In this last mentioned aflair, as 
Tve also learn, from Captain Falling's letter, Lord Cochrane, who 
never appears to have been over cautious respecting his person, 
received a bruise, and was^slightly singed. 

A few days after the achievement of these gallant exploits, the 
Speedy had the ill luck to fall in with the French squadron, under 
the command of M. Linois, by which she was chased, and captured ; 
but, in consequence of the engagement which took place in 
Algeziras Bay, between Sir James Saumarcz and Linois,* on the 
6th of July, Lord Cochrane's captivity was of very short duration. 
On the day succeeding the battle. Sir James Saumarcz sent Cap- 
tain Brenton into the bay, with a flag of trace, to endeavour to 
effect an exchange of Captain Ferris, and of the officers and men 
■who had unfortunately fallen into the hands of the enemy. After 
some little delay, the object of the English admiral was so far 
attained, that Captain Ferris, with ail his oificors and wounded 
men, were sent away, on (heir parole ; anci, by the same oppor- 
tunity, Lord Cochrane, with the officers aud crew of the Speedy, 
also succeeded in obtaining their liberty. 

During the time that Lord Cochrane had c;>mm:inded the Speedy^ — 
a period not much exceeding ten months — he had taken the extra- 
ordinary number of thirty-ihree vessels, mounting, in the aggre- 
gate, 128 guns, and containing 530 persons. 

As a reward for these services, his lordship wa?, on the Sth of 
August, 1801, promoted to the rank of post captain, in la Raison 
frigate ; but, in consequence of the peace of Amiens, which 
almost immediately succeeded, his career of success was, for si 
time, suspended. 

In the month of October, 1803, soon after the re-commence- 
ment of hostilities. Lord Cochrane was appointed to the Arab ; 
and, in the following year, to the Pallas frigate, of 32 guns. In 
the latter ship he proceeded to the Newfoundland station, but 
remained there only a short time. Early in 1805, he was sent out 
with despatches to his uncle, Sir Alexander Cochrane, who was at 
that time employed in the blockade of Ferrol. This was shortly 



* Vids Naval CHRo^ucLE, Vol. VI. pages 109, 148, and 194. 



# 



THE IJIGIIT HON. LORD COCIIRAXK, K.B, 9 

after the rupLure with Spain took placo, and, as Lord Cachr.ine 
was employed in criiising oil" the Sj^anish coast, he had the good 
i'ortune to make a considerable iiuniber of prizes. Air.0!\gst 
others, the capture of ii Fortuna, a Spanish galleon, aiforded a 
rich recompense to his valour. II Fortuna, bound from tiie Rio 
dc la Plata to (Jorunna, was laden with specie, to the amount, a3 
■was reported, of 150.0001. besides a considerable quantity of 
valuable merchandise, of nearly an equal value. 'J'his capture, 
however, is chiefly memorable, for a noble act of generosity dis- 
played upon the occasion, by Lord Cochrane, his officers, and 
crew. The Spanish captain, and supercargo, stated, that they had 
been engaged, for nearly twenty years, in commercial pursuits, 
in the burning clime of South America; that they were returning 
to tlu'ir fatiiilies, in Old Spain, there to spend the evening of their 
days, on the haruly. earned fruits of their industry ; that the whole 
of their property, amounting, in goods and specie, to aiiout 
30,000 dollars each, had been embarked in II Fortuna ; and, by 
the capture of that ship, they found themselves reduced to a state 
of iiidigence and beggary. It was added, too, that this was the 
second time that the captain had sustained such a misfortune ; as, 
in the year 1779, he had been stripped of his all by a British cruiser, 
and forced to begin the world anew ! A tale of distress, whether 
real or lictitious, seldom fails of producing a due effect upon the 
heart of an English sailor ; and, in the present instance, our 
national spirit of liberality exerted its influence in favour of these 
unfortunate men, to an unexpected, and almost unprecedented 
extent. The result of their appeal was, that they each received 
5,000 dollars in specie, from their captors ; a boon of benevo- 
lence, which, by the joyful tears they shed, called forth the most 
grateful feelings of the heart.* 

It was on the 9th of March (1805) that II Fortuna arrived at 
Plymouth ; and, on the 23d of the same month, another Spanish 
letter of marque, of 14 guns, was seat into that port, a prize to 
the Pallas. 

Early in April, ISOG, the Pallas was employed in the execution of 

* Tliis anecdote, ?o much to the credit of the brave olHcers and crew of 
the Pallas, is related at lepgtli, in the Xlllth Volume of the Naval 
Cui'.oxicLE, page 3o7. 

/[3a\>. flpicn. uJol. XXII. c 

3 



10 MIMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES O? 

a very hazardous enterprise, in the Garonne ; a river, as it has been 
observed, the most difficult in its navigation of any on the French 
coast. From Lord Cochranc's official despatch, upon this occa- 
sion,* we learn, that, in consequence of information which had 
been receiTed, respecting the situation of some corvettes, lying in 
the Garonne, the Pallas proceeded up the river, and anchored 
close to the Cordovan shoal, a little after dark on the evening of 
the 5th of April. About three o'clock on the following morning, 
the boats of the Pallas had succeeded in boarding and cutting out 
the Tapagcuse corvette, of fourteen long 12-pounders, and 95 
men ; notwithstanding she lay twenty miles above the shoals, un- 
der the protection of two heavy batteries. At day-light, however, 
■when the Tapageusc made sail, a general alarm was given, and she 
was followed by a sloop of war. An action consequently com- 
menced, and continued, " often within hail, till, by the same bra- 
very by which the Tapagcuse was carried, the sloop of war, 
■which had been before saved by the rapidity of the current alone, 
a,fter about an hour's firing, was compelled to sheer ofl", having 
suffered as much in the hull as the Tapagcuse in the rigging." 

But this was not the conclusion of the service. On the same 
rooming, while at anchor, waiting for the return of the boats, the 
Pallas descried three ships bearing down towards her. The 
anchor was instantly weighed ; and, with the remainder of her 
officers and crew, she chased, drove on shore, and completely 
wrecked them. One mounted 24 guns, another 22, and the 
third 18. It is remarkable, that, in the destruction of these 
vessels, and the capture of the Tapagcuse, which altogether 
mounted 78 guns, not a man belonging to the Pallas was killed, 
and only three slightly wounded. " Nothing," observed Admiral 
Thornborough, " can evince more clearly the high state of dis- 
cipline of the crew of the Pallas, than the humanity shewn by 
them to the enemy in the conflict.'" Lord St. Vincent, too, at 
that time commander-in-chief on the home station, contributed 
his portion of applause on this occasion — " The gallant and suc- 
cessful exertions of the Pallas," said his lordship, in the envelope 
of Lord Cochrane's letter, therein detailed, " reflect veiy high 
honour on her captain, (oul call for my zcarmest admiration .'" 



Vide Naval Chronicle, Vol. XV. page 347. 



THE RIGHT HON. LORD COCHRANE, K..B. 11 

Tn addition to the above, between the 26th of March and the 
Sth of April, Lord Cochrane took two French chasse maroes, and 
©ne brig; and destroyed a chasse niaree, and another brig. 

In the succeeding month (May) the French trade having for 
some time been kept much in port, owing, in a great measure, to 
their knowledge of the exact situation of our cruisers, constantly 
announced at the signal posts on the coast, it appeared to Lord 
Cochrane to be of some importance, " as there was nothing better 
in view,*" to endeavour to stop that practice. He acrordingly 
landed, with his marines and boats' crews, and demolished the 
two posts at la Pointe de la Roche, that at Calioia, and two ia 
I'Ance dc Repos. One of the last mentioned was defended by 
upwards of a hundred militia. All the flags were brought off, and 
the houses which had been built by government, were burned to ^he 
ground. 

A successful attempt was also made by his lordship upon th« 
bittery at Point d'Equilon, which was carried by a coujj de main, 
and laid in ruins, the guns spiked, the carriages burnt, the barrack 
and magazine blown up, and all the shells thrown into the sea. 
The signal post of I'Equilon, together with the house, shared the 
fate of the gun carriages ; but the convoy, which would have been 
a gratifying capture, got into a river beyond the reach of the brave 
assailants. 

This service had scarcely been accomplished, when Lord Coch- 
rane was engaged with a force so strikingly superior to that of the 
Pallas, that his escape from destruction appears almost miraculous. 
While cruising off I'Isle d'Aix, and reconnoitring the French 
squadron, he discovered a well known 40-gun frigate, which ha4 
been a source of great annoyance to the English, and three brigs, 
all getting under sail. His lordship, however, was not to be inti- 
midated by this wst disparity of force — " The Pallas," says he, 
*' remaincL under top-sails by the w ind to await them ; at half-past 
eleven Cin the morning) a smart point-blank firing commenced on 
both sides, which was severely felt by the enemy. The main-top- 
sail-yard of one of the brigs was cut through, and the frigate lost 
her after-sails. The batteries on I'Isle d'Aix opened on the Pallas, 

* VitJe Lord Cochrane'* letter on servJcej Naval C«p,offici.E, Vol. XVf. 
page T^. 



12 MEMOIR OF TIIK PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

and a cannonade continued, interrupted on our part only by the 
necessity we -were under to make various tacks to avoid the shoalr*, 
till one o'clock, when our encieavours to gain the wind of the 
enemy, and get between him and the batteries proved successful ; 
an effectual distance was now chosen — a few broadsides were 
poured in — the enemy's fire slackened ; I ordered ours to cease, 
and directed Mr. Sutherland, the master, to ran the frigate on 
board, with infention effectually to prevent her retreat, by board- 
I'MT. The enemy's side thrust our guns back into the ports, the 
whole were then discharged, the effect and crash were dreadful ; 
their decks \^ ere deserted; three pistol shots were the unequal 
return. With confidence I say, that the frigate was lost to France, 
had not the unequal collision tore away our fore-tcp-mast, jib- 
boom, fore and niain-top-sail yards, sprit-snil yard, bumliin, cat- 
head, chain-plates, fore-rigging, fore-sail, and bower anchor, with 
which last 1 intended to hook on, but all proved insufficient. She 
■was yet lost to France, had not the French admiral, seeing his 
frigate's fore-yard gone, her rigging ruined, and the danger s]ie 
was in, sent two others to her assistance. The Pallas being a 
wreck, we came out with what little sail could be set, and his 
Majesty's sloop, the Kingsfishcr. afterwards took us in tow.* ' 

Thus, it appears, the French frigate was fairly betiten, and 
escaped only by the approach of two others to her assistance, f 
In this severe and unequal conflict, the Pallas had only one man 
killed, and five wounded. The loss of the Frenchman is un- 
known. 

In consequence of the disabled state of the Pallas, Lord 
Cochrane did not go to sea again in that ship, but was appointed 
to the Impericusc (formerly la JMedce) of 40 guns, which he has 
ever since commanded. 

Between the I3th of December, 180G, and the 7th of January, 
1807, his lordship took, and destroyed, fifteen ships of the enemy. + 
About the time last-mentioned, tho boats of the Imperieuse, under 

* The whole of this despatch appears in our XVIth Volume, pajre 76. 
but, fiorn die lively interest which it excites, as relating to one of tiie most 
important actions of Lord Coclirane's professional life,' we 2re satisfied thac 
fve shall be readily excused, for inserting so long an extract in this place, 

+ Slie was afterwards taken by Sir Samuel Hood. 

+ Vide Naval Curomclk, Vol. XVII. page 167. 



THE RIGHT UOS. LORD COCHRANE, K.B. 13 

the direction of Lieutenant ^Mapleton, made a successful attack 
upon Fort Rociuette, at the cnuaiice of the Bason of Arcasson.* 
Tiiis fort, wliich had been intended for the defence of the bason, 
and of such vessels as might be lying in it, was completely laid in 
ruins ; a large quantity of military stores was destroyed : four 
S()-poiinuers, two field pieces, and a thirteen-inch mortar were 
spiked ; and all the platoons and carriages burnt. This enter- 
prise, through the judicious manner in which it was planned and 
conducted, was accomplished without any loss whatever on th» 
part of the assailants. 

Subsequently to the event here noticed, Lord Cochrane has been 
employed chietly on the coast of Spain. At first, we believe, he 
■went upon an independent cruise ; but afterwards placed himself 
under the command of Lord Colling-vood, whose squadron Avas 
employed in the blockade of Cadiz, and in checking the exertions 
of the 'Spaniards, who were at that time acting under the influence 
of the French. No sooner had they attempted to shake off the 
galling yoke of their oppressors, than the English, ever sympa- 
thising with those feelings which result from a sense of the ines- 
timable blessings of liberty, proliered the most generous assistance ; 
and, indepoiidenfly of his duty, as a British ofticor, we have reason 
to believe, thac Lord Coci;rdne found himself impressed with the 
warmest interest, in favour of the patriots of Spain. Certain it is, 
that he made every exertion in their behalf, that could be made 
with a single ship ; and that he both deserved and acquired the 
approbation of Lord Collingwood, the commander-in-chief, — lu 
the month of July, 1&('8, while cruising off Catalonia, he formed 
the resolution of rescuing the castle of Mongal, which commands 
an important post between Barcelona and Gerona, from the hands 
of the French, by whom it had been seized. Accordingly, on the 
3lht of July, he attacked and carried that fortress ; which, as soon 
as the military scores it contained had been delivered over to the 
patriots, he destroyed. + 

Lord Cochrane next appears off the coast of Languedoc, 
where, in "Jeptembcr, ISOS, he blew up, and totally destroyed the 
newly constructed "semaphoric" telegraphs at Bourdique, U 
— _^ . 

* ride Naval Chronicle, Vol. XVII. paje 167. 
t Itid, Vol. XX. page 327. <: 



14 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

Pinede, St. Maguire, Frontignan, Canet, and Foy ; together with 
the houses attached, fourteen barracks of the gens-d'armes, a 
battery, and the strong tower upon the lake of Frontignan.* 
The telegraphs here mentioned were considered as of the utmost 
importance to the safety of the convoys accustomed to pass along 
the coast of France ; as, by their signals, they constantly apprised 
them of the approach of any English cruiser that might appear. 
Alluding to this service, the commander-in-chief, in his olficial 
letter, says : — " Nothing can exceed the activity and zeal with 
which his lordship pursues the enemy. The success which attends 
his enterprises clearly indicates with what skill and ability thty are 
conducted; besides keeping the coast in constant alarm, causing 
^ total suspension of trade, and harassing a body of troops em- 
ployed in opposing him, he has, probably prevented those troops 
•which were intended for Figueras, from advancing into Spain, by 
giving them employment in the defence of their own coasts." It 
appears, indeed, from Lord Cochrane's statement, that the compa- 
ratively insignificant force which he landed upon this occasion, 
drew about 2,000 troops from the fortress of Figueras, to the 
defence of the French coast. 

Towards the close of the year (1808) the Imperieuse, with other 
ships, was employed in the Cay of Rosas, to assist the Spaniards 
in defending the fortress of that place ; and Lord Cochrane, with 
his accustomed alacrity and spirit, landed, and took upon himself 
the defence of Trinity Castle, an outwork of the garrison, on 
■which its preservation depended. At that time (November 22) 
the garrison, which consisted of only about eighty Spaniards, was 
on the point of surrendering. With this handful of men, joined 
by a similar number of seamen and marines, from the Imperieuse, 
Lord Cochrane made the most astonishing exertions; and, on the 
30th of the month, when a general assault was made upon the 
castle, by 1,000 picked men, he drove the assailants back, with 
the loss of their commanding officer, storming equipage, and all 
who had attempted to mount the breach. + At length, finding it 
impossible to resist the overwhelming numbers of the French, the 
citadel of Rosas capitulated, on the 6th of December; and, as far- 

* Vide Naval Cjirokicle, Vol, XXI. page 73. + Ibid, page 259* 



THE RIGHT KOK. LORD COCHRANE, K.B. 15 

iher resistance, in Trinity Castle, would have been " useless and 
impracticable," Lord Cochrane blcAV up the magazines, and re- 
turned to his ship. The gallantry of his lordship, in this instance, 
did not fail to call forth appropriate praise. " The heroic spirit 
and ability," says his commander-in-chief,* " which has beea 
evinced by Lord Cochrane, in defending this castle, although so 
shattered in its works, against the repeated attacks of the enemy, 
is an admirable instance of his lordship's zeal." One of the Spanish 
gazettes, too, after noticing, in the handsomest terms, his preceding 
services, concluded by saying — " It is a sufficient eulogium upon 
his character to mention, that in the defence of the castle of Tri- 
nidad, (Trinity Castle) when the Spanish flag, hoisted on the wall, 
fell into the ditch, under a most dreadful fire from the enemy, his 
lordship Kus the only person^ who, regardless of the shower of 
balls flying about him, descended into the ditch, returned with 
the flag, and happily succeeded in placing it where it was 
before." + 

The last specific service in which we find Lord Cochrane engaged, 
previously to his joining the Channel fleet, under Lord Gambler, 
was the seisure of two French ships of war, with a convoy of 
eleven victuallers for Barcelona, in the port of Caidagues, about 
the 2d of January. 

Respecting the destruction of the French fleet in Basque Roads, 
so admirably efi'ected by his lordship, we have already expressed 
our opinion.:}; Howsoever reprehensible Lord Gambler might 
have been, in nothimself attacking the enemy ; or howsoever inju- 
dicious or improper it might be, in the Admiralty Board, to select 
a junior officer — one who even had not previously been attached 
to the Channel fleet — for so important an attempt, passing over 
many veterans in the service, no censure can possibly alight upon 
Lord Cochrane. To him all praise is due. If we are to accredit 
his own statement, as given in evidence by Sir H. B. Neale, on the 
trial of Admiral Harvey, § it is not even to be imputed to him, 
that he solicited the appointment. In a conversation which took 

* Vide Naval Chronicle, Vol. XXL page 259. 
t Ihid. page 195. X Ibid, page 368. 

§ liiid. page 434, 



16 MtMOlU OF THr PCBLIC SHRVTCES OF 

place bctvvccn Admiral Harvey and Lord Cochrane, on the arrival 
of the latter in the Channel fleet, respecting the intended attack, 
Sir II. B. Ncale represents his lordship to have expressed himi-elf 
to the following effect : — " I assure you I did not seek it ; I went 
1 to town ; and in a conversation, cither with Lord Mnlgrave or the 
Board of Admiralty, it was mentioned to me that the expedition 
was composed of bombs and fire-ships, for the purpose of destroy- 
ing the French fleet in the isle of Aix. I answered, that it was a 
service very easy to be executed. I was asked, if I would under- 
take it* I answered, ' Yes.' " 

The plan of the expedition, Ave believe, was entirely entrusted 
to his lordship ; agreeably, as we have heard, to a proposal which 
he, some years ago, submitted to the Admiralty Board, for destroy- 
ing an enemy's fleet at anchor. 

Witii the details of the attack — an attack eminently disastrous 
to the French' — our readers are already so well acquainted,* that 
it is unnecessary in this place at all to enlarge upon the subject. 
As far as Lord Cochrane was concerned, it is justly regarded as 
one of the most brilliant exploits that ever graced the annals of tho 
British navy. " That it f;nled iu destroying all the vessels of the 
enemv," says one of our journalists, ''■ is rather to be ascribed to 
some mismanagement, zsht'ch zee are not at liberty to statc^ than to 
any defect of the plan or exertion of his lordship. Had the com- 
mander-in-chief," it is added, " been as rapid in coming into 
action as Lord C. the escape of the enemy would have beca 
impractica,ble."t 

How far the remarks here quoted may be founded in justice, wo 
cannot pretend to say ; but we must confess that, when we first 
perused Lord Gambler's letter,! it very forcibly struck us, that 
an extraordinary time did elapse, from the appearance of Lord 
Cochrane's telegraphic communication, " that seven of the enemy's 
ships were on shore, and might be destroyed," till the period when 
the requisite assistance was afforded. " At day-Ught,^^ says Lord 
Gambler, " Lord Cochrane communicated to me, by telegraph, 



* Vide Navat. Chronicle, Vol, XXI. pa<i;e 315, 344, 3C8, 373, S74, 
395, 399, 403, (with a piau of the attack) and 412. 
t V'ule BuiTtsu Neptune, of Sunday, June 11. 
% Vide Naval Chronicle, VcJ. XXL page 345, 



THE maiiT notJ. lord Cochrane, k.b. 17 

that scve?i of the enemjfs ships zcerc on shore., and might bs 
destroyed. I immediately made the signal for the licet to unmoor 
and zccigh^ intending to proceed with it to Q^cct their destruction. 
The wind, however, being fresh from the northward, and the 
flood. tide running, rendered it too hazardous to run into Aix 
Roads, (from its shallow water) / therefore anchored again at 
the distance of about three miles from the forts on the island.— 
As the tide suited, the enemy evinced great activity in endeavouring 
to warp their ships (which had grounded) into deep wa'.er, and 
succeeded in getting all hut five of the line towards the entrance of 
the Charente, before it became practicable to attackihem. — I gave 
orders io Captain Bligh, of the Valiant, to proceed with that ship, 
the Revenge, frigates, bombs, and small vessels, named in the 
margin (Indefatigable, Aigle, Emerald, Pallas, Beagle, vEtna 
bomb. Insolent gun-brig, Conflict, Encounter, Fervent, and 
Growler), to anchor near the Boyart Shoal, in readiness for the 
attack, jit tzcentij mJ)intes past tzco P.M. Lord Cochrane advanced 
in the Impcrieu&c with his accustomed gallantry and spirit, and 
opened a well-directed fire upon the Calcutta, which struck her 
colours to the Impcricuse ; the ships and vessels above-mentioned 
sooil after joined in the attack upon the Villc dc Varsovie and 
Aquilon, and obliged them, before five o'clock, after sustaining a 
heavy cannonade, to strike their colours, when they were takea 
possession of by the boats of the advanced squadron." 

How far the reasons, here adduced for the delay, may be deemed 
satisfactory, by a Court of Naval Inquiry, we know not ; but, 
from the suspension of the vote of thanks to the commander-in- 
chief, Sec. intended to be proposed in Parliament, and from Lord 
Gafnbier having solicited that an inquiry into his conduct may take 
place, it is evident that some doubt as to their validity exists. It 
is said, that, when one of his INIajesty's ministers communicated to 
Lord Cochrane their intention of moving for the thanks of Par- 
liament to the commander-in-chief, his lordship answered, if no 
other person should oppose the motion, he would rise in his place 
for that purpose. On being asked, on what ground, his reply 
was, " The log-book of the Caledonia ; " alluding, as it may be 
supposed, to the proofs which must there appear, of the dttU.v 

aatj. erjjron. ©ol. XXII. jj 



18 MEMOni OF THE PUBLIC SEUVlcrKS O'V 

•which had taken place, in the operations of the fleet, subsequently 
to the display oT his signal, already mentioned. 

For the welfare and credit of the service, Ave sincerely hope, 
that every doubt may be cleared up, to the general satisfaction of 
the parties more immediately concerned, and of the country at 
large. 

As a special mark of royal fayour, in consideration of Lord 
Cochrane's signal services, in' Basque Roads, on the 1 2th of April, 
his Majesty was graciously pleased, on thti '26th of the same monthj- 
to invest his lordship with the honourable onler of the Bath. 

Hitherto we have confined our narrative to the naval services of 
Lord Cochrane; but we must now be permitted to contemplate 
his progress in a senatorial capacity. — In the summer of 1805, 
after the termination of a successful cruise, he ofTcred himself as a 
candidate for the borough of Honiton, in Devonshire; where, he 
had been given to understand, several of the electors were anxious 
for the return of a wealthy and independent representative. In 
this attempt — from the lateness, we beliere, of his offer — he was un- 
sticcessful J but, at the general election of 1806, occasioned by the 
death of Mr. Pitt, he again determined to start for the same borough. 
He accordingly "set out," it is said, "from the port of Ply- 
mouth in a true scaman-like style, accompanied by two lieutenants 
aind one midshipman, in full dress, in one carriage;" "followed 
by another, containing the boat's crew, new rigged, and prepared 
for action."* This procession entered Honiton amidst the plau- 
dits of many of the electors ; Avho, at the conclusion of the con- 
test, had the satisfaction of seeing their naval favourite returned. 
We have heard, however, that this honour did not cost his lordship' 
less than a thousand guineas ! 

Whatever might have been Lord Cochrane's wishes, the speedy' 
dissolution of this Parliament prevented him from paying much- 
attention to his senatorial duties ; particularly as, during almost 
the whole of its sitting, he was professionally employed in the' 
service of his country. On one occasion, however — the question' 
which arose out of the discussions respecting Catiiolic emancipa-' 
tion — he evinced his loyalty by voting in favour of the King. 



* Vik Public CuAEACrERs^ fur 1809-10. 



|r«E RIGHT HOX. LOUD COCIlUAXr, E..E. 19 

^he conduct of the Fox and Howick party, respecting the 
C^atholics, having rendered a dissolution of Parliament necessary, 
JiOrd Cochrane, at (^le general election of 1807, stood forward as 
a candidate for the city of Westminster. Accordingly, on the day 
4){ nomination, the preliraiHary forms having been gone through, 
his lordship leaped out from the hustings, and, standiijg upon a 
narrow wooden bar, which separated the constables from the 
populace, addressed them at considerable length, and with much 
animation. Jle observed, that if the electors should not like hira 
■when they had heard him, they might reject him at once. He 
stood upon the footing of perfect independence, unconnected -with 
any person whatsoever. According to his definition of indepen- 
dence, no man could be independent who was brought forward by 
■any party, to vote for or against any particular set of men, without 
reference to measures : he called Heaven to witness, that he was 
supported by no party, by no minister whatsoever ; and he pledged 
himself to hunt dovrn plunder, peculation, sinecure placemea, and 
pensioners, wherever he could find them. He was the friend of 
his country and its constitution. He was not entitled to speak of 
his services himself, but he meant to pledge his past conduct and 
.character as a security for the performance of his promises.— The 
X?lectors, his lordslii^i observed, had been told, that a naval man 
"^vas an improper person for a member of Parliament j but who, he 
■would ask, was so capable as a naval man, of exposing the abuses 
>vhich prevailed in the navy, and of promoting their reform ? He 
iknew that plunder and terrible .abuses prevailed ; and it was not 
in the power of members of Parliament, who had left the servic* 
manj years, to know them practically, as he did. He was 
acquainted, from history, with what the constitution was, in times 
.of purity, and he should use his endeavours to restore it to that 
enviable state. — As to the royal prerogative, he hoped that, should 
not the King's present ministers act upon a system of economy, 
and opposition to corruption, his Majesty would once more have 
tbeiipiritto dismiss his servants with the disgrace which the,v would 
deserve. 

His lordship, throughout the whole of the election, persisted in 
his independence, disdaining the idea of coalescing with any of the) 
jr^val candidates (Sir .Francis Burdett, Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Paul!, 
and Mr. Elliott) ; and, at the close, he was returned, with Sic 



20 MEMOIR. OF THE PUBLIC StRVICES OF, ScC. 

Francis Burdett, duly elected. — His procesiiion, from the hustings, 
was most enthusiastically cheered. 

We have only to add, that, in no instance since Lord Cochrane 
has enjoyed the honour of a seat in Parliament, has he in the 
slightest degree deviated from that strait forward line of honour 
and independence, to which, when standing forward as a candidate 
for public favour, he pledged himself to adhere. — We believe his 
lordship to be lully and eminently entitled to the praise which is con- 
veyed ia the well-known words of Pope— • 

" An honest Man's tlic noblest work of God ! " 



HERALDIC PARTICULAUS. 

Thomas Cochrane, the Stli Earl of Dtuulonald, a major in the army, and 
M.P. for Renfrewshire, who dieH in 1778. at the age of 87, married (1st) 
Elizabeth, daughter of James Kerr, Esq. of Moris Town, Berwickshire; by 
whom he had Thoiiias, who died young, and Girzel, who died unmarried : 
s he married (2diy} .Ta.ie, daiigliter of Archibald Stuart, Esq. of Torreiice, ii^ 
Lanerkbhire ; by whom he had issue, 1st, .Argyip, died an infant ; S.Archi- 
bald, the present Earl, born January 1, 1748 ; 3, Charles, born January 
23, 1749, a colonel in the army, killed at York Town, in Virginia, in 
1781; 4, John, born July 3, 1750, died in December, 1802; 5, James 
Athol, born October 2.*}, 17ol, rector of Mansfield, in Yorkshire, now 
living; 6, Basil, born April 22, 1755, formerly in the civil service of the 
Jion. East India Company, now living; * 7, and 8, Thomas, and George, 
both died young; 0, Alexander Forrester, born April 22, 1758; knight of 

the Bath, and rear-admiral in the navy ; 10, : , died young ; 

11 George Augustus Frederick, born November 20, 1762, M.P. for Gram- 
pound ; 12, Andrew, born May 24, 1767, also M.P. for Grampoulld;■{• 
13, Elizabeth, born August 27, 1745, married Patrick Hercn, of Heron, 
Esq. now living 

Archibald, the present Earl of Dqndonald, married (1st) in October, 
1774, Anne, daugliter of James Gilchrist, Esq. a captain in the royal navy ; 
by whom he had issue, 1, a daughter, died young ; 2, Thomas, the subject 
of the preceding memoir, born December 14, 1775; 3, James, died young ; 

4, Basd, lieutenant-colonel of the 36th regiment of foyt, unmarried ; 

5, William Erskine, captain in the 15th light dragoons, un:narried; 6, Ar- 
chibald, a capt?.in in the royal navy; 7, and 8, Charles, and Tiiomas, died 
young; 9, a daughter, died an infant. 

* The Hon, Basil Cochrane, when in India, was distinguished for his 
hospitality; and, as a proof of his general benevolence, it may be mentioned, 
that, recently, since his return to England, he has constructed some warm 
baths, for the benefit of the diseased poor. 

+ This gentleman, on his marriage with his first uifC; assumed tlic sur» 
— same of Joh-astone, 



NAVAL AN'ECDOTESj &C. 21 

Tlie late Countess of Duiulonald died at Brompton, on the 13th of 

November, 1734; and the Earl married (2dl}') Mary, daughter of 

Hayiuoiid, and relict of Maync, on the IJth of April, 1780. 

This lady died, without issue, in December, 1808, and was biuied at Dal- 
shani Hall, Surrey. 

T^RMs. — Argent a cheveron gules between three boars heiidserased, azure. 

Crest, — On a wreath a iiorse passaiit, argent. 

SiTi'ORTEi;s.— -On jeither side a greyhound, argent, collared, and the line, 
jreflexcd ove^ P'j back, or. 

JVIoxio.— Virtute et Lahore. 

^;\nr;fflrt•rtffT^^■giln^ 

NAVAL ANECDOTES, 
COxMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, Sec, 



NANTES IN GUROITE VASTO. 



DUEADrUL EXPLOSION AT rGnTSMOUTH. 

^F.TWEEX 10 and li o'clock, on the morning of Saturday, June 24v 
the town of Portsmouth was thrown into a most dreadful state of 
alarm and agitation, by the explosion of a quantity of gunpowder on the 
Point Beach, wiiich had been landed there, with some baiigage, belonging 
to the oth regiment. The explosion set fire to Mr. Lindegren's Store, broke 
^11 the windows, and many of the window franies, of the Star and Garter 
Tavern, the Union Tavcin, iMr. Lindegren's Office, the Navy Post Office, 
and of upwards of twenty other houses in that street. The nunjber of lives 
that were lost, and of persons wounded, from the instantaneous nature of 
the accident, could not be positively ascertained ; but are supposed to bo 
abput 19. Three soldiers ol' the 8th regiment, who were standing about the 
baagage, were killed ; four were badly, and five glightly wounded. — One 
man, belonging to Captain Patton's boat, had his leg broken, and many 
others were beaten down and bruised. — The upper part of the body of one of 
the unfortunate sufferers was blown to an amazing height : it went over the 
houses at the lower end of Broad-street, and struck ag" liust the Custom- 
house watch-house, in Bathing-house square, where it fell a most shocking 
spectacle, but in such a mangled state, that it could not be discovered 
whether it was ,1 man or a woman. The body of anothtr suffci er wa? 
blown against the frput of the Union Tavern, near the cliandier windows, 
where the bricks appear stained with a quantity of blood. Tlie soldier whq 
was guarding the baggage had the barrel of his gun blown out of the stock, 
and the buttons on his coat torn otF, but himself was not hurt. When tlie 
explosion took place, which produced the effects described, it was appre- 
hended, that a greater quantity of gunpowder was near the spot, and iliat 
pther exploMons, still more dreadful in tljeir con^tquence, might be 
expected. This report, tiiough it proved groundless, it was impossil)le tq 
deny with any firmness, for it was not gcncrailv known that any, or liow 
uuich,.po\vdv:r had bcea landed. Almost t-very person felt himself to be in 



22 NAVAL ANECDOTE?, 

great danger; and it was not till the engines had succeeded in subduing iLd 
flames of iMr, Lindegren's store-house, that the alarm in any degr&e 
subsided. 

The cause of this calamity is alone attributed to one of the soldiers' 
wives, who relates, that she was washing near where the baggage lay, on 
the beach, when another soldier's wife, who was sraoaking, asktd her if she 
would take a whiff. — She did; but, finding the tobacco wonid not burn, she 
struck the bowl of the pipe against the pebbles, when a httle of the tobacco 
fell out, and set fire to some few grains of powder that w;e.re scattered oil 
the beach; this communicated itself to a cartridge, which flew into a crafe 
of baggage, set some loose cartridges on fire, and (in a moment as it were) 
comnjunicqited itself to a barrel of powder, which blew up. She was 
stooping down to take up lier child, with an intention to make her escape, 
>\'hen she was beaten backwards ; her wasliing tubs, &c. fell upon hefsclf 
and child, which nearly covered her — and to this circumstance she attri- 
butes lier preservation. After the cartridges blew up, some of the soldiers 
■«ho were near, look that circumstance as a warning, and fiew from the 
spot, whilst others were drawn nearer to it, to ascertain the cause, and these 
unfortunate pers&ns were of the number of the pnncipai sufferers. 

PEXSIOXS TO officers' WIDOWS. 

The following is an abstract of the Act, which was passed in the last 
Session of Parliament, for tlie more convenient payment of pensions to 
widows of officers of the navy :— 

" It is enacted, thar, from Decctnber 25, 1809, the Court of Assistants 
of the Charity for the •Relief of Widows of Officers of tlie Navy may direct 
the pensions to be paid to such widu%vs at the place of their residence in 
any part of his Majesty's dominions, or in any foreign parts, by persons 
appointed by them to pay the same ; and those widows may apply for 
the pensions, paid by th(5 receiver-general of the land tax, collector of the 
customs, collector of excise, or clerk of cheque of the district; and the 
Court of Assistants may order and direct tiie paymaster to make out two 
admittance bills, payable by them to such widows, one of which shall be 
sent to tiie widow, and the other to the receiver-general, collector, or 
clerk of the cheque, wl»o shall, on the widow's proUuciiig the duplicate, pay 
her the sum contained therein. The penalty on such persons delaying pay- 
ment, or taking any fees or discount, is 50l. to be received as penalties under 
the excise laws. 

" On certificate of infirmity being produced, the receiver-gener.'vl, 
collector, and clerk of tlie cheque, are authorized to pay the contents of the 
iiill to the order of the widow. 

*' But all assignments, bargains, sales, orders, contracts, agreements, or 
sanrities zuhaisbever, which shall he given or mack by any widow entitled to 
receive pe.isivn, shall be absolutely null and void. 

" Letters and packets are to be sent free of postage. Persons per- 
sonating widows in order to recei.e pensions, or forging bills or certificates. 



*i. 



COMMEHCIAL illSTi) RECOLLECTrONS, &C. 2f3 

*^ guiJly of felony, fjid may be transported for not exceeding fourteen 
years. 

*' Bills and certificates are exempted from the stamp duties." 

DEATH OF THE EARL OF SANDWICH. 

The following anecdote was found some years ago, amongst a collectioi 
•f family papers: — 

" Mr. Voluboire, father to Mrs. Burreli, of Adstock, in Bucks, beinj 
secretary to the Earl of Sandwich, and in the ship wiili his lordship (thii 
Sovereig;n) at the engagement witli the Dutch in- 1672, his lordship said to 
him, whiht he was putting the George on him, " Nmv, V^oi, I must bo 
sacrificed." meaning to the hatred of the Duke of York, by whose manage^ 
ment his ship liad no boat wherein to escape at an extremity, and he was 
engaged with seven or eigbt Dutcir ships, till of 1100 men they had but 80 
left; so throwing himself into the sea, hs was drowned. ' They charged 
liim with want of courage in a former engagement, to make him, as he said 
fo Mr. Volubone, expose and lose his life, that he might wipe off the stain. 
Mr. Volubone lirst descried the Dutch fleet, and was the last man th.it left 
the ship; in consideration whereof, when he brought his master's George 
to King Charles il. he gave him a place of 8001. per annum, which he 
enjoyed all his reign. Mr. Volubone swam t.vo homs before he was taken 
ip by Sir Edward Spragge." 

DREADFUL FATE, OF SEV£!J EXGLISH SAILORS, IN THE WEST ISTDIES. 

HoRuiBLE was that tragedy (says one of our old writers) which the West 
Indies beheld in the persons of seven Englishmen ; the relation of which 
take as followeth : — The afore-mentioned seven being in St. Christopher's' 
Island, had prepared themselves for a voyage of one night, and- had taken 
W'itli them provision for no longer a time ; but a tempest ir.tercepted their 
return, and carried tliem off so far into the sea that they could not return 
home in less than seventeen days; in which time they were so sparing of 
their one night's provision, that they made it serve them to the fifth days' 
that past, they must wrestle with mere iamine, which was so much the more 
grievous to tilsm, in regard the sun was extremely hot, that dried up their 
parched throats, exhaling the saltness from the troubled sea. They had 
HOW little hope of retrieving themselves from their woeful situation ; and 
were therefore forced tO cast lots amongst themselves to see whose flesh andf 
blood should satisfy the hunger and the thirst of the rest. The lot fell upon 
Iiim who first gave the counsel; who was not only unaffrighted at this hard 
fortune, but encouraged the rest, who had a kind of horror aS to what the/ 
were about: be told them, that " fortune was a favourer of the bold;" 
that there was no possibility of escape, unless they immediately stayed their 
flying life by human flesh ; that for his part he was well content, and that' 
he thought himself happy he could serve his friends when he was dead.'' 
With such words as these lie so persuaded them, that one (drawn out by lot' 
^soj cut his throat;, of wUose carcase each of them was so deeirou5 of a 




24 JJAVAL AN£Cii(it£S, 

piece, that it could scarcely be divided so quickly. Tlicy fell to tl)6 ileSlj 
witli eager teeth, and sucked out the Lluod into their tiiirsty stomachs. 
One only was found amongst them, who, being ncavly related to the dead 
person, resolved to endure all things r<itiiei' than pollute himself with the 
blood of his friend ; but the next day his famine drove iiim into such mad- 
ness, that he threw himself overboard into tlie sea. Ilis associates would 
iiot suffer so delicate a repast as his carcase to be so unreasonably snatched 
from thein. But his madness had already stf vitiated his blood and the 
flesh all aboift his veins, that in the v»hole body there was scarcely any 
thing found fit to eat, save only his bowels. At last it pleased God t3 shew 
them niercy in this their wandering and distress, and Ln'otight their small 
ship to the isle of St. Martin, in which they were kindly received by the 
Dutch garrison, and sent back to tlie rest of their friends, where they haci 
scarcely set foot on the shore, but thoy were accused of murder ; but 
inevitable necessity pleading in their behalf, they were set free by the 
juagistratc. 

SurrERJuCi OF at; englisiima-v, in one of the scotck islesj in tije 

VZAK IGIO. 

In the year ICJO, one Pickman, a Fleming, coming from Drontheim, irf 
Norway, with a vessel laden with boards, was o\ertaken by a calm, during 
ivhich the current of the sea carried him upon a rock or Httle island 
iowards the extremity of Scotland : to avoid a wreck, he commanded some 
of his men to go into tbe shallop", and to tow off the ship. Coming near the 
island, they saw sometiiing which w as more like a ghost than a living per- 
.son, a body stark naked, black and hairy, a meagn.' and deformed counte- 
nance, and hollow and distorted eyes ; he fell on his knees, and joining hii 
iiands together, begged relief from them ; which, raised such compassion in 
them, that they took him into tlie boat. There was in all the island no? 
^^rass, nor tree, nor aught whence a man could derive either subsistence or 
Shelter, besitJes the ruins of a boat, wherewith he had made a kind of hot 
to lie down under. The man gave this relation of himself:—" I am an 
Englishman ; and a year «go or near it, being to pass in the ordinaJy passage 
ooat from England to Dublin, the boat was taken by a French pirate, who 
being forced by a tempest, which immediately arose, to let go the passage- 
boat, left us to the mercy of the waves, which carried us into the main sea^ 
and at last split the boat upon the rock where you took me in. I escaped 
with one more into the island, where we endured the greatest extremities. 
Of some of the boards of our boat we made the hut you saw : we took some 
sea-mews, which, dried in the wind and sun, we ate. In the crevices of the 
rocks on the sea side we found feoriie eggs ; and thus we had as much a* 
served to keep us from starving. But our thirst was most insupportable: 
for having no fresh water but what fell from the sky, and was left in certain 
pits which lime had worn in the rocks, we could not hare it at all seasons; 
for the rocks lying low, were washed over with the waves of the sea. W« 
lived iu this condition six weeks, comforting one another in our common 
xnisfortuiic, till being left alone, it began tu grow insupportable to me. futf 



^^^^*- 

V 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 25 

one day avvakins; in the morning, and missing my comrade, I fell into such 
despair, that I had thoughts of casting myself headlong into the sea. I 
know not what became of him, whether despair forced him to that extre- 
mity, or that looking for eggs on the steepy side of tlie rock, he miL'ht fall 
into the sea. I lost with my comrade the knife wherewith we killed sea 
dogs, and the mews, uptm which we lived; so that not able to kill any 
more, I was reduced to this extremity, to get out of one of t!ie boards of my 
hut a great nail, which [ made shift so to sharpen upon the rock, that it 
served me for a knife. The same necessity put me upon another inven- 
tion, which kept me last winter, during which I endured the greatest 
misery iniau;inublc. For findintr the rock and my hut so covered with snow, 
that it was impossible i'or isie to get any thing abroad> T put out a little 
Btick at the crt vice of mv hut, and bailing it with a little sea-dog's fat, I 
by that means got some sea-mews, whicli I took witli niy hand from under 
-the snow; and so I made a shift to keep myself from starving, I lived in 
this coniirion and solitude ahi^.e e]e\cn months, and expected to end my 
flays in it, wlien God sent yuu l;crc to deliver me out of the greatest misery 
that ever inan was in." 

Tiie seaman having ended his discourse, the master of the ship treated 
him so well, tiiat within a few days he was rjuite auinher creature: he set 
him ashore at Dcrry, in Irebiid, and saw liini afterwards in Dublin, where 
cuch as ha'' heard what hud happened to hi;n, gave him wherewithal to 
ye turn into England. 

RUSSIAN COMMF.RCE. 

From a very interesting work, written by Count Romnnzow, entitled, 
" State of the Commerce of the Russian Empire, from 11.0,^ to ISOo," we 
learn that in 1803, the value of foreign commodities imported into Russia 
amounted to 55 millionsof rid)les, and llie exports to 67 millions. The duties 
exceeded those of the preceding years by 110,000 rubles. lu 1804, owiiiu- 
to the ditriculties of commercial specidations, tiie imp(nts were ?;a"wMS six 
and the exports three, millions of rubles. Even then the balance in favour 
of Russia, which in 1803 had been 21,590,968 rubles, still amounted to 
9,517,4-10. In 1805, notwiihstandiug the almost total stagnation of trade, 
tlie imports exceeded those of 1804 by six millions ; and the exports by 
thirteen and a half millions ; and the balance in favour of Russia was 
twenty five and a half millions of rubles. The number of ships which 
arrived at, and departed from the Russian ports during that period, was 
as follows : — 

uir rived. SaUed. 

In 1802 3,730 3,622 

1803 4,n-:.5 4.157 

1804 3,178 3,471 

1805 5,332 5,0B5 

How large a proportion of these were English may be judged, from a com- 
j)arison with tlie vear 1S08, uiieii the ntnnbcr of shijjs trading to the ports 



26 



KAVAL AXECDOTES, 



of Russia was— nrrived, 996 — sailed, 936. The exchange on Iliiinbargh, 
wiiicl) ill 1802, and 1805, had sustained itself iVoiu 23 to 27-^, and 29, fell 
in 18US to 16 and 16. 

lUNT TO DICTION A KY TRANSLATOHS. 

Bv way of companion to the specimen of Sicilian English in our last 
V'^olunie Cpa'^e 460) a lively correspondent has sent us the card of a coffee- 
house at Palermo, much frequented by the English officers, couched in the 
following terms : — 

'• In Centcrinara's Street, No. 98, at Palermo, there is the coffee-house 
of Columba, of Mr. Francis Gerafi, whereto every body can go and 
breakfast, being also able to bespeak whatever he wants for dinner, supper, 
and every kind of ice, for he will be served immediately with the utmost 
politeness and decency." 

DESPERATE ACTIONS. 

Hxtractfrom the London Gazette of December Id, 1678. 

From on hoard the ship Concord, commanded by Captain Thoraa* 
Gnuitliam, November 12, 1673: — 

'* On the twenty-fourth past, in the night, being in tlie latitude of -iB dcg. 
about one hundred and twenty leagues from the Land's End of Jinglnnd, 
we met with tiiree sail of s.iips, and a small baik, one of wliich jinn-ed to 
be the Admiral of Algiers, a new frigate")- of 48 gnus, called tlie Rose, and 
oommanded by Canary, aSpanisli rencgado; the othertwo \'irginiamen, the 
one of rivmoulU, the other of Dartmouth, and llie bark of Ireland. The 
Algerine hailed us in English — From whence.? We answered from Lon- 
don ; he told us he was the Rupert frigate, and commanded our boat on 
board, which our captain refused, knowing it could not be the Rupert. 
The Turk kept company with us ulf night, which gave us some time to fit our 
ship, and get oui' boats out; when it was ligiit, lie put abroad iiis bk)ody 
flii<^ at muin-top-niast head, fires a gun, and comm.inds us to strike to the 
King of Algiers, and to Adtniial Canary. 

" We gave iiim a ' What diter ho T l.e comes up with us, and passes 
his broadside upon us, having thirteen guns on a side of his lower tier : we 
returned iiim asgood a salute fis we cocid ; he stet-red from us, falls astern, 
loaded his guns wiih double head and round partridge, and then came up 
a"ain with us, claps us on board, grapples with us on the quarter, and made 
fast his snritsail-tripniast to our main-l>i)« lines, our main-sa 1 being furled. 
After tuo or tiiree hours dispute, linding he could not master us, he cut 
away our boats, and fires us on thv (juarter, and our mizen-yard being shot 
down, fired our sail, whicii burnt very veiieincntly, and immediately set all 
the after-part of our ship on fire. Uur captain kept the round-liuuse and 
cuddy, till the lire forced him to retreat, all that were with him being 
killed and wounded, and being got down into the great cabin and steerage, 
he sallied out with those that were there, with a resolution rather to be 
burnt than taken. 



> COMMERCIAL HINTS, UECOLLECTIONS, &C. 27 

" In the interim, the Turk's foresail l»nn!;in<; in the brails over our poop, 
took lire; then he would fam iiave got clear of us, but we endeavoured to 
keep liim fast, and as many as run up to cut him clear, we fetclied down 
with our small shot, until his sails, masts, shrouds, and yards, weie all in a 
blaze ; then we cut loose, and immediately his mast to tlie dtck went by 
ihe board, with many men in his top, and his bloody flag; several of the 
men betook themselves to their boat, but at last they overcame the fire, as, 
thanks be to God, we did likewise on board our ship, having our mizen- 
mast burnt by the board, and all the after-part of our ship burnt; tlicr« 
was little or no wind. 

" The Turk got out lijs oars, and rowed till he was out of fear of nS ; 
had it pleased God we bad had a gale, we should have released many 
Ciiristians ; we had not leisure to save any Turks, but preserved one 
Nicholas Humfrics, formerly a mate of a ship, who had been in slavcrjr 
thirteen months, from whom we understood that the day before, this Canary 
had in company with him three Algcrines more, one of tiiirty-four guns, 
the other of thirty, and the third of twenty-eight ; that their design was to 
cruise between the Land's End and Ushant, and itiat they parted in chasing 
certain ships; that there are twenty-fuur sail of them abroad, most of them 
out of the Streights. There being but little wind, the Algerine and we 
kept in sight of each other all that day and the next morning, and then it 
proving a small gale, and having an account from the said liumfries of the 
three other Algerines, we steered away our course for Virginia ; but that 
day, viz. the 1^6th, about two in the afternoon, we saw u sail ahead of us, 
standing with us; we fitted our ship, and when he came near us, he proved 
one of the three ships above-mentioned, viz. that of thirty-four uuiis, we 
stood with him, upon which he fills atui runs from us, wc chased him till 
sunset, tlien stood away our course, and saw no more of him. We had 
killed and wounded on board of us in the action with Canary 21 men, but 
of the Turks, according to the account from aboard them, at least 70 or 89 
are killed." 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



MR. ERITOn, 

TTT was with no slight portion of surprise, that I perused, in your last 
-^ Volume,* a most furious phillipic against "■ coifers, rockets, infernals, 
fire-devils, catamarans, &c." by a correspondent, who signs himself V. F. F. 
This gentleman has certainly contemplated the subject of which lie treats 
through a very distorting and confused medium. In the first place, he raoit> 
absurdly confouiuls Congrcve's rockets with the coffers, cutaniaiais, Ike. 
lie luiglit as well have gone farther back, and have objected to tne use of 
gunpowder, of cannon, of musketry, and of every other engine or weapoa 
of an explosive nature, in the jirosccutlon of warfare. — I am willing to 

* Vide page 408. 



28 eORRESPONDESCr. 

admit, that catamarans, or coffers, as they have been repeatedly described, 
ought never to be resorted to, but for the accomplishment of some great 
and important purpose, and when all other means should be cons'dered as 
inadequate; fur the primary object of war is not to slaughter our fellovif 
creatures ; and, when the energies and resources of the enemy can be 
impaired, by any other mode, humanity requires that the sacrifice of blood 
shall be spared. But the objection against catamarans and coffers — 
machines which are understood to be employed in the darkness and silence 
of night, against a helpless and unsuspecting enemy — applies not to rockets, 
or to any other species of explosive weapon now in use ; for, so far from 
their increasing the number of slain, they have a tendency to shorten the 
contest, and thus to spare the effusion of blood. More or less, this is the 
general tendency of the use of gunpowder, cannon, fire-ships, bombs, gre- 
nades, (Sjc. as history will incontestibly prove, that the numbers slain in 
battle, either upon land or on tlie ocean, since the invention of gunpowder 
and artillery, have been small and inconsequential, when compared with 
those which were accustomed to be destroyed, by mere missile weapons. 

Your correspondent, with some ingenuity, but more sophistry, has said a 
great deal about the ills which have resulted, or which may result, from the 
discovery of a passage to India, round the Cape of Good Hope; from the 
discovery of South America ; from the lighting of our streets with inflam- 
mable gas; from the multiplication of canals; from the opening of a coal 
mine in -the neighbourhood of London ; from the fabrication of cottons 
without labour or expense, &c. but in this heterogeneous classification, there 
is even less fairness, than thereisinhis jumbling together all the pyrotechnic 
machines, which have been, or may be invented. The discovery of a nearer 
passage to India, and of the gold mines in South America, were, each of 
them, pregnant with advantages — not only apparent, but real ; and weak 
indeed must have been that government, or those individuals, who, from 
the fear of a possible evil, should have refused to embrace a positive good. 
The formation of canals, and the opening of a coal mine in the vicinity of 
the metropolis, are different. No new canal can be cut, without the pre- 
vious sanction of the legislature, which may be presumed competent to 
decide, whether the project be likely to prove advantageous, or the con- 
trary, to the community at large ; and, as to the opening of coal mines near 
London, it has for centuries been considered such a positive evil, were it to 
be permitted, that, though Blackheath, and other spots, are supposed to 
abound in this useful fossil, of a superior quality, an act of Parliament has 
been long in existence, prohibiting the sinking of a coal shat't within a cer- 
tain distance from the metropolis. 

The-use of rockets, then, as to the evils which possibly may result from it, 
can be compared only to the discovery of a short cut to India, and of the 
gold mines in South America ; and I must confess, that the possible evils of 
the former are as much out of sight — at least to my confined vision — sa 
those of the latter formerly were ; while, comparing little things with great, 
the positive good which must arise from the use of rockets, is equally ob- 
vious with that which, it was evident, would accrue from the nautical dis- 
coveries just mentioned. 



tORRESPOMDENCB. 29 

It is well known, that, in the liite attack upon Copenhagen, the reduction 
of th^t place was n^.aterially facilitated by the alarm and confusion which 
were excited by Congreve's rockets; and, consequently, many hundreds of 
lives, which must otherwise have been sacrificed, vvere spared. It would be 
a fallacious species of philanthropy which could object to the Archduke 
Charles's recent employment of tire- boats, to destroy Buonaparte's bridges 
on the Danube, on the "jround, that some men or horses might be sacrificed 
by the act; not considering that, as proved actually to be the case, the 
measure might preserve the lives of many thousands of the Archduke's 
soldiers, and decide the fortune of the day against the enemy. 

Lord Cochrane's late exploit in Basque Roads must be considered as very 
different from the achievement of a midnight iicendiary : it must be obvious 
to every one, that, with very sliglit risque to ourselves,* we inflicted an 
almost irreparable injury on the enemy, thoi/gh not by destroying his men. 
No battle could have been fought, in which cither the victor or the van- 
quished would have sustained so slight a loss of human life. This, therefore, 
without going farther back, is an ample illustration of the position, that 
gunpowder, fire-sliips, bombs, rockets, &c. by shortening warfare, tend to 
spare blood ; and, consequently, does away all the specious and mock- 
philanthropic sophistry of F. F. F. 

I have troubled yon with these remarks, Mr. Editor, not much in the 
hope of convincin- your Correspondent of his errors ; but rather in the 
wish of dissipating an unfounded and injurious prejudice, which some peo- 
ple seem to eutertam, respecting the adoption of explosive machines against 
the enemy. I am, &c. 

H. 

P.S. I ought to have added, that, admitting the French, or any other 
nation, may acquire the art — which no doubt they will — of constructing and 
discharging rockets with the same facility as the English, the main 
arguments which I have advanced in their favour can lose none of their 
force ; for, slill the contest rvill be shortened by their use. An inference to 
be drawn from this remark is, that the ' j>rudence' of the English govern- 
ment, in adopting them, is by no means implicated. 



" Rien rCest beau que le vrai." 

MR. EDITOR, Boileau Despreanx, 

HAVE lately received the fourteenth Volume of the Naval Chronicle, 
wherein I find, page 280, the following anecdote of a distinguished 

naval character, extracted from the 155th page of Carr's Northern 

Summer : — 

" Being sent, some years since, on shore upon the Irish coast with a 
brother ofiicer, who is now holding a deservedly high situation in the ser- 

* In killed, wounded, and missing, from the 11th to the 14th of April, 
we only sustained a loss of 46 officers and men. 



so connrspoNDENCE. 

vice, to look for some doscrtcrs from tlicir ship, afler a long, fatiguing, ancr 
fruitless pursuit, tliey halted at a little Inn to refresh themselves : having 
dined. Sir Sidney on a sudden hecamc silent, and seemed lostin meditation : ' 
" My dirk for your thoughts," exclaimed his friend, gently tapping him on 
the shoulder; " what project, Sidney, has got possession of you now ?" — 
" ^ly o''"'i fellow," replied the young warrior, his expressive countenance 
briiihtenins: as he t^poke, " you will no doidit suppose me a little disordered 
in mv mind, but I have been thinking that, before twelve years sliall have 
rolled over my head, I shull make the Briti'^h arms triuiTipliant in Holy 
Land." We need not knock at the cabinet door of St. Cloud to know how 
splendidly this prediction was verified." 

I am aware of the caution to be used in disturbing the irritability of 
authors, or of damping the pleasure of readers by dcpreci»ting the cuirency 
of a Iravtlling tale, or spoiling a " devili'-h good story:" but magna est 
zeri,as. I must therefore inform you, that not having had the good for- 
tune, like the Earl of M. to wait for the appesrance of My Pocket Book 
before I ventured upon the purchase of that " ryghte merrie and con- 
ceitedde v\«<)rke " first mentioned, I an) the holder of a copy that was laid 
before sir S. S. with a query as to the authenticity of the juvenile prophecy 
therein atlrilmted to him : which that otBLer, with his usual promptitude^ 
answered by immediately writing in the margin — 

" 29/^ Dicemhcr, 1805. S. S. never zcas in Ireland in his life. Tht 
author has reeoi-dcd iht uaking dream of some other person, not 




As you have in the laudable design of gleaning amusing as well as 
instructive matter for your readers, given fresh currency to a foolish fiction, 
I claitn from your regard for truth, the same publicity for this commentary 
that you have granted to the objectionable text. I am, Sir, 

Your well wisher, 

" Dover, 1st Jane, 1809. PHILADELPHUg. 



CAPE FRIO. 
MR. EDITOR, 

The following remarkable difference in determining the latitude and lon- 
gitude of that noted landfall Cape Frio, on the coast of Brazil, as stated iu 
distinct parts of the Naval Ciiroxicle, may prove detrimental to naviga- 
tors, if not corrected through the medium of the same publication : for 
which reason I beg leave to point it out to the notice of $orae of your 



CORRESPONDENCE. 31 

icientiflc correspondents. Vol. XIV. pas;e 243, contains a table extracted 
from Lindley's narrative of a vova<je to Brazil, &c. wlierciu Cape Fiio is 
marked 22 dejj;. 54 inin. S. and 41 deg. 35 miu. W. Whereas, in Vol. XXl. 
pa£fe 43, Tim Weatherside, in an article, ad hoc, makes that promontory 
23 des;. 2 min. S. and 49 deji;. 59 min. W. being an error of 8 min. latitude, 
and of no less than 9 deg. 59 min. longitude. — Quepre, on which side dues 
I he error lie ? 

AMERIGO ^^ESPUCCI. 



ON NAVAL IMPROVEMENIS. 

ArR. EDITOR, London, Juhj 15, 1809. 

FljnUE letter I addressed to yon on the subject of catamarans, coffers, &c. 
has, I am most happy to hear, had the <iood effect of rousing the 
reflection of your naval readers, to the iidunnanity as well as impolicy of 
resorting to such abominable expedients. 

This is well, let this sort of reflection go on, and T will venture to nre- 
dict, that the time is not far distant, when the public shall turn with indig- 
nation from the perusal of parai;raphs like these, " In addition t(j Shrapmll's 
shells and Coiiereve's rockets, another new, and by every account more 
destructive engine i'or the dc/i'o/it ion of x/tips, was I'.itely presented to ihe 
Ordr.aiicc B.iard by Capta.n Ouseley, of the Foreign Depot. On Saturday 
a thunder and lightening machine was exiiibted at Woolwich fo n vast 
number of general officers of artillery and engineers, which compleielv suc- 
cci'i'led in shiverin.g to pieces a mast erected^ for the purpose." Now, wlio, 
Sii', on reading this paragraph in our daily papers could poasibiy suppose 
that these general otficers of artillery and engintei s were the general olticers 
of artillery and engineers of a nation whose very salvation has S(j long been 
acknowledged to depend on the power and pjcmrvufion of its s/iips. Would 
not one a great deal sooner suspect, that they were the general officers of 
artillery and engineers of France, so inucli interested in the drinolt iun of 
our navy ; or of America, whose commerce at the lirst threat of war with 
this country was hastily secluded from e»ery branch of the ocean? Sure I 
urn, that no one but a bedlamite could believe they were tiie general 
officers of England, unless indeed, we suppose them anxioub for the demo- 
lition of (.'ur ships, that they may have the hmiour of contesting f)n Rritish 
<:round the palm of victory with Buonaparte. Yes, this may do, and tins is^ 
the only plausible reason that can be assigned ; but, as I haie said, with 
peonle who hwe a dilVerent feeling, the time is not lar tbstaut whim such 
parngraphn shall be read with indignation, and our naval heroes, ashamed 
of their disgraceful aberrations, whl return with dimbie relisli to the good 
old patii o? round and grape — round and gr^ipe tiiuL have ra sed us to the 
exalted pinnacle on ftliich we stand. But while 1 ri-ioict- at so succeshiul a 
connnencement of my hopes, it is impossilde mt sincerely to regret, the 
litrange construction put l>y some persons on the tendency of my endeavours. 
It lias been strangely supposed that I an^ a volunteer advocate in ttie cause 
t)f i;;uoraiice, and an enemy to the remuneration of genius! Good God ! 



32 CORRESPONDENCE. 

what a strange misapprehension ! Because I do not approve of fostering 
inventions that may sap the founHation ot our greatness: because I would 
for ever stifle every sui^gestion of destruction, founded on resources more 
coniieniiU to the cliaracter of our enemies than to our own, or because I 
pro'esscdiv ahlior that dii'iolical species of warfare, which tends to subvert 
the moral character of our natioiiul courage and glorv, am I therefore to 
be ranked among the men whose narrow souls are incapable of appreciating 
the advantages of improvements ? God forbid ! for I see too well what has 
been done at home liy our manufacturers, ever to censure the encourage- 
ment of beneficial suggestions ; and I see in common with the world too 
much of what has been done by improvements among the enemies of 
Europe, ever to become tlje advocates of men, who would siiut ou«. taleists, 
and .-^p'cad abroad repression. As [ am extremely anxious on this head to 
be understood, I shall take the liberty of selecting as an example, the 
invention of Captain Cowan, (which has been often mentioned in your 
work; and of the y'T«c^eV«/ merits of which I profeis my-elf to be totally 
unacquainted. T!ie iaventioa of that gentleman, I think, proposes, to 
enable mari:;ers to reef tlicir f^ail>, without lowering or clewing them up; 
here tl;en, if it succeed, is a very great advantage obtained, and one tha' is 
in*ini;ite!s' connected with humanity. Supposing the practicability ascer- 
tained, it i> evident that the lives of thousands in the course of time maybe 
saved, and what should enter into the calculation of evei-y stiitesman, a pro- 
portionable share of property. In this invention we see no advantages on 
our side that may ultimately be employed with superior effect by the 
enemy — we see nothing that an enemy can gain which he does not gain in 
common with mankind. Here then, I say, is an invention deserving of 
patronage, and most happy am I to see, by Captain Cowan's own confession, 
that the Admiralty or Navy Board have liberally allowed every captain to 
have these sails on application ; respecting the remuneration made to him, 
I am no judge, it may be above or below his expectation ; but one thing 
Eurprises me, and that is the tone of complaint wliich in the face of the 
encouragement just alluded to, he has thought himself justified in assuming. 
Surely it becomes Captain Cowan to be more explicit ? lie is, I am told, 
a man of honour and genius, and could not possibly hint at such discou- 
ragement as he does, without being grounded in a right to complain. 
Sometiiing too has been hinted on the case of Captain Cartier— why have 
recourse to hints ? Every man who is injured has a right to complain; it is 
the privilege of a British subject, and he has a British public for his auditors, 
who vvill impartially judge of his pretensions and his wrongs. 

But while they do him justice in their minds, the accused have an equa| 
right to be heard. It is in vain that hints and complaints are thrown out to 
iheir prejudice unless sometiiing specific is urged, and while only men of 
sanguine minds arc the complainants, it behoves the public to be particularly 
on their guard, and it equally behoves the complainants to bring forward 
specific proofs, if they wish that their complaints in future should either be 
J'eelingly heard, or natioually recorded. 

F. F. F. 



CORRESFONDENCEi .33 

*|^rO distinct narrative of the sie2;e of Acre having been yet 
-^ ^ published, we arc glaJ to contribute towards the materials 
for a history of that operation, by giving the following copy of a 
letter from a petty officer on boarfl the senior officer's ship of our 
squadron^ in the Levant Seas, to his friends in Kent. 

Tigre, off" St. John of Atri, on the Coast ofSjjria, Simdoy, 
DEAR BROTtlEX!, ApTil23th, 1799. 

I embrace with the greatest pleasure the earliest opportunity since ouf 
yoparture from Constantinople, of acquainting you I am hi good health, 
and extremely hnppy, hope you, brothers, sisters, and family, are the same; 
We sailed from Con.-,tantinople the 19di, of February, after a stay of twof 
months at that place (which I have no time to give you an account of, as 
I have but a very siiort notice of the ship's sailing, by whicli I sent my 
letter;) we arrived at Rhodes the 2Cth February, and after compleatin;^ our 
wine, wood and water, we sailed for Alexandria, to take our station off that 
place, vvfliere we arrived the 3d of March; after cruizing off there a week, 
we sailed for St. Jean D'Acre, having received intelligence that the French 
army, commanded by General Buonaparte, were marching towards that 
place from Grand Cairo; we arrived at Acre the !6th. of Marcli ; on the 
^8th, the French army came round Mount Carmel in the nigjit, and cncam[j- 
fed near the Town of CaitTe, about 9 miles from Acre, and the next '^.ay 
took possession of the Town; on the 19th, we slipt our anchors, and gave- 
chase to 10 sail of French gun boats, that were coming round point Car- 
niel, laden with cannon, a.mmunition and provisions, for the French army, 
and just before dark, we captured 7 of them, the other three escaped with 
a polacre ship; had not night have favoured them, we must have taken 
them all. On the 21st, the gun boats (our prizes) were sent off die Town 
of Caiffe, to bombard the Town, and cover our boats in cutting out four 
small vessels from under the walls, and after bombarding the town from 
four in the morning till four in tlie afternoon, the boats were sent in to cut 
out the vessels, and as soon as t'.ey had got within pirtol shot of the walls, 
the enemy, about i!GOO in number, opened a very tieavy fire of musketry 
from behind the walls, through the loop holes; our boats returning a brisk 
fire for some time; but by tL-e time they had cut one cable of each vessel, 
we had scarce men left to row the boats off; the launch having nearly all 
her crew either killed or wounded, dtove on shore, and was taken ; we had 
a masterVmate, aird three midshipmen killed, a number of men kil'vd. 
Wounded, and taken prisoners, 3i in the whole; some have since ditd of 
their wound*. The next day we sailed in quest of ti e other gun boats and 
polacre that escaped, leaving our gun bf>ats to defend Acre, which the 
Trench had hid siege to, and after cruizing as far north as Tripoli, we 
returned to Acre without finding them; in our way back to Acre, we took 
-a polacre ship off Tyre, laden with provisions, for the French army, b<Jt have, 
since lost her, with one of the gun boats, in a gale of wind, the crews w«re 

i^m, Citron. 2icl. XXII. r 



34 St ATS PAi'Enr. 

saved, one man excepted ; on our return, the French were still ticserginf 
Acre; they hare now laid before it 5 weeks, but there is no greater proba- 
bility of their taking it than at first; this is the only place the French have 
met with any resistance, owing entirely to the English being here; wc learn 
by deserters, that the French army afe in a most miserable situation, we 
therefore expect they cannot hoFd out much longer ; there is a great army 
of Turks expected here daily from Jerusalem, which is about thirty miles 
from here; our duty falls very hard at present, as wc are under the enemy's 
batteries, day and night, in our boats, which, with the gun boats, have 
been the greatest annoyance to tliem. I am happy to say we have not hud 
a man hurt in our boats here, though frequently within pistol-shot of the 
batteries; the enemy has lost a number of men, before this place, in diiTer- 
ent sorties, made by our seamen, marines, and the Turks. 

I am extremely sorry to add the death of Edward :\Iorris, which you wilt 
have the goodness to acquaint liis friends of; he was wounded the 20th of 
April, in the afternoon, in the trenches before Acre, by a grape shot from 
one of the enemy's batteries: he departed this life tlie next morning, about 
9 o'clock ; he lived about 16 hours in the most excruciating pain, which he 
bore with the greatest Christian fortitude: he retained his senses to the lasC 
moment, and expired without a groan: he was wounded in the left side, his 
bowels were torn in a most shocking manner; he was interred on the morn- 
ing of the 23d with all the honours of war: you may likewise acquaint his 
friends, that as he died without a wiJl, his cloaths will be sold, it being the 
Custom in the navy. 

Pray give my kind love to my brothers and sisters, uncles and aunt, and 
I'emember me to all friends; remember me to M. and M. tell them 
1 should have wrote, but have had no- opportunity; shall be glad to hear 
from them; shall be happy to hear from you the first opportunity. 

I forgot to mention the treatment of the Turks to the French; they make 
no prisoners, but cut off their heads, dead or alive, whicii they bring in to 
the Governor, fof which they receive a premium of 15 Zcquins ; thcii' 
bodies are thrown over the walls, and mangled by the dogs in a most shock- 
ing manner, which live upon the. bodies, 

I remain, dear M. 

Your loving Brother, 

E.JL 



STATE PxlPERS. 



ATX tke pieces published bv the several authorities civil aiuF military 
m Spain, have been circulated with profusion in Souiii America by 
tlie English admiral, commanding in those seas, and are uudcrolood to have 
produced the eflect that was to be expected. 

The Princess of Brazil, and Iier cousin the Spanish Prince who foUo-.vGd' 



STATE PAPERS. ' 35 

tbe court of Portugal,* liave thought it advisable to publish joint and 
separate protests against the usurpation of the Buonaparte family, in pre- 
judice of tlieir rights as next heirs to the crown of Spain, with a view in 
every event to secure the succession to those parts of the Spanish posses- 
sions which are beyond the rapacity of Napoleon. These pieces form ma- 
terials for the history of the times too valuable for us to neglect giving them 
a place in this collection, translated from the original Spanish as literally as 
the idiom of the la;iguages admits. 

I, 

JUST CLAIM, 
Addressed by the representatives of the royal house of Spain, Dona Car- 
lota Juaquina de Bourbon, Princess of Portugal and Brazil, and by Doa 
Pedro Carlos de Bourbon y Braganza, Infante of Spain, to the Prince 
Kegent of Portugal, to the end that H. R. H. shall vouchsafe to take into 
consideration, to protect and preserve the sacred rights of their au'-ust 
liouse to the throne of the Spains and Indies ; which throne the Emperor 
of tlie French has obtained possession of by means of an abdication and 
renunciation, extorted by the most atrocious and detestable violence from 
the hands of tl>e King, Don Carlos IV. and tlieir R. R. H. H. the Prince of 
Asturias, and the Infantes Don Carlos, and Don Antonio. 

lilEMORlAL. 

TIic unhappy tidings received from Spain^ concerning the occupation of 
the capital and the principal military posts by the French, declared enemies 
of the crown of Portugal, and no less hostile by their conduct to that of 
Spain, afflict us the deeper, because we must therefrom prognosticate the 
enslavement of the faithful and generous Spanish people, and consequently 
the ruin of the throne of our ancestors. 

The irregular conduct of the Emperor of the French, and the unjust pro- 
ceedings of his generals and other ministers, have for some time afforded us 
ample motives for manifesting to the world the just resentment which we 
have from prudential reasons hitherto smothered in silence : considering 
that the aid of our voice was not requisite to demonstrate the reason and 
justice of our cause, outraged by the despotism of absolute and arbitrary 
power : till at length, being informed of the perfidy by which, under the 
mask of an amicable conference, the King, chief of our house, and all the 
members of our family in Spain, were persuaded to place their persons in 
the hands of him who menaced their rights, ours, and those of all the vassals 
of the Kin^ of the Spains — the perfidy by which they were first constrained 
to subscribe formal acts of abdication and renunciation, and were then 
individually conducted out of the kingdom, to be buried in those places 
already stuined with the blood of other members of our royal t'amily, we, 
full of horror at such attempts, deem it our duty to implore tlie aid of 
your R. 11, as our guardian and immediate natural protector ; supplicating 

' , ' ■ ' ; — < ^ i 

* See Naval C¥r.OKiCLE,. Vol. XXI. pageSSl. 



$5 STATE PAPERS. 

your succour against the propacpitioa of this usurping system that absoibs 
the states of Europe one after the other; beseeching your R. H. to employ 
your power and influence in favour of our house, so that we may thereby 
be enabled (as the nearest relations of the Kini^) to preserve his riijhts, and 
with them secure our own: combining the Portu«;iiese, Spanish, and 
Enghsh forces, to hinder the French from practisiim uitli their armies the 
same violence and subversion that they have committed over almost the 
whole extent of Europe. 

Your R. H. in consideration of the state and situation in which ou*" 
respective father and uncle, together with the re^^t of the family of our august 
house of Spain, are placed, cannot but approve of this our pri>ceedin»: a 
proceeding founded on the principles and imidamcntal laws of the Spanisii 
inf)narchy, from which we sliali never separate ourselves: a proceeding 
authorised by the incontestibic principles of divine and natural justice, and 
which as such we hope will merit the approbation of our beloved unch' thp 
King of the two Sicilies, that of his royal fai^ily, and that of all the per- 
sonages interested. We consider this step we are taking as expected of us 
by the members of our unfortuna e and unhappy family, who are in a state 
of restraint, oppressed by force, and what they surely feel most painfully^ 
separated from the busom of their much loved vassals, {^vussulos] the faithful, 
the constant, the generous Spaniards. 

Such is the idea vvhicli we conceive our well beloved brothers and uncle 
tneant to convey, when, after describing the entry of the- French troops and 
their superiority in number, they use these expressions : 

" In t/iis s'ute of' things, their R. R. II. H. reflecting on the situation in 
tDhich ike}/ are placed, and the delicate circumstances in wt^ch Spain j'l 
equuUif placed, and considering that in such a crisis every attempt on the part 
of' the Spanish people for the recoverj/ of their rights would prove more 
rtdnous than advantageous, and have no other result t/ian causing rivers of 
hlood tojioic, and at Last occasioning the indubitable diimemberinent of tlie. 
greatest part of their proi-inces, and of the uhole of' the colonies beijondf 
sea, S<c. ike," 

This mode of expression appears to us to offer evident proofs : first, of 
the compulsion that has been exercised to make those princes write, without 
allowing tliem to write their own sentiments : secondly, that in case Spain 
was not placed in such circumstances as arc therein described, they would 
not deesn useless an elTurt of the inhabitants to recover their rights : and 
thirdly, that wiyeii this should follow with respect to the colonies they would 
be lost [to the mother country]. In these words we perceive a tacit, 
though very clear insinuation, addressed to ourselves and to such of their 
most faithful countrymen, as are still at liberty, that we should by unanimous 
consent endeavour to defend and preserve iben- rights. 

We are also in the firm persuasion, that such v. ill be our Sicilian uncle's 
way of thinking, and equally tliat of the other members of our royal family, 
and of alj our countrymen who remain free, and at a distance from insult 
and oppression. 

Rome, the depository of ourholy religion, is again insulted, and subjected 
to the arbitrary power that disturbs the whole of Europe. lu vaia does ius 



STATE PAl'EUS. 37 

boUness protest against the exile of their eminences the cardinals; in vain 

does he order that they remove only when obii;j;eil by violence : he has no 

other resource but comph^int andhiine;itation ; as we see in his declaration 

Signed by the most eminent Caioi;ial Doria-Pamfili, that " such acta muni- 

/ally tended to subvert and destroy the power oft/ie church" 

As for us, we deem ourselves liappy in being on this side of the Atlantic, 
neither in a state of subjection, nor liable to it, if, laying aside all parly 
spirit, wc cultivate that perfect union aiul alliance whereby comniunuy of 
(sentiment will consolidate tiiose resources that are capable of forming a 
respectable force, sufficient in itself to resist whatsoever invasion, and to 
secure our interests, our liberties, and our lives against French ambition. 

Wfe cannot for a single instant doubt of th^ loyalty and love that the 
inhabitants of the Americas have at all times shewn towards our august 
house, and more particularly to our much honoured fatlicr; for wliom iii 
recent times they have sacrificed their lives and fortunes, aud given the 
greatest proofs of fidelity. \V'ith this knowledge, aud certain that the mis- 
fortune; of our family will have saddened the minds of those who have 
always interested themselves for the conservation of our rights, we hope, 
that by means of the interference and help of your R.H. it may be practi- 
cable to realise a perfect alliance with the King of the Spains' sijljects in 
America; and by that just and salutary measure frustrate the enemy with 
€ase, as .well as avoid those civil dissentions which continue too frequently 
to be ex,cited l;etween the subjects of the two kingdoms, of which the con- 
Sequences are always more or less fatal. 

In order to realise these our just and sound isitentions, we are desirous oC 
a secure opportunity for communicating them to the respective tribunals^ 
^nd other legitimate depositaries of the authority of our Lord the King; 
?which we would in no wise alter or diminish, and which can be preserved 
and defended only by freeing it from the pp'.yer of France. To which end 
we hope that your R. II. will interest yourself with tiie admiral of our 
Strong and powerful r^Uy the King of Great Brittiin, that he may so order 
nnd dispose of the forces under his connnand, as without weakening tlia 
defence of your R. H. and of the Bra!^llian coasts, to contribute to that of 
the shores of the River Plata, and the other dominions of Spanish America^ 
without in any way prejudicing the navigation and commerce between the 
inhabitants of those parts, and this or the qiher ports of this principality ; 
the protection for which trade we doubt not will be innnediately confirmed 
by the generositj of the K. of G. B,'s noble character, and th;a. of his pow- 
erful nation. 

Lastly, we re(jucst your R. II. to place at our disonsal all ilie means 
vliich may be necessary for us to communicate oin- iiuention-j tj the chief*, 
tribunals, and civil as well as ecclcsiij^tical autiioritics, in whicii dwell.'? the 
.authority of our august Lord the King, and to whose loyalty are committed 
the rights of our royal house, whicii we desire to support inviolate danng 
the continuance of those misfortunes v,ith which Irencli ambition has 
alHicted the royal family tjf Spain. 

^Yritteu in the palace of Il:o dc Janeiro, 1st August, 1808. 

(Si^iie^) Ihe Princess DONA C. J. de BOURBOX. 
The lulhiUe DOS P. C. de BUUilliON 
1 BIlAG.\i:\ZA. 



SS STATE PAPCaS. 

TI. 
REPLY ' 
Of II. R. ri, tlie Prince Regent of Portugal, to the naemorial of their 
-R. R. H. H. the Princess of Brazil and the Infante of Spain, Don Pedrqs 
Carlos, imploring his protection and help to sustain their rights, and to pre- 
serve those of the King of Spain, and other members of the royal family, 
seized and conducted with violence to the interior of the French empire. 

[»*» Translated from the Spanish veision printed at Ilio Janeiro : the: 
•riginal being in the Portuguese language.} 

Your Royal Highnesses render me juslice when you judge me disposed 
to support your rights, and the riglus of those Spaniards who are fiiithful to. 
the crown and to their country. In the manifesto which I publisiied since 
Biy'removal to tliis continent, I might have shewn a just resentment at the 
conduci of Spain, in permitting the transit of the French troops, and joining 
them to invade Portugal: but I suppressed those sensations, and sought 
rather to do justice to tuc*sentiraents of reluctaiice the faithful Spaniards 
inust have felt in being made the instruments of an act so contrary to the 
interests of their princes, and the security of their own country. I then 
preserved the greatest confidence that a time would come when we should 
lie united as allies for mutual defence against the excess of such multiplied 
aggressions. 

I now judge, like your R. R. II. 11. that the time is come for that union 
to operate against a common enemy. And I hope tliat, in concert with my 
allies, "(amongst whoni ought to be comprised Sicily; and so consider 
itself) we sliall be able to oppose a barrier to the extension of those con--^ 
quests Francs may undertake against us. At least I will do all that shall 
depend upon me to effectuate this salutary combination and alliance which 
your R. R. H. H. have proposed to me. And I wish the American Spa- 
jiiards^ knowing that we are of one accord on the great necessity of pro- 
tecting tiiem, to unite their resources with our forces, in order to give full 
and entire effect to my intentions for procuring them that peace and 
prosperity of which their position renders them capable and susceptible of 
the fullest enjoyment. 

Given in the palace of our royal habitation at Rio de Janeiro, under our 
royal seal, i9th August, 1808. 

(L.S.) (Signed) PRINCIPE. 

III. 
Translation of the manifesto addressed to the faithful subjects of 
his Catholic Majesty, by H. R. H. Donk Carlota Juaquinade Boiir- 
bon, liifauta of Spain, Princess of Portugal and Brazil. 

MANIFESTO. 
I make known unto the loyal and faithful subjects of the Catholic King 
of the iS'pains and the Indies^ to the governors, tribunals, ecclesiastical 



SiTATE PAPERS. o9 

^liapte-ts, and secular councils, [^cabUdos'] and to all other persons to whose 
fidelity are confided the authority and administration of the monarchy, and 
tiie rights of my royal house and family, that the Emperor of the French^ 
after having exhausted Spain of ir.en and treasure, which under the pretext 
of a false and captious alliance, lie required to support wtirs provoked by 
liis unlimited ambition and selfish views, at length seeks to realise the sys- 
tem of universal monarchy. 

This grand projtct, great only by the great atrocities, great robberies, 
and great murders, by which it is and must be preceded, is connecied with 
the idea of securing first of all, to himself and his family, the throne which 
the sanguinary revolution [of France] has usurped from tiie first line of my 
royal family, and placed in the power of this man, til! then unknown. To 
which end he seeks to exterminate and anniliilate my royal house and 
family, inasmuch as in it resides those legitimate rights whicli he has usurped 
and aims at retaining in his hands. 

In the first place he attempted by means of the most criminur policy to 
possess liimsolf of our person, and of that of our dear spouse and son, upon 
the specious and seductive principle of protection against the English 
nation, from whieli we have received the greatest proofs of friendship and 
sdliartce. But frustrated in these his designs, by our retirement to this con- 
tineiitj he vented his wrath, and assuaged his thirst for gold, by the general 
sack of Portugal", which he sent Junot to perpetrate throughoutthe kingdom, 
without respect of persons or things, even to laying huuds upon the hoir 
vessels of the sanctuary. 

A little while afterwards he fomented a popular tumult at Madrid, the 
court of my august father and lord, Don Carlos IV. to oblige him to abdi- 
«ate and renounce the throne in favour of my brother the Prince of 
Asturias ; seeking to interpose himself in these domestic troubles for the 
abominable purpose of enticing them to the territory of his empire, upon 
the pretence of greater security for their persons, but in reality to hold 
them in greater readiness to make use of in realising his iniquitous plans. 

Having secured my august father and ail the other individuals of my 
family at Bayonne, in France, he there by violent means obliged them to 
sign an act of abdication or renunciation,_/br that same reason mill, founded 
apon the specious and fanciful motives of preserving the integrity of Spaii], 
which he alone was intent upon violating; and of preserving the Catholic 
yeljgion, which he alone detested and profaned : an act by which all the 
rights of my royal house of Spain to the crown of Spain and to the empire 
of the Indies would become yielded to this ambitious chief, if wc did not iiV 
due time prefer our claim against this unjust and iniquitous violence, con- 
ceived and executed against natural and positive rights, and in contempt 
of all human and divine law, and that of nations in particular, acknowledged 
hy the most barbarous people. 

My beloved parents and brethren, and other relations, being thus deprived 
of their natural liberty without the faculty of exercising any authority, vi-v 
€ven provide for t!ie defence and preservation of their rights, considering 
moreover the pernicious intiucnce of such acts over evil mjuds,. disposed u? 



40 STATE PAPERS. 

propaaate schism and anarchy to the preju'dice of society, and conceiving 
inyself not only sufficiently authorised, hut obliged, as the nearest represen- 
tative in this part of the world of my fatlier and family existing; in Europe 
to act on t!ieir behalf towards their faithful and beloved subjects in America, 
1 hav^ judged it seasonable and pfopor to address this manifesto to them, 
>iy which I deilarc to be nuH and void all that abdication or renunciation 
by which my fatlier and lord the king, Don Carlos IV. and other individuals 
of my royal familv of Spain, ai-e held to have made in favour of the F.mperor 
or Chief of the French: to which declaration all the loyal and faithful 
vassals [vassalos] of my father are bound to adhere, as long ste such of my 
family, whose rights are superior to mine, shall not be free agents; not con- 
sidering]; myself as mure than the depositary and protectress of those rii^hts 
which I desire to preserve untouched and uninjured by the perversity of the 
French, in order to restore them to such legal representative of my said 
family, who exists or shal* fexist independently at the period of a general 
peace. Earnestly exhorting and soliciting all those hitherto charged with 
the dispeiisution of justice to continue in tlie due observance and adminis- 
tration of ihe laws in all their vigour ; taking care more particularly of the 
ptiblic tranquility, and defence of these [transmarine] dt^ninions, until my 
tvell-beloved cousin, th'fe Infante Don Pedro Carlos, or other qualified pci--« 
son from amongst yourselves, shall be authorised to assume the government 
of the said dominions during the Unfortunate situation of my much-loved 
father, brothers, and uncle, without any new dispositions of mine inter- 
fering in the least degree with the constitutional establishments of my 
august ancestors. 

This declaration, signed by me, and countersigned by my secretary, i;^ 
transn)itted, in order that ye keep and execute, and cause the same to hi 
kept and executed, by all the subjects ir.ubJUos'] of your respective ju-Isdic- 
tions, giving circulation thereto in the mode and form it has hitherto been 
Customary to circulate the orders of my august father, to the end that noj; 
only it ijjay be made clear to all what are my rights, but also the firm 
resolution in whicii I remain to maintain them inviolate. Certifying 
equally, that as the depositary thereof, my royal intention neither is, nor 
ever will be, to alter the fundamental laws of Spain, nor to violate the pri- 
vileges, honours, or immunities of the clergy, nobility, or people of the suld 
monarchy ; all and every of whicli I hereby acknciwlege before the Supi eme 
Being, who will bestow his blessing on this step, cs solemn as it is just, aud- 
*fell founded. 

Given, &c. Eio dc Janfclro, 19th August, 1803. 
L.S. &c. &c. 

■IV. 
Don Pedro Carlo^ de Bourbon y Bragaiiza^ Great Admiral of 
the navies of II. R. II. the Prince Regciit of Portugal, kc. 

U here make known to all the faitliful Eiihjects of my much-loved lord 
the Eiuii of Spain and Indies, to the chiefs and tribunals, to the secidar' 
aad ecciesiustical M&i7(io5, anri to ail other persons established in dig»iiy- 



STATE PAPERS. 4l 

throughout the dominions of the Spanish sovereignty : that whereas my 
august uncle, and other individuals of my rojal family of Spain, under the 
oppressive power of the French, to which they were brougtit by the vilest 
maucsuvres of seduction and deceit, and deprived of their natural liberty, 
have, yielding to violence, signed documents, whereby all the fomily riglits 
%vere ceded to the Emperor of the French, and would become transferred 
to him if the same had not been brought about by such unlawful means ; 
and if formal protest were not entered against its validity in due time, as 
1 do by the^e presents. Declaring, that I do entirely conform to the tenor 
of the mai^ifesto addressed to you by my very dear cousin Dona Carlota 
Juaquina, Ir.fanta of Spain, and Princess of Portugal and Brazil, which I 
approve and ratify in all its parts, and especially those wherein is set forth 
the right of priority and preference belonging to the respective individuala 
yjf my family, including my well-beloved uncle and myself, according td 
'£he order of succession regulated by the fundamental laws of the Spanish 
monarchy, the rights and prerogatives of which I will endeavour to preserve 
according to the nlode and form therein expressed ; until it shall pleasa 
divine Providence to reinstate my family in those pristine rights, which I 
hereby admit and recognise. And for right understanding thereof, We 
deliver this, our protest, sealed with our royal seal, and witnessed bv our 
secretai-y. Requiring and charging ye to circulate the s;une in the accus- 
tomed form and manner, &c. 

Given, &c. at Rio de Janeiro, 20th August, 1808. 
L.S. (Countersigned) D. FERNANDO JOSE DE PORTUGAL. 

N.B. We have heard it surmised, that it is for acting upon tha 
system developed in these documents, the admiral [Sir S. Smith] 
lias been superseded in the command of the Southern Seas ! ! ! 



NOTE BY THE TRANSLATOR. 

The frequent recurrence of the term " vassal" in the foregoing pacere 
is liable to criticism as a pedantic innovation. It h therefore renuisice to 
txplain that the draughtsman of those documents (who was most probably- 
some jurisconsult of the feudal stamp,) invariably describes the relations of' 
allegiance to the sovereign's paramount authority by vassalage, and connect*- 
the idea of subjection with the law onlv. Thus, tlnnugliout the origiiial, 
the degree stiled subject in English, is desiL-nated by " vussalos,'" whereas 
*' subdilos" occurs but once in referring to legal jurisdiction for promul- 
gfitiiig the Infaiita's manifesto. The Englijjh reader caimot fail to be struck' 
by the beco.ning reverence with wiiich t!ie royal pcrs(inat:e3 speak of the 
♦* fundamental hacs of the munarciiy ;" and by a distinct recognition of the 
" righ'S of t/i£ people,"^ in an instrument specially framed to substanliat« 
regal cluiin^. 

\V;,i?tis moreover worthy of remark is the explicit protest against both th« 
•bdications at Madrid and Bayonne, and implied cuveat a^anist unv t'ai* 

iRafe. OC^ton. ad. XXII. . © 



42 EXTUAOUDIXARY CASE OF CAPTAIN M. SMITH, U,N. 

thcr arrangement of the crown oat of the established' order of succession',* 
This liiiit from tlje new world may peradveriture puzzle some of the san- 
guine politicians of the old, who have so prematurely committed themselves? 
and us in the name of the ' amiable, and beloved Ferdinand VIL" Far be 
it from the writer to animadvert invidiously upon the misfortunes of a cap- 
tive prince. " Mistr exf res sacra." But really to persons of vuliiar minds, 
imbued with anti(]uated notions of filial duty, fidelity, and patriotism* 
(leaving heroism out of the question) the acts of the Prince of Asturias do 
•want as much explana'ivn as the conduct of his trusty counsellor, Don 
Pedro Cevallos: only it is to l)e hoped any similar appeal to the public on 
belialf of the youna; Prince, will be somewhat more convincing, than the 
apology of the old minister. 



EXTRAOUDINARY CASE OF CAPTAIN M. SMITH, R.N. 



5T is but very lately (in the preface io our last Volume) that iti 
reminding the public of our steady adherence to iHl' principles 
on which the Naval Chiionicle was established ten years ago, 
ve alluded amongst other things to a part of our duty we are now 
about to perform, namely, never pei'initting prejudice to overwhelm 
miafortune zchen unaggravated by mhconduet, Avithout our re- 
minding those Avho might fancy themselves beyond the correction 
of the law, that they are stiM within reach of the lash of tire pen. 

TheSparian regimen of the navy is too inseparable from our empire} 
of the sea to be susceptible of mitigation : but v/e consider it as a 
problem remaining to be demonstrated, Avhether the discipline of the 
quarter deck ought to pervade the offices of naval administration : 
*' sic volo, .Kicjubco^^' in the mouth of an admiral, seems ta us 
more in its place than ^^ pro rutione voluntas" at the Admiralty, 
And it is upon this ground that we deem it highly necessary to 
atiimadvert u])oa the treatment of Matthew Smith, Esq. late captain 
of his Ivlajesty's ship Diomode. 

This iiidivi'Jital, who has been described to us as a gentleman 
distinguished by such manners and accomplishments as adorn 
society, a!id as an officer replete «ith talent and merit in his pro- 
fession, has suifertd the mortification of seeing himself by a myste- 
Turns Jiut of that ligneous association ycieped The Board, deprived 
of the fair reward of a hazardous and laborious life, and removed 



* " Sic Tolo, sic jiibeo, slat pro ratione voluntas." Thus I will, thus I 
ordain. [Ji^j v, til standing for reasoa.— The, characteristic lanjjuage uf pure 
sifipiyii^iu. 



EXTUAORDTNARY CASE OF CAPTAIN* ftl. SMITH. R.y. 43 

from the honourable post he occupied on (he list of captains 
above Sir R. Strachan," to wither and pine iri**ob5Curi(v : our 
opinion of (he individual not allowing us to term it, in his case, 
disgrace: although tliere are few olticers but what would deem 
it so to be, like the subject of these remarks, in the prime of life, 
and in the full vigour of moral and physical ability, superunnuated. 
For that is the lot of one of the smartest oflFiCers of the school of 
liodney and Hood, with the sole palliative of retaining the title of 
captain to decorate a visiting ticket. \i\ short, the case of Captain 
Smith spefns to us as far as the characteristic diiTerence of the navy 
and army is susceptible of a parallel, to be a grievance similar to . 
that of Colonel Cochrane Johnstone. 

^\'^e understand from our naval friends, that in accounting for 
some of the inscrutable decrees of those volunteers of stale, wiio 
are invested with the management of affairs at Whitehall, the 
familiar phrase is used of such-a-one being " marked^^' or having 
" a mark against his name." We for our parts raust treat 
this as a vulgar error ; and then-fore do not de-^pair, by meer 
dint of giving notoriety to all the co/«e-a^-«Z//e iacts of Captaia 
Smith's case, to witness the restoration of a \aiuable ollicer to 
the active duties of his profession, and revive the domestic felicity 
of a most amiable family. 

The leading features of the case are as follows : — 
Captain S. (as will be seen more fully by the subjoined docu. 
ir.ents) when cruising in the Diomede, under the orders of Captain 
Osborn, of the Centurion, off the Is'e of i^' ranee, in 1794, fell ia 
with aFrencb sc[uadron :+ an action of undecided result took place. 
The senior oiiicer's report of proceedings not satisfying Captain S. 
he applied to Captain O. for an explanation, who after more dis- 
tinctly expressing hi$ approbation of his colleague's conduct than 
be did in his public letter, thought fit to demand a court martial 
for enquiring into the conduct of both ships, in justification of his 
(Captain O.'s) letter on service. Here a most unaccountable! 
anomaly occurred in that court proceeding to the condemnation of 
Captain S. and sentencing iiim to be disraissed the service without 
allowing him the privilege of every defendant, that of making out 
his case in his own way. Against this verdict he appealed on 
his return home in 1793, and he, wTxs restored: but never aftjr- 
■^ards employed ; and finally, aj we have already stated, was re- 



* 1783. 

t Coiisisiing of clic Prudentc, Cybcle, and a brig. 



44 5XTRA0IIDINARV CASE 07 CAPTAIN M. SMITIT, R.N'. 

fused his promotion to a fla^ in his turn, and set aside on the lls^ 
©f superannuated, captains. 

It will be seen that the sentence of the court, was not 
less at variance with the opinion of the commander-in-chiefj 
(Admiral Rainier) •than, as far as we can collect, with that of the 
most distinguished public characters in India. And we have rea- 
son to believe the truth of what has been hinted to us, as an addi- 
tional proof of Captain S.'s naval reputation, that Sir S. Smith (his 
namesake, but not a relative) who it Avill be recollected stood; 
near below him on the list, voluntarily evinced to one of the Lords 

of the A his respect for his brother ofliccr's professional 

conduct, by expressing his readiness, in ra.5e of Captain S. being 
replaced with due seniority as admiral, to hoist his flag under his 
command immediately. 

We have selected the proofs on which this compendious state- 
ment rc>ts, from a series cf documentary evidence printed in a 
book, but not for pl^blication. The technical details are 
therein illustrated by appropriate diagrams, which neither the 
limits of our work, nor the expence attending wood cuts, would 
permit us to add hereto. Declaring as we solemnly do, the pre^. 
sent appeal not to have originated with the interested party, nor 
any of his family, but being the spontaneous elTusion of one of 
our coadjutors, and it's insertion our own disinterested act* 



I. 

TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT IV^AJESiy. 

Tfie Memorial of Matthew Smith, Esq. late Captain of H. M. S. Diomede^ 

HVMELY MIEWETH, 

That your Majesty's memorialist cammanded the said ship under the 
orders of Captain O=born, of your M/s ship Centurion, in an action between 
those two ships, and a squadron of tiiree Fiench frigates and a brig, oti the 
Isle ot' France, in the East Indies, on the 22d of October, I? 94. 

That, notwithstanding your memorialist did his utmost to take and 
destroy the enemy in the sa d action, Captain Osborn, in his report thereof 
to tlie commander-rin-chief, greatly to the discredit of your memorialist, 
his officers, and ship's company, omitted to acknovvledi;c any services ren= 
dered by the Diomede to the Centurion on that occa.-ion. 

That your memorialist, feeling himself tiissaiished with the said report, 
and hurt by tlie observations made tliereon in the public prints of tliat 
fo n ry, appl*td to the said Captain Osborn (wiio was also written to t)y the 
sidmiral) f n- an explanation with ie>;ard to the omission l)efurc-inencioned ; 
■which aj'plicaiiun was answered in the following terms :— r 



e:stiiaobdinary case of captain m. smith, R.N. 4S 

(COPY.) 
" 51U, *' Centurion, Bombay, 14//« February/, 1795. 

*' I /tave receiTcd >/our letter, <fafed 19:h of last incinth. There has not 
heen any ildng, published in the neuspapcr by my authority ; a):d the 
appearance of vjy public letter will quiet all unfounded icporls, which it is 
not possible to prevent news-u-ritersj) om making. 

" I am concerned to Jind by a letter from the commander-in-chief on 
U. M.'s 'service, that you arc diisuusfied uilh nv/ public letter, the content f 
of zchich is no more ihun a narrative of' zchat happened on the occasion, 
without any comment of mine to the dishonour of the Diomede, and wi'hout 
any intention of censuring that ship^s conduct. I leg to say, as I have 
clready done, in tvo conversations zee have had since the action, that lam 
satisfied you did every thing you thought would promote the good of H. M.'s 
service on the day cf the action with the French frigates off" the island of 
Mauritifis. I am, 4'C- 

{Signed} <« SAMUEL OSBORN.'* , 

That, notwithstanding this letter, the said Captain Qsborn declined 
paying any thing to the admiral to quiet the mind of your memorialist ; 
J3ut on the 1st qf April, 1795, he wrote for a court martial, 

" To enquire info the conduct (f the two ships, that the sanie might he 
known, and that he might thereby be enabled to prove the truth and imj)ar~ 
tiality of hi.-; public letter." 

That your memorialist, when ordered to attend the said court martial, 
was not furnished with any cliarge : but merely on tlie day preceding the 
trial told by the judge advocate, that such an enquiry was to take place, and 
desired to naqtie such witnesses as your memorialist wished to have 
examined. 

That your merrorinlist, conceiving it impossible for the court so consti- 
tuted to proceed against him for any offence, (not only from Captaiii 
Osborn's own declaration to him, but as no copy of any charge what evei; 
liad been delivered to him, as, by the fifth article of the general printed 
instructions of tne navy, under the head of courts martiiii, is, in such cases 
directed) lie attended the trial without his first or tiiird lieutenants, master, 
boatswain, gunner, or carpenter, who were all dispersed,* and eulier gone 
to England, or to some distant part of that country, so as to be out of the 
reach of a subpana. 

That when your n^cmoriahst unexpectedly found the ?aid court martial, 
instead of merely enquiring into the truth and impartiality of C.iptain 
Osborn's letter, were proceeding to try capitally, your memorialist felt 
greatly alariaed''at his situation, having but one otKccr (lieutenant of 
marines) who could speak particularly to his conduct during the action. 
Conscious, however, of fiaving done liis duty, he permitted the trial to go ury 

* in cou'iequence of the Diomede being subsequently wrecked. 



45 extraordinahy case of captain m. smith, r.n, 

without any oppo'^ition on his part, not doubting that he should be able, 
from the palpable contradictions he had noticed in the evidence, to do away 
every bad impression which such evidence fur a moment miiiht have made 
upon the court ; but, contrary to the custom of the service, to the universal 
practice of every court in this kingdom, and to comnion jubtice, youf 
memorialist u::5 told, 

** That he was at liberty to bring foruard further evidence ; but that the 
eonrt would not permit him to comment upon the evidence adduced a^uinst 

kimry.'/j 

Your memorialist therefore conceive?, that to try without a specific charge 
being exhibited, or to deny the party upon trial the privilege of maixing a 
defoicc, vitiates the proceedings of sucli trial, and renders any judgment 
founded thereon illegal. 

That, independent of the legal objections herein before stated, j-our 
memorialist begs leave to submit to your Majesty, whether any case js 
ii*ade out against your mcnriorialist, by the captain and officers of the Cen- 
Kirion; upon whose evidence your memorialist has (in a letter of this day's 
ri:ite, addressed to the Secretary of the Admiralty) taken the liberty of 
©fie.ring such comments as it would have become him to have oft'ered at the 
trial ; and which if he had then been permitted to offer, your memorialist 
has reason to believe would have induced the court to acfjuit him : instead 
©f which he was dismissed from your Majestj's service. 

Your memorialist, therefgre, most huiiibly prays, that your Majesty 
KTOuld be graciously pleased to restore him to his former rank and credit 
in the navy, &c.&c. occ. 

I2:h April, 1798. 31 ATTHEW SMITH. 

[*^* The case was referred to the Attorney General and 
Solicitor General, and to the Admiralty Counsel, who reported 
ihcir opinion, that the sentence of the court martial was unwar- 
rantable, and not to be supported. It was therefore set aside, and 
the memorialists name continued on the list of the navy. 

II. 
SIR, Toucr, 12th October, 1805. 

Please to lay before the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty the 
accompanying letter from \'ice-admiral Rainier, on whose opinion I was 
assured by Lord \'iscount Melville my being employed or uot should 
depend. 

" Without troubling yon with a recapitulation of my case, which is 
stated at length in the memorial I had the honour of submitting to tiieir 
lordsiiips on this subject, I shall content myself with merely observing, thaC 
1 was the subordinate officer in the action, and the onlj/ signal made to nie 
by rny superior was that of recall, when in pursuit vf the beaten enemy, 
after Captain Osborn had withdrawn from the action • and which enemy it- 



rXTRAORDINAnY CASE OF CAPTAI>f M. SMITH, R.N. 47 

IS admitted must have surrcu'lcie 1 to me had I not been so recalled. In a 
conver3:uioa with iiim iminediutely after the action, I received his uuqualifiLd 
■approbation of my conduct, and so far from conceiving any blame attached 
lo the Diomede, it was at my particular desire that an enquiry was instituted 
to obliy;e him to shew cause vvhy, in his public letter, he had stated the 
transactiori in so diirercnt a manner to which he had expressed in the cnu- 
versation alluded to. 

On my presenting a: memorial to the Board of Admiralty a«;ainst the 
injury I conceived I bad received from the sentence of that court martial, 
(and which is now clearly accounted for in Admiral Rainier's .letter) the 
proceedinjis were set aside, and 1 was restored to my former station in the 
Service. It has been my misfortune, however, from that time to the present 
moment, (a period of nearly ten years) to have found that the sentence ot" 
that court martial Aosf^osit^e, has operated as completely to my chsadvantage 
as if it had been pronounced legal, and has precluded me from eniphjyment, 
which I have repcatedlij solicited. The arrival of tiie admiral has induced 
ntKJ again humbly to request their lordship's consideration of my sitaatioa-; 
and should they do me the ijonour to employ me, I fchall endeavour to prove 
«iy deserving thereof. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 



W. Marsdtn, Eaq. Admiralty. 



M. S:,IITH, 



ITT. 

[Enclosure in the preceding.] 
i^iR, Wimpole-Street, 9th. October, 1005. 

In the appeal you have addressed to me, on the subject of the great 
hardship you lie under, in consequence of the sentence of the court-martifi 
passed on you in India, for your behaviour as captain of II. M. S. Diomede, 
in an action with a French squadron off t!ie Mauritius, in company wih a 
senior offuer, in H. M. S. Centurion, on 22d October, 1794, I am of 
opinion that you was much injured by tlrat sentence, (without the least in- 
tention oi' casting any reflection on the members of a court, so solemnly 
•onstituted and assembled) and that for the following reasons: — 

1st. Tiie insuliiciency of the evidence : all your principal officers hnvin^ 
gone to England, who have since made afflduv'tts in your fovor, which of 
course would have been their evidence on oath, had they been present at 
the court-martial. 

Sndly. The cvparle nature of the evidence that was produced oh tlib 
wther side, who, as might be supposed, were much interested to justify their 
own ship's conduct in the enjjagement, by criminating tiiat of the ship yoa 
commanded. 

3dly. Captain Oaborns conduct after the action, who never imputed 
any blame to you, but always expressed himself to the contrary, v.henever 
the subject was agitated: not only tiiat, but he made no objection to your 
remaining under his orders, nor to your proceeding under my coinniaud' 
with tlie Centurion, and rjie re»t of the squudi-jn to the attack of 
Trincora Slice. 



43 PLATE CCLXtXtX. 

4thly. The court-martial appears likewise to have imputed a degree of 
culpmbilit^' to your conduct, which, admitting the worst construction ro your 
prejudice, could only amount td an error in judgment, which was the for- 
bearance of Captain Osborii t6 direct and regulate the motions of the Dio- 
hiede, if he deemed you was not doing your dulv in the station you occu- 
pie'd, either by signal or by trumpet, at the commencement of the action ; 
«nd notwithstanding he could make the signal of recall to ycti at a period 
when, acting upon your own judgment, in consequence cif the crippled 
state of the Centurion, and her head being laid jrom the enemy, you had 
given them chttse in order to renew the attack, and woiild shortly have 
Capttired tlic dismasted ship, and eventually been more successful. 

1 trust, from the statement of the above circrimstances, with my reasons 
adduced in thea- support, the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty wifl 
be induced to consider yoii innocent of the charge laid against you by ths 
sentence of the court-martial, rmd will give you immediale emploj/nienl : to 
tay nothing of the highly respectable testimonials you have shewn me, being 
ih perfect concurrence aitk my own sentiments, as before stated, 

I remain, most re$pectfullj/, 

SfR, 

Your very faithful humble Servant; 

PETER RAlS:iER. 

Captain Matthew Smiihj 

[*** The case is supported by a yariety of other intcrestin^f 
documents, all tending to corroborate the tenor of those abovs 
selected. All that remains td be added is, that the worthy officer 
was not employed; h\it after 23 or 24 years standing in the ser= 
■*ice, left out in the general promotion to flags that took place ori 
ihe 9th of November, 1805, and slighted like the late Captain David 
Brodic, whose treatment formed the subject cf parliamentari^ 
discussion.*] 



PLATE CCLXXXIX. 

'Vk/^VTE have been favoured with the accompanying chart and communica- 
tion (the accuracy of which may be relied on) by Mr. Fairfix, first 
inaster on board his Majesty's ship Caledonia, who, on the evening of the 
ilth of April, 1309, was appointed by the Rt. Hon. Lord Gambler to place 
Vessels, with lights, for the purpose of pointing out the passage to the 
French fleet in A ix Roads. Mr. Fairfax performed that service with great 
tredit and ability in his Majesty's brig Lyra. 

« 8ee N. C. Vol. HI. P?.-e ICO. 



''■''^., 



< yy^i/iT,'/ i'..siii..]i ,>r j^ucMCJi flket 

ill J\ix ll..a.l»..iii y/'jilv:' -'//./•;'/ i«ii;). 
/.i/.;m.y, ,;/■• j,viii,- n/' Hi,- i'iro SbtjiK./ifZ/Vv //.;)' icvv <'//l''iri'. 
77/r- J';x|)losioJi AVssi'l ,i'ii,/ii,if,l hy 
J.onI ('iu'lji;a3e fc'l .imitfjiaiil UiHsrll,r4'///r»v(v>/ ir/i</»- /> Ksiil.i.lfil . 

_ S»l„l<t:»;t^ ,tlY in ffrf,ft\'m it UttTlA t/h.tY.fyr/'i.^/'r J'J.J^ 

C. /.ui/it l\ti**t./i,^,/i^^fr ,}tiit /.vnt . 

S. fyni M^nwl ,lii,lwni,>ri;/l ,1 .l.il.,3: 

^. .'ilmai;, ,1-7i,,./.W.„ (;,,.„/,«./,,„ 

r..>*.mw />«.*,./,„,. 
J_ Jl,;ll,il,;;„ml „;ur .■t'lhrlln .fliifir hlhi: 

Itiir iifi'nunif-'irnl 
;; D.ri..' IWmli tiili<i;„l J,n l!,ilil „l .(/„/„•/ 
ii-<ilrii Wii/w.fn ^i,;\- ,it ,f,n tiiiiit . 




c" 



CORRECT RELATION OF SIIIFV-'UECK?, 49 

" MR. EDITOR, 

" Your having expresserl a wish to see the position of the French ships, 
&c. (ab thev appeared to me) in Aix Rorids, on the 11th of'.Apn! last; aiifl 
also their situation on the following morninsr, I herewith transmit you a 
chart, whicli I hope will he f;)un(l to answer the desired purpose. — If vou 
think its puhlication in the Naval Ciiroxicle may be of use, it is per- 
fectly at your service. I remain, 

" Yonr humble servant, 

" EDWAIID FAIRFAX." 

" P.S. You would be doing a service to naval officers, if you were to advise 
them, when sent on duty in fire-ships, to be particular in examining the 
length of time which the respective fusees are likely to burn. Many of the 
ofncers who, on the late occasion, had charge of fire-ships, uere very much 
deceived, by the fusees not burning a third of the time they ought. 

" I have it from good authority, that the fusees on board one of the 
explosion vessels only burnt six minutes and a half, instead of twenty : had 
they burnt twelve minutes longer, nothing could have been better placed; 
exploding where she did, it gave the enemy an opportanity of preparing to 
cut or slip, &:c. I saw the French ships with lights up immediately after 
ihe explosion, befo.-c any of the fire-ships got near."* E. F. 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 
No. XXXIV. 

Again the dismal prospect opens round. 

The wreck, the shore, the dying, and the Jrcwn'J. 

Falconer, 

Narrative of the Loss of Ills islajestifs Ship Bantcrer, Captain 
A. SiiipPARD, near Point Milk Fachc, in the Riv.cr St. Laic-^ 
re nee. 

MIS ^lajestv's late ship Banterer, after having had the violent and con- 
trary gales of wind to encounter vvith, usual in that climate atso late a 
season of the year, took a pilot on board on the 28th of October last, 
below the island of Bic, in the river St. Lawrence, on her way to Quebec : 
at 8 P. M. that night, we passed between the said island and the south 
shore with a fair wind, but it afterwards coming round to the westward, 
and the current not admitting of our regaining the anchorage, we tacked for 
tiic north shore, not only to be ready to avail ourselves of the prevailing 
northerly winds in tiic morning, but because the current was there more ia 
our favour. After having tacked occasional'^ din-itig the night, at 4 A M. 

* It «'as not in onr power more ibrcibly to recommend this sutijcct to the 
attention of our readers, than by the insertion of the postscript to Mr, 
Fairfax's letter.— Eo. 



50 COIUIECT UELATION OF SIIIPWIlECKS. 

the helm was again put down, agreeably to tlie pilot's directions, and nn- 
rising tacks and sheets, it was discovered that the ship was aground; ai we 
had then a liglit breeze at west, the sails were all laid aback, the land 
(whicli we afterwards discovered to be Point Mille Vache, tlie current hav- 
ing set us considerably to the eastward of where we conceived ourselves) 
being in sight from the larboard bow to the starboard beam, apparently at 
considerable distance ; the master was then ordered to sound round the 
ship, and finding that the shoal lay on the stai'board quarter and astern,, 
which our sails were backing us on, they were immediately ordered to be 
furled, the stream anchor and cable to be got into the launch, and the 
boats to tow her out two cables' length S. W. from the ship where we found 
the deepest water ; but by this time the wind had increased to such a de- 
gree that they could not row ahead, and latterly having lost ground, weie 
ebliged to let go the anchor in 15 fathoms, a cable's length W.S.Vr. from 
the ship, on wliich we hove occasionally as the flood made, and in the mean 
time got our spare topmasts over the side to make a raft to carry out a 
bower anchor, our boats being insufficient for that purpose: but the gale 
continued to increase, and the weather was so intensely cold, that the 
accomplishment of it was rendered impracticable. 

About 11-S6 A.M, the stream cable being then taut ahead, the wind 
W.S.W. with a very heavy sea, the ship canted suddenly round with her 
Lead to the southward, where we had deep water; we immediately set our 
courses, jib, and driver, and had the most sanguine hopes of getting her off, 
but were unfortunately disappointed, and as the ebb made, we were oblisied- 
again to furl sails. 

As the ship was then striking verv hard wlih a hcavv sea breaklnor over 
her in a body, we cut away her topmasts, not only to ease her, but to pre- 
vent their falling upon deck; we also endeavoured to shoar up the ship, 
but the m.otion was so violent that six parts of a fise inch hawser were re- 
peatedly snapped, with which we were lashing the shoars through the main 
deck ports. 

■ At about 8) P.M. fearing the inevitable loss of the ship, as the water was 
then gaining on the pumps, we availed ourselves of the first favourable 
moment to land the sick, a party of marines and boys, with some provisi- 
ons, which could only be done at a certain time of tide, even with the wind 
offshore; those on board were employed getting vvliat bread and other 
provisions cculd be come at upon deck. 

Though the water was still gaining on the pumps, as the flood marie, the 
V, ind coming more round to the north, when we again set onr foresail, but 
■without the, desired effect; the stream anchor having however conie home, 
the wind was still too doubtful to attempt to lighten t!:c ship. 
•* On the morning of the 30th, it being more moderate with the wind ofT 
shore, we hove our guns, shot, and every thing that could lighten the ship' 
overboard, reserving two on the forecastle for signals. As the flood made, 
we again set what sail we could, and hove on the stream cable, though- 
with ail hands at tlie pumps we found tlie water increase m tlie liold as it 
fl J. ved along side, and it was the prevailing opinion, that the ship would 



CORRECT RELATION OF SIIIPWRECSS^ 51 

sfounder if got off. Being now convinced from concurring circum- 
^ances, as well as the repeated representations of the carpenter, that the 
shi[) could not swim, the water having flowed above the orlop deck, and 
much sand coming up vvitli the pumps, we desisted from further attempts 
to get her off, and continued getting sueh stores and provisions as we could 
apon deck. 

Tpwards the afternoon, the wind again increasing to the \V. S, \V. and 
the water being on the lower deck, it was judged proper to send some pro- 
visions with such men as could be best spared on shore, that in the event of 
■the ship's going to pieces, which was expected, tlie boats might be the better 
«ble to save the rest; and on the morning of the olst, all further exertions 
for the preservation of the sliip beinj considei'ed useless, as it then blew 
very hard with every appearance of an increasing gale, every effort be- 
;canie necessary for the preservation of tiie lives of the people ; the boats 
^vcre accordingly employed in landing as many of them as possible tliroui!;li 
a dreadful surf : the captain, first lieutenant, and a few others which the 
Ijoats could not carry remaining with the wreck. 

The whole of this day the surf ran too high to admit of the boats return- 
ing to us, there was therefore little prospect of saving our lives; several 
guns were tired to point out to them our hopeless situation, and stinmlate 
them to use every effort to come to our rehef, but they could not effect it, 
notwithstanding every possible exertion on their part, which we were most 
anxiously observing. 

As the only ray of hope which then presented itself of saving us, a raft 
was directed to be made with the spars left on the booms, which was ac- 
complished with much dithculty in about six or eight hours, the sea then 
breaking over us with great violence, and freezing as it fell with such seve- 
rity, that even the aitcrnutive adopted afforded little prospect of saving one 
life. 

During this state of awful suspense, great part of the ship's bottom was 
out, the water above the lower deck, and we were apprehensive from the 
stcejHiess of the bank, that she would fall with her decks to the sea, iu 
which case all of us must have inevitably perished. 

About 11-30 P.M. the boats came off, and as the lives of the people 
were now the only consideration, all of them were sent on shore except the 
jolly boat and crew, in which the captain left the wreck at 2 A.M. on the 
1st November, and landed through the surf with great difficulty. 

All this and the succeed ng day, the gale continuing, we could not launch 
the boats, and were employed in collecting su»li pruvisions us were landed; 
finding with all our exertions that wc had only been able to save three days 
bread, the oiiicers and crew were put at short allowance, with the melan- 
choly prospect of starving in the woods. 

On Thursday the 3:1 of November, the weather moderating, the jolly 
boat w;is despatched uitli the purser, to a village called Trois Pistoles, 
about 4a miles on the opposite side of the river, that he might find his way 
to Quebec* to procure us assistance and relief, there b cini: no possibilit y 

* Quebec is 150 miles from Trois Pistoles. 



82 conuccT relation of shipwrecks. 

of commniiicating with any inliabited part from where wc were but hy 
water, aad the ice rendering tliat conimuiiicatiou impracticable during tlic 
winter. 

During our stay neas^tlie wreck we had repeated gales of wind, both to 
the eastward and westward, so violent, and with so innch sea, that the 
mizen-mast was thrown out of the step overboard, and all the upper deck 
beams were broke. We embraced every intervening opportunity of goinjj 
off to save stores and provisions, by scuttling the decks which were covered 
with ice, the ship on her broadside, and tlie water flowing over the quarter 
deck ; but the ship's bottom was out and no provisions to be found, except 
two casks of beef and some spirits which had been w ashed on the lower 
deck, and which were obliged to be served out with a very sparing hand.- 
On these occasions we were generally away ten or twelve hours, exposed to 
the wet and cold without nourisliment, from which and fatigue our people 
became every day more sickly, above twcHty of them having their limbs in 
a state of mortification from the severity of the weather. 

On t]ie7tii a boat was again sent to Trois Pistoles, in the hope of pro- 
curing if possible some temporary supplies, in which they had not succeed- 
ed on tlie former occasion, but tiie wind increasing to a violent gale from 
the eastward, with a heavy fall of snow, they got frozen up on the oppo- 
site shore, and did not return to us till the 12tl), having then only procured 
three hundred weight of flour, a few potatoes and some beef, for which 
supply though small wc were thankful; our bread being now out, these 
very gales were now considered as a blessing in affording us almost the only 
means of subsistence, and looked to as our only probable resource during 
the winter, by the dead shell fish which were thrown up with the surf. 

As we must l;ave inevitably been cut off from all supplies had the ice set 
in, the people now became very importunate and anxious to separate in 
order individually to sliift for themselves, our boats how'cver would have 
carried but very lew of them, and as two men had deserted from the boat 
before, in all probability they could never have returned to us, by which 
those few would have been lost to the public service, and the others to their 
country, ir was therefore deemed imprudent to allow them; and notwith- 
stynding the impossibility of escaping from where we were, thirty of them 
left us in consequence (it was believed) of imnger, chusing any alternative 
rather than the dreadi'ul prospect before them. A small party of Indians 
under ttie first lieutenant haj)pily found two of them, ihougli in a most de- 
plorable state from huiigcr and cold, after some days absence, having only 
reached about ten miles along shore from where we were; one of them 
returned delirious on his hands and knees, with his feet in a state of gang- 
rene, and his handspartially so, having only had one small cake to eat during 
five days absence, the others they said perished in the woods. 

On Sunday the 20th November, we were relieved from the most painful 
state of anxiety, by tlie arrival of a small schooner with a fortnight's provi- 
sions from Quebec, and information that a transport was equipping for us 
which would very soon be down if not prevented by the ice; and on the 
24ili we received a further supply by the govcrument schooner, witii some 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 53 

l)irtiikets which the governor liad hainancly sent down to us, to whose 
prompt iiiterrcrcncG we stand indebted tor our lives; it then however blew 
feo hard witli a heavy fall ot" snow, that the scliooncr was oblif^cd to take 
shelter under the island of Bic, and on tlie 25lh it moderated when siie 
returned to us, and we eml'.arked and were carried to tbe opposite side of 
llic river wiiere the transport tliut day arrived, which earned us to Halifax. 



AT a court martial assembled and held on board his Majesty's sliip 
Jourlinelle, in St. George's Harbour, Bermuda, on Saturday the 23th, 
and by adjournment on Monday the 30th day of January, 1809: 

Present, 
Captain Robert Lloyd, President. 

Captain Alexander Skene. Captain John Shortland. 
Gustavus Stupart. • Frederic Hickey. 

Ihe court beino; duly sworn, in pursuance of an order from the Right 
Hon. Sir John Borlase Warren, Bart. K. B. vice-admiral of the white, and 
commander-in-chief of his Majesty's ships and vessels employed, apd to be 
employed in the river St. Lawrence, and along the coast of Nova Scotia, 
jIjc island of St. John, and Cape Breton ; the Bay of Fundy, and at and 
about the islands of Bermuda or Somer's Islands, dated the 26th of January 
1809, and directed to Robert Lloyd, Esq. captain of his Majesty's ship 
Ilassar, and second officer in the command of his jMajesty's ships at Ber- 
muda, proceeded to try Alexander Slicppard,Esq. captain, the oflicers, com- 
pany, and pilot belonging to his Majesty's late siiip the Bautcrcr, for the 
loss of her on the 29th of October la^t, between Port Neuf and Point Miilc 
\'uche, in the river St. Lawrence; and having iieard read the charge exhi- 
bited against them contained in the above-mentioned order, and also what 
the prisoners had to offer in their defence, and having maturely and deli- 
berately considered the whole, and fully enquired into the circumstances 
Attending the logs of his Majesty's said ship : The court is of opinion, that 
the loss of the said ship was occasioned by the culpable neglect of the 
juaster, in not having repeated to the lieutenant who relieved him in the 
next watch, the orders he had received from Captain Slieppard, to keep 
the lead going by the forecastle men, and to relieve them, in consequence 
of the very severe cold weather, every half hour; as also from the negligence 
and very culpable conduct of Lieutenant Stephen C. M'Curdy, tlie otilcer 
of the middle watch, who not only permitted the pilot to quit the deck 
witiiout his captain's knowledge, but likewise quitted it himself between the 
hours of two and four, without being relieved by any person whatever, and^ 
took witli him to the gun room to drink grog the pilot's ajjprentice, ;he only- 
midshipman, and the only quarter-master who were in ihe watch, wh^-ro ne 
Remained upwards of a quarter of an hour: that Captain Slieppard a;)pears 
to have cautcd every possible exertion to be made to save the ship, and 



54 CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKB. 

wlien that was found impracticaU-e, to preserve the stores in which he ^va3 
supported by the officers and crew. 

The court doth therefore adjudge Lieutenant S. C. M'Curdy to be dis- 
missed from liis Majesty's service, as a Lieutenant, and Mr. Robert Clegram, 
acting master to be severely reprin)anded, and admonished in all similar na- 
vigations to keep the lead going, and feel particular charge of any Ship he 
may happen to be serving on board of as master, notwithstanding a pilot 
should be on board at the time. And Lieutenant S. C. M'Curdy is hereby 
sentenced to be dismissed from the rank of hcutenant in his majesty's S£r^. 
vice, Mr. Robert Clegram to be severely reprimanded, and Captain Alex- 
ander Sheppard, the other officers, ship's company, and pilot to be acquitted, 
and they are hereby acquitted accordingly. 

It is the opinion of the court, that if Captain Sheppard's excellent ar- 
rangements had been duly attended to, the loss of his Majesty's ship would 
have been avoided. » 

(Signed) ROBERT LLOYD. 

ALEXANDER SKENE. 
JOMN SHORTLAND. 
(iUSTAVUS STUPART. 
F. IlICKEY. 
(Signed) George R. IIulbert, appointed by the court to execute 
tlie Office of Judiie Advocate. 



LOSS OF ins MAJESTY'S LATE SHIP CRESCENT. 

BY LIEUTEXAXT WEAVER, OF THE IIOYAL MAUIxVES. 

JAILED from Yarmouth, on tJie 'SSth of November, 1803, and at day- 
'^^ light on the 5th of December, saw Norway, from the deck, (wind S. by 
W. and S.S.W.) ; the pilots then steered S.E. by E. At one o'clock on the 
,-jth, sounded in 25 fathoms, on the coast of Jutland, near Robsnought; 
pilots cotitinued their course E.S.E. and at two sounded in 18 fathoms. 
Bv order of the pilots, the topsails were close rooted, courses hauled up, 
and the ship hove to with her head to the southward ; (at this time the 
weather nas remarkably thick); shortly after, tiie land was reported to be 
seen on the lee-bow to the captain and pilots; the latter replied, they knew 
v.hcre the ship was, and that she would drift with safety : she dropped sud- 
denly into 8, 7, 6, 9, and then ten fathoms, continued in the latter depth 
till eight at night. The pilots were asked by Captain Temple, if they 
wish.ed any alterations to lie made ? They replied, no alterations were 
requisite, and that the ship should continue on the same tack till the next 
morning; unfortunately she strr.ck about 10 o'clock at night. .5tb of Decem- 
ber. A boat was immediately lowered down to souiul; the current was 
setting to the eastward, at the rate of three knots an liour ; we then furled 
sails; soon after, the current taking her on the larboard bow, the sails were 
loosed, with expectation of getting off, but it only hove her round in a worse 
condition, if possible, than before; the sails were ogaiu furled, and the 



CORUECT RELATION GF SHII'WIIECKS. bO 

boats all out, with the exception of the joli3rboat, and an anchor and cable 
got into the launch; but from the rapidity of the current, the boats could 
not possibly tow iicr up, (the sea running very higli) and, therefore, 
failed in what was most essentially requisite for the safety of the ship, 
as well as the deliverance of those on board ; the boats, with tiieir 
crews, were driven, by the force of the current, to leeward, and in 
the course of an hour we lost siglit of them amongst the breakers- 
The wind had shifted to the N. \V. (direct on shore ;) the swell in- 
creased, and the ship striking very hard, the bower anchor was let 
go, and the men employed in lightening the ship, heaving the guns over- 
board, and endeavouring to keep the water under by pumping; all to 
no purpose; the water increased to the hatches, and the cable parted, which 
was our only hope. At this time it was thought absolutely necessary to cut 
away the masts, which was the means of easing tlie ship very much. In con- 
sequence of the officers and men being fourteen hours exerting themselves, 
during which time the weather was bad, we were almost exhausted 
with fatigue, and were ordered by the Captain to take some refreshment. 
Having regaled ourselves for about twenty minutes, I went to the Captain, 
and asked'him to allow me to destroy the signals — He ordered the servant 
to give tliem to me, and I accordingly burnt tiiem. All hands v/ere then 
employed in constructing a raft, which was made on the booms, by the 
different spars; notliing could exceed the exertions of every individual, cu 
such a trying occasion ; cvcrv order was put in execution with the coolness 
and judgment peculiar to British seamen ; every one was supplied with 
a small line, for the purpose of lashing themselves to tl:e raft; at two 
o'clock P.M. the raft, or otherwise the forlorn hope, was launched from the 
booms, it had but a very indifferent appearance, having only four casks oii 
each corner; more could not be obtained; three of those were soon washed 
away. The raft w;\s ordered to be manned by the sick and part of the lar- 
board watch, (not an able seaman was on it), and given to my charge. A 
small sail was thrown to us, but unfortunately it fell near the aftermost 
part, not a man would venture to hand it lorward, as they were almost 
perished with cold, being ficquently up to their waists in water. For 
twenty minutes .previous to our leaving the ship, I unlashed myself, 
went aft, and with difficulty handed the sail forward with a boat oar to 
Messrs. Mason and Lavender, midshipmen, whose exertions in assisting in 
holding the sail up were of the greatest service ; we were frequently washad 
off the raft, and every sea threatened our destruction. Notwithstanding 
our perilous situation, the olncers and men on board gave us three clieers, 
which was returned bv tiie survivors on the raft, although we were two 
miles and a half from the Danish shore, with little hopes of reaching it; one 
STiarine perished before we left the side of the ship, and a serjeant and cor-- 
poral soon shared the same fate, with several others. By liie assistance of 
Divine Providence, mysLif, Messrs. Mason and Lavender, with about ^0 
marines and seamen, reac:hed the shore, nearly lifeless ; another raft was at- 
tempted to be made, but proved ineffectual, the sea making a complete 
breach over tl;c c;i.;artei-deck; the joily-boat was then launched, and man- 



56 CORRECT RELATION OF SIIir^tRECE^. 

ned by Mr. Williamson, master, Messrs. Munro and Ilougliton, m;(hi>ip-' 
men. and Mr. Walker, boatswain, with fourteen men. Dreadi'u! was the 
si<];ht at the jully-boat leavinj; the ship — numbers jumped over-board and 
endeavoured to get into the boat; t'aose tliat Avere in were obliged to extricate 
the hands of others, in order to prevent the boat from being too full, as she 
was then within eight inciies of the water's edge : every seaman in tlie bout 
felt for their melancholy situation : deplorable indeed it was to thmk that 
no assistance could be afforded, but that of' wisliing a happy deliverance to 
their unfortunate shipmates. The jolly-boat with her crew reached the 
shore; shortly after the sliip broke up, and two hundred and twenty souls 
perished. 

JOHN WEAVER, 
1st Lieutenant, Royal Marines, 

orncEns saved, 
John Weaver, Lieut. Royal marines; Mr. Williamson, Master; Messrs.- 
Mnnro, Mason, iloughton, and Lavender, Midshipmen; and Mr. Walker, 
Boatswain. Total of ofiicers saved — seven. 

MARIXES SAVED. 

146 John Smith, 2d; 1 iS John Smith, 3d; 155 Wsltfcr Russcl ; 171 Dan, 
Goud; 17o Juhn Joy; 1 54' Jos. Sigley; 156 John Colquhoun. — The total 
of seamen and marines saved, are (ifty-five,^ — Seamen's names saved are not 
known. 

OrnCERS LOST. 

John Temple, Captain; 'Messrs. Kirwan, Maclean, and Stokes, Lieu- 
tenants; Mr. Siiodie, Lieutenant R.M. Mr. Beife, Surgeon;, Mr. Tlo^ier, 
Purser; Mr, Branthwaitc, Passenger; IVIessrs. Wallace, ^ViUis, Hacker, 
Sj)urgen, O'Dnnnell, Hogiiton, jun. Wythe, Knight, and Hanson, Midship- 
men; Mr. Williams, Gunner; Mr. Colter, Carpenter; two Painters, six 
women and one child. Total-— Officers, Seamen, Marines, Women, &e. 
lost, 226. 



MELANCHOLY ACCOIWT OF THE LOSS OF A FRENCH 

PRIZE. 

A LF'.TTER, dated Jersc-3', February 18, ia09, contaisis the folTowing 
distressing statement : — 

" His Majesty's ship Sheldrake, Captain Thicknesse, having captured » 
large vessel off the coast of France, laden with about 300 quarters of wheat, 
intended for the supply of the French army in Spain, Mr. Hubbard; the 
master of the Sheldrake, a midshipman, and ten seamen, were put on hoard 
the prize, and two Frenchmen were suffered to remain with them. It u-as. 
soon discovered that she was leaky, but no danger was appreliended. She 
■was spoke by tlie Sheldrake at nine o'clock in the evening of tlic day oiv 
which siie was taken, when she v.as reported to be in safety. A short time 
sifterwards, while the master and most of the crew were cniploved m 
stepping a k-ak that had been found in the cabin, the men at the pumps- 



COIlRr.CT UELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 57 

Vvore alnrirnd !iy their br^comint;; nsclcs?, tlie grain in the liolcl h;iviii;j; been 
drawn into the suckers, whicli prevented them from working. Before 
those who were below could get upon derl;, \Uv ship went down head fore- 
most, and ever}' soul on boaid perished, except one man, wiio gives this 
nie'ancholy account of the loss of his brave ship-mates, and whose method 
of escape; bordci-s upon the miraculous : — he was in the main top wlicii he 
tl scovcred that the vessel was sinkint;; providentially a small boat was 
lyins; unfastened upon the deck, which floated from the ship as she sunk, 
and which he fortunately gained by swimming, lie relates, that lie rowed 
about for some hours (as lie imagines) near the place where she went down, 
hoping to save some of his comrades — but in vain. The Sheldrake picked 
liim up (he next morning. The prize had sailed from Tercera the evening 
before she was captured." 

On tliis unfortunate occasion. Captain Thicknesse, the commander of 
the Sheldrake, addressed the following letter to Captain Lloyd, conmiand- 
ing the sea fenciblcs, 6cc. on the Lancashire coast. 

" His ]\LiJLsfi/'s ii!i);)p She/drake, Guerns"i/ Road'!. 
"siK, Jan. 19th, 1809. 

"Never have T taken up my pen on so paiiiful a subject, and which I take 
the liberty of addressing to a siranuei-, as I have understood you were a 
Iriend to the unfortunate and late iJr. William Hubbard; who, I lament to 
say, was drowned on the 19th instant. The circumstances that led to tiie 
untimely dissolution of this young man, (wlio bid so fair to have become 
an ornament to his profession), are these. On the morning of the 19th 
instant, I fell in with a ship uiuler rrench colours, appurcnllv, by her 
French papers, bound to Bayonne, and laden v.ith wheat. Poor Hubbard 
was accordingly sent, with a midshipman and ten men, to take charge of 
lier, and accompany me to Guernsey, then about fifteen leagues to leeward 
of us. At nine the same evening, I hailed him, to say I should heave-to 
at two in the morning, until day-light; to which he replied himself- Very 
well." I carried a top-light and an easy sail, giving a strict charge to the 
officer of the watch not to lose sight of her. At ten the otKcer came down, 
and acquainted me the prize was lost sight of, and that he iiad backed the 
main-topsail. 1 came on deck immediately and burnt a blue light j on 
which it suddenly came on foggy. Therefore supposing the prize might pass 
me, I filled in half an hour, and hove-to at two; and, at day-break, not 
seeing her, I bore away f(jr Guernsey, trusting slie was a-head. Soon after 
a boat was discovered, on our weatlicr-how, with one man in iicr. I im- 
iRcdiately made towards her ; and, painful to relate, found her to be the 
prize's boat, with the only man wlio had e-ciiped a watery grave. The 
prizd had at ten the preceding evening sprui.g a budden leak, which choked 
her pumps, by the swelling of the wheat, and water-logged her, before they 
were tiie least aware of their imminent danger. When they found slie was sink- 
ing, every one ran up tlie rigging ; and tiie man wiio was saved, having observ- 
ed the small boat iluating off the lioonis, descended into her liy the main-slav, 
and just pushed char off llic top-galiaut-yard arm as itwas dii^appearing ! ! ! 
He called out, as soon as he had lecmcrcd hi.> supriso, but all was sucnt ; 
and he assured mc lliat every soni biil liiinsclf went down on the rigging! .' 

"JOHN THICK-NLsbE. " 

naato. Cbron. aid. XXII. i 



dS 

NAVAL LITERATURE. 



>^' He soon replied, 1 do admire 
*' Of zcoiii(f)?-/cittd but one ; 

" And 2fou are she, mi/ dearest dear! 

i<- _5. 

The diverting history of John Giipin. — CmvPER, 



MY DEAR Mil. KDTTOU, 

HAVE seen with regret that the Naval Chronicle has been 
somewhat slack of laic in the dcpartracnt to which my present 
lucubrations belong. In a dearth of novelty, it is justifiable, like 
the Royal Society in their Transactions, to work up old materials, 
and sometimes even to make use of " twice laid" stuff, to use 
a phraseology familiar to most of your readers. — There lately fell 
into my hands a work of great authenticity, entitled, " Trials at 
poctors' Commons, from 1760 (o 1780, taken by a Civilian, 8vo. 
7 vols. London, 17::;0." In the course of which are introduced vi, 
{.cries of ??rtL'a/love letters, which, whatever may be iiiouglit of the 
writer's head, certainly bespeak a J'eeling heart, and will bear a 
comparison with the military effusions, by a relation of my hero, 
•which \<Q^<i brought to light by a recent parliamentary enquiry. 
To enable the admirers of erotic composition to settle the rank in 
point of stile or ^cnsibili(y betvfoen the admiral and the general, I 
send you the amatory epistles faithfully transcribed from the 
appendix (o a cerlain cause, forniing part of that Avherein the 
jjlaintlff was cast upon the pica of recriininalion. Whatever 
doubts may be entertained of the respective m;>rits of the two pcr- 
foimances, none can bo entertained about the taste of their authors 
in their choice of an object. There is a singular paraliellism in 
some of the extraneous incidents introduced by the two lovers; I 
mean the professitinal digresi^ions by wiiich one entertains his 
Harriet with the manttuvris of a ilcet, (not forgetting the nutritiye 
routine of the flag-ship) whjlc the other edifies A-'pasia by the 
evolutions of cavalry, and the distant view of a hostile camp. 
Your's, affecdionatcly, 

DARLING. 

Chundus SlreC, Jmie 4, 100-?. 

P.S. The copies aruic.ved are verbatim, literatim, and pane- 
iuatim. 



NAVAL LITERATUHE. ' 59 

Exhibits in the cause of GnosytN'or. versus Cuosvenor. 
ExlaUt B. 

MY EVER DEARKST LOVE ! 

How sorrv I am am that I am deprived the pleasure of seeing tliis cvea- 
ing but especially as vAu are in pain God grant it over upon my knees, I 
bes; it aitiiough it may s;o off for a few days it must return, and then you 
will be easy, my only joy will he happy ; how shall I thank you for your 
very kind note, your tender manner of expressing yourself calliiip: nie your 
dear friend, and at this time that you should recoliect me. I wish I dare 
iye all the while by your bed, and nurse you-^foryou uill have nobody near 
you that loved you as I do; thou dearest angel of my suul ! O, that I could 
but boar your jiaiu for you I should be happy, what grieves ine most that 
they who ought to feel don't know inestimable treasure they have in you — - 
thank God if it siiould happen now, ISIr. Croper is out of town, and you 
may be quiet fur a tew days — I shall go out of town to-nigjit, but shall stay 
just for an answer, pray, if you can just write me word how you find your- 
self, I shall be in town by eight to-morrow evening in iiopes of henring again,' 
I am sure my angel is not in jjreater pain than wliat ray heart feels for ray 

adorable angel — I send this by I> servant, she is gone to Ranelagh, do 

if you write, direct it to her, the boy has my orders, and will bring it to me. 
• — Adieu, God bless you, and I hope before morning your dear little one. 



Exhibit C. 

MY DEAtl LITTLE ANGEL, 

I am this ii\stant going out of town, ten thousand thanls for your kind 
note, I am sure nothing could make my aking heart to-night bearalilc ta 
me, than when you say you are sensible how much I love you, pray God ic 
may be over before morning, or that you may be bitter, 1 shall be in towa 
at eight o'clock, for I shall long to know how you are, don't n>ention to D. 
that I wrote by her servant to you, for I have ordered him not to tell. — 
Adieu, good night, God bless the angel of my soul, joy, and happine>s, 
without whom I have no comfort, and with v.hom all happiaesi alive uu 
rcioir I hope very soon. 



sa 



Exhibit D. 

MY REAR LITTLE ANCtL, ^ 

I wrote my last letter to you yesterday at eleven o'clock, ju?t vvl;cn we 
iled, I dined at two o'clock, and as for the afternoon I had some music, 
I have my own servant on board that plays, and a couple of hands froax 
London for the six weeks I am out — We were a good many at dinner, I had 
about nine people yesterday, and shall have more when the rest of my 
squadron joins me, they staid with me till near seven— I got to supper 
about nine o'clock but I could not eat, and so got to bed about ten.— 
1 then prayed for you my dearest love, kissed your dearest little hair, and 
laye dowu and dreamt of you, had you on the deai- little couch ten thou- 



60 NAVAL LITERATURE. 

sand times, in my arms kissing you, and telling you how much I loved and 
adored you, and you seemed pleased, but alas ! when I ivoke I found it ail 
delusion, nobody by me but n)yself at sea, I rose by time at halt" past fi\e 
and went upon deck, there I found my friend Billy, and walked witii him 
for about an hour, till Barrington came to me, we then breakfasted about 
eight o'clock, and by nine I began and exercised the ships under my com- 
mand till 12. it is now one, and when I finish this letter to you my dear 
Love, I shall dress and go to dinner at 2 o'clock, it is a rule on board to 

dine at two, breakfast at 8. and sup at 0. always, if nothing hinders mc 

I shall l.e abed by 10, or soon after, and up by half p<st 5. in the mornini^, 
in order to have, if tlierc is any occasion, orders ready for the fleet under 

my command before I begin to exercise them 1 am sure the account of 

this days duty can be no pleasure to you my love, yet it is exactly what I 
liavc done, and as I promised you always to let you know ray motions and 
thoughts, I have now performed my promise this day to you, and always 
will, until the very last letter you shall have from me which will be when 
I between 5. and 6. weeks hence send the Admiralty word that I am arrived 
at Spithead, ihcn I shall only wait just for their answer which will be with 
me in a few hours, to strike my flag, and then I shall return to you tliat 
instant. O ! my love, mad and happy beyond myself, to tell you how I 
iove you and have thought of you ever since I have been separated from 
you, the wind being contrary to day, about one, I put off dinner till 3. 
o'clock, in order to anchor ships fur this night, in Portland road, just off 
Weymouth, about two miles, 1 hope to sail tomorrow by 5. in the morning, 
I hope you are well, I am sure I need not tell you, I have had nothing in 
jny thoughts but your dear self, and long for the time to come back again 
to you, I will all the while take care of myself because you desire my dear 
little friend, does the angel of my heart, pray do you take care of yourself 
for the sake of your faithful servant, who lives but to love you, to adore 
jou, and to bless the moment that has made you generous enough to own it 
to him. I hope my dear, nay, I will dare to say you never will hiive reason 
to repent, the wind was not so contrary but we could have sailed on, but I 
told Barringtou, that as it was uot fair I would anchor, especially as I could 
send one of my frigates in, for that I had despatches of consequence to send 
to London ; indeed my dear angel I need not tell you, I know you read the 
reason too well thtit made me do so, it was to write to you, for God knows 
I wrote to no one else, nor shall I at any other but to the K — . God bles» 

you, most amiable and dearest little creature living aimons coujuurs moii 

adornble I'Clite amour je vous adore phu que la vie nieme. 

I have been reading for about an hour tliis^morning in Prior, and find 
these few liaea just now applicable to us. 

" Now oft had Henry changed his sly disguise, 
" Unmarked by all but beauteous Harriet's eyes ; 
" Oft had found means alone to see the dame, 
" And at her feet to breath his am'rous flame; 
" And oft the pangs of absence to remove 
<' By letters soft interpreters of love 



NAVAL LlTERATURr. 61 

" Till time and industry ftiie miglity two 

" That biing onr ■.vislies reurer to uiir view) 

" Made Iiiin perteive llwt theinclinin;^ fair 

" Received his vows with no reluctant ear ; 

" That Venus had coiifirme'i lier equal reii^n 

" And dealt to Harriet's heart a share of Henry's pain." 

Such is my amiisement to read tliose sorts of tilings that puts me in mi/id 
of our mutual feelings and situations : now God bless you, till I shall have 
an opportunity of sending to you. I shall write to you a letter a day, as 
many days as you miss herein of me, when I du they shall all come Friday, 
16 of June, God bless, I shall not forget you, God knows you have told me 
60 befoie, I liave your heart and it lies warm in my breast, I hope mine 
feels as easy to you, thou joy of my lite, adieu ! 



Exhibit E. 

Portland road, Saturddi/, Vlth JunCt 

MY EVER D?:aREST LITTLE ANGEL, 

The wind to day is not fair, so I shall lay here in Portland road till it is, 
and take this precious moment in sending this (jther note to you, I hope it 
nill find you well, and that you are not afraid of being gone out of town 
before I return back to you, thou loveliest dearest soul ! I have been readina 
since my last note of yesterday to you a great deal out of Prior, keeping the 
heroine bj/e till I liave quite read it through, and find many things in it to 
correspond with us exactly. 

" Hear solemn love; and conscious Venus hear; 
" And thou, bright maid, believe me, whilst I swear, 
•' No time, no change, no future flame, shall move 
" The well-placed basis of my lasting love." 

Do nottliink I wanted this book with me to tell me how well I loved you, 
you know the very feelings of my heart, yet it is great pleasure when I am 
reading to to find such passages that coincide so much with my own ideas 
of dear you, I will write constantly, it is my only entertainment tliat and 
liearing from you, will be, except my duty on hoard, the only thouglit or 
employment 1 shall have or even wish, I have just now had amessaie fiom 
shore, it is about 2. miles from Weymouth to go to the rooms this morning, 
I have excused myself being much quieter on board and happier in \\ritin» 
to you, you are not there, or else tiie boat that should carry me would co 
too slow, I long for that happy moment that brings me back again to all I 

love and to all that I adore Indeed I am sorry my letters are so stupid, 

pray write to me, you know whither to send them, to send them to D— — 
ur to Mrs. Reda, — I long to hear from you, it is now within 2. days of a 
fortnight, indeed it seems forty thousand years, how happy when we meet 
that our letters has opened to eacli olhc-r the very fcelines of our honest 
hearts, permit me to name yours witli mine, then they will be words and 



62 ^'AvA^ liteuatuue. 

happy looks rrom two of the most sincere friends alive, your heart is well 
altho' fluttered while I write to yon, I hope mine is flurried too, they ought 
to hai-e the same emotions, I know they h;ive they arc above dissembling, 
I must now conclude, God bless you, I send you 10,000 kisses, pray when 
you receive this return them to me for 1 want them sadly. Adieu ! 
Jevousaime adorulle ptli'.e ci-eafure je vnix adore wa chere petite bcjoux 
Vaviant dc mon caur. — —God bless I will write constantly. 



'The Plants, a Poetn, Can'os the first mid second, jcith Notes ; and occasional 
Foetus. By William Ticue, Esq. 

T will be Immediately obvious, from the title of this volume, that its 
leading feature is not of a naval nature ; but it possesses much general 
poetic merit; and certain passages which it contains, will be found particu- 
larly interesting to that class of readers to which the Naval Chroxicle is 
more particularly devoted. No apology, therefore, is necessary, for intro- 
ducing it to their notice. " The object of this attempt,'' says the author, 
** is not only to bring together the most remarkable circumstances relative 
to each plant, from which the separate cantos derive their names, and to 
combine many of the ideas of association, which the review of each object 
may naturally awaken, but also to consider the Rose as the emblem of .Lwr;f, 
the Oak of Liberti/, the Vine oi' Friendship, and the Palm of Religion. 
The four affections here alluded to, seem, either singly or variously inter- 
woven, to occupy and conduct the minds of the more susceptible and 
generous portion of mankind. The influence of the three furmer usually 
prevails in the early part of life ; and they were, periiaps, designed by Pio- 
vidence to expand and prepare those iouls, which do not suffer thcaiselves 
to be too far perverted by the more selfish passions, for the reception of the 
last ; into which all the views and thoughts of men should resolve, as into 
their ultimate object and true destinatioii." 

The oak, an object of peculiar interest to the sailor, is celebrated by 
Mr. Tighe in appropriate strains ; and, after invoking his Muse to reward 
" The patriot warriors who have bled in British arms," he delineates the 
progress of British navigation in the following passage :^ 

" Thou followest the Hero's track, and see'st 
From thy retired grove his gleaming sword 
riash terror o'er each sea, each hostile sh.ore, 
From ice-bound Baltic to the isles of Ind : — 
Or where the tributary Ganges yields 
His willing waves to spread the conquering natne 
Of Britain : while the towers of Agra sink 
In dust, and from their ashes rise, to seek 
Their vassal crowns and safety from her hand. 



NAVAL literature:. 63 

The obedient thrones of Delhi and Mysore: 

Or where tlic mouldering Ptoleuiais * found 

■Salvation in one British arm more strong 

Than citadels, or all the Othman host : 

Or where the woiideiinn; T^gvpt heard the crash 

Of Hyperborean arms : the Gothic flags 

Catch the fell blasts of Afric, and around 

Sweeps loathsome pestilence, prepared to check 

The furies of barbaric war with fiends 

More horrid than his own. Ye parching winds. 

Breathed from the centre of the burning sand, 

Ye faithless coasts, yc desarts, tracked by men 

IVIore savage thiin yourselves, say, with w hat fear 

Unknown before, when Macedonian arms, 

Iloman or Persian, chased vour flying hordes, 

You saw the British chief than Animon's son 

More terrible, engirt with flames and death, 

Ride o'er your boiling strands, upon your shores 

Come thundering, and all the Gallic flags, 

And from their moorings in one flery grasp 

The grappled navy tear? What though your sand*;, 

YoMT plains accursed, your blasted hillocks (.vhcre 

Bleak despotism sits enthroned by fate 

On monuments of slavery) can rear 

No iVeeborn cliaplets of enduring Oak, 

No civic crowns to shade a patriot brow ; 

Yet must some tears of adnjiration fall 

On Abercrombie's grave, and, all ye can, 

Your ever-verdant palms shall strew the spot. 

Where for mankind a Bntis'i hero died ! 

' In milder climes, bei:eath her oaken shade, 

Shall Freedom raise tlic hvmn of victory : 

The iiealtiiy zepiiyrs playing round her neck 

"jhali float her tresses wild, and airy vest ; 

Her fair arm balances tlie guardian spear; 

Her hand she rests upon the shieUl of peace. 

And smiles o'er British waves; the pendant cliff, 

The forest unconfincd, the scented heath, 

The living fount that scoops the polislied rock-, 

Are cherished by her smile : her oaken shade 

She celebrates ^vitli joy : with joy contemns 

T'lO gorgeous prisons of the scepteicd East, 

Tlie spoils barbaric, aad llie studdud th.rones 



* Ptolemais. — Acre. Anciently Ace, or Aeon ; under the Romans it 
was tailed Piolemais, and was a colony of Claudius Catsar, Plin. 1I.\. 
V. 19, Since which tiiuc it has been tAicc the bccne (ji Biiiiili hcroi^m. 



64 NAVAI. LITERATURE. 

Where Justice never sat; incaii contrasts all 
To lier enlivening Learns ar.d genial day ! ' 



" And should aizain the pro>-i;ue liberties 
Of Eurojje Wither in the niltKin ^^rasp 
or tyranny, more liase than ever Rome 
Pressed on her plundered provinces, the sons 
Of Freedom o'er tlie Allantic waves shall bear 
Their spotless virtues to a kindred world." 

The succeeding Address is beautiful, and eminently impressive: ' 

" Daughter of AlMon, empress of the main. 
Turn to thy God ! for lie hath set a crown 
Of gold and |;c-t:is iiji:)n t!iy favonrcd front, 
And covered th.-e with more tiian Tyrian robes. 
Tiice the unceasing currents of t!ie Cape, 
Tiie stor;iis of .MosamLiquc, the darlc monsoons 
Obev, and waft the wcailh of Stiica, 
Of Taprobane and 2,olden Chersonese, 
(Known by new names) to heap thy envied mart ! 
Dau!;hter of commerce, empress of the main. 
Turn to thy God ; foi-- He hatii girt thy breast 
With iron ramparts, and thy loins witli strength : 
By Ilim the perilous shoals, by Him the rocks 
Were laid, that circle thy embattled shore: 
He wings His stornis around, and on thy flanks 
Hath circumfused the currents of His sea. 
Turn to thy God, oh Albion ! for He gave 
The patient Oak to waft thee to renown, 
And eternise thy freedom in His love ! " 

The memory of the great circumnavigator, Cook, receives the following 
just and appropriate tribute : — 

" Tis then she heaves the recollective sigh, 

Melting in softer notes the broken lay. 

For after all thy patient labours done, 

For after all thy deeds of social love, 

O virtuous navigator, son beloved 

Of Britain, after all tiiy glorious race, 

No friends sustain tliee to an honoured grave ! 

No kindred mourners thy lov'd corpse mhume ! 

A savage hand, amid thy great career. 

Tore thee from manhood and thy country's arms. 

And left thee mangled on a harb'rous shore, 

O virtuous navigator, son beloved 

Of Briti.i.1, who explored, with dauntless aim, 



nnr-osormCAL papeh. 65 

Tbe miglitv barriers of eacli frozen pole ! 
Tlie weeping Nereides shall repeat the strain." 

Lu Perouse, the unfortunate successor of Cook, in the progress of 
nautical discovery, is al*o comtnemorated in the volume before us-; after 
wiiich, tiie hero of Frafalgar calls for;h a meed of patriotic applause, with 
u'hicli we sliai! conclude our extracts : — 

" Bat louder notes resume the broken lay, 

Such as amid the desolating; storm 

Vv'ere heard, when \'ictory bedewed her palms 

At Trafalt;ar with tears ; enraged, the sea 

In nunintains rulled around her Hero's bier. 

Poured the conflicting tempest, winged with death; 

She woke the furies of the deep, prepared 

To celebrate iu watery obsequies. 

The direful sacrifice of all liis foes : 

But British virtue, with a nobler aim, 

Sootlies the congenial spirit of her friend ; 

And snatching from the grasp of ruin, bears 

His straggling enemies iu triumph o'er 

The waves' reluctant foam ; nor heods the siiock 

Of seas and winds, nor Terroi-'s howling form, 

When Pity leads her through the wreck of ni^ht.'' 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPER. 

Remarks on the best meam of Resuscitating Persons apparently 
drozoned, or suffocated by Exposure to Deleterious lapours or 
Gases ; and on the Effects of Extreme Cold. 

A FTER a person has remained twenty miiuites under water, there can be 
-^-^*- no consideraiile hope of recovery; yet we should never resign the 
unhappy object to his fate before we have exhausted every means of relief. 
Tlie numbers attested by the best evulence to have been revived, is fo con- 
siderable, even in hopeless cases, that v\e arc eminently clieered by 
it, in executing that amiable task which humanity, and the solace of success, 
so urgently press upon our attention. 

The tir.st principle to be attended to is, the restoration of natural warmth. 
This (though it have not beeUx heretofore recommended) is best and most 
speedily accomplished by a tepid buch (93 deg. Fahrenheit) ; for without 
this temperature, the vital function cannot go on. Stimulants imve, with 
this view, been generally applied to the skin and lungs, and even v> the in- 
testines. In the last case it is usual to strip the patient of ail his 
wet clothes, rub him perfectly dry, whilst several assistants are' warming 



66 ruiLoso! !iicAr> taper. 

Manlets; and wlicn dry he i? (lirccfofl to be laid upon a tabic, with 
two blankets under him; a third is ^vr:i[>t round his bodv, and should 
be removed when it bises to anv considrrfiblc deforce its orii^iiial warmth. 
This operation is to be repeated, until sis^ns of recovery become apparent. 
While this process goes on, at least four assistants are cniploved in rubhiui^ 
the If'^s and arms. Neutral saliwe bodii:b, and especially common salt, have 
been u'^ed at this time and in'aid of friction ; but if in a cb.emical point of 
view, we are a*^ a loss to «re liow it operates, most probably warm aslies, or 
any similar substai'ce, by its mere mcrhaiiical power, and tcinnrrarurc, may 
atiswer fvery purpose. Whilst tliis is coine forward, a diluted solution of 
ammonia is applied to his wrists and ancles (Cor a stronit solutir)n of the Aq. 
arnmon. pur. would have a tendency actually to dissolve tlie epidermis, 
and even the fr/v/ rv^is ir-elf in many cases. T'le ordinary spirit of harts- 
liorn is cunsequenrly often employed; and a feather srecped in it i» 
to he applied every ten minutes to the nosn-ils; bladders of hot v.arer, 
in this case, to the feet and armpits, have ai important valce. Others ha\e 
f )und much advantage by d:pping a blanket into bo24ina: water, wringins; 
the same as dry as pcssi'i le, and urappi.ig; the patient closely up in 
it, when undressed. TIi s is recomuieiidcd to be repeated every Itu 
minutes for two or tlirec hours. 

But whilst these external applications of restoring licat to the body are 
going forward, internal means of rousing the heart and arteiial system 
to action must not be neglected. This is material both v.ith a view to tlie 
maintenance of a fit dej^ree of animal heat, and to the support of the 
nervous system itself. 

The s-iioke of tobacco, or other stimulants, applied by way of clyster, 
and air passed ihrouf^h the nostrils into tlie lungs, are employed with suc- 
cess occasionally, B^\t orrg^nmi^ g-:s, from a syllable pneumatic appara- 
tus, or, what is still bettor, the ni'nms oxide, mii^ht be used with still 
greater advantage; if we calculate upon their efTects on the huMian body 
being analogous to those they usually produce upon animals chat have been 
drowned or suflPocated, by the delttenous effects consequent to the 
inhalation o( fij/d70gen ^as, carbonic acid, caTlvreiltd hidrogen, sulphurcoui 
acid gas, nitrovi air. or the compounder {rases, coustiuiting the cltnak and 
f,re- damps, vviih otiier deleterious vapours Put it is to be lamented, that, 
however important these means are, and however etticacious they promise 
to be, stjil they are seldom used in aid of other means probably at hand, 
and usually rccommeiidefl m cases of suspetided animation. It is desirable, 
that ill every situanon vvherc there is a life-boat kept, such an apparatus 
as would at once yield these valuable gases, should be its companion. It 
is usual in the injection of the fumes of tobacco, to have a common clvster 
bag, and at the other end have a common tobacco- pipe firmly attached to 
it. The bowl of the p'pe is to be filled with tobacco, and well hghted : 
then by applying a plaving-card formed in tlie shape of a fuimel, round the 
bowl of the tobacco-pipe, and blowing with the mouth at the other 
end, the bag may be filled v.ith smoke; atid this may be injected into the 
iijtestiues, A)y simply fiUinj: and compressing the bag or contaiui!!^ biiidUei-. 



PHILOSOPHICAL PAPER. 67 

For llirowiog air into tlie lungs, tlie stem of a commoti tobacco-pipe 
may answer. This siioukl be iiinoduct'd iiilo one of tiie uostrils, and 
at the sane time the other is to be clo^ed by a finger, as well as the mouth. 
Ijlowpre^tv strongly. When the !nn|:s are lull, by pressure on the breast 
the air may be forced from the lungs again. This process should be con- 
liimed for ar lea'^t h ilf an iiour. It is usual to administer tbe tobacco- 
luuics anri the itiflalion of the liin^s altern.^tely, but there is no good 
reason, why the operarions s!;ould not proceed together. And it is 
recommended, that these processes be persevered in, even for hours, 
a!thoui;h no signs of life appear. 

At the same time that wc da not rici;y to these methods their respective 
portions of merit, we cannot help adverting to the general value of electri- 
city in cases of this nature. But it has been too frequently a subject 
of regret, that the objection to its employ depends upon the uicompata- 
bility of its excitation, near enouj;h to tlic spot where the accident may have 
occurred. We filiude to cases ofdrowniiif. 7'L:s has been matter (jf very 
sincere regret to the humane, and scientific povtioii of the comii^unity. And 
it is this circumstance, which has induced us to point out a very 
ready means of immedintely, and in any place, or at any season, presenting 
efficaciously this powerful and penetratiiig ai^enf. F;;r as muscular motion 
is depen'ricnt on nervous cxcUcvient, in the first instance, and as the heart, 
and not the bram, is possihly the pri/num mori:m, so the nervous 
system must be stimulated ; and to no stimulus is it so obedient as to the 
energy of electricity. 

We would therefore recommend a galvanic battery, of at least two 
iiundred series, (any portion, or the whole of which accordnig to its eticcts, 
siiould lie employed). This apparatus : as the discs of tne battery ueeci not 
be more than two inches s<]uare,)may be broujhr to the water's edge in case 
of drowning. The party sliould, if dressed, be as soon as possible got into a 
slipper bath, of the temperature named above; and having put a siiiliing, to 
which a brass or other metallic wire is attached, into tiie mouth, and 
another to any of the intercostal muscles, or under ttie arm fiits, or to the 
soles of the feet, or indeed any of the more sensible parts of the surface of 
the body, the otlier points of the « ire being at the same time brought into 
cuniact "ii!i the two poles, or zinc and copper terminations, of the battery, 
!in acti< n of tiie whole body is percepuble on contact, and this is to 
be repe-.itcd, ^^hich is Hone after every successive interruption of contact, by 
the wire*^. It is to be oliservetl, that, as the diaphragm consents with the 
olfactory membrane from the sympathy between the nerves distributed up- 
on either, it may be fimiid advisable to present one of the wires to 
the interior part of the nostril, rather tiiati to the month, 'i he energy is 
increased considerably in consequence : and this isv.iluable in particular, 
when life Iuh been suspended by i!ie in »alation of deleterious vapour. In- 
deed tiie svstein of sympathy, or consent in medecine, seems loo little 
attended to, tiiough witli Dr. ^\'l^ytt, vie aL'ree, that it is ofien of tne utmost 
consei^ucnce to success in the art of iuainig. 

It will frequently be found desirable to apply the influence through the 
botly, by bringing a conducting wire from the co^)[er end of the battery, ta 



C8 PHILOSOPHICAL PAFEH. 

the water under the region of the licad, while the patient is in the bath, and 
another wire from the zinc termination of tlie battery, to the liquid 
surrounding the feet, or to touch, if the patient be in a slipper bath, 
the external part^of the bath (it being metallic and hence a conducKn- 
of electricity) opposite to where the feet are within. Thus the whole force 
of the apparatus will be passed ihrough the patient; the animal body being 
a better conductor than water, of the electrical influences thus excited by 
the arrangement of volti). Sl)ce^illg is a good symptom, and is often pro- 
duced immediately by this galvanic application, to the expulsion of 
the a/ocic-elastic fluid, which must be got rid of before circulation can be 
reproduced, and consequently before we are to hope for perfect restoration 
of the energies of vitality. Indeed the galvanic influence, on this peculiar 
modification of electricity, produces effects so analogous to those furnished 
at the instance of the v»lll, that many physiologists have indulged 
themselves in theorising, on this, as synonymous with the supposed nervous 
fluid itself; and therefore, as, of all other powers, most essential to 
vitality. 

If after this, and any other auxiliary means judiciously applied, the party 
begin to breathe, if his pulse manifest a perceptible return of arterial 
action, or if the spark of latent vitality otherwise discovers itself, and more 
especially if the power of deglutition, or svvall':wing returns, a few table 
spoons full of diluted brandy should be taken. If the breatliing be very 
liard, and the face swelled and livid, ^ix or eight ounces of blood may be 
taken away with advantage. During bleediug a horizontal position is to he 
preferred, lest deliquium comes on. When matters take this favourable 
turn, and the patient is in a degree recovered, he should be put to 
bed in warm blankets, his feet kept warm by flannel, with the occasional 
addition of diluted but cordial stimulant. 

Before we conclude this important topic, we may be permitted, without 
impropriety, to mention the effect of the warm balii ami the galvanic ener- 
iTV, not only in cases of apparent death from Imnging, or suffocation from 
whatever cause, (we mean however that these efft;rts are never to be ex- 
pected to be applied with advantage, in cases of organic lesion,) but also ia 
cases of exposure to extieme cold. For in our own temperate climate the 
seasons are often so intensely cold, as to be fatal tv) those who are unfor- 
tunately exposed to their direct severity. In tiiose cases, in lieu of the 
warm bath, the body is to be rubbed with snow, or surrounded by a sheet 
dipped in ice-cold water; and the galvanic process is to be used in addition, 
nntill signs of life appei'r. Hence its importance in cases of paralysis, when 
derived from exposure to extreme cold. On the re-appearance of life, the 
method adopted in the cases above afluded to, should be employed. 

In cases of cliilblains, or of a single member being frost bitten, it is to 
be treated precisely after the same manner. Carpue in his treatise, has 
pointed out the importance of electricity in the very disagreeable atfcction 
of chilblain. We shail further observe, that if the limbs still remain be- 
numbed, after a continuance of these means for some liours, a warm cat- 
aplasm of bran and water may be applied, and the patient should take as 
much bark in powder, as wdi lie on a siii'liiig, every two or tluee hours. 



IiyDROGRAPIIY. 69 

His beverage sliould be, in this case, the most generous port wine to be had; 
or in lieu of it, hrandy aad water. After all, should OKjrtification conic on, 
as will be obvious by the livid appearance of the parts, and their deficiency 
in feeling; sive the bark, and dress the part witli basilicon, made warm in a 
spoon, and apply jiledgcts hot, thrice a day, giving an opiate at night. 

The niediod whicli has been above recommended, it is hoped will not 
be the less acceptable, because i':s importance is as obvious, as its applica- 
tion is easy. We need not add that a portable galvanic battery, such as is 
alluded to, and which is quite competent to all the purposes described, 
should be within reach on such lamentable occasions, and it may be obtaui- 
ed at a comparatively moderate expense. Month. Mag. 



HYDROGRAPHY. 



MR. EDITOR, G )'eenz£ich, 20f h June, "iQ09. 

TTN conformity to the requisition of your Correspondent, Mercator,* I 
-^ offer you a few remarks upon a portion of the Anatolian shore of the 
Black bea, interesting to the security of navigators, and important to be 
noticed in rectifying the hydrography of those parts: that is to say, from 
Constantinople to the next place of note eastward, Erekli, comprehending 
about 6'/' marine leagues, subdivided into the following stations or usual 
anchorages of the coasting craft, viz. 

Leagues. 

Kavak (in the Bosphorus or Eoghaz) 5g 

Riva R. (Rhebus Tl.) 2 

Killy alias Kileh 9 

Akova R. (Psitis Fl.) 6 

Kocliouk-PCefken (little) 6 

Boyouk-Kefken (great) 1 

Kel pell, alias Kirpeh Sf 

Sakkara R. (Sangaris Fl. ) 12 

Akcheh-Shchr J 9 

Olaplou, alias Alepli ..... .. l 

Erekli, alias Eregri (ileraclca) . SJ 

Distant Leagues . 60 

Constantinople is in latitude 41 dcg. 1 niin. 27 sec. N. and longitude 
28 deg. 55 min. 15 sec. E. The Bosphorus, from the Seraglio Point to 
Fener, called by Greek sailors Fanarakki, is 18 miles in length. Killy is 
the place on the coast nearest to Is-Nikmid (>sicomedia), the isthmus there 
being scarcely eight leagues across. That nearest to tfie north end of the 
lake Sabanjeh is the mouth of the river Akova, distant ten leagues. Kct'keu 
and Kelpch having sometimes been improperly confounded, it is requisite 
to distinguish that under the former name arc designated two small bays, 

* Vol. XXI. page 219. 



70 



llYlluOCRAl'ilY'. 



nf which the greater, T^n'oulv ITefkcn, is in kitilude 41 rlcg. 9 inin. N, and 
longitude 30 deg. 4 mill. SO sec. E. The latter is an anchorage about 2| 
miles farther nortii eastward, formed by an island called Tliynias or 
Apollonia. In the year of the Iliiyreh, 909, A.D. 1503, it was propo-ed 
to Suitaun Bayazed II. by Sinan Pasha, to cut a canal from the navigiible 
river Sakiiara to the Like Sabanjcli, winch it aj)proaches very nearlv, and 
from the latter to t!ie gulf of Is-Nikmid, noi m .re than five l.agues: 
■whereby ship-timber, of whicli there is abundance, could be much belter 
conveyed to Constantinople than by the present mode of floating it in rafts 
clown the river, and thence by sea, attended by no small risk and uncer- 
tainty : but the Pasha's patriotic project has remained without elfcct. 
From Erekli inland to Doli (representing tlie ancient IlaJrlanopoiis) is 13 
leagues. The latter is a town of ahott 3,000 inhabitants, on the great 
eastern road to BughHaad, 6ic. with a good deal of trade, deprived from the 
considerable thoroughrarc, from the productive nuaiity of the circumjacent 
lands, and from a sniiul manufactory of iron tools and implements of the 
coarser kind. This is the best route to India. 

Erekli is in latitude 41 deg. 1? min. 51 sec. N. longitude 31 deg. 27 min. 
20 sec. E. determined by chronometer. It is agreeably situated, but in a 
state of decaj-. At the north-west extremity are the remains of a mo'e or 
jetty, extending about a cable's length int» the sea, and which probal^ly 
served to form the antient port between thc-town and tlu^ mountain of 
Cape Babba. Tliis is the anchomge for large vessels, and where frigates 
Jire sometimes launched for the Ottoman navy. 

The Black Sea presents numerous vrstigts of hydraulic architecture, of 
judicious and skilful construction ; these are almost invariably attributed 
by the indioenous mariners to the Genoese, and give a strikitig idea of the 
extent and solidity of their establisliments. 1 he district comprehended in 
the preceding remarks is denominated in the language of Ottoman adminis- 
tration Khodja-Ily; and formed part of Biihynia. 

lASON. 




71 . 
MARINE SCENERY* 



THE FERRO ISLANDS. 
(Fiont Ike Dauisli.J 

?ir^[IE 'iirC wliic !i prevails around these islanris is very roinarkablc, aiul i» 
-'^ wintor in particular a;icl the early parr of" the spring; exhihits an awful 
and most wonderful spectacle. During bud weather the sea becomes very 
much agitated, and billows of a tremendous size arc d ished against the 
coast witii prodigious force. Those parts of llie coast which He open to'.vards 
the sea are the most exposed to this violence ; and in those bays which have 
a sandy bottom the sand becomes accumulaled, and muLe^ tiie waves rise 
to an astonisiiinir height. 

Where tl^e waves meet with opposition from projecting rocks, the water 
thrown up into the air falls down with a rattling noise, and a person may 
stand safely at the bottom of the rock and be a quiet spectator of this sin- 
gular phenomenon. Sometimes the waves are dashed into the apertures and 
cavities between the projections of the rock, and produce a most frightful 
noise, which seems to make the rock tremble from its foundation. 

These etfects are different according to the nature of the place; but near 
Quivig, in Nordstromoe, tisey are almo.st all united; so that during the tem- 
pestuous season of the year, and particularly ia the night time, the noise 
occasioned by them is like coutiimed thundtr, or a long and heavy can- 
nonade. 

Sometimes the surf takes place in calm weather, or when the wind blows 
from the land ; but I am firmly of opinion that it is occasioned by storms 
far out at sea. When the wind blows in shore, a part of the surf is carried 
up into the atmosphere in the form of vapour, and conveyed to a consider- 
ble distance, and 'Sometimes even to the tops of the hills. The c!erc:ymaa's 
house at Kirketai, near Quivig, stands at the distance of two iiundred 
paces from the sea, yet during tempestuous weather the surf is dashed 
against the w indows in the form of rain, and the sea-water often desposiis 
crystals on the panes of glass as. large as the half of a grain of pepper. 
Htncc it is evident, that the sea-vapour, or sea-fog, as itis generally culled, 
uii-y have a considerable influence on the climate of these islands. 

When a calm takes placq after stormy weather, the seas iii consequence 
of tlie agitation into which it has been thrown, may continue some days 
rtstless and coveted witti tbaming surges, which tlie inhabitanls of Feroe 
call SiaiKirU.'kd ; and the sea, when in that stale, however fine tlie weather, 
is exceedingly dangerous. But the surHice of the sea, even in a peifcct 
calm, may sometimes be veiy smooth, and have a billowy moli:)U, to ivhich, 
the islander.-, give the name of Alttii. Ihis motion is much like a perpendi- 
cular vibration, for the billows rise to a considerable height, and then fall 
quietly back again, without the least violence or noise. It is exceedingly 
difficult for a boat to be row ed or to sail through these swelling surges, for 
tlxey conununicate to the veisel u uioton similur to that which one exucri- 



72 NAVAL POETRV, 

ences in a swing. Sometimes the boat seems to be raised on its stem and 
sometitncs on its stei u. At one time it is elevateri on the ridge of tlie bil- 
low, and at another is precipitated into a watery gulph, where nothins: is 
seen but a lofty mound of warer, as it were on each side. Sometimes the 
boat remains suspended in a state of vibration on the summit of the wave; 
but if the boat be rowed forwards, and the wave sink beneatli it, there re- 
mains a vacuity under part of the boat so that it "falls down with a splash 
into the cavitVr ma'.ing the watqr fly out from it on Iioih sides. Navi;;ation 
in this state of the sea is attended with another inconvenience. When u 
boat is near the land, where then- are holes or fissures in the rocks, the 
water is driven into them, and tlie air contained in these cavities being 
compressed, forces its vvay out with a loud report like that of a cannon, 
carrying with it the water id the form of smo!-:e or vapour, in which the 
rays of the sun produce sometimes a beautiful rainbow. 



The heart's remote recesses to explore. 

And touch its springs, when prose avail'd no more. 

Falcoser. 



THE RETURNING SAILOR 

AN ODE. 

9' ll ^HE Sailor from far distant climates returning, 
-^ In thought clasps the friends whom he left on the shore; 
He dreams of the scenes, where m life's cloudless morning 

He sported — and longs to behold them once more : 
His heart swelling big v.'ith each tender emotion, 
Impatient, complains of the siiip's tardy motion, 
I'lio' swiftly she giitles o'er the breeze-ruffl'd ocean, 

fond Fancy, with eagerness, leads on before. 

Arrived in the bay whence at first he departed, 

His eyes beam with transport ! — his toils are forgot ! 
He sees the gieen hills where he wandered iight-hearted. 

Ere first he abandoned the dear native Cot; 
He bounds to the shore, ev'ry object awaking 
The sorrows he felt when his country forsaking — 
His friends here he left, while his bosom was aching, 
From Nancy he parted, with tears, on that spot. 

So William returned — seven years had he wandered, 
And all the keen blasts of misfortune gone through— 

Nor ever yet once his affections had squander'd, v 
His passion for Najjcy remained ever true : 



NATAL POETUY. 75 

At parting they vowM — and he ^ave her a token ; 
But women are faithless — her vow she had broken ! 
Another t.he wed ! — to her shame be it spoken — 
While William' the phantom of wealth did pursue. 

GAELUS. 



WOMAN. 

FKOM \V. M. TARTt's POEMS. 

I^TT^HE dreacirul toil of battle o'er, 

When the wanior, bath'il in gore. 
Seeks his native honse again, 
And leaves the carnage-glutted plain. 
Where, in one promi.-cuous heap, 
The friend and foe unconscious sleep ; 
Where, by the pale moon's feeble ray, 
The war-fiend wings his gloomy way, 
And smiles upon the horrid sight, 
'With all a demon's curst delight; 
M'liat meed can soothe such dreadful toils 
But Woman's love, but Woman's smiles? 
lieclin'd upon her heaving breast, 
Each deadly thought is hush'd to rest. 

When o'er the billowy ocean borne, 
From home, and social pleasures torn, 
The seaman plows the wat'ry waste 
Amid the des(;lating blast, 
While the dark spirit of the storm 
Raises his feai--inspiriiig form. 
And death in ghastliest shape appears, 
'Till even the hardy seaman fears, 
As 'midst the light'ning's livid hue, 
The pointed rock assails his view ; 
Say, all his dreary dangers o'er. 
And gaiu'd again his native shore. 
What can reward such dreadful toils. 
But W^oman's love, but Woman's smiles? 

Yes Woman, dearest boon of heaven ! 
To thee, alone to thee, was giv'n 
To lull each bitter woe to rest 
That ever pain'd the human breast; 
Thy lovely smile and sparkling eye 
Can give a purer zest to joy; 
Thy converse sweet can aid impart 
To cheer the mourner's drooping heart, 

iSatJ. Stjron. ®o[. XXII. & 



74 > A Y A 1, P O ET U Y. 

Can give each V.iissful tec-lin'i liirth, 
Antl raise a Paratiise on earili; 
Each woe's forgot, repaid eiicli toiT 
By Woman's love, by WoM.ij<'s smile. 



THE BRITISH OAK. 

IST^T^HEN vegetation from tlie new form'd earth, 

Call'd fortii her first srreen progeny, to thee 
Slie gave distiugiiish'd eminence of birth, 
She inark'd thee for the forest's kingly tree. 

Tliou can'st not brook the clime where tyrants reign 
And cringing slaves unmanly homage i)ay — ■ 

Still at the sight of loath'd oppression's chiiiii, 
Thy verdure sickens, and thy nerves decay. 

But in the land where liberty and Uw, 

Their blended influence happily unite- 
Where justice keeps enormity in awe. 

And weighs with equal beam the wrong and right. 

There thou deliglit'st to fix thy stable sear, 
Luxuriant here thy native honours spread, 

The muses consecrate the lov'd retreat 
And taste and genius round it lustre shed. 

Then rear thy green head to the summer gale, 
Let all thy towering branches proudly wave, 

For 'till the pow'rs of vegitatiun fails, 
No tyrjtnt freedom's fav'rite shall enslave, 



THE OCEAX. 
if^ THOU that, in the meditative mind, 
^-^ Inspir'st such awe, such wonder, and delight, 
As OQ a hollow, rugged rock reclin'd, 

The stranger views thee from its towering lieight, 
And sees thy angry, rushing billows rise, 

Now mounting high, then sinkitig deep again. 
Then starting up and mingling with the skies, 

Bonie on the bosom of the sounding main : 
Again repell'd, by mighty force they're thrown, 

And fall again upon the yielding sea; 
'Till actuated by a power unknown. 

They sink in cahn, and all is harmony. 
No more in high majestic mountains tost, 

Iq $vveet delightful calm thy augry gusts are lost. 



75 

NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809 

(June — Julj/.J 

RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

TIT'VERY flattering hope, respecting the emancipation of the Continent, 
•'* ^ has again vanished. After several weeks ol" inaction, between tli« 
main French and Austrian armies, on the banks of the Danube, two 
sanguinary battles were fought, on the 5th and 6th of June, which 
terminated in the retreat of the Archduke Cbarles to the Bohemian frontier. 
It was at first believed, that his retreat liad been effected in good 
order ; that the French liad suffered at least equally ; and that, from the 
loss which tiie enemy had sustained, they were unable to pursue. On the 
JOth of tlie month, iiowcvcr, the Roar of the Austrian army was overtaken; 
and, in the midst of an engagement wjiich ensued, on the 11 th. Prince John 
of Lichtenstcin arrived at the out-posts of the French army, with proposals 
for an armistice. Buonaparte immediately ordered the firing to cease; 
and, on the fullowing morning, a suspension of arms, for a month, 
with fifteen days' notice of the intended recommencement of hostilities, was 
agreed to, The terms of the armistice are wholly in favour of the French, 
^^ ho, it is feared, will extort a peace from the ILmpernr Francis, of the most 
humiliating description. Buonaparte is said to have returned to Paris. 

THE EXVr.EITIOX. 

• ' ^^'e arc happy to find, that the British expedition, announced at pai^e498 
of the preceding volume, has not been countermanded, nor even suspended 
in consequence of the disastrous intelligence from Germany. It sailed from 
the Doivns in four divisions, on the '27th of July; and, from the subsequent 
favuurable state of the wind, there is every reason to suppose, that it 
reached t.he first place of its destination, at a very early period. Sir 

\ Richard Keates is the senior naval officer, and the Earl of Chatham 
is the niihtary commander-in-chief. The Portsmouth division alone consists 
of 18 sail of the line, besides other ships and transports, with lj,000 
troops on board ; and the total number of men employed, including seamen 
and marines, i^ estimated at nearly 80,000; a force so truly formidable 
that wc cannot be surprised at the alarm which it is understood to 
Ir.ivc excited on the enemy's coast. 

T'he following statement, ofthe primary object of this expedition, is "iveu 
by a paper apparently in the confidence of government: — 

" The operations will conunence by landing the numerous gun-boats on 
l)oard the fleet either in the West Put, at the entrance of the Scheldt, or 
hlays Roads, comprehenduigthe coast of Cadsand (according as the weatlier 
may prove,; where tiie men-of-war are to anchor. The immediate intention 
is to embark on board the boats the troops destined for the n-.ain attack of 
the island of W'alcheren, in the West Put, and the must judicious precau- 
tions have been projected to prevent the enemy's gun-boats from aunoyint- 
them, Ths first attack, however, will be made upon Cadsand, ^nd south 
Bc\ eland will immediately after be assailed, The possession ofthe former 



76 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

being necessary to the future operations, it is to be attacked by the whole 
of a strong brigade, led on by the gallant Maiquis of Huntly; and this 
brigade, if necessary, is to be joined by another, as nearly the whole of the 
brigades of the right wing will at this juncture be in the Wieling Channel^ 
Schowen, Dayveland,and Xorth Bevelandwill at the same time be attacked, 
and in this enterprize the brigade of guards will be employed. In the van 
squadron will be embarked tiie brigade of general Hope, which is destined 
cither for Doraburgh or the Veer Gat, as circumstances may deem expedi- 
ent ; and this brigade will also have a view to the service of Tengoes, on 
south Beveland. One of the brigades is to be held in readiness to laud below 
the Nolle Battery, in the event of the enemy sending any great force ta 
Zoutland to repel our force, by which means liis retreat to Fiuj^hing may be 
cut off. The principal attack upon the island of Walclieren is to be made 
by the Portsmouth division, commanded by general Cootk, and a brigade 
is to be allotted for a service of demonstration. The rowing boacs to agreat 
amount are to precede the flat boats, and when they are within reach of 
grape frcm the shore, tliey are to open upon the eneniy^ drawing off in equal 
divisions to the right and left, making room for the flat boats to push in, 
and covering them till the field artillery is ready to move forward. The 
bombs to take certain stations, and to be ready to commence a bombardment 
when directed." 

The possession of the Islands of Walcheren and Cadsand will give 
us the entire command of the Scheldt, the ports of whicli, since Buonaparte 
has annexed Walcheren to France, have been made the chief nursery of the 
French navv. They at present contain a considerable number of ships of 
war ready for sea, and many on the stocks ir( a state of great forwardness: 
all of which, we trust, will be cither taken or destroyed, and Buonaparte 
be thus deprived of his last means of fitting out a naval force for our 
amio^ancc. It is thought, that our occupation of Walcheren will not be of 
u temporary nature; for it is understood to be tenable by us in all seasons 
of the year ; and, besiiles its advantages, as a naval station, it will have the 
important effect of neutralising a considerable portion of the enemy's terri- 

The destruction of the French flotilla, at Boulogne, is conjectured to be 
a secondary object of the expedition ; and it is not unlikely, that several 
other parts of the enemy's coast may feel tiie effects ot British prowess 
before it returns. 

LORD GAMBIEE-'S TRIAL. 

lu consequence of the sailing of the expedition having been protrncted 
beyond tlie expected period, the trial of Admiral Lord Garabier did 
not commence till ^yednesday the 26th of July. On that day, the court- 
martial assembled on board th.e Gladiator, in Portsn»outh harbour, Admiral 
.*>ir Rocer Curtis, Bart. President. The general charge against his lordship, 
as stated in the order for assembling the court, was, that on the 12lh 
of April, the enemy's ships being then on shore, and tl;e signal having been 
made that they could be destroyed, did for a coubiderablc time neglect or 
delay tiiking effectual measures for destroying them. The object of the 



NAVAL nrSTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 77 

Court vvns also to enquire into the whole conduct of Lord Gambier, 
as coinmander-in-clnet", betwee:i the 17th of March and the 29lh of April. 
After scvtral official documents had been put in and read, a cliart of the 
Isle of Aix, agreeably to that which we have given at pat:e 403 was j)ro- 
duced. The lug-hooks of several ships of the squadron were also produced, 
and their contents verified. Mr. Spurling, the master of the Imperieusc, 
(Lord Cochrane's ship) underwent a cross-examination of considerable 
length, the objects of which seemed to be, to prove, that the witness had, 
since the action, made certain alterations in the log-book of the Imperieusc, 
comformably to what appeared on tiie log-book of the Indefatigable ; and 
that those altcratirms had been made by the order, and with the knowledge 
of Lord Cochrane. These insinuations, however, were salisfactorilj 
refuted. 

Lord Cochrane was examined at great length. His evidence went 
generally to prove, that Lord Gambier had been guilty of great delay, at the 
time specified ; that .the station w hich he chose, thougli a good one for 
observation, was not proper for an attack; and that, had Lord Gambier 
complied with Lord Cochrane's signal, at the proper time, half the fleet, or 
even two ships, would have been sufficient to effect the complete destruc- 
tioTi of the seven French ships which were on shore. 

On Thursday (the 27thj Lord Cochrane^s evidence was closed, Lord 
Gambier decl;nii;g, at that lime, to ask him any questions. 

Antr.irai Stopford was next sworn and examined. He thought that 
r.c:itu r neglect nor delay had been apparent in Lord Gambler's conduct. 

On the 28th (Friday) the examination of Admiral Stopford was closed. 
His evidence was, throughout, highly favourable to Lord Gambier. Mr- 
Spurlins, the master of the Lnperieuse, was re-examined, as to the depth of 
water, tie rise of the tide, the extent of the enemy's batteries, (Sec. on the 
Isle of Aix. Captain Wolfe, of the Aigle, and Captain Rodd, of the 
Jndetatijraljle, who were v.v\t examined, were both of opinion, tiiat thei'e 
had been neither neglect nor delay, on the part of Lord Gambier; and that 
every thing had been done, that the nature of the vessels employed in the 
service admitted, f>ir the destructi(m of the enemy's fleet. Tiie case for 
the prosecution here closed, and Lord Gambier stated, that he expected to 
be able to enter on his defence on Monday. 



On the 5th of .func.a small English squadron, consisting of fotir gun-brigs 
and two sloops, from Heligoland, arrived at Cuxhaven, and drove the ene- 
my out of that place, demolished the batteries, and obliged the Municipa- 
lity to lay down the buoys in the Elbe, which had been taken op by the 
French. The military force of this little expedition was only K'O men. 
The Dutch troops who were left in possession of the place fled, and the in- 
habitants testified the greatest joy at seeing the English flag once more fiviii' 
in their port. 

According to the latest intelligence from Portugal, Sir Arthur Welleslev, 
having formed a junction with General Cuesta, was marching towards Mad- 
rid. Joseph Buonaparte la ag:iin reported to have abandoned that capiiaJ. 



78 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809, 

%mcv!i on ^tt\i\tti 

Copied verbatim from the Lokdojs Gazette, 

ADMIRALTY OFFICE, JtJlCE 24, 1809. 

Cop^l of a Letter from the Hon. Captain Irby, of his Majcsti/''s ship Amclim, 
addressed to Admiral Lord GauiOler, and transmitted by his Lordship t9 
the Hon. W.]V.Fole. 

His Majesty s Ship Amelia, off St. Andcrn, 
MY LORD, lOih June, 1809. 

ACTING in obedience to your lords-hip's order of the 13th ult. I received 
information of an attack being abunt to be made by the Spanisli Pa- 
triots, on the French troops in possession of the town of St. Andero ; and 
having estaljHshed signals between his Majesty's ship under my command 
and the fortress of Golczand, 1 proceeded ulT this phice in company with 
liis Majesty's ship Statira, she having joined me on the 8th inst. but n 
strong wind and current prevented our gcttini^ up till this day, wlicn, on 
our approach, firing was obsei'ved in every direction on ti)e shore, and 
several vessels trying to elfcct their escape out of the harbour, which were 
captured as per margin,* one boat only getting away; more must have 
escaped but were prevented through the activity of Captain Boys, in his 
Majesty's ship Statira. Thoy appear fine vessels, and have several of the 
French army on board, with chief part of the hospital Staff. The corvette 
is the same lately so gallantly engaged l)y Captain Skinner, in his Majesty's 
sloop Goldfinch, and since by the Black .foke Lugger, and has proved 
a great annoyance to our trade. I learn by a Spanish officer, who came to 
me from the shore, (aide-de-camp to General Ballestero,) and by our own 
boats which I sent on shore, that the Frencli Troops have all surrendered, 
•and that the town is in possession of the Spanish patriots under the com- 
mand of General Ballestero. 

In consequence of the number of prisoners, I have sent the Statira into 
port with the prizes, and shall remain myself oil this coast, in hopes ot beinjj 
able to render further assistance to the Spanish cause. 

1 have the honour to be, &c.j 
To the Rt. Hon. Lord Gambier, FilED, PAUL IRBY. 

Admiral of the Blue, SfC. 

JUNE 24. 

Captain Goate, of his Majesty's sloop the Mosquito, has transmitted to 
the Honourable William VVellcsley I'ole, two letters from Lieutenant 
Maiisel, commanding the Patriot gun-vessel, giving an account of tiic 



* French national ship corvette La Mouche, Captain Allcgre, 16 brass 
8-pounders, and 180 men. 

French national brig La Rejouie, Captain Breton, 8 8-pounders, and 51 
men, 

French national schooner La Mouche, No. 7, Captain Carnafe, 1 
4-pounder gun, and 23 men. 

Lugger La Legere, Captain Sequire, not being sea-wortliy the cargo put 
on board La Rejouie. 

Lugger Notre Dame, Captain Bergo Chin, 5 men, being a Spanish vessel 
seiaed by the French; the cargo put oa Uravd La Rejouie. 



KAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAIl, 1809. 79 

capture, by 'that vessel, of a Dutch national gun-vessel of one gun, with 
swivels, and ten men, in the river Jahde ; and of a Danish privateer of one 

fun and six swivels, and twenty-five men, oft' I/angcrooz ; and also of the 
)estruction, by the Patriot, and Alert hired vessel, of two Frencif privateers 
and a sloop, in the Jahde. 

jai.Y I. 

Copy of a Let I cr from the Honoiirable Captain Jones, of His Majrs'y''i Sloop 
the Tulbof, addressed to Rcar-ndiniral Sir Commodore Nugle. Commander- 
in-chief at Leiih, and transmitted bif the latter to the Hon. iV. W. Pole, ' 

His Majesl?/''s Sloop Talbot, off'theNaxf, 
SIR, of Norway, June 13, 1809. 

I have the honour to inform you, that I have this day captured th« 
Danish privateer named in the margin,* after a short chase, havhig two 
lono' guns on board, whicli she dismounted during the cliase, also a number 
of small arms and a complement of eleven men. She left Norway thi» 
morning, and has made no captures. 

I am, &c. 

ALEX. JONES- 
7o Sir E. Nagle, Knt. Rear-admiral of i he 
Red, ^-c, Leith. 

JULY 4, 1809. 

Copiesof Two Letters from Captaiii l^PKinlei/, of His Majestt^^s Ship the 
Lively, to the Honourable William Wellesley Pole. 

SIB, Lively, Vigo, June 7, 1809. 

Be pleased to inform my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that, 
yesterday evening, an express arrived from a Spanish Ofiicer at San Payo to 
Commodore Juan Don Carransas, that the Conde de Morona was retiring 
with his Division of the Galician army from Pontevedra to that place, and 
desiring boats might be there to convey the troops across the river, (the 
bridge having been broken down on the 7th of May,) Commodore Don J. 
Carransas requesting assistance. Captain Winter with the Cadmus (who 
had been obliged to put back from stress of weather) immediately sailed up 
the river with the Portuguese schooner Curiosa, under my orders from the 
Honourable Vice-admiral Berkeley, the Tigre Spanish schooner of war 
and as many boats and vessels as could possibly be collected. 

This retrograde movement caused me much anxiety, and I very early this 
morning went up in the barge to San Payo, where I found Brigadier-Gene- 
ral Carrera strongly posted on the south side of the bridge (the Conde ds 
Norona being at Redondela), and in my interview with him, I leiunt that 
the Enemy, after the Brigadier General had taken Santiago, united his 
forces from Lugo to those of Corunna, amounting to eight thousand men, 
two thousand live hundred cavalry, with several field-pieces and soma 
twelve pounders. 

Tliis force being very much superior to the Brigadier's, he retreated to 
Culdas and Pontevedra, where tlie Conde de Norona joined. From thecs- 
«essive and continued heavy rains we have had of late, much of the am- 
munition WES unavoidably damaged, and Pontevedra being too distant to 
receive any more when attacked, the falling back on such a strong position 



* Lov^a. 



80 NAVAL HISTOUY OF TI!E PUrSENT YEAH, ISOQ. 

was well conceived and most al)l y executed. On a heiiht, above tljff 
bridge tiiey iiad a haltery of two ci2,liteeii-pounders, and this army was in- 
crea-ed to between six and seven thousand men arn:ed, and tliree thousand 
fine young men without arms, one hundred and twenty horse, nine field 
pieces, actiui^- under the immediate direction of the Brisiadier-Cieneral. 

At nine the enemy appealed on the otlier side, in great force, and al- 
thouf;;!) tiie Gaiician troupshad underi;;one murii fati^rue, and suffered great- 
ly from the irjcjemency of the v.eathcr, to wMch tiicy had been constant^-v 
expost:d, yet, on the approach of liic enemy nothinjj; could exceed tlie ani- 
mation and spirit of the soldiers, all was alacrity and confidence, and I 
left the Uricadier-Gencnd, and wlis SMlutcd by the enemy from their tield- 
p.eces, but without luutiui: KS, a!thous;h nearly wiihin nuisket-shot ; at half- 
past nine they opened their tire on the Spaniards, wiiich » as most spirited- 
ly returned and their field artillery wai moved with great alacrity and 
well served. 

On my return on board I landed my marines and twenty-five seamen at 
the Castle (having taken them on board some days past); and Lieutcnant- 
CcloDel Carroll, in the mo?it zealous atid handsome manner. ofTered his 
services to assist Captain Crawford in defence of the Castie, Sixty soldiers, 
■whom he brought from Gijon with him, (part of our army,) at his earnest 
request were landed, and I .-supplied ihem with arms; and every thing was 
put in the best possible order of defence by Commodore Don Juan Car- 
ransas, Don Bernardo Gon^-alez the Governor, and Captain Crawford, of 
his Majesty's siiip Venus. 

I have the Honour to be, Sec. 

GEO. MTCIXLEY. 

SIR, • Lheli/, Vigo June I 'i'h, i 809. 

I concluded mv letter of the 7th instant, which I did myself the Ho- 
nour of writing to atquaint you, for tiie int'ormation of my Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Adu^.iralty, that the enemy had began an attack at half-past 
nine that luorning on the Spanish troops under the command of Brigadier- 
General Carrera, on the soith side of the bridge of St. Payo. 

I have to request you vvill be pleased to make known to their Lordships, 
that the enemy, having taken jjust on the north side of the bndge, a pistol- 
shot across, in houses, and in a wood a little below it, kept up his attack, 
supported with field artillery and three twelve-pounders, with great vivacity 
during the whole of that day (the 7th), which was sustained by the Gaii- 
cian army with great coolness and bravery. 

During the night of the 7th, the enemy erected a battery. Commodore 
Don Juan Carransas sent up three gun-boats, one of which Captain Wynter 
manned, under the charge of Lieutenant Jefferson, his first Lieutenant. 
At day-ligi-t in the morning of the 8th, the enemy opened his fire, both on 
the Gaiician troops and the boats: the latter of which, from the tide being 
up, got near, and destroyed the enemy's batteries. At the fall of the tide 
the enemy made two desperate attempts to cross below the bridge with his 
cavalry and infantry, but the great courage and spirit displayed by our 
friends repulsed them with great slaughter. A body of them went highei* 
up the river to the bridge to Sottomayor, and that active and brave officer 
Don Pablo Murillo was detached with a division to oppose them, and the 
enemy, after persevering for an hour and an half, were obliged to give way 
to the superior gallantry of the Spaniards, and retreated to San Payo, 
where anotl.er attack, during a thick fog, was again made by the enemy, 
Tvho, as m tiie former ones, v>'as driven back, and Marshal Ney, who ccjtu- 
manded the fronch troops, con^-isting of eight thousand men, two thousand 
fire hundred cavalry, with held artillery and two twelve pounders, experi- 



irxtAh iriSTORY or the present yeap., 1S09. SI 

aiiCed a defeat fr.m a now raised army consisting of six tliousand arnned 
men, nnd three tliotisand without arms, and some small field artillery, with two 
eighteen-ponnders, a id in the night tlicy retrcatcJ, ki^iving so'ue of his 
wounded. The enejiy burnt many of their dead, and in one pit has been 
disroi'pred tliirtv buried; his loss must hive been <Trcat. T'le los-^ o:i the 
side of the Spaniards has been trifliua;, only ons hundred and ten killed and 
wounded. Captain Wynter, who was some time at the cimp, and who 
had a narrow escape, a gra()e shot liavin;T grazed his hat, doscriljed to me 
that such was the animation of tfie Spiuiish troops, th itit 'vas with JitHcalty 
thev were resfr-iined by their otiicers from pushing across. 

Thus, Sir, the spirit and good conduct of this division of the Spanish 
Galician army who, though without almost every part of clothing, and ex- 
posed to heavy rains without shelter, had shewn to their own Nation, and 
to all Europe, that they are inspired with ardour for the delivery of their 
country fron the cruel usurper, which alone a brave and loyal '"cople can 
}Vei; and the merit of tiieir commanders bears so c m^picuous a part, as 
their lordsJiips must appreciate much better tlian I could take the liberty of 
expres.ini: of officers superior in rank to myself. And it is but just to say, 
that the oSjers c.nplpved in the gun-boats, executed well the instructioPiS 
they received front Don Juan Oarransas, whose unwearied attention to give 
every aid anri assistance to the army witih the most active promptitude ex- 
cite! admiration. 

Lieutenant Toledo, commanding tlie Tigre Spanish scliooner of war, v.dio 
v,as up the river to give succour, was most active, and l.ieulenant Alves, 
cooimunditig the Portuguese schooner Curio/a, was alert and zealous to 
support the cause; and yon will also be plea«od to express to their lordships 
the happiness I feel in i)eingenai)!ed to infurm tliem that Captain Wynter 
and the Britisis officers and men telt all that ardour to assist real friends 
which is inherent in their character. 

I have the honour to be, &:c. 

GEO. M'KTXLEY. 

JLLV 8, 130P. 

The following partic-.dars relative to the evacuation of Corunna and Fer- 
rol by the French, are contained in a series of letters from Cuutain Hothani, 
of his Majesty's ship the Defiance, to Admiral Lord Gaaihier, dated from 
the 22d to the 30th of!astra(mth. 

In consequence of the defeat sustained by the eneuiv's army under Mar- 
f iial Ncy in the action against the Spanish forces at the bridge uf'the Payo, 
tliat general fell back on Corunna on the I3th Jinie, and immtdiately be- 
};an to take measures for rehr.quishing the possc.-sion of that phice and 
Ferrol, removing his forces by divisions to an encampment three leagues 
in advance from Betanzos towards Lngo. The la'-t divisions of the French 
left Ferrol on the 21st and Corunna on the 22d after having in both pla- 
ces spiked ihe guns and destroyed the defences on the landside, togetln r 
with the magazines and stores o'' every kiiifl, and completely disarmed t!ie 
places and their inhabitants. , 

The proximity of the cnemy's'positinn continuing to hold the authoriiios 
•established by tlie Frcncii at Corunr.a in siibjcction through the fear of his 
return, no communication being suffcKxl "il!i the IJilrish shijjs but by flag 
of tiuce, and the state of defence in which the liattcries and lines on tiio 
sea side were left, rendering it daugorous fur the I'jiglish to land or ap- 
proach the (:o:ist in tlio event of the rc-appcaiance of any of ti e enemy, 
C.aptahi ildliiam <)n the 'i4tii ordered a fk''.;ichmciit of s-eamcn and marines 
to land and disaLie the gnns on the different t ulteiies. bearing on the iui- 

frl&t, CfilCa. iHoI. XXi[. M 



83 NWAI. HISTORY OT THE PRESENT YEAR, l^OD. 

chorage, nfferina; at the same time to the governor the services of the de- 
taciiment in rendering any ii^bistance that mi{;ht be in its power to the cause 
ottiie Sj.anish patriots. The cannons and mortars on the sea lines at Co- 
runna, ana in the tori s comnuiiidinjj the Bay, were accordingly all dismount- 
e:i on ttie s<ime day, leaving tintuuchcd those on the lines towards the 
land wiiicii iiad been spiked by the enemy. 

Un tlie 26th Captain Ilodiara sent Captain Parker, of his Majesty's 
ship Amazon, to 1 eiTul, where he was received by the people with tlie 
loudest acclamation- of joy, and received from the higher orders of the 
inhabitants the sironscst possible marks of attachment to the English, and 
happiness at seeing once more among them an officer of that nation. The 
castle of San lelipr, liowever, was still under the command of a person 
appointed by Marshal Xey, and attached to the French interest, with a 
garrison composed of a detachment of a legion raised by the enemy durm<; 
their possession ol Ferrtjl and Corunna; and on the 27th Captain liolham 
reciivcd information that tlie above commandant h.id given orders to fire 
on any English ships or l;oats that might attempt to pass the Castle. In 
consiquence, Captain Hothain -epaiied to Ferrol in the Dttiance, and 
landed the marines of that ship aad tl>e Amazon, with a party of armed 
seamen, under the dn-ection of Captain Parker, wlio entered the castle 
wiihout opposition, preceded by a flag beariisg the name of King Ferdinand 
the sexentti and the "Spanish colours. The detachment then proceeded to 
the Town of terrol, where it was received in the most aftVciionate m;inner 
by the inhabitants, and having arrested tlie commandant ol ll.c ca>t!e m the 
jian.e of bin. Ferdinand, sent him on board the Defiance. The governor 
of Ferrol not havmg any means of garrisoning the castle, tl.e uuns in it 
veres.ikcd, and tlie ponder removed to tk.e arsenal, and the p!ace left 
imrier the C(ni!mand of the former governor, who had been superseded by 
the enemy. 

On the 28th Captain Ilctham entered the port of Corunna, where he 
vas intoimed by the governor that he had received instructions from the 
]\laiquis de la Romana, dated at Orense on the 27th, to proclaim his catho- 
lic Majesty Ferdinand the seventh, with advice that he had despatched a 
regiment from his array to attend the ceremony and garrison the place: 
tlic gr)vtrnor at the same time gave Captain llothain assurances that the 
pr^it was from that hour to be considered under the controui and authority 
of the laxvful King of Spain ; and the captain placed himself, and every 
assistance that t!ie ships under his orders might be able to afford, at the 
j^ovenmr's disposal. 

On the 29th JMajor-General the Conde de Norona, captain-general of 
Galicia arrived at Corunna from St. Jago, and was followed on the next 
day iiv General Garrera with about elcien tliousand rnen, forming the 
Conde's division of the ^vlurqui? of liomanu's army. 

The French army under Marshal Ney moved from its camp near Betan- 
zos on the 22d, taking the road to Lugo and Astorga, II was reported that, 
previcjusly to its breaking up the c^.mp, it destroyed its baggage and heavy, 
artillery. 

On the 2rth the Marquis de la Romana was stated to be at Orense with 
General Mahi and thirty thons ind men. Marsiial Souk's position on the 
1 6th was said to have been at Moiiforte and Quiraga. 



Captain Goatr, of his Majesty's sloop Mosquito, has transmitted to the 
Hon. William Wellesley Pole, letters Irom lieutenants Banks and Rowe, 
commanding the Blazer and Censor gun-bria.s, stating the capture of tive o^' 
the enemy's privateers and armed vessels in the rivers Juhdc and Ems. 



WAYAL HISTORY OF THE PUtSENT YEAK, 1S0(?. 83 

■Rear-nrlmirnl Sir Richarri Slrp.chaii has transmitted to the TInn. W'lliani 
Welleblev Pole a letter from lieiiteiuuit Banks, ronim.i.idiiis^ llie Blazer giin- 
brie, givinf: an account of an attack made hy a small party of ^eatnen and 
marines under the dir<?ction of lieutenants Manseil and .M'Donsrali, of the 
Patriot enn-ves»el and Alert hired cptter, upon a body of French douan crs 
and soldiers stationed at Ekwarden in the river Jahde. 

The enemy beini; dris'Cii from their post-, two douanier boats, one Da- 
nish and live galliots were taken possession of and bronjzlit out, toi^etiier 
with a quantity of merchandize which had been seized by the French aiid 
Danes. 

This service, which was performed without any loss on our pari, was 
executed with great judgment and resolution. 



Copy of a Letter fnrm George M'Kinfri/, E^q. Cnptain of His Majcdt/'sShip 
Liveljj, to the Hon. W. IF. Pole, duLtd on board that SMp at Ftgo, ihe 2d 
of' lust Month. 

SIR, 

I have the honour of Inclosing to you, for the information of my Lords 
Commissioners of the A(imiralty, a copy of a letter I received fn)m Bri- 
gadier-General Carrera, commanding a division of loyal Spanish troop'-, 
s;iving an account of his taking from the French the City of Saint Jago 
Compostella; by which their lordships will see the spirit and gallantry of 
she brigadier-general, and the ardour of the troops umier iiis orders. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) GEO. M'KINLEY. 



Head-Quarters ut Santiago, AIai/23, IG09. 
Santiago is in our possession: — the enemy, consisting of three tliousand 
infantry,"with fourteen pieces of artillery, and three hundred horse, caina 
out to meet us, and attacked us on our march in the plain called De la, 
Estrella. Our scouts having fallen in with their Voltigeurs, and exchanged 
some firing, brought me the information, and I ordered the division to iurin 
in the best position that could be taken. The enemy attacked with vigour, 
but were unable to gain the smallost advantage. Our artillery was as nood 
as their's was bad ; not a man being wounded on our side by a cannon-baJI, 
Alter an hour's tiring we became impatient' of suffering it, and I ordered 
Don Pablo jMurillo to charge them on their right flank, whilst I advanced 
in front with the three other columns. The enemy twice took up positions, 
and were as often dislodged. The unevenness of the ground favomed their 
escape; in effecting which they shamefully blew up two ammuii.ti jii 
chests; two others, with two of cloathiug, upwards of six hundred mu^^ 
kets, and some horses and other articles, which 1 have not yet examined, 
fell into our hands. Muriilo entered the City, and pursued the enemy 
through the streets to the distance of more than a league from hence. I 
am not yet informed of the number of slain, nor of that of the prisoners, 
of whom there are many. The General, Maquian, has been severely 
wounded by two musket shots; the second in command was kdicd ui cha 
field, whnge insignia have been brought to me by the soldier^. Our los.^ has 
been triflmg; tlie troops are in high spirits, and I may expect much from 
$bem. I am, &c. 

MARTLV DE LA CaRRERA. 

Cuptuin M'Kinln/, Commander of tJie- 
British Slaps at Vigo. 



84 NAVAI, MISTORY OF THE PllESICNT YEAR, 1S09. 

JULY 15, 1809. 

Copy of a Letter from Virc- Admiral Sir Jurnes Smrvarez^ Bart, and K. B. 
Coiivi and r-in-Chief of his Majestys S/iijis and Vessels in the Baltic, to 
the Him. W. W. Pole, dated on board the Victory, off Han go Head, 29lh 
June, 1809. 

SIR, 

I herewith inclose tlie copy of a letter transmitted to me by Captaiij 
Barrett, of his Majesty'.s ship Minotaur, which he had received from Cap- 
tain Saniuel Warren, of the Belierophon, acquainting him of an attack made 
by the boats of that ship, under the orders of Lieutenant Pilch, on a battery 
upon one of the islands near Ilango Head, which, after an obstinate resist- 
ance, was carried in a very gallant manner by the party under Lieutenant 
Pilcii's orders, who spiked tlie guns (four twenty-four pounders) and destroy- 
ed the magazine, whicli you will please to lay before the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Admiralty. 

I am, &c. JAS. SAUMAREZ. 

sm, Belierophon, off Dagf.rost, June 10, \Z09- 

Pursuant to your signal to nie of yesterday, I proceeded in his Majesty's 
ship under my command ofFHangoj when at sunset I discovered a lugger 
(apparently armed) and two other vessels at anchor within the inlands; 
decmine; it of importance to get hold of them^ I anchored anddetaclied the 
boats under the orders of Lieutenant Pilch; and have to acquaint you, that 
-they had gained complete possession of the vessels, which being found 
were of no consequence, and under cover of four strong batteries, (not be- 
fore observed), supported by several gun boats, were abandoned. It v.as 
then judged necessary, to prevent loss in returning, to dash at the nearest 
battery, mountisg four twenty-four pounders, (ancl by a muster-roll found, 
garrisoned with one hundred and three men), which, after an obstinate re- 
sistance, was carried in the most gallant manner, the Russians retreating 
to boats on the other side the island. The guns were spiked, and maga- 
zine destroyed. 

Lieutenant Pilch reports to me the very able assistance he received from 
Lieutenants Sheridan and Bentham, Lieutenant Carriugton, rcy;d marine-, 
and Mr. Mart, carpenter (volunteers); and that more cool bravery could 
not have been displayed tlian by the officers and men employed on this 
service; and, considering the resistance met with, aud heavy hrc of grape- 
shot from batteries and gun-boats in the retreat, tlie lo?s is comparatively 
small, being five wounded, whose names are in the margin.* 

It is the opinion of the officers the loss of the enemy in killed and \^ ound- 
ed was considerable. I am, &c. 

SAI\L WARREN, Captain. 

To John Barrett, Esq. Captain of his Majestfs 
Ship .Minotaur, SfC. ^-c. <5c. 



* Griffith Griffiths, cjuarter-master; badiy wounded, 
Peter Jest, royal marine ; ditto. 
Simon M'Leese, seaman; slightly wounded. 
John Butterfield, royal marine; ditto. 
Thomas M'Carthy, roysil marine; ditto. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PP.E':iF.NT YEAK, 1809. 84 

JULY 18, 1809. 

Extract of a Letter from Captain Goaie, Coinmander of his Mujeali/s Sluop 
the Musquilo, ad(iie<hed to Rear-Admiral Sir Kichard Strachan, and 
travamitted to the Hon. W. W. Pole, dated in the River Elbe, 9th Jufj/, 
1800. 

I proceeded up this livcrwith his i\lnjesty's vessels named in ihem^irain,* 
and anchored out of gun shot of the battery at C'uxhavo, un the 7lh inst. 
and as it was too strong to l.e atiacked by his majsscy's vesscK, I was de- 
termined on landing and taking it by storm, having previously marie the 
necessary preparations for that purpose. 

At dayhirht on the morning of the 8th, I disembarlied with Captain 
Watts of the Lphira, and the conunanding officers, seamen, and marines, 
of the respective vessels; th(; first boats that landed were fired upon by tlie 
enemy's advanced post, and they then retreated to the battery, \ye inarched 
on to storm, but fronj our appearance t!ie enemy thought proper to retreat, 
about eiiihty in number, so that we took the battery (whi< h had six euns, 
twenty-four pouisdtrs, and surrounded by a wet ditch) without opposition; 
his rviajesty's colours were then hoisied on the French fiag-staff and after- 
wards those of Hambor!.h on tli" castle of Kitzbuttle, we then dismounted 
the guns and put them on board of vessels lying in the harbour, as v\ell as 
several other small pieces if cannon, with all tlie shot and military stores. 
The battery was then undermined, and, by a variety of explosions, blown 

I then I'ave the town of C;ixhaven in trust to the civil governor, and 
embarked ail the seamen and marines. 

Two French gun-boEfts, with two guns each, which were lying in the 
harbour were also taken possession of. 

Although ne did not meet with the opposition that was expected (as the 
French had sometimes five hundred men, at other times about one hundred 
at Cuxhaven), yet I think it my duty to inform you of the activity and good 
conduct of the commanders, commanding officers, seamen, and marines, on 
this occa'-ion, as it was partly from their regularity in forming and march- 
ing, that induced the enemy to retreat. 

Captain Pcttett of the Briseis commanded afloat, and got that vessel 
under weigh to assist, had it been necessary. 

JULY 22, 1800. 
Copi/ of a Letter from Captain Durham of his Majestij''s Ship the Renown, 
addressed to Pice-Admiral Lord Coltingzcood, and transmilttd ly his Lord- 
ship to the Honourable W. W. Pole. 

His Mujeslys Ship Rcnorcu, off Toulon, 
iiY LORD, Mat/ 4, 1809, 

I have the honour to inform your Lordship, that I this mornine captured 
off Marseilles, the Fi'encii national armed vessel, I.a Champe'ioisc, com- 
manded bv Monsieur Chautard, Ei;sei<:nc de Vaisseau, pierced for twelve 
^uns, but mounting only six, with a cre^v of thirty-one seamen and fifty-two 
sick and wounded soldiers from Barcelona, from which port she^aded three 
days ago. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

P. C. DURHAM. 



* Musquito (Sloop), Brijcis, Ephira, Bruizer (gun-vessel), Centinel, 
Blaxer, Pinclier, Basilisk, Patriot (Schuyt), Alert (Cutter). 



88 NAVAL HISTOIIT GF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1809. 

i^a'oal Court IDanial. 



C\"V .^aturdav, Julv the 15tli, a court martial was held on board the Sal- 
'^ valor rlrl Muiido. in Hatno;'ze, and adjourned till ?>Ionday, tor tiic 
trial (f Mr. Mexandj-r Parerson, ciin'ier of the Oiseai), prison ship, for con- 
tempt, itisolrnce, and disohedience of order-;, Tl.e charges were acijudj^cd 
to be fully proved, and he was >;eiitenced to be dismissed his sitiuuiou of 
gu'inf.r ii) hi- ^l.iip-'v's navv. and to serve before the mast in such ship as 
the cuuiujaudcr-nj-chief shall direct. 



Ox the 5th of July a court martial was held on board the Matrnanime, 
to try Mr. John lliiiks, carpenter of the Nyniphen, for drunkenness. The 
chari:es being fully proved, he was sentenced to be broke, and to serve 
before the mast in any ship tlie commander-in chief shall think proper. 



On Monday the 25th instant Lieutenant John Ball, of the Tmpctueux, wai 
tried hy a court martial for behaving with contempt to the Isc lieutenant, 
Jones, of ihe said ship, disobeying the standing orders, and behaviu" dis- 
respectfully to h,s ca;itair. The first charge was not proved, the latter ii» 
part : the prisoner was therefore sentenced to be admonished by the 
President. 



©romotiorts anti Appointments* 

Captains appointed. 

I. A. Gordon, to the Active; G. Cockburne to the Belleisle; Alex. 
Renney to the Alert sloop; I. Smith, from the Devastation bomb, to 
the Magnet sloop ; Sam. Coiquitt, from the Princess, to the Persian sloop; 
Edward Killwick to the Princess receiving ship at Liverpool ; VV. Ward 
to the Resolution; I. Garth-to act for Lord Cocijrane in the Imperieuse ; I. 
Woolcoiube to the Circe; I. G. Dickins to the Zephyr sloop; \S . Wells 
to the Blanche ; H. Hart to the Caroline; R. \\. A. Bennett to the Fame ; 
Geo. Hewson to the Fleche; Walter Buchanan to the Hecate; W= 
H. Dobbie to the Pallas; Charles Sotheby to tlie Pilot; Jaheel Brenton to 
the Spartan; Richard Thomas to the Ville-de-Paris ; H. W Bayntun 
to the Milford; E. R. Sibly to the Sheerwater sloop; L S. Peyton to 
the Ephira sloop; R. W. O. Fowey to the Ajax ; Hon. I. W. King to the 
Jason; E. O'Brien Drury to the Beaver sloop; E. S. Dickson to the Incon- 
stant; I. Bradley to the Espeigle sloop ; Hon. F. W. Aylnier, from Le Rhin, 
to the Narcissus; C. Malcolm to Le Rhin. 

Lieutenants appointed. 

I. G. Nopsto the Defender gun-brig; C Haultain and W. Henderson to 
the Active; F.aton Travers to the Imperieuse; David Edwards to the Cou- 
rageux; R. H. Young to the Princess of Orange; A. Pike to the Nereus; 
I. Thouias to the Antelope; W. Mitten to the Seine; I. Campbell to the 
Roebuck ; W. D'Aranda to the Woodlark sloop; I. Athill and Fhos. Allen 
to the Milford ; C. Pcngelly, from the Royal Geori^e, to the Shearwater 
»loop: I. Uudrell to the Blake; W. Shield and Itoss Connor to the GibraJ- 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PUESENT YEAR, 1809. 87 

t»r; I. Longchamp and Hon. II. R. Monckton to tiie Puissant ; F. Lowry, 
R. E. G. Hopkins, and Hon. A.F. Heikely Otlincl Mawdesley, to the A)a\; 
E. N. Greenswcjrd to the I'riiicess Caroline; C. Cliurcii to the Rosamond 
sloop; T. Mitchell (l) to the Ulysses; G. sVills to the Raven sloop; 
A. M'Killop to the Infloxilile; E. N. Greenoswnl, iVom the Princess 
Caroline, to command tie M.mly ^nn-vessel; T. Gill (1) to the Panther 
prison-ship, to command Ii'.t ; Cyrus Eiliot to the Ned Elvcn »ioop; T. 
Eorster to the Euryalus ; A. Brodie to the Curie. v sluop; E. Heron to the 
Mercurius sloop; H. Overaud to the iVlorinaid; R. C. BcrilT to the Spar- 
rowhawk slovjp; R II. RoL'ersand F. r. Mitchell to the Rhiu; I. Orewitt to 
the Thais sloop; W, A. Sout^i and I. G. Goodin;^ to the Danneniirk ; 
11. Yule to thu Illustrious; G. Penruddock to the Pilot sloop ; I. Setford to 
iheStatira; ^V, Sto,it'ord to the Chanticleer bloop ; R. Thoroll, from the 
Minorca, to the Inconstant; I. Ma.uon to the Impetneux; 11. O. Perrott to 
the Crecaii sloop; D. L. Croncii to the Trusty prison-sinp to command her; 
I. Knceshaw to the iM.irtial guii-hris; T. Mitchell ('2) to the Salcette ; W. 
I. Edwards to the .Viais ; i. Hirchins to the V^esuvius bonio; I. Crawley to 
tlie inconstant; II. Squire to the Fleche sloop. 

Midshipmen passed for Lieutenants the first Wednesday in the present 
month :— 

R. P. R. Elphinstone, F. R. Jeweis, I. Kent, P. Whinfield, D. Roberts, 
C. I.-^enior, I. Lisson, G, Lullock; I. Matson, I. Waritv, VV. A. Brand, 
G. Green, E. li. Curiing, G. H. Dacre, R. Cruse, .So- I. S. (iordiui, Bart. C. 
Duciine, T. Drane, A. Aliller, G. C. Urmstone, E, Blight, 1. Le Hunt, R. 
Jv Webb, T. Joiics, T. Denston. 

Pursers appointed. 

Thomas Young to the Ajax; John Loady to the Apelles; T, F. 
lla'.vkins to the Berwick; .lames Sparsiiott to the Cretan, late Nettuno; 
John Day to the Electra; Robert Browne to the Lcda ; VV. Callaway to 
the Magnet; John Pearce to the Marlbor(m<ih ; B. Nortli to the Orestes; 
M. Wi Staines to the Pluto; W. S. Smith to the Rainbow. 

Surgeons appointed. 
R. Smyth to the Belleisic; VV. Reston to the Raven sloop ; F, Johnstono 
to the Courageux ; I. L. Doolan to the Argonaut prison-ship; T. Billinj;- 
hurst to the Assistance prison-ship; I Dunthorn to the Zenobia sloop; 
I. Todd to the .Alfred ; W. Preston to the Shearwater sloop ; A. Denmark 
to the Sail Josef; McCarthy Coruiack vice M' Arthur to the Naval Hospital 
at Barbadoes; D. M'Arthur vice Willis, deceased, to the Naval Hospital 
at Pajngton. 

Assistants appointed, 

I. Kay and T. Woodward to the Bellelsk' ; ^I. Little to the Resolution ; 
\Y. Dobson to Le Ilhin; G. Burrows to the RebuiV^un-brig; I. Pawsf)n to 
the Jamaica; P. Reilly and .fames Harvey to the Mediterranean, ai super- 
numerary, at the disposal of the coramander-in-chief ; W. Cullcn to the 
Antelope; G. B. Squire, hospital-mate, to the J\Iill-prison hospital; VV. 
Cqwlinj^ to the Priiicesh of ()ian;:e; H. hlyth to the Audacious; E. Swann 
to the Attack j;un-vessel ; VV. Cuddie to the Hermes store shi[) ; [), Lawsou 
to the Bcllona; A. Osborne, to be an hospitiil-niate, at l^jrion-prison- 
hospital ; \V. M. Kennedy to the Marlborou2;h ; I. Alexander to the Manly 
ggn-vessel; VV. Johnstone to the Royal 0:<k prison ^hip; I. Roberts to 
the Prevoyante slore-ship ; I. Duke to the Vilie de Paris; VV'. Whittaker 
and C. Traccy Supernumerary to the iMcditcrranean; VV, I. Craiic to the 



SUf NAVAL HiSTOR-Y OF THE fRESENT YEAR, 1809, 

Atlas; W. Winv.inji to tlie Galn;o sloop; I. Smith to the Isis; G. Claytoa 
to the Royal Wiliiam. 



On the 25th of June, in Doctrj«i' Commons, of a son, tlie lady of Charles 
Bedfoi-d, Esq. brotlier of Lieuteiiuiit Frederick Bedford, of the Royal Hos- 
pilal at Greenwich. 

On the 2Gth of June, of a son, r\Irs. llail. the lady of Edward Hall, Esq. 
eldest dauijhtcr of the late Richard Biatii-.vaite, Esq. admiral of the white. 

MARRIAGES. 

At Greenwicii Church, Mr. Samuel Bromley, surgeon of tlie royal navy, 
to rJary, the 3d daughter of the late T. M. ?»Iadore Esq. of that place. 

At Deal Ciiurch, Mr. B^iown, secretary to Rear-admiral Sir Richard 
Strachan, Bart, and K.B. to Miss Jacob, dau{2;hter of J. Jacob, Esq. master 
sliipwright of Deal Yard. 

On the 29th of June, at St. Marj-le-bone Church, by the Kev. B. Law- 
rence,' Captain Batemaii, of the royal navy, to Lucy Ilesther, youngest 
daughter of the late Vv'illiam Ciictivynd, Esq. of Ilaai Coiumon, Stirry. 

June 29, at Stqke Church, riymoulfi, the Hon. Rear-admirr.l R;)bert 
Sropford, second son (.'f the isnrl of Courtown, aued 45, to "vlisj !\.i%ry Fan-* 
shawe, daiig^hter of Commisbiuncr raiisha\\'e, of his Majesty's dock -yard at 
Plymouth, 

Lately, at jMaddcrn, Cornwall, Captain Wooldridge, of the royal navy, to 
Miss Caroline Treeweek, of Penzance. 

Lately, at Brixham, in li;e county of Devon, P. W. H. Hicks, Esq. son 
of the late Admiral Hicks, to Miss Hearscy, eldest dau;.htcr of J'heophilus 
Hearsey, Esq. of Denmark Hill, Surrey. _^ 

Lately, Lieutenant Gianvill, of the royal navy, to Miss S. Skardon, of 
South-down. 

OBITUARY. 

On the C8tli of May, suddenly, in Scotland, Mr. Duncan Campbell, late 
surgeon of his Majesty's ship Dragon. 

At an advanced age, Mrs. Moore, mother of Mr. A. Moore, master' 
smith in his Majesty's deck-yard at Plymouth. 

Lately, at Vervan vicarage, Cornwall, Lieutenant John Thompson, of the 
royal navy. 

On the 29tli of June, suddenly, of an apoplectic fit, Mr. Thomas Willes, 
surgeon of the Royal Naval Hospital at Pauigton. 

Lately was drowned, by falling overboard from the Mouche French 
schooner, Mr. Hancock, prize master of the said vessel, and master's mate 
of the Statira. 

In the Cloisters at Windsor, of a broken heart, Mrs. Aylnier, wife of 
Admiial Aylnier, 

Lieutenant C. J. Pater, royal marines, of the wounds received on board 
the Melpomene, in action with a flotilla of Danish gun- boats, on the Baltic 
station. 



His Majesty has been graciously pleased to grant to Mrs. Temple, wife 
of the late Cajituiii Temple, of the royal navy, who was drowned in th^^ 
Crescent, a pension of £.iQO per annum. 

/ 



MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES 

or THE LATE 

EDWARD PALMER, ESQ. 

COMMANDER IN THE UOVAL NAVY. 



*' Ye wayward Fates, liow caifless did yc t-.vine 
His vital thread — Alas ! could noiiglit incline 
Your souls to spare such valour, sense, and grace ?" 
X Capt. Thompson. 

FlflO rescue from oblivion the merit and memory of an officer, 
-^ who, had he been permitted to enjoy a more extended career 
in the pursuit of glory, would probably have attained an eminent 
celebrity in his profession, is a pleasing, though melancholy task. 
The fate of his Majesty's ship Nautilus, and of her gallant com- 
mander, in the year 1807, excited feelings of the most poignant 
regret, in all who were acquainted with the circumstances of the 
case; but never, until the present period, have we been enabled 
to lay any of the distressing particulars before tiie public. A brief, 
but authentic, statement of the event is comprised in the present 
memoir of the short, though not inglorious, life of the late lamented 
Captain Edward Palmer. 

That gentleman was the fifth son of William Palmer, Esq. mer- 
chant, of London, and of Naizing Park, in the county of Essex. 
From his infancy he evinced a predilection for the profession 
which he afterwards embraced, and when he was little more 
than twelve years of age, he was ent'Cred a midshipman on 
board the Canada, a 74, commanded by Captain, now Admiral 
Hamilton. He remained rather more than two years in that ship, 
during which time, Captai-s Hamilton sent him on a cruise in 11)6 
Pallas frigate, attached to Admiral Cornwallis's squadron ; and he 
was in the Pallas when the admiral made his fa^nous retreat from 
the French fleet of more than 30 sail.* At one time it was thought 
impossible that the fleet could escape, and every ship prepared to 
make the best possible defence, determined not to be an easy con- 

* In the summer of 1796. Fide Naval Ciiromcle, Vol. VII. page 21, 
et seq. 

I3au. erfjron* (HaU XXII. n 



So ' MEMOIR or THE PUBLIC SERYICKS OF 

quest to the enemy. On tliis occasion, the young midshipmaa 
was stationed in the magazine, to watch theliglits : such a situation 
hot ill accorded with his spirit; and Captain Curzon, the com- 
mander of the Pallas, in writing to a friend an account of ths 
affair, bore honourable testimony to his conduct, by saying, " the 
young man begged so hard to be allowed to come upon deck, that 
I was obliged to comply with his wishes ; and had we come into 
action, I doubt not but I should hare found him very serviceable.** 

When he returned to Captain Hamilton, that officer had changed 
his command of the Canada for that of the Prince, of 90 guns. 
Mri. Palmer's friends thought it advisable that he should quit a 
line-of-battle ship, and as it was also the opinion of his captain, 
he left, though with no small regret, the Prince and Captaio 
Hamilton, whose great kindness to him he ever felt and gratefully 
acknowledged, and served his time out in a frigate. 

Having passed his examination, in the spring of 1800, he was 
made lieutenant in the Regulus, a cut down -14, in which he went 
to Egypt with troops. He was with the first division of the army 
that landed, and assisted in superintending the debarkation. He 
afterwards had the command of a gun-boat ; attended all the 
operations of the army, through the whole of the campaign ; and, 
at the end of it, in common with the other naval officers, received 
a gold medal from the Grand Segnior, as an acknowledgment of 
his services. 

After an absence of throe years, Mr. Palmer returned to 
England, and was made first Iffeutenant of the Squirrel frigate, 
commanded by Captain Braune, in which he sailed with a convoy 
to the coast of Africa, where his excellent commander died. 
Another frigate and sloop most unopportunely reaching the station 
just at that time, the commander of the sloop was made post into 
the Squirrel, and Mr. Palmer remained first lieutenant. At length, 
the time appointed for the Squirrel to remain upon that station 
having expired, she returned to England iii the summer of 1805; 
and, as she came up to Portsmouth, to undergo repair, most of the 
officers quitted her. 

Mr. Palmer, at the end of that year, becam e first lieutenant of 
the Barfleur; and, on the 22d of January, 180 was made com- 
uiander, and appointed to the Nautilus sloop, attached to Lord 



TliE LATE EDWARD PALMEll, ESQ. 91 

Collinsfwood's fleet, off Cadiz. — He went out with Sir Sidney 
Smith, in the Pompet', to Gibraltar, there to take possession of 
his command; aud, after remaining upon that cruising station 
nearly a year, was sent by Lord CoUingwood to join Admiral Sir 
'riiomas Lauis, upon the expedition to the Dardanelles. Sir 
Thomas soon fourid it necessary to order the Nautilus back to 
Lord CoUingwood. Captain i^almer was aware that his mission 
was of great importance to the service, aud that despatch was 
necessary ; and it was in his endeavours to fuilil the intentions of 
the urgent orders which he had received, that he was overtaken 
by the tremendous storm which proved his destruction. 

The rock upon which the Nautilus sloop of war was wrecked, 
on the morning of the 5th of January, 1807, is about four or five 
miles from Peri, a small uninhabited island in the Archipelago, 
between Cerigo* and Cerigotto,+ unnoticed in any of the English 
charts. The captain had been obliged to take charge of the ship, 
the Greek pilot having declared his ignorance of the navigation 
further than the port of Milo.+ Every possible attention that 
skill and anxious watching could effect, for the safety of the ship, 
was paid by Captain Palmer ; and he had pricked off by the chart, 
the course which ought to be steered ; but the violence of the 
weather, joined to the extreme darkness of the night, occasioned, 
as is supposed, a deviation from it. A short time, however, before 
the ship struck upon the rock, he believed the danger to have 
been passed, and had shewn the chart to the pilot, and to George 
Smith, his own coxswain, a man of whose skill and seamanship he 
entertained a>ery high opinion. He afterwards desired his bed 
to be got ready, as he had scarcely had any sleep since he had left 
the Dardanelles ; indeed he had not had his clothes olT for three 
nights. But it appears that he had not gone to bed, as he came 
upon deck immediately that the ship struck ; and having examined 
her situation, he went round with the second lieutenant, Nesbitt, 

* Cerigo, formerly known by the name of Cythera, lies in longitude. 
40 deg. 42 min. east from Ferro, latitude 36 deg. 28 min. north. 

t Ccrigotto is a small island, lying between Cerigo and Candia, in longi- 
tude 40 deg. 59 min. east, latitude 36 deg. 2 min. north. 

t Milo is situiited in longitude 42 deg. 22 min. cast, latitude 26 deg. 
S8 min. north. 



92 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES Of, (Ic. 

endcaToniing to pacify the people. He then returned to his cabid, 
b'.irr.cd his papers and private signals, and, as might be expected 
from the whole tenor of his conduct, M'as not to be prevailed on 
to quit his station, while any individual remained on board. When 
tlie whole crew had gained the rock, he endeavoured to save him- 
scU'; but having sustained considerable bodily injury, in conse- 
quence of remaining so long by the wreck, he must then have 
perished, had not some seamen returned through a tremendous sea 
to his assistance. All the boats, except the captain's gig, having 
been stovcd, his coxswain (Smith) left the ship in her, A\ith nine 
and got safe to Peri ; whence he returned to the rock the next 
day, the storm having somewhat abated, and endeavoured to per- 
suade Captain Palmer to come into the gig with him ; but he 
constantly and po-itivcly refused, saying, " N^o, Smith ; save 
your unfortunate shipmates, never mind rae." Findinghim resolved. 
Smith took as many into the boat as it could with safety admit, 
and got safe to Cerigotto. The inhabitants of that island gave him 
all the assistance in their power, for the relief of those who had 
been left upon the rock ; but the Aveather was so bad, that though 
he made repeated attempts, several days .efapsed before he could 
reach it ; and, when he succeeded, he found that his excellent 
commander had died the day before. However, by the zeal and 
iiitre|)idity of this man, the survivors were all got salely otF the 
rock and landed at Cerigotto : indeed there is not one, who does 
not acknowledge that he owes his life to Smith's exertions. 

Captain Palmer, was exemplary, both in his life and death. In 
addition to his other suftlrings, he had to contend with severe 
bodily injury ; but not a murmur escaped him ; all was submissive 
f%I patient resignation to the will of God. This is borne witness 
to by those who, notwithstanding their individual distresses, were 
attontive observers of his suft'erings and conduct. He possessed 
many great and amiable qualities, which were the gjft of a boun, » 
tiful Providence ; and his frjends have every comfort in believing, 
t'lat he did not in any w.iy pervert or abuse them. The lamented 
sufferer has bequeathed an unsullied fame, to wipe avvay the tears 
of thuse who loved him ; and his merciful Creator, who enabled 
hiiu to support himself with so much dignity in the dark hour of 
adversity, has received and blessed his spirit. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, &C. OS 

Captain Palmer wa^^ in the 26'h ypvir of Isis age, an officer of 
great merit ; whose brcasi glowed ^vith zeal and ardour for the 
service of his couMtry, and obedience to the orders of his 
superiors. 



NAVAL AAKC DOTES, 
COxMMERCIAL HINTS, firXOLLECTIONS, &c. 



NANTES IN GUnOITE VASTO. 



fRE.VCII OPFICrAL ACCOUXT OF THE ACTION BETWEEN THE AMETIIVST, 
CAPTAIN SEYMOUH, AND THE NIEMEN, CAPTAIN DV POTET.* 

/jl'^IlE fijllowinu Report of Captain Du Potct, addressed to the French 
Llinistry of Marine, is taken I'rom the Moiiileur : — • 

" SIR, 

" On the ot!i of April, at hnlf-prvst eleven in the morning, weather thick, 
and a fresh breeze from VV.V.W. his Majestv's frigate Niemcn under my 
command, 1 discovered an enemy's frigate, about two leagues and a half to 
leeward; I immediately tacked to starboard; I had scarcely made sail^ 
when I percci\ed another frigate to leewiird of the former, which obliged 
jne to change my course, and to stand off with all the sail 1 could carry. 

*' At five in the evening the wind changed to N.E. with squalls; at which 
time the frigate in my wake appeared to have somewhat the advantage of 
sailing. At half-past seven, I lo3t sight of the frigate to lee.vard, and the 
other was distant ab:;ut two leagues N.W. quarter N. At eight o'clock she 
was no longer in sight; and I immediately changed my course, still carrying 
a press of sail. 

" At three quarters past nine, a frigate appeared to the windward, and 
soon approached within half-cannon shot, She made some signals, which 
were answered by the vess'l to leeward, and which I supposed to be one of 
those that chased me in the course of the day. The fire instantly commenced 
with the bow and stern chasers of hoth ships. At half-past eleven my 
rigging was n^uch cut ; and not wishing to expose myself to further damage, 
I decided on cngagins;. 

" A quarter of an hour afterwards the action began at pistol-sh r, under 
easy saiL Both ships made use of various mancEuvres until two o'clock, 
when I discovered that the enemy was endeavouring to lay me athwart hawse, 
by bearing down upon me. I adopted the same manoeuvre, and then tacking 
to windward, I passed under his stern, in which situation I g;:ve him a 
broadside. My intention was to board ; but the enemy avoided it by 
» i 

* The Gazette account of this action appears in the XXIst Volume of the 
Na^-^l Chronicle, page 343. 



94 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

dropping to leeward, ^vhich gave me the advantage of the wind. At huU- 
past two, 1 lost my mizcn-niast ; the larboard netting caught fire. The 
enemy, who was much crippled, availed himself of this accident, and, 
dropping astern, attacked me on the quarter. Ten minutes after, the 
wreck of the mast was cleared, the fire extinguished, and I brouglit my 
broadside to hear. 

" W'tliin a quarter of three I had the satisfaction to see the enemy lose 
his main and mizcn-niasts, and immediately make sail before the wind, 
drawing along the two masts, which retarded his sailing. lie could only 
carry sail on his foremast, which was shattered with grape, 

" In about fifteen minules myfrst lieutenant, Voilhi, informed vie that 
the cnemi/ had strmk, and that they hailed us to stop firing, I ordered M. 
Kerangoue to take possession of her, but we soon saw another frigate bear 
down to her assistance. She made signals to her, and fired some muskct- 
sliOt at me. I then renewed the action with four guns onlv, my crew being 
employed in repairing aamages, with the intention of figliting the fresh 
frigate, which was only a sliort distance from us. 

" The action soon began witli her, with repeated cries of ' Long live the 
Emperor ! ' She lay alongside me only a short time. My rigging was in 
too bad a state to enable me to prevent her from ranging on my starboard 
quarter, from which I could not bring my guns to bear on her. At half-past 
four my main-top caught fire so violently, that it was impossible to extin- 
guish it, particularly as the fire engine had been rendered unserviceable by 
a shot. Shortly after tlie main-mast fell by the board, and encumbered the 
guns, which could not be brought to bear on the first frigate. This vessel 
took part in the action by firing into my bows, and this was my position 
when, at three quarters past four, I struck to the Arethusa, of 48 guns; 16 
eighteens, two nines, and 18 32-pound carronades. 

" The Anietliyst, which I engaged for six hours and a half, was of the 
same force. 

" Your Excellency will be pleased to take notice, that before the Arethusa 
came up, which had been cruising on the coast of Spain (for it was not this 
frigate tiiat chased me in the day-time), the Amethyst had only her foremast 
remaining. 

" The Niemcn had then all her masts (except her foremast) and sails a 
good deal shattered indeed, but capable of being soon repaired. I had 
then only 50 men killed and wounded. 

" I learned from some French prisoners, who were on board the Ame- 
thyst, that when she ceased her fire, near four o'clock, they were obliged to 
Jeave the hold, on account of the great quantity of water she made. 

" The bravery displayed on this occasion by the officers and crew of the 
Niemen, is above my praise; and I request that your Excellency will pro- 
cure the m that reward of whicli they are mcst ambitious, namely, to submit 
their conduct to his Majesty's attention 

" Du POTET." 



COMIVi£RClAL HINTS, UECOLLECTIONS, &C. 95 

FRENCH ACCOUNT OF NAVAL .VCTIONS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN. 

A recent French paper, under the date of Xaples, June 28, contains the 
following statement: — 

" On the a-ith of this month, the En;;lis!i made a descent in the islutid 
of Ischia.* jhe enterprize gave place to two meritorious battles, of whicli 
the following arc the details: — On the 25th in the morning, sijme of our gun- 
boats, sustained by a frigate and a corvette, advanced against thi>se of the 
enemy, superior to ours in number, and the force of their ships. The action 
commenced at nine o'clock in the morning. The fii-e was continual and 
very lively during many hours. We had against us four English frigates, 
two brigs, and fourteen gun-boats. An English frigate has been consider- 
ably damaged ; but as a considerable reinforcement arrived of several ships 
to the enemy, ours retired, without having suffered auy considerable loss. 
At the same time thirty of our gun-boats, which had been stationed for 
some time at Gaeta, had received orders to go to Naples, precisely by the 
canal which separates the two inlands of Procida * and Ischia. The dan- 
gers of this voyage appeared extreme : they triumphed over tiiem with 
infinite skill. Our flotilla passed througii on the 26th, the whole of that of 
the enemy arrivpd at the place of rendezvous at the break of day. Tiie 
dangers commenced at the moment. The island of Procida was already i:i 
the hands of the enemy, which was seized upon by them without striking a 
blow. This accident deprived our flotilla of the protection of the low bat- 
teries of Procida, the fire of which crosses that of the batteries of Meliscola, 
at Cape Misena ; then the enemy's forces, sure of not being attacked by 
land, all united against our fleet, which was no longer protected, except by 
the small battery of Meliscola. The action commenced at day-break, and 
continued until nine o'clock ; and in no circumstance has the Neapolitan 
marine so fully justified the reputation which it has ever held in the estima- 
tion of naval men. The results which concern the honour of the nation are 
those of the courage with which it has fought. According to this report 
our glory could not be greater. An English brig was burnt by the battery 
of Meliscola, which was directed by the brave Captain Orsini ; one of their 
gun-boats was sunk. Vie have had only one man killed, and a fevT 
wounded ; but among our gun-boats, some have been sunk alongside the 
enemy's ships, others have been driven on shore, but we hope to be able to 
get them oft"; several have returned to port. In spite of this imposing 
spectacle of war, of which all the town was a witness; in spite of the fright 
of some timid people; in spite of the secret hopes of some guilty men who 

♦ Ischia, an island about ten miles in circumference, is situated near the 
coast of Naples, in longitude 31 deg. 27 mia. eastof Ferro, latitude 40 deg. 
50 min. north. It is supposed to have been formed by a volcano. The 
town stands on the north coast of the island, on a reck surrounded by the 
6ca, and communicating with the island by means of a bridge. 

+ Procida is a small island about two leagues in circumference, situated 
on the south coast, two miles to t!ie eastward of Ischia. 



«^ 



9o XAYAL ANECDOTES, 

tiie known, the capitnl was never more tranquil than it is at this moment, 
in which the enemy displays to our view his menacing forces, in order to 
disturb the peace which reigns among us." 

A succeeding article, in the same paper, dated June Q9, proceeds as 
follows : — 

" The frigate and the corvette, which sustained with so much glory the 
attack of the enemy, having retired after the battle under the protection of 
the batteries of Pozzouli and Baja, surrounded on all sides by the English 
vessels, they would have had much difficulty in saving themselves in that 
position; his Majesty, therefore, gave orders to these two vessels to effect 
their retreat to isaples tlie first %vind, at all risks. — M. Bausan, captain of 
the frigate, and M. Caraffas, captain of the corvette, had scarcely received 
this order when they took measures for executing it; they set sail, and by 
skilful and darin>: rnanceuvres, deceived the vigilance of the enemy ; passed 
through the English squaJron, ni-.d made on, directing their course for 
Naples. The corvette, which was the best sailer, preceded the fri^iate, 
which followed more slowly. Quickly th.ese two ships were pursued and 
overtaken by an English frigate, a corvette, 18 gun-hoats, carrying 24- 
pounders, two galliots, and a very numerous fleet of small vessels. All this 
armament was directed agninst two vessels oiiiy, which, damaged in the long 
comhatthey had sustained two days before, manoeuvred with some difficulty. 
At four o'clock in die afternoon, the action commenced oft' Point Pausillipo, 
and in the presence of the whole town of Naples. Th.e enemy's vessels 
vomited from all parts, with horrible fury, a volcano of flames — Our frigate 
and corvette slowly pursued their route towards Naples, fighting with skil- 
fulness and courage. This fight was maintained in the siglit of an immense 
people, interested in the national intrepidity. Thus circumstanced, the 
wind all at once failed, and the English approached nearer and nearer, and 
assailing us with a lively fire, endeavoured to board them, and force them to 
surrender. Vain efforts ! The Neapolitans fought precisely in the same 
place, where, ten years before, English perfidy inhumanly sacrificed the 
brave Carracciolo. 

" They fought under the orders of some of the best of his eleves, and 
under the eyes of a people who, gathered together from all parts, seemed, 
by their wishes, to redouble their force and their courage. They, above all, 
fought under the eyes of a beloved King, who, always the first in the middle 
of dangers, was always upon the batteries of the Castle of Oeuf, and pre- 
pared to protect their retreat, when they should arrive within the fire of the 
cannon of the fort. After an action of four hours the frigate and corvette 
have been saved ; shouts of Vive fEmpereur ! Vive le Hoi Joachim ! 
announced their arrival. Our frigate having entered the port, his Majesty 
immediately went on board : it is difficult to express the enthusiasm and 
joy which were spread through the crew by this unexpected visit; soldiers 
and sailors all shewed their wounds to the King, and appeared no longer to 
feel pain. His Majesty bestowed praises and revvards on the defenders of 
his flag and national honour. We are ignorant of the loss of the enemy ia 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 97 

men, hut it must be very cousidcmhie, ami its sliips have suffered much. 
The frigate is disabicl ; the ra;>tairi whu ciumands it lost liis left arm by 
ft'shot, and hU crew have lost al)ni;f 50 men. We have had on our side 
50 kilhd and wntinded : amonsj the former is young Grassel, an officer full 
of courage and laient. The Fnt^^lish may now judge by tiic bravery and 
ardour of our little marine, of the spirit whicli animates the nation." 

" The Fiiiilish," says an article of the next day's date, " tinfvrfunatelif 
have not Histmharked ; after takintr the islands of Ischia and Procida, with 
tMe excepfioii of the castle, which still holds out, they have in pait <;onc off. 
They probably have the intcntion'of disturbing all Italy, and of endeavour- 
ing to excite trouble ; but they will disgracefully fail in their de5io;n." 

REMARKABLE DISCOVERY OF A MLRDER COMMITTED AT SEA. 

A SHIP, named the Earl of Sandwich, sailed from Txindon in August, 
1765, laden with bale snoods and hard ware f'r Santa Cruz, wiicre dis- 
chnrgiii^T their car<:;o, tlu^y sailed to Oratavo, and took in a car^u of uine, 
silk, cocliineal, and, what proved most fatal, a iar^e quantity of "panish 
dollars, some inj^ots of gold, some jewe's, and gold dust. With this cargo 
thev sailed for London, and had tlien on board .(ohn Cockcran, master; 
Charles Pinchent, mariner; Benjamm Callispey, cabin boy; Captain Glass, 
bis wife and dau<;'Uer, with a boy bi loiiging to tliem, passengers ; and 
moreover, Peter MMvinlie. b<vatswain; George (ledley, rook; Richard 
St. Quintin, and Andrew Zekerman mariners. These four last entered 
into a dial>olical comluna'ion to murder the master and every l)ody on 
board, and possess theniseive.- of ilie treasure oftiie ship. Accordmi'ly, 
on the 80tli of iVovcmber, these four villains being stationed on the niglit 
watch, the master coming on the quarter deck to see every thing s^afe, was 
seteed by M'Kinlie, and by Ci'edley knocked on the head with an iron bar 
and thrown overboard. The captain's groans being heard by the two Pin- 
chents and Captain Glass, they came u[)on deck, and were immediately 
attacked by the assa>sins : Pinchent was knocked down and tlirown 
overboard, and Captain Gl.;ss was killed v\ith liis own sword; M'Kinlie in 
tlie ictiftle benig run through tiie arm. The noise brought Airs. Glass and 
her child upon deck, when, bei/olding tlie bloody scene, she implored 
their mercy ; but Zekerman and M'Kinlie came up to them and tossed 
tliem both into ihf' sea as they were locked in each others arms, liavino- 
thus dispatched all but the boys, tney altered their course, being then in the 
English channel, and steered for the coast of Ireland ; and on the 3d of 
December were about ten le;igues from Watirford : here they deteroi'ned 
to hoist out u boat, and, loading her with the treasure, to sink the ship, 
together with the two bovs : this scheme they put mto execution ; one of 
the boys swam after the boat, and she being deeply l.uli ii v, ith the d. .1 ,rs, 
he came up w:th her, and lavini^ his hand on tlie gunvvule, received a b'ow 
on the head from one of the ruihans, which obliged hiiu to quit hi-, liold, 
and he was drowned. Soon after t!ie vessel, bav.ng her ballast p ;rt 
opened, filled with water and ovcroet, and they saw the otiier boy washed 

i;2£b, Cijron, <HoI, XXII, o 



gS NAVAL ANECDOTE*, 

overboard and drowned. They now tliought themselves secure ; the dead 
could tell no tales, and none could search the bottom of the sea for evidence 
of their villainy. On llieir landing they buried the bulk of their wealth in 
the sand of the sea shore, amounting to two hundred and fifty bags of 
dollars; the remainder, with the jewels and ingots of gold, they reserved 
for present use. 

Tiie hand of justice now began to pursue them: their prodiiiality of their 
ill-aotten wi.alth m -de them remarkable u'lerever they came; and the ship 
which t'ley liad consigned to the bottom of the sea, fl-ialed on shore near 
Watcrford : this occasioned much specul;iti>jn, a. id suspicion pointed at the 
roiiues, who were living with great jollity and splendour at Dublin. Two 
j^enilemen uent from Ross, where the ship floated on shore, toDublin. told 
their susricions to the magistrates, and on the 9ih of Dertniber, Qnintin 
and Zekerman were apprehended ; and being examined apart, each of them 
confessed the murders, and oc'ier matters, as before related; also, that since 
their arrival in Dublin, Gedley and M'Kinlie had sold (lollars to a gold= 
smith to the amount of three hundred pounds. By means of this gold- 
smith, M'Kinlie was appreliended ; and intel' gence was got that Gedley 
had set out in a post chaise on his way o Cork, in order to take shipping 
for England. Two persons were despatclied from Dublin to Ross, to direct 
a search to be made for the buried treasure ; and these on their return tr> 
Dublin fell in with and apprehended Gedley. Thus were the workers of 
these atrocious and bloody deeds all brought to justice, although they had 
taken every prf caution to sink and destroy whatever they thought could 
disclose their guilt. 

NEWLY INVENTED WINDLASS, 

Mr.. FArr.LT-.s^, of South Sliields, has recently obtained a patent for a 
ivindla«s, windlass bitts, and metallic hawse-hole chamber, by which manual 
labour and time are saved in heaving to, and getting on board ships' 
anchors. — The bltt-heads are hollow, containing the vvheels wrought by the 
cranks or handle?, wfiich give motion to the windlass-body. The surge 
boxes arc of cast iron, having such an angle, timt when a rope is applied 
round the ends of the windlass to raise a weight, the rope slips down, or is 
forced by the adjoining part of the said rope into its original situation, and 
is thereby prevented, from what the seamen call riding, that is, the one part 
crossing the other, «!uch always produces much delay and inconvenience. 
The vvindlass-bodv turns on an iron axis, the ends of wiiich are turned to 
fit the p.Tll-whceK and vvindlass-cnds, be'ng secured by keys inserted into 
each. By Mr. F.'s method, iiie force exerted on the < yanks or handlei. is 
thrown on the windlass body, wirhout any twist being b.d on the iron axis. 
The ends of the w! idlass are inserted into the surge-bo.\es, their centres 
are secured to the ends of tiie axis by keys. There is a cast iron pall box, 
with a hole of an octagonal or other form, to answer the size and shape of 
the shaft of the windlass, and which, being driven to the centre of the shaft 
becomes a hoop to the same. The exterior of the pall-bux is divided into 
^ number of parts, as occasion i»ay require, and is so indented as to admit 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIOVS, &C. 99 

palls or stops, which are fixed by hiii;j;f s to tlie pall-bitt, to full into the said 
indents, and tliereby prevent the windlass having a reverse motion. The 
pall-wheels at the ends of the windlass may have any number of teeth, so 
as the palls act with those at the centre; consequently tlie handles can he 
forced back but a few inches by any extraordinary resistance on th^ wind- 
lass body. — The patentee claims that his invention consists not only in 
making the improved windlass, but also of attaching or applying any of its 
parts to the common windlass now in use. 

LIEERAMTY OF ADMIRAL OTWAY. 

The following letter having fallen into our hands, we with pleasure insert 
it, not doubting but that so praise-worthy an example will be speedily 
followed by many of those patriots who find themselves placed in a similar 
situation with the liberal and gallant Admiral : — 

" SIR, Portsmouth, \Zth Julij, 1809. 

" I observe by the papers, that the money subscribed some yer.rs since 
for the erection of a naval pillar, is to be returned, on application to Mr, 
Leake, Solicitor, No. 27, Sackville-street. I have theret'ore lo request that 
you will apply for mine, the am!)unt, I think, five guineas, for which, I sup. 
pose, this letter v\ ill be a sufficient aathority, and receive it as an addi- 
tional subscription to the Naval Charitable Society, to be eiuered as 
follows:— 

* From Rear-admiral Otway, ])eing the amount of his subscriptien for 
die erection of a Naval Pillar, returned from j\lr. Alexander Davison.' 

" I shall be glad to hear that you have received the money agreeably to 
lay intention. I am, &c. 

«< Mr. Aubrey, Sec. to the Inslitution, " W. A. OTWAY." 

Nav>/ Office." 

DESCRIPTION OF EALE-OF-COTTON ROCK, AND LE MEMl's REEF. 

According to tlie journal of a gentleman who has been twice upon the 
Bale-of-Cotton Ptock, it is situated in 5 dcg. 18 min. north laiiruoe, ;md 
90 deg, 4'1 min. east longitude, from London. It is about the size of a 
large room, is higli, and has the apj/earaiicc of a ship under &all. 

Le Heme's Reef is situated in 1 dcg. 20 min. north latitude, and 94 dcg. 
20 min. east longitude. It is from 8 to 10 feet above the su,f.;."e of the 
sea, and extends about a mile from east to west. — Tlie gentleman above 
alluded to, was with Monsieur Le INIeme, at the time he discovcied the 
Rock, and went upon it. He afterwards saw it, and attempted to get upon 
it, but was prevented by a heavy swell of the sea. 



100 
CORRESPONDENCE. 



NAVAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

Letter I. 
*' Sic ilurad astra." 

MH. EDITOR, 

jOl AVING been long of opinion tliat there cannot be a more decisive 
test of uirriLthan the confederacy of prejudice and ignorance against 
it, I have not been much surprised ur seeina; that improvement in warlike 
engines denominated tiie rocket sj'-tem, become tlie object of vulgar abuse. 
I have been, howevei", somewhat surpri-ed at finding in the Naval 
CuRONicLF, the lucubrations of a writer whose princi}iles and stile seem 
more calculated for the sphere of that self-created inauistrnrv, calling itself 
the Sncicty for the Suppression of Vice, than for a publication distinguished 
by liberality and knowledge. I can only attribute it to that scrupulous impar- 
tiality by which yf)ur conduct has been marked in the management of the 
N. C. and to your dislike to exercise your editorial powers in any way that 
might he liable to misinterpretation, or to the charge of shutting a door against 
fair discussion. As to Mr. Suppressor, I shall leave him to the censorship of 
your intelligent Correspondent H.* who seems perfectly competent to vindi- 
cate the arts and sciences igainst sophistry and declamation, while I shall 
confine myself to the task of neutralising misrepresentation, by the dis- 
passionate « onimunicatitm of certain facts concerning the origin and pro- 
gress of those discoveries in pyrotechny, against which F. F. F. has declared 
war. 

I am ignorant of the interior structure and combination upon which 
the powers of the rocket depend; and had it been otherwise, I should 
cautiously avoid any disclosure that might lead to the discovery thereof, for 
obvjous reasons: but having acquired the knowledge of many particulars 
connected with i.s application to the purposes of war, and even witnessed 
some of the etfects of it as a \\ eapon, I ieel emboldened to address you upon 
the sub)cct, for the information of your scientific correspondents, and for 
the conviction of your 7-a:wnal readers: but I by no means hope or seek the 
conversion of enthusiasts or bigots. Should these lines therefore receive 
insertion, they will be followed tiy a few more letters under the different 
heads into which the subject naturally divides itself. 

It was, as I understand, about the year 1804, that it first occurred to 
Mr. CoDgreve (son of a general officer in the artillery) that, as the projec- 
tile force of the rocket is exerted with little or no re-action upon the point 
from which it is discharged, it might be used with great convenience both 
afloat and ashore as a military engine, in many cases where, IVom the recoil 
produced by the explosion 0/ gunpowder, the use of artillery is very circum- 
scribed. But the desideratum as well as tlie difficulty was to (jbtain a force 
equal to render the projectile to be conveyed upon the rocket principle, of 
sutticient importance and etficacy. It was notorious that rockets were 
tised in the wars of Ilindostan : but it was understood that their magnitude 



* Vide Natal ChkoiNICle, Vol. X.X,II. pa^e 87. 



Correspondence. , 101 

was not considerable, and tlieir utniosf range not more thfin 1.000 yards. Tt 
was also known that tlie late General Dcsagnliers liad turned l;is ttienlion to 
the subject, and hal tried some ex,!eriineius Jit WoobMch i'nr from suc- 
cessful. Mr. C. u'as, however, not discuiraped frnni eiuerii!<r upon 
a fresh course of experiments, at his own cost, to asctrtain the possibiiitv ot 
modifying the force of gunpowder in this way as well as in the ordinary 
mode. 

The first point to be ascertained was tlic fllj^ht. He procured the largest 
rockets made by the trade in I/uidoii : but upon trial none were found 
to exceed 600 yards in tlieir actual state: ailhi)U>iii sunie of the same 
sort, treated according to the plan that suggested it?clf to hismind, were at 
leiifith made to fly from 1,000 to 1,500 yards, according to riieir respective 
sizes and modes of construction. Our ingenious countryman thus founrl his 
perseverance rewarded in this eurly stage of the pursuit, liy tht- dt-nionstra- 
tion that there did actually exist in this instrument a power capable of pro- 
gressive extension in a very sensible degree. And it was not till this demon- 
stration was obtained, that application was mad to the M ister(JeHcral of ilie 
Ordnance for permission to have some trial rockets ot large dimensions made 
in the artillery-laboratory at the public expense. It is only netes-ary to 
Vate concerning his first expeiim«nisat Woolwich, that the rocket was very 
shortly brought to range full 2,000 yards ! 

It was in this state of the discovery, that a plan was submitted to and 
adopted by government for employing this weapon against theinvasio-.i floiiljji 
at Uoulogne. Rear-adunral Sir Sidacy ""niith (I'.icn a captain) was appiiint d 
commodore of the squadron on that station for this particular service ; and 
ten ship's launches were fitted for projecting rockets. Unfortunately it was 
so late in the year (1805) before arrangements were taken for tiiis expedi- 
tion, that things were not in readiness before the middle of November. On 
the 18th the force destined for the attack was collected off" Bonloime. The 
night of the 21st was fixed for the at'empt. The weatlier had been 
favourable during the day, and the boats, &c. were already at their sta- 
tions; wlicn, about 8 P.M. the wind sudiicniy shiftsd to the jS'.W. wit'i such 
violence, that the commodore was reluct^mtly constrained to recall the 
vessels without a single discharge having taken place. In fine, it '.^as with 
difiiiculty the squadron got out of Boulogne bay, and it came on to blow 
to such a degree during tlie night, that five of the ten launches were 
swamped. So there was an end of the matter for that year. 

In the spring of 1806, Mr. C. obtained permission to proceed in 
making still larger rockets, and forming them in metallic, inbte.id of 
paper, cases. The event justified the idea. Rockets were consirncted 
weighing S2lbs. capable of conveying as much conibusiilile composition 
as a 10-inch spherical carcass, and which would range 3,000 yards 
more or less. It was also discovered that the great lenoth of tlic stick, 
given by the laboratory proportions, was not required in piaciice ; 
but admitted of a reduction in length of not less than 10 feet from 
th6se proportions, making the new 82-pounder"s even shorter than 
that of the old S-pounder, thereby of course giving additional faci- 
lity for service. These improvements formed the object of renewed 



302 CORRESPONDEyCE. 

experiments at Woolivich, in the presence of the Earl of ^loira, thea 
M. G. of the vOrdiiaiice, and of Vi-count Ilowick, 1st Lord Commissioner 
of the Adm'ralty. It was wished that those minis' lts should decide upon 
the pt'wers of this wtapon by ocular demonstratiji; — thev did so : and ihs 
result was, (not such childish alarms as those felt or affected by Mr. Sup- 
pressor, F. F. F. b'ltj an order for the immediate coi:struci ion of a quantity 
like those just tried, and a warrant of Admirakv lur the mventor to superin- 
tend such preparnians as might be necessary (in tiiis department) for a 
frcbh attack against Boulogne, under the direction of Commodore 
E. W. C. il. Owen. 

Here I shall take leave of the subject for the present ; reserving the 
history of the second attempt at Boulogne, and the subsequent one at 
Copenhagen, for my next letter. 

ShooUr's Hill, 30th Julj/, 1809. BRONTES. 

MR. KDiTOR, Sunderland, August 13, 1809. 

TT H ' VE waited with anxiety for the termination of the court martial on 
-'^ my old commander and friend L(jrd Gambler, not with any ftar as to 
the result, as I felt confident tliat the more minute the enquiry, the more 
favourable wudd be the public impression of his conduct. It is many 
years saice we suiled together, but 1 know him well, and notwithstanding 
the professional merit of almost every admiral and captain in the service is 
circumstantially known to his brother officers, yet having been an eye wit- 
ness to his persevering intrepidity in the hour of danger, and his modest 
unassumin? deportment on many triumphant occasions, I feel myself called 
upon to acknowledge his meritorious example and naMonal wortii. It is 
painful to reflect that an indi\idual long km ;wn in the service to possess 
the most unddunted bravery, and wlio has been distinguished in a career of 
honour and rectitude, should not be univei sally and irtiniutely known, 
prior to his bei.-g brought before the public with tha imputation of neglect 
or delay in the execution of his duty. After a highly honourable acquittal, 
I may with propriety offer a few remarks on the leadip.g characters in the 
late transactions. Lord Cochrane's exemplary zeal, activity, and courage, 
on many occasions, entitle him to admiration ; that spirit of enterprise 
which he displayed on his first promotion to a commander, when he headed 
the crew of the little Speedy brig, iu boarding the Spanish xebec Gamo,* 
singled him out at that period as a disciple of the immorial Nelson ; but I 
wish to remind him that that renowned hero never sought to add one laurel 
to 'lis brow by tarnishing tlie fame of a senior officer. I can make due 
allowance for the various resources of an electioneering contest, aiid the 
warmth of canddates, neither do I wish to screen age or seniority from 
public investigation, but long and meritorious servicesjustly claim our respect 
and gratitude, and it should not be forgotten, that the late commander- 
in-chief at the Isle of Aix was a post captain, and co-operating with a bri- 
gade of seamen under Admiral Arbuthnot and General Sir Henry Clinton, 
in the reduction of Cliarlestown, before my Lord Cochrane had quitted the 

* Mediterranean, 1801. 



COURESPONDENCE. I03 

nursery. At the commencement of last war, Captain, now Lord Gambler, 
commanded t!ie Defence, of 74 siuns; |)is regulation, dibcipline, Rud strict 
conformity in every particular to the articles of war, were notorious in the 
Channel fleet ; for with great attention and judgment his exertions were 
adapted to promote the comfort and happiness of every officer and seaman 
in the ship : he may with truth be styled the seaman's friend. I could 
relate mnnv instances of his unwearied attention in forwarding the 
deserving and fr-endless sailor, not only m promotion, but to the hurt and 
wounded, pecuniary assistance, when he conceived the smart money or 
Greenwich pc nsion inadequate. To the idle and the dissolute his punish- 
raei'ts were with vigilance directed, but in no instance attended with cruel 
severity : the old but now obsolete custom of the wooden collar and .ne 
for swearing, was in^ ariahly adhered to, and no women were admitted to 
remain on board uithout pos-jcssing marriage certificates. The chaplain's 
atreiidnnre liivewise on Sundays was never dispensed with when circum- 
stances tvoukl admit, and rainy weather was not deemed a sufficient plea, 
whilst the after part of the lower deck could be resorted to. This steady 
adherence to Mie instructions, and laudable endeavour to improve the 
morals of the seamen, were the only complaints I ever heard alleged against 
him. Could Lord Howe be now appealed to, whether the ship was or was 
not ever ready for any service, and whether on the 1st of June, 1794, she 
did not eminently prove the undaunted intrepidity of her commander- his 
venerable reply would at once fix t ic public favour. She was the first ship, 
by the Queen Charlotte's log-book, that cut through the enemy's line. 
^VlH.n the signal was made in the morning for that purpose, the officers 
then present can report how *ar it was complied with, for the enemy, sus- 
pecting tile intention, had closed, and formed in compact line to leeward, 
opening their fire from van to rear. Captain Gambler determined on 
fuliillii;g the signal, and passed between the 7th and 8th ship. . The Bruns- 
wick, Captain John liervey (who lost his life) hooked in the same attempt 
tiie head and sternmost ship of the enemy, which jammed her between two. 
The Defence had successively three or four ships engaging her; the mea 
being almost from the first divided at their qiir.rtcrs to fight both sides of 
the ship; her masts ail shot away; the main-mast falling inboard, with a 
great part of the lumber of the others fore and aft the deck, the forecastle 
and quarter-deck ginis disabled and useless, the iielm lashed a-lee, and ship 
no longer manageable, surrounded by the enemy, rendered it a scene only 
known to those who have experienced it. The marines stationed on the 
poop nearly all killed, and the utiicer at their head wounded. The master 
and boatswain killed,. and the few remaining sent below to man the main 
and lower deck guns, (for it was liis practice not unnecessarily to expose 
the lives of the ship's company). Himself remained on deck — 

" Untamed he stood. 
Nor toil, nor hazard, nor distress appear 
To sink the seaman with unnianl • fear ; 
Alike to him each climate and each hlast, 
The iirst in danger, in retreat the last, 
IJesolved till death his sacred charge to guard.'' 



101 COIIRKSPONRLNCE. 

I appen! to Captain John Larkin, Captain Alexander 'Heecher, and Cap- 
tain W. Jtobtrts, the only surviving otiicers, (then lieutenants of the sliip) 
to voijcli for the truth of what I have as-erted. The signal marks of atten- 
tion and tViendship slicwn him by Lord Howe are well known to every 
captain in that fleet; he considered him eqnal to any service, ho'vevor 
hazardous and intricate ; and with equal confidence may the country 
depend on his long tried ability, courage, and humanity. 
I hava the honour to be, 

Your's, respectfully, 

J. c. 



PRESENT M.INAGEMENT AND DISCIPLINE OF THE NAVY. 

Letter XIII. 

SIR, 

'N niv first letter to you. I ventured to make some observations on the 
constitution a d conduct of the Board of Admiralty, as relative to the 
discipline and mana'.'ement of the navy, and I am induced at present to 
offer snm" few farther remarks, which arise from parts of the court martial 
just finishi d. 

If I rnulH flatter mvsclf that the exposition of the causes and consequences 
of the late events in Basque Roads would meet the eye of tjiieir immediate 
author, f should also flatter myself that tiic recurrence of such deplorable 
mistakes would be in future avoided. 

Let it be rememljcrcd that it was the palpable misinanagement in the 
desienation of Lord C. gallant and able as he may be, which has occasioned 
courts martial on teo British adinirals, has occupied the time of many 
officers for several weeks, and caused a decree of heart burning which will 
not soon be allayed. As the power of the Board was certainly adequate to 
the appointment, I must proi)ably confine my charge to mismauagement, 
and not to an absolute infringement of discipline, although that has been 
materially injured by th.- consequencrs. It appeared so evident, that the 
step to be taken, was the sending a sin)ple order to Lord G. to appoint a 
flas officer, and such captains as he should judge proper from those under 
his command, to make an attempt on tliC French fleet as soon as the addi- 
tional means of dest'-ucfion arrived, that I can only in one way account for 
the omission. I conclude that it must have been wholly owing to the 

inexperience of in naval affairs, and to his not consulting the 

experienced naval officers associated with him. I am borne out in my sus- 
picions by documents before the public. Lord G.'s letter of March 
11, 1809, is not addressed to the Board of Admiralty, but to the JIi/i(ari/ 
1st Lord, though wholly on naval matters. These f/e/«i-official c'>rrespon- 
dcnces are a!"avs bad : they appeared so on the trial of the gallant Corn- 
Av'dliis, and appear no less insulting to the naval service in general, and the 
naval Lords of the Admiralty in particular, on the present occasion. Lord 
C. has, I believe, publicly allo.ved that his appointment originated in a 
private conversation; and in Lord IM.'s letter to Lord G. of May 29, the 



CORRESPONDENCE. 105 

<rst lord seems all in all, and we hear of more private conversations. I nra 
of opinion that the experienced judgments of the naval lords might have 
prevented the late court martial, but there is somehow or other a mutcrial 
difference in the idea of discipline in the two services. From a bare sur- 
mise of a very young officer, it appears, as far as I can observe, that Lord M. 
denned a court martial on Lord G. as quite proper, winle very iatcly a 
court of inquiry was held to be quite sufficient un the Cintra generals, one 
of whom refused to follow up a victory and attack a beaten foe, and tiie 
whole nation was indignantly demanding a trial. 

In all the affair now under discussion, there have appeared to me tlie 
same want of attention to the feelings of naval officers, and disregard of 
tlie interests and disciphneof the service, which I fear are become part of a 
system, a systematic neglect of " Briton's best bulwarks !" Tliere never 
was an instance uf an interlay er, ilowe^•c^ excellent he may have been, that 
lias done good. Had the burning of the Frencli lleet and arsenal at 
Toulon * been entrusted to otiicers of tiie fleet who had seen the whole ser- 
vice there, it would have been more effectually done than it was. W.hat 
indignation was caused by the appointment of the late Sir Hyde Parker, iu 
July 1792, to superintend tlje manceuvres of Lord Hood's fleet ; and the 
instance before us, is apparent to all men. Look at the list of the evidences 
on Lord G.'s trial; would not the gallant captains of the Theseus and 
Bellona, (and many others) have equally dared the cannon's mouth with the 
noble lord who was sent to snatch tlie laurel from tlier iirows, and will any 
man underprise their judgments when put in com[iarison with his ? I admire 
the gallantry and skill of the noble lord as mucn as any man can do, and I 
could expatiate with pleasure on his many eminent actions, but I must e^er 
regret his appointment to the execution of the late enterprise. 

It is a very serious thing, Mr. Editor, and a heavy stroke on the dis- 
cipline of the navy, when a commander-in-chief, iiiiih in rank and charac- 
ter, is reduced to the necessity of standing as a prisoner at rhe bar of a 
court; the most honourable iicquittal to hhnself, does not elface tiie evil 
done to the service, and it is peculiarly baneful when, as in the present case, 
it origin;ites with a very junior ofiicer. But this evil, when traced to its 
source, will, I am convinced, be found to arise from the lamentable inex- 
perience in naval matters hi the mhn where the contrary talent is so much 

* With respect to this allusion, made by our ingeniou scorrespondent, to 
the burning of the Toulon fleet, we cannot agree with liim in considering 
Sir S. Smiiirs volunteering that service, being on the spot, and at the 
" eltvenfh hour" quite a parallel case to the specific appointment from 
home of Lord C. to the Basque Road enterprise; but we shall make it our 
business to considt a naval friend on this point, whom we know to be able, 
and hope tn find hiin willing, to give the public full and particular inform- 
ation of what passed at the conflagration of Toulon, in the utmost detail. 
We have always understood that, in the hurry and bustle attendant upon a 
scene of evacuation, no preparations were even thought of for disposing uf 
the French fleet, tiU Sir S. S. sui:gesled it that very morninj;.— Eoiiuav 

r2ati. <2:f;ron, ZizU XXII. p 



10(5 HYDROGRAPMY. 

wanted; in his assumins; more than usual individual power to himself, and 
net»lertin2; to avail himself of the experienced jiid^rments of the navn! 
officers who are his associates in the commission, however low he may hold 
them in the exercise of its powers. 

I form my opinion on this subject from the sreneral management of the 
navy, the unaccountable appointment of some officers, and the strange 
neglect of others ; from expressions which fell from the secretary and one of 
the land lords in the late session of Parliament, and the letters and events 
before mentioned. This evidence does not certainly render my judgment 
infallible, and it would be so much for the benefit of the nation that a man 
so hi^h in power as Lord M. should be much better qualified to maintain 
the discipline of the navy and manage its concerns than 1 believe him to be, 
that it would afford me infinite satisfaction to find myself in an error, and 
being; convinced, to retract it. 

Part of my letter reminds me of another interloper, whose appoint- 
ment has cast a sjreat and ridiculous stigma on naval management. When 
the Royal George sunk at Spithead, if the Admiralty or Port Admiral had 
issued some such order as the following to any captain in the fleet: — " Yoa 
are hereby required and directed to proceed immediately, and use every 
exertion to weigh up his Majesty's ship Royal George, all the ships at the 
anchorage having my orders to furnish you with such men and boats as you 
niav require, and the officers of tlie dock-yard being also directed to assist 
YOU with purchases, lighters, &c." I will venture to say, that in three or four 
days time, with the weather favourable, the ship might have been in Ports- 
mouth harbour. But instead of this, a watchmaker, or some such person, 
tras set to work. He may have been a very clever man, but to weigh the 
Royal George was a job for a seaman, 

I remain, yours, &c. 

A. F. Y. 



HYDROGRAPHY. 



Foudroyant, Aboukir Bay, C4 June, 1801. 
Gen. Mem. No. 71. 
Situation oi a shoal on the coast of Egypt west of Alexandria, on whick 
his Majesty's ship Santa Teresa struck 21st June: — 

Arab Tower betmng E. an old square building to the westward of dittft 
S.W. tlie shoal is seven miles off the land, and runs a mile and a half east 
and west, and I of a mile north and south : the shoalest place is two 
fathoms, and very irregular soundings on approaching it in every direction : 
there is a good channel between it and the land, with regular soundings 
from 4a to 8 fathoms. N.B. tlie bearings are by compass (V^arialion 
13 deg. 6 min.) 

(Signed) " J. ELPHINSTONE, l$t; Captain." 



TRIAI- OF ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 107 

PLATE CCXC. 

TTT'OR tlie drawing from which tlie annexed engraving %vas copied we are 
-^ indebted to John Theophilus Lee, Esq. only son of the late Cajjtaio 
Lee, R.N. 

It is an accurate representation of a Mortella Tower erected in St. 
Fiorejizo Ba}', and celebrated for the defence made against an English 
iiae-of. battle ship, and three frigates. 



^atal Court 3©artial. 



TRIAL OF ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 

|N Wednesday, the 26th of July, a court martial was as.semblcd on 
board his Majesty's ship Gladiator, at Portsmouth, for tht trial of 
Admiral Lord Gambler, respecting his conduct as commander-in-chief of 
the Channel fleer, between the I7th of March and 29th of April, agreeablv 
to the following Order : — 

" By the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, &,-c. 

" Whereas Admiral the Right Honourable Lord Gambier has, by his 
letter to our secretary of the 3Dth of May, 1809, requested that his conduct 
as commander-in-chief of the Channel fleet, employed in Basque Roads, 
between the 17th day of March and the '29th of April, 1809, may be inquired 
into by a court martial : 

" And whereas by the log books and minutes of signals of the Caledonia, 
Imperieuse, and other ships employed on that service, it appears to us that 
the said Admiral Lord Gambier on the 12th day of the said month of 
April, the enemy's ships being then on shore, and the signal having been 
made that they CQuld be destroyed, did fur a considerable time neglect or 
delay taking elfectual measures for destroying them : We therefore, incom- 
pliance with his lordship's request, and in consequence of what appears in 
the said log-l)Ooks and minutes of signals, think tit that a court martial shall 
be assembled, for the purpose of examining into his lordship's conduct, 
trying him for the same. We send you herewith his lordship's letter of tlii;; 
loth of the said month, therein referred to, together with an attested copy 
of a letter of our secretary, dated the 29tli of last month, and addressed to 
Lord Cochrane, and his lordship's reply thereto, with the log-books and 
minutes of signals above mentioned, and we do hereby require and ihrect 
jou to assemble a court martial on Monday tlie 19th of this month (if tha 
iviinesses shall be then ready, and if not, then as soon after as thty shall be 
80^ to try ihc said Admiral the Kiglit liunouiabie Lord Gambier, for his 



iOS TRIAL OF 

conduct in the instance herein before mentioned. And also to inquire into 
his wliole conduct as commander-in-chief of the Channel fleet, employed 
in Babque Roads, hetivecn tlie 17th day of March and the 29th day of April, 
1809, and to try him for the same accordingly. 

Given under our hands the 3th day of June, 1809, 

(Si-ned) MULGRAVE. R. BICKERTOX. 

W. DOMETT. R. MOORSOM. 

To Sir Roger Curlis, Bart. Admiral of 
the W/iite, and Commandc.r-in-ddef 
of his Majestfi Ships and Vessels at 
SjAth-ead and in Porismouth harbour. 

By Command of their Lordships, 

(Signed) W. VV. POLE. 

me:},ibers of the court. 

Admiral Sir Roger Curtis, Bart. President. 



Admiral Young. 
Vice-admiral Sir H. Stanhope. 
Vice-admiral Campbell. 
Captain Irwin. 
Captam Dickson. 



Vice-admiral Sir J. T. Duckworth, 
Vice-admiral Douglas. 
Rear-admiral Sutton. 
Captain Hall. 
Captain Dunn. 



M. Greath.^m, Jun. Esq. Judge Advocate. 

The following documents were read : — 

Copy of a Letter, da'ed 26 'A March, 1809, from the Right Hon. Lord 
Gambier, to the Hon. W. W. Pole. 

(Secret.) 
« Sir, Caledonia, in Basque Roads, 16th March, 1809. 

" I have this day received, by the Encounter gun-brig, your most secret 
letter, of the 19th instant, accompanied by a paper, drawn by Sir Richard 
Keat>, wiih his opinion of the mode of attack upon an enemy's squadron, 
moored under the Isle of A ix; and signifying tlie directions of the Lords 
Commissioners of tlie Admiralty to me, to take into my consideration the 
possibility of making an attack upon the enemy's fleet, either conjointly with 
the line-of-battle sliips under my command, and the frigates, small craft, 
&c. or separately therewith. 

" You will be pleased to acquaint their lordships, that I shall apply all the 
powers and energy of iny mind, to carry into effect their directions, as far 
as possihle, when the means, with which their lordships have ordered me to 
be furnished, arrive at this anchorage. 1 will not at present detain the 
Encounter in her return to Plymouth, but will dispatch another vessel to- 
morrow, and will furnish you with a statement of the enemy's force, 
position, and other circumstances, for their lordship's information. Their 
ships certainly lie exposed to an attack upon them with fire-vessels, with a 
hope of success. I have the honour to be, &c. &c. 

" GAMBIER." 



Admiral lord sambicr. lOi 

Copy of a LttteY from the Right Hon. Lord Gambler, dated 26lh Marchf 
1809, lo the Hon. W. W. Polt. 

(Secret.) 
" SiF, Caledonia, in Basque Roads, March Q6th, 1809. 

" In obedience to their lordships' directions to me, contained in your 
letter of the 19th instant, I he^ leave to state to them that it is advisahle I 
should be furnished with six gun-bri^s, in addition to those that I may be 
able to collect of such as are under my comnjand ; at present there are only 
two at this anchorage; I shall, hovvtver, order the Insolent and Contest to 
join me from Quiberon Bay, and I should hope the Martial and Fervent will 
return here shortly from Plymouth. 

** It is proper I should state, for their lordships' information, the po-ition 
in which the French fleet is at present anchored, near to the Isle D'Aix, 
that their lordships* may be able to form a judgment of the success that 
may be expected to attend an attack upon the enemy's fleet, in either of the 
modes directed by their lordsh ps, in your letter abiive mentioned. 

" The enemy's ships are anchored in two line.", very near to each other, 
in a direction due south from the fort, on the Isle D'Aix, and the ships in 
each line not further apart than their own lonjith; by which it appears, as 
I ima'iined, that the space for their aBchorage is so confined by the shoal- 
nessof the water, as not to admit of ships to run in and anchor clear of 
each other. The most distant ships of their two lines are within point- 
blank shot of the works upon the Isle D'Aix: such ships, theiefore, as 
might attack the enemy, would be exposed to be raked by the hot shot.^cc. 
from the island, and should the ships be disal)led in their masts, they must 
remain within the range of the enemy's fire until destroyed, tlu-.re not being 
suthcient depth of water to allow them to move to the southward out of 
distance. 

" The enemy have taken their position apparently vvith the view, not 
only to be protected by the strong works upon the Isle of Aix, but aiso to 
have the entrance to the Charante open to them, that, in case of bung 
attacked by fire-ships, and other en^iines of the kind, they can run up the 
river, beyond the reach of them. The tide and wind that are favourable 
to convey this kind of annoyance to the enemy, serve equally to carry them 
up the river. 

" With respect to the attempt that may he made to destroy the enemy's 
ships with shells, &c. I am not competent to give an opinion, until it is 
ascertained whether the bombs can be placed within range of their mor- 
tars to the enemy's ships, without being exposed to the fire from the Isle of 
Aix. 

" I beg leave to add, that, if their lordships are of opinion that an attack 
on the enemy's ships, by those of the fleet under my command, ;- practica- 
ble, 1 am ready to obey any orders they may be pleased to honour me with, 
liowever great the risk may be of the loss of men and ships. 

" I have the honour to be, &c. 

" GAMBIER." 



(COPY.) 
« SIB, London, 10th May, 1809. 

" I have received your letter of the 2d instant, acknowlediiing the 
receipt of the list, contaiiang the names of the olliccrs and men in (he fne- 
ships and explosion vessels on the night of the 11th ultimo, with my obstr- 
vations on the result of my inquiry respecting their conduct on the occasion, 
and signifying that you are commanded by their lordships to acquaint me, 



110 TRIAI; OF 

that, in order to have before them full and complete information of th« 
proceedings of the several ships employed by me, on the various branches 
of the very important operations carried on against the enemy's fleet in AJx 
Roads, it is their lordships' direction, that I should call upon Re;\r-admiral 
Stopford, Captain Bligh, Captain Lord Cochrane, and any otlier officer I 
may have entrusted with any part of that service, to report to me their 
proceedings, together with such observations and remarks as they may have 
inadc uhilst they were executing my orders against the enemy; and that I 
should transmit the same to their lordships, with any observations I njay 
think proper to make thereon. 

" You will be pleased to acquaint their lordships, that I have written to 
those officers to make reports to me accordingly, and shall lose no lime iu 
transmitting them to you as soon as they are obtained, but some time must 
elapse before tiiey can reach me. 

" From communications I have since had with their lordships, T am led 
to understand, that a more full and detailed account than I have trans- 
mitted, of the proceedmgs of the fleet under my command, during the 
whole of its operations in Basque Roads, would be dt-suable; I shall, 
therefore, in making such a statement, endeavour to omit no incident that 
may be in any decree connected vvitli those operations, or serve to elucidate 
the various movements and proceedings of the fleet ; persuaded that doing 
so cannot fail to promote the satisfaction which, in common with the 
officers and men under my command, i feel upon that occasion, and on the 
success which has i-csulted from it. 

" Their lordships are aware tlu-.t soon after I had taken the anchorage of 
Basque Roads, I stt^tcd to tiiem the strong position of the enemy's fleet ire 
Aix Roads ; that their ships were moored m two compact lines, and tiie 
most distant ship of each line within point-blank range of the batteries of 
Isle D'Aix, explaining, at the same time, that they were under the necessity 
of mooring in such close order, not for the purpose of opposiiig a more for- 
midable front, but to avoid the shoals close around the ancliorage ; and their 
lordships will also remember, that I then pointed out the impracticahilitj 
of destroying them by an attack with the ships of the line in the position 
they occupied; but that I concei^'ed them to be assailable by fire-ships; 
having previously suggested to Lord Mulgrave the expediency of scndmg out 
20 or 30 vessels for that purpose. 

The suggestion was anticipated by their lordships, and they were pleased 
to order I'i sail of lire-ships to join me, and to direct me to fit out eight 
others on the spot. Upon the arrival of Captain Lord Cochrane, v>hom 
their lordships had ordered me to employ in conducting the execution of 
the service to be performed by the lire-ship?, I was induced, at his sugges- 
tion, to add the Mediator to the number. 

" These preparations were completed on the 11th ult. at night, and 
having previously called on board the Caledonia, the commanders and 
lieutenants who had volunteered their services, and who had been appointed 
by me to command fire-vc-scls, I furni>-hed them with full instructions fjr 
their proceedings in the attack, according to Lord Cochrane's plan, and 
arran;;cd the disposition of the frigates and small vessels to co-operate in 
the following manner : — 

" The Unicorn, Aigle, and Pallas, I directed to take a station near the 
Boyart Shoal, for the purpose of receiving the crcv.s of the tiie-ships on 
their return from the enterprise, to support the boats of the fleet which 
were to accompany the fire-ships, and to gi\e assistance to the Imperieuse, 
which ship was siill further advanced. Tiie Whiting schooner. King George, 
aufi Niinrod cutter*, \*ero fitted fjr tiirowing' rocket?;, and directed totak-C i) 
station near the same shoal for that nurpose. 



ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. Ill 

•' Tlic Indefatigable, Foxhound, and i^tna bomb, were to take a station 
Rs near the fort on the Isle of Aix as possible ; the two former to protect 
the bomb-vessel, whilst she threw shells into the fort. 

" The Emerald, Dotterel, and Beas;le sloops, and Growler, Conflirt, and 
Insolent gun^brigs, were stationed to make a diversion at the east end of the 
Isle of Aix. 

" The Redpole and Lyra I directed to be anchored by the master of the 
fleet (one near the Isle of Aix, and the other near the Boyart), with lights 
hoisted, to guide tlie fire->hips in their course to the attack; and the boats 
of the fleet Were ordered to assemhle alongside the Cssar, to proceed 
to assist the fire-ships, under the superintendance of Rcar-Admiral 
Stopford. 

" With these pre-concerted movements the fleet was at tiiis time 
unmoored, in readiness to render any service that might be practicable ; 
Vjut being anchored in a strong tide-way, with tha wind fresh from the N.W. 
upon the weather tide making, it was again moored, to prevent the ship* 
falling on board each other. 

" At about half-past eight P.M. tlie explosion Vessels and fire-ships pro- 
ceeded to the attack ; at half-past nine, the first explosion vessel blew up ; 
and at ten, most of the fire-ships were observed to be on fire ; the enemy's 
forts and sliips firing upon them. Many of the fire-ships were seen to drive 
through their fleet, and beyond the Isle of Aix. 

" Shortly after day-light, Lord Cochrane, who, in the Tmperieuse, lay 
about three miles from the enemy, made the signal to me, liy telegraph, that 
seven of the enemy's ships were on shore, and that half the fleet could 
destry them. It was visible from the Caledonia what shii)5 were aground, 
and that two or three had made their escape up the Charante. I imme- 
diately ordered the fleet to be unmoored, and at half-past nine weighed and 
ran up nearer to the Isle of Aix, with a view, when the time of the tide 
should render it advisable, that some of the line-of-battle ships might pro- 
ceed to attack tlie enemy's ships on shore ; but the wind nlowing iVcsh 
from the N.N.W. with a flood tide, I judged it was unadvisable to risk any 
of them at that time in so perilous a situation. The fleet was therefore 
anchored. I made the sigiud for each ship to prepare, wit'i r;pare or shcti 
cables out of the stern ports, and springs on thein, to be in readiness for 
any of them to go in, that I might judge necessary; in the meanv.hile, I 
ordered three additional fire-ships to be prepared. 

" Observing the liNperieuse to advance, and the time of flood nearly done 
running, the Indefal:ig:t^)le, Aigle, Emerald, Pallas, Beagle, ZLtna, and gun- 
brigs, were ordered in to the attack ; at "2. 20 P.M. the former opened her 
fire upon the enemy's ships a-ground, and the others as soon after as they 
arrived up. I then ordered in the Valiant and Revenge to support them, 
and they soon joined in the action. 

" The enemy's ship Calcutta struck her colours at 4. 10. P. M. and the 
Ville de Varsovie and Aquilon, in about an hour afterwards ; all three were 
taken possession of by the boats of the advanced squadron, and set on lire 
fis soon as the prisoners were removed ; a short tune after, ie Tonnere was 
set on fire by the enemy. 

" Perceiving, towards the close of tlie day, that there were son-.e of the 
enemy's grounded ships lying further up towards the Ciiarante, which 
appeared to be exposed to furtlier attacks, I sent in the three additional 
fire-ships, and all the boats of the fleet, with Mr. Congreve's rockets, 
accompanied by the Caisar and Theseus, under the direction of Rear- 
ftdmiral Stopford, with discretional orders, for his acting as he should 
think fit, and according as circumstances should render it expedient. 

" Oh the following day (the iSth) the rear-admiral, perceivir.g tliat 
aotUirig funher couid be tffectod by tho line-of-batilc ships, which ha«4 



112 TRIAL OF 

grounded, as had also some of tlie frigates, and how imminent the danger 
was iu winch they lay^, and bein<T satisfied that the remaining part of the 
service couki be performed only by friiiates and smaller vessels, he most 
wisely took advantage of a providential shift of wind, and returned, witli the 
line-of-hattle ship=, to Basque Roads. Captain Bhgh, on his ferurn, 
reported to me, that it was found impracticable to destroy the ent'.ny's 
three-decked ship, and others, which were lyi«^ at tlte entrance of the 
Charante, as the former ''u'hich was tiie outer one) was protected by three 
lines of boats, placed m advance from her. 

" Durin<i tlio remainder of the 13th, the .-Etna was employed in throwing 
shells, tlie Whiiinm schooner in firiiis: rockets, and the otlier small vessels in 
iiiinn; upon the enemy's e-hips on shore, when the tide permitted. 

" On the 14th, at <lay-li'iht, I observed three or four of the enemy's 
ships still apparently a-y,round. at the mouth of the river. I ordered Cap- 
tain Wolfe, of the Aii^le, to relieve Lord Cochrane, in the Imperieuse, in 
command of the small ves'els advanced, and to use his utmost endeavours 
to destroy any of the enemy's ships which were assailable. At 2. 50. the 
iEtna bomb, and sniall vessels in-shore, began their ftre upon the enemy's 
ships at the entrance of the Charante, and continued to do so during the 
remainder of tiie day. 

" On the 15th, in the morning, (the day on wliicli I dispatched Sir TT. 
Neale to their lordsiiips, in the Imperieuse), three cf the enemy's line-of- 
battle siiips were observed to be still a-ground, under Touras, and one of 
them in a dangerous situation ; one of their frigates (I'Indienne) also on 
siiore, had fallen over, and the enemy were dismantling her. 

" It blew very strong from the westward the whole of the 15th and 16th, 
*o that no attempt could be made to annoy and harass the enemy ; on the 
latter day their frigate, which was on shore, was discovered to be on fire, 
and blew up soon after. 

" All the remainder of the enemy's ships got up the river by the 17ih, 
except one, (a tu'o-decker) which remained a ground imder the town of 
Touras ; in the afternoon of this day it was ob-erved, that another of the 
enemy's frigates had got on shore up the river and was wrecked, which was 
afterwards confirmed by the master of a neutral vessel from Rochelle. 

" On the 19th it blew too violent for any of the small vessels to act 
against the enemy ; but, on the 20tli, the Thunder bomb having arrived, 
and the weather having become more moderate, I sent her to assist th« 
Ritnn in bombarding the enemy's ship, on shore near Touras. The /Etna 
had split her l.'3-inch mortar on the loih, consequently had only her 10-inch 
effective ; and the Thunder's 15-inch was also rendered unserviceable, this 
day, from the same cause. 

" The following day I went in my boat into the Roads, on board tlie 
Aigle and Pallas, to reconm^iirc the enemy's ship above mentioned, ami 
nscertain what farther operations coild be carried on for her destruction. 
That evening, and the succeeding days, the wind was too violent and 
unfavourable. 

" On the 23d 1 gave directions to Captain Wolfe to put two of the 
Aigle's IS-pouufi long guns into each of the four gun-brigs, and use every 
means in his power to drive the enemy out of the ship near Touras, :ind 
attempt to set her on fire : the whole of the 21ih was employed in this 
attempt: the lO-inch mortars throwing their shells occasionally, but with- 
out success; and, as Captain Wolfe reported to me, that this attack naide 
very little impression upon the enemy, and that tlic ships and vessels which 
were advanced abjve the Boyart Shoal, in o.'-der to carry these opentions, 
were in a situaion much exposed to attack from the enemy's gun-iioats, &c. 
I considered any furtlicr attempt would be fruitless, and thcrcfurc \\itu- 
tlrew iheai from their advanced position. 



ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 113 

" The enemy's sliip continued a-ground near Touras until l!ie ni-^lit of 
the 28th, when, having lifi;htencd her considerably, and applied • {^reat 
exertion to i^et her afloat, the spring tides havinj; set in, ihey succeeded in 
their attempt, and got her up the rivtr. 

" Their lordships will perceive, from tlie foregoing statement, as well as 
from their own knowledge of the local situation of the scene of action, that 
I was obliged to have a second object in view, for besides the destruction of 
the enemy's ships, the greatest care was required tliat his Majesty's fleet 
should not be sacrificed ; the state of the tides and wind wa-) most mate- 
rially to be attended to, and, without reference to the chart of the anchor- 
age, nothing can better exemplify the liniited space and danger of the navi- 
gation, than the circumstance of one of the enemy's line-of-battle ships 
having, on their fleet entering the Roads in February last, run on shore on 
the shoal of the Pallas, and being there totally "recked. 

" There are some circumstances mentioned in my letter of the 14th ult. 
which I have not thought it necessary to repeat or enlarge upon. 

" When it is considered with how little, or comparatively no loss, this 
most important service has been performed, their lordships, I am persuaded, 
will agree with me, that there is great cause fur rejoicing at the result of 
the undertaking. I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your obedient humble Servant, 

(Signed) " GAMBIER." 



Copy of a Letter from the Secretary of the Admiralty to Lord Cochrane. 

" MY LORD, Admiralty Office, May 22. 

" Lord Mnlgrave having acquainted my Lords Commissioners of tiie 
Admiralty, tiiat he had communicated to you the intention ot his Majesty's 
government to move the thanks of both Houses of Parliament to tlie com- 
mander-in-chief, and the officers, seamen, and marines of tlie fleet 
employed in the late service in Basque Roatis; and that your lordsliip had 
declared that you should feel it to be your duty to oppose any vote of 
approbation for his conduct on that occasion, I am commanded by their 
lordships to sigijify their directions tliat you state fully to me, for their 
information, the grounds on vvjiich your lordship objects to the vole of 
thanks being moved to Lord Gambler, to the esd that their lordships may 
be enabled to judge how far your lordshij/s objections may be of a nature 
to justify the suspension of the intended motion in Parliament, or to call for 
any further inve:>tigation. I am, inv Lord, ike, 

(Signed; " \V. W. POLE." 
" To Captain Lord Cochrane, (5 r." 



Copy of a I^etlerfrom Lord Cochrane to the Secretary of the Admiral'y. 

" SIR, Portman-squai-c, May 30, 1809, 

" I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterday's date, 
signifying the direcion of tlie Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to me, 
to state fully, for their information, the grounds on which 1 object to the 
vote ot" thanks being moved to Lord Gambiei-, to the end that their lord- 
ships may be enabled to judge how far rny objections may be of a nature to 
justify the ^u^pension of the mtciided motion in Parliament. 

" I have to request. Sir, that you will submit to their lordships, that I 
shall, at all times, entertain a due sense of the honour they will confer by 

iI9a\3. erijron. 2JoI. XXIL q 



lit TRIAL OF / 

any rlirections they mny be pleased to rrive me, that in pursuing the object 
of those directions, miv exertions nill iiivirinhlv go hand ia hand with my 
duty; and that to satisfy their loi-dships' niiiid in the present instance, on 
the point of information reijardinii: the late service in Basque lloads, I beg 
leave to state, that the \o^, and sijn A log-books of the fleet there emiiloyed 
at the period alluded to. contain ihe particnlars of that service, and furnish 
premises whence accurate conchi-ious may be readilv drawn ; that as those 
books are aut'ientic pub ic docnmeiits, and as I must necessarily refer to 
them as to times and circumstances, any thing that I could offer upon the 
subject would, to their lordshif'S, be altoaether superfluous, and a})pear a 
presumptuous interruption of their lordshi))s' judiiment, which wdl <loubt- 
less aluays found itself upon those grounds only that cannot be disputed. 
" I iia\e tlie honour to be, &c. 

(Signed; " COCHRANE." 

" To the Hon. W. W. Pole, ^yc." 



Cory of a Letter from Lord Gamhlr fo fhe Secretary at War, for a 
Conn Martial. 

"sir, Lo7idon, Mat/ 30, IQ09. 

" Havint; in my letter to you of the 10th instant detailed the whole of the 
proceedings of the fleet under my commaiul in the attack on the enemy in 
the Road of .^ix, I had flattered myself that I slioi.dd have received some 
sign:Hcatu)n of an approbation of ray conduct, an.'l have had the gratifying 
tasl; f)f conveyiiii'; to the othccrs and men under ray command the estimiuion 
in whicli tiie g'dlai>trv and disci;)ii:ie displayed by them upon the occasion 
were held by his Majesty and their couiUry. 

" Understanding, however, that there are some doubts whether the fleet 
is to be so honoured, and feeling riial even a doubt upoii such a subject 
cannot be entertained, consistently with my reputation as comuMnder in- 
chief, I request that you will be pleased to vnove the Lords Comniisst-ners 
of the Admiralty to direct a coiirt inartial to be assembled as early as 
possible for the uurpose of inquiring inro iTiy conduct as coiumander-in- 
chitf, and all tiie transacfimis ichitm^ to t!ic fleet under my caramand, from 
the 17th of March last, when the i akdonia anchored in Basque Roadt., to 
the time of her quitting that anchoragi; for England, on the 29th ult. 
" I have the iionour to be, ike. 

(Signed) " GAMBIER." 

" To the Eon. W. W. Pole, ^c." 

Lord Gambier then presented to the Court all the orders lie had received 
from the Adiniialty while commanding the Channel fleet. 

1st, Instructi'ms to proceed, under certain circumstances, ofl' Cape 
Finisterre, to send a frigate to look nito Curunua and rerrol, &c. 

2d. informing Lord Gambier, that ten additional gun-vessels and fire- 
ships, and Mr. Cungreve with his rockets, were ordered to join ius lord- 
ship, &c. 

3d. Secret instructions from the Admiralty, directing Lord Gambier to 
assure to the masters of vessels employed upon this service, renmneration 
for loss of ships, &c. 

4th. .Situat on of die enemy upon the day of the proposed attack, with the 
plan of Sir Richard Keats. ySd \pr I, 1807- 

.5th. Secret letter from the ilon. \V. VV. Pole to Lord Gambier, signifying 
the wishes of the Lords of the Admiralty that his lordship should employ 
Lord Cochrane upon a particular service. 



ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 115 

6th. Letter from the Hon. W. W. Pole to Lord Gambler, with further 
instrijctioiis. 

7th. Orders from the Lords of the Admiralty fo Lord Ga>nbier, directinji; 
him to send some ships and friiiatcs to intercept the enemy m caie he s ould 
endeavonr to get into Brest or L'Oricnt harbours. 

8tl). Letter iVom the Hon. W. \V. Pole to Lord Gambler, arqiiainrin!^ 
him tiiaf certain ships which were ordered to jirotect tl,e trade, and inter- 
rupt the L'Oricnt squadron, were to be under his lordship's conimand. 

Mr. SiOKES, ma^'ter of t'le Caledonia, the first witness sworn and 
examined, produced and identified thu iog-books of that ship. He also pro- 
duced a sketch or diawingof the sta^i-n and situation of the British and 
Freiich at Isle D'Aix; partly, as he said, frt)m the knowledj^e which lie had 
stained from soundings and observations taken of the Isle of Aix, and partlj 
from a French matuiscript_chart. 

Lieutenant Hawkins, the signal officer of the Caledonia, produced and 
identilied the signal logs of that ship. 

Mr. Joiiy SpiULixG, master of the Impcrieuse, produced and veriiied the 
contents of the log-book of that ship. Jn answer to certain questions, 
which were put to him, he said he remem!;ered going on board the Lidefa- 
tigable about the 1 2th May last. He went f (r iiis own ii\formati(jn, aud aoE 
liy any person's order or suggestion. He wanted io make a mem^raiidutu 
from the log-book of the Caledonia, of the time of tlu; ship's coming into 
action, but die firstiieutenant said he had better not do it, as he could not do 
it without Captain Rodd's leave- He made no alteration in tlie Impcriciise's 
h)g afterwards; nor did he make any observation lespect.-ng tiiat log Co any 
one on his return to the Iniperieuse. He did not confer with his captain. 
Lord Cochrane, on going ou board the Iiidef aiguble for that purpose. He 
did not know that his lordship knew of it. He did not tell him of it. He 
could not say whether he knew of it or not. 

Q. It has been observed, that in the ai'ternoon log of the 12th of April, 
there are various insertions of material events and Circumstances : how did 
it happen iliat there are insertions of transactions in the afternoon of the 
3Vth of April, inserted iii« the margin ar.d not in the body of the log? — 
A. After tlie action was over, 1 received orders from Captain Lord 
Cochrane to proceed with a boat, to ascertain the depth, of w-.iter between 
the Imperieuse and the Irench ad-iiirals ship, wliicU occupiefl my time 
until it was quite dark. On my return, 1 entered such part of the traiisac- . 
tion relative to the action, then in my memory. Next day having the 
middle watch, looking over my log-book as I might nor have aa opportu- 
nity to fill it up on liie next day, 1 found that I had omitted tliose thina,s 
which are entered in the margin. 

Mr. Raven, master of the Cicsar, and Mr. John Thompson, masfor's 
mate of the Beagle, produced the log-books of those siiips, and veriiied their 
.contents. 

Q. (Bi/ (he Court, to Mr. Thompson.) I see in the margin several 
entries relating to the Impcrieuse, in the margin of the log ; why d.d you 
not write it in the body instead of the margin ; or how does it happci itiit 
an insertion of very material circum.'^tances stated to have occuired at h.dt- 
past eight o'clock, .\.i\I, of t!ie I'ith of April, was inserted in ihe ma:-..ii!ial 
column, instead of the body of tiie log? — A. ia C'pying from the lug-board 
I missed the signals, and 1 copietl it into the log-ljuok. 

Captain Lord Cochuane sworn and examined. 
^. Were you ever eiitrusted by Lord Gasnbier with the conduct of tlic 



116 TRIAL or 

fire-sliipsin the attack of the enemy on the 12th cf April, in Basque Roads ? 
— A. I was. 

Q. At what time did you arrive in the Iinperieuse and join Lord Gam- 
bier ? — A. I have got the log with me, I cannot swear to it, not having 
^^•ritten it myselt', hut 1 beHeve it correct. It appears from it on the 3d of 
April, but I do not myself exactly recollect it, I think it was about that day. 

Q. What was the strength of the enemy's fleet at that time, how moored, 
and how protected by the wo:ks on the Isle of Aix, and by the shoals at the 
entrance of the harbour? — A. The enemy's fleet appeared to consist of nine 
sail uf the regular line, beside one thip of three decks, Calcutta, of 50 guns, 
four frigates, and thei'e was another large vessel, I don't know what she 
was; she might be a store ship; they appeared to be moored, as near as I 
could judge, N. and S. I thought they first inclined considerably mo''e to 
the N.E. and S.W. They were defended by their own cannon, the vessels 
being in a very strong position, they were flanked by thirteen cannon 
towards the N. Aix, besides the mortars of that island. The frigates were 
stationed to the S.E. of them, apparently for the purpo':e of flanking the 
other side of their protection against boats and fire-vessels. Between Aix 
and the Boyart I do not know of any shoai. The water is not deep at Aix, 
but shelves gradually ofl" towards the entrance of the harbour. 

Q. At «hal distance from the enemy was the British squadron moored 
on the evening of the 11th of April, immediately previous to the attack by 
the fire-ships, and wl)at was its strength, and was the situation in your judg- 
ment properly chosen, and what was the wind and tide? — A. To the best 
of my judgment the British fleet was between eight and nine miles from the 
enemy's ships on the 11th of April; in the evening they remained in the same 
position as on my arrival ; from the time of my arrival and until morning 
of the 12th. I believe the British squadron unmoored thcit night, but dnn'c 
know of my own knowlefige. The position chosen by the conmiander-in- 
chief was a very good position for blockading the enemy, -.ind for observing 
anj' material movement of the squadron. Having already mentioned my 
opinion of the distance, it must be obvious that the destruction of tlie 
enemy could not be effected while in that position by the ships there placed 
as already mentioned. The wind was not the same in the evening as the 
morning ; at eigiit o'clock P.M. on the 11th, in the evening, the wind must 
have been about due N. I did n.ot state exactly the point of the wind, but 
think so ; the tide at the same hour began to run towards the S.E. As to 
the strength of the British squadron it consisted of eleven sail of the line, 
besides nine frigates and one bomb. 

Q. The flood-tide runs towards the S.E. ? — A. Yes, a flood-tide had just 
begun to run towards the S.E. 

.Q. Did it appear to your lordship that the admiral made every arrange- 
ment for preparing and sending4hc fire-ships against the enemy ? — A. Every 
possible assistance, as well- as Admiral Stopford and the captains of the 
fleet. 

Q. Were the frigates and other smaller vessels properly placed by the com- 
mander-in-chief for aft'ording every assistance in the attack on the enemy.? — ■ 
A. Very judiciously placed. 

Q. It appearing by the signal log of the Caledonia that you made several 
signals for the ships of the fleet to come up, and of the situation of t.he enemy, 
was it your opinion that it would have been expedient for the commander- 
in-chief to have sent in half the fleet, or any part of it, to destroy the 
enemy's ships, considering tide, tkc. and was it your opinion such ships 
could have again got out in safety ? — A. I did make the signal ; the Impe- 
rieuse being the nearest sliip placed by his lordship in the guidance of the 
fire-ships; and having had the charge of these vessels, I thought it proper to 
cominunicate to his lordship the state in which they appeared to me to be, 



ADMIRAL LORD CAMEIEr.. 117 

which T did by the signals mentioned— (produces sorec papers). These are 
copies of the minutes which I made at the time ; the time may not be pre- 
cisely accurate, but the circumstances arc perfectly correct, and well known 
by all the officers in the fleet. 

[Some discussion took place upon Lord Cochrane's referring to his mi- 
nutes, after which the examination proceeded.] 

It is my opinion that a much smaller force than half the fleet would have 
been sutficient ; the signal was directed by the Caledonia to be repeated. 
I ordered the signal to be made that two sail of the line was enougli, which 
I have since understood was not ma(ie, but that the othccr repeated the pre- 
vious signal. The fact was, he thought it would be an insult to make that 
signal, and therefore he repeated the former signal, leaving it to the discre- 
tion of the commander of tlie fleet to send wliat portion of the fleet he might 
think proper, i'rom the time that tlie first signal was made in the morning, 
until about eight o'clock, it was ebb title; the tide was going to windward. 
At eigiit o'clock it was low water. There is anchorage out of range of shot 
or shell for at least six sail of the line. The Imperieuse passed in going in 
close to the Buoyart, it was then nearly high water ; about half past one or 
two o'clock in the day of the 12ih, when going in. Coming out it was also 
high water. In both of which cour.se-> there was sufficient depth f )r vessels 
<)fanysi^e; the impression of my mind is, for vessels of any size, at any 
time. 

Q. Do you recollect what deptli you had when you passed? — A. I think 
very near the Buoyart we had six fathoms. That vessels of any size, at any 
time, might go in or out. 

Q. I think you said that six sail of the line might lie clearof shot or shell ; 
have you any authentic chart, or any evidence to support that opinion r — 
A. It was from the soundings we had ; provided the tide does not fall more 
than 12 feet. It is so mentioned on the French chart, which I produced in 
court, I had no other means of judging. With respect to depth of water, I 
can to a certainty say, that if the rise and fall is not more than 10 or 12 feet, 
I think there is depth enough at any time. I think the ship would have 
gone in as sat'e as tlie others did afterwards. 

Q. You have mentioned that there was room for six sail of the line, 
did you mean at any time of tiie tide to lie without the range of shot or 
shell? — A. Yes, at any time of the tide, to that I can speak positively, we 
were there at all times of the tide; it was the height of the springs, and 
there was five and a quarter fathoms under our bottom at low water, and 
from five to six fathoms for a distance round about us sufficient for that 
purpose. That was my impression at the time, but now I believe you might 
put a dozen or twenty sail of the line, uithout shot or shells. 

Q. Did the commander-in-chief, in consequence of signals made, soon 
after, and when, weigh with other ships and proceed near the Isle of Aix, 
and at what time did he come to anchor ? — A. He weighed, I think, about 
eleven o'clock, and anchored about half an hour afterwaids, having both 
wind and tide in his favour. The position taken up by his h)rdship was 
nearly that mentioned in the Frencli chart, and which I offered to the court, 
marked No. 2, in which is shewn the situation of the enemy from day-light 
in the morning of the 12th, and till the two French ships which remained at 
anchor cut their cables on his lordsisip standing towards them. 

Q. Was the position then taken up by the commander-in-chief the most 
proper for observing the enemy, for s-ending ships in the most prompt ma!i- 
ner to attack and assist the ships, and mijjht that position have bten taken 
at an earlier period, for the good of the service, and carrying into ctiVct that 
service for which you made signals? — A. It was a good position to observe 
the enemy if taken at eleven o'clock, but it was not taken till two ; it w«s 
not a position for attack ; there vras no attack at the time. — It was a good 



113 TRIAL OF 

position for observing the motions of tiie enemy; and being near, assistance 
mif^i'.i liave been sent to am vessels, had :ia aitack been M.ade tip-m the 
enemy. ' h u position iiiigbi Jia\e been taken at day lij^lit, when an attack 
luighr ii:ue i)een made 'o the asivantnge oi' the service. 

Q. It appearing by the ioii, of the Imperii use that yon havin;i previously 
sent in a num to lake soundings, did you weigh and advance towards the 
enenjv liy s gnal from tlie commander-in-chief, or did \ou do so without 
orders by signal or otiierwise ? — A. I think it necessary, if I am pernntted 
by the court, to read as an answer to this question, remarks whicii I threvr 
togedier in con^equence of a letter from the secretary of the Admiralty, 
stating that a court martial was to take place. — These remarks contain all 
the transactions which took pLice in .asque lloods, and are expressly ia 
answer to tlie above <[uesiion. Hie In-perieuse had been detached the night 
before, I being the captain, iiavng the ciiaiac of the tire-ships to effect the 
destruction ot tlie freuch fleet, and the Imperieuse had not been recalled 
from that service. 

Q. When you went in on the 12th did you so go in, pursuant to signals 
of tlie commander, or did you do so without orders, by signal or otherwise ? 
— A 1 did so in cnnipliance with w, at 1 considered the spirit of the orders 
I had received. The dniiig of it was my own act. The entry in the log- 
book of tilt Ixiipenense, that I weighed at half-post eleven, is not correct, as 
will appear by the log-books of the fleet. 1 weighed at one o'clock; the 
.fli/tna rather preceded me. 

Q,. It appears by tiie log that you made signal of distress; what was the 
nature oT distress of your ship, and did anyone mind what came to your 
assistance, and was there any unnecessary delay in that respect? — A. I 
inquired by hailing, what attack was intended to lie made on the enemy. 
The commander rei'.lied, he was ordereci to bombard ; I directed the coni- 
inander of the brig to go close, and that I should protect them. It was then 
one o'clock. The French thrce-ileckcr swung to her hawsers, and the last 
of their ships began to move. J had had the charge of the lire-ships ; they 
had lailed ot every expected purpose, I knew what the tongue of slander 
was capftble of, and airhougii I admit that llie feelings of my Lord Gambler 
for the honour and the in'trest of his country, were, and are, as strong as my 
own, yet personal coiifidciations were not enough ; the expectations of my 
country, the h(vpes ot ine Admnalty, and rny uwn prospects, were about to 
vanish. I weighed anchor, and ran in. and went bey jiid the possibility of 
ret;irn ; I ordered sail to be made after the sterninost shijis of the enemy, 
and in standing in, I made the signal that the chase was superior to the 
chasing ship, because the Ville de Varsovie and Calcutta were both afloat, 
and immediately afteruards, that we wanted assistance, which signal is 
absurdly coupled with the words " being in distress. ' When we got up to 
the Buoyart, we opened our fire upon the Calcutta and \ ille de Varsovie. 
The Calcutta was broadside on, the V'^arsovie lay v.ith the stern towards us, 
she bCiOg under sail, and the Aquilon was in tlie same position . the latter 
did not lire for a long time, they were employed clearing away their stern to 
getguiisout. Wlien vvc anchored it was about two o'clock. Some brigs 
had anct.orir'd as marked in chart No. 2, for the protection of the bomb, and 
were lirmg, hut loo far off to be of any u^c. I made the signal for them to 
close, but as there is no flag to express brigs only, without frigates or larger 
vessels, most ot whicli were commanded by my seniors, I explained as far as 
lay within my means, tiiat this signal was intended for tliem by firing from 
the main-deck, the quarter-deck shot did not reach them. '1 his signal, I 
was afterwards told, gave considerable offence, and so soon as I learnt that 
from hir i.arry Neale, I declared to Lord Gambier, that it was not my 
inteution, in the slightest degree, to hurt hia lordship's feelings. I had thcu 



ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 119 

no time to express, by a tedious telcjirapli communication, what I meant 
to convey. We were all busilv eiiiploycH, when it was reported tu me thut 
several sail of the lint and rrii;ates were comins; to our assistance. About 
three the Revenge and several friiiates came wirhin hailing. I hailed them 
to anchor, or they would ground, ^ve having taken our birfh on the very 
edge of the shoal — it was the tallint!; tide. Several that had anchored 
opened their fi'-e on all the sliips that were within reach, the Varsovie, 
Aquilun, and C;dcutta. I made si^^nal that the Calcutta had struck, and 
seiit a liout to inform those who were fiiini^ at her, tliat our boat was then 
on board of her; on which ihe Indefatigable and others turned their fire to 
the \''arsov!e and Aquilon: I orJireJ our peoj)le to cease firing; there were 
then ships enouuh to destroy tli..' enemv without the Imperieu e ; our 
people were much fatigued, they therefn-e rested tfiemselves, with the 
excepnon of t!io-.e ordered to repair their rigging: the other ships conti- 
nued to tire tin the Var«^ovie and (quilon until they struck, which was 
about six o'clock. The Calcutta was set on fire; the enemy in a conster- 
nation kindled it still more : our boats were employed shifting the pri- 
soners; the French were deserting several of t'.ieir ships with every boat 
that belonged to the n, and pulling and sailiiii: for the Rochctbrt river ; an 
attempt was imended to have been made to burn the enemy's ship Ocean. 
Captain RIijIi volun.eered this service. Captain Maitland regretted that 
on account of Captain Bhgh's previously liaving undertaken it, that he was 
deprived of that opportunity of distinguishing himself. I was too much 
fatiirned to undertake it myself, I could scarcely stand through excessive 
fatigue; tlie reas(jn it was not done 1 onlv learnt since seeing the [)ub!ic 
despatciics in the papers. As the French had taken to their boats to land 
the people, they "cre all ashore that night, and the next mornini; there were 
two or three cliasse marces in thsir stead, lightening the enemy's ships, by 
taking articles trom them. There was no delay whatever to the best of my 
belief after the signal for assistance was made, on the part of Lord Gam- 
bier, in ordering the vessels t> our assistance; hut had the attack been made 
in ttie morning when the tide was falliiii:, until past eiglit o'clock, and when 
the enemy's ships were all, with the e\c:epiion of two, last agrotmd, a three- 
decker and two others, as siiewn in chart Ao 2, lying close together to 
windward, with tlieir masts and yards apparently locked, in which posi- 
tion they continued until one o'clock, it is my opinion that seven sail of the 
enemy, including the three-decker, might have been destroyed with facility, 
by two sail of the line, assisted l>y the (rigates and smaller vessels; and it 
is my opinion, that after the hour of half-pa>t eleven, when the enemy's two 
ships tiiat remained at anchor until the LJritisIi ilect weighed, the I'rigates 
alone, assisted by the smaller vessels, might have destroyed the whole of the 
above-mentioned ships, the rear of which afterwards were attacked. 

The Court here adjourned ; and when they had re-asscmbled, on the 
following morning, the examination of Lord Cochrane was proceeded 
with. 

Q. Did it appear to your lordship that any uimecessary delay occurred 
froii day-light of the morning of the 12th of April, when you made signals 
to the commander-m-chiet that half the fleet would destroy tiie enemy's 
ships, that se\ci) of them uere aground. iS:c. ? — A. Yes, when I expressed by 
signal to the coinmaiKier-in-chicf, shortly after day-light in the morning, 
that part of the British fleet was enough to effect the destruction of the 
enemy, there being then only two sail of the enemy's ships capable in any 
degree to resist an attack, I did expect that an endeavour would have been 
immediately made to dislodge tnese two ships from the situation in which 
they remained, by an attack by two or three sail of the ime, whicli were 



120 TPaAL OF 

sufficient for that purpose. The tide and wind were, from eigiit o'clock in 
tlic morning until twelve,. bolh pjing the same way, and ships of tiie line by 
passing were near to the Buoyart, and putti;ig their helm alee, would have 
brought their heads, their fore and main-top-sails being to tlie masts, 
towards the N.E. which woidd have enabled them (at a distance at which 
the shot of the enemy would have had no effect) to bring their guns to bear 
upon the enemy's two ships, which still remained at anchor, until they 
approached them, or until so far to lee-way tliat they would have been able, 
by putting their helms up, to run to leeward between them and the ships on 
shore, and thereby force them to cut and run aground likewise, and then 
effect both their destruction and the destruction of the other vessels which 
were on shore, and which I have already stated might have been destroyed 
by the endeavours, in my opinion, of two sail of the line, aided by the 
frigates, at any period previous to half-past eleven o'clock of the 12th of 
April, and by the frigates alone before one o'clock, when the French three- 
decker swung to her hawsers, and when the last of their ships began to float 
(I speak of the line-of-battle ships), for the two ships which had remained 
at anchor, and cut oii the approach of the British fleet, had also grounded, 
there not being, even then, at half tide (twelve o'clock), water enough for 
tl.eui to effect their escape up the middle of the channel leading to the river 
Charante. 

Q. From the Court. — What were the circumstances that induced your 
lord-hip to believe that from eleven o'clock to one, the frigates alone were 
capable of destroying t!ie enemy's ships ? — A. The helpless situation of the 
enemy, they being aground, and the same conviction that led me afterwards 
to consider the risk in attempting it exceedingly small. 

Q. If, in your lordship's judgment, the frigates alone were sufficient to 
elTect the destruction of the enemy's ships between lialf-past eleven and 
one, \vhy might they not as well have performed that service between any 
period of the morning and half-past eleven ? — A. At eleven o'clock the 
British fleet weighed and stood towards the enemy, whereupon the two 
ships, which continued still at anchor, cut and ran aground. The British 
fleet anchored about half-past eleven o'clock. I was ignorant what Lord 
Gambler's plans might be ; and though I concluded that the fires for cook- 
ing had long previously been out, yet I imagined that this might possibly 
liave been to give the seamen something to eat, previcnis to going into 
action ; and although I regretted the time that appeared to my mind to 
have been already lost, and what we were evidently losing by even haif an 
hour's delay, in making some kind of attack by a couple of sail of the line, 
or by the frigates, yet 1 consoled myself with the supposition that his lord- 
"^hip intended a grand blow on the island and on the ships at once, although 
I thought this highly unnecessary in order to effect their destruction, nor 
prudent to the whole fleet. I could not in any other way account for a 
proceeding that thus enabled the helpless French ships to endeavour their 
escape, undisturbed, into the river Charante. Twelve o'clock arrived, no 
signal was made to weigh. Half-past twelve, still no signal. 

Admiral Youxc. — This is very improper. This is no answer to the 
question. It is only calculated to make an unfavourable impression against 
the prisoner, and wholly irrelevant to the question. 

Lord Cochrane. — I am boijiid to tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, and with submission to the Court, if I am not per- 
mitted to state the circumstances upon v.hich my opinion is grounded, it is 
impossible I can give a full answer to the question : and until the Court 
shall hear the whole of my answer, it is not possible they can form any 
correct judgment upon it, and must remain in ignorance of the fact. 

Admiral Yovac. — Lord Cochrane, you are bound to give a direct answer 



ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 121 

to the question, and not to state that which the Court are decidedly of 
upinion is wholly irrelevant. 

The PiiEsiDENT. — r really think since Lord Cochrane has gone so far, the 
Court should hear the whole of his answer; we can thsn judge what part of 
it should stand, or he expiin^red. 

[After some further discussion, tlie Court was ordered to be cleared. 
Upon our rc-aduiis'^ion, the President informed Lord Cochrane that he 
should finish the present answer; hiu he was in future to conrine his answer 
directly and decidedly to the question. His lordship had also made use of 
an expression, in the opinion (jf the Court, highly indecorous, in applying the 
word ignoiance to the person who liad proposed the question.] 

Lord Cociirane, in explanation,- replied, that he had meant no disrespect 
whatever to the Court, but thought h.o had said, if lie was not allowed to 
explain, the Court would remain \n ignorance of the fact. 

The question was then re, eated. 

Lord Cochrane continued. — I ordered the cables to be hoved taut up and 
down. The .4r'.tna bomb passed ; I inquired by hading if any attack was 
intended to be made on the enemy, and was answered by the captain that 
he was directed to boudiard tlie enemv. I think there was a br;g coming 
down after him ; I desired Wm\ to close, and hoved anchor to the bows. 
The impression on my mind was, having seen no signal made about that 
time to indicate an attack, that no futher attack except tliat by throwing 
shells was intended. The Calcutta, Varsovie. and most of the other ships 
'•ere pressing sail to fi)rce them (in towards the Charante, and out of (^ur 
reach. The Liiperieuse, although we did not commence to tire on the 
enemy until two o'clock, was then wholly in time, by firing on the Calcutta, 
to cut away, or to cause them to break from the confusion into wliich they 
were thrown. Ttie confusion of the enemy forced th'' Varsovie ashore, and 
thereby prevented the escape of these two siiips, which were the last, with 
the exception of Aquilon, which vessel, aithouzh near, was a i.ttie farther 
lip, and they on buard the Aquilon were in such confusion, that it vv:is 
upwards of an hour and a half before they could get une single i^un out of 
the stern ports of that vessel. The whole of the enemy's ships of war were, 
at two o'clcjck, in the position shewn in Chart No. 3, which I siiall present 
to the Court ; and the British fleet are there put down, as it appeared from 
the Imperieuse, from the iiuchorage which slie took up, and in \>hich 
anchorage she continued until one o'clock, close to the Buoy;'Ut shoal, just 
within tlie longest drop of shells. The Eagle, although nearest, did n it nra 
at all (products the chcwLs). The reasons, if theie are any, why the frigates 
iniglit not, previous to the hour of half past eleven o'clock, have attacked 
the enemy, will be found in the preceding narralion, wherein it appears that, 
two sail of the line continued at anchor until lialt-piist elev( n, which two 
ships, it appeared to my mind, it would have been better to attack by 
opposing to them two or three sail of the line, instead of a great number of 
frigates, nIthon;ih it w as my opinion that the frigates themselves would have 
been quite equal to the task. The enemy's tAvo ships were empleved all 
tht: morning attempting to get their topmasts up, which in the couise of six 
liours from day-liglit in the morning, I do not think they had quite eii't cted 
at the time they -luide sail on the approach of the Biitisn fleet, a 'd ran 
aground in the middle of the channel leading to tlie Charanie; 1 think in 
about half an hour after the British fleet anchortd. This gave rise to my 
ojiinion that they were not in a slat;? to fight. 

Q. It being stated in the log of the Imperieuse, that about four o'clock 
P.IVL on the ISth, the signal was made to the msliore squadron U) weak out 
«5f the ebb tide, tliat a signal of recall was also made to you, which you 



122 TRIAL or 

answered by a telegraphic conmiunication, and it not appearinij; by the log 
of tlie Caledonia thai such signal was made, state whether sucli signal was 
niade for recalHnt;:, and whether the inshore squadron came out in conse- 
quence thereof, and what was the purport of the telegraphic signal you 
made to the commander-in-chief ? — A. On the morning of the 13th April, 
the ships of ihc line, one of tlicm hearii;g the firing of Admiral Stopford, 
•weighed and " orked out of the inner anchorage, hy order, to the best of my 
belief, from Admiral Stopford, whose ship shewed some lights, which I un- 
derstood was a signal for that purpose to the line-of-battle ships. Most 
of these having continued until low water in situations in which it was 
known by the chart that tliere was not water enough. The signal of recall 
was reported to me, about four or five o'clock in the afternoon, to have 
been made by the Caledonia, and I answered by telegraphic signal, that the 
enemy could be destroyed, and I was the further confirmed in this opinion, 
by an official letter, directed, " on service," which I hold in my hand, 
directed to me from his lordship, ordering the Imperieuse, together with 
the bomb, and dated on the 13th, written, to the best of my behef, in his 
lordship's own hand, and which I beg may be read to the court. — The letter 
was then read, in substance nearly as follows :— 

" MY DEAR LORD, Caledonia, April \3, 

" You have done your part so admirably that I will not suffer you to tar- 
nish it by attempting impossibilities. You must therefore join me as soon 
as you can with the bomb, ike. as I wish to have some information from 
you before I close my despatches. I am, &c. 




A^ 



-a^-riy^^^^ 



" Postscipt. — I have ordered three brigs and two bombs to join you in 
the attempt ; hut I dont ttiink it will succeed. You must come to me in the 
turn of the tide, as L want to send you to England as soon as possible." 

To which T replied by the following letter, also dated the 13th, and witlj 
which letter I sent a commissioned officer :— 

" MY LORD, Imperieuse, April 13. 

" I have just received your lordship's letter : we can destroy the enemy's 
ships on shore, of which I hope you will approve. I am, &c. 

^ ♦' COCHRANE." 

Q. It appears from the log of the Imperieuse that at three P.M. the 
iE.tna, with brigs in company, was bombarding the enemy's ships, in the 
Chainiel; wlieu were they recalled, and l)y whose orders.?— A. I sent them 
in to bombard the enemy. I believe they came out after the Imperieuse 
liad weighed, and the Eagle had taken her anchorage. I told them the day 
before, to come out on the ebb tide, but they did so a little after hi^h 
water. 

Q. In your lordship's letter to Mr. Pole, in answer to his letter, and 
reqnesiiiig you to state to the Lords of the Admiralty your grounds for ob- 
jecting^ to the vote of thanks, you referred generally to the log. You are 



ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 123 

requested to state wliether you mennt to draw tlieir lordslilp's attention to 
more than the documents now stated, and on wl.irli v(^u have gi\en ycjur 
sentiments ? — A. having been directed by ttieir loid^liips to explain my 
reasons, I referred their iurdsbips to tlie loos and siiinai losis ol the squadron, 
considering that, under every cjrcuinsiance, the best source tVoni whence 
their lordships could derive information. It was not my desire, unless 1 had 
been pressed, to have drawn their lordships' attention to any part of them, 
or any other documents. I considered the affair in Basque Roads in every 
respect as passed, and, whatever my opinion nnulit have bet n, incapable of 
all remedy. Had it been a matter in wliich the future interests of my 
country were involved, I should not have hesitated one moment in pointing 
that out to their lordships, and calling their attention to every part of these 
documents, or any others I might be possessed uf. 1 have now also to call 
the attention of the Court, that had the frig,ates on the morniuii, instead of 
leaving the inner anchorage and accompanying the ships of the line, re- 
mained there, full opportunities offered that day to destroy se\eral sail of 
the enemy, which were not out of reach of the vessels properly plf.ced, at 
proper times of tide, or of smaller vessels during every part of the tide, and 
I see no cause to alter my opinion. 

Q. When did your h)rdship first discover in the inner road of Aix, that 
there was anchorage sutficieutly capacious to contain six snil of the line to 
ride, without being in range ot shot or shell ? — A. I have been in possession 
of the French charts, which I have not found defective in any material 
points, for a period of years; and from these charts I have at all times 
drawn conclusions with respect to the depth of the water and oth<;r circum- 
stances which relate to navigation upon the enemy's coast ; and on them, 
in this case, as in all others, I placed my depenilance. I went in ; on many 
I found them correct. I knew by the charts, when in pursuit of the 
Calcutta, I was to find a bank. We found it, and this I d:d, knowing what 
I was about. Upon my tract close by the Bnoyart, I found it correct, and 
in fact, I had confidei.cQ in the chart, by winch on sailing it appeared to me 
that this anchorage might, if any object was in view, be taken. 

Q. In t!ic chart your lordship consulted on this occasion, are the sound- 
ings so marked in it as to afford a space suflicient for six sail, not within 
range of shot and sliell ? — A. That conviction was upon my mind ; but on 
referring to the chart, which is exactly the same as others which have been 
in my possession, I find that xio soundings are wanted; but the court can, 
by referring thereto, decide the question. 

Q. When you found, by experience, on going into Aix Roads, that the 
soundings you found in thechart you made use of were correctly set down, 
and from thence you drew a conclusion that there was safe anchorage for 
six sail of tlie line, did you make any conununication of that important 
fact to tlie commaiidcr-in-cliief ? — A. Tb.e commander-in-chief had tlie 
same charts, I believe, as I was in possession of, upon which, as I have 
already stated, I formed my conclusions with respect to the anchorage 
above alluded to. He had also French pilots on board, in whose reports, 
from pre\ious experience, I knew the conunander-iii chief to rely above idl 
other authority. On reconnoitring the fleet the fir^t day, we were so near 
as lo induce the enemy to open his hre from almost his whole line, [ 
reported to the commander-in chief the ruinous state of Aix, its fortifica- 
tions being completely blown uji and destroyed, which I might easily ascer- 
tain from the deck with perfect precision, not only as to tlie side touards 
us, but also as to the opposite side, from the inaiu-top of the ship. There 
were only thirteen guns mounted upon that side, on wiiich I bad formerly 
seen, to the best of my recollection, about fifty. In making these observa- 
tions to his lordship tor his inlVjrmaiiou, he stated his perfect reliance upon 
tl^fi opinion uf the pilots, and assured mc that Isle d'Aix was exceedingly 



124 TRIAL OF 

Strong, and that T thiMk it had three tiers of guns mounted towards the 
feiiippnig. I then observed to his lordship that the circumstances which 
I then related were within ray own observation, which did not alter liis lord- 
ship's opinion. 

Q. Can the ships of the line arrive at that anchorage at all times of the 
tide? — A. By tbllowiiii; the track wJiich I judged best in taking in the 
Iniperieiise, that being larthest off from the tiie of the enemy, I do believe 
that ships of the line may pass in at any time of the tide. I sat on the 
iietthig aitending to the leads, during ttie time we were going in, it was then 
higii vvtiter; and having marked that the rise and fall of the tide was stated 
at ten feet, the impression upon my mind was, that I should not with a ship 
ot the line hesitate to v.o in. I think my impression at the same time was, 
that at low water it would not be proper to take one of the heaviest sliips 
in, which was not necessary. I do not think we had ler>s than a 4u-gun 
ship. We passed so close to the Buoyart 1 could have thrown a penny 
piece on it. 

Q. All the information your lordship has of the rising and falhng of the 
Avater was obtained t'rora the charts only, and without any other inform- 
ation? — A. I iiad remarked, when before on that coast, the rise and fall of 
the ide, at a place not far distant, to be about ten or twelve feet at the 
higliest tide ; and 1 thouglit afterwards, when the French ships lay aground, 
that they stood about twelve feet. The Aquilon had sunk about ten feet, 
and it must have been at the dead of low water when I went on board of 
her. 

Q You said that ships of the line might have brought to, with their heads 
to the N.E. near the Buoyart Shoal, and might have engaged the two 
French ships that remained at anchor, without danger from shot or shell 
from the Isle of Aix ; would they iiave been nearer to the isle of Aix than 
they would to those ships ? — A. I should not have thought of bringing any 
ship's bioadside to an enemy wlien at a distance so great as from the Isle 
of Aix to the Buoyart, but should have contiiuud on the same course that 
ships would do in going to the inner anchorage., until the enemy's shot began 
to tell, and then I should have brought the broiidside of the ships to bear in 
the manner before described, having their heads towards the N. and E. or, 
if their shot did not tell, so as materially to injure, I should probably have 
proceeded to bring the larboard guns to bear, by passing on the side opposite 
to Isle D'Aix, till 1 placed my ship, or ships, in such a situation as not only 
to capture or lestroy these, but those also which were lying as in Chart 
No. 2. The distance was such that I might lie here for a week and not 
have been hit twice. 

Q. You said, that after a time they might put their helms np, and run 
under the sterns otthe ships at anchor, and engage both these ships and the 
ships that were on shore; was that a situation in which any of our ships 
were at any time placed ? — A. I have said, that provided I found it more 
expedient, I would have done so; the \'aliant, and ships that joined the 
Imperieuse about three o'clock F.M. on the 12th April, placed themselves, 
or rather passed the po.-ition alluded to, and went on towards the end of 
the shoal, which in the case stated in the question would not have been 
necessary. 

Q. Your lordship having stated that if two or three sail of the line, in 
coming in, hud borne close nn the Buoyart, had laid their main and fore- 
top sails aback, and lalien tiie tide under their lee, so as to enable them to 
bear round, and go up to the enemy's two line-of-batt!e shi^s, then afloat, 
was there spate enough for either one, two, or three sail of the line to have 
taken uu an anchorage, with even part of t^ieir broailsides to bear on those 
two ships, without taking the ground ? — \. I did not consider the tide under 
the lee as a point essential to the bearing up. There was sufficient room. 



ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 125 

i can speak with positive certainty, for we in the Tmperieuse, when workins; 
out from tiie position which we occupied, as shewn by Chart, No. 3, tacked 
rcpeatedlv, and havcrsed all the space between the slioal of the Buoyart 
and tlie l.uuvs of the enemy's ships, where they had been anchored in line, 
and from winch they had cut. I should not have stcjud ?o far cowards these 
buoys had it nut been that the enemy seemed little inclined to disturb us, 
whicii i not only aiaiiuted to the ruinous state of the works, but concluded 
that they were in want of powder or other mihtary stores. I should not 
have chosen, lowever, any distant station, but sliould probably have brougiit 
U|) alon.side of th< m, and on that side directly opposite to Aix. The three- 
decker, and other ships on shore, two of which after appeared to have their 
masis locked together, could have aivcn no material distuibance to such a 
position, and these three mititit have been destroyed by one seventy-tour, 
had she been sent to attack ihem, or even by a frij^ate or two, while the 
two 1 rench liiie-of-ba;tle ships were occupied at their anchors, as is above 
supposed ; when 1 arrived at the outer anchoras^e, I mentioned to Lord 
Ganibier tiuit as there could be no jealousy uitli respect to Admiral Stop- 
ford, that it would be a ni itter essential "to the service to send the admiral 
in with the lriga^es and other vessels, whichever his lordship thoui;ht best, 
as bis zeal lor the service would accomplish what I consider yet more cre- 
ditable than any tiling that had been done; I apologised for the freedom 
whicli I had used with his lor.lshiji, ;uid stated that I t(»ok that liberty as a 
friend, for it wouhi be impossible, things remaining as they were, to prevent 
a noise being made about it in EnLdaud. I said, " My Lord, you desired 
ine to speak candidly to you, and I have used that freedom ; T have no wish 
or desire but for the service of our country," to which his lordship replied, 
that if I threw blauie, it would appear, as arrogantly claiming all the merit 
to myself. I a'suied his lordship [ had no such intention, and mentioned 
at the same time that it was not my desire to carry de-^patciies, or to go to 
London with Sir Harry Neale, upon the occasion. His lordship immedi- 
ately after delivered to me an order directing the above. When I weighed 
I had the satisfaction of hearing tt:at the signal had been made for Admiral 
Stopford, but whether to execute the above purpose by the frigates, or other 
means, I do not knt)w. 

Lord Gambicr declined asking Lord Cochrane any questions at present. 

Admiral Stopford was next sworn and examined. — lie stated that, under 
all the ciicuinstances of the case, between the 10th of March and the 
17tn of April, he did not thmk there was any delay or deficiency on tha 
part of the eomraander-in-chiet, in executing the service entrusted to his 
care. — The ships were unmoored on the 11th of Apr 1. From a conver- 
sation which he had with the coininander-in-ciiief before unmooiii-.g, he 
understood it was for the pnrfiose of being ready to take advantage o; any 
favourable ciicumstance. I'here was, he said, some conversation which had 
no practical effect, respecting the fleet making a shew of getting under 
weigh to deceive the enemy, for the purpose of preventing the enemy's 
boats coming out to intereept the tire-ships. — The signal was made, and the 
fleet moored again about sun-set, except the Cajsar. The connnaiuier-in- 
chief did not at the time comnmnicate to him hi-, reason for mooring, but 
from the close order in which some part of the t^cet was originally moored, 
and considering the strength of the tide, he thought there might have been 
some risk of the ships nearest to each other getting on board of each other 
had they continued so close. 

Q. The morning after the fire-ships were sent in, some signals and tele- 
graphic communications were made from the Imperieuse to the com- 
iuander-i»-chief ,'' D,o you recollect what they were ? — A. I confess I umst 



I2S I'RIAI, OF 

speak more from recollection than from any thing I saw myself. I can 
speak to those which were officially reported to me bv the captain of the 
Caesar. The first signal reported to me to be made by the Imperieuse was, 
" seven of the oneniy's ships on shore ; the fleet can destroy them." Soon 
after signal repeated, " that half the fleet could destroy them." Between 
half-past six and eight o'clock, I do not recollect any other signal marie by 
the Imperieuse till between half-past twelve and one o'clock, same day, and 
standing in towards the enemy. The Imperieuse made signal that the 
enemy's ships were superior to the ciiasing ship, but inferior to the fleet 
united; also that the Imperieuse was in distress, and wanted assistance. 

Q. Was any official information given to you of the commander-in-chief 
having recalled the Imperieuse on the morning of the l'2ti) ?-~A. No such 
communication was ever made to me. — The Revenge, Theseus, Valiant, and 
Cffisar, went into the Road of Aix at different times of the night. The 
Csesar some hours after the Valiant, They were recalled by no order from 
the commander-in-chief, but the Caesar, Theseus, and Valiant, came out by 
orders from me. The reason for calling those ships from the service on 
which they were ordered, without directions from the commander-in-chief 
was, the imminent and inevitable danger they were exposed to by continuing 
in that station; also the certainty that they could not be employed with 
farther effect. The evening preceding, when the Caesar was going in, she 
got on shore for three hours, in range of the enemy's shot ; and this con- 
trary to my expectations, being told by the pilot there was sufficient water. 
The captains of the Theseus and V'aliant also informed me that ttieir ships 
had been aground. 

Q, On what shoal was the Ca3sar aground ? — A. A continuation of the 
Buoyart, or a separate bank in the same line with the Buoyart. At the 
time the Czesar got ashore it was nearly dark, and the enemy did not 
perceive her situation. If it had been day-light, I should have despaired of 
getting her off'. 

Q. Did you know that within the Road of Aix, there was an anchorage 
capable of containing six sail of the line, perfectly out of reach of shot and 
shells from any of the enemy's batteries ? — A. Previous to our f.ngates 
going in [ certainly did not know it, although some pilots were of opinion 
that there was, others that there was not. With respect to the number, I 
nndcrstood it never contained more than four i^hips in five fathom, without 
range of shells. Had I known of that anchorage before I went in I should 
have expected to derive little good from any ships going there, as it was 
quite out of the line of annoying any of the enemy's ships that were on 
shore. Before I went in, and in going in, I observed the enemy's ships 
close under the batteries, and I was so little acquainted witli that ancliorage, 
that I was of opinion, both with respect to the navigation as well as the 
exposure to the batteries, ships could not be employed without imminently 
risking their safety. 

Q. You have commanded a squadron for a considerable time in Basque 
Roads; have you been able to ascertain how high the tide rises and falls at 
spring tides? — A. Genei-ally from eighteen to twenty-one feet, according 
to the set of the wind; the N.VV. wind makes a higher tide. 

Q. Wh.en the Imperieuse made the signal that the enemy's ships were on 
shore, and the fleet might desti-ny tliem, would you, with the experience 
;, ou have as a flag officer, have thought it pi'udcn.t or proper to send or lead 
in tlie fleet to destroy them.'' — A. In my opinion tiie dislodgment from the 
anchorage of the enemy's ships by fire-ships, removed but a small part of 
the obstacles. With the wind as it tlien was, and the broadside of the 
fnemy's shij.s still commanding the passage, we should have been so 
cripj)ltd in going in and iu v/orking out a passage a little mure than a mile. 



ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 127 

I think I sliould not have risked the ships had they been uuder my 
command. 

Adjourned till the next day, Friday, July 28, when Lord Cochrane was 
re-exaniincd, on certain points respecting the correctness of the charts which 
he had produced. 

Admiral SroproRD was also re-examined. 

Q. Wlien the signal was made by the Imperieuse, on tiie morning of the 
12th, that the enemy's sliips were aslinrc, was any thing done by the British 
fleet in consequence of it? — ^A. Shortly after the signal was made by the 
Imperieuse, the commander-in-chit-f made the signal to unmoor; bull 
cannot speak to the exact interval of time between these signals ; afterwards 
the signal was made to weigh, and the tl;.et moved in consequence nearer to 
the Isle D'Aix, as tiie commander-in-chief informed me, for observing the 
proceedings of the enemy, and with the intention of going in with the fleet, 
if the wind had shifted so far to the eastward as to allow the fleet to go 
out again, ibr which event the connnander-in-chief expressed the greatest 
anxiety. 

Q, At what time was it the commander-in-chief informed you of his 
reasons for going in ? — A. Sometime l)etween the hours of eight and ten, 
in the forenoon of the 12th, being tiien on board the Caledonia. — The fleet 
anchored again, rather more tlian tlirec miles from the Isle D'Aix, finding 
there was no change in the wind. 

Q. At the time when the fleet anchored again, would it have been pru- 
dent or proper to have sent half of it in to destroy the enemy ? — A. I ilnnk 
it would not. The commander-in-ciiiGf desired the iE,tna bomb and tlic 
smaller vessels, gun-brigs, and other vessels to bombard the enemy's ships 
that were lying on shore. The captains of the Valiant, the Revenge, ilic 
Lyra, and some ot'ier sliips, were placed toyyards the Buoyart shoal, in order 
to support the operations of the gun-brig's. The jEtna and smaller vesstis 
immediately proceeded, witliout anchoring to bombard the ships. The hne 
of battle did not proceed till subsequently ordered by signal : they anchored. 
Directions were given to some other ships to proceed. They were gi> en to 
the captains on boanl the Caledonia, by the commander-in-chief, and in my 
hearing. As they were directions that could only be executed according to 
the skill of the pilots, the orders to the ships drawing more water were of 
course given with discreti-.m to the captains oi' those ships, to go in as tar as 
they thought safe, as far as they could depend upon their pilots. l''rom trie 
general signal given for the ships to prepare for battle, with springs on their 
cables, &c. also from the conversation i had with the commandcr-in-chicf, 
and witnessing his impatience and disappointment at circumstances not 
allowing him immediately to go in with the licet, it was my full conviction 
that it was the intention of the commander-in-chief, that every ship, of 
every description, should go in as ?(jon, and as far as the discretion of the 
captains would admit. The vessels that accompanied the iEtna when she 
went in, were chiefly gun-brigs and men of war. Afterwards every frigate 
went in inconsequence of siunal;* from the commander-in cliief. 

Q. How long after the lirig-sloops, the gun-brigs, and the /F.tna went 
\n was it that the frigates went in i* — A. I don't think it could exceed iialf 
Rn hour. 

Q. When the fleet brought up at the distance you have mentic^ncd, from 
the Isle D'Aix, v.hat wus the state of the weather? — A. Fine weather, fresh 
breeze. Wind N.N.W. fl.)od tide. At the time of the firesliips being sent 
in on the evening of the 11th, the weather was squally, with strong bncze 
to N. VV. with so strong a sea, that boats could not pull again t it Mie vvuid 
■was still fresh till twelve o'clock : it moderated for u few hours in tlie 



128 TRIAL OF 

middle of the uij^ht, and freshened up again about day-light. The frit^ateS 
which went in after the smaller vessels, and aiso the line-of-baitle sliips, the 
VaHant and Revenge, proceeded in by signals. 

Q. By Lord Gai.bier. — On the evening; of the 1 1th of April, it blowing 
a gale of wind from the northward at high sea, the night extremely dark, 
great dilhculty of any communication fr im ship to ship, in ynnr opinion, 
was not the service in which those ollicers and men were employed in the 
fire-ships extremely hazardous, and attended with so much danger as to 
give reason to apprehend that they could not return? — A. Being directed 
on that night to take the leading of all the boats that were assembled on 
board the Ca?sar, there was so much wind and sea, I thought they could not 
act with elTect in support of the fire-ships. I directed the captain of the 
Cffisar, about sun-set, to go to the commander in-chief, and suggest to his 
lordship Irom me, the propriety of the beats remaining on board the Cajsar 
till I thcnght they could act with elVect, of whicli hisloalship and 1 selected 
the boat belonging to the Hero, as the best rowing boat I could find, to go 
to the Imperieuse to acquaint Lord Cochrane of such iiiteniion of keeping 
the boats, and desiring his lordship to send me word back by it if he 
wanted any otiier assistance. The weather was so bad that they could not 
return that night. With respect to the hazardous undertaking, it was fully 
exemplified by one of the fire vessels belonging to the Ca?sar. She went in 
before the explosion, and before the Mediator, and on coming near the 
French fleet she brought to, by signal from the others ; the exploding vessel 
blew up close to her, killing two men, and damaging one of the boats, in 
which they were to come away. The men were therefore much crowded 
in the remaining boat, in which they had to return to the vessel. The 
acting lieulenant and one man died from fatigue in the bottom of the boat; 
the others were picked up by the Lyra br.g. Every circumstance was 
extremely favouiable for the fire-ships acting, iind therefore I took it for 
granted, that when once placed jiroperly, they nmst inevitably go down 
upon the enemy's ships. This has no reference to the men coming away ; 
so far it was imfavourable. 

Q. Bj/ the Court. — Did you generally observe tlie manner in which the 
fire-ships were conducted towards the enemy? — A. As far as I observed, 
the fire ships seemed all to have answered the purpose of harrassing t.'ie 
enemy. 1 here were some certainly set on fire before it appeared to me 
t'ley had run so near the enemy as otl;crs had ; but it is impossible to kno\r 
whelher they were too far. The enemy's line soon began to be scattered ; 
they cut, and the ships miglit be going properly to one part of the line, 
tliough'impropeily to another, wliich 1 nnght be itien looking at. 

Q. in passiiig the Buoyurt Shoal I think it was day-l:ght t — A. Just 
dusk. 

Q. What distance did you pass the enemy then ? — A. I think a quarter 
of a mile from that part wliich is seen when tlie tide is down We kept as 
near to it as we could, lo asoid the baLtenes of the isle of Aix. There was 
about eight fathoms, shoal cast five fathoms, and the next cast was on the 
shoal. For one mile of distance in the passage, shells were crossing us 
from both sides, . but more from the Isle of Aix side. The enemy did not 
fire their guns f;ist; but more single shot occasionally; and I think four 
mortars kejjt playing upon us. 

Mr. SiTKLiNG, Master of the Imperieuse, being again called and exa- 
mined, stated as follows: — On the morning of tlie 13th, the Imperieuse 
retreated out of the reach of the Varsovie ami Aquilon, they being both on 
fire; we w^orked from the Palais shore when the Imperieuse was at an an- 
chor, at the rhne she was engaged in five fathom, at high water. About two 
o'clock, we were standing towards the island of Aix; the souudi-ugs given 



ADMIRAL LORD CAMBIER. 129 

hy the rnci) at tlie lcacl>, to the best of mv recollection, was from six to 
seven t\ul:oiiis; the ficpth mii^lit be more towards the i-land, when we an- 
choiod (which was out of raiiiie of shot and sliell); we lay iu five and a half 
fathoiHs at low water; there was then about the dis.tuiice from three to four 
cabivjs nearer towards the Palais, than the Inipcricuse had anchored — a 
good berth ibr three or four sail of the line to anchor in five and a half fa- 
thoms dead low water. When the Inipericusc weighed from the inner 
road of Aix coniin'4 out, it was about the last quarter flood, near hii.dt 
water. She worked out, and kept the lee goini; the whole time. Between 
the tail of the Palais and IJuoyait shoals, there were six, six and a half, and 
seven fatlion.s water. When in six f;\thom3, turainij; out from her anchoi- 
a;^e, the Imperieusc was witiiin something!: less than half rar.j^e of point 
blank shot, from the batleries of the I>le of Aix. On the niurning of the 
1 '2th, prior to the Iinperietisc proceeding to annoy the enemy, then on 
sliore, I was desired by Captain Lord Cochrane to lay a buoy on the fiuo}- 
art, which I did in 6^ fathoms water, at a sufficient distance to. allow any 
ship to have raked round the buoy. After which I observed, on t'ne Isleot" 
Aix, about 20 or 24 piece- of cannon ready mounted ; well kiio\vii)g, however, 
those guns would C y very little execution t'> any sliip passiiig, that chose to 
make any oppo:-ilion against them, they being placed in an open platform, 
as appeared to me by my glass in an open boat. Observed some consider- 
al)Ie parts of the works to be blown up and destnjyed; oa the part that 
flanks you, as you rim in along theRuoyart shoal. 

Q. Bi/ TjurdOuiiibkr. Did the Trnpericuse ground on the night of tlie 
12th of April? — Yes, on the tail of the Palais shoal; at an anchorage 
%vhere we had been firing at the French ships, but not until the last 
^juarter ebb. 

Captain Woife, of the Eagle, sworn and examined. lie knew nothing 
of the iiiner anchorage, but frum the [vlot's infurmation on tlie day the at- 
fack was made; but after he had got in at the lime of the attack, he thouL'.'it 
if the sliips had remained there, witliout removing to the second anchorage, 
tliey must all have lieen desiruyed by the shots and shells from the batteries 
of the enemy. At the second anchorage, from his own observations, hav- 
ing been there fifteen days alter the enemy's ships were burnt, he thought 
four or five sail of the line might have lain there clear of the enemy's bat- 
teries, but must have been moored very short and very close, with other 
small vessels to fill up the interval. The rise of the tide on spring tides, 
J.m the average, for the time he was there, was from 15 to 16, 17, and 18 
feet. It did not appear to him, tiiat the commander-in-chief neglected or 
delayed taking effectual steps for liie destruction of the enemy's ships oa 
the 12ih; nor did h.e nenltct to take means for the attack of the enemy at 
any lijne afti^r the signal from the Iniperieuse, that the enemy's ships could 
be destroyed. No blame whatever coukl have been attached to his con- 
iluct, from the l?th of March to the 29th of April. Prom t!ie first attac'»c 
of the enemy's ships, to tlie final cessation of hostilities against him, every 
thing was done that could be done to eflect their destruction, with the class 
of vessels that were present. 

Captain Hodd, of the In.dcfatigable, sworn and examined. Before he 
went in to the iimer road of Aix, to att;ick the enemy's ships, he knew of 
no anchorage \\here line-of-battle ships could lie, without the ranae of shot 
vv shell from the batteries. He knew of no blame imputable to Lord Gam- 
bier. He thought that, if the ships had gone farther up t!ie Charonte, they 
must all have been lost. " As it was," said Captain llodd, " we were 
aground for upwards of an hour, and striking some time before that; and 
we were for some time nearly dry. In the direction the anchor was laid, I 
cmild not find mire than five aiid a half fathoms at about half ebb. The 



w 



13ft PLVTE CCACI. 

si'ir.al was made by the commaiifler-in-cliief, for tlip flppt to wei^h about 
two o'clock, P.M. I was all ready for weijihing, and wei'/hed iiumcdiHtety: 
ill a few miiuires the siirnal was iiunle for the lndtUti<j;a!)le tn proceed to a 
ship, niakiii:; sii^nals of distress, bearing soutiiward; the witid was lielit; we 
went in under all sail, .'.nchored within conversation of the Iniperieuse, and 
Cf> allien ed Hrin^ on tlie Calcutta. T!ic sl;ot from the baiteries of I^ie 
d'A'ix v>'fcnt"b\'ffitlTreTiV3"efat?i{ab!e by the head and stchi, and'the sliellsTroin ; 
them rrossed her. W!iea at anchor with the Impericuse, a shot jiassed " 
throniih ti)e mam-top-masl, and wounded the mast." 

Q. Wiien vou were within the Isle if Aix, did you observe tlie state of ' 
defence of tl»e it^laud? — A. I did. The enemy shifted their gur.s from one 
pa''t '>i t'.e isia -'d to tite other. 

Q. Oid ihe C'paiii of t!ie Imperieuse hail the Indefatigable as she was 
^oiiit; out, and pro;^><>se that she slionid <io or.c quarfer of the Ocean whi!e 
tiio Tui)>€ri<'ijse went the other.? — V. Lord Cochrane h::iled the Indefati-, 
glide, l)iitvvhHt he said r could not make out. J tsld lii'ii I was order':*d !! 
out. He isked me if I had been a^jound? I replied, yes. He said he' 
S'.uiill, like to take our 2;r )und. Had he sent a I' )at to me, and pro[)o«ed a I 
thiii<; of tlie kind, I coidd not have thought of doin}; it - ithout orders from ' 
niy superior oliicers, nor do I know that it was jjossibie for the Indctuti- 
gabic to liave ;;(»t near the Ocean. 

Q When yo!i were c.dled (mt of the Isle of Aix, could yon^ had V(ju re- 5 
niained there, have destroyed more or the eiien.y's ships .^ — I do .not think ^ 
WeC(JU:.!. . ._ ' , I 

Q. liad anv of ti^e enemy's Iine-of-batt!e ship=. struck to the Xniperit^usef 
before vou commenced ihe action } — .A. Most as.siireriiy not; sevend broad-tj 
sides were fired at the Calcutta from tlie Tiidefauqiable. Lord Cochrane, or^ 
so. ne pert. 11 iVmn the Imperieuse, h.iiied me, and said the Calculta had 
struck. I couid only see her at intervals ihror.-^h tlie smoke. 

The evidence for the prosecution cl)ted here, and the Court-ndjonrncd , 
to -S iturdav, Julv 23 ; v.dien Lord (iambier stated, that he should be ready' 
to pr'ceed on his dei€nce on Mnndiiy. The Court havin^j assembled on' 
T'londay, on the President's desiring the witnesses to withdraw, as usual,? 
Lord C och I an e submitted to the Court, that it was not the cusiuni of courts- ^- 
ui irtial 10 exclude ihe »vituesses from the Court dnrhiy: the difiVnce. \^ 

The t^res'dent —" Lord Cochrane; it is the wisMofthe Court, in the pre-: 
sent instance, that the witnesses should be excluded." " ^ 

fAnd CtK-h.anc — " i'he trial of Aflmiral lJarvey>is.-^\-casc in point, 
vhrieihe witnrsses were allowed to remain in Court during -tbcreatijng 
of tfie dtfeoce." -■ " ^ 

The Pnsui^nf — " My Lord, the Court lias discussed the measure in the,* 
present instance, and it is its wish that you should vvithdraw." 

Lor(J Co:fir;i'ie bowed and wichdrtw. 

L.)r I (iamljier uas tlicn called upon for his defence, which the Judge 
Advocate was permitted to read Cor him, as foijows. 
[^To he co'iiiniiccl.^ 



PLATE CCXCI. 

\^ "L'' E are induced, in consct^uence of the success attending our Grand 
txf.edition at the Island of *V\'a!qhercn, to lay before our Sub- 
scribers a Chart of the southern part of the United Provinces; conceiving. 
it to be hi'ihly interesting at the present'juncture, and extremely useful t» 
refer to, or, reailiig the Letters on Sercke, inserted in our foUo-.ving pages^, 
ivbich aSTord so ainpie an account of the various captures from the enemy 



Ft ATE CCXrf. I3I 

irt TT()ll;ir.d. Tor t'lo fartlicr illtistratioii of o!ir procrrd'ngg, v,e ?! a'.l liere 
!^u'ojoin some brief notices respecting the principal points against v. hicli our 
operations fiave been directed. 

The river *chel'it rises about eight miles to the north of St, Quintin, in 
Picanly; passes Canibray, Bouchaiii, Denain, and Vn!eiicie!)nes, w'lorc it 
first becomes navi!;ahle; then, taking in the tiuisne, above Contle, aiid the 
Scarpc, bekivv St. Amand, it separates Tournay and Oudenardc ; at Ghent, 
it is ans^inented l»y the Lys; thence it proceeds to Dendermonde, nherc it 
t;Aes in the Dciidre, and a httlc Inwrr the Paincle; and, stparaiing Bra- 
bant from Fk\iKlers, it washes the walls of ;\iiL\verp, wfiere it forms for tluit 
ciiv a safe, lar^iCj an^i noble harbour. Some lc'<!i',iics below y^nlwerp, the 
Scheldt branches forth into two lars>e streams ; the southward braiji^h iepa- 
ratiny; Minders from Zealand, while the northward, parting the islands of 
Zealand, fads into the ocean between Walcheren to the south, and Schowen 
to the north. The foruicr is distiiigcibhcd as the East, the latter as the 
West Scheldt. 

The province of Zealand, as will be scon by inspecting the map, consists 
of islands which are formed by the respective branches and outlets of the 
Scheldt. Osi the north, it is bounded by Holland; on the east, by Bra- 
bant; on the south, by Flanders; and, on tlie west, by the North Sea: 

The island* of Walcheren and Schowen, on the western coast, are de- 
fended airainst the violence of the sea, by downs, or sand-hills; and, on the 
other sides, like the rest of the islands of Zealand, lie vast dyhes, uiiicli at 
tlie bottom have a breadth of twenty-five German ells, and at the top are 
?o wide, that two carriages may pass abreast: their heiEht is also propor- 
tioned to their thickness; notwithstanding which, in high tides and stormy 
weather, the waves in many places force a passage, or even flow over 
them. Walcheren, the most westerly and most considerable of these 
islands, is about thirteen miles long, from nortli to south; and eic^ht wide, 
from east to west. Scl;f)wen, situated to tlie north east of Walcheren, ex- 
tends about fourteen milci from cast to wcot, and about five from north 
to south. 

Prliddleburg, a large and Jiandsome city, the cavital of 'Walcheren, is 
situated in the centre of that island. Formerly, its fortiilcations were very 
strong and regular ; besides which, its situation is such, as to enable the 
inhabitants to lay the adjacent country under water, at pleasure. 

Flushing, originally only a small lishing town, is considered as one of the 
most important keys r, f tlie islands of Zealand ; as, by it-, situation on Wal- 
cheren, it defends the passage of the Scheldt. Its port lies between two 
Eioles, which break the waves of the sea, as it enters the town by means of 
two canals, through which loaded vessels may sail into two basons, formed 
for their reception. 

Charles the \ th, when he abdicated the throne of Spain, charged his son 
Philip to preserve Flushing, with the utmost care; but, in the year 1573, 
the States-lieneral ser/ed it, by means of seven boats filled with soldiers, 
sent by the Prince of Orange, trom the Brill. In )585, Flushing, with the 
Brill, and the fort wf llamakoas, were placed iu tlie handi of Uue«n Eli-. 



J 32 rLATE ccxci. 

zabetb, as securities for the repayment of such monies as she mii!,ht ct_ 
pend in protecting them sj^ainst the Spaniards; but, in 1616, James the 
First restored them to the Dutcli. Adrian de Ruyter, who, from a 
tailor and pilot, became Admiral of the United Provinces, was born 
at Flushing. 

Cadsand is situated on the south side of the Vv'est Scheldt, opposite to 
Walcheren. Its chief ton-n is Cassandria. 

Nortli Beveland, an island formed by the divided branches of the 
Scheldt, is about two loas^ues long, and a league and a half wide. 

South Beveland, containing the town of Goes, and several villages, is 
near!}' ei^ht leagues in lenr.th, and two and a half in width. 

Bergeii-op-Zoom is situated on the river Zoom, at its jtmction with the 
Scheldt, eighteen miles north-north-west from Antwerp. It was first sur^ 
rounded by n wall, in the year 1287; and, having been regularly fortified 
in 1C29, it has ever since been reaarded as nearly impregnable. On tlj© 
side towards Autxvcrp, is a grand half moon, extending to a fort called 
Kyck-in-de-Pot, furnished with four redoubts, and well mounted with 
cannon: between the town and the sea are eleven forts, well supplied 
tvith a number of redoubts and palisadoes. Towards Stcenberg, the out- 
works arc very strong, witii a niunber of redoubts and intrenchments; 
and, by means of a canal which communicates with the Scheldt, succours 
luny be thrown in during a siege. ^ 

Lillo, a fortress on the eastern side of the Scheldt, twelve miles south 
from Bcrgen-op-Zoom, and nine north-west from Antwerp, was buil-t by tl>e 
Dutch in the year 1584, since which time it has always had a garrison. 
Its fortilications are very regular, and its ramparts are lined with many 
pieces of cannon, to prevent vessels of too large a size from proceeding up 
to Antwerp, There are several houses and caliarets in the fort. Formerly^ 
the States were accustomed to keep a frigate in the Scheldt, otf Fort Lillo, 
to collect the duties from such vessels as might pass. 

The citv of Antwerp, 25 miles north from Brussels, and 75 south from 
Amsterdam, is situated in a large plain, on the eastern side of the Scheldt, 
which is there sufficiently deep and wide, to admit ressels of great burden 
close to the quay, A little more than two centuries ago, the commerce of 
Antwerp was superior to that of any other place in Europe; 2500 mer- 
chant vessels having arrived in its port in the course of a single year. The 
treaty of Munster, however, in 1684, gave a shock to its trade whicli 
has never been recovered from. By an article of that treaty, it was 
agreed, that no large merchant vessel should sail up to Antwerp, without 
first utdoading her cargo in one of the ports of Holland, whence the mer- 
chandize might be conveyed to Antwerp in barges, or other small vessels 
The navigation of the Scheldt was declared free, by the French, in 1794; 
but, in consequence of the general stagnation of continental commerce 
since that period, very little advantage, we believe, has accrued to Antwerp 
from that regulation. Its situation, however, as a naval depot, has ren* 
dered the place an object of great importance to Buonaparte. A ntw erp 
was taken by the French in 1792> and again in 1794, 



133 

NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

(J all) — August.) 

RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS, 

ITT will be seen, by our " Letters on Strvice," in the succeeding pages, 
-^ that tlie Grand Expedition against Flushing, i!ie sailing ofwjiich we 
recorded at page 73, has, as far as it has proceeded, successfully accom- 
plished its objects, and with a loss comparatively slight. 

The latest report from the Expedition, down to the period of our pi;bll» 
cation, is, that the enemy's fleet has attained a position above Antwerp ; 
but that it will not be secure from the eflects of the rockets, by which it i« 
expected to be destroyed. 

Another account, however, states, that it is no higher up the Scheldt thai* 
Fort Lillo. This fleet is under the command of the French Admiral Mis- 
»i«ssy, who is said to have been obliged to throw his carinon overboard, t^ 
enable him to pass some difficult parts of the .Scheldt. 

In addition to the details given in the Gazette, the following "official'* 
letter from Captain Hanchct, of the Raven sloop, to Captain Owen, of th* 
Clyde, will be found to contain some interesting particulars, highly to the 
credit of the writer:— 

" SIR, , Hh Majes'ys shop Raven, off the FMeborg, Aug. 4. 

" In obedience to your signal to chase, of yesterday afternoon, I have tlie 
honour to inform you, that when coming up abreast of Flushing, I obsenerl 
the boats of the squadron under a very galling fire, and conceived it luv 
duty to give them every protection his Majesty's brig under my command 
could afford ; I accordingly ran in for the mouth of the Scheldt, receiving 
the fire of five batteries on Cadsand, and of the v. hole sea front of riu;hin<j 
in passing. I had the satisfaction of drawing tiie fire off the boats, com- 
manded by Lieutenant Strahan, of the Clyde, v.hich were pulling after tiie 
enemy's vessels with the greatest gallantry. The enemy were driven froiH 
the battery of Breskens by our fire; the boats we brought safe down, and 
the gun-vesse!s retreated into the harbours on each side. 

" Considering the heavy fire of shot and shells we were exposed to for 
four hours in beating down, the grape coming on board us from Flushing, 
while the round shot from the batteries of Cadsand were passing tiirougli 
us, our loss is comparatively small, there being only mybclf and cijiht 
men wounded. 

" We have suffered severely in our hull, masts, and rigging; two of our 
guns were dismotmted, the top-masts shot away above the lower caps, the 
inaiu-mast, bowsprit, andmain-bcom rendered unserviceable, and the sails 
and rigging completely cut to pieces. 

" I beg leave to recommend, in tl-.e strongest manner, the gallant con- 
duct of Lieutenants Wills and Hall, whose zeal and attention on tliis and 
every other occasion merits my warmest thanks. Mr. Robert Dunlup, 
acting master, attended to his station with the greatest coolucss, as well us 
Air. VV. Preston, surgeon, who did not l%*ve the deck until called d-jwu t» 



134 NAVAL mSTOUY OF THE PRESENT YEARj 1809. 

attend the wounded; and Mr. Cuwley, purser, who volunteered to attend 
the sitrnals, and was on the poop with mt-. tlie whole time ; and I cannot too 
highly appreciate the steadiness and courage (hsplayed oy every otHcer ;tiiil 
man in the Raven, while engagin;:; the batteries in tliis pass, so well prepared 
for our reception, and in sigh.t of both armies, and whicli lias been tlioui^ht 
before forniidable even to Heeis. 

" Accompanied i>< a copy of the Sureeon's report of the wounded. 
" I have the honour to be, with respect, Sir, 

" Your most obedient humble Servant, 

" J. M. HANCiiET, Captain/^ 
" Tv CapUdn Ow€n,^c. Chjde.^'' 

*' A Lk' of f fie nounckd on hoard hh Muj est !,^s sliip Ih/ren, J. ]\I. Han-^ 
chet, Emj. in an Action icith tht But. erics in the lliccr ScJteLit, on the Crf 
dai/ of August, 1809. 

" J. M. Handier, Fisq. ca;itain, severely, side; J. Pedro, captain of tlie 
forecastle, danjierously ; John [lorniley, boatswain's mate, severely, knee; 
Robert Furlics, <.\unner's mate, ditto, face ; Jo!ui Hai-i;^eman, seaman, diito, 
hip; Dennis Mahoiiy, ditto, hand ; Simon Nelson, captain of the forelop, 
<Iitti>, arm and side; Thomis Seaward, marine, ditto, head; Anlhonv 
Bacon, ditto, ditto^ sli^litly, leg. 

" \VM. PllESTON, Surgeon." 

The conrt-martial on Admiral Lord Gnmbier terminated on the 4th of 
August, in an honourable acquittal. 

Rear-Admiral Sir Sidney Smith arrived at Portsmouth on the 7tli of 
August, in the Diana frigate, Captain Grant, iVom Rio Janeiro, The Hon. 
Admiral DeConrcy has succeeded him on that station. 

On the JGth of August, Admiral Sinavin, and the officers and crews of 
the Pi-ussian squadron, sailed for St. Petersbnrgh, agreeably to the conven- 
tion made by Admiral Sinavin with Sir Charles CcJtton, in the Tagus. Ad- 
miral Sir Roger Curtis, Bart, went to the Motherbank, and took leave of 
Admiral Sinavin, previous to his sailing. I'he ships, with all their stores, 
&c. arc to be brought into Portsmouth Harbour, where they will lie until 
six months after a treaty of peace has been concluded between the two 
countries, when they will be restored to his Paissian Majesty. 

On the 13lh of July, the French settlement of Senegal, on the coast of 
Africa, surrendered to a small naval and military force, which had been 
detached from Goree, to eft'ect its reduction, under the command of Com- 
modore Ci'lumbine in the Solebay frigate, and Major Maxwell, of the 
Jloyal African corps. Tiie garrison consisted of double tlie force of the 
assailants; but the loss on both sides was sliglit. 

From the recently received American papers, itappears that mucli dissa- 
tisfaction prevails amongst the merchants, &c. of the United States, 
respecting the non-completion of the engagements entered into by the 
British minister, Mr. Ers-ane; and it is expected, that either a fresh em- 
bargo will be laid on in the American ports, or that the Nuu-iiUercourse 
Act will Le enibrced. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRnSENT YEAR, 1809. 135 

lettfrg on §>frticf, 

Copied verbatim f rum the Los don Gazette, 



ADMrP.iLTY OFIICE, JULY 21, IGOD. 

Copy of a Letter from Caphiin Hejiri/ Boi/x, Comimiwler of his Majestij's 
Sloop th'' MofcKe, ad'lrenied to Vi-e-udiniral Himle , Cominnichr-iii- 
chiefin JamaLUf and transmitted bj/ the Admiral to the Hon. IV. Welles- 
Icy Po'e. 

sin, MoxeUc, «' Sea, Muij 20, 1800. 

I BEG IpRve to acquaint you, that I Inve tfiis day, after a few hoiiii! 
chase, captured the French iiatioiial schodiicr le Beau Narcisit;, of 
ei2;ht guns ami !iftv-hve men, comnianfled hy Rlonsieur Louis Ores, 
^useigue de vaisseau ; she left St. J^oiniHio od a cruise on the 7th of May. 
I have the honour to he, (N:c. 

IIEXllY BOYS. 

AUGUST 5, I?.' 9. 

Copy of a 'Letter from Vice-admiral Sir James Scnrninrcz, K.H. Ci'mmander- 
in chief of hh Adtijes'ifs Ships and Vexseb in he liiJiic, o the Ho'ioitrable 
Vi'i'fiui/i Welles'e^ Fole, dated on board the Victory, off' Nar^cn Island^ 
9. h July, 1809. 

SIR, 

On my arrival in the Gulf of I\in]and, havinii detached Captain Martin^ 
of liis Majesty's ship Tmi)hic!)hle, with the Melpoinaue under his orders, to 
cruise to the eastward of Nargen rs!a/;d, I herewith enclose a hst of vessels 
•which he has captured, fjr the information of the Lords Cotmnissioin-rN of 
the Admiralty : several of them being laden with naval stores heloiiiiinir to 
the Euiperor of Russia, and winch cannot tail proving a valuable acquisition 
in Fiiiiland. 

I also ciiciose. for their lordship's information, copies of two letters I have 
received from Captain Martin, of yesterday's ditC; o^e of them i;ivini'- an 
account of a most galhuit and tnterprisins attack made hy the hoats of the 
shijis named in ttie inari;in,* under tiio orders of Lieutenant iiaakey, of 
the Lnplacable, upon a Russian flotilla of fun-hoats, un !er Pcrc;<ia Point, 
on the coist of Fi:)'and ; which, notwitlistandinij: tiieir -tri>n<>; pi)sition, thev 
sncceeded in carrvin^ ; six of the gun-boats mouurin" each a" thirty-two and 
twenty-four pounder, having been br>.u<i!it o'f, and ani)th'^r sunk ; together 
V ich the vessels iiiidcr tucir protection, lad^n with powder and provisions 
for tiie ilussian army in Finland being captured, and a large armed slsip 
which was burnt. 

In referriny; their lordships to Captain Martin's detail of this iin.iortant 
service, I sincerely lament the loss to liave been very consideiahle ; Lieute- 
nant Hawkey, a inave and gallant otiicer, who had distinp,uished himseif 
upon va ious occasions, and Lieatena.it Stirling;, oftiie Prometheus, liasiii" 
been killed, and tlie several men beh),,j;in»; to his Majesty's ships, as in me 
inclosed list, having been killed and wounded. 

I cannot close tiiis without expressins^ my highest admiration of the 
undaunted courage and intrei)idity with which tins se. . ice has been 
executed, and which 1 doubt not will be duly appreciated by ihtir 
lordships. I have the lionour to \.t\ c-zc. 

JAMES SAUMAREZ. 



* Implacable, BcllerophQu, Mflpoiiieiie, and Prometheus. 



136 NAVAL UISTORY OF THE PHESENT YEAR, ISOO. 

Mrtract of' the first Letter from Captain Martin above alluded tOy dated off 
J'en-'!a Point, July 6, 180!) [stated bi/ Sir James Saumarez through 
mistake to be dated the Sth). 

The Implacable and Melpomene having stood into the Gulf of Nnrva, 
captured nine sail of vessels, laden with timber, spars, and cordar«o, belon^T- 
11)2; to the Emperor of Russia, and which I doubt not will prove a valuable 
acquisition to our own d(^ck.-ya.r(ls. 

The boats of the sliips under that active and valuable officer, Lieutenant 
Hawkey (of whose enterprisiug spirit I had occasion to speak so hi^liiy 
■wlien OiTDantzig) have looked into every creek alonj^ the south coast oi the 
Gulf, without findini; any vessels whatever, and he is now on the opposite 
•witli the same view. 

P.S. Since writinc; the above, Lieutenant Hawkey has returned with 
three vessels, captured by the boats of tlie Implacable, Melpomene, and 
Prometheus under his command, and he reports e'lzht sail of t;un-boats 
protectin<i some sliips in shore, and is very desirous of attacking them, whifJi 
•shall be done, if there is a reasonable hope of success. 

His Majcsf^^s Ship Implacable, off Fer cola Foint, 
SIR, Juli/S, 1809. 

The position taken by the Russian flotilla under Percola Point, seemed 
so much like a defiance, that I considered something wa:5 necessary to be 
done, in order to impress these strangers with that sense of respect and fear, 
which his Majesty's other enemies are accustomed to shew to the British 
flag; 1 therefore "determined to gratify the anxious wish of Lieutenant 
Hawkey, to lead tlie boats of the ^hips named in the margin,* which were 
assembled by nine o'clock lastniglit, and proceeded with an irresistible zeal 
and intrepidity towards the enemy, who liad the advantage ot local know- 
led'j;e, to take a position of extraordinary strength wirliin two rocks, serving 
as a cover to the;r wings, and from whence they could pour a destructive fire 
ef grape upon our boats, which, notwithstanding, advanced with perfect 
coolness, and never fired a gun till actually touching the enemy, when they 
boarded sword in hand, and carried all before them. 

I believe a more brilliant ac'iievcment does not grace the records of our 
naval history; each ofiicerwas impatient to be the leader in the attack, and 
each man zealous to emulate their noble example, and the most complete 
success has been the consequence of such determined bravery ; of eight 
^un-boats, each mounting a thirty-two, and twenty-four pounder, and forty- 
gix men, six have been brought out, and one sunk ; and the whole of the 
ships and vessels (twelve in number) under their protection, laden witii 
powder and provisions for the Russian army, brought out, r.nd a large armed 
ship taken and burnt; I have deeply to lament the loss of many men killed 
and wounded, and especially that most valuable othcer Lieutenant Hawkey, 
who after taking one gun-boat, was killed by a grape-shot, in the act of 
boarding the second. No praise from my pen can do adequate justice to 
this lamented young man; as an officer, he was active, correct, and zealous, 
to the highest degree ; the leader in every kind of enterprize, and regardless 
of danger; he delighted in whatever could tend to promote the glory of his 
country ; his last words were, " Huzza ! push on ! England for ever!" 

Mr.Hawkey had been away in the boats on diiferent services, since last 
Monday, accompanied by Lieutenunt Vernon, whose conduct in this affaii- 
bus been highly exemplary, and shewn him worthy to be the companion o^' 

* Jmplacablej Bellcrophon, Melpomene, aucj Prometheus, 



»ATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 137 

SO heroic a man; but while I am induced to mention the name of Mr. ^'er- 
non. From his constant services with Mr. Hawkey, I feel that every i)fficcr, 
fcaman, and marine, has a claim to my warmest praises, and will, 1 trust, 
obtain your favourable recommendation to tiie Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty. Lieutenant Charles Allen, of the Bellcroplion, was the senior 
officer after Mr. Hawkey's death. 

I liave just been informed, that Lieutenant Stirling, of tiie Prometheus, 
who was severely wounded is since dead ; his conduct in tliis affair was very 
conspicuous, and Captain Forrest speaks highly in praise of the zeal and 
activity of his services on every occasion, f am sure you will readily 
believe that Captain Forrest did not witness the preparation for this 
attack, witliout feelin<>; an ardent desire to command it, but I was 
obliged to resist his pressing importunity, as a matter of justice to Mr, 
Hawkey. 

The Russians have suffered severely in this conflict, the most moderate 
statement makes it appi^ar that two-tliirds of them have been killed and 
wounded, or jumped overboard. Enclosed is a list of killed and wounded, 
the names of the otticers employed, an account of vessels captured, and 
number of prisoners. I liave the honour to be, ike. 

T. B. MARTIN. 

To Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarcz, 
Bart, K.B. fyc. 

A List of Killed and Wounded in the Boats emphi/ed under Lieu'enunt 
Hawkty, of his jMa'iesfij''s Ship Implacable, in attacking :he fiu'isian 
Flotilla under Fercola Faint, 7th July, I8u9, and also of Officers 
employed. 

Implacable. 

Killed. — Lieutenant Joseph Hawkey; William Oliver, ordinarv seaman; 
John White, able seaman; Thomas Veryt'er, landman; John Tap scot t, 
private of marines; Joseph Graham, able seaman. 

Wounded. — Joseph Truman, quarter-master ; Jolm Burd, landman ; 
William Carr, ditto; Thomas lieilly, able seaman; Alexander Hutchinson, 
ditto; Christopher Banks, landman; P. Burn, ditto; Rirlmrd Johnson, 
able seaman ; Richard .fones, ditto ; Edward Flyn, <uduiary seaman ; 
Edward Carey, landman; Henry Bauficld, privnfe of marines; .loseph 
Taylor, ditto ; Joseph Carr, ditto; Henry M'Cubey, ditto; John Hookins, 
ditto; Nath. Evans, ditto. 

Bellerophon. 

Killed. — William Thomas, landman ; Thomas Chambers, private of 
marines; John Moreton, ditto. 

Wounded. — Thomas Elhott, boatswain's-mate ; William Howell, able 
seaman; Edward Ryalls, ditto; i-'at. Smith, ordinary seaman; James 
Kendall, ditto ; Neil Asmans, ditto ; William Lukcman, serjeant of 
marines; William West, ditto; Pat. Funnell, private of marines; John 
Kiist, ditto; William W^ampy, ditto. 

MtLPOMENE. 

Killed. — Mr. J. B. Mounteney, midshipman ; Elijah Mpllin, gunncr's- 
mate; GeorgeMaithews, able seaman ; benjamin Crandon, second uiiister; 
John Cole, private of marines. 

fFoundcd. —-Henry Sherwia, alile r^oamaii ; James Hayes, landman; John 
Pritchard, able seaman ; William Daridsoi, ordinary seaman; George 
Abell, aLile seaman; Thomas Alston, ordinary seaman. 

iTSati, mjxw. ajol. XXII. T 



13S NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

Prometheus. 

Killed. — Lieutenant Stirling ; Walker Williams, able seaman ; Peter 
Turner, private of marines. 

Wounded. — Matthew Vezey, boatswain ; Francis La Roache, able 
seaman; Henry Trawland, ditto. 

Total killed and wounded. 

Implacable. — 6 killed, \7 wounded. 
Bellerophon. — 3 killed, 11 wounded. 
Mflpomcne. — 5 killed, 6 wounded. 
Pronietticus. — 3 killed, 3 wounded. 
Total — 17 killed, 37 wounded. 

Names of Officers employed. 
Implacable. 

Lieutenant Hawkey ; Lieutenant Houghton : Lieutenant Vernon ; 
Lieutenant Craeknell, of the marines; Lieutenant Clarke, ditto. 
Bellerophon-. 

Lieutenant Allen ; Lieutenant Stieridnn ; Lieutenant Skekel; Lieutenant 
Kendall, of the marines; Lieutenant Carriagton, ditto. 

Melpomene. 

Lieutenant George Rennie; Lieutenant Robert Gilbert, of the marines; 
Mr. J. B. Mounteney, midshipman, 

Prometheus, 
Lieutenant Stirling, 

A List of Vessels captured by hi^ JUajestys Ship Implacable, Thomas By am 
Jflartin^ Esq. Captain. 

Two galliots, names unknown, of three men, and 90 tons eacli, froni 
St, Petersburgh bound to Revel, laden with naval stores; captured June 
30, 1809. 

San Simeon, of six men and 200 tons, from St, Petersburgh bound to 
Narva, laden with naval stores; captured July 2, 1809. 

A vessel, name unknown, of six men and 200 tons, from St. Peters- 
burgh bound to Narva, laden with naval stores ; captured same date, 

San Michaelz, Antoni Martinetz, master, of six men and I'JO tons, 
from St. Petersburgh bound to Narva, laden with naval stores ; captured 
same date. 

San Nicholey, Dementz Fenenoff, master, of six men and 120 tons, 
fiom St. Petersburgh bound to Narva, laden with naval stores ; captured 
sauie date. 

A vessel, name unknown, of six men and 200 tons, from St. Petersburgh 
bound to Narva, laden with naval stoves; captured same date. 

San Pietre, Pawell Osprey, master, of six men and 200 tons, from St, 
Petersburgh bound to Narva, laden with naval stores ; captured satne date. 

A vessel, name unknown, of three men and 50 tons, from Helsingfors 
b'ound to Perciila, laden with empty casks : captured .!uly 6, 1809. 

A vessel, name unknown, laden with v.ood ; captured July 7/ 1809. 

Six gun-boats; captured same date. 

Two light brigs ; captured same date. 

Two galliots, one laden with flour and hemp, the other unknown ; Cap- 
tured sanie date. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 139 

Four schuyts, one laden with fire woorl, one light, the others unknown ; 
captured s;ime date. 
Two galliots, laden with provisions and powder; captured Jul)' 8, 1809. 

Report of Russian Prisoners of War cap'ured by the Boats of his Majesty s 

Ships hnjjlacah/e, Beilerophon, Melpomene, and PromeUitus, Qth July, 

1809, in Percola Sound. 

Implacable — 3 seamen, 1 Serjeant, 10 privates (3 wounded). 

Beilerophon — 1 captain in the army, 1 luidshipraan, 9 seamen (3 wound- 
ed), 8 Serjeants (3 wounded), 1 diummer, 87 privates (42 wounded), of 
the 21st regiment, or regiment ot" St. Peter.. 

Melpomene — 10 soldiers. 

Total — 127 prisoners, of whom 51 are wounded. The Russian officer 
reports 63 killed; and the number drowned is very great. 

T. B. lAIARTIX. 

Copy of a Letter froin Captain Lord George S'.etcart of his Majesty's Ship 
the Aimable, addressed to Rear-admiral Sir Richard Strachan, and a 
Duplicate ofzahich has been transinitted to the Hon. W. W. Pole. 

His Majesty'' a Ship rAi)nahte ojf 
fiiR, Cuxhuven, July 29, 1809. 

The French troops in Hanover, not content with frequent pi-edatory and 
piratical incursions in the neighbourhood of Cnxhaven, had the audacity to 
enter the village of Ritzbuttle with a body of horse at raid-day, on Wednes- 
day the 26th instant, and very narrowly missed making several officers of 
the squadron prisoners. In consequence I was induced to huid a detach- 
ment of seamen and marines from the vessels composing the squadron under 
my ordei-s, for tiie purpose, if po'sibie, of intercepting tliem. In the ardour 
of pursuit we advanced until we got sight of the town of Bremerleke, into 
which we learni they had retreated. The information was incorrect. On 
entering the town we were assured tliat the enemy, to the number of about 
two hundred and fifty, occupied the town of Gessendorf, two miles distant, 
and further, that it contained a depot of confiscated merchandize. It was 
resolved instantly to attack it. Fur this purpose Captain Goate ot the 
Mosquito, advanced with a detachment, while 1 directed Captain Pettet of 
the Briseis to take a circuitous route, and take a well constructed battery 
of four twclvc-pounders, commanding the river Weser in flank, while tiie 
I'emainder, under my own immediate directions, headed by Captain VVatis, 
of the Ephira, advanced to attack it in front. The road we had lo pass 
subjected us all to a galling fire of round and grape from the balicry, the 
guiis of which were all pointed inwards, and which in return we could only 
answer by discharges of musketry. Gessendorf, though certainly tenable 
with the numbers the enemy had opposed to ours, was on the approach (if 
Captain Goate precipitaiely evacuated. The enemy being previously in 
formed of our approach, had put into requisition a number of light vvag;;on8 
for the transportation of the foot, in the rear of which sixty well mounted 
cnvalry drew up. 

The enemy in the battery, seeing us deterniined, notwithstanding their 
fire, to carry our point, and tliat we were making preparations lor fording a 
deep and wide creek in itieir front, aljanduned it, and embarked \n lioats 
on the Weser ready for their reception, under a severe lire of musketry 
from our detachment, with the loss on their part of several killed and 
wounded. From a fore-knowledge of our intentions on the pan oi the 
enemy, we made but four prisoners, tiie commandant of the t-attcry, Mon- 
sieur Lc Murche, a litutenant, and two ini'erior uiiicers. The battery ^uus 



140 NAVAL HISTORY 0? THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809* 

were burst in pieces, the embrazures demolished, the gun-carriages burnt, 
together with the magazine, guard-houses, &ic. ike. The powder we brought 
off, together with six waggon loads ot confiscated merchandise. 

I beg leave to state to you, sir, for theii lordships' information, how 
much I feel indebted to Captain Goate, for the zeal and ability e\inced by 
iiim on this, as on all other occasions, during the time he has been com- 
manding officer on tlie station. 

I also feel indebted to Captain Pettet, for his punctuality and promptness 
in executing my orders; and can only regret that an opportunity was not 
affoicied him oi" distinguishing himself on this occasion cungeuial to his 
■wishes. 

But I beg leave particularly to mention Captain Watts, of the Ephlra, 
who in the most gallant and active manner advanced intrepidly in front of 
the attacking party amid the enemy's galling tire, and rendered himself 
equally conspicuous afterward*, for his unremitting exertion in tlie complete 
demolition of the battery; in the execution of whicli service, I am concerned 
to say, he received a wound in the leg, but which from its nature will in no 
shape incapacitate him for future service. 

A want of zeal and activity was discernable no where; to every officer 
and man I must award the raced of praise so justly their due; but of Lieu- 
tenant Burgess, of the Pincher, and W. Hawkins, second lieutenant of 
PAimable, I am more competent to speak in favour, for their indefatigable 
exertions in forwarding my orders to the different detachments. 

The distance from Gessendorf to Cuxhaven is twenty-eighi miles; I 
leave it tlien to their lordships to estimate the spirit, alacrity, and expedition 
•ivith which this service must have been performed, when I state, that in 
twenty-four hours from our departure, the whole detachment returned, and 
were safely embarked on board their respective ships, without the loss of an 
individual. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

G. STUART. 
Sir R, J. Strachan, Burt. K. B. Rear-Admiral 
of the White, ^c. 

AUGUST 7, 1309. 

Lieutenant James Duncan, commanding his Majesty's hired cutter the 
Idas, arrived yesterday evening at this office with despatches from Sir 
liicliard John Strachan, Bart, and K.B. rear-admiral of the white, &c. 
addressed to the Hon, William Wellesley Pole, of which the following are 
copies :— 

SIR, Venerable, of the Veer Gat, August 4, 1809. 

You have been already acquainted that I had hoisted my flag in the 
Amethyst, and that it was my intention to have preceded the expedition, 
in company with the Venerable, on board which ship Lord Chatham had 
embarked ; but finding the public service might suffer from the commanders- 
in-chief being separated, I therefore shifted to the Venerable, and sailed 
from the Downs at day-light on the 28th ultimo. 

I have now to acquaint you, for their lordships' information, of my arrival 
on the evening of that day in the Stone Deeps, with the Amethyst and 
several smaller vessels, where I was joined by the Fisgard, Captain Bolton, 
who had with great judgment placed vessels on the various shoals off this 
coast. After dark, Lieutenant Groves, of this ship, with some skilful pilots 
in Deal boats, were despatched to sound the Roompot Channel, and to sta- 
tion vessels at its entrance. 

Early i.ext morning, the 29th, the division of Lieutenant-general Sir John 
Hope, conducted by Captain Bathurst, in the Salsette, joined me, as did 
also Rear-admiral Sir Richard Keats, in the Superb. This zealous officer 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PllESENT TEAR, 1809. 141 

Jiad the command of the blockading squadron off the entrance of the 
Scheldt, but observing the armament pass, he, with his usual promptitude, 
left that squadren under the orders of Lord Gardner, and resumed tlie 
chartre of Sir Jolui Hope's division ; I therefore directed the rear-admiral 
to sliift his flsv^ to the Salsette, and to proceed to the Roompoti 

The en'' ince to that Channel is very narrow, and as I was aware of Sir 
Home Pophfn's local kii'jwledge of the insular naviu;ation before me, I 
tntrusted io that officer the service of leadin^j; Sir Richard Keats' division 
in, and wlncii he did with Teat skill in the SaVjrina, Captain Kittoe ; the 
whoi>j was an'Hored in vafety opposite Zeerickzee, situated between the 
islands rScb wen and Nort'^ Bcvelatrl. 

ThtiL "^en. <ori il vir-a Imiral Otway, with the left wing of the army, 
tinier Sir Ev -e Cl Jte, ' iied me in the Stone Deeps, but it blew too fresh 
to have anv com nuni ation 

O : the I orning of iie ; Otfi. Sii Home Popham returned with a letter 
from Sit iiichaiii Kears, acquainting me that the division under ins charge 
were ill sa. ly ; chc jd ; «.nd T v is 1 vtwise informed that there v as sutti- 
cient opace in the "loorapot to coiitam all the ships, to which anchorage Sir 
Ho^ie P phi. n ui. lerDol to ."ondnct ihem ; an-" as it blew fresh, with all 
the appearance of an af roa.;hiiig ^ale, the squadron was instantly got un- 
der sail, a ! led in jy the Venerable, when they all came to in safety off 
the Veere <Jat. 

As soon as the shijjs were secured, measures were instantly taken to 
prepare to Ian 1 the army on the Island of Walcheren. I did not wait for 
the gun boats coming up, but ordered those who happened to be near the 
Venerable, tij^eiher with the mortar brigs, to push in shore to cover the 
laiiuinfi, and to force the Derhaak batter)'. 

At half-past four the boats put oft" under the direction of Lord Amelius 
Rcauclerc, of the Royal Oak, and Captain Cockburn, of the Belleisle, and 
the troops were landed in excellent order v\ithout opposition ; the firing 
from the mortar and gun-vessels having driven the enemy completely from 
the Derhaak battery. 

Having thus accomplished this first object, I lost no time in directing the 
bomhs and gun- vessels to proceed up the Vcere Gat, cffCamvere; and 
having given Sir Home Popham (wlio, at the request of Lord Chatham, had 
remained on shore with his Lordship,) permission to employ them as the 
service might require, he ihe next morning began to cannonade (amvere, 
whicii had been summoned, but held out. The fire of the gun-boats was 
exceedingly well directed, and did much damage to the town. 

The officers and crews en>iaged m ti.at service, had a great claim to my 
admiration for their conduct. Three of our gun-boats were sunk. In tiie 
al'ternoon it blew fresh, and as the strength of the tide prevented the 
bombs from acting, I directed the flotilla to fall back, preserving a me- 
nacing position. 

At night, Captain Richardson, of the Cffisar, who was in the dyke on 
shore, threw some rockets at the nearest battery of Camvere, and soon after 
the commanding otbcer of the town sent out an ofter to surrender. A 
copy of the terms acceded to by Licutenant-Gencral Frazer, and Captain 
Richardson, the senior naval otiicer on the spot, accompanies this letter.* 

The army under Sir John Hope landed at South Beveland, on the 1st of 
this month ; and, by a letter from Sir Richa'd Keats, of yesterday's date, 
J liiid the whole of the island is in our possession, the enemy's ships are 
all above Lillo, and those most advanced as high up as Antwerp. 

We are giitiiig our flotilla llirough the Slough into the Western Scheldt, 
to picveiit succours being thrown into Llushing by the canal of (Thcnt. 

* See the despatches from Licutcnnnt-gencrul the Earl of Chailmm, 



142 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

When the Rammekens l)attery is taken, ^ve hope to pass the lighter ves« 
sels to the Western Scheldt, for the purpose of following up the other ob- 
jects of the Expedition. 

I cannot conclude this letter without acknowledging the assistance I have 
received from Kear-Admira! Otway, and how much I approve of the ar- 
rangements he made for landing the division under Sir Eyre Coote ; which 
u-as carried into effect by Lord Amelius Bcauclerc, and Captain Cockburn, 
with much skill and activity. Sir Richard Keats, in the execution of the 
arduous duties he has had to perform, has shewn his accustomed zeal and 
judgment. 

The captains, officers, and crews of his Majesty's ships are inde- 
fatigable in the execution of their respective duties; and I have much 
pleasure in adding, that there is a most perfect co-operation of the army 
and navv. 

I have, &c. R. J. STRACIiAM. 

P. S. I send this by Lieutenant Duncan, whose cutter, the Idas, was close 
in shore, and covered the landing. 

SIR, Venerable, off" f.JiC Fee?- Gait, 5lh August, 1S09. 

It is with great satisfaction that I am enabled to enclose, for their Lord- 
ships' information, a copy of the capitulation of the fort of Rammekens,* 
which surrendered to his Majesty's forces under Lieutenant- General Eraser, 
yesterday afternoon. 

The possessi(jn of this post is of great importance to our further ope- 
rations in the West Scheldt, as it will ciable me, v,'ith(jut molestation, to 
advance the whole of the flotilla, togetlier with the Camilla and Pallas, by 
the Slough; and which, I trust, will etl'ectually preven^t any succours being 
thrown iitto Flushing, either from Cadsand, or by the Ghent Chaniul. 

I have also the honour of forwarding copies of Sir Riciiard Keats' ac- 
counts of his proceediiigs in South Beveland; by which their Lordships will 
percei\e that the operaiions of the combined force under the Rear-Admi- 
ral and Sir John Hope have been very successful, and that the important 
post of Bathz has been evacuated by the enemy. 

I came here to forward this despatch to England, and shall leave the 
command of this division with Rear- Admiral Otway, and return to the flo- 
tilla, which I conclude is now investing Flushing. 

It is my intention to hoist my flag in one of the small vessels in the 
Slough, that I may be near the head-quarters of Lord Chatham, and to 
coiiduct the various services in the West Scheldt. 

I am, &c. R. J. STRACIIAN". 

Hon. W. ir. Pole. 

SIR, Sabrina, off South Bevelcr.id, Aiigust 1, 180P. 

I have the satisfaction to inform you, tiiat Sir John Hope and 7000 of his 
division of the army were lauded on South Beveland this afternoon; since 
which, I have been informed by message from him, that he was met on his 
approach toward Goes by the magistrates, into which place he is at liberty 
to enter whenever he pleases. Three of the enemy's ships of the line, and 
six brigs are at anchor off the east end cf South Beveland; the others I 
conclude have moved higher up the Scheldt. 

Three of the four sloops 1 brought up with me struck in coming up. I 
have hoisted my flag in the Sabrina, and am n(}t without hopes of getting 
the remaniing part of the division ou shore, and most part of the army 
sui;plied to-morrow. I have the hou'jur to be, &:c. 

R. G. KEATS. 

^ .Se« the despatches from Lieutenant-general the Earl of Chatham,, 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 143 

Half past seven P. M. — The substance, of this letter was sent by tele- 
graphic communication from the Siibriiia, at live o'clock. The six brigs 
are ijetting under sail, and moving up the Scheldt apparently, but t!ie ships 
of the line are still fast. 

Sahrina, off" Wemeldinge, August 3, 1809. 

Soon after I landed, I was informed by letter from Sir John Hope, that 
Bathz had been evacuated in the niij,ht; and as he informed me tiie com- 
munication was open between VValcheren and this island, and he had sent 
to Lord Chatham an account ol'thc evacuation,! concluded you would hear 
it from hence, and went on to Bathz with u view to make observations, and 
from which I am this moment returned. 

R. G. KEATS. 

Hcar-Admiral Sir R. J. SLrachan, Jiart. <5c. 

DOWNING-STREET, AUGUST 7, 1809. 

Despatches, of which the followins are copies, were last night received 
at tlie office of Lord Viscount Castlereagh, one of his Majesty's principal 
secretaries of state, from Lieutenant-General the Earl of Chatham, dated 
Middleburgh, 2d and 3d August, 1809. 

Head-Quarters, Middkburgh, 
MY LORD, 2rf August, 1809. 

I have the honour of acquainting your Lordship, that having sailed from 
the Downs early in tlie morning of the 28th ult, with Reav-Adrairal Sir 
Jlicliard Strachan, in his Majesty's ship Venerable, we arrived the same 
evening, and anchored in East Capelle Roads, and were joined on the fol- 
lowing morning by the division of the array under Lieutenant-general Sir 
John Hope. It blew in the course of that day a fresh gale from the west- 
ward, which created a heavy swell, snd the small craft being much exposed, 
it was determined to seek shelter for them in the anchorage of tiie Room 
Pot, where Lieutenant-general Sir John Hope's division was also directed 
to proceed, in oi-der to possess such points as might be necessary to secure 
the anchorage; as well as with a view to future operations up th.c Eait 
Scheldt. 

The left wing of the army under Lieutenant-general Sir Eyre Coote, par- 
ticularly destined for the operation against Walcheren, arrived on tlie 29;li 
and morning of the 30th, but the wind C(;ntinuin'g to blow fresh from the 
westward, and occasioning a great surf on the beach, botli on the side of 
Zoutland, as well as near Domburg, it became expedient in order to cflect 
a landing, to carry the whole fleet through the narrow and ditiiculc passage 
into the V^eer Gat, hitherto considered impracticable for large ships; which 
being successfully accom])lishcd, and the necessary preparations for de- 
barkation being completed, I have the satisfaction of acquainting your lord- 
ship, that the troops lantled on tiie Bree-Sand about a mile to the westward 
of Fort der Haak, without opposition, when a position was taken up tor I he 
night on the sand liills, with Eas>t Capelle in front. Lieutenant-general 
Eraser was detached immediately to the left against Fort der Haak and Ter 
Vere, the foi-mcr of which on his approach was evacuated by the enemy, 
but the town of Vere, which was strong in its defences, and had a garrison 
of about six hundred men, held out till yesterday morning, notwiiLstaiuiing 
the heavy and well-directed fire of the bomb-vessels and gun-boats during 
the preceding day, and until the place was closely invested. 

Early on the morning of the 31st, a deputation from JMiddlcburgh, from 
whence the garrison !iad been withdrawn into Flushing, having arri\ed in 
camp, terras of capitulation were agreed upon, copies of which I have the 



144 NAVAL BISTORY OF THE fRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

honour herewith to enclose, as well as that of the garrison of Ter Vere; and 
the divi-ions of the army, under the orders of Licuienant-general Lord Paget 
and Major-general Graham, moved forward, nnd took up a position with ih& 
right to Mali-kirke, the centre at i~Jrypeiskirke, and left to St. Laurens. 

On the mornino of the 1st instant, the tioops advanced to the investment 
of Flushing, which operation was warmly contested hy the enemy. In this 
movement he was driven by Major-general Graham's division on the right, 
from the batteries of tlie t)ykest;Ook, the Vygeter, and the Nole, while 
Brigadier-general Houston's brisiade forced the enemy posted on tlie road 
from Middleburgh to retire, with the loss of four guns, and many killed and 
wounded. Lieutenant-general Lord Facet's division also drove in tlie posta 
of the enemy, :nd took up his position at West Zoubertr. 

Nothing could exceed the gallantry of the troops throughout the whole of 
this day, and my warmest praise is due to the several general otilcers for 
their judicious disposition in the advance of their respective columns. To 
Lieutenant-general Sir Eyre Coote 1 feel much indebted for his exertions in 
tills service, and the prompt and able manner in which he has exi cuted my 
orders. The light troops under Brigadier-general Baron Ilottenlmrg have 
been admirably conducted; and with the officers commanding the several 
corps engaged I have every reason to be most perfectly satisfied. The 3d 
battalion of the royals, and flank companies of the 5th regiment, maintained 
the right, under difficult circumstances, with great gallantry, and killed and 
wounded a great many of the enemy. 

Ter Vere being in our possession, Lieutenant-general Eraser's division 
marched in the evening upon Ruttern, detaching a corps for the reduction 
of Rammakens, which, when effected, will couiolete the investment of 
Flushing. 

I have to regret the temporary absence of Brigadier-general Browne, who 
was wounded late in the day, but I trust not to be long deprived of his 
services. 

I have the honour to enclose a return of the killed, wounded, and mis- 
sing. Deeply as the fall of every British soldier is at all times to be 
lamented, the loss will not appear to have been great, when the serious im- 
pedhnents, it was in the power of the enemy to oppose to our progress are 
considered, as well as the formidable state of the batteries of Flushing, to 
which the troops wvre necessarily exposed. 

The pressure of circumstances has prevented the commanding officer of 
artillery from furnishing a detailed account of the guns and ordnance stores 
taken in the several batteries, and fortress of Ter Vere, but which will be 
hereafter transmitted, with a return of the prisoners taken since our landing, 
supposed to anioujit to one thousand. Commodore Owen's squadron, with 
Lieutenant-general the Marquis of Huntley's division, remains at anchor in 
the VVieling Passage, and the divisions of Lieutenant-general the Earl of 
Rosslyn, iuid Lieutenant-general Grosvenor, are arrived at the anchorage ia 
the Vere Ciat. 

I cannot conclude without CTipressing in the strongest terms, my admira- 
tion of the distinguished ability with which the fleet was conducted through 
the passafie into the Vere Gat, nor can the advantages resulting from the 
success of this operation be too highly estimated, as by it we were not only 
enabled to elTect a disembarkation, which, in the then state of the wind, 
was impracticable in any other quarter, but also that the enemy, probably 
reiving on the difficulty of the navigation, was less prepared for resistance. 
I must also warmly acknowledge the great assistance the service has derived 
from the zealous exertions of the officers of the navy, and of the seamen 
employed, in drawing a considerable prQportion of the artillery through a 
heavy band, and without whose aid, the advance of the army must necessa- 



NAVAL HISTOIiy OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 145 

rilv have been siispcnded, tlie strength of the tide rendering the landing of 
the horses i'uv a time extremely ditlicult. 

I iiyve the .honour to be, &c, 

CHATHAM. 

P. S. Since writin'^ the above letter, I iiave received intelhiience from 
Llcutenant-iieneial Sir J. Hope, lliat the reserve of the army hid effected 
their landing on Suutli Beveland, and that a detachment had occupied the 
town of Goes. 

CHATHAM. 

ARTICLES ofCAPITULATION entered info fur the surrender of .he town 
of Middlehur<:h to his Hriiunnic Majesfys forces, in comeqiaui-e of a De- 
putation fom the Prefect and Bitrgo.naslersfor that Purjose. 

Art. I. Security to be granted to every person, pnbHc functionaries, pri- 
vate persons, citizens, and inhabitants, whatever their political opinions may 
have been or now are. 

Answer. — (iranted. provided they conduct themselves as peaceable citi- 
zens, and conform to such regulations as will be hereafter established by th« 
authority of the British government. 

Art. H. Protection to all property without exception whatsoever. 

Answer. — Granted, as far as relates to private property; all pui)lic pro- 
perty is to be accounted for to such commissioners as will be named by the 
general commanding his Britannic Majesty's forces. 

Art. HI. The armed citizens or other inhabitants vvlio may have talcen up 
arms, or done military duty to maintain public tranijuility, to be protected 
in tiieir persons and property, and permitted to return to their dwellings.' 

Answer. — Granted, upon condition that their arms are given to such per- 
sons as will be duly authorised to receive them. 

Art. IV. Public functionaries and their families to be permitted, if they 
desire it, to return to any other part of tiie kingdom of Holland. 

Art. V. Inhabitants who are absent fioin their houses, to be permitted to 
return with their property. 

Ansl^er.— Granted, subject to the restriction specified in the first article. 

Art. VI. The troops to be quartered in b.arracks. 

Answer. —This must be determined according to circumstances, but every 
care will be taken to render the quartering as little burdensome to the in- 
habitants ;is possible. 

Art. \Tl. Should any misunderstanding take place relating to the forogo- 
ing articles, tliey will be explained in favour of the town and inhabitants. 

Answer. — Granted. 

Art. VI H. The above article to be also extended to all parts of this 
department which may not have obtained equally favourable terms. 

Answer. — This article to apply in tiie present instance to the town of 
Middlchurgh alone; but no ditticulty will be made to grant the same advan- 
tageous terms to any town that will surrender in like manner without 
opposition. 

ADDITIONAL ARTICLE. 
All military sick in hospital, to remain where they are at present, 
and to Ije taken care of; on recovery to be permitted to return to their 
corps. 

Answer. — The sick are to be taken care of by their own medical people, 
but must be considered as prisoners of war. 

C. G. BEDLERELD. 



P. G. ^C HO RE II. 

J. M. V \NIvHOOR. 

H. VAN DE MERXDENE, 



J!2ato» €i)xm. ©ol» XXII, 



146 NAVAL IIISTOllY OF THE PRSSEKT TEAR, 1809. 

A};;recd to by me, ronformably to the powers vested in me by Lieutenant- 
general tlie Earl of Chalhaiu, K.G. commander of his Britannic 
Majesty's forces. 

EYRE COOTE, Lieut, Gen. 

Heights of Bree Sand, this 2lst day 
oJ'Juli,, 1303. 

PROPOSAL of a CAFLmLATIOX, hy the Commandant of the Fortress 
of Veer, to his Excellemi/ JJeutennnt-^eneral ill. Fi^ascr, lonnnunding ihe 
Besieging Army before Veer, and to Captain Piuhardson, ihe senior N^val 
Officer on Shore. 

Art. T. The garrison of Veer shall be allowed to quit one of the gates of 
the town with all the honours of war, and ground their arms upon the 
glacis, and they shall not be allowed to serve against his Britannic Majesty 
or his allies, until they have been regularly exchanged, and tlie troops shall 
be sent to some Du;ch place in Iloliand, at the expense of his Majesty. 
The ofiicers shall keep their swords, horses, and property, and the soldiers 
their knapsacks. 

Answer. — AL'recd to, excepting that the garrison is to he considered 
generally as prisoners of war and shall be disposed of as the British govern- 
ment shall think proper, and as is customary on such occasions. 

Avt. IL From this moment until the evacuation of the fortress, the 
troops of both armies shall remain in their present position. 

Answer. — Granted. 

Art. 111. All hostilities shall cease from both sides, and no preparation 
of attack or defence shail be carried on. 

Answer. — (J ranted. 

Art. IV. All the artillery and stores shall be delivered over by the com- 
missaries appointed from Itoth sides. 

Answer.— A'.;reed to, considering that in this article the surrender of 
public propcrtv of all description is included. 

Art. V. All the sick and wounded sliall be left to the humatiity of the 
general until their recovery. 

Answer. — Granted. 

Art. VI. The inhabitants of the town of Veer shall continue to enjoy all 
their privileges, and tiieir particular property shall be respected, and shall, 
if llicy choose, he allov.efl to leave the place. This privilege sliall likewise 
be gi anted to ail the women of the garrison. 

Answer. — Granted. 

A. M. FRASER, Lieut.-gen. com- 
manding the troops before V^eer. 
CHA. RICHARDSON, Senior Na- 
val Officer. 
V. BOGART, Commandant of the 
Garrison of Veer. 



T. CAREY, Lieut.-Col. Mil. Sec. 



(A true Copy.) 

Veer, August I, 1809. 

Prisoners taken at Ter Veer. 

Artillery — 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 captaiii, 4 lieutenants, 7 Serjeant?, 
9 corporals, 6 fire-workers, 5 artificers, 05 Limners, 1 drummer, 

Tnt"antry — 4 captains, 4 first lieutenants, 5 second lieutenants, 4 serjeant'^ 
majors, 13 seijeants, 4 fouriers, 10 drummers, 3 pipers, 328 soldiers. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PUESENT Y'^AR, 1809. 117 

Naval of the French gnn- brig Oawlcii. — I ca;)tain, 1 master, L 7 sailors, 
1 boy, — 1 Serjeant, 1 corporal, 13 privates (serving as marines). 
Total 519. 

(A true Copy.) T. CAREY, Lieutenant-Colonel, 

Military Secretary. 

Return of ihe Rank and Names of Officers, and of the Number of Njn* 
coi/iriiissione./ Officers and Rank anl Ft'e, kiHed, woundid, and inis-iing, in 
the Island ofWalcheren., fron the Viii/e of landing on the Evening of iht 
iiOth o/'Jalj/, to ihe Isl of August inclusive, 

.Middle' urghy 2d Augus', 1809. 

Royal Artillery — 3 rank and file wounded. 

3d B.itt. 1st Foot — 1 lieutenant, 1 drammer, 6 rank and file, killed ; 
1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 6 serjeauts, 7.5 rank and tile, wounded ; 6 rank and 
file niissiuj. 

1st Batt. 5th Foot — 4 rank and file killed ; 3 serjeaats, IS rank and file, 
wounded; 10 rank and file missiiie. 

1st Batt. 26th Foot — Return not received ; supposed to have none. 

1st Batt. 32d Foot — 1 Serjeant, 1 rank and file, killed; 2 Serjeants, 5 rank 
and file wounded. 

'id Batt. 35th Foot — 1 rank and file killed; 2 captains, 14 rank and 
file, wounded; 11 rank and file missing. 

51st Foot — 1 rank and iilc killed ; 1 rank and file wounded. 

C3th Foot — I drumiier, 10 rank and file killed , 1 captain, 2 lieutemnts, 
54 rank and file wounded. 

1st Batt. 71st Foot — Return not received ; supposed to have about ?5 
killed and wounded. 

2d Batt. 81st Foot — 2 rank and file killed ; 1 r.ank and file wounded. 

2d Batt. 82d Foot — 11 rank and rile killed ; 2 lieutenants, 2 Serjeants, 
51 rank and file wounded. 

SjlIi Foot — 1 Serjeant, 2 rank and file killed ; 1 lieutenant, 2 serjeantj, 
1 dru-nmer, 19 rank and file, wounded ; 7 rank an 1 file luissing. 

95th Fjot— 5 rank and file wojnrlcd. 

EmboJied detachiricnts — Return not received. 

Staff-. 
2Sth Foot — 1 captain wounded. 
40th Foot — 1 brigadier-:;eneral ditto. 
C2d Foot — 1 captain ditto. 

Total -1 officer, 2 Serjeants, 2 drummers, 41 rank and file killed; 
13 officers, 15 serje.int.s, 1 drummer, 184 rank and file wounded; 
34 rank and file missi.ig. 

Na/iu's ofOffiers killed and wounded. 
KiUed^VA Batt. 1st Foot— Lieutenant D. M'Leaii, 

JVoundtd — 3d Batt. 1st Foot — Captain John Wilson, Lieutenant Jack- 
son, andX'oIunteer J. P. Drurv, slitjtitly. 

2d Batt. 35lh Foot — Captain I'lsdelJ, slightly ; Captain Frederick, dan- 
gerously. 

{38th Foot — The names of the 3 officers wounded, not speci.'ied in t!ie 
return. 

2d Batt. 82d Foot— Lieutenant Reed, slightly ; Lieutenant Pratt, dan- 
gerously. 

85th Foot — The name of the officer wounded, not mentiooed in tlit 
returiu 



148 NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

Staff. 
26th Foot — Captain Fotheringham, depiuty assistant-adjutatit-general, 
jliglitly. 

40th Foot — Brigaclicr-ceneral Browne, slightly. 

62il Foot — Captain Browne, aide-de-camp to Brigadier-general Houstonj 
slightly. 

ROBERT LONG, Col. Adj. Gen, 

MY LORD, Middlehurgh, 2. d August, \Z0^. 

Since my letter of yesterday's date, I have received intelligence from 
Lieutenant-general Sir John Ilope, of liis having occupied Bathz, and taken 
possesMon ot' the whole iblaud ot' South Beveland. 

I have also the satisfaction to acquaint your lordship, that upon the bat- 
teries heing prepared to open, the fortress of Rammakens surrendered this- 
evening, and I have the honour to enclose xhe articles of capitulation. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

CHATHAM 
To the Lord Viscount Custlereagh, 4 c 

TERMS of CAPIIT^LATION of Ihe Fortress of Ramnmkens, 
3d August, 1809. 

Art. I. The garrison surrenders prisoners of war, with every thing that 
belon2S to the fortiess, whether ammunition, cannon, or government stores 
belonging to the French and Dutch, of every sort and kind. 

Art. II. The garrison will lay down their arms this moment; and are to 
be disposed of as the Biitish government chooses, and as has been the 
custom of war. 

Art. III. The ofTicers will be allowed to keep their swords, and will, with 
their soldiers, be permitled to keep their private baggage. 

ALEX. M. FRASKR, Lieutenant general, 
commanding his Britannic JNlajesty's 
troops before Rammakcns, 
WOUNIER, Captain-commandant. 
(A true Copy.) T. CAREY, Lieut.-Col. Mil. Sec. 

Strength of ihe Garrison. 

1 captains, 1 lieutenant, 4 Serjeants, 7 corporals, 2 drummers, Hi 
privates. 

Total 127. 

DOWKING-STKEET, AUGUST 11, 1809. 

Despatches, of which the following are copies, have been received at tlie 
office of Lord Viscount Castlereagh, one of his Majesty's principal secreta- 
ries of state, from Lieutenant-general the Earl of Chatham, K. G. 

Head- Quarters, Middlehurgh, 
MY LORD, "(th August, 1809. 

Nothing very material has occured since my last despatch of the 3d 
instant. We have been unremittingly employed in bringing up tlie artillery 
of siege, ammunition and stores to the vicinity of Flusliing, and the troops 
have been ©ccupied in the construction of the batteries, and in carrying on 
the several works before the place, but which have been necessarily inter- 
rupted by the very heavy rains which liave fallen here. 
The enemy is r.ctive and enterprising, and the garrison has certainly 



NAVAr, HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAK, 1809. 149 

received considerable reinforcements from the opposite coast: nor has it 
been in the power of tlie flotilla hitherto to prevent it. Under these 
circumstances it has been found necessary to land Lieutenanl-sjeneral 
Grosvenor's division, and tlie two liiiht battalions of the king's germau 
legion have been also for the present brought on sliore. 

Immediately on the fail of Rammakens, I determined, as soon '\s tlie neces- 
sary arransiements were made, to pass the infantry of Lientenant-sjeneral 
the Earl of Rosslyn's corps, together with Lienlcnant-ircneral the Marquis 
of Huntley's di\ision, and the light bii;:ades of artillc'-y, into South Beveland, 
to form aj unction with the reserve under Lieutenant-general Sir John Hope, 
«nd that the cav.-.lry and ordnance s'lips, together with tlie transports for 
Lieutenant-general Grosvenor's division, the moment their services could 
be spared fn^m before Flushing, should be brought through the Slow Passage, 
and proceed up the West Sclieldt, but of course tliis lat er operation cannot 
take place until a sufficient naval force shall have been enabled to enter the 
river, and to proceed in advance, but the very severe blowirig weatlier wo 
have constantly experienced, added to the great diihculty of the navigation, 
has hitherto bafllcd all their efforts. 

By letters from Lieutenant-general Sir John Hope, I find that the enemy 
had, on the 5th instant, come down with al)out twenty-eight gun-vessels 
before Bathz, on which place they kept up a suuirt cannonade for some hours, 
but were forced to retire by the guns from the Fort, and every thing ha« 
since remaisied quiet in that quarter. 

T have the honour to enclose a statement of the casualties that have 
occurred in the several corps before Flushing, since the last returns of killed 
tind wounded. 

I have the honour to be, &:c. 

CHATHAM. 

Return of the. Rank and Names of Officers, (md of the Number of Non-com- 
missioned Officers and Hunk and File killed, wounded, and missing, since 
lust Return {August ^,) lo August 6, IS09, inclusive. 

Hc(id-quur:ers, Middleburgli, August 7, 1809. 

Sd Batt. 1st Foot — 4 rank and file killed; 5 rank and file wounded. 

5th Foot — 1 rank and file killed ; 20 rank and file wounded. 

I4t!i Foot — 2 rank a;id file wounded. 

26th F"oot — 5 rank and fiie killed; 1 lieutenant, 1 Serjeant, 19 rank and 
file wounded. 

32d Foot — 2 rank and file killed ; 15 rank and file wounded. 

G3th Foot — 2 rank and file killed; 1 major, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, 6 
rank and file, wounded. 

71st Foot — 1 assistant surgeon, 8 rank and file, killed ; 2 lieutenants, 1 
terjeant, 24 rank and file, wounded. 4 rank and file missinij (not returned 
in time to be inserted in last return). 

81 St Foot — 2 rank and file killed; 1 lieutenant, 4 rank and file, 
wounded. 

85th fijot — 7 rank and file wounded. 

95th Foot — 1 rank and file killed; 1 lieutenant, 2 seijeants, 6 rank and 
file, wounded. 

F.mbodied Detachment— 1 ensign, 3 rank and file, wounded. 

Staff Corps ~1 lieutenant, 3 rank and file, wounded (not returned in 
time to be included in last return). 

Total — 1 as;istant-surgeon, 25 rank and file, killed ; 1 major, 6 lieute* 
□ ants, i ensigns, 4 Serjeants, 114 rank and rile, wuunded; 4 runk and 
fik missing. 



150 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

Names of Offl'-ers Killed and fVounded. 

26th Foot— Lieiitenniit Maxwell, dangerously wounHerl. 

68rh Foot— Major Thoiiipsoii, dangerously woniided; Lieutenant H. B. 
Muids and Ensign A. Tiiomphon, bliglitly wounded. 

71st Foot — Assistant-surgeon !1. Quin, killed; Lieutenant D, Fletcher, 
slightly wounded. 

81st Fool — Lieutenant K. Montgomery, slightly wounded. 

95th Foot— Lieutenant Hanibly, sliginly wounded. 

Em'todicd Detachment — Ensign Addison, of the 6th regiment, slightly 
wounded, 

Start' Corps — Lieutenant A.Taylor, slightly wounded. 

Officers relumed wounded in last Return, hut whose Names were not 

then known. 

68th Foot — Captains Crespigiiy, Lieutenants M'Donald and J, Menzies, 
slightly wc)unded. 

85th Foot — Lieutenant Burch, slightly wounded. 

33th Fool — Captain Frederick, wounded as per last return, since dead- 

11. LONG, Col. Adj. Gen. 

MY LORD, Middlehurgh, 8tk August, 1809. 

Since closing my despatch of yesterday's date, the enemy, towards live 
o'clock in the evening, in considerable force, made a vigorous sortie upon 
the ngiit of our line, occupied by Major-General Graham's division. 

The attack was principally directed upon our advance;! piquets, which 
were supported by the 3d battalion of the royals, the 5th and 35ch regi- 
ments, under Colonel Hay. These corp^, together with detachments of the 
royal artillery, the 95th and light battalions of the King's German legion,- 
received tlie enemy with their accustomed intrepidity; and after a sharp 
contest of some duration, forced him co retire with very considerable loss in 
killed, wounded, ant! prisoners. 

Li this affair the enemy has had another opportunity of witnessing the 
superior gallantry of British troops ; in no instance has he succeeded in 
making the least impression throughout our line; and on this occasion, so 
far from profiling by his attempt, he has been obliged to relinquish some 
very advantageous ground where our advanced oosts are now established. 

I cannot too strongly express my sense of the unremitting vigilance and 
ability manifested by Major-General Graham, in securing and maintaining 
his post against the repeated attempts of the enemy to dislodge him; and 
I have great satisfaction in acquainting your Lordship, that the Major- 
General mentions, in terms of the warmest approbation, tiie distin- 
guished conduct and gallantry of the officers and troops engaged on 
this occasion. 

I am now enabled to transmit, for your Lordship's information, an ab- 
stract return of the ordnance, ammunition, and stores, that have fallen into 
our hands, since our arrival in this island. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

CHATHAM. 
Middlehurgh, August 7, 1809. 
Abstract Return of Ordnance, Ammuni'ion, and S ores ial^en from, the 

Enemi/ in the Is/and of IValrheren, hi/ the British Armj/ under' the Com- 
mand of Lieuttnant-Generul the Earl (tf Chatham. 

Taken in Ac ion. 
4 brass six-pounders, 1 ditto three-pounder; 4 six-pounder iravelliiijj 
gun-carriages, 1 three-pomider ditto j 100 rounds of ammunilion for twen- 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 151 

four-pounders, 6 diito for twelve-pounders, 172 ditto for six pounders; 200 
lbs. of powder, L.G- 

Fo/ 1 at Uaak, near the Landing-place. 

4 liniss twentv-four pounders, 3 ditto twelve-pounders; 3 iron cohorns, 

8 portable ni-aga/^ines. 

Garrixon of Veer. 

5 brass 2-1-|Jouiiders, 2do. 18 p.)ulldt'r■^, 4 do. 12-pounders, 12 do. 6-poun- 
dtrs; 2 l'.j-i:i('h Ijrass inoriais. o^-mch ctittu ; 3 7|-inch brass liowitzers, 
1 6-Mici) <ii). 4 brass colioni-, 2 brass swivel.i ; 4 iron 24-pound(.'rs, 5 ditto 
18-|j()UiKlcrs, 2 ditto 12-j.()riiiders. 4 ditto 6-pounders ; 10 iron cohorns; 

9 24-|)Oun.ler ir;neliniii film carnaaes, 8 18-pound<-r dirto, 6 12-pounder 
d.tto, 4 8-poundcr diuo, 18 G-pounder ditto; 5 T-^-inrh travelliii<i hovvitzer- 
cariiiii:es, 2 6 iiicli ditto; 2 6-pounder ship gun carriages ; 3 wagii^ons, 1 
cais->(jn, 2 sbn^ carts, 2 13-inch spare mortar beds (land service, new), 
5 g lis complete ; 72C3 rounds of ammunition for '<;4-p<>undeis, 2106 ditto 
for 18-pouiideis, 346 ditto for 12-pounders, 1071 ditto for O-ponnders, 2304 
ditto tor o-pomiders, 296 ditto for 12-inc.^ mortars, 79 tiitto for 7^-inch 
liowiizers, 81 ditto I'or 6-inch howitzers; 3-^398 lbs. of powder, L.G.; 
1926 16-ll)s grenades, 1661 8-lbs, ditto, 14(8 6-lbs. ditto, 2620 4-lbs, 
ditto, 42? 1 3-lb«. ditto; 534 muskets, 71 carbines, 100 cutlasses; 441,000 
musket ball cartridges, 23 portable niagazines, 2 petards complete, 1^ 
buoys with mooring chains, 128J lbs. of lead in balls. 

Garrison at Rammakeiis. 

6 brass 12-pounders, 3 ditto 6 pounders, 3 ditto 2-pounders ; 4 iron 18- 
poundcrs, 1 iron cohorn ; 1 24- pounder travelling gen-carriage, l 18-pnun- 
der ditto, 1 6-pounder ditto: 1492 rounds of ammunition for 18-poiuidcr3, 
267 ditto tor 12-poutKiers, 157 ditto for 6-poun(itrs, 137 ditto for 2 poun- 
ders, 40 ditto for 5-inch mortars ; 11.6i2 lbs. of powder, L.O.; 119 mus- 
kets, 24 cutlasses, 400,000 musket ball cartridges. 

Bd'terics on the Coast. 

12 bra'S 24-pounders, 2 brass 12-inch mortars, 5 iron mortars; 12 
Sl-pounder tra\clling gun carriages; 468 rounds of ammunition lor 24- 
pounders, 100 ditto for 12-inch moit.irs. 

With a large quantity of ordnance stores, tools, materials, iron, 
&c ike. of every description; the accounts for which tinie will not admit 
of being furnished. 

T. ]\IACLEOD, Brig. Gen. 

Jletiirn of the Hank and Names of Offcers, and of the Number of Non- 

COfnniisdon- d Oflicers and Hunk and File killid, uounded, and missing, itL- 

ihe Jff'air of the 7 th of Auj^ust. 

MiddUlmr^h, August 8, 1809. 

Royal Artillery— 1 lieutenant, 1 rank and file, wom. did. 

3 i'att. 1st Foot — 1 rank and file killed; 1 serjcant, 10 rank and file, 
wounded. 

6tli Foot — 1 Serjeant, 4 rank and file, killed; 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 
2 ensigns, 47 rank and file, wounried; 1 brevet major, 2 rank and file, 
niissing 

3jtli Foot — 3 rank and file killed; 3 Serjeants, 51 rank and file, wounded; 
S rank and file missing. 

5Pih Foot — 1 rank and file wounded. 

76tli Foot — 1 rank and file killed. 

95th Foot — 1 lieutenant, 3 Serjeants, 4 rank and file, wounded. 



152 NAVAI. HISTORY OF THE PRF.SENT YEAR, 1809. 

1st Lii;,ht Battalion of tlie King's German Legion — 4 rank and file, killed; 
1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, 12 rank and file, wounded. 

Total — 1 Serjeant, 13 rank and file, killed ; 1 captain, 4 lieutenants, 3 
ensigns, 7 Serjeants, 126 rank and file, wounded ; 1 brevet major, 4 
rank and file, Uiissing. 

Nartjes of Officers u-oiinded and missing. 

Roval Artillery — Lieutenant Grant, slightly wounded. 

6th P'oot — Brevet ]\Iajar Bird, missing, supposed to be taken prisoner; 
Captain Hamilton, dangerously wounded; Lieutenant C. Bird, Ensigns 
Gaibraith and Walton, slightly wounded. 

93th Foot — Lieuten^iiit Clark, dangerously wounded. 

1st Liglit Battalion of the King's German Legion — Lieutenant Frederick 
t)u Fay and Ensign Frederick Hedeman, dangerously wounded. 

AUGUST 12, 1300. 
Copi/ of (I Letter from Vice-admiral Lord CoWngzcood, Commander-in-chief 
offiis Muje.-iti/'s Ships and Vessels in the Mediterranean, to the Honoura- 
ble IV. W. Pole, datedon bonrdthe Viiie de Paris, off Toulon, llih June, 
180P. 

SIR, 

I have received two letters from Captain Prenton of his Majesty's ship 
SpartoUjOfdate the 27tli April, and 5th May, relating liie proceedings of the 
ships therein named with him at Pesaro, on 2od April, and at Ccseratico, 
on the 2d ultimo; when, on both occa-ions, all the enemy's vessels in those 
ports were captured, and the furts destroyed. I\'o loss was sustamed on 
our part, and this must be attributed to the well concerted measures which 
were taken for accomplishing this service. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

COLLINGWOOD. 

MY LOED, Spartan, Trieste, April 27, 180P. 

I have the honour to inform your Lordship, that being with the Amphion 
and Mercury off the town of Pesaro,on tlie 23d Inst. I observed a number of 
Tcssel* lying in the Mole, and thought it [)racticable totake possession of them, 
for which purpose the ships were anciiored with springs upon the:r cabks, 
within half a mile of the town, the boats formed into two divis ons. the first 
consistnig of launches with canonadcs, and other boats carrying field pieces, 
under the orders ".f Lieutenant Philott, fir.-t of the Amphion, took a station to 
the northward of the town,aiid the second division, consisting of rocket-boats, 
under the order of Litut. Baumgardtt, of the Spartan, to the southward, 
both divisions commanded by Lieutenant Willis, first of the Spart;in ; as 
soon as these arrauirements were made, I sent a flag of truce on shore, to 
demand the surrender of all the vessels, adrling, that should any resistance 
be mide, the governor must be answerable for the consequences. I gave 
him half an hour to deliberate. 

At half past eleven A.M. the officer returned with a message from the 
commandant, stating, that in half an hour 1 should receive his answer. 

I waited thirty-five minutes from the time the boat came alongside, when 
observing no flag of truce flying on shore, but that troops were assembling 
in considerable numbers in the streets, and on the Quays, and that the in- 
habitants were busily employed in dismantling the vessels, I hauled down the 
flag of truce, and fired one shot over tlie town to give warning to the women 
and cliildien, and shortly after made a signal to commence firing, uhich 
was instantly obeyed hy the ships and boats. At thiity-two mmuies after 
twelve, obsei\ ing scvrai fljgs of truce hung out in the town I made the sig- 
nal to cease fir ng, and Lieutenant Wilhs pulled into the han our, where he 
was inl'ormed that the commandant had made iiis escape with all the military. 

I considered the place as surrendered at discretion, and gave orders for 



KAVAL niSroRY OF THE rULSt.NT YKAK, 1809. 153 

all the boats to be cmployeci in bringing out the vessels, and the marinea 
to be landed to protect tlit-in. 

Lieutenant Willis made the most judicious arrangements, to put these 
orders into execution; the marines were drawn upon the Marina, under 
Lieutenant Moore of the royal marines of the Amphion.thc kiunchcs station- 
ed in such a manner as to cniilade the princip d streets ; and the other boats' 
crews employed in rijiging the vessels, and laving out warps to haul liiern off 
Tvith, as soon as the tide should flow. 

Aliout two P.M. I received a letter from the Commandant, dated ba!f 
past one, demanding another hour for deliberation; I refused hiin a mo- 
ment, and told him in case of resistance, I shoukl destroy the town. 

By half-past six, ihirteen vessels deeply laden, as per inclosed hst, were 
brouo;ht otT; several otiieis had been scuttled by the inhabitants, and sunk ; 
some were still aground, and dismantled; there were besides a few in bal- 
last, and a numher of fishing vessels. 

I should have burnt the merchant vessels, but was apprehensive of setting 
fire to the town, and destroying the fishing-boats, I therefore directed Lieu- 
tenant Willis to blow up the castle at tiie entrance of the haibour, and 
bring off his people : this he did at seven o'clock. 

I am happy to say we did not hear of any lives being lost in the town, al- 
tliough many of the houses were much damaged; one man only was killed 
by the explosion of llie castle; after the match liad been lighted, and our 
people retreated, be ajjproached it; a musket was fired over him to diive hitii 
away, but he sought refuge behind the castle, and was buried in its ruins. 

As the enemy made no active resistance, I can tniiy express my admira- 
tion of the zeal and promptitude with which Captain iloste and tlie iionour- 
able Henry Duncan, executed the orders they received, and the manner ia 
which they placed their ships. Lieutenant Willis upon tliis, as upon every 
other occasion, displayed the greatest energy, skill, and judgment; the 
arrangements ho made for the defence of his party, whilst in the harbour, 
.ind the expedition u^ed in sending out the prizes, do him the highest 
credit. 

Lieutenant Philott and Lieutenant Banmnardtf, in the ommand of 
their respective divisions, and Lieutenant Moure in thatof tiie marines, was 
also exemplary. I have t!ie honour to be, (Sec. 

J. BREXTOX. 

List of the En em t/'s Vessels captured in the Port of P€Scro,bi/ His Majcsi^s 
Ships Sjiurtun^Ampiiion, and Mercury, an tl:e '2.'6d of Ajji-^iil^d. 

St. Nicnolas, of 1S8 tons, laden with oil and almonds. 

II Practico, of PO tons, laden with oi!. 
L'Azzardo Forte nato, of54ton--, laden with oil 

A vessel, name unknown, of liiO tons, laden with oil, liides, and al* 
monds. 

A vessel, name unknown, of 90 tons, laden with oil, and hemp. 
• St. Antonio, of 120 tons, laden with oil. 

St. Antonio, of 100 tons, laden wiih plank and spars. 

Santo Nio, of 5ti tons, laden with morocco itatiier, hides, bees-wai. 
and plank. 

Name unknown, of ,30 tons, laden with oil and hidci. 

Charlotte Fortunato, of 56 tons, laden with oil. 

Name unknt>wn, of 50 tons, laden with jW. 

Ditto, ofeo.ous, oil, almonds, figs, c»ndl§s. 

Providenza, of 30 tons, laden with oil. 
Total — 13 vessels. 

93a\). ^^lon. Oiol. XXII. x 



154 NAVAL BISTORT Of- fHE PRESENT TEAR, 1809. 

MY LORD, Spartan off" Roviguo, Mni/ 5, 180?^. 

On the 2d instant the Spartan and Mercury chased two vessels into the 
port of Ceseratiqo, the entrance of which is very narrow^, and was defended 
by a battery of two guns (twenty-four pounders) and a castle ; observing at 
the same time several of'ier vessels Iving there, I determined to take pos- 
session of them if possible. This coast is so shoal, that we had only four 
fathoms considerably out of gun-shot of the town; I was therefore under the 
necessity of sending the boats ahead, and on each bow to lead us in, with 
directions to make a signal when in three fathoms. 

We were by this means enabled to anchor at noon in a quarter three, 
within range of grape of the battery, and very soon silenced it, when the 
boats under the command of Lieutenant Willis 1st of the Spartan pushed 
in, and took possession of it, turning the guns upon the castle and town, 
which were soon after deserted. We captured in the port twelve vessels, 
some laden with corn for venice, and the others being in ballast. We fil- 
led them with hemp and iron one of the magazines fur those articles that 
were on the Quay, and in which the sails and rudders of some of tlie ves- 
sels were concealed. 

Another large vessel laden with iron, wiiich lay at the entrance of the 
harbour scuttled, we burnt, and after blowing up the castle and magazine, 
destroying the battery and spiking the guns, the boats came otf, 1 am hap- 
py to say, without the loss of a man, or any person being wounded, although 
much exposed to the fire of the battery, as well as musketry, nor was any 
damage done to the ships. 

The Mercury, from Captain Duncan's anxiety to place her as near the 
town as possible, took the ground, but in so favourable a position as gave 
the fullest effect to her fire. She was however hove off by six P.M. vvith- 
eut having sustained any injury. I never witnessed more zeal and energy 
than was evinced by Captain Duncan upon this occasion. Lieutenant Wil- 
lis displayed great gallantry in taking possession of the battery the moment 
the ships had ceased firing, in the expedition with which he turned the guns 
against the place ; his exertions also in bringing out the vessels were very 
great. Much credit is also due to the otlicers and men of both ships for 
»beir activity, I have the honour to be, &c. 

JAH. BRENTON, 



AUGUST 13, 1809. 
My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having ordered his ilklajesty's 
jun-brig Minx to be stationed off the Scaw, for the purpose of exhibiting a 
light for the guidance of ships passing to or from the Cattegat; and the said 
vessel being directed to take her bearings as follows, viz. " Scaw light-house 
W. N. W. by compass six miles; then the outer end of the reef will bear 
N. W. by N. by compass, distant three miles." — Notice thereof is hereby 
given, for the information of the masters and pilots of his Majesty's ships^ 
wad for the benefit of iiavigution in general. 

W. W. POLE. 



AUGUST 19, 1809. 
Despatches, of which the following are copies, have been received at tin's 
•fiicc from Sir Richard John Strachau, Bart. K. B. Rear-admiral of the 
White, &c. addressed to the, Honourable William Wellesley Pole. 

Kangaroo, in the West Scheldt, off^ 
SIR, the Kahot, August 11, 1809. 

I beg leave to acquaint you, for the information of the Lords Com- 
snifsioners of the Adjairalty, tiiat I am this moment going up to Bathz, in^ 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 155 

Smitl) T^cveiancl, wliicii has been attackcil by a strong detachment of ibe 
ciiernv's flotilla, and which, by Sir Richard Keats's reports, consists of two 
frigates, one bearing a vice-admiral's flag, thirty brigs, eight luggers or 
schooners, and fonrteen gun-boats. 

I was under the necessity of detaining our flotilla to prevent supplies 
being thrown into the garrison at Flushnig, and to assist in cutting off its 
communication witli Cadsand, which service was effectually done, except 
during the late heavy gales which drove the gim-boats from their stations, 
and, prevented our ships entering tlie Scheldt, from the circumstance of their 
not bcuiu. able to weigh their anchors. Since the weather has moderated, 
the v\iiul hiis provokingly drawn round to the south east, vhich is the only 
obstacle that prevent'^ Lord Wdliarn Stuart, with a squadron of ten hea>y 
frigates, passing Flushing, as well as Rear-admiral Lord Gardner, with the 
effective linc-of-battle ships, taking up the anchorage in Dykeshook Bay», 
where 1 intend hi' lordship shall remain, with a view of having tiie assist- 
ance of that squadron in our further operations against the enemy, and 
eventually to proceed up the Scheldt. 

The divisions of the army under the Earl of Rosslyn and Marquis of 
Iluntiey landed on South Bev^and on the 9th. 

The cavalry and ordnance ships, with the brigs and some sloops of war, 
have passed through the Slongh, into the West Scheldt, and are now 
availing themselves of every favourable tide to proceed to Batiiz. I am also 
endeavouring to warp the Pallas and Circe through by the same channel, 
and with every probability of success. 

Sir Home Popham was detached with some gun-vessels for the purpose 
of sounding the river, and of joining Sir Richard Keats at Bathz. 

The batteries are not yet ready to open on Flushing, therefore I liope 
to be here again in time to co-operate with the ar^uy in the attack on that 
garrison, 

I am concerned to !id-l, that the enemy has cut the dyke to the right of 
the town, and the island is likely to be inundated, I have ordered Rear- 
admiral Otvvay to sent! the Monmouth and Agincourt to England for water, 
as soon as they can be got down from Zeirickzee ; and earnestly intrcat 
that other means may be adopted for supplying the army and navy from 
England, as I apprehend all the water in this island will be spoiled by the 
inundation, and that there is not more in the other islands than is necessary 
for the subsistence of the inhabitants. 

Their lordships must be aware tliat in this extentlve and complicated ser- 
vice, it is impossible for me to enter so fully into detail as 1 could wish, 
especially as our arrangements must vary in proportion with the movements 
of the enemy. 

In my absence I have directed Hear-admiral Otway to superintend the 
several duties relative to the investment of this island, and to correspond 
with the Admiralty on all matters of service. 

Captain Dobbic, who acted in the Pallas during the absence of Captain 
Seymour, is the bearer of this despatch. He had my flag for some time in 
that ship, and has been particularly attentive to the public service. 

In consequence of the protracted siege of Flushing, and the necessity for 
the flotilla going up the Scheldt, I have ordered guns from the ships of war 
to tit twenty transports as gun- ships, and with the launches of the ships im- 
der Rear-admiral Otway, to form a flotilla for the lower part of the Scheldt, 
which I trust their lordships will approve. 

You will please likewise to inform their lordships that Lord Gardner has 
♦rdcred the Centaur and Theseus to cruise off the Texel. 

I have the honour to be, ike. 

R. J. STRACIIAN, 
MonQurable W. TV. Pole. 



15S VAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1809. 

SIR, Kangaroo, in the. West Scheldt, August 12, 1300, 

TIaviiis; directed the frigates named in the margin,* to proceed up the 
West Scheldt, under the orders of Lord William Stuart, captain of the 
I^vmia, the Uiomcnt tlie wind was favourable, that zealous otHcer availed 
iiiuiself of a l.'olit air from the westward on the afternon of the 11th instant, 
notvviihstandino the tide vvas attaint his proceeding, and passed the batteries 
between Flushing and Cad.vaud ; the ships were under the enemy's fire 
nearly two hours. 

The gallant and seaiifian-Iike manner in which this squadron was con- 
ducted, and their steady and well-directed fire, excited in my breast the 
wannest sensations of admiration. The army witnessed their exertions 
with applause, and I am certain their lordships will duly appreciate the 
services of Lord William Smart, the captains, officers, seamen, and marines, 
on this occasion. 

No very material accident happened, except by a shell striking TAigle, 
and which fell tliroui:h her decks into the bread room, where it exploded ; 
one man was killed, and four others wounded ; her stern frame is much 
shattcrrd. 

Lord WillintTi Stuart's modest letter accompanies this despatch, together 
with a return of the killed and wounded, and the damages sustained by his 
I>3ajcsty's ships, in forcing the entrance of this river. 

I have the honour to be cVc. 

11. J. STR.4CHAN. 

His Majesty s Ship Lavinia, in the Scheldt, 

SIK, Air^int 11, 1809. 

T 1 M, ( the honour to enclose you a report of the killed and wounded, 

and the damage sustained on hoard his Majesty's ships, which you did me 

the honour to place under my orders to force through the passage of the 

Scheldt between the batteries of Flushing and C'adsand. 

As flora your position ynu nmst have been a witness to the execution of 
this service,/ have only to thank you for the honour you did ine in placing 
the squadron under my ortlcrs. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant. 
To Sir R. J. S'.rachan. Bart. K.B. Rear- WM. STUART. 

Admiral of the M'hie, Commundtr in 
atief,6)c'.i<ic.Sic. 

^ Return of Kil/ecl a)id Wounded on hoard u Squadron of his 3Iajesfy*s 
Ships, led hi/ C(iph:in the Right Honourable Lord William Stuart past tin 
liaci tries of' Flushing and Breskens, on the \lth oj' August, 1809. 
Lavinia, Captain Lord WilliLmi Stuart — None killed or wounded. 
Kuryalus, Captain tlie lion. G. II. Duudas — None killed or wounded, 
.Amethyst, Caj;tan. Sir iM. Seymour— 1 killed, 1 wounded, , 

L'Aig'e, Cai tain George Wolf, — I killed, 4 wounded, 
Nyuiphen, Captain Keith Maxwell — Xone killed or wounded. 
Staiira, Ca^.ta n (' W Boys— None killed or wounded. 
Heroine, Captain 11. Ij. Clnisti;m — 2 wounded. 
Dryad, Capt;iin Y. Galvvey — None killed or wounded. 
Rota, Ca,,taii) P. Somcrville — None killed or wounded, 
Peilin, Capain William Thompson — 2 wounded. 
Total— 2 killed, 9 wounded. 

R J, STRACHAN, 

* Lavinia, Heroine, Amethyst, Rota, Nymphen, I'Aigle, EuryaluSj Sta'» 
tira, Dryad, and Peil.i!, 



VAVAL niSTOHY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 137 



Names of the Killed arfd Wounded on board a Squadron of hit Mvjesty's 

Ships, u.,dtr the direcLion of Captain ihc Right HonouiubU Lord WiUiutn 

Stuart, o.. the llih of August, 1809. 

Amethysf — Michftel Pauersoii. killed : Joseph Manfree, wounded. 

L'.-iiHje — Ehslui Hiti{),iii.>on, private of marine, killed; William White, 
IaiKlin;iii, wouiidcri ; Williiini Bromley, boy, bt-coiid class, ditto ; H. L. Vine, 
lieutenant royal murines, duco ; 1 liomas Donovan, acting schoolmaster, do. 

Hcrome— 2 men, not named, slignily wounded. 

R. J. STRACHAN. 



SIR, Kangaroo, in the West Scheldt, Aug. 13, 1809. 

I had despatched Sir Home Popham with tlie sloops, brigs, and vessels, 
naned m ih- mariiin,* tOL^ether with a li;rlu flotilla, andcr Captains Lyt'ord, 
Lowe, and Buck, up the West Scheldt, to sound and buoy the channels of 
that riser, to enable the lartier sl)i|)s to advance, for the purpose of putting 
inio <'xecuti(jn the ulterior objects of this expedition. Sir Home Popham 
has executed this service with his usual judi;n)ent and correctness. 

I have the honour to incl.'Sc, for tlioi lordships' inl'oiniation, a copy of a 
letter I have received trom Sir Richard Keats, to whom 1 have given the 
conmumd (jftlie naval part of our ()|-eiiit.ons in tl.e upper part of both 
Scheldts, until I f^et the frioates advLiiicei under Lord \\ iUiam Stuart, and 
which will be done with the utmost ilLspatch. 

1 have the honour to he, &c. 

R J. STRACHAN. 

sir. Fort Baihz, August n, 1809. 

I have the honour to inform you, that, in pursuance of your directions, 
I arrived at Bathz yesterday, and in order to render, if practicable, an 
attack on the enemy's flotilla more complete, I ordeicd 30 flat boats armed 
with carronades, aiid some other bo.its from the ships under my orders, to 
renJrzvous at this place, and meet the fiotilla under Sir Home Popham, but 
before the arr.val of either, six of the enemy's gun-boats having grounded 
on a ba-.k within reach of the artillery of the fort, after sustaining some 
injury bv it, were abandoned: five of which were destroyed, and the other 
brought in. 

1 he arrival of Sir Home Popham ai'd my boats from the East Sclieldt, 
wliich tot)k phice nearly at tlie same ti;ne, hut the enemy's flotilla mored up 
to Liiio with the same "tide iliat l)niiiglit ours to Bathz, one of which vva» 
handsomely hmncil bv the advanced gaii-boats almost amongst them. 

As the iiavigatDii" of the \\'e?t Scheldt is now open as far as it can 
possilily be clea|( d bv the navy, and a fiotilla force of upwards of 50 sail 
in the i'.ast Scht idt demand attention, and I can at any time return in a 
few iiouis to this place, it is iny intention to repair this morning to the 
Superb, where 1 have ordered the b r,\ts of my division. 

'Hiv Home Popham is exannning the eiianneis. 

Although we are now masters of the navigation to Lillo, itmay^be proper 
to observe, that it is in the enemyV power, by .-ending a superior naval 
force, to deprive us of it, as far as Bathz (before some larger ships ascend), 
whenever he pleases. 1 have, &c. 

To Rear-admirnl Sir Richard Slruchan, Burt. R. G. KEATS. 

K.B. cSf. 



* Skylark, Harpy, Challengn-, i.a iMcche, Pilot, Parthian, Daring, Thais, 
Cracker, Bloodhound, Galgo (rocket ship). 



158 NATAL HISTORY OF TH? PRESENT TEAR, 1809, 

THE LONDON GAZETTE EXTRAORDINARY. 

AUGUST 20, 1809. 

Despatches, of which the foUovving are copies, were received last night 
at this othce fram Sir Richard John Strachan, Bart, nnd K.B. rear-ad;»iral 
of the white, ike. addressed to the Hon. William Wellesley Pole : — 

SIR, 5^ Domingo, Flushing Roads, 17 th August, 1809. 

I have much satisfaction in acqnaintin* you, for the information of their 
lordships, that the town and garrison of Flushing have capitulated upon the 
tcrm^, a copy of which I send herewith. 

Their Lordships have already been apprised that it was my intention to 
hnve proceeded up tiie Scheldt, with the division of frigates under Lord 
William Stuart, and that the greater part of our flotilla had advanced to 
Bathz, in the charge of Sir Home Popham, by whom the enemy were driven 
above Lillo, where their s!iips and gun-brigs had taken up a strong position. 
The command of tht; important service of the Scheldt, I have given to Sir 
Rich;-.rd Keats, and he has my directions to co-operate with Lieutenant- 
general the Earl of Rosslyn, as well as to use every means in his power for 
capturing or destroying the fleet and flotilla of t!ie enemy. 

Rear-admiral Lord Gardner remained witli the ships named in the 
margin* off Dykeshook, and his Lordship had received ray direction to hold 
that squadron in readiness to go against th.- garrison of Flushing. 

On the 12th instant, I was informed by Lord Chatiiam, that the advanced 
batteries were sufficiently prepared to open on the enemy the day follwing, 
at one o'clock in the afternoon; and as it appeared to me of consequence 
that the line-of-battle ships shoidd pa^sthe rown at the same moment,! there- 
fore abandoned my intention of going up to the advanced flotilla, and pro- 
ceeding to Dykeshook hoisted my flag in the St. Domingo. The batteries 
opened on the garrison as it "as previously settled, at one in the after- 
noon of the 13ch instant, and the fire was returned with great vigour by the 
enemy. 

The bombs and gun-vessels under the direction of Captain Cockburn, of 
the Belleisle, were most judiciously placed at the south east end of the 
town; and to the south west. Captain Owen, of the Clyde, had with equal 
skill and judgment, placed the bomb and other vessels under his orders. I 
had much sati'-faction in witnessing the Are that was kept up by the 
squadrons under the command of these two officers, and the precision with 
which the shells were thrown from tite bombs. 

Unfortunately the wind was too scant to allow me to weigh when the bat- 
teries opened, but it proving more favourable the following day, I immedi- 
ately put that intention into execution, and at ten in the forenoon of the 
14th proceeded with the ships already namec' tov. ards Flushing, meaning to 
pass to a more convenient anchorage fur placing the squadron against it, 
when such a measure should appear to be necessary. 

This sqfladron was led in by the St. Domingo, bearing my flag, and I was 
followed by the Blake, with the flag of Renr-admiral Lord Gardner; the 
other ships advanced in succession. Soon after we had opened our fire, the 
wind came more southerly, and the St. Domingo grounded inside of the 
Dog-Sand. Lord Gardner not knowing our situation passed inside of us, 



* St. Domingo, Blake, Repulse, Victorious, Denmark, Audacious, and 

Venerable. 



STAVAL HISTOUy O* THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 15D 

by which the Bhtke also grounded. The otlier ships were immediately 
directed to haul off, and anchor as previously intended, 

After being some time in this situation, durin«; which the enemy's fire 
slackened, by the active and zealous exertions of Captain (Jwen, of tlic 
Clyde, who came to our assistance, and anchored close to the St. Uomin<i;o, 
6he was £;ot off, and soon after I had the satisfaction of seeing the Blake 
also afloat, and come to anchor with the rest of the squadron. 

I was much pleased with the conduct and exertions of Captain Gill, of 
the St. Di)niiii2;o, and his othcers, and with the steadiness, ener<ry, and 
good order of the ship's company. Lord Gardner hears equal testimony l» 
the behaviour of the officers, seamen, and marines, of the Bl.ikc, and his 
lordship mentions the assistance he received from Captain Codrington in 
the highest terms of praise. 

The fire of the enemy towards the evening had considerably abated, the 
town was burning in many places, and much damage was done to the 
houses. At seven o'clock I received a message from Lieutenant-general 
Sir Eyre Coote, requesting I would cease hostilities, as a summons had 
been sent into Flushing; but at niglit the hre again commenced, and was 
kept up without intermission until two o'clock of the morning of the loth, 
when the Trench commandant, General Monnet, offered to surrender. 
This was communicated to me by the lieutenant-general, and in consc- 
ijucnce I directed the flag of truce to be hoisted at day-light on board his 
Majesty's ships, a. id that hostilities should cease. 

The lieutenant-general having also intimated hi^ wish that two com- 
tnissioncrs should be sent on the part of the navy to assist in the proposed 
capitulation, I accordingly nominated Lord Gardner to meet Sir Eyre 
Coote at East Zouburg, and to take with him Captain Cockburn, to act in 
conjunction with the ofncers on the part of the army. Shortly after I 
received a message I'rom the E^rl of Chatham, requesting to see me at; 
Zouburg. On my arrival there, I found his lordship had selected Colonel 
Long, adjutant-general of the army, and Captain Cockl)urn, lo be the 
•ommissioners for settling the terms of capitulation, which were finaliy con- 
cluded late in the evening of t!ie i5th. 

Li the extensive and various branches of t!ic service committed to my 
«are, their lordships must be aware, that it would be impossible l!;at ail tlie 
flag-officers could be employed in tlje eflective ships vmder my command ; 
but I am no less indebted for tlie active exertions of Rear-admiral Otwav, 
v,'ith whom I left the difficult task of arranging all t.'ie service connected 
with the operations against Elushing; and 1 am hajjpy^ in tliis opportunity 
of makiiig him n)y acknowledgments for the ability with which those 
arrangements were made, and that sei vice conducted. To Ilear-admiial Sir 
Richard Keats, my thanks are particularly due, for his zealous exertions in 
defeating the intentions of the enemy at Bathz, anti his active co-operation 
with Lieutenant-general Sir John Hope on South Eeveiand, and the upper 
part of the East Scheldt. 

Their lordships have already been informed that Rpar-admiral Lord 
Gardner accomjiauird me on the service off Flushing, vvhcre his lordship 
conducted himself with his accustomed gallantry. - 

I have much pleasure in bearing the most ample testimony to th« 
exertions of Sir Home F'opham, with the advanced iiotillti, in the upper 
part of the West S'-'hcKlt, which has been of the most essential service. 

I have received the most satisfactory accounts from Lieutenant-general 
Sir Eyre Coote, of the conduct of Captain Charles llichardson, oi' the 
Cssar, with whose activity and 2cal I have been long acquainted. Captam 
Richardson speaks in high terms of the assistance he received from Captaia 
telame/, of the Hsiipy, as wtU as ]iis gallantry throw^hout the v/holc wf tLe 



160 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

iervlce, in the buttery workeri by the seamen. I cannot coiiclufle tins 
letter without assuring tl.eir lordships th;it cverv captain, utticer, scanian, 
and inanne, have most zcalonsiy done their duty; nur will it, I hope, be 
thoiiglit taking away from the merits of others, in drawing tlicn- lord-hips' 
particularnoi.ee to the ci)er>^etic exertions of the eaptams, i.tiicers, anJ 
men, empfoyed in the gun-boats : they have been con>taiitlv under hre and 
gone throuuh all the hardi.iiips of their situation with the utmost cheer- 
fulness. Uereuith I enclose the reports ol the orti-crs who have had 
coniinaads in the present service, including the returns of killed and 
wounde !. 

Lieutenant William May, first lieutenant of my flag-ship, is the bearer of 
this desjjatch, and I recoinmend him to their lordships as an otticcr of 
merit. I have the honour to be, &r. 

R. J. STRACHAN. 

SIR, CumWa, in the Wei^t Sheldt, August 1.5, 1809. 

I have the honour to inform you, that in pursnancc of your instructions, 
I yesterday hoisted my f!;i£; in the Camilla, and am at present with eijiliteen 
sloops and £;im-hrigs and lour divisions of Jiun-buats, lyinii between the 
Saeftinpren siioals, a position judiciously chosen by Captain Sir Home Pop- 
ham, as it effectually cuts oft' the comraunication between the East and 
We-t Scheldt. 

The enemy's flotilla considerably increased in number, has retired above 
or under the protection of Lillo, and the men of war with top-gallant-yards 
crossed, are anchored off and below Antwerp, as far down as Fhillipe. 
Six of our frigates are anchored off Waerden, waiting an opportunity to 
come up. 

Rear-admiral Sir R. J. Strnchan, R. G. KEATS. 

^art. and K.B, 

His Majesh/s Sloop Plover, off Flushing, 
SIR, ^August 15, 1809. 

I have the honour to enclose herewith, a list of killed and wounded o» 
board the flotilla under my orders during our late operations; and I feel it, 
Sir, to be a duty incumbent on me, at tho same time to state to you, that 
the several captains, oiticers, and men, which you were pleased to place 
under ray orders, have by their exertions and gallant conduct, merited my 
warmest praise and acknowledgments. 

Captain Aberdour, who commands the division of gun-boats now wiik 
mc, conducted himself mucti to my satisfaction during the attack on 
Flushing, and under him Litntenant Russel, of the San Josef, Ba!:er of tlie 
Eagle, Bull of the Iiupetueux, and Westphal first lieutenant of the 
Beileisle (who quitted his =;iiip to take charge of a sub-divison of the gun- 
boats) severally distinguished Lliemselves in their respective commands ; 
indeed, Sir, the conduct of all those who had charge of the gun-boats on 
this occasion, was highly meritorious. 

'Jhe captains of the bomb-ships are likewise entitled to much praise for 
the judL'ment with which they placed tiieir ships, and the precision wjcli 
vhicli the shells were thrown from them; the constant and correct fire from 
the /Etna Cap'i-.in Lawless, particularly drew my attention, 

,1 be,, Sir, also to be permitted to recommend to your notice and con- 
sideration, Captain P!i;Jip Brown, of this ship, to wiiom I feel under great 
obligation, for the assistance he has at all times afforded me, and for the 
assiduity, sk II, and prcjpriety with which he has managed the various details 
and arrangements of the flotilla, at the frequent periods of my being otlier- 
wiic occupied in gun-vessels, on sho.e, &c. 



KAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 161 

Captains Philllmore and Ward, of the Marlborou<;h and Resolution, 
arrived with tiieir light armed transports time eiioiij^hto assist at tlie reduc- 
tion of tlie fortress ; but I am sorry to add, that the country and service 
have to regret tlie loss of Lieutenant Rennie, vvlio was embarked with Cap- 
tain Ward, and who tell soon after tietting into action. I cannot, Sir, con- 
clude this letter, without also mentioning to you Lieutenant Biglaiid, of the 
Beileislc, who has iiivariably attended me as aide-de-camp, and wlios« 
eourage and zeal fully entitle him to this public acknowledgment thereof. 
I have the honour to be, 5cc. 

G. COCKBUUNT, Captain of his 
Majesty's ship Belleisle, and 
commanding his IMajesty's flo- 
tilla before Flushing. 
Hcar-admiral Sir J. StrarlHin, Hart. andK.B. 

A Return of Killed and Wouudrd on hoard the Flotilla under the Orders of 
Captain Coekhurn, «/" hi-i Mnjesty^s Ship Bcl/eisle, at the JttacJi uf 
FUahingfrom the^th of August, 1809, until I5thfollotcing. 

Blake (gun-boat No. 67) — 1 killed, 4 wounded. 
San Josef (gun-boat No. (37) — 4 wounded. 
San Domingo (gun-boat No. (37) — 1 wounded. 
Orion (gun-boat No. 87) — ! killed. 
Monarch (gvm-boat No. 19) — 4 wounded. 

Ilesoiution (giui-boat No. 27) — 1 wounded. ; 

Impefueux (gun-boat No. (3!^)— 1 killed. 
Impetueux (gun-boat No. 62) — 1 killed, 3 wounded. 
Marlborough (gun-bxjat No. 62) — 1 killed. 
Royal Sovereign Yacht (jEtnn bomb) — 1 wounded. 
Hero (ship's launch) — 1 killed, 2 wounded. 
Resolution (armed trnnsport Ann) — 1 killed, 2 wounded. 
Total — 7 killed, 22 wounded. 

Names of Ojfieers Killed and Wounded. 
Marlborough — Lieutenant llcnnie, killed. 
San Josef — Lieutenant Russell and JMr. Burnside, surgeon, slightly wounded. 

Monarch, off Camp Veere^ 
SIR, August 16, 1809. 

I have the honour to enclose, for your information, a report from Capt. 
Richardson, of his Majesty's ship Casar, who commanded the brigade of 
seamen tliat landed on tiie 30th ultimo with the division of the army under 
the orders of Lieutenant-general Sir Eyre Coote, K. 0. and I beg leave to 
add that I am authorised by the Lieutenant-general who commanded the 
siege of Flushing, and under whose orders the naval brigade more imme- 
diately acted ; as likewise by Major-general M'Leod the commanding 
officer of the royal artillery, to express their high approbation of the 
bravery and zeal so very conspicuous in the conduct of Captains Richardsoa 
and Blatney, and the whole of tlie othcers and men under their command, 
during the continuance of a long and n\ost arduous service. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 
Jtcar-admiral Sir JR. J. Strachan, WILLLVM A. OTWAY. 

Bart, and K.U. 

East Zoulerg, before Flushings 

SIR, August 16, 1809. 

I beg leave to inform you, that in obedience to your gcKeral orders 

issued on the 28th ultimo, I landed with the army on the sand-hills, near 

fjjie signal-post on the island of ^^'alcheren, on the 30th ultimo. The 

m'9* ^f)ion» mu XXII. y 



161 NAVAL HISTORY OT THE PRESrNT YEAR, 1S09. 

offcers and seamen yon difl me the honour to place under my orders, were 
compitbtd of three divisions, having charge of nine pieces ol" ordnance, 
wliicli were drawn and worked hy them. At eight A.M. on the Slst, the 
leu division took pust before Ter Veere, and joined in the attack ot that 
phice, ttirowirig several cases cf rockets into it with good effect; during the 
night a flag of truce was received, and tiie terms of capitulation agreed to 
and .signed by general Frastr and myself. On the 1st instant the troops 
quitied 'I'er Veere, on their way to Fort Ramiiickcne, when we weracori-' 
slantiy employed n^. the construction of works, anrl drawing heavy cannon, 
t'il it also capicidaied on t!ic 2d at night. The detachment tiien proceeded 
to East Zouherg, and were employed day and night in cutting fascmes, 
erecting hatieries, and drawing heavy ordnance into them ; the artillery 
horses being found inadequate to perrbrm that service from the narrovy 
roads, durkness of il;e night, and dithculty of driving clear of tlie ditches, 
itito which they had tiirown several twenty four pounder guns and 
carriages. This important duty from the heavy rains and soft muddy 
suit, wa^ attended with the greatest difriculty and fatigue. 

After having assisted in mounting all the batteries, and otherwise 
completing tiiem, on tlie 12th, General Sir Eyre Cootc iionoured ine with 
tlie command of a new work [ust lined out fir six 24-ponnders; we made 
evt-'iy possible exertion to complete it under a galling tii'e frr.m the enemy's 
rnmparts, distant only 600 yards; during the day four were killed and one 
w.>undtd in the battery. At sun-rise on the 14th, we opened a most 
dertriiclive fire on the rampart and town in front of us, and in two hours 
every gun we could bear upon was silent, Our tire was kept up incessantly 
initii about ^;e^■cn o clock m the evening, when I received an order lo cca.-e 
firing, as did all the other works. We iniinediatcly put the battery in 
a state for renewing the fire, if ffiund necessary, and at nine we opened 
again liy order, with still greater effect, and continued our fire until 
two o'clock, -when we ceased to fire, by order, the French general luiving 
agreed to capitulate on the basis of the garrison becoming prisoners of 
v\ a r. 

I cannot conclude this report, without assuring you tliat I have received 
every possible sujiport from Captain Blarney, and the lieutenants of 
the ditferent ships under my orders; and I beg to recommend them 
to your attention and protection. 

I ha\e likewise the honour to inclose the names of the lieutenants, 
according to their seniority, who served ^^irll me in the batteries on 
this occasion, and beg leave from their exertions earnestly to recommend 
them to y(jnr notice. 

I I kewise add a return of the casualties of tlie officers and men. 

I have tiic honour to be, &c. 
Rear-admiral Wm. A. Otway CILVKLES KiCil.lKBSON. 

^Namcs of the LinnCnants according to t.hcir Scnicrih/, rrfio 'served in the 
Jiatiay htjore I'.nsfiijii:, unda' the Ordtis oj Capiuin liis/tuidsoii, of hisi 
Ahijcsij,'''s Ship demn: 

Lieutenant .lolm \\ yborn; Lieutenant Nicholson; lieutenant Travcrs ; 
Lieutenant HiUon; Lieutenant Howell; Lieutenant Medway^ Lieutenant 
Hall. 

J Return of the Killed and Wounded belovging to his Muiea'y's Ships 
injassin^ the Butttjies .^ FlushDig, on the ii\lh Aui^ust, liJQy. 

Blake. 
Mitkd. — James Giatt, Serjeant of marines; Jehu Lowry, scamaH. 



naVal history of the pii!:sent yeau, 19.0Q. 16' 

Wounded. — Audi- 




.. P 

ditto. 

San Domingo. 
Wiiinde.t —John Miyuard, seaaiaM ; Chiirlo-; M'tvlurray, seaman; Ttu^h 
Malloy, seain;i!i; Junes Grily, so.iih:i;i ; Itich ir;l Plut, sen aaii ; Jtihu 
Kii-byj seaman.; Williriin Coanor, seam in; JOjiiipli Clt-annau, seaman; 
William Owens, seaman. Total.— 2 killed, 18 woiinded. 

n. J. sTiiACiiAiNr. 

A Rr.furu of the Killed and Wounded in fits Sea?ncns'' hatten/ hefurc 
Flushing, beiu'^ a Dcfach'nent of Sharpen tinder the Orders of Cautait 
Charles Ria'iardson, of His Majcatfa Ship CarMr, Augu.it 14, 1809. 

Ili:vi.NOE. 

Wounded. — Edward Harrick, inidshij)nian; Felix Benjamin, seaman; 
B:;njamin Purrutt, seaman; Joliu HiccliCDck, seaman; Thomas Scoit^ 
seaman. 

Hero. 

Wounded.—iohw Woodcock, seaman ; William Butler, seaman. 
Total. — 7 wounded. 

To! ul Killed and Wounded. — Captain Cockburn's return— 7 killed, 22- 
wounded. 

General Return — 2 killed, 18 wounded. 

Captain ll!chafds')n's return-^7 wounded. 

Total-9 killed, 47 wounded. R. J. STRACIIAN. 

% Letter from Rear-admiral Sir Richard John Strachan to the Hon. W. 
Wellesley Pole, dated on board the St. Doniin^D, Flushins;, Ifth Aui;ust, 
iSQP, transmits one from Sir Richard Goodwin Keats, inclosinf^ the terms 
of Capitulation for tho surrender of the towns (jf 7'eirikzec and Browcrs- 
haven, with the wiiole of the islands of Schoweii and Duivclaud, of wiiich 
ihe following is a copy: 

ARTICLES of C4MTVLAT10N, cvtered into for the Surrender of 
the Towns of Z?ir\lc Zee nnd Brouershnveni, and the luJiolc of Uis 
Islands of ScJiori;cn and Duiv land, to his Brilanriic Majesty's Forces, 
and concluded bt.lwcen (he Earl of /iosslj/n, f/ieuteniui-^'neral, and 
Richard Goodwin Keats, K.B. f'ear-udmira! of tk .''lu-\ on ihe one 
Part; nnd J\ir. J. Neiemnns, Mr. Secretory Van Jl^o, ff and jiJr. J. 
de Kater, Memberx of the Regency, Drpulics frowt Ihe Towns 'if 
^firik Zee and Browershavcn, and the whole of ihe Islands of 'chowtn 
and Duiveland, on the other Part. 

The said /tepfJies, in Consequence of the Eij^hth Article of the ^apimla- 
lation of ihe Toicri of Midd/ehur^h, coi/imuniratrrJ io them tiy t'le 
Prnfect of Z^eland, mid in Coiiforniih/ to ihc ')isi)osiiiun frotn lurn of 
the nth .duj:ust, have e.Cf/rcssed their iiendinrss to itcc-ue to itie Con- 
didons nf the said Cxpilulntion, and to surrtiniler Ih'.' '"U'«s of Zeirilc 
Zee and Broivershuven, and the IVliole of the Lslan.ls of khoicen and 
Duivetind, to /;''« Britannic Mijjesty''s Fitrces^ upon the following 
Articles of Capitulation, 

Art. I. Security shall be granted to every person, public fimctiuiiries, 
yrivute persous, cuiiciis, and iubabitauis^ wiiatevtjr ihtir pyiiucal opimout 



164 HAVAL HISTORY O? THE PRESENT YFAH, 1809. 

may have been, or now are, provided tliey conduct tliemsolves as peace:?ljle 
citizens, and conform to such regulations as shall be licreatter established 
by the autliority of the British government. 

Art. II. Protection shall be granted to all private property ; bnt all 
public property is tp be accounted for, to such commissioners as shall be 
named by the general and admiral commanding, his Britannic Majesty'i» 
Forces. 

Art. III. The arms of the fntiabitants, which liave been received from 
the government, shall be delivered up to such officer as shall be appointed 
on the part of his Britannic Majesty, to receive the same; but it shall be 
permitted to the ma2,istrates to retain such propDrtion of them, and to arnt 
such part of the burghers for the purposes of the internal police of 
the towns, as shall appear to be proper and necessary, to the officers com- 
manding in tlie island on the part of his Britannic Majesty; but 
none shall be rctain€d or us€)d, except subject to his authority ancJ 
his discretion. 

Art. IV. Public functionaries and their families shall be permittee?, 
if they desire it, to return to any otlier part of Holland ; but such as shall 
remain, shall, if required and authorised so to do, by the officer command- 
ing in the islands, continue to exercise tiieir several functions, for the 
administration of the affairs of the towns and islands aforesaid. 

Art. V. Inhabitants who are absent fronv tlieir housfs shall be per- 
mitted to return with their property^ subject to the conditions in the lirs: 
article. 

Art. VI. Every care will be taken that the quartering of the troops 
stationed in the towns and islands shall be naide us little burthensom* 
to the inhabitants as possible. 

Art. VII. Lt" any misunderstanding shall arise regarding the foregoing 
jfrticles, they shdU be explained in favour of the inhabitants of the towne 
atul islands aforesaid. 

Done on Board his Britannic Majesty's ship Superb,*-off 
Cattendyke, 15th August, 1809. 

ROSSLYN, Lieutenant-general, 
R. G. KEATS. 
J. de KA TER. 
JOH. NELEMANS. 
A. J. VAN DOPEE. 

DOW^l-KC-STREET,- AUGUST 19th, 1809. 

A despatch of which the following Is a copy, was this day received at the 
*)ffice of viscount Castlereagfi, one of his Majesty's principal Secretaries of 
state, from Lieutensuit-genCral the Earl of Chatham^K.G. dated head-quar- 
ters, jVIiddleburgh; August 16, 1809. 

Head-quarters , Middk burgh, 
MY LORD, August 16, 1809. 

I have thehonour of acquainting your lordship, that on the 13th instant, 
the batteries before Flushing being completed, (and the frigates, bombs, anff 
gun-vessels, having at tlie same time taken their stations) a fire w.as opened 
at about half-past one PwAI. from tifty-two pieces u^' heavy ordnance, which 
was vigorously returned by the ei>emy. An additional battery of six twenty- 
four pounders was completed the same night, and the whole continued ta 
play upon the town with little or no jntermission till late on the following' 
day. 

On the morning of the 14th instant, about ten o'clock, the lIne-of-battI» 
ships at anchor in the Durloo passage, led by Rear-admiral Sir Richard 
Strachan got under wei^i; and ranging up ulon^ the sea-liiie of defence. 



NAVAL IIISTORT OF THE PRESEKT fEAR, 1809. 1^3 

kept up as they passed a tremeiuloiis ctif.noiiade en the town for several 
hours with the greatest gallantry and effect. About ibur in the afienioon, 
perceiving that the (ire of tlic enemy had entirely ceased, and the town pift- 
senting a most awful scene of destruction, heiui; on fire in almost every 
tjimrter, I directed Lieutenant-general Sir Eyre Coote ,to send in to sum- 
mons the place. General iVionnet returned for answer, tiiat he would re^ 
ply to the summons as soon as he had consulted a council of war. An hour 
iiad been allowed him for the purpose, but a considerable time beyond ii 
having elapsed without any ans\ver being received, hostilities were ordered 
to recommence with the utmost vigour, and about eleven o'clock at niuht, 
one ot the enemy's batteries, advanced upon the Sea Dyke in front of Lieu- 
tenant-general !• laser's position, was most gallantly carried at the point nif 
the bayonet, by detachments tVom the SOtli, ? 1st, and light battalions ut 
the King's Germ?ai legion, ir.idcr Lieutenant-colonel Pack, opposed to great 
superiority of numbers; they took forty prisoners, and killed and wounded 
a great many of tlie enemy. 

I must not omit to mention, that on the preceding evening, an intrench- 
meiit in t'ront of J\lajor-general Graham's position, was also forced in a man- 
lier equally undaunteJ, by the lllii rcgiiucut, and detachments of the King'* 
C'efmaTi legion, under Lic'i^er.ant-colonel XicoUs, who drove ti;e enemy 
from it, and made a i(?Jgement wiihia musket-shot of the walls of t;ie town, 
taking one gun and Miirty prisoners. 

A bout two in the morning, t!ie enemy demanded a -suspension of arms 
for furty-elght hours uhicli was refused, and o.ily two houi-s granted, wh<Mt 
he i'greed to surrender acccrding to the sutnuious sent iii, on the basis of 
the garrison becoming prisoners of war, 

I have now the smisraction of sicquaiating your lordship, tha!: these jvo 
li!ninaries being acceded to; as soon as tiie Admiral lauded in the mornvui;, 
(Jolonel Long, Adjutant-general, and Captain Cockburu of tlie Ro\al Navy, 
wore appointed to negotiate the further articles of capitulation, which T 
liaVe now the honour to enclose. They were ratified about th.roe this nioru* 
lag, when detachments at' the Koyals on the right, and of his Majesty's 71st 
regiment on the Icit, look possession of the gales of the town. The garrison 
v.ill march out to-morrow, and will be embarked as speedily as pos5ibie> 

I may n<jvv coiigratulate your lordship on the fall of a place so indispensi- 
bly necessary to our future opperatious, as so large a proportion of our 
force being required to carry on the si^ge with that degree of vigour and 
despatch, wliich the \ueans of defence the enemy possessed, and particularly 
his powers of inundation (which was rapidly spreading to an alarmii>g {.'x» 
tent) rendered absolutely neci.ssary. 

Having Ijoped, had circumstances permitted, to have proceeded up iTie 
river at an earlier period, 1 had conuuitted to Lieutenant-general Sir Eyre 
Coote, the direction of the details of the siege, and of the operations before 
Tlusliing, and I cannot sutScieutly express my sense of the unremitting zeal 
and exertion with vvhiciihe has cnducted the arduous service entrusted to 
him, in which he was ably assisted by Lieutenant-coli)nel5 Walsh and Olfe- 
rey attached tohiu), as assistants in the adjutant and quarter-maiter gtno 
rul's department. 

i have every reason to be satisfied with tlic judicious manner in whicli lh« 
general otficcrs have directed the several opeialions as well as with the spi* 
rit and intelligence manifested by the couuuandmg oificcrs of corps, and 
the zeal and ardour of all ranks ofofticcrs. 

It is witii great pleasure 1 can report the uniform good conduct of the 
troops, whi^ Irave not only on all occasions shewn the gri;ate;t i;ilrL-|ii'.hiy i.i 
pre.-.ence of the enemy, but have sustained, with great plyaiure and ch«^r- 
fuiiiess, th'i kboritjiUa duties they haie had tu perform. 



/ 

15G ITAtAL HISTORY OF THE PRE3EKT TEAR, 1809. 

The active and perseveriii"; exertions of the cor[)s of royal eac;iiicers Invtf 
teen coiiducted with much skill and jiid<^'iicnt hy Colonel Fycrs, aided uy 
Lieutenaiit-coloiici D'Arcey, mid it is iinpv)ssible for uis to do buflicieiit 
justice to the distinguished conduct of the oiiicers and men of tlie royal 
artiiler}-, under the able direction and aiiimatiog cianipie of Brigadier-ge- 
neral iM'Leod. 

The seamen, whose labours had already been so nscfnl to the army, 
sxiglu their reward in a further opportuiiicy of distin'j;aiihino; themselves, 
and one of the batteiies was accordm^ly entrusted to tiiem, and whicii they 
served with admirable vig()ur and effect. 

I must here be^; to express my strong sense of ihe constant and cordial 
ca-operation of the navy on all occasions, and my warmest ackno" ledg- 
mcius are most particularly due to Caijtain Cockhnrn of the Dellcisle, 
commanding the Flotilla, and to Captain Richardson of tiie CiESar, com- 
manding the briuade of seamen landed with the army. 

I have the h;)nour to enclo-e a return of the garrison of Fliishins:, in ad- 
dition to which I have learned that, besides the number killed, whicli was 
considerable, npwards olorie thousand wounded men were transported to 
Cadsand, pit. vujus to tie complete investment of the town, 

I also subjoin a statement ot deserters and prisoners, exclusive of the 
garrison of Flushing'. 

This desivirch will be delivered to your lordship by my first Aid-dc-cartij» 
Major Prailford, vvho is fully qualified to uive ycjur lordship every fio'ther 
iiitormatiou, aiid whom 1 beg leave earnestly to rcconunend to his Majesty's 
protection. 

I lu'ivc the honour to be, Sec. 

CHATHAM. 



His excellency the general of division ]\Ionnet, one of tlie commandants 
of the Legion of" 'loiioar, Couimnnrlant-in-cliief of the fortress of Fiusl)ing, 
having authorised jMousleur Ul'>eque, Captain of the imperial engineers, 
and iMonsieur iNlontonnet, Captain of tlie imperial artillery, to treat off 
terms of capitulation for the surrender of the town of Flushing to the troops 
of his Britannic Majesty; and their excellenries Fientenant-gcneral the Eafl 
of Chatham, K.G. &c. and Rear-admiral Sir Richard Strachan, K.B. &c. 
commanding in e:)icf the millitary and naval forces before Flushing, havirrg 
authorized Captain Cockburn, of his Majesty's ship Belleisle, commandinjj 
the British Flotilla, and Colonel Long, Adjutant-general, to treat conjointly 
with the said commissioners thereon, they have, after duly exchanging 
their lespective powers, agreed to the following articles, viz. 

Art. L The garrison of Fhisliing sh.ul be prisoners i>f war, and sliall marr?U 
out of the place with all the honours of war; they shall deposit their arms 
on the Quay of the water gate; they shall return to FVance on their paroley 
j^nd shall not for one year bear arms against his Britannic JNIajesty, or tiie 
allies whom he may Iiave at the time of Capitulation. 

This article is applicable to the oiiicers of marine actually at Flrshing. 

Answer. — The garrison of Flushing will be permitted to march out of t!i» 
town with the honours of war required, and they will lay dowtj their arms 
on the glacis, but must be considered as prisoners of war, and sent as such 
to England. 

The otiicers of marine will share the fate of the rest of the garrison. 

Art. Ff. General and Stat? otiiv-crs, officers of the marine and of the orps, 
«omposing the garrison, shall keep their arms, their horses, and all the jjro- 
perty which tielongs to them. The non-commissioned oiiicers, soldiers, seei- 
Bien, and officers' servauts, shall keep their Imvre-sacks. 

Aiii>»'> e.". — Giau ted , 



NAVAL niSTOUY OF THE TRKSEXT YEAR, 1809. 167 

Art. UI. The sick and %\omi(lcd capable of beins^ scut out shall be for-i 
warded to IVance, the reinaiuiii'z sick shall be If ft to the care and hiinmt 
nicy of the <.'.eneral coniniandiiii; the troops of his i^ritannic Majesty, and 
tent to tlie French dominions as soon as their condition will permit; there 
shall be left a Miliicient nnrnber of medical attendants f(/r the care of the 
sick; the medical attendants shall receive tlie same allowances as those o£ 
his Britannic ?lajcsty. 

Answer. —The sick and wounded must be considered as prisoners of war. 
Such as arc in a state to be removed shall be embarked with the siarrison ; 
tiie rest will remain under the care of French plivsicians and surgeons until 
siilliciently rccuveren to admit of tiicir being removed. 

The physicians and surgeons will receive the allowances usually "ranted 
to prisoners ot war of tlicir rank and description, together with such further 
remuneration for their attendance on the sick as the general commandm<»' 
the British army n)ay be pleased to grant. 

Alt. IV. The non-combatants, such as the sub-inspector, the commis- 
sary of war, the medical atttndants, the !;eads of the diilerent administra- 
tive dcpartmei'ts, shall not be considered as prisoners of war; tiiey sliail he 
at liberty to dispose of their eficcts, their private and personal property, and 
to cari:^' it to France, as well as all documents relative to their accounts, in 
prder to justify their conduct to the Fieiich government. This arraut^c- 
xnent is applicable to the connnissaries and civil olficers of the n;arii.e, 
to the artilicers and attendants of the port, to the othcers of the customs 
and duties, as well as to the paymasters of the army and navy. 

Answer. — The otricers and others mentioned in this article, all attend- 
ants on the French anny, and in short Frenctimen of every description, 
not inhabitants of Flu»hir.g previous to the year 1807, will f e sent lo 
lingiand, ancl hercai'ter treated according to such arrangement as may 
take place between the two governments respecting non-combatants; their 
private and per.-onal property sl-.all be respected, and )'ern(issi(Mi will 
be given theni to retain all such papers as spcciiically relate to, and may be 
necessary for the settlement of tiieir accounts. Mi Frenchmen and others 
vho may be permitted to remain, will be expected to take the oath of 
allegiance to his Eritannic Majesty when required, and to eonl'orm to ail 
Ia«s and regulations which may hercai'ter be made by the British govern- 
ment. 

Art. V. If no particular stipulation has been made cnnrcrnin<r the sick 
]eft at Middlcbuigh under the care of the mcdiciil atiendnnis and the 
otilcers of the i-aid hospital, ti)ey shall be treated accirding to articles IH 
and IV^ of the proscnt capitulation. 

Answer.— (jrantcd; conloimabiy to the answers given to the third and 
fourth articles. 

Art. \T. The property of the inhabitants shali be respected, they shall 
D(i at liberty to withdravv into France with their private pn peitv. they 
fcliall buye every .security in this respect, and shall not be molLv-ted m 
any manner for their opinions and the part they have taken duriu" tlie 
siege. 

Answer — The property of the inhabitants of every description wiJl 
he respected, it beii g understood that all na\al and military stores will be 
lield in requisition mnil pnved to be the private property of individuals, and 
the British government sliail, in that case, be at liberty to make use of the 
same on pacing a ju;t rennmeration to the proprietors. 

Such ini,ai)iiants as may be desirous of retiring to France, and shall 
•certdy this their intention within eigtit days after th< ratifieaii' n of this 
capi-ulaticn. j-hall be pianiiifd to do s() at a period lo be de:ermined 
by the British conmiaiuier-in-chief, and no miiabitant shall be molested on 
account of any opinion or conduct he may hitherto have held. 



leS NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YCAR, 1509. 

Art. VII. The necessary cairiap,es and vessels shall be furnished bv ^ha 
Iln^lish commissioners, at. the expense ot thrir government, for transporting 
froni this place lo the French dominions the sick and the private eftecls ot* 
the officers. These ffiects shall not be searclied, and shall have I'uU 
security durinc their passage. 

Answer.— Every expense of transporting the French garrison, sick, 8cc. 
w ith tlieir baggage, to England, will, of course, be defrayed by tlie British 
govcrnnjent. 

Art. V'llf. If any difficulty shall arise in the interpretation of any of the 
aVjuve articles, it shall be settled by the undersigned commiasioners, aud as 
much as possible in favour of the garrison. 
Answer. — Granted. 
Given under our Hands in Flushing this 15th dav of Aufjnst, ISOO ; 

GEORGE COCKBURNE, captain of his Majesty's ship Bellcisle, 

commanding the British flotilla. 
KOBERT LONG, Col. Adjutant-eeneral. 
Y. MONTONNET, Capitaine D'Artillerie. 
P. L'E\^EQUE, Capitaine Commandant du Genie. 

ADDITIONAL ARTICLES. 

Art. I. The tindersigned commissioners have agreed that all ordnance, 
military and naval stores of every description, as well as all maps, charts, 
plans, and military memoirs, &c. and all public property whatsoever, siiall 
be made over with inventories thereof to such commissioners as shall 
be appointed by the generals commanding tlie British and French forces 
conjointly to deliver and receive the same. 

Art. II. It is likewise agreed that as soon as the ratification of the pre- 
sent capitulation shall be exchanged, the gates of the town and the sluices 
shall be occupied by detachments of the British army, and the French troopi 
shall evacuate tiit fortress at noon on the 17th instant. 

Art. III. It is further agreed that this capitulation shall be ratified 
by the generals commanding in chief the British and French armies ; and 
that the rafifications shall be exchanged at the French advanced po^ts 
on the Mjddleburgh Road, at 12 o'clock this night ; in default of which, the 
present capitulation, and suspension of arms to be considered as null and 
void. 

Given under our hands at Flushing, this fifteenth d^y of August, 1809; 

G. COCKBURX, Captain of his Majesty's ship Belleisle coo)- 
manding the British flotilla. 

ROBERT LONG, Colonel Adjutant-iiencral. 

T. MONTONNET, Capitaine'D'ArtiUerie. 

P. L'EVEQUE, Capitaine Commandant du Genie. 
Approved and ratified by us, 

CHATHAM, Lieutenant-general commanding the naval forces. 

R. STRACHANj Rear-admiral couiinanding the naval forces. 
Examined and ratified, 

MONNET, General de division. 
A true Copy. 

T. CAREY, Lieutenant-colonel, Military Secretary. 

JLmount of the Garrison which surrendered at FJuahing, on the \bth Augtist^ 
1809, under the Command nf' Monnet, General of'Divislo/i . 

16 officers of the staff; 101 officers; 3773 Non-comoxis^ioned officers and 
soldiers; 489 sick and wounded. 
Total.— 4379. 



JfAT.VL HISTORY OF TUE rUESENT YEAR, 1809. 169 

ileturn of Prisoners and Deserters from the SOUi July to August Xblh 
iy09, taken in the Island of tValcheren. 

1 colonel; 1 licniteuanl-coloiiol; 15 captains; 27 lieutenants; 1 staff: 
33 Serjeants; 13 drummers; 1700 rank and lile. 

Return of the Rank and Names of Officers, and of the JVumber of Non- 
commissioned Officers, and Hank and Fili^ Killed, fFouvded, and 
Missing, from the 8th instant to the surrender of Fiuihing, on the 
Morning of the \5th inclusive, Head-Quarters, Middleburgh, ..ugust 
16, 1809. 

Royal Artillery.— 6 rank and file killed; 1 officer, 10 rank and file 
wounded. 

Royal Enp;inec'rs. — 1 rank and file killed; 2 officers wounded. 
3d Batt. 1st Foot. — 1 officer wounded. 

9d Foot. — 1 rank and file killed; 1 officer, 4 rank and file wounded. 
5tli Foot. — 1 officer, 2 rank and file killed; 1 drummer, 8 rank and file 
wounded. 

14tli Foot. — 1 rank and file killed ; 1 officer, 4 rank and file wounded. 
26th Foot. — 1 Serjeant wounded. 
35th Foot. — 1 Serjeant killed. 

36th Foot. — 3 rank and file killed; 1 officer, 2 Serjeants, 7 rank and file 
■wounded; l rank and file missis^. 

o9t!i Foot. — 2 rank and file killed ; 1 scrjeant, 2 rank and file wounded. 
G3d Foot. — 2 rank and file \^•ounded. 

68th P'oot. — 3 rank and file killed; 2 ofiicers, 1 serjeant, 12 rank and 
file wounded. 

7 1st Foot. — 1 officer, 1 rank and file killed; 2 officers, 7 rank and file 
wounded. 

76th Foot.— 2 rank and file killed. 
77 th Foot. — 1 otlicer wounded. 
Slst Foot. — 1 drummer killed; 2 officers wounded. 
84lh Foot. — 2 rank and iile wounded. 

95th Foot. — 1 rank and file killed ; 1 officer, 8 rank and file wounded. 
1st Light Battalion Kitiir's German Legion. — 7 rank, and file wounded. 
2d Li;:iht Battalion Kin;:i,'s German Legion. — 1 officer, 3 rank and lile 
killed; 1 drummer, 10 rank and file wounded. 

Total. — 8 officers, 1 serjeant, 1 drummer, 26 rank and file killed ; 15 
officers, 5 Serjeants, 2 drummers, 83 rank and file wounded ; 1 rank and 
file missing. 

Names of Officers Killed ajid Wounded. 

Killed. — 5th Foot. — Captain Talbot, 
" list Foot. — Ensign D. Sinclair. ' 

2d Liuht Battalion Kino's German Legion. — Lieutenant Sprecker. 

Wounded. — Royal Artillery. — Lieutenant Georee Browne, slightly. 

Royal Engineers. — Colonel Fyers slightly ; Captain Paslcv, danger- 
ously. ^ 

3 Batt. 1st Foot. — Lieutenant A. W. M'Kenzie, sl.ghtly. 

2d Foot.— Lieutenant Clutterbnck, slightly. 

14th Foot. — Ensign C. Ilarrald, dangerously; wounded August 9, sine* 
dead. 

36th Foot. — Major M'Kenzie, dangerouily. 

68th Foot. — Captain Soden, slightly; Lieutenant Smith, slightly. 

V 1st Foot. — Captain Spottiswoode, siigiidy; Lieutenant D. lU'Donald, 
dangerously. 

iJ2ai3. ^pxav.. aaL XXII. x 



170 >*ATAL UISTOUT OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1809. 

77th Ditto. Captain A. V. Brown, dangerously. 

81st Ditto. Captain Taylor, blightiy ; assistant-surgeon Chizlet danger- 
ously. 

95th Ditto. Lieutenant ^Manners, slightly: wounded Sd August, not 
reported in time ito be included iii the preceding returns. 

ROBERT LONG, Col. Adj. Gen. 

MiddJeburgh, Jugust 16, 1309 

Abstract Return of Ordnance, AmmunitioTi, and Stores, found in Flush' 
ing at the Surrender of the Garrison to the British Army under the 
Command of the Earl of Chatham, 4 c. 

INIounted on travelling carriages or beds, Sec. complete. 

Brass. 29 '24-pour.ders ; 10 IS-pounders ; 20 12-pounders; 2 8-poun- 
ders ; 10 6-pounders; 22 o-pounders; 2 1-poundcrs ; 18 12-inch mortars; 
8 8-inch ditto ; 6 12-inch howitzers ; 2 8-incli ditto; 12 5 and a half inck 
ditto. 

Iron. 40 24-pounder guns; 3 18-pounders; 20 6-pounders; 20 cohorns. 

Total 224 pieces. 
11,687 24-pounder shot; 15,794 lo-pounder ditto; 10,509 12-ponndcr 
ditto; 717 8-pounder ditto; 4,820 6-ponnder ditto; 6,t.05 4-poundcr 
ditto; 9,760 3-pounder ditto; 3,102 12 inch shells; 386 8-inch ditto; 
600 5 and a-hali'inch ditto; 800 hand-grenades. 

Powder in barrels and cnrtridoes, supposed equal to 2000 barrels. 

Infantry ammunition, a very large quantity, but not ascertained. 

68 Spare travelling carriages and limbers ; 21 caissons; 6 waggons; 2 
devil carriages; 4 copper fire engines. 

AVitI) a large quantity of ordnance stores of every description, of whicU 
a survey has not yet been made to ascertain the articles. 

J. M'LEOD, Brigadier-general, 

SUPPLEMENT TO THE LONDON GAZETTE 

OF SATURDAY, THE 19in OF AUGUST. 

AUGUST SO, 1809. 

A despatch, of which the following is a copy, has been received at the 
oflice of Viscount Castlereagh, one of his Majesty's principal secretaries of 
state, from Lieutenant-general the Eari of Chatham, K.G. dated Head 
Quarters, Middleburgh, August 11, 1809. 

WY LORD, Head Quarters, Middleburg, I] fh August, 1809- 

I received j^esterday evening your lord'^hip's despatch of the 8th instant? 
by the messenger Mills, and I must entreat of your lordship, to nfter my 
most dutiful acknowledgments to his Majesty, for the gracious approbation 
he has been pleased to express of my humble endeavours in his service ; 
and I shall feel the greatest satisfaction in communicating to Lieutenant- 
general Sir Eyre Cootc, and the general and other officers, and the troops 
employed here under my command, the sense which his Majesty entertains 
of tlicir meritorious conduct in the .services in which they ha\ e been engaged, 
as well as the confidence his Majesty feels in their future good conduct, and 
which 1 trust they will not disappoint. 

The enemy has continued to give what interruption he could to the pro- 
gress of our works ; but since the date of my last letter, he lias attempted 
no sortie in any force. He has eJideavourtd to cause us some embarrass- 



NAVAL HISTOUY OF THE PUESENT YEAR, 1809. 171 

merit by opening the sluices at Flusliins, and letting in the salt water, but 
this has been attended as yet with little inconvenience, as the necessary 
precautions tor lettiii;; off t'le water ihroush the siaices in our possession at 
this phice and at Veer, 1 have no doubt wjU be found effectual. The 
several batteries will probably be ready to open on the place eitlK>r the i2th 
or 13tli, and I shall look with great anxiety to the result, as the speedy 
rediiction of Mushing (jiarticnlarly under present appearances) is of the 
last importance, as till then so very large a portion of the force under my 
command is unavoiiiably detained be.bre it. 

The divisions of Lieutenant-general Lord Ros-lyn, and Lieutcnant- 
genei'al Lord Huntley, were according to the intention 1 mentioned in my 
last letter, landed in South Bevclantl, on the morning of the Otli instant, but 
I am sorry to say that the division of transports, with the cavalry and 
artillery horses, the heavy ordnance, ammunition, and stores of all descrip- 
tions, have not yet been brought through the Slow Passage. The moment 
they appear, it is my intention to proceed towards Bathz; but as till then 
no operation can be undertaken, I have thought in}' presence here was more 
useful. 

A large portion of the flotilla has proceeded up the river to Bathz, on which 
place I learn that the enemy had again made an attack, but had been 
repulsed by the guns of the fort. 

J have the honour to be, &c. 

CHATHAM. 
AUGUST 21, 1809. 

A despatch, of which the following is a copy, was this morning received 
at the office of Viscount Castlereagh, one of his Majesty's principal secre- 
taries of state, from Lieutenant-general the Earl of Chv.tham, K.G. dated 
Head Quarters, Middleburg, August 18, 1809. 

MY i.OKD, Middkhiirg, August 18, 1809. 

T have the honour to transmit, for your lordship's information, a copy of 
the articles of capitulation,* for the surrender of the towns of Zeiricksie 
and Bruwershaven, and the islands of Schav/en and Dniveland, concluded 
on the 15th instant by Lieutenant-general the Earl of Rosslyn and Rear- 
admiral Sir Richard Keats, with the deputies of those towns and islands ; 
and I have much satisfaction in acquainting your lordship, that I have every 
reason to believe we shall be enabled to draw very ample supplies of cattle, 
spirits, and biscuit, from that quarter. 

The enclosed return of tlie late garrison of Flushing received from 
General Monnet last night, so materially diii'ers from that which accom- 
panied my despatch of the 16th instant, tiuu I think it expedient to transmit 
it for your lordship's informaiion. 

I am also informed that the enemy during this service has suffered a very 
heavy loss in killed and wounded, which, together with the prisuner^ of wnr 
who have fallen into our hands, the enemy's force opposed to us in this 
island may very fairly be stated at nine thousand men. 

I have the honour to be, lv'c. 

CHATHAM. 

Amount qfl'roops in ike Garrison of Flushing, on the \HhAuguat, 1809. 
200 officers, 4985 rank and file, 618 sick and wounded. — Total 5803. 

* Inserted in the Extraordinary Gazette of the '30th. 



172 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR. 180D. 

ADJUDICATION OF PRIZE CAUSES IN THE ADMIRALTY^ 
COURT. 

doctors' common?, APRIL, 18, 1809. 

Lord Nelson, -, master. A question of salvage. This vessel 

^^^^.i a tiaiisport in bis M jcsty's service, and in coiisequence of being pur- 
sued bv a French lugger, the master cut away her masts and soon after- 
wards the enemy's boat came alongside, and took away the master and 
mate, but did not take possession of the vessel, apprehending they could 
not carry her into a French port, on account of the loss of her masts. Soon 
afterwards she was brought into Portsmouth by one of his Majesty's ships* 
I'he coiu't was of opinion she was a derelict, and accordingly decreed 
a moiety of the value of the property, as a remuneration. 

La Vidia del Carmen^ De Salos, master. This Spanish vessel was cap- 
tured on a voyage from Monte Video to Cadiz. The vessel and cargo had 
already been restored, with co=;ts and damages; and this question was a 
charge of plunder on the part of the captors. The court was of opinion 
that the charge was fully supported, and pronounced the captors liable to 
the extent of the plunder alle;ied in the Spanish captain's affidavit, and also 
the costs of this application. 

Fortuna, Douse, master. In this case the property had been pronounced 
to be Kniphausen; and the question before the court was, whether it 
should be condemned to the crown or the captors, which was deterniinecl 
in favour of the captors. 



COCKPIT, WiilTEKALL. 

ArniL 15. 

Aidar, Coftin, master. This American ship, laden with sugar and coffee, 
bound to Amsierdaip, was captm-ed on the 1st of September, 18(j5, l)y the 
Polecat privateer, and carried to Dover. TIjis appeal was lodged against 
the sentence oi the Adanniity Court, condemning two-thirds of the cargo 5 
whicli sentence their lordsliips athrmed. 

Die Drie Freunde, VVoegeui, master. This ship, under Danish colours, 
laden with cotton, cocoa-nutS; &c. bound from Lisbon to Antwerp, 
was captured by the Hero privateer, and taken to Plymouth. This appeal 
■was presented on behalf of the capture, from the sentence of restitution of 
o98 bales of cotton ; which their lordships reversed, and condemned 
the same to the crown, 

July 18. Before the Most Noble and Right Hon. the Lords Commist 
jioners of Appeals in Prize Causes. 

Nordstern, Samsing master. This sliip, laden with wine, brandy, &c. 
destined from Cadiz to Vera Cruz, though ostensibly to St. Thomas's, was 
captured by the Emerald frigate, and carried to Gibraltar, where the ship 
was restored, and the cargo cf)ndemncd. The present question vi'as a clainj 
of joint capture, on the part of the fleet under Sir John Ord, stationed oS" 



MATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1809. 17S 

Cadiz for the purpose of blockading that port, and, as alleged, with which 
the Emerald was co-ouerating at the time of the capture. Tlieir lordships 
were of opinion, that the fleet were not entitled to have siiare, aad therefore 
pronounced for the interest. of the Emeiald, and also the i'halia, she being 
in Company wlien the capture took place. 

Tlie Plope, Dobell master. This vessel was under American colours, and 
the question wns respecting two claims for a certain quantity of sugar. 
Their lordships restored the same. 



Buonaparte remains at Venna ; and it is reported, that the armistice 
between the I'reiKU and the Austrians has been broken. Prince Jotin of 
Liclut-nsiein has succeeded the Archduke Charles in the command oi the 
Austrian army. 

The British arms have again been triumphant in Spain. Sir Arthur 
Welltsley achieved a brilliant victory at Talavcra, on the 27ih and 28th of 
July ; for which he lias been elevated to the peerage, by the title of Baron 
Douro and Viscount Wellington. 

We learn by the Rattler,just arrived at Portsmouth from Newfoundland, 
that the Antelope, Captain M'Leod, with \'ice-adiniral Holloway, arrived 
lliere the 18th of July, after a very pleasant passage. The worthy admiral 
landed on the yOtli, to resume his government, and was received by all the 
military and civil rnrigistrates. It appears that the severity of the last 
winter has destroyed all the cattle and sheep, not only at IVewfoundland 
but in other parts of America. Ihe greaest scarcity prevails at St. .fohn's. 
The contractor* for the army and navy have offered to pay their fines 
if governnienl do not assist them, in consequence of this untbreseen seve- 
rity of the winter, which was never so before, at least not within 70 or 80 
years pa-t. Beef, of the poorest quality, was celling from IG to 18d. per 
pound ; and many of the most respectable Inhabitants had not tasted any 
for months together. Bread lias been very high, but is now fallin<T to its 
old price. His excellency governor ilolloway has applied to the secretary 
of State, for leave to trade for cattle and cotn to the Western islands. 
Lieutenant Sprott, of the Herring schooi.pr, has returned to St. John's 
after a second unsuccessful atteiupt to find s(jme of the native Indians of 
Newfoundl ir.d. \'^icc-admiial Sir Isaac Cotiiii, Bart, accompmies Admiral 
Holloway, when he returns to England. lie has finished his tour of 
America. 

A serious affair, attended with much bloodshed, lately took place on 
board the York man of war, oft' Walcheron. The prisoners on board 
to the number of seven hundred, suddenly rose on the centmels, and 
seized the arms, when the crew being much weakened by detachments 
nn shore, were nearly overpowered, so much so, that the euftny had got 
possession of the quarter-deck, poop, and forecastle. The British, how- 
ever, rallied, and, after a severe conflict, drove them below, Ijut not until 
twelve men belonging Co the York were killed, and many wounded, and a 
jnuch greater loss on the part of the prisoners in thtir desperate attempt^ 
It is said upwards of 3,000 of the innocent inhabitants of Flushin>' have 
perished from the obstinate defence of its French governor, 

,The following is given as the present price of provisions at Flushinc; :-» 
fowls, (3d. each; butter, 4d. per lb; cheese, 2(1. per lb; Hollands, 2srCcl. 
per gallou; a pig, weighing 2odlb. ll. is. English; a fat sheep, 3s, 



174 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRtSENT YEAR. 1809. 

lPromotion0 anH appomtment0» 

Admirals and Captains promoted and appointed. 

F. Xewcombe, of the Eeagle, is made a post captain; J. Joyce, of thfi 
iledpole, W. Godfrey, of the i'Etna l)omb, and James Caultield, of the 
Thunder bomb, are also promoted to tlie rank of post captains; Lieuts. 
Carpenter, Muston, and Hockin^s, of the Caledonia, are made comman- 
ders; as are also Lieutenants Alexander, Nixon, West, and Coxeley, pro- 
moted to the same rank; A. R. Kerr, of the Ganymede, to the Unicorn; 
and G. P. Monke to the Driver,- vice Claridgc ; Lord Gambier has struck his 
flag as commander-in-chief of the Channel fleet ; Sir John T. Duckworth 
has also struck his flag from on board the St. Josef; as has Sir W. Sidney 
Smith, on his return from the Brazils; Major Vinnicondx', of the royal 
marines, is promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, in consequence of 
theretirementof Colonel Anderson, commandant of the 1st, or Chatham divi- 
sion of royal m.arines; Colonel Bell, second commandant at Woolwich, 
succeeds Colonel Anderson, at Chatliam; Captain xlbernethy is promoted 
to the rank of major, r/ce Vinnicombc; Peter Puget, R.N. is appointed, 
captain of the ports of Flushing, and commissioner for the naval and 
victualling departments; Sir Rupert George, fu st'commissioner ofiiie Traas- 
port-board, is created a baronet of the United Kingdom; Charles Naj.ier 
is appointed to the Jason ; Lord \'iscount Neville is appointed to the Ac- 
ton; Lieutenant John Johnstone, 1st lii utenant of the Imperieuse, is pro- 
moted to the rank uf commantler; Paul Lawless to tiie /Etna bond), vice 
Godfrey, promoted; T. Woolridge to tl-.e Rainbow ; Sir Home Poplumi to 
the \'encrabe; George IlCwson to the lieehe; A. Atchison to the Kspiegle; 
Lieutenant G. B. Allen, from the Caledonia, to be a comiuauder. 

Lieutenants, &c. appointed, &c. 

Mr. Sparshott, signal mate of tlie Caledonia, is promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant ; Mr. Hillyar, purser of tlie Caledonia, is appointed clerk of the 
check of the victualling department at Chatham; Edward Filers to tlie 
>Iagnet; W.C. Edwards to the 3.1ars; John L. Meik to the Eagle; Henry- 
Ready to the Fieche; William Archbold to the Princess; Thomas A. Ed- 
■wards to the Pandora; James Pearl to the Harpy; H. B. Wyatt to the 
Magnet; John Mackenzie (^1) to the Coura:;eux; John Clark to die Ada- 
mant; William Hall to the Ganges; Riclard Augustus Yeates to the Au- 
dacious; Thomas England to the V'enerable ; Charles Anthony to the 
Harpy; Edward Donavan to the Osprey; James W. liaker to the Zcplivr ; 
Sir John C. Sinclair to the Clake ; A. B. W. Lord to command the Flamer 
£un-br!g; Theobold Jones to the Warspite; Daniel Roberts to the Plmenix; 
P. Whinfield to the Trompeusre; John W^. Andrew to the Ajax; Thomas 
llullins to ditto ; Mcth. \^ dls to the Vulture; Thomas Colby to the Cad- 
mus; George Pedlar to the Dreadnought; Charles Cobb to the Ganges ; 
Thomas Jager to the Agincourt; B. Molesworth to the Dauntless; John 
Waterman to ditto; William Baker to the Unicorn; Charles H. Bowen to 
the Jasper ; Mr. Fairfax, late mahter of the Channel fleet, to be master-at- 
tendant to his Majesty's dock-yard at Halifax. 

Midshipmen passed for Lieutenants the first Wednesday in the month. 

Henry John Servant, Patrick Finucane, Edward Dillon, George Sloali 
Henry W.Rawlinson, James Stirliiig, i^oftug Lowcay, and John Green. 



NAVAL HISTORY OP THE PaBSBNT YEAR. 1809. 175 

Surgeons appointed, 

W. B. Smith to the Trusty H. S.; Richard Hallahan to the Jalouse 
■•lOop; Ebenezer Nicholson to the St. Antonio prison-ship; R. C. Swann to 
th« Demerary; Jacob Farrington to the Scipioii; Robert Melville to tlie 
Braave prison ship ^^ Robert Cupjiles to the Powcrt'ul; James Smith to the 
Castilian ; William Gray to the Narcissus ; Isaac Gorrell to the Rhin; 
Ebenczer ¥/alker to the Zephyr sloop; Thomas Davis to the Recruit ; John 
Thomson to tlie Veteran })risoii-ship; William Hilhnan to the Inconstant j 
Jonarlian Green to t!ie Jasper; James Corbett to the Aboukir; William 
Donaldson to the Desirde, Jo!in Marpole to the Alaart. 

Mr. Stephen Happer, dispenser of the Sussex hospital-ship at Sheerness, 
is appointed to be dispenser of the naval hospital at Madras. 

Assistant Surgeons appointed. 

David Williams to the Trusty P. H. S. Thomas Hooper to the Vengeance 
prison-ship; James Farrell to the Eliza and J;tne tender; William Dwyer 
to the Malabar; John Whitmarsh to be mate at Haslar hospital; John M. 
fornau to ditto at Deal; H. P. Burke to ihe Violet lugger; A. Patrickson 
to the Cormoraift; John Mansford to be an hospital mate at Plymouth 
hospital; Williana Whittaker to the Surveillante; James Rae to the 
Narcissus; Samuel Jones to be assistant-surgeon and dispenser of the 
Sussex hospital ship; C. O'Brien to the Caledonia ; fl. W. Keele to 
ditto ;-G. Jo'nnstone to the Exertion; Thomas Hamilton to be an hospital 
mats at Ilaslar; Samuel Morrison to ditto; George Brian to the Milford; 
Henry Edmraids to the Wincbclsea; William Rogers to be an hospital 
mate at Mill prison; Henry Ryan to the Defender gun-brig; George Ho- 
j^un to be un hospital mate at Plymouth hospital. 



BlinTIS. 

On the 25lh of July, at Admiral Patton's, her father's, liouse at Fareham, 
Airs. Wentvvorth Loring, of a daugiiter. 

On the Q7th of July, at Chatiiam, the lady of Captain Joseph Bingham, 
R. N. of a daughter. 

On the 3d of August, at the apartments of Lieutenant Joseph De-.vs.nap, 
of the royal hospital at Greemvich, Mrs. Dewsnap, of a daughiei'. 

On the 9th of August, at Chelsea, the lady of Captain H. M. Ommaniiey, 
R.N. of a 4on. 

On the 14th of August, at his house at Wiiiey,near Farnham, the lady of 
Captain J. A. Ommanney, R. N. of a daughter. 



MARRIAGES. 
On the 25th of July, at Chisuick, George Booth, Esq. purser of his Mar- 
jf sty's ship Caledonia, to Miss Ayscough, of Southampton, and sister to 
Captain Ayscough, of his Majesty's ship Success. 

On the 2od of August was married, at Stoke church, by the Rev. Mr. J. 
Hawker, Captain Baynton, of his Majesty's ship Milford, to Miss Mityhew. 

The Hon. and Rev. George Bridgeman to the Hon. Mis-Poyniz, ^i5ter to 
the Hon. Ca^.taiu Courtney ^oyle, R.N. and the Countess uf Cork 
and Orrary. 



170 SATAt HTSTORT 0? THE I'RESENT YEAR. 1809. 

Captain Jolin Bliah. of his Majesty's sliip the Valiant, to Miss Cecilia 
Moultrie, youngest daughter of the late Governor Moultrie. 

Lately, at St. John's. Newfonnflland, Richard tlenrv Muddle, Esq. com- . 
mander of his Majesty's sloop Comet, to Miss Coote, niece of Thomas 
Coote, Esq. chief magistrate of St. John's, Newfoundland. 



OBITUARY. 

On the 27th of Julv, Lieutenant-colonel John Ross, fourth son of the 
late \ ice-admiral Sir John Lockhari Ross, of Balna(::;i)\vn, Rarr. famed for 
his exploits while commanding the Tartar frigate. Colonel Ross fell glori- 
ously at the head of the grc nadier company oi" the 2d, or Coldstream regi- 
ment of Guards, Sn ilie memoraMe battle of Talavera, in Spain, lie was 
an officer of the most promising; talents and excellent cliaracter. His 
death is universally lamented by all his brother officers, and by 
numerous friends. 

Lately, in India, Lieutenant Lucas, of the Dedaigneuse, in the 
China seas. 

Age'd 22, in the battle of Talavera, the Hon. Metheuin Edward Trby, of 
the 3d Guards, sixth son of Lord Boston, and brother to the Hon. Captain 
F. W. Irby, of the royal navy. 

At Waldershare house, tiie Right Hon. Lord Henry Stuart, son of the 
Marquis of Bute, and brother of Captain Lord William Stuart, of the Lavi- 
nia, and Captam Lord George Stuart, of i'Aiin ,ble. 

Lieutenant Rennie, of the Marlborough, kiiiid at Flushmg, in one of the 
gun-boats which was investing that fortress. 

On the coast of Africa, Captain Frederick Parker, of his Majesty's ship 
Dtrvvent. 

Mr. M'MiUan, -surgeon of the Abouki.*-, oiF Walcheren, put n period to 
Lis existence with a musket ball. 

In the attack of the ttussiau flotilla, in the Gulph of Finland, Lieutenant; 
Stirling, of the Proraetli.iis fire-ship. 

In the name attack. Lieutenant Hawkey fell most glorionsly. He was 
the commanding officer in the boats. 

On board the Glatton, on his passage from jNIalta, Lieutenant J. Coffin, 
of the royal navy. 

In the East Indies, by the explosion of some cartridges, in the stern 
ilieets of a boat of the Fox frigate, which was proceeding to attack some 
■vessels in shore, Lieutenant Richard Lewis, of the royal marines, second son 
of Lieutenant-colonel Lewis, second commandant of the Chatham division 
of that corps. 

On the 7th of July, Mr. William Barclay Mountney, of the Melpomene 

frigate, nephew of the late Captain Sir .Tames, of the royal navy, and of tlie 

^present Sir Richatd Barclay, Bart. He lost his life in the recent gallant 

action with the Russian flotilla, in the Baltic. He was a most promising 

young officer, and his loss is deeply regretted by his family and friends. 

On the 2d of August, at Priestland, near Lymington, John Peyton, Esq. 
Rear-admiral of the Red. ^ 

Lately, at Peal, Mr. R. Dyer, purser of his Majesty's ship Royal Oak, ia 
tlie Scheldt. 




nMuhtil S,-/'r':.7/\ ifiro. hv J OcU. 103. Shct Lanc'.r.ciuicn 



me:\ioir of the public services 

OF THF. LATE 

RIGHT HON. GEORGE EDGCUxMBE, 

' EARL OF I\IOUNT EDGCUMBE, 

ADMIRAL OF THE WIIITF, SQUADRON. 



^'- To 'waken mem'ry o'er the silent tomb." Anon. 

nflHE Edgcnmbe family, which is of great antiquity in Devon- 
-^ shire, derives its name from the beautiful manor of Edgcumbcj 
situated in that county.* 

George, Earl of Mount Edgcurabe, the subject of this memoir, 
was the second son of Richard, Avho was created Baron of Mount 
Edgcumbe, by George the lid. 0:1 (!ie ^Oth of April, 1742. 
Having made choice of a maritime life, he Avent to sea, when very 
young, as midshipman on board one of the ships stationed in the 
iMediterranean, under the orders of Admiral Haddock. + As early 

* In the Vlth Volume of the Naval Chronicle, page 33, will be found 
a view of Mount Edgcumbe, &c. taken from the Heights above JMutley. — 
It is related, that the Duke of Medina Sidonia, admiral of tiie Spanish 
armada, when sailiiio; up tlie Channel, in 1588, was so delighted with the 
situation of Mount Edi^cumbe, that he marked it for himself, in the intended 
partition of the kingdom. 

t Admiral Nicholas Haddock, the gentleman Iiere mentioned, was the 
third, and youngest son of Sir Richard Haddock, Knt. a distinguishc d naval 
olficer in the time of Charles the lid. — In 17i>9, 1740, and 17'41, in conse- 
quence of the insulting conduct of the Spaniards, he was employed in 
making reprisals, in wiiich he was extremely successful, chiefly on the 
Spanish and Italian coasts. During the summer of 1741, he was occupied 
in blockading the port of Cadiz, to prevent tiie junction of the Spanish ships 
which were there with the Toulon squadron. In consequence, however, of 
his having been compelled, by tempestuous weather, to put into Gibraltar 
to refit, the French and Spaniards eliected a junction, oif Mala'^a, at the 
latter end of November. Etirly in December, Admiral Haddock descried 
the combined squadrons, which were drawn up in a regular line to receive 
him; but the French admiral, De Court, sent a flag of truce to Admiriil 
Haddock, informing him, " that as the Spaniards and French were tiicn 
engaged in a joint expedition, he must obey his Orders, and protect his 
master's allies." On this event, Admiral Haddock called a council of war, 
vhen it was unanimously decided, that the squadron should repair ty 

i^av. Cl;ron. Qol. XXII. .a a 



178 MEMOIR or THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

as ihe 19th of August, 1744, having passed through the subordi- 
nate ranks of lieutenant and commander, he was made post cap- 
tain in the Kennington, of 20 guns ; and, towards the end of the 
following year, he v.as promoted to the command of the Salisbury, 
of 60 guns, in M'hich he remained till the conclusion of the war. 
On the c50th of January, 1747, while on a cruise, in the latitude 
of 47 deg. 47 min. 106 leagues to the westward of Scilly, he had 
the good fortune to fall in with, and capture, the Jason, a French 
East India ship, of 30 guns, and 180 men, bound from Port 
rOrient to Pondicherry. Besides a cargo of stores and ammuni- 
tion, the Jason had eight cases of silver on board, which materially 
enhanced her value to the captors. Captain Edgcumbc reached 
Plymouth, in safety, with his prize, on the 1st of March. 

In the course of this year (1747) he was elected representative 
in Parliament for the boroughs of Plympton and Fowey ; and, 
in November, when the Parliament met, he took his seat for the 
latter place.* 

In 1751, Captain Edgcumbe commanded the Monmouth ; ia 
which he sailed to Gibraltar, as the senior officer of a small 
squadron of three ships of the line, ordered thither for the purpose 
of shifting a part of the garrison, and bringing away the regiments 
of Wolfe and Skelton, which had been long stationed there.— 

INIahon, and wait for the reinforcement which was expected from England, 
under Commodore Lestock. The enemy, however, repaired to Barcelona. 
On the arrival of the commodore, all possible despatch was used, in getting 
ready for sea ; but, before the fleet could sail, Admiral Haddock was 
attacked by a severe indisposition, which compelled him to resign the com- 
mand to Mr. Lestoclc, and to return to England, where he arrived on the 
26th of May. His malady was an extreme dejection of spirits, occasioned, 
as was supposed, by cliagrin and disappointment, at not having been able 
to strike some signal blow, which might have led to the termination of the 
war. He never afterwards lioisted his flag ; but, having been successively 
promoted from the rank of vice-admiral of the blue, which he tlien held, to 
that of admiral of the blue, fic died, universally lamented, on the 26th of 
September, 1746, in the 60th year of his age. 

* Captain Edgcumbe was re-elected for the borough of Fowey, at the 
general election in 1754 ; and, again, in 1761 ; but, in consequence of the 
death of his elder brother, who died unmarried, on the 10th of May, in that 
year, he became a peer of Great Britain, before the meeting of Parliament. 
His fatiier had died on the g2d of November, 1758. 



THE LATE RIGHT HON. GEORCi: EDGCt'MKE. 179 

lie returned to Spithcad on the 3d of August in the same year, 
after a passage of twenty-two days. 

In 1752, he was removed into the Dcptford, of 60 guns, a ship 
then newly launched ; and Avas soon afterwards appointed commo- 
dore of a small squadron, despatched to cruise in the Mediterra- 
nean ; a service which, in consequence of the peace which at that 
time subsisted amongst the European powers, proved extremely 
uninteresting. 

Captain Edgcumbe remained in the Mediterranean, almost 
without interruption, till the year 175G, when the tranquility of 
that part of the world was suddenly terminated, by a formidable 
attack and invasion of the island of Minorca, by the French. 

The warlike preparations of France had, for some time, excited 
suspicion in the British government. At the end of January, a 
considerable fleet sailed from Portsmouth, to cruise in the Channel ; 
and, early in March, Admiral Byng was appointed to the com- 
mand gf a fleet, destined for the Mediterranean. lie reached 
Gibraltar Bay on the 2d of May, and was joined by the following 
5(juadron, then under the command of Captain Edgcumbe :— • 

Shipx. Cinis. Commanders. 

Princess Louisa 60 Captdn tlie Hon. G. Edgcumbe. 

P:irthind 50 • Patrick Baird. 

Deptford jO J. Amherst. 

Chesterfield 40 J. Lloyd. 

Dolphin 20 B. Marlow. 

Phoenix 20 Hon. A . Ilarvey. 

Experiment 90 — J. Gilc!n-ist. 

Fortune sloop 1-i J. ivLiplesden. 

From Captain Edgcumbe, Adnilral f^yiig obtained the juforma- 
tion, that M. de Richelieu, w i(h a large body of French troops, 
had landed on the island of JMinorca, and that the Toulon fleet 
was at sea.* Captain Edgcumbe, with the whole of his squadron, 

* The English took the island of Minorca from the Spaniards, in 1703, 
and kept it till t!ie time here stated (1756); wlien, after a very brave 
resistance, under General Blakeney, they surrendered it to the French, \vho 
had invested Fort St. Pliilip, with an iirmy of 15,000 men, well provided 
with all military stores, &c. 

A view of Port Mahon, the finest harbour of Minorca, and ii!c!ocd in all 
the Mediterranean, engraved by Medland, from a drawing by Fococ'c, 
accompanied by an accurate descriptive account, will be tbund in iha 
lid Volume of the Naval Cuuomcle, pa\:e 125. 



280 MEMOrtl OF THE rUBLIC SERVICES OP 

was in the harbour of Mahon, at the time the French fleet first 
made its appearance ofF Minorca; and, had such been the object 
of the enemy, he might have been easily, and effectually blocked 
up these, and subjected to the fate of the island. M. Gallissioniere, 
and (be Duke dt- Richlieu, however, not seeming to extend their 
yiews beyond the conquest of the island, the passage was left open 
for the Biifish ships ; and, on the 20th anu 'iistof April. Captain 
Edgcumbe's squadron sailed for Gibraltar ; where, as has been 
^already seen, it had anchored in safety, prior to the arrival of 
Admiral Byng. On his junction with that officer, Captain Edg- 
cumbe removed into the Lancaster, of 66 guns. 

Admiral Byng had resolved^ if possible, to relieve the garrison 
at Fort St. Pliilip ; but it was not until the 8{h of May that he 
sailed from Gibraltar ; and, having been greatly retarded on his 
passa^^ze, by contrary winds and calms, he was unable to make the 
island of Minorca before the I Sth. On the following day, ho sent 
Captain IJervey, in the Phoenix", with the Chesterfield and Dol- 
phin, to reconnoitre the harbuur of Mahon ; and with orders, if 
he should find it practicable, to deliver a letter to General 
Blakeney. announcing the force which he had with him, and 
expressive X)f his wishes to relieve the garrison. When the frigates 
had arrived within a league of the harbour, Captain ileryey made 
the private signals to the fort ; but, unfortunately, they were not 
ansAvered ; and, as the French fleet appeared at that time in the 
south-cast, the admiral recalled the frigates, and made the signal 
for a general chase. At 2 P.IM. he made the signal to form the 
linc-of-battle a-hea'l ; but, about that time, the wind di»»d away; 
and, as there Avas no prospect of being able to bring the enemy to 
action that night, he embraced the opportunily to strengthen such 
ships as were weakly manned, by detachments from the frigates. 
On ihe morning of the 20th, the weather was so extremely hazy, 
that ihe French fleet could not be seen ; but towards noon it 
cleared up, and they were descried again in ihe south-east quar- 
ter. About two P.M. both fleets had formed in line-ol-battle, 
as follows : — * 



* The lists here given also shew the number of ir.en, and llie number of 
killed and wounded, in each ship. 



THE LATE lUGIIT UON. GEOKGE EDGCUMBE. 



181 



BRITISH. 
The Kingston to lead with the starboard, and Defiance with the kirboard 



Rates. 

4th. 
3d. 

2d, 

3d. 

4th. 

3d. 



4th. 



Ship!, 

Kingston - 
* Deptford 

CuUoden - 

Ramillies - 



6o 

5° 

74 

90 

Trident - - 64 
Princess Louisa 60 
RevcDgs - - 64 



Intrepid - - 
Captain - - 

Buckingham - 



Lancaster - 
Portland - 
Defiance - 



- 66 

: II 



tacks on board. 



Mm. 
400 
■500 
000 

750 

500 
400 
J«0 



1 



Ctmm ir.der'. 

Capt. V/. Parry 

J. Amhi;rst 

H. Ward I .'U-S 

Hon. John Byng, admiral 
[ of the blue. _ >tS'g 

Capf. A. Gardiner 

■ Ph. Durell r .'2 

Hon. T.Noel | g'g 

F.Cornwall J H 



Diviiimi. Killid. ffdunded. 






m 



L 



"1 i-'t 



500 J. Young 

500 Charles Catford I uj'e'^ 

,,, ^ Rear admiral West I .-§c^ 

5^5 ^ Capt. M. Everitt > 3 !? « < 

520 • Hon. G. Edgcumbe | > S-S | 

300 P. Baird I .Qi^ I 

400 'J\ Andrews J Jh (_ 



Total 834 6205 



n 



I 


39 
30 


3 


7 


I 
6 


14 
20 


14 


4? 



43 



168 



FRIGATES, WITH THEIR COMMANDERS, 

To repeat in Adm'wul Byng's Division. 

Ships. Cuns. Men. Cmvrmiers. 

Chesterfield - i<o 250 Captain J. Lloyd 

Phosnix - - 20 160 Hon. A. Hervey, 

Fortune - - 14 loo James Maplesden 

liear-admiral WesVs to repeat Signals. 

Experiment - 20 160 Captain James Gilchrist 
Polphm - - 20 160 • B. Marlow 

Total 114 830 

Ships. Guns. Mm. 

Of the line - 13 834 620; 

Frigates - - 5 114 833 

Total force 18 948 7035 



Ships. 


Cum. 


Mm. 


Foudroyant - - 


84 


95° 


Couronne - - - 


74 


Soo 


Le Redoubtable - 


74 


Soo 


Le Guerrier - - 


74 


800 


J.eTemeraire - 


74 


800 


Le Kiton - - - 


b+ 


Geo 


Le Lion - - - 


^4 


600 


Le Content - - 


64 


600 


Le Sa,<;e - - - 


^A 


600 


Le Orphee - - 


64 


600 


Le Fi.r - - - 


50 


550 


L'Hippotciiie 


50 


SjO 


Total Sco 


8250 



TRENCri. 

Comiiiandirs. 

5 M. de Gallissioniere, Lt. General } 
? Capt. M. de L'Aiguilie ^ 

S M. de la Clue, Chef D'Escadre? 
^ Capt. M. de Gabanous \ 

S M. deClendeves, ChefD'Escadre \ 
( Capt. M. de Marconville S 

M. ViUardelaBrosse 

M. de Be.iumont de Mahe 

M, de Mercier 

M. de St. Aignan 

M. de Salien Grammont 

M. de Revest 

M. de Raimondis 

.M. de Hervillee 

.M. de Rochmere 



Kin.d. fViiMdid. 



39 

43 
IS 
14 
17 
19 

9 

4 



41 



iSi 



* Not in the line until ordered ta take the Intrcpid's place. 





FRIGATES. 


SUps. 


Cins. 


Men. 


La Junon - - 


. 46 


300 T 


La Rose - - - 


- 32 


250 ? 


La (iracieuse - 


. - 42 


250 I 


La Topaz s - • 


. - 28 


250 I 


La'Nymphe 


- 28 


250 1 



182 MEMOIR OF THE PEBLIC SERVICES Of 



Ccnim:mdtri. 
M. de Beaussier 
M. de Costobeile 
M. de Marquisson 
M. de Carne Montelste 
M. de Cailian 

966 9^50 

At the time above-mentioned, the Britisli admiral, having th8 
advantage, made signals to bear away two points, and to engage 
the eneaiy. Admiral West, who commanded the van, being at too 
great a distance to comply with both those signals, so readily as he 
ivished, bore up with his division seven points. He very sooa 
closed with the enemy, and commenced the engagement with great 
bravery, forcing one of their ships to quit the line. Early in the 
action, the Intrepid's fore-top-mast was unfortunately shot away ; 
a circumstance which threw the ships astern of her into some con- 
fusion, as it occasioned a great space between the van and rear of 
the British fleet, and exposed Rear-admiral West's division to the 
fire of nearly the whole of the French line. For some time, the 
smoke prevented Admiral Byng from perceiving the situation of 
his van ; but no sooner was he apprised of it, than he ordered the 
Deptford, as appears from the above statement, to take the place 
of the Intrepid, and made sail to close and support the rear- 
admiral. Before he couid accomplish that object, however, M. de 
Gallissioniere had become tired of the contest ; and, at six o'clock, 
he bore away with his whole fleet. The French ships were all 
clean, and bettor sailers than the English ; consequently, all the 
efforts of the British admiral to renew the action, were baffled. 

It has been seen, that, iu this indecisive rencontre, the Lancas- 
ter, Captain Edgcumbe's ship, had one of her crew killed, and 
14 wounded. The total loss of the respective combatants was 
nearly equal : the French had 41 killed, and 181 wounded; the 
English, 43 killed, and 168 wounded. C.iptain Andrews, of the 
Defiance, was amongst the slain ; and Capliiin Noel, of the Prin- 
cess Louisa was mortally wounded. 

From the crippled state of his ships. Admiral Byng found it 
necessary, the day after the engagement, to assemble a council of 
war, ou board the Ramillies, to determine on the plan to Le 



THE LATE RIGHT HON. GEORGE EDGCUMBE. 185 

adopted for the future operations of the fleet. The result of thlg 
council was, that the admiral steered for Gibraltar, where he 
arrived on the 19th of June, and was reinforced by four sail of the 
line and a 50 gnn-ship, from England, under the orders of Com- 
modore Brodrick. He made every exertion for putting to sea 
again as early as possible ; but, on the 3d of July, the Antelope 
arrived from England, having on board Admiral Sir Edward 
Hawke,* Rear-admiral Saunders, and several naval captains, Avith. 
orders to supersede the Admirals Byng and West, and certain 
captains who were directed by the Admiralty to return home. +— 

* Vide Naval Chronicle, Vol. VII. page 450. 

t Admiral Byng left Gibraltar, in-the Antelope, on the 9th of July; o:i 
the 26th of the <ame month he arrived at Spithead, where he was imme- 
diately put under arrest, by Admiral Osborne; on the lOtli of August, lie 
was landed at Portsmouth, and conveyed to Greenwich, under a strong 
guard ; and he remained a close prisoner in ilie hospital there, till the 23d 
of December, when he was conducted to Portsmouth to take his trial. A 
court martial, to enquire into his conduct, assembled on board the St. 
George, on the 26th of December, and continued to sit till the 27th of 
January, 1757 ; when, on summing up the evidence, it appeared to the 
Court, that Admiral Byng had fallen under the following clause of the 
12th article of war : — '•' or shall not do his utmost to take or destroy every 
ship which it sliall be his duty to engage ; and assist and relieve all and 
every of his Majesty's ships which it shall be his duty to assist and reheve." 
— As this article left no discretionary power to the Court, Admiral Byng 
was sentenced to be shot; and, though great etTorts were made for the pre- 
servation of his life, the sentence was carried into execution, on board the 
Monarch, on the 14th of Marcli, 1757. — Some interesting particulars, 
relating to the trial, will be found in the Illd Volume of the Naval 
Chronicle, page 431, e^ seq. The justice of the sentence has frequentlj 
been questioned; and the public opinion on the subject has been, we believe, 
correctly expressed by Dr. Watkins, in his Biographical Dictionary :— 
" Not proving successful, he fell into disgrace ; tiie clamours of the nation 
were excessive, and the ministry thoujiht projjer to sacrilico him as a victim 
to appease the public mind." It is certain, that Admiral Byng himself 
enjoyed a consciousness of rectitude : even at the moment of his condem- 
nation, he had made every preparation to leave Portsmouth with that de- 
gree of triumph, which a man miglit be supposed to display, when delivered 
honourably from the malice and vengeance of his enemies. " Tliere 
appears," says Cbarnock, " to have been something worse tiiai: a •;;:tural 
and ordinary fatality in the whole arrangement of the business; misfortune 
seems to have been courted; and, from the conduct of all who were con- 
•erned in the niauajemeot of affairs, foreigners might not unnatarully be 



184 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SER7ICES OF 

Sir Edward Hawli 6 was very soon enabled to put to sea; but, 
when he arrived off Minorca, he found that that island had surren- 
dered on the 18th of June ; and, as the French fleet had retired 
to Toulon, his attention was chiefly occupied by distressing the 
trade of the cueniy and protecting our own. 



induced to conclude, from an impartial view of the whole transaction, that 
it was actually predetermined Minorca should be suffered tb full into the 
bands of the French, by way of employing so considerable an armament ; 
and that any check given to it, as it might probably have transfencd the 
tempest to some more vital part, would on that account, have been con- 
sidered as a serious disappointment. Mr. Byng was an officer by no means 
popular; be was a very strict disciplinarian ; and though we most seriously 
believe biiu to have been by no means deficient in personal spirit, and that 
intrepidity so necessary to form a gre^t ccnuniindcr, yet, it having been bis 
misfortune never to have met with any of those brilliant opportunities of 
distinguishing himself which would have established his fame far beyond 
the power and malice of his enemies, he did not possess that love, thait 
enthusiastic respect and popular kind of adoration, which arc at times in- 
dispensibly necessary to enable the best commanders to surmount tlic 
difticulties attendant on their situation. His force was, perhaps, in point 
of common prudence, never equal to the service on which he was sent : it 
consisted onlv of ten ships of ti.c line, some of ihem in a very ill condition 
for sea, and all of them indifferently manned. He was even refused a 
repeating frigate, though he failed not to make the strongest representa- 
tions and solicitations on that head. This conduct was more glaringly 
reprehensible, because, at the very time Mr; Byng sailed, there were, exclu- 
sive of his squadron, seventeen ships of the line, and thirteen frigates ready 
for sea, besides eleven sail of the line, and nineteen frigates nearly equipped. 
It could not be urged that it would have been improper to have sent, at 
least such a part of the above fleet with him, as would have given him a 
decided superioritv, for it was well known that the whole French naval 
force to tiie westward of the Streights, consisted of not more than eleven 
ships of the line, these too, miserably deficient in t'leir complement of 
men, and destitute of almost every article necessary to their equipment." — 
" Ministers, indeed, could not, perhaps, have made a worse choice than 
they did in appointing Mr. Byng to his last command. It ended in the 
destruction of his own fame and life, and tended, at least in the minds of all 
impartial men, to excite the iiighest indignation against those who had first 
appointed, and afterwards despatched him on a service, which certainly not 
his force, nor it may be his ;ibilities, were coiupctent to the execution of. 
As a commander be was, as has been already observed, far from being 
popular. He was aiistere, rigid, almost to a degree of undue oppression, 
and proud even beyond comparison ; destitute, by nature, of those con- 
ciliating qualities which create love and esteem, fortune had, on her part, 
denied him the means of acquiring admiration and popularity, by withhold- 



■tHE LATE RIOIIT HON. GEORGE EDGCUMBC, 185 

Captain Edgcumbe remained with Sir Edward Hawkc, thus 
temployed, till the close of the year, when he returned with him to 
England. — During a part of the ensuing summer, he was occupied 
on a crnise in company with the Dunkirk, Avhich was under his 
orders ; and, in this service, he captured two stout private ships 
of war ; one called the Compte de Grammont, carrying 36 guns 
and 370 men ; the other, le Nouveau Saxon, of 16 guns and 150 
men ; together with a schooner from Bourdeaux, bound to Quebec, 
laden with wine and brandy. 

Remaining in the Lancaster, Captain Edgcumbe went out with 
Admiral Boscawen to America, at the beginning of the year 1758:* 
and, returning to England in the course of the summer, with the 
despatches announcing the surrender of Louisbourg, he received 
the customary compliment of 5001. from the King. Soon after- 
wards, he was appointed captain of the Hero, of 74 guns, one of 
the Channel fleet while commanded by Sir Edward Hawke, in 
1759 ; and, consequently, he had the honour of sharing in the 
defeat of the French, oif Bclleisle, in the winter of that year.t 

Captain Edgcumbe renuaincd in the Hero, till his advancement 
to the rank of rear-admiral of the blue squadron, which took 
place on the 'ilst of October, 1762. Previously to that event, 
however, as has been already stated, by the death of his elder bro- 
ther, on the 10th of May, 1761, he became a Peer of Great 
Britain. On the 18th of June, in that year, he took the oaths, 
as Lord Lieutenant of the County of Cornwall ; and, in June, 
17G2, he resigned the office of clerk of the coii'icil of the Duchy 
of Lancaster, which he had for some time enjoyed. 

Li the year 176S, Lord Edgcumbe was appointed port admiral 

ing I'roin him all opportunities of creating to liimselfeitlier. Though we 
cannot by any means acquiesce in what his enemies most indecently, vio- 
lently, and untimely, insisted on, that he was deficient in personal activity 
ofiuind, or wliat in plainer terms is calieu C'^urage, yet we cannot bud 
fairly conic -s, we do not imagine him to liave possessed that ardent spirit 
ofenterprie wliicii might have enabled liim to surmount the several ditii- 
culties tliat iinforfunately surrounded him ; the evidence adduced againsi 
him on hiS trial, fully confirms and strengtliens us in tnis opinion," 

* Vi Le iSaval Chronicle, Vol. VII. page Q02. 

t Tiie otiicial deta-,ls of this action appear in the Vllth Volume of th« 
Naval (-iiiiOiMCLc, page 462, et seq. 

f3sii« Cijron, aJol» XXII, b b 



18(5 MEMOIll OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OP 

at Pljmouth ; a station which he filled for a longer period than is 
usual, as he did not resign it till the Jitter end of 17/0. Eight 
years having elapsed since he had received his Uag, he was, on the 
2-4lh of Ociober, 1770, promoted to the rank, of vice-admiral of the 
blue squadron ; and on the 'J5th of June, 1773, he was made vice- 
admiral of the whito ; having just before been invested with the 
temporary command of a division of the fleet which, at that timC) 
was reviewed by his Majesty at Spithead.* 



* A newspaper, of the period here mentioned, contained the following 
parasirapli, nnder the date of Portsmouth, June 25^—" About ten o'clock 
his Majesty went, in the usual state, on board the linifleur, and then into 
the Charlotte y^^ht, when a sigiml of one gun was <;iven for Vice-admiral 
Lord Edgcuinbe's squadron of the blue to get under weigli ; which being 
complied with, the ditVeient salutes passed between the two fleets, and 
Lord Edgcumbe's inunediately convoyed the royal yacht to St. Helen's, 
where they all brought to. Here his Majesty dined on board the yacht, 
and promoted \'ice-admiral Lord Edgcumbe, of the blue, to be vice- 
ndmiral of the whits, who kissed hands on the occasion, and hoisted the 
St. George's flag at the foretop." — The fleet, at this tmie, consisted of 20 
sail of the line, two frigates, and three sloops. The ships were moored in 
two lines abreast, under the command of Vice-admiral Pye, Vice-admiral 
Lord Edgcumbe, and Rear-admiral Spry. When his Majesty entered 
Portsmouth, he was saluted with 232 pieces of cannon. A levee was 
immediately held at the governor's house ; .after which his Majesty pro- 
ceeded to the dock-yard, whence he embarked on board a barge prepared 
for his reception. Tlie barges of the Boards of Admiralty and Navy 
attended, bearinglheflagsof their respective offices; followed by the admirals 
and captains of the fleet, according to seniority, with theii flags and pendants. 
As soon as the royal standard was observed by the -hips at Spithead, 
thev manned their yards and saluted widi 11 guns each. His Majesty was 
received on the quarter-deck of the Barfleur by the Board of Admiralty 
The side was manned by the lieutenants of ihe ship, and Captain Vernon, 
her commander, stood on the gangway. The standard was immediately 
displayed at the Barfletir's main-top-gallant-mast head, the Admiralty flag 
at the fore, and the union at the mi/en : the fleet again saluting with 21 
guns each. His Majesty visited every part of the ship ; and, before he 
went on shore, he conferred the honour of knighthood on Vice-admiral 
Pye, (whom he also promoted to the rank of admiral of the blue) Rear- 
admiral Spry, Captain Joseph Knight, the senior captain of the fleet; Cap- 
tain Edward Vernon, of the Bartleur, and Captain Richard Bickerton, of 
the Augusta yacht, who attended on his Majesty, and steered his barge. 
Huf h Palliser, Esq. compti-oUer of the navy, and Richard Hughes, Esq. 
commissioner of tiie dock-yard, were created baronets. - The captains of 
the sloops of wnr were ordered to be promoted to the rank of post cap-- 



THE LATE RIGHT. HON. GEORGE EDGCUMBE. 187 

Lord Edgcumbe resigned his command almost immediately after 
the review of the fleet; prior to which, however, he had the 
honour, in common with the other flag officers, and the captains 
belonging to the respective squadrons, to receive Lis Majesty's 
thanks for the great attention which had been sh^wn during (ha 
royal visit. 

In the month of July following, Lord Edgcumbe attended Lord 
North, on his installation as chancellor of the university of Oxford ; 
on >vhich occasion he was presented with the honorary degree of 
doctor of laws. 

As a naval officer, the only farther mention that we find of his 
lordship is, that on the 3d of February, 1776, he was made vice- 
admiral of the red: on the 29th of January, 1778, admiral of the 
blue; and on the 8th of April, 178'2, admiral of the white. 

His honours and civil appointments appear to have kept pace 
with his promotions as an officer. Li 1765, he was nominated a 
member of the privy council, and appointed treasurer of the 
household ; an appointment which he resigned in the following 
year. In 1771, he was made one of the joint vice-treasurers of 
Ireland ; but that appointment he also resigned in 1773, on being 
made captain of the band of gentlemen pensioners ; a post which 
he continued to fill, till the general change of administration, in 
1782. From that period, till February, 1784, he enjoyed no 
public office : he was then, the second time, appointed one of the 
vice-treasurers of Ireland, the duties of which he performed during 
the remaining eleven years of his life. 

We have yet to observe, that on the .5th of March, 1781, his 
lordship was created a Viscount of Great Britain, by the title of 
Viscount Mount Edgcumbe and V'alktort ; an honour which is 
understood to have been conferred on hiai, for his voluntary and 
gratuitous sacrifice of several of the plantations at his beautiful 

(aiiis ; the first lieutenants of the flng-shipg, and the lieutenants of the 
cutlers, and the Ucntenant of tiie Augusta vacht, to be masters and com- 
manders; and two midshipmen from each of tlie above bbips to be lieutc- 
jiants. His Majesty ordered 1,5001. to be distributed among tiie urtiticers, 
workmen, and labourers of the dock-yard, victualiing-otiice, ana i;nn-wharf; 
to the crews of the Barfleur, Augusta yacht, and his barge, he presented 
350L for the poor of i'urtsea and Gusport, he left 25'Jl. and he relieved the 
priboners confined for debt in Portsmouth goal. 



ISS MEMOIll OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF, &e. 

seat, near Plymouth ; it having been given, as the opinion of 
military men, that their destruction was absolutely necessary, for 
the safely and defence of that important fortress, in case of any 
hostile attack. On the 31st of August, 1789, his lordship expe- 
rienced another gradation of rank, in being elevated to the dignity 
of Earl of Mount Edgcurabe ; a title which his IMajesty bestowed 
on him, in consideration of the attention which he had received 
from his lordship, during a visit and excursion of some continu- 
ance, in that part of the country Avhere he resided. 

Lord Mount Edgcumbe died, much regretted, on the 4th of 
February, 1795. 

UEKALDIC PARTICULARS. 

" This family," say5 Collins, '' denominated from the manor of Eggecombe, 
Eggecomb, and Eizccouib (as it has been variously written in former 
records) in the parish of Cheiiton Fitz-Pain, near Crediton, has been of 
great antiquity in Devonshire, and in that churcli is Eflgecomb's aisle, 
adorned with divers coats of arms belonging to the family : but in the reign 
of King Edward Hid. ^yilliam de Eggeconib taking to wife Hjllaria, daugh- 
ter and heir of William de Cotehele, of Cotehelc, in the county of Corn- 
wall, chiefly resided there. It is now wrote Cuttail, and is separated from 
Devonshire only by the breadth of the river Tama'r.- In 1378 the said 
William de Eggecomb, writing himself of Cotehele, in Cornwall, granted 
lands in jVJiikileton to the convent of Tavistock, in Devonshire. He died 
1380, and left issue, by her, William Edgecomb, Esq. who married the 

daughter and heir of Denset. He had a grant in 6 Henry V. with 

Koyal Hethe, of the custody of the lead mines, with the silver ore therein, 
which were in Devonshire. He left issue, Peter Edgecombe, Esq. who, in 
12 Hen. VI. was returned amongst the chief of the county of Devon, who 
made oath for themselves, and retainers, to observe the laws then existing, 
from which Peter Edgecoml)e this family is lineally descended.'' 

Richard, the father of George Earl of Mount Edgecumbe, the subject of 
the preceding memoir, married Matilda, daughter of Sir Henry Furnese, 
Bart, by whom he had issue, Richard, who died unmarried, in 17(31 ; and 
George, who succeeded him, and who, on the tith of August, 1761, married 
I'lmma, the only daughter and heir of Dr. John Gilbert, Archbishop of 
York, by whom he had issue, Richard, the present Earl, and Henry, who 
died an infant. 

Richard, the present Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, born September 14, 
1764, married, February 21, 1789, Sophia, daughter of the late Earl of 
Buckinghamshire, by whom he has issue, Emma Sophia, born July 28, 
1T91 ; Caroline, born October 22, 1792 ; William, ViscountValletort, born 
November 19, 1794; Ernest, born March 23, 1797; and a daughter, 
born June 26j 1800. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES, &C. 180 

Arms.— Gules on a bend ermines, cotised, or, three boars' heads couped, 
argent. 

Crest. — On a wreath a boar passant, argent, gorged with a chaplet of 
oak leaves fructed, proper. 

ScPFORTERs. — On each side a greyhound, argent, gutte de Poix, gorged 
with a collar, dovetailed, gules. 

Motto. — Au Playsirejort de Dicu. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES. 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &c. 



XANTES IN GLRCITE VA3T0. 



SPIRITED ENTERPRISE OF THE FYL1,a's CREW. 

rfpiIE Fylla frigate sailed from Jamaica on the 3d of May, 1809, in com- 
-^*- pany with the Diamond and convoy ; but in conseqnence of running 
short of water was obliged to bear away for Ilavanna. In passing the 
island of Pines, the Fylla fell in with a French schooner privateer, which 
got up into a creek, wliere the Fylla could not follow her. The boats were 
manned and sent in ; tut the enemy having run their vessel on shore within 
a reef, concealed themselves, to the amount of one hundred men, amomr 
the rocks, vvhence they could fire and pick off the men of the boats' crews, 
without being seen, thougli fortunately only one midshipman was wounded. 
The Fylla's men resolved to abandon this unequal mode of warfare, and to 
try to come at the enemy on fairer terms. After the boats returned to the 
ship, the second lieutenant, followed by all the men, went aft to the can- 
tain, and volunteered to go in the night furtiier down the coast of the 
island, and to land and march up to the enemy in the morning. — The cap- 
tain assented, and at twelve o'clock that night, the second lieutenant, with 
sixty men, pushed off in the Fylla's boats, and those of an American 
schooner which was in company. They had a pull along the coast above 
ten miles before they could find a landing place, the shore was so com- 
pletely bound with rocks. At length they found a sandy ba}', which they 
entered. The officers, after reconnoitering a little, made out the enen^y'g 
position by a smoke, and after some consultation, resolved to proceed to 
attack them. They made four divisions of seamen, besides one of marines, 
commanded by the lieutenant of marines. The four divisions of sean.eni 
were commanded by the Fylla's second lieutenant, gunner, boatswain, and 
master's mate. The lieutenant then overhauled the cartridge-boxes. 
They were all right ; but unfortunately there was no spare powder ; — il.e 
ardour with »hich the service was undertaken having prevented a due 
attention to that object at the time of setting oi;t on the expedition. A 
midshipmari was immediately despitciied with six men to tow all the boats 



190 KAVAL ANECDOTES, 

back to the ship, at that time eleven or twelve miles distant, and to bring 
back supplies of ammunition and provision'-. This was done with all 
possible expedition, though the darkness of the night rendered it difficult 
for the officer in the boat to make the ship ; but before the return of the 
boat, the party had become impatient and fearful of losing, in the day-light, 
•which was fast approaching, the advantage they would have by coming upon 
the enemy unawares. They therefore pushed forward, and succeeded in 
surprising the enemy, who fled and dispersed in every direction, abandoning 
a residence which they had erected, with a view to make this place the 
centre of their depredations. Tiie Fylla's men burnt the building ; and 
having been joined by the boat's crew witli the provisions, took some re- 
freshment, after a fatiguing march of 21 miles. They then got out the 
schooner, and brought her to their ship to the Ilavanna, where they met the 
most friendly and flattering reception, on the double ground of their being 
Englishmen, and of having brought in the privateer, the first French prize 
that had entered that harbour. On the 4th of June, when the Fylla tired 
the usual salute in honour of the King's birth-day, it was returned from 
the Spanish admiraFs ship, and from all the forts ; and a ball was givea in 
the evening to the officers of the Fylla. 

The Fylla's crew was nnfortimately attacked by the yellow fever, while 
she lay at the Havanna, and her first lieutenant, purser, master, master'i 
mate, a midshipman (the same wlio had been wounded in the attack on the 
privateer), a passenger, and two seamen, were carried off by the violence 
of the disorder. 

SPANISU ENTERTAINMENT, IW COMPLIMENT TO ADMIRAL PURVIS. 

On the 2d of July an elegant entertainment wasgiven by Lieutenant-general 
De Narva, admiral in the Spanish navy, to Admiral Purvis, and the officers 
of the British squadron at Cadiz, attended by a numerous assemblage of 
the first rank there. At the upper end of the dining hall were displayed 
the flags of England and Spain crossed, and their fly tied together. On 
each person's plate a printed paper was found, containing some lines in 
Spanish, in allusion to the union of the national colours, \\hich were read 
by one of the party, amidst the loudest acclamations of vivas. The follow, 
ing was ilie substance : — 

Spain and Britain, fam'd in story ! 

Now unite to crush the foe ! 
Dauntless Nations, crown'd with glory ! 
Lay tiie haugiity Tyrant low. 

Vain the threat ! the gasconade ! 

Vain the Triple Flag's unfurl'd ! 
England lends her succouring aid. 

In mercy to a fulling world ! 

The upstart Corsican shall mourn. 

The vengeance of our brave Ally ; 
The motto on our banners borne, 

Is " Death or Victori; " ! i ! 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 101 

Nations of the Continent, 

Hear Brit<aiii*s firm Decree, 
^' Tlie bloodstain'' d Monstei- nt'er shall rule, 

The Empire of the Sea'' \\\ 

TENDENCY OF CUnRENTS. 

The following letter furnishes an excellent illustration of a well-knowm 
iiact, that the general tendency of currents iu the ocean is from the East 
towards the West :— 

(COPY.) 

*' SIR, " Neptune, St. John's Road, Antigua, Ju7ie 29, 1809. 

*' As the enclosed letters,* picked up iu a bottle, on the windward part 
of the island of Martinique, on the 18th of April last, tend to elucidate the 
state of the current in the Atlantic Ocean, I enclose them to you, with a 
request that you will be pleased to make the circumstance known to the 
Lords Coramissione.-s of the Admiralty. 

The bottle appears to have been thrown overboard by the Princes* 
Elizabeth packet, goiat; to the Brazils, on the Cth of Septemter, 1808, in 
lat. 14 deg. 45 niin. and long. 25 deg. and it must have been carried about 
2020 miles in 2'2i days, wliich gives nine miles per day on a west course. 

« I am, &c. ALEX. COCHRANE." 

" Hon. W. W. Pole:' 

NAVAL AND MILITARY FETE, AT HAT.IFa:?. 

In the month of April, an elegant ball and supper was given by the gen- 
tlemen of Halifax, at the Masonic Hall, to Sir George Prevost, Bart, and 
the officers of the stafiF and garrison, on their return from the capture of 
Martinique, and to the officers of his Majesty's ships Penelope, Eolus, 
Cleopatra and Centurion. At ten o'clock, the ball vvas opened by his 
Excellency Sir G. Prevost and Lady Mitchell, and the dancing contini^d 
mitil one o'clock, when the company (upwards of 400) sat down to an 
elegant supper. After the usual toasts, " The jrallant Conquerors of 3L^r- 
tinique," and the " Memory of the departed Heroes who had fallen," had 
been drunk. Sir G. Prevost and Lady retired, and the dancing continued 
till four iu the morning. The Hall was brilliantly lighted, and most beauti- 
fully decorated. At the heail, the King's arms elegantly painted, and 
underneath, a Large transparency of Martinique, witli the British Ships; 
at the foot, G. 11. and the Crown ; under which, was a transparency of thd 
English and Portuguese attacking tiie island of Cayenne ; at the side, oppo- 
site the great door, there was a beaulifid transparency, representing Bii- 
tannia waving her ensign over the head of Time, who appeared holding His- 
tory in his hand, and shewing to Posterity the record of the conquest of 
Martinique, and the names of Beckwith, Prevost, and Coclnaiie, the lignre» 

^ 1 . — ,. ■ ■ ■ I ■ I . -I „ 

* Several letters were fuuad in the buttle^ addressed to individual*. 



192 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

as large as life, elegantly painted : in front of the orchestra \vas another 
transparency, a Sailor and Soldier bluikin<i hands, tiie former holding in his 
left hand Freneh colours, and tiie latter a snord taken, motto, " Trophies 
from Mar Unique." — The pillars at tlie top and bottom of the room, and of 
the orchestra, were tastily decorated witii evergreens and a profusion of 
beautiful flowers. The effect was very pleasing. The supper included 
every delicacy the season afforded, as also various fruits, and the richest 
wines. Opposite the President was a correct pastry figure of Fort Bourbon, 
Martinique. Thus the gentlemen of Halifax vied with each other in atten- 
tion to their brave guests, and parted highly gratified . 

RECENT REMARKABLE ESCAPE FROM FRANCE. 

For the subjoined interesting narrative, which exhibits a forcible proof 
of what may frequently be effected by perseverance, we are indebted to 
Mr. Seacome Elhson, of the Rachel, who ultimately succeeded in escaping 
from France at the beginning of the present year. 

Mr. Elhson's coramuuication, dated Liverpool, July 3, 1809, is as 
follows : — 

" As you wish to know how I effected my escape, I shall briefly give you 
the heads of it. — Last July a friend and myself determined to attempt to 
give the rascals the slip ; but as both of us were entered in an engagement 
with eight more to our commandant to be responsible for each other ; and 
that, if one ran away the others should he imprisoned ; to get clear of that,* 
we missed muster one morning on purpose to get imprisoned, which sue* 
ceeded. We had ropes round our bodies; saws, gimblets, &c. in our hats, 
and at twelve that night worked our way out, though surrounded with cen- 
tinels. We got close to one, where we thought there had not been any ; 
he hailed us, and we scampered off. He must have been a young recruit, for 
lie did not give the alarm ; and we got down the wall. The rope was so 
small, we could not hold it, and both of us fell about fifty feet ; I was sadly 
hurt about the loins, and fainted as soon as I reached the wood fwhere wei 
had previously stowed our provisions.) My companion strainecf his ancle, 
and we stopt in tiie wood four days till he was able to raarcii. We were 
taken the thirteenth day, going through a small town at eleven at night, and 
conducted back to Verdun, where they kept me, hands and feet, in irons 
for seven days ; and then sent us oS to Bitche, v/hich is a nio«t dreadful 
place ; and where they kept us in general under ground. It is a strong 
fort, built upon an amazing high rock, and surrounded at bottom by three 
different high ramparts ; the rock is entirely hollowed out, and rapable of 
containing the whole garrison, if besieged. After being there a little time, 
we made interest with the commandant to live above ground ; and no 
sooner got possession of a room up stairs, than we be".an to scheme how to 
get out of it. TtiCre were twelve of us ; we first began manufacturing a 
rope, which we made out of new linen cloth that we got from town ; when 
we got a friend, who rebided there, to get us a good gimhlet; and on the 
8lh of December, forced both locks on our ciiamber door, and cut through' 



COMMERCIAL HiNTSj IlECOLLECtlONS, &C.' 195 

anotJier one with the same instrument ; and all of us got clear of the fort 
before eight o'clock, the tiine the additional centinels are put on. It 
snowed and blew very hard, and was most terribly cold. We lay the next 
day in the snovv ; and at night started again, and got within two leao-ues of 
the Rhine by day-liglit. It had frozen severely in the night, and was so 
terribly cold, that it would have killed us to have stopped that day in the 
woods; we therefore got into a barn, and lay very snug till four o'clock* 
when a pair of lovers coming in to enjoy themstlves, discovered us and 
gave the alarm : we got clear of them ; but they roused the whole country; 
and at ten that night we were surrounded by fifty or sixty peasants; two of 
us escaped their clutches by going different ways ; but were both taken a 
few hours afterwards. I was just stepping into a boat on the Rhine, when 
two Custom-house officers got hold of me, and dragged me to my unfortu- 
nate companions ; we were five of us in our party ; the rest went different 
ways, and four of them got safe home. We were conducted back to the 
place we had left, and a little time alter we were sent to Met/ hand-cufled, 
two and two, and then chained all in a string, so short that we had scarcely 
room to walk. We were sent there as evidence for the gen d'arme, who 
was upon guard the night we started ; we acquitted him ; and we were 
twenty days travelling in that uncomfortable manner. In coming back we 
passed through the d^pot of Sarre Libre, vviiere I got a friend to buy me a 
gimblet, being determined either to escape or break ray neck. The day 
we arrived at Bitche we were all clapped into a cachot, about forty feet 
under ground. We had a guard bed to lie upon, as the bottom was covered 
with water almost six inches deep. After staying there three days we got 
it made known to the commandant that it was impossible for men to exist 
in that damp place. lie ordered us into a room up stairs in the same 
building; we had three doors locked upon us, a double row of iron bars 
before the windows, and a centinel placed over us ; however, we resolved 
to make an attempt by cutting through the ceiling. We cut up our sheets> 
blankets, shirts, and towels, of which we n'ade a rope 130 feet long ; and 
on the 11th of February, at six o'clock, be^an, and at three in the morning 
accomplished the business. The floor we cut through was 2-| inch oak. 
"\\'hen we got there we found two windows without bars, that looked two 
different ways; it rained very hard, and we saw the centinel in his box at 
the opposite side from that we intended to descend, and all got safe out of 
the building, over two ramparts, when to our great astonishment we found 
a third, which we understood had not gone round that side of the fort: it 
was about twenty-five feet, and we had no rope for it ; we all dropped safe 
except the last, who broke his leg; the rest of us separated, but met again 
at Saltzburg. There were two with me. We slept in the woods by day, 
and travelled by night through a woody mountainous country. We took 
provisions along with us ; and on the seventh day crossed the Rhine, which 
cost us thirteen guineas ; we then had only nine left. We crossed Baden, 
Wittemberg, and Bavaria, without passports, slept in the small villages at 
night, and went round all the towns, some of which we found >^reat difficulty 



194 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

in rounding ; however, on the 19Lh day we arrived safe at Sakzburg, and 
got our passports for Trieste. One of my companions was entirely knocked 
up : we gave him all the money we could spare to follow us in the diligence ; 
and we set out that night on foot, and arrived at Trieste the seventh day, 
a distance of 260 English miles ; and tvhich the natives told us had never 
been done before in so short a time. We got a passage in an Austrian brig 
to Malta, then obtained a passage in his Majesty's bomb Lucifer, landed in 
Plymouth, and arrived in Liverpool in three mouths and seventeen days." 

BOATS OF TUE DREADNOUGHT, IN BASQUE ROADS. 

The following account of a recent unfortunate affair, in which the boats 
of the Dreadnought were engaged, in Basque Roads, is more exphcit, and 
apparently more entitled to credit, than some statements whieh had before 
been given in the newspapers :— 

" While the fleet lay in Basque Roads, it had been constantly the habit 
to make one ship send boats at night to row guard towards the mouth of the 
Charante, tlie entrance of which was protected by a small island (Isle 
D'Aix) very well fortified. The enemy sent one of their brigs of war down 
to remain under the protection of the Isle D'Aix during the day, and at 
nio-ht she generally went at some distance up the river, to catch any of our 
boats which might be bold enough to go too close to the shore in chase of the 
coasting vessels from Rochelle towards Rochefort, which were annoyed by 
our men of war. On the night of the 25th and 26th of July, Lieutenants 
Forman and Owen were ordered to row guard in two boats, under the 
orders of Lieutenant Forman. It was at first thought that the brig had not 
gone up the river that night; fortunately, however. Lieutenant Forman 
thought it best to reconnoitre her before they made an attack, otherwise 
none of them could have escaped as the tide was. At about half past two, 
having waited so long for the turn of the tide, the boats approached the 
brig, when, from her situatirp, Lieutenant Forman despaired of success, 
and proposed retiring ; but Lieutenant Owen was so fully confident 
of success, that he wished to make the attack alone ; and on this the attack 
was made. Lieutenant Forman pulled down alongside the brig to get on 
board. The enemy, in addition to the usual mode of defence, which is a 
very strong net-work stretched tight along, considerably higher than the 
bulwark of the vessel, through which they were obliged to cut, had strong 
sharp pikes, standing out horizontally from her sides about six or seven 
feet, rather lower than the upper edge of a boat. On the end of one of 
these Lieutenant Owen ran his boat, and there she stuck, a mark for the 
Frenchmen, who popped at tliein like so many fowls tied to a stake. 
Lieutenant Forman's boat had been the first alongside, and had avoided the 
pikes ; and while he was occupying himself trying to cut through the net, 
he heard Lieutenant Owen cry for quarter. The people of Lieutenant 
Forman's boat, seeing the state they were in, and being many of them 
wounded, one m.ortally, pushed off, and had not the lieutenant himself 
been able to swim, he must have remained in the brig a pvisoaer ; however. 



COMMERCIAI- niNTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 195 

he swam to his boat, and received a wound just as he was goin^ to get into 
her. He brought on board the Dreadnought seven, besides himself, 
wounded, one since dead; and left behind Lieutenant Owen, and his boat 
and people, whom it was impossible to bring off. One of them, it has since 
been heard, was killed, and four wounded. The enemy had one killed, and 
two or three wounded, b}' their own account." 

PIPIXG ALL HANDS aN SHORE. 

The extortion of the inn-keepers at Portsmouth, on persons arriving at 
that port, has long been proverbial ; in a recent instance, hovrever, an 
attempt of this nature was completely foiled. A few weeks ago, a gentle- 
man with his family landed there, from the West Indies, and intending to 
remain a short time until he could hear from his friends in London, applied 
to the landlord of the inn, to which he had been conducted, for accommo- 
dation ; but was told that three bed-rooms could not be provided for his 
family, unless he would engage them for a week certain, and that the lowest 
charge would be a guinea per day fur the use of them. To this exorbitant 
demand, the gentleman, after some expostulation, acceded. Soon after- 
wards, on going to the post oflice, he found letters lying there for him, from 
his friends in London, requiring his immediate departure for that place, as 
soon as he should arrive. On his return to the inn, he informed the land- 
lord of the circumstance, and hoped payment would not be insisted on for 
the rooms, which he had scarcely occupied. But to this, Boniface would 
by no means consent, and high words arose between the parties. Captain 
L. of tlie royal navy, who was well known to the landlord, happening to be 
in the house at the time, enquired into tlie circumstance ; and, discovering 
the imposition intended to be practised, otTered to take the bargain off the 
gentleman's hands, which was cheerfidiy assented to by both parties, and 
tiie latter immediately departed with his family, after thanking the captain 
for his interposition. Immediate directions were given for the beds to be 
prepared, as Captain L. said it was his intention to sleep on shore that 
night. " What, all three ?" enquired the waiter, " To be sure, am I not 
to pay fav them?" was the reply. In the evening, the captain returned, 
bringing with him his boatswain and cabin boy, to \\hom he gave directions 
to occupy two of the beds, " and recollect my lads," said he, '' watch and 
watch, and every three hours pipe all hands for a general muster." Those 
orders were strictly complied with, to _the great annoyance of evcrv other 
guest in the house; in tiie morning the landlord foniplained heavily of the 
disturbance, and hoped the captain would discontinue it; but the latter 
said, it was his way at sea, and did he not pay for the rooms ? Piping all 
hands was lepeated on the second night, which produced fresh remonstran- 
ces from the landlord, who declared, " that if such practices v\ere continued, 
it would be the ruin of his liousc, and he should be perfectly satisfied if the 
capiaiii would pay for the two nights occupation of the rooms, and di^con- 
tinue his nocturnal alarums." Captain L. declared, " that sleeping on 
shore he found congenial to his health, and combining sea customs with 
latid conveniences afforded iiiin an ample fund of amusement." The third 



196 CORRESPONDENCE. 

night produced a repetition of the alarum ; but, in the morning, Boniface 
waited upon the disturber of his house, and with many bows and cringes 
informed him, " that he was extremely willing to forego any charge for the 
three 7}ights' lodging, if the captain would consent to sleep on board his 
ship, where he might pipe all hands as frequently as he pleased :" to which 
ofter, Captain L. with appai-ent reluctance, acceded. > 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



COFFERS, ROCKETS, &c. 

MR. EDITOR, London, August 15, 1809. 

TF FIND that my paper on the above subject has been noticed by one of 
-^ your correspondents under the denomination of a furious pliillipic 
against coffers, rockets, infernals, &c. Mr. H. the gentleman alluded to, 
has not written, as he says, with any hope of convincing me of my error, 
but professedly for tlie purpose of dissipating some unfounded prejudices 
entertained on the subject. Well, be it so, it is surely no small comfort in 
a good cause, not to stand alone, and as for a little railing about " sophis- 
try, mock philanthropy," and such like, it is all nothing mure than what we 
must expect from their advocates. By all means let tiicm continue to play 
off such weapons — any thing but their rockets. The coffers and catamarans, 
it appears, this gentleman does not quite approve of, because they may be 
directed against men in their sleep — a helpless enemy ; Und yet he has no 
hesitation in becoming the champion of rockets ! He accuses me of having 
absurdly confounded Congreve's rockets with the coffers and catamarans; 
but I believe. Sir, it is pretty well known that in no instances have my 
animadversions been confined to either tlie shapes or brilliant properties of 
these rare inventions, but uniformly to their detestable and diabolical 
effects; and 1 at this moment know of no atchievments that entitle the 
rockets to a milder condemnation. For if that gentleman will take the 
trouble of again referring to your volume, he will undoubtedly discover that 
the siese of Copenhagen has nothing to do with the matter, and that the 
whole of tlie censure went — not to rockets as employed in what are termed 
inilitarv operations — but _to the impolicy, and inhumanity of introducing 
them into naval warfare : and it is hardly to be doubted, that even Mr. U. 
will see that the consequences may be dreadfully different between burning 
the houses of a town and burning of ships on the ocean. With respect to 
the superiority claimed on the score of humanity for the rockets, it may 
turn out a more difficult task to establish the fact than your correspondent 
is inclined to suppose. A privateer, it has been argued by the coffer 
warriors, might secretly approach any ship in the Downs, and by means 
of such a machine, instantly blow her up into atoms. And nearly the same 
lionours have been claimed for the rockets. A fishing boat, or privateer, 
say tlicir advocates, nii^ht, under cover of night, approach the largest 5hi|» 



CORRESPONDEJfCE. 197 

that ever floated, and send a flight of arrows into her hull that should 
wrap her in flames. Now, Sir, I wish to know where, in point of atrocity, 
is to be found the mighty distinction : a ship of the line, with 600, or more 
brave men, on either side, is destroyed, which then, I ask, has the superior 
claim to humanity. By the coffers, 600 sleepin;^ men are murdered from a 
single explosion ; by the rockets, the same number of struggling wretches 
are driven on the shocking alternative of death in the flames, or death in 
the water. From questions like these. Sir, the heart turns with disgust, at 
least we the mock philanthropists feel so, and instinctively shudder at &uch 
calculations, and let us hope that it is the champions of coffers and rockets 
alone, who can calmly sit down and strike the horrible balance. 

Your correspondent has confidently stated, that the use of gunpowder, 
cannon, fire-ships, bombs, grenades, &c. have all more or less a tendency 
to shorten the contests, and thus to spare the effusion of human blood. It is 
to he wished that he h;id been a little more explanatory on tliis subject, for 
It is not every one who admits, that shortening the duration of naval actions 
has always the effect of reducing the number of the slain, and there are» 
many of opinion, that so far from contests being shortened by the use of 
cannon, they are frequently sooner commenced and longer continued by 
their means ; and no fact can be better established, than that, boarding is 
generally the quickest possible way of shortening a contest. Something 
like fills takes place on the land, when an army has recourse to its bayonets. 
But be thi"! as it may, for I confess myself at present not master of the sub- 
ject with respect to cannon and fire-ship^ sparing the effusion of blood as 
state;;. Mr. H. will, I hope, pardon me for saying, that he appears to have 
viewed this subject through a very distorting and confused medium, or he 
never could have so classed cannon and fire-ships together. In point of 
honour, as well might the duellist be classed with the midnight incendiary, 
and with reference to the principal object, that of reducing the number of 
the slain, there evidently appears to me a most absurd and palpable con- 
tradiction. 

Fire-ships undoubtedly bring matters with the sufferers shortly to a 
crisis, but is it not absurd, and in the face of truth to say, that they thereby 
spare the effusion of blood ? It is in vain that Mr. H. would oppose to 
this, what has lately been done on the coast of France, because all that was 
done, was done by the fears of the enemy, and the gallantry of our ships, 
and to reckon confidently upon such events would be like reckoning confi- 
dent! v on the panick terrors that sometimes hj\ve assailed the bravest of 
men. Besides it should be recollected, that had the fire-ships been placed 
where it was wished, none, or very few of the enemy, could have escaped 
from tlic flames, and, what then would your correspondent have said on 
their claims to the praise of humanity .? But could it even be proved that 
the advantages were so mighty as to sanction the sacrifice, the policy would 
still remain to be justified, of bringing forward any inventions that tend to 
lessen the superiority of navies. The use of fire-ships, inhuman custom 
has authorised — I am sorry for it— it may be too late to lament, but let us 
liot add coffers and rockets to the horrible warfare. Tlic use of Lre-ships, 



198 CORRESPONDENCE, 

it should be remembered, is in a great measure limited by Providence. 
A fire-ship cannot act « sea alone, but must always depend on the protec- 
tion of another, and that protection, tliere are times, no human power can 
afford. On the contrary, the ship armed with rockets, like the snake, carries 
every where the deadly charge to the assault, and therefore is infinitely 
more dangerous. To see the effect of these rockets in their proper light, 
let any man picture to himself two hostile fleets prepired to engage, and 
let him have succeeded in preparing his mind against the mournful effects 
usually resulting from such an encounter. Then let him be credibly 
assured, that in compliance with the wishes of some notable projector, the 
customary mode of fighting is in future to be abolished, and victory is to 
depend upon successful conflagrations — let him, I say, if the human heart 
could withstand the shock, be finally informed that both fleets have been 
designedly provided with fire arrows for the purpose ! Now, if he be a 
father — if he be a man, what would be the dreadful tone of his feelings— 
the bitter anguish of his hopeless lamentations ; for my part, I will not pre- 
tend to surmise, but I envy not the exalted projector his honour. In all 
other battles there is hope — in all other warfare may be heard the songs of 
triumph but in this diabolical contention; hope itself must expire, triumph 
can be but in idea, for the vanquishers only can be distinguished from the 
vanquished, by the last terrible explosion. 

Such, O Rockets, are thy triumphs ! 

What sort of analogy there is between the burning of a bridge on the 
Danube, and the burning of a ship on the ocean, remains to be explained, 
as well as the propriety of the words heterogeneous classification, when 
applied to arguments brought forward from different quarters to prove the 
same thing, for I presume it was intended as a censure ; though other parts 
of the same paper I am under the necessity of treating as compliments. 
For instance, I asserted that the discovery of a passage to India by the 
Cape of Good Hope was fatal to two places which before enjoyed the 
exclusive commerce of the East. In answer to this, and by way of contra- 
diction, Mr. H. asserts, that it was beneficial to the world at large ; as if I 
needed, a better argument to prove the truth of my remark ; but if that 
gentleman has still any doubts, let him go to our India Courts, and th&re 
propose a similar plan for enriching the Directors, and without doubt I may 
safely abide by their answer. When Mr. H. informs us that the discovery 
of America has been extremely beneficial, let him also add that it has been 
beneficial to the Spaniards, for unless he do this, people will naturally ask 
what has these benefits to do with the argument. But of all ray obliga- 
tions to this gentleman, none exceeds what I owe him for the liberal man- 
ner in which he has corroborated my opinion on the subject of coals. It is 
in your recollection. Sir, that when endeavouring to shew the mischief that 
might ensue from a too hasty adoption of specious projects, I went on to 
instance hypothetically, one of a most imposing nature, no less than the 
working, of a coal mine in the neighbourhood of London, which no doubt 
some millions of people would hail as a blessing, but in doing so, my only 
fears were, that very few, in the face of so dazzling an advantage, would 



CORRESPONDENCE. 199 

be brought to. assent to the justice of the supposition ; what then do I not 
owe to the zeal of ]\Ir. H. who has kindly stepped forward to clear away 
the difficulty, by bringing to my aid the solemn opinion of the legislature 
itself, which he fi-eely assures us has enacted a law to prevent the possi- 
bility of such a misfortune. In return for so much condescension, I feel 
myself bonnd in honour to say, that of the merits of the rockets in their 
proper place, no doubt can be entertained, and in my mind they do honour 
to the genius and application of Mr. Congreve ; but that proper place I 
shall always contend is very far indeed removed from naval warfare. 
Mr. H. has likened their efiects to a short cut to India ; what short cut he 
alludes to I have yet to learn ; but if he be anxious to establish their merits 
on the footing of a short cut in war, he must not be angry if we assert that 
the coffers are a shorter. 

Mr. II. treats with particular contempt tho idea of rejecting what he 
terms a positive good, from fear of a possible evil, but he has forgotten to 
define to us the meaning of these words, as applied to the subject; for, he 
has not himself scrupled to shew, that the legislature, in prohibiting the 
opening of a coal mine, has been guilty of this very fol/i/ of rejecting a 
positive good for a possible evil. Let him look at Spain now, and compare 
It with what it was. Let him see wliat followed one of his positive goods in 
North America, when a shallow policy annexed Canada to our dominions, 
and removed the bridle of the colonies. Let him only wait a little, and 
see the effects of that wretched foresight that would add the Mauritius in 
perpetuity to our Eastern dominions, and then when India has thrown off 
the yoke, let him come forward and tell us where was the absurdity in 
steadily rejecting these positive goods. 

1 shall conclude with observing, that although I have exercised the free- 
dom of discussion in deprecating the introduction and continuance of a 
diabolical warfare, I am very far from withholding just praise from tlie 
present Admiralty. If men of distinguished character and humanity like 
the naval lords who preside there, do not inwardly feel the impolicy as well 
as the inhumanity of such practices, the circumstance is deeply to be 
lamented, because their sanction will always be quoted ; but this is what 
can scarcely be credited, for Lord Gambier, even while he proposed the use 
of fire-ships, deprecated that use as horrible, and it is but reasonable to 
suppose that others have the same feelings. But why then, Mr. H. will 
ask, why, if so feeling, do they practise it ? Because, I answer, they are 
fettered by p7cceden!s, fatal precedents, which are too often omnipotent ; 
but let the nation come forward with abhorrence, and the charm will be 
broken. 

F. F. F. 

MR. EDITOR, Dozens, August 'iOtk, 1809. 

TrijTAVlNG been reading the description ofllfracombe in your Naval 

Chronicle (Vol. XXI. page 135) and observed mention made, that 

there is a monument erected in the church to th.e memory of Captaiu Thoniat 

Bowen, v\ho fell at Tcneriife, while commanding the Terpsichore, and in 



200 CORRESPONDENCB. 

another part you publish an erratum, wherein you say his name was not 
Things but John, both of which are wrong; I have to request (as an old 
Protege of that worthy man) you will have the goodness to insert another 
erratum in your useful work, signifying his name was Richard, in doinj 
which you will obhge 

Your humble servant, 

T. Y. S HE, 

formerly of the Terpsichore. 

MR. EDITOR, 
"^S^OUR Correspondent H. (page 28) has stated, " that though BlacU- 
heath and other spots arc supposed to abound in tliis useful fossil 
(Coal) of a superior quality, an act of Parliament has been long in 
existence, prohibiting the sinking of a coal shaft within a certain distance 
fi'oni the metropolis." 

Now I have been repeatedly told of this same act of Parliament, but 
could never get any one to quote title or date of it. I have sought in tlie 
Index to the Statutes, but still to no purpose, and I have the strongest 
doubts that there is no such restriction. . 

It has been added also as a reason for it, that it was to encourage the 
snipping in the coal trade; yet on the contrary, an act passed only two 
sessions since, to enable 50,000 tons of coal to come by the Grand Junction 
Canal annually, on payment of 10s. 6d. per ton duty ; and both before that 
act, and since, there is no prohibition against bringing by land carriage, any 
quantity of coals into London, free of duty ; and on a common (just 
beyond the boundary stone on the Grand Junction, and at which stone the 
duty is receivable) are some thousand tons of cuals deposited to be brougiit 
into the metropolis, waiting for a further advance on the price of that 
article, to enable the payment of the e.vlra cartage. 

How extraordinary then, that when the North Country Colliery Owners, 
and tiie Corporation of the City of London, united their application 
to Parliament, to forbid the inland coal coming in, or to subject it to an 
equal duty, and limit the quantity, that such a clause should not have been 
adduced as a strong principle and precedent to go by. 

Elackheath has been pointed out, as the spot where coal is to be found, 
but if to be found there, it would be in the neighbourhood also. Now no 
attempts have been made, or if they have, have succeeded, from ail the 
enquiries I have made, and they have been numerous. 

As a subject of enquiry, connected with an important branch of shipping, 
I trust you will give this letter insertion, and I should hope some further 
information may thence be given to, Sir, 

Your humble Servant, 
A SHIP OWNER IN THE COAL TRADE. 

2Ut August, 1809. 



CORRESPONDSNCEi 50l 

ROCKET SYSTEM. 

Letter II. 
*' Non est ad asira mollis a terris via."- -Sexec.* 

MR. EDITOR, 

riJpHE attention you have been pleased to pay to my introductory letter 
-^ on tlie origin and progress of Mr. Coiigrevc's t discoveries in pyro- 
techny, encourages mc to proceed according to promise. 

The decisive trial that was hoped to have been made in November, 
1805, having been thwarted by the too advanced season of the year, the 
winter was employed in preparations for returning to the charge in the 
spring : but this attempt was almost as ill-fated as the first. No sooner 
was all in readiness at the proper season than negotiations for peace were 
set on foot, and the passage of our plenipotentiary was counted a suiScient 
reason for tacitly suspending hostilities against Boulogne, and the summer 
was consequently consumed in the journics of messengers Till at lengtli, 
on the 8th of October, 1806, the Earl of Lauderdale being then known to 
have quitted Paris re irifecta, the commodore of our squadron (Captain 
Owen) was tempted not to lose a favourable coincidence of wind, weather 
and tide, for from frequent on that station so late in the autumn. "Accord- 
ingly, on tlie evening of that day (8th) boats, armed in the appropriate 
maimer, took their stations in Boulogne Bay, to the number of 18. 

Notwithstanding the '.vant of expertness naturally attendant upon a first 
apprenticeship, not less than tivo hundred rockets were discharged in half 
4in houi' ; and in about ten ni'muiea the town appeared on lire : while sucU 
was the panic on shore that scarcely a shot was returned from the batteries.:^ 
The nature and extent of the misciiief could never be ihorouiihly 
estimated : it was reported, however, that some vessels in the harbour wem 
destroyed, and it is certain that a considerable range of buildings, appa- 
rently barracks or store-houses, were burnt — the fire could not, from it'» 
duration, have been trifling ; having blazed from 2 A. Mi till the eveuuigi 
The ruins of eight buildings were discernible from the Clyde frigate; and 
from the extreme jealousy with which Lord L. and his retinue were guarded 

* " There is no easy way from the earth to the stars.'' It is not by 
KOramon efforts immortality is attained. 

t Naval Chronicle, Vol. XXII. page 100. 

X In order to relieve the compundioua visiting^ of such cositiopolite 
patriots as reserve their philanthropic sympathies for our enemies, be \t 
known that the destruction of the town formed no part of that project, 
nor was it wantonly attempted: hut the |jrecise situation of the flotilla 
bason not being visible from tb.e cruising station, owing to the interposition 
of rising ground on the western side of the harbour (formed by the mouth 
of the river Lianne) the rorkets were thrown by guess in the daik^ rather 
Soo much to the left, or eastward. 

ff28U» Cjjron. (U3l, XXII. b » 



202 CORRESPONDENCE. 

on passing through the town a few days afterwards,* there is reason ta 
presume the ravages were serious, and more extensive than met the eye on 
board the squadron. It was only to be reeretted thiic the CDnflagration had 
not taken effect more to the rir:ht, where the bulk of the flotilla lay : never- 
theless, the efficiency of the weapon, and tlie vuinerabihty of Bouln^ine, were 
completely shewn; since it could not be doubled that what had destroyed 
houses of substantial masonry would have annihilated shipping, crouded 
in a sort of floating dock, had it fallen amongst them : besides, as the part 
of the town burnt was more remote from the boats than the bason, th* 
range of the rockets was also demonstrated beyond a doubt ; and lastly, 
the facility of using this weapon in small craft afloat was satisfactorily 
proved. 

From this period till the expedition against Denmark, successive improve- 
ments were made, in the weapon itself, as well as in its accessory 
apparatus. It is not within the scope of this correspondence to detail these 
matters, but those at all conversant with gunnery can readily conceive the 
difficulty of attaining any thing like a state of early perfection with an inven- 
tion so novel in most of its parts. Many of these mechaufcal details, though 
apparently of minor consideration, were in fact points of the first 
importance, and consumed much time and attention. Conbidering that the 
system is still in its infancy, the construction is now reduced to a degree 
of uniformity and certainty, that promises entire success : while the effect 
universally acknowledged by the officers both of the navy and array to have 
been produced by it at Copenhagen, has operated a general conviction of 
its powers. 

Indeed such a body of evidence, as to facts connected with the effects of 
the rockets on that occasion, has been collected by eye witnesses, as fully 
establishes, not only the certainty of their having contributed essentially 
to the conflagration of the place, but that of their powers of penetration, 
%vhich many persons not fairly appreciating the effect of such a weight, 
pointed and solid as it is, falling from so great a heiglit, ^vere inclined to 
denv. But indeed had this testimony' of facts been wanting, there is abun- 
dance of argument to induce the belief. — In the first place it may be stated 
that there never was an instance known of such a conflagration having been 
produced by mere bombardment in so short a time; and it is therefore fair to 
infer, that the addition of this weapon to the usual means contributed to 
such extraordinary effect : — but there is a stronger circumstance : the 
second night, when roekets were not discharged, although near 1,000 bomb* 
shells and carcasses were thrown, there was no conflagration ; whereas on 
the other two nights, on which the rockets were used, the flames raged 
furiously; and yet from the first it is acknowledged by the artillery men, 
that the greater part of their spherical carcasses were well ignited on leaving 
the mortars from which they were fired. Consequently, it is no more offen- 
sive to sound reasoning than it is contradictory to public opinion to assert, 
that the rockets used at Copenhagen did very essentially contribute to the 

* Not one person having been suffered to leave their inn, nor to hold 
any external communication, and being conveyed through the streets ir» 
closed cabriukis. 



COKKESPONDENCE. 20S 

conflagration of that city; and if the weapon was able to accomplish any 
thing where only 800 were fired, and that only by the labour of 16 men, 
partly uninstructed, what more might not have been done by it, had it 
been previously adopted into our military system, and committed to the 
rej^iment of artillery, and to the navy, amongst their other implements 
of bombardment ? 

I repeat, therefore, that tliere are both fact and argument in abundance 
from the example at Copenhagen, to fix the credit of the rocket as a car- 
cass; and that, without in the least undervaluing the execution produced 
by the regular bombardment ; than wliich nothnia; could be more destruc- 
tive, nor is it possible to say enough in praise of the professional skill mani- 
fested on that occasion. 

Thus far I have merely given a cursory account of the origin and pro- 
gress of the rocket system, detailing only as much as is necessary fir the 
comprehension of the general extent of the improvements made in it, 
without attemptin;^ to investigate that art in point of construction, upon 
which the rocket's length of range or vigour of flight depends, I have 
ftlready acknowledged the imperfection of my knowh dge on this head : but 
I should ever feel it my duty to conceal even my conjectures thereon^ 
inasmuch as if the weapon does contain any advantages superior to the 
common means of annoying an enemy at present used, it is important that 
■we should possess it exclusively as long as possible, although it is a satisfac- 
tion for me to repeat a declaration the inventor has been often heard to 
make in the most distinct terms, that " the prinrijdes of the Confrere 
rockets are widtl^ diffTcni from those of ordinary sky-rockets, and are not 
discoverable by analysis or by insyection." 

In my next letter I shall enter into the formation of the rocket- carcass, 
its principle of action, and the advantage it appears to possess, in ccuive* 
niency of use, and in probability of effect, as an instrument of conflagration, 
when compared with the largest spherical carcasses and shells ; shewiyg 
also its superior cheapness. But lest your tender-hearted correspondent 
F. F. F. should suffer disappointment at reading so far without finding any 
particular notice taken of his military ethicks, I will just employ a few hues 
to remind him, that when a man employs his pen publicly, his readers have 
a right to expect he should know something, be it ever so littje, of 
the subject matter on wljich he sits down to write. Had that writer 
observed this good rule, he would hardly have jumbled together in 
one sweepinsr anathema such heterogeneous articles as cuifers, catamarans^ 
rackets^ internals, fire-devils, water-worms, Shrapnell-shells, &c. for such 
are I think the items in Ins catalogue of heterodox implements of de.-truc- 
tion, in contradistinction to " orthodox round and grape ' ! And he would at 
least hav8 escaped the unavoidable application of La Rochetoucault's 
maxim, that " Les esprits medioctcs condumncnt d'ordi.taire tout cc ijui passg 
leur poriie."* 

BRONTES. 

Shoofer\<i Hill, 2d Senfemher. 1800. 

* Those of confined intellect in general find lault widi tvery thing beyond 
the sphere of their knowledge. 



204 tORRESrONDENCE. 

MR. EDITOR, 

A LTHOUGH the necessity of recording ii) the N. C. a proceediag so 
"^^ important to the navy, ns the recent Basque Road Court-vmartia!^ of 
course tended to circuuiscribe the miscellaneous pages of your last num- 
ber, yet your readers cannot fail to appreciate the exercise of your judg- 
ment in the selection of such articles as you could find room for of an 
entertaining as well as of an instructive description, and more particularly 
I advert to the Xlllth letter of your correspondent A.F. Y.* on the raa- 
narrcment of the navy, or rather, to use a more specific term, upon the 
Oihcial administration thereof, as pourtraying existing abuses in strong, but 
I believe true colours. Agreeing as I do witli him in many of the points 
he has touched upon in that letter, he will, I hope, excuse the freedom 
with which I venture to criticise his extension of the epithet of" interloper" 
to a captain of tiie navy, for performing a service of great moment and 
peril, in the person of Sir Sidney Sni'th. It is true that this slip of the pen 
on the part of your correspondent did not escape your own censorship ; 
but was very properly noticed in a note subscribed by your title; wherein 
you also hold out an expectation of more precise information upon the 
subject from another (naval) correspondent. But meanwhile, being 
unwilling that so unmerited and unjust an epithet should remain applied to 
a character I admire, and particularly as coming from a writer so generally 
distinguished by correct notions of men and things, as A. F. Y. I shall 
endeavour to rectify what in this instance is erroneous. The more 
respectable the authority the more dangerous is error, 

^Vhen the last war with France broke out in 1792, Sir Sidney Smith was 
travelling in the Levant fur amusement and improvement, and chanced to. 
be at Smyrna, where there was collected at the same time a nuinber of 
English seamen out of employ, some saved from shipwreck, and others 
straggling along shore. Sir S. S, being intent on returning home himself in 
obedience to the customary notice from the Admiralty Office, bethought 
himself of these men, as likely to be lost to their country at such a critical 
time; and, with equal patriotism and humanity, determined to reclaim 
them. He accordingly, at his own 7isk, purchased one of tlie latteeu 
rigged small ciaft of the Archipelago, nicknamed by tlie Turks " Kerlang- 
hitch,'" or (Anglice) swallows, from their svi-ift sailing, and fitted her out 
under the English flag, under the name of the Swallow Tender. In which 
diminutive man of war, of between 30 and 40 feet keel, he shipped him- 
self, with about as many turbulent fellows, and sailed down the Mediterra- 
nean in search of the English fleet, which he found at Toulon a week before 
tlie evacuation. Sir Sidney here delivered up his troublesome charge to the 
connnander-ju-cliief, and was waiting for a passage to England, as a guest 
with his old commander, Lord Hood, on board the Victory, at the time it 
became necessary to decide upon the fate of the French fleet and arsenal, 
and when the extrication of the allied army was the principal object of 

*^ Vide Naval Ciiromclf., Vol. XXIL pagQ^ ICi. 



CORRESPONDEKCE. 205 

solicitude, and absorbed almost the v.hole naval means of tlie combined 
English and Spanish squadrons. It was at this anxious moment Sir S. S. 
volunteered a service generally considered as impracticable with the slen- 
der means by which it was to be attempted, namely, the Victory's pinnace 
in the first instance, to carry him round the fleet with the admiral's order 
in his hand, to put surh other ships' boats in requisition as could be spared. 
To which w.t.s added the before mentioned Swallow Tender, with her crew of 
de&peradoes : but fit men for a forlorn hope, and in some degree tamed under 
Sir Sidney's personal command. Besides which, his knowledge of Spanisii 
enabled him to extract a couple of gun-boats from Admiral Gravina. And 
this was the wh.ole force with which he started for the arsenal, then occu- 
pied by 700 convict galley-slaves, in a state of insurrection. He was 
followed by the Windsor Castle's boat, under his friend Lieutenant (the 
late Captain) Miller, and the Vulcan fire-ship, it is true, was sent to liiui 
in the evening ; by means of which four sail of the line were burnt : but pre- 
viously to her arrival, and for the rest of the business, lie had not a farthing 
candle to light the shavings with, and was besides positively ordered not to 
commence the work of destruction till the troops were all embarked. It 
is a singular fact, that from the circumstance of Sir Sidney Smith not being 
commissioned on full pay, though acting under the authority of Admiral 
Lord Hood, he was not considered as entitled to share prize-money, or 
rather head-money, derived endreli/Jrom his men exertions ; and I am weU 
assured never has received any pecuniary or other reward whatsoever tor 
that service, any more than he has any English honour for all his services 
together. 

A. F. Y.'s observations on the Admiralty I am sorry to say, apply not 
only to that office, but to almost every other. And it can hardly be other- 
wise, as long as there shall continue to exist that narrow and jealous mono- 
poly of all posts of importance concentered in a few great families; and 
that total want of sympathy betv.een the people and their rulers, (no mat- 
ter of what party) and that little deference to public opinion, except when 
it threatens to indicate itself by tumult or violence. If two or three pow- 
erful individuals concur in recommending a person to any oihce in the 
state, from that of chancellor down to an exciseman, however slenderly 
qualified by personal gifts or accomplishments, such a claim from the 
nature of the government, nmst under the existing order of tilings have the 
force of a command. 

Brighthelmtone, lOth September, 1809. PHILO-NAUT. 



MR. EDITOR, 

'EREWITII you will please receive a copy of a journal kept by my 
friend Dr. William Cullcn Brown, of the ^T.tna (bomb) giving a cir- 
cumstantial account of the various transactions that took place during the 
late attack on the enemy at Flushing, &c. by inserting the same in your 
Chronicle ycu will oblige 

t2lh SepU/uter, 1809, J. T. .^. 



206 fORKESPONDENce.' 

His Majesty* s Ship JEtna, July 30, 1809, off Tcr Veer, 
in the Lie of Walcheren, Province of' Zealand. 

That I may not be worse than my promise to yoii, at my departure, I sit 
down to transmit some account of the operalions of tlie Expedition hitherto, 
by extracting from a private journal I keep, the chief particulars, whiclj, 
however, arc hitherto, till to-c'ay, but uninteresting. 

" July 28tb, Downs. This morning, at six o'clock, the whole of the 
Grand Expedition got under way, with a fnir wind for Flushing. We are 
now going along at the rate of eight knots and a half an hour before the 
wind • and it is not improbable that we may commence operations in the 
course of to-morrovv. To-day is doubly memorable to me, as being the 
commencement of this other Grand Armada, and the anniversary of my 
birth dav. At twenty years of age, when I was puffed up with college 
pride, and looked forward to the accomplishment of mighty schemes, I 
should have been sadly mortified, had any one predicted, that at thirty 
three years of age I should have advanced no farther in establishing myself 
in the world than I have done. But I fear I have neglected catching 
Shakcspear's " tide in the affairs of men " at the proper time : yet, how 
many arc there, men of education too, that would gladly embrace my 
present situation ! 

«« 10 o'clock P.M. We are now at anchor on what they call Thornton's 
Rido-e, about 18 miles from the Isle of Walcheren. We shall hardly be 
prepared to attack Flushing to-morrow ; and the bombarding in all likeli- 
hood is reserved for the day after (Sunday), when a desperate conflict will 
be the result. 

" July 29th. This morning, at o'clock, following the motions of the 
fleet, we got under way with a fine breeze in our favour. — Half- past 11 
o'clock. We have again anchored about three leagues from the Isle of 
Walcheren. The transports have not yet come up with us, and the gun- 
boats have still their guns to get out of the linc-of-battle ships; a heavy 
sea at the same time is running. All these things contribute to retard our 
progress. 

" July 30th. We weighed anchor at 7 o'clock tliis morning ; and are 
now approaching fast to the coast. All is anxious expectation. I have 
supplied most of the officers and men with cotton to stuff their ^ars with ; 
so umch even do they dread the concussion of the mortars who have been 
accustomed to them. I have arranged every thing on my part to meet the 
worst. — Half-past 5 o'clock P.M., Most of t!ie flat-bottomed boats full of 
troops are rowing i'or the shore : the fngates are ranged along the shore to 
cover their landing. 

'* Eight o'clock. A great number of the troops are now landed, and 
have formed themselves in line on the beach. A hea\y fire has been kept 
up for some time between a battery on shore and our ships ; in the mean 
time our troops are pouring in with all despatch, and will continue to do so 
during the course of the niglit. Repeated volleys of musketry have been 
iired, and are still firin;; : the great guns are now hushed: weliavejust 



CORRESFONDEXCK. 207 

Jropt our anchor : a height, where a signal post is erected, has been takes 
possession of by some sailors, vvho have hoisted the British colours there. 

" July 31st. This morning, at 6, ugaiii got under way. We understand 
from a captain in the navy, having the command of some gun-boats, with 
whicli he was landing the soldiers last night, that only two men were 
wounded at their disembarkation. 

" Between seven and eiglit. Four Highland soldiers are seen on shore 
inarching six prisoners of war, it is supposed, to head quarters, Tiie troops 
that are landed are now formed into a fine line, extending a great way 
along the shore, and marching to Ter Veer. The battery that had opened 
upon our ships last night. Den liaak, is now in the possession of our 
soldiers. It only mounts live guns. We have passed it, and are proceeding 
along the coast to protect our land forces. 

" Eight o'clock. The general officer has this moment despatched a boat 
from the shore to the several ships as tliey come up, intimating that he has 
just sent a flag of truce to Ter Veer, requiring it immediately to surrender. 
We must of course await the result, which will determine our proceedings. 

" Half-past eight. We have again ancliored about two miles from the 
town. The tide here runs so strong against us that none of tlic ships for 
the present can get higher up. — Half-past nine. The terms appear to have 
been rejected by the enemy, a heavy fire of artillery having cummenced 
from the town. 

" Eleven o'clock. The ice is now broken ! We have fired off our ten 
and thirteen-inch mortars, from the explosion of which I had been taught 
to apprehend so much. By stuffing my ears witli cotton, and pressing them 
with my fingers or. the word for making ready being given, T find no manner 
of inconvenience from the concussion. I have l;ad the hardihood, standing 
close by the great brass mortar, to try the effect of its sound on my ears 
open, and never experienced a more disagreeable sensation. My ears have 
continued ever since ringing. At the very first firing of the uinrtar, the 
lock of my cabin door has been forced off, and the boards of the bulkhead 
kave drawn their nails. This, however, is but the prelude to what is to 
follow. A tremendous fire has been kept up, and is still going on, between 
the town and our ships, which last, however, are too far distant from it. 
The tide is now turning; and such a force of bomb-vesseb, gun-brigs, gun- 
boats, ai^ fiat-bottomed boats, will shortly assail the place, almost in close 
contact with it, as there will be no resisting. The multiplicity of sliips to 
be seen almost as far as the eye can carry, forms a beautiful sight, and 
highly gratifying to the feeUngs of an Englishman. A post captain has just 
been aboard of us, with the intelligence, that the inhabitants of Ter Veer 
require from us the same terms of capitulation that tlie French did at 
Cintra ! The firing, after n cessation of half an hour on both sides, has 
recommenced. 

Noon. We are again weighing anchor to get nearer to the town. The 
intelligence just now received is, that thirty of our troops are killed and 
wounded together. We are now fast approaching the town. Things 
become more and more interesting and critical every moment. 



208 CORRESPOlittEKCl!. 

" Quarter before one. After dropping up about three quarters of a 
mile, we have again let go our anchor, and taken a proper position for 
carrying on our bombarding with effect. — Six o'clock P.M. Our collected 
force here has been playing away on the town with little intermission till 
now. What daraae;e the place has sustained, we cannot ascertain ; but; 
many of our shells must have told well. My former commander, Mr. Leach, 
of the Cracker gun-brig, who has just been on board of us, has been so 
much exposed to the enemy's fire, his ships having got aground, tliat he has 
been under the necessity of deserting her, at least for the present. We are 
still igHorant of the operations of our troops ashore, 

•' Twelve o'clock at night. An officer in a boat has been round the 
different ships from the commandei-iu-chief ashore, desiring us to desist 
from hostilities till farther intimation. We have fired off forty-two shells 
in the course of this day. 

" August 1st. We have remained at anchor and actionless the whole 
of the day. In the course of the day, the Dutch troops, amounting to 400, 
\Tere permitted to march out of the town with the honours of war, when 
ours entered into it. 

" August 2d. At 6 o'clock A.IM. got under way to proceed tovvards 
"Rammekcns, with a pilot of the country. At 11 o'clock again dropt anchor 
five or six miles below the fort. At half-past eleven, in consequence of 
being sent for, I went on board the ilarpy brig. A poor man, belonging to 
one of the gun-boats, manned from the Beilona, had been shot through both 
arms from Ramniekens, and was brought, in consequence, for assistance to 
the Harpy. Before my arrival, Mr. Parsons, surgeon of the Harpy, with 
Mr. Mortimer, assistant*surgeon of the Charger gun^brig, had amputated 
tlie ri^lit arm ; and the tourniquet was already fixed on the ether. Both 
arms had been shockingly fractured and lacerated. The man expired in 
five or six minutes after my arrival. He had been shot an hour aiid a half 
before getting on board of the Harpy : his death, as it appeared to myselfj 
Mr. Mortimer, Mr. Parsons, and the assistant-surgeon of the ^afeguardj 
was imputable to the Iqss of blood he had sustained, and the sliock the 
nervous system had received. I dressed another man, who had been shot 
in the integuments of the head by a grape-shotj or musket-ball, and one 
who had received a severe bruise on the nose, without any of the bones 
being shattered, in the same gun-^boat. The battery fired first at the boat, 
and appears to have employed grape-shot. 

" Between 1 and 2 o'clock. We have again weighed anchor, and are 
fast drifting up to tlie battery. At three dropt our anchon 

" August 3d. To-day at 10 A.M. weighed anchor, and between 11 and 
12 got aground on the sand-bank called Calot. — 4 o'clock. We are again 
afloat, and about to weigh anchor. W^e are now about two miles froni the 
fort we are going to attack, as appears from three shells we have throwd 
having fallen in the Rammekeiis. 

" Eleven o'clock P.M. We remain still in the same situation. A party 
of the gun-room ofticers went asijore this afternoon on the Isle of South 
Bevelaiid, where a torreut of rain forced us to scamper in different diree* 



COIlRESPONDENCi:. 209 

tions. Mr. Steele, the marine artillery officer, and myself, took refuse ia 
a barn, where we entered into conversation with two very agreeable men in 
uniform, who had betaken themselves to the sanie retreat. They after- 
wards proved to he Lord Yarmouth and Major Dormer, who are here at 
present, in a small vessel they have hired from Dover, for the purpose of 
observing the operations of the Expedition. A fire has been seen blazin«- 
for upwards of an hour past, wiiich is supposed to be part of Flushing in 
araes. Our troops, it is said, have made several breaches in it. 
" August 4th. This day has been a continued gale of wind, accom- 
l)anied with heavy rains, and as much cold as we might expect to find in the 
month of December. The British flag was seen flying in the Ranmiekens 
about 10 o'clock this forenoon; and in consequence no hostilities have taken 
place since. A gun-boat, No. 47, has been upset by a squall just under the 
fort, and three poor fellows unfortunately drowned : two of them were 
below at the time coiling away the cable. The life of one of tliem, who 
was swept away by the current, might easily have been saved, had they had 
a row-boat of any description, which, however, none of these gun-boats are 
allowed ; the bad consequence of which has already been repeatedly expe- 
rienced by them. The liveg of the rest of the crew, amounting to twenty- 
eight, including the lieutenant, were saved by that very useful set of men, 
the Deal boatmen, employed on this occasion by government, who have 
conveyed them on board of our ship. These gun-boats appear to be little 
attended to : tiic service in them is jieculiarly severe : officers and men are 
almost equally destitute of comfort and accommodation ; their victualling is 
neglected, and the risk they run extreme. It was but the other night that k 
man was vv-ounded in one of them, and died without being seen by a medical 
man. Another man, who was suddenly taken ill, probably with a spasm in 
his stomach in consequence of exposure to all manner of hardships, died 
before there was an opportunity of applying to another ship for assistance. 
The immcdln'e employment of one or two doses of a powerfuilv diffusible 
stimulus, in all likelihood would have saved the man's life. This, then, is 
tlie third fatal accident in these boats that has come under ray own obser- 
vation. It is an apparent mismanagement, which, however, I fancy is inse- 
parable from the nature of this service. Captain Low, of the navy, who 
in the absence of our eommander, hns been taking tea in our gun-room, 
informs us, that the other day at Campvcer, where he strolled for two 
liours, scarcely a house has esca:ped damage from our shot or shells : he 
Jikcvvise mentions the celebrated and unfortunate Arthur O'Connor's having 
made his escape from Campveer in disguise, the night before the capitula- 
tion, to Fiushiug. He is reported to have had very great infinence in the 
place, and to have been virtually the governor of it. The gun-boat> 
No. 47, on the 31st ultimo, threw into the town from one gun no less 
than 300 '24-pounders in the course of the day. Tiiere has been litile firino- 
this day between Flushing and our troops. Our loss ashore, we have reason 
to apprehend, is very considerable. 

" August 5th. We are now at am^hor about a mile and a half from 
Flushing. — August Gth. This morning about ten o'clock seven or eight 

/J9at). ^Ijron. uisi, XXII. e k 



210 CORRESPONDENCK. 

schiiyts, filled with French soldiers, passed from Cadsand to Flushing, not- 
withstanding the fire of our gun-boats. Two of them have since effected 
their safe return. We are to-morrow to open on the town from a particular 
point. To-day, as it has blown a gale of wind, we have been able to do 
nothing. The result you shall know in my next : in the mean time, there 
being an opportunity, 1 send you this detail of what has already happened. 

" Believe me, &c. 

" W. CULLEN BROWN." 



His M<ijcsft/''s Ship JEina, JAkgu%t 8, 1809, off Flushing. 

I presume you have already received my narrative, such as it is, of the 
transactions here up to the 7th inst. I shall now resume my detail, 
omitting not to despatch it by the first opportunity. 

" August 8th. Noon. It is a charming mild day, well calculated for 
carrying on our operations ashore ; but as yet nothing has been attempted 
to day, cither afloat, or by our laud forces. The wise ones afloat begin to 
accuse the Earl of Chatham of dilatoriness; not knowing the motives by 
which his lordship's proceedings are actuated. This is John Bull all over. 
It is to be hoped that the event, as it did Fabius Cunctator's, will justify 
this seeming tardiness of the Earl. A solitary shot or two have been fired 
from Flushing at our gun-boats, but without effect. 

" August 9th. Eleven o'clock at night. Yesterday afternoon walked to 
view Middleburg, the capital of the Province. The walk by the water side 
to Rammekens is exactly similar to that along the Essex side of our own 
Thames. That from Rammekens along the canal to Middleburg is pictu- 
resque and beautiful in tlie extreme ; the country on each side of it being 
equally productive, and richly cultivated as the meadows of Essex, or the 
low land of Kent ; but, as appeared to me, more variegated in point of 
fccenery. The most bigoted Englishman, however, must admit, that the 
country houses greatly surpass those of England in neatness and the most 
perfect cleanliness. The towu struck me as being doubtless the most 
beautiful I had ever seen out of England. The streets are beautifully and 
regularly paved. The houses all neat, many elegant, and not a few par- 
ticularly so. The town house, churches, and bridges across the canal, are 
rnagnificent. The pcoj)lc dress much in the English stile, especially the 
better sort of females, who appear more generally handsome than those of 
London: and the inhabitants, on the whole, appear disposed much in 
favour of the English. 

" During the time I passed in Middleburg, an English officer was brought 
in from Flushing, said to be very badly wounded. Several waggons also 
arrived from the same quarter, with wounded prisoners and men of our 
own, whose groans were pitiable. 

" August 10th. Nothing of any consequence on either side has beeft- 
done this day ; except that the 71st regiment have been busied in erecting 
a three-gun battery, while the enemy have been keeping up a fire, thougtt 



CORRKPaNDEXCE. 211 

but a languid one, to defeat their purpose. An officer of the 71st was un- 
fortunately killed on ihis occasion yesterday. 

" August 1 1th. Ei<:;ht o'clock P.M. For nearly two hours a splendid 
scene has been exhibited here. A division of the squadron, consisting of 
ten frigates, in parsing round from tfic other aide of Flusiiiiig tu join Sir 
Richard Keats up the Scheldt, was attacked by tjie batteries botii from the 
Cadsand side and Flushing, which opened a heavy f;re upon them. At tiie 
distance of about a mile and a quarter we contemplated the scene calmly 
and in security ; since, being ordered by signal not to throw a shell, it wa3 
no object of the enemy to direct their shot towards us, the frigates being 
the grand object of their aim. These played off their guns on both side, 
with astonishing rapidity ; nor were the enemy less alert ashore. While 
our ships were thus engaged uii one side, the three-gun-battery, thrown up 
by the 7ist regiment, on the other side, kept up a brisk fire upon the town. 
Tlic rockets also, that were thro^vn in great numbers from tlie same quarters 
made a splendid appearance, and cannot fail to have greatly annoyed the 
town. What between shells and heavy artillery, afloat and ashore, and 
the roaring of the rockets, the united sound produced was liighly sublime; 
while the volumes of smoke that darkened the air, and the incessant flashes 
nf fire beaming in all directions, added to the sublimity of the occasion. 
The damage sustained by our frigates is comparatively trivial, most of the 
shot from the Flushing side having fallen short of them. Captain Lawless, 
our commander, has just come on board with intelligence of a shell having 
burst on board I'Aigle. One man has been killed and another wounded on 
board of the Amethyst, and the La\ inia's main-mast has been shot. The 
firing ceased on our ships getting pabt out of range of the enemy's shot. 
Last night a French captain of the army, in attempting to cross over from 
CfKlsand to Flushing, xvas taken prisoner by our guard boats. 

" .-\ugust 12th. Hah-past eleven o'clock A.M. I have just returned 
from visiting my brother Ford on bo;ird of the Aigle. The shell, he telli 
me, passed down th'-ough the quarter-deck, and burst in the gun-room 
abaft tlie mizzen, close tu his own cabin. The splinters flying in all direc- 
tions shivered to pieces the bulk-heads of the otikers' cabins. Several pieces 
descended into the bread room, and sprung a beam there. Others rising 
through the main, which they made a kind of riddle of, penetrated the 
quarter-deck, and one of them actually tore out the bowels of a marine 
stationed there. The rockets and blue lights, that were stowed away in 
the after gun-room, were set (ire to, and it was a considerable time l)efore 
it was extinguished. Had not the magazine been for'.unttcly secured by 
the stream-calile coiled over it, togetlier widi a quantity of shot, the ship 
would unavoidably have been exploded. 

** We understand that at Flushing they arc actually preparing to inun- 
date the island by cutting the dykes. 

" Seven o'clock P.M. We are all in rcailine^s, and waiting orders fur 
commencing the bombardment. Tlie Amethyst, at any rate anoth.cr of the 
frigates, has got aground. 

'* August 13th. We did not commence bombartling till one o'clock to- 



212 COIIIIESPONDENCE. 

day, and kept it up incessantly till five P.M. when we were obliged to 
desist, in consequence of the strength of the tide preventing our ships being 
so sprung as to be any longer able to bear on the town. At about half- 
past two o'clock the Vesuvius bomb-vessel, several gun-brigs, and a variety 
of- gun-bouts, as well as men-of-war's launches with twenty-four -pounders, 
opened a heavy fire upon the place. All the while, our battery ashore 
continued throwing in rockets without intermission. In the course of our 
discharging seventy- four 13-inch shells, and thirty-nine of ten inches 
diameter, we did not observe more than two or three fall into the water, 
that is, short of the object; they must of course hftve done much mischief 
where ihey burst. On this occasion, one of our men received a pretty con- 
siderable wound, apparently as large as that of a musket ball, between two 
of the ribs, vvliich must have happened in consequence of a scale from the 
shell, that at the time went off, striking hiin. On probing it carefully, no 
foreign body could be discovered. One man also on board of one of the 
launches has been killed, and five others wounded, from Jieir venturing too 
near to the batteries. Last night a Frencii general officer, as ihc preceding 
night the captain had been, was taken prisoner l.y our guard-boats. It is 
expected that we shall resume our bombardrnent in the courbc of an hour 
or two from the present lime (5 o'clock P.^I.). 

" Half-past eight o'clock P.M. They are at present unremittingly 
employed at our battery ashore, in throwing in rockets and shells to the 
town, which the darkness of the night renders peculiarly splendid and 
beautiful. On the tide's slackening, wc again resume our miniature opera-, 
tions from the it,tna ! 

" Ten o'clock at night. We have again commenced our bombarding, 
reinforced by the Vesuvius bomb.. The enemy will surely fitid something 
to do in opposing the united eruptions of Vesuvius and /Etna ! Our battery 
ashore is aimoying the enemy with shells and rockets. 

" Half-past eleven P.M. One of the principal churches is now observed 
on fire. The glare from it illumines the water for many miles round, exhi- 
biting an awfully grand spectacle, 

" Between eleven and twelve at night. The steeple of the church has 
just fallen in with a trcniendous crash. The blaze is much in favour of our 
operations; and the bombardment from the bombs, gun-boats, and battery 
ashore, has become general and stupendous. We are now obliged to sus- 
pend our attack, on account of the tide setting in against us. Fifty-two 
twelve, and nine ten-inch shells have been discharged (at 2 o'clock A.M.). 

" Quarter before four o'clock A.M. August 14th. We are all of us 
again obliii^ed to turn out of bed to resume our assault. 

" Halt-past five o'clock. This time we have tin-own twenty-four thirteen 
and eighteen ten-inch shells. 

" Ten o'clock A.M. Sir Richard Strachan and Lord Gardiner on the 
other side of Flushing have weighed anchor v>ith seven sail of the line and 
passed the town, keeping up a very heavy fire. 

" One o'clock P.M. They have kept up the cannonading without inter- 
mission till novy; wliilc our shells have been as incessantly played off". 



CORRESPONDENCE. 213 

Soon after ten o'dock, the Stacit House, and other edifices in the town, 
were observed to be on fire. Several of the line of-battle ships have been 
nuiclj cut up in their sails and rig<jin;f. At one o'clock we were agaia 
obliged by the tide to give over our liring ; previously to vvhici), however, 
we had discharged forty-seven thirteen, and forty-eight ten-inch shells. 

" Half-past four o'clock P.M. At four o'clock resumed our bombard- 
ing, but we have discontinued it in consequence of a flag of truce having 
been sent to the town. Let off three thirteen, and seven ten-inch sliells. 
Between orie and two o'clock, one of the gun-boats having got across the 
Plover's hawser, in consequence of the strength of the tide, instantly vvcnt 
down ; and there is reason to suppose several lives have been lost. 

" Nine o'clock P.M. Several distijict fires are now seen burning; and, 
among others, anotfier principaf church. The splendour of tiie iUuiuina- 
tion can scarcely be described. The Amethyst is once more afloat. 

August lath. Koon. Last right at half-past 10 o'clock, in consequence 
of our battery ashore having again opened on the enemy, we recommenced 
hostilities with great energy. The shells were thrown in by us, by the 
other bomb-vessels, and the battery ashore, in such rapid succession, that 
six or seven were repeatedly observed up in the air at the same time, form- 
ing together with the rockets a singularly beautiful sight. From the mizzen- 
top-yard for nearly an hour I had an excellent view of a hot encounter 
with musketry, between our troops ashore and those of the enemy that had 
sallieG out of the town. The volleys were incessant, and the struggle very 
obstinate for upwards of an hour; during which they repeatedly retired and 
advanced. We made ourselves masters of a sand-battery, it seems, between 
Flushing and our own ashore, in tlie course of the nigiit. At 12 o'clock at 
night gave over firing. All this day the white flag has been flying from the 
pnam- top- gallant masts; and, of course, hostilities suspended. 

" Seventeenth of August. Nothing was dune yesterday. The white flag 
still continued flying ; and to-day the town is to be surrendered. Much 
damage i.as been done to the town, and many lives have been iust on both 
sides. 

" This is all I can communicate, and you may rely on its authenticity. 
" Yours, &-C, 

«' W. CULLEN BROWN. 
fTo he continued.) 



PLATE CCXCITI. 



THE annexed Plate, presenting a view of the Government House, in 
Funchal, the town residence of the Governor of Madeira, is from a 
drawing cf Mr. W. Westall's. 

The rooms of the house are large, but they are not well furnished; and 
every thing that they contain, intended as ornamental, is extremely clumsy. 
On the wails of the principal room arc paintings, representing the landing, 
find subsequent fate of Machin, the supposed discoverer of the island of 
Madeira; a ciicumstruice which skives v.ci^ht to l he story of that advcn- 



214 KAVAL LITERATURE. 

turer ; as, if the Portuguese had been the first who landed on the ishuid, it 
is not likely that they would allow it to have been discovered by au 
Englishman.* 

Funchal, or Funchial, said to be so called from the quantity of fennel 
{^funcha in Portugues ), is well known as a sea-por^ and the capital of the 
island of Madeira ; in a valley, on the south coast of v\hich it is situated. 
It contains six parishes, as many convents, and several chapels and hos- 
pitals. The streets are in direct lines ; and the housf s are neat, with lath- 
work windows, the interstices of which are sufficiently wide for those within 
to see and to be seen. The harbour towards the sea is well defended by a 
castle and several batteries ; but on the land side it is much exposed ; a 
great oversight in the engineer, as there are several bays, at a very short 
distance, where an enemy might safely disembark, and march iheuce to the 
Yery walls without opposition. 



ERRATA. 
In the article describing tlie second plate in our last number, page 131, 
line 15, from the top for East read West, and line 1(5, for West read 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 

Tlie Young Sea Officer' s Sfiect Anchor ; or a Key to the Leading of Riggings 
and to Practical Seamanship. Longman, 

7]| UIIS work has been deservedly recommended by many of the best and 

-^ most eyperienced officers in the British navy, and is also patronised 

by the Admiralty, and tlie East India Company. It contams 111 large 

■^ Most readers are acquainted with the tradition here alluded to. In 
the fourteenth century, Machin, or Macham, an English gentleman, became 
enamoured of the iieiress of the noble family of D'Arcy ; the friends of the 
lady, averse to tlie match, married her to a more favoured suitor ; but 
Machi'i, determined on possessing the prize, engaged some trusty followers, 
carried her off by force, and, embarking wiih her at Bristol, put to sea. 
After encountering much tempestuous weather, he was driven on the coast 
of Madeira; where, in consequence of the illness of his mistress, he and 
some of his attendants landed. Tiie lady died, and was buried in the 
island ; and, in consequence of the ship having been driven out to sea 
Machin was afterwards under the necessity of throwing himself on the mercv 
«f the waves, in a boat, or canoe, which he co istructed of one of the laro-e 
trees with wliich the island was then covered. He was thrown upon the 
shore of Africa, and taken by the Moors, who sent him as a present to the 
King of Castile. — The story is admirably told, in Clarke's '^ Progress of 
Maritime Discovcrij ;'' and Madame De Genlis has founded an agreeable 
little romance on the subject ; though certainly without increasing th« 
interest which the simple historical narration so forcibly excites. 



TRIAL OF ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. US 

«[uarto plates, on which are accurately delineated, in 587 figures, all the 
different parts of the riiiging, the various positions of the ship, sails, shrouds, 
masts, yards, tackles, ropes, cables, anchors, tacks, buoys, compass, ike. 
with ample directions for splicine; of ropes, making of sails, and many oilier 
serviceable labours. We slioidd, however, have recommended to the 
author, to give the dimensions of the sails, cables, anchors, 6ic. according 
to the toiiiiaj;e of the vessel, and the mode of rigging adopted ; an additio* 
' which would greatly have increased the utility of the performance. 



Jjatal Court J©arfia!. 
TRIAL OF ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 

(Continued from page 130.) 
THE DEFENCE. 

Mr. President — I thank you. Sir, and the rest of the Members of thii 
Honourable Court, for having coinpiied with my request, that a shore 
interval might be allowed me before I entered on my defence. I have also 
to express my satisfaction, tiiiit the whole of my conduct and proceedings 
in Basque Roads, is now under your consideration, in consequence of my 
having applied for this court martial. Tlie necessity of this must be 
eiidenc : either I had to adopt this measure, or by a tacit acquiescence ia 
the insinuations thrown out against me by Lord Cochr&ae, have compro- 
mised not only my own lionour, but also that of the brave othcers and men 
under my command. The proceedings of the court will shevv, whether anj 
misconduct has existed in the execution of the service under consideration : 
if any has existed, of which I am peri'ectly unconscious, it is right that the 
nation should know it ; not as resting on the unsupported opinion of an 
individual, but on the unprejudiced judgment of this tribunal. I was pre- 
pared, when I first came before you, with what appeared to me a complete 
justification of my conduct and proceedings as connnander-in-chief of the 
Channel fleet, employed in Bas^quc Roads, between the 17th of March and 
the 29th of April last, to which your inquiry is directed ; but I could not 
be aware of the oral testimony that was to be brought forward in support 
of the charge which their lordships have, at the instance of Lord Cocinane, 
been induced to make against me, namely, that on tlie L2th of Aj)ril, tlie 
enemy's ships being then on shore, and the signal having iieen ni-.ide tiiat 
they could be destroyed, I did for a considerable time neglect, or delay, 
takmg effectual measures for destroying them. I was ready to admit, that 
from the time of my observing, on the morning of the 12th, the situation of 
the enemy, communicated to me alno by signal from the Impcrieuse, soma 
time did elapse before the enemy's ships were attacked ; but I was pre- 
pared to prove, most incontrovertibly, that no neglect or unnecessary delay 
took place ia eft'ecting the destruction of th(!se ships ; and I have now the 
satislaction to find, that out of all the othcers of the fleet summoned on this 
trial, tlie charge rests on the unsu;)i)orted, and I may say already refuted, 
testimony of the captain of the Impericuse. 

I believe there is not a precedent to be found in the naval aim \ls of 
ifireat BriCitin, of aa otiicer of the rank I hiive the honour to hold, coib« 



216 TRIAL OF 

nianding a fleet which has performed so important a service as that accom- 
plished under my direction — approved as that service has heen, hy tlie 
Board of Admiralty, and coii?idered by liis Majesty's government as 
deserving the thanks of both Houses o:" F-'arliament, b^ing ohli::ed. from a 
sense of what is due to his own character and hono'.ir, as well as the pro- 
fession to which he belongs, to appeal to a naval tribunal, apiamst the loose, 
indirect accusations of an olhcer so inucli his inferior in rank. I am war- 
ranted in saying, that tlie execution of tliis se vice was approvtd by the 
Board of Admiralty; because in a letter from tlieir lordship's secretary, 
dated April 22, acknowledging tlie receipt of my public despatches on tlie 
occasion, he says, he is commanded by their lordships to coni^ratulate me 
on the brilliaHt success of the force under my command, in the attack of 
the enemy's ships in Isle d'Aix Roads, by fire-vessels, and subsequently by 
detachments from my fleet, which terminated in the capture and destruc- 
tion of four of the enemy's ships, and to signify their lordships' directions 
to iTie, to express their approbation of tlie great exertions of Rear-admiral 
Stoptbrd, Sir H. Neale, and the several other officers mentioned by me as 
having been most actively employed, and having particularly distinguished 
themselves upon this important service. Lord Cochrane, however, >Narned 
the noble lord at the head of the Admiralty, that if this measure were 
attempted, he should, if standing alone, oppose it so far as regarded the 
commander-in-chief; thus without specilically objecting to the tiianks being 
given for the service performed ditecting Lis hostility personally at me, and 
making his attack as publicly, though not so fairly, as if he had at once ex- 
hibited formal charges. 

Lord Cochrane, as a member of Parliament, may most assuredly support 
or oppose pu'ulic measures, as he shall think proper. In the present pro- 
ceedings, however, he standi in the situation only of an officer serving under 
my command, as appears by the following letter to me from the First Lord 
of the Admiralty : — 

[This letter, dated May Q9, states the suspension of the motion for the 
vote of thanks, in consequence of Lord Couhrar.e's objection ; and that it 
h^td been found expedient to call upon Lord Cochrane to state his grounds 
of objection.] 

Whether Lord Cochrane supposed he might with impunity endeavour to 
lower me in the opinion of my country and my Sovereign, signal marks of 
whose favour had at this instant been exclusively conferred upon bimseh" — ■ 
whether his lordship thoi.ght he could exalt his own reputation at the 
expence of mine — and whether he expected that his tiireat would intimi- 
date me to silence, I know not. But if these were his ideas; I as-ure 
myself the result will appear to him that they were founded in error ; for I 
will never } crmit any man to jiroceed as Lord Cochrane has dor,e, without 
availing myself of the means which the laws of my country alTord, to shew 
the futility and injustice of sucli an attack. By the letter of the secretary 
of the Admiralty to Lord Coclirane, after making his undefined accusation 
against his admiral, he excuses himself from explanatiun by a general 
reference to the logand signal books of ihe fleet, without knowing, it' I may 
judge from the imperfect state of his own log, what that general reference 
might produce. Therefore, because he does not accord with me in o| inion,> 
Lord Cochrane, whose extent of responsibdity has, perhaps, never exceeded 
the charge of a single ship, and to whom in judgment I will not reduce ray 
experience to u comparison, becomes my accuser ; whilst, from my situa- 
tion, I am responsible for every act of ray fleet, and for the fate of every 
ship composing it. I am so confident, and 1 hoi^e it is already evident ta 
the Court, that Lord Coch'-ane has no cause whaievtr for accusing me of 
any dereliction of duty, that it might nimost be supposed something b^ft 



ADMIRAL LORD GAMr3lER. 217 

occurred in my personal conduct towards his lordsbip which had afforded 
him gruuiids of dissiitisfaotioa. The coiitrary, however, is the fact. More 
liberality coni.l iiat have lieeii shcivn tliuii Lord Cochrane received at my 
hauiis ; and alttioUi;h a considerai)le degree of <hba|)|)()iutuient was mani- 
fested throuijhout tlie fleet on liis arrival to C'^-nJu' t the service to be per- 
formed by fire-vessels, yet every officer in tlie fleet rendered him the most 
steady assistance, not only in valuable snugestions, the entire credit of 
which seems to have been assumed by his lordship, but l)y every other 
means that zeal and courage could aiiord. Lord Cochrane, on presenting 
himself to me after the acticin, was general in complaint of the otiicers svho 
commanded the other ships engaged, at tlie same time with himself, in the 
attack of the enemy ; but having equal means with his lordship of judging 
of tlie c<jnduct of tiiose oliicers, 1 do aver tliat it was highly meritoii.ius. 
At tlie time Lord Ccjciirane made this general complaint, I had not the 
smallest suspicion tliat there existed in his mind those sentiments of disap- 
probation of my conduct, which, by his jiroceedings since his return home, 
I am to suppose he then entertained. It \'\ould, in such case, ha\e been 
hberal, and 1 think also his duty, to have communicated to me to that 
cH'ect. I should tLen have been enabled to have guarded in some measure 
against h.is attack upon my character, on his arrival in Englaiul. I scarcely 
need observe in this Court, tlsat however f.ighiy courage is to be valued in 
aa olTirer, it is always incomplete in its consequences without the equal 
exercise of judgment and discretion ; it being the duty of a commander not 
only to destroy his enemy, liut to accomplish that destruction v.ith the least 
possible loss on his part : and I submit to the Court, whether there ever 
was a service which, under ah circumstances, more required the exercise of 
those qualities than the one in question. The ed'ect produced exceeded my 
most sanguine expectations ; and I believe the expectations of the whole 
fleet. The points under the consideration of the ConVt appear to be the 
J'uUowing : -- W'hether the lapse of time between tlie discovery in tiie morn- 
ing of the enemy's ships being on shore, and the att;ick, v/as not, under all 
circumstanceK, absolutely necessary for the advantage:)us acconi|>iishment 
of the intended service; — whether it was not my duty as coinmander-in- 
ciiief, to be goverricd by a general view of the v, hole of Uiose circumstances, 
rather than yield to the suggestions of one, and that a very junior ofiicer; — 
ar.d wliclhtr an earlier attack would have been attended with greater advan- 
tages : — in short, was there not accomplished, at the time the attack was 
made, all that could at any time have been effected. It is in support of 
these propositions, I undertake to shew, as indeed is already in evidence 
before yon, that had I not delayed se.idiiig in the ships to tiie attack until 
the time 1 did, the loss of ships and of tlu' lives of vaiuabit- seamen would, 
m the opinion of all the oiiiceis of the ileet, have anioimted to a largo pro- 
portion of the force so employed. And yet, it seems, that I am now repre- 
sented as deserving of censure, fm- having prevented that wanton destruc- 
tion : but I am satished the Court will, by the result of their investigation, 
tind, tiiat not a single additional ship of the enemy w(jidd have been 
destroyed by a more early adoption of those measures whicli it is imputed 
to me i del-iyed or neglected. 1 shall no>.v proceed to ti:e lii.ect matter of 
inquiry and eliargc, to whicli my letter t.) the Lords Commissioners of t!ie 
Admiralty, of the 10th of May, partly ap|.!:es. Tiiis letter was written on 
my being ml'ormrd that my puljiic dcspaicli of tlie lllh of April had been 
considiiod as not sufficiently explanatory ; biite(cn tiiat letter proves short of 
what has ii'.a become necessary to submit to the Court, }Hjt as 1 am un my 
defence. 1 «ili venture here to express my firm conviction, tiiai during 
the whole period wlhch is the subject of inquiry, and mine particularly <;n 
tlie very day on whicii J am chained with a deivliciiou of duty, it will be- 

i:2a,V!. €l}im, '<1\qU XXII, f f 



2lS TRIAL OF 

found by this honourable Court, that in the previous arrangement t 
exerted the utmost facultic! ot' my mind to prevent any circumstance 
e<-capiiig me which foretiidUi^ht could dictate; and thatat the time of attack 
I acted with all the zeal for the success of the service an officer could 
evince, "vv'hose duty it was to consider the proper application and preserva- 
tion of his o'.vn fleec, as well as the destruction of that of the enemy. 

The squadnia under my command, including the advanced friiiates, had 
been driven frum their station off Brest, by the continued prevalence o( 
tempestuous westerly winds, it was on my return off that port, on the 23d 
of February, that I ascertained the escape of the French fleet ; I had no 
information of ihe time when the enemy escaped from their port, or of the 
course iliey had taken, consequently had no szrounds upon which I could 
exercise any discretion. Tiiis reduced me to the unavoidable m cessity of 
foilowinu ras' orders, which, in such an event, distiiicily directed me to 
detacii the senior flag; othcer, with sucii force as I mi^lit conclude was equal 
to the enemy: and to return myself to Cawsand Bay for further orders. . I 
accordindy detached Sir John Duckworth, with eii,;:t sail of the line and a 
frigate, in pursuit of tlie French fleet, on tlie course pointed out in their 
iordsliips' orders before referred to, which left ine with the Caledonia alone, 
in tlie mortifying situation of being ohlij^ed to return to port. I refer back 
to this event, in order to shew why the Caledonia, bearing my flag, became 
detached from the fleet. In proceeding to Cawsmd Bay, the Naiade 
joined me off" Falmouth, when Captain Dnndas informed me, that the 
enemy's tleet from Brest, consisting of eight sail of the line and two frigates, 
had entered Basque Roa is, on the 24th of February, where they had been 
reinforced by the four sail of the line and two frigates, previously lying in 
the Aix Roads. This communication being made to the Admiralty, I 
received orders from their lordships, on the 3d of ^Lircii, to put to sea with 
the Caledonia, Tonnant, Illustrious, Resolution, and Bellona, together with 
any frigates and smaller vessels under my connnand, that might be ready 
for sea at Plymoutli, to form a junction with Rear-admiral Stopford, com- 
manding his Majesty's squadron off Rochfort. On my arrival off Rochfort 
on the 7th of March, I found that Rear-admiral Stopford, wirh the Caesar, 
Defiance, Donegal, and tour frigates, hud, in the comse of the 24th of 
February, been joined by Captain Beresford, with the Theseus, Triumph, 
Valiant, Revenge, and one frigate, and shortly after by the Hero ; and that 
the French fleet had moved from Basque into Aix Roads, and taken 
anchorage there with eleven sail of the line and four frigates. In conse- 
quence of the intricacy of the navigation, one of their ships was totally 
wrtcked Judging that the occupation of Basque Roads by the fleet under 
«iy command would be most eti'ectual, either for blockading the enemy, 
or for carrying on offensive operations, should they prove practicable, I 
immediately ordered some of the masters of tiie fleet to proceed in, and to 
take every advantage of weather, in sounding and surveying liie anchorage, 
in order to ascertain the part most advisa!)le to be occupied by a fleet of 
the magnitude of that under my oiders. On the loth of JNlarch I issued 
the following general order to the fleet : — 

General Oiders. — When th.e fleet takes an anchorage in Basque Roads, 
the starboard division will anchor in a line E. by S. from the Caledonia, 
and the larboard division will anchor in a line W by S. from her. The 
ships are to be moored, the anchors to be placed E.N.E. and W'.S.W. from 
e;ica other, with the saiaii bower to the westw-ard, and the ships are to be 
at the distance < f two cables' length from each division. Tl^e frigates and 
brig-i are to be placed one rnile (li.->tancG in advance, either towards the Isle 
of Aix, or the town of Rochflle, according to the direction in which the 
wind blows .; and some of thciii will be farther advanced after the close of 



ADMinAL LORD GAMBIER. 219 

dfiy. As an arlditional guard against any attempts the enemy may njake 
with fire-vessels against the fleet, every ship is to be held in constant 
readiness for action, at all ti.ues, on the shortest notice ; every preparation 
is to be made, and kejit in constant readiness, to resist and frustrate the 
attempts of the enemy by the means of fire-siiips or vessels ; and the ships 
are always to be ready to slip their cables, if it should be nccessai-y, lcavii)» 
buoys upon them. Two boats from each sliip arc to be held constantly 
with fire grap-nails in them i»n board the advanced frigates, to tow ofif fire- 
vessels : the boats are to go p\i board the advanced fngiites e\ery night 
soon after sun-set, and to remain the night under the orders of the captain 
having tiie charge of the advanced guard ; they are to return to their proper 
ships in the mornin'z. Two brigs are to be advanced beyond the frigates 
with three boats, each of which are to row guard in moderate weather, and 
when the wind blows from the eastward, and a vigilant look-out is to be 
kept upon the movements of the enemy from all tlie ships and vessels of the 
advanced guards. If any of the enemy's vessels approacli the fleet, they 
are to be fired at; and if they are suspected to be fire-vessels, blue lights 
are to be immediately burnt as a signal thereof. If tlie enemy's ships of 
the line are discovered to be in motion, rockets are instantly to be throwo 
up to apprise the fleet. In either case the frigates will get under sad, and 
act in such a manner as may be most suitable to counteract the operation 
of the enemy, and assist the fleet in any way they may be able. Given on 
board the Caledonia, at anchor, 16th March, 1809. 

2'o the respective Captains. GAMBIER. 

On the 17t]i of March the fleet anchored in Basque Roads, and was 
moored in a line, as directed by the general order. The enemy's ships lay 
at the distance of about six miles, in compact lines, and the most distant 
ship of each line within point blank range of the batteries o;) the Isle of 
Aix, with their l7igates advanced towards tlie entrance of Aix Roads. 
This compact position of the enemy was evidently taken to avoid the shoals 
around the anchorage. The nearer and more distinct view I now olitaincd 
of the enemy's position, confirmfed me in my opinion of the impracticability 
of a successt'ul attack upon their ships by the fleet. I was also satisfied, 
that the only way of attacking the enemy was by means of fire-ships; wiiich 
I suggested in my letter to the fii'st Lorclof the Adnnrally, written lour days 
after my arrival at Rochefort, as tbliows : — 

" MR nrAR T,onD, Caledonia, Mtircli IV, 1809. 

" The advance work between the Isle of Aix and Olcron, which I men- 
tioned in my last letter, I find was injured in its fonndiition, and is in no 
state of progress. That is, therefore, no obstacle to our bombarding the 
enemy's fleet, if you should be disposed to make an attempt to destroy it, 
A trial was made six years ago, when a Spanish squadron lay at t!:e same 
pnchorage ; but wjtiiout etl'ect. The report of it you wiil find in the 
Admiralty. It was made by Sir Charles Pole. The enemy's ships lay very 
much exposed to the operriiion of fire-ships. It is a horritdc mode o; war- 
fare, and the attempt very hazardous, if not desperate ; but we should have 
plenty ol" volunteers fi)r the service. If yt)U me;m to do any thing of tha 
kind, ii should be with secrecy and quickness; siud the ships used should 
ivM b." less than tliose buiit for the purpose, at least a du/en, and some 
emalier ones. Yours, my dear Lord, &c. 

<' GAMBIER." 

:- This letter •>\ as received by his lordsliip on the 19th of Marcli, w ho indeed 
li^jcl anticipated my senlin^cnts, as i!ppcai-> by the following letter from their 



220 TRIAL OF 

lordship's secretary, already before the Court ; but which I will here reca- 
pitulate, in order to preserve the chain of my narrative; — 

[Most secret.] 

" MY LORD, " AdmiraVy Office, March 19, 1809. 

" I am commanded by my Lords Commiisiouers of the Admiralty to 
acfjuaint your lordship, that they have ordered twelve transports toliefittcc} 
as tire-ships, and to proceed and join you off Rochefort ; and thai Mr. Con- 
greve is also under orders ro proceed to your hirdship in a cor>pcrp.d trans- 
port (the Cleveland) containing a large assortment of rockets, -'id supplied 
•with a detachn-ent of marine artillery instructed iii the use of them, and 
placed under Mr. Congrcve's orders. That the bomb-vessels nan cd in tiie 
margin (.^tna, Thunder, Vesuvius, Hound, and Fury) are likev.ise under 
orders to lit for sea with all possible expedition, and to join yon as they may 
be ready. That all '. hose preparations are niuking «ith a view t(i enable 
your lordsliip to make an attack on the French fleet at their anchorage, off 
Isle d'Aix, if practicable ; and I am further commanded to signify their 
loidships' direction to you, to take in!o consideration the possibility of 
making an attack upon tlie enemy, either conpiintly with yourlnic-of-hattie 
ships, frigates, and small craft, (ire-ships, bombs, and rockets; or separately 
by any of the above-named means. 

" You are to man the fire-ships with X'olunteers from the fleet, intrusting 
the said ships in charge of officers of the rank of commander, who may 
happen to be present, and shall vohmleer their services on this occasion. 
But as it is not likely there will be ofbcers sutiicient of that rank to com- 
mand all the fire-ships, you are to i make up the deficiency by such 
lieutenants of the line-of-batile ships as shall volunteer their services, 
giving the preference to the first lieutenants; and when the said firp-vessels 
are manned by volunteers from the fleet, you are to cause tlieir original 
crews to be received on board the ships of your fleet. And in the event of 
the said fire-ships being destroyed, you are to send home the said men, in 
order to their being discharged, fin-nishin;* them with such certificates, or 
protections, as shall secure them from being impressed into his IMajesty's 
service. You are also to hold out to the volunteers, and the officers to 
whom the command of the fire ships may be intrusted, every e.\pectation of 
reward in the c\ent of success. 

" It is their lordsliips' further direction that you state to me for their 
information, wlielher any further augmentation of force of any description 
is, in your opinion, necessary, to enable you to perform this service with 
lull etllct, that it may be prepared and forwarded to you without a 
moment's delay; luoir lordships having come to a determination to leave na 
meijns untried to destroy the enemy's squadron. 

" In order to give your lordship every information on this important sub- 
ject, my lords have directed me to enclose to you a copy of a paper, tlrawn 
iip by Sir Richard Keats, in 1807, proposing a mode of attacking an enemy's 
squadron under isle d'Aix. I have the honour to be, my lord, 

" Your lordship's most obedient humble servant, 

" W. W. POLE." 

" Admiral Lord Gumhlcr, off Rochefort.'''' 

" PS. The fire-ships are expected to sail from the Downs to morrow, 
and the rncket-sliip from the Nore about the same time. 

" Six additional transports are ordered to be forwarded from Plymouth 
to your lordship, and the Board of Ordnance arc desired to seiu"! a siiip, " 
with combustible matter bufhcieat to fit the said transports as fire-ships. 



Admiral lord oambier. 221 

and also to put on board ner an assortment of carcasses for 24-poiinder3, 
and of Valenciennes composition, to be used at your lordship''* discretion." 

Eerure I received this letter, and not d()ubtin;T that the means necessary 
for assaultini; the enemy by lire-ships viuid be afforded me rc.reeably to my 
suggestion, I used every opportunity ol making myself acquainted with tlie 
impediments of tlie navigation, by sending the master of the fleet, and th^ 
master of tiie Caledonia, to sound and survey the Channel. 

On the 25th 1 issued the following General Order to the fleet : — 

GENERAL ORDER. 

" If at any time one or more of the enemy's ships should take the 
advantage of a favourable wind and tide, .md attempt to pass the fleet, the 
c^iptuiu jf the ship ov ships nearest to which the enemy may pass, are imme- 
diately to cut, or slijy m pursuit of them, and use their utmost endeavours to 
brini. the enemy to aciioo ^ hut no greater number than those of the enemy 
are to rontaiue t'.ic pursuit, and if more of the King's ships should liave slipt 
than :i)ose of the enensy, the sternniost are either to return or anchor 
again imme-'iiately, and shew the distinguishing lights when in the presence 
of the en my. 

" Should more than four or five ships of the enemy attempt to pass 
tliroiiiJi ilie fleet, the admiral will probably make the signal for the wiiole 
fleet to chast;, wlien every siii; is instantly to cut or slip their cables. 

" "should any of the en- 'ly s frigates make the same attempt, the 
advaiiced fiigates are la like manner to pursue them. 

" Culedonia, in Bus^.ne Roach, « GAMBIER." 

Q5th March, 1809." 

On thf 26th of March, I received the Admiralty directions of the 19th, 
above referred to, and to which I answered as follows.* 

Oil the 27th of March I went myself in the Unicorn, with Sir Harry 
Neale, t!ie captain of the fleet, and Captain Bedford, of the Caledonia, to 
rec:';..noiiie the oreniy's fleet, and t!ie furtifu-ations of the Isle d'Aix, which 
appeared, notwithstanding Lord Cochrane srcks by his evidence to make a 
cuntrai'y i npression, to be of considerable force. Observing that the 
enemy were resuming their works on the Buoyart shoal, with the view of 
affording to th ir fleet in Aix Roads an additional protection, I sent in the 
Amelia and Conflict on the Ist of April, to disperse the people employed 
on iiese works, which service they etfected. On the 3dof/^pril, Lord 
Cochr ine arrived witli the Lnperieii .3 frigate, and by his lordship I received 
the fodowiHg directions from the Admiralty. 

[These directions merely stated the detention in the Downs by contrary 
winds, of the vessels that had been promised ; and communicated their 
lordships' orders for the employment of Lord Cochrane.] 

That the service might proceed with the utmost celerity, I ordered eight 
of the largest transports then with the fleet, to be s<;!ected and pre[>ared as 
tire-ships, in lieu of the six expected from [Mymouth, tiiat they ini;;hl be 
ready to act with the twelve from Woolwich, nnmediatelv ujion their 
arrival. These, with the Mediator, were accordingly fitted by oieans of 
rosin and tar, fortunately found on board some chasse mnrces, recently 
captmcd, and other combustible materials furnished by the fleet. This 
service was performed under tlie immediate superintendance of the ca[ - 
tains of the line-of-l> Utie ships, who evinced the most unremitting activity 

* Lord Gambler's letters, here alluded to, appear at pages 108 aud 109, 
of the prc:eiit \'oluine. 



522 TRIAL OF 

upon the occasion. Upon the 10th of April, at half-past four P.M. the 
Beagle arrived, with the twelve fire-ships from England. When I issued 
ordeis to the commaiiuers of sloops and first lieutenants of line-of-battle 
ships which I had prepared, it was found altoiiether impracticable to pro- 
ceed to the attack on the night of the 10th, thougii much pressed by i.ord 
Cochrane, and it may be considered a most fortunate circumstance that 
the attempt was deferred; for it appears by a jreneri'l order found on 
board one of the enemy's ships, and now delivered into court, that the 
French, to protect their fleet from attack, had equipped 73 launches, and 
other boats, in five divi»ion«, to guard it trom surprise riurint^ the night, and 
to tow off our fire-ships on tlieir approach; and the trauquillity of the 10th 
would have afforded the enemy full opportunity of availing themselves of 
this protection; but of this they were deprived, by the very blowing wea- 
ther on the subsequent night, vvi)en the fire-ships were sent in, I have here 
to notice, that some days previ.^us to the attack, I had, to deceive the 
enemy, adop*^ed the precaution of ordering out of the Roads vessels of 
every description, that were not to be engaged in the intended operations. 
To assist and support the fire-ships, the following disposition was made 
of the whole force, in frigates and small vessels : — 

The Unicorn, Eagle, and Pallas, I directed to take a station near the 
Buoyart Shoal, for the purpose of receiving the crews of the fire-ships on 
their return from the enterprise, to support the boats of the fleet which 
were to accompany the fire-ships, and likewise to give assistance to the 
Imperieuse, which ship was soraewliat farther advanced. The Whiting 
schooner, and the King George and Nimrod cutters, were fitted for 
throwing rockets, and were also directed to take a station near the shore. 
The Indefatiiiable and Foxhound sloops, aad /Etna bomb, being the only 
bomb-vessel that had then arrived, were ordered to place themselves as 
near the fort on the Isle of Aix as possible, the two former to protect the 
bomb, vihile she threv.- shells into the fort. 

The Emerald, Dotterell, Beagle, Insolent, Conflict, and Growler gun- 
bri<'S, were stationed to make a diversion at the east end of the Isle of 
Aix : the Redpole and I-yra I directed to be anchored, one near the Isle of 
Aix, and the other near the Buoyart, with lights hoisted, arid properly 
screened from the enemy's view, to guide the fire-ships in their course to 
the attack Thirteen explosion vessels, which had been proposed aiid pre- 
pared liv Lord Cochrane, were under his lordshi;j's immediate direction to 
precede the fire-ships in the attack. Their explosion was to point out a 
proper time for the officers commanding the fire-ships to set fire to their 
respccti\e vessels; and to intimidate and prevent the enemy from towing 
off the fire-ships, the boats of the fleet, under the superintcndtrice of Ilear- 
admiral Stopford, were ordered to assemble alongside the Cffisar, to proceed 
to assist the firc-sliips; and I issued the following General Order, and gave 
the officers commanding fire-ships full instructions ibr their proccednigs :— 

MEMORANDUM GENERAL. 

" The fire-sliips are to proceed to the attack the ensuing night, the 
exploding vessels will close with tiie lmper:euse. The fire-vessels will move 
from their anchors at half-past scve.'i o'clock In running in, they are to 
have the two lights of equal height, which will he shewn on board a vessel 
placed iOi- that purpose on the starboard hand, and to leave the two lights 
perpendicular, which will also be shewn by another vessel placed for that 
purpnse on the larboard hand. 

" The frigates, ike. w'.iich are to protect and receive the officers and 
»rew^ of the fire-ship& will shew four lij^hts perpendicular, and the. tmpC'» 



ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 223 

rieuse will probably anchor near the Buoyart, and shew five lights perpen- 
dicular. ^ 

" If the wind should shift before the fire-ships proceed to the cittack, or 
from other circumstances it should be postponed, the Caledonia or thelni-. 
perieuse will fire a gun and shew tliree li£;,hts in a perpendicular position. 

" Caledonia, in Basque Roads, April 11, 1809. 

" GAaiBIER." 

" To the respective Captains, ^-c." 

With these preconcerted arrangements, the fleet was at this time 
unmoored, in readiness to render any service tliat nii2;lit be practicable; 
but beinsf unavoidably anchored in a strong tide way, with the wind blowing 
hard from the N.W. upon the weather-tide making, it was again moored, to 
prevent the ships failing on lioard each other. 

At about half-past eight P.M. the explosion-vessels and fire-ships pro- 
ceeded to the attack ; at half-past nine two of the explosion-vessels ble^v 
up ; and at ten most of the tirc-shi[)s were observed to he oii tire, the 
enemy's forts and ships firing oti them. Many of the fire-ships were seen 
to drive through their fleet, and beyond the Isle d'Aix. The night was 
extremely dark ; it blew a strong gale with a high sea, and tfie service 
thereby became of such increased hazard as scarcely to admit of a hope of 
the officers and men ever returning. 

It is right I should iicre observe, tliat, although from these and other unto- 
ward circumstances, several of the tire-siiips failetl in their object, I could 
not discover (after the fullest investigation) that blame was imputable to 
any of the officers who commanded them. 

The explosion-vessels, conducted by Lord Cochrane in person, also failed 
m their object, as will be seen by a reference to tlie small ciiart I now 
deliver into coui't, which points out where two of them blew up : the third 
broke adrift, and did not explode. 

The situation in which, and the time when these vessels blew up, proved 
prejudicial to the enterprise in several respects- Their premature explo- 
sion, contrary to the expressed intention of Lord Cochrane, that they 
should blow up in t'le nnd^t of the enemy's boats, to deter them froni 
towing oft' our fire-ships in their approach, served as a warning to the 
enemy, whose ships were obser\ed inst^mtly to shew lights ; and several of 
tlie officers who commanded the fire-ships not doubting but that tiic explo- 
sion had taken place near to the enemy's fleet, steered their ships and set 
them on (ire accordingly, by uhicli means several were in flames at a 
greater distance from the enemy tlian was intended, and so as to endanger 
our advanced frigates. In fact, had not Captain Woiildridge, and some of 
the other officers, wholly disregarding the explosion, taken their fire-ships 
in a proper direction for the enemy, it is n:iore tlian probable that none of 
them would have produced any eiiect whatever on the enemy's fleer. 

But although not one of the enemy's ships was actually destroyed by 
means of fire-sliips, yet the terror excited by their approach induced t!ie 
enemy to cut their cables, and exposeil them, by their ruiming aground, to 
the attack which ensued. 

I now come to the proceedings of the l'2th of April, which commence 
with the signal that the enemy could be destroyed, and which destruction it 
is imputed to me 1 delayed or neglected. 

At forty-eight minutts after five A.M. the Imperieuse then about three 
nfiles from the enemy, and about the same distance fiom the Caledonia, 
made the signal to me by telrgrapli, that " seven of the enemy's ships were 
on shore, and that half the fleet could destroy them.'' 

The actual situation of the French fleet, at that time, was tliis: — Seven 
fcif their ships were on shore on the Palais, f,\o had escaped towards the 



224 TRIAL OF 

Charente, and two lay either at their original anchorage, or a very liltle 
removed from it, with their broadsides bearing upon any thing that might 
approach, to attack tlie ships on shore, 

I ordered the fleet to be unmoored immediately ; the wind was at N.W, 
and tlie tide was then nearly at the last quarter ebb, and iiiuch too far spent 
to admit of a force being sent in, so as to effect any ihiuL', with the possi- 
bility of returning in case of disaster, before the making of the flood, which 
would eflectually have locked up our ships within the enemy's confined 
anchorage during the whole of that tide. Here they would have been 
exposed, not only to the point-blank shot from the batteries, butal.^o to the 
broadsides of the abovementioneo two line-of-battle ships then lying in A;x 
Roads, and which, even witiiout assistance from the batteries, nu.s: have 
entirely crippled every one of our ships in their approacii through so narrow 
achant>el; besides which, some of the grounded sliips were sufficientiy 
upright, and so situated as to enable them to bring then- guns to bear upon 
the entrance. 

I would here submit to the Court, whether the idea which appears to 
have been entertained by Lord Cochrane, that a force could have been sent 
in so as to have arrived before low water in the morning, was not in itself 
preposterous and impracticable. 

Upon the fullest consideration that no possible attempt could be made 
imtil the tide had flowed for some time, unless a previous change of wind 
should take place, all I had to do was to make every preparation for the 
attack on the enemy's grounded ships ; accordingly I macic the signal for 
the fleet to weigh, and the rear-admiral and captains being assembled on 
board the Caledonia, I gave orders to the commander of the /Etna, the only 
bomb present, to proceed as soon as the tide would permit that vessel to 
approach near enough to bombard the enemy's ships ; 1 at the same time 
oidercd the Insolent, Conflict, and Gro\\ler gun-brigs to accon^pany her, 
and dii-ectcd the captains of tiie Valiant, Bclioua, and Re\en;:e, with the 
frigates, to take an advanced anchorage as near as possible to the Buoyart 
shoal, to be in readiness to proceed to the attack as soon as the water had 
sulKciently flowed to enable them to do so. 

/\t between 9 and 10 A.M. which was much before the flood was sutli- 
ciently made to conmience clfectivc operations, the fleet ran in, and can-.e 
to an anchor within about three miles distance from the enemy's fortress 
of Aix ; the three ships before-mentioned, with the frigates, anch^jrcii 
abo'Jt a mile nearer to the Buoyart, but the bomb and bngs did net 
come to. 

As the flood tide made, three of the seven ships which had grounded on 
the Palais shoal, and we,e the farthest from us, being lightened, succeeded 
in wai'ping oft', aiid njade for the Charente. 

The two line-of-batlle ships still at their anchorage, in tlie situation 
before described, took at the same time advantage of the flood, and pro- 
ceeded likewise towards that river. Most, if not all, of these five 
ships now r.an aground at the mouth of the Charente, and wcie never 
assailable. 

These movements of the enemy's rhips were not, as I suh-mit to the 
Court, to be prevented by any means that I could adopt with the smallest 
chance of success, and without his Majesty's ships being put to the mo-t 
unwarrantable peril, and when, as Kear-adniiral Stopforil has, in his 
evidence, on the part of the prosecution, most emphatically described, 
" Ours would have been all the loss, and t!ie enemy's all the acivautagc.'' 

The wind blew directly in, so that in the event of our ships being 
crippled^ while* the flood-tide was running, which appeared inevitable, it 
would have been impossible for them to ha\'e worked out, or to have 
retreated to an anchorage out of the reach of the enemy's shot and shells; 



ADMIRAL LOUD GAMBIFIl. 225 

t!ie consequence of which could scarcely have been less than their utter 
tjcstruction. 

These serious impediments induced me to delay the attack until llie 
latter part of the flood, in order to give any ships, which miglit be dis- 
abled on their approach, a chance of returning, by means of the receding 
tide. 

Had the wind been favourable for sailing both in and out, or even the 
latter only, there could have been no doubt that the sooner the enemy's 
ships were attacked the better. 

And I think the Court will allow that I am coniidetely borne out, in 
what I have stated, by tiie sentiments which it will be pioved weie expri.-^-.ed 
to me by Lord Cochrane when he came on board the Caledonia afcer the 
action ; that had I acted upon liis signal, and sent in at that time half the 
fleet, he calculated upc;j the loss of three or four of his Majesty's line-ot- 
battle sliips. And I liave moreover to observe, that ii", in defiance of the 
obstruction of the other ships oi the enemy, I had sent in a force, before 
the three ships had warped otF the Palais shual, it is a positive fact that it 
could not have advanced to the attack of tiiose three ships, on account of 
the shoal water. 

it appears by the Ioi;-book of t!ie Tmperiense, that at thirty minutes past 
eleven she weighed anil ran in, in company with the iEtna bomb and a ^im- 
brig. The fact is, that t!ie .'Etna passed the Impencuse viiile at anchor, 
about one, and that she began the attack some time beiore the Imperieuse 
arrived up ; half an liour afterwards the Imperieuse and the EeriLile tbllowed 
tiie .'li'.tna and gun-brigs in to the attack, and between ten minutes before 
and seven minutes after two, as vviil be seen by a reference to the log-books 
upon the table, I ordered tiie Indefatigable, Unicorii, .\igle, and Emerald 
frigates, with the Valiant and Revenge (and the Pallas a few minutes 
later) to weigh; Captain Bligh, the senior officer, having some hours beiore 
received my directions tor his proceeding against tiie enemy. 

The Imperieuse opened her tire at ahuut twenty minutes after two, the 
Aigle at tliree, and the other ships as soon after as the tlowiug tide [jei- 
mitted. 

In consequence of strong north-westerly winds, the flood-tide continued 
running until past three in the afternoon, which Lord Cochrane has not: 
noticed in his evidence. 

In my letter of the 10th of May to the Admirahy, I could not state these 
circnmst;mces so minutely as [ am now enabled to do, by a reference since 
made to llie log books. 

At ten minutes after four P.M. tlie enemy's ship Calcutta, and the Ville 
de Varsovie and Aquilon about an hour after, were taken posssession of by 
the boats of the advanced squadron, and set r)n lire, as soon as the prisoners 
were removed : a short time after le TiMmei re was burnt by tiie enemy. 
This ship is admitted, by the evidence of Lord Cochrane, to have been out 
of the reach of our fire; an(' it is a notorious fact tiiar the t'lree- decker, 
and the other two ships that, got afloat, had been aground at some distance 
beyond the Tonnerre. 

In this niarmer the Court will find, thnt the four sliips cnpalle of being 
attacked at the time the signal was made (if the Tonne; re may be so con- 
sidered, of which I doubt) were completely destroyed ; the other three of 
the seven tirst on shore never having, as I have already stated, been in a 
situation to be assailed. 

And I venture most positi\'ely to assert, that the destruction of those 
ships would not iiave been eiiected, if I had not delayed tlw attack until the 
time I did. 

At the close of the afternoon, I judged it advisable to follow up our iuo- 

<i2au. ertjron. ^aU XXII. c » 



22ff TRIAL Of 

cess by an attack upon the five ships that had escaped to the mouth of illie 
Chareute, vviiich I thought it might be poBsible to effect during the night, 
I therefore sent Rear-admiral Stopford, in the Caesar, with the Theseus^ and 
the fire-ships and boats of tlie fleet, with Mr. ('ongreve's rockets, and gave 
the rear-admiral discretional orders to proceed as he should think fit, and 
according as circumstances should render it expedient. 

Scarcely had the Caesar reached Aix Road, before she grounded, and lay 
in a very perilous situation (as has been deposed by the rear-admiral) ex- 
posed also to the point-blank shot from the batteries. 

The rear-admiral perceiving that nothing could be effected by the line- 
of-battle ships, all of which had grounded (as had also some of the frigates) 
and that they lay in imminent d&nger, and satisfied that if any thing further 
could be effected towards the destruction of these ships, it could only be by 
smaller vessels, he therefore very judicioasly, before day-light on the 13th, 
availed himself of a providential shift of the wind, which enal)led him, when 
the line-of-battle ships floated, to- extricate them from that danger, and to 
return to Basque Roads. 

Captain Bligh, of the Valiant, also on his return reported to me, that it 
■was found impracticable to destroy the three-decked ship, and others which 
were lying at the entrance of the Charente, as the former (which was the 
outer one) was protected by three hnea of boats placed in advance from- 
her. 

In addition to the incontestible proafs already adduced of the impracti- 
cability of effecting any further destruction of the enemy's fleet, I will advert 
to the high professional cliaracter of Rear-admirai Stopford, and Captains 
Beresford, Bligh, and Kerr, who cannot, for an instant, be supposed likely 
to omit any circumstance that could effect the object for which they were 
sent by me into Aix Roads; and I am morally certain that they did not 
vithdraw their ships until it was wholly impracticable to annoy the enemy 
further, or until it appeared to tiiose otScers that the destruction of their 
own ships would be the certaiu consequence of their longer continuance iu 
Aix Road. 

Lord Cochrane remained in the Road 'of Aix during the 13th and 14th, 
accompanied by the Pallas frigate, the sloops and gun-brigs, and /Etna 
bomb; but nothing was attempted by the frigates. Durinfr the loth the 
TEtiia was employed in throwing shells, the Whiting schooner in firing 
rockets, and the other small vessels in iliing upon the enemy's ships on 
shore, when the tide porniitteu tliem to appruach. On the 1-itli, having by 
signal directed the Imperieuse to join me, I ordered Captain Wolfe, of the 
Aigle, to take the command of the smail vessels advanced ; these, with the 
^tna contiuued firing on the enemy's ships at the entrance of the Cha- 
rente, as opportunity offered, during tiie remainder of the day, but without 
effect. 

On the I5th I despatched Sir Harry Neale to their lordships, in the 
Imperieuse, with my public letter of tiie 14th of April, giving an account of 
the service which had been performed. 

From the 15th to the 24tii, the attack on the enemy's ships on shore at 
the mouth of the Charente was continued by the bombs (the Thunder 
having arrived on the 19th) assisted by the small vessels, as wind and wea- 
ther permitted; but the enemy had, by throwing overboard tiieir guns and 
stores, got so liigh up, that even the gun-hiigs and other vessels of light 
draught frequently grounded in their endeavours to approach, and never 
could getsutficieutly near to proiluce any effect. 

The orders of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to me of the 
14th of April, to detach two squadrons of four ships of the line each, to 
«ruise for the purpose sf intercepting the French ships which had escaped 



ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 227 

from UOrient in February, liavins!;, with the other orders which I received 
fVoin their l.)r(l>hi|is between tiie Ifth of Mnrch and 2!)th of April, been 
road upon openini; the court; I take occasion to observe, that I had antici- 
pated the orders of their lordships in this respect, and the success in the 
operations of the 12th, without the loss of any of the king's ships, having 
enabled me to do so, I had previously appointed two squadrons for that 
service, one of which had actually sailed before I received the orders of 
their hardships thereupon. 

Lord Cochrane states, tliat seventy- fonr-gnn ships may go into an 
inner anchorage between the Buoyart shoal and the Pallas at any time of 
the tide. 

He asserts also that the tide rises only from ten to twelve feet. By tlie 
French chart which he produced to confirm his deposition, it appears that 
there is a bank to pass over before sliips can get into that anchorage with 
from eighteen to twenty feet at low water. But by the charts of the master 
of the fleet, and master of the Caledonia, who sounded upon the bank, it 
appears that there is only from fourteen to nineteen feet, and the bank full 
of knolls ; under these circumstances, if Lord Cuchrane's opinion be correct 
relative to the rise and fall of the tide, no man in his senses would vciiture 
a seventy-four over it even in the smcjothest water at less than three quarters 
flood ; and therefore as to the refuge that tliis inner anchorage would afford 
a crippled ship, how little would the probability be that the o|>portunity of 
both tide and wind should offer for -.i crippled ship at the moment at which 
it was most wanted, to pass over the bank, and get out of the reach of the 
batteries; but if I had even previously known as mucli ol this ainef 
anchorage as I now do, I would not, as the wind was at the time, have done 
otherwise than I did. And if Lord Coahrane really knew what he has now 
professed to have known, when he was in Aix Roads, it was a duty 
imperiously incunihcnt upon him lO have communicated that information on 
tiie afternoon of the 12th, to the captains of the linc-of-battle sliips which 
he saw in so perilous a situation, aground within point-blank range bi the 
batteries. 

Lord Cochrane has expressed an opinion, tliat two or three sail of the 
line sent in on the morning of the l-2th, might, by running up, on the verge 
of the Buoyart shoal, have passed to leeward of the two French sliips re- 
maining at anchor. This, I declare to have been absolutely impracticable; 
as well from the raking iirc of the two ships afloat andofthe upright ones on 
shore on our approach, and the lire of the batteries, as from the shoal wa- 
ter close under their lee. The testimony of Captain Rodd, tiie only witness 
examined on this point, on the part of the prosecution, corroborates my 
opinion, whicii 1 have no doubt will be further supported by ihe evidence of 
other competent witnesses I propose calling. 

With respect to the force of the Aix batteries, I apprehend what appear- 
ed to Lord Cochrane, and to the masier of his ship, as ruins of the tort, 
were in fact materials for nnproving or increasing the works. Indeed, can 
it be natural to suppose, that the enemy, who are so active in forming bat- 
teries wherever chey can be useful, and whose engineers are considered to be 
equal to any, would of all moments chuse that lor dismantling, or blowing 
up works, when they expected those works would be most required ; for 
it is very certain, the enemy was as fully apprizetl of our intentions of at- 
tacking their fleet as myself. And it will, perhaps, be considered less iikeiy 
that the iiiemy should weaken their del'ences on the Isle d'Aix, raised evi- 
dcntlv for the protection of their fleet, when at tiie sanu- time they were 
endeavouring to form others on the Buoyart shoal as further protection 
Jor it. 
tftelatiyc to ilie service that luid been performed; and wh;\t tr.ii'a poa»i- 



228 tniAL ov 

bly still be further attempted towards the destruction of the enemy's shipg, 
Lord Cochrane states a conversation to have passed between his I.ordsliip 
and myself, on his return from Aix Roads in whieli he ri'juesents me to 
have said, " that if he threw blame it would appear like arrogantly claim- 
ing all the merit to himself." 1, however, tiust, the Court mil not con- 
ceive that the expression of casting blame has any allusion to my conduct; 
for, as I have before said, Lord Cochrane never expressed one syllable from 
which I could form the most faint idea that he fell disappointed at any 
thing resting with me. Ilis Lordsiiip's allusion had reference only to the 
several officers who acted with him in Aix Uoads; ujion whom generally he 
cast blame, without giving the smallest intimation, either by word or man- 
ner, that in his expressions of dissatisfaction he included his Commander in 
Chief. 

From the 24th to the 29tli of April, nothing material occurred, and iiav- 
ing received the Admiralty letter of the 22d of April, signifying, " that their 
Lordships considering th.e state of the enemy's force, in consequenr.e of the 
brilliant success of the fleet under my command, so much reduced as to 
render my fuither presence unnecessary, directed me to repair to Spilhead 
in the Caledonia." I accordingly completed the arrangement of the fleet, 
and proceeded in the Caledonia to Engh'nd on the 29th of April. 

Previous to my leaviiig Basque lioads, one of the enevuy's frigates was 
set on fire by themselves at the entrance of tlie Charenie, another was ob- 
served to be wrecked up that river. The nuniber of ships that escaped 
■without injury, did not, from the best information, exceed one or two line 
of battle ships, and two fjigatcs; what may have been the fate of t!ie re- 
mainder, I leave to be considered by the Members of this Honourable 
Court, who are well qualified to judge of the condition of ships which had 
been so lang and so repeatedly aground. 

By the foicgoing narrative, as well as by the log and signal log of the Ca- 
ledonia (to which, as also to every correct leg of the fleet, I :un as desiious 
to refer as Lord Cochrane may be) it will, I conceive, be seen, that I fully 
meet tlie charge which has been preferred against me; and if the impression 
arising out of tliis inquiry should prove less favourable to Lord Cochrane, 
than that \>iiich may hf.ve been produced by my letter to the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty of the 14th of April, his Lordship must be 
sensible, that as the instigator of this Court Martial, he will himself have 
been the cause of this change of sentiment. I have been willing to grant to 
his Lordship ihe fullest creeiit for his personal bravery, and fur his judicious 
manner of npi ronching the enemy in the Lr^perieuse, to which points the 
conimfendation expressed in my lettc" of the 14ch of April related. For, in 
fact, the success of die first part of (he enterprise, as 1 have before oi)serv- 
ed, arose trom the te rror excited by the iipuearance of the fire-ships, as they 
failed in the principal efl'ecf they were intended to produce, and the blast 
of the explosion vessels under lifs Lordship's immediate direction, diel not 
take place by any means so near to the enemy's ships as his Lordship had 
projected. The general result, however, of the attack was so successful, 
that uueier that impression, I elid not hesitate to express in my public letter 
the degree of ...pprobation which is therein marked, passing over circum- 
stances nor altogetlier satisfactoi'y to me, and not at that time necessary 
to be brought into public notice. 

The Court is now in possession of all the facts and circumstances on 
which Lresr my justification, and it remains to be considered how far they 
are a'Te cteil by the evidence produced on the part of the prosecution. 
■ 1 have first to refer to the eAidcnce of the second in command, and to 
that of the captains of the two frigates engaged in the attack, viz. the Reay- 
Aelniiral iJtopford and Captains Rodd and SVoife, 



ADMIRAL LORD OAMBIER. 229 

These officers, far from supporting any part of the charge made against 
me, have distinctly cienicrl there having been any nei;lect, delay, or detici- 
ency, in any part of my conduct in Prisque Hoads } and I u'li persuaded, 
that had the prosecitor culled all !■•€ oiler v^ltnes:^c•s summoned upon the 
trial, a corrcsprndii g testimony world have been given by each oflheni. 

I have ne\c to rel'e' o tlie evidence of the log and sii;nal books of the 
fleet, on which the cliaijc purports to be founded; and I must here beg to 
call your attention to the very unusual circumstance or' there being already 
on your talJe two log-hooks of the same ship, namely, the Imperieuse, and 
materially difft ling. from each other, one of them produced by the master 
of the Impeneu'e, as the authentic public document of that j^hip, to the ac- 
curacy of \\ liich he has deposed ; and the other presented by Lord Cochrane, 
and admiticd by his Lordship to be acompilation by himself in London, from 
materials v^hich are not produced to the Court. 

In ailJition to these circumstances, 1 have to lay upon your table a third 
paper, purporting to be als') a log-book of the Imperieuse, but differing 
from the tvvc> airrudy before you. This paper v\as delivered to me by Lord 
Cochrane, in obedience to mv order of 'hf I'^'th of May last, " to furnish 
me with a couv o*' rhe books of logs and signals of his Majesty's siiip Impe- 
rieuse, u kIci- his comn and, from the 11th to the L5th of April inclusive;" 
and to this ln£r-book the I ourt will find athxed [lisLoidsnip's signature. 

The Courc itself ha ing so attentively inspected the master's log, I need 
not poim out the air. Miions evidently made therein; and it cannot fail to 
observe ihe vaiiations m the other two logs. I must however remark, that 
among the deviations in these papers from the shm's original log, the sig- 
nal innncdiately ■'! question, which s recorded in toe latter to have been for 
" half the fleet," stands in both ihese compilations as having been made 
for '• part of the iieet" only; and of the two logs received from Lord Coch- 
rane, that only produced in Court by himself, records the circumstance of 
liis having hailed the Indefatigable, and proposed to her a joint attack upon 
the enemy's sliip the Ocean; and I cannot iielp here reminding the Court 
of the application made by the master of I he Imperieuse for access to the 
Indefatigable's lo;r. I beg leave to submit, whether documents formed 
some time after the events they record took place, and so contrary to tiie 
j)ractice of the navy, can be deemed authentic, or ought to be referred to 
as, or in support of, evidence before this Court. 

I have no doubt the signal made by i.ord Cochrane on the morning 
of the 12th of April, which forms a part of the charge against me, will, 
combined with other subsequent signals, appear to llie Court unprecedent- 
ed and im[)roper, of this his lordship now seems auare, irom the manner 
in which he has expressed himself in his evidence ; and dia ■, there may be no 
doubt of the accuracy of tlie -igiial log-book of the Caledonia, I must again 
call before you the signal-orhcer, to 'hew that the .-ignal of recall on the 
13th of April, said to have been observed by tiie Imperieuse, was never 
made by the Caledonia; and also that tlie signal of tiie 14th, recorded in 
the Caledonia's log as m'lde by the (mpericuse, " that if permitted to re- 
main can destroy theenemy," is denied by Lord Cochrane tver to have been 
made. 

I have yet to call the attention of the Court to the plan drawn by Lord 
Cochrane of the position of the enemy's ships as they lay aground on the 
morning of tiie 12tli of April, and to tiial position marked upon the chart, 
verified by Mr. Stokes; the former laid down from uncertain data, the 
latter from angles measured, and other observations made upon the spot; 
the difierence between the two is too apparent to c-cape the notice of the 
Court, and the respective merits of their charts will not, I think, admit of 
*« comparison. 



130 TRIAL OP 

The accuracy attributed by Lord Cochrane to the French charts will, t 
doubt not, seem very extraordinary, after it shall be shewn in evidence 
that his Lordship has expressed a very opposite opinion. 

It now only remaiHs for me to examine in what manner Lord Cochrane 
has attempted, by his unsupported opinion, to maintain the charge. Thia 
is to be collected from the long narrative evidence given by his Lordship. 
It cannot, I am sure, be deemed necessary for me to follow him tlirougb 
the whole of this evidence. There are, however, some parts of it that re- 
quire particular animadversion. 

In the course of iiis evidence, Lord Cochrane, in allusion to the danger 
which would attend his going without encouragement to the attack of the 
ships at the mouth of the Charente, says, speaking of himself, " A heavy, a 
very heavy responsibility would lie upon my shoulders in case of disaster,* 
which in military operations is sometimes unavoidable. If I had my ca- 
ble shot away, for instance, I might have been sunk." Yet, whilst on the 
one hand his Lordship seems to have been so sensible of the weight of re- 
sponsibility imposed upon himself by the command of a frigate and a few 
small vessels, he appears on the other to have been unmindful of the far 
heavier degree of responsibihty attached to my command enuring so compli- 
cated an undertaking; in alluding to the dangers of which, I must take this 
opportunity to mention five furnaces for heating shot, which Lord Cochrane 
reported to me to have himself discovered when he went in to reconnoitre, 
previous to the attack. 

By the manner in which Lord Cochrane has expressed himself, it might 
perhaps be concluded that I had been desirous he should bear my des- 
patches to England; and after the caution he represents me to have given 
him, it might, if I allowed this statement to pass uncontradicted, be sup- 
posed by some that I proposed this as an inducement to secure Lord Coch- 
rane's silence: whereas, when his Lordship recals the circumstances to his 
mind, it will, I am sure, lead him to acknowledge that, so far from pres- 
sing this service upon him, in the first instance, I gave him to understand 
tliat Sir Harry Neale, the Captain of the fleet, was to bear my despatches, 
and at which Lord Cochrane, I positively declare, expreirsed evident marks 
of dissatisfaction; and it cert;iin!y will appear to every reflecting mind, 
that my sending his Lordship to England, with orders to go to the Admiralty, 
betrayed no desire of concealment, nor apprehension of any reprcientation 
Lord Cochrane might make of my conduct. 

Upon a general review of the evidence of Lord Cochrane, it will appear 
that his Lordship has founded his statement on the narmtive log, compiled 
since his return to England — on the French chart — and on the position in 
which is placed, in his own chart, the enemy's several ships aground, 
and the two ships which remained at the anchorage on the morning of 
the IQth. 

When it is considered how essentially this log differs from the ship's log, 
and both of them from the document Lord Cochrane has furnished me witii, 
I conceive much credit can nut be given to either. 

With regard to the reliance to be phiced on the Frctich chart, I have al- 
ready observed, that Lord Cochrane declared before the attack that it was 
incorrect. 

With respect to the position of the enemy's ships on the morning of the 
l'2th of April, after their dispersion, it is so widely ditfercnt from thiit iu 
which they are placed in tlie ciunt which hus been delivered in by the Mas- 
ter of the Caledonia, and will be venlied l)y the Master of the fleet, that it 
is hardly to be supposed they relate to the same tiansaction. And it is 
very fa. r here to remark the fact acknowledged by Lord Cochrane, in his 
KvidencCj that he erred no icis than live points of the poiupass jn the report 



ADMIRAL LORD GAMBISR. tSl 

ke made to me before the attack, of the direction in which the French fleet 
was moored in two lines from the Fort of Isle de Aix. 

Lord Cochrane has thought fit to represent, that the enemy's three grounded 
sliips which escaped from offthe shoal of the Palais, were lying so near together 
as to give two of them, which he states to be iieeling inwards, the appear- 
ance of their masts, and yards lockiHg: this description of them is certainly 
well calculated to make a strong impression of their defenceless slate ; but 
whatever may have been their appearance to his Lordship, such is not the 
fact; for, in reality they were lying perfectly separate and clear of each 
other, as is sliewn by the aforementioned chart produced by the master of 
the Caledonia, and as will also be proved by evidence. But whatever their"^ 
situation might have been with respect to proximity, I must here repeat, 
that they could never have been approached by our ships within the reach 
of our shot, as Lord Cochrane has allowed in regard of the Tonnerre, 
which was nearer to our attacking force than either of the three sliips iu 
question. 

It now only remains forme to request the attention of the Court to some 
conclusions which I think may be drawn from the whole of the statemcnt3 
I have submitted to the consideration of you, Sir, and the rest of the mem- 
bers of this Honourable Court, and by which, with the additional evidence 
I have to adduce, it will, I flatter myself, distinctly appear, 

" First, That during the whole of this service, the most unwearied atten- 
tion was applied by me to its main object, the destruction of the enemy's 
fleet. 

** Secondly, That in no part of the service xvas more zeal and exertion 
shewn, than durinj^ the 12th of April, when I had necessarily in view two 
objects — the destruction of the enemy's fleet, and also the preservation of 
that under my command; for the extreme difiiculties in approaching an ene- 
my closely surrounded by shoals, and strongly defended by batteries, ren- 
dered caution in my proceeding peculiarly necessary. 

" Thirdly, That three out of the seven of tlia enemy's ships a-ground on 
the Palais were, from their first being en shore, totally out of the reach of 
the guns of any ships of the fleet that might have been sent in, and that 
at no time whatever, either sooner or later, could they have been at- 
tacked. 

" Fourthly, That the other four of the eleven ships of which the enemy's 
fleet consisted, were never in a situation to he assailed after the fire-bhips 
had failed in their main object." 

These are the points ou which I rest my justification, trusting tliat it 
will appear to the Court, upon their revie.v of my whole case, that I did 
take the most effectual measures for destroying the enemy's fleet; that 
neither neglect nor unnecessary delay did take place in the execution of this 
service ; and on the contrary, that it was owing to the time chosen by me 
for sending a force in to make the attack, lluit the service was accoaiplished 
vith so very inconsiderable a loss. Had I pursued any of tlie measures 
deemed practicable and proper in the judgment of Lord Cochrane, I am 
firmly persuaded the success attending this acl)ie\'einent would have prtjved 
more dearly bought than any yet recorded in our naval annals, and, far 
from accomplishing the hopes of my country or the expectations of the Ad- 
miralty, must have disappointed both. If such, too, were the foundation 
of his Lordship's prospects, it is just they should vanish before the superior 
considerations attending a service involving the naval character and most 
important intercits of the nation. 

• 1 conclude by observing, that the service actually performed has been of 
great importance, as well in its immediate elTccts, as in its ultimate conse- 
quences ; for the Brest I'leet is so reduced as to be ao longer ed'cctive. It 



532 TRIAL OF 

was upon this fleet the enemy relied for the succour and protection of theii* 
West Iivlia Colcues; and the destruction of their ships was effected in 
their own harbour, in siglit of thousands of the French ; and I congratulate 
myself and uiy country, that this important service has lieen effected, un- 
der Providfiice, with the loss only of ten men liilltd, thirty-five wounded, 
and one missing, and not even one of the smallest of our vessels employed 
lias been disabled from proceeding on any service that might ha\e become 
necessary. The extent of dithculties and prospect of danger in this enter- 
prize were extreme, and the gallantry and determined sf.irit of tliose en- 
gaged most conspicuous. These merits, and those fliriiculties, ought not 
to be depreciated on account of the inconsiderable loss sustained on the oc- 
casion, I by no means seek to arrogate to myself any merit by I besc ob- 
servations; but I make them, as a tribute of praise due to tiic zealous 
services of the l)rave othcers and men under my command, and with 
a view of pointing out how justly they are entitled to the gratitude of their 
country. 



The reading of the defence havinc been finished, I\Tr. Edwaru Fa in fax, 
Master of the Fleet, was sworn and examined by Admiral Gambier. He 
stated his having been employed in sounding and surveying in B;isque Roads 
towards Aix Roads previous to the llih of April. He hud been mostly 
employed on the long sand, and found that it extended fall three quarters 
of a mile to the E. and N. of that laid down in the chart. " I shall state," 
said he, " to the Court where it varies. If you lav a rule from the Castle to 
the French barracks, it carries you clear to the N. of it, full three-quar- 
ters of a mile from where it is laid down, and only four fathoms water 
where nine is laid down." The space for anchorage for large ships in Aix 
Roads is much confined. 

[Mere the witness entered into a minute detail of bearings and soundings, 
and the manner in wliich they were obtained.] The enemy's fleet, when 
last reconnoitcred, was S. ai;d by W. by compass, from the citadel, 
■ — [Here the witness further described the sitiiaiion of the French fleet, as 
it was represented on the chart.]* He represented the navigation of Aix 
Roads as very difficult for large ships. The rise and fall of the tide in Aix 
Roads, he supposed was from eighteen to twenty feet.] 

Q. Do you know of Lord Cochrane's making a report to me of the 
position of the enemy's ships at their anchorage ? — A. Certainly. 

Q. Shew upon the chart the position in which Lord Cochrane placed 
them ? — A. Is early N.E. and S.W. by compass, and by Lor(i Cochrane's 
chart, which was very neatly done. That was the day before the attack ; 
it was impossible, if they had been attacked in this way, it could have been 
successful. 

Q. How many points did you and Lord Cochrane differ in? — A. I 
believe five. — Lord Gambier, on my being introduced to Lord C^ochrane, 
■poinxed out the difference of tli^; reconnoitring, and said that the attack 
must be very diflerent, as the lines were so much at variance, in which 
Lord Cochrane acquiesced. SirH. Neale advised him to go to the situation 
that I had for that purpose, to convince himself that he had been wrong, 
which I believe he did. 

Mr. Faikfax knew of no anchorage above tlie Euoyart shoal, near the 
Palais shoal, for line-of-battle ships, out of range of the enemy's theils. 

Q. At what distance was the British fleet from that of the enemy when 

* Hf/e page432 ofVoh XXL 



ADMIRAL LORU GAMBIKK. 233 

it took its first anchorage in Basque Roads? — A. The Caledonia from the 
citadel of the (sic d'Aix was disiaiit 11,')0U yards, near sjx nautical iniles 
by anL;(dar measurement. 

On the first j)art of the inorniiis; of the 12th of April, Mr. Fairfax was oa 
ivoard the Lyr i, the other part on hoard t!ie (.'aledonia. .\t that time the 
Lyra was workinj; out from Isle d'Aix t;j\vards t!ie lleet From tlie time of 
Iviuh water in Aix lloads the forepart of the day, the wind was N.N.W. 
or N. and hy W. at noon ab >ut N. at three o'cloct; in the ai'terno)n ic was 
about N,.M.W. time of liinh water hy calcalation would be about five 
minatcs past tvvo; but stronj; northerly winds vary it very much. It was 
liii:h writer on that day about half-past tliree, or twunty minutes. The 
(Calcutta did not sliift till near thiee o'clock. 

" There may be one occurrence," said ?.Ir. Fairfax, " which I believe 
cannot be known by any one but myselt', which is, that the two sh.ips, I be- 
lieve the rear-ad'.niral and the commodor.;, !iad been on shore at a little 
before three A.M. on the I 2rh. They lo;)sed their sails, and caused me to 
get the private signals oa board the Lyra ready for sinking. Shonl'y after-* 
wards tliev s^ot their heads to the eastward, and seemed to recede from me, 
and tltcir sails were taken in immediately. At eleven o'clock A.M. they 
were nearlv the same as in the chart; one of them, the rear-admiral, had 
liis rop-sai! yards up ready for dropping ; the other had one top-must up, 
and yards hoisted." 

Q. If any s'ups of the line had been sent into Aix Roads towards the 
entrance of the Charente, any time oi the morning of the l'2th of April, to 
attack the enemy's ships tiiat were a!j,round, at what tune was it possible 
for them to return under the circumstanees of wind and tide ? — A. They 
could not have shifted then- sitnacion till four o'clock P M. as for returning 
I should think it impossible. — They would have been within range of suf-Us 
and shotfniin the enemy's batteries wlule they remained there. With the 
wind as it blew ihe whole of the day of the 12;h of Aprd, the sliips nmst 
have taken the advantage of t!»e ebb tide to work out, to ha.-e s;,ot out at 
all. It' the wind had coniimied as it did i he whole of tiiat i\^y, and if those 
ships had been crippled, or lost a mast, th.ey must have rcmamcd under the 
fire of the enemy's liatterics until the wind s!jou!d shift. 

Q. Whar then would have been the probable fate of those ships.?— 
A. Destruction. 

Q. Could any of the enemy's ships, before they run the Charente, on the 
12th of April, have annoyed and raked a. y of the Kind's ships that mighc 
have been sent to attack l!iem?— A. They certainly lay in a favouralile 
place for it. 

Q. After those ships ran to the entrance of the Charente, could they 
have been approached by the IJrilish ships .^ — A. 1 slujuld tnink by iiotiung 
but a friiiate. 

Q. Coidd any line-of-batt!c ship nm to leeward of the two sliips of the 
enemy that lay at their anchorage, so as to have attacked them on the 
nionnii'ji of the 1 1th, without taking the gronsid .^ — A. Most certamly nor. 
I beg leave to observe, that no ship or j^iios could have hove to uoou the 
larboard tack, wind as it was, but what they must h 'Ve fallen off so mucli 
as to brioi; themselves in a positi :)n to be raked by the enemv, as there was 
not room to ui> under their stern. — Had even two or three ships of the line 
been sent in to a; tack these two ships, some of the enemy's ships aground 
were then lying ia a pusition to annoy our ships. 

F.xainined by the Court. 

Q. If a part of the fleet had s; Jt under wei^h immediately after the first 
signal of the Imperieuse, at what time of tide would they have arrived ia 

f3sl3, <2Lpim, SioU XXII, h h 



'234 TniAL OF 

Aix Ro:.ds in a sitnation to attack the enemy? — A. The time of tide troiild 
have been the Ui>t qunrter ebb. They could not liave attacked the enemy, 
vviilioiit endeavouring to go into the anchorage the enemy hnd left ; they 
coidd not have i^ot within reiicli of tlieni, without passing tfiat deei> 
water line which was protected by the batteries, and the enemy's ships on 
sliore. 

Q. Had tlic fleet been uinnoorcd at the time Lord Cochrane made 
tlic signal on the morning of tiie I'ith, would it have tended to promote 
the destruction of tiiose two sliips that were left at anchor near the Isle of 
Aixr — A. No, it could not make any ditference. 

Mr. SroKF.s, Master <jf the Caledonia, examined by Lord Gambier. — He 
described the situation of the French fleet on tiie morning of the 12tii of 
April, and stated, that, with the wind as it blew the whole day, had any 
ships of the line been sent into Aiic Roads towards the entrance of the 
Charente, it would not havl' been possible for them to leturn that day. 
Tliey would have been within half range of siiell, and point blank of shot. 

Q. Could any of the enemy's ships, on the l'2th of April, before they run 
up the Charcnte, have annoyed, and raked any of the King's ships who 
■were proceeding to attack them? — A. Tiie Foudroyanc and the Cassard both 
lay afloat ; the Cassard about a thirfl of a mile distant from the Isle of 
Aix, and close on the edge of the bank which extends from Isle Aix to the 
N.W. point of the Palais slioal. The Fondroyant lay also near the edge of 
tliat l)arik, and I suppose about three cables distant from the Cassord ; the 
three-decker lay with her broadside flanking the passage, and they all cotdd 
liave tired with complete eft'ect on any ships that approached. When ihe 
enemy's ships ran to the entrance of the Charcnte, they could not have 
been approached by the British ships. 

jMr. .Si ORES had been employed sounding and surveying within the Isle 
of Aix, from the 17lh to the 24t!i of Apiil. The general knowledge he 
obtained, whilst so employed, in some parts agreed widi the French chart ; 
in other parts he found a wide diifcrence. I'he cliart gave it more water 
than he founr!. 

In answer to a question from thcConrt, he stated, that the depth of water 
■nas carefully ascertained every half hour, on board the Caledonia, from 
the time she anchored ofl-" the Chiiseron till she anchored in Basque Roads, 
and from that time till the day slie quitted tiie station, the actual rise of 
water in Basque Roads was 19 feet, spring tides, and eight feet dead neap ; 
the rise of the tide in Aix Roads, according to the soundings taken on board 
liie Eagle, was found to be 21 feet in spring tide. 

The reniainder of Mr.SioKLb's evidence agreed in substance with that of 
Mr. Fairfax. 

Captain Bligh, of the Valiant, examined by Lord Gambler. — Fie 
expressed his opinion, that had any of the line-of-battle ships been sent in, 
thev could never have returned, but must inevitably have been tlestroyed. 
At the lequest of Lord Gambier, Captain Bligh stated his proceedings as 
follows : — " The first order of the conmiander-in-chief was at about eight 
in the morning, to anchor near the Buoyart shoal, within the range of shot 
and shells ; the second order I received was a little after two P.M. — About 
half-past two, I v.ei<jhed in company with the Revenge to the attack of the 
«nemy ; our frigates were laying in close line N. and by NV. and E . by E. 
I went to the southward close to the Indefatigable ; a little after three 
v>e commenced our fire on the Calcutta, and shortly after I observed her 
crfcvv desert her, leaving her coh)urs flying. The V^arsovie was also deserted 
Lv her crew, and I think she was taken possession of by the boats of the 
L'nicorn; the Aquilon was the only ship that struck lier colours. Tiie 
.Tcniicre sluii-tly oftex grounned, but as the tide (ell she was soon got uff^ 



ADMIRAL LOUD GAMBIFR. 235 

And went between the Biioyart ane! the Pa!;iis. The fn;j;ntes all foilo-.vcd 
her, except the [inperieuMC. At sis o'clock in the inomiiis; the VaHaiit 
grounded, aiul ahoiit elcvrn the tide rose, and she got olF. At low water it 
was seveiiteen feet alonj^sicle otlier, as we took sjundiiii:s: there were tour 
fire-ships prepared, and sent in atterwards ; tw • a;^ainst tlie Ocean, and 
two as^dinst the three-decker; and I applied to Admiral Stopford i'or some 
gun-briijs to over our retreat, the er.eniv's boats hein^^ moored across t!ic 
stern ot" the Ocean, with boat? in adxancc. ;\s the wind t!icn was, at six 
o'clock in the morning, I jndgcd tlie attempt to be iinpracticable, and there- 
fore ordered the tire-vessels to move to wlicre the Imperieuse was, and to 
follow the directions of Lord Cochritne. At half-past three, the prisoners 
beiiij: removed from the Aquilon and Villc de Varsovie, and the water beins^ 
at that time up to the orlop de.k, I ordered them to he set on fire, and aC 
<]ay light, in obedie.ice to a si;j;nal from Admiral Stopt'ord, I proceeded to 
Bas(]ue lload. — Fonr of the enemy's ships, tiie Aquilon, the Varsovie, the 
(.'alcutta, and I'onnere, and the Indienne iri<iate, two days after, v>'ere 
burnt. 1 think the others must have received considerable damage t'rom 
going ashore. 1 think all but two of thein must have sulfered severely." 

Q,. What is your opinion of the position taken by Captain Kerr, in the 
Revenge, w\is it judicious ? — A. I think it impossible he could have been 
better placed, and the general conduct of the Revenue on that day reflects 
t!ie highest houour on that ship. — Tlie utmost zeiil was manifested bv every 
§hi() eiigHged, and I think it impossible they could be better placed for the 
destruction of the enemy's ships than they were. 

The Court here adjourned till Tuesday, Aui:;ust 1, when Captain Bi.rcH 
was further examined. — tie did not observe that any of the fortilications on 
the Isle of Aix had been blown up and destroycfl. 

Q. ( B// Lord (uimhier.) Did y:hi hear Lord Coc'irane express to Captain 
Beresford, in Ws, Road, the prob.ibility of three or four of our line-o:'-b itrle 
ships beinsr lost in attackmj; the enemy, and what passctl o!i tliuf subject.?-— 
A. U'hen Captain Beresford asked Lord Cochrane his reason f)r makin;; 
thctele^rapliic signal that half the fleetcould destroy the enemy in the inorii- 
ini;, he said he calculated on our losing; th ee or four of the ships, if the coui- 
maiider-in-ch ef had sent the squadron in. 

Captain BcrcH thought th;it nothing; further could have been practicable. 
There had been no ncii^lect or delay on tiie part of Lord Gambler. 

Mr. SroKF.s re-examined by Lord Gumbicr. — lie stated, that theCassard, 
beariui; a commodoi'e's broad pendant, slipped or cut, and matle sail for the 
Chareiite at 10 niin. past one P.M. tlie Foudroyant, bearing a rear-admiral's 
fiair, made sail for the Chareiite at 'JO mm. past one. The three enemy's 
ships that were on shore upon the Palais and warped olf, tjoL from thence 
before the siiips that were at anchor ran towards the Charcnte. — All the 
enemy's ships were at too si;reat a distance to be destroyed by our ships, 
except those that were destroyed, the Calcutta, Aquilon, and Varsovie. 

Captain Derksfoud, of the Theseus, sworn and examined by Lord Gam- 
bier. — lie thou!;ht that if two of our ships had been placed as the two 
French ships afloat were, we could have defied an enemy's approach, for 
the approach must have been goiii>f end on. — His opinion, as to theimprac- 
ticahiiity ol the return of line-of-battle ships, if crippled, vras similar to that 
of the preceding witnesses. No blame attached to the conduct of Lord 
Gambler. 

Q. Did you ever understand by whose orders tlie Calcutta was set on 
fire? — \. The only thing I kno'.v with respect to that was, by a convcy- 
sation with Lord Cochrane, in the i)resencc of Captain Bligh and others. 
lie said it was a thousand pities the Calcutta could not be broujjht otV. JI« 



238 TUIAL OF 

sent a vounkcr on board to u'e liis own discretion, and lie set fire to lier. I 
was not on the spot when sl.e was set on fire, but Lord Cochrane said she 
mi^ht have been brouglit off easy. 

Q. Did you go onboard the Im- erieuse on the afternoon of the 12th 
April; wlat was h( r position; and what passed between lord Cochrane 
and you? — A. She was on sliore. I told him I had just come from the 
Cffsnr, which was alr^o on shore, in a critical situation, witl.in the raiiLC of 
shot and shell; that, in my opinion, ships of the line had uo business ihcre; 
that ],ord C^amhier seemed to me to be most anxious to act with his lUet; 
that if he had sent tlicm in there, few, if any, would ha.e returned, and 
that it would have been madness to have done it. Ili^ Lordship said 
that three s ui of the line mit^ht have been lost, which in his opmion did not 
signify. JMy reply was, 'hat even one sail of the line would in my opinion 
have disgraced the enterpri/e. This passed ni the presence of Captain 
Bli;ih, Wooldridge, Afaitland, and others, and Colon; 1 Cochrane. 

Captaiii Kerk, of the IJeveii'je, deposed to the same effect as the last 
witness. lie said it was Ids (irui belief, that had any of liie line-of-tattle 
ships t!;one in sooner than they did, tliey would have been crippled ; 
by whicli means tho' French sliij)s would have discovered the strength 
of their position, and of course remained instead ot going up the liver, 
and have prevented the four sliips that were afterwards destroyed from 
being so. 

Captain Dot'CLvS, of the Bcllona, and Captain Godikey, of the ."Etna, 
deposed to the same effect as tiie tVirmer witnesses. 

Lievitenant I1avvki.\», signal oftici r of the Caledonia, on being esa- 
riii';cd, said that no signal of recall was made to the Impcrieuse on the 
loth of April, 

^Ir. Faiki AX said, that the distance of the explosion vessel from the ene- 
my when she blew up, was a mile. 

i\]r. WiLKi.NSON (Secretary to Lord Gambier), stated, that when Lord 
Cochrane came on board the Caledonia, on the evening of the I'lth of 
April, he told the .Admiral, I'lat if he had ^ent in the ships agreeably to 
liis signal, he calculated upon three or four of thcrn being lost. Ihis al- 
ludes to tfie signal " [-lalt ihi- fleet can detroy the enemy." 

Q, (Hi/ LvjcI Gamiier). V\i\ he say a'ijy thing respecting my own con- 
duct, or that of any officers of tl;e ships.? — A. He spoke generally of the 
niisconduct of tlie small ve'se's (p.articularlv of the gun brigs), and of th.e 
fire-vessels, and I was confident sloops were inciud<.;d, from the .circum- 
stance (;f the Leagle being named. Ltird Gambier e%pressed his regret 
that lis Lordsli;: entertained so bad an o}iinion oftlie conduct of the 
small v(,ssels, and ptirticidailv asked Lord Cocluai.e wi;h respect to the 
Beagle, observing to him, that the conduct of the Eeagle had gair.ed Ijer the 
adiiuration of himself and the re--t of the oltieers of ilie fleet, who had ob- 
served her, *in<l said, sniely she I eha\ed ^^ell. Lord Cochrane re, li< d, I 
have a great rega.i-d and esteem for Captain Ne« combe; and from his 
having been an old messmate of mine, it uiuy be supposed 1 v\oul(i say 
every thing on 1 is part, but i cannot make an cxcepton. 

Lord Gambier here signified ih-it he had come to the c!o?e of his evi- 
deme; but, in consequence of the President making' liim the offer, he 
availed himself of the iiiterval tili the sucietdiiig mmiiing, (to which the 
Court adjourned,) to consider whether he siiould call any other 
witnesses. 

On W edresdtiy, .August the 2d, Admiral Stopford, and Lieutenant Haw-, 
kins, were re < x.xin'iied, as to certain points of their evidence; alter which, 
Loid < Gambier clanind tlie indulgence of the Court, while he should put a 
few questions to the three Remaining ofiicers of the in-shore squadron, vviio - 



ADMinAr, LOUD OAMTJIER. 237 

Ii:ul not yet been exaniiii'-rl, "One of tliriu" ^a'nl his LonhMp, " ib Cap- 
tain NtnvC'i'iibf. ^s \n-> iiiiJiK' appeared yesterday in onleiice, and it 
mi^h. is arl to ati iiifluouce urojudicral to tha. meritorious officer, if I did 
not notice hi'; condncr, I bes: leiive t<> assure tliis Court, that he ucqiiitted 
hiln^cl■ in ihc c.'in.nHiid of the rJeaJe, in Aix !lau<!s, ma manner highly 
hoii'Mirnhle to hiin:>flf, and cert^ujiiy s i.risAict ry t ) aie." 

Sir FIapbv .Nf.ai.k sivoin, airi e^;ulnnle;l tiy lue Court. 

Q. Did the siirn-ai-lieuteiiiint of tlie taledoiiia, Oii the 14t!i of April, re- 
port to y^u ai'd inform the c >nnnan'^er-in-ehuT i>y ^ig;\al, 'hat if allo'veti to 
remain, he could destroy '^hc eiu-itiy's ships? — A. I was waikiif<: the poop, 
when I (iirecteri, by the cnmniaiider-in-chiot's onJer, a signal of recall to 
be nmne ro the Impcrieuse, who reciin'ed a si^iinl, rrprirfsJ 'o mc, " if 
permitted to wait. c*i;i destroy the encmv." Capia.n A\ ohe., of the Ai^Ie, 
was ti'en directed to proceed ai-d 'ake the command of the iii-shore squa- 
dron, and the liiiperieu-c was directed, by telei:rapli, to conMuminte with 
tlie Aiijle; liut wliethcr he did comniunicaic anv luformatioji or plai in 
consequence of that d.rr ..tioii, or lo the commander-in-chief, on his re- 
turn, I am ignorant. The Aifjle went into Aix Rmids, in coii'^equence of 
the si.^n^l. All the small vcisels had been sent in tlie day before. 

Q. ( Bj/ Lord Gambicr.) Had you any coti-ersalion with Lord 
Cociii-ane, at any time respecting the accuracy of the French charts?— 
A. Yes; I was conveising about the (ith of Af.ril lust with Lord CmcI;- 
rane, rcspcctmi» i-.c distance at winch the Uritisii fleet w-.'.s anchored 
froai the French. His Lorriship stated the ilects were nine miles from each 
iDther. I replied that they were only six; thnt it had l)ten as^certained hy 
ant:lcs, as well as by cross-bean nifs upon the eluirt. His Lordship replied 
(speakins; of a F'r^inch chart), the (hart is not to be dependeil upon. (It; 
was tiie rvepTime Frai.yois, and his Lordship understond it to be so). Ihc 
French, he added, were in the habit of <j;i\ini: a smaller space upon thcii' 
cliarts, than wis true; that he had Iran an instance of it upon some former 

occasion, when staiidino jn to , he expected to have found, by 

the chart, that the space v\as small, and he found it nearly live or six 
miles broad. 

Q. W as not the firing of tiie explosion-vessel committed to Lord Coch- 
rane? — •\. F.ntii-i ly so. 

Q. {By the Courl.) Did Lord Cochrane state how many jiuns he had ob- 
served on the battery? — A. No, he did not; he reported the we.~t end of 
the fortification to be in a state of rul bish, but it wa.s visil.io to the fleet 
it was newly fornied. 

Lord C»AMBihU — " It is material for me to observe, that Lord Cochrane 
had, on the ISth, made the signal to me 'can destroy enemy;' m\ which 
account I diri then recall the i;>'peiieusc, hut as nothing bad been elfeeted 
by his Lord^hi[) \\heM on the followins; dav he matle the signal to me, " hea 
recalled, ' if peitnitted to remam, ertii destroy enemy,' 1 thotij^ht it unne- 
cessary to pay more attention to this siirnal, than to (hrect iiis Lordship, by 
si^r.al, to communicate with the Aii!,le, ".\hich ship Lord Cochrane knew I 
had ordered to relieve him. I concluded, therefore. Lord Cochrane 
woi.ld communcate to Captain Wolfe any measures he had in contem- 
plation fur destroying the enemy, and wished to have his Lordslii-i's 
report of proceedings, that I migiit transmit my report to the Admn-alty 
without delay." 

Captam Hakdimax, of the Unicorn, sworn and examined. Tie spoke 
in tavoiirable terms of tiie exertions of thi> lieay.le. There had been no 
neglect or delay on the part of thecomm:tndcr-in-chief. 

Captain Seymour, of the I'allas, sworn, and examined by Lord Gam- 
liiEK, lie thoir:;ht that every thing piaclii able had been done, for elVecting 
the destructiun of the enemy's ships. When the general r|ucstion was pnt^ 



2o8 TKIAL OF 

as to neglect, misconduct, or inattention, in substnnce as follows:— I con- 
ceive myself a very incompetent judiie of the commander-in-chief s con- 
duct; but I know no iiisance of conduct to which any of those terms can 
be applied. From the knowledi;e I have subsequently gained ufthe pro- 
ceeduigs of the ships on the 12th, I think the line-of battleships iniohthave 
floated m the last half of the liood tide. Ttiis would have been at eleven 
o'clock. The line-of battle sliips went in soon after two. This opinion vvas 
formed from the deptli of \\ater we found on goiu;j, in, and from seeinsj 
the Revenge going oat at a corresponding time of tide on the fol- 
lowing day. 

Q. Do you mean to say it would have been proper for tlie commander- 
in-chief to have sent the ships in, when you say tliey could have floated 
at eleven? — A. Two siiips of the line were anchored in a situation to 
annoy ships going in: at the time I possessed no information of the 
strength of Isle d'Aix, or the depth of the water, to allow me to form 
a judgment. 

Q,. li' i understand your former answer, it was advanced as an instance 
of either neglect, misconduct, or inattendon in the commander-in-chief; 
ho-.v then happens it that you now say, you are not qualihed to form a 
belief? — A. I particularly said, that I did not consider it either neglect, 
misconduct, or inattention; I mentioned it as a point on which a dilference 
of opinion might be entertained. I myself have my doubts whether line- 
of-battle ships would have succeeded in doing good by going in. There 
was water sufticient for the line-of-batlie ships to have gone m at eleven 
o'clock. It was a point where the discretion of the cominander-in chief 
might be fairly used. I confine myself to the depth of water. 

Captain Newcomre, of the Beagle, sworn and examined. He entered 
into a detail of the particular part his sliip took in the action, which bore 
no reference to the charges exiiibited against Lord Gambler, but reflected 
considerable credit on his own activity and exertion. — After some questions 
from the Court, which corroborated the testimony of the former witnesses, 
the Court asked its general question, whether the witness could state any 
one instance of iicglect or misconduct in the commatider-in-chief ? — 
A. ]None ; save and except Imd tlie commander-in-chief thought it proper 
in his situation to have sent the vessels in earlier than they went, aithougli 
there might have been great risk in so doing, there was a possibility of 
annoying the enemy more than they were annoyed; but our sliips must 
have been subjected not only to tlie tire of the enemy's ^hips that remained 
at anchor, but also to that of the batteries of the Isle d'Aix. 

Q. Under the circumstances of the case, would you, i;ad you been com- 
maiidcr-in-chief, ha\c sent the ships earlier in to attack those of the enemy 
on shore? — A. The risk, I think, as tiie wind and tide were, was rather too 
great ; and our want of a perfect knowledge of the anciiorage further to the 
south\\ard, between the Palais and the Olcron. 

The witness thought, that every thing had been done that was practicable 
to be done to destroy the enemy's ships, considering ail the circumstances 
stated. 

Captain Kehr being again examined, stated tliaf, from every observation 
be had of neticing the bomb, the brig sloops of war, and gun-brigs, upon 
all the services in which they were employed against the enemy, he sav.' no 
instance of misconduct of any kind whatever in any of those vessels. 

Lord Gambler iierc declined examining any further evidence ; but the 
Court intimated its intention of calling witnesses to some particular points; 
and, accordingly. Captain WoLi' was again called and examined. Sliortly 
after we anchored, said Captain Wolf, Lord Cochrane came on board, and 
after saying I had come to relieve him, I asked him v.hat he wQuli 



ADMIRAL LORD OAM3IEU. 23i 

recommend to do with the vessels under my orders for the destruction of 
the enemy's ships ; he told me that the large mortar on board tlic .Etna iiad 
burst, and the only thing we had to do was to bombard as lon^ as tiie stiells 
of the otljer mortar lasted ; that if an opportunity otFered of sending the 
fire-vessels, it should be done by day-lig!it, as many otiicersof the hre-ve^scls 
had made such a bad business of it on the night of the 11th. 

Q. Do you kno\v of any particular fire-ship or ships that were impro- 
perly conducted on the evening of the llch of April ? — A. Tlie ship tliat 
passed between us and the Island Olivcra, and got on shore there, was the 
only one I pariicularly noticed. I hailed bcveral (five) that came very near 
us, from our own ship being very nearly set on fire by those that were 
badly managed. I could not learn the ntmes of two of the otiicers of the 
fire-ships that behaved well; five behaveil very well, one of them was com- 
jnanded by Captain Newcoinbe, wlio dc-ired me to re nember he had 
passed us; Lieutenant Cookesly, of the Gibraltar, was another who bei;i;ed 
Z would keep my eye upon him, as he would not fire his vessel till he was 
among them. I did, and saw him run ou board a two-decked ship of th« 
enemy; from the first breeze u{ wind 1 could not hear the names of tJje 
other officers. Another came-to on board of me, and bei^ged I would 
notice his conduct. 

The witness stated, that from every opportunity he had of observiTjg the 
proceedings of the bomb, the sloops of war, and the gun-brigs, it did not 
appear to him that any of those vessels were in any instance whatever im- 
properly conducted. 

Captain Malcolm was sworn and examined ; but his evidence was not 
material; and the Court adjourned till Timrsday, the 3d of August, whea 
Captain Kerr was re-examined. He stated, that, in his way out from Aix 
Itoad, to join the squadron in Basque Roads, his ship was struck bv the 
batteries from the Isle of Aix, on the morning of the 13th, t!ie shells from 
Oleron passing over her at the same time. On the 12th, tiie bowsprit was 
severely wounded, great part of liic running rigging and sails cut to pieces, 
five planks of the quarter-deck cut through, and its beam completely carried 
away, and a number of shots in different parts of the hull ; three men killed 
and fifteen wounded, two of whom afterv.-ards died. The damages in tlie 
hull, and killed and wounded, were from the batteries of Isle d'Aix 
entirelv, part of the rimning rigging from the Aquilon and Varsovie. 

Captain MA^coLM'^ Examination resumed. — After stating it to be his 
opinion, that half flood was about noon, and that tiie enemy's ships got oiF 
at about two P.M. ; and that any s'lips sent in previous to the rem ival of 
the French ships that got off, woidd have bcei; liable to considerable an- 
}ioyancc from them, as well as from the Isle of Aix, in answer to the ques- 
tion, — Would you then have sent ships in before the two ships were remov- 
ed, and the three-decker got off? he said : — " Had it appeared to me that 
there was no other ch."mce of destroying those ships but by such an attack, 
T certainly think it ougiit to ha\'e been made ! but it was understood that 
they must all ngain ground at the mouth of the Charentc, where it was the 
received opinion tiiey could he attacked by gun-vessels, bombs, and firc- 
vessels again, without any risque; and had we had a reserve of lire-ships 
ready tliat morning, I think some of them would have lieen destroyed in the 
flood tide of the l-2th. There v.ere fire-ships prepared with all expedition, 
but they were too late. — Had the French ships wliicii got on shore upon the 
Palais, on the night of the 11th April, been attacked by the British ships 
they could not have been warped otV froin the shore, as it was necessary so 
to do to lay out anchors. Those tliat were not aground had always the op- 
tion of running farther up tlie Charentc. If our ships had nsqued against 
tfaeiB is tiie attafik, there is no doubt they could :iot have warped oft". — Th(j 



240 TRIAL OF 

moment that tVie two French ships quitted their defensive position, the ri«k 
was small, anj I woiikl hav,' seiu in. It n-as bet v f:; r^e ti.iurs of o.ie md 
two; souii after that time the bo.nbs and brii^s wf;re seiU in; the Inipcricuse 
and Beis^lc vcrv s.)a:i follo^veJ, and in ab.mt 20 m .lu'es all the trisi itrs. 

Q. As tlie frigates, the bombs, and briiis, went in to attack the eisemy 
soon after tlie time that you think was proper for the occasion, tliat the 
Imperieiise t")llaAed, and about 2u minutes after the fvevtn^e. Va'.i mt, 
and other vessels, were sent in upon the same service, nhat portion of 
time was there in y ur judgment which might be termed a dehiy in the 
connimnder-in-chief ? 

A. Certainlv there was not more than half nn hour, or three quarters of 
an hour, from tfic thnc tiif two •••np« quitted the dcfeusve, till -^hips were 
sent m by sitc'i.T' This was th( only lime tiiat can possibly be called the 
delav. — Ei'crv nrac'icalds effort was made to destroy the ships of the enemy 
that ?ot into the enivaricp f>f the Charente. 

Captani Br nx^Tox, Captani Balt , and Captain Newman, were not aware 
of any blame atti.clnMg to Lord Gambier. 

Captain BROuGurON, of the Illustrious, stated, that he was on board 
the Amelia when she wa^ ordered 'o rliblod.^e tiie enemy from the Muoyart 
flioal ; and being above the encm;, on the isle d'Aix, he observed the for- 
tifications. Thty appeared ni a very diBerent s:ate from what he had o\i- 
servcd them in two or three years before, when he was with Sir llichard Keats. 
He tliouglit they were repairing liie works thev were throwing up. He 
counted <n\ a semi-circulai bi.ttery. wh'ch commanded the road whire the 
enemv lay, bpt>' oen 14 and 2(> jiuns. There v as a s:nail battery lower 
down, nearer the sea. He did not kns.-w r.'ie exact n:iniher of ^uns there — 
there migtit be six or nine. What he had before taken for the block-house, 
above the seni-rircular battery, seciiicd to have no guns wliatcver. It 
appeared to be a barrack; and he ihoiight, from this observation, that the 
fortifications of the Isla.id in that n^rc were not so strong as was supposed, 
and he reported bis opnnnn to Loid (jatnbicr. 

Cajiiain Bf.olgiitkk liiought it wouhl lia%-e been more advantageous if 
the liiie-of battle -hips, trigaies, and ^uiall vessels had gone in at half flood, 
between 11 and 12 u'chck. They would have been exposed to the hre of 
the two ships that remained at anchor, the French Admiral's ship, and the 
batteries otthe isle of Aix, at the same time; but they were partly panic- 
struck, and on the appearance of a force coming in might have been reduced 
to cut ti^eir cables, and try to make their e^^cajie up the river. In the 
event of their proving not to have been so panic-struck, the British -hips 
Hiuit have siiifc-rtd, but sliips, bethought, mi iht have been placed aiainst 
the batteries ol Isle d'Aix, so as to tike off their fire, and silence tbein. 
Ships of the line, he thought, ap]>roac.h the batteries of the Isle d'Aix, very 
close, about two cables' length. He thouuht, as the wind was N.W. they 
might have found hHte anchorage in what >s called in the French chart, Le 
Gratid Troussc, where there is SO or 40 feet water, out of the range of 
shot and shells in every dircctio:i. 

Q. How many ships of the line did you think would be sufficient to silence 
the batteries of the isle d'Aix r 

A. Two would be quite sulhcient. 

Q. How many would yoii have thought necessary to have sent in to the 
lloadof Aix, to attack the ships? 

A. I should think five of the line of the least draught of water. 

Q. If two had been i-cnt aiiain-t the batteries, and five aLaiubt the ships, 
must it not, according to the c inimon circumstances attending actions, 
have happened that several of those sliips would have been disabled, and 
saany men killed and v-ounded? 



ADMIRAL LORD CAMEIER. S41 

A. I should think by the batteries there would ; but I conjecture the 
discomlited French squadron would have made very little resistance. 

Captain Kerr reque-ted to be called by Lorb Gamuier, and re exa- 
mined. 

Q. (Bj/ Lord Giimbier.) What, from your experience of the effect of 
tlie batteries on the Isle d'Aix, would have been the fate of the Revenge, 
and any other 74 gun ships, had they been placed within two or three ca- 
bles' length of those batteries, with a view of engaging them, until they had 
silenced them ? 

A. I should certainly have expected, from the heavy fire they kept up, 
both in cominsi; in and coingout, that ships stationed there must have been 
completely dismasted, and suilered a severe loss of men. If dismisted, 
v.ith the wind b!owini<; from the north, as it did on the 12ih, they must have 
been lost. The liatcery on the Itle of Aix was low enoui^h to admit of its 
beioii destroyed by tiie guns of ships, t)n the south side, not on the south- 
west side. 

Captain Bligii was again called in, after which, the Court intimated to 
Lord Gambler that they should not exa.uine anv further evidence, but if 
his Lordship had any thing to add, he was at liberty so to do. 

Lord Gainhier wished the indulgence of the Court for a quarter of an 
liour, to consider whether he should call more evidence, and tlien request- 
ed that a paper fie had presented th-j preceding d ly should be permitted to 
be entered upon the minutes of their proceedmgs, wh.ch was acquiesced in, 
and was nearly as follows : — 

" Mr. PuESfDENT — Arrived at t'le termination of my defence, it remains 
for me to express ray acknowledgments to this honourable Court, for the 
patient attention with which it has honoured me. The space of time coni- 
prehended in the charge, and more particularly the evidence of the princi- 
pal (I miglu snv the only) witness on the part of the prosecution, have led 
nie into detail more ditiuse and extensive than I could have apprehended. 

" When I first entered this Court, it was with a mind perfectly at rest as 
to the issue of my trial, confident of having exerted myself to the utmost 
for the honour and advantage of my King and Country. Tiie resultof these 
proceedings has confirmed me in this state of mind. 

" I now retire, conmiitting toy(Jur protection my professional reputation 
and my honour, with full persuasion that I shall receive at your hands 
ample retribution for the aspersions on my character which have led to this 
inquiry." 

The Court then acquainted Lord Gambier, that his Lordsliip might take 
until tomorrow to consider whether he shoukl olier any further evidence. 
His Lordship made his acknowledgments for the indulgence, and the Court; 
adjourned till Friday, the 9tli of August. 

At ten o'clock on Friday morning (the ninth day of the trial) the Court 
met, when the President, Sir Roger Curtis, Bart, stated his having re- 
ceived a letter froui Lord Cochrane, purporting his wish to be examined 
<in several points, particularly relating to the conversation with Lord Gam- 
bier, after the action. The Court did not think proper to acceed to his 
■wibh of being examined, but asreed tint the letter, which lie had written 
to the President, shoukl be entered on the minutes, which was done, and 
in as follows ; — 

Aii,cusl 4, 1809. 

" Sir — Having lenrnt from my brother Ofliccrs, a report has gone 
abroad, that I censured, in general terms, the conduct of the Ofticers em- 
ployed in the Road of Aix, on the the IQth of April, I w-sli to have an 
opportunity to declare the truth, on oath, considering reports of that ua- 

yi2a»3. G5)rcn. ulol. XXII. i i 



242 TRIAL OF ADMIRAL LORD GAMBIER. 

tu re highly iniiirious to the service of our country. lam also desirous tf> 
lay before the Court the orders given to the tire-ships for their guidance, 
as these will tend to elucidate and clear some of those who consider that 
blame has been imputed to them. I have the honour to be &c. 

" Admiral Sir Roger Cttrtis, President." " Cochrane." 

The Court wtts then cleared ; and, after the re-admission of strangers, 
the following Sentence was pronounced : — 

" The Court agreed, that the charge ' that Admiral the Right Honour- 
able Lord Gainbier, on the 12th of April, tlie enemy's ships being then on 
Mre, and the signal having been made that tiiey could be destroyed, d d^ for 
a consideraVjle time, neglect or delay taking effectual measures fordesiroy- 
ing them,' had not been proved against the said Uighl Hon. Lord Gambier; 
but that his Lordship's conduct on that occasion^ as well as his general con- 
duct and proceedings, as commander-in-chief of the Cliannel fleet, em- 
ployed in Basque Roads, between the said 17th day of Alarch, and the 29th 
day of April, 1809, was marked by zeal, judgment, and ability, and an 
anxious attention to the welfare of his ."Majesty's service; and (hd adjudge 
HIM TO BE MOST HONOURABLY ACQUITTED; aud tlic Said Admir;il lUe 
Right Honourable Lord Gambier is hereby most honourably acquitted 
accordingly. 

Sir Roger. Curtis then desired Lord Gamhicr's sword to be handed to 
him, which he returned to his Lordship, with the following address : — 

*' Admiral Lord Gambiep, I have poruliar pleasure in receiving the 
command of the Court to return you your sword, in the fullest conviction 
that, as you have hitherto done, you will on all future occasions use it tor 
the honour and advantr<ge of your country, and to your own personal ho- 
nour. Having so far obeyed the command of the Court, I beg you will 
permit me, in my individual capacity, to express to you the high gratilication 
I have upon this occasion." 

Lord Gambier answered: — 

" I cannot sufficiently express the sense I feel of the indnlgenre of the 
Court, and beg to return thanks to you. Sir, for the obliging uianner in 
T^hich you have conveyed the sense of the Court." 

A rourt-rar.rtial was held on board the Salvador del Mundo, in Hamoaze, 
for the trial of Mr. Granville, midshipman, of the Milford, on charges ex- 
hibited against him by the commanding otficer of that shij), for mutinv, 
desertion, insolence, and contempt. The Court having fully vvei^bed, and 
considered the eviilcnce, in support of the charge, as well as what the pri- 
soner had to offer in his defence, sentenced him to be dismissed his Majes- 
ty's service, rendered incapable of ever serving as an othccr, and to be 
imprisoned si.x months in the Marshalsea. 



A court-martial has been held on board the Magnanime, at Sheerness, on 
Mr. Thomas Jones, boatswain of the Enterprize, for drunkenness. The 
charge being proved, he was sentenced to hv dismissed his i'dajesty's 
service, and to serve before the mast, on board such sliip as the senior 
otEcer may think proper. 

A Court of Inquiry has been held on board tl;e B'enfaisant, piison-ship, 
on Mr. Henry Bois, connnander of the said ship; on a cluuge which was 
adduced against him. - He was honourably acquitted. 



NAVAL JlISTOllY OF THE PRESENX Y£AU, 1809. 243 

On tlie lltli of September, a court- inartiai assembled at Pi>rtSTnoiith, to 
inquire into the conduct of Captain Ueury ColumLiiue, conimander of his 
Majesty's h\Le ship Solebay, and tliat of liis oliiceis and ship's company ; 
and to try them for tlie loss of that ship. Tlie Court av;:-c.eJ, that no hlaiiie 
was imputable to Captain C, his officers, or siiip's ci'nip.iny, for the Idi 
of the Solebay; but that it appeared, that alter sirj was on shore, and 
before she was abandoned, Mich:icl Grace, Ihomas Jones, Charles Nileus, 
and Robert Storks, seamen, belonging to her, had been in a state of drunk- 
enness; and the Court adjudged that Captain Columbine, his oiTicers, and 
ship's company, be acquitted, except Mich-.iel Grace, wlioni the Couit sen- 
tenced to receive 150 lasiies, Thomas Joiies to receive 150 lashes, and 
Charles Nileus and Robert Storks to receive 50 lasiies each, and to bs 
uiulcteci, or to forfeit all the pay due to them from the 1 Uh of July last. 

On the 19th of Septerabi.r, a court-martial was held at Portsea, on 
John Ashley, carpenter of his Majesty's sloop Derwent, for bein^ d'-ank 
when ordered on duty at the capture of Senegal; so that he was incapable 
of leadincf his men to the attack of that phice. He was sentenced to be 
dismissed the service, rendered iiicafialde of servin<r as an oliicer a"ain, and 
to he impiisoned six months in the Marshalsea prison. 



On tlie 13th of July last, a court-martial was held on board the Royal 

Sovereign, oflF Toulon, for the trial of Lieutenant Walbccff, of the marines 
beloni;ing to his Majesty's ship Colos'us, on charges of riotou- and unccn- 
tlemnniy conduct, exliibired a^'ainst him by the captain of the said ship. 
1 he Court, after a long trial, found him guilty, and ho was sentenced t9 
be cashiered. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAH, 1S09. 

(August — September.) 

RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLAXEOUS. 

A T pnge 123, we liad tie pleasure of announcing; the successful pro- 
■^ gross of the Scheldt Expedition ; but it is now our irksome dutv, to 
state, as will be seen at lentjth, by the succeeding " Lcifers on Service,'* 
that ail attempts to destroy the hostile fleet at Antwerp have been aban- 
doned. As it is understood, that a Court of Inquiry is to be holden on the 
cenduct of the military commander-in-chief, we shall not venture to pre- 
judge the question; but, in the mean time, we beg leave most particularly 
to direct the attention of our reliders to the gallant Sir. R. Strachan's let- 
ter, of the date of August '2r. It will, we conceive, be found very fully to 
exhibit his opinion on the subject. 

It is not at present known, whether Government intends to retain, or to 
endeavour to retain, possession of the Uland of Walchercn ; but, from 
the dreadful mortality which prevails amongst our troops there, it seems to 
Lc the general wish of the country, that it sliould be abandmied. The 
returns of sick, on the 20th of September, were stated at upwards of 9000 ! 
iS7ne thousand out of ^^(tcfw/ We nmch doubt, whether any advantage 
can possibly result from the retention of VValchcrciij to compensate fur »>» 
feoirjble ii iacri.lce of life and health, » 



244 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAE, 1809. 



It seems not unlikely, that the sudden dissolution of the British Minis- 
try may have prevented a determination on this importani point. The 
Duke of Portland, Lord Castlereagh, Mr. Canning, and several other Cabi- 
net IMinibters, have ,a,iven in their resignations ; but, amongst ihe tj/icient 
members who remain, are Lord Mul grave and the Ear/ of Chuihaw J The 
Lords Grenville and Grey have been sent to, for rhe purpose of assisting in 
the formation of a new Ministry; but nothing farther is known, than that 
great difficulties are likely to be encountered, in the accomplishment of 
this object. 

England is at present quite in the dark, respecting the proceedings be- 
tween France and Austria. It is not cveji known, whether peace has been 
actually signed between those powers. 

Peace has been signed between liussia and Sweden. 

Lord Wellington has been obliged to abandon .Spain, and to fall back 
upon Portugal; but we have had the satisfaction of learning, that the whole 
of the Spanish fleet in Ferrol have been completely fitted out for sea, by a 
squadron sent for that purpose from the Tagus, and that the last ship sailed 
for Cadiz on the IGth of September. 

The American Government ha? enforced its Xon-intcrcourse act against 
this country; the Wasp American sloop of war, was to sail for France on 
the 16th of August, w-ith a messenger, bearing proposals to the Cabinet of 
the Thuilleries, as the basis of a treaty; and it is expectid, that the 
negotiations will terminate in an offensive and defensive alliance between 
France and the United States. 

Mr. Jackson, the English envoy to America, was within four days' sail 
of New York, on the 2^d of August; but very little hope is entertained 
of his being able to eSect a settlement of the differences between this 
country and America. 

Accounts from Barbadoes, to the 19th of August, state, that Fort Bour- 
bon, Martinique, had been demolished by order of our commander-in- 
chief, and that our garrison there were remarkably healthy. The Ftlicite 
frigate had arrived safe at Antigua, but much injured in a gale of wind. 
The Forrester brig of war had also arrived at Antigua, dismasted by the 
same gale: and great fears were entertained for the safety of the Domi- 
nica brig, which was convoying the Prince Adolphus packet through the 
islands to the leeward. 

By intelligence from Buenos Ayres, we learn that Lmier has been 
superseded. 

On the 19th of September, the Berwick, a ship of 74 guns, was launched 
from Mr. Beale's yard, at Deptford. The following are her principal 
dimensions: — 

Feet. In. 

Length of the gun-dech 176 

Keel for tonnage 144 1 If 

Breadth extreme 47 9^ 

Depth in hold 21 1 

Burthen in tens.... ... .. 17G1 

On the same day, a frigate, called the Manilla, was launched at Wool-' 
wicli. Lord Eardley christened her, in the usuiil form. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 245 

%mtt$ on ^crtifp, 

Copied verbatim from the Losdos Gazette, 

ADMIRALTY-OFFICF, AUGUST 26, 1809. 

A LETTER has been received at this office, from Capt.CohimhIne, late 
commander of hi-. Majesty's ship the Solebay, addressed to the Hon. 
William Wellesley Polo, and dated onboard tiie Derwent sloop, ofFSeneiial, 
the 20th of July, 1809, giving an account of the snrrender of thai settle- 
merii to his Majesty's arms. Some depredations havinu; been comtnitteu 
on the trade in the neii^hbourhood of Senegal, by small privateers fitted out 
there, (Captain Columbine, and Major Maxwf II, commanding the oarrison 
at Goree, determm^d to make an attack upon the place, and proceeded 
against it on the 4th of ,'uly, with the Solebay, Dcrwent sloop, and Tigress 
gun-vcssel, and so.ne merchant and smaller vessels, having on board a 
aetaclmicut of one hut)dred and sixty men from Goree. The enemy at 
first ajjpeared disp(^svd to offer stime resistance, but the detachment being 
landed, together with one hundred and twenty seamen and fifty marines, 
the enemy's force, consiting of one hundred and sixty regulars, and two 
liundred and foi ty mditia, retreated, and on the 13th a capitulation was 
signed, by which the Island of St. Louis, and its dependencies, were sur- 
rendered to the British forces, the garrison being conveyed to I'rance a* 
prisoners of war, not to serve against his Majesty or his allies, until regu- 
larly exchanged. 

The only loss sustained by the English on this service, has been that of 
Captain Frederick Parker, of the Derwent, Mr. Francis Atterbury Sealy, 
midshiijuian of that sloop, and six seamen, drowned in attempting to cross 
the Bar of Senegal. 

Captiiin Columbine speaks in high terms of the conduct of the officers 
and men employed on the occasion. 

On the 11th of July, the Solebay, in moving up the river, got on shore 
and was wrecked, all licr men and part of the stores were saved. 

DOWNING-STREET, AUGUST 26, 1809. 

A despatch, of which the following is a copy, has been received froin 
Major Maxwell, of tl e Royal African Corps, addressed to Lord Viscount 
Casllereagh, one of his Majesty's principal secretaries of state. 

MY LORD, Senegal, Jultj \?>, \?i09. 

When I had last the honour of writing to your lordship, I communicated 
such information as I had received concer.uig the situation of the FVench 
colony of Senegal, and my opinion of the jjiacticability of reducing it with a 
small force ; 1 also mentioned the annoyance we had received at Goree and 
its vicinity, from their privateers, during the absence of ships of vv.ar from 
that station. 

On the 2Jth of June, Commodore Columbine arrived at Goree with the 
Solebay frigate, and brig Tigress, having the colonial schooner (Jeorge, 
Agincourt transport, and several merchiuit vessels under convoy, and having 
conununicatcd to him wliat intelligence I had lately obtained, we thought 
the reduction of Senegal practicable with the tbrce we possessed, pro- 
vided no obstacles should prevent our being able to pass the bars at tlift 
jMoutli of the river. 



246 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

To this attempt I was induced by considerations which I trust your lord- 
sliip will conceive to be of weiiiht, I was of opinion that the colony of 
itself would be an acquisition of importance to the nation, from its com- 
merce ; that by the French goverrmietit as. it had always been much valued, 
its loss would be proportionally felt ; and that by driving the enemy from 
their sole possession on the coast, !iis T.lajesty's settlements, and the British 
commerce, would be more secure, and more easily protected. 

Having therefore procured some litiht vessels and boats, the best adapted 
for passing the bar, a detachment of tiie garrison of Goree, consisting of six 
officers, six Serjeants, four drunmiers, and 150 rank and file, was embarked 
on board the Agiucourt transport on the 4th of July, when we sailed, and 
anchored at the bar on the evening of the 7 th. 

Next morning Commodore Colamhiue was of opinion the troops might 
be passed tncr the bar, which was accordingly effected through much ditfi- 
cnlty by tiie exertions of the navy. We unfortunately, however, lost a 
schooner and sioop, containing much of our provibiuns and aiumunition, and 
the schooner George went on shore inside the bar. I landed the dttach- 
ir.ent, and 60 royal marines from the ships of war, on tlie left bank of the 
river, where I took up a position, with a view to wait till pruiisions could 
be passed i'rom the shipping, and the schooner George could be got off. 
We tlien leaint that the enemy had made a formidable line of defence at 
tiie Post of Babague, twelve miles up tiie river, where there is a battery, in 
front of which three (jannonieis, and four other vessels were moored, and 
the vviiule protected by a strong boom drawn across the river. On the 9th 
we were attacked, but speedily repulsed the enemy, and drove them within 
their line at Babaiiue ; after which we returned to get off the schooner, 
which was effected on the following evening. 

I'he 11th was employed in refitting the schooner, and embarking provi- 
sions and water. The Solebay frigate, and Derwent sloop of war, were 
ordered to anchor opposite to the Post of Babague, aiul Ijombard it, which 
was executed with much effect. During the uiglit, in shifting her berth, the 
Nilebay unfortunately got aground, but in a positi.Mi which en.^bled her still 
to aniuiy the eiumy. On the morning of the I'itii the troops vvcre emi--urked, 
and the flotilla proceeded up the rivtr, till just wiihor.t gun-shot of the 
enemy's' line of defence, ami when every tiling was in readiness for a night 
attack, we received information that it v% as the intention of the I'rench 
connnauflant to capitulate. 

V\ illing to spare an unnecessary effusion of humaii blood, the attack was 
jiostponed. On the n)orniag of the Ijlii we discos ered ihat the boom was 
Inoken, that the enemy had abandoned the battery and \esscls, leaving 
their colours flying, and shortly afterwards a letter was iecei\ed from 
^Messrs. Degnyiny and Dnrecu, in the name of tiie connnandant of Senegal, 
oflermg to capitulate. Air. Ileddio, surgeon to the forces, wlio had acted 
as my aid-ilc-camp during the campaign, was sent forward to treat with 
these gentlemen, and soon returned with the articles of crpitulalion, whitb 
1 enclose, and which we ratihed. I immediacely took (.osses.sioii of the 
battery of Isk aux Anglo. s, and in the ctjurse of the evening of the battery 
of (iuelendar facing the foun 

iSext morning tiie garrison laid doun their arms, and were embarked. 
We then found tiiat the force whic'j had been employed against us 
amounted to KiO regular soldiers, nnrt '2-10 militia and volnn'eers. We had 
no rea'-on, however, to count on much oppoiUipn t'rom the lacier part of the 
enemy's force. 

In accomplishing; tins service, the oOlcers and soldiers of the army were 
anxious to equal then- hrothers of the nai y, ^i ho on ail occasions distinguish 
themselves. 1 feel much sanslactiun in having enjoyed the (;onlidence 
of Commodore Columbine, whose excrtio^is >iiid abihty coniribuicd sui 



NAVAt, HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 247 

effectually to our success. I beg to bear testimony to the indefatigable 
and zealous exertions of Captain Titley, Lieutenant Bones, and the other 
officers of the roval navy and marines. 

My warmest acknowledfrnipnts are due to Mr Heddle for his zealous and 
spirited conduct. His ability in procuring inlolligenre of tlie state and 
condition of the enemy, added to his local knowledge, have u-ndecl, in an 
infinite degree, to eifecL the acquisition of this colony, and I am desirous to 
recommend him to your l;)rdship's notice. This officer, with Mr. Assistant 
Commissary Hamilton, iiad the goodness to assist me during the campaign, 
in conveying my orders to the troops. 

I have to lament the death of an old soldier, Lieutenant Simpson, who 
died on the field fiom fatigue, in the atfair of the 11th; on which day we 
had only one man wounded. The enemy had one killed and two 
wounded. 

I enclose returns of the ordnance and stores found in this colony, and of 
the vessels captured at Bahague. 

I beg leave to menti )u that Captain Odium, who carries this despatch, 
is a deserving officer, and to recommend him to your lordship's notice. 
1 ha\e the honour to he, &c. 

C. W. MAXWELL, 
Major of the Royal African Corps. 

ARTICLES of CAPITULATION^ between M^. Hrddle, acling as Jldc- 
de-Ca/»j), and posses<;i7j'j f't'll Power from Coinnwdorc Columbine, command^ 
i»g Ike Niival, and lilftjor Charles William Maxwell, commanding the. 
Land Forces of his Brilunnic Majts'i/, emploj/ed in cm Expedition against 
the Colony of Senegal, on the one Pur!, 

And M. Degrigni/, Commissary of Marine, Admi.ii<itratorin Chief of Senegal, 
and M. Du?ecu, Mcrchinl, possess'ng full Powers from ilX, Lcvasstur, 
Commandant, tf Senegal, for the Surrender of I he Island ofSL Louis and 
its Dependencies, on the other Part. 

Art. T. The garrison sliall he conveyed to France as pr;s(5!iers of wa**, 
and sliall not serve aganl^t Great Britain or her allieS; until regularly 
exchanged. 

They shall march out witli the honours of war, and lay down their arms 
at the mfiment of th^ir etnharkation, Tfie colonv shall he evacuated 
in the space of twenty-four hours after the ratification of ilic present capi- 
tulation. 

The officers shall he permitted to carry their effects alouL' with them. 

Art. II. The olFicers and clerks belonging to tiic administration, sli:ill be 
permitted to remain one mouth in the colony for the purpose of regulating 
tlieir ac((mnts; they shall have permission to return to Trance, or elsewhere, 
as opportunities may occur. 

Art. II[. All private property f^hall he respected. 

Art. IV'. No mhaliitiuir of the island, nor European residiiig in it, shall 
be molested on account of his political opinions. 

Art V. Such French merchants as wish to remain, shall have permission 
to do so. 

Art. VI. All vessels, houses, magazines, batteries, ordnance stores, afiil 
all other public property shall be surrendered in their present stale. 

Art. \Tr. Ail registers and acts deposited in the Ertffier's Office sh.all be 
surrendired. 

Art. VIII. The pos's of Guer.tander arid English Island shall lie given 
up in the courss wf tht d>iy, and if pobiible the garrison shaii also 
embark. 



248 NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

Art. IX. The auxiliary company composed of two officers and forty-one 
men of colour, shall have permission to reside at Senegal, and be considered 
as natives. 

Signed at the Island of Babagay, at the hour of eleven A.M. of the 13th 
July, 1809. 

JOHN HEDDLE. 

DURECU. 

DEGllIGNY. 

Ratified, E. H. COLUMBINE, Commodore, 

commanding the Squadron of his 
Britannic ]\Iajesty. , 

C. W. MAXWELL, Major of In- 
fantry, commanding his Biilannic 
Majesty's Land Forces. 
Vue et Ratine par le Command, en Chef par interime. 

LEVALLENT. 

Senegal, July 18, 1809. 
Rcltirn of Ordnance and Ammunition found in the Ganison of Senegal, ^-s, 
]sle St. Louis. 
West Battery. — 5 mounted, 3 dismounted '?4-pounder guns; 1 dismonnted 
13-[)0under gun ; 1 mounted, 1 dismounted eight-inch bra^s mortars. 

North Battery. — 3 mounted 24-pounder guns ; 30 24-pounder shots. 

South Battery. — 7 mounted, 11 dismounted 24-pounder guns; 5 dis- 
mounted 1 8- pounder guns ; 2000 24-pounder shots. 

Fort. — 15 dismounted 24-pounder guns; 1 dismounted 18-pounder cun ; 
8 dismounted 12-p(nind'r cnns ; 4 mounted, 1 dismounted 8-pounder 
guns; 6 mounted 6-pouuder guns ; 5 dismounted 4-pounder guns; 1 dis- 
mounted B-iiich brass mortar ; 4 mounted brass 2-pound(Ms ; 2 dismounted 
brass 2-pounder field-pieces ; 2 dismounted brass swivels; 21G muskets; 
4 brass blunderbusses ; 22 swords. 

Shot. — 5600 24-pounders ; 2420 18-pnunders; 1572 12-pounders; 
200 8-pounders ; 300 G-pounders; 400 4-pouuders; 1000 1-poundcr , 220 
8-inch shells ; 50 grape ; 60 cannister. 

Powder in barrels and cartridges — 14 barrels of 100 lbs. each; 93 
24]!Ounder caitridgcs; 5 12-poundtr ditto; 72 8-pounder diito; 91 
(3-|jounder ditto; 455 4-|i()Uiider ditto; 13 G-ounce ditto; 84 3-ounce 
ditto; 4G55 rounds of musket-ball cartridges; 4000 rounds of balls for 
ditto. 

Guclindar. 

Five mounted 24-pounder guns ; 2 mounted 6-inch brass howitzers; CO 
24-pounder sJjots; 50 cannister shots ; 8 24-pounder cartridges. 

English Isle. 

Five mounted 2i-pounder guns; 80 24-pounder shots; 40 cannister 
shuts. 

Bahagui: Isle. 

Three mounted 24-ponnder guns ; 2 mounted brass 8-pounder field 
pieces; 200 24-ponnder shots; SO cannister shots. 

Gun-Boals. 
OiiQ i'4-pounder trun; 1 IS-pounder; 20 grape shots, 

CUAS. W. MAXWELL, 
Maj. Roy, Art. Corps. 



HAVAL IIISTOHY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1S09. 219 

Senegal, Jultj 18, 1809. 

jReturn of Vessels and Giin-hoals zchlh fanned the Line of Dt fence in iht 
Front (f Bubiigue. 

Briii Cannonicre, of 3 twelve-pouiulcrs, 6 six-poiiiulers, 4 f)no-poiinHcrs. 
Brig Casimir, ot" two twclvc-pouucler carronades, 4 twelve-pounders, 
2 three-pounders. 
Schooner Sip^ip, of 4 three-poundcrs. 
Schooner Combat, of 6 four-pounders. 
Brig Aim, of 2 twelve- pounders, 
(Tun-boaf, of 1 twentv-lbur pounder. 
Gun-boat, of 1 eightecn-pounder. 

CIIAS. W. MAXWELL, 
Maj.Iloy. Art Corps. 

Copj/ of a Letter from Vice-admiral Sir James Saumarez, Bart, and K.B. 
CoiDmunder-in-chief of /lis ALujesti/s S/tips and Venstis in the Baltic, to 
the Honourable W. IV. Pole, dated on board the Victorj/, off Nargen 
Island, 31st of July, 1809. 
SIR, 

I herewith enclose^ for the information of my Lords Commissionci'S of 
the Admirahy, a letter I have received from Captain Charles Dudley 
Pater, of his Majesty's ship Princess Carolina, dated oflf' Aspo, the 2(jth 
instant, acquainting me with his iiaving dn-ected an attack to lie made by 
the boats of his Majesty's ships named in the margin,* under his ordersj 
■which were placed under the direction of Captain Forrest, (who very hand- 
somely offered to command the enterprise) on a flotilla of four of the 
enemy's gun-boats and a brig, in the neighbourhood of ,ispo, which was 
attended with the greatest success; tiiree of the gun-boats, carrying two 
long cighteen-pounders, and an arnied brig, under his Imperial liussian 
Majesty's colour-, having befn captured. 

The undaunted bravery displayed by Captain Forrest, the officers and 
men employed under his orders, is beyond all praise. 

The gun-boats have been lately Iniiltupon a new construction, and being 
extremely well adapted for the s^^-vice in the Great Belt, I have directed 
them to be surveyed, and I propose to place them under tlie orders of 
Rear-admiral Dixon, which I liope will meet their lordships' approbation. 

Herewith I enclose Captain Forrest's letter, the returns of killed and 
T%ounded in the boats of his Majesty's ships, and the loss sustained by the 
enemy, together with a list of tlie armed vessels captured in the above 
attack, which you will also be pleased to lay befv)ro tlieir lordships. 
1 have the honour to be, &c. 

JAMES SAUMAREZ. 

SIR, Princess Carolina, Afipo, Jtily 16, 1809. 

Having been informed tliat thfeneray had at this place several gun-boatS 
to protect their coasting trade, which is of the greatest const (juence m siip- 
plymg their army, &:c. in all parts of Finland, and it havmg been repre- 
sented to me by Captain Forrest the probability of their being destro.od, 
himself having offered in tiie most handsome manner to command tlie 
expedition, which I immediately accepted, anti hav;ng directed all the 
boats (<f his Majesty's ships Princess Carolina, Minntaur. Ccriieru , and 
Prometheus (in-all seventeen) armed in the best possille way to put liiem- 

* Princess Carolina, Minotaur, Cerberus, Prometbeus* 

JJ5i3» Ctjrcn* tuio!. XXII. k k 



250 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

selves under the command of Captain Forrest, and to assemble on board 
the Prometheus at six o'clock yesterday evening, I have now the happiness 
to inlbrin you of a successful attack he made last nig'at about half-past ten 
o'clock, on four aun-bonts, three of whicli lie has captured, and a new brig 
laden with provisions: the gun-boats had on board in all one hundred and 
tiiirty-seven men, besides twenty-three in the brig. They are very com- 
plete, and well found, which I intend sending to you by the Minotaur. 

Inclosed I have the honour to transmit Captain Forrest's letter on this 
subject, wherein he speaks iiv the highest terms of the spirited conduct of 
all the otlicers and men en)ployed on this occasion. Were it possible for 
me to say any thiiig which could add to the meritorious conduct of so gallant 
and good an officer as Captain Forrest, I should most wilHn^ly do it ; but 1 
trust the success of this brilliant action will do more justice to the intrepi- 
dity of every officer and man employed on this service, tiian any language 
I can possibly use. 

I also beg to enclose for your information a list of killed and wounded. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 
' CHAS. DUDLEY PATER. 

Sir jfames Saumarez, hurt. Vice-admiral 
of the Blue, &;c. 

His Majesii/s Sloop Prometheus, Aapo Roads, 
sin, Jul!/ 2d, 1309. 

I am happy to acquaint you, that the endeavours of the boats of the 
squadron, which you did nie the honour to place under my command, for 
the purpose of capturing or destroying the enemy's gun-boat force or con- 
voys in the neighbourhood, have been crowned with the most complete 
success. Three gun-vessels of Inrge dimensions, of a new construction, 
being captured, after a sanguinary contest, together with a new armed 
bri<i, with soldiers on board, laden with provisions, destined for Abo. 

Our loss is severe indeed, as might be expected from the nature of the 
force, and the extreme obstinacy with which the enemy defended their 
charge ; the crew of one gun-boat. No. 62, being to a man killed or dan- 
gerously wounded, as you will see by the returns. I cannot find words to 
express to you the zeal and intrepidity exhibited upon this occasion by all, 
and the manifest superiority of our seamen wbei it came to the cutlass. I 
must leave the circumstance itself to speak the eulogy of the following 
otVicers employed under my command, vix. 

James Btishford first lieutenant of ihe Princess Carolina; • Fettet, 

first lieutenant, and Simpson, third lieutenant, of the Cerberus ; 

Gawen Forster, first lieutenant, and Thomas Finnemore, acting lieutenant, 
of the Prometheus ; as more adequate to their merits than any thing I can 
say in their favour. I cannot too much admire the conduct of Mr. Charles 
Chambers, surge m of the Prometheus, who very handsomely accompanied 
the expedition, with a view, should he escape, to be professionally useful, 
I sincerely lament, with the country, the undermentioned gallant and most 
valual)l8 officers : — 

j\jinotaur — Lieutenant John James Callanan, killed ; Lieutenant 
William Wilkins, of the royal marines ditto ; Gfeorge Elvey, midshipman, 
wounded. 

Prometheus — Matthew Vezey, boatswain, mortally wounded ; Thomas ' 
Humble, clerk, killed. 

Princess Carolina — James Carrington, master's mate, killed. 
1 liave the honour lo be, &c. 

THOS. FORREST, Captain. 
Captain Charles Dtrilcj/ Pater, Princess 

Carolina, Seninr 0/ticcr of liii Majesty s , 

Ships and Veisels, As^jO Harbour, 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR. 1809. 251 

Heturn of Officers and Men belonging to His Majes/i/'s Ships Princess Caro- 
lina, Minotaur, Cerberus, and Prometheus, kiUed and wounded, in an 
Attack made bi/ the Boats of those Ships on the Enemy's Flotilla on the 
Evening of the »5th Ju/j/, 1809. 

Princess Carolina — 3 killed, 3 wounded. 
Wiiiotaur— 12 killed, 26 wounded. 
Cerberus — 7 wounded, 
Prometheus — 4 killed, 15 wounded. 
Total — 19 killed, 51 wounded. 

Names of Officers and Men killed and uoundecL 

Princess Carolina. 
Killed.'— Gordon Carrington, midshipman; Thomas Atkins, ordinary sea- 
man ; John Price, landman. 

Wounded. — George Craig, able seaman, severely ; Daniel Laverty, ordi- 
nary seaman, ditto; Joseph Chi\ers, private of marines, ditto. 

Minotaur. 

Killed. — Jolin James Callanan, fifth lieutenant; William Wilkins, second 
lieutenant of roval marines; Charles Davies, quarter-master; Robert 
VVatts, able seaman; died of bis wounds tlie 26tli of July ; William Willi- 
ams (S), able seaman ; died of his wounHs the 26th of July ; Charles Wit- 
ton, ordinary seaman; died of his wounds the SSlhofJuly; John Parker, 
private of marines; died of his wounds the Qoih of July: G. Rosilia, pri- 
vate of marines; Robert Johnson, private of marines; Edward Freeman, 
private of marines; Joseph Frehliiig, private of marines ; John Stannen, 
private of marines. 

^Wounded. — George Elvey, midshipman, slightly; Thomas Milne, mid- 
shipman, ditto; John Chalmers, midsiiipnian, ditto; William T'Joseley, 
quarter-master, dangcroii-lv; R. Brown, able seaman, slightly; Joseph 
Slieldon, able seaman, severely; James Marshall, ordinary seawan, ditto; 
Stephen Hill, ordinary seaman, ditto; Titus Hastings, ordinary seaman, 
ditto; James Cook, ordinary seaman, sli;:l:tly; Richard Riley, orriinary 
seaman, ditto; Thomas Niel, ordinary seaman, ditto; Nicholas Cody, 
landman, severely; JamesScott, landman, ditto; Henry Vernon, boy, ditto; 
John Lane, serjeant of marines, sliglitly; Ludwis; Schuster, private of ma- 
rines, severely; James Davcy, private of marines, ditio; Robert Brown, 
private of mariues, ditto; \'\'illiam Ellis, private of marines, ditto; James 
llint, private of marines, ditto; William Baugham, private of marines, 
ditto; Henry Walters, private of marines, ditto; John ^.layers, private of 
marines, slii^htlv; Thomas IVIakoney, private of marines, tlitto; William 
Arrowsmith, private of marines, ditto. 

Ceubercs. 
Wounded. — William Stubbs, captain of the fore-top, lost an arm; TsTa- 
thaniel Keuner, quarter-master; W idiam Davies, captain of the main-top, 
slightly; John Holmes, able seaman ; Thomas Bell, able seaman, siii^htly; 
Alexander Hardy, private of marines, ditto; David Valentine, private of 
marines, ditto. 

PnOMETnEUS. 

Killed. — Mr. Thomas Humble, captain's clerk ; Josepli Case, yeoman of 
powder-room; died on the 26th of July; James M'Gee, ordinary sea- 
man; John Aslnvorth, private of marines. 

Wounded. — Captain Thomas Forrest, slightly; L" 'Utcnant Gawen Fors- 
ter, ditto; Mr. Matthew Vezey, boatswain, severely; Peter Mackcv, cap- 
tain of the main-top, ditto; Robert Thrussel, quarter gunner, ditto; WiW 



252 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE FHESENT YEAR, 1809. 

Ham Golton, captain of the main-top, slightly; William Stevvartl, quarter- 
master, ditto ; James Wilson, able seaman, ditto; William Loniibin, or- 
dinary seaman, severely; Peter Brown, ordinary seaman, ditto; Joiin Fra- 
zier, ordinary seaman, ditto; liiomas Malony, ordinary i^eaman, sliiiluly; 
Joseph Keating, ordinary seaman, ditto ; iNicholas Lines, ordinary seaman, 
ditto; Johu Maire, landman, ditto. 

Retu7'7i of Killed undWounded on hoard the Rne.mi/s Vessels, captured the. 
25th if Juty, V609. 

Gun-Vessel, No. 62—24 killed, 20 wounded. 
Gun-Boat, No. 65 — 3 killed, 15 wounded. 
Gun-boat, No. &Q — I killed, 19 wounded. 
Armed Brig — 5 wounded. 
Total 28 killed, 59 wounded. 

W. FORREST, Captain. 

List of Vessels captured hi/ the Bonis (jf His iliryesr^j/'s Ships Princess Caro- 
lina, Minotaur, Ccrbirus, and Frometiieus, on Ike Aighl of lite Qoth of 
Julij, 1809. 
I 
No, 11, Transport Brig, of 23 men, Nicholas Uriiiff, master, bound to 

Abo, laden with provisions. 
No G'S, Gun Ijoat, of 2 eii;hteen-pcunders and 44 men. 
No. 65, Gun-i3oat,. of 2 guns and 49 men. 
N». 66, Gun-Boat, of 2 guns and 44 men. 

N. B. The Gun-rBoats taken by the Boats of the above Ships at Frede- 
ricksham. 

C. D. PATER. 

A letter has been received by the Honourable William Wellesley Pole, 
from Captain Cottrell, of his majesty's ship the Nijaden, dated in Kilduin 
Bay, the 6th of June last, giving an account of the capture or destruction of 
tvvonty-two or i wenty-three vessels in the river Kola, by ti:e boats of the 
above ship, under the directions of lieutenants Wells and Smith. A fort 
under which those vessels were anchored, was taken possession of, and the 
guns brought away or tlirovvn into the river. 

SEPTEMBER 5, 1809. 

Copv of a 'Letter from Vice-Admiral Rowley, Commander-in-Chief of His 
Maj^.iti/< Ships and Vessels at Jamaica, to the Honourable W.W. Pole^ 
dated at Port-Roijul, July 13, 1809. 

SIR, 

I have the honour to acquaint yon, for the information of the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty, 'that his Majesty's sloop Tweed arrived 
here last night, from off Saint Domingo, bringing me a despatch from 
Captain Cuiuby of the Polyphemus, announcing the surrender on the 6th 
instant of tlie J icnch troops composing the garrison of that citv. 

Their lordships will have been made acquainted already by my former 
letters with a detail of the proceedings of the squadron pl-iced under Cap- 
tain Cuinhy's orders for the purpose of co-operating with tiie Spanish troops 
investing the city, and wit!) those belonging to his Majesty, which sailed 
from this island on the 7tli ultimo, under ihe command of Major-general 
Carmichael ; anrl the inclosed c^py of the despatch above-mentioned will 
make known to them the proceedings of the squadron down to the period 
of capitulation and the terms on which the garrison has surrendered. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 253 

The exempLiry vigilance and unremitted exertions of the officers and 
men composing the crews of his Majesty's sliips and vessels named in the 
marf^in, * eaijiloyed durinrr this short but vigorous blockade, under the 
immediate orders of Captain Cuniby, have contributed most essentially to 
accelerate the reduction of this last possession of the enemy on tlie Jamaica 
station. Tlie tidiest testimony is boriie by Major-;;eneral Carmiehael to 
the cordial «uppo;t which he received from them after the arrival of the 
British troops, and 1 have no doubt, that the conduct of Captani Cuiiiby anci 
that of cue othcers, seamen, and marines under his orders on the service, 
will be distinguished by tiieir lordships' approbation, as it has already been 
by mine, 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

B. S. JIOWLEY, Vice Admiral. 

Pohjphemtcs, off the CUi/ of St. Domingo, 
SIR, ' 7lh July, 1809. 

I have the satisfaction to announce to you the surrender of the French 
garrison in the city of St. Domingo, by which event tlie whole of the for- 
mer possessions of the Spaniards in this Island are happily rsstored to th© 
Spanish nation. h\ detailinii the operations which led to this result, suh- 
secjuent to my letter of the 30lh ultimo, I have to inform you that on the 
following day, I anchored at Caleta, and in compliance vvith a request from 
Major-general Carmiehael, put eight of this ship's lower-deck guns oh 
board the Sparrow sloop, to be lauded at Palenqui for t!ie use of the 
batteries to the westward of the city. , In the mean time, the Major-general 
and troops under his command had advanced with all the ardour and 
activity that characteri;;e British soldiers in their aj)proaches to tlie enemv 
and taken post at the church of St. Carlos, nearly within musket-sliot "of 
the walls, and had cut off the communication bet'veen the city and Port 
Jerome. The General commanding the French garrison having sentuh'a 
flag of truce proposing a cessation of hostilities f)r three days, i beg leave 
to transmit you copies of his letter and my reply. 

On the 2d instant I received a commuiucation from Major-general 
Carmiehael. that the French general had made a formal proposal to treat 
for the surrender of the garrison, anel I accordingly directed Cajjtain Diier 
of his Majesty's ship the Aurora, to proceed on shore, and in concert with 
commissioners to be deputed by the Major-general, .md the general com- 
manding the Spanish forces, arrange the ttrms of capitulation; the very 
severe squalls and rainy weather we have since experienced, so much in- 
terrtipted our communications vvith the shore, that the did'erent articles 
could not he adjusted u\\ the 6th, and this day they have been ratified, a 
copy of which, I have the honour to inclose, t 

Tiiis despatch will be delivered to you by Captain Symonds of the Tweed, 
to vvho^e zealous attention in conductmg the sloops, schooners, and 
guard-boats, during a close and rigorous blockade of two months, I owe 
considerable obligation; and although the services of the squadron vou did 
me the honour to place under my orders may not have been of a brilliant 
nature, I trust I may be permitted on this occasion to bear testimony to the 
unremitting perseverance with which the vessels mamiamed the slatitjns 
assigned them, through all the var.ety of weather incident to the season, on 
a steep and dangerous shore, where no anchorage was to he obtained, as 

* Polyphennis, Aurora, Tweed, Sparrow, Thrush, Griffin, Lark, P«IoseIIe, 
Fleure-de-la Mere, Pike. 

t See Major-general Carmichael's Despatch, in the London Gazette of 
September ild. 



254 NAVAL mSTOllY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

well as to the vigilance and alacrity of those officers and men who were 
employed in the niH;ht guard-boats, by whose united exertions the enemy's 
accustomt'd supply by sea was entirely cut off, and the surrender of the 
city greatly accelerated, I must also, in justice to Captain Burt of the 
Sparrow, beg permission to state the great promptitude, zeal, and abihty 
evinced by that officer in the landing the lower-deck guns from tiiis ship, 
under cirrumstaiices of great difficulty and labour; two of which he trans- 
ported from Andre Bay to the East Battery, a distance of near thifty 
miles across an ahsiost impassable country, jjrior to the arrival of the 
troops. 

Of the conduct of Lieutenant Denman of this ship, and the detachment 
of seamen landed from the squadron under his orders, ths Major-general is 
pleased to speak in high terms, and I have no doubt he will make a gra- 
titying representation to you on this subject. The posts of Tort Jerome 
and Fort de lYjzama, and the Gate de Conde, are occupied by t!ie British 
troops this c/euing, and I shall lose no time in making the necessary ar- 
rangements for embarking the garrison, in number about twelve hundred, 
on board the squadron, and despatcli them for Port Royal with all possible 
expedition. 

I have tlie honour to be, &c. 

VV. PRICE CUMBY, Captain. 

B. S. Rotolej/, Esq. Vice-Admiral of the WhitCf 
and Commander in Chief', i^-c. 

Head-Quarters at Santo Domingo, 
June 30, 1809. 
Barquier, General of Brigade, 8^c. to Captain William Pri/ce Cumbu, 
Commanding his BriUinnic Majcsti/h Naval Forces before St. Domingo. 

SIR, 
If you should think it proper a suspension of hostilities may be estab- 
lished for three daj'S, with a view to facilitate the communications between 
us. You may be persuaded of the frankness of my intentions. 

I send to you in <"onsequcnce Mr. Fabvre, commissary of the marine, 
and Lieutenant-colonel J>-rard, who will convey to me your reply to my 
proposal. I have t!ie honour to be, &c. 

J. BARQIHER. 

I have the honour to apprize you that I am about to send an officer to his 
Excellency General Carmichael, with a proposal to the same effect. 

J. BARQUIER. 

Polyphemus, off ihe Citi/ of St. Domingo, 
June 30, 1809. 
sin, 

In reply to your letter of this date, proposing a cessation of hostilities 
S da\s, I beg to state, that I conceive no advantage whatever could possibly 
result from such a measure, neither can I for one moment agree to it, but 
in coiicurrence v«ith I\iajnr-general (.'armichaei, and l!ie General command- 
ing the Spadsli troops. There ^^ill be no difficulty on my side in opening 
comniunic.i Km, whenever a white flag is hoisted at tiie city, unless it 
should be dune ai. the moment of attack. 

I have the lionour to be, &c. 

W. r. CUMBY, Captain. 
To Ais Evce/lcncy General Banjuier, Com'uander 
in ChieJ' of I he French Forces, c^-c. ^c- fyc. 



NAVAL HISTORY O? THE PRESEXT TEAR, 1S09. 235 

SEPTEMBBR 9. 

Letters, of which the following; arc copies or abstracts, have been re- 
ceived at this office from Vice-admiral Lord Colliiigwood, couiinander-in- 
chief of his Majesty's ships and vessels in the Mediterranean, addressed to 
the Hon. William "Wellesiey Pole. 



A letter has been received at this office by the Hon. William Wellesiey 
Pole from Vice-admiral Lord Collingwood, dated on board the Ville de 
Paris, off Toulon, the 2 Jst June last, transmitting two letters from Captain 
Stewart, of his Majesty's ship Seahorse, and one from Captain Maxwell, 
of his Majesty's ship /Mceste, detailing their proceediaj^s on the coast 
of Italy. 

Captain Stewart reports the destruction of the enemy's forts on the small 
islands of Gianuti and Pianoso; in whicli services great gallantry appears 
to iiavc been displayed by the officers and men who were employed under 
the directions of Lieutenants Bennett and Pearse, ot the Sea-horse and 
Halcyon. About one hundred of the enemy were made prisoners. 
One private marine, of the Sea-horse, only was killed, and another 
wounded. 

Captain Maxwell states the destruction of two gun-boats at Terrarina, 
by the /Mceste and Cyane; the bringing off from a depot of timber on the 
coast, as much wood as th.e two ships could carry; and tiie deaioliti.m of 
three strons: martello towers by a dctacliment of -.eamen and marines, 
commanded by Captain Staines, of the Cyane, who displayed equal judi^- 
ment and resolution on the occasion. Whilst the ships svere taking oft' the 
timber, a serjeant, two corporals, and twenty privates, came on board, de- 
serters from the French army. 

Lord CoUingvvood, at t!ic same time, conmunicates an account he had 
received from Captain Duncan, of the Mercury, of the destruction of a 
number of trabaccolos, and other vessels, on the beach of Rotii, nearMan- 
tVedonia, by the boats of that ship, under Lieutenant Gordon. 

SIR, Ville de Par in, off Toulon, June 23, 1809. 

Liclosed I transmit you, for the information of the Lords Commission- 
ers of the Admiralty, a letter I have received from Captain Pi,aitt, com- 
mander of his Majesty's sloop tlie Scout, giving an account of the boats of 
that sloop havinjt carried an enemy's battery near Cape Croisette, and cap- 
tured and destroyed seven sail of the enemy's coasters, which had taken 
shelter under it. 

Captain liaitt speaks in high terms of praise, of the conduct of Lieute- 
nant Battersby, who commanded the boats on this occasion; and of the 
officers and men vvho accompanied him. 

I have the honour to be, ^c. 

Hon. W. W. Pole. COLLINGWOOD. 

MY LORD, His Majesty s Sloop Scout, at Sea, June 14, 1809. 

I beg leave to inform your lordsliip, that this morning having observed a. 
•ouvoy of about fourteen sail, under the protection of two gun-boats, com- 
ing round Cape Croisette, steering to the eastward, I made all sail in 
chase ; but about one P.M. it falling nearly calm, and the convoy a good 
deal dispersed, I detached the boats under the conmiand of Lieutenant 
Battersby, mamied by volunteers. Seven sail pushed for a har})our, about 
three leagues to the ea-.tvvard of tiie Cape, wht-rc the boats proceeded under 
* heavy and v/ell-directed lire of grape and musketry. After landisijf a 



256 NAVAt, HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

party to keep the enemy in check, who were numerous among the rocks, 
stormed and took possession of the battery, with two six pounders mounted 
in eml)razures; which, after spiking, brou^iit out the whole of the vessels, 
although they were fast with ropes to their masts-head and keels, and con- 
stantly annoyed with musketry from behind tiie rocks. I am sorry to say this 
service has not been perfornaed without some loss on our side, having one 
killed and live wounded, two badly ; hut from the time, and other great 
advantages the enemy had, I hope your lordship will agree with me in 
thinking it comparatively small. 

The conduct of the whole of the officers, seamen, and marines employed 
on tliis occasion, deserves the highest commendation ; but I wish to point 
out ))articularly, that of Lieutenant Battcrsby, the first lieutenant, that led 
tiie party up to storm the battery. From his conduct on this occasion, and 
a crpat number of others that he has performed in the Slreiuhts of Gihral- 
tar, I beg leave to recommend him to your lordship. The conduct of iMr. 
Farrant, second lieutenant; IMr. Batten, master; and Mr. Thompson, 
master's mate ; deserve in^ v*'armest thanks, for their determined bravery, 
in going up the harboiU" with the boats under a heavy lire of grape and 
musketry tVom both sides, who have at all times handsomely volunteered 
their services on similar occasions. 

Tiie prizes are laden with wool, grain, leather, flour, and cheese; two of 
them I have been obliged to destroy, after taking out their cargoes; the 
others I have sent to Mahon. I beg leave to inclose a list of killed 
and wouaded. 

I have the honour to be, ^c. 

The Rigid Hon. Lord ColUngwoud, c^r. WM. RAITT. 

A List ofOjpccrs and Men killed and wounded on hoard of his M:nesfy''s 
Sloop SlOZ/', William Raiti, Esq. Co:i mander, in cutting out a French 
convo!/ of Merchant vessels fro^/i under a Balfert/ near Cape Croisette^ 
Coast of France, Mediterranean, upon tfte lilh daij of June, 1809. 

Killed — John Marshland, landman. 

Wounded— io\\n Wilson, boatswain ; John Gage, landman; Alexander 
Ilenny, landman ; Robert Evans, volunteer 1st class; Jeremiah Barber, 
corporal of marines. — Total, 1 killed, 5 wounded. 

Vice-admiral Lord Collingwood has transmitted to the Hon- William Wel- 
lesley Pole, another letter from Captain Raitt, of his Majesty's sloop Scout, 
giving an account of a gallant attack made on the loth July, by a party of 
seamen and marines, under the direction of Lieutenant Battcrsby, on a 
strong battery which commanded the port of Cany, between Marseilles and 
the Rhone. The fort was carried without any loss on our side, and 
all the guns in it spiked; five of the enemy vvere killed, and seven 
made prisoners. 

Vice-admiral Lord Collingwood has transmitted to the Hon. William Wel- 
Icsley Pole, a letter from Captain Brenton, of his Majesty's ship the Spar- 
tan, giving an account of the reduction of the citadel and batteries on the 
island of Lussin, on the. coast of Croatia, on the 10th of May last, by that 
ship acting in concert with a detachment of Austrian troops, under the 
conunand of Lieutenant-colonel Baron Ocharnick. The garrison, consisting 
of 170 men, was compelled to surrender at discretion, after some opposi- 
tion to the attacks of the allies; in which the greatest gallantry • was dis- 
played by the latter, and in which they had only three men wounded. The 
conduct of Lieutenant Willes and Baumj:ardt, of tlic Spartan, and Lieute- 
nant P'igen, of the marines, is particularly noticed by Captain Brenton. 



NAVAL HI3T0KY OF THE PRKSENT YEAR. 1 809. 257 

Lord CoUingwood h;is also enclosed a letter from Captain Bulleii of the 
Volontaire, giiin;^ an account of the destruction of i'orc Rioux, on t!ie 
coast of France, and the capture of live vessels which it |)roi;ccted, by tiie 
boats of the above ship, under the command of Lieutenant Shaw, of whose 
gallantry Captain Bulien speaks in high praise. On the side of the English 
tiiere were only two wounded, the enemy had five killed and eight 
wounded. 

SIR, ViUe-de-Paris, off Toulon, Juhj 16, 1809. 

Having received by the Espnir, a letter from Rear-admiral Martin, dated 
the 2d instant; givin;^ a detail of the proceedings of the squadron under liis 
orders, in tlieir co-operation with the British and Sicilian ariny, which in- 
forms mc of their havin;' landed on and taken possession of the islands of 
Ischia, and Procida, where the enemy made hut liri'io oppositDii; I have 
tlie honor to transmit Rear-admir.d Martin's letter, by which their lord- 
ships will he fully informed of what occurred on ihis service. 

A numerous flotilla of gun-boats which were collecting from Gaetn, and 
otiicr parts of the coast, were attacked by the Cyane, Espoir, and the liri- 
tibh and Sicilian gun-boats, when about forty of them were t;iken or des- 
troyed. The Cyane was afterwards engaged with other divisions of gun- 
boats, and the batteries on shore which protected them, at one of which 
Captain Staines on the 2t)tii landed, stormed it and destroyed the 
guns. 

On the 27th the Italian frigate of forty guns, and a corvette which were 
making their escape from Baia to Naples, wei'C attacked by tlie Cyane, and 
although assisted by all the batteries as she went along shore, it was with 
great difficulty she got into the Mole at Naples. It is represented to me 
that nothing could exceed the gallantry which was displayed by Captain 
Staines in all these several attacks, in which he was for three days (and with 
little interruption bv night) engaged in a succession of battles, i am '^orry 
to add that he is grievously wounded, having lost his left arm, and received 
nuich injury in, other parts of the body. Lieuten mt Mall tiie senior lieute- 
nant, is also severely wounded, on the last day ; as the second lieutenant 
had been disabled before, the ship was latterly fought and conducted by the 
master, who acquitted himself as a brave and good oificer. The report of 
killed and wounded, I enclose. 

As the Cyane has suffered very much in her hull, masts, and other res- 
pects, I have sent orders for her to proceed to England to be reiitted. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

COLLING WOOD. 

The Honourahle W. TV. Pole. 

The Cauo^jus, at Anchor, S. E. Unci of the JriJand of 
MY LOHD, Lchiii, full/ '2, 1309. 

I have ti.e honor to acquaint your lordship that I sailed from Melazzo on 
the lllh of June, in company with his majesty's ships Si'artiite, Warrior, 
Cyane, and Espoir ; and the same day I detached the Phihjuiel w ith four 
transports, containin* two regiments of infantry, vvhicii 'iir John Stuart 
wished to be lauded on the coast of Calabria, for the purpose of destroying 
the enemy's batteries, and of undertaking the siege ofScylla, sliould it be 
found practicalile. I proceeded with the remainder of the transp ;rts, gun- 
boats. &c. amounting in the wiiole to one hundred and tliirty-t!i:i e s di, into 
the (julfbl'St. Eufemia, and close along the coast of Calabria, in (he hope 
of diverting the attention of the enemy from Lower Calabria, and of ena- 
bling the two regiments dctaclicd by the general, to tftect the purpose for 



25S NAVAL HISTORY OF TUE PrvV.SENT YEAR. 1809. 

■»vl)ich they were sent. For four or five days it was nearly calm; and the 
whole expedition continued in sight of Culabria. On the 15lh, the ships- 
and transports from Paiermo, amounting to nearly one hundred sail, accom- 
panied by two Sicilian frigates and the Alecste, joined us; his royal high- 
ness Prince Leopold was on board one of his Sicilian Majesty's frigates, and 
Lieutenant-general Bourcard, appointed to command the Sicilian troops 
eniployed on this expedition, in the other. Sir John Stuart, upon being 
joined by this force, expressed a desire that General Bourcard should con- 
tinue, with his division, on the coast of Calabria, and actually put some 
men on shore to effect a diversion, and that in the mean time we should 
proceed with the British and Sicilian troops which had sailed with us from 
Milazzo, to make an attack on the Islands of Ischia and Procida. On the 
24 til, I anchored with the whole of the ships to the northward of the said 
islands; aiid on the morning of the 25th, a landing was effected on the 
island of Ischia, under cover of his majesty's ships Warrior and Success, and 
ills Sicilian majesty's sloop Leone, with several Sicilian and English gun- 
boats, wi. hout the loss of a single man, and tlie whole taken possession of, 
except a stroui: iiisnlated castle off the south-east part of the island, which 
did not surrender till the 1st instant, after batteries had been erected and 
opened against it. The island of Procida capitulated on the evening of the 
2oth: and that night I received information chat a flotilla of gun-boats, &c, 
was coining from Gaeta along shore; in consequence of which, the few gun- 
boats near us were detached in that direction, and at day-light of the 2Gth, 
the fiotiiia, ainour»ting to forty-seven sail, was seen, and a signal uiade to 
Captain Staines, of the Cyane, (whom I had before detached to the south- 
ward of Ischia and Procida, with the Espoir and some of the Sicilian gun- 
boats to endeavour to hinder reinforcements and supplies being thrown 
into those islands,) to prevent the gun-boats from entering the bay of Na- 
ples. Captain Staines executed that service with the same ability and 
jtidgment, which he lias shewn upon every other occasion ; and by turning 
the gun-boats, and preventing their rounding the point of Baize, they were 
brought to action by the Sicilian and English gun-buats, supported by the 
Cyane and Espoir, and eighteen of them (gun-boats) taken and four des- 
troyed. No language which I am master of, can convey to your lordship 
au adequate idea of the gallantry, judgment, and good conduct displayed 
by Captain Staines. From the time of our arrival before the bay of Na- 
ples, he was frequently engaged with the Latteries and gun-boats near Baia?; 
captured a Polacca from thence with troops destined for Procida; landed 
hiinseif, supporced by some Sicilian gun-boats, and destroyed a battery, 
with vvhicli he had been for some time engaged, of four forty-two pounders - 
and a ten inch mortar ; and on the 27th of June, Captains Staines and 
]\Jitford attacked the enemy's frigate and corvette, which, with a number 
of gnu-boats, were mooring from Baiai to the Mole of Naples. The action 
Lnsted from seven till half- past eight P. M. with, the frigate, (the corvette 
out-sailing her much, soon made the best of her way to Naples,) during the 
•iieater part of the time, the Cyane was within haif-pistol shut of the ene- 
my's frigate, but from her being so near the shore, and supported by a num- 
ber of gun-b.jats and batteries, was not able to continue the action. It is 
xvith sincere concern [ have to in!brm your lordship, that during the action 
Captam Staines, and both the lieutenants of the Cyane, were wounded; 
but t!ie ship was fought, the latter part of the action, by JMr. Joseph Miller, 
the master, of whoju Captain Staines speaks in th.e highest terms, and begs 
to recoinnieiid to your lurdsiiip. Tiie captain sjiCaks also very highly of the 
conduct of Lieutenant James Hall^ first of the Cyane, aud of evcfry ofiicer 
aud man under his couimuud. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THF. PUESIINT YEAR, 1S09. 259 

I have the honour to transmit, under another cover, a list of Ihe 
kiiied and wounded on board the Cyane on tho 'Jfith and 27th of June. 
Ciiptain Staines has lost his left arm out of the socket at his shoulder, 
and is wounded aiso in the side, !)!it is in a fair way of pjcovery. Lieu- 
tenant Hall is also severely wounded in the thigh and arm, but there is 
every reason to hope he will do well. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

GEO. MARTIX. 

P.S. In addition to the gnn-hoats captured or destroyed, eleven 
smaller armed vessels were taken, and four destroyed the same day. 

I will do myself the honour of transmitting to your lordship, by the 
next opportuuity, a copy of the Articles of Capitulatioa of the Islands of 
Ischia and Procida. 

Vice-admiral Lord Collingwood, Com- GEO. MARTIIN. 

maiider-hi-chicf, CjC. o,c. i^. 

A List of OJJicers, i^eamen, and Jlfarines, killed and wounded on board 
His Majesiys Ship '• yane, in a4clion ivith the Enemy's, Gun-boats and 
Batteries in the Bay of Naples, on the 26lhJune, IsOy. 

TT/i'/ci/. — Daniel Young, captain of the maintop; John Evans, boy 
3d class. 

/founded' — David Jones, master's mate, dangerously; John Phillips, 
ordinary seaman, slightly; Alexander Lav.son, ordinary seaman, ditto j. 
Thomas Wilton, landman, ditto; Jolui Sweeney, ordinary seaman, 
ditto; James Matthews, ubie seaman, ditto; John Rutherford, able 
seaman, ditto. 

List of Officers, Seamen, and Marines, killed and wounded on board His 
Majesty's Ship Cyanc, 7 nomas Slaiw s, Esq. Captain, in .iction uilh 
an Enemy's Frigate, Corvette, Gun-boats, and Batteries, in tlie Bay 
of Naples, on the 21th June, loOy. 

Killed. — Samuel Jones, ordinary seaman ; William Ecrry, private of 
marines. 

fVounded. — Tliomas Staines, captain, dangerously; James Hall, first 
lieutenant, ditto; Thomas Brewer, landiiian, ditto; Thojnas Dewes, 
ai)ie sc-aman, ditto; James Coghlan, able seau'ar., badly: William 
Shenson, ordinary seaman, ditto; Matthew Booth, private of marines, 
ditto ; William Ric! ings, private of marines, ditto ; John lerrior, 
second lieutenant, sliglitlv; John Taylor, midsliipman, ditto; John 
P.rown, quarter-master, ditto ; William liarnes, quarter-master"s-mate, 
ditto; Carlos Pinately, sailnuiker, ditto; James Uavdon, armonrer's- 
inate, ditto ; William Kelly, able seaman, ditto ; \Viiliam Jackson, 
able seaman, ditto ; Jaines I'earsc, ordinary searnan, ditto : Isaac Arthur, 
hoy, ditto ; John \e\vton, Serjeant of marines, ditto; John Rudge, pri- 
vate of marines, ditto. 

sm, T'ille dc Paris, off Toulon, July SI, 1809. 

I inclose a letter from Captain (Iriilillis, to be laid before my Lords 
Commissioners of 'lie Admiralty, giving an account of an attack made 
by the boats of the Topa/e, on pine of the enen'.y's ve<;sels lying at 
anchor iu'liie road of Demaia, on the coast of Albania, which were with 
great gallantry boarded and brought out, nolwithstandins; the opposition 
«ifa very superior force : three of them being vessels re^uLaily armti 
J'yr war, and in complete preparation for resistance. 



260 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PJlEStNT YEAR, 1809. 

The conduct and spirit of Lieutenant Hammond on this occasion i§ 
deserving of the highest praise. Mr. Garson the acting master, the 
Lieutenants Mercer and Halsted, of the royal marines, and the other 
officers and men, supported him in a manner worthy of their character 
of British seamen and marines. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
Eon. fV. TV. Pole. COLLIXGWOOD. 

SIR, IJis Majesf?/\<i ship Topazc, off Paxo, June 1, 1809. 

Yesterday observing nine of the enemy's vessels at anchor in the road 
of Demata, behind the reef of rocks, under the fortrc ss of St. Maura, 
and finding the ship could not with safety approach near enough to 
destroy them, I despatched the boats, under Mr. Cliarles Hammond, ray 
first lieutenant, with the officers named in the margin,* to bring theni 
out. 

They were obliged to row along, outside the reef (and also after 
round'iig it), exposed to the galling fire of their v. hole force, and within 
half mv!sii.et-shot, a period of great anxieiy to me, but which has, from 
great good fortune, been attended with the loss of only one marine 
killed, one seaman shgiiily wounded. The enemy suffered much in their 
retreat when boarded. 

This attempt, mnde in open day-light, speaks so forcibly for itself, 
that I have only to inclose a statement of its result. I should be wanting 
to every sense of duty, if I did not mention my high arlmiration of the 
sterling gallanfry of every officer and seaman employed on this service, 
and in recommending Lieutenant Hammond, in the stron;)esl manner, to 
notice. I may be permitted lo caii to recollection my former reports of 
this officer, of the severe wound he received in capturin;;:; two of the 
enemy's vessels on this coast, whereby his right haiui is all but useless, 
and to add the able support I received from him in the recent rencontre 
with the French frigate. 

The conduct of Mr. George Garson the acting master, who has passed 
for a lieutenant, while it entitles him to every commendation I can be- 
stow, is but the continuation of that wliicii 1 have for three years wit- 
nessed in him, and 1 hope 1 may be allowed to solicit attention to his. 
genuine merits. I am, &c. 

A.J. GRIFFITHS, Captain. 

George Worlhington, marine, killed. 
Henry Johnson, seaman, shghtly wounded. 
Captain Eyre, His JrJaJesli/'s ship Magnijicent, S)C. ^c. 

List of the Enemy'' s Vessels captured and destroyed hy the Boats of His 
Majesty's :ih!p I'epaze, wider St. Maura, JSluy al, ia09. 

Zebeck, La JoiibcTt, of 8 guns, 6 swivels, and 55 men, Mons. Martin, 
criseigne de vaisseau ; taken. 

Cutter, La Menteur, of 4 guns and 20 men, P. Gabriel, enseigne de 
vaisseau ; taken. 

Felucca, L'Esperance, of 3 guns and 18 men, commander's name un- 
knowu ; taken. 

Gun-boat, name unknown, of 1 gun and 18 men ; destroyed. 



* Mr. G. Garson, acting master; Lieutenants E. S. Mercer and 
William Halsted, royal marines ; H. P. Taylor and R. B= Fen wick j mas- 
ter's mates. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1809, 261 

Gnn-boat, name unknown, of I gun and 15 men; destroyed. 
Trabaccola, name unknown, of 2y tons ; destroyed. ^ 

Trabaccola, name unknown, of 30 tons; destroyed. 
Balancelles, San Juan, of IS tons; taken. 
Trabaccola, San Nicolai, of 14 tons ; taken. 

The above vessels, except la Joubert, loaded with timber and brandy 
on government account. Cargoes much needed at Corfu. 

A. M. GRIFFITHS, Captain. 

Copj/ of a Letter from Captain Barrie, of His Majesty^ s Ship Pomonet 
addressed to yice-ailmiral Lord ( o'lingiaood, and Iranairdlted by Ids 
Lordship to the Hon. /yUliam /Vellcslei/ Pole. 

MY LORD, Pomnne, off Cape Bou, June 13, 1S09. 

I am to acquaint your lordship, that :.t eight o'clock this morning. 
Cape Bou bearing S. Vv. distant seven miles, after a short cliase, I cap- 
tnredthe Neapolitan privateer la Lucien Charles, commande:! by C'levii- 
lier Charles Lucien Frevost de Boissi. adjutant-general de France, oibcer 
de la I'.-j-ion d'honneur. f,e Lucien Charles is a new bombarde of about 
sixty tons; she mounts one twelve and two six-poundcrs, and is well 
found in small arms, with a complement of fifty-three men ; sl;e is ten 
days from Naples, and has not made any capture. Being much surprised 
to find an officer of General de Boissi's rnnk in the command of a small 
privateer, I caused th^i most diligent search to be made for papers ; but 
none were discovered exci-pt those that relate to the Bombarde ; it is 
fortunate the Pomone fell in with this pri\atcer, as two very vahiahiG 
Smyrna ships were ia siglst, at the time of her capture. 
1 have the honour to be, &c, 

llOBERT BARRIE. 

Extract of a Letter from Captain Catnpbell, of His Majesty's Slip th^ 
iXassau, to the Horiouiublc /filliam Weiiesley Pole, dated off the Start, 
Point, the 6lh Instant, 

Be pleased to inform ray Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that 
at day-light this morning, standing np Channel with the East India con- 
voy, observed a suspicions lugger standing to the soutiiward, distant 
about five miles; made all sail in chase, but the breeze dying away, I 
sent fonr boats under the command of Lientenaats Gregory, Fyne, Drake, 
and Jackson, who volunteered; and, after a chase of two horns, came 
up with and carried her. T am well satisfied, had she been of much 
greater force they would have boarded her. 

She proved to be the Jean Bart, French lugger privateer, of four guns 
and twenty-five men, i.'elonging to St. Maloes, commanded by Louis 
Ollivier Pilvesse, enseigne de vaisseau, five days out from the Isle do 
Eas, and had made uo captures. 



The following Address bas been presented to Sir Sidney Smith, by the 
Committee of Merchants trading to the Brazils : — 

'♦ The Committee of the Merchants of London trading to, and who 
have establishments in, Brazil, h<'g leave to congratulate Sir William 
Sidney Smith on his safe arrival in England, from his command on the 
coast of that country. 

" Impressed with a lively sense of the essential services rendered by 
tiim to the commercial and shipping interests of the united kingdom iis 



262 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAS, 1809. 

general, and more particularly to those iinmedialely concerned in the 
Brazil trade; of the protection he has so eminently and uniformly 
afforded them ; and of tiie judgment with which his conduct has beea 
regulated upon all occasions in which the interests of their correspondents 
and connexions have required his interference : this Committee consider 
it to be their duty to return Sir Sidiiey their most grateful thanks, which 
they request him to accept, accompanied with their warmest wishes for 
Lis health aud prosperity. 



ANSWER OF SIR SIDNEY SMITH. 

SIR, l\o?/al Hotel, Pafl-nmU, Sept. 4, 1809. 

Mr. Buckle, Fecretary to the Committee of Eritis'i Merchants trading 
to the Brazils, having tJiis day put into my hands your letter, containing 
an extract of the proceedings of tiiat respectable body on the 17th ult. 
together with the very flattering proof of ray earnest endeavours to pro- 
mote the commercial interests of our country having been favourably 
considered by them, I lose no time in requesting you to convey to them 
ray best thanks for this distinguislied mai'k of their approbation. 
I assure you and (hem, that nothing could be more gratifying to me 
than this unanimous Address from so respectable a body of my country- 
men, to whose service ia general my whole attention and care have ever 
been and ever will be devoted. A sense of duty induced me to labour 
for the extension and security of the commerce of my country. All 
other modes of serving it being denied me by the circums'auces of my 
situation, my first care was to cement the friendship of our allies 
the Portuguese ; my next was to extinguish the enmity of our oppo- 
nen'is in tiie Spanish part of that vast continent, and to shew the latter, 
thai the enlightened views of the British Government and Nation, ia 
Europe, with regard to Spain, entitled us to the confidence of her colo- 
nies, with which I succeeded in opening, and have since raalnfained, a 
dcirree of amicable inlerc'ourse which cannot fail to cement the bonds of 
iricndship, and augment the resources of both States towards enabling 
then) to bear the expenses of ihe war, on the success of which depends 
their safety, and even their exisience. If in pursuing these greot objects 
I have collaterally been enabled to further the interests of the British 
trade in general, I am sincerely rejoitcd ; and llie proof you have kindly 
given me of my endeavours having been cVowned wiih success, is (next 
to the approbation of those to wiiom I am responsible, and which 1 am 
happy to find not lobe denied me) the most gratiiying circumstance that 
could occur, and amply balances the painful struggles I have sometimes 
had against prejudice am! egotism. 

1 beg leave, sir, to thank you personnlly for the very obliging man- 
ner in which jou have conve3ed tliis unexpected and most tlalJering 
Address. I cannot, however, in accepiiffg it, omit to acknowledge the 
labours and merits of J>is Majesty's consul- general (?ir Jan)es GambierJ, 
with whom, t acted most cordially in al! thmgs where the interests of the 
Mcrchauts trading to the i^razils v; ere concerned. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

Your most obcdii^nl hunihle servant, 

(Signed) V>\ SIDNEY SMITH. 

To 7- Frinsep, F.sq. Chairman of the Society of 
liritish Merchants trudiv": to the Hrazii'n. 



KATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1S09. 263 



JPromotions anU appointmcnw* 

Captains, &c. appointed. 

Captain Wiiiiam Maude, son of Thomas Maude, Esq. of Great George- 
street, Westminster, is appointed to command the Jewel (late Topazo 
Preach frigate); Captain Richards made post, and appointed to the Aber- 
cronibie; Captain Michael Halliday to ilie Heureux ; Captain Watt to the 
Forrester; Captain Barclay to the Snap sloop; Captaiii Higman to the 
Kattler; Captain Foote to the Partridge; Captain Love to the Tisiphone ; 
Lieut. Smith, of the Neptune, is promoted to tiie rank of commander, and 
appointed to the St. Christopher ; Captain Achison to the Sey'hi sloop; 
Captain Georn;e Hoare to tiie tiesper; Captain Jacob Walton to the Anie- 
tiiyst; Captain Sir Michrif! Seymour to the Niernen; Captain Hardyraan, 
for his services in Basque Roads, to tlie Armeide, of 44 g;uns; Captaiii 
('athcart, who so nobly defended tiie Scairull against the Danes, to the 
(ianyniede, vice Kerr; Captain Arthur Farqiihar to the Desiree; Jolm H. 
Godby to the Trompeuse; C. MMJonald to the Redpole; John Bovvker to 
the .Etna; Hon. Captain Dawson to tiie Parciiian; Jolin M'Adye to the 
Briseis ; William Morce to the Amsterdam. 

LieutcnaiUs, &c. appointed. 

R. P. K. Eiphinstone to the Victory; Francis A. Seaman to the Tcmn- 
raire; Wiiiiam Truss to the Briseis; Geor2;e Russel to tlie Shcervvater; 
Thomas Gardiner to the Jasper; J;iu)es Niven to the Hecate; Charles 
Pengelly to theFylla; Henderson Baine to tiie Scipion; Henry Harbin to 
tlie Acta5on ; Geori^e Wilson to tiie Surveiilaiite ; John C't)ucli to the Es- 
pieijle ; Samuel Tappen to tiic Rainbow ; Edward S. Ward to ditto ; Wil- 
liam Alner from tlic Triumpii to the Vulture; Jolin G. Bird to the Dread- 
nought ; Charles Clyde to tlie York ; H. M. Marsliali to tiie Veteran P. S. ; 
John Conycrsto tiie Milford ; William Stopfoid to the Africa; Jolin Seii;.cr 
to tiie Desiree; Leigh S. Jack to ditto; Ciiaries B. Hitcliius to the Hero; 
Jtichard Coates to the Jasper; George T. L. Wait to the Espicglo; Joscpu 
Prior to the Hesper. 

Midiliipmen passed for Lieutenants the first Wednesday in the month. 

Charles Green, Bowen R.ichard Reed, Cliarles Payne, Joseph Chegwyn, 
John Hope, Richard Gregory, Alexander Montgonierie, Robert ?dorsjan, 
Allan Otty, M'Bean Lenox Yates, Thomas Lentiiorne, Frederick jVIediiurst, 
Samuel Hoskins, Daniel Baird, Algernon Henry Kliot, William Trevitiieck, 
George Thomas Nicholls, Blackmore William Nolile, John Wilkinson. 

Mr. Alexander Patersoii, late gunner of the Oiseau, who was dismissed 
the service a short time since, by tiic sentence of a court-martial, has been 
reinstated, and appointed to the Mcdway, of (Jl guns, now at Plymuutl.. 

Surgeons appointed. 

llr. S. Blandford to the Earl Howe ; Thomas Martill to tlie Rattler ; A. 
B. Grcnville to tlie Arachnc ; John Prolheio to tlie Rainbow; Henry 
ParMJiisto the Kreva ; Thomas Miller pnmiotcd from ll:e Diligence store- 
ship to the Port Malion; .lames Hail to the Rattler, vice i\!arlill ; P. C. 
Pariebien to the Jason; John Marpole to tlie Hecate; J. Gsnmn.l to tlic 
Slieeiwater; Edward Evans to tlie Armeide; Robert Chambtrs to tiie 
Diamond ; John Rose to tlie ^samur; Thomas Usher to the Ucicuic prison- 



264 NAVAL HISTORY OF Till: PRESENT YEAR, 1809. 

ship; W. E. Odium to the Intrepid; Isaac Johnstone to the Trinculo 
sloop; James Fletcher to the Waldemar prison-sliip ; Sanmel Symonds to 
the Marengo prison-ship ; Pearce Power to the Derwent ; Robert Cham- 
bers from the Diamond to the Dobiree ; John Pegus to the Unite; Wil- 
liam Bryan to the Sabine ; James Lepper to the Dolphin ; James Ayres to 
the Beaver; John Spence to the Woodlark ; James Smith (^)to the Echo; 
Patrick Donnelly to the Ceres; D. Aitkin from the Neptune to the 
Suffolk P.S. ; J. A. Madden to the Neptune; Robert Kirkwood to the 
Prothee; Rose Herring to the Achille; Joshua Horwood to the Crocodile; 
James Prior- to the Thames; D.Lewis to the Argus; R, M. Cockerell, 
promoted trom the Amelia to tlic Ilesper. 

Assistant Surgeons appointed, &c. 
Charles O'Brien to the Niobe; JoIju Parke to the Phoebe; Nicliolas 
Roche to the Trent hospital-siitp; Francis Hunt to the York; Patrick Kelly 
to the Orpheus; Robert Scott to the Pegase prison hospital-ship; James 
Cochrane to ditto , John Todd to be an hospital mate at Plymouth hospital; 
R. Turbitt to the St. Josef; F^dward Calduell to be an "hospital mate at 
Barbadoes ; G. Fit/gcrald to be ditto at Forton prison ho-pital ; J. L. 
Simpson to the Unicorn ; Joscjih Field to the Armeide; David Boyftfr to 
the tledhreast gun-brig; Robert Rainey to the Kent; C. O. Morns to the 
Lively; Charles Reilly to the St. Doinini;o; Henry Ellis to the Argo; 
Patrick Magovern to the Ajax ; David Poole to be an hospital matt at 
Norman-cross prison; William Smith to tiie Caledonia; Hugh Mullholan 19 
the Pickle. 



BUiTHS. 

On the 28th ult. the lady of Captain P. N. Otway, of the royal navy, of 
a daughter. 

At Fareham, in Hants, the lady of Captain Mends, of the royal navy, of 
a daujihter. 



MARRIAGES. 

At Truro, .T. Whitbread, Esq. to Mrs. St. Aubyn, daughter of the late 
C'immodore Mitchell, of Truro. 

On the 18th of September, at Ea?t Stonehouse, near PiymoutJi, Captain 
W'illi;mi Johnstone, of the royal marines, to Miss Smith, eldest daughter of 
the i;ile Colonel Smith, of the same corps. 

On the 23d of September, at St. Mary-le-bone churcii. Captain Henry 
Sturrock, of the Hon. Company's ship Preston, to Mrs. Weiiadvice, of 
C'lurlton, Kent. 

OBITUARY. 

Lately, Admiral Bradley, father of Captain Bradley, of the Calypso 
aged 73. 

In the West Indies aged 25, Mr. Henry Thompson, purser of the 
Siitellite. 

On the 20th of September, at her apartments in Greenwich hospital, 
Mrs. Brovvell, the lady of the lieutenant-governor of that institution. 

On the 14th of September, at Liverpool, David Sermon, mariner, aged 
1€G, who had sailed round the world with Lord Anson, m the Centuriyn. 



kEMOIR OF TFIE PUBLIC SEIU'ICES 

OF 

SIR CIIALONEH OGLE, KNT. 

ADMIRAL OF THE RED SQUADUOX. 



•' Yes, I have son?, firm as their native recks. 

Who seek my glory 'mid contending shocks ; 

Who, like (he British Lion, proudly brave, 

Fight but to conquer, conquer but to save." -Owex ' 

THE name of Ogle will be recognised, by many a veteran in 
the service, -with tiiat description of pleasure which we expe- 
rience on meeting an old acquaintance, whose features a lapse of 
years has partially obliterated from our remembrance. More 
than half a century has passed by, since Sir Chaloiier Ogle ob» 
tained post rank ; and many, who were only midshipmeu 
when he was promoted to a flag, are now old post captains. 
Within three — Sir Peter Parker, Admiral Digby, and Lord 
Bridport — he is at the top of the list of flag officers. 

Sir Chaloner Ogle is the descendant of a very ancient and 
respectable family, long settled in the county of Northumberland ; 
and it is deserving of remark, that his naval honours are 
hereditary. 

Kis father, (Sir Chaloner Ogle) of whose professional life 
we shall present a sketch, before we record his own ser- 
vices, commanded the Wolf sloop of war, in the early part of 
1708; from which, on the 14th of March, in that year, he was 
promoted to the rank of captain, in the Tartar frigate. In this 
ship he continued during the remainder of the war, stationed prin- 
cipally in the Mediterranean, where he made some very valuable 
prizes; by which, if he did not secure fame, he had the satisiac- 
tion of improving his pecuniary resources. 

Some time after tiie accession of George the 1st, Captain Ogle 
was appointed to the Worcester, a fourth rate, of 50 guns ; one 
of the ships belonging to Admiral Byng's tlcet, which, in conse- 
quence of the hostile conduct of the Swedes, was ordered to the 
Baltic in the spring of the year 1717. 



266 MEMOIU OF THE PUBLIC 3ERTICES OP 

From the Worcester, Captain Ogle was removed into the Swal- 
low, another fourth rate ; in which, by the capture of a piratical 
squaJron, on the coast of Africa, in April, 1722, he completely 
established his reputation as a brave and^ skilful officer. " The 
trade to the West Indies," says Entick, in his Naval History,* 
" being again + greatly annoyed by pirates, who, encouraged by 
the Spaniards, and the want of a force in the American seas to 
curb their insolence, not only interrupted our navigation, but fre- 
quently spoiled the coasts of our colonics : the merchants, by their 
repeated representations, prevailed with the government to send 
orders to the officers of the navy, cruising on the coast of Guinea, 
and in the West ladies, to exert themselves with the utmost dili- 
gence, in crushing these enemies to mankind. There was amongst 
these pirates on the coast of Africa, one Roberts, a man whose 
parts deserved a better employment ; he was an able seaman, and 
a good commander, and had with him two very stout ships, one 
commanded by himself, of 40 guns, and 152 men ; the other of 
32 guns, and 132 men ; and, to complete his squadron, he soon 
added a third, of 24 guns, and 90 men. With this force, Roberts 
had done a great deal of mischief in the ^Vcst Indies, before he 
sailed for Africa, where he likewise took abundance of prizes, till 
in the month of April, 1722, he Avas taken by the then Captain, 
afterwards. Sir Chaloner Ogle.'" 

Captain Ogle, having received the intelligence, that Roberts's 
squadron were in a bay, close to Cape Lopez, adopted the expe- 
dient of disguising his ship, so that she might appear to the pirates 
as a merchantman ; and, standing in for the shore, he Avas soon 
descried by the enemy. The largest ship, commanded by Roberts 

» Page 720. 

+ In 1717, tlie West Indies had been so over-run witli pirates, that, on 
the 5th of September, a proclamation was issued, oftering a pardon to all 
such as should surrender themselves within a twelvemonth, foi- ail the acts 
of piracy that they might iiave committed, before the 5th of January pre- 
ceding. After the expiration of the limited time of surrender, rewards 
were offered to any of his jNJajesty's officers, by sea or land, who should 
take a pirate, upon his being legally convicted ; viz. for a captain, 1001. 
any other officei", from a lieutenant down to a gunner, 40l. for an inferior 
officer, 301. and any private man, delivering up a captain or commodore uas 
•lUitled to a reward of 2001. oii his conviction. 



SIR CIIALONER OChK, K.\T. 267 

himself, and the smallest, wciv at this tiine liigh up in tlie bay, on 
the heel, cleaning their bottoms. Roberts, deceived by the 
appearance of the Swallow, and anticipating an easy prize, made a 
signal for the only ship which was in a condition for immediate 
service, to slip her cable and give chase. This vessel, which, as 
has been stated, mounted 32 guns, was commanded by Skyrm, a 
man of much resolution and courage. Captain Ogle lied, till he 
had decoyed the pirate to such a distance tliat tlie report of the 
guns could not be heard in the bay ; and then, suddenly tacking 
upon his antagonist, he brought him quickly to action. Skyrm 
vras wounded by the first broadside ; but, such was the desperation 
with which his people fought, knowing the ignominious death 
nhich threatc'ned them, that they did not surrender tiil after an 
action of an hoar and a half's continuance. 

Captain Ogle, whose mind appears to have been fertile in expe- 
dients, after taking possession of his prize, had another deception 
to em.ploy. Hoisting the piratical colours, embellished with a 
death's head and crossed bones, over the King's, he returned to 
the bay, where he had left Roberts and his companion. They, in 
the interim, had righted their ships ; and, again deceived by the 
device of Captain Ogle, they immediately stood out of the bay, 
with the view of congratulating Skyrra upon his conquest. Their 
joy, however, was but of short duration ; for the. Swallow brought 
both their ships to action, and, after an engagement of two hours' 
continuance, in which Roberts himself was killed, compelled them 
to surrender. 

Captain Ogle carried his three prizes into Cape Coast Castle, 
where the prisoners, to the number of IGO, were immediately put 
upon their trial. Seventy-four of them were ca[)itally convicted ; 
and, of 52, w'lo were executed, the greater part were hung in 
chains along the coast.* 

In consequence of this success, marked, as it was, by a con- 
siderable display of nautical skill. Captain Ogle, immediately on 
his return to England, was invested with the honour of knight- 
hood. 

* Aotv.ithstaiKlinif tins example, tlie depredations oi die pnatcs v.c-re 
not terminated ; and it was soon afterwarils found necessary to scud 
several ships of war to the northern colonies, and to Jaaiaica, \\ hence, by 
degrees, they were uUimatel)' expelled. 



263 MEJIOIK. OF THE PUBLIC SEK.VrCES OF 

The next command that we find him engaged in, was that of the 
Burford, of 70 guns, one of the fleet which rendezvoused at Spit- 
head, in 1726.* — In 1731, he commanded the Edinburgh, also a 
70 gun-thip, which sailed with Sir Charles Wager's fleet to the 
Mediterranean. + 

Sir Chaloner Of^le Avas promoted to the rank of rear-admiral of 
the blue squadron, on the 11th of July, 1739 ; and, a rupture with 
Spain being then daily expected, he hoisted his flag on board the 
Augusta, and proceeded to Gibraltar, with a squadron of twelve 
ships, with orders either to act separately, or to put himself under 
the command of Admiral Haddock who was in the Mediterranean, 
as circumstances might require. In this service nothing particular 
occurred : and, in the summer of 1740, Sir Chaloner Ogle re- 
turned to England with a great part of the Mediterranean fleet. 
He was immediately afterwards employed as third in command of 
the Channel fleet, under Sir John N orris, in the Shrewsbury, of 
SO guns. 

On his return to port, in the month of October, he was ordered 
to proceed to the West Indies, to reinforce Admiral Vernon, with 
the view of effecting the reduction of the Spanish settlements in that 
quarter. Having shifted his flag into the Russel, of 80 guns, he 

* This was at a period v.hen, iu consequence of the perverseaess and 
obstinacy of the Spanish court, it was found necessary to assume a formi- 
dable aspect. On the 30th of June, a fleet of twenty sail of the line and 
five fii<:ates assetnbied at Spitliead, where it was joined by a Dutch 
squadron, under the command of Rear-admiral the Baron de Sommeldyke. 
Spain, alarmed at tlie asseniblageof so large a force, was induced to agree to 
a treaty of general pacification; and, after the combined fleet had remained 
three months at Spithead, the Dutch squadron returned home, and twelve 
of the English sliips of the line -were paid off. 

+ In the summer of 1731, Sir Charles Wager was sent with a strong 
squadron into the Mediterranean, to escort a body of Spanish troops to 
Italj', for the purpose of supporting Don Carlos in his establishment as 
Duke of Parma. On the 6th of August, Sir Charles arrived at Cadiz, and 
was joined by a Spanish squadron, under the command of the Marquis 
de Marl. The English admiral, having concerted measures at Madrid, 
sailed from Cadiz, as commander-in-chief, on the 6th of October, and 
arrived at Leghorn on the 15th; where, after some conferences holden with 
the Grand Duke of Tusqany's Minister, the Spanish troops were permitted 
to land. — Sir Charles Wager, having executed his mission, returned to 
England at the beginning of December, 



SIR CHALOXER oglt:, knt. 269 

accordingly sailed from St. Helen's, on the 26th of the month, vith 
t'.venty-foiir sail of the line, several store and fire-ships, and up- 
wards of 150 transports, with a considerable body of troops on 
board, commanded by Lord Cathcart. On the 31st, before it had 
■well cleared the land's end, the fleet was overtaken by a violent 
gale of wind, in which the Buckingham, Superbe, and Prince of 
Orange were so much damaged, that the first of those ships was 
obliged to return to Spithead, and the other two were escorted to 
Lisbon by the Cumberland. The rest of the fleet, with the trans- 
ports, some of which were rather in a crippled state, proceeded on 
their passage to Jamaica, where, having previously watered at 
Dominica, they arrived without farther accident, on the fcth of 
January, 1741. 

Admiral Vernon and Sir Chaloncr Ogle having arranged their 
plan of operations with the military commanders, the fleet sailed 
fi'om Port Royal on the 'iSth of January ; and, in consequence of 
subsequent information, au immediate attack upon Carthagena was 
soon afterwards resolved upon. The account of this unfortunate 
expedition has been fuliy detailed, in our memoir of Admiral Ver- 
non : * consequently, it is here unnecessary to repeat the particu- 
lars. Sir Chaloner Ogle continued to serve with Admiral Vernon 
till the recall of that cflicer, in December, 1742, when he sue. 
ceeded him as commander-in-chief on the Jamaica station ; having 
previously, in the month of Tviaich, been made rear-admiral of the 
red. On the 9th of August, 1743, he was made vice-admiral of 
the blue ; on the 7th of December following, vice-admiral of 
the white; and on the 19th of June, 1744, admiral of the 
blue. 

The dissensions which had taken place between Admiral Vernon 
atid General Wexitworth, had rendered government so sensible of 
Ihe disadvantages attendant on a division of command between 
land and sea officers, that it was resolved to remedy the inconveni- 
ence in future, by investing the admiral with absolute authority 
over the marines, or any other military force that might be em- 
barked on board the fleet. In the exercise of this authority. Sir 
Chaloner Ogle gave entire satisfaction ; not only to those who 

« — ■ — — ■ — "■" ■ 

* Vide Naval Ciirokicl£, Vol. IX. page. iG9. 



270 MEr.ioiii OF THE public services of 

^Tere mider him, but to the iahabitanfs of Jamaica at large.* Sir 
Chaloner Ogle remained in the West Indies till 1745 ; but, Avith 
the exception of the unfortunate attacks which were made by- 
Commodore Knoules,+ on the harbours of La Guira and Porto 
Cavallo, in 1743, the whole of the time that he enjoyed the chief 
command on that station, was employed merely in cruising for the 
protection of commerce. Early in the month of June he arrived 
at SpitheaJ, in the Cumberland, with three other t\vo-decke;l 
ships, and a small convoy of merchantmen. 

In the month of September following, Sir Chaloner Ogle was 
appointed President of the Court Martial, which assembled on 
board the London, in the river Medvvay, for the trials of the 
Admirals Matthews and Lestock, with the captains and other 
officers, who had been concerned in the unsiuccessful action off 
Toulon, in the preceding year. He held this station only till the 
conclusion of the trials of the captains and lieutenants ; at which 
time the court adjourned j and, wlsen it assembled again, at Dept- 
forcl, in May 1746, Sir Chaloner Ogle was succeeded, as president, 
by Rear-admiral Mayne. 

This appears to have been the last of Sir Chaloner Ogle's public 
services. On the 15ih of July, 1747, he was advanced to be 
admiral of the w^hite squadron ; and, on the 10th of July, 1749, 
to the still higher rank of admiral of the fleet, an honour which he 
enjoyed only a shoft time, as he died in the course of the 
year 1750. 

Sir Chaloner Ogle, the sou of this gentleman, and the immediate 
subject of our present notice, embraced the naval service at a very 
early period of life. He is believed to have been brought up, un- 
der the direct eye of his father, and to have been with him', during 
the entire period of his command in the West Indies. In the win- 
ter of the year that the admiral returned to Europe, he obtained a 
lieui'juant's commis-ion, (November 19, 1745) and, having passed 

■* A private letter, dated Port Royal, April 29, 1744, bestows the follow- 
ing eul'Jgium on Sir Clialouer Ogle: — " The inhabitants of thi-s island begin 
to recover their spirits; the loss of Admiral Vernon is in great measurs 
coiripensated for by ihe vigilance and good conduet of Sir Chaloner Oi^le," 

+ Vide Nava!. Chrokicli:, Vol. I. pf ge 100, ei scq. 



IIR CirALONER OGLE, KXX/ 471 

the intermediate rank of commander, he was made post, in the 
Yarmouth, on the 30th of June, 1756. 

In tile month of September following, Captain Ogle was ordered 
to the Mediterranean, as a passenger on beard the Ambuscade 
frigate, to take the temporary command of one of the ships, the 
captains of which had been ordered home to give evidence on tha 
trial of Admiral Byng. 

Captain Ogle returned to England soon afterwards, and was 
appointed to the Aquilon, in which he is believed to have conti- 
nued, till the conclusion of the Mar. In 1761, Avhcn he was 
employed entirely as a cruiser, he was particularly distinguished 
for his activity and success. Early in the month of January, he 
captured, and carried into Cork, two privateers ; one, the Santa 
Theresa, mounting 10 carriage guns ; the other, of inferior force. 
In P^ebruary, he took the Comtc de Grammont, a private ship of 
war, of Bayonnc, carrying 20 guns, with a crew of 117 picked 
men. This vessel he carried into Lisbon ; and, on the 4th of 
March, on his return to England, he captured the Zephire, another 
privateer, of 12 guns and 114 men, .also of Bayonne. In July, 
off Cape Machicacoa, he took the Aurora privateer, of 10 guns 
and 75 men, belonging to Rochelle ; and, on the 7th of August, 
while pn a cruise about two hundred and fifty leagues to the west- 
ward of Cape Fiaisterre, he fell in with and captured the Subtile, 
a frigate, as she was termed in the official account, belonging to 
the French East India Company, of 16 guns, and 81 men.- The 
Subtile was homeward bound, from the Mauritius, with a cargo 
and despatches. Several other prizes, of minor iu.portap.ce, were 
made by Captain Ogle, in the course of the year ; but, owing to 
the inferiority of their force, wh?n compared with that of the 
Aquilon, their respective captures were not distinguished by any 
circumstances deserving of notice. 

From this period, till the termination of the war, during tha 
latter part of which he was employed on the West India station, 
Captain Ogle's services do not appear to have been marked by any 
particular success ; and, in consequence of the peace of 17C3, he 
is not again prore^sionally mcnlioiied, till the year 1770, when he 
commanded the E!i7.a1)eth, of 74 g""us, one of the ships which were 
put into commission at Portsmoutii, on the apprehended rupturtj 



$72 MEMOin. OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OF 

•with Spain, respecting Falkland's Islands.* Prior to this appoint^- 
ment, however— on the 2Sth of November, 1768— Captain Ogle 
had had the honour of knighthood conferred upon him. 



* These islands, the dispute respecting' which, we have so frequently had 
occasion to mention, are situated in the southern Atlantic Ocean, to the 
eastward of the Straits of Matrellan. in longitude 56 detr. 30 min. to 6'^i deg. 
16 min. west of Greenwich ; latitude 51 deg. 6 min. to 52 dee. 30 min. sou.h. 
They consistof two large islands, surrounded by agreat number of small ones. 
Tliey were probably seen by Magellan, Sharpe, and Drake ; but the credit of 
their discovery is generally given to Davies, by whom they were noticed in 
1592. In 1594, they were visited by Sir Richard Hawkins, who saw some 
fires on them, and supfiosed them to be inhabited. They were called by 
him Hawkins's Maiden Land. They are said to have received the name of 
Falkland from Captain Strong, in the year 1639. Roggewin, who passed 
by the east coast in the year 1721, called them South Belgia; and they have 
also been called Pepy's Islands, Sebald de Wert's Islands, New Islands of 
St. Lewis, and Mallouines ; but the name of Falkland has generally pre- 
vailed. In 1764, Commodore Byron was despatched by the British govern- 
ment to take formal possession of them, and to settle a colony at a place 
which he called Port Egmont. This little settlement was suffered to re- 
main undisturbed till 17 70. Captain Malby, who arrived at Porismouth, 
from Falkland's Islands, on the 22d of September, in that year, related, 
that soon after his return to Port Egmont, from the coast of^atagonia, 
whither he had been, for the purpose of relieving the crew of the Swift 
sloop, which had been wrecked in the preceding IMarch, at Port Desire, 
fjve Spanisli frigates arrived, having on board a body of troops, and a train 
of artillery. Captain Farmer (late commander of the Swift, and senior 
officer) being convinced that the nature of this visit was hostile, went on 
shore witli his own crew, to protect the settlement, whose only defence was 
a small block-house. At the same time, he ordered Captain Malby to anchor 
his ship, the Favourite, as close in as her draught of water would permit, and 
to land himself v.ith fifty of his iircn, two six-pounders, and some swivels^ 
On perceiving this arrangement, the Spaniards ariciiored three of their fri- 
gates opposite to the block-house, and began to fire upon it. Resistance 
appearing hopeless, only a few shots were fired, when Captain Farmer held 
out a flng of truce and capitulated. It was a^^reed, by one of the articles, that 
the Favourite sliould have permission to return to England, as soon as the 
governor of Solidad, or his deputy, should arrive at Port Egmont; and the 
Spaniards, to secure a comphance with this article, unhung the Favourite's 
rudder, and took it, with several of her sails, on shore. Captain Farmer 
and Captain Malby remonstrated against this insultini; measure, but with- 
out etlect. At length, the Favourite was suffered to depart. On her 
pas=age to England, she fell in with a Spanish galleon, when it became a 
subject of debate ijetween the captains and officers, whetlier they would not 
be ju.siiiied in seizii'.i: her, by waj of rctaliatiou for the hostilities comiakted^ 



SIR CHALONER OGLE, KNT. 273 

Sir Chaloner remained only a short time in the Elizabeth ; as, 
in consequence of a pacific arrangement with Spain, that shij), 
with most of the others that had been put into commission, was 
paid off. In 1774, he was appointed to the Resolution, also of 
74 guns, which was then commissioned as a guardship at Ports- 
mouth. In the Resolution he continued some years after the 
commencement of the American war : and, in 1778, and 1779, he 
was employed on the home station, under the orders of Admiral 
Keppel, and afterwards of Sir Charles Hardy.* He was not 
present, however, at the encounter with the French fleet, oiF 
Ushant. 

At the close of the year 1779, Sir Chaloner Ogle sailed from 
England, under the command of Sir George Rodney,- Avho was 
sent out with a fleet of twenty sail of the line, to relieve Gibral- 

nnd the insult olYercd to the British flag at Port Egiuont. The majoritv, 
however, were against the *iicaiure, and the galleon was suffered to 
proceed. 

In consequence of this intelligence, sixteen sail of the line were ordered to 
be put into commission ; press- waii-ants were issued, bounties were ollered, 
houses of rendezvous wer.e opened, and every preparation was resorted to, 
that could give weight and effect to the projected commencement of hos- 
tilities. In the succeeding year, however, the dispute respecting these 
islands was settled in favour of England ; but, on farther consideration, 
they do not appear to have been so iiiihly estimated by the Britisli govern- 
ment ; as, in 1774, the Endeavour store-ship, commanded by Lieutenant 
Gordon, was sent thither, with orders to bring home Lieutenant Clayton, 
and the jsarty which had been left with him, together with all such stores as 
might be judged serviceable. Lieutenant Clayton, previously to hisquitting 
Port Eguiont, fixed up a piece of lead, with an inscription, signifying that 
the islands, bays, forts, &c. appertainecf to his Britannic Majesty. He also 
left the British colours flying on the fort ; but, in the course of the year, 
these islands, which had been so pertinaciously contended for by England, 
were ceded to Spain ; and, if we may judge, from the following account of 
them, given by Captain Macbride, it would not be an easy task to fix upon 
objects less deserving of contention : — " We found a mass of islands and 
broken lands, of which the soil was nothing but a bog, with no better 
prospect than that of barren mountains, beaten by storms almost perpetual. 
Yet this is summer, and if the winds of winter hold their natural propor- 
tion, those who might be about two cables' length from the shore, must pass 
weeks without having anv communication with it." 

* For the respective memoirs of these otScers, vide Naval CiinoxiCLE, 
Vol. VII. page 277, and Vol. XIX, page 89. 

if2at). Cpron. ®ol. XXII. n n 



274 MEMOIR OF THE PUBLIC SERYICES OF 

far.* He had consequently the honour of sharing in the defeat and 
capture of the greater part of the Spanish squadron, commanded 
by Don Juan de Langara, on the I6th of January, 1780 ;t 
though, in consequence of his ship having been one of those in the 
rear, and the van ships having nearly terminated the action before 
their companions got up, he was but slightly engaged. 

During his absence at Gibraltar, Sir Chaloner Ogle was advanced 
to the rank of commodore, and Lord Robert Manners was ap- 
pointed his captain. 

The Resolution was one of the ships which, in February, 
returned to England with the Spanish prizes, under the command 
of Rear-admiral Digby and Sir John Lockhart Ross ; f Admiral 
Rodney, with part of the fleet, having proceeded on his original 
destination to the West Indies, after accomplishing his primary ob- 
ject, the relief of Gibraltar. On the 23d of February, five dayi 
after parting with Sir George Rodney, the returning division of 
the fleet fell in with a French convoy, of thirteen sail, protected 
by two ships of 64 guns each, the Ajax and Prothee, a frigate, and 
two large store-ships armee enjlute^ bound for the Mauritius. A 
general chase commenced ; and Sir Chaloner Ogle, in the Resolu- 
tion, got up with the commodore's ship, the Prothee, M. de Chilot, 
about one P.M. A brisk action of half an hour ensued, at the 
expiration of which the Resolution made prize of her antagonist, 
without the loss of a single man. Had it not been that the wea- 
ther was extremely boisterous, and that a dark night came on, the 
whole of the convoy would probably have been captured ; but, 
in consequence of those circumstances, the Prothee, and three of 
the transports, were all that fell into the hands of the English. 

In May, 17S0, soon after his return to England, Sir Chaloner 
Ogle was ordered to America, with the following squadron, under 
the command of Rear-admiral Thomas (afterwards Lord) Graves. & 
for the purpose of reinforcing Admiral Arbuthnot. 

* Vide biographical memoir of Lord Rodney, INaval Chuomcle, Vol. I. 
page 371. 

t Ibid, page 374. 

+ For a portrait and biographical memoir of diis estimable ofScer, ^id« 
Kaval Chronicle, Vol. VL page 1. 

• ^ A portrait and biographical memoir of this officer are given in tlia- 
Vth Volume of the Naval Chronicle, page 377. 



SIR CUALONER OGLE, KNT. 275 

Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

{Thomas Graves, Esq. rear-admiral of 
the red, 
Captain David Graves. 

CuUoden 74 George Balfour. 

Royal Oak 74 Sir Digliy Dent. 

Bedford..,,.... 74 Edmund Affleck. 

„ , . f Sir Chaloner Ogle, Knt. Commodore, 

xlesolution . . . . . . 74 S /- » • t j tj u , i\t 

L Captain Lord Robert Manners. 

America 64 Samuel Thompson. 

Prudente 64 Thomas Burnet. 

Amphjirite 24 R. Biggs. 

This squadron, which sailed from Plymouth, with a contrary 
wind, on the 17th of IMay, effected a speedy and prosperous 
passage ; but, in consequence of the French admiral, the Cheva- 
lier de Ticrnay, having secured himself in port, and not chiising 
to face the British fleet, the remainder of the year was uninterest- 
ingly consumed, in a service of blockade. 

On the approach of the hurricane months. Admiral Rodney left 
the West Indies for America ; and, when he returned. Sir Cha- 
loner Ogle accompanied him. 

Oq the 26th of September, in the same year (1780), Sir Chalo- 
ner was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral of the blue 
squadron ; soon after which, as there was a sufficient number of 
flag oificers, his seniors, employed on the West India station, he 
"was recalled ; and, in consequence, he returned to England, in 
the month of February, 1781. 

Sir Chaloner Ogle was farther promoted, on the 24th of Sep- 
tember, 1787, to the rank of vice-admiral of the blue squadron ; 
on the 1st of February, 1793, to be vice-admiral of the red ; on 
the 11th of April, 1794, to be admiral of the blue ; on the 14th 
of February, 1799, to be admiral of the white ; and, on the 9tli 
of November, 1805, to be admiral of the red. 

It is remarkable, that Sir Chaloner Ogle has never once been 
favoured with an opportunity of hoisting his (lag ; a circumstance 
which probably, in some measure, arose from the long period of 
peace, which ensued shortly after he attained the rank of a flag 
officer. 

Sir Chaloner married, on the 7th of September, 1761, Miss^ 
Esther Thomas, the youngest daughter of the Bishop of Winche«- 



27*6 KATAr, ANECDOTES, 

tcr, by whom lis has had several children. On the 20th of Decem- 
ber, 1785, his second daughter, Miss A. Ogle, was married to the 
Hon. Edward Bouverie, brother to the Earl of Radnor, by whom 
she has issue: and, on the 28th of August, 17S0, his youngest 
daughter, Jemima Sophia, was married to the present Sir Charles 
Asgill, Bart. 



NAVAL ANECDOTES. 
COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &t. 



KANTES IX GURUITE VASTO. 



WEUMAIDS. 

riT^HE following interesting letters will be found to throw considfrabls 
light upon a subject, which has occasionally excited doubt, even in the 
minds of the best informed :— ^ 

X^eticrfrom Miss Mackay, Daughter of the. Rev. David Mackay, Minister 
of Real/, to Mrs. Ixxes, Douager, of Sandside. 

" MADAM, Reay Manse, May 25, 1809, 

" To establish the truth of what has hiti;erto been considered improba^ 
ble and fabulous, must be at all times a riitlicult task, and I have not the 
vanity to think that my testimony alone would be sufficient for th^s pur- 
po^.e ; but when to this is added that of four others, I hope it will have 
some effect in removing the doubts of those, who may suppose that the 
wonderful appearance I reported having seen in the sea on the 12th of 
January, was not a Mermaid, but some other uncommon, thougii less 
remarkable inhabitant of the deep. As I would willijigly contribute to 
remove the doubt of the sceptical on the subject, I beg leave to state to you 
tl;e following accounts, after premising that my cousin, whose name is 
athxed along witli mine, was one of the four witnesses wlio beheld with me 
this uncommon spectacle. 

" While she and I \vere walking by the sea shore, on the I2tb of 
January, about noon, our attention was attracted by seeing three people 
who were on a rock at some distance, shew ing signs of terror and astonish- 
ment at something they saw in the water ; on approaching them, we di?r 
tinguished that the object of their wonder was a face resembling the human 
countenance, which appeared flouting on the waves ; at that time nothing 
but the face was visible. It may not be improper to observe, betore I pro- 
ceed further, that the face, throat, and arms, are all I can attempt ta 
describe, all our endeavours to discover the appearance and position of the 
body being unavailing. The sea at that time ran very high, and as the 
ivaves advanced^ the Mermaid gently sunk under them, and afterwards r«^ 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 277 

appeared. The face seemed plump and round, the eyes and nose were 
small, the former were of a li-iht grey colour, and tlie mouth was large, and 
from the shape of the jaw-bone, which seemed straight, the face looked 
short; as to the inside of the mouth I can say nothing, not having attended 
to it, though sometimes open. The forehead, nose, and chin were white 
the whole side face of a bright pink colour. The head was exceedingly 
round, the hair thick and lonsr, of a green, oily cast, and appeared trouble- 
some to it, the waves generally throwing it down over the face ; it seemed 
to feel the annoyance, and as the waves retreated, with both its hands fre- 
quently threw back the hair, and rubbed its throat, as if to remove any 
soiling it might have received from it. The throat was slender, smooth, and 
white; we did not think of observing wlietherit had elbows; but from the 
manner in which it used its arms, I must conclude that it had. The arms 
•were very long and slender, as were the hands and fingers ; the latter were 
not v.ebbed. The arms, one of them at least, was frequently extended over 
its head, as if to frighten a bird that hovered over it, and seemed to distress 
it much; wlien that had no effect, it sometimes turned quite round several 
times successively. At a little distance we observed a seal. It sometimes 
laid itsriglit hand under its cheek, and in this position floated for some time. 
We saw nothing lite hair or scales on any part of it, indeed the smoothness 
of the skin pariiculariy caught our attention. The time it was discernible 
to us was about an hour. The sun was shining clearly at tfie time; it was 
distant from us a few yards only. These are the few observations made 
by us during the appearance of this strange phenomenon. 

*' If they afford you any satisfaction I shall be particularly happy ; I 
have stated nothing but ■what I clearly recollect; as my cousin and I iiad 
frequently, previous to this period, combated an assertion which is very 
common among the lower class here, that Mermaids had been frequently 
seen on this coast, our evidence cannot be thought biassed by any former 
prejudice in favour of the existence of this wonderful creature. 

" To contribute in any degree to your pleasure or amusement, will add 
to the happiness of, 

Madam, your greatly obliged, 

" ELIZ. MACKAV, 
" C. MACKENZIE." ' 

Letter from Mr. William Muxro, Schoolmaster, of Thurso, to Dr. Tor- 
EEKCE, rcgardhig a Mcrmuid seen by him some i/ ears ago. 

" DEAR Sin, Tfiurso,yiaic9, 1809. , 

" Your queries respecting the Mermaid are bef re nie. From the general 
scepticism which prevails among the learned and intelligent about t!ie 
existence of such a phenome on, had not your character and real desire for 
investigation been too well known to me, for supj-usiiig that yon wislicd to 
have a fertile imagination intJulged by a subject of mcrriiuent, I would have 
been disposed to have concluded, that in this instance you aimed at being 
ranked among the laughing philosophers, at my expencc. Seijsible, 
however, that this is uot the case, and taking it for granted that you are 



273 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

sincere, I shall endeavour to answer your queries, though there is little pro* 
bability that any testimony which I can give respecting the Mermaid, will 
operate towards convincing those who have not hitherto been convinced 
by the repeated testimonies adduced in support of the existence of such an 
appearance. About twelve years ago, when I was parochial schoolmaster 
at Reay, in the course of my walking on the shore of Sandside Bay, being a 
fine warm day in summer, I was induced to extend my walk towards Sand- 
side: [lead when my attention was arrested by the appearance of a figure, 
resemhling an unclothed human female, sitting upon a rock extending into 
the sea, and apparently in the action of combing its hair, which flowed 
around its shoulders, and of a light brown colour. The resemblance which 
the figure bore to its prototype, in all its visible parts, was so striking, that 
had nor the rock on which it was sitting been dangerous for bathing, I 
would haye been constrained to have regarded it as really an human form, 
and to any eye unaccustomed to the situation, it must have undoubtedly 
appealed as such. The head was covered with hair of the colour above 
mentioned, and shaded on the crown ; the forehead round, the face plump, 
the cheeks ruddy, the eyes blue, the mouth and lips of a natural form, 
resembling those of a man ; the teeth I could not discover, as the mouth was 
shut; tl)e breasts and abdomen, the arms and fingers of the size of a full 
grown body oi the human species; the fingers, from the action in which the 
hands were enjployed, did not appear to be webbed, but as to this I am not 
positi\e. It remained on the rock three or four minutes after I observed 
it, and was exercised during that period in combing its hair, which was long 
and thick, and of which it appeared proud, and tiien dropping into the sea, 
which was Uvcl with the abdomen, from whence it did not re-appear to me. 
I had a distinct view of its features, being at no great distance on an emi- 
nence above the rock on which it was sitting, and the sun brightly shining. 
Im i.ediately before its getting into its natural element, it seemed to have 
observed me, as the eyes were directed towards the eminence on which I 
stood. It may be necessary to remark, that previous to the period I beheld 
this object, T had heard it frequently reported by several peri-ons, and some 
of them persons wliose veiacity I never heard disputed, that tiiey had seen 
such a phenomenon as 1 have described, though then, like many others, I 
was not disposed to credit their tCbtiraony on this subject. I can say of a 
trutli, that it was only by seeing the plienomenon I was perfectly convinced 
of its exi.tence. 

" If the above narrative can in any desiree be subservient towards 
establishing the existence of a phenomenon, hitherto almost incredible to 
naturalists, or to re;nove the scepticism of others who are ready to dispute 
every thing which they cannot fully comprehend, you are welcome to it, 
from, dear Sir, your most obliged, and most humble servant, 

" WILLIAM MUNRO." 

** To Doctor Torrence, Thurso." 



COMMERCIAL IIINTSj RECOLLECTIONS, &C. 27f 

PROTECTION OF THE COASTING TRADE. 

A MEMORIAL, of which the following is a copy, was presented to Mr. 
Grenville, at the time tliat that gentleman was at the head of the Admi- 
ralty, for the better protection of the coastiug trade. The plan which it 
recommended was, for some time, acted upon with great success ; but, 
owing to the change of ministry, or some other cause, it has been relin- 
quished-, The necessity, however, of adopting some efficient measure, to 
prevent the depredations of the enemy, has rather increased than Hmi- 
nished ; and as it is possible that the memorial here mentioned, tOirether 
with its proposed means of prevention, may have been forgotten, we take 
the opportunity of inserting it in the Naval Chronicle, in the hope that 
it may attract the attention of those whose business it is to provide th« 
necessary facilities for the protection of British commerce. 

*' From October to April, there has always appeared on the part of the 
French, a regular plan in all their ports and outlets, from Cherbourg to 
Dunkirk, of privateering in wretched, but suitable and mischievous craft, 
against tl:e shipping of Great Britain ; this has usually been attended witli 
too much success against the coasting trade in general, and, in particular, 
on the important and extensive trade of provisions from Ireland ; of which 
a greater proportion is brought forward for the special use of tiie navy and 
army. 

" The severity of the weather, and tlic great darkness of the season, 
from short days and fogs, makes this time most suitable to such depre- 
dations. 

" Shipping, under the British flag, with the coasting trade, forming an 
endless chain oflrunut on our coast, these attacks cannot fail of a success 
greatly disproportioned to the pecuniary risk of their adventure; and equally 
disgraceful, vexatious, and highly injurious to our national power and com- 
mercial property. 

" In this manner, great losses were sustained in the last war, from the 
Scilly Isles up to North Yarmouth, which, during the scarci/^j^ of those 
times, were severely felt in the loss of grain and flour, and in the interrup- 
tions to their transit. 

" But in the two winters immediately preceding the termination of that 
war (1799-1800, and 1800-1) a system of defence appeared to be prac- 
tised, whicli very greatly decreased this evil, and protected the trade. It 
was, perhaps, the plan of watching by particular and appointed cruisers for 
the whole of the winter, each harbour and outlet on their coast, by such 
means, in a manner, blockaded. 

" In the winter which followed the commencement of the prfse/jf hos- 
tilities, few efforts appear to have been made on the part of the enem}', 
being either unprepared, or too much restricted by attention to Boulogne; 
or prevented by the expectation of a defence, and of precautions, similar or 
greater than those by which their excursions had been repressed before the 
termination of the last war. 

" lu the last winters ( 1804-5, and 1S05-G) our trade has not passed 



580 NAVAL AN'ECDOTES, 

along our o\vn southern shores with r qual impunity : the losses, bv the 
enemy's despicable but destructive marauders, liave been very many and 
severe. 

" The nature of this evil is to increase as long as hostilities continue 
between the two countries. Why the enemy has not always made much 
greater (more numerous) efforts at this sort of hostility it is not easy to 
conceive. 

"All the defence that is possible is surely due, and called for in a 
national point of view: it does not concern mere commerce only, but th» 
productions of the soil, the real riches and strength of the country. An 
interruption to the coasting trade is a species of siege, and the nearest step 
to landing and pilfering from the fields and towns on the coast. 

" Convoys, which are a confession of the danger, are but an inconve- 
nient paUiative of it ; they increase much the delays, and add something 
to the common risk of navigation, and they do not entirely defend : some 
of the Severest losses of this kind have been sustained under convoys, which 
seem only to have collected the vessels for the greater convenience of cap- 
ture in numbers, instead of singly, had they been without convoy. 

" If the French fit their luggers, sloops, iishing-smacks, and open row- 
boats, and may, with impunitv, leave tlieir own coast in tliem^ they can 
hardly, perhaps never did, fail to do great mischief by tlieir expeditions. 
Can they be prevented ? 

" Intimidation alone would do much to check their enterprise: even 
now, it is probable, that the paucity of fishermen, smugglers, and other 
sailors, and, among these, the dread of an English prison alone, restrain 
much more numerous outfits, and save British property from much more 
extensive spoliation. The experience of a sharp look-out, with active 
and proper vessels, would have its full eflect to increase this appre- 
hension. 

" The points of attack are naturally the head-lands; the Start, Portland, 
Bury Head, Beechy Head, &c. It is often found or fancied, that, in the 
winter season, there are a sufficiency of cruisers in the bottom of the har- 
beurs, bays, or creeks, on our coasts, which, in that situation, are useless 
for protection, and too distant for pursuit. In the case of convoy it has 
been observed, that the convoy leading has weathered a point, while the 
privateer, unpercelved, has carried off the heavy and slow vessels to leeward, 
and out of sight of their protectioji. 

" Can this mischief he guarded against, and its repetition, and above all 
its increase in future, be prevented ? 

"Perhaps, it is practicable; certainly it deserves all the attention, 
necessary to put in use the means vvhich may be possible. 

" Sly humble notion is, that prevention is the best remedy. I think it 
has been tried heretofore, and found to be so. My idea of prevention is, 
to appoint a chain or routine o? cn\\%evs, of the proper description, to watch 
off our own head-lands constantly, and to blockade the outlets, from Dun- 
kirk to Cherbourg: Dieppe, and its neighbourhood, in particular. 

" This service in the wintei" is neither easv nor agreeable : but if it is 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RfeCOLLECTTONS, &C. 281 

Necessary, and would be a useful mode of defence, its difficulty would be 
met like others, wliich have been so well supported and surm'junted by the 
navy. 

" When the weather may be so heavy that our vessels cannot keep a sta- 
tion on the opposite coast, it is not very favourable to the egress of the 
French ; and, when favourable to that egress, it is equally so for the cruisers 
to hug their shore, and be close upon t!iem. 

'• If this plan should be thought proper and practicable, would it not, on 
its continuance, perfection, and success, obviate, in a great degree, the 
necessity for coasting-convoys, and thereby increase the facility and 
despatch of business, and greatly relieve the attentions of convoys required 
for tiie jjrotcction of the coasting-trade? 

" And as, m fine, hardly any thing seems now left to French maritime 
exertion, but the spoliations in their power, by captures, with wretched 
instruments, on the British seas alone, surely, the most effectual means of 
defence are required to disappoint this itch for plunder, which grows by 
practice into a habit, and is inflamed by success to hardier exertions and 
multiplied etforts. 

" The writer can suppose that he offers nothing new, or not long before 
and well considered, and that he proposes either what is already practised, 
as far as possible, or is, by some nautical or other impediment, impractica- 
ble, or would not be efficacious. Jle, perhaps, understands a technical sub- 
ject only in a popular, superficial maunt^r: he thinks, however, his observa- 
tion, which is extensive and long-continued; his interest in the subject, 
which has been great ; and his experience of sufferings which has been 
severe, do not deceive him, nor exaggerate his notion of the importance of 
the matter, and of the necessity of ail the defence and protection which can 
be given to an interest so extensive and important in national advantage 
and maritime ascendancv." 



ADMIRAL SIR RICHARD STRACHAN S THAXKS TO THE ROYAL MARINES. 

The following is a copy of Sir Richard Strachan*s testimony of the meri- 
torious conduct of the Royal Marines, on the late expedition to Wal- 
€heren : — 

" To Captain Frederic Liardet, Royal Marines. 

" SIR, " St. Do?ni)!go, al Sea, September 12, 1809. 

" It was with great pleasure I heard of the encomiums of Sir Eyre Coote 
on the Battahnn of Royal Marines. It reflects the greatest honour on you 
and the officers under your connnand, that this valuable corps have been 
preserved in health, when others have been att'icted with the prevailing 
disease. It is to your excellent management and discipline, and the exam- 
ple set by your officers, and the orderly disposition of your men, that I 
attribute this fortunate circumstance. It gives me great satisfaction in 
havlnii this opportunity of assuring you that I am fully sensible of your me- 
ritorious conduct; and you will oblige me by accepting my thanks, and. 



282 NAVAL ANECDOTES, 

conveying the same testimony of my approbation to the captains Boys, 
Wemvss, Parry, Hill, and Clarke, and the officers and private marines, 
serving under your command, and assure them how much I admire theu" 
conduct. — I remain, &c. 

« RICHARD J. Sl'RACHAN. 
War-Office, Sept. 23, 1809." 



IMIOSPITALITY OF THE INHABITANTS OF MANJEEN, ONE OF THE 
SOCIETY ISLANDS. 

A LETTER, dated from Sydney, New South Wales, on the ]7lh of July, 
1308, after announcing the arrival at that port of the Mercury, colonial 
schooner, Tliomas Reiby, master, from Otaheite, contains the following 
interesting particulars : — 

The Mercury was hove down at Ulictea ; and, upon this occasion, was 
moored, as the chiefs affirmed, to the very tree, which had, upon the hke 
occasion, been made choice of by Captain Cook, for heaving down the 
Resolution; and to bring to recollrctk)n the more strongly that great cir- 
cumnavigator's visit to those islands, a ciiief, named Mahee, produced a 
medallion of his Majesty, which his father had received as a present from 
Captain Cook; which, after some solicitation, he at length gave to Mr. 
Reiby ; the reversed side, representing two ships, encircled by the words 
Resolutimi and Adventure, mdcclxxii. This medal is considerably larger 
than a crown piece, and was originally gilt ; but which, from the length of 
time, being 36 years, is now nearly worn otf. 

By the order of Labooj^ the head chief at Ulietea, a store-house, 100 feet 
in length, and 50 in Breadth, was built for the reception of the Mercury's 
stores, the building of which was completed in a day and a half; so nume- 
rous were the workmen. 

Upon leaving the island, the vessel stood towards Manjeen, an island to 
the south-west of Ulietea, the people of which seem perfect strangers to 
c\ erv race of people but their own. In their dress and colour they differ 
little from the Friendly Islanders, but owing, perhaps, to the total want of 
intercourse with civilized visitors, their manners are ferocious, as their 
aspects are forbidding. These people are said to be much above the ordi- 
nary size, robust, and very muscular. On the Mercury's approach, 50 or 
60 canoes went out to meet her, each canoe having only one man in it, 
armed with a long spear and several short ones. As soon as she came to, 
which was about two miles from the shore, they went alongside, and 
entreated the hands to get nearer, which, together with their repeated 
efforts to decoy them into their canoes, produced a suspicion of their views, 
and, in consequence, the schooner'b people got ready to defend themselves 
in case of attack. 

Their numbers prodigiously increasing, every precaution was used to pre- 
vent any from getting on board ; thev appeared to have no kind of know- 
ledge of fire arras, which they saw without emotion. They demanded every 



COMMERCIAL HINTS, RECOLLtCTIONS, &-C. 283 

Hiovealjle tlicysaw on deck, and were understood, as tlieir language differed 
iiltle, if at all, from that of the Otaheiteans. The pigs on board they 
insisted upon having, frequently praised the size of the Mercury, and 
requested to know whose canoe she was ? But at length becoming impa- 
tient, a number grappled with the bowsprit rigging, and endeavoured to 
pull her in towards the shore, while others were endeavouring, by main 
strength, to pull the bolts from the sides, for the sake of the iron, with 
tiie value of which metal they were doubtless made acquainted by Captain 
Cook. 

As they had not any articles for barter, and the Mercury had not 
expended the whole of her trade, Mr. Reiby offered to purchase some of 
their spears, as they were ingeniously carved ; bnt none of them would they 
upon any account part with ; at length they began vehemently to threatea 
t!ie people on board, if they continued to object to going on shore ; many 
had spears in their hands; and one, who had taken a long spear up, with 
much seeming composure, while sjieaking to a seaman in the main chains, 
ot the name of David /Clarke, instead of offering it for barter, as was 
expected to be his intention, made a sudden plunge at the belly of Clarke ; 
who received the spear through his right hand, and into tlie left groin, about 
an inch. The unfortunate man fell u'pon receiving the wound, and was 
with difficulty got in. A general disposition of attack was now manifested, 
and self defence became a duty: two musketoons were immediately dis- 
charged among the foremost; and we are not sorry to observe, that the 
whole contents of one were lodged in the body of Clarke's unprovoked 
assailant. Their consternation at the noise they heard may easily be con- 
jectured : they staid not to examine the cause of the explosion ; but, taking 
to their paddles, in a few minutes reached the shore, where an immense 
number were assembled ; and the Mercury took leave of this little inhospi- 
table island, which is in about 21 deg. 38 min. 3 sec. lat. and 158 deg. 20 
mill, E. long. 

A SAILOR AT BARTHOLOMEW FAIR. 

The following laughable ^'eu J't.s^nV, purporting to be the account of a 
trial before the court of Pied Poudre, appeared m one of the uevvspapers, 
during the late festival of Bartholomew Fair : — 

Hook V, Grahb. 

This was an appeal to the Homage to obtain the restitution of nine sail 
of the line, three French flags, and about 40 pieces of cannon, captured by 
the defendant, a British seaman. Jt appeared that Hook, the appellant 
had invited the public to witness a correct representation of the battle of the 
glorious first of June, and the destruction of the French fleet. Grabb, who 
had taken more grog on board than ballast, sailed into the marine exhibi- 
tion, and took his station very close to the sea, which \sas formed , of glass 
cylinders. Shortly after the English fleet appeared in a line of battle, led 
by the gallant Howe. The ships were neatly formed of pa|)er, and they 
jircbenied a very picturesque view. Hook, the showman, then aimounceii 



284 NATAL ANECDOTKS, ScC. 

to the spectators that the enemy was in slight; and Grabb immediately rose 
ujj to clear for action, expressin;; at the same time his determination to 
pour in a broadside upon the first Frenchman that came within hail. The 
audience admired the blunt lingo of the tar, but no one suspected that he 
would join in the engagement. They were, however, deceived. The 
instant the French line was formed, and a cracker had been discharged, as 
the signal to engage, Grabb sent his stick araoiig the nautical apparatus, and 
the glass sea, which exploded like Congreve's rockets. He then seized the 
greater part of the enemy's ships, guns, flags, and other minutiae, and put 
them in his pocket, bidding defiance to the French navv, with Buonaparte 
at its head. This unexpected attack threw the shouman and the audience 
into the greatest confusion, and, as the sailor wcs determined to maintain 
his victory, the constables were called ; consequently, after a lew shot had 
been exchanged, Grabb was conveyed before his betters. When tlie appeal 
was made, it was evident that Grabb had evinced too much zeal in aid of 
the British fleet: but he was half seas over, and the Homage only ordered 
him to make retribution to the amount of half a guinea. In compliance 

with this order Grabb threw down a guinea, and exclaimed, " B you, 

take a guinea, and let me have anotlier shot at the enemy." The appellant 
was not willing to accede to the last proposal, but he received his disabled 
ships, ordnance, and prize money, and left the court. 

J-IST OF NAUTICAL FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LOKDON, 1809t 

William Bentinck, Esq. Rear-admiral of the White. 

"William Bligh, Esq. Captain R. N. 

Philip d'Auvergne (titular Duke of Bouillon) Rear-admiral of the White, 

John Elliott, Esq. Admiral of the Red. 

Sir Andew Snape Haraond, Bart. Captain, ret; 

Sir John Hensloiv, Knt. Surveyor of theNav^, 

William Joimstone Hope, E^q. Captain R. N. 

Joseph Huddart, Esq, 

George Lord Keith, K.B. Admiral of the White, 

Sir Charles Maurice Pole, Bart. Admiral of the Blue. 

Sir Home Popham, Captain R. N. 

Matthew Smith, Esq.* Captain R. X. Superann, 

Sir Philip Stephens, Bart, late Secretary to the Admiralty, 

Charles Stirling, Esq. Rear-adtniral of the White. 

Sir George Young, Knt, Admiral of the White. 



* For the extraordinary case of Captain Matthew Smith, see Naval 
CpKONiCLE, Vol. XXn. paue 42. 



28^ 

CORRESPOxNPENCE. 

ROCKET SYSTEIM. 

Letter III. 

dolus, an virtus, quis in licste requirat ?" 

Vii-i^, ^neid. L. 2. V. 38<). 



MR. EDITOR, 



inyiHE 32-pounder rocket carcass is the largest of the kind thnt h;iS 
hitherto heen constructed for use : but I am informed tli;it it is pro- 
posed hereafter to try all the intermediate natures of rocket ammunition, 
huch as 24 and 18-pounders, and even 42-pounders, to determine the w?ax/- 
??!«?« ef the power and range of this weapon. Tlie 32-pouiider is com- 
pletely cased in a stout iron cylinder, terminating in a conical head, and 
notwithstanding it's weight (from which it receives it's denomiaatiun) is not 
only fired without re-action, but is also unencumbered with the appendage 
of heavy apparatus to project it, as is the case with every other carcass. 
It is on these properties that depend its peculiar facilities for service. It is 
ammunition without ordnance ; it is the soul of artillery without the body. 
It contains about 7 lbs. of carcass composition, in which respect it equals 
the 10-inch spherical carcass in common use, while it is freed from the 
ponderous accompaniment of a 10-inch mortar. The 32-pounder will, by 
it's inherent force, range between 2 and 2,000 yards ; but it is doubtful 
whether the shell of the 10-inch carcass will suffer the charije requisite to 
project it the lesser of those distances. Should it therefore be wanted to 
increase it's solidity, so as to allow of it's ranging 3,000 yards, the 32- 
pounder rocket carcass will then convey considerately more composition than 
the 10- inch spherical carcass so thickened. 

The next thing to be considered, in this comparison, is the probable 
difference of effect produced by each in falling either upon a house or ship • 
and here I cannot but conceive that the rocket carcass must have the ad- 
vantage. Tlie weight of the spherical carcass is so great, that with few 
exceptions, it goes completely through the building, and buries itself in the 
ground, nor can this be obviated by a reduction of it's weight without a pro- 
portionate loss of power. On the other hand the rocket carcass, noc 
weighing more than one-third of the other, will not pass quite through, but 
generally lodge somewhere in the body of the house, althougli its weiiiht and 
penetration is sufficient always to pierce the roof and at least one floor. It 
may be presunied, therefore, that the combustible which lodges in the body 
of a house, in the midst of furniture and drapery, is more likely to set fire 
to it, than one which buries it'^elf in the ceUars. , 

But the very nature of the cone in which tlie combustible matter is con- 
^^iued, renders it inore efiective as a carcajs^ for the thin iron case absorbs 



«S6 eOR^ESPONDENCE. 

no quantity of heat; on the contrary, it soon becomes red hot, calcine*, 
and gives free issue to the ignited fluid, which soon becomes one extended 
blazing siu'face, while the massive shell of the spherical carcass greedily 
devours the caloric of it's internal fire, without being itself completely 
heated, and suffers a comparativeiy feeble and lambent flume only to issue 
through a few confined apertures. 

But it may be said that the rocket carcass should be compared with 
other natures of spherical besides the 10-inch. If then, it be compared 
with the 8- inch, I answer that it contains double the quantity of composi- 
tion; if witii the 13-inch, that the excessive penetration of the latter into 
the ground tells more against it's setting fire to any building. Carcasses 
pan seldom, if ever, be wanted against bomb-proofs; and it seems against 
those only that the spherical carcass would possess any superiority : but in 
almost every other case the rocket carcass must have the advantage. What 
I mean js, that in any given quantity, there is a greater probability of gene- 
ral success in the one than the other. 

It has however been said, that " the enemy, when they discover that the 
Tockets are mere carcasses, will cease to fear them, and will extinguish 
them." Now, I must observe, that Hhis assertion begins by begging the 
question — by presuming that the rockets are mere carcasses, which is not 
the case; for a certain number of them have a 6-pounder grenade, or a 
cartridge of gunpowder enclosed in the body of the cylinder, which bursts 
during the combustion ; and as these \arieties are not distinguishable, the 
enemy must equally avoid all. In addition to this, every rocket contains 
smoak-ball composition, the suffocating quality of which is such, that no 
person can exist in a room where it has burnt but a few seconds. It has 
also been said, that " the rocket may easily be removed after it has fallen." 
This is, in a great measure, controverted by what has heeti said of the 
means taken to prevent approach : but farther to meet it, let it be con- 
sidered how firmly such a body, and so shaped as is the head of the rocket, 
must fix itself into wiiatever substance receives it where it falls — it will in 
all probability be found sticking in a. floor or dci.k ; and if a man cannot by 
his hand draw out a small nail driven but a little way into a board, how 
shall he extract a large spike, fixed a foot or 18 inches deep in plank, part 
ofwijich moreover is during the time near red hot. In answer to this it 
has been objected tliat the rocket slick forms a lever at hand to prise it 
out. It is a fact, however, that when the rocket impinges on any sohd 
substance, even on the ground, the stick is shattered into splinters, some of 
which fly to a considerable distance, and' possess considerable powers of 
penetration : so tiiat in effect the stick, instead of becoming useful to 
disarm the rocket, as has been supposed, greatly assists its mischievous 
powers. 

Not to monopolize more of the space so valuable in a miscellaneous 
work, or exiiaust the patience of your readers, to all of whom this subject 
may not be equally interestiiig, I sliall not pursue this statement farther at 
present, but conclude by an explanatory list of the dilicrent species o| 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



287 



rocket ammanition, which I conceive m^y prove f;ratirying to tiie cu- 
riosity of most persons into whose hands the Naval Chkonicle is Ukcly tu 
fall. 



Nutures of jl7nmunition. Armed with Extreme range 

4e-P0UNDKR CARCASS \ mrra^.P, ^ ''^'"5'=' '*'t>5- • -^ , , ^ 

ROCKETS .... J- • • • ''""^"**'^* I small, ialb». . . | about 3,000 yanls, but 
„ . „ ,,„,, , , . > not vet accurately a»- 

■12-POUNDER SHELL \ g^ ,^ f 5i inch . • • •( certalned. * 

ROCKETS , . . . . i=ncus -^ ,2-poundcr spher.^ 

^n pniTNDFR PAlfrAotii f larpp, !8lhs. .. ext. range, 2,000 yards, 

mrJpT« t- • • • Carcasses merlmm, ISlbs. .. „ 2,500 ,, 

ROCKETS 1 UmM, 81bs. . . „ 3,0,0 „ 

'^ROCKETS ^ .^."^.''^}- • • • •^''-"* 9-pounder spherical . „ 3,000 „ 

CCase Shot, whichl large.containingSOO 1 
CASE SHOT . . . .,|^ /;;-- --js.au, .OOdUto . . .. 3,0C,0 .. 

J'J-POUNDER BXPLO- \ i strong iron ones, containhiit froin i to \ f Q,"i00 

SION ROCKETS . . ) 1 12i6s. of powder, to bursCbij fuzees j " j lo 3,f)00 „ 

12-POUNDER ROCKET) ^„„^ 5j,„, f large, 72carb. balls „ 2,000 ,, 

CASE SHOT . . . J'- • • ^"^^ *'""\ small, 48 ditto . „ 2,500 " 

'These Light Balls are projectedintotheair by Rockets of different 
) natures at great elevations ; and being Ijberatett by bursting at 
ROCKET LIGHT BALLS \ the Lireatest height of the Rocket, they are sustained by a rara- 
chu'.'j s-> as to fioat with the wind, and'give a strong and perma- 
nent light. 

FLOATING ROCKET | These Carcasses are contrived to be capable of extraordinary great 
CARCASSES ... J ranges by means similar to those above described. 



I have been thus particular in describing the propet-tics of the rocket 
carcass, feeling how necessary it is to meet the general objections in which 
men of vulgar minds and prejudiced understandings are apt to indulge 
against new inventions; and I trust I shall convince every candid reader, 
that far from being a diabolical contrivance in violation of the laws of war, 
it is only a legitimate extension of means already employed by hostile 
nations for nmtual destruction, and a most ingenious improvement of ma- 
Khines at present in use. 



Shootei's Hill, 29th Seplcmher, 1809. 



BRONTES, 



*»* Letters T. and II. on the Rocket System by the same writer are to be 
found in pages 100 and 201 of this Volume. 



JOURNAL, kc. OF DR. W. ClILLEN BROWN 
(Continued from page 213.) 

His Majesttfs Ship JFJjia, Scheldt, August 18, 1803. 
Off' the Bank of Sacffingen. 

IFN addition to my last, which I trust reached you, I shall procccl 
" ' in le^ular detail. 



2iSS COllkESPONBEVCE. 

" August 18th. Noon. Yesterdny, between 12 and 1 o'clock, we 
-wei£;hcd anchor; and have continued siiice dropping up as far as this place, 
which is little more than twelve miles below Antwerp. A party of us went 
ashore in the afternoon to Waerden, a pleasant village in South Beveland, 
witli a church in it, where we admired the same cleanliness and neatness 
that are so remarkable in the houses of the inhabitants in other parts of the 
island. The chief part of the 4th regiment, or Kmg's Own, is quartered 
here, and seem to have behaved well to the inhabitants, whose properly 
and persons they have respected. Our troops were yesterday to have 
marched into Flushing; and five thousand prisoners of war were to have 
surrendered. Owing to a resistance on the part of the commandant, which, 
from its iiopelessness, vvas worse than absurd, as it involved so niany mno- 
cent lives, the town has been nearly reduced to ruins. Three of the princi- 
pal churches have been burnt to the ground ; and our shells have every 
where occasioned sad havock. It continued last night to lighten far two 
hours with uncommon splendour, during which a uierch.ant brig, hired ny 
government, called Elizabeth of Montrose, had her mainmast completely 
shivered, without farther injury being done to any one. 

" The French fleet, with Dutch colours fUing, are at present distinctly 
seen by us lying at the distance of some 'miles between Fort Liilo and 
Antwerp. 

" 5 o'clock P.M. I have just come down from the main-ton-gallant- 
mast, from whence I have been contemplating the city and environs of 
Antwerp, than which nothing can cut a more splendid appearance. We 
are able to make out nine apparently line-of-batlle ships, and between forty 
and fifty gun-boats, and other small vessels. 

" August 2Cth. Yesterday, at noon, took an early dinner on board, and 
went ashore to Bathz, the last fortiiication in South Bcvcknd, on the left of 
the West Scheldt going up to Antwerp. Our party walked six miles into 
the country to a village called Crab'ucndyke, remarlcable I'or nothing but the 
commendable neatness and cleanness of the inhabitants. The brigade 
between Batliz and this village, is composed of the 1st regiment of Guards, 
of part of the '2d and 3d Guards, aiui a small party of JNIarine Artillery and 
Engineers. Sentries are every where placed for the protection of the pro- 
perty of individuals, whicli, since the arrival of our tro ips among them, has 
remained inviolate. The peasantry, liowever, have had the precaution to 
remove out of sight all their young women ; nor can they be blamed, our 
soldiers (without any disparagement to them) being certainly more easily 
restrained from rapine than from rape ; w hich gives the country a deserted 
appearance. The coui.try we traversed on this occasion is rich, verdant, 
and well wooded; but, on account of its lcv<?liiess, unpicturesque; and, 
being factitious tiiroughout, is every moment dependent on the exclusion of 
the surrounding water. 

" Since taking possession of the fort of Bathz, our troops there have 
been busily occupied in rendering it m(jre secure by forming mud traverses 
along the raiiiparts, ik.c. a labour that appears superlluous, the general 



CORKESPONOESCE. 289 

Opinion being, lliat the place will shnrtly be untenable, in the event of which 
we shall have been workin<f to the enemy's hands. Previously to tlie bat- 
tery being deserted by the French, they had thrown into the fosse, which is 
very deep and wide, a quantity of aniininiition, stores, &c. which having 
been since found out, our soldiers, after letting out the water, were all yes- 
terday engaged in recoverint^ what tliey could. A few days after its aban- 
donment by the French, they made an unsuccessful attack on the fort, with 
a number of gun-bric;s and gun-boats sent down the river for that purpose 
from Antwerp. We observed where a shot had passed through three zcalls 
of one house, and tuo of another at a considerable distance from the 
iir=t. 

" xiugust 21st. Nothing of any moment done this day. 
" August 22d. At eleven o'clock this forenoon, began to drop up to our 
present place of anchorage, Doel Bank, a little below the town of Doel. 
At hail-past tvvo we commenced firing oflFour shells, to annoy the enemv, 
who had begun throwing up a battery ashore. Before seven o'clock in the 
evening we threw thirty-five lf?-inch, and five 10-inch sliells, which being 
extremely well directed, had the effect of making them desist from pro- 
ceeding in their works, and retire. To deter them from their attempt 
during the night, a shell is to be thrown every hour by one or other of tiie 
bomb-vessels here, namely, the HounJ, Thunder, and iEtna. 

" August 23. No shells v/ere tiirown till 5 o'clock this morning, at 
least by us ; when, as it appeared that during the night the enemy had suc- 
ceeded in forming an embrasure, we resumed our firiiig, and discharj-ed 
twenty-three 13-inch shells by seven o'clock, at which time we left off. 
Again between 9 and 10 o'clock v.e threw ten more 13-inch shells, and 
compelled the enemy to abandon tlieir works. Such is the concussion 
occasioned by the mortars, tluit even those let off by the other bombs, at a 
considerable distance froiii ours, cause a smart shock throughout tlic ship, 
and make every thing loose start from its place". A riumher of officer?, 
with cocked hais, have been seen about the battery, seemingly concerting 
measures. 

" Six o'clock P.^I. We again fired oiV ten !3 and tlsrce 10-inch shells 
at the sand battery; but at length delisted for the night, in consequence of 
those engaged in carrying on the wuui--2, for the present retreating. 

" August 25tb. Nothing particular occurred in the cournc of yesterday. 
At different times, we discharged tweaty-one shells, with the view of driving 
the enemy from the battery, from whicli they were accordingly icpcalediY 
jepulseil, but as often returned. 

*' August 'iCth. We yesterday' expended s'xtv-six more shells agninst 
the battery, without any ohservalic material consequence. Things still 
remain in slain qno. To-day shifted our position lurther out in the river. 
■Our troops are hourly expected to land. 

" August 2rth. Nothing bus been done to-day. This afternoon, f.um 
the main-top-gallant-magt, 1 distinguished a boom, or chain, which the 
enemy have thrown across to prevent our ships^ should the attempt be 

J>al\ Cfjront <Hol XXJI. p p 



290 CORIlESPONDENCfi. 

made, from proceeding farther up t!ie river. Antwerp cannot be fartbeif 
distant from us than seven or eii;;ht miles, in a straii^ht line; as, with a 
common glass, I have had as distinct a view of it as I ever had with my 
naked eye of Leith, from the Calton Hill, in Edinburgh. Tt is not a little 
tantalizing to have so near a prospect of one of the finest cities, and once 
the most opulent and commercial in Europe, without an opportunity of gra- 
tifying the natural curiosity to visit and explore it. I have been more than 
once similarly situated, when, under a cloudless Italian sky, and aided by an 
excellent glass, I have viewed from the mouth of the Tiber the dome of St. 
Peter's, more distinctly than I ever beheld St. Paul's without a glass from 
One-Trce-IIill, in Greenwich Park. When Captain Duncan, of the Porcu- 
pine frigate, on one of these occasions, pointed out to nie St. Peter's, I well 
recollect, associating with the sight, as I did, the idea of so many memorable 
events long since passed away, my sensations were such as I neither can 
describe nor forget. 

" August 28th. This- day our troops have been engaged at Bathz in 
embarking all the military stores, ammunition, &c. they can ; and to- 
morrow, it seems, the flat-bottoined boats and transports, and, possibly, llie 
bomb-vessels, are to drop down the river; circumstances strongly indicating 
the speedy return of our expedition. The army have suft'ered much from 
the prevalence of dysentery, wliich, in not a few instances, has proved 
fatal. 

" August 29th. To-day we fired oiY fifteen of the large shells against the 
battery ashore; while the Thunder, Hound, and a brig, have been throwing 
their shells at the enemy's troops on the opposite side of the Scheldt. The 
report our commander brings on board to night is, that we shall be detained 
here some time waiting the arrival of ships carrying stone from England, 
for the purpose of being sunk in the river here to interrupt its navigation. 

" August "0th. Nothing h:is happened to-day worthy of notice. 

" August 31st. In consccjueiice of its having appeared this morning at 
six o'clock, that ilic enemy, in tlie course of the night, had added three mor« 
embrasures, in addition to the one already mentioned ; the Thunder, Hound, 
.^tna, and a considerable number of the gun-boats opened on them, and, 
for some time kept up a smart lire, vvliich liad the effect of silencing them. 
We ran some very narrow risks from their shells, one having fallen in the 
water little more than twenty yards beyond us, and lanother close to the 
ship, fortunately for us without exploding : so tliat it was considered as 
advisable for us to shift our station out of range of their shells. We fired 
off altogether on this occasion forty-one shells." 

Should any thing farther occur, previously to our rcilurn, I shall not fail 
to transmit the news. 

WM. CULLEN CROWN, 



eOKRESPONDENCE. 291 

stR, Octobei- 14, 1809, 

/f^IRCUMSTANCES have prevented ray reading your last Chronicle 
^^ till this moment, and although it is perhaps too late for the insertion of 
this short letter in your work for the present month, yet as I am of opinion 
that nothing shi;uitl be so rapid as the acknowledgment of an error as soon 
as it is pointed out or discovered, I will not delay to acknowledge that 
your Correspondent Philo-Naut is most perfectly correct in terming the 
word inUrlopcr a " slip of the pen," and if so used as to seem to apply to 
the gallant man whose cause he advocates, as an intruding adventurer, the 
expression deserves still higher censure. Philo-Naut, however, does not 
more admire the gallant Sir Sidney than I do, whether he considers his higii 
military skill displayed at Acre, the conciliating^ wisdom evinced in the 
difficult association with a Turkish anny, or his diplomatic abilities at 
El. Arish. Since my last letter I have conversed with a very experienced 
otiicer, and a friend of Sir Sidiiey, who saw the whole of the service at 
Toulon. He says that the cause for regret on that occasion, should be, the 
error in not having coolly arranged a plan, and deliberalely prepared for 
its execution, as soon as the accumulation of a French force m the neigh- 
bor hood rendered it at least possible tiiat a retreat wonld be necessary. 
He agrees with me fully, however, that the execution of this plan sbould 
have been entrusted to an officer of the fleet, who was in commission, and 
who had seen the whole of the service. If that officer had not availed him- 
self of the assistance of Sir Sidney as a volunteer, in every case in which an 
able adviser or gallant leader was wanted, he would not have merited 
success. 

I ought to add, that it was your note to page 105, which led me to this 
inquiry, and tiv.it I fully acknuwledge the justice of your discrimination of 
the two services therein mentioned. In neither case do I blame the 
officers who accepted the command, (for who would have refused.?) but I 
lament both cases as irregular, as tending to wound the feelings of many 
good men, and to materially injure the disciphne of the navy. 

I remain, Sir, youis, &c. A. F. Y. 



CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 
No. XXXV. 

Ai^ain the dismal prospect opens round. 

The wreck, the shore, the dying, and the drown'd. 

Falconer. 

ACCOUNT OF THE LOSS OF THE HOPE TRANSPORT, AND OF 
THE SUFFERINGS OF HER COMMANDER, 

{Nuro First Published.) 
MR. r.DiTOR, North S/iiclds, September 29, moo. 

IlAV'E taken the liberty to send you the following letter, which you 
will perhaps think worthy of a place in the Naval CHnoxici.E : it is 
from Mr, Robert Denton, late master of the brig Hone, of Blyth, a light 



292 CORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS 

transport, shipwrecked last winter on her return from Spain. Mr. D. is 
well known to me as a worthy younjj; man, and most excellent seaman, havinr; 
formerly sailed with me as mate. lie now commands ;i very fine ship 
belon^iag to this port, I am, Sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

HENRY SIIADFORTII. 

(corY.) 

" Windsor Houite, near Klngshridge, Devonshire, 
" HONOURED PATHER, Ko"e?nbcr -25, 1803. 

" The letter I wrote you on the 29th of October from Portsmouth, you 
\\ould find more pleasing, tlian the dreadful and melancholy account 1 am 
now tioins; to 2;ive you. On the 14th instant I left Corunna with about 200 
sail of transports in company, under convoy of his Majesty's ship Sybillc. 
On the loth in the morning it blew a tremendous gale, at S.S.E. which con- 
tinued till Thursday evening, when the fleet were hove to, by signal, being 
then in tlic entrance of the English Channel. At day-break on Friday 
morning t!ie signal was made to Lear away for Portland Roads; but it soon 
after coming thick, the fleet was hove to again. At this time the wind 
veered round to N.W. and blew harder than ever, and laid our ship half 
main deck in the water. At 6 P.M. it became more moderate. I tiicn 
made sail, expecting to get to Plymouth ; but at 8, the wind veered round 
to S.W. with increased fury, accompanied by thunder, hghtning, and heavy 
rain : the fore-top-sail split to shivers, and shortly after the foresail gave 
way, by the sea breaking into it. I now found our destruction unavoidable, 
without a shift of wind, though I said nothing, lest it should dishearten the 
crew. About two o'clock on Saturday morning the lightning enabled uz to 
. see the Bolt head close to leeward, and the sea beating tremendously high 
against it. The anchor was immediately let go, and brought her up in good 
time; but alas! she soon parted. Death now stared us in the face in an 
awful manner. She struck upon a ledge of rocks, about 60 yards from a 
perpendicular precipice, 500 feet high. At that moment we all went to 
prayers for about five minutes, when the sea tript her up, and she fell over 
on her broadside, which we all got upon for about one minute, when we 
found the top was parting from the bottom. I now prayed for my dear 
wife and child, and begged on the Almighty for mercy. I then stript offmy 
iacket, hat, and shoes, desiring every one to do the same, and leaped over- 
board, calling on the others to follow ; but I believe none did but the mate, 
as 1 only saw him in the water: the others must have fallen into the bot- 
tom part of the ship, and perished in an instant. I was soon dashed up 
against the cliff, and taken back again with the hack sweep right under her 
bottom. Tlie returning wave waslied me out from underneath the ship, 
and dashed me up against the cliff as before; and tlius was I dragged back- 
ward and forivard repeatedly. My strength was nearly exhausted, when a 
heavy sea bore me up into a cavity of the precipice, where I remained fill 
I gathered strength to get upon my feet and look round, I called with aU 



CORRECT RELA-TIOX OF SHIPWRECKS. 293 

U)}' miglit, but not a soul was left to answer me, nor any thing of the ship 
to be seen. I now retunierl tlianks to the Ahnighty for preserving my 
life. My shirt and pantaloons were cut to rags with the rocks, and my 
legs and thighs cut and bruised in a shocking manner, and the third finger 
of my rif^ht hand broke. 1 now had the cliff to climb, otherwise I must 
still peri.-,!, before day-!iKlit. The lijihtning assisted me greatly : in climb- 
ing, my strength frequently failed me ; and I was ready to drop, and be 
dashed to pieces ; but, as 1 grew weak, the wind blow so hard against my 
back, that it in a manner bound me to the rock, till I again recovered. At 
bast I arrived at the top, when I once more returned thanks to the 
Almighty for his goodness : but my sufferings were not yet at an end. I had 
to make my way a quarter of a mile through a brake of briars and thorns 
before I got on clear ground. I many times fell quite faint, and dropt 
down amongst them ; but feeling the cold benumbing my wlioln frame, I 
started up, and pushed on till I got into a stubble field, which was almost 
as bad to my feet as the briers, the skin being entirely off of them, with 
climbiiig the cliff. Bv the glare of the lightning, I saw a'white house. I 
knocked at the door as the clock struck five. I was received with the 
greatest humanity,"and put to bed. As soon as I got warm, my wounds 
bled profusely : a man on horseback was immediately despatched for a sur- 
geon, six mfles off. He came and dressed me, and took the thorns out of 
my body, and attends me every day. I cannot express the praise due to 
this amiable family for their attenti<jii towards me, and the gentlemen far- 
mers all round have been to visit me, apd have given me the kindest invita- 
tions to their houses. Indeed I want words to express the kiiuiaess I have 
experienced. I cannot get in or out of bed without assistance; it will be 
at least a month before I can get a shoe on. The name of the good family 
I am with is Jeitcrys, of Windsor House, near Kinsgbridge, Devon. 

I am, your affectionate, 

But unfortunate Son, 

" ROBEllT DENTOX." 



ACCOUNT OF THE LOSS OF THE LORD MELVILLE, BY FIRli. 

PJIHE following letter, relating to this distressing event, is from Captain 
Brown, of the late ship Lord Melville, to the Owners : — 

" GKNTLEMEN, 

" It i« with infinite regret I inform you of the melancholy loss of your 
ship Lord Melville ; she was burned at sea on the 1st of April, 1809, in 
lat. 55 deg. 07 min. and long. 2S deg. SO uiin. wliether by accident or 
design Heaven only knows. At three P.M. while writing in the cabin, Mr. 
A. Uutchon, a passenger on board, called down, " The ship's on fire ! " 
I instantly ran to the deck, and, to my utter astonislimcnt, found it was the 
case ; but, strange to relate, neither of the mates, nor any person on deck, 
€ould tell me where the fire was, or how it began. All hands were irame- 



294 CORRECT RELATION OF SHIFWRECKS. 

diately employed in drawing water, and every attempt was made to save the 
ship, but all our efforts were fruitless. At four P.M. the fire began ra- 
pidly to increase. Our situation tlicn was beyond description — fifty pun- 
cheons of rum below deck, and the magazine full of gunpowder. The latter 
we got emptied by one desperate effort, at the imminent risk of our lives. 
We tiien got the boats out for our future preservation. At five P.M. we 
quitted the ship, just as we stood, when vve could no longer remain by her. 
I was informed that Jacob Anderson, the boatswain, had gone below with 
a candle, while we were at dinner, into the forecastle, and had been draw- 
ing off rum, which no doubt has been the cause of this melancholy business. 
He fell a victim to it fur his unpardonable conduct; we never saw him 
afterwards. At six o'clock, both main and mizcn-mast fell by the board, 
and she blew up ; an awful scene, and a melancholy end to such a ship and 
cargo. Our situation then was beyond description : night coming on ; 
twenty-six people in two small boats, fifteen in one and eleven in the 
other, and 650 miles from any laRcl. To all human appearance, it was 
only the prolongation of a miserable existence; but the same good Provi- 
dence that assisted us in getting clear of the ship, aided us all along. We 
parted from the small boat on the 3d in the evening, and never saw her 
more. During the time we were in the boat, vve were constantly wet with 
rain; the wind variable, and sometimes a heavy sea; and we had nothing 
to live upon but raw beef and water ; biscuit we had none. On the 5th 
we fell in with the brig Sally, of Whitehaven, Captain Anthony Grayson, 
who took us on board, and whose humanity to us will for ever stamp hiin 
as a man of feeling for his fellow creatures in distress. 

" I remain, your obedient Servant, 

" THOMAS BROWN." 

" F'.S. The letter-bag was saved, but damaged." 

Names of the People saved in the Pinnace. 
Thomas Brown, master; John White, second mate; George Edin>:ton, 
carpenter; WilhamSpence, William Davidson, George Miller, James Urie, 
Robert Gray, Paul Johnston, Peter M'Kellar, Robert Brown, William 
Kennedy, David M'Coiinechy, ar.d Henry Pattison, seamen ; Mr. A. Hutch- 
on, passenger from St. Vincent's. 

Names of the People who icere in the other Boat. 
James Blair, mate; William Ramsay, gunner; Donald Cameron, stew- 
ard ; John Curry, cooper; Thomas Blair, cook; Duncan Taylor, William 
M'Fayden, Tliomas Turnbull, Robert M'Fayden, and Robert Miller, sea- 
men; Mr. James Boyd, passenger from St. \'inccnt's. 

THOMAS BROWN. 
Messrs. John Campbell, sen. and Co. Glasgow. 



eORRECT RELATION OF SHIPWRECKS. 295 

ACCOUNT OF THE LOSS OF AN ALGERINE CORSAIR, ON 
THE COAST OF CORNWALL. 

|N Saturday the 'iTth of September, 1760, in the night, a large xebecque, 
which was an Ala;erine corsair, struck near the Chimney rock, on the 
south side of Penzance. She was called the Cavallo Bianco, or White 
Horse, Almidah Benscouda, commander ; she carried 18 six-pounders, and 
Q20 men, of whom forty or fifty weie Turkish soldiers, the remainder Moors. 
I shall never forget the terrors of that night. I was about eleven years of 
age, and was called up by my mother, amidst the ringing of the alarm bell, 
and the beating of drums. The first report was of " a French man of war 
or privateer," whose crew they said were 1 indcd ; the second was by far 
more dreadful, " An Ali;erine with the plague on board." Nothing could 
equal the bustle and panic which this occasioned. Some ventured towards 
the bead), but quickly returned, aftirming that they had smelt, at a great 
distance, the plague smell, and, in consequence, drank some brandy as an 
antidote. This was purely the effect of a terrified imagination. Several of 
the Moors, on the striking of the vessel, leaped into the sea, in order to 
swim to shore ; some indeed escaped ; but the night was so extremely 
dark, and the surf ran so high, that at least thirty-five or forty of them' 
perished. At three o'clock, or near that time, the mast went by the 
board ; and, after some time, part of the crew came on shore on the mast, 
and others as the tide receded. 

At break of daj', what a spectacle presented itself ! A huge vessel of 
the !nost singular construction, at least to an English eye, wrecked and 
mutilated among the rocks! Men with long beards standing in groups, and 
liaving turbans on their heads, and dead bodies lying on the sand ! They 
liad imagined our shore was the Spanish coast, and expected, of coii.se- 
quence, certain slavery ; but when convinced they were on Es^glish ground, 
exclaimed with great joy, " In^'eiei-ra J Ingletcrra ! bona Ingleterra J" 
It was recollected, that a person of the name of Mitclteli had been much 
ill the Levant trade, and that probably he would be able to tutk to them : 
he was accordingly sent for ; aud, having a smattering i:i Lingua Frari^JK as 
well as Italian, he became interpreter. 

At first they v.ere conducted to a place called the Barbican, where soup 
was provided for them. In the mean time, the-Savage sloop of war being 
(hen on this station, Captain Peard sent most of his people to act as centi- 
nels, until such time as a parly of soldiers should arrive fiom ti-.e neigh- 
bouring towns. The next day they were lodged in a decent hou.-c in the 
front street of the quay, and some time after marclied to a building called 
the I'olly, two or three fields distant from the town ; but the ofr.cers, some 
of wliom were liandsome and portly men, were -separately lodged at the 
Sandy bank, near the battery. E\ery attention was sliewn them, and 
every comfort, consistent with their quarantine, administered to them. 
Their apparel was nothing extraordinary ; the common men wore a coarse 
brows ol'Jth, and some of them had the neck and end of their dross coarsely 



296 CORRECT REL.VtiOX OF SHIPWRECKS. 

embroidered with coloured worsteds. A few sabres were found, tbebaiidles 
of which were inlaid with mother of pearl; also some few muskets, orna- 
mented in the same manner ; besides which there was nothing discovered 
of any value. These became a prey to some bad fellows, were secreted, 
and afterwards sold. They remained here five weeks, under quarantine ; 
and at last, by order of tTOvcrnment, were put on board the Thomas trans- 
port, which took them to Falmouth, where la Blonde, a frigate which had 
been taken from the French, arrived, and conveyed them to Algiers. 

The Aij'ennes behaved very well in this place ; but at Falmouth, where 
spme of ihem were permittea to land, their conduce was far from orderly. 

It is said that while the transport was at Falmouth, the late Admiral 
Bo=;cawen came down to Tregothen to see his brother, Lord Falmouth, at 
which place the captain of the Thomas paid liis respects to him. The 
admiral advised him to behave with the greatest kindness and civility to 
tlie Algerines, a- they were at that time very friendly to our nation ; and he 
Loped there was plenty of good provisions on board for their use. The cap- 
tain assured him there was plenty of excellent pork, but very little. 
beef. " Pork ! (cried the admiral, who was too much in the habit of 
swearini;) d — a you, and the Navy Board and Victuallin:; Oiiice to;i;eihcr ! 
Do not tiiese blockheads know, tliat the religion of Turks and iMooi-s for- 
bids them to eat pork ? " 

This xebecque had been on a pirating excursion, on the coast of Portugal * 
had undergone some severe g.dcs of wind, and, having little or no skill in 
any other than UiLoral nutipation, lost herself in tlie main ocean, and wa3 
driven on the English coast in a storm. 



MARINE SCENERY. 

DESCUIPTIOIf or STEOMOE, OXE OF THE EEnOE ISLAND''. 

STROMOE, tiie largest of the Fer.ic Islands, lies to the west of Ostcros, 
extending south-east and north-west. It is six miles and a quarter in 
length, and one and three quarters in breadth. It c.utains fuurteen villages 
and single farms, and has four churches. 

This island produces the best sheep; but, during severe winters, many of 
them are lost in the snow. It abounds also. with sea-fowl : the rock prin- 
cipally frequented by them are situated towards the north, and exhibit in 
summer, at whicli time they swarm with them, a very singular appearance, 
The fuliowing short description will serve to convey a very faint idea of 
them. Before the rock which forms tlie sea coast stands a long rock, re- 
flcmbling a wall, which rises to the height of two liundred fatlioms, so that 
it is almost equal in height to the coast itself. The bottom of this rocky 
wall, which throws out many prcjcclions, is almost entirely covered with 
fowl, which, as they are seldom scared by the presence of men, and still 
seldomer hear the report of a gun, are exceedingly tame. All the shelves and 
-cavities of this rock are also f-Iled with them. It has an opening in it like 
a lofty gateway, through which you can proceed in a boat towards the 



PLATE CCXCIV. 297 

fjoast, and vvlien within it, you then perceive that this wall stands at a dis- 
'ance from the coast, so that a long channel is left between tliem ; and this 
channel is so wide as to admit a large boat to turn in it. On both sides the 
rocks rise to the height of more than two hundred fathoms. As the long 
rock consists of several strata, and as tlic thinnest of ihcse in general is har- 
dened clay, which is sofccr than the otlier strata;, tlicse layers of clay are in 
many places washed ont and destroyed by tlie force of th« waves, and leave 
cavitii.'s which serve the fowls as plnccs of resort, v^here they build their 
nests and rear their young. On the upper edge of the harder strata the 
fowls, with their white breasts projecting, arrange themselves in rows one 
above the other, as regularly as if they were porcelain figures disposed on 
shelves ; and if they have not been before frightened by firing at them, you 
may siioot several of them before they are aware of their danger, and 
witiiout the rest being the least disturbed. Those even wiiicli were placed 
close to the fowls that have been killed remain quiet in their places, and 
those which concealed themselves farther back in the cavity readily come 
forwards to occupy tl^.e jjlaces (>'■' those that have been shot ; so that the row 
is again soon completed. To describe this spectacle properly is impossible ; 
no pen can do juslire to it : to form a proper conception of it one must 
have actually seen it. 



PLATE CCXCIV. 

MK. EBITOU, 
TfTiNCLOSED I send you a sketch of the port of Cuxhaven, which is 

partly formed and defended from the sea by substantial jetties and 
high banks, extending from the mouth of the harbour, iialf a mile up 
inland, where you enter the village of Ritzbiittel, which, though small lii its 
district, co;nprises three parishes, togetht'r with the Port of Cuxhavcn, and 
is subject to tlje city of Ilauiburgh. One of the senators of the latter ciiy is 
stationed alteinatcly as governor of Ritzbiittel for six years; the castle 
wherein he resides is a small, but strong square building, with a lofty roof, 
regularly fortilied, and encompassed with a deep ditch and hij^h ramparts, 
that overlook the village and command the roadstead : from these ramparts 
you have a view of the Hanoverian territory, which, though flat, is so 
studdeJ with small hamlets aiid det.iched paris of wood-scenerv, as to give 
it a very agreeable effect ; the castle is provided with some artillery, and 
generally garri.^oned by a company of 25 men. 

Cuxhaveu is well known as the general station for packet boats betweeti 
this country and the iNorih of Germany, and is also the station of tho 
pilot-captain of the River Elbe, who is charged with the superintendance of 
llie pilots on the river, and the care of tho navigation. .-Mur landing at this 
place, a traveller may lake the choice of a conveyance to Hamburgh by land 
or by water, boih wiiich are at all times to be had. While I was detained 

/9aVi. £!;:on. ulcl. XXI T. q q 



298 NAVAL IMPl'-0V"E5irNTS. 

here a few days by coDtraiv and heavy sales of wind, the port became 
crowded with vessels, and ii ninnber of Blaukenaise (ishin<; boats, wjiich are 
of ft peculiar coiiStruction, having an innuensc and lofty prow forward; 
tbev are however much esteemed as sea boats, and particularly wlien sailing 
upon u wind. I am, &c. 

W. T. II. 



NAVAL BiPROVE:MEXTS. 

TWU. EDITOR, 
BEG tl-.e favour of your inserting the inclosed letters in your publica- 
tion, respecting the ship Economy, built on my patent plan, of which 
%'ou were so goo.l as to give an account last year, after licr tliird voyage. 
The fust letter states the performance of the ship at sea, x'shich has been 
equally we'd as before, with the addition of her character being now 
established a.s a remarkably dry ship; and I am informed by the captain 
that she has brought home two-tliirds of the coffee from Dcmerara, whicli 
proves tlic opinion of the merchants thereon this point. The second ktter 
is from a gentleman many years well known for his accurate and minute 
knowledge of ship-building to the directors of our naval department, as 
well as for his inflexible integrity, which must render his testimony of ihe 
most uiiJeniable value. After the manner in v»-hich my proposals have 
been treated by the Navy Board, explained in the Athcna?um last Septem- 
ber, it would be in vain to again solicit a trial of my plan at present, though 
its advantages are well known to some of its members, particularly to the 
junior sui'veyor, wlio I think it just to state was not a member of the board 
at the time it was refused, and though eight passages across the Atlantic 
(in wiiich the ship experienced much severe weather, often with cargoes of 
a very trying nature, such as bricks, lime, &c.) must have proved the sufii- 
ciency of the mode of construction to even the most timorous minds. But 
on this subject I shall say no more at present, intending hereafter to address 
you again respecting it, only to observe that I live in hopes that certain 
political alterations, the result of extraordinary discussions now expected, 
and which sooner or later must take place, will give those who can dcmon- 
su-ate the means of great national savings a fair chance of being attendctl 
to ; and that then [ may at last reap the fruit of my labours, in the honour 
of having actually delivered the greatsst maritime nation m the world from 
all dilftcidties of supplying timber for her navies and fleets,, as I already have 
had that of pointiug. out the means, and proving tiiem effectually by an 
expensive experiment, to whicii she contributed nothing : having thereby 
gained at least ihc g,iory of having made Enaland my debtor. I shall con- 



NAVAL IMrROVEMTXTS. 299 

':lude now vvitli requesiiiii; those frentleriien, who will not see the extCDt of 
this experiment in proving the plan for vessels of a tliiFerent description, to 
consider whether there is not infinitely less difficulty in my adapting tlie 
plan to the peculiar exis^encies of" ships of war, or India ships and others, 
than there was in my having brought it to sucli perfection in a vessel of 200 
tons, at the very first trial, without ever having before attempted the build- 
ing of a ship, and after a life spent chiefly in mathematical studies and 
literary pursuits. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

J. W\ BOSWELL. 

The funnel mentioned in the captain's letter is described in the last 
volume of the quarto series of Nicholson's Philosophical Journal. 

MR. J. W. BOSWELL, 

" SIR, London, Jnli/ 8, l'iQ%. 

** I have the pleasure of informing you of my arrival (the fourth vi vatre 
of the ship; in the Economy, built on your plan, and have just delivered, 
in excellent condition, a cargo of coffee from Demerara, where she is so 
much esteemed as a coffee ship, that some gentlemen expressed a wish of 
having a shnre in ner. She is the tightest ship I was ever in : during tha 
tliree voyages I have commanded her, 1 am certain wc have not pumped 
above thiee tons of water out of her, and it' it had been measured perhaps 
it did not exceed hidftliat quantity. 

" I very much approve of the plan in point of strength : we had some 
very rough weather going ; but, having sometimes harl occasion to 
curry a press of sail, wiih tiie wind lirge and a high irregular sea, 
the streiigth of the ship was more tried than on any of the last two voy- 
ages, and I could not discover that any liiing ijad strained in the smallest 
degree, and 1 felt great satisfuction in dtlivering the outward cargo at 
Demerara wiliiout the smallest damage. 

" I made a full trial of the top (or tiie cabin funnel invented by you for 
clearing tlie cabin of smoke, and found it answer my fullest expeciat ions, 
and am fuliy satisfied it will answer in any situation where it is exposed to 
a free current of wind. 

'■' I am. Sir, your most obedient servant, 

*< Limehouse Basin. " VVI^i^lASl ROSS." 

]\IR. J. W. BOSWELL. 
*' DEAR SIR, I^»u!on, ISih August, I3(i9. 

" I have yours of yestcrdsiy ; in ansv.er to which I shall bricHy state, 
that the ship Economy exhibits an entire degree of stiength in the lirninoss 
of those parts, v\hich in ordinarj-built ships always cxliibit marks of' 
laxity. 

" 1 certainly did examine most strictly all the w.^rk of the ship, whict 



300 NAVAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

departed from ordinary modes (those which T apprehend were meant to bs 
within the limits of your patent) tlic whole of v;hich was as perfect a 8 
vviien 1 saw it three or four yeais a<;o. There is not the Suialiest doubt in 
my mind, but that the principle (which may be variously applied) i« 
entirely competent to secure a siiip from working ; and that, suitably 
modified, it can be carried to ships of the first rate. 

" As to your competence for future construction of ships, if ever you 
should take up ship concerns a<2::iin, I should think, by the specimen you 
have shewn, you have quite enough to be confident of success. With 
respect to the quantity of timber in the frame of the Economy, I think there 
is more than sutlicicnt for such a ship, on your plan ; I think quite sufficient, 
in proportion, fjr a ship of 300 tons. If I recollect right, you told me the 
Economy was 200 tons. 

" The diagonal bracint; in the Economy is said to spoil stowage in * 
triflinf; degree ; trifling indeed — balance this by the advantages, and the 
evil uill be a feather indeed. I know of no one thing that is so much in th« 
way as a ship's main-mast; but look to the advantages of it ! 

" You hive been fortunate enough in not being a professional man, t(» 
have none of its prejudices; and you have, most likely from that very 
cause, produced a strong, sound, firm ship. 

" Sliould there be required any further opinion of mine, I shall be very 
ready to give it to those who may think fit to ask it. 

" Your* very truly, 
*' Engineer's Office, Navi/ Office. « JOHN PEAKE." 



IMPORTANT COIMMUNICATION TO THE NAVY BOARD. 

BY CAPTAIN MALCOLM COWAN, K.N. 

0?i his Majesty's Service. 

To (he Honourable the Principal Officers and Commissioners of his 
Miijesiys Navy. 

HOWOURABLE GENTLEMEN, 

S it appears that proposals for the advantage of his Majesty's naral 
service, or for the saving of the public money in the naval depart-, 
ment, have hitherto been chiefly referred to your Honourable Board, I beg 
leave to lay before you the enclosed observations on the dangers to which 
his Majesty's ships and vessels are unnecessarily exposed, from the present, 
mode of making sails in his Ma-jesty's navy; and in consequence the 
very great 9.x\A uniecessary expense attending them, which I request you 
will be pleased to take into your serious consideration, with the reports 
from experienced officers on the new sails that I have had the honour of 
laying before your Honourable Board, from time to time, for these four 
years past. 



NAVAL TMmOVEMrNTS. 30l| 

In the latter you will find prorfs that all our sh'ps with the old sails, are 
in particular situations, exposed to unavoidahle destruction. 

I have the honour to le, &c. 

MALCOLM COWAN. 
Lnndon, August 24, 1809. Commander H.N. 

Obsei'Vations on the Dangers to which his Majesti,''s Shij.s and Ve-sels are 
unnecessarihf exposed, from the present mudf. of making Sais in his 
Maj est y\ Navy ; and on the unnecessary Exptiise attending than. By 
Captain Malcolm Cowan, R.N. 

" Art is so far from being exhausted on tliis subject, that it is no 
exaggeration to say, that it is yel C()n)[>lclely within its limits 
to diminish the dangers of the Sea to Nivigaiors, fully one 
half of what they are at present."' Athln^euk, Feb. 1809. 

'The sails of ships and vessels, from Leiiig made with the cloths and 
seams in a vertical instead of an horizontal direction, are more liable to 
split up and down, and to be blown to pieces, either when carrying a ptess 
«f sail in a gale of wind on a lee shore, or fro'Ti the shaking of the soils ; aud 
a ship and crew might be lost from a few inches of a vertic'lal seam giving 
way, when there might not be time to take the sail in to repair it. 

From the experiment that has been made in the roval navy, the 
dilTerence in tlie duration of the sails irrade with horizontal cloths, and 
those of the old make, has been proved to be as eigh'een inc't/ii to c'even,* 
making a difierence of seven months wear i?i favour of those with the horison^ 
tul cloths ; and they are every way stronger, more effecti\e, ai.d stand 
nearer to the wind. 

By the old method of reetiiur the courses on th? yard, the loss of a ship 
and rrew in a gale of wind on a lee shore, may originate from either of the 
following npparently triflinc; accidents, which the o!d sails are liable to, and 
which could not happen to the new sails+ that reef at the foot ; name!^'. 

Ko. of Accidents, 
Coui*ses that are half worn may require reefing to preserve them 
from splitting, when there may not be sea-roum to perform tiie 
operation, and eiihcr of them may split. 3 

From the splitting of the courses in hauling them up to reef on 
the yard, or afterwards in setting tnem. 4 

* The common made sail lasted eleven months, the sail with horizontal 
cloths and seams eighteen. A top-sail for a CI gun-ship costs 801. 

t A line-of-battle ship c^n reef one of the new courses in two minutes, 
without hauling it up. or starting tack or sheet. This fact is well kn''>vvn 
among the olTicers of the navy.~ Vide the Navai- Chrokicle fur Novcm- 
hiiv lo07 and November 1808. 



.102 >-ATAL IMPROVEMENTS. 

Nn. of AccidetitJ, 
From carrying away either of the two clew garnets to cacli 
course in hauling ihem up to reef, which might split the sail by 
shaking it. 4 

From carrj'ing away cither of the t"our buntline legs, or of the 
two buntline whips belonging to each course, in hauling up the 
courses to reef, which might split the sail by shaking. 12 

From carrying away either the tack or sheet of each course in 
setting the sails after reefing them. 4 

Number of accidents the courses of the old make are liable to 2(3 



It is to be observed of these twenty-six accidents that the old courses are 
liable to, and any one of which uniieoessarily exposes a ship to great dan- 
ger, and in some situations io certain chdruc'.iou, there is not one of them 
wherein the resources of seamanship migh.t not prove unavailing to remedy 
the accident in tia.e to save a ship, when she is in that horrible situation, 
that the loss of a sail would cause her to drive on shore.* It is well known 
to inteliigent seomen, that the diiiiculty of performing any operation 
necessary to the preservation of a ship, increases with the danger; and 
that the loss, or want of one of the dependun' sails for a few minutes orily 
might prove the loss of the ship. 

The v.ant cf a chasing reef at the foot of the top-sails and top-gallant- 
sails may be sensibly felt, v.hen it may be necessai-y to curry a p/-Ls:i of xail 
ill snufiliy zccather to avoid a Ice shore ;f or in chase; or when obliged to 
liaul suddenly to ti-c wind from sailing large. Ivlen of war in chase cannot 
always risque carrying sail through a squailt and by lowering these sails 
down to reef at die head, they lose time ; and the sails are })artly aback 
vv'.iilst ti:ey are reefing. 

By diminishing the daggers of the so.^.s (many of which miiiht be easily 
■averted) the attraction^ to a sea life are increased, and the sum of iiuman 
misery reduced ; for cvcri/ individual i}i the country is at litis prc%eni period 
dcepli/ intcrcbttd in the pre&trvaiion of the vuluabh'. lives of British Si amen. 

MALCOUI COW AX, 
Lond«n, Avgiist 24, 1809. Corauiandcr, R. N. 

*#* For a particular account of this improvement on sliip's sails, vide 
the Naval ChiIonicle for April 180G, November 1S07, and Novem- 
ber 1008. 



* III the winter gales of 1807, upv.-ards of 100 sail of vessels, and many 
lives wore lost off the coast of Wiiitb)', Yorkshire. 

f The hcrror attending a situation of di;>tress on a lee sliore is incon- 
ceivabi? u, ali but those who have experienced it. 

J In the situation of the Apollo's convoy, part of which were lost on t!ic 
coast of Portugal a few years since. It is for the advantage of tiie eneiiiy 
lo run the risque, to escape from a superior force. 



303' 

i>abal Court J©arcjal. 

TRIAL OF CAPTAIN LORD CAMELFORD, R. N. 



readers a geniiino copy of the trial of Captain Lord 
Camelfonl, for the death of an officer killed in resisting his orders. 
We consider this process particularly entitled to the alfention of 
oiir naval readers, as ofl'oring; an awful lesson on the diity of sub- 
ordination, and as being the only case of summary pnnishment 
for an offence against that duty in the upper ranks, thai, Ave 
believe, has occurred in our navy. These proceedings, moreover, 
place the character and conduct of the noble defendant, now also 
deceased, in a very different point of view from which it was 
generally understood by the public at the time. And it is but 
justice to the memory of Lord C. to say, that his natural disposi- 
tion Avas in general, and to the very lust, much misunderstood, and 
undervalued. In short, those -who knew him best, esteemed hini 
the most. His defence, unassisted by legal advice, will remain a mo- 
nument of the clearness of his intellects, and his correct knowledge 
of professional duties, as wc'l as of ihe strictness of his principles 
and energy of his mind. His lordship was Sir Sidney Smith's first 
cousin, inasmuch as Airs. ]Mary SmiTn his mother, and Anne Dow- 
ager Lady Camelfoid were daughters and coheiresses of Pinekncy 
Wilkinson, Lsq. of Euinham, in thecounty of Norfolk, many years 
M.P. for Old Sarum. The lady of this latter was an heiress of 
the family of Thurlow, alias Thurloe, and supposed to be 
descended from the secretary of state of that name, undi r the pro- 
tector.ite of Oliver Cromwell. The late Lord Chancellor was 
understood to claim the same afiinity. 



Minutes of the Proceedings of a Court Llartial asscmhlcd a:id held 
on board II. M.'s ship the Invincible, in Fort Royal Bay, ^Martinique, 
the 20th of January, 1/98, and continued by adjournment (Sunday ex- 
cepted J until the 2oth. 

Present, 
William Cavlky, Esri. captain of II. M.'s ship Invincihlo, and senior 
captain of II. M.'s ships and vessels in Fort Royal Bay, Martinique, 
President. » 

Captains, 

Jemmett Mainwaring, I Charles Ekins, 
Richard Browne, | Alex. S. Bur iiowes. 

The prisoner was brouglit into Court, and the evidenct and au^licace 
admiticd. 



S04 • I'RIAJC OF 

Read the order of Henry Haney, Esq. rear-admiral of the red, and com- 
ni;uKlci--in-cIiicf of il. M.'s ships and vessels ompKjyed, ai;d (o Le rroploved 
at Iiarbadoe= and the Leeward Islands, and in riie seas adjacent^ dated tl.'e 
20th instant, to try the R. H. Thomas Lord Ca;i.elford, for the death of 
Lieutenant Chiirles Peterson, of IL IVL's ship Ferdhx. 

The Jndge Advocate's warrant v^as then read. 

The members of the court, and Judije advocate, in open court, and before 
they procteded to trial, respectively took the oaths enjoined by Act of 
Parliament. , 

The letter from Captain Mitford^ of IL M.'s ship Matilda, and the verdict 
of the coroner's inquest on the body of Lieutenant Peterson, vvhicls was 
inclosed therein, was then read, as aiso a letter from Lord Camelford, on 
the subject, containinsr a request for a court martial, copies of winch letters 
and verdict here follow, viz, 

•' SIR, English Harbour, Anfigt/a, Ibth yanuary, 1798. 

'• Tt is with much concern I acquaint you, that yesterday morning (having 
arrived the evening of the 13th with aconvoy of provisions from St. Bartno- 
lomew's) I vvas informed of the death, at this place, of Lieutenant Charles 
Peterson, late of his Majesty's, ship Ja Peidrix, by the hands of Lieutenant 
Lord Canielford, late commanding his Majesty's .sloop Favorite. 

" As the circumstances attending tnis unhappy affair appeared to me of 
a very extraordinary nature, and related in a most confused stile, I could 
but consider it my duty, as senior officer on the island, to go over with all 
despatch, and make my-.elf acquainted with the facts, as related by both 
parties personally, and from the evidences which have been given, the 
co.oner's inquest seem undetermined as to the name to be given to the 
ci'ime ; but in my own d'spaSMonate opinion, formed on many leading 
proofs, the whole has arisen from a va.st deal of bad blood, long exiscuig 
betwceii the two parties; 

" Cuptain Maisi/n, who arrived earlier than I did, will explain more to 
you,' than cbe service ne is upon will allow me time to write. 

" But i Iiave thought proper to arrest Lord Can.elford, and send him, 
together with ail the witnesses, to you, for his trial by a court martial, as he 
applied to me by lett<n- for that measure, which I hope, together with every 
step] have ifiVen, will meet your approbation. As a numLei cfotticers 
are summoned so as to leave tiie Prrdrix without one, I have ordered 
Lieut tnant Parsons, of the lavorife, to take charge of tjie Pcrdrix, and 
Mr. Ni.>ion, master of the Favorite, to use his endeavours in gectirc, the ship 
ready for sea; I am 1 appy in being able 'o assure yon, tiiai every clung 
now rests in perfect tranqiullity, and as ail the parties acquainted with the 
paiticulars are removed, hope nothing more will ariie from this violent and 
extraoidinary transaction. As my presence seemed to add to the calm, I 
have 1 vft such diiections with the officers remaining with the ships, as I sm- 
cerely hope will teiid to its continuance. 

'' Inclosed I transnnt for yr-nr further informrition, a copy of the verdict 
just now given by the coroner's i.iquest. I am, &c. 

'" HENRY MITFORD." 

" Tq Henry Harvey, Esq. "Rear -admiral 
of the Red, ^cy 



CAPTAIN LORD CAMELFORD, U.N. 305 

ANTIGUA. 

" Inquisition had and taken tJiis 14tli day of January, in the present year 
of our Lord, 1798, before nie Richard Bowman, his Majesty's coroner for 
tlie said island, upon the view of the body of Lieutenant Peterson, htte of 
H. M.'s ship Perdrix, now lying in Enghsh Harbour, upon the oaths of 
William Hill, Esq. foreman, John Simister, Thomas Smith, Samuel Hay- 
•vvoofi, Timothy Rodway, Peter Gordon, James Walker, Samuel Rose, 
Thomas Steer, John Cloverdate, Thomas North, Juim Graliam ; all good 
and lawful men, of the said island, who being duly sworn, and charged to 
enquire on the part and behalf of his said Majesty, how and after what man- 
ner the said lieutenant came to his death, do say, that upon the 13th day 
of this present instant month of January, in the evening of that day, au 
order was sent from Lord Camelford to the said Lieutenant Peterson, to 
row guard, to which order the said Lieutenant Peterson returned for answer, 
that he was surprized at his presumption, and immediately ordered a party 
of the Perdrix's to arm, and headed ihem himself, as also did Lord Camel- 
ford with a party of marines, and soon after this. Lord Camelford c;d!ed 
out to Lieutenant Peterson, who said, " Here I am, Sir;" upon which 
Lord Camelford said, " Do you still persist in disobeying my command? " 
Mr, Peterson answered, '' Yes, I do."' — Upon which Lord Cameitbi d shot 
the said Peterson in the left breast, who ahnost instantaneously died ; from 
whicii it clearly appears to the present jurors, that a mutiny had taken 
place, but on which side such mutiny did exist, they cannot pretend to say, 
as a dispute had arisen, which was the commanding o^cer, either the said 
Lord Camelford or the said Lieutenant Peterson; and the jurors upon their 
oaths aforesaid, do say, that the said Lieutenant Peterson came to his death 
in manner and form aforesaid, and not othcrways.— In witness whereof, 
the coroner aforesaid, as well as the jurors aforesaid, have to this inquisi- 
tion set their hands and seals, the day and year first above written. 

« RICHARD BOWMAN, Coroner, 
" WILLIAM HILL, Foreman. 

" And ten other persons above named.'' 

" H. M.'s Sloop Beaver, Tort Uojjal Bat/, Murliniqve, 
" SIR, 19 /( Junuaru, 1798. 

" On the evening of the liith of the prc-cnt n)onth, I being at that time 
Senior officer of II. M.'s ships in English Harbour, in consequence of some 
alarm sii;;nals which had been made, and to which, from various reasons, I 
was led to pay more tiian ordinary attention, I gave directions to Lieutenant 
Parsons, of II. M.'s ship Favorite, late under my command, to send 
Lieutenant Milward, of tiie same ship, with a verbal order to Lieutenant 
Peterson, deceased, at that time commanding officer of his Majesty's ship 
Perdrix, in the absence of Captain Fahie, atistut upon leave, to hold the 
Perdrix's ship's company in readiness to act in concert with the niiiilary 
upon the shortest notice, observing to Lieutenant Parsons at tlie sauie time, 

c?au. er^ron. ©31. XXII. u ii . 



30(5 TRIAL OF 

that as I had business wlMch called me on the other side of the water, I 
would not give him, Lieutenant Parsons, the trouble of following me with a 
mere complimentary report; it gives me pain, however, to be obliged oil 
this, as well as on another suljsequcnt occasion, to pass some comments on 
the conduct of Lieutenant Parsons, an officer whose intentions I believe to 
be good, and who, except on the present occasion, has given me general 
satisfaction — lie seems, indeed, so much to have mistaken my meaning on 
this occasion, in dispensing witii the usual form of a report, that wIk-u 
Lieutenant Mihvard reported to him Lieutenant Peterson's avowed decla- 
ration to reject my orders, and when from tliat circumstance a report 
became no longer a compliment, but a serious point of service, he neglected 
to make me acquainted therewith, whereby 1 remained in total ignorance 
of this early act of disobedience, and was prevented from checking in the 
bud, what was afterwards attended with such fatal consequence. 

'•' As it is by no mciiiis my intention to draw down tlie displeasure of a 
court martial upon Litutcnant Parsons, for circumstances wiiich never 
would have been brought to light but for the necessity I am under of more 
fully explaining my own conduct, I will continue my recital by observing, 
thiit some time after this I made out a written order for Lieutenant Peter- 
son to continue in force a prior order of the Port, wiiich related to keeping 
a guard at the entrance of the hr.rbour, under certain restrictions of my 
own, and this 1 dei'ercd at m.y own lodging to Lieutenant Milward, to 
deliver to Lieutenant Parsons, in order to its being forwarded to Lieutenant 
Peterson by a petty officer, who shortly after returned with a verbal message 
from Lieutenant Peterson, that he wondered at their presumption; this 
being reported to me, I directed Lieutenant Parsons to convey my orders 
by means of the same petty officer to Mr. Crawford, master of tlie Ferdrix, 
that he should confine Lieutenant Peterson to his cabin, and take upon him 
the temporary command of the ship ; but without receiving any satisfactory 
answer; as all I can gather from the above mentioned petty officer (Mr. 
Granger) is that Lieutenant Peterson still continued to express his surprise 
at our presumption ; Mr. Crawford said nothing; the purser, Mr. Piguenit 
took down minutes of the message, and Lieutenant Peterson obliged Mr, 
Granger to sign them. Nearly at the time that these proceedings were 
reported to me, a letter was delivered to me by ]Mr. Granger, wiiich had 
been brought to Lieutenant Parsons by Mr. Crawford, he, Mr. Crawford, 
then observed, that lie could not take a message. This letter appeared to me 
to be throughout so highly mutinous and refractory (inasmuch as it not 
only set me at defiance, and usurped my authority as senior officer of the 
port, but as Lieutenant Peterson therein styled himself captain of the Per- 
drix) that I immediately and without hesitation gave directions to Lieutenant 
Parsons to despatch Lieutenant Milward at the head of a party of marines, 
to arrest the person of Lieutenant Peterson, and to bring him over to the 
easternmost capstan house either dead or alive, there to be confined without 
communication until further orders. As these orders were in themselves 
more than commonly absolute, and such as nothing but the dangerous ten- 
dency of the letter I had received could justify, I thought proper to give 



CAPTAIN LORD CAMKLFOUD, R.X. 3C"7 

tlicm in the presence of two witnesses, wlio at the same time that lliey 
indemnified Lieutenant Parsons from all consequences, would, 1 was in 
hopes, ensure on his part a more rigid attention and compliance ; so 
strangely, however, does Lieutenant Parsons seem to have mistaken the 
spirit of these orders, although much pains were taken to explain their pre- 
cise meaning and extent both to him and to the witnesses, that he, on the 
contrary, in terms equally absurd and unintelligible, directed Lieutenant 
IViilward to arrest Lieutenant Peterson, and make use of force of arms if 
necessary, but always to avoid bloodshed, finally referring him to me for 
furtlier orders, should it seem impracticable to arrest the deceased alive ; 
the consequence of such obscure and conti-adictory orders were evident. 
Lieutenant Milward, instead of seizing and securing the prisoner upon the 
instant, and with the alacrity and spirit I am well persuaded he was inclined 
to show, found his power so restrained, his orders so obscure, and tlie 
f^rouiids, on which he then stood so precarious, that alarmed at his own 
responsibility, he Jost the n)oment of all others when a speerly and prompt 
exertion was necessary, in fruitless expostulations and persuasions witli the 
deceased. 

" I have enlarged the more on this head, as to this mistake much may 
be attributed ; my anxious intentions were to possess myself of the person of 
the deceased before he had time for preparation, aware as I well was, that 
from the arrogant and seditious turn of mind which, it is too notorious, he 
displayed on all occasions, he never would allow himself to be apprehended, 
%vhile the means were left him for defence, and whilst the evil-disposed per- 
sons surrounding him were ready at his side to pour in their pernicious 
advice; instead of which, as I have already explained, the most fatal pro- 
crastination took place ; for upon Lieutenant Milward's first intimating his 
intention to Lieutenant Peterson, he called his ship's company to arms, and 
in his own person prepared for, and begin to resist, in which he was joined 
and seconded by iMr. Crawford (the master) v\ho did his utmost forcibly to 
oppose the arrest. 

The noise attending these proceedings having reached my ears, I imme- 
diately ran down to the yard before the Perdrix's capstan-house, where I 
found the Perdrix's ship's company falling in fast under arms; I endea- 
voured to assemble them, in order to address them, but found ihein nmch 
dispersed, and that those who arrived up with thtir arms, fell into their 
ranks with an alacrity, which left me little hopes from persuasion. — The 
moment now was losi, as every tlting tended to convince me thnt if I per- 
sisted any longer in ende;ivouring to carry away Lieutenant Petersuii by 
force, nothing less than a downright battle between the two ships' compa- 
nies must ensue ; for this reason I called to Lieutenant lUilward, and 
ordered him to desist, and to join me with the marines, which I drew up iu 
face of the Perdrix's ship's company, hailing the comnjanding otiicer of t'.ie 
Favorite at the same time (as I liad previously done before) to hurry '.he 
rest of the ship's company over, hoping that their superior numbtrs wnikl 
overawe the Perdrix's, and induce them to lay d-owa iheir arms, iu unxiuus 
expectarion of their arrival, 1 took several tunis wtlh Lieuteiiaut Miiward 



308 TUIAL OP 

in the yard, and I believe he v.ill do me the justice to declare tliat I 
expressed mvself upon that occasion with every degree of reluctance and 
concern at what seemed likclv to ensue. Before, hov.ever, the Favorite's 
ship's company coidd he emharkcd, Lieutenant Peterson descended the 
stairs, calling; " Pcrdrix's. Perdrix's ; to which they answered : the 
deceased then said, " Are you all here ? " to which they having replied in 
the affirmative, he called out, " Are you ready?" to which they replied, 
" Not yet;'' he then called out, " Load with ball cartridge, and fix your 
bayonets:" while they wei'e complying with this order, he called out, 
" Stand by." Things now became highly critical, as T was impressed with 
the full conviction, that the moment his people had loaded, he would 
throw in his fire, and charge, which from the great disparity of numbers, 
must infallibly have terminated in his favour. Under these trying circum- 
stances, there appeared to me but one measure left, and that was, by cutting 
off the riua-leader, to destroy the source of contention. This I adopted? 
having first calie;' to the deceased, and asked him whether he refused to 
obey my orders ; a question which at the moment appeared to me the 
shortest and most decisive ; and having received his answer in the aflirma- 
tive, I hastened to Lieutenant Milward, from whom I took a pistol, and 
having returned to the spot, where I thought the deceased was, I called 
out, " Where is Mr- Peterson?" Somebody answered, "Here he is." I 
repeated the question : he then answered with much arrogance, " Here I 
am, Sir, damme ; " — I then walked close up to him, and having cocked my 
pistol in his presence, I presented it to his breast, repeating the question I 
had before put to him, saying, " Do you still persist in ret\ising to obey 
tny orders?" Upon this he plainly and distinctly replied, " I do, Sir." I 
instantly shot him dead: and having jumped back t j afvoid the fate which I 
thought awaited me, from the people of the Perdrix, who then surrounded 
me, I called out to ray marines to support me : much, however to the cre- 
dit of the seamen of the Perdrix, this was unnecessary, they attempted 
nothing. I then told them I had shot Mr. Peterson for mutiny; and Mr, 
Crawford, the master, having now become the commanding-othcer, I sum- 
loioned him to dismiss the ship's company of the Perdrix ; which he, after 
allowing me to repi at my order two or three times, witli a very bad grace 
complied with, and every thing was restored to peace and good order. 

This, Sir, is a true, and I trust, impartial account of the lute melancholy 
transaction, which took place at /intigua, and which, from the consequence 
it is of to me, that it should be thoroughly understood, I have minutely, 
perhaps triflingly detailed. As a circumstance of this moment, liowevcr 
justifiable it may appear in the eyes of my brother oilicers, cannot pass 
•without some discussion in the world, I beg leave to request that you will 
bq pleased to grant me a court martial ; first, on myself, and secondly on 
]Mr. Crawford, master of the Perdrix, upon two separate charges; the one 
for having withheld his assistance in appre!)ending a prisoner, contrary to 
the 3'2d article of war, the other for not having done his utmost in sup- 
pressing the late mutiny, agreeable to the 'JOth article of war. 
1 have the honour to be, &c. 

" CAMELFORD.^' 
?' Henry Harvey, Esq. Rear-admiral of the Red, 
Commander-in-chief, ^c." 



CAPTAIN LORD CAMELrORl), R. N. 309 

Lord Camclfonl's order called for, ;uid an attested copy of tlie same pro- 
duced to the court. All the evidences ordered to withdraw, but in a few 
niinules Mr. Clement Milward, acting lieutenant of the Favorite, called 
and sworn. 

Court. Q. Do you know tlic prisoner ? — A. Yes. 

Q. Have you heard his application for a court martial read ?^A. Yos. 

Q. Relate to tl.e court vvliat you know respecting the circumstances 
mentioned in that letter ? — A. On the evening of the 13th instant, I received 
orders from Lieutenant Parsons, to take a party of marines and go over tiie 
water, and arrest Lieutenant Peterson, and bring him over to him. If I 
could not take him without force of arms, and endangering his life, I 
was to acquaint lord C. for my further orders. I took the party of 
marines over the water, landed them on the opposite side, and marched 
them to the mess-room door of the capstan- house, where Lieutenant 
Peterson was. I there met two seamen, ceutinels, with fixed bayonets. 
They asked me what I wanted? I told thoni, to see Lieutenant Peterson on 
service. They said I could not go up stairs without permission of the com- 
manding-officer. I told them to scud a servant up stairs to acquaint 
]\Ir. P. The servant came down with permission fi)r me to come up stairs. 
I went up stairs and related the orders I had received from Lieutenant 
Parsons. His answer was, " I will not go;" and immediately rose up from 
Ijis chair, and went to a table at the further end of the room, and brought 
a sword and a brace of pistols vvith liim. I called my marines up stairs. 
He told me if I did not go down, he would run me through; and immedi- 
ately made a pass at me. I then told the marines t(j seize him ; but finding 
him resjlute, and that I coidd not take him without enda,ngering his life, I 
ordered the marines to stop. He walked to the other end of the 
room, and desired Mr. Craw iord, master of tiie Perdrix, to arm himself. 
He rapped at the bulk-head, and called a Mr. Mattocks (one of the petty 
officers) of the Perdrix. He then went to the window, and called out, 
" Perdrix's, Perdrix's, arm yourselves." — He called out, " Mr. Maddocks 
or Matthews," I don't know which, " get the people under arms." I then 
heard Lord C. call out, "Mr. Milward."— I answered. — Lord ' C. 
called again. — I answered. —Lord ("amelford ti'.en said, "Desist, desist, 
come down stairs. — I went down witii my marines.— I met Lord C. 
a short distance from the capstan-house^ He said, " We will av6id as 
much bloodshed as we possibly can." He went down to the wharf, and 
liaiJed the lavorite. During the time we waited for the boat, we 
walked up and down the wharf, twice or thrice. Lord C. seemed very 
uneasy. The Perdrix's men were tlien turning out under arms. I heard 
Lieutenant Peterson ask tlicm if they were ready. Tiicy answered, " No, 
Sir." Lieutenant Peterson then sa.d, " Load with ball cartridge, and fix 
bayonets." Lieutenant Peterson then said, "Are you ready .■'"—Lord 
C. then asked me if I was armed. — I told him I was. — He asked 
ine in had pistols. — I told hnn I had.— He then asked.me for one of them, 
I gave him one. — He asked me if it was loaded. — L told him it was.— He 
then walked towards the Pcrdrix's men, and asked for Lieutenant Peterson; 



310 TiiiAL or ^ 

somebody answered, " He is here, Sir." — Lord Camelford then called 
Mr. Peterson again, — Mr. Peterson answerer!, '* I am iierc, damme, Sir."— 
Lord Camelford went up to him, and asked him if he still persisted in dis- 
obeying his orders. — " I do, Sir," Lieutenant Peterson answered. — I then 
heard die report, and saw the flash of a pistol (was se\eu creiiiht yards dis- 
tant at the time) and sa-.v Lieutenant Peterson fall back. — Lord Camelford 
jumped back, and called me, " Assist me, marines." — I then went to him 
with the marines. — He addressed the Perdrix's ship's company, and said 
thev were very right in obeying their officer's orders. He then told them 
Mr. Crawford was now beconie commanding-officer. — He went up to Mr- 
Crawford, and told him to dismiss his ship's company. He repeated it 
twice to Mr. Crawford. He then walked down to the water-side, and wei.t 
over in the boat with the marines. 

Q. Did vou receive any orders on that day, prior to that given for putting 
Mr. Peterson under an arrest } — A. I did. 

Q. What were they ? — A. Go over and acquaint Lieutenant Peterson to 
oet his ship's company in readiness, and under arms, to be ready at a mo- 
ment's warning. 

Q. What was the answer .?— A. Mr. Peterson wondered at Lord Camel- 
ford's sending over such a message. 

Q. What occasioned that message to he sent .? — A. An alarm fired on the 
island, by the signal made from the fort, that the ships which occasioned the 
alarm v\ere standing in for Falmouth or i-lnglish harbour. 

Q. Did vou report the answer of Mr. Peterson to Mr. Parsons ? — A. Yes. 

Q, Did you receive any orders in consequence of that report .'' — A. No. 

Q. Do you recollect an order given by Captain ?»lainwaring, of the 
Babet, when senior officer at English harbour, to row guard at the entrance 
of the harbour r — A. I do. 

Q. Did you receive a letter from Lord Camelford to deliver to Lieutenant 
Parsons, to forward to Lieutenant Peterson ? — A. Yes. 

Q. (Letter 7710) ked No. I, shoun him.) Is that the letter? — A, Yes, I 
wrote il, and Lord Camelford signed it in my presence. 

Letter read and vcrijied hi/ Mr. Milzoard, viz. 

" SIR, 

" You will be pleased to acknowledge the receipt of the enclosed letter 
on service. I am, tkc. 

" Lieut. Charles Peterson." <' CAMELFORD..' 

By Lieutenant Lord Camelford, commanding his 

Majesty's ^loop Favorite, and senior ofiiccr of 

liis i\Iajesty's shi[.s and vessels lying in Enghsh 

harbour, Antigua. 

You are hereby required and directed to carry into execution that order 

ofjemraett Mainuarinii, Esq. capt.iin of his ilajcstv's ship Babet, and 

late commanding-otTicer of tiiis port, whicii respects keepnig a guard at the 

entrance of this harbour; with thisdifierence, that a midshipman of trust 15, 



CAPTAIN LORD CAMELFORD, R. K. 311 

to be put in charge of tlie boat, in lieu of a comniissioned or warrant 
officer, and that she is to be kept at a grapnel in the entrance of the har- 
bour in lipu of rowing guard. 

Given under my hand on board his Majesty's ship^Favorite, this loih day 
tof January, 1793. 

Lieutenant Charles Peterson, commrniding- CAMELFORD. 

Officer of H. M. S/iip Perciri.r, in the 
roojn of William Charles Fahie, Esq. 
Cuptum, absent on leave. 

Q. Do yon know if the letter was sent ? — A. Yes, I saw it delivered to 
Mr. Granger. 

Q. Do you know of any answer from Lieutenant Peterson ?— A. None. 

Q. Did you receive no further orders from that time till the period when 
you were directed to arrest Mr. Peterson ? — A. No. 

Q. What time intervened from the first message, to sending orders for 
the arrest of Lieutenant Peterson ? — A. The tii-st order I received was about 
half after three, and the next order was about half after nine. 

Q. (£y Lord C) How long was it from the time, that the first notice or 
disturbance was heard in the mess-room, to the time that I called to you to 
desist flrfid bring vour marines down ? — A. Between four and five minutes. 

Q. Did not Lieutenant Peterson call out " Stand by " while the Per- 
drix's people were in the act of loading ?— A. He did. 

Q. Did you conceive he %vould fire upon us as soon as he was ready r— 
A. It had every appearance that he would. 

Q. Did you not come to me after I had fired my pistol, and present a 
cartridire to me, requesting me to load, as there would be more of it?— 
A. I did. 

Q. When I addressed the Perdrix's ship's company, and told them they 
liad done their duty in obeying the orders of their immediate superior, did 
I not order them at the same time to dismiss ? —A. He did. 

Q,. Do you conceive that had I used harsh or arrogant means with them 
U)ey would have broke as readily as they did ?~~A. I do not know. 

<^. Exclusive of the alarm that had been fired from the fort, had not an 
action been seen in the course of the day in the offing? — A. It was the re- 
port at the time. 

Q. Do you not know moreover that I sent a petty ofticer to communicate 
■with the commandiiig-otiicer of the troops on the ridge respecting the 
alarm ? — A. I do. 

Court. Q. Did any doubt exist in your breast which was the com- 
manding officer of the naval force at English harbour, Lord Camciford, 
commanding the Favorite, or Lieutenant Peterson, of the Perdrix .? — 
A. Lord Camelford, in my opinion, was commanding officer at the time, 
and I had told Mr. Peterson so several times. 

Q. Wly) was in the room with Lieutenant Peterson, when you went to 
put him under arrest ? — A. Mr. Crawford, the masicr, and i\Ir. Piguenit, 
the purser of the Ptiiirix. 



S12 TRIAL OF 

Q. Did it appear to you that Lieutenant Peterson was sober at tlie time? 
—A. I cannot say. 

Q. Was it a douijlful inafter with you whether he was diuiik or sober?— 
A. It was, and I mentioned it to Lord Canielford. 

Q. Was his answer ^iven to you in a cool deliberate manner? — A. No, 
on the contrary, he was in a great rage. 

Jilr. William Grakger, Mastei's Mate of the Favorite, caJkd and 

Sicorn, 

Q. Court. Do you know the prisoner? — A. Ye5;. 

<Q. Have you heard liis apitlicaliun for a court martial read ? — A. Yes. 

Q. Did you carry a letter from Lieuten:int Parsons, of tlie Favorite, trt 
Lieutenant Peterson, of tlie Perdrix, on the evening of the ICth instant, on 
service ? — A. I did. 

Letter marked ^Vo. 1, shoun him. 

Q. Is that the letter? — A. I believe it is. 

Q. Did you know the contents of the letter when you carried it ? — 
A. No. 

Q. Did you deliver it into the liands of Lieutenant Peterson ? — A yes. 

Q. Did he read it in your presence ? — A. lie broke it open and read it 
directly. 

Q. What was his answer? — A. He desired me to tell them tliey were 
very presumptuous in writing to him in that manner ; and th=en dismissed 
me. I then went over the water and acquainted Lieutenant Parsons, the 
commanding ohicer of the Favorite, what Lieutenant Peterson had said to 
me. I went to my duty, and was called in about a quarter of an hour 
afterwards, and sent by Lieutenant Parsons, with a message to Mr. Craw- 
ford, master of the Perdrix, to put Lieutenant Peterson under an arrest, 
and take the charge of the Perdrix. I was iisked by Mr. Piguenit, the 
purser of the Perdrix, then present, whether Lord C. was acquainted 
witii it. I told hiiu I supposed so, but I had got my orders from the com- 
manding-officer. 

Q. What answer did Mr. Crawford make? — A. He made none; but 
Mr. Peterson directed Mr. Piguenit, purser, to take my message dowu in 
writing, and then read it over and ordered me to sign it, which I did; and 
then when I was going away, Mr. Peterson repeated several times his for. 
iTier message, that ihey were presumptuous in sending him letters and 
messages of that sort. On which I returned over to Lieutenant Parsons 
again, and related what hi.d passed, and shortly all or, I got. a letter 
from Lieutenant Parsons to Lord Camciford, which I delivered to Lord 
Camelford. 

Lieutenant Peterson's letter or order, 7mrked No. 2. to Lord C. was then 

shown him. 

Q. Is that the letter ?— A. Tt was dark, and I did not take notice. 
Q. \\ hat time in the evening was it you went on the first mediagc ta 
Lieutenant Peterson .? — A. Nearly eight o'clock in the evening. 



CAPTAIX LORD CAMELPORD, R.N. 313 

Q. Were there two sentries at the door of the mess-room, and how were 
they armed ?— A. Tliere was one sentry' with a cutlass; if tlicre was another, 
I did not see him. 

Lord C. Q. Did the sentry oppose your going up stairs, till he had 
acquainted the commanding-otHcer ? — A. Never. 

Sergeant John Leaciiland, of the Favorite, called and szcom. 

Court. Q. Do you know the prisoner ? — A. Yes. 

Q. Have you lieard liis application for a court martial read?— A. Yes. 

Q, Were you of tl)e party that went with Lieutenant Milward, to arrest 
Lieutenant Peterson, of the Perdrix, the evening of the 1 3th instant? — 
A. Yes. 

Q. Relate to the Court what you know respecting the circumstances 
tneiitioned in Lord Camelford's said letter ? — A. On the 13lh instant, at 
nine o'clock in the evening, I was ordered by Lieutenant Parsons to assist 
Mr. Milward with six marines, in taking Mr. Peterson and putting him 
under arrest. When we landed on the other side, Mr. Milward ordered us 
to follow him. When we came to the mess-room stairs, the two sentinels 
stopped us. Mr. Milward sent up a boy, to know if Mr. Peterson would 
let him come up. Mr. Milward went up by leave, and I remained below 
with the party. In a few minutes, I\Ir. Milward ordered us to come up, 
which we did. Wheti we came up, Mr. Peterson ordered us down again^ 
imiuediately. 1 told him wc would not, unless our commanding-otficer 
gave us leave. IMr. Peterson made a push with his sword at Mr. Mil- 
ward. Mr. Milward knocked it back a^iain with another swoid. Then 
immediately Lieutenant Peterson went to his cot, and took out two pistols, 
cue he put on the table, the other he kept in his hand. The master of the 
Perdrix took the other up, and pointed jt towards me, and ordered me to go 
out of the room. I told him I would not, there was mv commandiug-oilicei: 
there (njeaning Mr. Milward). Immediately ]Mr. Peterson went to th.e 
window, and sui)g out, " Perdrix's, Perdrix's, turn out here." Then Mr. 
Peterson went to the bulk-head, and said, '• Turn out all ofty;ers." Imme- 
diately Lord C. cpme to the foot of the stairs, and ordered the marines to 
come down, and to follow him, which we did. Lord C. ordered me to 
draw up the marines in face of the Perdrix's, which I did.' Lieutenant 
Peterson ordered the Perdrix's to prime and load with powder and ball. 
Lord C. hearing Mr. Peterson's voice, went to him, and asked him if he 
would obey his orders, or not. lie said, " No, Sir, I will not.'' Lord C- 
asked him a second time, the same question. He told him, " I will not." 
Immediaiely Lord C. took a pistol aisfl held it to him, and asked hun a 
third time if he vvould obey his orders. He answered he would not, and 
Lord C. shot him immediately. Lord C. said, " I have shot Lieutenant 
Peterson for mutiny." Lord C. asked the master of the Perdri.x, whether 
he would oliey his orders or not. He answered, " Yes." Lord C. ordered 
him to dismiss hio men immediately, and put by their arms. 

Q. Was you on board wjien Lord C. took command of the Favorite?— 
A. Yes. 

fSati. ^^xon, QJaU XXII. s s 



314 TRIAL OF 

Q. Did yon hear his order read ? — A. Yes. ^ 

Q. \\^U5 Lieutenant Peterson first lieutenant of the Favorite at the 
time ? — A. Yes. 

Q. Did he execute Lord C's orders as he had usually done under for- 
mer captains? — A. Yes, to the best of my knowledge. 

Q. How long was Lieutenant Peterson under Lord Canitlford's com- 
mand }—A. About three months. 

Q. At the time of Lord C's firing at Lieutenant Petcison, were the 
Perdrix's ship's company loading their nmsiiets, or were tlicy loaded 
before ? — A. I heard the rain-rods rattling^ but it was too dark to see what 
they put in their muskets. 

Q. When you were called i p stairs to assist Lieutenant Mil ward, \Nhat 
situation did you perceive Mr. Peterson in ? — A. Standing hy the table, 
with a drawn sword alongside of him on the table, and when he saw us lie 
took it up itnmcdiateiy. 

Q. Did he strike at Mr. Mihvard first ? — A. Yes. 

Q. Did he aj^pcar to you to be sober ? — A. He was as sober at that 
time, as ever he was while 1 sailed with him. 

Lord Caiiiclford. Q. Was there any noise or disturbance in the room, 
before you were called up by Lieutenant Milward ? — A. None, till we 
came up. 

Q. From the time you went up, till I called you down, how long was it ? 
—A. About eight or nine minutes. 

Q. When y!>u first came down out of the mess-room, did you see any 
number of men under arms, belonging to the Peidrix ?— A. Between thirty 
and forty. 

Q. How long was it from the time I called you dawn, to the time you 
came down ? — A. Immediately, 

Q. Did not the master continue to hold a a pistol to your breast, till 3'0ii 
told him you would cut his head off, or words to that effect ?— A. Yes. 

Q. Did you not conceive, that as soon as the Perdrix's company were 
ready to fire, they would begin? — A. Yes. 

Q. Do you not conceive, tliat Mr. Peterson headed that ship's company, 
and that they would have obeyed bis orders ? — A. Yes. 

Corporal William Buxkin, of the Fatorite, called and sworn. 

Court. Q. Do you know the prisoner ? — A. Yes. 

Q. Have you heard his application for a court martial read ? — A. Yes. 

Q. Was you of the party of marines, on the ISth instant, that went 
with Mr. Milward, to arrest Lieutenant Peterson, of the Perdrix ?— 
A. Yes. 

Q. Relate to the Court wliat you know respecting the circumstances 
mentioned in Lord C's said letter ? — A. When 1 came over, I was ordered 
by Mr. Milward to follow him, and we went up in the room to take Mr, 
Peterson as a prisoner; JVIr. Peterson pointed his sword at Mr. Milward, 
and Mr, Milward defended the sword off with his own. Immediately Mr. 
Peterson dropped his suord, and a brass pistol on the table. Then the 



CAPTAIN LORD CAMELFOkD, R.X. 315 

Jnaster took up the bras3 pistol, and shoved the sergeant hacV, and the 
'sergeant made answer, that his commanding-officer was there; that he 
would obey his commanding-officer, meaning Mr. Miiward. Mr. Crawford 
shoved Jiiin back, and ordered us all out of the room. The sergeant said, 
" Don't shove me, I have my commanding-officer here, and will cut your 
head off directly." Mr. Peterson called out fur the Pcrdrix's, and then 
asked if they uere all ready or not. Then ^ly Lord came to the stairs 
door, and called Mr. Miiward. Mr. Mihvard answered, " Here, Sir," and 
went down directly. Lord C. ordered him to draw up the men be/ore the 
door. Then Mr, Peterson came down and said, *' Perdrix's ! " — " Sir,'' 
they answered. He then said, " Are you all ready r" They answered, 
" No, Sir," He then said, " Load with powder and ball." My Lord came 
round to the left of me, and asked for Mr. Peterson. Mr. Peterson said, 
*' I am here." Mv Lord said, " Will you obey my orders ?" He said, 
" No." He asked iiini again, if he would obey his orders. He answered, 
*' No." Then ray Lord put his pistol to Lieutenant Peterson's breast, and 
asked the question again. He answered, " No," the tl-rird time ; and my 
Lord fired directly, on which he fell down. When my Lord had iircd, i:e 
turned round, pnd said to Lieutenant Miiward, " I have shot Mr. Peterson 
for mutiny." After that, my Lord went up to the muster of the Perdrix, 
and asked him if he would obey his orders, or not. The master said, " Yes, 
my Lord." So my Lord said, " Perdrix's, by my orders )ou will dismiss.'' 
Accordingly it was done. 

Q. Was you on board when Lord C. took command of the Favorite r— 
A. Yes. 

Q. Did you hear hi.s order read ?~A. Yes. 

Q. Was Lieutenant P. first lieutenant at the time } — A. Yes. 

Q. Did he execute Lord C.'s orders, as he had usually done under for- 
mer captains? — A. Yes. 

Q. How long was Mr. P. under Lord C.'s command ? — About three 
months. 

Q. At the time of Lord C.'s firing at Mr. P. were the Perdrix's ship's 
company loading their muskets, or were they loaded before } — Loading. 

Q. When you were called up staiis to assist Lieutenant Mdward, nh it 
situation did you perceive Mr Pcteison to he in? — A. Inside tiie table 
opposite the duor, wiih his sword in one hand, and his pistol in the other. 

Q. Did he strike at Lieutenant M. first .? — A. Yes. 

Q. Did he appear to you to be sober ? — A. No, I believe he was in 
liquor. 

Lord Cameiford. Q. From the time you went up, to the time I called 
you down, how long was it?— A. Four or five mniutes, to the bestuf iny 
knovvledt^e. 

Q. When you just catne down out of the mc>s-roon">, did you see .riy 
number of men underarms, belonging to the Pcrdrix .? — A. Betwetr vW.."-- 
and forty. 

Q,. How long was it from the time I called vou down, to the ti;.. 
came down ?— A. About a minute. 



316 TUIAL OF 

Q. T)id not the master continue to hold a pistol at the sergeant's breast, 
till he tolcihini he would cut his head off, or words to that eftec. ? — A. No, 
he did not hold the pistol to his breast, but kept it in one hand, and pushed 
him with the other. 

Q. Did you not conceive, that as soon as the Perdrix's sliip's company 
were ready to fire, they would bei;in ? — A. They would, I believe, if my 
Lord had not stopped it, by shooting the lieutenant. 

Q. Did you not conceive, that ?ilr. Peterson headcfl that ship's company, 
and tiiat they would have obeyed his orders ? — A. Yes, I believe they 
would. 

The Court cleared. When opened, James Gardner, Seaman, of the 
Favorite, culled and sworn. 

Court. Q, Do you know the prisoner? — A. Yes. 

Q. Have you heard his application for a court martial read ? — A. Yes. 

Q. Relate to the Court what you know respecting the cn-cum?tances 
mentioried in that letter? — A. The first I heard of it, was a noise in 
Lieutenant Peterson's mess-room, a little after nine, I think. His lordship 
goinii down stairs, I follovied him. We got half way across the yard. I 
heard Mr. Peterson halloo out to tlie Perdrix's, out of the window, ordering 
them to get under arms inmiediateiy. His lordship then went down to the 
wharf, hailin;; the Favorite, telling Mr. Parsons to send the rest of the 
Favorite's over immediatf ly. His lordship then went to tlie stairs of Mr. 
Peterson's mess-room, in the capstan hou-e, in the yard, caUing Mr. Mil- 
ward, telling him to come down, and to bring liis people witii liim, Mr. 
Peterson folhiwing them down; when he came down, he asked his people if 
they were ready. They answered, " No." lie then toll them lo '^ Prime 
and load with ball " He ordered them to draw up, and stand by. His 
Lordship then called for Mr. Peterson. Mr- Peterson ihen answered, 
*' Here am I.'' His Lordship asked him, if he would obey his orders. Mr. 
Peterson replied, " No." Hi* Loidsiiip repeated the words again. Mr. Pe- 
terson ansivered, " No, I will not." That minute Mr. Peterson fell, lieing 
shot by Lord C. Hi$ Lordship then called for Mr. M Iward, and said, " I 
■have shot Mr. Peterson for mutiny" His Lordship then called for Mr, 
Crauford. Mr. Crawford made answer, "I am here, my Lord." His 
Lordship then asked him, if he would obey his orders. Mr. Lra.\ford 
made answer, " Yes." His lordship then told him to dismiss his people 
His Lordship then asked where are the Perdrix's ? They answered, " Here, 
my Lord." His Lordship then said, " You have done your duty like" men, 
in obeying your OiJicer's orders, so now dismiss." 

Q. Were yuu near his Lordsnip's person, wiien Lieutenant P. fell?—- 
A. Y'^es. 

Q. Did y^iu observe a pistol in his hand ? — A, Yes. 

Lord Cuniflj'ord. Q. Did you see me present the pistol to Lieutenant 
Peterson i* — A. Yes. 

(^, Did you hear me speak to Lieutenant Peterson, between the time of 



CAPTAIN LOUD CAMELTORDj R. W, 317 

my presenting the pistol to Lieutenant Peterson, and the time of my firinc ? 
•—A. Yes. 

Witness ordered to withdrcnc, and Lieutenant Milv/ap.d ccdled again. 

Lord Camelford. Q. Did yon not conceive Lieuten-int P. to be in a state 
of mutiny, at tlie head of the Perdrix's ship's company, when they were 
drawn up under arms in the yard ? — A. Yes, 

Q. Do you conceive that I could have adopted any measure-, to have 
secured the person of LieutenaiU P. at th:U time, without bloodshed 
ensuing; and if you do, what are they ?— A. No, I know of none at that 
time. 

Court. Q. Did you comniunicatf' to Lieutenant Parsan?, Mr. P.'s deter- 
minatiyn to refuse Lord Camelford's orders ? — A. T did about three 
.o'clock that afternoon. 

Q. Did you hear from Mr. Peterson, or any person else, his reasons for 
that deterrainytioui' — A. I he.ird ir from Mr. Peleison, supposing himself 
to be commandinif-otiicer of the port. 

Q. At that time did he say what rank he considered Lord Camelford to 
hold ? — A. T did not hear him. 

Q. When you communicated \\\t\\ Mr. Peterson, at three o'clock that 
afternoon, what sentinels were at the door, and how were they armed? — 
A. One man with a cutlass. 

George Walterma^t, Marine, of the Favorite, euUed and sworn. 

Court. Q. Do you know the prisoner ? — .\. Yes. 

Q. Have you heard his application for a court martial read ? — A. Yes. 

Q. V/as you of the party whicl) went with Lieutenant Milward, to arrest 
J^ieulenant P. on the evuaino; of the 13th instant? — A. Yes. 

Lord Citnitlford. Q. Did you see me walk up to him previous to it ?— 
A. I heard his Ltrdship call Mr. Peterson first, and he answered, "Here 
am L ' My Lord said, " Will you obey my orders or n(jt ? '' He answered, 
*' No." His Lord^hip asked him a second time, " Will you obey my 
orders?" He answen d, "No, I will not." With that Mr. Peterson leil, 
shot by Lord Camelford. 

Q. Whew I went up to Mr. Peterson, did I fire the pistol at once, or pre- 
sent it for any time ? — A. Held it to his breast two or three minutes. 

Court. Q. Was there time for Mr. Peterson to have spoken to Lord 
Camelford, or to have removed himself, if life liad throught proper, before 
Jie fired ?— A. Yes. 

Lord Camelford. Q. Did you see me cock the pistol .? — A. No. 

Q. How far was you from me i — A. About tive or six yards. 

it/r. Masser Crawford, Muster of' the Ptrdrix, called and su-orn. 

Q. Do you know the prisoner? — A. Yes. 

Q. Have you heard his application for a court mariial read .?— A. Y'^cs. 

i^. llcluto to tlic court what }ou know respecting the circumsLauccs 



SIS TRIAL 0» 

mentioned in that letter? — A. On Saturday, the ISth of January, about ten 
minutes after eight, Mr. Granger, a petty officer of the FavoritCj delivered 
a letter on service to Lieutenant Peterson, then in the mess-room, at the 
capstan-liouse. Mr. Peterson, some time afterwards, desired Mr. Granger 
to inform Lord Camclford, " He was astonished at his presumption." 
Mr. Granger, some time at'teruards, returned wilii a verbal order from 
Lord Camei ford, for Lieutenant Peterson to conceive himself under an 
arrest, and for me to act as commanding-othccr. Mr. Peterson desired 
Mr. Granger to say, he vas again astonished at his presumption. Mr. Pe- 
terson tlicn gave me a letter tm service, to dehver to the cwmmanding- 
officcr of the Favorite, which I did. Some time afterwards, Mr. Peterson 
douhled the scniries at the door of the mess-room capstan-house. Mr. 
Milward, lieulenant of the Favorite, (1 cannot exactly say at what time of 
the night) came to the door of the mess-room, and desired admittance ; 
Mr. Peterson enquiring his name, desired him to walk up. When he came 
to the top of the steps, he called out to tlic marines to follow him. Innncr 
diatoly there was a party of marines in our mess-))lace. Mr. Peterson 
wuliied to his tahle, took up a drawn sword. Mr. Milward at the same 
time walking towards him, informed him he was come to take him hy 
force of arms, over to the other capstan-house, -to put him under an arrest. 
Mr. Peterson again walked to his private tahle, brought out a pair of 
pistols,, and laid them on the mess-table; at the same time desired me to 
arm myself. JMr Peterson advanced towards Mr. Milward, pointing the 
sword at his Ijicsst, ordering him with the party of marines down stairs. 
Mr. Petcrti.ni at the same time went to the window, and desired the Per- 
drix's to turn out, and went to the partition and knocked with his sword, 
calling to the gunner and boatswain to turn out and arm the people. 
Looking round, tlie Favorite's officers and marines had retired. I walked 
downstairs, and saw the people turning out and anning. Shortly after- 
wards Mr. Petersen came downstairs, and called to the Perdrix's, " Prime 
jmd load." I heard Lord Camclford call out, " Where is Mr. Peterson.'" 
Mr. Peterson answered, " Here I am. Sir." Lord Camclford stepped 
up close to him, and asked him, if he still persisted in disobeying his 
orders. Mr. Peterson said, " I do, Sir." A pistol immediately went otf, 
and I saw iVlr. Pctcison fall. I examined to see if he was dead or not. 
Seeing him dtad, I inunediately stepp' d forward, called out to our people, 
" Stop ; a>asi londmg your pieces; Mr. Peterson is shot; return your arms; 
dismiss." At tiie same time heard Lord Camclford call me, *' Mr. Craw- 
ford, your coiiuuanding-otiicer is killed, for downright mutiny ; dismiss the 
people ; rcLuiii their arms, and conceive yourself connnanding-officer. of the 
Pcrdnx." 

Lord Camelford's Lctler to Mr. Peterson, marked No. 1, shozvn to the 

Witness. 

Q. Is that the letter Mr. Peterson received from Lord Camelford ?— ? 
A, Yes, 



CAPTAIX lord CAMEtFORD, R. K. St9 

Lieutenafit Peterson's order in the paper ^ marked No. 2, read and verified l>y 
the Witness, viz. 

By Licutcnatit Charles Peterson, commander of his 
Majesty's ship Perdrix, and senior officer of his 
Majesty's ships, /or the time Icing, in English- 
Harbour. 
Whereas the island of Antigua is now under an alarm, — 
You are hereby required and duected to cause the crew of his l\Iajesty'» 
sloop Favorite, under your direction, to hold themselves in readiness to 
man the batteries round this liaibour; also to cause a guartl to be rowed 
round the entrance of tliis harbour, during this night, and report to nic 
tlieir proceedings in the morning. 

Given under my hand, on board his Majesty's ship Perdrix, in English- 
Harbour, Antigua, the 13th January, 1798. 

CHARLES PETER.S0>7. 
JLieutenant Lord Camelford, his Majesty's 
sloop Favorite. 

Q,. Is the signature to that order, Lieutenant Peterson's hand-writing ? — ■ 
A. Yes. 

Q. Is that the letter you carried from Lieutenant Peterson to the com- 
xnanding-otiicer of ilie Favorite } — A. To the best of my knowledge it is. 

Q. Did Mr. Peterson give any reasons for the answer yon stated to have 
been sent to Lord Camelford ? — A. No. 

Q. Did you at any time hear him say, why he considered himself com- 
manding-officer, then at English-Harbour? — A, Yes. 

Q. State what they were ? — A. The admiral's directions to Lord C in 
liis letters on service, were directed to Lieutenant Lord C. and tliat lie, 
Mr. P. was a senior lieutenant on the list to Lord C. 

Q. Did Mr. Peterson give his reasons for doubling the sentinels at the 
door? — A. No. 

Q. To whorri did he give tho orders for doubling the sentinels at the 
door ? — A. To the master at arms. 

Q. Do you know the orders ? — A. No. 

Q. Had the sword, which you mention Lieutenant Peterson to have 
taken up, been previously drawn, before the arrival of Lieutenant Milward ? 
—A. I don't know. 

Q. Were his pistols loaded previous to the arrival of Mr. Milward .' — i 
A. T believe they were. 

Q. Do you know when they were loaded ? — A. I don't know. 

Q. Did Mr. Peterson take them with him vviien he went below, or his 
sword } — A. No pistols, but his sword. 

Q. Do you suppose had Lord Camelford taken him by the collar, he 
would have directed his people to use violence r — A. I can't say, but I 
believe his people were duQwn out to prevent his being arrested, 

Q. Until he knew Lord Camelford was on the side of the water, where 



3^20 TRIAL Off 

the Perdrix's people were, were any of your ship's people armed, exclusiv«* 
of the sentinels ?— A. Not to my knowledge. 

Q. Did you ever hear Mr. Peterson say, in conversation, why, while he 
•was lieutenant of the Favorite, under Lord Cainelford's coQimand, he 
obeyed his Lordship's orders ? — A. 1 never did. 

MoxDAY, January 22. 
LIr. Crawford culled in again. 

Court. Q. Did you ever see Lord C. previous to the night of the ISth 
instant r— A. Yes, frequently. 

Q. In what uniform did he at those times appear r — A. In a lieutenant's. 

Q. What dress was he in the night of the 13th instant ? — A. The night 
was so dark, that I cannot positively say. 

Q Did you ever see him in a commander's coat? — A. Xo. 

Q. Did you ever hear Lieutenant P. say, whether he considered him as a 
commander, or as a lieutenant sent by the commander-in-chief, to com- 
mand the Favorite, in the absence of her captain, sick on shore? — A. 
Never did. 

Q. How long were the Favorite andPerdrixin English Harbour togetlier, 
previous to the event of the 13th ? — A. About two months, or more. 

Q. Had any difference ou service, between Lord C. and Lieutenant P. 
arisen previous to that on the evening of the 13th r — A. Not to my 
knowledge. 

Q. To your knowledge, had any quarreh of a public or private nature, 
subsisted between them ? — A. Not to my knowledge. 

Q. Did you see Lord C. immediately before the pistol, which killed 
Lieutenant P. was fired ? — A. Yes, I was within six inches, I suppose, of 
Lord C. when the pistol went off. 

Q. Had Lord C. any other arms than the pistol which he fired ?— A. I 
did not see any. 

Q,. Did you hear Lord C. call out to the marines to desist, when up 
stairs?— A. No. 

Q. Did you hear Lord C. ask Lieutenant Milward whether the pistol was 
loaded when he gave it to him ? — A. No. • 

Q. Did you observe Lieutenant Milv.ard hand the pistol to Lord Camel- 
ford ?— A. No. 

Q. Did you observe Lord C. present the pistol to the breast of Lieutenant 
P.?— A. Yes, I did. 

Q. Was there time suificient for ansv\crii!g Lord Camelford, before he 
fired ? — A. I lieard Mr. Peterson answer. 

Q. How often was ihe question from Lord C. repeated, " do you persist 
in resisting my orders r" — A. Only once. 

Q. How far were the Favorite's from the Perdrix's people ? — A, The 
niglit was dark, about ten yards. 

Q. Was it possible for Mr. Peterson to have heard the question put to 
Mr. Milward by Lord C. respecting tlie pistol being loaded ?— A. I did not 
i;jear it myself. 



CAPTAIM LORD CAMELFORD, R. If. 32t 

Q. Do you think Mr. Peterson, if his person had been arrested, would 
have given orders for liis people to fire ?— A. I c:.ni)ot say. 

Q. What «ns tiie purpose of tlie Perdrix men arming ? — A. I imagine 
to protect the hody of Lieutenant P. from being put under an arrest. 

Q. Did they arm bv L'eutenant P..s order ? — A. Yes, they did. 

Q. Did Mr. P. co^ne down stairs from the mess-room with his sword 
drawn ? — A. To the best of my knowledge he did, as the sword was found 
lying beside him drawn, when shot. 

Q. How many men of the Perdrix's do you suppose were under arm^ ?— 
A. I can't say, tliey were all on shore at the capstan-house, to the best of 
my kiiowkdge. 

Q. Do you know what number of arms were at the capstan-house?— 
A. I believe all the small arms belonging to the sliip. 

Q, U'iiat rjuantity of ammunition was on shore for those arms at th* 
capstan-house ; — A. I can't say. 

Q. Was there any .?— A. Yes. 

Q. Were the arms prepared in consequence of the alarm that had be ■f 
fired on the island ? — A. I was delivering the letter on service to die 
commandini;-Oihcer of the Favorite, at the time the arms were examined. 

Q. What time of the night was it when you delivered that .etter ?— 
A. I suppose aliout a quarter past eight. 

Q. Did Lord C. order that the Perdrix should take the guard, when you 
becvtme commaiidmg-otticer?— .A. Yes, the order was given verbailv by 
Lieutenant Parsons, of the Favorite, on that night to me ; previous to 
which Lord C.give me a written order to command the Perdrix for the 
time being. 

Q. What time was the alarm signal made ?— A. Before sun-set, som* 
time. 

Q. W^as it discharged that night? — A. No. 

Q. What time of the evening did Lord C. send to Lieutenant Petef-ort 
to hold the Perdrix'fi ship's company in readiness to actv^ith the military? — '• 
A. I don't know. 

Q. Did you at ?.ny time hear Lieutenant P. express his int( nti ms to pro- 
ceed to exiremities witli Lord C. rather than be arrested by hmi, or did h«i 
use any words to that etfect in your presence ? — A, Never. 

Q. Wa> there any report of daily progress sent from the Perdrix to the 
senior officer, during your stay in English-Harbour .?— A. Only once to' 
Captain Mainwaring of the Pabet. 

Q. Did Lord C. gi»e any directions to discontinue the guard, after the 
Babet sailed?- A. No. 

Q. Did he gi\e any order to Lieutenant Peterson, which miglit indicite 
his superiority after the sailing of the Babet, and previiniS to t'le ori.et 
given by him on the ISrli instant ? — A. Not to my knowledge. 

Q. What time elapsed, from tiie sailing of llie JSabet, till that order was 
given ? — V More than 24 hours. 

Q. Did Lieutenant PLttrson, after the Babet sailed, give any put lie 
directions to you, or any of the inferior othcers, to watch the motions oi th* 

«SsiBi» €^ron» CHuU XXil, x if 



S22 TRIAL or 

Favorite; such as hoisting her ensign, ringing her bell, &c. ?— A. None to 
me, nor any that I know of. 

Q. Werr- tlie ship's ensijins hoisted al- the time of firing the alarm ?— 
A. They were not to the best of my knovvlerli,e. 

Q. As Lieutenant Peterson gave you to suppose that he was the senior 
officer of the iiarbour, do you know of any orders he gave in consequence 
of the alarm being tired ; either for the defence of the ships or t^e dock- 
yard ? — A. No. I carried a letter on service to the commauding-officer of 
the Favorite, the contents of which I did not know. 

Q. Was that letter on service to Lord C. delivered after Mr. Peterson 
had received rie from Lord C?— A. It was. 

Lord Camelford. Q. At the time the Perdrix's men were loading, would 
you hu,v e ventured to have stood before them for a space of time, supposing 
yourseif to have been a stranger? — A. If tiiey had not received orders 
from their otHcer to fire. 

Q. Do you conceive they would have fired if their officer had given 
orders? — A. Yes. 

Q. And do you conceive their officer would have given orders to fire ?— 
{Witness declined ansicering.) 

Court cleared. 
Court opened again — The last question repeated, 

A. I can't answer. 

Q. Where did you stand, while the Perdrix's people were arming?—. 
A. At the left-hand side of the pcojile — at the left side of his lordship. 

Q. Do you conceive, that tlie marines drawn up opposite the Perdrix's 
people, were in danger ? — A. I can't answer. 

Q. Did you ever hear Lieutenant Peterson express his opinion of me, as 
of a man with whom he diiTered ?— A. No. 

Q. Did you never hear that we did differ? — A. Not to the best of my 
recollection. 

Q. Did I not keep my pistol levelled at Jlr. Peterson's breast, from the 
time I first spoke to him? — A. Yes. 

Q. What was your reason for telling the people to stop loading, the 
moment Lieutenant Peterson fell ? — A. Knowing that all lieutenants are 
my superior officers. 

Q. Did you order the men to stop loading before, or after you had 
received orders to that purpose, from a lieutenant? — A. Before. 

Q. Did not Mr. Piguenit, the purser, make some i-emarks, at the time 
Mr. Peterson's letter to me was read before you in the mess-room ?— A. The 
letter was not read before me. 

Q. Did you not make some remarks on the impropriety of sending it t<» 
me? — A. No. 

Q. Did any conversation take place between you and Mr. Piguenit, 
respecting tiiat letter ? — A. No. 

Q. Did you not know the letter you carried to be mutinous ? — A. No, 

Q. Did you know the contents of that letter ? — A, No. 



CAPTAIN LORD CAMlLFdllD, R. N. 323 

Q. To what did you attribute the marines soing down stairs, when thej 
came with Lieuieiiant Miiwaid, to anest Mr. Peterson ? — A. Mr. Pio;ueiiit 
■was standing between Mr. Peterson and Mr. Milward, wlien ' turned and 
went to the window, and turninir round, I observed that the marines and 
Mr. Miiward had left the mess-ruom. 

Q. Did I call to Lieutenant MiKvard, once or twice to come down ? — 
A. I did- not hear you call at all. 

Q, Were the arms at all prepared, before you went over witii the 
letter ? — A. No. 

Court. Q. Had the Perririx's men their bayonets fixed, at the time they 
wore ordered to be aimed by Lieutenant Peterson : — A. As many as liad 
arms. 

Q, Wiicn Lieutenant Peterson fell, had the Perdrix's men loaded, or 
were tiiey loading.? — A. Some were loaded and some loading. 

Q. Which party were superior in number, tlie Favorite's or Perdiix's.?— 
A. The Perdrix's. 

Q. You said you conceived it your duty to obev the orders of any 
lieutenant — d:d you conceive Lord C. as a lieutenant .'' — A. I did only as a 
lieutenant. 

Q. Give your reasons ? — A. Having heard Lieutenant Peterson mention. 
Lord C.'s letters from the Admiral were daecltd to Lieutenant Lord 
Camel ford. 

Q. Did yon ever see any letters addressed to Lord Camelford, on ser- 
vice, from tiie Admiral ? — A. No. 

Q. Did you know whether Captain Mainwaring left the port-orders with 
the prisoner, as next in command, after he sailed } — A. No. 

Q. How long have you been in the service? — A. Nearly 5 years. 

An allcded copy of Lord Camelford's order, fr am AdniiraLllAiw^y, to 
command the Favorite, read, viz. 

By Henry Harvey, Esq. Rear admiral of the I\.cd, and 
Comniander-iii- chief of iiis Majesty's ships and vessels 
employed and to be employed at Harbadoes and the 
Leeward Islands, and in the seas adjacent. 

" Captain James Hanson, of his Majesty's sloop Favorite, having by 
letter, dated tiie 12th instant, represented to Captain Thomas Macnamara 
Russell, of his Majesty's ship the Vengeance, that from a long and gradual 
decline, his constitution is so much impaired, andiiis health in so vary low and 
languid a state, as to render him unable to do tiis duty, requesting (in jus- 
tice to the service and himself) that a survey might be lield on iiis state of 
lieakh; and Captain Russell (oemg senior olficer at St. Christopher's at the 
above peiiod) having directed a survey to be taken on \w\\ in consequence, 
and the surveyors given it as their opinion, that his immediate removal to a 
northern climate is absolutely necessary for the recovery of his health, and 
Captain Hanson having quitted the said sloop; 

*' You are, therefore, hcrsby required iuid directed to repair on boar4 



324 PLATE ccxcv, 

bi« Ma'iesty's sloop Favorite, and take upon you the charge and command 
of romiiuindpi- in hrr, until further orders, or until the pleasure of the 
L'»rd'i Commisj-ioi.ers of the Admiralty is knovvn; strictly cliaiguifi and 
conuTia' (linsi all the ofFicers. and company of the said sloop, lo l/ehave 
theiiiselvpsjoinrly and severally in their respective omphiynients, with all 
due reb|ject and obedience unto you, their said comraander ; and you 
likewise to observe and execute the gci'tral pr'uied instrudions, and such 
ordt-rs and directions as \ou shall, from time to time, receive from me, or 
from any otlier your superior othcer, for his Maje-ty's service. Hereof, 
nor you, nor any of you m;iy fail, as you will answer the contrary at your 
peiil ; and for so doing this shall be yuur warrant. 

" Given on board the Prince of Wales, Fort Royal Bay, Martir 
.uique, 16th SepteiTi,ber, 1797. 

" HENRY HARVEY. 

" To Lipw'enanf the TliM Honourable Thomas 
Lord Caiiie'Jord, hei&jy apyoinied to command 
his M«Jestj/s Sloop i'uvoiite, until further 
ordtn, oi uniil iht pleasure of the Lords Com- 
tnissioners of the Admiral! i/ is known. 

" By command of the Rear-admiral, 

" J. G. BRIGGS." 

[To be concluded in our next.J 

PJ.ATE CCXCV. 

S the counter-part of Plate CCXCI, ^iven at page 130, we here pre^ 
sent our Subscribers with a Map of the INortht.rn part of the United 
Provinces. 

The whole of the Seven Provinces, forming what is now termed the 
JLin~(l'>TT) of Iiolland, extend, from the north of Groningen, to the southern 
boundary alonj; Austrian Flanders iind Brabant, about 13U Englibli miles ; 
and in bnadth, from what is called the North Sea to the circle of V\ est- 
phulia, al)oui 100 miles. The original population of this country is believed 
to have been Celtic; but, when it was conquered by the Komans, its chief 
inhabitants were the Batavi, the most northern people of Belgic Gaul. 

Whai is termed the "progressive geography" of this region, which 
from tiie phenomenon of the increase of the sea, is a subject of considerable 
curiosity, is thus noticed by Piukerton, in his voluminous system of 
*' Modern Geographv;" — 

" Upon insjccting the accurate maps of the ancient and middle geogra- 
phy of Gaul by D'Anville, it will be perceived that the Rhine divided itsfilf 



pr,ATE ccxcv. 325 

into two grand branches at Burgenasium or Schenk, about five miles N.W. 
of the Colonia Trajana, now an inconsiderable h.mlet called Koln, near 
Xlcvos. The soutlitrii branch joined the iMeuse at the town of Mosa ©»» 
IMeiui; while the northern passer! by Durstadt, Utrecht, and Leydcn, into 
-the ocean. From the northern branch was led the canal of Drasus, which 
■■joriuiinlly joined the Rliinc to ti.e Isiil, a river that flowed into a con- 
siflerahle inland lake called Flevo, now a southern portion of the Zuyder 
tZf e. This canal of Drusns heini; neglected, and left to the operations of 
^nature, the Tthine joined the Issil with such f >rce, that their conjunct waters 
iincreased the lake of Flevo to a jireat extmt ; and instead of a river of the 
same name, whieh >an for near 50 Roman miles from that lake to the sea, 
there was opened the wide i^ulf which now forms the entrance. The iior- 
th( rn and chief mouth of the Rhine was; at the same time, weakened and 
almost ost by the divi-ioii of its waters, and even the canal of Drnsiis v.as 
affor^vards almost obliterntcd by the dcpo>ition of mud in a low country, in 
the same m^inner as some of the ancient mouths of the JN'ile have disap- 
peared ill tiie Delta of Ejrypt. 

" The southern braue'i of the Rhine, which flowed into the estuary of 

the Metise, as above mentioned, was anciently called Vahahs, a name 

retained in the modern W aal ; tiie ancient isle of tise Batavi being included 

betwe* n the two branchy of the Rhine, and thus extending; about 100 

;I{oniai) miles in length, by about 22 at the ;j;rcate5t breadth. 7"he estuaries 

jof the Meuse and the Scheld have also been opened to great inroads from 

Uhe ^cean : and the latter in particular, which anciently formed a mere 

.delta, with four or five small iiranches, now presents the island of Zealand, 

"and the most southern of those of HoU ind, divided by wide creeks of the 

isen. Ihis remarkable irruption is supposed to have lia- pened at the time 

ithat tl'.e (loodwin Sands arose, by the diffusion and consequent shallowness 

of the water. The'e |_rtat changes m-iy be conceived to have made a slow 

and iiradual progress; and none of them seem so ancient as the time of 

Charlemagne. Some of them are so recent as the fifteenth century; for 

in 1421 the estuary of the Meuse, or Maese, suddenly formed a vast lake to 

the S E. of Dort, o\er whelming 72 large villages, witli I'oO.OUO inhabitaijts, 

who perished in the deluge. 

. " By a subequent change the Rhine was again subdivided, and a chief 
•tranch fell into the Leek, vvhicii joins the estuary of the Meuse between 
vDort and Rotterdam, and must now be regarded as the northern mouth of 
Hhat noble river; while tl.eVahalisorV\aa! com mues lobe the southern : both 
.branches being lost in a comparatively small stream, the .^Jeuse. The Itss 
important variations in the geography n. ay be traced with some precision 
jn the Francic historians, and otlier writers of the middle ages." 




VT / /• 



326 

NAVAL STATE PAPERS. 

NEUTIIAL COMMERCE. 

Letter from the Trench Minister for Foreign Affairs, to General 
Ap.msiro>g, J^Iinisicr Plenipotciitiari/ from the U>ited States of 
Ajilrica, to France, 

«< SIR, " Ahtnburgh, August 22, 1809. 

|EIXG informed that you are about to despatch a vessel for America, 
his Majesty has ch^trged me to make known to you the immutable 
principles which have regulated, and will continue to regulate, his conduct 
as to the ^rand point of difference respecting neutrals. 

" France admits the principle, that the flag protect- tlie merchandize. 
A merchant vessel having clearance from her government, ouiiht to be con- 
sidercd as a floating colony. The violation of such a vessel by searches, 
prosecutions, and other acts of arbitrary power, is a violation of the terri- 
tory of a colony, and an attack upon the independence of its governuient. 
The seas belong exclusively to no nation; they are the common pruperty of 
st?ites, the domain of all. 

" Merchant vessels of an enemy, b