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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



THE 




Ctjromcle, 



FOR 1814: 

CONTAINING A 

GENERAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 

OF 

THE MOYAJL NAVY 

OF THE 



WITH A VARIETY OF ORIGINAL PAPERS ON 
NAUTICAL SUBJECTS. 



UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF SEVERAL 

LITERARY AND PROFESSIONAL MEN. 



VOL. XXXI. 

(FR03J. JANUARY TO JVKE.) 



Tt> regere imperio poptloi Brilanne memento 
Hat tiii ervnt arta 



*' These are imperial arts, and worthy the*." 

-= r=== * 

LONDON: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BYAND FOR JOYCE GOLD, 103,SHOE-tASJ ; 

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TO 




THIS THIRTY-PIRST VOLUME OF THE 

jftattal C&ronicie 

B RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED, 
Br THE PROPRIETOR, 




,y 



PLATES IN VOLUME XXXI. 

From Original Detign$ 



PLATE 

CCCCVI. Portrait of Admiral ROBERT BLAKE. Engraved by BLOOD. 1 

CCCCVII. Chart of CROEE BAY and ROAD, also the situation of a 

danger not before laid down in Charts. Engraved by Rowe. 57 

CCCCVIIT. Representation of H.'M. S. CLEOPATRA, in a Storm. 

Engraved by BAILEY. 13i 

CCCCIX. Chart of BACK BAY, in the ISLAND of CEYLON, surveyed in 
1800, by Mr. \Ym. M'Keller, R. N. Master of H. M. S. Bel- 
liqueux. Engraved by ROWE 164 

CCCCX. Portrait o/ the late Sir GEORGE YOUNG, Knt. Admiral of the 

White. Engraved by BLOOD, from a Miniature by SMART. 177 

CCCCXI. Representation of BCLT, AND Cow ROCKS, and part of 
Dursey Island, on the west cnast of Ireland. Engraved by 
BAILY, from a* Drawing by G. T. in 1807 216 

CCCCXII. Portrait of ALEXANDER FRASER, Esq. Rear Admiral of 
the White Squadron. Enprnved hy BLOOB. (N. B. In bind- 
ing this V 7 olume, particular attention must be observed in 
placing this portrait opposite to page 89.) 288 

CCCCXIII. View of the High land ofNEvER-siNK and SANDY-HOOK 
X,ICHT-HOUSI . Engraved by BAILY, from a Drawing by 

J.E '. 319 

. 

CCCCXIV, Portrait oFCaptain JAMES ALEXANDER GORDON, R. N. 

Engraved by BLOOD ............... 353 

CCCCXV. View of II. M. S. ATAI.ANTE passing Sambro, Halifax, 

N. E. Engraved by BAILY, from a Drawing by J. E 388 

CCCCXVI. View of C/vcLfAT;i SARDINIA. Engraved by BATLY, 47G 
from a Drawing \>y Richard S. 4813.. ........."....... 

CCCCXVII. Chart of BRAZIL 48 g 



PREFACE 

TO THE THIRTY-FIRST VOLUME. 



X HE XXXIst Volume of the NAVAL CHRONICLE closes 
ihe NAVAL history of the late eventful war, in which, quoting 
the words of an able correspondent,* we fearlessly affirm ; 

" It was this arm of her power, which, amidst the wreck of nations, 
and the overthrow of mighty empires and states, brought into the ports 
of Great Britain the treasures of the whole world. It was the Royal 
Navy of Great Britain that prepared the way for the glorious fields 
fought in the peninsula and the laurels that adorn the brows of the 
great Wellington. It was the Royal Navy of Great Britain that carried 
the terrors of her power to every shore ; displayed the ensigns of her 
strength to cheer despqiuling nations; and, amidst preponderating gloom* 
shed a never-failing stream of hope. 

" If it were to be asked, what would at this time have tyeen the 
situation of Great Britain, had not her victorious fleets, under the" favour 
of Divine Providence, protected her shores been a shield to her com- 
merce and her numerous colonies what answer could be given ?" 

Such are the expressions used by a correspondent, who, if we 
do not err, has fought for his country as' an officer in that navy 
whose cause he so ably advocates. To attempt to detract 
from the glory of our army \youlcj Display a mean and impotent 
spirit far from it we are the foremost to allow that, in the 
race of glory, it has overtaken the royal navy, and finished its 
labours with an eclat never exceeded by the most brilliant pe- 
riods of our military history. We affirm, however, that, but for 
the matchless patience and toils of our seamen in many a weary 
blockade, their swiftness in pursuit, their irresistible fury iii 
battle Europe had been, with the exception of these islands, to- 
tally subdued ; and even on our own shores, w.Kere, amidst the 
>vildest rage of warfare, peace and safety dwelt, we should have 
experienced the horrors of \yar, had it not been for the energies 
ef our navy. 

The orders given by Napoleon to Admiral Villeneuve were, 
." if possible, to avoid a battle, to touch at Brest for the naval 
force which might be ready for sea, thence to steer north about, 
for the Texel fleet, and then, with the united fleets, cover the 



* Arion, p. 368. 



VI PREFACE. 

embarkation of the immense armies assembled on the coast near 
Boulogne, and pour them on the shores of England." 

Buonaparte was at Boulogne, the flotilla was prepared 
and every thing ready for embarkation the moment the combined 
fleets should have appeared. After three of the most anxious 
days that pei ha, ~ f ! iat personage ever passed had elapsed beyond the 
time he expected his fleets might have arrived the telegraphs 
communicated the unwelcome tidings, that SIR ROBERT CAL- 
DER had forced the combined fleet to action, and had so far 
crippled it, that it was returned into port to refit ! Our readers 
may rely that the preceding anecdote is strictly true, and 
although, if those mighty armies, flushed with victory, and 
headed by a general then deemed invincible, had been waited 
to our shores, we have no doubt of their ultimate destruction ; 
jet, in all human probability this METROPOLIS would have 
been occupied by the foe, and our internal sources of wealth 
and power have received a shock which this country might have 
felt for many ages. Thence, whilst we admit that the claims of 
the navy to the gratitude and plaudits of the nation are not 
greater than those of the army, we affirm, that the army is 
indebted for its present elevated rank, to the exertions and vic- 
tories of the royal navy ; and we are also of opinion, that, in the 
distribution of military honours and rewards, something re- 
sembling parsimony towards the naval defenders of the empire, 
ti too perceptible. 

The dismantling of our victorious fleets must necessarily throw 
a great number of officers out of active service, and if the ad- 
vance of half-pay be still inadequate to the increased price of 
all kinds of the necessaries of life, we sincerely rejoice that some 
addition has been made, and trust to the JUSTICE of the 
country still to increase it, till it shall be equal in value to the 
possessor to what it was fifty years since. We do not claim 
any merit in having, as far as is in our power, contributed to 
an act of national justice, and our pages will still be open to 
those who, in terms of becoming respect, may wish to point 
out any amelioration of which the naval service may be deemed 
susceptible. 

As the NAVAL CHRONICLE; will be looked up to by posterity 
as the most authentic source of information respecting those 
officers who have fallen in the late glorious war, we call upon 
the friends or relatives of the deceased, to supply us with any 
authentic particulars that they may possess relative to the pro- 
fessional services of their friends. We do not address this 
invitation to the friends of commanding officers alone, but 
generally to all. We should feel as much pleasure to record an 
act of extraordinary gullantry or nautical skill performed by 



PREFACE. Ti8 

a private seaman, as by a commander. We hope this call will 
be generally answered, and that we shall have abundance of 
valuable matter thus supplied, to enrich the pages of our future 
volumes. So much for the biography of the deceased. 

A feeling of delicacy, highly commendable, and which is 
indeed inseparable from true merit has precluded our pages 
from many a valuable memoir of existent officers. We refer to 
the memoirs of Captain James Alexander Gordon, and Admiral 
Otway, as evidence of our intention to avoid every thing re- 
sembling flattery which even towards the dead is disgraceful 
but to the living disgusting. If we were well supplied with 
materials, we might devote a portion of our succeeding volumes 
to the recording the services of the LIEUTENANTS OF THE 
ROYAL NAVY confining ourselves to a mere statement of 
facts leaving the reader to supply the comments. 

Amongst many valuable correspondents, A. F. Y. claims our 
particular regard, not merely on account of the valuable com- 
munications his able pen affords, but the useful suggestions he 
supplies. In p. 135 of the present volume, he threw out the 
idea of ourgiving "chronological engravings of ships and vessels 
of all nations, and particularly British, from the skin canoe 
of the ancient Britons to the present Nelson which I trust will 
be for some time the ne plus ultra in point of tonnage, and 
number of decks." We approve the idea very much, and if we 
are supplied with materials, w ould certainly make the attempt ; 
confining ourselves, however, in the first instance, to British 
vessels only. 

We are encouraged by certain august personages in a manner 
that renders it probable the NAVAL CHRONICLE will speedily 
find its way into distant countries, where at present its existence, 
except to a very few, is probably unknown. We are also taking 
active measures to circulate the work generally on the continent, 
and particularly in the provinces of Holland, whence we hope 
to derive much valuable matter to enrich our future pages, in 
which we shall occassionally introduce foreign biographical me- 
moirs, nautical anecdotes, and extracts from interesting voyages. 
The absence of Gazette letters, promotions, &c. will afford more 
space for original matter with which we hope to be supplied 
by the kindness of our patrons and correspondents. 

This Volume will be found to contain a full proportion of 
original biography. In the memoir of Captain Philip de Sau- 
marez, will be found a letter written by that officer when he 
was first lieutenant of the Centurion, Commodore Anson. We 
feel greatly indebted to Admiral Sir James Saumarez for this 
interesting document, and we hope his example may stimulate 
ether persons to favour us in a similar way. 



Or correspondent, Om/f,* has favoured eur readers with 
6ome hints that we hope may be attended to ; aud now that peace 
will afford leisure to o many naval officers, we shall not have 
to complain of a want of " regular, scientific correspondents." 
And we hope te be supplied with many interesting relations of 
men and things, that they have noticed in the various parts of 
the globe visited by them. We shall endeavour to avoid loading 
our pages with dry matter, and by uniting the useful with th 
agreeable, support the claims of the NAVAL CHRONICLE 
to the warmest support and patronage of its friends. 

Under the Hydrographical department will be found much 
valuable and useful information, and several original communi- 
cations which have been occasionally contributed by scientific 
friends. Our Hydrographer is requested to receive our par- 
ticular acknowledgments, for bis very kind exertions in our 
behalf. 

We are much indebted to the following correspondents for 
their various contributions. ./Bolus, Impartial, Historicus, 
Nestor, Tom Starboard, Albion, Iron Gun, Captain Horton, 
R.N. Jack Larboard, Captain J. H. Peachey, R.N. Captain 
Krusenstern, of the Russian Navy, Oceanus, Serus, Mr. J. 
Brown, Captain Dalyell, R.N. Zeno, Occasional, A. B. Cap- 
tain J. P. Stewart, Junius, An Old Officer, &c. 

The Editor takes this opportunity to thank our correspondent 
Avon, for his beautiful little piece of poetry The Morn of 
Trafalgar. The mind that attuned those numbers is gifted 
with a genius truly poetic, and he invites the author to favour 
him with other communications. The Editor wishes to supply 
the readers of the NAVAL CHRONICLE with original naval 
poetry of merit ; but he depends principally on the genius and 
industry of his readers for contributions. 



Communication^ &c. intended for insertion in the \AVAT, CHROMCLK, 
are requested to be sent to Mr. JOYCE GOLD, 103, Shoe-lane, Condon ; 
and aUo to our Letter Box, at Mr. Andrews'*, Naval Print-seller, 
Charing Cross. 



* Page 3 15. 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR 



ADMIRAL ROBERT BLAKE.* 



" Thy name 



r 

Was heard in thunder through the affrighted shores 
Ofjrale Iberia, of submissive Gaul, 
And Taghs trembling to his utmost source. 
O ! ever faithful, vigilant, and brave, 
Thou bold asserter of Britannia's fame, 
Unconquerable Blake." GLOVER. 

A T a time when the nation is engaged in a war with an enemy, 
-jLJL whose insults, ravages, and barbarities, have long called for 
vengeance, an account of such English commanders as have me- 
rited the acknowledgments of posterity, by extending the power, 
and raising the honour of their country, seems to be no improper 
entertainment for our readers. We shall, therefore, attempt a 
succinct narration of the life and actions of Admiral Blake ; in 
which we have nothing farther in view, than to do justice to his 
bravery and conduct, without intending any parallel between his 
achievements and those of our present admirals. 

Robert Blake was born at Bridgwater, in Somersetshire, in 
August, 1598, his father being a merchant of that place, who 
had acquired a considerable fortune by the Spanish trade. Of 
his earliest years \ve have no account, + and therefore can amuse 
the reader with none of those prognostics of his future actions, so 
often met with in memoirs. 

In 1615 he entered into the University of Oxford, where he 
continued till 1623, though without being much countenanced or 
caressed by his superiors, for he was more than once disappointed 
in his endeavours after academical preferments. It is observable, 
that Mr. Wood (in his Athence Oxonienses) ascribes the repulse 
he met with at Wadham College, where he was competitor for a 

* This memoir was an early production of Dr. Johnson's. The Editor 
has appended some Notes, which he conceived to be illustrative of the 
subject. 

+ He was educated at the free grammar-school in Bridgwater. 

*2at>. Cfcron, 2tol. XXXI. B 



5 NAVAL BIOGRAPHY. 

fellowship, either to want of learning, or of stature. With re- 
gard to the first objection, the same writer had before informed 
us, that he was an early riser, and studious, though he sometimes 
relieved his attention by the amusements of fowling and fishing. 
As it is highly probable that he did not want capacity,* we may 
therefore conclude, upon this confession of his diligence, that he 
could not fail of being learned, at least in the degree requisite to 
the enjoyment of a fellowship ; and may safely ascribe his disap- 
pointment to his want of stature; it being the custom of Sir Henry 
Savil, then warden of that College, to pay much regard to the 
outward appearance of those who solicited preferment in that 
Society. So much do the greatest events owe sometimes to acci- 
dent or folly ! 

He afterwards retired to his native place, where he lived (says 
Clarendon) without any appearance of ambition to be a greater 
jnan than he was, but inveighed with great freedom against the 
licence of the times, and power of the court. 

In 1640 he was chosen burgess for Bridg water, by the Puritan 
prty, to whom he had recommended himself by his disapprobation 
of Bishop Laud's violence and severity, and his non-compliance 
with those new ceremonies which he was then endeavouring to 
introduce. 

When the civil war broke out, Blake, in conformity with his 
avowed principles, declared for the Parliament ; and, thinking the 
bare declaration of right not all the duty of a good man, raised a 
troop of dragoons for his party, and appeared in the field with so 
much bravery, that he was in 3 short time advanced, without 
meeting any of those obstructions which he had encountered in the 
University. 

In 1645 he was governor of Taunten, when the Lord Goring 
cume before it with an army of 10,000 men. The town was ill 
fortified, and uosupplied with almost every thing necessary for sup- 
porting a siege. Th state of this garrison encouraged Colonel 
Windham, who was acquainted with Blake, to propose a capitu- 
lation ; which was rejected by Blake with indignation and 

* He had taken the degree of B. A. Feb. 10, 1617 ; and, in 1C?3, wrote 
copy of vcrsts on die death of Camden. 



THE LATE ADMIRAL ROBERT BLAKE. 

contempt : * nor were either menaces or persuasions of any 
effect ; for he maintained the place, under all its disadvantages^ till 
the siege was raised by the Parliament's army, f 

He continued, on many other occasions, to give proofs of an 
insuperable courage, and a steadiness of resolution not to be 
shaken ; and, as a proof of -hi? firm adherence to the Parliament, 
joined with the borough of Taunton in returning thanks for 
their resolution to make no more addresses to the King. Yet was 
he so far from approving the death of Charles I. that he made no 
scruple of declaring, that he would venture his life to save him, as 
willingly as he had done to serve the Parliament.;}; 

In February, 1648-9, he was made a commissioner of the navy, 
and appointed to serve on that element, for which he seems by 
nature to have been designed. He was soon afterwards sont in 
pursuit of Prince Rupert, whom he shut up in the harbour of 
Klngsale, in Ireland, for several months, till want of provisions, 
and despair of relief, excited the Prince to make a daring effort 
for his escape, by forcing through the Parliament's fleet : this 
design he executed with his usual intrepidity, and succeeded in if, 
though with the loss of three ships. He was pursued by Blake 
to the coast of Portugal,! where he was received into the Tagus, 
and treated with great distinction by the Portuguese. 

Blake coming to the mouth of that river, sent to the King a 
messenger to inform him, that the fleet in his port belonging to 
the public enemies of the Commonwealth of England, he demanded 
leave to fall upon it. This being refused, though the refusal was 

* The answer of Blake was this : " These are to let you know, that ds 
we neither fear your menaces, nor accept your proffers, so we wish you for 
time to come to desist from all overtures of the like nature to us, who are 
resolved to the last drop of our blood to maintain the quarrel we have un- 
dertaken ; and doubt not hut the same God, who has hitherto protected us, 
will, ere long, bless us with an issue answerable to the justice ot'oar cause : 
however, to him alone we shall stand or fall. 

f For this service the Parliament ordered the garrison abounty of 2,OCO/. 
and the governor a present of 500/. 

J This, however, has been imputed to the humanity of his temper; for 
after the death of the King, he entered into all the measures of the Re- 
publican party; and, indeed, next to Cromwell, was the aW&st and most 
successful officer the Parliament had- 

$ A map of Portugal will be fouad in our XXIVth Volum ( 



4 N.tTAL BIOGRAPHY. 

in very soft terms, and accompanied with declarations of esteem, 
and a present of provisions, so exasperated the admiral, that, 
without any hesitation, he fell upon the Portuguese lleet, then 
returning from Brazil, of which lie took 17 ships, and burnt 
three. It was to no purpose that the King of Portugal, alarmed 
at so unexpected a destruction, ordered Prince Rupert to attack 
him, and retake the Brazil ships. Blake carried home his prizes 
without molestation, the Prince not having force enough to pursue 
Lim, and well pleased with the opportunity of quitting a port 
where he could no longer be protected. 

Blake soon supplied his fleet with provisions, and received or- 
ders to make reprisals upon the French, who had suffered their 
privateers to molest the English trade ; an injury which, in those 
days, was always immediately resented, and, if not repaired, cer- 
tainly punished. Sailing with this commission, he took in his way 
a French man of war, valued at a million. How this ship hap. 
pened to be so rich, we are not informed ; but, as it was a cruiser, 
it is probable the rich lading was the accumulated plunder of many 
prizes. Then following the unfortunate Rupert, whose fleet, by 
storms and battles, was now reduced to live ships, into Cartha- 
gcna, he demanded leave of the Spanish governor to attack him in 
the harbour, but received the same answer which had been returned 
before by the Portuguese ; that they had a right to protect all ships 
that came into their dominions ; that if the admiral were forced in 
thither, he should find the same security, and that he required 
him not to violate the peace of a neutral port. Blake withdrew 
upon this answer into the Mediterranean, and Rupert then leaving 
Carthagena entered the port of Malaga, where he burnt and sunk 
evcral English merchant ships. Blake, judging this to be an 
infringement of the neutrality professed by the Spaniards, now 
made no scruple to fall upn Rupert's fleet in the harbour of 
Malaga, and having destroyed three of his ships, obliged him to 
quit the sea, and take sanctuary at the Spanish court. 

In February, 1650-1, Blake, still continuing to cruise in the 
Mediterranean, met with a French ship of considerable force, 
.and commanded the raptaiti to come on board, there being no 
war declared between the two nations. The captain, when he 
came, was asked by him, whether he. was willing to lay down his 
\rord, and yield ; which he gallantly refused, though ia his 



THE LATE ADMIRAL ROBERT BLAKE. S 

tncmy's power : Blake, scorning to take advantage of an artifice, 
and detesting the appearance of treachery, told him, that he wa* 
at liberty to go back to his ship, and defend it as long as he could. 
The captain willingly accepted his offer, and after a fight of two 
hours, confessed himself conquered, kissed his sword, and surren- 
dered it.* 

In 1652 broke out the memorable war between the two com- 
monwealths of England and Holland ; a war, in which the great, 
est admirals that perhaps any age has produced, were engaged on 
ach side; in which nothing less was contested than, the dominion 
of the sea, and which was carried on with vigour, animosity, and 
resolution proportioned to the importance of the dispute. Tha 
chief commanders of the Dutch fleets were, Van Trump, De Ruy- 
ter, and De Witt, the most celebrated names of their own nation, 
and who had been perhaps more renowned, had they been opposed 
by any other enemies. The States of Holland having carried on 
their trade without opposition, and almost without competition, 
not only during the unactive reign of James I. but during the 
commotions of England, had arrived to that height of naval power, 
and that affluence of wealth, that, with the arrogance which a 
long-continued prosperity naturally produces, they began to in- 
vent new claims, and to treat other nations with insolence, which 

7 V 

nothing can defend but superiority of force. They had for some 
time made uncommon preparations at a vast expence, and had 
equipped a large fleet, without any apparent danger threatening 
them, or any avowed design of attacking their neighbours. This 
unusual armament was not beheld by the English without some 
jealousy, and care was taken to fit out such a fleet, as might 
secure the trade from interruption, and the coasts from insults ; 
of this Blake was constituted admiral for nine months. In this 
situation the two nations remained, keeping a watchful eye upon 
each other, without acting hostilities on either side, till the 18th 
of May, 1652, when Van Trump appeared in the Downs with a 
fleet of 45 men of war. Blake, who had then but 20 ships, upon 
the approach of the Dutch admiral, saluted him with three single 

* This ship, with his four other prizes, he sent to England, and norm 
afterwards came with his squadron to Plymouth ; when he received the 
thanks of Parliament, and was made Warden of the Cinque F'orts. 



6 fcATAL BIOGRAPHY. 

shots, to require that he should, by striking his flag, shew that 
respect to the English, which is due to every nation in their own 
dominions: to which the Dutchman answered with a broadside ; 
and Blakf, perceiving that he intended to dispute the point of 
honour, advanced with his own ship before the rest of his fleet, 
that, if it were possible, a general battle might be prevented. 
But the Dutch, instead of admitting him to treat, fired upon him 
from their whole fleet, without any regard to the customs of war, 
or the law of nations.* Blake for some time stood alone against 
their whole force, till the rest of his squadron coming up, the 
fight was continued from between four and five in the afternoon 
till nine at night ; when the Dutch retired with the loss of two 
hips, having not destroyed a single vessel, nor more than fifteen 
men, most of which were on board the admiral, who, as he wrote 
to the Parliament, was himself engaged for four hours with the main 
body of the Dutch fleet, being the mark at which they aimed ; 
and, as Whitlock relates, received above a thousand shot. Blake 
in his letter acknowledges the particular blessing and preservation 
of God, and ascribes his success to the justice of his cause, the 
Dutch having first attacked him upon the English coast. It is, 
indeed, little less than miraculous, that a thousand great shot 
should not do more execution, and those who will not admit the 
interposition of Providence, may draw at least this inference from 
it, that the bravest man is nol always in the greatest danger, t 

* The admiral was in his c;ibin drinking with snme of his officers, little 
expecting to be so saluted ; when tlie shot broke the*windows> of his ship, 
and shattered the stern, which put him into a vehement passion ; and curl, 
ing his whiskers, as he used to do when lie was angry, he commanded his 
men to answer the Dutch in their kind ; saying, when his heat was some- 
what over, he took it very ill of Van Trump, that he should take his ship 
for a baudy house, and break his windows. 

t Of this very remarkable action a narrative was printed by order of the 
Parliament of England, from which we give the following extract : 

" Upon Tuesday the J8ih of May, 1652, in the morning, General Blake 
being gone to the westward as far as Rye Ray, eight days before, with 
twelve or thirteen ships, leaving Major Bourne in the Downs, with eight 
ships only, there appeared upon the back-side of the Godwin a Holland 
fleet of men of war, consisting of two-and- forty ships, one whereof had a 
flag on the main-top-mast head, the rest jacks and ancients ; and being 
come to the South Sand's head, two of them bore up towards the English 
ships in & Downs ; whereupon Major Bourne sent out the Greyhound to 



THE LATE ADMIRAL ROBERT BLAK.E. 

In July he mat the Dutch Fishery fleet, with a convoy of twelve 
wen of war, all which he took, with 100 of their herring- busses. 
And in September, being stationed in the Downs with about 60 
sail, he discovered the Dutch admirals, De Witt and De Ruyter, 

examine them, and to know the reason of their so near approach ; who 
answering, that they had a message to the commander-in-chief in tha 
Downs, were permitted to come in ; and having saluted the flag, the two 
captains, named Tyson and Aldred, came aboard Major Bourne, and 
acquainted him that they were sent by Van Trump, to let him know 
that he had been riding about Dunkirk with his fleet, where, by reaspn 
of foul weather, they had lost many of their cables and anchors, and the 
wind being; northerly, were driven farther to the southward than they 
intended, which Van Trump thought fit to signify, to prevent any misap- 
prehensions or jealousies. And having said this, and received for answer, 
that the reality of what they said would best appear by their speedy draw- 
ing off from this coa=t, they departed to their fleet, and immediately, upon 
their arrival with them, the whole fleet stood up to Dover, and came to 
an anchor within little more than gun-shot of the castle, the same day in 
the afternoon. Upon their coming before Dover Castle, and riding there 
with a flag in the main-top, without saluting the Castle, fche Castle made 
three shot at them ; notwithstanding which, tlia Dutch admiral kept up 
his flaw, and roHe there at anchor until the next day dt noon, and exer- 
cised his musketeers, by discharging volleys of small shot many hours 
together. Upon Wednesday, about twelve o'clock, the Dutch fleet 
weighed anchor, and stood off towards Calais some few leagues unto the- 
south-east. About the same time the English fleet, under General Blake, 
coming from the west towards the Downs, discovered them, and supposed 
by their course that they had been going back. Major Bourne likewise 
was in sight, coming from the Downs to join with General Blake. About 
an hour or two after, the Holland fleet altered their course, came back 
again, made all che sail they could, and bore directly with General Blake. 
Van Trump, the headmost, with his flag in the main-top, and being come 
within shot, the general shot a gun at his main-top, and then two single 
shot more ; whereupon Trump shot a single shot through the general's flag, 
and then immediately gave the first broadside, and took in his pendants, 
and hung out his red flag under the Holland colours, which was the signal 
on their part for the whole fleet to engage ; and so the fight began, which 
happened between four and five o'clock in the afternoon, and continued 
until nine o'clock. In the fight the English took two of the Holland fleet ; 
one whereof, having six foot water iu the hold, they left, taking the cap- 
tain and officers aboard : the other was a ship of thirty guns. General 
Blake lay all night where the light began, or near thereabouts ; and the 
Holland fleet was espied about four leagues distant towards the coast of 
France next morning.'' 

To this let us subjoin the letter written by the admiral himself, on 
account not only of several curious circumstances contained therein, but 



8 NATAL BfOGRAPHY. 

with near the same number, and advanced Cowards them ; but the 
Dutch, being obliged, by the nature of their coast, and shallowness 

also because it may serve as a specimen of the plain blunt temper of this 
illustrious Hero. It was addressed to the Right Honourable William Len- 
thall, Esq. Speaker of the House of Commons, and conceived in the follow- 
ing terms : 

" HIGH! HONOURABLE, 

" I have despatched away this express to your Honours, to give you an 
account of what passed yesterday between us and the Dutch fleet. Being 
in Rye Bay, I received intelligence fmrn Major Bourn, that Van Trump, 
with forty sail, was off the South Sand Head; whereupon 1 made all possi- 
ble speed to ply up towards them, and yesterday in the morning we saw 
them at anchor in and near Dover road. Being come within three leagues 
of them, they weighed, and stood away by a wind to the eastward ; we 
supposing their intention was to leave us, to avoid the dispute of the flag. 
About two hours after they altered their course, and bore directly with us, 
Van Trump the headmost ; whereupon we lay by, and put ourselves into 
a- fighting posture, judging they had a resolution to engage. Being come 
within mu:>ket-sl)0t, I gave order to fire at his flag, which was done thrice 
after the third shot he let fly a broadside at us. "Major Bourn, with those 
ships that came from the Downs, being eight, was then making towards 
us. We continued fighting till night ; then our ship being unable to sail, 
by reason that all our rigging and sails were extremely shattered, ourmizen- 
mast shot off, we came, with advice of the captains, to an anchor, about 
three or four leagues off the Ness, to refit our ship, at which we laboured 
all the night. This morning we espied the Dutch fleet about four leagues 
distance from ours, towards the coast of France ; and, by advice of a 
council of war, it was resolved to ply to windward to keep the weather- 
gage, and we are now ready to let fall our anchors this tide. What course 
the Dutch fleet steers we do not well knaw, nor can we tell what harm we 
have done them ; but we suppose one of them to be sunk, and another, of 
thirty guns, we have taken, with the captains of both ; the main-mast of 
the first being shot by the hoard, and much water in the hold, made Cap- 
tain Lawson's men to forsake her. We have six men of ours slain, and 
nine or ten desperately wounded, and twenty-five more not without dan- 
ger ; amongst them our master and one of his mates, and other officers. 
We have received about seventy great shot in our hull and masts, in our 
s<iils and rigging without number, being engaged with the whole hody of 
the fleet for the space of four hours ; being the mark at which they aimed. 
We must needs acknowledge it a great mercy thai we had no more harm ; 
and our hope is, the righteous God will continue the same unto us, if there 
do arise a war between us, they being first in the breach, and seeking an 
occasion to quarrel, and watching as it seems an advantage to brave us 
upon our own coast, ike. Your bumble servant, 

" From aboard thr Jomes, three " ROBERT BLAKE." 

leagues tiff the Hyde, the Wtlt 

of May, 1652.'' 



THE I ATE ADMIRAL ROBERT BLAKE. 9 

f their rivers, to build their ships in such a manner that they 
require less depth of water llian the English vessels, took advantage 
of the form of their shipping, and sheltered themselves behind a 
Flat called Kentish knock ; so that the English, finding some of 
their ships a-ground, were obliged to alter their course ; but per. 
ceiving early the next morning that the Hollanders had forsaken 
their station, they pursued them with all the speed that the wind, 
which was weak and uncertain, allowed, but found themselves 
unable to reach them with the bulk of their fleet, and therefore 
detached some of the lightest frigates to chase them. These came 
so near as to fire upon them about three in the afternoon ; but the 
Dutch, instead of tacking about, hoisted their sails, steered 
toward their own coast, and finding themselves the next day 
followed by the whole English fleet, retired into Goree. Th 
sailors were eager to attack them in their own harbours ; but a 
council of war being convened, it was judged imprudent to hazard 
the fleet upon the shoals, or to engage in any important enter- 
prise without a fresh supply of provisions. 

That in this engagement the victory belonged to the English is 
beyond dispute ; since, without the loss of one ship, and with no 
more than 40 men killed, they drove the enemy into his own ports, 
took the rear-admiral and another vessel, and so discouraged the 
Dutch admirals, who had not agreed in their measures, that De 
Huyter, who had declared against hazarding a battle, desired to 
resign his commission, and De Witt, who had insisted upon fight- 
ing, fell sick, as it was supposed, with vexation. But how great 
the loss of the Dutch was is not certainly known j that two ships 
were taken they are too wise to deny, but affirm that those two 
were all that were destroyed. The English, on the other side, 
affirm that three of their vessels were disabled at the first encoun- 
ter, that their numbers on the second day were visibly diminished, 
and that on the last day they saw three or four ships sink in their 
flight. 

De Witt being now discharged by the Hollanders as unfortunate, 
and the chief command restored to Van Trump, great prepara- 
tions were made for retrieving their reputation, and repairing their 
losses. Their endeavours were assisted by the English themselves, 
now made factious by success ; the men who were iutrusteJ with 

JSato. Cjjtcn, Ool. XXXI. c 



10 NAVAL BIOGRAPHY. 

t'u- civil administration being jealous of those whose military coin, 
mantis had procured so much honour, lest they who raised them 
should be eclipsed by them. Such is generally the revolution of 
affairs in every State ; danger and distress produce unanimity and 
bravery, virtues which arc seldom unattended with success ; but 
success is the parent of pride, and pride of jealousy and faction ; 
faction makes way for calamity, and happy is that nation whose 
calamities renew their unanimity. Such is the rotation of interests, 
that equally tend to hinder the total destruction of a people, and 
to obstruct an exorbitant increase of power. 

Blake had weakened his fleet by many detachments, and lay 
with no more than 40 sail in the Downs, very ill provided both 
with men and ammunition, and expecting new supplies from those 
whose animosity hindered them from providing them, and who 
clioie rather to see the trade of their country distressed, than the 
sea officers exalted by a new acquisition of honour and influence. 

\ .1:1 Trump, desirous of distinguishing himself at the resump- 
tion of his command by some remarkable action, had assembled 
SO ships of war, and 10 fire-ships, and steered towards the 
Downs, where Blake, with whose condition and strength he was 
probably acquainted, was then stationed. Blake not able to re- 
strain his natural ardour, or perhaps not fully informed of the 
superiority of his enemies, put out to encounter them, though his 
fleet was so weakly manned, that half of his ships were obliged to 
lie idle without engaging, for want of sailors : the force of the 
whole Dutch fleet was therefore sustained by about 22 ships. 
Two of the English frigates, named the Vanguard and the Vic- 
tory, after having for a long time stood engaged amidst the whole 
Dutch fleet, broke thrjugh without much injury, nor did the 
English lose any ships till the evening, when the Garland, carry- 
ing 40 guns, was boarded at once by two great ships, which were 
opposed by the English till they had scarcely any men left to de- 
fend the decks ; then retiring into the lower part of the vessel, 
they blew up their decks, which were now possessed by the enemy, 
and at length were overpowered and taken. The Bonavcnture, 
a stout well-built merchant ship, going to relieve the Garland, 
was attacked by a man of war, anJ after a stout resistance, iq 
which tbc captain, who defended her with the utmost bravery, 
was killed, was likewise Carried oft? by the Dutch. Blake, in the 



THE LATE ADMIKAL ROBERT BLAKE. 11 

Triumph, seeing the Garland in distress, pressed forward to 
relieve her, but in his way had his foremast shattered, and was 
himself boarded ; but beating off the enemies he disejigaged himself^ 
and retired into the Thames with the loss only of two ships of 
force, and four small frigates, but with his whole fleet much shat- 
tered. Nor was the victory gained at a cheap rate, notwithstand- 
ing the unusual disproportion of strength, for of the Dutch flag- 
ships one was blown up, and the other two disabled. A proof of 
the English bravery, which should have induced Van Trump to 
have spared the insolence of carrying a broom at his topmast in his 
triumphant passage through the Channel, which he intended as a 
declaration that he would sweep the seas of the English shipping; 
this, which he had little reason to think of accomplishing, he soott 
after perished in attempting. 

There are sometimes observations and inquiries, which all histo- 
rians seem to decline by agreement, of which this action mar 
afford us an example : nothing appears at the first view more to 
demand our curiosity, or afibrd matter for examination, than this 
wild encounter of 22 ships, with a force, according to their 
accounts who favour the Dutch, three times superior. Nothing 
can justify a commander in fighting under such disadvantages, but 
the impossibility of retreating. But what hindered Blake from 
retiring as well before the fight as after it ? To say Jie was igno- 
rant of the strength of the Dutch fleet, is to impute to him a very 
criminal degree of negligence, and, at least, it must be confessed 
that, from the time he saw them, he could not but know that they 
were too powerful to be opposed by him, and even then there was 
time for retreat. To urge the ardour of his sailors is to, divest 
him of the authority of a*commander, and te> charge him with th 
most reproachful weakness that can enter into the character of a 
general. To mention the impetuosity of his own courage, is to 
make the blame of his temerity equal to the praise of his valour ; 
which seems, indeed, to be the most gentle censure that the truth 
of history will allow. We must then admit, amidst our clogies 
and applauses, that the great, the wise, and the valiant Blake 
was once betrayed to an inconsiderate and desperate enterprise, by 
the resistless ardour of his own spirit, and a noble jealousy of the 
honour of his country. 

It was mot long before he had an opportunity of revenging hU 



12 NATAt BIOGRAPHY. 

loss, and restraining the insolence of the Dutch. On the 18th of 
February, IG52-3, Blake being at the head of 80 sail, and assisted, 
at his own request, by Colonels Monk and Dean, espied Van 
Trump with a fleet of above 100 men of war, as Clarendon re- 
lates, of 70 by their own public accounts, and 300 merchant ships 
under his convoy. The English, with their usual intrepidity, ad- 
Tanced towards them, and Blake, in the Triumph, in which he 
always led his fleet, with twelve ships more, came to an engage- 
ment with the main body of the Dutch fleet, and by the disparity 
of their force was reduced to the last extremity, haying received 
in his hull no fewer than 700 shots, when Lawson, in the Fair- 
fax, came to his assistance. The rest of the English fleet now 
came in, and the fight was continued with the utmost degree of 
rigour and resolution, till the night gave the Dutch an opportu- 
nity of retiring, with the loss of one flag-ship, and si* other men 
of war. The English had many vessels damaged, but none lost. 
On board Lawson's ship were killed 100 men, and as many on 
board Blake's, who lost his captain and secretary, and himself re- 
ceived a wound in the thigh. 

Blake, having set ashore his wounded men, sailed in pursuit of 
Van Trump, who scut his convoy before, and himself retired fight, 
ing towards Bulloign. Blake, ordering his light frigates to follow 
ihc merchants, still continued to harass Van Trump ; and on the 
third day, the 20th of February, the two fleets came to another 
battle, in which Van Trump once more retired before the English, 
and making use of the peculiar form of his shipping, secured him. 
Self in the shoals. The accounts of this flight, as of all the others, 
arc various ; but the Dutch writers themselves confess that they 
lost eight men of war, and more than twenty merchant ships ; 
and it is probable that they suffered much more than they are 
willing to allow, for these repeated defeats provoked the common 
people to riots and insurrections, and obliged the States to ask, 
though ineffectually, for peace. 

In April following the form of government in England was 
changed, and the Supreme Authority assumed by Cromwell ; 
upon which occasion Blake, with his associates, declared that, 
notwithstanding the change in the administration, they should still 
be ready to discharge their trust, and to defend the nation from 
insults, injuries, and encroachments. " It is not," says Blake, 



THE LATE ADMIRAL ROBERT BLA&E. 13 

" the business of a seaman to mind state affairs, but to hinder 
foreigners from fooling us." This was the principle from which he 
never deviated, and which he always endeavoured to inculcate in 
the fleet, as the sorest foundation of unanimity and steadiness. 
' Disturb not one another with domestic disputes, but remember 
that we are English, and our enemies are foreigners. Enemies J 
which, let what party soever prevail, it is equally the interest of our 
country to humble and restrain." 

After the 30th of April, 1653, Blake, Monk, and Dean, 
sailed out of the English harbours with 100 men of war, and find, 
ing the Dutch with 70 sail on their own coasts, drove them to the 
Texel, and took 50 doggers. Then they sailed northward in pur- 
suit of Van Trump, who, having a fleet of merchants under his 
convoy, durst not enter the Channel, but steered towards the 
Sound, and by great dexterity and address escaped the three 
English admirals, and brought all his ships into their harbour ; 
then knowing that Blake was still in the north, came before 
Dover, and fired upon that towa, but was driven off by the 
Castle. 

Monk and Dean stationed themselves again at the Mouth of the 
Texel, and blocked up the Dutch in their own ports with 80 sail ; 
but hearing that Van Trump was at Goree with 120 men of war, 
they ordered all ships of force in the river and ports to repair 
io them. 

On June 3d, the two fleets came to an engagement, in the be- 
ginning of which Dean was carried off by a cannon ball, yet the 
fight continued from about twelve to six in the afternoon, when 
the Dutch gave way, and retreated fighting. 

On the 4th, in the afternoon, Blake came tip with 18 fresh 
ships, and procured the English a complete victory, nor could the 
Dutch any otherwise preserve their ships than by retiring once 
more into the flats and shallows, where the largest of the English 
vessels could not approach. 

la this battle Van Trump boarded Vice-admiral Pen, but was 
beaten off, and himself boarded, and reduced to blow up hi? 
decks, of which the English had gotten possession. He was then 
entered at once by Pen and another, nor could possibly have 
escaped, had not De Ruyter and De Witt arrived at that instant 
and rescued kirn. 



14 NATAL BIOGRAPHY. 

However the Dutch may endeavour to extenuate their loss Irt 
this battle, by admitting no more than eight ships to have been 
taken or destroyed, it is evident that they must have received much 
greater damages, not only by the accounts of more impartial his. 
torians, but by the remonstrances and exclamations of their admi- 
rals themselves ; Van Trump declaring before the States, that 
" without a numerous reinforcement of large men of war he could 
serve them no more ; " and De Witt crying out before them, with 
the natural warmth of his character, " Why should I be silent be- 
fore my Lords and Masters ? The English are our masters, and 
by consequence masters of the sea." 

In November, 1654, Blake was sent by Cromwell into the 
Mediterranean, with a powerful fleet, and may be said to have 
received the homage of all that part of the world ; being equally 
courted by the haughty Spaniards and surly Dutch, and the 
lawless Algerines. 

In March, 165G, having forced Algiers to submission, he en. 
tered the harbour of Tunis, and demanded reparation for the rob- 
beries practised upon the English by the pirates of that place, and 
insisted that the captives of his nation should be set at liberty. 
The governor having planted batteries along the shore, and drawn 
up his ships under the Castles, sent Blake an haughty and insolent 
answer, ** There arc our Castles of Goletto and Porto Ferine," 
said he, " upon which you may do your worst;" adding other 
menaces and insults, and mentioning in terms of ridicule the 
inequality of a fight between ships and castles. Blake had like- 
wise demanded leave to take in water, which was refused him. 
Fired with this inhuman and insolent treatment, he curled his 
whiskers, as Mas his custom when he was angry, and entering 
Porto Ferino with his great ships, discharged his shot so fast upon 
the batteries and castles, that in two hours the guns were dis- 
mounted, and the works forsaken, though hu was at first exposed 
to the fire of GO cannon. He then ordered his officers to send out 
their long-boats well manned to seize nine of the piratical ships 
lying in the road, himself continuing to fire upon the castle. This 
was so bravely executed, that with the loss of only 25 men killed., 
and 48 wounded, all the ships were fired in the sight of Tunis. 
Thence sailing to Tripoli, he concluded a peace with that nation ; 
then returning to Tunis, he found nothing but submission. AIK! 



THE LATE ADMIRAL ROBERT BLAKE. 15 

Such, indeed, was his reputation, that he met \vith no farther op- 
position, but collected a kind of tribute from the princes of those 
countries, his business being to demand reparation for all the inju- 
ries offered to the English during the civil wars. He exacted from 
the Duke of Tuscany 60,000^. and, as it is said, sent home 16 
ships laden with the effects which he had received from several 
States. 

The respect with which he obliged all foreigners to treat his 
countrymen, appears from a story related by Bishop Burnet. 
When he lay before Malaga, in a time of peace with Spain, some 
of his sailors went ashore, and meeting a procession of the host, 
not only refused to pay any respect to it, but laughed at those 
that did. The people, being put by one of the priests upon re- 
senting this indignity, fell upon them, and beat them severely. 
When they returned to their ship, they complained of their ill 
treatment ; upon which Blake sent to demand the priest who had 
procured it. The viceroy answered, that, having no authority over 
the priests, he could not send him j to which Blake replied, " that 
he did not inquire into the extent of the viceroy's authority, but 
that if the priest were not Sent within three hours, he would burn 
the town." The viceroy then sent the priest to him, who pleaded 
the provocation given by the seamen. Blake bravely and rationally 
answered, that if he had complained to him he would have pu- 
nished them severely, for he would not have his men affront th 
established religion of any place ; but that he was angry that the 
Spaniards should assume that power, for he would have all the 
world know, that an Englishman was only to be punished by an 
Englishman. So having used the priest civilly, he sent him back, 
being satisfied that he was in his power. This conduct so much 
pleased Cromwell, that he read the letter in council with great 
satisfaction, and said, u he hoped to make the name of an English, 
man as great as ever that of a Roman had been." 

In 16.06, the Protector, having dc-clared war against Spain, 
dispatched Blake with 25 men of war to infest their coasts, and 
intercept their shipping. In pursuance of these orders he cruised 
all winter about the Streights, and then lay at the mouth of the 
harbour of Gales, where he received intelligence that the Spanish 
Plate fleet lay at anchor in the Bay of Santa Cruz in the Isle of 
Tcneriffe. On the 13th of April, 1657, he departed from Cales ? 



Jg KAVAL BIOGRAPHIC. 

and on the 20th arrived at Santa Cruz, where he found sixteen 
Spanish vessels. The bay was defended on the north side by a 
castle, well mounted with cannon, and in other parts with seven 
forts with cannon proportioned to the bigness, all united by a 
line of communication manned with musketeers. The Spanish 
admiral drew up his small ships under the cannon of the castle, 
and stationed six great galleons with their broadsides to the sea: 
An advantageous and prudent disposition, but of little effect against 
the English commander ; who, determining to attack them, or- 
dered Stayner to enter (he bay with liis squadron, then posting some 
of his largest ships to play upon the fortifications, himself attacked 
the galleons, which, after a gallant resistance, were at length 
abandoned by the Spaniards, though the least of them was bigger 
than the biggest of Blake's ships. The forts and smaller vessels 
being now shattered and forsaken, the \vholc fleet was set on fire, 
^the galleons by Blake, and the smallest vessels by Stayner, the 
English vessels being too much shattered in the fight to bring them 
away. Thus was the whole Plate fleet destroyed, and the Spa- 
niards, according to Hapin's remark, sustained a great loss of 
fhips, money, men, and merchandise, while the English gained 
nothing but glory.* As if he that increases the military reputation 
of a people did not increase their power, and he that weakens his 
enemy in effect strengthens himself. 

The whole action, says Clarendon, was so incredible, that all 
men, who knew the place, wondered that any sober man, with 
what courage soever endued, would ever have undertaken it, and 
they could hardly persuade themselves to believe what they had 
do/ie : while the Spaniards comforted themselves with the belief, 
that they were devils and not men who had destroyed them in 
such a manner.- So much a strong resolution of bold and coura- 
geous men can bring to pa^s, that no resistance or advantage of 
ground can disappoint them ; and it can hardly be imagined how 
small a loss the English sustained in this unparalleled action, not 
one ship being left behind, and the killed and wounded not exceed- 
ing 200 men ; when the slaughter on board the Spanish ships and 



* See Andrew Marvell's Lines on Admiral Blake's victory at TeneriffC) 
in N. C. viii. 329. See also pp. 125 ami 303 of the same volume. 



THE LATE ADMIRAL &OBERT BLAKE. 17 

*n shore was incredible.* The general cruised for some time 
afterwards with his victorious fleet at the mouth of Gales, to inter- 
>ept the Spanish shipping, but, finding his constitution broken by, 
the fatigue of the last three years, determined to return home, and 
died before'he came ta land, t 

His body was embalmed, and, having lain some time in state at 
Greenwich House, was buried in Henry V I Ith's- Chapel, with all 
the funeral solemnity due to the remains of a man so famed for hU 
bravery, and so spotless in his integrity ; J nor is it without re* 
gret tkat 1 am obliged to relate the treatment his body met a year 
after the Restoration, when it was taken up by express command, 
and buried in a pit in St. Margaret's church-yard. Had he been 
guilty of the murder of Charles I. to insult his body had been a 
mean revenge ; but as he was innocent, it was, at least, iuluima- 
nity, and, perhaps, ingratitude. <f Let no man," says, the ori* 
cntal proverb, <c pull a dead lyon by the beard.'' 

But that regard which was denied his body has been paid to his 
better remains, his name and his memory. Nor has any writer 
dared to deny him the praise of intrepidity, honesty, contempt of 
wealth, and love of his country. " He was the first man," says 

* As soon as the news arrived of this extraordinary action, the Protector 
gent to acquaint his second Parliament, then sitting, therewith ; whereupon 
they ordered a public thanksgiving, and directed a diamond ring, worth 
500/. to be sent to Blake : 100A was given to the captain who brought tli 
news ;, and the thanks of the House was ordered to all the officers and 
seamen, to be given them by their admiral. 

f He died, as the fleet was entering Plymouth Sound, on board his ship, 
the St. George, August 17, 1657, being about 59 years of age. 

+ On the 4th of September, it was carried by water in barge of state, 
covered with velvet, adorned with escutcheons and pencils, accompanied by 
his brother, relations, and servants, in mourning ; by Oliver Cromwell's privy 
council, the commissioners of the Admiralty and Navy, the lord mayor and 
aldcnuen of London, the field officers of the Army, and many other per- 
sons of honour and quality, in a great number of barges and wherries 
covered with mourning, marshalled and ordered by the heralds at arms, 
who directed aad attended the solemnity. Thus they passed to Westminster 
Bridge, and, at their landing, proceeded in the same manner through a 
guard of several regiments of foot to the Abbey, his dear friend, General 
Lambert, though then in disgrace with -the Protector, attending oo his 
hqrse. The procession being over, the body was interred in a vault, built, 
tin purpose, in the chapel of King Henry VH. 

, ftol, XXXI. 



18 NAVAL BIOOnAPIIY. 

Clarendon, " that declined the old track, and made it apparent 
that the sciences might be attained in less time than was imagined. 
He was the first man that brought ships to contemn castles on 
sfcore, which had ever been thought very formidable, but were 
discovered by him to make a noise only, and to frigM*those who 
could rarely t)e hurt by them. He was the first that infused that 
propertion of courage into seamen, by making them see, by ex- 
perience, what mighty things they could do if they were resolved, 
and taught them to fight in fire as well as upon the water ; and 
though he has been very well imitated and followed, was the first 
that gave the example of that kind of naval courage, and bold and 
resolute achievements." 

To this attestation of his military excellence, it may be proper 
to subjoin an account of his moral character from the author of 
Lires English and Foreign. " He was jealous," says that writer, 
*' of the liberty of the subject, and the glory of his nation ; and 
as he made use of no mean artifices to raise himself to the highest 
command at sea, so he needed no interest but his merit to support 
him in it. He scorned nothing more than money, which, as fast 
as it came in, was laid out by him in the service of the state, and 
to shew that he was animated by that brave, public spirit, which 
has since been reckoned rather romantic than heroic. And he was 
so disinterested, that though no man had more opportunities to 
enrich himself than he who had taken so many millions from the 
enemies of England, yet he threw it all into the public treasury, 
and did not die 500/. richer than his father left him ; which the 
author avers from his personal knowledge of his family and their 
circumstances, having been bred up in it, and often heard his bro- 
ther give this account of him. He was religious according to the 
pretended purity of these times, but would frequently allow him- 
self to be merry with his officers, and by his tenderness and gene- 
rosity to the seamen, had so endeared himself to them, that when 
he died they lamented his loss as that of a common father." 

Instead of more testimonies, his character may be properly con- 
cluded with one incident of his life, by which it appears how 
much the spirit of Blake was superior to all private views. His 
brother, in the Jast action with the Spaniards, having not done 
bis duty, was, at Blake's desire, discarded, and the ship 



TUE LATE ADMIUAL ROBERT BLAKE. 19 

given to another ; yet was he not less regardful of him as a brother, 
for when he died he left him his estate ; knowing him well qua. 
lified to adorn or enjoy a private fortune, though he had found 
him unfit to serve his country in a public character, and had 
therefore not suffered him to rob it.* 

* Winstanley, who was contemporary with Blake, wrote the following 
rerses upon his death : - 

Here lies a man made Spain anil Holland shake. 

Made France to tremble, and the Turks to quake : 

Thus he tam'd men ; but if a lady stood 

In's sight, it rais'd a palsy in his blood; 

Cupid's antagonist, who in his life 

Had fortune as familiar as a wife. 

A stiff, hard, iron soldier; for he 

It seems had more of Mars than Mercury ; 

At sea he thundered, calm'd each raging wave, 

And now he's dead, sent thund'rir.g to his grave. 

From these verses it looks as if the admiral had been little addicted to the 
fair sex, 

Mr. Granger, speaking of Blake's being nearly fifty years of age before 
he rook the command of a fleet, observes, that his want of experience 
Seems to have been of great advantage to him: " He followed the light of 
hfs own genius only, and was presently seen to have all the courage, the 
conduct, and the precipitancy of a good sea officer. The very temerity of 
his enterprises struck terror into his enemies, and contributed greatly to 
his success. He not. only improved the method of attack, but carried th 
naval power of Cromwell to a greater height than had been known in any 
age or nation/' 

Mr. Hume's character of our great admiral is drawn up with that histo 
rian's usual elegance and spirit. ll Never man, so zealous for a faction, 
was so much respected and esteemed even by the opposite factiotis. He 
was, by principle, an inflexible republican ; and the late usurpations, 
amidst all the trust and caresses which he received from the ruling powers, 
were thought to be very little grateful to him. " It is still our duty," he 
said to the seamen, " to fight for our country, into whatever hands the 
government' may fall." Disinterested, generous, liberal; ambitious only 
of true glory, dreadful only to his avowed enemies ; he forms one of the 
most perfect characters of that age, and the least stained with those errors 
and violences, which were then so predominant. The Protector ordered 
him a pompous funeral at the public charge : but the tears of his country- 
men were the most honourable panegyric on his memory. 



fiO 
NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, Sec. 



FORTUNATE ESCAPE OP JER. O'SVLIIVAN, AND SUROEOM HOCAK. 

following is an extract of a letter received by James O'Sulliran, 
Esq. of Limerick, from his son, dated Halifax, Nov. 18, 1813 : 

" The Government of the United States becoming more strict on those 
aliens who refused to take the oaths of citizenship, many attempted to 
extricate themselves from the impending storm ; another and I were taken, 
and were near forfeiting our lives. After many difficulties, I got on board 
the Valiant, of 74 guns, Captain Oliver, off New London: from Captain 
Oliver I received every attention, and on the Atalanta sloop, Captain 
Hickey, being ordered with despatches to this port, the Consul of New 
London, and I, took our passage in her. We were but four days out, 
when a thick fog rose, and on the 5th day we struck on a ridge of rocks, 
called the Blind Sisters, within fourteen miles of the land, and twenty-one 
of this port. In twelve minutes she was literally torn to pieces; the crew, 
137 in number, swam to the boats, fortunately launched ; and to see so 
many poor souls struggling for life, some naked, others on spars, casks, or 
any thing tenable, was a scene painful beyond description. 

" I was in the cabin when the ship struck ; the shock told me our fate. 
I flew out; pot on the poop and into the cutter that hung over the quar- 
ter-gallery : with two others we lowered her down, and in an instant were 
providentially enabled to put off from the wreck, and I am glad to tell 
you, I was instrumental in saving my townsman, Surgeon llogan, who ac- 
companied me safely into port, where all our brave crew have happik 
arrived. To the honour of Captain Hickey, he was the last who left the 
wreck ; his calmness, his humanity, and his courage during the entire of 
this awful scene, was superior to man : every tiling is lost but our lives. 

" I had letters of introduction from Captain Oliver to Sir J. B. Warren, 
Admiral Griffiths, and Mr. Frasier, the LJSS of which has been of serious 
inconvenience; but Captain Hickev's attention to me since the misfortune-, 
has been uniformly kind. The war has increased the trade of this place to 
mi amazing degree ; beef, pork, butter, shoes, caudles, &c. would par 
handsomely." 

REMARKABLE INSTANCE OF PRESERVATION' AT SEA. 

THE Almeira, formerly of New York, foundered on the Banks of New- 
foundland in Jan. last in a severe gale of wind. Capt. Grewold took to 
liis boat, with his men (fifteen in number) without a compass chart, or any 
nuvigable utensils whatever. The wind being a-head and blowing very 
fresh, she put away for the West Indies, and finally arrived at Fayal, with 
the loss of one man, after being out twenty days from the time he left th& 
Banks, and having Imd several very severe gales of wind in that time. 

When Capt. (3. arrived at Fayal, he had nyt drank a glass of watsc for 
three days, and hardly eaten any bread. 



NAUTICAL AKECDOTES, &C. 



tIST OF FLEETS AND THEIR STATIONS, TO A RECEST DATE. 

Channel, Coasts of Ireland, Spain, and Portugal. 



Ships. Guns. Commanders. 

;Af1m. Ld. Keith 
Roar-adm. Pult. Malcolm 
Capt. 11. Jackson 

ir-ii j r> itn $ Rear-ad m. SirH.B.Neale 
\illedcParis.. " } C apt. Chas. Jones 

Capt. T. G. Caulficld 

C. W. Fabie 

R.W. Otway 

G. M'Kinly 

D. Milne 

. J. C. "White 

H. Yansittart 

Ld. W.Stuart 

Hon. E.R. Baker 

Thos. Elphinstone 

Jos. Bingham 

Sir M. Seymour 

W.T. Lake 

Sir C. Cole 
Rear-adm.Ld.A.Beauclerk 
Capt. E. Dix 

J. West 

Hon. C. Paget 

T. R. Rickris 

Ld. C. O'Bryen 

G. Tobin 

G. Harris 

SirJ. Staines 

H. Presort! 

- . ' J. Pliillitnore 

Hon. J. Percy 

W.Goate 

Hon. W. Gordon 

J. W. Dundas 

R. Elliot 

P. Carferet 

Hon. W.Waldegrave 

L. Curtis 

- J. A. Gordon 

J. W. Montague 

F. Langford 



Royal Sovereign 110 

Abercrombi* . - 74 

Aj&x 74 

Bellona 74 

Bulwark 74 

Centaur 74 

Clarence 74 

Conquestador . . 74 

Denmark 74 

Dublin... 74 

Egmont 74 

Hannibal 74 

Magnificent... . 74 

Rippon 74 

Royal Oak .... 74 

Sultan 74 

Superbe 74 

Vengeur 74 

Warspite 74 

Andromache ... 38 

Belle Poule 38 

Briton 38 

Eridanus 38 

Eurotas 38 

Hotspur 38 

Fortunee 38 

Magicienne .... 38 

Pyramug 38 

Surveillante ... 38 

Pouione 38 

Voluntaire .... 38 
Madagascar.... 38 

Seahorse 38 

Niobe 38 

Cydnus 38 

President 38 

Menelau* 38 

Leonidas 38 

Rota 38 

Garland 24 

Porcupine .... 24 

Andromeda . 24 

Tartarus 20 

Sabrina -20 

Myrtle SO 

Achates 18 

Beagle 18 

Bittern 18 

Brisk 18 

Bacchus 18 

Badger 18 

Beaver 18 

Cygnet 18 

Challenger .... 18 

Dispatch 18 

Derwent 18 

Dauntless 18 

Fly 18 

Hovaltst lit 



F. Mason 

Sir P. Parker 

G. Seymour 

P.Sommerville 

R. P.Davies 

R. Arthur 

J. Pascoe 

A. R. M'Kenzie 

W. Puterson 

J. H. Morrison 
J. Smith 
G.A. Hire 

H. Higmsn 
G. Willcs 

C. Hole 

E. O. Drury 
R- Russel 

F. Venor 

J. Galloway 

G. M. Kiujm 

D. Barber 
Sir W. Parker 
J, Ci. Breraer, 



Ships. Guns. 

Foxhound 18 

Helena 18 

Jalouse 18 

Jaseur 18 

Orestes 18 

Pelican 18 

Reindeer 18 

River 18 

Stork 18 

Savage 18 

Sparrow 18 

Trinculo 18 

Woolverene. . . . 18 

Zenobia 18 

Harlequin 18 

Penguin 18 

PortMahou ... 18 

Ferret 14 

Bermuda 14 

Jasper 14 

Lyra 14 

Hope 14 

Snap 14 

Albau 14 

Scylla 14 

Rapid 14 

Rinaldo 14 

Opossum 14 

Swinger 14 

Parthian 14 



Commanders.- 

- J. Pariuli 

- H. Montressot 

- A. Lowe 

- G. W. Watts 

- W. R. Smitl 

- F. Maunsell 

- W. Manner* 

- J. Finley 

- R. J. Coulson 

- W. Bissel 

- F. E. Lock 

- A. Renny 

- C. Ken 

- R. Foley 

- W. Kenipthorne 
G. A. Byron 



F. W. Burgoyne 

W. llamsdcu 

W. Wolrig* 

J. Jcnkinsoii 

D. O'Reilly 

E. Saurin 

W. B. Daslnrood 

M. Wright 

C. M'Douald 

J. Foote 

E. Lyons 

' T. Wolrige 

R. Wauchope 
J. F. Garreiy 



Impregnable 



Scarborough.... 78 

Chatham ...... 74 

Bedford ...... 74 

Blenheim ..... 74 

Colossus ...... 74 

Cornwall ...... 74 



Cressy ........ 74 

Cumberland ... 74 
Elephant ...... 74 

Montague ..... 74 

Norge ........ 74 

Princess. Caroline 74 
Theseus ....... 74 

Wafrio? ....... 74 

Tigre ......... 74 

York ......... 74 

Grampus ..... . 50 

Antelope ...... 50 

Ulysses ........ 44 

Forth ........ 40 

Hamadryad.... 38 

Pactolus ...... 38 

Desiree ....... 38 

Nynipheu ..... 38 

Alexandria ... .32 

Horatio ....... 32 

Unicorn ...... 3 '2 

Jason ........ Ji! 



North Sea Fleet. 

(Admiral W. Young 
98 ^Rear-adm. Wm. Bedford 
(Capt. J. W.Loring 
Rear-adm. Ferricr 
Capt. J. Halstead 
Rear-adm. M. A. Scott 
Capt. R. Maunseli 

J. Walker 

S. Warrea 

T. Alexander 

E. C. W. Owen 

C. Dashwood 

T. Baker 

F. W. Austen 

P. Heywood 

J. S. Rainier 

H. Downmau 
W. Prowse 

Lord Tovringtoa 
J.Halliday 

A. W. Schomberg 

F. G..Collier 

S. Butcher 

T. Browne 

Sir W. Bollon 

E. Chatham 

Hon. W. Aylmer 

A. Farquhar 

.... . . J. Hancock 

. R. Cat heart 

Lord G.Sumrt 

G.J. Pecheil 

HOB. J. Jtuug 



NAUTICAL ANECDOTE!, &C. 



Ships. 


North Sea Fleet. 
Guns. Commanders. 
32 J. P. Stewart 
20 J. Green 
. 20 G. Acklom 
. 18 D. Ross 


Ships. 
Edinburgh . . . 


Gum. Commanders. 
. 74 Hon. G. L. Dun<?a9 
.74 Hon. E. L. Gower 


Daphne . .... 




. 74 W.Bathurst 




. 74 W.H.Gage 






_. C Rear-adm. Hollowell 




. 18 A. M' Vicar 


LMWnl 


' 74 $Capt. S. H. Inglefield 
t Rear-adm. T. F.Freinantl 




. 18 C. Warde 




. 18 J. Stirling 




' 74 I Capt. Marklnml 
. 74 T. J. Malmg 




18 T. Groube 




18 C. W. Payne 




. 74 Sir J. A. Wood 


_ . 


18 - 1 '- -i J Tobin 


'em broke .. 


. 74 Jas. Busbane 




18 J Forbes 


. 74 G rah. E. Hammond 




. 18 G. Trollope 


lepulse .... 


. 7-1 Rob. Mowl.ray 
_ . < Rear-adm. SirS.Gor 


MercBrius 
Nightingale 


. 18 T. Ren wick 
.18 C. Nixon 
18 T- Murray 




' < Capt. W. Carrol 
. 74 Hen. Heathcote 








. 74 E. s. Dicksou 


niin 


18 W Farrin^ton 


Tremendous . 
Bacchante . . 


.. 74 R.Campbell 




. 14 _ J. Ross 


. . SB \V. Hoste 
. 58 C. Napier 


Chanticleer ... 


. 14 S. Blacker 
14 W Evans 






. . 58 E. Chamberlaine 


Sheldrake . . . 


. 14 G. Brine 
14 J Carter 




. 08 E. L. Graham 




. . 58 . B. W. Taylor 




14 J. Codd 




. . 38 A. King 




14 W Rama^e 




. . ^g Wm. Mounscy 


Brittoiuart . . 
Brevdagereu 


. 14 R. Riddel 
. 14 F. B. Devon 
. 14 H. T. Frazer 


[lavannah . . 
Imperieu.ie . . 
Undaunted . . 


. . 38 Hon. G. Cadogau 
. . 38 Hon. H. Duncan 
. . 38 T. Usher 
. . 38 J. ClavelL 


Drake 


14 G. Grant 








.. 38 J. Tower 




14 R Banks 


Franchise . . . 


. 38 J. Buck 




14 G Elliot 


.. 32 J. Diikes 




14 C.H.Reid 




. . 32 T. Garth 




14 J. Dickenson 




.. 24 F. Stanft-ll 




14 G. Truscott 




. . 24 W. Elliot 


TJ 


14 * J.Rose 




. . 2-t E. H. A. Court 




. 14 E. Brazier 


Myrmidon .. 


. . 24 H. Bouchier 
.. fj. Wm. Hamilton 




14 J. Christian 




. . 14 - . ' H. Thompson 


Termagant . . 
Blossom 


. . 20 J. L. Manley 
. . 20 J. R. Rowley 

. . 20 A. R. Sharps 


Finchcr . . . 


14 J. Wallis 


p _ fc .. 


14 i _,. T F IVake 


Redbreast .. 


. . 14 Sir G. M. Keith 
14 . i. G. Lcnnock 


Philomel . . . . 


. . "0 (.', Shaw 




.. 18 J. Davis 




14 __ A. Frazcr 




..18 J. Smith 




14 D. St. Clair 




.. 18 E. riynn 


Holla 


. 14 \v. HJ1 




.. 18 A. Addi-rly 




Mediterranean Fleet. 
rVice-adra. Sir E. Pcllew 
110 <Rear-adro J Pellcw 




.. 18 J. Bellamy 


Grasshopper 
Guadaloupe. 
Minorca . . . 


.. 18 H. Batiersby 
. . 18 A. Stowe 
... 18 R. Wormley 


Hibernia 

St. Joseph . . 
Royal George 


(Capt. T. Coghlaa 
. in < Vice-adm. Sir S. Smith 
' 11U }Capt. C.T. Smith 
. 10 $ Rear ad m. Si rR, King 
t Capt. W. Stewart 
. . no T. F. C. Mainwariug 




. . 13 J. C. Roberts 




. . 18 T. Dtncli 




.. ig S.C'obl) 




, . 38 j. i jay 




.. 10 R.^jambier 


p,lot 


.. is J. T. Nicholas 


IMades 


. . 18 J. \Vymess 




08 George Burltun 




. . 18 R. Mainwaring 




. . 98 Rob. rianipin 


Pailndge... 
Prometheus. 


.. 18 G.'C. Phillot 
. .. 18 11. Robinson 
... 18 J. Harper 


P. of Wales.. 


. . 98 J. E. Douglass 
pg Rob Holies 








. .. lil P. Crispin 


America . . . 


. . 74 Sir J. Rowley 


Sparrow hak 


. . 18 T. B. Clowe. 
18 E R Siblev 


Armada . . . 


74 (,h. Grant 




...18 G. M. Junes 


Berwick . . . 


. . 74 L. Bract: 


Weazle . . . 
\\ izard . . . 


. . 1 J. Black 
. .. 18 J. Mrisby 




74 R L mbt'rt 


EaL'le . 


. 74 Cfa. ROA!.V 


bhviirrvater . 


...1& W.R,Sffljtfc 



NAUTICAL ANICPOTESj &C. 



Braiil Station, Coast of Africa, rf-c. 

HEAR ADMIRAL MANLEY DIXOW. 

Sfctps. Guns. Commanders. 
Ackbar .... 50 Captain A.. C. Dickson 


Ships. Guns. Commanded. 


,-' i .,0 w H Godfrev 






Indefatigable .. 40 J. Fyffe 


Morgiana 18 D. Scott 


Inconstant ... 38 SirE. lucker 
Salcette 38 J. Bowen 
Jris 38 H. Christian 


Moselle 18 J. Maberley 


Partridge 18 J. Adye 


Sta* 38 P.Hornby 
*Tagus 38 P. Pipon 
*^iger 38 P. Rainier 


Raleigh 18 G. W. Hooper 
Recruit 18 G. Dickens 
Sylph 18 -W.Kmsman 


Aquilon 32 Win. Bowles 
Cyane 20 F. Forrest 


Wasp ... 18 T. Everard 
Helicon 10 H. Hopkins 


Favorite 20 J.Maxwell 




Hermes 20 P. Brown 


yL^ii^ -m . -.. ..- T K White 


Cherub 20 T. T. Tucker 


'VT. n,i 11. 1 A * E Collier 


Albicore 18 H. T. Davies 


Lakes. 

in J. t. YEO, COMMODORE, 

Capt. W. H. Mulcaster 


Plover 18 Col. Campbell 


Racoon . . 18 J. Black 


Satellite 18 . J. Porteus 


Fairy 14 H. Fatten 


Halcyon 14 J.H.Marshall 


Coast of America. 
if Vice-ad m. Sir. A.Cochrane 
Asia 74 ^Rear-adm. H. Hotham 


. O'Connor 


Spilsbury 


England 


, Dobbs 


i Anthony 


(Captain W. Wainwright 
... I Rear-adm. Cockburu 


. R. Barclay 


/ 

East Indies. 
CVice-adm. SirS.Hoo<J 


\ Captain C. i>. Ross 
<ih TVim; irrr. 7/1 . _ T n Peche'l 


LaHooue 74 Hon. T. B.Capel 


Valiant 74 T.D.Oliver 




Albion 74 J. F. Devonshire 
Planta^enet 74 R. Lloyd 
Ramillics 74 Sir T. Hardy 


Sterling Castle.. 74 Sir H. Popham 




Dragon ... 74 R- Barry 


CornwaJlis .... 74 
A iv.^iino AO i Hon. E. RodneT 


Goliath 54 , F. L. Mattjand 








Diadem 54 Hon. G. Byng 


*Revolutionnaire 38 J. C. Woolcombe 
Doris 38 E. O'Brien 


*Saturn 54 J. Nash 
Endymion 40 Hen. Hope 
Acaita 40 A. R. Keir 


Phoenix 38 W. H. Webley 
Leda 38 G. Sayer 
Hussar 38 Hon. G. Elliot 


Loire 40 T. Browne 
*'Sercrn 40 Jas. Nourse 


TJieban 38 Sir T. Digby 
Trincomalee . . 58 M- Maxwell 


Belviderc 38 R- Byron 


-tatira 38 H Srarkpo'e 




Junon 38 Cl. Upton 


OwenGlendower 32 B- Hodgson 


%mphe '.. 38 F. P. Epworth 
Tenedos 38 Hyde Parker 


Acorn 24 G.Henderson 


Maidstone 38 Geo. Burdett 
1 Niemen .... . . 38 Sam. Pym 


Hecate 18 Win. Case 


Phesapeake.. . . 38 A!. Gordon 


Pi n . . T Curzon 


A'rmide 3# Sir T.TroifbriflgjB 




Baros^d 30 W H Sherriff 






Orpheus ^ a .... II, Piot 


West Indies. 
(Rear-adm. Phil. Durham 


Mi icrvi 3*^ - " - R Hawkins 


Rosamond 20 D. Campbell 


Herald Cl. Milward 


Aiuaranthe ...i 18 O. Pringle 

Ar.trir.ll 1 rt .^ 15 C CiltOr 


Queen 74 I-orH iColville 




pL.arn 74 J. W. Spranger 


Castilian 18 D. Braimer 


Glo.icester.... 74 R. W.ll.ams 
LeTiathan.... 74 A. Drummond 


^ ar l ew 18 - M. Ilead, 





NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C. 



WeX Indies. 
Shipi. Gvnt. Commanders. 
Areo... . ^f^ar-adm.W.Browi. 


Shipijitting and ref.tling in Port and nearly ready 
for Sea. 

Shipt, Guns. Commandert. 


l Captain W. Fothergill 


Rhin 38 . Ciias "Malcolm 


Conqueror .... 74 R. Raet. 














Achille 74 A P Hollii 


Cleopatra 32 .... - C Gill 


Invincible .... 7i C. Adam 
Benbovr 71 - R II Pcar'on 




*Talbot 20 ... . Sp Swain 


-MarlboroHgh .. 7i R. Honevman 


>J- r fl, Ct., r n 1 hnr- Pnrt 








Orestes 38 .. ]y J) Cochranft 






Colnmbine 18 H. Muddle" 




Granicus 38 - V r F Wills 






T>nffcrrl 1R _____ TA T 14 Ttnnlnl 








*Frhn 1fi . T Pnrriiinl 


Hyperion ^'' \V Comby 


Kciipse . .... 18 * H Lynnc 


Cyrus 20 - - II Hart 






Heron 18 \ Al'Culloch 










Flk 18 .. J B H Curraa 


Sappho 18 - H O'Grady 


Minstrel 18 - R Mitford 






c nake 18 G Robbin 










Wolf 18 - H B T Collier 


*Zephyr 18 - T C Hicl'cns 








Newfoundland. 

+T*, H D ^. >TA ? Vice-adm. Sir R. Keats 
Tcclleropnon . . 74 > 
5 Captain L. Hawker 


Ships bringing fan-ward for Commission. 
Dreadnought 98 Dartmouth . 38 


Vindictive 74 Sirius 38 




Dr^ad 08 E Gahvay 






Excellent 74 Melampus 38 


Comet 20 <3. W Jil'anev 


+ Electra 18 - W GrifiinhootFc 




t.Muros 18 -T B Gregory 




Pheasant 13 - - J Palmer 




f \Vanderer .... 18 F. Newcombe 
j- Hazard 18 J Coobcrg 








SO Ships of the lino building, and 32 frigntes 
from 50 to 3^ guns. 

Paid fiff lately. 


Cape of Good If ope. 
Lion.. . 6 4SRe a r-A(l,.i.T.!r r 


^ Captain II. Kaine 


Semiramis .... .S3 . C'. Ilicliardson 




A.strea 38 - - J T vrlriirli 








Phrrbe 18 T II l!vi r 




JJarpv 18 -r, . . - ^am Horc 


\jfidrte o" - J (' (Jj'trvfonJ 







Going out u'ith Conrws., 



f Coining home with dttto. 



NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C, 25 

GALLANT ACTION. 

BY a letter from Tencriffe we have an account of the arrival there, ori 
the 6th of November, of the Montague and Pelham packets, after a des- 
perate action with the American privateer Globe, of eight nine's, and one 
long gun in the bow, with upwards of one hundred men, on the 2d of No- 
vember, off Madeira, which island they had iefc on the preceding evening. 
The action commenced by the Globe running the Montague on board ; 
this attempt was most gallantly and successfully resisted ; but, unfortunately, 
with the loss of her brave commander, Captain Norway, the surgeon, and 
several of the crew. The conflict was of so warm a nature, that in ten 
minutes from its commencement the Montague was completely disabled. 
It was then continued by the Pelham (which vessel had, from the situation 
of the Montague, been prevented firing into the American) for forty mi- 
nutes, within pistol-shot, when the fire of the privateer totally ceased, and 
she made off. This, though much crippled, her great superiority of sailing 
enabled her to do, notwithstanding every effort of the Pelham for two 
hours to come up with her. The Montague had, in addition to her com-, 
mander and surgeon, four men killed, and the master and nine men 
'wounded, the former severely. The Pelham, though much cut up in her 
jnasts, sails, and rigging, sustained no other loss than her commander, 
Captain Pcring, severely, and one man slightly wounded. The privateer 
is the Globe, of Baltimore. A letter from the Grand Canary Islands men- 
tions her arrival in a most distressed state, with the loss of 33 killed and 
19 wounded, besides six who were taken prisoners on boarding the 
Montague. 

SUSPENSION OF A NAVAL CAPTAIN. 

LETTERS from Malta notice the arrival, at that island, of the Kite 
tloop of war, in charge of Lieutenant Johnston ; the commander, Captaip 
Canning, having been suspended. The following relation explains the 
grounds of the suspension, and likewise communicates the distressing par- 
ticulars of the loss of many valuable lives; 

" In September, 1812, the Kite sloop of war, Captain Canning, at- 
tacked a vessel under Turkish colours, and had one man wounded. Com- 
plaint was made at Constantinople, and the captain was reprimanded. In 
March, 1813, the Kite broke the neutrality which is observed by British 
ships of war betvyeen the Turkish government and the islands, countries, or 
districts which are in a state of rebellion. A second complaint was made, 
which was followed by the captain receiving another rebuke. In June last, 
being still cruising in the Archipelago, the boats of the Kite were sent to, 
Idromo, a small island lying near the entrance to the Gulf of Salonica, to 
obtain intelligence. The people, unable to bear the grievous tyranny of 
the Turkish government, had thrown off the yoke, and taken up arms. 
On the boat's crew landing, they were surrounded by the natives, and two 
of their nnmber detained as hostages, until a supply of powder was ob- 
tained. With this demand, however, Captain Canning very properly re- 
fused compliance, and returned fo? answer, that " English ships of war 

OI, XXXI. E 



26 NAUTICAL ANECPOTES, &C. 

never paid contribution." The inhabitants, on receiving this reply, de- 
clared that thfy were friendly to the English; that they were in hostility 
only to Ali Pacha and the Governor of Salonica, by whom they had been 
shamefully oppressed. Consonant to this declaration, they treated the 
British officers and seamen with civility, and sent a present of some sheep 
and cheese to Captain Canning, which was accepted, and a return made of 
rum. After much friendly conversation they separated, and the boats re- 
turned to the ship. The same night Captain Canning declared his intention 
of destroying the pirates' boats, and made the necessary preparations. 
The natives of Idromo observing that the Kite continued to remain in the 
neighbourhood of the island, though the wind was fair for departing, be- 
gan to suspect treachery, and prepared to counteract it. At daylight the 
Kite was brought to anchor, and opened a fire upon that part of the island 
where the native boats lay. The latter being manned, put off to attack the 
Kite, probably vnth the intention of carrying her by boarding ; but when 
they had approached, a brisk fire qf musketry was opened on them, which 
tilled many, and obliged the others to return. The boats of the Kite were 
then despatched, with the seamen properly armed, to complete the destruc- 
tion of the native boats. This service was not one of apparent difficulty. 
The seamen boarded the boats, which were presently abandoned. They then 
made preparations for bringing them ou, or destroying them, when on a 
gudden they discovered that they were placed in such a position as to be 
commanded from the heights. Stones of immense size and weight were 
immediately precipitated from this elevation, which crushed all upon whom 
they fell. No shelter could be obtained from these immense masses in the 
open Ijoats, which were abandoned, nor could those belonging to the 
Kite be immediately regained. In this melancholy conjuncture, many of 
the seamen threw themselves overboard, in the hope of gaining the shore ; 
but the channel being several feet deep, their escape not only became a 
matter of difficulty, hut their powder and ammunition were rendered unser- 
viceable. At this time the natives, placed upon the heights, were taking 
deliberate aim. Every stone proved fatal, and the fall of every seaman 
was marked by a shout of triumph. It became necessary, therefore, for 
the survivors to separate, without attaining their unjust object, and aban- 
don their killed and wounded companions to the fury of the exasperated 
enemy. The result of this unfortunate and imprudent enterprise has been, 
that, of forty officers and seamen who manned the boats, twenty were 
killed, and eighteen wounded. Among the killed were many who, having 
been badly wounded, and unable either to run or swim, were stoned to 
death as they lay on the beach. The first lieutenant, Mr. Williams ; the 
purser, Mr. Edgar ; and the senior midshipman, are included in the list of 
and wounded." 



PIRATES. 

FROM America we learn, that on a rocky island called Bnratavin, adja- 
cent to the mouth of the Mississippi, a number of French pirates have 
formed a regular establishment. From thence they send out numerous 
vessels, ar.d most grievously infest the coast of Louisiana, pluudep- 



NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C. & 

ing and destroying the Spanish vessels, nnd those of every other nation, 
the French excepted. The property they thus pillage they deposit within 
the ramparts of a fort, which for this purpose they have constructed and 
provided with 11 pieces of artillery. To give a sort of character to these 
proceedings, they have formed a tribunal, which they denominate a court 
of vice-admiralty, and where they condemn without ceremony the property 
they have thus acquired. After judgment is passed, the merchandise is 
sold at low prices, but for ready money, and in open market. This mar- 
ket is kept two days in a week ; and if no buyer be found, the goods are 
introduced into New Orleans as articles of contraband trade. Information 
of these proceedings has been given to the Governors-general of the Ha- 
vanna and of the Floridas. 

THE LATE CAPTAIN BLYTII, R.N. 

Extract of a Letter from Portland, in the United States of America. 

THE remains of Captain Blyth, late Commander of his Majesty's brig 
Boxer, who nobly fell in action with the Unired States brig Enterprize, 
on the 5th inst. (Sept.) off this coast, were interred here with military 
honours, on the 7th. The officers have caused a tomb-stone, with a suitable 
inscription, to be placed over his grave, as a tribute of their admiration and 
regard. The following is the inscription : 

In Memory of CAPTAIN SAMUEL BLYTH, 
Late Commander of his Britannic Majesty's ship Boxer, 

He nobly fell 

On the 5th day of September, 1813, 

In action with the U. S. brig Enterprize. 

In Life honourable ; 

In Death glorious ! 

His Country will long deplore one of her bravest sons; 
His Friends long lament one of the best of Men. 

Aged twenty-nine years. 

The surviving Officers of his Crew 

Offer this feeble tribute of admiration 

and regard. 

SHIPWRECK AND MUTINY. 

PRIVATE advices from Penang confirm the report of the loss of the ship 
Asia, of Bombay, in the Eastern Seas, on her return to Bombay from 
Batavia. This ship, it seems, shortly after quitting the latter port, had 
encountered a violent gale of wind off Java Head, by which her main and 
mizen-masts were carried away; and the vessel becoming quite unma- 
nageable, with a leak increasing fast upon her, the officers and crew were 
obliged, for their own preservation, to abandon her, and betake them- 
selves to the boats. Captain Stewart, the first and second officer, and an 
European passenger from Batavia, embarked in the long-boat, and Mr. 
Paton, the" third officer, in the cutter ; and scarcely had they quitted the 
ship, when she sunk. To this story, the same accounts add the distressing 



48 NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C. 

information, that, on the 13th of April, the Seacurmies, in conjunction 
with four Malays and a Caffree, rose on the Europeans in the long-boat, 
and put every man of them to death. They afterwards removed Mr. Pa- 
ton from the cutter, and compelled him to take charge of the long-boat, id 
which they arrived at Poolo Bouton, where meeting fortunately with some 
prows belonging to the King of Quedah, they were conveyed to that place, 
and from thence sent on to Penang. Why the boats should have been 
steered so strange and circuitous a course, and by what means the crew 
were enabled to supply themselves with food for &o long a voyage, remain 
to be explained. The circumstances, however, are so minutely related, 
that no doubt can be well entertained as to the general truth of the story, 
especially as it is known that Mr. Paton had arrived at Penang. 

STATE OF THE FRENCH NAVAL FORCES IN THE SCHELD. 

5 ships of 80 guns disarming, having still two or three hundred men on 
board. 

4 in ordinary. 

6 ships of 74 guns, entirely fitted out with guns in, but having only two 
or three hundred men on board. 

2 of 74, fitted out without guns, with only three hundred men tin board, 

5 of 74 in ordinary. 

2 frigates in ordinary. 

10 or 12 gun-brigs fitted out and manned. 
20 ships of the line. 

2 frigates. 
12 gun-brigs. 

Total 34 vessels. 

Off" Flushing, in the Basin. 
1 80 gun-ship, without guns, having only 80 men on board. 

3 frigates, idem, only 20 men ; several gun-brigs and gun-boats* 

In the Road at Flushing. 

4 frigates of 44 guns ready for sea. 
Hague, December 4fA, 1813. 

SINEWS OF WAR. 

AN official account laid before the House of Commons, and printed, 
states the amount of the net produce of the permanent taxes in Great 



and fur the year ending the 15th October, 1813, at 37,833,366/. 12*. lo. 
being a deficiency of about 900,000/. The same account states the total 
amount of the net produce of the war taxes, for the year ending the 25tl 
January, 1812, at 21,822,532/. 14s. lOJrf. ; and for the year ending the 
25th October, 1813, at 22,740,568/. 4s. 0%d. being an increase of about 
the amount of the deficiency in the permanent taxes. Thus the net produce 
tit'the whole of the taxes in Great Britain, for the year ending the 25th of 



NAUTICAL AVECDOTES, &C. gQ 

October, exceeds sixty millions. An account of the reduction of the Na- 
tional Debt, from the 1st August, 1786, to the 1st November, 1813 ; . 

Redeemed by the Sinking Fund .227,412,2 15 

Transferred by Land Tax redeemed 24,569,830 

Ditto by Life Annuities purchased 2,284,730 

On Account of Great Britain 254,266,770 

Ditto of Ireland 11,979,791 

Ditto of Imperial Loan 1,482,848 

Ditto of Loan to Portugal 207,606 

Ditto of Loan to the East India Company 241,356 

Total .268,178,376 

The sum to be expended in the ensuing quarter is 4,621j526/. 3s. 8rf. 

CONFLAGRATION OF A LIGHT-HOUSE. 

ON the afternoon of Thursday, 14th October, a report reached Westport, 
that the Light-house on Clare Island had been burnt the night before. 
Mr. I. Farrell, the Marquis of Sligo's Architect, as soon as possible re- 
paired to the place (a distance of nine leagues from Westport), and found 
that the lantern, with all its apparatus, was entirely consumed. So great 
was the conflagration, that some of the metal was melted into balls, and 
all the glasses, &c. broken. The first cost of the lantern alone was 1,1 OO/. 
the reflectors were all inlaid with silver, and each pane of glass, on account 
of their make and great thickness, cost four guineas. The keeper assigns 
a snuff falling into the oil, as the cause of the conflagration. To prevent 
any accident to the shipping from the want of this light, exertions are 
making to have a temporary lantern erected, until further instructions 
hall be received. 

DISCIPLINE AND SUICIDE. 

ON Thursday, 4th November, an Inquest was held at Carrickfergus, on 
the body of John Hooper, a boy belonging to his Majesty's ship Helena 
(now lying in that harbour), who had inflicted a severe wound on his throat 
with a knife, on the Monday morning previous. It appeared from the evi- 
dence of Surgeon Dease, of the ship, and others, that the unfortunate 
youth had been threatened with punishment, in consequence of improper 
conduct; that he secreted himself on Monday morning at muster time ; 
that a corporal of marines was ordered between decks to search for him ; 
who found him on the cable tier, hiding behind the mast; that he did not 
answer when spoken to, and on dragging him from the place of conceal- 
ment, his throat was cut, and bleeding profusely ; a knife was found beside 
him. Every assistance was immediately given ; but he expired, from low 
of blood, on Wednesday. Verdict 



3d 
CORRESPONDENCE, 



MR. EDITOR, London, Eth December, 1813. 

rriHROUGH your Work, I beg leave to convey my thanks to your 
-- correspondent NESTOR, in placing me as one of those advocates fo r 
the improvement of our envied and unconquered Bulwarks. As my mo- 
tives are pure and impartial, I must confess I cannot agree with him, and 
A. F. Y. in the propriety or necessity of a secondary Board. I think, and 
I believe it is generally allowed, that the Admiralty, Navy, and Transport 
Boards, are equal to carry on the management of the navy ; it is ascer- 
tained as a fact, that, as it is, the Superior Board, very often acts contrary 
to the propositions and suggestions of the Navy Board ; how would it ]>e 
if there was a third? Every man and every Board have always such con- 
fidence in their own ideas, that they cannot conform to the structure of 
others ; in that case, the different Boards must disagree, and only tend to 
bring disgrace on some branch or other. NESTOR will certainly allow, 
that if the Admiralty are men of ability (and, for my own part, I have not 
a doubt of it), that the more compressed you can bring public oflices the 
better; for instance, in the whole history of our own country, we have 
never found an expedition succeed, either by sea or land, where a council 
of war has been called ; but commanders-in-chief have always found, 
that a confidence in their own professional abilities, was the best and 
safest ; yet, in those cases, I confess, that the choice should be select, and 
none entrusted with a command, but those whose talents and professional 
skill have been well established. Another instance I shall mention ; many 
captains, when they join a ship, cut and destroy (for what they call im- 
provements), u> a most wasteful expenditure, and an enormous expense to 
the country, which I believe was well understood at the Aclminilty ; for, a 
few years since, a new 74 was ordered to he fitted, as a model for the service 
to strictly abide by, and three captains of great merit and ability were sent 
to Chatham for that purpose (one of them the captain of the said sh:,i), 
and she was fitted on an admirable and improved plan ; yet I hare heard, 
from good authority, that on the first cruise, her captain altered the whole 
of his own plans; it is a grievance, and a heavy one, that they are not 
themselves obliged to defray the expense of such mutilations. 1 have a 
high opinion of the present Board, yet they are liable to errors as well 
as others ; unfortunately, every misconduct in the navy is attributed to 
them ; this is unfair ; for, after the Admiralty have issued sailing orders to 
the ships, a part of the responsihility must belong to the coiiunander-in- 
chief, under whose orders they are placed, both at home and abroad, pro- 
vided the commander-in-chief on a foreign station has a sufficient force 
placed under him; therefore, A. F. Y. will certainly allow that all com- 
manders-in-chief are assistants to the Board of Admiralty, or why are port 
admirals appointed, but with that intent, and the Channel Fleet is directed 
by its admiral living onshore. 

I shall now call your attention to the ships placed under the orders oX 



CORRESPONDENCE. 31 

the port admiral on the Western Station ; I have always understood they 
are for the purpose of protecting the trade from the Start to the Scilly 
Islands ; if that is the case, how do we hear constantly of our coasting 
traders being taken close into our harbours and off our headlands, and 
the " True-Blooded- Yankey," very lately, cruising for a long time off the 
Scillies ? In my opinion, it arises from those cruisers considerably extend- 
ing their limits, for the purpose of picking up a fat prize ; in the mean 
time, the enemy's small privateers are destroying our merchantmen. I 
know not the ships, or their number, appointed for that service ; but I be* 
Heve there are several. I wish some of your abler Correspondents would 
take up the subject, on a larger scale ; and I know no one more capable 
than A.F.Y. if I may judge by his writings, not having the least idea who 
he is. Would it not be advisable to have a small squadron under the direc- 
tion of a post captain, of an active mind, and some standing, to be sta- 
tioned at Scilly ? the anchorage is good, and the entrances numerous; I 
would not take them from the command of the port admiral, they should 
still be under his orders, and much time would be saved, in their going 
forward and backward to replenish, and, as is often the case, the whole of 
them are at Plymouth, but a part of them ought always to be about Scilly 
until relieved ; at all events, the losses we meet with require some serious 
consideration. A late port admiral (a very worthy good man) too fully 
proved, in giving up his opinions, the injustice.. he has done the ser- 
vice, for I have understood that he was considered only as a secondary 
person to his secretary ; and I heard (only a week since as far as from 
Yorkshire) that, at the commander-in-cliief'a table, when a question was 
put, tlie secretary's auswer was, we have sent so and so ; the whole com- 
pany were astonished; well they might, when the secretary considered him- 
self as jointly in command. I should have been cautious in crediting this, 
liad I not taken the Poj-jsinoulh paper, in which I saw an address to the 
port admiral, on his quitting his command, by the merchants of a respec- 
table borough, for his kind and conciliating manners; this may all be very 
right, but what follows ? why one also to the secretary, for his kind com- 
munications, and easy access to the calls of the merchants. Does not this 
look like his being considered as a colleague with the chief? The great* 
error and mischief arise from a secretary being appointed prize agent and 
broker, whereby they have a connection witli all the merchants and Jews 
in the place ; and I have heard by several officers, that the office at a cer- 
tain port is generally known by the name of the New Exchange, and go 
into it whenever you wouid, the secretary, during a certain period, was 
surrounded by Jews ; assuredly he had quite sufficient to occupy his time 
in his public capacity, without carrying on extensive commercial communi- 
cations ; and I am convinced, that instances occur of communications 
made, and information given, tending to the injury of the service ; and the 
influence over commanders- in- chief, which is generally supposed to take 
place, is derogatory and scandalous. Some persons entertain an idea, that 
the secretary is appointed agent, for no other reason, than that he will' be 
l>Ie to benefit his friends by recommending them fora good cruise ; and to 
thp assertion, I shall mention a circumstance which took 



32 CORRESPONDENCE. 

about two years since: the secretary on a home station wrote to his bro- 
ther scribe at S , saying, if such a captain does not appoint you 

agent, black-ball him : on this being known, he, very properly, was black- 
bailed himself. I have been told, also, that the secretary to an admiral 
commanding, some time since, on the Eastern coast, threatened to get 
one or two cf the captains bad cruises, because they would not appoint him 
their agent ; and it is reported, that on the chief interrogating Mr. Secre- 
tary, as to the fact, he could not deny it; on which he replied, " By Jasus ! 
I made you a purser ; and, by Christ ! here is douse you: " true it is, the 
secretary was dismissed from that day. The officers in the dock-yards are 
strictly forbid to have any concern in agency, then why allow admiral's 
secretaries ? it is not possible for the former to do half the mischief, that 
is in the power of the latter ; he is a confidential servant to the crown, 
he is master of many important secrets, such as secret orders in council ; 
are not the latter connected most seriously with all prize concerns ? and it 
is fully in the power of a secretary to drop such hints to the cruisers and 
brokers, sufficient to divulge the views of government. Give the secretary 
pay adequate to his situation, but never allow him to be a prize-agent or 
broker ; for it is now so customary to attend to the wishes of the chief, 
that there is not a cruiser, who docs not appoint the secretary to the agency, 
or the ci-devant secretary is their broker. Fifty other circumstances I have 
beard related, such as gratuities, &c. &c. but I rather wish to believe such 
a degradation does not exist. However, it appears to be full time that the 
Admiralty should interfere, and that secretaries should not be permitted to 
have any concern with prize agency or brokerage, either as an ostensible 
partner, or a sleeping one ; if necessary to add to their pay something con- 
siderable, so much the better; for even if many of those circumstances do 
not exist, put it out of the power of the world to comment so severely on 
the influence of secretaries over the chief, and the preference given to the 
Jews to serve the ships, through the kind recommendation cf the agent, 
and to the total exclusion of the regular tradesman. I hope that some 
other of your correspondents will continue -this subject, so essentially 
necessary to do away the stigma cast on the navy, and some of them more 
able, and better acquainted with facts, than 

IMPARTIAL. 

MR. EDITOR, December, 1313. 

HAVING already reasoned generally on the prudential motives which 
call for the adoption of more extensive encouragement in our naval 
government, I now propose to enter more minutely on the practical meaiss. 

I shall commence with the lower classes, who constitute what is dtnoini- 
mted the ship's company, more especially keeping in view that most valu- 
able body, which forms the very foundation of the whole, able beair.cn. 

No one will deny the policy of enacting such measures as will tend more 
closely to assimilate the manning of our fleets with voluntary service, and 
discipline with willing obedience. As our maritime regulations now stand, 
we cannot expect any material alteration for the better; for, ns compared 
with our sister service, the army, the seaman is left with little or iio 



CORRESPONDENCE. 33 

excitement ; it amounts to a moral certainty, however, that a system of 
commensurate liberality would beget in the breasts of our tars that pro- 
fessional pride and regard so much to he desired, and which has so amply 
crowned the improved regulations of the army. 

The subject in its various bearings is necessarily intimately connected 
with the impress, and in a less degree with the mode of punishment. I 
would willingly leave the latter untouched, well knowing the delicacy of its 
texture. Its necessity I grant, in the most unqualified sense ; for it is 
clear, that if corporeal punishment was exploded, we must resort to exe- 
cutions as the substitute. Human nature is too prone to stray, even from 
the sacred paths of religion, and the strict bounds of integrity, to remain 
without restraint within the rigid pale of martial law. But though I admit 
its necessity, I think its frequency reducible ; not, however, arising from 
lux discipline, but in a progressive degree, as increased incentives to good 
conduct are interwoven in our naval institutions. Now the great means to 
lessen punishments are, to diminish our almost entire dependance on the 
impress, and, by degrees, to make it merely an auxiliary, not a principal, 
method of manning our ships. The object, therefore, which I shall en- 
deavour to shew, is the way to effect this ; but before I enter on it, I can- 
not refrain from adverting to another most objectionable cause of the 
cat-of-nine-tails being in such frequent use. I allude to the system of 
allowing so many vagabonds to compromise every shade of crime, to avoid 
the pains of a prison, or the horror of transportation, by making themselves 
over to a British man of war. It is a practice degrading to honest pride, 
and baneful to the growth of professional emulation ; it classes the duties 
of our gallant seamen with the chastisement of thieves and swindlers, 
making their wooden walls floating gaols, to save the trouble, or to reduce 
the number of prosecutions, with the very pithy compliment, that officers 
have the power of flogging good characters into them. Let this debasing 
custom be discontinued, and many a feeling of indignation in the bosoms 
of conscious and offended worth will be wiped away, and the naval ser- 
vice will emerge from the degraded rank which it almost universally holds 
among the lower orders of these kingdoms. 

I shall now endeavour to point out the species and degree of encourage- 
ment which strikes me as bestcalculated for the diminution of impressment. 
And first of the established state of bounties It requires no unusual know- 
ledge of the human heart to estimate the considerable effect this must 
always bear to voluntary service ; and hence it is difficult to fathom, by 
what rules of policy or justice so vast a disparity is made between the sol- 
dier and sailor in this respect. It would seem, as if the convenience of the 
impress overcomes every idea of ever adopting any other increased means 
of procuring men. At all events, whilst the boon held out to the two ser- 
vices is so unequal, we cannot wonder at the military drum gaining recruits 
in abundance, whilst the " proud old British Union" hangs smoke dried 
and neglected over the door of every pot house we choose to dignify with 
the name of rendezvous. If the impress i$ necessary, let it, at least, ba 
resorted to after an equalization of inducement fails in effect. If bounty 

(Bol. XXXI. * 



34 CORRESPONDENCE. 

is meant ai &ny thing but a lure, it is as a reasonable compensation for 
engaging in the King's service, and why such material difference in the 
quantity of such compensation should exist for wearing a red jacket or a 
blue one, I am at a loss to divine, unless, as I before observed, the conve- 
nience of the impress is the plea. 

I do not, most distantly, intend to under-rate the value of a soldier to 
the state, or infer that their services are too dearly purchased : I reason 
only, to gain foe the seaman an equal regard from his cuuntry, and that if 
his services, from the exigencies of the times, must be exacted against his 
will, it may not be without holding out equal remuneration and inducement 
to that his contemporary brethren receive. As if to mark the disparity more 
distinctly, every militia man is now to be proffered 10/. 10s. for a transfer 
of his duty from home to active service. 

To sum up this portion of my subject, 1 am obliged to say that the 
relative bounties of soldiers and sailors are at variance with sound policy 
and justice, nor can I can see how the warmest advocates of its present 
footing can support its disparity, but by the perverted and unwise plea of 
national economy : I say perverted, for all economy must be so which is 
not founded on equitable principles ; I say unwise, for that parsimony is 
assuredly so which enervates the national strength. 

AEOLUS. 

P. S. I believe rtie following is a correct \ic\v, or nearly so, of th 
comparative state of bounties given to the Army, Marines, and Xavy, 
which, whilst it cannot fail to excite surprise, must plainly shew the solid 
grounds on which I have brought this important subject forward. 

AEMY. For l$en .16 16 

Lads 12 

Boys 800 

MARINES For Men and Lads above 5 feet 2 inches, being 

1<3 years of age 16*16 

Boys being 5 feet 8 

!$AVY. Able Seamen 5 5 

Ordinary .................. 3 C> 

Landsmen and Boys 2 



MR. EDITOR, 1 January, 181 1. 

I READ in Archdeacon Coxe's History of the Bourbon Kinps of Spain, 
that the Sword presented to Lord Nelson by the present King of the 
Two Sicilies (Ferdinand) was the same which was given by Louis XIV. to 
his grandson Philip, when the latter quitted France to take possession of 
the kingdom of Spain. Some of your readers can probably tell what is 
become of that sword ? which I shall be glad to know, through the medium 
of your pages. UISIORICUS. 



?,. KDUCR, 8//t January , 1814. 

I HAVE perused with no small degree of satisfaction, and no common- 
interest, the letter from /Eolus, inserted in your number for Noverrj- 
ber last, relative to tlie necessity of a gradual reformation of the present 
system for obtaining and preserving British seamen to fight their country's 
battles. 

Tliis subject had of late engaged much of my own attention, and 1 had 
resolved to lay some of ray own opinions before the public, through the 
channel of your CHRONICLE, had I not been anticipated by this truly valu- 
able and able writer ; with whose opinion*, so far as tie has yet made them 
known in general terms, my own completely coincide (for, although the 
evil is great, the remedies ought to be gradually applied, and in such mea- 
sure as the state of the country will allow). He has promised to resume 
the consideration of this most important subject in subsequent letters, to 
which I look forward with much anxiety, as involving a question that ought 
long ere now to have engaged more of the public attention ; and which, now 
that it is likely to do so of necessity, will, I hope, be prudently managed, 
and, in the etui, lead to the most beneficial consequences ; at the same 
time, I am aware that it is pregnaot with difficulties, which, perhaps, 
necessity alone would induce the B. of A. to consent to encounter : how- 
ever, it is worthy of remark, that the task, although Augean, is one of 
amelioration and improvement, and will be regarded, (if successful, which, 
if properly managed, it must be) by our posterity, ns one of the greatest 
improvements of the age. Leaving the future consideration of it to the far 
abler Correspondent I havs already mentioned, I have nuw to remark, that 
the suggestion of another Correspondent, " A Friend to Naval Merit," 
appear to have been nearly completely anticipated by the very proper and 
impartial selection of officers for promotion on the late occasion ; and it is 
but justice to allow to Lord Melville and the Board, every praise for their 
conduct in attending to the claims of the eldest of each respective class of 
orticers ; it is scarcely possible to avoid offence to some ; but, on the whole, 
they appear to have aimed to anticipate the. wishes of ihe service, ad the 
country; and it is fair they should have the approbation and confidence 
such conduct merits. At the same time, I hope the sera is not far distant, 
vbtn the naval concerns of Britain will devolve entirely into naval hands, 
with a Statesman at their head, which almost all seem to agree on thinking 
necessary, for the very plain reason, that a naval First Lord has never yet 
given satisfaction to the country or to his own profession ; but that the 
other members of the Board ought all to be naval men, is no less a matter 
of justice than it would be of certain benefit to the service; and as the 
adjutant-general, quarter-raasttr-gciieral, commissariat, andmedical depart* 
ment, are all under separate management, but one common head in the ar- 
my, I am sure our naval business would be greatly simplified, and more 
easily managed, by the appointment of subordinate Boards, from among the 
Lords of the Admiralty themselves, or to act under their direction, increas- 
ing their number, or continuing them as at present, and hereafter appoint- 
ing naval men only. I hope A. F. Y. and myself will live ty see this change. 

NESTOR. 



36 CORRESPONDENCE. 

MR. EDITOR. December 27, 1813. 

I REQUEST your particular attention to the following : To ine it ap- 
pears inexplicable, and deserving of elucidation. You will, therefore, 
for that purpose, have the goodness to record it in your valuable CHROIUCLE. 

Not many days since, I appointed to meet a brother officer at that great 
house where all our profession look most anxiously. How far their ex- 
pectations are realised, shall not be entered into in this letter. Being 
earlier than the hour appointed, I sauntered on tlie opposite side the street, 
in the hope of seeing my friend, ere he entered the " hallowed roof.'' 
During this perambulation, I observed a board, conspicuously displayed on 
the wall inclosing the house of the First Lord of the Admiralty, and not 
many yards distant from the entrance gates. Many conjectures entered 
my mind as to the nature of the information it contained. At one time, I 
conceived it possible, that his Lordship had quitted his residence, and it 
was the notice of his new abode ; at another, that it was, perhaps, similar 
to what is frequently met with, " THIS HOUSE TO LET," &c. So many 
thoughts entered my mind, as induced me, at the hazard of being knocked 
down by carriages, to cross the street, and satisfy my curiosity. None of 
tJie ideas I had formed were correct, and my surprise exceeds description. 
All the attempts I have subsequently made are ineffectual. For ftar of 
errors, I copied the mysterious inscription, carefully placing it in an old 
pocket-book, long my empty companion. I hasten to send you the copy, 
the original of which is, to borrow an expression from a distinguished 
Speaker of Saint Stephen's Chapel, " as notorious as the sun at noon day." 

It is as follows: " Whoever is found begging, here will l>e prosecuted." 
I cannot, at this moment, refrain exclaiming, What can this mean ? Has 
his Lordship been importuned so much, on various subjects connected with 
the extensive department under his orders, us to cause it necessary, thus 
against his own residence, nd in the public- street, to give such notice ? 
No, no, it cannot be, he inherits too much the disposition of his noble sire, 
to be unwilling in attention to the applications for reward, or employment, 
when those things are justly due. But what interpretation can be given the 
concluding words, " here will be prosecuted," I candidly acknowledge my 
incapacity to attempt. That some explanation of this mysterious nnd 
public notice should be given, there cannot be a doubt entertained, and, it 
appears to me, the NAVAL CHRONICLE is the most probable source to derive 
.1 1'rum. 

TOM STARBOARD. 



LETTER XXVIII. 

MR. EDITOR, Sept. 20, 1C13. 

rrMIE British Press is open to fair animadversion on the overt acts of 
-* public men ; as a Briton, I trust, it will ever remain so ; as au ho- 
nest man, I will never use this liberty but to conscientiously point out public 
grievances, or public errors, as they appear to my judgment; and, in the 
still higher character of a Christian, I svill never attribute malignity, or 
even selfishness of native, when the erring judgment of man i; so liable Vo 



ORKESFONDSNCE. 57 

lead to a wrong conclusion, against motives the most pure, and intentions 
the most honourable. 

To suspect the zeal and good intentions of men in office, merely, because 
their measures appear to a writer, contrary to the interests of their country, 
is a species of" uncharitable folly, which can never enter the minds either ol 
the wise or the virtuous. I have now, in the course of several letters, 
pointed out what I deem the weak points of our naval administration, 
placed in several points of view; and I should not at all have entered into 
the sometimes unfortunate selection of naval individuals (which, I think, 
lias not unfrequently taken place), had I not known, that when the choice 
has been good, much good to the service has resulted from it; and, vice 
versa, I am much misinformed, and very much mistaken, if measures for 
which a First Lord has incurred the censure of the service, have not 
originated from an ill-chosen naval adviser, who, nevertheless, may have 
had as honest intentions, as if the service had really received benefit from 
his advice. 

The personal integrity of Mr. Pitt, and his unwearied zeal, did not pre- 
vent the loud opinion of the public from reprobating some of his measures, 
nor could the amiable philanthropy of Mr. Fox stop the clamours of abuse 
against him. The thoroughly-established character of Mr. Perceval, for all 
that is worthy and amiable in man, did not prevent millions of people 
from thinking him a very mistaken minister; and thus, I have heard many 
respectable men, who had been in the habits of intimacy with, and who had 
the most friendly esteem for officers serving at the Board, for their sakes, 
as well as that of the service, lament their being there ; not from a doubt 
of honest zeal and goodness of intention, but either because they were in a 
situation where they could not do good to a service which, being ignorant 
of that inability, looked up to them for patronage and support ; or, because 
their talents were not adapted to the offices they held, and thus were too 
apt to love the esteem of old friends, and to facilitate evils, which they 
would willingly have removed, had they been allowed to do so, or known 
how. I should apprehend, that Impartial must have given my letter a 
merely partial reading, or he would perceive, that I had not only confined 
myself in the first instance to a fair expression of disapprobation of the 
public measures of the gentlemen in question, but had even expressed my- 
self, in a subsequent sentence, perfectly convinced of their professional and 
moral worth. In fact, I have, on many occasions, carefully guarded against 
a possibility of mistake in this respect ; and if your correspondent will 
really give my letters an impartial perusal, he will, at least, give me that 
credit. In a work like yours, Mr. Editor, a detail of all the reasons on 
which opinions are founded, would occupy greatly too much s^ace, there- 
fore it will often produce a controversy of opinion, without the full evi- 
dence of corroborating circumstances to support them. If your corre- 
spondent can, however, produce proofs, that the measures pursued, since 
the gentlemen he advocates came into office, have been wise and beneficial 
to the service, no one will more seriously rejoice than myself, or more 
readily own the errors of my judgment, though they have hitherto appeared 
correct opinions, according to the best evidence of my senses. 



98 CORRESPONDENCE. 

With respect to my supposition argument of a baibt for the C;K>JCC of 
the L. C. A. it is evident to all, who chuse to take a candid view of it, that 
it expresses simply, what, / believe, to be the opinion of naval officers in 
general on the subject. It is most true, Sir, that it is now many years since 
I have mixed with the busy politics, or personally heard the opinions of 
metropolitan orators, or even been sojourning in one of our great sea- 
ports; but the number of naval opinions I have the means of knowing, is 
fay no means small ; and I can truly assure you, Sir, I never have yet heard 
the smallest variation in those opinions. I have known many who truly 
esteemed officers at the Board, and who gave them every possible credit 
for professional skill, zeal, and integrity, yet who, as I have before said, 
lamented their being placed, where, either from want of power, or the pe- 
culiar kind of talent requisite for their situation, all their good qualities be- 
came nugatory. It might as well be said, that I believe not in the naval 
skill, heroic gallantry, and honest zeal of the Member for Westminster, be- 
cause I do not think he advocates the cause of the navy with good judg 
ment. I confess, Mr. Editor, ihat in the zeal of a mind, earnest on the 
subjects which occupy it, I am apt to intrude too much on the space or 
your valuable pages, and, perhaps, to give iny opinions more weight, it 
would be right that I should delay and condense, for hitherto I have given 
you my uncorrectcd effusions a* they arise, and as my health and leisure 
allowed But take my criticisms on the naval portion of the Board toge- 
ther, and they amount to this, that, although I am clearly of opinion, that 
its selection has seldom been the best that could have been made (to say 
the least), yet that the errors I complain of, are stated to be in general the 
errors of the construction of the Board at which they act, and that with 
such a limited power as I believe them to possess, their individual means, 
either of extending error, or doing good, has not been great. And when I 
see men long in office, without any good arising from their efforts, and, on 
the contrary, can see, or think I see, abundance of error in their mode of 
governing the service they superintend, I naturally conclude, that there is 
either a want of power or ability. If it be the latter, and the professional 
men at the Board have, as at present, the character of skilful seamen and 
honourable men, there must then he a deficiency of that pliancy of mind 
which adapts some men to various situations, and of that general knowledge 
of human nature, so absolutely requisite to those who attempt to govern 
men. I delight, Sir, in all controversy which leads to the developement of 
truth; but this must arise from a discussion of opinions, and comparison of 
fuctt, not an accusation or recrimination of motives', and, as useful con- 
troversy can only be maintained by men, whose acquirements of icience and 
endowments of education, place them above all rancour, eitlier of thought 
or expression, I trust, I shall ever avoid even a retort, on the most open 
opponent, in language which I should scorn to use otherwise, either in 
writing or in speech. 

And now, Sir, I turn with pleasure to your correspondent Nestor's letter 
in the same CHRONICLE (August). From the turn and temper of Nestor's 
writings, and from the soundness of his opinions on all matters on which I 
can pretend to juiige, I have very great reliance both on his statements and 



GORIiF.SrONRF.NCE. 39 

opinions on matters which have been long out of my reach of hear ob- 
servation 

His opinion, that a board of revision may nowexist, gives me real satisfac- 
tion, as I -have no possible motive to induce me to expose errors, bat in hop* 
of their meeting the eye of those who are empowered to enquire into or 
possess the means of removing them ; and I will farther hope, that some- 
times the power and inclination may coincide. I cordially agree with 
Nestor, in believing, that both the present First Lord, and his advisers, 
mean and wish to act in all respects for the good of the service, as far as 
their knowledge of its wants extends, and their time admits ; for I, also, 
most fully agree, in wondering how so much can be done by the present 
means. 

I feel much flattered by some striking coincidences of opinion which 
have appeared in the writings of Nestor and myself, and hope he is right in 
his opinion, that some of the valuable suggestions which have appeared in 
the N. C. have been adopted. 

I trust, Sir, that this long story winds up my opinion on the subject of 
the constitution of our B. of A.; and, as it is not long or often that I can 
flatter myself I shall be able to continue to offer you my opinions on any 
subject, I have to request, from the candour of your readers, that they may 
be sought for in the general tenor of my writings, and not in a partially 
selected sentence. Zealous in the lave of my profession, ardent in my 
temperament, and somesvhat garrulous from the ravages of time, I pretend 
not to have escaped from errors; but be assured, Sir, that I have been un- 
biassed by any selfish motive; but influenced alone by the love of my 
country, which I have shewn in your pages by my zeal for my profession, I 
have always offered to your notice the most impartial view I could take of 
public measures, and the state'of the navy on which so much depends. I 
have done this, Sir, in perfect Christian charity with all the actors in tho* 
measures, whether I have applauded their wisdom or deplored tbir folly. 
I remain, Sir, &c. A. F. Y. 

P. S. I cannot pretend to judge of the number of subscribers likely to 
give their names to the publication of the index I proposed, but my sub- 
scription would soon follow the advertisement. I should hope, when consi- 
dering the length of the naval list and commercial navy also of Britain, that 
500 names would not he long collecting ; as I am certain, that a volume ef 
index would greatly enhance the value of your 30 volumes to all who possess 
them. 



MR. EDITOR, 

THE following is a nnrr.itive of all the circumstances connected with 
the court martial, which on 31st Dec. 1813, sat on board the Sal- 
vador del Mundo, at Plymouth, to investigate the conduct of Cnptain Phi- 
lip Carteret, of H. M. S. Pomone, for not having, on the 21st Oct. preced- 
ing, brought au enemy's frigate to action when in sight; and which court 
martial was ordered to assemble by the Board of Admiralty, at Captain 
Carteret's own request : S. T. 

" The Pomone had encountered a heavy gale of wind ia the Bay of Bis- 



40 eoUKESPONULNCH. 

cay, whereby she lost her fore-yard, and her main-yard was badly sprung in 
two places. While repairing these damages, early on the morning of 21fct 
Oct. last, she fell in with a ship under jury-masts, which soon proved to be 
a French frigate. Immediate preparations were made to attack her ; and 
Pomonewas about to do so, when another ship hove in sight (which every 
body onboard considered to be a frigate), with a brig under a French en- 
sign, all steering the same way with that first seen. Soon afterwards, three 
other ships were seen astern of these last. Nobody now doubted but that 
it was a French squadron. The utmost caution, therefore, was necessarv 
especially in Pomone's nearly disabled state. But Captain Carteret, think- 
ing that, though a squadron, he might still keep company with them until 
he could get a reinforcement, resolved to get well out to windward of them, 
so as to observe them accurately and reconnoitre, yet not commit his 
safety. The disabled frigate was not quite a secondary object. The wea- 
ther being remarkably hazy and deceptive rendered all things so very in- 
distinct, that many hours were lost in reconnoitring. When the weather 
cleared away in the afternoon, it was discovered, that all the vessels were 
merchantmen, excepting the disabled French frigate, and the ship which 
every body had considered to be a frigate also, and which they still deemed 
to be such. This was her whicli (as before described) was with a brig 
under French colours; and which brig, on seeing Potnone wear to stand 
towards them, ran away down to the disabled frigate, as if with some mes- 
sage from one to the other. As the weather had now cleared away, nnd 
only that one frigate in perfect order and condition in sight, Pomone bore tip 
to attack her. But, alas ! she, too, proved, on near approach, to be a mer- 
chantman, being a large Portuguese East Indiaman from Bengal, which had 
been taken three months since by the French, retaken by some English 
cruisers, who c trried her into Fahnouth, and she was now returning to 
Lisbon. Grieved and mortified, at having thus let slip 'through his fingers, 
so rich a feast as the disabled French frigate, Captain Carte) et went in 
pursuit or search of her. It was nearly sun-set, when Poinone made bail 
after her; the search was continued for three days and nights; on tin: 
fourth day, they fell in with a British cruiser, which informed them, that 
the said crippled ship had been captured, without any resistance, on the 
preceding day, by the Andromache ! 

" On arriving at Lisbon, Captain Carteret gave a detailed report, in 
writin", of all these circumstances, to his admiral, with which he was 
thoroughly satisfied. But wishing the Board of Admiralty to l>c so too, lie 
requested the admiral to transmit it home. Some da^s afterwards, a 
letter, addressed to the admiral at Lisbon, was picked up on the Pomone'- 
deck, which Captain Carteret immediately took to him. lin read if, ami 
gave it to Captain C. Finding it to be an anonymous letter, subscribed 
' Pomone's ship's company,' assertirg, that he had ' run from a French fri- 
gate,' Capt. Carteret at once asked for a court martial. That, however, 
could not well be granted at that moment, because all the captains there 
were his juniors, and Pomonewas under orders to go home, where it could 
better take place. But Captain Carteret avowed his determination to have 
i,e, if possible, and implored his admiral to write t'_> the Board and Iran*- 



CORRESPONDENCE* 41 

rait every t!:lng home fully and openly, by the packet, that not a moment 
might be lost. Or> arriving at Plymouth, he renewed his application to the 
Admiralty; who, however, he afterwards found, had received every thing 
by the packet, and had already ordered a court martial to assemble. Ac- 
cordingly, two days before the trial, Capt. C. addressed his people; told 
them of the pending court-martial, which himself had demanded, in con- 
sequence of that anonymous letter which none would own j and require^ all 
to come forward fairly and openly, to say the truth before the Court. He 
promised to guarantee them from all harm, on account of their evidence, if 
true. Not to be mistaken by them, he wrote an order to the above effect^ 
and stuck it up in a conspicuous place, that all or any might come forward 
and subscribe their names as witnesses against him; but not a man would 
show himself. Therefore, he was forced to order all those whom lie sus- 
pected to be most averse to him to be summoned, as well as an entire 
quarter of the whole ship's company taken by lot. A list of these he laid 
before the Court. On the 31st December, the court martial assembled, 
and Captain Carteret was arraigned, as usual, as the prisoner before it. 
Rear-admiral Byam Martin was President; Rear-admirals Pulteney, Mal- 
colm, and Penrose, with the senior captains at the port, composed the rest 
of the Court. The examinations of both officers and men were as strict aa 
possible ; but not one word was said in any the remotest degree, affecting 
the conduct of the ship when in presence of the enemy. Captain Car- 
teret declined making any defence ; and the Court fully ' acquitted him of 
all blame whatever,' in not bringing to action an enemy's frigate, although 
in sight." This diabolical attempt to blast his reputation, could not have 
happened to a man whose tried and established character was better able 
to stand it. His services (on record at the Admiralty), especially wheu 
Commanding the gun-boat flotilla in the Scheldt, and when defeating Bo- 
naparte at Boulogne, sufficiently prove his merits. 

***^-^* 

MR. EDITOR, 

1T1HE following letter, containing some account of-the late Lieutenant 

-"- Ashworth, of H. M.S. Centaur (who was a companion in French 

captivity of Captain O'BRIEN), may serve to add additional interest to his 

Narrative, which has appeared in your CHRONICLE, and which you appear 

to intend to publish in a separate pamphlet. 

LIEUT. HENRY ASHWORTH, recently dangerously wounded, in the act of 
saving from the jaws of death, and from the barbarous hand of an impla- 
cable and inhuman enemy, the unfortunate beings who had escaped mas- 
Sacre at the fall of Tarragona, had himself previously endured a, severe trial 
of his fortitude and strength of mind. 

That brave and deserving young officer, had been wrecked, when a mid" 
shipman, in Feb. 1804, on board his Majesty's ship Hussar, of 38 guns, on 
the Saints rocks, near Brest. He, with the remainder of the crew, (one bout 
excepted) were made prisoners, and marched into the interior of France, 
where he remained three years. When weary of coufii enrir, and ha- 
rassed by cruelties, tie attempted his escape, and got down to Estnples " n 
the coast, but was unfortunately retaken, loaded with chains, cast into 
dungeons and subterranean prisons nearly eighteen m.nuiis ; when ano.tlie.' 

feat). J>ron. flcl. XXXI. e 



41 CORRESPONDENCE. 

chance of regaining his liberty presented itself, which was, undermining the 
walls of the fortress of Bitche. In this daring enterprise, he, .with several 
others, were detected, and tried by a military tribunal in the city of Metz; 
where he was sentenced to fifteen years slavery in the gnlleys : However, 
the tyrant thought proper to repeal die sentence, and our second Duron 
Trenck was rcconducted to the fortress of Ditche, with strict injunctions to 
the commandant, to have him more closely confined, if possible. Notwith- 
standing, after a few months had expired, this persevering and intrepid 
young man, with three other determined naval characters, forced the doors 
of their dungeoiiSj^eluded the vigilance of the sentinels, and got into Ger- 
many, where a Severe trial still awaited our hero: he was taken ill, and, of 
course, left by his companions. In this trying situation, his perseverance 
and magnanimity supported him. He passed for a Frenchman, (being a 
perfect linguist) until at length he arrived at Trieste, got on board 11. M.S 
L'Unite, and from thence went to England, where he was promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant. I remain, Sir, your humble servant, 

TIM. WEATIIERSIDE. 

MR. EDITOR, 

OBSERVING in a newspaper of Nov. 9, that a French Astronomer lays 
claim to a new discovery of a white shining spot on the southern pole 
of the planet Mars, with his conjecture, that it was a mass of ice or snow 
in winter, and disappeared, by melting, in summer; it is but justice to say, 
that our Dr. Herschel published, in the 74th volume of the Philosophical 
Transactions, more than twenty years ago, an account of the white appear- 
ances on both poles of Mars, with lus remarks, as follow -. " If we find, 
that the globe which we inhabit has its polar regions covered with ice and 
snow, we may well be permitted to surmise that the same causes may have 
the same effect on the globe of Mars ; that the bright spots Are occasioned 
by the vivid reflection of light from frozen regions, and that the re- 
duction in size of those spots is ti be ascribed to their being exposed to 
the Sun, and meltedtfcy it in summer." The whole paper is too long to be 
inserted in your CHRONICLE ; but I must call your attention to the modest 
terms in which the British Astronomer announced his opinions, so many 
years since, which arc now brought forward by Monsieur Desnigues, as 
new discoveries of his own. I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, 

TRUTH. 

MR. EDITOK, 

AS the Nelson, n?w on the stocks in his Majesty's Yard at Woolwich, is 
considered by judges of naval architecture to be one of the btst- 
finished ships in his Majesty's Navy, I inclose, for your information, her 
dimensions. Her figure-head represents the immortal Nelson. 

NELSON 120 Guns. ft. "' 

Length from the forepart of the Figure to the aft-part of theTafrail 2-14 

Length on the G un-iieek ,_ | W$ f> 

Keel for Tonnage 170 30^ 

Extreme Breadth 5^ 6 

Depth in Hold 54 O 

Burthen in Tons 26014 

October <27, 18 lo. 



43 
NAVAL BULLETINS 

OF 

LIEUTENANT O'BRIEN'S RECENT CAPTIVITY AND ESCAPE. 
[Continued from Vol. XXX. page 331.] 



BULLETIN THE TWELFTH. 

DECEMBER, 1807. I inquired of my companions, if they were never 
permitted to breathe the fresh air ? They informed me, they never had 
enjoyed that indulgence. It appeared to me an impossibility to exist many 
days without, and I thought it would be advisable to solicit that indulgence 
by a joint letter to the commandant, stating our situation. At the same 
time requesting, if it was his intention to deprive u? of health, and to cause 
us to linger away by degrees, instant privation of life. 

This application had the desired effect, and we were permitted to breathe 
the air every day, between the hours of eleven and one : but no in treaty 
whatever could procure us any more cleanliness, We were worse thau 
hogs, literally 

We therefore again began to devise and meditate upon plans for escaping. 
One proposed undermining the dungeon; I saw no prospect whatever of 
succeeding in this point : I, however, was willing to try every means to regain 
my liberty. Hammers and chissela with great difficulty were procured, and 
we carried them always about us, as the dungeon was ransacked every day 
in our absence. We hung an old coat up against that part of the rock 
which we intended to commence upon. Rope was necessary to descend 
the ramparts with, get out of the dungeon how we could. We accordingly 
got some friends, who obtained permission to come and see us, to pur- 
chase some stout linen for shirts (which we really much wanted) ; and front 
the shoemakers amongst the prisoners, we got, now and then, a ball of 
twine. We procured needles, bees-wax, &c. by deees, a;id made a rope 
of four or live fathom for each ; which we marled with the remainder of 
the twine, and passed tJght round our bodies underneath the shirt. Our 
working time was immediately on being locked up, after breathing the air. 
Night would not do ; as it would be necessary to have candlelight, and we 
might have Seen seen through the bars by our sentinels. 

(1807). The undermining business was found impracticable; conse- 
quently dropped. Having a rope, we flattered ourselves we might, some 
day, while out, be able to elude the vigilance of the sentinels, and scale the 
walls: however, it was a thing difficult to be accomplished; and, after be- 
ing liberated from the dungeon, we were in hopes to have an opportunity of 
u~ing it, if not before. These ideas were very consoling to us ; the hopes 
of once more getting out of their clutches was cherished by each of us, and 
\v c entertained each other with the pleasant sensations occasioned by such 
hopes the direction we should next tnke, and how we should act in case of 
'being auain enlarged, &r. were our constant conversation. 

On CuKisiM4 NJGJII, we were reflecting ou uur miseries, nothing to 



44 NAVAfc BULLETINS. 

soothe them. The pleasure and enjoyment common in our cour.try on 
this night frequently occurred to me : at length I got weary, and fell 
asleep. I was, in a short time, roused hy my companions, and dragged 
from where I lay, into a corner of the cell. Upon enquiry, it was in con- 
sequence of the sentinel, who, it appeared, had burnt priming through the 
bars at Mr. Worth, and had snapped his piece again before I was apprized 
ot it : which, if it had gone off, must have passed through my body, as I was 
point blank opposite to the hole. lie desired Mr. Worth to put his candle 
out, who refused ; and this scoundrel (perhaps intoxicated), without say- 
ing a word more, took the above-mentioned method of enforcing; his orders. 
AVe were placed out of his power at present, and th candle was still burn- 
ing; he begging one of us would put it out, his musket levelled the whole 
time at the candle. We knew the principles of such rascals better, and 
kept out of his way. At midnight, he was relieved ; we made known his 
conduct to the corporal of the guard, who rebuked him, and gave us per- 
mission to keep our candle burning. 

We determined to report this fellow the next day, nnd endeavoured to 
compose ourselves for the night ; grateful to Divine Providence for this 
hair-breadth escape. 

Accordingly, during the time we were out, I made the afi'air known to 
the Murechal de logis, who was second in command. I observed to him 
the inhumanity of this wretch, wishing to deprive po t or prisoners of war of 
their lives, (who were placed already in the most horrible state imaginable), 
for having an inch of candle a-light on Christmas night. Pie replied with a 
vast deal of sang froul " But his piece did not gooff, none of you rcerc 
hurl , and where is the use of tu king any more notice of it ?".,......_ 

(January. 1808). In a month, we were transported from the Dun- 
geon to a Souterrain, where Messrs. Tuthill and Ashworth, with fifty of our 
countrymen were. Here 1 remained four months, planning and scheming 
every thing possible to effect my escape ; but in vain : I, however, wore iho 
rope constantly round me; but the guard* were so watchful, I had very 
little hopes of being able to make the proper use of it. 

I remained in this place nearly four months ; at the expiration of which 
the commandant had the kindness to allow me to go up into a room, where 
there were already twelve more. This indulgence he had the courtesy to 
gay, was in consequence of my good conduct. Messrs. Tuthill, Ashworth, 
and Urine, were of the number. I svas much pleased at this circumstance 
the latter wore his rope as I did, and was the only person of the party, then 
in the room, who knew I had one. We became daily more intimate from 
this confidence in one another. After a vast number of fruitless endca- 
vonrs, on the 17lh of August 1808, the term of our slavery ;ippeared to be 
drawing to a conclusion ; I vas told in confidence by one of the seamen, 
that a party had thoughts about breaking ont that night from the Souterraiti. 
He was one, and informed me who the principal people were. I began to 
vcgrct being out of the cave at this moment. However, I imagined there 
xvas u probability of getting down amongst them for the night. I accord- 
ingly waited on the heads of the party, and requested they would have the 
goodness to alloiv me to visit them that evening without intimating my mot 



NAVAL BULLETINS. 45 

live. They stared ; and it immediately struck them, that I had a know- 
ledge of their project : I, therefore, did not hesitate telling them. They 
assured me they could not permit my coming among them, as it had 
been already fixed, that none of those upstairs were to be admitted : their 
reason was, they supposed it would cause suspicion, as it would be neces- 
sary to obtain the Murechal de logis's leave, before any of us could get be- 
low. I felt greatly mortified at their resolution ; they were locked down at 
the usual hour (six o'clock), and I told them at parting, that I had still 
hopes of spending the evening amongst them : after they were locked 
down, the Marechal de logis generally quitted the fort for some time, and. 
of course, they deemed it impossible to go down without bis sanction. 

I watched until I saw him go out of tlie fort, which was about half-past 
six : at seven* we were to be locked up in the room. I, therefore, lost no 
time went instantly to the gend'arme, or guard, told him, I was invited 
to celebrate the anniversary of a friend's birth night in the Souterrain, 
and that he would oblige me greatly by allowing me to descend. He he- 
sitated ; but, when I observed what apprehensions could he be under ? 
was I not more secure beliw than up stairs ? he granted it. Messrs. T. A. 
and B. t apprized of the business, they insisted, also, upongoing to celebrate 
the birth iiight. I was afraid that their applying would cause suspicion, 
and prevent even my being allowed : however, it did not ; and they made 
use of the same stratagem, and obtained leave. The noise which was 
made to prevent the working of saws, chissels, and other tools, being heard, 
convinced me they had already commenced their operations. Some were 
singing, others shouting, and dancing, &c. Before seven, we were amongst 
them, having taken a few necessaries with us for the night, which were not to 
be observed, in ourpockets. They received us with open arms, and admired 
our perseverance. I found they were getting on rapidly; the miners were 
very active one door was already forced ; the second door was an im- 
mense iron one ; it was impossible to break through it; the miners worked 
away the earth and rock under it. It was half-past ten before we got a 
hole large enough for a sm-.il! man to creep through, which enabled him to 
force the bolts and bars at the opposite side, and open the door. The 
principle obstacles were now removed in every one's opinion, and there 
remained but two slight doors more to impede our advancing to a subter- 
raneous passage that led out of the fort. This was a very intricate passage, 
and we had to feel for our way to the next doors, as it was dangerous to 
have candlelight. How valuable would a dark-lanthorn have been at that 
moment ! every body, except the few that were appointed to force the 
doors, were preparing for their march. It was now nearly midnight. The 
over-eagerness in forcing the third doar, shot the bolt back, which caused 
a noise, and alarmed the sentinels out-side. This occasioned the general 
alarm to be instantly beat all hopes were at an end. What unfortunate 
uretches zee are ! were the only words that eould be heard ; every body en- 
deavouring to get to his respective place before the guards entered. Those 
who were all over dirt, trying to strip and hide their clothes; the confusion 

* In summer they allowed us to remain until seven. 



46 NAVAL BULLETINS. 

was great in all parts ; running against one another, mistaking racli others' 
beds, &c. The visitors were, of all others, worst off: their friends, whom 
they came to spend the evening with, had no beds to offer them. The 
doors were now opening, the guards entering, and I was all over dirt, ramb- 
ling about, without being ahle to find any place to creep to. By accident, 
I tumbled over a bed : I immediately crawled under the blankets, boots and 
every thing on. The guards passed close by me, in going to the spot 
whence they conjectured they heard the noise. Every thing was silent, 
and yon would have supposed every body in a seund sleep, some snoring- 
By the guard's light, after they had passed, I discovered I was in a ser- 
vant's bed : the fellow was quite intoxicated, and I was some time before I 
could make him understand who I was, and what brought me to partake 
of his bed: however, this done, he desired me to cover myself over, and 
assisted as well as he could. It appeared he had gone to bed with an idea 
of getting sober by the time we should be ready to be off. On discovering 
the first door opened, the commanding officer observed, with a sneer, that 
he would give them weeks to get through the next, meaning the iron one ; 
but on advancing a few paces, one of the guards attested, with an horrid 
oath, that the second was also opened. This made the officer swear vehe- 
mently at the sacres coquins, to find out the chiefs of this horrible conspiracy ! 
' Where are those visitors," cried he, " who, I understand, prevailed on 
the gendarme to be admitted down ; they must be the heads of this busi-/ 
ness?" They then called over the names of Tuthill, Ashworth, and 
O'Brien : the two former answered, who were stripped, and, by this time, 
in bed, with some others : however, this did not protect them ; they were 
desired to put on their clothes instantly, and ordered to be conducted to 
my former habitation, the dungeon. They again repeated my name ; j,\Ir. 
Brine, through mistake, answered ; he was immediately ordered to join 
the other two. I remained close covered, and the servant sat up in the 
bed, and declared (when they were advancing towards him), that there 
was only himself in his bed. This they took for granted, and passed to the 
next. I saw no prospect whatever of escaping from being discovered (a$ 
they were certain of my being below); and I was frequently on the point 
of jumping up and jom:ng my comrades, who were now marching out for 
the dungeon. The servant (though intoxicated) observed it would be time 
enough to join that party, when I was discovered, and I ought to wait 
patiently the result. I found a good deal of reason in what the fellow 
said, and remained quiet. There were three or four more ringleaders 
(as they called them) discovered by the clay and stuff found about their 
garments ; and the whole were escorted to the dungeon. The doors were 
again locked ; having placed sentinels on those that had been broke open. 
I expected that the guards would return to search for another set of ring- 
leaders, and I remained i'uil of anxiety waiting for them. In the nif.au 
time, I was of opinion it would be as well to have my boots and clothes olF 
also : accordingly stripped, and concealed those that were full of earth 
and dirt in different parts of the Souterrain. Some time elapsed, and n 
return of the guards. I composed myself as well as I could ; my bed* 
fellow left me lull possession, and I ftl| into a profound sleep. 



NIVAL BULLETINS. 47 

January, 1808. When I awoke it was daylight. The usual hour for 
allowing the prisoners to breathe the fresh air arrived : but the doors were 
not opened ; and they were informed that they would be kept locked down, 
until they thought proper to deliver up the names of all those who had 
intended to desert on the preceding night. The prisoners laughed at such 
a proposition : there was nothing inort certain, than that all those \vho 
were at all capable of walking, would have embraced so excellent an op- 
portunity of regaining their liberty. On second consideration, it was 
agreed to mention only those already in the dungeon, as they were certain 
of punishment. The commandant would not credit this assertion, and the 
Souterrain was kept locked. At all events, I was now certain of being 
missed from my room, as there was no possibility of getting up. At 11 
o'clock they generally mustered the gendarme who gave us permission was 
also confined : it appeared that he did not give the correct names in the 
beginning, and he had not been interrogated particularly afterwards ; which 
accounted for the mistake between my name and Mr. Brine's. However, 
the moment (which left no hope of avoiding detection), was approaching 
fast. The commandant, and all the other officers of the fortress, descended 
about 9, to see the havoc that had been made the night before. They 
were all astonished how could we make so much progress in so short a 
time, and with so few tools ? having found only an old piece of saw, a 
hammer, and a couple of old chissels. I had a great deal of difficulty to 
avoid them while below ; but effected it, although it appeared of little con- 
sequence ; as I imagined eleven o'clock would decide my fate. 

At about ten, a waggon of wood came for the prisoners; permission was 
then asked to have the doors opened, that they might come up for it. This 
was denied, and the prisoners in the rooras were ordered to throw the 
billets clown through the bars of the air holes ; but^ fortunately for me, it 
was too Ir.rge, and they were compelled to open the Souterrain, and allow 
a certain number up to take it down, a strict guard being first placed on the 
door. I got a shift of clean things conveyed to me, and concerted a plan 
with one of those who was bringing the wood down : he was to make a par- 
ticular sign when the guards' eyes were off the door; which he did, and I 
that instant jumped out. The sentinels seized me, and desired I would 
descend again. I asked, why they had just that moment before permitted 
me to pass them, and go down? that I did not belong to the Souterrain 
went merely through curiosity to see what the prisoners had been about 
the last night, and reminded them (who had been in the habit of muster- 
ing the room I belonged to) of the mistake they were making -. they were 
convinced, and supposed they had actually let me pass a few minutes be- 
fore ; begged my pardon, and suffered me to return to my apartment, 
where I was in a few seconds indisposed, and snug in bed. 

There was no danger of being now discovered, until the gendarme who 
gave us permission was liberated. In the afternoon I obtained leave to go 
to the dungeon, to see my poor comrades, and condole with them : they 
were very much rejoiced at my good fortune, but feared it would soon be 
found out. Eight days passed on I frequently paid those poor fellows a 
visit during the time : the gendarme was then released, and I was obliged 



48 NAVAL BULLETINS. 

to keep constantly in the room, when he was on duty ; and when fie came 
to muster us, I was covered over in bed : they never call over the names *. 
to count heads is their method, which suited me admirably. Five more 
days had passed away in a similar manner, when we received orders to 
prepare for a general review, which usually takes place once a month. 
We were all placed in ranks, and minutely inspected : it appeared to my 
friends, and myself, that I could not avoid discovery on tins day, as all 
the sendarmes attend. There is no exception, or excuse of sickness, to be 
made, if a prisoner is nhle to crawl, he must attend, and frequently they 
are carried. I took my station in the ranks, expecting in u few minutes to 
be lodged with my old companions in limbo. 

The gendarme whom I had so long avoided, rivetted his eyes upon me. 
I received information, that he was going to make known to the com- 
mandant, or general, that I had importuned him more than the others, 
and was the person who prevailed on him to let any down. He was 
astonished at seeing me, having been informed that I was in the dungeon. 
Shortly afterwards he passed me, and I saw him go and speak to the 
above-mentioned officers. I was now confident he had completed the 
business. The review took place ; every one was inspected, and some 
asked several questions. I was passed over with very little notice I could 
not account for it and was of opinion, they would have said something on 
the subject, had they been made acquainted with it. We were all dis- 
missed, and the officers retired. 

I was confounded at my additional success, yet feared there was some- 
thing brewing. 

Walking to and fro in a kind of dilemma, I was accosted by the gendarme 
in nearly these words : " By what miracle have you escaped the dun- 
geon ? and how did you get up out of the Souterrain ? I have seen you 
walking about some days, although, perhaps, you did not see me." 
" Pray, Sir, why should I be put in the dungeon ? " " My God ! " ex- 
claimed he, " were you not the person who w:ts chiefly the occasion of my 
letting the other three and you down to visit yourfriends, asyou called it ? '' 
" You must certainly make a mistake, it was not me." He replied, he 
was certain it was me ; but added, it would afford him no satisfaction to 
have me punished his own punishment was over. It had been his inten- 
tion to tell the general and commandant ; but his wife had persuaded him 
not to do it. I assured'him that he would lose nothing by what he had 
suffered. I knew the disposition of the gentlemen on whose account he- 
was confined. The fellow laughed e became good friends, and he took 
me to the dungeon that afternoon to see my companions. Nothing could 
astonish them more than my appearing with this fellow, whom they 
imagined it impossible to appease, or to prevent from reporting me. 
I gave them the history, and they congratulated me, observing, that I wa 
yery fortunate. 

(To be continued.) 



T 



49 ,.H 

HYDROGRAPHY, PILOTAGE, &c. 

EUROPE. 

RUSSIA. 

HE following is one of the two contributions from Captain Krusen- 
stern, acknowledged at page 439 of the last (xxxth) volume : 



A New Guide for the Navigation of the Gulf of Finland. By Captain 
LEONTET SPAFAKIEFF, of his Russian Imperial Majesty's Navy. Trans- 
lated into English by Captain KUUSENSTERN. St. Petersburg, 1813, 
Imprimatur, Jatzenkoff Censor. An. 1813. d. 4. August. Petropoli. 

CERTIFICATE. 

This is to certify, that the College of Admiralty, having examined the 
/charts and draughts of the Light-houses,, that have in the gulf of Riga and 
Finland been partly built anew, partly rebuilt, by Chevalier Spafarieff, 
captain of the first rank in his Imperial Majesty's Navy, and director f the 
Light-houses in the Baltic, has found them perfectly correct. In conse- 
quence of which, the .College of Admiralty, by an Ukase of his Imperial 
Majesty, does not only sanction the changes made by Captain Spafarieff, 
tut, considering the publication of his charts, draughts, and the description 
of them very useful to all those who visit the Baltic, with the approbation 
of his Excellency the Minister of Marine, Admiral and Chevalier Marquis 
de Traverse, grants to Captain Spafarieff the privilege to publish the above 
mentioned charts in any language he pleases, and whatever benefit may 
arise from the sale of these charts, is solely to be reserved for Captain 
Spafarieff, as a well-deserved reward for his unremitting zeal and his 
distinguished abilities in this department ; Captain Spafarieff being, besides, 
the first who has introduced in Russia the present more perfect system of 
illuminating Light-houses. 

St. Petersburg, 14 July, 1813. 

(Signed.) Vice-Admiral & Chevalier KARTZOFF. 

Vice-Admiral & Chevalifer KOLOROLTZOFF. 
(L. S.) vice . Admira i & Chevalier SARITCHEFF. 

Vice-Admiral & Chevalier MESOEDOFF. 

(Countersigned :) Director of the chancery of the fafte class and 
Chevalier IEVANOFF, 

Remarks on the Circkt, made on the Charts around the Light-houses, in 

order to facilitate the Navigation, of the Baltic by Kight* 
Previous to the publication of these brief directions, relative to the night 
navigation in the Baltic, I have endeavoured to ascertain, by my own ex- 

* The. original of this small tract is accompanied with a chart, particularly 
adapted to the navigation by night, with all necessary explanation, derived fifpra 
experience and actual observation!, 

Cfcrsii. ol. XXXI. K 



50 HYDROGRAPHY. 

periencc, the utility of the changes that have been made within these last ten 
years, respecting the Light-houses. They are all marked on the charts, 
accompanying these directions, from the const of Courland to Cronstadt, 
with the addition, upon a large scale, of the islands on which they are 
built, and all the anchoring places of th south shore, with the entrances 
into them. 

On these charts are marked likewise the distances from whence the 
light-houses are seen, at the height of 15 feet above the surface of the 
water, and what part of the horizon is enlightened by them, which is very 
essential to know, as some lights remain concealed, merely, for the sake of 
shewing the navigator the deviation from his real course, or his approach 
to the shoals in the vicinity of the lights. As to the circles drawn on the 
charts around all the light-houses, for shewing at what distance they are to 
be seen, no great reliance is to be placed on them at all times, as a change 
in the state of the atmosphere will give a very different result, and may 
lead him, who is not aware of this circumstance, into error. The line of 
horizon is frequently, as I myself have found it by experience, particularly 
when the wind blows from the east, very badly defined, even when the 
sky is clearest, and a light will, at the same distance, appear at one time 
sooner than at another, owing to the well known effect of refraction, 
which, however, operates more powerfully on open lights, than on those 
that are inclosed. I have farther added a compass on the charts at every 
light-house, which may he of some use, particularly to ships beating in a 
narrow space to windward, and entering in the night time into some an- 
choring place, that may be situated close to the light-houses. 

The west coast of the island of Ezel has always been considered as one 
of the most dangerous parts of the Baltic ; frequently it has proved disas- 
trous to ships that were bound to the Gulf of Finland or to the Bay of 
Riga, and had been kept for a while by contrary winds between the islands 
of Gotland and Ezel ; in such a case, a ship has no means to ascertain her 
true place, except that of dead reckoning, on which very little dependence 
is to be placed, owiog to the irregular currents, out of the Gulf of Bothnia 
and Riga bay, setting ships coming from the west to the north, and those 
coming from the east to the south of their reckoning ; in either case they 
are driven towards the dangerous shoals and reefs that surround the west 
coast of Ezel. Between Dagerort and the south point of Ezel, there was 
formerly not one light-house to guide the navigator in a dark night, parti- 
cularly to guard him against that low spit of land called Horriland, or 
Svalferort, running out into the sea at a great distance, and on which 
almost every year ships have perished. It has frequently been the case, 
that ships bound to Riga Bay, and being set by the currents tp the north, 
have, in hazy weather, mistaken the woods on the south point of Ezel for 
the coait of Courland, and the woods on the headland of Gourla and 
Carale for the south point of Eze) ; thus supposing themselves to be in the 
fair way into the bay, they have run riht upon the low land that lies be- 
tween these points. Formerly there was indeed a light-house on the south 
point of Eze!, to lead ships into the bay of Riga, but it being only 50 feet 



HYDROaHAFHY* 51 

above the surface of the water, it could not be seen at a great distance, 
and as to ships from the west sailing up the Gulf, it was to them of no use 
whatever. Considering then, that the safety of the navigation of the Bal- 
tic wa not sufficiently provided for, government determined upon the 
following changes, which now are all executed. 

The light-house on the south point of Ezel, called the Zirlick light, has 
been built up to the height of 110 feet. It consists now of two lights ; the 
upper one enlightens the whole of the horizon towards the sea, the lower 
one, at its old height of 50 feet, is arranged in such a manner, that vessels 
coming from the west will see its bearing S.W. by compass, and those 
coming from the east, S. The reason for lighting it in this way is, that a 
ship may know by it her distance from the coast of Courland, and from the 
shoals lying to S.W. of the Island of Ezel ; the distance at which these 
lights may be seen, being marked on the chart, according to their respec- 
tive elevation, you may now, even in the darkest night, keep on your 
course without the least danger. When yon are sailing into Riga Bay, you 
have to take care, that the angle between the two Domessness lights, 
which you will see to 'the eastward, always should increase ; if the con- 
trary happens, you are nearing fust the coast of Courland, for the two 
lights are placed along the shore, and when they are in one, they are also 
on with a shoal, that stretches to the north-east of the coast. 

The light-house on the Island of Runo has been heightened from 40 to 
80 feet, but its place has not been altered. 

An entire new light-house has been built on the west side of the Island 
of Filzand. As? it stands half way between the light-houses of Dagerort 
and Zirlick, it was of the greatest consequence, to distinguish its light in a 
striking manner, from the light of Zirlick particularly. It consists of two 
lights one above the other; the upper one at the height of 110 feet is a 
revolving light, performing its revolution in a minute'* time, coming forth 
every half minute, and being eclipsed the other half. The height of the 
lower light is 86 feet ; it is also a revolving one. enlightening one part only 
of the horizon towards the sen, as indicated on the chart. You will see it, 
after having run 1J mile from the time the upper light was seen. In clear 
weather, both lights being in sight from a ship's deck (about 15 feet high) 
you may estimate yourself at the distance of 15 miles from the shore. 
Thus the west coast of Ezel, notwithstanding its many dangers, and the 
uncertainty of your dead reckoning, may (with the assistance of these 
different lights) be safely approached even in the darkest night. The light- 
house on the Island of Filzand will be equally of use in the day-time, it be- 
ing, on account of its high tower, an excellent turning mark, and easily 
distinguished from the tower of the Zirlick light-house, by a black painted 
band, encircling the whole of the tower, at that part where the lower fire is 
burning ; it has, besides, two wings, which will easily be perceived by ail 
ships at sea. 

It is the intention of government to build a light-house on the north point 
of the Island of Nargin, and lest it should be mistaken for either one of 
the neighbouring lights of Surop and Packerort, its light will be like that 
of Filr/and, a revolving one. This new lighl-hpuse will ia many respects 



52 HYDROGRAPHY. 

be of the greatest utility to the navigation of the Gulf of Finland. 1. The 
north point of Nargin projecting farther out into the sea, than any other 
on the east side of the Gulf, and the breadth of the fair way being very nar- 
row about this place, it is in dark tempestuous weather a rery dangerous 
point to pass, and many a ship has been lost upon it. 2 Ships coming 
from the Gulf, and hound to the Bay of Reval, will know by it how to 
steer for the light of Catharinenthal, and for those that are bound to the 
westward, it will warn them, not to come too near the Reva! Stone, which 
is a very dangerous rock. This light-house is not to he higher than 40 
feet, for the following reasons: a ship coming from the eastward, after 
having passed the Koschkar light, but stifl in sight, and perceiving the 
Nargin light from her deck (allowing it to be 15 feet above the surface of 
the water), will then not only know her distance from the Revel Stone to 
be 2f miles, but that she is at the same time on the meridian of the Devil's 
eye. Thus, having both lights in sight, she may continue her course 
without the least apprehension of all those dangerous shoafs, that lie be- 
tween the Islands of Koschkar and Nargin. 

In order to enable ships to sail out and into the Bay of Reval in the 
night time, a light-house has been erected near the barracks on the Cntha- 
rinenthal hill. It is placed in such a manner, that the light of it is only 
seen when coming up between the reef of the north end of the Island of 
Wolf, and a shoal with in feet water upon it, that lies to the east of Nar- 
gin. Ships coming from the east, and intending to run up the bay in the 
night, have to observe the following rules : 

Coming down with a fair wind, the Koschkar light wilf direct you to run 
between the shoals of Reval Stone and the Devil's eye ; after having passed 
the latter to the westward, you have to alter your course to S.W. which leads 
you clear of the reef to the north of the Wolf; taking, however, good care, 
not to bring the Koschkar light to bear to the north of E. {- N. otherwise 
you run the risk of coming too near the Wolf. Continue this course, till 
you perceive the light of Catharinenthal hilt, which, as has been men- 
tioned above, enlightens no more than the angle of the fair way, between 
the 18 feet shoal and the Wolf reef. Ships coming from the east, will 
see the Catharinenthal light by compass S. l i E. ; at S. 15* E. it is seen no 
more. When it bears S. 8 8 E. the light is brightest ; you are then in the 
middle of the fair way, and you continue this course, till you come to au 
anchor in the road. 1 here is no fear of taking another fire in the vicinity 
of the town for the Catharinenthal light, because 5 reflectors are placed 
perpendicular to the point of bearing (viz. S. 8 E.) which throw all their 
light right into the direction of the fair way, viz. S. '2 E. to S. 15 E. ; far- 
ther no light is to be seen. In the year 1806, when the first trial of this 
light was made, some officers of the navy seemed to doubt of its. answer- 
ing the intended purpose, although upon mathematical principles it was to 
be demonstrated, that it could not fail ; it was therefore repeatedly sub- 
mitted to the test of experiment. It is now proved beyond any farther 
doubt, that a ship may not only sail into the bay with a f;iir wind, but 
may, without the least danger, with a foul wind, beat into the bay. The 
elevation of this light-house above the surface 1 of the sea is 135 feet. 



HYbfcOGRAPHY. 53 

Remarks on the Light-house upon the high land of Surop. 

A ship from the east and bound to the Bay of Reval, will, on its approach 
towards the Wolf Island, perceive the Surop light bearing S. W. and 
S.VV. b. W. but hauling up to the southward it shuts itself. The reason of it 
is, that on the Island of Nargin, there is in that line of bearing, between 
the thick wood, with which the Island is almost totally covered, some places 
cut out purposely, and low bushes, over which the Surop light is distinctly 
seen. Ships that sail with a S.E. wind in the night time into the Bay of 
Reval, ought to ke aware of this circumstance ; for their seeing the Surop 
light does not denote that the flags of the Nargin shoals are under their 
lee, but that they are only abreast of them. 

On the Island of Eckholm, opposite the Bay of Monwick, there has been 
built a new light-house, bearing the name of this bay, for the purpose of 
enabling ships to run in the night-time into the Bays of Papenvvick, Cas- 
parwick, and Monwick. Particularly into that of Monwick, where ships 
frequently take shelter in bad weather, and where good anchoring ground 
is to be found. It is, besides, of great use, to take a safe course from 
Koschkar to Hogland ; for provided you do not lose sight of it, you have, 
even with a southerly wind, nothing to apprehend from the dangerous shoals 
of Kalbo Ground ; it is equally useful for ships going up to Narwa, by 
warning them against the dangers of the shoals of Calko-Ground. The 
elevation of this light-house above the surface of the water is 75 feet. 

Narva light-house stands at the mouth of the river Narova, on the right 
bank of that river; although the commerce of that place is not extensive, 
yet as vessels frequently arrive here in the night time, the building of a light- 
house has been thought necessary, particularly on account of ships that 
load here with timber. The mouth of the river being very shoal, they are 
obliged to lay off at a great distance from the shore, and boats going to and 
coming from these ships, have, for want of a light, frequently been lost, 
with their crews. 

The foul grounds of Lavensaar Island were esteemed very dangerous for 
large men of war, and squadrons, that had to beat up or down with a foul 
wind ; to lessen these dangers, a new light-house has been built upon the 
Island of Summers, and as this island lies half way between the Islands of 
Seskar and Hogland, ships are now led from one linht to the other. 

Seskar light-house stood formerly on the N. E. point of the island. 
According to the advice of Admiral SaritschefF, it has been pulled down ( 
and a new one built on the N.W. point. The new light-house is 40 feet 
higher than the old one, which was only 45 feet high. 

Talbeacon light-house has likewise been rebuilt on its old place ; its 
elevation, like that of Seskar light-house, is 85 feet ; if, therefore, a ship 
sees neither of these light-houses, she must be Jialf way between them, and 
clear of the Diamond stones. 

To ensure the safety of the passage between Talbeacon lighthouse and 
the London Chest, there has been placed a floating light upon the north 
point of that shoal, consisting of three lights in a triangular form, which 
may be seen at tbr distance of 4 miles, but, at iu some years the frost 



54 HYDROGRAPHY. 

sets in so early as the latter end of October, these 8aating lights are taken 

off the * of October. 

* 
Merchant ressels going up to Cronstadt in the night-time, have strictly 

to observe, thnt they are not to pass the guard ship, but come to anchor 
close to her. The guard-ship, which is always a frigate, lies, in general, at 
anchor in the fair way, about 3 or 4 miles from Cronstadt, and carries at 
all times a light in the main-top. On the fortress called the Rees bank are 
two lights, one above the other. 



gulations respecting the Light-houses in the Bultic. 

1. All the light-houses in the Baltic are under the immediate inspection 
of a director, appointed by the minister of the marine. 

2. They are all lighted by reflectors. 

3. The lighting of them commences enrly in the spring, as soon as the 
navigation is open, and continues till the latter end of May. It recom- 
mences the -J-j of July, and is continued till the navigation ceases. It 
happens, however, sometimes, that the western ports, such as Reva! and 
Port Baltic, are all the winter free from ice ; it has, therefore, been de- 
termined, to light the light-houses to the westward of Reval, throughout the 
whole winter. 

4. In case of any unfortunate accident in the vicinity of a light-house, 
the master of a ship has a right to demand every assistance ; the officer at 
the light-house is, in obedience to his instructions, bound to exert himself 
as much as possible, to afford the assistance required. 

5. Masters of ships, on their arrival in port, are requested to complnin, 
when they have observed some neglect or other at the light-houses ; for 
instance, if the light is not bright enough, if it is lighted too late in the 
evening, or put out too early in the morning, they must, in that case, be 
very exact, in assigning not only the day of the month, but also the hour 
of the day, and the cause of their complaint, in order to compare their 
dates with the journal kept on each light-house; an inquiry will immedi- 
ately be made, and the punishment be very severe, particularly when it is 
proved, that in cases of shipwrecks the officers of the light-houses have 
been neglectful of their duty. 

Now that light-houses have been built on all dangerous places in so 
great a number, that as soon as one disappears, the other heaves in sight, 
those lights again, which are at rather near a distance, being clearly distin- 
guished from each other, either by revolving or double lights, it is to be 
hoped, that the navigation of the Baltic, particularly that of the Gulf of 
Finland, by far the most dangerous of any known sea, will be found now 
perfectly safe even in the latest season. 

Postscript. The translator not being an Englishman, he requests, that 
should some parts of these directions not appear very distinct, any obser- 
vations hereon may be transmitted to Mr. Booker, tiie English Consul in 
Cronstadt, for the sake of farther elucidation. 



HYDROGRAPHY. 55 

ASIA. 

BAY OF BENGAL. 



* ON the eve of 13th November, 1808, gained soundings in 55 fathoms, 
and gradually decreased our water to 35 fathoms, with a bottom of soft blue 
mud ; when we hove-to, fearing the Terribles. At day-light saw land (but 
nothing of the Terribles), which proved to be Cheduba; though at first we 
thought it the Terribles, by its making so low: kept standing-in towards 
the coast of Ava, and at noon made the most northern rock of Cheduba to 
be in latitude 18 56' 30" N. by a very good meridian altitude of 0. Saw 
nothing of Captain Heywood's rock, lying in 18 58' N. and 93 16' E. 
On our nearer approach to the coast of Arracan, we perceived the flat 
table-land mentioned by Captain H. and it is a capital mark to lead in* 
At 7h. 30m. anchored in 8 fathoms, better than half-way over from the 
Cheduba coast ; at day-light weighed, and found the hoal of Cheduba to 
stretch a considerable way farther off shore than has been mentioned by 
any who have visited this port, and I strongly recommend keeping the 
Arracan shore close on board, being convinced the Cheduba shoal runs 
more than % way over oft' the eastern extremity of the island : by combining 
all the information I have by me with my own observations, I am confident 
these remarks will be found correct, and the passage easy of access. At 
noon anchored in latitude 18 53' 4" N. longitude by chronometer (the 
mean of three sights), 93 40' 30" E. and by d 93 46' E. Sent an 
officer on shore under French colours, understanding the Chedubians were 
partial to that nation. Captain H.'s directions for standing to an anchor- 
age we find to be very good; but it is recommendable to keep a careful 
look-out for the Sugar-loaf, as there are many hills of similar shape along 
this coast, nor did we find out the hummock so particularized until we 
came-to. When Round isle bears S. then you will be abreast of the 
Sugar-loaf, and may steer for your anchorage, 3 miles from Cheduba river, 
bearing W. b. N. The Sugar-loaf and Round isle bear one from the other, 
S. b. W. | W. and N. b. E. f E. I think my anchorage to be the best in 
the road-stead ;f but would not advise any ship of war to come nearer the 
Cheduba side, as we touched at low water. At the return of our cutter we 
received the acceptable information, that the Rajah would supply refresh- 
ments, but first wished to see me : on which, learning that every thing was 
to be obtained by presents, I took half a barrel of powder and a sword 

* These remarks arc extracted from the same MS. book which was placed in 
our hands by the late Captain of H.M.S. Belliqueox, and from which so much 
valuable matter has been lately transferred to the N. C. But that officer's indi- 
vidual observations appear Jo close with our last preceding Irydrogrspliical article 
of Rodrig.ue* ; and the present glf aning from that collection evidently has been the 
contribution thereunto of some other commander. (Hvon.) 

t A technical or grammatical definition of the precise meaning attached to thi 
s ynoaymu requested from any of thp correspondents or readers of the N- C. 

(HYDB.) 



56 HYDROGRAPHY. 

with me on shore. I found this Rajah to be a crafty man, who would fur- 
nish nothing until we should come to a preliminary agreement respectii g 
water, which he would not let us have under 2 dollars a ton : apprehension 
of danger to the health of my people, from the excessive heat, made me 
agree to this proposal ; but finding on the 17th that no boats came off for 
our casks, I determined to enforce performance of the contract, and ac- 
cordingly proceeded with all boats manned and armed. On our landing 
with a party of marines and pikemen, the natives assembled in great num- 
bers, not less than a couple of thousand, nnder arms, such as rusty mus- 
kets, rude swords, spears, bows and arrows ; at the exercise of the latter 
they are very expert, and employ poisoned arrows. After much alterca- 
tion, they agreed to send off water at the price stipulated, but required 
two hostages, which I complied with. Next morning the water came off, 
and I received a. letter from the officers left on shore, stating, that they 
were detained prisoners at the furt. On the 19th, I was about to seek the 
release of my officers by force of arms, when I understaod a new Rajah 
had arrived, that he immediately enlarged my officers, and gave permis- 
sion for the public to trade with us : on this I went on shore, with two 
brass musketoons as a present for the new magistrate, and obtained every 
refreshment at a low rate, that is to say : 16 fowls or 18 ducks for a dol- 
lar, a goat and 2 fine kids at the same price, yams, plantains, and oranges 
in plenty ; 3 boat-loads of wood for 10 dollars, and all sent off by the 
venders. Having gained a good footing with the new Rajah, I went to the 
interior country, and found the island to be a fine country, with abun- 
dance of the best cattle I have seen in India, much game of all kinds, and 
no doubt spars might be obtained. It is against the sovereign (of Ava)'s 
commands to sell cattle ; but by having the Rajah for my guest on board, 
and their great confidence in us, had I impressed my desire we might 
have gotten them at 2 doljars a-head : I, however, deferred doing so, as 
the Rajah told me, that clandestine dealings might expose his very head to 
risk, and that he would write to the king for the needful assent, so that I 
doubt not we or any succeeding English ships would be permitted to make 
such purchases. The island is governed in chief by a temporary Rajalr, such 
as I have described, and also by a natjve permanent Rajah : but it shoujd 
eem as if neither could act but in concert with the other. The one from 
Ava is deputed every three years, the other is an hereditary chieftain, and 
consequently has more influence over the natives. But, after all, my ad- 
vice is, not to trust this people, nor commit yourself in their power ; for if 
nee they deem you defenceless, I believe them treacherous enough to takt 
every advantage : at the same time be polite to them, without lowering dig- 
nity, and they then will be tractable. On my departure, I had many de- 
monstrations of friendship made tome by both Rjijahs, with firm assurances 
of always behaving friendly to English ships. 1 omitted to mention in its 
place, that on my arriva} I found a Frenchman on the Island, who went 
away in the retinue of tlje old Rajah : I afterwards understood it was that 
personage's practice to insist o two hostages, and then detain them until 
redeemed by some considerable present : J therefore advise all comman- 
ders to beware of acceding to such a demand, and generally to use distrust 



>LATE CCCCTII. 57 

in transactions with the magistracy of this place. A ship of war might 
wood and water in defiance of all obstruction, but in all probability would 
lose more men by the arms of the natives, or by sickness, than the object be 
worth under ordinary circumstances ; for a great degree of hent prevails in 
the river ; and the casks must be filled at low water a considerable way up. 
The river's mouth bears from the entrance of Arracati harbour W. b. N. 
and from the Sugar-loaf about W.S.W. The sea-breeze always sets in at 
2 P.M. from N.N.YV. to W. and the land-wind at day-light, or perhaps 
before, at E. I am sorry the necessity for getting on my station prevented 
we from exploring more of this coast, and in particular the harbour of 
Arracan : according to general appearance, the former is steep-to, and the 
latter commodious. 



PLATE CCCCVII. 



(or Kro'i) is an English settlement on the west coast of the 
Island of Sumatra, of which the reader will find hydrographical no- 
tices in N. C. Vol. XXVIII. p. 70. 130 ; and Vol. XXIX. p. 224. The 
MS. Survey, from which the annexed Chart has been executed, was 
obligingly lent to us by the Right Hon. Lord Viscount Torrington. 

" The district of Krojf, near Mount Peegong (says Mr. Marsden, in his 
History of Sumatra), is governed by five magistrates, called Panggau-limo, 
and a sixth, superior, called by way of eminence, Panggau; but their 
authority is said to be usurped, and is often disputed. The word, in com* 
nion, signifies a gladiator or prize-fighter, 

" Four miles up the river Kro'i there is a cave of very considerable size, 
which abounds in the edible birds' nests, so much celebrated as a peculiar lux- 
ury of the table, especially among the Chinese. The birds are called layang- 
layang, and resemble the common swallow, or, perhaps, rather the martin. 
They are distinguished into white and black, of which the first are by far 
the more scarce and valuable, being found in the proportion of one only to 
twenty-five. The white sort; sells in China at the rate of a thousand to 
fifteen hundred dollars the pikul (according to the Batav. Trans, for nearly 
its weight in silver), the black is usually disposed of at Batavia, at about 
twenty or thirty dollars for the same weight, where I understand it is chiefly 
converted into a kind of glue. The difference between the two sorts has 
by some been supposed to be owing to the mixture of the feathers of the 
birds with the viscous substance of which the nests are formed ; and this 
they deduce from the experiment of steeping the black nests for a short 
time in hot water, when they are said to become white to a certain degree. 
Among the natives I have heard a few assert, that they are the work of a 
different species of bird. It was also suggested to me, that the white might 
probably be the recent nests of the season in which they were taken, and 
the black, such as bad been used for several years successively, This 
opinion appearing plausible, I was particular in n\y inquiries s^> to that 

. Ilol.XXXI. * 



58 CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH, &C. 

point, and learned what seems much to corroborate it. When the natives 
prepare to take the nests, they enter the cave with torches, and, forming 
ladders of bamhoos notched according to the usual mode, they ascend and 
pull down the nests, which adhere in numbers together, from the sides and 
top of the rock. I was informed, that the more regularly the cave is thus 
stript, the greater proportion of white nests they are sure to find, and that 
on tJJis experience they often make a practice of beating down and destroy- 
ii>5 the old nests in larger quantities than they trouble themselves to carry 
away, in order that they may find white nests the next season in their 
room. The birds, 1 am assured, are seen, during the building time, in 
large flocks upon the beach, collecting in their beaks the foam thrown up 
Ly the surf, of which there appears little doubt of their constructing their 
gelatinous nests, after it has undergone, perhaps, some preparation from 
commixture with their saliva, or other secretion in the beak or the craw ; 
and that this is the received opinion of the natives, appears from the bird 
being very commonly named layiing-huhi, the foam-swallow. Linnaeus, 
hovvever, has conjectured, and with much plausibility, that it is. the animal 
substance frequently found on the beach, which fishermen call blubber 
or jellies, and not the foam of the sea, that these birds collect ; and it is 
proper to mention, that, in a description of these nests by M. Hooyman, 
printed in Vol. III. of the Batav. Trans, he is decidedly of opinion, that the 
substance of them has nothing to do with the sea-foam, but is elaborated 
from the food of the bird. Mr. John Crisp informed me, that he had seen 
at Padang a common swallow's nest, built under the eaves of a house, 
which^was composed partly of common mud, and partly of the substance 
that constitutes the edible nests. The young birds themselves are said to 
be very delicate food, and not interior in richness of flavour to the 
beccaiico. 



; CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH 

OF THE 

MOST REMARKABLE NAVAL EVENTS 

OF THE YEAH 1813. 

JANUARY 

A PPEARED in the London Gazette, his Royal Highness the Princp 
-L*- Regent's Declaration, in answer to the American Manifesto, rela- 
tive to the war between Great Britain and the United States of America. 

14. Arrived an account of a dreadful shock of an earthquake in {lie 
jsland of Jamaica, which occurred on the 14th of November. 

MARCH. 

}8. An order issued to the Custom-house, authorizing the clearance of 
vessels for Prussian Ports, and the admission of Prussian \essels into Eng- 
orts. 



NAVAL POETRY. 5 

19. Account of the capture of the Java frigate, by the United States fri- 
gate Constitution, after a desperate engagement, in which Captain Lam- 
bert, of the Java, with most of the officers and many seamen, were killed. 
The action took place on the 29th of Decemher. 

23. Captain Irby's dispatch, detailing the desperate action, on the 7th 
of February, between the Amelia frigate and the French frigate Arethusa. 

APRIL. 

20. Official account of the action between the Java and Constitution: 

MAY. 

8. Account of the loss of the Peacock, in an engagement with the Arne* 
rican brig Hornet, brought by his Majesty's ship Seahorse. 

JULY. 

9. Capture of the Chesapeake by the Shannon, after a desperate action 
of about fifteen minutes. 

AUGUST. 
16. Capture of the American sloop of war Argus, by the Pelican. 

SEPTEMBER. 

5. Intelligence of the capture, by the Americans, of the Macedonian 
frigate. 

OCTOBER. 

21. Intelligence received of the capture of his Majesty's brig Boxer bjf 
the American brig Enterprize. 

24. Intelligence of the capture of the Weser, a French frigate of 41 guns. 

NOVEMBER. 

2. Intelligence of the capture of the French frigate. La Trave, of 44, by 
the Andromache, of 38 guns. 

Intelligence received of the loss of the Laurentinus frigate, in a hurri- 
cane, off the Bahamas. 

11. Arrival of American papers, detailing the action on Lake Erie. 

21. Intelligence received of a Counter-revolution in Holland. 
DECEMBER. 

7. Account of the Prince of Orange's entry into Amsterdam, where he 
was saluted by the titlq of William I. Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands, 



THE SAILOR'S HOME. 

WHEN riding on the mountain wave, 
The dauntless sailor, ever brave, 
A noble mind displays ; 
He laughs at dangers, smiles on fate, 
And risks his life to save his mate, 

Nor sordid fear betrays; 
For well lie knows, whate'er his doom, 
The occao is th sailor's home. 



60 KAVAL POETRY. 

And, when on shore 'mid needy friends, 
His generous soul its succour lends 

To cheer their hapless lot; 
When cull'd from pleasure's luring train 
To brave the hardships of the main, 

He flies and murmurs not. 
For well he knows, whate'er his doom, 
The ocean is the sailor's home. 

In fight, where death terrific sways, 
The sailor cheerfully obeys, 

Where'er by duty cnll'd ; 
Tho' round him wounded messmates lie, 
And tears of pity dim his eye, 

He never stands appall'd. 
Tor well he knows, what'er his doom, 
The ocean is the sailor's home. 



THE STEERSMAN'S SONG. 

WHEN freshly blows the northern gale, 
And under courses snug we fly; 
When lighter breezes swell the sail, 

And royals proudly sweep the sky ; 
Longside the wheel, unweary'd still 
I stand, and as my watchful eye 
Doth mark the needle's faithful thrill, 
I think of her I love, and cry, 

Port, my boy ! port. 

When calms delay, or breezes blow 

Right from the point we wish to steer; 
When by the wind close-haul'd we go, 
And strive in vain the port to near ! 
I think 'tis thus the Fates defer 

My bliss with one that's far away; 

And while remembrance springs to her, 

I watch the sails, and sighing say, 

Thus, my boy 1 thus. 

But see, the wind draws kindly aft, 

All hands are up the yards to square, 
And now the floating stu'n-sails waft 

Our stately ship through waves and air, 
Oh! then I think that yet for me 

Some breeze of fortune may thus spring, 
Some bree/e to waft me, love, to thee! 

And in that hope, I, smiling, sing, 
Steady, boy ! so. 



61 

llato. 



A T a Court Martial assembled and holden on board H.M.S. Hibernia, 
** off the Rhone, on Saturday, the 2d day of October, 1813 ; 

* PBESENT 

Sir WILLIAM SIDNEY SMITH, Knight Commander and Grand Cross of the 

Royal Military Orders of the Sword and St. Ferdinand, Vice-admiral 

of the White, and Second Officer in the command of his Ma- 

jesty's Ships and Vessels in the Mediterranean, President. 

ISRAEL PELLEW, Esq. Rear-admiral of the White, and Captain of the Fleet, 
Sir RICHARD KING, Bart. Rear-admiral of the Blue. 

Captains. 

George Burlton George Parker 

John Erskine Douglas Robert Rolles 

Sir Edward Berry, Bart. Sir James Athol Wood, Knt. 

Richard Hussey Moubray Henry Heathcote 

Norborn Thompson Jeremiah Coghlan. 

The Court, in pursuance of an order from Sir Edward Pellew, Bart. 
Vice-admiral of the Red, and Commander-in-chief of his Majesty's Ships 
and Vessels employed in the Mediterranean, dated the 29th of Sept. 1813, 
and directed to Sir W. S. Smith, Vice-admiral of the White, and Second 
Officer in the command of his Majesty's Ships and Vessels employed in the 
Mediterranean, proceeded to investigate the conduct of the Hon. Captain 
W. J. Napier, the officers and crew of his Majesty's late sloop Goshawk, re- 
specting the loss of that vessel, and try them for the same: And the 
Court having fully investigated the whole of the particulars respecting the 
loss of the Goshawk, is of opinion, tiiat she was lost in consequence of get- 
ting aground on the evening of the 21st of September, 1813, about two and 
a half miles to the eastward of the mole-head of Barcelona, owing to the 
wind baffling and dying away, and a heavy swell, when in the act of wear- 
ing to stand offshore in her usual soundings, having been standing inshore, 
for the purpose of intercepting a supply of provisions which was expected 
by sea that night, for the service of the French army, in vessels of light 
draught of water, that no blame whatever is imputable to the Hon. Cap- 
tain W. J. Napier, the officers or crew of the said sloop, it appearing that 
they did their utmostHo preserve the vessel, and did not abandon her until 
it became necessary for the preservation of their lives. The Court doth, 
therefore, adjudge the Hon. Captain W. J. Napier, the officers and crew of 
his Majesty'* late sloop Goshawk, to be fully acquitted, and they are hereby 
fully acquitted accordingly. 

Signed by the Court, 

RICHARD SPEARE, 
Officiating Judge Advocate. 



62 

NAVAL I1ISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1813-1814* 

(December* 'January. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

ALTHOUGH the past month has been unproductive of naval actions of 
any importance, we have the unpleasant task of recording some 
serious losses, by accident and the weather. 

The Daedalus frigate has been lost on a shoal in the neighbourhood of 
Ceylon, hut her crew was happily saved. 

From Halifax we learn, that, in a dreadful hurricane which happened 
there, upwards of 100 vessels were driven on shore in that harbour. Se- 
veral of them were bilged, and all greatly damaged : among the latter were* 
La Hogue and San Domingo, of 74 guns each ; the Maidstone frigate, 36 
guns; the Epervier sloop, of 18 guns; the Manby, 14; arrd the Corso 
schooner, of 16. To these accidents we have to add, the total loss, off 
New London, of the Atalante sloop, Capt. llickey, of 18 guns; the offi- 
cers and crew, however, were saved. 

At Newfoundland, the Tweed, Capt. Mather, of 18 guns, was lost on a 
rock; the purser and surgeon, and 65 of the crew, we lament to find, 
perished. 

In the Mediterranean, the total destruction of the Barfleur, 98, Sir Ed- 
ward Berry, was very narrowly averted. Lightning struck her foretop gal- 
lant-mast, which it shivered to pieces ; descended the foretop-mast and 
foremast; and, proceeding through all the decks, tore up part of the lead 
at the light-room door, which is situated close to the magazine ! 

The Queen transport, No. 332, Carr, master, has been driven on Tre- 
fugis Point and beaten to pieces. She had brought home, from the British, 
army on the Continent, 325 sick and invalided soldiers, 63 women, and 
58 children ; besides whom, she had on board six French officers, prisoners 
of war, and a crew of 21 men, making a total of 473 persons. The soldiers 
were all artillerymen, except about 20, who belonged to the 30th regiment. 
One hundred men and four women, with great difficulty, got a-shore 
and all the rest, 360 in number, perished with the ship. 

We extract the following account, of the wreck of the Cumberland inari 
of war, from a private letter, dated Hosely Bay, Jan. 22 : 

" I avail myself of the first leisure moment, to inform you of a mis- 
fortune we encountered on the morning of the 20th : wind S. E. blowing 
fresh, wiih a heavy sea; unfortunately the Bedford was a-head of us, she 
parted, and, in consequence of a sudden gust, came on board us before 
we could possibly do any thing to extricate ourselves. At this time our 
perilous situation threatened imminent danger; our bowsprit went first, 
then our fure-mast, and, finally, our main and mizcn-masts. Providence 
so directed it, that we lost no lives; five, -however, were severely wound- 
ed : one man !obt all his fingers from one hand, and part of his nose was 
completely carried away ; another man lost one finger, and the rest suf- 
fered in a similar manner. We are much damaged in the hull, so that we 
must be paid off immediately. I assure you the scene is shocking; bus 
trunk God we have cleared u.vay the greater part of the wreck." 



KATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1813 1814. QS 

In order to restrain that shopkeeping turn for commerce, which the Eng- 
lish are apt to indulge in too freely, Buonaparte had very obligingly order- 
ed all the ports under his dominion to be shut, and extended his civility 
even to many foreign ones. Our Prirjce Regent has now, in return for hig 
politeness, given orders that the Ft encfi ports shall be opened* for English 
trade, merely for the sake of accommodating the inhabitants of France; 
an instance of urbanity that could scarcely have been expected from " a 
juttiun of shopkeepers!" 

An old naval practice lias been lately revived, by order of the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty ; viz. the forming the warrant and petty 
officers of the navy into juiies, to sit on the bodies of such persons as un- 
fortunately meet with accidental death. The first of these juries sat, at 
the beginning of the month, onboard the Gladiator at Portsmouth, on the 
body of a seaman, who fell from the main-yard of the Illustrious at 
Spithead. 

We have been informed, that Sir Philip Broke is to be honoured with a 
gold medal, to be worn with his full uniform, for the capture of the Chesa- 
peake frigate. 

Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane is going out to America, with a 
considerable force, to relieve Sir J. B. Warren, on that station; and the 
newspapers have stated, that his nephew, Lord Cochrane, was appointed 
to act under him, with a squadron of five frigates and three sloops of war, 
and a large flotilla of flat- bottomed boats. But, says the Morning Chroni- 
cle, " there is no foundation for the report of Lord Cochrane's being to 
have the command of a squadron of frigates. That would look like energy 
in the Admiralty Board." 

We have not an enemy now left in Europe, except one, with whom it is 
our proud and glorious distinction to be at war. DENMARK HAS AT 
LAST JOINED THE COMMON CAUSE! Definitive treaties of peace 
and alliance have been concluded by Denmark with our government, -mid 
that of Sweden ; signed by Mr. Thornton on our part, and by Baron Wef- 
terstedt for Sweden. The following is an official summary of the con- 
ditions: 

All conquests a re to -be restored, except Heligoland, 

Prisoners of war on both sides to be released. 

Denmark to join the Allies with 10,OUO men, if England will give a sub- 
sidy of 400,000/. in the year 1814. 

Pomerania to be ceded by Sweden to Denmark in lieu of Norway. 

Stralsund still to continue a depot for English produce. 

Denmark to do all in her power to abolish the slave trade. 

England to mediate between Denmark and the other Allies. 

PEACE ir, MOST EVIDENTLY AT HAND ! The black clouds with which our 
political horizon has been so long surcharged, have separated, and all the 
symptoms of a serene and undisturbed futurity are visible. 

The harbour of Fornelles, on the north side of Minorca, immediately 
opposite to Toulon, has been surveyed by the master of the Hibernia, with 
a view to consider the eligibility of the Mediterranean fleet making that 
their port of refuge in future. 

*A late Gazette contained an Order of Council, releasing from the restric- 
tions of blockade all such ports and places in France as now are, or max be, 
placed in the military occupation, or under the protection, of his Majesty, in 
consequence of the success of his Majesty's arms, or by the voluntary stibuiisMou 
of the inhabitants; and opening the same to the free trade of this country, and 
Jh,c subjects of friendly ;u;d ueulral powers. 



64 JTAVAL HI9TORT OF IHI PRESENT TEAR, 18131814, ] 



en 

Copied verbatim from the LOSDON 



ADMIRALTY-OFFICE, DECEMBER 14, 1813. 

ADMIRAL LORD KEITH has transmitted to John Wilson Crokef, 
Esq. a letter from Captain Dundas, of H. M. S. Pyramus, giving an 
nccount of his having, on tlie 29th of last month, captured off Ushant, the 
Zephyr American ship, of four guns and twenty rue;., bound from L'Orient 
to Charlestown, 

DECEMBF.R 18. 

Copy of a Letter from Admiral Young, Coirmuttidcr-ln-chicfofhis Majesty's 
Ships and Vessels in the North Sea, to John Wilson Croker, Esq. dated 
on board the Impregnable, off the Scheldt, the 11th instant. 

SIR, 

I enclose, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty, the copy of a letter from Captain Lord George Stuart, of II. M.S. 
Horatio, giving an account of the surrender of the French force on the 
island of Scho\ven ; and of that island being again under the Dutch govern- 
ment; in which their Lordships will perceive great promptitude of decision 
in Lord George to storm the batteries, and very spirited preparation for 
doinjj so, if the enemy had not immediately surrendered. 

1 have the honour to be, &c. 

W. YOUNG. 

SIR, H.M.S. Horatio, off Z'uderie Zee, Island of Schowen, 

December 8, 1813. 

Yesterday morning some pilots brought off a letter, from a gentleman 
who had been in the British service, requesting aid to drive the French 
from Zuderie Zee. I lost no time in working up, and anchored just out of 
gun-shot of a heavy battery, which totally commanded the passage. As 
it was necessary to pass, in execution of your orders, I made the disposition 
for attacking it. I therefore collected fifty marines and seventy seamen 
from the Horatio, with the same number from the Amphion, with a deter- 
mination oftrmiiig it from the rear, as soon as the tide \vouid answer 
for the boats to have the ship, which could not be tiil nine P.M. During 
the interval, a deputation from the principal citizens came on board under 
a flag of truce, from the French general, requesting that, in order to save 
the eft'iiMon of blood, and prevent the disorders which were likely to ensue 
in the city, then in a state of insurrection, terms of capitulation should he 
granted, by which the French, with their baggage, should be allowed to. 
withdraw and be conveyed to Borgen-op-Zoom : this I peremptorily re- 
fused, and sent back the terms herewith enclosed. The thickness of the 
weather did not triable the deputation to quit the ship before ten o'clock 
at night, which induced me to extend the time tiil midnight. I had not 
proceeded any considerable distance from the ship, before the signal, in 
token of submission, was made. 1 landed at the buttery, which having 
secured, I went forward to the town, and found the native French had 
made their escape. I directed the seamen to remain at the cate, aud 
entered with the murinf-s, amidst the acclamations of an immense multi- 
tude; proceeding to the town-hall, I was n;ct by the mi.^t rc-pectble 
inhabitants in a body, and then having dissolved the French Municipal 
Authorities, I directed the ancient Magistrates of the city to resume their 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1813 I$l4 t &$ 

functions. This morning, in compliance with my directions, the magis- 
trates of the town of Browcrshaven reported their having driven the French 
from thence, and they received similar injunctions with respect to their 
Provisional Government. I took possession of a brig of fourteen guns, for- 
merly his Majesty's brig Bustler, which the enemy had attempted to scuttle, 
also a French gun-boat, and a considerable quantity of powder, and have, 
in the course of this day, brought in twenty prisoners, and more are 
expected. 

I feel happy in having obtained so important an acquisition as the whole 
island of Schowen, without bloodshed, and facilitating the means of open- 
ing a communication with the allied forces in the South of Holland. 

In closing this despatch, I beg leave to recommend to your particular 
notice the zeal and activity of Captain Stewart, of the Amphion, together 
with Lieutenant Whyte, first of the Horatio, with the rest of the officers, 
seamen, and marines under my command, in this service. I must here 
beg leave to express how much I am indebted to Captain Hamilton Smith, 
of the Quarter-Master-General's Department, for his advice and nssistance, 
who, from his knowledge of the Dutch language, and of the people, hsjs 
very much facilitated these operations. I also enclose thelist of ordnance, 
&c. taken. I have, &c. 

Admiral Young, c. G. STUART. 

Dated on board H. R. M. S. Horatio, at half-past 
SIR 7 o'clock, December 7, 1813. 

With a view to spare the effusion of blood, as senior officer in command 
of his Britannic Majesty's forces, I feel it my duty, after the communication 
I have received, and the resources which I at present have, to summons 
you to surrender, prisoners of war, with the French officers and troops un- 
der your immediate command. 

No other conditions will be admitted. I expect a decisive answer by 
twelve o'clock this night ; my authority will not admit of the suspensjoa of 
hostilities longer than that period. 

If accepted, one gun. 

If not, three ditto. G. STUART. 

To (he commanding officer of the French VJ1 

troops in, the town of Zuderie Zee, 
Island of Schowen. . . : ~- 

4 List of Ordnance, SfC. taken possession of by his Majesty's Ships Horatio 

and Amphion, on the morning of the 3th of December, 1813. 
6 iron 36-pomulers, 6 iron 24-pounders, 2 brass 6-pounders, 2 brass 
J3-inch mortars, and a considerable quantity of shot and ammunition. 

G. STUART, Captain and Senior Officer. 
Mem. Brass ordnance embarked. 

Copy fff another Letter from Admiral Young to John Wilson Croker, Esq. 
(luted on board tht Impregnable, off the Scheldt, the llth inttunt. 

SIR, 

I enclose, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty, the copy of a letter from Captain Lord George Stuart, of H. M. S. 
Horatio, giving an account of the destruction of a battery of six 24-pounders 
on the i,laud of Tholen, which would have materially interrupted the pro- 
gress of the ships to the Keetan. 

The precipitate flight of the enemy prevented the bringing them to aetioa^ 

. tf&roiu fflol. XXXI. * 



68 NAVAL HISTORY Of THE PRESENT tEAR, 18131814, 

but takes nothing from the determined spirit with which Lieutenant Whytff, 
and the officers and men under his command, advanced to attack them. 
1 have the honour to be, &c. 

W. YOUNG. 

SIR, Horatio, off Zuderie Zee, December 10/1813. 

The thickness of the weather preventing the Tickler's sailing yesterday, 
enables rne to acquaint you of a brilliant affair by the boats of the Horatio 
nnd Amphion, under the immediate command of Lieutenant Whyte, first 
of the Horatio. 

Having received information that the French had augmented their forces 
in ihe island of Tholen with four hundred men, and it being necessary 
to secure the battery at the point of Steavinesse, in order for the ships to 
pass up the Keetan, I despatched the boats of the two ships at ten P.M. 
with the boats crews only, when they landed two miles in the rear of the 
battery; immediately on their approach, the French precipitately fled, and 
did not enable our brave fellows to oppose them, and we made only three 
prisoners. The battery consisted of six 24-pounder guns. Lieutenant 
^'hyte, with the assistance of Lieutenant Champion, first of the Amphion, 
and the officers and men under their command, dismantled the battery, 
spiked the guns, destroyed the carriages and ammunition, and returned 
on board at half-past three A.M. Though the enemy did not oppose our 
force, I hope it will not diminish the merits of the officers nnd men em- 
ployed, and that their zeal and activity will merit your approbation. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
To William Young, Esq. $c. G. STUART. 

DECEMBER 21. 

Co/'y of a Letter from Vice~admiral Sir R. G. Keats, K.B. to John Wilson 
Croker, Eaq. dated on board H.M.S. Bdleroplton t off the Isle of Wight, 
the 10M instant. 



sin, 

I beg you will report to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, the 
capture of Le Genie, French lugger privateer, of 16 guns, and 73 men, by 
the Belierophon, this morning, off Portland. I am, &c. 

K. G. KEATS. 

DECEMBER 25. 

Despatches, of which the following are extracts, have been received at 
this oraoe from Admiral Young, addressed to John Wilson Croker, Esq. 

Impregnable, in tfte Roompot, December 19, 1813. 

Captain Owen having landed on South Beveland with the marines, I 
enclose, for their Lordships' information, his account of the manner in 
which he was received by the inhabitants. 

SIR, Ter Goes, in Soulk Bevclqnd, December 17, 1813. 

I proceeded with the earliest light this morning with the parties of the 
royal marines you did me the honour to place under me, and landed at the 
entrance of the haven, about three miles from Ter Goes. 

The peasants flocked to me from every quarter: the flag of the Dutch 
uion appeared borne by crowds on every side, and our march to Goes 
covered by the multitude of these flags which gathered round us, whilst 
B* v of Orange Boven resounded on every side. 

wa,^ "ene was the most animating and the most interesting that I ever 

the cr, the proclamation of his Royal Highness the Prince of Orange 

The !>- well as one from the magistrates., from the windows of ihft 

witnessed , 
was read, a 



SAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAE, 1813 1814. 67 

Stadt-Huuse, and was followed by the most enthusiastic cheers and accla- 
mations. 

Tha intention of the enemy, in the requisition he had ordered for the 
garrison of Flushing, has been defeated, and the Dutch flag is flying upon 
every steeple near the western shore. 

The conduct of the parties of the royal marines, in the midst of this 
intoxicating scene, and the kindness showered upon them by the inhabitants, 
ha-> been marked with regularity. I have the honour to be, &c. 

G. W. C. R. OWEN, 

Admiral Young. Captain of H. M. S. Cornwall. 

Impregnable, in the Hoompot, December 20, 1813. 

t request you to inform the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that 
Captain Owen reports, that he was on the 18th at Borselen, in South 
Beveland. Information having reached him, that the enemy were actually 
levying at Krabbendyke the supplies forBatz, for which requisition had been 
made, he cent Major Bartleman to interrupt them, and his men cut off 
their knapsacks, and pursued the enemy, but did not arrive in time. 

Captain Owen found at Borselen two capital batteries, one of ten iron 
guns, and two brass mortars ; the other of six or eight guns, and two mor- 
tars. All the guns were spiked ; he ordered two of them to be cleared, 
proposing to occupy with a small detachment the tower of Borselen, where 
there is a tolerable barrack, and to laud a small quantity of powder to 
interrupt a little the enemy's communication by the river. 

Captain Owen found, on hi arrival at Goes, that the Dutch had 
already formed there three companies of national guards, th officers of 
which have strictly adhered to Captain Owen's wishes in every thing, and 
attended him for the purpose of organizing six troops of cavalry, of xty 
men each ; and six companies of infantry, of one hundred each. Of the 
former force, much is already arranged, the inhabitants eagerly offering 
themselves, and their horses. Large parties are on duty, and patroles and 
guards are established on the roads and principal points of the shore. 

Information having been brought to m yesterday evening, of the enemy 
having landed a force of five hundred men at Borseleu, I sent immediately 
to reinforce Captain Owen ; but I have not to-day had any report from 
South Beveland. I have no doubt of some French having landed, though 
I think it probable the number of them was increased by the apprehensions 
of the people who sent the report. I have the honour to be, &c. 

W. YOUNG. 

Impregnable, in the Roompot, 21ji December, 1813. 
I request you to inform the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that 
Captain Owen reports that the French corps, which landed at Borselen, 
was immediately repulsed ; all the inhabitants flew to arms, and every per- 
son who could find a weapon of any description, joined the small party of 
royal marines who were near Borselen, and marched against the enemy, 
who embarked as soon as he discovered their approach. Captain Owen 
speaks in the highest terms of the enthusiasm of the inhabitants, and of 
the alacrity and good conduct of the marines. 

Vice-admiral Sir Edward Pellew has transmitted to John Wilson Croker, 
Esq. a letter from the Hon. Captain Duncan, of II. M. S. Imperieuse, 
Stating, that the Audacieiix, French privateer, vas captured on the 31st 
of August, off the Straits of Bonifacio, by the above ship and the Swallow 
sloop. Sue carried three suns and forty men, and had sailed two days be- 
fore from Ciyica Vecchia." 



68 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1813 1814. 

Copy of a Letter from Captain Hopkins, of IT. M. Slovp of War ffelicon, 
addressed to Vice-admiral Domett, and transmitted by the latter to John 
Wilson Croker, Esq. 

SIR, H. M. Sloop Helicon, Plymouth,.Deccmber 23, 1813. 

I have the honour to acquaint you, that, on the 22d instant, the Eddy- 
tone bearing north, distance five leagues, his Majesty's sloop under my 
command captured, after a short chase, the French privateer schooner La 
Revenant, of It guns, and 77 men. She sailed the day before from St. 
Malocs, and had not made any capture. H. M. S. Nemesis joined in the 
chase. I have the honour to be, &c. 

HARRY HOPKINS, Commander. 

Extract of a Letter from Captain Chetham, of H.M.S. Hamadryad, to 
John Wilson Croker, Esq. dated in Wingo Sound, the 13th instant. 

I bej leave to report to my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, the 
capture of his Danish Majesty's cutter Abigail, commanded by Lieutenant 
Kierulf, by H.M.S. under my command, yesterday, between the Scawr 
and the island of Lassoe. She is armed with three cohorns and small arms, 
and forty men, and had sails and other naval stores on board, belonging to 
the late Danish frigate Nyaden, from Frtderickswarn bound to Copen- 
hagen. ______ 

The under-mentioned letters have been transmitted to John Wilson 
Croker, Esq. by Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren, viz. 

From Captain Godfrey, of H. M. sloop Emulous, dated at St. John's, 
N-B. 19th October, reporting the destruction, in Passamaquuddy Cay, of 
two American privateers ; one a schooner, called the Orion, of one guu 
and lt> men, and the other a row-boat, carrying 17 men, with small arms. 

From Captain Lawrence, of H. M. sloop Fantome, dated off the islands 
of Metimicas, 5th October, stating his having captured the American pri- 
vateer schooner Portsmouth Packet (late the English privateer Liverpool 
Packet), carrying five guns, and 45 men, out the day before from Ports- 
mouth. 

From Captain Ilandley, of H. M. sloop Arab, dated off Cape Sambro, 
3d November, stating the capture of the American privateer schooner 
Industry, of five guns, and 26 men, 14 days from Murblehead, without 
making any capture. 

JANUARY 1, 1814. 

Copy of a Letter from Vice-admiral Sir Edicard Ptllezv, Bart. Commander- 
in-chief of' H. M. Ships and Vessels in the Mediterranean, to John Wilson 
Croker, Esq. dated on board H. M. S. Caledonia, off Toulon, the 6th 
November, 1813. 

SIR, 

If I were not aware that erery shot fired from his Majesty's fleet before 
Toulon upon that of the enemy, would be pompously displayed in the 
Moniteur, by the Government of France, to deceive all Europe, as well as 
their unhappy subjects, I should have considered it unnecessary to trouble 
their Lordships with the following detail of the transactions of the squadron 
under my command on the 5th instant. 

His Majesty's fleet had been blown off their station by a succession of 
bard gales for eight days, and it was only yesterday mornim;; that the land 
was discovered, together with the in-shorc squadron, as per margin,* which 

* bcipion, Mulgrave, Pembroke, Armada. 



UJLTAI, HISTORY Of THE PHEstNt TEAR, 181S 1814. 6J 

had reached Cape Sicie the preceding evening. The fleet were standing 
with close-reefed topsails, towards Toulon, to reconnoitre, with a strong 
wind from E.N.E. when at ten A.M. the enemy, as customary with such 
winds, was seen getting under weigh, and came out with fourteen sail of 
the line, and seven frigates, for their usual exercise, close in shore, be- 
tween Cape Brun and Cape Carcaviane. A sudden change of wind to 
N.W. seemingly unexpected by them, permitted me to hope that we should 
be able to bring the rear to action ; and the Scipion having communicated 
by signal the prospect of cutting off the leewardmost ships, she was di- 
rected, with the advanced squadron, to attack. The Caledonia, Boyle, 
and San Josef, leading some distance a-head, and followed by the fleet, 
were, I thought, near enough to afford support, with every prospect of 
success ; but, unfortunately, from the wind heading, they were not able to 
fetch the leewardmost ship, a three-decker, hearing the flag of a rear- 
admiral, to windward of St. Marguerite, and, consequently, only a partial 
firing took place, in passing on different tacks, and after wearing from the 
shore, between Sepet and Cape Brun. 

Had the body of the fleet, fortunately, been more advanced when the 
change of wind took place, I am confident we should not only have brought 
the enemy to close action, but every ship we had weathered would have 
been our reward, although they had not been above a league eastward of 
the port, and always under cover of the batteries. 

The French fleet, the moment the wind changed, used all possible expe- 
dition to get back into the harbour, and the vice-admiral was among the 
first that reached the anchorage. 

The casualties in the ships on this occasion, are too trifling to mention, 
were it not for the wounds of two fine young officers, Lieutenant Clarke, 
of the marines, and Mr. Cuppage, signal midshipman of the San Josef, 
who each lost a leg by one unlucky shot. 

I have, in ccmrn"M with every officer and man in this fleet, deeply to 
lament that a fairer opportunity was not afforded for displaying the full 
extent of their exertions in the cause of their Sovereign, and in support of 
the honour of his flag, confident there cannot be found more ardent Zeal 
in this jtist struggle, than among the officers and men I have the happiness 
to command 

I beg leave to enclose a return of the casualties on this occasion, and 
have the honour to be, &c. 

To John Wilson Croker, Esq. -EDWARD PELLEW. 

Casualiies.-^-Killed and Wounded. 

Caledonia. S wounded slightly. 

San Josef. 4 wounded, viz. Lieutenant Clarke, royal marines, Mr. 
Cuppage, midshipman, each lost a leg, two men slightly. 

Scipivn.l. killed by accident, 1 wounded by the enemy, slightly. 
Boyne. 1 wounded slightly. 
Pompee. 2 slightly burnt by accident. 
Pembroke. & wounded slightly. 

EDWARD PELLEW. 



A List of Ships and Vessels captured, detained, and sent into Halifax ly the. 
Squadron wider the Command of the Right Han. Sir J. B. Warren, 
Bart. K.B. between the 20M April and the 20th September, 1813, not be- 
fore gazetted. 

'Brig Sally, of 143 tons, from Portland, bound to St. Margaret's, cap- 



70 . NAVAL HISTORY 0* THE PRESENT "YEAR, 18131814. 

tured by the Curlew, April J4, 1813. Brig Hector, of 156 tons, from Ha- 
vaunah, bound to New York, captured by the Spaiian, April 30, 1813, 
Schooner Ann. of 43 tons, frum New Orleans, bound to Bourdeaux, cap- 
tured by the Nympbe, Shannon, Tenedos, and Emulous, May 5, 1818. 
Ship Youup Phoenix, from Jersey, recaptured by the Orpheus, May 9, 1813. 
Schooner Emperor, frotn Carolina, bound to Boston, captured by the 
Orpheus and liamillie?, May C, ISIS. Brig Paragon, from Aberdeen, bound 
to New Brunswick, rec:*ptured by the Shannon and Nova Sotia, May 19, 
1813. Ship Duck, from Waterford, bound to Newfoundland, recaptured 
by the Bold, May 18, 1813. Ship Fidelia, of 243 tons. ,rom New York, 
bound to Cadiz, captured by the Orpheus and Raiuili.es, May 19,1813. 
Sloop Juliet, of 92 tons, from Cuba, bound to Newport, captured by the 
Paz, May 10, 1813. Sloop Branch, of 78 tons, from Boston, bound to 
Dear Island, captured by the Bream, May 26, 1813. Sloop Seruirainis, of 
85 tons, from P. River, bound to Boston, capture<l hy the Bream, April 23, 
1813. Schooner Columbia, of 98 tons, from Martinique, captured t>y tha 
.Rattler, May 10, 1813. Schooner Postboy, of 154 tons, from Salem, 
bound to St. Domingo, captured by the Shannon, Tenedos, and Hauler, 
May 24, 1813. Schooner Joanna, of 48 tons, from Co.-rnn, bound to Ease 
Port, captured by the Dart privateer, June 1, 1813. Schooner Washing- 
ton, of 65 tons, from Portland, bound to Boston, captured by the Dart 
privateer, June 5, 1813. Ship Cuba, of 176 tons, captured by the Dart 
privateer, June 6, 1813. Brig Christiana, of 132 tons (in the possession of 
the American privateer Teaser), captured by the Wasp and Rover, June 
16, 1813. Schooner Lark, captured by the Wasp and Rover. Schooner 
Eunice, of 193 tons, from St. Ubes, bound to Boston, captured hy the 
Wasp, June 18, 1813. Brig Thomas, from Cadi?, bound to Boston, cap- 
tured by the Wasp. Ship Gustava, of 123 tons, from Boston, bound to 
Madeira, captured by the Sylph, June 22, 1813. Ship North Star, of 
117 tons, from Sc. Salvador, bound to Boston, captured by the Tenedos, 
June 24, 1813. Brig St. Japo, of 267 tons, from Salem, bound to 
Malaga, captured by the Woolwich, June 26, 1813. Ship Minerva, of 
184 tons, from Boston, bound to Lisbon, captured by La H"gue, June 30, 
1813. Packet Ship, Liverpool, captured by the Dover. Schooner Harriet, 
from Newfoundland, bound to London, captured by the Dover, June 17, 
1813. Schooner Little Bill, from St. Bartholomew's, bound to North 
Carolina, captured by the Loup Cervier, June 27, 1813. Ship Herman, of 
413 tons, from Baltimore, bound to Lisbon, captured by the Chesapeake 
squadron, June 24, 1813. Brig Fanny, of 146 tons, from Newhaven, 
bound to Halifax, captured by La Hogue, July 8, 1813. Schooner Swift, 
of 63 tons, from Cape Cod, bound to Ipswich, captured by ti c Curlew, 
July 7, 1813. Schooner Two Brothers, of 53 tons, from Kcnnt-beck, 
bound to Ipswich, captured by the Curlew, same date. Ship Srartowcr, 
re-captured by the Fantome. Schooner Precilla, of 01 tons, bound to Bos- 
ton, captured by the Curlew, July 9, 1813. Brig Ellen, from St. Bartholo- 
mew's, bound to Portland, captured by La Hogue. Schooner Rebecca, of 
86 tons, from New York, bound to Cadiz, or Halifax, captured by the 
Boxer, July, 37, 1813. Schooner Nancy, of 14 tons, taken inhaibourat 
Little River, by the Boxer, July 28, 1813. Schooner Prudentia, bound to 
Cadiz, captured by the Rattler, July 7, 1813. Sloop Eunice, captured by 
the Curlew, August 7, 1813. Brig Anna', of 125 tons, from Nen haven, 
bound to Laguira, captured by the Poictiers. Alaitlstone, ami Nimrod, 
August 13, 1813. Ship Uepuiilicap, from New York, bound to Port an 
Prince, captured by the Nimrod, August 11, 1813. Ship Manchester, cap- 
tured by tlie Nimrod, Poictiers, and Maidatonc, August 18, 1813. Brig 
Isabella, of 128 tons, bound to Boston, captured by the Picton, August 19, 
Schooner Lively, from St. Thomas's, bound to Halifax, captured 



NAVAL HISTOUY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 18131814. 71 

by the Epervier, August 2Q, 1813. Ship Gusfoff, of 374 tons, from New 
York, hound to Beaufort, captured by the Statira and Martin, June 14, 
1813. Schooner Providence, captured by the Nymphe, July 22, 1813. 
Brig Fanny, from Morice River, bound to Philadelphia, captured by th 
Statira, .June 1, 1813. Ship Ulysses, of 248 tons, from the Savannah, 
bound to Boimleaux, captured by the Majestic, June 30, 1813. Brig 
John Adams, of 223 tons, from Portland, bound to St. Ban holornew's, cap- 
tured by the Rattler and Retrieve privateer, July 11, 1819. Schooner 
Bet*cy, of' 117 tons, from Tort<>la, bound to Portland, captured by the 
Bream, July 14,1813. Schooner Triton, of 182 tons, from St. Thomas's, 
bound to K< nnebeck, captured by the Bream, same date. Schooner Jef- 
ferson, of 99 tons, fn in Boston, captured by the Bream, July 12, 1813. 
Briii Sr,nn er. from Liverpool, bound to Halifax, captured by the Ring- 
dove, July 28, 1813. Sloop Mary, captured by the Nimrod Ship Flor 
c!e .f:is.o, ot 16 A tons, from Lisbou, bound to Boston, captured by the 
Manly. Bri Hop<^, from Batavia, bound to Providence, captured by the 
Manly, August 2, 1815. Schoom-r Four Brothers, captured by the Emu- 
lous August 4, 1813. Silip Roxana, captured by La Hogue. Sloop 
William and Ann, of 77 tons, from Scotland, bound to Ireland, captured 
by the Nimrod, Julv 31, 1813. Sloop Minter, of 56 tons, from Province 
Town, hound t> New Bedford, captured by La Hogue, July 11, 1813, 
Schooju-r two fy others, of 89 tons, from Tanfield, bound to Eastport, cap- 
tured l>y the Boxer, July 6, 1813, Sloop Friendship, of 100 tons, from 
Blackrock, hound to Eastport, captured by the Boxer, July 6, 1813. 
Schooner Polly, captured by the Statira, August 13, 1813. Schooner King 
George, of 204 tons, from Liverpool, captured by the Recruit, August 18, 
1813. The Gennett, of 35 tons, from Hingham, hound to Fishing, captured 
by the Nymphe and Curlew, August 12, 1813. Sloop Endeavour, of 184 
tons, from Castine, bound to Boston, captured by the Nymphe and Cur- 
lew, August 17, 18^3. Schooner Rebecca, of 117 tons, from Townsend, 
bound to Boston, captured by the Boxer, August 3, 1813. Sloop Fairplay 
captured by the Boxer, July 25, 1813. Schooner Porpoise, of 32 tons, 
captured by the Rattler, July 31, 1813. Brig Anaconda, captured by the 
Sceptre. Schooner Euphernia, of 90 tons, from Havanpah, hound to Bos- 
ton, captured by the Majestic, August 27, 1813. Brig Elizabeth, cap- 
tured by the Shelburne, August 26, 1813. Schooner Espoz y Mina, from 
La Guira, bound to New York, captured by the Statira, August 24, 1813. 
Ship Flor de Mar, of 311 tons, from Fayal, bound to Boston, captured by 
La Hogue, August 16, 1813. Brig Alicia, captured by the Loire and 
Martin. Ship jane, captured by the Loire and Martin. Ship Divina Pas- 
tora, of 380 tons, from Ilavannah, bound to New York, captured by the 
Statira, September 1, 1813. Ship Jerusalem, of 750 tons, from Havan- 
nah, bound to Boston, captured by the Majestic, September 3, 1813. 
Sloop Dolphin. Brig Mariner, captured by the Poicticrs, August 29, 
1813. Schooner Fortune, captured by the Boxer, August 31, 1813. 
Brig Watson, captured by the Poictiers, September 3, 1813. Schooner 
Torpedo, captured by the Plantagenet, September 11, 1813. Ship Cata- 
lonia, captured by the Shannon, September 16, 1813. Ship Alliance, cap- 
tured by the Shannon, September 16, 1813. Schooner Queen Charlotte, 
captured by the Shannon, September 17, 1813. Ship Massachusetts, cap- 
tured by the Censor, -September 11, 1813. Ship Santa Cecilia, from 
Lisbon, bound to New Bedford, captured by the Wasp, September 14, 
1813. Ship Active, captured by the Epervier, September 20, 1813. 
Schooner Mary, of 61 tons, bound to Boston, captured by the Sylph, Sep- 
tember 13. 1813. Flor de Jago, 

JOHN BORLASE WARREN, 



72 XAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT! YJAR, 1813 !Sl4i 

JANUARY 8. 

Extract of a Letter from Captain Farquhar, of H. M.S. Desirte, to John 
Wilson Crokcr, Esq. dated vff Gluckstadt, December 23, 1813. 

I have to acquaint their Lordships, that on Sunday, the 19th instant, I 
was made acquainted, by letter from Captain Marshall, of his Majesty's 
loop Shamrock, that a detachment of the Swedish army was advancing 
towards Gluckstadt, I determined to move up next morning with his Ma- 
jesty's ships Desiree and Blazer, but the weather was so extremely thick 
that it was impossible to move; the same day I received another commu- 
nication from Captain Marshall, that Stoar battery, a little below Gluck- 
stadt, was attacked by the Swedes, when the enemy set fire to the gun- 
carriages, spiked their guns, and retreated into the town. 1 therefore re- 
solved to proceed up the river that night in a gun-boat, and ordered the 
Jrigate and brig to come up as soon as the weather should clear, and tliej 
arrived this morning. 

Copy of a Letter from Captain Hostf, of H. M. S. Bacchante, addressed 
to Rear-admiral Fremantle, and transmitted by Vice-admiral Sir Edward 
Pelleio, to John Wilson Croker, Esq. 

SIR, E.M S. Bacchante, off" Castel Nuova, Oct. 16, 1813. 

T arrived off Ragusa on the 18th instant, and joined the Saracen and 
three gun-boats, with a detachment of the garrizon of Curzola on board, 
commanded by Captain Lowen, who had been directed by Colonel Robert- 
son to act on this coast. 

From the information I received from Captain Harper, of the Saracen, 
together with the state of the country about Cattaro, and the insurrection 
of the Bocchese, I lost no time in proceeding to this place, with the 
vessels under my orders. On the 13th, in the morning, we forced th 
passage between Castel Nuova and the fort of Rosa, and after some firing, 
secured a capital anchorage for the squadron about three miles above 
Catel Nuova. 

In the evening, I detached the boats of this ship, with those of the 
Saracen, and the two Sicilian gun-boats, under Captain Harper's orders, 
who very handsomely volunteered his sen ices, to capture the enemy's 
armed naval force, which I understood were lying between the Isle St. 
George, and the town of Cattaro. Captain Harper completely succeeded: 
the enemy had destroyed their boats on his approach, but having suc- 
ceeded in manning them with the armed Bocchese in the neighbourhood, 
he most gallantly attacked and carried the Island St. George, the con>. 
ruandant and his garrison surrendering at discretion. I enclose his report 
of the affair, with the account of the guns, &c. captured. This is a point 
of the utmost importance to our future operations : it commands and 
fronts the narrow channel to the narrow branch of the river that leads up 
to Cattaro itself; and, fortified as it is, it would have been with difficulty, 
if at all, the ships of war could have passed it. The fort of Peroste was 
taken by the Bocchese the same night, and I have now the pleasure to 
acquaint you, that Castel Nuova, and Fort Espagnol, surrendered by 
capitulation to the British force this morning, a copy of which I enclose. 
The garrison remain prisoners of war till exchanged ; the officers are 
allowed their parole. There are several Croats amongst the garrison, who 
are willing to enter the Austrian service, and I intend sending them to 
Fiume. I shall lose no time ingesting up to Cattaro. Fort St. John is 
the only place the enemy possess in the Boccy. The French general, 
Gaathier. has retired into the fart, with about six hundred men : it i 



NAVAL HISTOUY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1813 1814. 73 

about fifteen miles up the river, and is a very strong place. I intend pro- 
ceeding there directly I have arranged our affairs here. 

I have left a garrison in Fort Espagnol, and enclose the return of the 
stores, guns, &c. &c. taken in the three places. The Montenegrins have 
been of considerable service in closely blockading the country round 
Espagnol, and the neighbourhood. I cannot mention in too warm terms 
the conduct of Captain Harper ; he is ever ready, and most indefatigable, 
and the capture of the Isle of St. George does him, the officers, and men, 
the highest credit. 

I am much indebted to Captain Lowen for the ready advice and assist- 
ance he at all times gives me ; and the zeal that animates every one is 
highly praiseworthy. I have the honour to be, &c. 

Rear-admiral Fremant le, SfC. \\. HOSTE. 

Saracen, off Cast el Nuova, Bocca di Cattaro, 
SIR, October 13, 1813. 

Agreeably to your directions, I send the report of the proceedings of the 
boats you did me the honour of putting under my command. At ten P.M. 
on the 12th instant, I left the Saracen with the two gun-boats, the launch 
and barge of the Bacchante, and the boats of the sloop under my command, 
and pulled towards Caitaro. On going through the passage of Cadone, the 
enemy on the island of St. George opened u heavy tire on us. We fortu- 
nately escaped without damage. At midnight, within four miles of Cat- 
taro, I found the enemy's four gun-boats in a state of revolt. I instantly 
took possession of them. The appearance of the English at th:s moment 
had the happiest effect. I landed at the different places; summoned the 
principal inhabitants, who immediately, at my request, armed en mas^e 
asaii^r. the French. As there was not a moment to be lost in carrying into 
execution your further orders respecting the island of St. George, I hoisted 
the English and Austrian flags in the four gun-hoats taken, and manned 
them with part English, and the remainder inhabitants, volunteers, and 
proceeded down to the attack of that place. At daylight, I landed at the 
town of Persale, and found die inhabitants had taken possession of a small 
castle of three gun i from the French. Seeing these guns might be em- 
ployed with advantage against the fortifications of St. George, and the in- 
habitants putting themselves under my orders, I hoisted the English and 
Austrian colours, and took the command. I ordered Lieutenant Gostiing 
to bring up the gun-hoats to the attack, which he did in the most handsome 
manner. At six A.M. this morning, a heavy and well-directed fire was 
opened at the island, and returned from it. In fifteen minutes the enemy 
was driven from his guns, and made a flag of truce and offered to capitu- 
late. I insisted on their surrendering at discretion, the whole to be pri- 
soners, and allowed tiiem five minutes only before I commenced firing 
a^ain, to which they submitted, and I took possession of the island, and 
hoisted the English colours. I am happy to say, this strong place has been 
reduced without any loss on our side. 

It i* with the iire:itest pleasure I have to report the good conduct of 
every officer and man employed, and if I had been obliged to storm the 
island, as I intended, 1 feel confident the result would have been complete 
*ucccss. 

Lieutenant Gostiing, of the Bacchante, to whom. I gave the command 
of the gun-hoais, brought them up to the attack iindera heavy fire from the 
enemy, in the mo->t cool and determined manner. [ have landed the ma- 
rines, and given him the command of the island until your pleasure ia 
known. It is not in my power to describe the juy and enthusiasm <* the 
^habitant;, at seeing the English flag flying. la two hours 1 hud the 

. Jlol.XXXI. *- 



74 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1813 1814, 

whole population armed under my command, and ready to execute any 
thing I might order. 

The gun-boats I had taken, I have ordered to blockade the town and 
castle of C;ittarr, l>v sea, and the armed inhabitants by land, which they are 
doing in the btrictest manner. 

Enclosed I send returns of gun-boats, prisoners, ordnance stores, &c. 
taken. I have the honour to be, &c. 

J. HARPER, Commander of the Saracen. 
W'dliam Hoste, Esq. Capta'm of H. M, S* Bacchante. 

A Rejurn of G tin loa/g taken on the Evening of the 13th October, 1813, 

near Cattaro. 

2 gun boats, each 1 long 24-pounder in the bow, 1 12- pounder carronade 
in the stern, manned with 30 sailors and 6 soldiers each. 

2 gun-boats, each 1 long '24-pounder in the bow, manned with 26 sailors 
and C soldiers each. 

These gun-boats had on board four large brass Q4-pounders, carriages, 
shot, &c. and were going to Cattaro to be mounted on the fortifications, 

J. HARPER, Commander of the Saracen. 

A Return of Prisoners taken at the Island of St. George and small Castle 

ofVcsarte, on the Morning of the \3th October, J813. 
1 captain-commandant, 2 lieutenants, 1 captain of engineers, 9 gunners, 
2 serjeaius, 4 corporals, 120 privates. 

J. HARPER, Commander of the Saracen. 



An Account of Ordnance Stores, &-c. taken at the hland of St. George, 
October, 1813. 

1 24-pounder brass gun, 4 18-pounder brass guns, 1 18-pounder iron 
gun, 3 six and half-pounder iron guns, shot springes, &c. &c. complete ; 
1 six and hah'-ir.rh bras=. mortar, shells, &c. ; 1 furnace for heating shot, 
66 barrels of powder. 8 cases of musket balls, 3 ca^es of hand grenades, 
1 case of live shells, 18 casks of bread, 5 casks of wine, 1 cask of salt fish. 
J. HARPER, Commander of the Saracen. 

ARTICLES of CAPITULATION, agreed on between the Forces of his 
Britannic Majesty, commanded by William Boste, Esq. Captain of his 
ftri/annic JMujesly's Skip Jiucchante, and S<^nior Officer in the Bocco d\ 
(.'tittaro, on O'tr stile ; and the French Garrisons yf Castel Nuova find 
Fort Espagnnl, on the other, commanded by Lieutenant-colonel Holezroi'z. 

Art. I. The French troops shall march out of the place with the ho- 
nours of war j 5-h:iIl deposit their arms on the glacis, and shall be em- 
barked on board his Britannic Majesty's ships, and shall be considered as 
prisoners uf \var. 

Art. II. The colonel and officers shall remain on their paroles, and not 
to serve till regijlarly exchanged. Tnty shall be allowed to retain their 
swords. 

Art. III. Tbe Croats, officers and soldiers, have permission to return 
to their own country, and shall be recommended to the Hou^e of Austria, 

Art. IV. Ti.fc fortress and Cartel Nuova shall remain in the same state 
it is at present ; the magazines and public stores shall remain in the same 
tafe they are actually in, 

Art. V. All private property shall be respected. 

Art. VI. 'i ho tioop;. of his Britannic Majesty shall take possession of 
J"ort Espagnol and of Ca:tel Nuova ut eight o'lock to morrow mornine t 



it AVAL HISTORY OF THE PursENT YEAR, 1813 1814. 75 

Art. VII. A guard of his Britannic Majesty's troops shall immedi- 
ately tie sent into the city to preserve tranquillity. 

The ollicer who delivers this will wait half an hour for an answer. 

WM. HOSTE, Captain of his Britannic 
Majesty's ship Bacchante. 

P. LOWEN, Captain, commanding his 
Britannic Majesty's Troops. 

IIOLEVVOITZ, Le Colonel-Comman- 
dant de Castel Nuova; 

Return of the Garrison of Castel Nuova and Fort Espagnol, on the iGtft 
October, 1813. 

4th Regiment of Croats. 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant, 1 serjcant-major, 
1 private. 

3d Regiment of Croats. I captain, 3 lieutenants, 1 aide-major, 1 sub- 
lieutenant, J adjutant, 2 serjeant-majors, 6 serjeants, 14 corporals, 236 
privates, 4 drummers. 

4th Italian Regiment.' 1 Serjeant, 5 privates. 

Artillery. 1 lieutenant, 1 guard of artillery, 10 gunners. 
Gendarmerie. 1 brigadier, 5 gendarmes, 2 engineer and magazine 

guards.-; Total 299. 

Le Colonel HOLEWOITZ. 
W. ffoste, Captain of H. M. S. Bacchante.. 

An Account of Ordnance^ Stores, SfC. taken at Fort Espagnol, on the 
morning of tJie Wth October, 1313. 

4 brass 3-pounders, 7 iron 12-pounders, 4 iron 4-pounders, 1 iron l3- 
pounder, dismounted, 7 iron swivels, 40 barrels of powder, 100 Ibs. each, 
900,000 musket-ball cartridges, 400 tilled cartridges for guns, 3000 eleven- 
inch live shells, 600 hand grenades, 4000 three, tour, and 12-pounders. 

Castel Nuova. 

2 brass 12-poundcrs, 1 iron 24-pounder, 4 iron 12-poundcrs, 2 iron 
4-pounders, dismounted, 3 barrels of powder, 200 His. each, 1 barrel of 
powder, 100 Ibs. 2000 shot, different sizes, 1500 eleven-inch shells, 300 
hand grenades, not iillcd. W. 11OSTE, Captain. 

Vice-admiral Sir Edward Pellevv has transmitted to John Wilson Crokcr, 
Esq. a letter from Captain Dickson, of H. M. S. Swiftsure, reporting the 
capture, off Cape Rousse, in the Island of Corsica, on the 26th of Novem- 
ber, of the French schooner privateer Charlemagne, of eight guns, and 93 
men, by the boats of the above ship, under the directions .of Lieutenant 
William Smith. 

The schooner had sailed from Genoa twenty-four days before, stored for 
a six months' cruize, and was availing herself of her sweeps to escape from 
the Swiftsure, when the boats were despatched in pursuit of her. On 
tlitir approach, the enemy made every preparation for resistance, and re- 
served their fire till the boats had opened theirs, when they returned it in 
the most determined manner for soine minutes, until tiio vessel was 
boarded on the Low and quarter, and instantly earned. 

Captain Dickbon commends, in very high term?, the gallantry of all the 
officers and men employed in the boats. 

Mr. Joseph Douglas, midshipman, and four seamen, were killed ; apd 
Lieutenants Fuller and Harvey, L'etttuuaut Thompson, oi' :he marines, 
Mr. Field, midshipman, and eleven ieamtn, wounded. 



76 If AVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 18131811. 

The loss of the enemy was about equal ; the first and second captains of 
the pr.vateer (both national orhcers) were severely wounded. 

JANUARY 11. 

Copy of a Letter from Rear-admiral Fiemantle, to John Wilson Croker, 
Esq. datid on board II. M.S. Milj'ord, Trieste, December, 181J. 

sru, 

I huve the honour of enclosing a report from the Hon. Captain Cadogan, 
of H. M. &. Havannah, giving an account of the surrender of the very 
impoitant fortress of Zara to the Austrian and British forces. 

The judgment, perseverance, and ability shewn by him, on every occa- 
sion, will not, I aiu persuaded, escape their Lordships' observation. 

Captain Cadogani with the crews of a frigate and a sloop, has accom- 
plished as much a& required the services of the squadron united at Trieste. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 




SIR, ' H. M.S. Ha-cannali, before Zara, December 6, 1813. 

It is with great satisfaction I have the honour to inform you, that the 
fortress of Zara has this day capitulated to the combined Austrian and 
English forces, after sustaining a cannonade of thirteen days from the 
English batteries, consisting of two 32-pound earronades, eight 18-poun- 
ders, and seven 12-pound long guns, as well as two howitzers worked by 
Austrian*. 

As the courier which conveys this information will set out immediately, 
I shall defer entering into particulars until another opportunity, and con- 
fine myself to the general" terms granted, which are, that the garrison are 
to march out with honours of war; to ground their arms on the glacis, and 
then to he conducted as prisoners of war, until exchanged, to the outposts 
of the nearest French army. 

The outwork of the garrison to be occupied this evening by tlie Austrian 
troops, and the whole of the enemy to march out on the Uth, at ten A.M. 

As soon as 1 can make ready a copy of the terms, I shall have the 
honour of forwarding them to you : in the mean time, 

I have the honour to he, &c. 
Rear- admiral Fremanlle, %c. CEO. CADOGAN, Captain. 

The letters, of which the following are copies, have been transmitted to 
John \Vilson t'roker. Esq. by Vice-admiral Sir Edward IVIIew, Bart.com- 
mander-in chief of his Majesty's ships and vessels in the Mediterranean. 

SIR, H. AT. Sloop Suallow, at Sea, September 16, 1813. 

Being well in-shore at day-light this morning, between the Tiber and 
D'Aiizo, p. brig and xebeck were discovered between us and the latter har- 
bour, and having li^lu baftling winds at the time from the eastward, I 
thought the boats wtjuki have a chance of reaching them before they got 
into port, and tht-y were despatched, under the direction of Lietiteii;u>r 
Samuel Edward Cook ( first of the Swallow), assisted by Mr. Thomas Cole, 
ii:ate, and Mr. Henry Thomas, midshipman, and alter a row of two hours 
they came up with, and bronj^jt out from close under D'Anzo (from 
whence numerous boats, besides two gun-- boats, had been scni to her 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 18131814. 77 

assistance, and kept her in tow till the moment of the boats boarding), 
the French brig Guerriere, of four guns and sixty stand of small arms. 

There could not have been more steady cool bravery displayed than on 
this occasion. Lieutenant Cook speaks in the highest terms of every per- 
son with him. 

I am sorry to say his loss has been severe, having had two seamen killed 
and four severely wounded in his boat, as you will find in the enclosed 
return. I have the honour to be, &c. 

E. R. SIBLY, Commander. 

To the Hon. Henry Duncan, Captain 
of H.M.S. Imperim.se, $c. 

List of Killed and Wounded off TfAnzo^ September the 16th, 1313, belong' 
ing to his Majesty's Sloop Swallow. 

Killed. Thomas Philips, ordinary seaman ; N. Jones, ordinary seaman. 

Wounded. James Fitzgerald, ordinary seaman, severely ; John Boyles, 
ordinary seaman, ditto ; James Dorsey, able seaman, ditto ; William 
Dixon, ordinary seaman, dangerously. 

SIR, H. M. S. Edinburgh, ojfD'Anzo, October 5, 1813. 

In obedience to your directions, I put to sea and joined Captain Duncan, 
of the Imperieuse, and the ships named in the margin,* this morning, off 
this place, where he had been watching a convoy for some days, wilh the 
intention of attacking them the first favourable opportunity. The necessary 
arrangements having been made by that officer for the attack, I added the 
force of this ship to it, and made the signal that those arrangements would 
be adhered to, and to prepare for battle. The place was defended by two 
batteries, mounting three heavy guns each on a mole ; a tower to the 
northward of this with one gun, and a battery to the southward with two 
guns, to cover the niole. Every thing being prepared, at half-past one 
P.M. the ships bore up and took their stations as follows : the Imperieuse 
and Resistance to the mole batteries ; the Swallow to the tower ; the 
Eclair and Pylades to the battery to the southward ; the Edinburgh sup- 
ported the last-named ships. 

Shortly after the ships opened their fire, which they did by signal toge- 
ther, the storming party, under Lieutenant Travers, of the Imperieuse, 
and marines, under Captain Mitchell, landed in the best order close un- 
der the southern battery, which Lieutenant Travers carried instantly, on 
which the enemy flew in all directions : Lieutenant Mapleton having taken 
possession of the mole head, the convoy, consisting of twenty-nine vessels, 
was brought out ;vithout any loss, twenty of which are laden with timber 
for the arsenal at Toulon. 

On leaving the place all the works were blown up, and most completely 
destroyed. I feel the destruction of the defences of this place to be of 
consequence, as it was a convenient pure for shipping the very large quan- 
tity of timber the enemy now have on the adjacent coast. The captains, 
officers, and ships' companies, deserve my warm acknowledgment for their 
exertions on this occasion. A few shot in tbc hulls and rigging of the 
ships is the only damage done. 

Captain Duncan informs me, that he gained very material and ne- 
cessary information respecting this phice, by a very gallant, exploit per- 
formed a few nights ago by Lieutenant Travers, of the Imperieu>e, who 



* Resistance, Swallow, Eduir, and Pylades, 



T8 NAVAL HISTORY Of THE MIESENT YEAR, 1813 1814. 

stormed, with a bbat's crew, a tower of one gun, destroying it, an4 
bringing the guard away. 

I am, &c. G. II. L. DUNDAS, Captain. 

To Captain Rowley, H M.S. America, Senior Officer. 

sin, H. M. S. Furieuse, at Sea, October 8, 1813. 

I beg leave to acquaint you, that on the 4th instant, running along the 
coast to the island of Ponza, at one P.M. I observed, a convoy of nineteen 
vessels in the harbour of Mariuclo (about six miles to the eastward of 
Civita Vecchia), protected by two gun-boats, a fort of two long Si- 
pounders, and a strong fortified castle and tower, and it appearing prac- 
ticable to cut them out, as the wind was fair for that purpose, Lieutenants 
Croker and Lester, with Lieutenants Whylock and Davies, of marines, 
gallantly volunteered to storm the fort on the land side, with the whole of 
the marines and boats' crews, whilst the ship anchored before it, which ser- 
vice was promptly performed ; and, after a fe'v broadsides, I had the satis- 
faction of seeing the battery carried, and guns spiked, by our gallant party 
on shore. The enemy retreated, and took the strong positions of the 
castle and tower overlooking the harbour, where they kept up a constant 
fire of musketry through loop-holes, without the possibility of being dis- 
lodged ; although I weighed and moved in, so that the whole fire of the 
ship was directed against it. Nothing could damp the ardour of the party 
on shore, who, together with Lieutenant Lester in the boats, lost not a 
moment in boarding and cutting the cables of sixteen vessels, under a 
most galling fire, two of which were sunk in the entrance of the harbour, 
and fourteen got out. I have to regret the loss of twelve brave men 
killed and wounded, which is less than might have been expected, as more 
than five hundred regular troops arrived from Civita Vecchia; but were 
kept in check in coming along, and forced to take a circuitous route, by a 
well-directed fire from the ship, which allowed sutiicicnt time for all our 
men to embark. 

It is now a pleasing duty to pay a just tribute of praise to the very gallant 
and determined conduct of Mr. Croker, first lieutenant, whose zeal on 
this and every other occasion merits my warmest commendation ; and he 
speaks in the highest terms of admiration of the determined bravery of 
Lieutenants Ltster, Whylock, and Davies, the petty oliicers, seamen, and 
royal marines under his command. 

The whole of this service was most successfully accomplished in three 
hours, and fourteen vessels deeply laden got clear off, which I was obliged 
to take in tow, as their sails hud ail been unbent, and taken on shore to 
prevent our getting them out. I have the honour to be, &c. 

WM. MOUNSEY, Captain. 
The Hon. Henry Duncan, Cttptuin of H. M.S. Imuerieuse. 

Killed. William Wilson, ordinary seaman; William Chambers, marine. 

Wounded. Henry Wad by, captain of forecastle, very severely ; William 
Govier, captain of ibretop, ditto; Archibald Cowan, captain of maintop, 
ditto: William Hogg, seaman, ditto; John Thompson, seaman, ditto; 
Joseph Kempster, seaman, ditto ; Samuel Hooker, marine, ditto ; Chris- 
topher Weeks, marine, dangerously; William Yiimicotnbe, seaman, dan- 
gerously ; Henry Luke ; marine, duto. 

WM. MOUNSEY, Captain. 
E. EVANS, Surgeon. 



KA.YAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 18131814. 70 

A List of Vessels captured. 

Cun-boat Le Bacchus, 1 long brass 24-pounder and 4 swivels; 
Gun-boat, name unknown. 

Xebeck St. Antonio, pierced for 12 guns, 2 long 6-pounders mounted ; 
and J3 settees laden with salt, tobacco, marble, and sundries. 

WM. MOUNSEY, Captain. 

SI-R, H.M.S. Revenge, off P alamos, November 9, 1813. 

I have the honour to inform you, that I discovered yesterday a French 
felucca privateer, in the harbour of Palarnos, which Lieutenant Richards, 
senior lieutenant of this ship, handsomely offered to bring out. Upon, 
reconnoitring the place, I did not observe any insurmountable impediments 
to the enterprise ; consequently, at half-past eight P. M. I gave him the 
boats of this ship, aided by Lieutenant Blakiston, Captain Speerin (and a 
detachment of royal marines under his command), and Messrs. Quelch, 
Ilolfe, Fisher, Mainwaring, Harwood, Munbee, Fraser, Maxwell, Bu- 
chanan, and Davey, master's mates and midshipmen ; and I have the satis- 
faction to state, that they completely achieved their object at eleven P.M. 
without an officer or maa being hurt; and at one o'clock brought alongside 
their pri?^, with twenty prisoners out of forty-nine, the others having 
jumped overboard ; and it is a very gratifying part of iny duty to inform 
you, that Lieutenant Richards highly commends the good conduct and 
gallantry of every officer and man under his orders. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

J. GORE, Captain. ' 
To Vice-admiral Sir Edward Pellew, Bart. fyc. 

SIR, H.M.S. Undaunted, off Pert Nouvelle, Nov. 9, 1813. 

1 have the honour to report to you, that the port of Nouvc-l!e was 
attacked to day, and the batteries stormed in the most gallant manner by 
Lieutenant Hastings and Lieutenant Hunt, of the marines, the whole un- 
der the command of Lieutenant Hownam, senior lieutenant, who speaks 
in great praise of the officers and men of this ship, and those of the Gua- 
daloupe, under the command of Lieutenant Hurst, and Mr. Lewis, master. 

The vessels as per margin * fell into our hands. 

I should be wanting in duty, if I did not express my high sense of the 
discretion and gallant conduct of^the officers and nien of this ship, who, 
jn tiie short time she has been under my command, have taken or de- 
stroyed, principally in the boats, seventy of the enemy's vessels, and 
with comparatively a very small loss. 

It affords me great pleasure to state that only one man was wounded. 
I have the honour to be, &r. 

THOMAS USHER, Captain. 
Vice-admiral Sir E. Pelletc, Bart. 



Vige-admiral Sir Edward Pellew has also transmitter] to John Wilson 
Crnker, Esq. a letter from Captain Hamilton,' of H. M. S. Rainbow, dated 
off Madalemi, the llth September, stating that her boats, under Lieute- 
nant Coffin, had captured, in the Bay of Ajaccio, two lattine vessels, one 
having on hoard n lieutenant and several men of the yd battalion of French 
pioneers ; and the other laden with wheat : And one from Captain Hole, 

I ' ' ' ' ~~~ 

* Vessels captured, 2 ; destroyed, a. 



80 If AVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1813 1814. 

of H. M. sloop Badger, dated off Port Mahon, the 30th October, giving 
an account of his having captured L'Aventure French privateer, of two 
guns and 28 men, out four days from Barcelona, and had not taken any 
prize. 

JANUARY 12. 

Lieutenant Kneeshaw, commanding his Majesty's gun-vessel Piercer, 
this Hay arrived at this office with despatches, of which the following are 
copies and extracts, addressed to John Wilson Croker, Esq. by Captain 
Jarquhar, of H.M.S. Desirce. 

SIR, H. M. S. Dcsirte, off Gluckstadt, 6th January, 1814. 

I have the honour to transmit to you, for the information of my Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty, copies of two letters which I have written 
to Admiral Young, relative to the operations of his Majesty's squadron un- 
der my command, before the fortress of Gluckstadt, and the surrender of 
the same by capitulation, on the 5th instant. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
/. W. Croker, Esq. $c. ARTHUR FARQUHAR. 

SIR, H. M. S. Desiree, off Gluckstadt, 2d January, 1814. 

In my letter of the 23d ult. I had the honour to acquaint you with the 
arrival of H.M.S. under my command at this anchorage, and squadron as 
per margin,* for the purpose of co-operating with a detachment of the 
Crown Prince of Sweden's army, under the command of General Baron 
de Boye, in the reduction of the fortress of Gluckstadt. 

On the 23d ult. six 32-pounders were landed, to be formed into a bat- 
tery, assisted by a party of seamen and marines of this ship, under the 
command of Captain Green, Lieutenants Haultain and Archer, and Mr, 
George Richardson, midshipman. On the 25th, two guns only were in 
battery, which were intended to flank the pier head and enemy's gun-boats : 
from the extreme badness of the roads, the officer in command of the 
engineers did not prepare for more, conceiving tljat those, in a joint attack, 
might prove sufficient. 

I have already stated, in the before-mentioned letter, that there was 
not sufficient water to enable the Dt-siree to approach within gun-shot of 
the fortress : to obviate this rnisfortuue as much as possible, 1 deemed it 
expedient to strengthen our attack, by putting two long J8-pounders from 
this ship into each brig. On the evening of the 25th, I ordered the gun- 
boats to cnnoonade the town. On the following morning, a general attack 
was made by the brigs and gun-boats, under the immediate direction of 
Captain Marshall, which was kept up with great spirit the principal part of 
the day, and did the enemy considerable injury in tlie fortress, as well as 
sinking one of his gun-boats. 

On the 27th the attack was reneved with equal spirit and effect, and 
continued on the morning of the 28th. Finding, however, the fire from 
the fortress still continued extremely heavy and well directed, both to the 
bea and land, Jt was resolved, without delay, to strengthen our batteries ; 
and, for that purpose, I lost no time in landing two long 13-pounders from, 
the ship, and two mortars taken from the enemy at Cuxliavcn. 

Having on the 31st completed our batteries, coii'-isiing, the first of two 
long 18-pounders, served with red hot shot; the itcuitd of four 32-ponders; 
and the third, of two mortars, exclusive of those of the co-operatmg land 


* Shamrock, Heurty, Blazer, Piercer, Redbreast, and, gun-boats, No. 1, 8, 
3, 4, j, 8, 10 and li. 



WAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 18131814, 81 

force ; on the morning of the 1st instant, a most tremendous attack was 
made on the enemy's works, both by sea and land, and continued until this 
night ; but, notwithstanding the town was fired in several places, the garri- 
son still returned a very spirited and determined opposition. 

Ascertaining from the appearance of the town, and the information of 
numerous deserters, that the enemy have suffered severely by the latef 
attack, it is my intention, in conjunction with the general commanding the 
land-forces, to send a flag of truce to morrow, to summon the fortress, 
which I hope will be attended to. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

A. FARQUHAR, Captain. 
William Young, Esq. Adin. of the White, fyc. 

SIR, H.M.S. Desirke, offGlucksladt, Jan. 6, 1814. 

In my letter of the 2d instant, I had the honour of laying before you an 
account of the operations of his Majesty's squadron under my command, 
from the 25th ultimo, in the siege of the fortress of Gluckstadt, and that I 
intended next day to send a flag of truce, and again make proposals for the 
surrender of the place, which had already suffered most severely from a 
heavy bombardment by land and water. 

I have now, Sir, the honour to acquaint you, that, on the 4th, the gar- 
rison was summoned, but the governor's answer (that he might be allowed 
time to send to his sovereign at Copenhagen) being inadmissible, [ again 
ordered the squadron to advance to the attack. Negociations were the?i 
happily set on foot, and I have now the greatest satisfaction in informing 
you, that yesterday this extremely strong fortress, which has been several 
times besieged by powerful armies, but never carried, has, at length, after 
an investment of sixteen days, and a most effectual bombardment of six, 
surrendered to a division of the Crown Prince of Sweden's army, under the 
command of the general of division Baron de Boye, and that of iiis Britan- 
nic Majesty's squadron under my command, as per margin.* But injustice 
to the governor and garrison of Gluckstadt, I beg to state, that they de- 
fended their post as brave men, and that the cause of humanity appears to 
have determined the governor to surrender. 

The city has suffered much by fire, as well as in deaths, and I firmly 
believe, a few days bombardment would have entirely destroyed it. On 
the night of the 2d and 3d, we had two eighteen-pounders, and two thirty- 
two pounders within point blank, constantly at work with red-hot shot, 
besides the mortar and rocket battery, which caused immense destruction, 
and kept the city in constant flames. The terms of capitulation and sur- 
render I have now the honour to enclose ; a list of guns, stores, and am- 
munition, in the fortress has not yet been obtained ; nor of armed vessels, 
except the flotilla, consisting of seven gun -boats, and one gun-brig. 

I have now a most pleasnnt duty to perform, in expressing my bc^t thanks 
and praise of the conduct of Captains Marshall, Banks, and Rose, Lieuten- 
ants Kneeshaw, and Sir G. Keith, and all the other officers and men em- 
ployed in this most arduous service, both by land and water, at this incle- 
ment season of the year. 

* Decree ; Shamrock, Captain Mirsliall; Blazer, Captain Banks; Hearty, 
Ciiptain Rose; Piercer, Lieutenant Kneeshaw; Redbreast, Sir George Keith, 
Bart. Gun-boats No. 1, Lieutenant Hanmcr; No. '>, Mr. Thomas Riches, 
mate; No. 3, Lieutenant Se;ile ; No. 4, Lieutenant Tullock ; No. .'>, Mr. John 
Jlallowes; No. 8, Lieutenant Soper ; No, 10, Lieutenant Roimn-y ; No. li 1 , 
Lieutenant Henderson. 

!;:fln. Clol. XXXI, M 



82 NAVAL HISTORV OT TUE PRESENT YEAR, 1813 1814. 

I beg to enclose a list of killed and wounded belonging to the squadron, 
and which has been almost miraculously small, considering, the continuance 
of the bombardment, exposed to upwards of thirty pieces or' heavy artillery ; 
nor has the squadron been materially damaged ; both brigs and gun-boats 
have received a considerable number of shot in iheir hulls, and rigging 
much cut. Nos. 1 and 12 gun-boats were dismasted, but the damage has 
been immediately replaced. The squadron is again in an effective state. 

The unanimity of the army and navy has been such as could not fail to 
ensure success ; I am most particularly obliged to General Baron de Boye 
for his marked kindness and attention to all my wishes, as also to the ex- 
ertions of his officers and men in forwarding the public service. 

I have, &c. 

Win. Young, Esq. Adm. of ike ARTHUR FARQUIIAR, Capt. 

White, <$T. 

CAPITULATION of the Fortress rf Gluchstailt, as agreed !o ly the under- 
mentioned Parties, (he Commanders of the Allied besieging Forces, by 
land and by water, and the Commandant of the Garrison in the Fortress. 

1st. The troops comprising the garrison of Giuckstadt, naval and mili- 
tary, shall march out of the fortress with dnms beating and colours flying, 
and proceed to Itzehoe the first day, and to Kelinhausen the second, 
where they w.ll-remain for the further orders of his Royal Highness the 
Crown Prince of Sweden, as to the port from whence they are to proceed 
to Snnrtcrburg, in the island of Alsen. 

2d. The garrison shall retain their arms, baggage, their provision wag- 
gons, and empty powder waggons ,- they shall not serve against the allied 
armies, either by land or sea, for the space of one year and one day. 

3d. All officers of' the garrison, naval, military and civil, shall retain all 
their private property, and have every assistance from the allies, in the 
transport of their baggage, &c. c. 

They-shull keep their horses also, and every thing that belongs to them 
individually. 

4th. The allied forces will give provision to the garrison until they shall 
arrive at Sonderburg, or the island of Alst-n. 

6th. The cavalry in the garrison shall retain their horses, arms, and 
baggage. 

tith. The horse artillery, consisting of five three pounders brass guns, 
r.ith empty powder waggons, shall inarch with the garrison. 

7lh. All private property shall be respected, and ail prisons who have 
left the garrison shall be permitted to return to the fortress with their 
effects. 

8th. All the papers belonging to the garrison shall be retained by them, 
excepting the plans of the fortress of Glnckstadt. 

9th. All the gun boats belonging to the garrison sh;ill be given up to the 
allied forces, in the state in which they now arc. 

lOlh. All the ordnance, arr.imiuitfon, stores military and naval, shall be 
given up to the allies, and commissaries ->h:ill be named bv each party to 
take inventories of the same. 

llth. The officers having civil employments, shall be allowed to remain 
in the fortress until further orders. 

12th. The wives and children of all military, naval, and civil officers, 
shall be allowed to follow them with their property; and every assistance 
shall be given in transporting them and their effects, to their husbands. 
The necessary aids in money, &c. shall be supplied them on their journey 
for this purpose by the allies 

13th. The sick ami wounded shall remain hi the hospitals, and be taken 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 18131814. 83 

care of by the Danish surgeons at the expence of the allies ; when cured 
they shall be sent to join the garrison. 

14th. The foregoing articles shall be signed and ratified on the 6th of 
this month ; and the allied troops shall this evening take possession of the 
Ravelin of Krempe Thor with a guard of six men, the garrison likewise 
placing a guard of six men at the advanced posts of the allies : the keys of 
the fortress shall be given up as soon as these articles shall have been ra- 
tified, (the same to be drawn up in triplicate) and the undersigned com- 
manders shall bind themselves by their words of honour to a strict obser- 
vance of them. t 

Concluded in Gluckstadt and Lubehessucht, before Gluckstadt, the 5th 
Jan. 1814. 

GUSTAVUS BARON DE BOYE, Major-Gcneral. 
ARTHUR FARQUIIAR, Commanding the British 

Squadron in the Elbe. 

CERNIKOFF, Major-General, and Commandant of 
the Fortress of Gluckstadt. 

List of Killed and Wounded on board H.M. Squadron off Gluckstadt, between 
the 25th ultimo, and 4lA instant. 

BLAZER. Killed. 

John M'Evoy, ordinary seaman, belonging to Desiree; William Jackson, 
captain of the fore top. 

Wounded. Lawrence Anderson, able seaman, belonging to Desirde. 

HEARTY. Wounded. 

James Rose, captain ; Richard Hunt, midshipman ; John Riches, elerk ; 
William Stanford, pilot; John Batters, captain of the maintop ; B. Brown, 
able seaman ; George Wood, captain of the fore-top ; Richard Riches, 
ordinary seaman ; Edward Jefferies, private marine. 

REDBREAST. Killed. 

Lewis Triko, seaman. 
Wounded.- -William Morse, boy. 

BATTERY ON SHORE. Wounded. 

John Anderson, yeoman of the sheets, belonging to Desiree. 
GUN-BOAT, NO. 2. Wounded. 

Charles Barrett, boy, 2d class, belonging to Desired; Samuel Sharp, 
teaman ; D. M Carthy, seaman ; N. Clerk Smith, seaman, belonging to 
Desiree. ARTHUR FARQUHAR, Captain. 

Return of Brass and Iron Ordnance taken by the allied Forces in the For- 
tress of Gluckstadt, on the 6th January, 1814. 

Brass Guns. 

8 twenty-four-pounders, 4 eighteen- pounders, 21 twelve -pounders, 22 
six -pounders, 19 four-pounders, 4 three-pounders, 2 two-pounders. Total,80. 

Iron Guns. 
11 eighteen-poanders, 22 twelve-pounders, 2 eight-pounders. Total 35. 

Howitzers. 

4 brass five-and-half inch, 4 brass four-and-two-fifths-inch, 4 iron ditto. 
Total 12. 

Mortars. 

3 brass thirteen-inch, 6 brass ten-inch, 6 brass five-and-half inch, 1 iron 
ten-inch, 2 iron five-and-half-inch, 16 four and two-fifths inch cohorr 
mortars. Total, 34. 



84 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PJIE3ENT YEAR, 1813 1814. 

Grand Total 161 iron guns, jnortars, howitzers, brass guns, &c. witfj 
carriages to each gun, and two magazines, containing an immense quantity 
of ammunition, stores for military purposes, &c. 

AMHERST WRIGHT, Lieutenant com- 
manding English Rocket Brigade. 

List of Vessels captured, recaptured, and detained by His Majesty's Ships 
and Vessels under the Orders of Admiral Lord Keith, K. B. not before 
reported. 

French chasse mare"e La Roze, of 32 tons and 5 men, from Bourdeaux, 
bound to Nantes, captured by the Belle Poule, September 20, Ibl3. 
French chasse L' Ambition, of 25 tons and 3 men, from Bourdeaux, bound 
to Rochelle, captured by the Belle Poule, same date. Spanish ship Mar- 
quess de la Roinana, of 270 tons and 19 men, from the Ilavanna, bound 
to Cadiz, recaptured by the Hotspur, October 4, 1813. French brig St. 
Anne, of 160 tans, captured by the Sultan (Ajax, Hotspur, and Goldfinch 
in sight), October 13, 1813. French chasse rmuee La Julie, of 40 tons and 
5 men, from Bourdeaux, bound to Brest, captured by the Ajax, October 
22, 1813. English ship Betsey, of 2 guns, 256 tons, and 19 men, from 
Bristol, bound to St. Vincent, recaptured by the Eurotas, Octoler26, 1813. 
English ship Avon, of 260 tons and 18 men, from Bristol, bound to Tobago, 
recaptured by the Eurotas (Clarence in sight), October 27, 1813. Spa- 
nish sloop Gaditaine, of 96 tons find 6 men, from the Havanna, bound to 
Cadiz, recaptured by the Revolutionare, November 5, 1813. English ship 
Wolfescove, of 2 guns, 364 tons, and 20 men, from Quebec, bound to 
London, recaptured by the Briton (in sight of the Brest squadron), Decem- 
ber 1, 18J3. French sloop L'Adele, of 29 tons and 4 men, from St. 
Haloes, bound to Brest, captured by the Madagascar, Decembers, 1813. 
English brig Liberty, of 219 tons and 12 men, from St. Lucar, bound to 
London, recaptured by the Briton, December 12, 1813. English brig 
Watson, of 200 tons and 10 men, from Quebec, bound to London, recap- 
tured by the Briton, December 13, 1813. American brig Squirrel, of 2 
guns, 169 tons, and 17 men, from Arcasson, bound to New York, captured 
by the Belle Poule, December 14, 1813. French &loop L'Heureuse Marie, 
of 100 tons and 6 mew, from Bourdeaux, bound to Morlaix, captured by 
the Eurotas, December 15, 1813. English brig Racehorse, of 200 tons 
and 10 men, from Newfoundland, bound to Dartmouth, recaptured by the 
Derwent, December 19, 1813. English snow Fanny, of 2 guns, 192 tons, 
and 8 men, from St. Jolih's, bound to Gibraltar, recaptured by the Eurotas, 
December 25, 1813. American schooner Antoinette, of 2 guns, 240 tons, 
and 20 men, from Philadelphia, bound to Bourdeaux, captured by the 
^loyalist (in sight of Basque Roads squadron), December 18, 1813. 

(Signed) KEITH, Admiral. 



JANUARY 18. 

Admiral Lord Keith has transmitted to John Wilson Croker, Esq. a let- 
ter from Captain Tobin, of H. M.S. Andromache, giving an account of his 
having, on the 20th of last month, captured, off Arcasson, the French na- 
tional schooner Prosp^re, carrying five guns (pierced for eighteen), and 
sixty men, and commanded by an enseigne de vaisseau. 



WAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 18131814. 85 

SDromotioas anU Appointments. 

Lieutenant-colonel Miller, R.M. to supersede Colonel Foley, as inspect- 
ing field-officer in the London district. 

Lieutenant-colonel Lee, to command the division of royal marines now 
blockading the fort of Batz, in South Beveland. 

Dr. W. M'Donald, to be surgeon to prisoners of war at Halifax, Nova 

Scotia. 

Mr. O'Brien, to be dispenser of the Naval Hospital at Halifax, vice 
Hume, superseded. 

Captains, &c. appointed. 

Captain Waiiiwright, to the Asia; 11. Raggett, to the Ton nan t ; Sir 
Jahleel Brenton, Bart, to be commissioner of the naval yard at Port 
Mahon ; C. J. Johnstonc, to the Scarborough; William Wilkinson, to the 
Monmouth ; Henry Weir, to the Thais; R. Russel, of the Snipe, to the 
Espoir ; Provo William P. Wallis, late the lieutenant of the Shannon, to ihe 
command of the Snipe sloop; G. W. Wills, to the Bacchus; J. Christian, to 
the Leveret; J. Forbes, to the Erebus ; W. Evans, to the Cadmus; R. li. 
Bow-den, to the Gorgon hospital ship ; John Concle, to the Porcupine, the 
flag-ship of Admiral Penrose ; William Nowell, to the Weazle ; Lord 
George Stewart, to the Newcastle; C. Dillon, to the Horatio; Hon. 
J. Spencer, to the Carron. 

Captain Norborn Thompson has been appointed to the Aboukir, vice 
Captain George Parker, removed to the Bombay. 

Lieutenants, &c. appointed. 

James Athil (1), to the Venerable; Edward Andrews (1), to the Cen- 
taur; Henry Bird, to the Elephant; James Bland ford (2), to the Archer; 
James B. Boyd, to the Hydra; Francis Bligh, to the Challenger; Jere- 
miah Brown, to the Porpoise; Thomas Board man to the Superb ; Robert 
Bruce, to the Dover ; R. P. Brereton, to the Leopard; Moses Crawford, 
to the Corso; Thomas William Charlton, to the Cadmus; George Cheync, 
to the Woodlark ; William Henry Dixon, to the Devastation ;.John Elwin, 
to the Penguin; James Eikie, to the Cumberland ; James W. Eagle, to the 
Podargus; W. E. Fiolt, to the Leander; Henry Garrett, to the Medway; 
Lewis Grant, to the Talbot ; Robert Gore, to the Orion ; C. R. Gordon, 
to the Colombra; Richard Hambly, to the Orestes; William Jacobs, to 
fhe Bulwark ; Alexander Ingram, to the Cumberland ; John Kerr, to the 
Scai borough ; Magnus M. Kelly, to the Antelope ; Thomas Edward Knight, 
to the Devastation ; Nagle Lock, to the Asia; Edward Luscombe, to the 
Leopard ; Thomas Lcnthorne, to the Dover ; Duncan M'Donald, to the 
Asia; Montague Montague, to the Puissant; G. M. St. John Miklmay, to 
the Leander ; George Maule, to the Zephyr ; John M'Doug;tll (2), ti. the 
Leander ; Thomas Mackenzie, to the Rennrd ; William Ody, to tiie Rinal- 
do ; W. Phipps, to the Brevdageren ; J. J. Parr, to the Venerable; W. 
G. Roberts, to the Asia ; George Saycr, to the Zealous; Charles Tamm, 
to the Penelope ; John Toone, to the Elk ; George Thomas (2), to the 
Erebus ; George Williamson, to the Ceylon ; David Wilson, to the Cal- 
liope; Michael Wrayford, to the Asia; Edward Yowell, to the Orestes; 
Lieutenant R. Finnis, to the rank of commander; W. Maiicy, to the 
rank of commander ; Mr. G. Syme, to be a lieutenant ; H.T.Lancaster, 
to be lieutenant of the Hibernia; Mr. S. Weddle, midshipman, to be a 
lieutenant; and Mr. Robert T. Brush, to be a lieutenant; P. Fitzgibbon, 
to the Myrmidon; J. S. Smith, to the Terror ; B. Manstll, to the Saturn; 



86 NATAL HISTOKY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1813 1814. 



W. Richards, to the Penelope : F. Sykes and Anthony, to the 

rank of commanders; T. Banks, of the Blazer, to be a commander, and to 
retain the command of that vessel ; Joshua Kneeshaw, to be a commander, 
and to retain the command of the Piercer ; James Cole, to be agent for! 
tiansportsat Port Mahon; N. Duff, to be flag-lieutenant to Sir Alexander 
Cochrane ; H. Davis, to the Seahorse ; A. Darley, to the Belle- 
rophon; C. Earle, to the Nemesis; G. Green (1), to the Steady; T. D. 
Lauznn, to the Dannemark ; G. Mortimer, to the Venerable ; S. Malbon, 
to the Asia ; J. Moffatt, to the Myrtle; H. Leeds, to the Bulwark ; Hon. 
G. Trefusis, to the Ethalion ; Messrs, H. B. Dobson, P. Holroyd, and 
J. Sommerville, to the rank of Lieutenant, the former to the Royal Sove- 
reign ; J. H. Belliars, to be a lieutenant. 

Lancelot Cooper, Esq. to be secretary to Admiral Linzee; W. Bal- 
hntchet, Esq. to be secretary to Sir Alexander Cochrane ; Mr. Dyer, to be 
secretary to Admiral Penrobe. 

Lieutenant- colonel Miller, R.M. to supersede Colonel Foley, as inspect- 
ing field-officer in London. 

Mr. Seaton, to be builder of the Naval Yard at Bombay. 
Mr. Helby, to be boatswain of Sheerness Yard. 
Rev. E. Beatty, to be chaplain of the Rodney. 

Masters appointed. 

Thomas Stokes, to the Serapis ; W. Balliston, to the Tonnant ; 
L. John (2), to the Podargus; J. Crear, to the Cherokee; T. Johnson, to 
the Asia; li. Lanyon, to the Venerable; J. Caiger, to the Woodlark ; 
W. Owston, to the Superb; T. Pierce, to the Vulture; J. Lewis, to the 
Briton ; M. Richards, to the Fortune ; T. Jay, to the Magnificent j 
J. Britton, to the Hotspur ; J. Bruce, to the Lyra. 

List of Midshipmen passed for Lieutenants. 

$hcerne.ss.G. A. Rix, H. G. Kellock, G.Cole, B.Andrews, S.King. 
W. Baker. 

Portsmouth. J. Newton, J. Strong, F. Gordon, J. Pearson, A. Kennedy, 
I. L. Crooke, J. Rawstone. 

Plymouth. W. Ward, P. Peterie, C. H. Sullivan, J. Coombe. 

Surgeons, &c. appointed. 

W. B. Smith, to the Renown ; Robert Shand, to the Medway; William 
Gongh, to the St. George prison ship ; William Dixon, to the Dover ; 
Ja-nes Kennedy, to the Devastation ; John Greig, to the Crescent ; John 
P. O'Bierne, to the Temeraire ; Charles Thomas, to the Neptune ; Henry 
Smith, to the Oiseau ; Henry Evving, to the El Firme ; Francis Johnstone, 
to the Defiance ; William Ray, to the Porpoise : Mark Thompson, to the 
Sheerwater ; George Grant, to the Success ; James Arnott, to the Mu- 
tine; Thomas Thomas, to the Espoir ; R. M. Ford, to the Colombra ; 
Walter Steel, to the Carnation ; Thomas Hanna, to the Montague ; George 
Thompson, to the Drake; Henry Barnes, to the Rinaldo ; Mark Thomp- 
son, to the Blossom ; Samuel Morrison, to the Sheerwater ; James M'Fer- 
nan, to the Cleopatra ; Hugh Stewart, to the Leander ; E. Grimstone, to 
the Tonnant; William Hyndman, to the Asia; T. Sankey, to the Briseis; 
C. Carter, to the Guadaloupe ; James Seniby, to the Harrier. 

Assistant-Surgeons, &c. appointed. 

II. B. White, to be hospital mate at Mill Prison ; T. A. Muller, to Por- 
chester Castle ; John Beatty, to the Zealous ; Robert Gomby, to the Ele- 



NAVAL H1STOUY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1813, -1814. 87 

phant ; Andrew Montgomery, to the Leander; George Sibbald, to the 
Camel; John Hewetson, to the Renown; Edmund Finucane, to the Me- 
dina; John Reid, to the Venerable ; William Griffith, to the Centaur; 
Michael M'Ennally, to the Illustrious ; Patrick Maguire, to the Buffalo; 
James Clarke, to the Chesapeake ; William Cannon, to the Sealark ; Rich. 
Smith, to the Serapis ; Francis Hyndman, to the Clinker ; H. Hollyrnan, to 
the Protector } M.Kelly, to the Myrmidon ; Archibald Blacklock, to the 
Asia ; James Burnside, to the Warrior; Henry Carter, to the Royal Sove- 
reign; Lawrence Lacy, to the Growler; David Nimmo, to the Royal Sove- 
reign; W. T. Llewelyn, to be hospital mate at Haslar; W. J. Hoggan, to 
the Bellerophon ; John Knox, to the Superb; James Kay, to the Quebec; 
James Stewart, to the Monmouth; James Fry, to the Ceres; William Gu- 
land, to the Halifax. 



BIRTHS. 

At Portsea, the lady of Lieutenant Davidson, of H.M.S. Gladiator, of 
a daughter. 

The lady of Captain Austin, of H.M.S. Elephant, of a daughter. 
Lately, of a still-born daughter, Lady Andover, wife of Captain Henry 
Digby, R.N. 

At Bath, the lady of Captain Rooke, R.N. of a son. 

On the 12th of January, the lady of Admiral Robert Murrny, commander- 
in-chief at Yarmouth, of a daughter, which died on the following day. 

MARRIAGES. 

Lately, at North Yarmouth, Captain G. G. Willes, to Ann, second 
daughter of Sir Edmund Lacon, and sister of E. Lacon, Esq. member for 
that place. 

Lately, at Plymouth, Lieutenant Ford, royal marines, to Miss Payne. 

Lately, Captain G. Bell, to Miss Ball, of Falmouth. 

At St. John's, Newfoundland, on the 21st November last, Lieutenant D. 
Brisac, royal marines, to MissC. Graves, of the British Coffee-house at that 
plnce. 

On the 1st January, Captain May, R.N. to Miss Flamank, of Newton 
Abbott, of Devon. 



DEATHS. 

On the llth November, was drowned, by falling from the fore topsaii- 
vard of H.M. sloop Fantome, when in chase, Mr. William Henry Cotterell, 
midshipman of that vessel, and second son of Mr. Charles Cotterell, ot 
Portsmouth. 

Lately, at Halifax, Lieutenant Brand, R.N. 

On hoard the Resistance, on his passage to England, of a consumption, 
Lieutenant David Rory, royal marines. 

Lately, in the naval hospital at Haslar, of a consumption, in the prime of 
life, Captain Tillard, late commander of the St. Juan. 

Lately, Lieutenant Charles Hill, formerly of H.M.S. Rota. 



88 : MAtAL HISTORY OF THE FRLSENT YEAR, 1813 1814. 

November 24th, oji board tl>e Unite frigate when returning from Sicily 
to England, for the benefit of his health, in his 31st year, Joseph Smith' 
Esq. eldest soa of Thomas Smith Esq. of Stoke-Newington, Middlesex, 
This gentleman originally entered a professional career connected with 
the navy, under the auspices of Admiral Sir Sidney Smith; whom he 
accompanied as secretary to the Mediterranean in the beginning of the 
year 1806, when ttiat otiicer hoisted his flag on board hisli. M. S. Pompee. 
The same patronage soon after operated his introduction to the diplo- 
matic line as secretary of legation, aud, eventually, charge d'affaires, at the 
court of Sardinia, for which office he proved himself eminently qualified, 
and discharged its functions with honor to himself and advantage to the 
public service. His private life was equally adorned by every endearing 
virtue, as his public character was marked by talent, aud his death is n 
subject for real regret. He had fur some years resided at the Sardinian 
capital (Cagliari), where his remains were deposited with every mark of 
respect shewn to his memory not only by his own countrymen, but by all 
the foreign ministers, at that station, and nearly the whole population of the 
citv. To prevent confusion it is proper to add that no consanguinity 
existed between Mr Smith and his early patron Sir Sidney which similarity" 
of name might otherwise induce a supposition of. 

At Sunday's well, near Cork, Miss Drury, sister of the late Admiral 
Drury. 

Lately in Spain, Lieut. Carrol, brother of the brave Capt. Carrol, of the 
royal navy, and youngest son of Dr. Carrol, of 13alh. 

Copy of a Letter from Captain Brace, of II. M.S. Berwick, on the 3fcditcr- 
ranean station, to W. M. Pi(t, Esq. member for Dorsetshire, on the occa- 
sion of the recent death of Lieut. Henry Johnston Sweedland, First of that 
Skip, who, ajter succeeding in taking Fort Negage,fell in the arms of 
Victory,* 

" MY DEAR SIR, " Beruicl;,al Sea, Dec. 12, 181.3. 

" It is my painful task to have to communicate unpleasant News, and to 
i itrude the unwelcome office of breaking it to your friend, 'who, I trust, will 
have firmness of mind enough to meet the severe shock he will receive on 
hearing of the death of his son, who, jioor fellow, stood unrivalled in my opi- 
nion as an officer, and from his amiable manner* endeared himself to 
me as a man. Jt will be some consolation to his afflicted friends to know, 
that he died in the most gallant manner, in the service of his country ; after 
taking Fort Negage, he was in the act of firing his pistol at an officer on 
board one of the schooners, when- he received the fatal ball through his 
head. lie was beloved and adored by his shipmates, and I am sure he wiil 
be lamented by nil tlr.u knew his worth. I must conclude this distressing 
subject, ;nul remain, my dear Sir, your sincere and,, obliged servant, 

"(Signed) ' J. BRACE." 

Lieutenant Sweedland is the same g.'illant young officer, who, only a few- 
mouths ago, as stated in the Gazette, succeeded in capturing or destroying two 
and twenty of the enemy's vessels, with the corvette that protected them, and 
\vith the loss of only one man ; on which occasion an equally hnndj-ome testimony 
was bc-roc by iiis Captain on the manner of hi? conducting this enterprise. Lieut. 
Svvredland was the ejdest son of Sir Charles Sweedland of St. Helen's-place, 
and it may w ith truth he said, that, in h:5 premature death, the navy luis lobt one' 
of its ornaments, his country a real patriot, his King a most l;yal subject, and 
hi- disconsolate family a sunrcr of j-v. 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOllt 

OF 

ALEXANDER ERASER, ESQ. 

'REAR-ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE SQUADRON. 



-" Oh, it much imports yon, 'tis your all, 



To keep your trade entire, entire rtie force 
.And honour of your fleets.'" THOMSON. 

THE subject of this memoir is descended from, and connected 
with, the most ancient family in Scotland; his father being 
the 6th in lineal descent (by the Strichen, branch) from' Alexander. 
the 5th Lord Lovat, who died in 1553"; "and his maternal grand- 
mother was eldest daughter of John Hamilton, Esq. of Gilkers- 
fcleugh, descended from the 1st ilafquis of Hamilton, (die 2d 
daughter was mother to that eminent judge, the late Lord 
Braxfield). 

In the year 17GO, when only 9 years of age, the late Admiral 
George Gayton, then commanding the Fly sloop, being in Shet- 
land, where his father was surveyor of II. M. Customs, finding in 
the boy a desire to go to sea, kindly took him under his protec- 
tion ; and during the continuation of that war behaved to him in alf 
respects as a father. With Captain Gayton he was at the siege oi 
Belleisle, and also in Basque Road,* when the praams from the 
river Charentc attacked the squadron oft* Aix. 

.At the conclusion of the' war he returned to Edinburgh, where- 
he continued, to finish his education, until the end of 1707 ;* 
when, his predilection for the sea service continuing, he went, as 
midshipman of the Mermaid frigate, . to America, and remained in. 
Tier three years ; and then went acting lieutenant of the Bonetta 
sloop, commanded by Captain (the fate Admiral) Matthew Squire, 
who had been lieutenant of the Mermaid, and had a particular regard 
for Mr. Fraser.t 

* See a cliart of this Road, N. C. Vol. XXf. 

+ During four years on this station, he had opportunities of acquiring n, 
considerable knowledge of the whole coast and harbours or" Ararica T -frum- 
tlie Gulph of St. Lawrence, to Georgia and thfc B;Uia;ii Itla;,.is. 

*2sb. e&ttn. fflol. XXXI. .>* 



90 K.VVAt. BIOGRAPHY. 

Returning to England in the winter of 1772, lie passed for 
lieutenant at the Navy Office, March, 1773, and in June the same 
year was ordered on board the Royal Oak, 74, at Spithead, where 
a fleet had been assembled, and was then to be reviewed by his Ma- 
jesty.* Not having the good fortune to be in the number of the 
successful candidates for promotion which took place on that oc- 
casion, he remained in the Royal Oak till the autumn of 1774, 
when he went again to America, acting additional lieutenant of the 
Scarborough, of 20 guns, Captain Andrew Barclay. f 

When hostilities with America broke out, it was thought fit to 
destroy some of their sea-port towns, and the late Captain Henry 
Mowat, in the Canceaux, being entrusted with the execution of 
this service, for which he had a small squadron, and 2CO additional 
marines embarked, Mr. Fraser was ordered on board the Can- 
ceaux as lieutenant. The town of Falmouth being the first object, 
Mr. Fraser was sent on shore with a flag of truce, offering to 
spare the town, on the condition of delivering up all their arms, 
and giving hostages in the mean time : this not being complied 
with, a bombardment took place, by which a great part of the 
town was reduced to ashes ; and Mr. Fraser, with a party of sea- 
men and marines, landed to set fire to such parts as could not be 
destroyed from the ships : in effecting this, he was a good deal 
annoyed by the Americans from behind hedges, c. ; but, being 
covered by the ships, he rcimbarked the whole party, having only 

* Although sent down recommended by the late Earl of Bristol, then 
Admiral Harvey, and one of the Lords of the Admiralty, it was some time 
before Captain Balfour could obtain permission frcm the commander- in- 
chief (Sir Thomas Pye) to receive him on hoard the Royal Oak ; an order 
having been issued from the Admiralty, that, at the ensuing review, no 
captain should have on his quarter-deck more young gentlemen than the 
rated number. The consequence was, that every ship discharged perhaps 
from six to ten young men, most of whom had passed for lieutenants, and 
who never returned tu the service : a loss which was severely felt for years 
afterwards. 

t The late Captain John Hutt, who was unfortunately mortally wounded 
on board the Queen, the 1st of June, 17P4,* was lieutenant of the Scar- 
horoiinh ; between whom and Mr. Fraser an intimate friendship bewail at 
this time, which continued without interruption till the death of that ex- 
cel Ifnt officer. 

* See X. <'. Vol. [. 



ALEX.ANPER. TRASS!?, ESQ. SI 

a few wounded. In tliis service he was assisted by fhe 1-ate Cay- 
tain John Klphinsfone, and D'Auvergne, Prince of Bouillon, 
both at that time midshipmen.* 

Admiral (Lord) Siiuldhain,t soon after, superseding Admiral 
Graves in the command, Mr. Fraser found himself strongly recom- 
mended to his Lordship for promotion, by some friends who had 
claims on his attention, and he removed from the Scarborough to 
the Chatham ; when, during the whole ensuing campaign of 1776, 
lie was constantly employed in the flat boats at Long Island, New 
York, &c. and particularly at the taking of Fort Washington, 
where he led one of the divisions of boats in which the light infan- 
try were embarked, and which were exposed to a very galling fire 
of grape and musketry, while waiting for the flowing of the tide 
to proceed up the creek ; oa this occasion he had two killed and 
several wounded in his boat; and it is remarkable, that the two 
killed were of the boat's crew consisting only of 10, M'hereas the 
number of troops was 60. 

Lord Shuldham returning now to England in the Bristol, having 
been some time superseded in the chief command by Lord Ho\ve, 
Mr. Fraser returned with him, without having obtained the pro- 
motion which he had strong reasons to expect from his Lordship. . 

In the following year (17/7), Lord Sandwich, then at the 
head of the Admiralty, gave him his first confirmed commission, 
with the flattering compliment, that it was for his services in 

* nr.AR SIR, 

I beg pardon for having so long delayed returning you Mr. Fraser's 
most distinct journal. I am persuaded he is very deserving, and shall be 
happy if the enclosed letter for Sir Pettr Parker proves of any advantage 
to him, which you will please cause forward to Mr. Fraser, and desire him 
to deliver to Sir Peter himself. I arn^- &c. 

To John S</we> Esq. Edinburgh. KEITH STEWART. 

Sir Peter Parker was also at this time in America. 

t See N.C. Vol. XXIV. 

} This nobleman, who paid every regard to merit wherever he found it 
having much approved of the conduct of the flat boat service, caused it to 
be intimated to those gentlemen of Lord Shuldham's quarter-deck who had 
passed, that he would receive on board the Engle such of them as chose 
to remain in America ; and would promote them, next to those of his 
own quarter-deck who came fiom England with himself. Several accepted 
the offer ; others declined it. 



82 NAVAL BIOGRAPHY. 

America. The appointment was to the Hector, 74, Sir John 
Hamilton. The next year, June 1778, Lieutenant Fraser -was 
ordered to take charge of La Licornc French frigate, detained by 
the Hector, and carried her into Portsmouth harbour.* On the 
27th July following, he was present in the action of Mr. Keppelt 
with D'Orvilliers; iu which the Hector, being of the van dirision, 
had little share. The Hector continued in the Channel Fleet until 
1779, when she was ordered to the West Indies with Sir George 
Rodney, and carried down a convoy to Jamaica. Lieutenant 
Fraser had then become first, and soon after had an opportunity 
of seeing the intrepid conduct of Captain (Admiral) Cornwallis,+ 

* It is but justice to the memory of the Chevalier de Bclizal, who com- 
manded La Licorne, to state here, that his conduct was much misrepre- 
sented, or, rather, the circumstances exaggerated, at tiie time ; it being 
said, that he wantonly fired a broadside into Lord Longford's ship, the 
America, at the moment he hauled down his colours, and while his Lord, 
ship was actually speaking to him on the gangway. The fact is, on a 
general chase tlie day before, La Licorne had refused to bring-to ior the 
Milford, Sir William Burnaby, until the Hector arriving up fired a shot 
over her; when Sir John Hamilton, without sending a boat on board, hailed 
and ordered her to lie by the Hector all night, until the admiral's pleasure 
was known. The Hector and America continued near her (by order) until 
daylight, when she was hulled by the Hector, directing her to tack, and 
stand towards the fleet, then at several miles distance. The wind \vas 
very light ; and when the Hector had tacked, observing La Licornc did not 
do so, as she had been directed, a shot was fired across her : on the instant, 
every gun in La Licorne was discharged, but at no particular object, and 
her colours, which had been up all night, hauled down. That there was 
no premeditated design of firing into the America is plain, from there being 
r.o object on the one side (though all the guns were fired), and the Ame- 
rica was a considerable distance on her lee quarter, and certainly not then 
within hail ; though ie is true, that one or two shot accidentally struck her, 
and wounded two of. her people. Lieutenant Frascr was on board La 
Licorne in ten minutes afterwards, and before four in the morning, and 
found all the guns had been laid down (j. c. bed and coins out) prepara- 
tory to their being fired ; which they only waited for the Hector enforcing 
the order for tacking, to do. And Mons. Bclizul, on being questioned by 
Lieutenant Fraser, why be fired bis guns and hauled down his colours, there 
being no intention of making prize of him, answered, he could do no less, 
" pour 1'honneur du Pavilion ;" and refused to hoist the colours again, 
though requested to do so. No other British officer was ever on board La 
Licorne ; nor does the writer of this think that the America was at all 
within hail that morning. 

f See N. C. Vol. VII. + Sec N. C. Vol. VII. 



ALEXANDER FRASER, ESQ. J)3 

when the squadron under his orders, consisting of the Lion, Sul. 
tan, Hector, and Ruby, of the line, and Niger frigate, fell in 
with Mons. de Ternay, with eight sail of the line, and two large 
ships, armee enjlute^ with a convoy (as was afterwards known) 
for America. The squadron being on its return to Jamaica, after 
seeing the homeward-bound a certain distance, concluded, on first 
discovering the enemy, that it also must be a homeward-bound 
French convoy, with perhaps two sail of the line : the hopes were 
of course sanguine ; but on a general chase, the Hector and Ni- 
ger (the only ships coppered) soon made them out to be as above, 
with a fleet of 30 to 40 transports. On this being communicated 
by signal to the commodore, the ships were recalled from chase, 
and the line a-head formed on the larboard tack : the Ruby, 
however, at this time was far to leeward of our squadron, and on 
the lee bo\v of the French, who had also formed in line a-head 
with ten sail. Nothing could have saved the Ruby, but the deter- 
mined conduct of Captain Cornvvallis, who directed the Hector to 
lead large two points, thereby crossing the van of the enemy, now 
within gun-shot, who also bore up as we did, and gave the Ruby 
an opportunity, by tacking, of weathering their van, and forming 
in our rear, though under a severe fire. When this was effected, 
the line ahead by the wind carrying all sail, was continued ; and 
the enemy, though nearly double our force, contented himself 
\vi(h a distant cannonade for a short time, and then bore up to 
rejoin his convoy. A few men were killed or wounded in each of 
the ships, and the rigging in some considerably damaged. 

Soon after this, Lieutenant Frascr exchanged into the Con- 
queror, 74, Captain William Dickson, as first lieutenant; being 
desirous to return to England, to join the ship of his friend, the 
late Commodore Johnstone. 

On the passage home, the Conqueror experienced part of the 
effects of the destructive hurricane in 1780, losing her main-mast, 
and being in other respects much damaged : her pumps were 
choaked, and 100 men were daily employed baleing the water out 
at all the hatchways during the greater part of the passage of 
twelve weeks : by extraordinary exertions she arrived at Spithead ; 
Captain (afterwards Admiral) Dickson always declaring that the 
preservation of the ship was in a great measure o^ing to the exer- 
tions of the first lieutenant. 



54 NAVAL BIOGRAPHY, 

Commodore Johnstone having, in the mean time (being ready te> 
gail on his expedition), completed (he number of lieutenants to the 
Romney, Lieutenant Frascr was induced (o accept a commission 
for the St. Carlos, of 50 guns, armee en Jtuie, attached to the 
expedition ; he was consequently in the skirmish in Praya Bay, 
when Souffrein surprised the commodore; and on several promo- 
tions taking place, he was removed to the Romney, the commo- 
dore's ship : in her he continued during the remaining part of the 
expedition, came home first lieutenant, and was immediately after- 
wards appointed to the Royal George, with Admiral Sir John 
Ross ; * but Admiral Pigot being appointed to succeed Sir George 
Rodney in the West Indies, and promising to receive Lieutenant 
Fraser into his ship on promotion, he preferred that prospect ; 
and, to effect it, was appointed first of the Panther, in which 
ship he was in (he action with the combined fleets after the relief 
of Gibraltar in 1782 by Lord Howe : the Panther had several 
men killed and wounded in this partial affair, which terminated at 
10 P.M. by the mistake of a verbal order delivered along the line, f 
The combined fleets were 17 sail of the line superior to the 
British. 

There being a detachment from the fleet ordered to the West 
Indies under Sir R. Hughes, Lieutenant Frascr got an exchange 
into the Ruby (64), one of the ships detached ; but Lord Howe 
granted it only on the condition of his serving in the Ruby in the 
place of the officer with whom he exchanged ; so that he went into 
that ship as third lieutenant, though senior to the first. On the 
passage out, falling in with a squadron of the enemy to windward 
of Barbadoes, the Ruby, after an action of 48 minutes within 
pistol-shot, took the Solitaire, of equal force, which had 38 
killed -and above 40 wounded, though the Ruby had none killed, 
and but few wounded, and those slightly. + In this action the 

Sec N. C. Vol. VI. 

f The verbal order meant to be, and delivered in part, along the line 
was, To make all sail, preserving the line ; but by mistake was, " make 
all sail and bear up," i. e. from the enemy. 

J SIR, Formidable, Gros Islet Bay, St. Lucia, 1th Afril, 1783. 

It is with great pleasure that I have received the commands of the 
Admiralty, to signify to you that they are highly pleased with your conduct, 
as well as that of your officers and men, in the action with the Solitaire, and 



ALEXANDER FIIA3EK, ESQ. 5 

first lieutenant, Smith, was promoted to the rank of commander 
by the Admiralty. 

Soon after the arrival of the Ruby in the West Indies, Lieut. 
Fraser was removed into the Formidable, Admiral Pigot's ship ; 
but r the peace taking place immediately, he had the mortification 
of returning to England again in the flag-ship, first for promo-' 
tion ; at which Commodore Johnstone, who thought he had 
strong claims on Admiral Pigot, expressed surprise and displea- 
sure.*. Having declined an offer made him by Admiral Greig to 
enter into the Russian service, Admiral Pigot sent him out lieute- 
nant of the Adamant, Sir R. Hughes's flag-ship in the West Indies, 
(Leeward Island Station). Here he remained three years, without 
any vacancy for a captain occurring ; and in the autumn of 17SG 
again returned to England a lieutenant. It was on this station he 
had the good fortune of acquiring the acquaintance and friendship 
of Lord Nelson, f who then commanded the Boreas frigate; which 
friendship continued till the lamented death of that great officer. 
It may be here mentioned, that Sir Richard Hughes finding it 
necessary to order an officer to reside at Antigua, to superintend 
and expedite the sailing of the various transports which had col- 
lected there at the peace, and were loitering away their time, being 
in no hurry to be put out of government pay, he sent Lieutenant 
Fraser on that service, which he executed to the entire approba- 
tion of the Navy Board, and of the commander-in-chief. + 

the capturing of her. You will please make this known to your officers 
and ship's company. HUGH PIGOT. 

To Captain John Collins (afterwards knighted for this action.) 

Lieutenant Wm. Smith, promoted ; Wm. Limbery ; Alex. Fraser, 3d, 
senior to the 1st; Bartholomew Huberts. 

* DEAR stn, Kensington Core. 

Your disappointment in the West Indies grieves me much, and my sin- 
cere friendship tor you made me feel it the more. You know the strong 
claims I had, and 1 could do no more, c. It is a lamentable fact, that 
political differences of" opinion stifle all claims from friendship, &c. 

To Lieutenant Fraser. GEORGE JOHNSTONE. 

f SeeN.C. Vol. III. 
I SIR, 

It is with great pleasure I acquaint you, that I a:n perfectly satisfied with, 
and much approve of, your conduct and behaviour ia the service upon 



96 NAVAL BIOGRAPHY. 

It being now profound peace, and no prospect of promotion, 
he took this opportunity of seeing his friends in the North, having 
been nineteen years constantly on board a ship. Lord Howe,* 
howerer, in June 1787, appointed him first lieutenant of the 
Colossus, a new 74, which ship he fitted out at Deptford for the 
late Sir Hugh C. Christian ; and the armament taking place in Oc- 
tober, of which Admiral Pigot was to have the command, he 
removed Lieutenant Fraser from the Colossus to first of his own 
ship, the Royal Sovereign, at Plymouth. f Thus, when the 
armament ceased, he, on the 1st of December, 1787, at last ob. 

which you are at present employed : I am fully convinced, that your being 
sent on it will be the means of saving much more money to the crown, than 
the amount of all the expenses attendant on the execution of your office. 
You will continue to send off such transports as may be still remaining, or 
coming into the harbours in the Island of Antigua, with all the despatch in 
your power ; and you may be assured I will not fail to mention to the 
Boards at home your diligence in the execution of that duty, and the ad- 
vantHge that government will be likely to receive from it. 

To Lieutenant Fraser. RICHARD HUGHES. 

* See N. C. Vol. IX. 

t MY DEAR FRASER, Whitehall, 10th October, 1787. 

At the instant you did me the favour of calling at Whitehall, I was en- 
gngcd with your namesake (Mr. Fraser, under secretary of state) in close 
conference about you ; and I can assure you, that upon my return to the 
office, I was extremely pleased to observe the contents of your card. I 
wi;h you health and success with all my heart. I dined the day following 
with your admiral, who spoke of you to me in the handsomest terms. Be- 
lieve me very sincerely yours, 




DEAR, SIR, Portsmouth, November 8, 1787. 

I could wish to know whether it will be agreeable to your future plans to 
resume your situation as first lieutenant of the Colossus. I had hoped that 
some idea of promotion, at least from the flag-ship's commanding-in-chtef, 
would have been in circulation. I am much concerned that I have not as 
yet heard of such intention. On your account I wish very sincerely that it 
may yet take place ; if unfortunate ly it should not, I shall be very desirous 
to contribute to your return, and hype the situation will be acceptable to 
you, bciii very sincerely j(;urs, 

LUutmant Fraser. II. C. CHRISTIAN. 



ALEXANDER {-BASER, ESQ. 57 

tained the rank of commander, and remained unemployed till the 
autumn of 1790 ; when he was appointed to the command of the 
Savage sloop, on the Greenock station,* where he remained till 
December, 1792. The Savage was then ordered to the Hirer, to 
assist in carrying to the Nore the newly-impressed men ; from 
thence she was ordered to join Admiral M'Bridet in the Downs. 

At the breaking out of the war with France, the Savage took 
qne privateer, La Custine, and several Danish ships laden with 
corn, bound to France. In April, 1793, Admiral M'Bride 
ordered Captain Fraser to take the Ferret sloop and a number of 
cutters under his command, and proceed off" Ostend : here he 
received a requisition from the Baron de Mylius,+ to land and 

* SIR, 

The Earl of Chatham received this morning your letter of the 2?lh 
instant; and as before the receipt hereof you will have been informer! of 
your appointment to the command of the Savage sloop, his Lordship has 
only directed me to add, that he felt great pleasure in being enabled to 
employ you in a manner so conformable to your own wishes. 

Captain Fraser. I am, &c. JOSEPH HUNT. 

SIR, Admiralty, Fibruary, 1793. 

1 have been favoured with your letter of the 4th, and should be Very 
glad if I could give you hopes of being able to give accommodation to your 
natural wishes for promotion. But I can at present be of no further use to 
any officer, than to bear testimony to what I, know or have heard of his 
character; and yours stands so fair, that I shall not fail to do full justice 
to it, whenever an opportunity offers, being most truly, &c. 

To Captain Fraser, Savige. HOOD. 

f See N. C. Vol. XIX. 

J MONSIEUR, Ostende, 5c Avril, 1793. 

La ville et environs d'Ostende etant menace par 1'enemi, qui n'a pas 
encore quitte Nieuport et Fumes, ou ils se trouvent plusieurs de ses 
bataillons ; Je prie Mons. Fraser, capitaine navale et commandant de 
^escadre, a la rode d' Ostende, au service de S. M. Britanniquc, de vouloir 
Tenir prendre la defense de la dite vilie et environs, avec les troupes e.t 
1'escadre sous ses ordres. J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, avec le consideration le plus 
diitingue, Monsieur, votre tres bumble & obeissant serviteur, 

.BARON DE MYL1US, 

Colonel chef de corps de Loudon Vert, et commandant 
UTI detachment de Tarms iltius la Ouut Flandre, 
cantonne'e a Ypres. 

A Monsieur Fraser, capitaine et commandant 
de Cescadre a la rude d'Ostende, au semce 
de S. M. Btitannique. 

. er&ioru Sol, XXXI. 



08 KAYAI, BIOGRAPHY. 

take possession of the town and garrison ; with which he com- 
plied, and ran the Savage into the harbour, landing about 500 
tten, partly marines and partly seamen. On the 5th he received 
from the Court of Brussels the intelligence, that General Dumou- 
rier had arrested Beurnonvillc and the other commissioners of the 
convention, and sent them to the Count de Clayrfait.* This 

SIR, 

You are to take the command of the port and town of Ostend, until such 
time as an Austrian officer is sent to possess the place. You are, with the 
utmost despatch, to remount the cannon, and put the place in the best state 
of defence the circumstances of the time will admit. You are to invite 
the loyal citizens in so doing, marking those that appear backward and dis- 
affected. You are to take all the armed cutters, with a subaltern's party of 
the 29th regiment (serving as marines), into the harbour, who, with the crews 
of the cutters and your own marines, you are to employ in the manner most 
expedient, &c. In the execution of this service, you are to take care that 
the utmost regularity and good order is preserved, that none of the inhabi- 
tants be molested, injured, or insulted ; and you will, by a proper conduct 
on your part, endeavour to obtain their confidence and assistance, to da- 
fend the place as becomes English seamen and soldiers. Your party is 
small, but your cause is good ; and 1 have the utmost confidence in your 
conduct and courage. 

To Captain Fraser, Senior officer at Ostend. JOHN M'BRIDE. 

Bmsselles, 3 Avnf, 1793. 

* Le ministre vient de recevoir une lettre du General Clayrfait, qni 
1'informe, que Beurnonville, ministre de la guerre en France, accompagne" 
de son aid de camp, et de plusieurs deputes de la convention nationale, 
sont venus a 1'armee du Dumourier pour 1'arreter. Le General Dumou- 
rier, au lieu de se laisser arreter, a fait arreter le ministre ct lea commis- 
saires, et les a fait remettre en mains du General Clayrfait a Mons. II 
paroitroit que cela devroit conduire a la paix, ou a contre revolution en 
France. 

DEAR SIR, Do&ru, 7th April, 1793. 

Your letter, with the confirmation of the good news, by Dixon, will be 
a very welcome account indeed. Although this has not turned out lucrn- 
live, it will be very reputable to you. I think it scarcely possible that you 
and Nowell are not to have post : Boger and Wynne commands. I sup- 
pose, from the turn matters have taken, we shall very soon come to a 
conclusion. JOHN M'BRIDE. 

DEAR SIR, 8th April. 

I have all your despatches, and have great pleasure in acquainting you, 
that the Admiralty highly approve of your conduct, and I hope you will 
very soon have more substantial proof of their Lordships' attention. I have 
not failed to lend my helping hand, and am, with great regard, most sin. 
cerely yours. JOHN M'BIUDE. 

To Cuplain Fraier, Oslend. 



ALEXANDER FP.ASER, ESQ. S9 

intelligence, of infinite consequence to the war, he instantly 
transmitted to the Admiralty ; and it was received in so very short 
a time, that Lord Chatham could scarcely believe the officer who 
brought the despatch. In four days afterwards, the French army 
refusing to inarch to Paris with Dutnourier, he was himself 
obliged to fly, which, of course, put an end to the armistice between 
the Prince of Cobourg and him. This intelligence Captain Fraser 
received through the same channel, and was equally fortunate iu 
the speedy transmission of it to the Admiralty. As he necessarily 
lived on shore, H. R. H. the Duke of York was pleased to order 
the commissary-general to pay him ll. per day for his table, which 
was continued all the time he remained on the station. Sir Charles 
Ross, with the 37th regiment, reliered him in the command on 
shore on the 20th April ; * but he still continued as commanding 
the naval department, until the events which succeeded required 
a greater force, and officers of superior rank, among whom were 
Admiral M'Bride himself, Captain George Murray, f &c. j pre- 
vious to which, he was, on the 1st of July, 1793, promoted to the 



* SIR, 

I am ordered by his Royal Highness the Duke of York to acquaint you, 
that the 37th regiment is to embark to-morrow on board boats to proceed 
to Ostend, and to remain there for the present in garrison : and his Royal 
Highness requests you will give Sir Charles Ross every assistance in your 
po'wer, when it is necessary to employ any of the shipping. His Royal 
Highness has this day given directions to the commissary-general, that 20*. 
a day should be allowed you for the expense of your table since you landed 
at Ostend. 

His Royal Highness desires I would express to you, that lie will be very 
happy to have the pleasure of seeing you at Courtray, or wherever head- 
quarters may be ; and will then give you every intelligence relative to your 
future destination. J. ST. LEGER, 

To Capt. Fraser, Ostend. Deputy-Adjutant-General. 

SIR, 

I had the honour of receiving your letter of the 26th instant. His Royal 
Highness is much obliged to you for the expedition used in sending off the 
Baron de Wymfen. The head-quarters will be for several days at Tournay^ 
where his Royal Highness will be very happy to see you. 

To Captain Fraser. JAMES MURRAY, Adj.- S en. 

t SeeN.C. Vol. XVIII. 



JOO NATAL BIOGRAPHY. 

post rank in the Redoubt, of 20 68 ib. carronades ; * the Savage's 
ship's company turned over into her, and sent to the same station ; 
where, assisted by the Captains Sotheron and Halket (now Rear. 
admirals), he materially contributed to the defence of Nieuport ; 
the ships anchoring close in-shore, and firing into the enemy'i 
camp over the sand-hills. + 

DEAR SIR, Dozens, lOt/i June, 1793. 

I am just returned from town, having been absent three days, which a 
the reason you have not heard from me. I have very sincere pleasure in 
informing you, that you will shortly receive, by being promoted, that re- 
ward which your very meritorious and proper conduct so well entitles you 
to ; and be assured I have great pleasure in the communication. If I have 
in any respect been instrumental in this event, it was yourself who fur- 
nished me with the materials. Mr. Boger is ordered to relieve you. Entre 
nous, on your arrival you will probably be ordered to Woolwich, where 
you will find a ship belter calculated to assist in the defence of Ostend than 
the Savage. Boger gets a step along with you, so that Ostend has made 
you both a little taller. With the greatest regard yours most sincerely, 

Captain Fraser, Osiend. JOHN M'BRIDE. 

MY DEAR SIR, London, August 23, 1793. 

T have yours this day ; your former letter reached me in Torbay, and it 
was not until yesterday I knew where you were. Rest assured, in what- 
ever I may have contributed to your promotion, I am amply repaid by 
the satisfaction I feel on the occasion. I have no doubt t,he Redoubt will 
do all that is required of her when called upon. Most sincerely yours, 

To Captain Fraxcr, Redoubt. JOHN M'BRIPE. 

+ Aux habitans de Nieuport le 3d jour de la premiere decade du 2d 
mois de la Republique Francaise une et indivisible. 

Je vnus somtne de vous rendre sur le champ aux armes victorieuses de la 
Republique I'rancaiie, devant qui tout doitceder : que six otagesse rendent 
-i mon camp; ou sans quoi, cernee,attaquee par mer et par terre, votre ville 
j,cra detruitp ; et J'y entrerai sur les monceaux fumans de vos maisons, et les 
debris palpitans de vos membres. Que I'exemple de Furnes vous apprenue 
a iie pas compter sur ceux qui se diseut vos defenseurs, et qui nous calom- 
tiieut pnrcequc nous les battons. 

Le General commandant 1'avant garde des troupes Francaises devant 
Kieupo.t, LAZAR HOCHE. 

Reponse du majistrats de Nieuport. 

Comme notre ville cst presentment sous la commande mjlitaire, nous n$ 
pouvous repondre de notre chef a votre sommation. 



ctober, 1793. 

Colonel Wormb, commandant of Nieuport, is very sensible of Cap;ain 
Frssei-'s oSers of service, of which he stands in great need, havim: been 



ALEXANDER FttASER, ESQ. 101 

After the unfortunate result of the attempt on Dunkirk,* Lord 
Chatham, at his own desire, appointed him to the Proserpine fri- 
gate, in July, 1704, in which ship he remained in the North Sea 
under the command of Admiral + (Lord) Duncan,]; until Decem- 
ber, 1795 ; when Lord Spencer was pleased to offer him the 

attacked yesterday by a very superior and considerable force, well supplied 
with heavy artillery of every species, to which he had only six-pounders to 
oppose. The inundation, which he was under the necessity of malting, alone 
protected him. An attack from the sand hills, perhaps to-morrow, is 
almost certain. Should it happen, a flag will be hoisted upon a small tower j 
and if from any other quarter, two flags wiJl be hoisted. 

CARL VON WORMB, Commandant. 

SIR, Nieuport, 4th November, 1793. 

Major-general Dundas having marched this morning for Ostend, with the 
troops which he brought to reinforce this place, it fell to me officially to 
open your letter of this date ; and its zealous contents for the mutual de- 
fence of Nieuport afford me great satisfaction. I shall be happy, on my 
part, to give you any information in my power for this desired end. I shall 
carefully attend to the signals you propose to make in case the enemy 
should appear on the sand-hills ; and should I perceive them approach by 
any quarter, in the day time, I shall hoist one colour upon a round tower 
as before ; and in the night a lanthorn instead of a colour. Enclosed I send 
you the paroles and counter-signs till the 12th : please to keep them in your 
own possession. CARL VON WORMB. 

To Commodore Fraser. 

SIR, Nieunnrt, 15th November, 1793. 

I am honoured with your letter of last night and this morning, and beg 
you will accept my best thanks for your obliging attention to my request 
for ammunition for 6-pounders ; a receipt for which I have given to the 
gunner of the Albion, agreeable to your desire. 

Commodore Frascr. CARL VON WORMB. 

* See N. C. Vol. VII. and XIII. 

t SeeN.C. Vol. V. 

J BEAR SIR, 

I am favoured with your letter of the 21st ult. with the intelligerfce, a 
copy of which you have sent to the Admiralty (respecting Dutch fleet in 
the Texel), which, indeed, lias given me much satisfaction; and if appears 
to me you must have used much address in obtaining it. 

To Capt. Fraser, Proserpine. ADAM DUNCAN. 

DEAR SIR, Venerable, Dozens, December 30, 1795. 

I am favoured with your letter, acquainting me your ship is nearly ready 
for sea. In a proposed plan of the Admiralty for guarding the North coast, 
you were to be stationed with a sloop at Lcrwick : my opinion was, at this 



NAVAL BIOGRAPHY* 

Shannon, one of the new fir frigates, of 32 guns.* In this ship, on 
the Irish station, he captured three large privateers, viz. Le Duguay 
Trouin, of 24 guns, 150 men ; + Le Grand Indien, of 20 guns, 

season you could be of little use there ; I should be glad to hear what you 
think : it is certain the French have made some captures, which they have 
at present at Bergen, () and will try as soon as they can, as they did last 
year, to send them north about to France. It is also not impossible the 
Dutch may try to get their India ships from Drontheirn. All this I write 
you in confidence, to know what time you think ships should take the nor- 
thern station ; I would send a cutter or two with you. 

I am, dear Sir, with regard, very much yours, 
Captain Fraser, Proserpine. ADAM DUNCAN. 

MY DEAR SIR, November 24, 1797. 

Your congratulations are most acceptable, as I am sure they are sincere. 
Should fate put us together again I shall be much gratified, as your service 
with me was always highly to my satisfaction. I shall only add, that suc- 
cess and all the comforts of life may attend you is my sincere wish ; being 
with great regard most sincerely yours, DUNCAN. 

* DEAR FRASER, Admiralty, 30th December, 1795. 

If you have an inclination to be appointed to the command of the Shan- 
non, one of the new frigates which will be ready in the course of next 
month, I have Lord Spencer's permission to offer her to you : let me know 
what you think about her, and believe me to be very sincerely yours, 




Captain Fraser, Proserpine, Sheernets. 

t MONSIEUR, "Royal Oak, Portsmouth, May 1798. 

Votre lettre, que Je viens de recevoir, m'a fait eprouver le premier senti- 
ment de joye quc J'ai eprouve depuis que Je suis ici. Je vous reads mille 
graces de tout ce que vous avez bien voulu faire pour moi. J'etoisbicn per- 
suade de vos bonnes intentions, et Je n'avois pas besoin de la preuve que 
vous m'en donne par la lettre du Lord Spencer : il en a ecrit a peu pie* 
une pareille au 1'Eveque Conte de Leon, que ce dernier a eu la complaisance 
de me faire passer. Mais les malheureux circonstances sont seuls la cause 
que mes amis, et mes bientaiteurs, ne peuvcnt rien faire pour moi : Je u'en 
conservcrai pas moins le precieux souvenir, et mon reconnaissance sera 
eternelle. 

Je vous remercie tie la complaisance que vous avez eu de faire encerer 
dans un papier publique la lettre que Je vous avois remet a cet cffet : Je 

() See N.C. Vol. XIX. 



At-EXANDKR FRASEIl, ESQ. 103 

125 men ; and La Julie, of 18 guns, 120 men ; * the latter of 
whom would have committed great depredations on the Jamaica 
convoy, then expected, of which the French captain had the 
most correct intelligence, with the force accompanying it ; for 
while in the act of shifting the prisoners, the convoy ap- 
peared in sight, consisting of more than 70 sail, under the 
Alfred, 74, and Terror bomb ; so that La Julie would have 
taken as many of them as she could man, with very little probabi- 
lity of recapture. 

In 1799, Earl Spencer removed Captain Fraser to the Diana, 

ne scai qu'elle produira, mais quelque soil Peffet, Je doute qu'il y ait un 
second M. Fraser pour le trop malheureux, qui sera toute sa vie, &c. 

DUFRESNE LEGUE. 

Vous me ferez le plus grand plaisir si vous m'honorer d'une visile dans 
ma malheureuse captivite; dans le cas que vos occupations ne vous per- 
mettrois pas (ce dont Je serois bien fache), Je vous prie de recedever volre 
bonne recommendation aupres de Capitaine Rawe. 

Messieurs Messieurs Guillemaut et Dvfresne Legue, 
Negocians a St, Mala. 

Je ne puis mieux marquer ma vive reconnoissance pour tous les egards, 
t les bontes qu'a eu pourmoi le capitaine de vaisseau de S. M. Britanniqutf 
Ja Shannon, Mons. Alex. Fraser, pendant un mois que J'ai reste a son bord, 
apres m'avoir capture sur le corsaire le Duguay Trouin de St. Malo que Je 
commandois ; que de vous recommande' d'une maniere toute particuliere. 
Vous voudrez bien lui rendre tous les services qui dependerons de vous; 
ainsi qu'a tous ceux que se presenterai de sa part, il n' egalerai jamais ctux 
-qui Je lui doit, et ma reconnoissance devera autant que la vie de votre 
ami, DUFRESNE LEGUE. 

Guillemaut was his father-in-law. Captain Dufresne Lcgue had been 
lieutenant de vaisseau in the royal navy of France before the revolution, 
and Captain Fraser had been a little acquainted with him at Martinique 
in 1784. 

A'bord de Julie, Cork, 7 Juillet, 1793. 

* L'instant approche ou Je vais probablement etre transfei e dans quelque 
prison ; prives de 1'honneur de vous faire de vive voix ines sinceres 
retnerciment du traitement noble et genereux que vous avez exerce envers 
tnoi, viellee les recevoir par la presente, et croire qu' il m'en donner pour 
vous, Monsieur, la plus haute consideration : c'est dans cet sentiment que 
J'ai 1'honneur d'etre 

Au Captain Alexander Fraser, PIERRE GAUTREAtf. 

Commandant, $c. la Shannon. 



104 NAVAL BIOGRAPHY. 

of JJ8 guns, in which he carried out a large convoy to the V'cit 
Indies, and remained on that station with the late Lord Hugh 
Seymour for one year, and captured several small privateers, viz. 
Lcs Quatrcs Amis, 2 guns, 10 swivels, and 40 men ; Telegraph, 
14 guns, Medee, 10 guns, 70 men, and L' Industrie, 6 guns, 23 
men ; the capture of the last of whom, it is but justice to a good 
officer, now dead, to state, was made by Lieutenant Blake, first 
of the Diana, in the ship's boats, after considerable resistance ; 
the Diana and the privateer being both becalmed under Guada- 
loupe.* During his stay on this station, he had to regret the 
indifferent sailing of the Diana, though othcrways a fine frigate ; 
as he had the mortification to chase a French corvette, of 28 guns, 
for four days, from Guadaloupe to the Mona passage, a great 
part of the time within random shot ; when she at last escaped, 
during the fourth night, in a thunder squall which continued for 
several hours. Having been in the course of one year twice attacked 
by the fever of that climate, he was, at last, most reluctantly obliged 
to resign the command of the Diana to Captain Bercsford, and 
returned to England in the Invincible, Captain Caylcy. t 

Remaining on half-pay for some time to re-establish his health, 
.Lord St. Vincent + then appointed him to the Bershiemer, a Dutch 
jhip of 54 guns, and stationed her as a guard-ship in the Swin, 
until the conclusion of the war, 1802, when she was paid off, aud 
Captain Frascr was appointed to the Amphion frigate, in which 
he had the honour and good fortune to carry over to Cuxhaven. 
his Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge and suite. A threatened 
misfortune of a domestic nature obliged him soon after to resign 
the command of the Amphion to Captain Sir Thomas Mastcrman 
Hardy, which he afterwards considered as very unfortunate, being 
thereby prevented from being in actual service at the breaking out 
of the war soon after. He was in 1804, however, by Lord 
Welville, appointed to the Wcymouth frigate, and almost imme- 
diately to the Hindostan, of 54 guns. In her he carried out a 

* See N.C. VG!. XV. and XVI, 

f The Diana lost, by the yellow fever, the first lieutenant, master, 
lieutenant of marines, acting lieutenant, several midshipmen, and a con- 
siderable number of the ship's company, about this time. 

i See ^.C. Vol. IV. 



ALEXANDER FRASER, ESQ. 105 

large convoy to the East Indies ; and remaining on that station 
about nine months, he returned to England with another convoy 
ia the summer of 1806. The Hindostan (as a purchased ship), 
being found unfit for his Majesty's service as a man of war, was 
paid off; and Captain, Fraser was appointed by Mr. Thomas 
Grenville to the Prince, of 98 guns, which was only intended as 
temporary, until the Vanguard, 74, was ready : this last he com- 
missioned in January, 1807, and made part of the fleet under 
Lord Gambier, at the last attack of Copenhagen. 

When the admiral, with the fleet and army, returned to England 
ia October, Captain Fraaer was ordered to remain with the Van- 
guard, and a considerable number of frigates and sloops, for the 
blockade of Copenhagen, and the protection of the trade still 
remaining in the Baltic ; and other services, specified in his orders. 
This turned out a service of much greater anxiety and difficulty 
than had been foreseen or provided for : not only did the Danish 
government refuse all offers made to it of reciprocal forbearance 
(which had been reckoned upon),* but fitted out a great number 

In proof of the confirmed hostility of the Danes, after the squadron of 
Admiral Gambier had departed, it should be mentioned, that the strict 
blockade of Copenhagen made a part of Captain Fraser's orders ; never- 
theless he was authorized, and accordingly did make offer to the Governor 
of Cronenburgh Castle, and the commandant of Copenhagen, to relax ia 
that blockade, in so far as to permit the importation of articles of the first 
necessity ; as fuel, salt, &c. and timber for building, of which they stood 
in much need, from a great part of the city having been destroyed, on con- 
dition that the British merchant ships should be unmolested in their passage 
down the Drago Channel, and through the Sound : which was peremp- 
torily refused. After the capitulation, some brass mortars, which were 
stipulated to be returned on the evacuation, were stolen, it was supposed, 
from one of the lunettes : and a certain number of praams (private pro- 
perty) which had been destroyed or damaged by the navy or army, it was 
agreed (on the requisition of General Piemaun, the governor) should be paid 
for ; and Captain Fraser was authorized by Admiral Gambier to draw bills 
on the Navy Board on both accounts, taking the estimate on the honour and 
representation of General Piemaun. The four howitzers were paid for by 
bills for about 300 rix doljars ; but whilst the negociation was going on 
respecting die value of the praams, and which had come so near the con- 
clusion, that bills were actually drawn for 7,150 dollars, payable to the 
order of the general, and only waited for his signature to the necessary 
vouchers, the Prince Royal (now Kin;/;) arrived at Copenhagen, put the 

(Hoi. XXXI. P 



106 NATAL BIOGBAFHY. 

of gun. boats in all quarters, which much annoyed the merchant 
ships coming down the Baltic through the Grounds, and also the 
fchips which arrircd from England bound up. None of either 
being aware of the decided hostility of the Danes to any accom- 
modation, and consequently by coming down singly and without 
convoy, several of them were unavoidably captured. He sue- 
ceeded, however, in sending safe through the Sound about 300 

/ 

general under arrest, (a) and stopped all communication by flag of truce or 
otherwise : thus, uy an ill-timed resentment, the poor proprietors of the 
praams suffered the loss. And so far did this resentment go, that a 
beautiful yacht, which had been made him a present of some years 
before by the King of Great Britain (and which had been most carefully 
preserved from any damage while the British troops had possession of the 
arsenal), was indignantly returned to the Admiralty of England. She 
came of course under Captain Eraser's examination off Ilelsingburgh, and 
he certainly might have detained her as prize, being Danish property, and 
in no respect a cartel ; but the circumstance was so novel, and the subject 
of so delicate a nature, that he did not choose to interfere, further than 
by facilitating her voyage to England ; and &lie now lies off the dock-yard 
at Deptford. 

The passport with the yacht was in the following terms : 
His Majesty the King of Denmark and Norway, &c. &c. . 

Deputies in the College of the Admiralty and Commissariat at Copen- 
hagen, make known hereby, That the English shipmaster, William Patter- 
son, who is now sent from hence in an English built frigate to England, to 
deliver the same to the Royal English Admiralty, has permission to pass 
the Boom at the Custom-house here, as also further to sail from Copenhagen 
roads with the said frigate-built (hut not to return), whose crew consists of 
a mate and 16 sailors, all of whom are released English prisoners of war, 
conformably with the muster-roll delivered to the said shipmaster. Where- 
fore all whom it may concern are requested to allow the said shipmaster, 
with the frigate, and the said crew, to pass without hindrance, as well our 
of the harbour, as across the sea, on this his voyage. 

College of Admiralty and Commissariat, 21$t November, 1807. 

(Signed) KNUGHT Stctn Bille Grove. 

(L.S.) 



(a) General Piemaun was immediately tried by a conseille ile guerre, for having 
giren op the arsenal and fleet, and condemned to death; but the sentence was 
commuted to cou&uerueiit for life iu the Island of Bornholm. 



ALEXANDER FRASEK, ESQ. 107 

sail, giving them ample protection from thence to England.* An 
embargo also took place in the Russian ports so early as the 
15th November; notwithstanding which a very few ships only 
remained, as they met with every facility in getting ready and pro- 
ceeding, from the Russian government, until the embargo actually 
took place ; the military even assisting in loading the vessels, f 
Captain Fraser remained off Copenhagen till the 21st of No- 

* DEAR em, Hekingburgh, 27th October, 1807. 

Lieutenant Collett will state to you the circumstance of the capture, bv 
the Castle of Cronenburgh, of four English merchantmen, forming part of 
the convoy now in sight. The man of war is not yet come up. There ne- 
ver was any thing so cowardly and awkward as the conduct of these four 
jliips. Believe me, dear Sir, with great truth, yours, most faithfully, 

Capt. Fraser, Vanguard, off Copenhagen. HY. PIERREPONT. 

SIR, Helxingburgh, November 10, 1807. 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 9th 
instant: I cannot but perfectly coincide with your opinion on the risk 
which those merchant ships hound up the Baltic would incur in proceeding 
through the Drago Channel. At the same time, that the measure proposed 
in sending II. M.S. Gannet with them as far as Bornholm, appear* to me to 
be amply sufficient : and it would have been undoubtedly (inadvisable, 
that any of his Majesty's squadron should have*becn suffered to proceed 
farther up these seas at so advanced a period of the season. I have the 
honour to be, with great truth and regard, Sir, 

Capt. Frater, Vanguard, $c. HY. PIERREPONT. 

t SIR, Helsingbnrgh, November 20, 1807. 

Intelligence has arrived from Peter&burgh, of such a complexion as to 
remove all doubt of the commercial intercourse between Russia and 
England being entirely at an end. I have hastened to give you an early 
intimation of this circumstance, that you may be enabled to take such steps 
as you think necessary, in order to prevent English vessels of all descrip- 
tions from proceeding to the ports of Russia, which can no longer be con- 
jsidered as friendly. 1 have the honour to be, &c. 

Capt. Fraser, Vanguard, off Copenhagen. B. BATHURST, 

Charge des Affaires. 

SIR, Hehingburgh, November 21, 1807. 

His Swedish Majesty has despatched Mons. de Boya to Copenhagen, to 
reclaim the Swedish Consul, who was arrested, I understand, in conse- 
quence of having conveyed a letter from you to General Peyman ; and 
unless every reparation is made for this outrage, the Danish Consul at 
Malmoe will be put under arrest. I have the honour to be, with great 
truth, &c. 

Captain Frater. B. BATHURST. 



108 NAVAL BIOGRAPHY. 

vembcr, and then dropt down off Hclsingburgh to collect the last 
ships for the season, and proceed with them to England on the 
30th, agreeable to his orders. Here he had the honour of attend, 
ing the levee of the late King of Sweden, Gustavus, and was 
accompanied by Captains Staincs and Phillimore : according to 
the etiquette, they were invited to dinner, and to be introduced 
to the beautiful Queen of Sweden ; an honour which, from the 
situation of the ships (being within gun-shot of the castle of 
Cronenburgh), and the state of the weather (a snow storm), they 
were very reluctantly obliged to decline. 

A few of the merchant ships (about eight) had, on their pas- 
sage down the Baltic, put into Carlsham and Carlscrona, and 
waited there for protection from the gun-boats ; but the season 
was now so far advanced, it was found impracticable to afford it 
to them ; Captain Stevenson, in the Gannet, having endeavoured 
ineffectually, for many days, to proceed with some ships upwards 
before the embargo was known, but, from the prevailing winds 
and lee current, obliged to return with all of them. Nothing, 
therefore, remaining within his power to execute of his orders, he 
sailed from Helsingburgh the 30th November, with a few merchant 
ships, the Cyane frigate, Bellctte, and several other sloops of 
war. The Castle of Cronenburgh, which had hitherto (it is pre- 
sumed) respected the neutrality of Sweden, as soon as the Van- 
guard was under weigh, opened a severe fire, which fortunately 
did but little damage ; some shot passing through the sails, &c. 
but served to prove, that the ships had been lying for weeks toge- 
ther within the range of their shot, but had not been molested at 
their anchorage. 

The hard gales of wind which occurred about this time having 
dispersed some of the convoys, the Vanguard, with the Cyane, 
and several sloops, continued to cruise in the Sleeve until the 12th 
December, and then made sail for England, where they arrived at 
Yarmouth the 20th. 

Captain Fraser now found, to his great astonishment, that instead 
of receiving the thanks of the mercantile world, whose property 
he had protected, he was called upon by the Admiralty to answer 
the allegations of some of those bodies, who, utterly ignorant of 
the existing circumstances, either of the continued and decided 



ALEXANDER ERASER, ESQ. 1Q9 

hostilities of the Danes, or the embargo which had taken place in 
Russia, had complained that the squadron had left the Sound at 
too early a period, and even hinted that Captain Fraser had acted 
contrary to his orders : he had the pleasure, however, of fully 
satisfying the Admiralty Board, which entirely approved of his 
conduct.* 



* SIR, 

Lord Gambler having laid before my Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty your letter of the 19th ult. ; I have it in command to acquaint you, 
ihat their Lordships are pleased to approve of all your arrangements. 

I am, &c. W. VV. POLE. 

Captain Fraser, Vanguard, Copenhagen. 

SIR, 

My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having had under their con- 
sideration your several letters, relative to the protection of the Baltic trade, 
and your return to Yarmouth from your station within the Sound ; I have 
their commands to acquaint you, that they are fully satisfied that you acted 
according to the best of your judgment, and with the most laudable inten- 
tions ; and that they are therefore pleased to approve of your conduct on 
that occasion. I am, &c. 

Capt. Prater, Vanguard, Yarmouth. W. W. POLE. 

(Secret.) 

MV I)EAR FRASER, Admiralty, 1st January, 1808. 

I assure you, that all the sea people at the Board are perfectly satisfied 
shat you have executed to the utmost the very arduous service that was 
entrusted to you ; and we have from the first given as little countenance as 
possible to the mercantile outcry that appeared to us so undeservedly 
raised, because some of their ships had fallen into the enemy's hands. 
All my brethren here feel equally with myself the unmerited attacks which 
have been made upon you, and from which you are perfectly cleared by 
ur decision ; and you may assure your friends to that effect. 
I am, my dear Fraser, 

most faithfully yours. 

DEAR SIR, Admiralty, January 2d, 1808. 

I am sorry to find that your health requires a temporary retirement from 
the active duties of your profession, as the time seems to be approaching 
when we shall have occasion for the greatest exertions of our navy ; and I 
could wish you to share in the glories of the next campaign, which would 
compensate for the anxiety you have recently undergone : it will, however, 
be satisfactory to you to know, that your naval friends never entertained 
but one opinion on your case. Believe me, with regard, yours, very truly. 

Captain Fraser, Vanguard, Yarmouth. 



110 NAVAL BIOGRAPHY. 

His health being considerably impaired by the anxiety and fatigue 
of six weeks constant alarm and exertion, on the Vanguard being 
ordered again to Copenhagen, in January, 1808, he obtained 
leave of absence, and an acting captain was appointed : and his 
health not permitting him to join his ship so soon as he wished, 
Lord Mulgrave offered, in the handsomest manner, to prolong 
his leave of absence for six months ; and gave him the alternative 
of choice to the command of the Sea Fencibles at Dundee, which 
he was induced to accept ; the first time, during a service of forty 
years, that he had ever solicited or accepted any situation out of 
actual service afloat. In this command he remained until the final 
discharge of all the fenciblc corps in 1810, and was, on the 1st 
of August that year, appointed to the command of the William 
and Mary, one of the Royal Yachts : his Royal Highness the 
Duke of Cambridge was, at the same time, pleased to appoint him 
one of H. R. H.'s equerrys. He continued captain of the yacht 
until the promotion, 1st August, 1811, when he got his flag as 
Jlcar-admiral of the Blue ; and on the 12th August, 1812, was 
promoted to Rear of the White. Admiral Frascr has not yet 
hoisted his flag, though he has made repeated applications to that 
effect. 

He married, in 17S8, Helen, thoeldcst daughter of John Bruce, 
Esq. of Sumburgh, advocate, and collector of the Customs in 
Shetland ; of the family of Cultmalundy, in Fifeshire, a cadet of 
the Bruces of Clackmanan. By this lady he had three sons and 
two daughters : the eldest son, Alexander, is a captain of engi. 
peers, and has been a prisoner at Verdun near six years ; the 2d, 
John, was first lieutenant of II. M. sloop Magnet, which foun- 
dered with all her crew on the passage to America, September, 
1812; the 3d, Thomas, was educated at the Royal Naval Col- 
lege, Portsmouth, and is midshipman in the Hotspur, with the 
Hon. Captain Joceylin Percy. The daughters are unmarried. 

He lost his only brother, Thomas, during the American war, 
lieutenant of grenadiers of the 71st regiment, Highlanders, who, 
after being shot through the body at the taking of C'harlestown, 
and twice through the arm, was unfortunately killed at York 
Town, Virginia, the day before the surrender of that post -by 
Cornwall!? : he was only 23 jears of age, had been four 



ALEXANDER FRAS^R, ESQ. Ill 

years in the army, was very much regarded by the late General 
Frascr (Lovat), his distant cousin, and colonel of the regiment, 
and exceedingly regretted by all those officers who knew him, as 
a brave officer and excellent young man. 



HERALDIC PARTICUtARS. 

To all and sundry to whom these presents do or may concern, We 
Thomas Robert Earl of Kinnoul, and Lord Lyon King of Anns, do hereby 
certify and declare, that the ensigns armorial pertaining and belonging to 
Alexander Fraser, Esq. captain in his Majesty's navy, eldest surviving son 
of Hugh Fraser, Esq. surveyor of his Majesty's Customs at Lenvick, in 
Shetland, by Jane Linning, daughter of the Reverend Mr. Thomas Linning, 
of Walstein, by Ann, daughter of John Hamilton, of Gilkerscleugh, Esq. 
and 5th in lineal descent from William, 2d son of Thomas Fraser, of 
Strichen, Esq. 2d son of Alexander 5th Lord Lovat, who died in 1558, are 
matriculated in the public registers of the Lyon Office, and are bla- 
zoned on the margin, thus, viz. quarterly first azure, three Fraiziers * 
argent ; second gules, three Eastern crowns, or ; the third as the second, 
the fourth as the first : over all in the centre of the shield a crescent argent, 
all within a border gules, the doubling argent, and on a wreath of his 
liveries is set for crest a buck's head erased proper ; and in an escrol this 
motto " Jc suit Preit." Which armorial ensigns, above blazoned, we do 
hereby ratify and confirm, and assign to the said Alexander Fraser, Esq. and 
theheirs male of his body, as their proper arms or bearing in all time coming. 
In testimony whereof these presents are subscribed by James Home, Esq. 
of Linhouse, our deputy ; and the seal of our office is appended thereunto, 
at Edinburgh, this eighteenth day of September, in the year of our 
Lcrd i810. 

JAMES HOME. 

Lyon Office, 18tk September, 1810. 

This Patent is duly entered in the records of the Lyon Office, by me, 

JOIIX KERR, 
Keeper of Records and Herald Painter. 



Ciiiquefoils. 



112 

NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &c. 



ANECDOTE PF A SAILOR. 

AN honest Tar, who had well lined his pockets with the spoils of the 
enemies of his country, ordered a huge gold ring. When the trades- 
man had finished it, he told him it was common to have a poesy en- 
graved on it. " Very well, said the seaman, " what must it be ?'' " Any 
thing you please," replied the goldsmith. " Then," returned the other, 
" put on ic 

" When money's low the ring must go." 

This was done, and the honest son of the waves was so well pleased with 
the execution of the whole, that he ordered a massy pair of silver buckles 
to be made, with rims nearly as broad as the edge of a two-inch plank, 
" And here," said he, " you may as well put a poesy on them also ; 
" If that won't do the buckles too." 

THE LATE SIR ALEXANDER BALL. 

ROBERT BALL, Esq. the father of the late Sir Alexander Ball, was Lord 
of the Manor of Stonehouse, in Gloucestershire, and possessed an estate 
nt Ebworth in the same county. He married the daughter of Marsh Dick- 
erson, Esq. who represented the borough of Brackley, in the county of 
Northampton, in two Parliaments. Sir Alexander Ball* was educated at 
n school at Northampton, and was afterwards sent to France to perfect 
himself in the French language, which was of considerable use to him, both 
in his naval capacity, and likewise in his residence at Malta. He entered 
the service about the year 1768, in the Dolphin frigate, and was made 
post in 1782. He died on the 25th of October, 1809, in the fifty-third 
year of his age. 

REGISTER OF SHIPS. 

A CAUSE of serious consequence to seafaring people was lately determined 
hefore the Lords of the Privy Council, on an appeal from the Bahama 
Islands. This decision lays it down, that, upon change of property of a 
vessel, a new register cannot be obtained for her at any other port than 
that where she was originally registered, at or near which the ship's owner 
or husband usually resides ; and they have also established, that a British 
subject, without a fixed place of residence, cannot be the owner of a vessel 

so as to be entitled to register her a? a British ship. 

i 

ANECDOTE OF AN OLD SAILOR. t 

AN old sailor, with a wooden leg, conversing with a watermnn on Point- 
beach, amongst other subjects, talked of the many lucrative situations held 
by undeserving pfrtont; and exclaiming, after a deep sigh" Oh ! that I 

See Vol. XXV. p. 453. 



NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, <Sf. 113 

wa? but First Lord of the Admirality ?"" Ha, ha, ha, that's a good thing 
indeed," replied the waterman, " old Ben Bowling First Lord of the Admi- 
ra/ity'..' Why now, Ben, what would you do, supposing it were so ? ' What 
would I do, did you say ?" cries Ben, turning his quid, "why d it me, 
I'd make myself Cook of the Royal Billy ! " 

RESCUE FROM SHIPWRECK. 

THE brig Venus, of Yarmouth, was driven on shore in the tremendous 
gale of the 20th ult. half a mile to the southward of that pier; her large 
draught of water prevented her approaching nearer the land than two hun- 
dred yards. Every effort to rescue the crew, by the ordinary methods, 
was attempted without success. At last the naval officer of the signal eta- 
lion brought the apparatus invented by Captain Manby down to the btach. 
At the second fire, the shot with the line attached to it was thrown from 
the mortar over the vessel. The facility with which the crew were then 
disengaged from their danger was admirable, and deserves detail. By the 
line, with which communication had been gained, a hawser was drawn from 
the ship (in which it was made fast) to the shore, and distended by the 
efforts of the numerous spectators ; the crew were then brought to land, 
one by one, in a sling that passed from the ship to the shore, by lines 
reaching to either; and ran, with ease along the hawser, by a ring, made 
of rope, called a grummet. The storm was of such extreme severity, that 
if the crew had not been thus saved, the poor wretches, supposing them to 
have escaped drowning, must have been frozen to death. 

MIRACULOUS ESCAPE. 

As Lieutenant Adamson, of the royal marines, at present employed 
on the staff of that corps in Holland, was returning, on the 19th of January 
last, from the head-quarters of Sir T. Graham to South Beveland, with 
despatches, he escaped, in a most miraculous manner, from perishing in 
the East Scheldt. Having left St. Martin's Dyke, in the island of Tholen, 
on the afternoon of that day, in a small open Dutch boat (the only possible 
method for passing through the ice), and finding it to be utterly impossible, 
from the vast quantity of ice, to land in South Beveland, he attempted by 
every means to get on board one of the men of war which were anchored 
off the island ; but every exertion proving fruitless, and the tide running 
rapidly down the river, the boat was at last completely enclosed in sheets 
of ice, and in this situation was exposed, for upwards of ffteen hours, to 
the mercy of the tide, during the whole of a most tempestuous and bitterly 
freezing night. At length, that part of the ice which enclosed the boat 
separating at the very moment she was drifting near to H.M. S.Cornwall, 
the then almost perished crew were enabled to catch hold of a buoy which 
had i*een thrown out to them from that ship, on board of which they were 
soon afterwards taken in a nearly exhausted and frozen state. Every 
exertion was used by the men of war, while daylight lasted, to extricate 
the sufferers from their perilous situation ; and although they were several 
times, during the night, within hail of the shipc, no assistance whatever 
could be rendered them, the quantity of ice floating about being so great as 

Jflato, 2Fl/ron, (Holt XXXI, 



114 NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C. 

to have entirely rut off, for several days, ;.!! communication with tho 
Beveland shore, and even with Admiral Young's fleet in the Roompot. 
Lieutenant Adamson was one of the first who ventured to cross the Scheldt 
during that period. 

EXTRAORDINARY VOYAGE. 

THE Russian ship General Suwarroff, now at Portsmouth, is about to 
proceed ou what may appear a most extraordinary voyage, being none 
other than the completion of two military and commercial establishments 
on the West Coast cf North America. The Russian government have, for 
nearly ten years past, had a fort, with a few pieces of ordnance, mounted 
on the island of Rodiak, in lat. 55 N. and long. 160? \V. being the nearest 
point of the American continent to their establishment at Kamtschaika. 
'Within these four years they have begun to form another establishment, on 
the neck of land called California, and this ship takes out ordnance and 
ordnance stores of every description, to give to it an appearance of 
military strength. The trude the Russians carry on thither, which is very 
great, is wholly in furs ; for which article they find a lucrative market in 
China, from whence they bring to Europe the produce and manufactures 
of that country, and are enabled, from their competition with each other, 
to afford it to the European continent at a cheaper rate than this country. 
The General Suwarroff will also endeavour, in the height of next summer, 
to discover a passage through Ehering's Straits, and, in a northwesterly 
direction, to Archangel. A gentleman \vh is on board her, declares, that 
on a former voyage of discovery, he was more than half way through the 
Northern Seas of Cape North to Archangel, when the ship was stopped by 
the ice : this adventure left only about -100 miles unexplored, to complete 
the circuit of the world. 

THE CUMBERLAND AND EEDFOHD. 

THE following authentic statement has been published, of the concussion 
which took place between the Cumberland and Bedford ships of war, in 
Hoscly Bay : 

" The Cumberland and Bedford formed part of Admiral Terrier's 
pquadron in Uosely Bay, when on Thursday, the 20th January, during a 
violent gale of wind, and a very heavy sea, with a strong lee-tide, the 
Bedford parted her small bower, and dropt io suddenly on the hawse of 
the Cumberland, that notwithstanding the sheet anchor was instantly let 
go, which parted also, and every possible exertion was made by both ships 
destruction seemed inevitable. IJad it not been for the operation of the 
Bedford's jib, combined with the Cumberland's veering away cable, and 
the Bedford's cutting her best bower cable, in order to facilitate their 
keeping clear of each other, they would have come in contact in such a 
manner, as to have rendered their separation impossible, and consequently 
their destruction certain. The velocity with which the Cumberland's ca- 
ble ran out, precluded the possibility of Captain Baker's order to cut, being 
effected ; in consequence *>f which the Bedford could not clear the Cumber- 
land's bowsprit, which she threw over her larboard cathead ; and in the 



NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C, 115 

rourse of two minutes left her a perfect wreck. At tliis awful moment, 
when Uie safety of both ships was despaired of, the Bedford was providen- 
tially disentangled, and was observed to wear and make sail, which re- 
lieved the minds of the whole squadron for her safety ; but having only one 
anchor, and no cable bent, and the weather, though hazy, enabling her to 
keep sight of the Maze, and thereby to shape her course for the buoys and 
beacons, she fortunately escaped the surrounding dangers of that critical 
navigation, in running for the Nore, and for greater security she proceeded 
to the Thames; meanwhile the Cumberland was left in the most awful 
situation, which was increased by her parting the cable she rode by, and 
the sheet-anchor being entangled in the wreck, it was some time before it 
could be cut away (the best bower not bringing her up). She drifted so 
near the Cutlers as to occasion the greatest apprehension for her safety. 
Fortunately the sheet-anchor, being at length cleared, was let go, which 
brought the ship up, and saved her from being lost upon that dangerous 
shoal. The weather moderating, with the assistance sent by Rear-admiral 
Ferricr, and the exertions of her own officers and crew, she was enabled 
the following morning to move to a place of safety, when it was found that 
the stock of the best bower-anchor was broken. Having got up jury-masts, 
she arrived at the Nore in safety on the 25th ult. 

It is a singular circumstance, that the Cumberland and the Bedford 
arrived at the Nore at the same moment, when they mutually greeted each 
other's safety with three hearty cheers. 

It is also worthy remark, that the Cumberland, on this alarming occasion, 
lost no lives; five men only were wounded, and no one dangerously. 

The Bedford had her mizen-mast sprung, and received some injury in 
her quarter, but no person was hurt. 

NEW EXERCISE. 

THE Lords of the Admiralty having determined that British seamen shall 
lie taught the naval cutlass exercise, Mr. Angelo, jun. has been some time 
at Portsmouth, drilling the seamen there. Last week, an inspection took 
place in the dock -yard, before Captains Milne and Holli?, the two senior 
captains afloat at that port ; when upwards of 60 seamen were put through 
the exercise, in the presence of a great number of naval and military offi- 
cers : among whom were Sir A. Cochrane, Earl Norihesk, and the Hon. 
Commissioner Grey ; all of whom expressed their approbation of the mea- 
sure. We understand that the same practice is also to be introduced into 
such parts of the army as wear the sword : the knowledge of which will 
give the men confidence in themselves. 



THE income of the Consolidated Fund, for the quarter ending the 5th 
January, amounts to ll,352,000/. exceeding that of the corresponding 
quarter of last year by l,014,000/. The charge upon the Consolidated 
Fund is about 12,000,000/. being an excess of about 27P,000/. compared 
with that of the 5th of January, 1813. The deficiency, it thus appears, is 



115 NAUTICAL ANECDOTKS, StC. 

not more than 647,000/. whereas last year it amounted to 1,383,000/1 
The war taxes, after deducting G14,000/. carried to the Consolidated Fund 
to defray the charges of different loans, have produced about 3,82,000/. 
yielding a surplus of 1,001,OQO/. over the receipts of the corresponding 
quarter of last year. The property taxes have produced near 200,000/. 
more. The Customs have fallen off to the amount of 355,000/.; but, on 
the other hand, the Excise has experienced an increase of near 700.000/. 
Wo understand, that in the January quarter, about 400,000/. have been 
paid into the Excise for tea duties, towards the war taxes, and an equal 
amount towards the Consolidated Fund. 

RECITE AGAINST INFECTION. 

FORTY-SIX grains of black oxide of manganese, in coarse powder, are to 
be put in a small strong glass phial, with an accurately ground-glass stop- 
per, to which two drachm measures of nitric acid of 1,400 specific gravity, 
and an equ.il measure of muriatic acid of 1,134 must be added ; replace 
the stopper, and secure the whole by inclosing it in a strong wooden case, 
with a good screw-top, which, when fast, shall rest on the stopper so as to 
keep it in its place. To use it, merely open the phial, with the nose 
averted, and replace the stopper as soon as the smell is perceived ; repeat 
it, of course, occasionally* as you \vould any other fumigation. A phial 
so prepared, will last, instead of six months, several years ; the mixture 
ought not to occupy more than one-third of the bottle. Any chemist can 
furnish the ingredients. This apparatus destroys all kinds of infection. 

THE TAR OUT OF HIS ELEMENT. 

AM accident of an amusing tendency, as it happened to be harmless ir 
its effects, though, indeed, it might have ended in a different result, took 
place in the presence of many fashionable spectators at Brighton on Nevr 
Year's Day. An officer, a true son of Neptune (who, though under twenty 
years of age, has to boast of much honourable service; amongst other, 
that of having bravely fought in the same ship under the Temeraire hero, at 
Trafalgar, in the last glorious exploit of the immortal Nelson ; and since 
to have survived the horrible carnage in the action between the Amelia, 
commanded by the daring Commodore Irby, and the Arethusa, a I'rencli 
bltip of much superior force, but which the crippled slate of the Amelia 
alone prevented her from capturing), having hired a brisk poney and a low 
for his amusement, ascended the rickety machine ; and with a signal 
smack from the whip, as shrill and as loud as a boatswain's whistle, in an 
instant was borne through the yielding and zcavy ocean of atmosphere, at 
least at the rate often knots an hour. So long as his course presented the 
picture of a straight, it was as prosperous in avoiding mischance, as it was 
rapid ; but in endeavouring to zceat/ter the inlets and their dangerous pro- 
jecting points and angles, to be found in ihe latitude of Donaldson's 
Library, he r&njoul, as it were, of an e.iposcd rock, which guve his gig-like 
skiff such a leam-end cast and position, as left him in a kind of horizontal 
foundering situation on the strand. Nothing hurt, however, by this mishapj 
ite rcass-jaied the command he had so casually been ousted from, neglect- 



NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C. \\f 

2ttg, in his speed, to examine into the injuries his whirligig vessel had re- 
ceived ; the consequence of which was, that the bow, shafts or sprits, both 
of which had been fractured, escaped notice, and which were sprung soon 
after he had again made head, with the impatient anxiety of a determined 
cruiser with an enemy in sight ; an event that once more brought him over- 
board, completely capsized and wrecked his disastrous bark, while ihejigure 
head (the horse) was sent forward with an impetus seldom, if ever, out- 
done. The mirth which this latter misfortune occasioned was as much 
enjoyed by the cause of it as by any present, though he received a few con- 
tusions that would have given a limping gait and a wry face to many a 
swaggering beau. 

AMERICAN STATISTICS. 

Progressive Population of the State of New YorL 

THE earliest Census, or any authentic computation of the population 
of this state, then a British Colony, is one taken in 1731, when the whole 
territory that was then settled, was divided into ten Counties. The City 
nnd County of New York then contained 8628 Persons King's County 
2150 Queen's County 7995 Suffolk County 7675 Richmond County 
1817 West Chester County 6033 -Orange County 1969 Ulster County 
3728 Duchese County 1727 and the City and County of Albany 8573. 
At that time Albany County comprehended all the territory of the Colony 
North and West of 'Duchess and Ulster Counties, which area now contains 
a population of about 750,000 Inhabitants, and near 150,000 Freeholders. 
The population of the Colony in 1731, was therefore 50,291 of which 
number 7231 were Blacks. In 1756 the population was enumerated by 
the Sheriffs of the several Counties, and the amount was 96,765 of which 
number 13,542 were Blacks. In 1771, the population had increased to 
163,338 in 1786, it was 238,896 of which 18,889 were Blacks. The 
population in 1790, was 340,120, of which the Blacks were 21,324. In. 
1801, population 586,141 the Blacks, 20,613. In 1810, 949,220 ; of this 
number, about 15,000 are Slaves, and the Blacks may number, in all, 18 to 
20,000. The increase, was, therefore, from 1731, 46,474, in 25 years or 
1858 persons annual average for each year. In the next 15 years th e 
increase was 66,573. From 1790 to 1800, the increase was 246,021 from 
1800 to 1810, increase 373,079 or an average annual increase for the last 
twenty years, of 30,955 persons in the State ; and during the last ten years 
the average annual increase amounts to 37,307 persons, or 102 persons to 
a day ! The City of Albany contains now more persons than the whole 
Province did 100 years ago and the present population of the City and 
County <if New York exceeds that of the whole territory of the State 
about 53 years since ! From some transcripts of records made about 1660, 
there appears pretty good ground for a supposition that the whole popula- 
tion at that time did not exceed 5000 persons, exclusive of Indians. 

The average population of the whole State is 208 persons to a square 
mile and the ratio of the two last censorial returns, doubles the population. 
in less than six years. We may safelv ventures, therefore, from these 
data to compute the whole population of the State at 4,000,000, by the 
middle of this cemury. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



MR. EDITOR \6thDecemlcr, 1813. 

IT is now fully eighteen months since the declaration of war by 1 
the United States of America was known in England ; and conse- 
quently, sufficient time has elapsed to allow full scope for the activity, 
zeal, and success of our squadrons, hitherto the never-failing charac- 
teristics of the British navy. That in the war with America, the hopes 
of the country have been miserably and fatally disappointed, is too 
certain, as the loss of our superiority on the lakes of Canada, and too 
probably the consequent loss of the upper province of that name, be- 
sides the capture of frigates and many rich merchantmen, sufficiently 
prove. Having iu former letters called the attention, if not of the A. B. 
(who perhaps prefer Jonathan's broad hints, and he fails not to bestow 
them) at least of your naval readers, to the consideration of the effectual 
prosecution of the American war, and at the same time bestowed the 
meed of praise, when due, to the board, for their exertions in preparing 
ships and frigates ofa suitable size, and this praise I do not hesilale to 
repeat; I must be allowed once more to enter on the subject, with the 
purpose of examining, whether the naval directors or B. of A. have 
done their duly to the country, in sending adequate convoys and protec- 
tion with our trade, and whether they have placed sufficient means in the 
hands of the Commander in Chief on the American station, both to 
defend our own possessions, and to alarm those of the enemy, and de- 
stroy their navy. I say destroy, for " ddenda est Carthago." On the 
first head, I am ready, and I am happy to bear testimony to the ample 
protection afforded to both the outward and homeward bound convoys 
for some time back ; experience has made them wise in this respect; and 
finding that Commodore Rodgers, with some heavy American men of 
war, failed not to cruize for them, the force sent to guard our convoys 
has been ample, and the trade^vell protected to and from India, Ame- 
rica, the West Indies, and latterly the Brazils. I must however observe, 
but I do so with reluctance* because it is really disreputable to the A. B. 
that the trade to Greenland, Davis' Straits, and Archangel, to as not suffi- 
ciently protected last season, nor can it be so without a ship* of the 
liae or some heavy frigates to secure it from the Americans ; and (he 
last accounts from the South Seas too sufficiently prove, that the trnde 
and fishing there has fallen an easy prey to the activity and enterprise 
of our tormenting lilliputian enemy ; it is really painful further to re- 
mark, that stronger protection icas certainly demanded last season, both 
by memorials from the ship owners and merchants, and by commumca- 

* Had the President been nearer her own coast, she must have blown the 
Alexandria out of the water. The excuse of want of means to secure every sta- 
tion, when a 7-t and two frigaics are ail that are required, cauaot be sustained, 
when we have 1000 pendants. 



lions through your Chronicle, for the Greenland and Archangel fleets j 
nnd it is said it was also demanded for the South Seas, although it ap- 
pears to have been loo late to prevent the very great mischief and severe 
loss which has ensued. Now, however, this too will be provided against, 
and it is fit it should be so. I make no doubt, that two or three 74's 
and as many frigates will be sent to protect the Northern fishery and 
Archangel fleets in the spring, and I know that frigates have sailed to 
traverse the South Seas and Pacific Ocean in search of the Essex ; it is 
therefore the activity and dashing spirit of the enemy which teaches 
our A. B. wisdom with effect, thougli earnest, but respectful requests 
and memorials of our merchants and ship owners are received, and are to 
be considered and perhaps attended to, but seldom until Jonathan shews 
himself they are often either forgotten or neglected. This is a true 
picture. I wish not to overdraw it but I wish our naval advisers 
v/o\i]d foresee just a little, and not grope in the dark like moles; surely 
naval men could have foreseen the activity and enterprise of the Ame- 
rican navy, which has been equally conspicuous with their good fortune, 
in so often eluding the numerous detached squadrons sent to cruize for 
them; that they have hitherto escaped is not the fault of the B. of A. 
they have for months past constantly kept squadrons cruizing for them, 
and on the whole, my belief is, they are anxious to merit the approba- 
tion of the country ; and although tardy on some occasions, have yet 
done a great deal, although not all they might; but 1 hope they will, 
ere long, be more successful in the capture and destruction of the Ame- 
rican navy, than they have been hitherto. With the exception of the 
capture of the Chesapeake and Argus, which nobly sought the combat, 
we have had little or no success, except in capturing privateers. Having 
already borne my tribute of admiration to the bravery and good con- 
duct of Sir Ph. Broke, I shall only now add, that I am certain, could our 
ships oftener meet the enemy as fairly, the same success would attend 
their efforts. I come now to speak of the exploits of the squadron 
placed under the orders of the admiral on the American station, who is 
about to resign it, I trust into abler hands. He sailed from England 
with the confidence of the nation that he will possess it on his return, 
1 greatly doubt. * He has had ten or twelve saii of the line, twenty 
frigates, and as many sloops, constantly under his command, and u-hat 
have they done, in truth I cannot tell. I fear they have shewn, that 
the British lion was sound asleep, and that he despise*-hi& enemy too 
much to attempt any thing more than to provide the necessary supply of 
sheep and oxen. Bnt the subject is too serious to trifle with It is too 
certain that little has been done, certainly nothing great or worthy of 
this powerful fleet, composed of many of the finest ships, and com- 
manded by some of our best officers in the navy. How it has happened 
I know not, hut they have neither prevented the enemy from going out 
nor coming into port ; and taking a general view of our naval operations 
.on the coast of America, we cannot say that they have been attended 

* As to bis ability and activity. 



120 CORRESPONDENCE. 

with glry to the country, whatever may have been the advantages ac- 
cruing to the admiral from his widely extended command. I shall con- 
clude with remarking, that if it belonged io him, to forward the neces- 
sary supply of seamen to maa the vessels employed on the lakes, hit 
responsibility is great indeed. It is evident Sir Geo. Prevost, to whose 
real and activity, as well as that of Sir J. Yeo, every Canadian bears tes- 
timony), did apply to, and depend upon the admiral for these seamen; 
from the tardy arrival of whom, the superiority on the lakes has been 
in one instance lost, and is at this moment, it is to be feared, lost en- 
tirely; and thereby the most disastrous consequences entailed on the 
Canada's. If the admiralty directed seamen to be sent from the fleet, 
then is the admiral responsible for the mischief; if not, surely with the 
resources we have, viz. 140,000 seamen so lately voted, the apathy and 
upineness of the B. of A. is great beyond credibility, that could hazard 
the loss of such valuable colonies, by refusing to send, or not doing it 
in time, seven hundred seamen, and the necessary supply of carpenters 
for the lake service. That a considerable number accompanied Sir J. 
Yeo, I admit ; and I hope, with very inadequate means, he will yet be 
able to maintain his ground. But our great loss is want of discernment 
and the capability of applying immediate and effective remedies in thi 
science our B. of A. are novices " Sed experieniia docet." Let our 
naval motto be, the destruction of the Yankee fleet " delenda est 
Carthago." ALBION. 

N. B. If Albion is incorrect in any of his statements, he will cheerfully, 
on conviction, own his error. He loves his country, and glories in its 
juccess ; but the victorious career of a Wellington and our allies ought 
not to Hind us to glaring misconduct elsewhere ; for assuredly the war 
with America has not yel been glorious to Britain ; she has lost more 
than she has gained. 

MR. EDITOB, Bristol, 4th Feb. 1814. 

I AM sorry that it does not lie in my power to give your Corre- 
spondent A. F. Y. the information he requires, to the exlenl of hii 
wishes, or the importance the subject demands, regarding the intent, 
use, and construction of carronades. I have been informed, they were 
introduced into the service during the last American war, but by whom 
I never learnt. Probably, there are some of your readers that could 
favour both him and me with this information; also from what cause 
they derive their present appellation. 

Carronades,* from the construction of their interior, t appear to be 

* The first constructed carronades, hen fired, were, from their shortness, at- 
tended with the disadvantage of not carrying the ejplosion clear of the ship; to 
remedy this defect, (lie diameter of the bore or cylinder at the muzzle lias been 
increased, which simple alteration lia, in a great measure, obviated this complaint. 
The ame improvement would be of great utility to all short guns for sea service, 
as well as to long guns used in batteries ; the frequent explosions from the Jattcr, 
constantly prove destructive to the sole and facings of erabrazures, and when faced 
wilh fascines frequently iet? them on fire. Thii merits investigation. 

} The interior construction of oiccance (of whatever desertion) is the part 



CORRESPONDENCE, 121 

an improvement on the principle of an howitzer ; which has contributed 
to give to their fire, a degree of velocity and precision, far superior to 
that of an howitzer. 1 apprehend it was part of the inventor's view, to 
supersede the use of guns, for which they seem well adapted, particu- 
larly when the object is at a close or near distance ; their peculiar 
lightness renders them easier to work with fewer hands (being quicker 
loaded, readier pointed, &c.) than guns. These qualities will ever give 
them a decided preference, for arming the forecastle, poops, &c. of all 
ships, where guns from their length and weight would be too cumber- 
some. And were the decks of those ships thatcarry 12, 9, and 6 pounder 
guns, armed with 68,42, and 32-pounder carronades instead of these guns, 
it would be adding considerably to the effect of their fire. The supe- 
rior efficacy that large calibres have over small ones, having been gene- 
rally known for a long time past, it surely is high time to banish from 
the decks of line of battle ships, all natures of ordnance, whose calihrcs 
are less than a 24-potmder, and from the naval service altogether, all 
that are less than an 18 pounder. 

From the circumstance alluded to by A. F. Y., ships should never be 
wholly armed with carronades, without their being possessed, in a supe- 
rior degree, of the qualities of closing with, or leaving their opponents. 
Instances have occurred, where the enemy have taken the advantage of 
these circumstances, and placed themselves out of range of their carron- 
ades, (without imputing any defect to their shot, from either holes or 
dents, or being below the proper gauge) whilst the shot from the ene- 
my's long guns had every effect. To obviate in some measure this vex- 
atious disadvantage, to which ships armed only with carronades are 
liable. The carronades ought to be elevated as high as their carriages 
will admit, and the charge of powder increased. Instead of using the 
allowed medium charge of one twelfth the weight of the round shot, 
the allowed highest charge ought to be used, viz. (one eighth the weight 
of the shot.) If this charge and high elevation should not produce the 
intended effect, the charge must be increased to one sixth the weight of 
the round shot ; this I admit is an extraordinary high charge for car- 
ronades ; but as it is indispensably necessary to return the enemy's fire 
with some chance of effect, and which has now become the first object 
to commanders of ships thus situated, the risk of dismounting one or 
more of the carronades, ought not to be adduced as a reason for not at- 
tempting the use of this charge. No apprehensions need be entertained 
of their bursting, as they already have been proved, by being fired twice, 
with a charge of powder equal to one fourth the weight of the shot. * 

alone which affects their ranges. The exterior has no influence whatever, beyond 
determining its weight, and suitahleness for mounting it on carriages. As to the 
external trappings and ornaments of rings, ogees, astragals, fillets, &c. they are 
useless, (juns would be found equally serviceable without them, as those that 
have theru. 

* 68 and 42-por.nder carronades are an exception. The former being proved^ 
only with I31bs. and the latter with 91bs. of powder. 

, ftol, XXXI. 



12'J CORRESPONDENCE. 

Whenever an enemy, adopting this mode of attack, unexpectedly finds 
Iiit fire returned, he will probably think himself very fortunate in having 
it in his power to give n;> the contest. 

The great windage between the shot and carronade alluded to by 
A.T. Y., I cannot conceive how it could possibly occur; for in order to 
give carronades as great a velocity as possible, the allowed windage in 
them is less by one half than what are allowed in guns of the same 
calibre. The allowed windage for a 32-pounder gun is three inches, or 
the one twentieth part of the diameter of the shot; that of a 32-pounder 
rarronade, being only fifteen inches, or the fortieth part of the diameter 
of the shot. Probably the shot alluded to, were French 26-pounders, 
which are fourteen inches less than our 32-pounders ; if so, this will 
account for the great windage, and consequent shortness of their ranges, 
"better than ascribing it to a dent or two ; which, if they are not of any 
depth, can have but little influence on their range. With respect to shot 
having holes in them, this proceeds from a defect in casting, and when 
such are tendered to the service by the contractor, they ought to be 
rejected. Dents likewise proceed from a defect in casting, but which 
are not discovered till after having been frequently moved ; the collision 
attending their removal, breaks off* the scaly part, and discloses those 
dents, which are commonly attributed to rust.* 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

IRON GUN. 

s^^X*.^ 

MR. FDITOH, 6//i Feb. 1814. 

AT the present moment, when we arc preparing to send out a strong 
naval force to America, (which 1 hope will have all sailed before 
this letter meets the eyes of the public) under a newly appointed com- 
raander, to whose vigilance, activity, and enterprize, the nation wilt look 
forward with no common degree of interest ; it may not be altogether 
unprofitable, to advert once more to that want of success, which has 
hitherto generally attended us, in the prosecution of the war with Ame- 
rica. So far as the navy have been concerned, with the exception of the 
capture of the Chesapeake and Argus, we have surely little to console 

* The following composition will effectually guard iron from rust. T^ike equal 
parts of fine red ochre, and the dust of well burnt red brick, pass them through a 
fine hair sieve, Mix and rub them together on a painter's stone, with as much 
Swedish tar us will thoroughly incorporate them (in the same manner as painters 
rub their paints'); then add as much boiling hot tar, as will bring the composition to 
a proper consistence, and fit to lay on with a painter's brush, having previously 
freed the iron from all dirt, rust, &c. Two or three coats will be sufficient, observ- 
ing to allow the first coat to be perfectly dry before the next is applied. Thii 
composition will effectually preserve all kind of timber or wood work that may 
lie exposed to sun and weather, and will be found far superior to any kinds of 
'prepared oils and paints, however manufactured* 



CORRESPONDENCE. 123 

ourselves with, and if we put the loss of our own three frigates into tho 
scale, our captures will kick the beam. Allowing, as I do, that they 
were bravely defended, and that no human foresight could hare pre- 
vented the Americans meeting them on the vast Atlantic, I would only 
assert, that their capture should have spurred us on ; should have in- 
duced our commander on the American station, to have strained every 
nerve and run considerable risks, (if his orders did not positively forbid 
it, and we have never yet seen naval enterprise checked by the govern- 
ment) to destroy the infant navy of this arrogant foe, in their own 
ports. I do not assert that this was practicable, but I conceive that the 
marine corps entrusted to the orders of Sir J. Warren were meant to 
co-operate in this so every way desirable event ; and, I cannot help 
thinking, that some of the naval ports where their frigates lay, might 
have been carried, as well as the ships destroyed, with perhaps consider- 
able loss ; but had it cost us even five hundred men, the object in my 
opinion called for the sacrifice, considering the state of our contest with 
the United States. Had this been done, instead of landing at many dif- 
ferent points, and perhaps distracting their attention a little, without 
any other object than to put them on the alert ; there would have been, 
no occasion nova to send a still more powerful fleet, and an additional 
marine force to that quarter of the world ; for, crippled as our squadron 
has been by the hurricane at Halifax, it ought still surely to be very for* 
midabie to an enemy possessed of only half a dozen large men of war. 

Hitherto, however much we may have possessed the power, we have, 
conscious of our superiority, forborne to commit hostilities beyond the 
capture of sheep andoxen, even on that part of their coast where their 
newly invented torpedo's were preparing for the destruction of ouf 
navy. To forbear reprisals under these circumstances, was no doubt 
magnanimous, as we could perhaps have only punished the innocent in- 
habitants, whilst those actually fitting out these infernals might have 
escaped the vengeance of justly incensed enemies. It is much to be 
feared, that this unnatural war (if continued, and I do not see how 
peace is to be expected, except the Americans recognise our right of 
searching for, and taking our own seamen from neutral ships, which, 
they have sworn to resist) will become one of unprecedented cruelty* 
We have taken many deserters from the British men of war on the Ame- 
rican station, who are now on the eve of trial, and will in all probability 
sutler as traitors; it appears the American government are determined 
to retaliate, and put to death an equal number of British prisoners, 
whom they have already put in close confinement; such conduct can 
only lead to a war of cruelty and extermination, to such scenes as must 
be disgraceful to any European state; but we know that honour \sfittle. 
known and less practised by the American government or people ; and if 
they put their threats in execution, and murder a single British prisoner 
now in their power, as a retaliation for the life of a deserler from the 
British standard to theirs, and who suffers justly as a traitor to hi* 
country, they mut expect to feel the full force of British vengeance, 
and to have their towns and villages laid waste and destroyed i Bwwoer 



124 CORRESPONDENCE. 

unwilling we may be to proceed to extremities, false would be that huma- 
nity, which saw such monstrous violations of the law of nations, and of na- 
ture, not only promulgated to the world, but acted upon. I know not whal 
the orders of the new commander in chief ou the American station may be ; 
but, from the quantities of Congrere's rockets, &c. shipped on board his fleet, 
I have little doubt, if matters do come to a crisis, and the American 
government put its threats in execution, they will entail on their devoted 
coHDtry all the ruin and misery which lire and sword can effect. It will be 
well that they pause, before they retaliate on the lives of innocent men, foe 
Ihose, justly expiating to their offended country the base desertion of its 
rights which they swore to defend. Yet, it is sincerely to be wished, that, 
in the punishment of these deluded, unfortunate wretches, judgment may 
be tempered with mercy ; and, whilst example shall warn others of the fate 
of traitors, let mercy save the multitude, to proclaim the humanity and 
mercy of their country, which has spared their forfeited lives. The time is 
now nearly come, when America, if she still prolongs the contest, must feel 
the full force of Britain's powerful arm; our attention, hitherto diverted to 
the continent of Europe, will soon be given to the continent of America, 
where we can oblige her to again bring forth all her population, to prolong 
a contest the American people are already tired of, and which if persevered 
in, under these circumstances, may probably lend to disunion amongst the 
States, and a dissolution of their rising empire. Let the fate of the 
Corsican warn his friend at the head of the government in America, to 
calculate Jn's chances well. ALBION. 



T 



MR. EDITOR, 

HE following is a copy of an interesting official communication, not 
yet published, which had been sent to the Transport Board. 
Your frozen humble servant, 

TIM WEATHERSIDE. 

Copy of the Journal of the Sir William Bcnsley, 575 Tons. Complement, 
28 Men, 6 Boys Armament, 16 1'2 -pounder Carronudes. 

1813, 1-tth Dec. At 30 minutes paat meridian, in Lat. 48 46', in 
Long. 35 i", saw a strange sail to W.S.W. of us, standing after, and com- 
ing up with us very fat, set the square main sail and jib, let two reefs out 
of the main top sail, and three out of the fore ones, and ail out of the mi/en 
one, and the reef out of the fore sail, the stranger coming up with us very 
fast. At 1 10 P.M. the stranger, being a long low ship, hoisted a pendant 
without any colours, and set his main top gallant sail, but was obliged to 
take it in again, being too much wind and a heavy sea running from the 
southward : turned the hands up to quarters immediately. At 1 20 P. M. 
finding he had so much advantage of us in sailing, fired a gun to leeward, 
and hoisted our colours and pendant ; she answered it with English colours ; 
she was then within two or three miles of us: seeing she was a corvette 
built ship, up courses and down jib to be ready to receive her; at 150 
P. M. the stranger was within half pistol shot of us, she down English co- 
tours, up American, and fiied a shot, which we returned immcdiattly with a 



COttRESPONDEMCB. 

Roadside from our starboard guns : she laid on our starboard beam fifteen 
or twenty minutes, and finding a warmer reception from great guns and 
small arms than she expected, she shot a-head and run athwart our bows. 
Expecting that he would have raked us with his larboard guns, and drop on 
our larboard bow to board us, immediately put our helm up, endeavouring 
to run on his quarter; but the ship would not answer her helm, as the mi- 
zen being set and the colours being at the peak, and not wishing to lower 
them down for fear he should think that we had struck, being within balf 
pistol shot on our larboard bow. As soon as he was out of a raking posi- 
tion, we received him with our larboard guns, and gave him a whole broad- 
side with three cheers fore and aft. Wore ship and kept a continual fire as 
long as our shot would reach him ; he felled on his larboard tack and 
bawled his fore tack on board: we immediately hove-to to see if he meant 
to return ; we laid-to about twenty minutes. At 3 40 P. M. we up jib 
and wore ship; he squared his cross yard and up jib, apparently to follow 
us. Well knowing we could not get away from him, we down jib and hove- 
to again, he immediately down jib and felled his mizen top sail and down 
main tack, and stood to the westward clean upon a wind, with his larboard 
tacks on board. We wore ship and made sail on our course, and fired 
two guns to windward. She was a long ship, pierced for ten guns of a 
side, and apparently full of men; but with able assistance from Capt. Hor- 
tie of the George, in assisting to work the ship, and Mr. Eadie his mate ; 
likewise the whole of his crew, as well as the whole of our own, to protect 
the ship as long as they were able, I am happy to say we had only one 
man slightly wounded with a splinter from a grape shot ; but we suffered 
considerably in our rigging, having three main shrouds, three top mast 
backstays, and one main top mast shroud shot away with our starboard 
main brace, with a quantity of our running rigging, and a great quantity of 
large and grape shot through our sails ; he struck us between wind and 
water on the starboard side ; he stranded our main stay and grazed our fore 
mast and mizen mast. At 4 P. M. saw a stranger to the E.N. E. of us, 
Standing to the westward, apparently a merchant vessel, made signal of an 
enemy in sight. At 10A.M. in examining the ship, found three shot 
through the upper streak of her copper, and some grape sticking half in, 
and a great quantity of small shot had struck her and cut her copper 
from the fore part of the mizen chains, to the after port of the fore chains, 
and finding the ship makes from two to three inches of water more than 
she did before the action commenced. 
Tuesday, 14th December, 1813. 

(Signed) MARMADUKE WILKIN. 

1813, Dec. %2d. At meridian, strong breezes and ^cloudy weather; all 
sail set, hove to, and sounded in 75 fathoms water; saw a strange sail 
to the southward, in latitude 48 58' N. longitude. 8 W. Fresh breezes 
and cloudy weather, with heavy squalls of wind and rain ; the strange sail 
still coming up with us very fast, all sail set, 

At i P.M. made her out to be a schooner. A strange sail to the N.ward 
Coining up fast with all sail set. At 1 . 30. P. M. saw she was a long vessel, 



126 CORREWON'DENCI. 

and edging to get into our wake ; turned the hands tip to quarters, w iih freh 
breezes, squalls of wind, and rain. At 1. 50. P.M. lie got iuto our wake, 
loosed his main-top-sail, and fore-top-gallant-sail. We then were sure she 
was an enemy ; and finding that he had such an advantage of us in sailing, we 
up courses and took in the main-top-gallant-sail, and run under our 8 top- 
sails to see what he was before dark. All hands, and every thing, being 
ready to receive him, knowing we could not run away. At 2. P.M. he 
bore away in our wake after us ; we kept the ship under her 3 top-sails, so 
as to have her under good command. At 2. 10. P. M. she fired the first 
shot, and hoisted American colours ; we immediately up colours and pen- 
dant, and returned it with our starboard broadside. As sonn as he had 
fired his larboard broadside, he wore across our stern and fired his star- 
board guns, with a continual volley of musketry, four times successively, 
and each time of wearing, his jib-boom scarcely clear of our stern ; and 
finding our ship wear remarkably well, and answered her helm to our satis- 
faction, humoured her so as to get our guns to bear upon him every time : 
and continually kept a severe firing of great guns and small arms, as long 
as we could get them to bear on him with round and grape. The fifth 
time he wore round on our itarboard quarter, we immediately put our helm 
a-port; and having the whole starboard broadside readv with round, grape, 
and double headed shot, poured the whole broadside into him, with a con- 
tinual fire of small arms, with three cheers. He kept a continual fire of 
small arms and great guns. For three or four minutes we could perceive he 
was greatly damaged, both in his hull and rigging, having his peak, haul- 
yards, and fore-top-sail-haulyards, shot away. He immediately \vore-roMid, 
and hove-te to the S. W.rd and apparently in great confusion. At o. 
15., after his heaving-to with his head to ihe southward, we ran under our 
three top-sails and fired a gun to windward ; we ran under that sail for 
thirty minutes, to see if he meant to follow us ; but finding helmd all sails 
furled, and still laying to the S. Wrd., we down fore and main tack, and 
set main-top-gallant-sail, and made all sail possible on our course. He was 
pierced for 10 guns of a side, but only perceived nine mounted ; and hav- 
ing his deck lined with men, as full as he could stow, with the immense 
quantity of grape and musketry, has cut our sails to pieces, ami injured our 
standing and running-rigging greatly, three large shot between wind and 
water, and one about three feet underwater: our upper works, on our lar- 
board side, our stern and boats, are full of grape-shot and musket-balls, 
but had not a man hurt on board; we had two guns dismounted, and one 
of the carriages broke; but with the able assistance of Captain Horrie, his 
mate and crevr, as well as our own, we were fully bent and determined to 
keep the Sir William Bensley as long as she would have kept a-float. 

(Signed) MARDK. WILKLV. 

Wednesday, lid Dec. 1813. 

Memorandum The master and 21 men,of the George, merchant ship, 
were on board the Sir William Bensley, having been picked up at sea. 



CORRESPONDENCE. \%1 

' ~ 

CAPTAIN HORTON, R. N. 

WE with great readiness give insertion to the following commu- 
nication from this gallant officer. 

Walmer, Deal, January, 1814. 

As it has not been my good fortune to have been in any of the 
great naval actions which must hereafter become leading features in 
the history of the late and present wars, I am rather tenacious of 
such few instances, wherein the fortune of war has favoured mv exer- 
tions; [and, therefore, cannot be desirous*] of having what little honour 
and merit I may have acquired, attributed to other officers, after 53 years 
faithful and honourable service. 

As the Editor of a publication which will in all probability become 
the basis of our naval history, it can only be your wish to render justice 
to every individual. As such, I feel myself called upon to require 
your attention to the two following circumstances, wherein great incorrect- 
ness has appeared in the Naval Chronicle, to my prejudice as an 
officer, as far as the privation of certain claims of approved service ex- 
tends. 

The points alluded to are, in the first place, relative to the action . 
of H. M. S. Dido and Lowestoffe, with La Minerve and 1'Artimese French 
frigates, in the Mediterranean, 1795 ; on which occasion you have repre- 
sented, in your Naval Chronicle, 18o5, page 287, Captain George Clarke, 
as having beenfir/i lieutenant of the Lowestoffe, and ascribe merit to him 
in that capacity, which from my having filled that station, and having 
keen promoted to the rank of commander for my conduct, is due to my- 
self. Captain Clarke was only second lieutenant, and was NOT promoted, 
for some considerable time after; and, most decidedly, NOT for that 
action. 

Having observed a similar mistake in a monthly publication about that 
period, I addressed a letter on that subject, to J. Mc'Arthur, Esq. who, 
I understood, had an interest in the work, to have the mistake corrected ; 
but I never received any answer. 

Secondly, I allude to the Memoirs of the late Captain James N. New- 
man, under which is noticed, the action of his Majesty's sloops Fairy and 
Harpy, with La Pallas French frigate t, 6th of February, (by log) 1800; 
when that frigate was ultimately captured by H. M. S. Loire, Danae, Fairy, 
and Harpy sloops, off the Seven Islands ; on which occasion I had the 
honour of commanding the Fairy. 

My public letter on that occasion, eorroborated by an extract of the 
Fairy's log, which I enclose, proves the incorrectness of the statement in 
Captain Newman's memoirs, both as to time and facts; wherein la Pallas 
is represented as having been seen by Lord Proby, at 2 P. M. ; and neither 



* Strne such wards as these seem requisite tothe sense of the passage. EDITOR. 
t See N. C. vol. xxx. p. 372, &c. 



128 CORRESI-ONDtSCt.. 

Harpy or Fairy are admitted to have taken, any sliare in tlie action at 
night ; which operated at the time very much against the interests of Cap- 
tain H. Bazely and myself; but which in some degree I obviated, by laying 
the Fairy's log book before the Board of Admiralty, through Lord Spencer ; 

and my confutation of Captain N 's statement led to the promotion 

of my friend Captain II. Bazely, after it had been previously refused and 
withheld from the incorrectness of his letter alone ; and, speaking of the 
action of the morning, his representation of Lord Proby's having seen La 
Pallas, at 2, P. M. was quite impossible; as the Fairy and Harpy were in 
close action with her at that period, which did not cease tilll J before 3. 
A quarter before 4, was the earliest moment La Loire, Danae, and Ruilleur, 
were discovered from our mastheads, although we were looking out most 
anxiously for them, knowing their station : and the chief merit I claimed, 
on the part of the officers and crews of the two sleeps under my 
orders, was, our contriving to give chace to La Pallas, so expeditious!)-, 
after being so much crippled in the action, and, by a little manoeuvre, 
cutting her off from the land : as, had she succeeded in getting in shore of 
us, she must have effected her escape ; but, from the impression we had 
made upon her, she would not risk the renewal of the action. 

Regarding the action of the evening, to prove moreover the want of 
candour on the part of Captain N. I must likewise beg leave to notice, 
that the Harpy had been a considerable time closely engaged; not less than 
Jo minutes lying on her quarters, when she was hailed from the Pallas, 
to cease firing, in the following terms: 

" Ne tirez pas encore nous sommes a vous ;" 

upon which Captain Bazely; sent his first lieutenant (Watson) on board 
La Pallas, who took the French captain on board La Loire. After the 
prisoners were removed by the boats of the squadron, Captain B. went on 
board to pay his respects to Captain Newman. When presented to the 
French Captain, he observed, that the Black brig had done him more 
damage in the night action, than the whole squadron. 

The Harpy's force was 16-32-pounder cnrronndes, and 2 long 9-pounders. 
The impressions vessels of a similar force have since made (single handed) 
on the enemy's frigates, in various instances, you must he sensible of. 
From the time La Loire, Danae, and Railleur, joined in chace, the whole 
squadron were carrying royals; and I believe, until after L'a Pallas ceased 
firing, (unless from calm) not one of the squadron ever could have taken 
them in, from too much rcind; although, from Captain Newman's statement, 
one might be induced to suppose it had blown fresh at the time. 
Extract from the Log Book of H. il/. Shop nf War Fairy. 

" On the 5th inst. the Fairy and Harpy in company. At 8, the 
Cordelier, N. E. five or six miles. At half-past 11, baw French frigate. 
At 2, brought her to action. At a quarter before 3, the enemy ceased firing, 
and made all sail to the N. E. Refitted and made sail after her. At a 
quarter past 3, set the steering sails. The enemy heaving up to theN. 
and W. made the Harpy's signal to gain the wind of her. At 4, saw from 
the mast-head three strange sail ; made the signal for an enemy, which 
repeated with a gun every five minutes; as did the Harpy. A quarter past 



4, the enemy bore up; 20 minutes past 4, made the signal to engage, at 
coining up with the enemy; half- past 4, Roquedau, N. N. E. 6 or 7 
milts ; made the preparatory signal to rake the enemy ; half-past 5, the 
chace W. ; the Harpy W. by S, light breezes ; at 7, the three sail 4 or 5 
miles before the lee beam ; wind S. S. W. Half-past 8, made the private 
signal to the ships to leeward, which they did not iinswer. At 9, spoke 

11. M. S. La Loire, and pointed out the chace to Captain Newman, then a 
gun and hair' shot on our weather quarter; tacked in compliance with his 
orders. At 10, spoke the Rallieur, tacked occasionally. Quarter-past 11, 
La Loire and Ruilieur firing their bow-guns at the chace. The enemy 
tacked at half-past 11, and getting close in with the Seven Islands, a 
smart action commenced between her and La Loire ; 20 minutes before 

12, gave the enemy our broadside on passing, which repented on the other 
tack ; several guns firing from the batteries; Rallieur and Harpy as well as 
La Loire, occasionally engaging the enemy, which, at half-past 2, struck 
her colours, and proved to be the Pallas, a new Trench frigate, of 46 guns, 
and 380 men, from St. Maloes." 



MR. EDITOR, 

I WAS much surprised at seeing last month, a very -considerable portion 
of a page of your Chronicle occupied by a correspondent of yours, 
" TOM STARBOARD," jn preferring a complaint against the Lords of the 
Admiralty, for having fixed a board on the wall in front of the Admiralty. 
What motive your correspondent can have in making a charge which is un- 
founded, and which can answ-er no good end, I am at a loss to discover; 
possibly it might be to fill up a little of his vacant time, of which no doubt 
Jie has plenty to spare, if he cannot find any better employment than criti- 
cising the notices against the walls of the public offices. 

I will not go any farther about, but come to the point at once. 

Your correspondent says, there is a board fixed on the, wall in tire front 
of the Admiralty, giving notice, that " Persons found begging here will be 
prosecuted," menning. as he wisely enough (in his own opinion) imagines, 
to imply that any of those gallant defenders of our country who are found 
there waiting for their due. will be prosecuted there. 

But it does not allude to them in the most distant manner; it is intended 
only to apply to those mendicants, who used to be in the habit of attending 
that place in considerable numbers, to the great annoyance of the passers- 
by ; and lias on the face of it a very different meaning than that attempted 
to be put upon it by your Correspondent ; for if he will give himself the 
trouble to walk to the Admiralty and again look .at the board, lie will find 
that the comma is placed after the word " here*' which is pt-rfectly correct, 
and gives the exact meaning it is intended to convey ; and completely alters 
44 from what it would be if it was placed after the word " Begging," as your 
Correspondent says it is. 

JACK L^ARBOAKD. 



f>rcn, SJoI, XX XL 



190 LORRLbJ-ONDEVCt, 

if*. turroR, New York, January 3, 1814. 

TTT may he useful to many of your readers to have laid before them the 
* following official documents, respecting prisoners of war in this part of 
the world. Your's, with respect, G. D. 

STATEMENT 

Of American and British prisoners now in close confinement, on retaliatory 
orders from the respective government*. 

(A) 

*Return of British Prisoners confined in the gaols of Concord and Port- 
land ; and of American Prisoners of War confined in the town gaol at 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Sept. 1, 1813. 



BRITISH. 



Nu/ncs of Prisoners con- 
fined ut Concord, fyc. 
with their rank. 



Description of per. 
sons they are con- 
Jinedfar. 

John Pierce seaman lEr. ship of war "| For Iseaman of the 
Robert Robinson do j Guerrierre J U.S. brig Nautilus. 
John Squirrel do "I lir. ship of war> For John Stevens, 

James Russel do J Dragon I carpenter, & Tho- 

William Keats, carpentr \ c ., , . | mas King, seaman, 

* Swallow packet. I TT 

J U. a. si 



A. Redingfield, boats 



Capt.Barss, commander 
Capt. Woodward, do 



Ships they be- 
longed to. 



sloop Vixen. 



} Privateer Liver- "J For Captain Ni- 
pool Packet. >cholas, late of De- 
r , . ~ . 



Unknown. 
AMERICANS. 



J catur Privateer 



Names of prisoners coiifin- 


Ships they belong- 


Man of War or 


edat Hulifajc t with their 


ed to. 


Privutecr. 


rank. 






Thos.Carpemert seaman 


Chesapeake 


Man of War 


John Prtsyt do 


do 


do 


Stephen Ballt do 


d 


do 


Sylvester Slacy do 


do 


do 


Joseph Goodall do 


do 


do 


Jolm Chappel do 


do 


do 


Jumcs Peterson do 


Ho 


do 


Ibaac Porter do 


do 


do 


George iNJiller, carpenter 


do 


do 


Math. Rodger?, gunner 


do 


do 


James Trasli,tsail- master 


Revenge 


Privateer 


John Light, lieutenant 


Julian Smith 


do 


J. 11. Morgan, f- comiiiand. 


F.nterprize 


do 


William Lane, do 


Wily Reynard 


do 


David Perry, lieutenant 


do 


do 


Thomas Swaine do 


do 


do 



No IE The person* marked thus \ have been twice found tir arm* 
loro exchanged. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

In consequence of Thomas King, of theU. S. sloop Vixen, having made 
his escape from Bermuda, in an open boat, and since arrived in the United 
States, Squirrel and Russell, who were confined for him, have been released 
by the American government from close imprisonment ; and orders have 
been given at Halifax to release Goodall, Chappel, Peterson and Porter, in 
consequence of information having been received there of the release of 
Squirrel and Russell. 

For the Sixteen American Prisoners, above named, the American 
Government have put into close confinement at Ipswich, Mass, the fol- 
lowing British Prisoners. 

Thomas Cooper, carpenter, British brig Boxer, confined Oct. 7 1813. 
John Clark, gunner, do do. Adam Kirby, seaman, do do. Samuel Thorp 
do do. John Benbow, do do. James Onion, do do. Richard Howe, do do. 
Danl. Dowland, do do. Thomas Hewes, shipTenedos, do. John Humphries 
ship Nymph, do. E. Clements, master, privateer Fly, do 12th of Oct. \Vm. 
Nickerson, lieut. of privateer Weazel do. Win. Owen do privateer Experi- 
ment do. Robert R. Black do privateer Fly do. Jas. Ross, commander pri- 
vateer Dart Nov. 2. Benj. Johnson, mate, Pitt M V Oct. 19. 

(B) 
COPY. 

\Vo, George Thomas and John Williams, both of Portsmouth, in the 
county of Rockinghnm, and state of New-Hampshire, mariners, of lawful 
age, testify and say, that on or about the twenty-seventh day of November 
last, we sailed from Boston in the privateer Decatur, (belonging to New- 
bury-port, Captain Nichols, being master) on a cruise. That on the 16th 
day of January, the Decatur was captured by the British frigate Surprise, 
commanded by Captain Thomas Cochran, and on the twenty second of 
said month we arrived at Barbadoes, when Captain Nichols and his officers 
were icn t on shore on parole. That some time after this Captain Nichols 
was apprehended and put on board the guard ship, on account, as alleged, 
of some ill-treatment he had given to some English sailors when he was 
in the brig Alert. 

r His 

, c . ,. GEORGE X THOMAS. 

. ( S 'g ned ) j Mark 

I JOHN WILLIAMS, 



QUESTIONS. 

1st. Was Captain Nichols confined in a cage of five feet wide and seven 
feet long, as stated by one James Foote, in the Newbury-port newspaper, 
on the first of June last ? 

Answer No. There was no such thing as .1 cage on board the prison 
ship; but a barracado merely to secure the prisoners from having inter- 
course with the guard. Yet Captain Nichols had a state room, together 



132 CORRESPONDENCE. 

with the liberty of the cabin and of the quarter deck, while on board trie 
prison ship. 

2d. Did you, or either of you, hear from Captain Nichols himself, or 
from any other person at Barbadoes, lhat he was ill-treated on board the 
prison ship ? 

Answer No. We did not. 

3d. Had James Foote any more means to be informed in what manner 
Capt. Nichols was treated than you had, while at Barbadocs ? 

Answer No. Nor so much, as he was in the hospital all the time he 
was at Barbadoes, excepting a few days previous to his taking passage for 
New-London. 

His 



r His 

, c . ,. GEORGE X THOMAS, 
( S 'S ncd ) ] Mark 

I JOHN WILLIAMS. 



Porlsimith Aug. 16, 1813. 



State of New Hampshire, 
Portsmouth, to wit. 

On this day, the sixteenth of August, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and thirteen, before me Samuel Ellint, notary 
publiCj in and for eaid state, by letters patent duly commissioned and 
sworn, and a justice of the peace for the county of Rockingham, in said 
state, personally came and appeared, George Thomas and John Williams, 
who, being by me duly sworn according to law, made solemn oath to the 
truth of the foregoing deposition, by them subscribed. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
(SEAL.) affixed my Notarial seal of office, the day in the year 

herein last above written. 

SAMUEL ELLIOT, 
Not. Pub. and Jus. Peace. 

(Q 

List of 59 military American prisoners of war, sent frop Halifax to 
England iii the British bhip Melpomene supposed to be British subjects. 

Deserted from 14th B. ret. of foot, John Doud, John M'Gowan, John 
Brown, James Henry, Barby Cannady, Patrick M'Dennis, James Carey, 
James Givin, Ilindrew Anderson, John Makey, Thomas Stewart, Robert 
Maxwell, Matthew Flagerty, James Miller, James Scott, Hugh M'Guir*. 

Do. from the Oth regt. Edward Cranney, Andrew Coke. 

Do. from 1st light artillery, G. M'Hendrick. 

Do. from 14th regt. foot, Thomas Taggart, Thomas S. Newland, J. 
Fitzpatrick, James Lowry, Michael Wayne, John Lyncli, Thomas Clayton, 
James Evans, Barney Hey, Major Watson, Matthew Campbell, John 
Napernay, William Melvin, William M'Koy, Edward Evans, Chariot 



CORRESPONDENCE. 133 

M'Keever, Charles Deuson, Edward Denmade, George Courtney, William 
Sluin, Archibald Patterson. 

Do. from 6th regt. Robert Norton, Edward Gorman. 

Do. 14tb, Dominick Cannon. 

Do. 6th, James Hunter. 

Do. 14th, James Brown. 

Do. 5th, John Barlow. 

Do. 14th, William Kelley, Patrick Cahoe. 

Do. 1st, John Eagan. 

Do. 14th, Samuel Gray, William M'Ever, John Smith, John Todd, 
George M'Mullen, Charles Kelly, John Smiley, B. M'Coneghy, Con. O'Ncd, 
John Fenney Total 59. 

For these 59 prisoners, the American government have confined an equal 
number of military British prisoners at Chilicothe, in Ohio, their names 
arc not yet known. 



List of 101 American prisoners of war sent to England from Halifax, in 
the British ship Regulus, 1st September, 1813. 

'fhomas Costen, gunner, belonging to the Wily Reynard, privateer; 
John Jonefr, boatswain, do; John Jackson, Cook, do; Henry Butler, Stew- 
ard, do; John Charles, seaman, do ; John Brisk, do do; John Macbahao, 
dodo; John Bo)c-r, do do; William Kirkpatrick, do do; Perry Hall, do 
do; William Lindsey, do do, Hezekiah Wilson.t do do ; Manuel Tois, do 
do ; Joseph Wood, do do ; Jos. Brown, do do; N. Holdcn, do do; Charles 
Kingman, do do ; Robert Parker, do privateer Thome ; Joseph Forrester, 
dodo; Zach. Hunter, do privateer Hunter; George Pirier, cio privateer 
Cossack ; Nathaniel Weston, do do; Charles Green, do do ;Benj. Ward, do do; 
Benj. Hill, do 4o ; Daniel Ropes, do. privateer Montgomery; E. Henfield, 
do do; Wm. Clark, do do ; William Wanton, do do ; John Forbes, do do; 
Thomas Sparks, do do ; John Pbinney, do. privateer Julian Smith ; Asa 
Higgins, dodo; Geo. Lawrence do do; Nicholas Verplust, do do; Thos. 
Snow, do do ; Joseph Cloutman, do privateer Enterprize ; John Widger, 
do cio ; Peter Melzard, do do ; Nathan Fuller, do do; John Clothy, do do- 
Henry Torry, do^io ; Robert Russell, do do ; Frederick Williams, do do ; 
Jesse Goss, do do ; William Clothy,* do do ; Isaiah Pettigal,* do do ; John 
.Tarlton, do privateer Gen. Plutnen ; Isaac M'Kenny, do do; Joseph 
Verney, dodo; Samuel Moore, do do; M. Wateihouse,* do privateer 
Teazcr ; A. Francis* do. privateer Porcupine L. of M ; Daniel Lucas,* do 
do ; Jacob Johnson,* do do ; James Andrews, do do ; John Thompson, do 
privateer Thomas; John Card, do do; Robert Ilillsbrook, do do ; Henry 
Pitman, do do; John Marshall, do do ; P. M'Intire, do do ; J. Diiscoe,* do 
do ; Ephraim Crass,* do do ; Robert Brown, do privateer Wasp ; Thomas 
Ferguson, do do; Jas. Hunter, dodo; Robert Forsyth do do ; Edward 
Cooper, do doj James Richardson, do do'; Elisha Smith, do privateer 
Yorktown ; Asa Tuftif.s, do do ; Joseph Spauldings, do do ; Robert 
Stoddurd, do do; G. W. Hamilton, do do; Goodman Anderson, cio do 



134 COBRESPONUEN^fe. 

John Jessamine, dodo; John Davis t, do do; Charles Blake, do do j ' 
J.lisha Punal,* do do; Henry Bump.* dodo; Chas. Johnson,* do do; 
Samuel Goulding, do do ; Isaac Gilbert, do do ; James Wilson, do do ; W. 
Rogers* do do ; Richard Eddy, do do; John M'Kay, do do ; Hans Selby, 
dodo; Charles Brown, dodo; Daniel Stroms, dodo; Edward Phillips, 
prizemaster of the Lnvinia, recaptured from the Yorktown ; John Burns, 
seaman, privateer Snap-Dragon ; Win. Brown, dp privateer Polly ; John 
Cook, do do ; Isaac Hawkins, do privateer Columbia ; F. Burmingham, do 
L. of M. privateer Ulysses ; Thomas Brown, do privateer Fox ; Th. Hutt, 
do privateer Thomas ; James Evert, do privateer Yorktown ; J. Walling, 
do do Total 101. 

List of 101 British Prisoners, put into close confinement by the American 
government, in retaliation for the 101 prisoners (before named) sent to 
England in the British ship Regulus. 

Peter II. Dircide, gunner; Antonio Fernandez, mate; William Collings, 
eook ; Thomas D. Purney, steward ; Alexander Gouge, prize master; 
John Walm, seaman; William Randall do; William White do; John 
Selby do ; John Harvey d ; Robert Durl'ey do ; James Clucas do ; Richard 
Curtney do ; Alexander Stewart do ; Alexander Cummmgi do ; Charl* s 
Williams do ; Charles Rcll, marine ; John Monks, seaman ; John Riley do; 
John Storey do; John Finsman do ; Edward Downing do ; Dela Hunting- 
ton, marine; John Will atns seaman; Richard Whitear do; Christopher 
Roust do ; Isaac Ouffee, marine ; Isaac Muse do ; Joseph Frotten do ; 
Alexander Tropson do; Isaac Connell do; John Young do; Andrew 
Guillurney do ; William Playcard do ; James Fry do ; George Wheeler do ; 
James Arnold ; Author Benson do ; John Lloyd do ; Nicholas Mesurier do ; 
Isaac Coss; seaman; John White do; George Couthard do; Thomas 
Sommers do ; John Tilt do; Peter llolloway do ; John Careman do ; John 
Williams do ; James Morrison do ; William Gratage do; Henry Horn do ; 
James Taylor do ; John Millcy, do ; John Lanihs, do ; Edward Jones, do j 
John Anderson, do ; James Campbell do ; John Leslie, do ; Wm. Radclitfe 
do ; Patrick Fothergreen do ; William Stevens do ; James Cooper, do 
J.imes Jackson do ; Samuel Sherman do ; James Dawson do ; Benjamin 
C'arr, Matthew Robinson do ; John Cracker, do ; John Dode do ; William 
Slater do ; Edward Crooke do ; James Norland, do ; James I!add do ; James 
Bird do ; John Bent do ; John Ray, do ; Stephen Ridding do ; James 
Stays do ; Joseph James do ; Thomas Stephenson do ; Charles Nelson do ; 
John Nicholas do ; John Miller do; Jacob Monks do ; Benjamin Tell do 
Andres l.uhert do ; John Howell do ; John Ar^on do ; Joseph M'Cullum ; 
James Gilbert do; Edward Pimister do; William Bollman ; Watson 
Drown do ; J. Fairbotbam do; Owen Pritchard do ; Fryer Fowler do; 
Henry Gillyard do; John L. Prevost do; Alexander Deman do; John 
(iambic d John Johnson do. Total 101. 

Those marked (*) are men who have been twice found in arms befone 
they were exclumged. 
Those marked (f) are supposed to be British subjects. 



MR. EDITOR, 

N a former letter, I took the liberty to recommend an index,* &c. to your 
consideration ; and after expressing my wishes for a more general dif- 
fusion of your work, I mentioned the great utility which might be derived 
from family records. It is my sincere wish, that some great naval work 
should be widely spread, and your periodical means appear to me as ex- 
cellently calculated to produce that very desirable national good : and a 
litde general assistance might enable you to add both to the benefit and 
pleasure it is calculated to produce. 

I would now recommend to you, sir, to endeavour to procure a series of 
engravings from naval meduls, of which there are many, both ancient and 
modern. Chronological engravings of ships and vessels of all nations, and 
particularly British, from the skin canoe of the ancient Britons to the pre- 
sent Nelson, .which I trust will be for some time the ne plus ultra i:\ 'poiftt 
of tonnage and number if decks. 

There are, I believe, some excellent prints and pictures which represent 
accurately the form and rigging of most of the ships which followed the 
Armada. I have seen a good engraving of the Great Harry, with her 
towers, &c, and of the Royal James. 

There are some models from whence drawings might be made: that ef 
the Old Victory at the Naval College, Portsmouth, shows the poop, royal, 
spritsail, topmast, &c. ; The Mediterranean presents an endless variety in 
the possitkm of masts and shapes of sails : and I think you might, without 
difficulty, procure a set of drawings from thence. It is curious to observe, 
in going round our own coast, that you rind some peculiar construction, or 
rig of boat, in almost every port; and although accident, perhaps, led at 
first to some particular form or ornament, yet, upon the whole, each boat is 
the best adapted to the nature of the port or beach.- This variety is peculi- 
arly striking on the western coast of America. I dare say your occasional 
very able, and most worthy correspondent, Mr. Whidby, could give you some 
information on that head. It is, however, a singular circumstance, that the 
same kind of boat should have been selected, both for the smooth water of 
the Thames, and the rough and dangerous navigation of Spithead. A sea- 
man, who has been taken off to hisship at Spithead by a skilful watenimn 
in a good wherry, must think himself in another nation, when he is taken 
out to Plymouth Sound in a boat from the Barbican. In your numerous 
engravings, we have already a great and beautiful variety of ships and ves- 
sels, in all positions ; but my present recommendation is, a systematic, 
chronological, and historic series. Reference to your plates would do a 
good deal, but a new series-would be better. Is not the tapestry of the 
House of Lords engraved in a series of prints? t 

I call upon your readers to yield their assistance; and, more especially, 
to point out to their friends tLe .satisfaction and advantage which must be 
derived from a work, which details the naval events of the greatest naval 
power in the world, and is elucidated bv comparisons with all oilier*. Let 

* To this we- replied in our Answers to Coirespoudc/it.>, ic. 'E. 

f We think that it ho been en^mveu. ED. . 



136 

not the dust from the glorious and "'ell-fought field of Vittoria,. prevent 
their still perceiving, that " Britain's Lest bulwarks are her. wooden 
walls.'' 

Thus, Mr. Editor, must an old man be content to sit still and "ive hints 
to young ones; and those I now offer spring from a patriotic affection for my 
country in general, and my profession in particular. You will, also, I trust 
be assured, that I am a sincere friend to your work. 

Yours, &c. A. F. Y. 



PLATE CCCCVIII. 



MR. EDITOR, 

IX the former part of jour work you gave us the portrait of II. M. 5. 
Cleopatra, in three positions. I enclose a rough stetch of a fourth po- 
sition, which is the representation of her in a situation to which the ar- 
tist has been afraid to do justice, for fear of a suspicion of exaggeration. 
The circumstance was as follows: 

The Cleopatra was crossing the Gulph stream, under a reefed fore-sail 
and niizcn stay-sail, in a strong gale, not fr to the northward of C. Ilnt- 
terus, in a night rendered dark by a deep and jet black thunder cloud, 
which had obscured the moon. After very vivid lightning and a loud ex- 
plosion, the wind shifted in a heavy squ;ill, so as to bring the ship up seve- 
ral points, and head to a very high and much agitated sea, giving her at the 
jnme time fresher way through the water. Her first plunge put the whole 
of the forecastle deep under water, and the officers on deck hardiv expect- 
ed to see ht-r ri~e again. The captain, who was in his cot in the cabin, gut 
a severe blow by being dashed violently against the beams. The ship, how- 
ever, rose, throwing a vast body of water aft, which hurst open (he cabin 
balk head, breaking loose every thing upon deck but the gur.s. In this 
send aft, ilie tafifrrel and after part of the quarter-deck were far under 
wutf.T. Luckily, only part of the after hatchway was open, and no great 
body of water went below. The fore-sail was hauled up, ai.d the damage 
found to be only the loss of j.b boom, sprir-sail-yard, bumpkins, and bow- 
sprit and fore ynni fr-ninu. Small cutter carried away from the davits; 
the spanker boom, and many ropes broke. 

But the principal view of making the sketch was, to minute the very pe- 
culiar state of the sky and clouds. The block thunder-cloud passed rapidly 
to windward, ;it the instant moat vivid lightning was seen in the direction of 
the foremast in the drawing, shewing the violently breaking sea in all its 
mngniceiit fury. -At the same time a snow shower passed a-cmss the 
stern, the clouds clearing away behind it, shewing a clear sky and bright 
moon, which shone on the passing shower with a briyhmess not easily de- 
scribed, particularly when contrasted with the neighbouring gloom. If your 
engraver can mnkc any Innd of a sketch so unfinished, I can only say it i 
at your service. I amain, Sir, yours, 

A CONSTANT READER. 



137 
NAVAL BULLETINS 

OF 

LIEUTENANT O'BRIEN'S RECENT CAPTIVITY AND ESCAPE. 

[Continued from page 48.] 



BULLETIN THE THIRTEENTH. 

SEPTEMBER,1808. The next day these poor fellows received orders to 
prepare for a march to Metz ; whither they would be escorted, to 
take their trial as conspirators; the gendarme to go as prosecutor. I 
now deemed myself fortunate indeed. I had the mortification to see 
them loaded with irons (after being a number of days in a most abomi- 
nable dungeon), to proceed nearly 25 leagues, accused of a conspiracy ; 
and, in a few days, I received a letter from Mr. Ashworth, giving me a 
detail of the trial, &c. and stating, that he, Mr. Brine, and several others, 
were sentenced to remain as slaves fifteen years in the galleys ; Mr. Tut/till 
nine only. I was so shocked at this intelligence (which filled tlie first part 
of the letter) that I threw it away, and related the contents to my com- 
panions; who, with myself, exclaimed against the injustice and tyranny of 
a nation that could suffer such a sentence to be passed. 

I was in the greatest consternation and dejection imaginable. One of 
my friends proceeded to peruse the letter; and, on reading a little farther, 
he found the sentence had been repealed. This appeased me greatly ; but 
I had the same opinion of the nation. It also informed us, that two of 
our stamen were actually condemned for six years, and had been sent to the 
galleys a few days before, from Bticfie. I knew them ; one was an Italian 
by birth, the other an Englishman; the former, John Gardner, alias Italian 
John, was accused of making out a false passport for the latter, Henry 
Hudsel, alias Quiz. He escaped with this passport, and travelled several 
leagues before the imposition was discovered. This was the only crime 
they had been guilty of, to the eternal disgrace of a nation that styles itself 
civilized. If the reader will only consider the horrible treatment which 
our prisoners endure ; no prospect of having an exchange during the war; 
and, although this said crime may be termed forgery, it was not to molest 
or harm any person whatever; itwas simply planned to liberate the bearer 
1 have not the smallest doubt but the reader will agree with me in opinion, 
that it falls very short of a punishment equal to six years (with all denomi- 
nations of malefactors) in the galleys. 

There was an Englishman lately arrived from thegal'.eysj who had served 
in the army on the continent, under His Royal Highness the Duke of York; 
his name, to the best of my recollection, was Barnes. He stated, that Ire, 
with some others, had been made prisoners ; and, by some accident, one 
of their guards was killed : they were accused and sentenced to twelve or 
thirteen years slavery (I am not confident which), however, he was the only 
survivor. His time beuig up, they conducted him to the depot of punish* 
mtnt, still to be considered as a prisoner of war : another proof of the 

ol. XXXI. I 



138 NAVAL BULLETINS. 

strict justice of the French nation. Several most curious occurrences took 
place during my confinement, too tedious to state here ; all of which have 
served to corroborate me in my opinion of the wretched country I was in 
a nation of savages, governed by a fiend. 

September, 1808. I had now another plan of escaping in contempla- 
tion, and with every hope of success. The arrival of a Mr. Hewson* and a 
i\Jr. Butterfteld, midshipmen, who, in March last, escaped from Verdun, 
and got down to the t^ilpli of Lyons, in the Mediterranean, where they 
were arrested and brought back, favoured my plan very much. Mr. Hew- 
son being a friend and very old acquaintance, I communicated it to him; 
he rejoiced exceedingly at an opportunity so soon ouering for another 
attempt to escape. However, it was necessary to wait some time, us he 
was placed in the Souterrain. I a lew days lie contrived (owing to indis- 
position) to be moved up stairs, into a room appointed for the sick. I now 
hoped to be soon able to execute our project ; and had procured keys, with 
which I could at any time get out of my own room ; it only remained to 
open the hospital room door, and the wished-for junction would be formed. 
This I attempted two nights successively, but without eiFect : it was im- 
possible. As I only waited for the worthy Hewson, it was necessary 
to endeavour to get him up into my room no other prospect was left. 
He made application by letter, to the commandant; and, on the llth of 
September, succeeded. We wanted nothing now but a favourable moment. 
The next day a Dr. Barclimore, an acquaintance of ours, also received per- 
mission to reside in our apartment. We were, fortunately, only seven in 
number, in consequence of the poor fellows who were at Metz; and of 
these seven, three were confined to their beds; the fourth was a Mr. Bar- 
clay, a dragoon officer of the East India Company's service, who had been 
a long time in the room, and informed me that he conjectured what we 
were about, and requested to be allowed to join and partake of our 
chances which we agreed to. No opportunity of getting by the sentinels 
yet presented itself. Our friends arrived from Metz, but were put below. 
I communicated the business to them ; they thought it a very dangerous 
and hazardous plan ; however, would have willingly run the same risk 
with us, if they could ; but that was impossible. 

This was the 13ih of September, and the third night since Hewson 
joined. Our poor friends were secured, after taking an affectionate leave 
of us. The night was very inclement, and proved much in our favour. 
Every thins; was put in readiness; our rope made into a ball, and tied up 
in a handkerchief. Night at last arrived. It rained blew thundered 
and lightened ; I never recollect a more desperate night. We unlocked 
our door, and remained at the bottom of the stairs, waking to see the sen- 
tinels go into their boxes. It was about eight o'clock, and we continued 
in this position until midnight, without any success. The .sentinels were 
ou the alert during the whole time, and without their great coats. Jt was 
uow agreed to return to our apartments until the ensuing niglit, and to 

* 'At present, we believe, raised to the rank f commander. 



NAVAL BULLETINS. 139 

deposit all our apparatus in places fixed for them ; but, upon second consi- 
deration we imagined that the relief at midnight might not be so very 
active, therefore continued in expectation until two in the morning; when 
we returned, having secured our door, &c. and went to bed. The Sotiter- 
rain opened, -and our friends came running up, imagining, from the incle- 
mency of the night, that we must have succeeded ; but were greatly dis- 
appointed at finding us all in our beds. I related the circumstances to 
them, and they, with ourselves, were not sanguine at our being able to pass 
in fair weather, if we could not in such a night as the last had been. 

Doctor Barclimore had recently recovered from a severe fit of the ague, 
and was still very weak. I was much afraid, even if we did succeed in 
getting out of the fort, that he would not be able to perform the very long 
journey we were going to take : however, he was resolved to try. 

September, 1808. We dined early the next day (the 14th") that we 
might have the pleasure of our Souterrain friends' company. They stated 
the njimber of difficulties we should have to surmount in passing the guards ; 
the danger that would attend it; expressed the anxiety they were under 
for us. We, however, were determined not to relinquish our undertaking, 
and to be ready every night, until an opportunity offered. We parted as 
we had done the night before: they did not suppose we should have any 
chance that night, as the weather was moderate and fair. At our usuai 
hour (six)* we were locked up, and immediately commenced our prepara- 
tions. We thought, perhaps, the sentinels would be more careless early 
in the evening (that is to say, before eight), which was the usual time to 
set the night natch, and give the necessary orders. 

We were now all ready. Our door opened, and we could see the sen- 
tinel, whom we had most to fear, walk up and down before our windows; 
his box was in front of the door, through which we had to go into the yard; 
but, as our guards lived un<lerne.vh our apartments, we thought he would 
take a;>y body's moving about so early for one of them, and it was unusual 
to hail before eight. 

At about seven the fellow entered his box. I instantly descended the 
stairs, it was just dusk ; and I was to take six minutes before Mr. Hewson 
followed, who was next on the list. I passed the sentinel quite close ; 
could see him leaning over his musket; he never moved, and I arrived, pro- 
videntially, at the spot fixed upon to make fast the rope; which I very 
soon accomplished ; and was just in the act of descending, when my friend 
Hewson arrived. In two or three minutes, to my inexpressible satisfac- 
tion, all four were down at the bottom of the first wall. The principal 
object being now accomplished, we felicitated each other. We had two 
walls yet to descend, the heights 1 have already mentioned in a former 
page. We all clapped on the rope, in order to break as much of it as 
would enable us to descend the others; it soon gave way to our weight; 
and, luckily, we had an abundance. We made it fast to one of the tipper 
stones of the embrasure, and descended. Clapped on again, and broke 
enough to go down the third. We had taken the precaution of providing 

* As the winter regulation now commenced. 



140 NAVAL 

two long boot-hooks, to stick in the wall, to make our rope fast to, in case 
we had no other means, and these we found of the greatest service hi 
descending the last rampart, as there was nothing whatever besides that we 
could fasten our rope to. Having now descended, we had only to pass the 
outside sentinels, who were few ; and which we fortunately succeeded in 
doing; and, in a few minutes, we were on the high road to Strasburgh ; 
on which we continued, running as fast as we could for nearly half an 
hour, then halted, to put on our shoes, which, until then, we had hung 
round our necks, and also to take a last vie-v of the Mansion of Tears.* 
We then returned our thanks to God, and shook hands with each other, 
replete with joy at this miraculous adventure ; took each a little spirits, 
out of a cantine procured for the journey ; and which, from experience, I 
knew was necessary to preserve the health when lying in the woods, 
dripping wet, in the day-time. The transactions of the last hour actually 
appeared to me like u vision. I could hardly suppose I was again free and 
my ov/n master; I frequently stared at my companions, and said to my- 
self, ' My God ! is it then possible, that we are clear of the Tyrants of 
the world, and delivered from abject slavery ?' I now addressed them, and 
observed how much ii behoved us to proceed cautiously. It was Messrs. 
Hewson's and Barclimore's second attempt, Mr. Barclay's first, but my 
third. I, consequently, had most reason to be on my guard ; and, of 
course, became the leader. I, therefore, candidly observed, that I should 
run no risks that could by any means be avoided the moment they should 
attempt any thing that I deemed rash or imprudent, I would quit them. 
They expressed the utmost satisfaction at my observations, and ardently 
desired to conform to them. We unanimously directed our course (by 
the star*) due east, which would take us directly to the Rhine, and a con- 
siderable distance to the northward of Strasburgh. 

September, 1308. At day-break on the 15th, we entered an excellent 
wood on a mountain's side, close to the high road; got well up, and had 
a full view the whole day of those who passed underneath, without a possi- 
bility of being seen. We saw some of the gendarmes from our late MAN- 
6ION, in full gallop towards the Rhine, and were certain they were in pur- 
suit of us, and to give our descriptions, as they advanced, to their brethren, 
who were quartered in the adjacent villages. 

Dr. B:irclimore, to our mortification, began already to feel strong 
eymptoms of a relapse of fever: however unfortunate this was, we were 
determined not to quit either him or Barclay until we had piloted them 
across the Rhine. At about eight at night we descended from our lurking 
place, and proceeded cautiously along the above-mentioned direction. A 
little before day-light (the 16th) we halted ; Mr. Barclay's feet became ex- 
ceedingly sore and painful ; and having a secure hiding place, we thought it 
most prudent not to advance farther until the next night. Our refreshment 
was a little ammunition bread and sausage, with what other things* we pro- 

* This is the name Bitche goes by when mentioned by the prisoners ; some of 
whom have shed an abundance. 

* Cabbages, turnips, &c. &c. 



1CAVAL BULLETINS. 141 

cured in the fields. At dark we again commenced our journey; our two 
companions were very weak and weary ; were therefore obliged to proceed 
slowly. On the 17th we halted and remained in a wood, similar to the 
two preceding days. At dark, again proceeded, pushing forward, expecting 
to be within a few hours march of the much desired river. 

The morning of the 18th brought no appearance of it, and what was 
much worse, no wood in view to screen us. It was Sunday, and we ^vere 
contiguous to a village, which exposed us greatly. We advanced about a 
mile, when we discovered a vineyard, which we hastened to and entered ; 
it was very thick, and well hung with grapes. We were apprehensive of 
being discovered by the guard ; consequently, kept creeping forward, until 
we supposed ourselves about the centre. The ground was very uncomfort- 
able and wet, from the drops offthe vines ; however, we were highly pleased 
at being so secure. About an hour had elapsed, when we heard a man 
whistle at a short distance ; it struck us this was the guard ; and were cer- 
tain, if he saw us, he would suspect we came (at all events) to pick the 
grapes, which were almost ripe, and is a serious offence in this countrv. 
Not many seconds had elapsed, when we heard the report of a musket 
the small shot rattled through the vines over our heads : a huge fox, with 
dogs in chace, instantly passed us ; a fellow shouting at a small distance 
behind, who, fortunately, did not follow the dogs direct, or he would have 
come right upon us. How to act we could not tell ; to quit the vineyard 
would have been extremely dangerous, as we should have been exposed to 
the inhabitants of the village passing or repassing : so we agreed, after 
some deliberation, to remain where we were. About ten we were again 
alarmed by voices approaching us fast. Mr. Barclay had lost one of his 
shoes on entering the vineyard, and we supposed that had led to our foot- 
steps .being discovered, and that these voices (which we now plainly disco- 
vered to be men's) were in search of us. We lay close down on our faces 
with no hopes of escaping from being seen. The voices still drawing near 
we now perceived they were at a stand, but close to us. I lifted up my 
head to peep through the vines, and saw the legs and thighs of two men 
close to me; their great coat skirts almost touching where we were, but 
their backs were turned, and they were moving in an opposite direction ; 
in a few minutes we lost sight of them I need not observe what pleasure 
tin's gave us. I proposed to move to some other part, as we were in 
constant alarm since we entered this ; and I was of opinion we were near 
a patlnvay. We, accordingly, crept along in another direction, where we 
were pretty certain of not being annoyed until dark ; but had been scarcely 
an hour in this new spot, when we again heard a rustling among the vines 
each alarmed, lifted up his head, and looked towards the place whence 
.we heard the noise. Mark our astonishment ! We discovered a woman, 
with an infant in her arms, leading a little girl about seven years old. She 
was directly upon us the woman couid not see us in the beginning, but 
the child did ! her little head being considerably under the branches ; she 
immediately screamed, and seized the woman by the hands; upon which 
I stood up and saluted her in German. She was dressed in thnt country 



142 NATAL BULI.ET1H*. 

style ; appeared much alarmed, and made no reply. She proceeded art, 
and we agreed to quit the vineyard before she could get to the village to 
give an account of this occurrence ; our motions were exceedingly quick; 
and, in a few minutes, we were upon the high road ; which, from its 
immense breadth and good repair, we were convinced wns a public one. 
At that moment there were only two women on it, and they were coming 
towards us. We advanced very deliberately. I had studied German a 
little in Bitche, and found it now of material service. I asked them 
what distance we were from the Rhine ? " Three hours," they replied- 
We parted, and continued our route, eagerly wishing to see some place of 
concealment. There was a man now advancing towards us, who appeared 
like a traveller, having his coat on his stick over his shoulder. We ac- 
costed him. He told us we were very near the Rhine. -He surveyed us 
with astonishment, covered as we were (in spite of every effort to avoid 
it) with earth and mud ; Barclay hardly able to crawl along, on account of 
his feet ; we must have appeared most singular beings ! We still ad- 
vanced ; and observed the fellow turn back frequently, to look after us. 
We now discovered a shrubbery about a quarter of a mile before us ; and 
soon got to it; and, about the same time, lost sight of this man two for- 
tunate occurrences! In a few minutes we were snug and concealed again 
it was one of the best hiding places we had as yet been in ; close to the 
road; the time about four o'clock in the morning, and not far from the 
Rhine: we hoped, thus circumstanced, to be able to cross it that night at 
all events. Our conversation was now on the difficulty that attended our 
getting a boat ; the danger of approaching a house on this side, and our 
provision nearly exhausted ; however, we became very sanguine, and 
anxiously wished for night. 

The desired hour arrived ; we set forward with great spirits, at the same 
time with caution. As those parts were infested with smugglers, it was 
natural to suspect there were also a number of custom-house officers, which 
kept us greatly on our guard. 

About eleven we had made the circuit of a very large town; and about 
midnight (to our unspeakable joy) we descried the long wished-for river; 
were now on its banks. Each washed himself, and rested a few minutes. 
There was an excellent wood hard by: this we reserved to retreat to, in 
case of not falling in with a lir.it that night ; and we agreed to proceed on, 
at least, for an hour, towards the northward; which course we com- 
menced ; prying into every little creek and nook. The morning was star- 
I'ght, beautiful and serene ; could hear the cocks crowing, dogs barking, 
&c. on the German side. A beautiful river, about a mile in breadth, not 
an island to impede the view, which is not a common thing in this river. 
My God ! how we longed to be conveyed across! This anxiety prevented 
our enjoying the delightful prospect before us. It was certainly a terrestrial 
paradise. We continued nearly an hour, admiring and advancing, when 
the Omnipotent Ruler of all human affairs, whose Providence had so much 
favoured us throughout on this attempt to escape, exposed to our view a 
boat, made fast with a chain to a stake driven into the bank, close to a 
heap of wood, which I supposed she was to have been loaded with at day 



TELEGRAPHIC SIGNALS. 143 

aght. On examining it further, we found the chain locked. The doctor 
land myself got hold of the stake, and, with little difficulty, drew it out of 
the bank. Mr. Hewson, an old sailor, and myself, soon constructed a pair 
of paddles out of a couple of pieces of the wxjod. We then embarked our 
two passengers, whom we placed in the bottom of the little boat; and, in 
about twenty minutes, we were safe landed on the opposite side. We 
drove the stake in the ground, that the owners of the boat might find her 
at day-light; and proceeded into the country as fast as possible. 

September, 1808. At day-break it was excessively thick and foggy ; 
poor Barclay almost knocked up, the doctor very much fatigued, and our- 
selves rather weary. We discovered a village on the Merg, and, after 
surveying it strictly, we agreed to enter it, and to goto the first public-house 
we should see, for the purpose of getting ourselves refreshed and put a 
iiule i order ; we might pass there as Frenchmen ; and, from my former 
knowledge of the German small villages, I was not in the least appre- 
hensive. 

[To be continued.] 



TELEGRAPHIC SIGNALS. 

are indebted to Mr. M' Arthur, author of the Principles and 
Practice of Naval and Military -Courts Martial, for the following 
Plan of Telegraphic Signals, by the combination of a very few flags to 
correspondent numbers in arithmetical progression. This gentleman had 
been an early contributor to the NAVAL CHRONICLE, and, among other 
articles, he favoured us with, there is one on Telegraphic Signals by day and 
night (see Vol. I. page 509), which he had communicated to the Admiralty 
Board in December, 1797. Mr. M. had, previous to that period (viz. in 
1792), made a new arrangement of Earl Howe's Signals and Instruction? 
for the Navy, and had also prepared a new code of night signals, on a nume- 
rary plan, by guns, false fires, and lights, which were then approved by 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. These signals were printed 
accordingly, and were for the first time, early in J793, issued to die ships 
under Admiral Lord Hood's orders ; and they hare, as we are informed, 
been continued as the established codes iu the service ever since, with 
litlle or no variation in form or substance. 

In 1803, Mr. M. published for private circuhition, at the printing office 
of the NAVAL CHRONiCf.E, as die title bears Thoughts on seve/al Plans, 
combining a System of Universal Signals by day and night, adapted fur 
JVuia/, Military, Commercial, and Poli.ical Purpwez ; with Migrations 
jt>r the general utensiim and iri/pruzetitent of Day and flight Telegraphic 
Signals, on principle* adayltd to carry un Public or Private Cvritspun- 
fitnce, by the Symbols <}' Flags and Lighli beluem th. J&ir^Mrt jfifo/tiM 



144 



SIGNALS. 



of the Universe." The plans now offered may be considered improvements 
ou some of his thoughts, published, as we have mentioned, eleven years 
ago. We must do him the justice to say, that he claims no merit tor the 
originality of his arrangement or ideas on this or on former occasions : lie 
is only desirous of giving them publicity through the channel of our work ; 
trusting that officers may, on such solid foundations, exert their energies, 
to build, as has been already done, improved fabrics of Telegraphic Cor- 
respondence for the benefit of our Naval and Military Services. 

TELEGRAPHIC SIGNALS, by the Combination of Six Flags only, and a 
Substitute Pendant, adapted to Naval, Military, Commercial, and 
Political Correspondence, to a vast variety and extent, arranged on the 
Arithmetical Progression of Numbers, with Integral, Decimal, and Cen- 
tesimal Powers. By JOHN M'ARTHUE, Esq. LL.D. 

TABLE I. Representing Flags and Numbers. 



Substitute 
Pendant. 


FUgs 
1st 
Scries. 


1 


tomm 


3 B. 


te---i 


C. 






Where 
hoisted. 


Fore 
or 
Left. 


Main 
or 
Centre. 


Mizen 
or 
Right. 


Fore 
or 
Left. 


Main 
or 
Centre. 


M izen 
or 
Right. 


Fore 
or 
Left. 


Main 
or 
Centre. 


Mizen 
or 

-Right. 


Units. 


l 


2 


3 


4 


1 


G 


7 


8 


9 


The flags of the first 
Series are shewn 
inverted, as in 
the vertical co- 
lumn underneath 


Flags 
2d 
Series. 


P ,. 


IB E . 


pi , 


Where 
loisted. 


Fore 
or 
Left. 


Main 
or 
Centre. 


Mizen 
or 
Right. 


Fore 
or 
Left. 


Main 
or 
Centre. 


Mizen 
or 
Right. 


Fore 
or 
Left. 


Main 
or 
Centre. 


Mizen 
or 
Right. 


lens. 


10 


20 


30 


40 


M 


GO 


70 | 80 


90 


1" 


1-Fore. 
( 


100 


llO 


190 


130 


140 


130 


160 


170 


180 


190 


> Main. 


800 


CIO 


220 


230 


240 


250 


260 


270 


280 


290 


UfaM 


300 


310 


320 


330 


340 


350 360 


370 


380 


390 


sill 


Fore. 


400 


410 


420 


430 


440 


450 


460 


470 


480 


490 
590 


) Main. 

(-- 


500 


610 


520 


530 


HO 


550 560 


570 


580 


B. 


Miztn. 


COO 


rilO~ 


620 


(i30 


640 


650 660 


670 


680 


690 




Fore. 


700 


no 


720 


730 


740 


750 j 760 


770 


780 


790 




.|Main. 


*oo 


810 


820 


830 


840 


850 860 


870 


8 SO 


890 


^ Mizen. 


900 U10 


920 


9*0 


940 


950 1 960 


970 


980 


990 


Flags D, E, F, of the 2d 
Series being inverted, as 
in lower line, will repre- 
sent Thousands. 


P 


pn , 


HH 
miM! 


1 
F. 




Fore. 


Main. 


Mizen. 


Fore. 


Main. 


Mizen. 


Fore. 


Main. 


Miztn. 






10(10 


0000 


3000 


4000 


5OOO 


60OO 


7000 


8000 


<;>o 



TELEGRAPHIC SIGNALS. 14& 

General flbsemations on the Nature, Extent, and Advantages of the 
annexed Table and Plan. 

1st. By the arithmetical combination of numbers, made with six dif- 
ferent flags and a substitute pendant, in the series of units, tens, and hun- 
dreds, a greater number of signals or ideas may be expressed, than bj 
either the numerary or telegraphic code of signals, as practised with 20 
flags and several pendants, in the navy. 

2d. The plan now submitted, is so simplified iu principles, that it is 
equally adapted for the navy and army, either in separate or conjunct 
operations ; and is peculiarly useful as a code for the military, commercial, 
and political correspondence of the East India Company, to a very great 
variety and extent. 

3d. So few flags (only six in number) being required, the plan for 
cheapness and facility is. not only universally adapted to ships or hired 
transports, in the merchant service, but 'is also convenient for communi- 
cating signals between ships and boats detached on particular service; also 
between ships of war and the signal stations on the coast, as well as be- 
tween one military station to another on an extended line of an army. In 
a military point of view the plan may be considered of some importance, 
from the variety and extent of signals that may with celerity be communi- 
cated from one wing of an army to another, either in making forward 
movements in front of an enemy, or in retreating from a superior force, 
and that in situations where the flags may be observed in most occasions 
at if or two miles distance, from one station to another, unless the atmos- 
phere be very dense with fog, or that the wind should blow the flags in the 
direction of the observer at the respective stations. 

4th. With respect to the advantages to be derived by the mercantile 
body, insurers, and underwriters, from so cheap and easy a mode of commu- 
nication, it may suffice to mention, that every ship or vessel furnished with 
six signal flags and a pendant, could at all times, and in every situation, 
communicate ideas of importance to their correspondents or agents, in- 
volving either the safety of the vessel, crew, and cargo, or accelerating the 
benefit of the concern, by landing and receiving of the cargo, the supplies 
of necessary stores, provisions, &c. 1st. To effect this, as will be mare 
fully explained in the examples to be given, one signal at a time can ex- 
press preconcerted sentences applicable to numbers from 1 to 999 inclusive: 

A second arrangement can be made, by representing letters of the 
alphabet, for the purpose of spelling words, composing sentences. 

A third arrangement, if necessary, by two signals, may be made, appli- 
cable to the words of a vocabulary or dictionary, to the extent of no less 
than 25,974 words, most common in use, as will be explained at the coil* 
elusion of examples. 

Explanation of the Table I. prefixed, and Combination of Numbers. 

1st. Description of Flags. 

The table of flags, six in number, and a substitute pendant, having cor- 
respondent numbers annexed, is capable of representing in the first ordcr> 

*2a C&ron. Qol. XXXI. u 



14(J tEi/EGRArmc SIGNALS; 



999 distinct signals or ideas, and by an additional substitute pendant, 
9,999 signals may be communicated, by inverting the ilags D E and F, as 
exhibited under the double line at the bottom of Table I. But as 999 sig- 
nals may be deemed fully adequate for either naval or military operations, 
separately or conjunctly, as well as for all commercial purposes, the cor- 
respondent numbers to that extent are only exhibited in Table I. But, to 
those persons who may be curious to ascertain, or apply the combinations', 
with an additional pendant, some observations and examples of this power, 
from 1,000 to 9,999, shall be given at the end, which probably some reader* 
may consider rather a subject of curiosity than of public utility. 

The six flags in the annexed Table 1. for the sake of distinction, and that 
they may not be confounded with the numbers or figures correspondent to 
their positions, as well as to facilitate the references to the explanations 
and examples, are defined by the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and to eack 
flag, correspondent marks or labels of distinction should be attached, for 
the facility of practice. 

The first flag, marked A, is red and blue horizontally divided. 

The 2d (lag, B, is red and yellow, do. do. 

The 3d flag, C, is blue and yellow, do. do. 

The 4th flag, D, is red and blue quartered. 

The 5th flag, E, is red and yellow quartered. 

The 6th flag, F, is blue and yel[ow quartered. 

Here it may be necessary to observe, that three tinctures or colours are 
only employed, and that each of the six flags has two distinct colours, so 
as to represent different signals, when the flag is inverted. The tincture 
or colour of each flag in the annexed Table I. is distinguished as follows, 
according to the rules of heraldry ; viz. Red, by perpendicular lines thus, 





Blue by horizontal lines thus and Yellow is represented 

by dots thus 



$d. Method of shewing the Flags afloat, or on shore. 

1. The flags may be shewn at the fore, main, or mizen-top-masts of * 
hip, or which implies the same thing, forward, centre, or tift, if made by 
vessels with one mast, or by ships' boats ; or if made from three distinct 
posts on shore, the terra left, centre, or right post will make the dis- 
tinction. 

2. They may be shewn by ships or vessels at the most conspicuous mast- 
head and yard across ; and in like manner may be answered or communi* 
cated from signal stations on the coast, where a mast and yard is only 
erected ; and in such case the term larboard, or left, when applied to 
yard-arm, is to be considered as a synonymous term to the position of 
fore-mast or forward, and the term centre synonymous to main-mast, and 
starboard or ri^ht synonymous to the position of mizen or left. 



TJFXrGRAPHIC SIGNALS. 147 

3d. Order of the Flags and Correspondent Numbers represented in Table I. 

1st. The three flags, A, B, C, arranged as the first series or order in 
the upper horizontal column, shewn at the different parts specified, represenc 
units as expressed. 

2d. The second series, or horizontal order of flags, -clz. D, E, F, being 
hoisted at three different parts, will represent tensor decimals, as expressed 
by the numbers under them respectively. 

3d. The vertical column of three flags, being the first series or order, 
A, B, C, hoisted inverted, will represent hundreds, as expressed by the 
figures prefixed to their different positions, 

N. B. If thousands were necessary to be represented, the flags of the 
2d order, D, , F, would be inverted as in the horizontal column at the 
bottom of Table I. 

Examples of the Combinations representing Numbers. 

1. The order in the first horizontal column is explained by the integral 
numbers, from 1 to 9 inclusive ; namely, the flag A, (rod and blue), hoisted 
at ihe lore, or lefr, represents 1 ; if hoisted at the main or centre, 2; if at 
the mizen or right, 3. The flag B, (red and yellow), at the fore or left, is 
4 ; at the main or centre, 5 ; and at the mizen or right, 6. The flag C, 
(blue and yellow), hoisted at the fore or left, is 7 ; at the main or centre, 
8 ; and at the mizen or right, 9. 

2d. The flags D, E, F, in the second order, represent tens, and when 
accompanied by the integral or first order of flags, A, B, and C, the cor- 
respondent units are to be added. Thus the decimal flag D, hoisted at the 
fore or left, will represent 10, and A at the fore or left hoisted above it, 
will represent 1 ; making together 11, the number represented by the 
combination of both flags, and so forth, to 19 inclusive, by hoisting with 
the flag D at the fore, any of the other unit flags, at the part or parts 
indicated. By a similar combination of the other decimal flags, E and F, 
with the unit flags, 99 signals or ideas can be expressed, as in the annexed 
Table I. 

3d. The flags A, B, and C, being inverted, as exhibited in the vertical 
column, on the left, they will, as previously mentioned, represent tUe 
series of hundreds, and the blue pendant will then become a substitute to 
the respective flags, in the first order of units. Thus, the flag A, (which 
in the inverted order will be shewn half blue and red divided horizontally) 
at the main or centre will represent 200, as prefixed. The flag D, of the 
second or decimal order, shewn over it, at the main or centre will repre- 
sent 20, and the substitute pendant over this last at the main, will repre- 
sent in the order of units No. 2, making, when added together, 222. 
If these two flags were hoisted, as already expressed, and the substitute 
pendant at the mizen or right, the number represented would be 223. 
But, if 224 were to be represented, the aforesaid two flags would 
be hoisted at the main, and the flag B, (red and yellow) at the fore, 
making together 224. 

If the fia.g A, in the inverted order, as in vertical column, were hoisted 



145 TELEGRAPHIC SIGNALS. 

at the mizen or right, it would represent 300, as expressed against it} and . 
if accompanied by the flag D at the mizen representing 30, and flag C at 
the main representing 8, these numbers added together represent 338, and 
so forth from I to 999 inclusive. 

It is to be observed, that when two or three flags representing a number 
are shewn at the same place, their correspondent numbers are to be taken 
in the order represented in the Table ; that is, the lower flag represents 
hundreds, the middle or centre flag tens, the superior flag, or if the substi- 
tute pendant be occasionally used in its stead, it will represent units, as in 
the foregoing examples. 

The Table is so constructed, by arranging the three first flags in the 
upper horizontal column, or series, as units, the three flags in the second 
horizontal column or series, as tens, in arithmetical progression ; and the 
third series, being the flags of the upper horizontal column inverted, and 
shewn in the vertical column, represent hundreds ; so as that the eye can 
immediately perceive the number of any signal represented by one, two, 
or three flags. 



he Combination of the Flags in the Vertical Column, representing 
Hundreds, with those in the second Horizontal Series of Tens. 

Suppose the flag B, (yellow and red), inverted as in vertical column, 
were hoisted at the main, with the flag D, (red and blue, quartered), at 
the mizen, casting the eye on the angle of meeting of the position of vertical 
and horizontal flags in Table I. the correspondent number represented will 
be found to be 530 ; and if any of the flags of the first series were at the 
same time hoisted with the two flags named, it would add the correspondent 
number of units, to the number so found as above in the angle of meeting 
of the centesimal and" decimal flags. 

It having been stated in the outset, that the Table of six flags 
exhibited, representing the combination of numbers from 1 to 999, is sus- 
ceptible of representing, by the aid of an additional pendant, no less than 
9,999 diitinct numbers or signals, it is thought proper to give the following 
explanations and examples. 

It is to be observed, that the three flags in Table I. representing the 
decimal powers from 10 to 90 inclusive ; viz, flags D, E, F, quartered red 
and blue, &c. may be allotted to represent the series of thousands, when 
hoisted in the inverted order, at the parts specified, that is, from 1000 to 
9000 inclusive; and the second substitute pendant to be used will repre- 
sent the corre<pondent decimal number, or tens of this flag, so inverted. 

Example, if 1010 were to be represented. The flag D would be shewn 
inverted at the fore (making in this order Blue and Red quartered) re- 
presenting 1000 ; and the second substitute pendant for decimals would 
be shewn at the same time over the said flag at the fore, representing its 
place 10, making together 1010. If 2110 were to be represented, the 
flat; D would be hoisted in the inverted order at the main, denoting 2000, 
with the flag A also inverted at the fore, representing 100, accompanied* 
ty tbe decimal substitute pendant at the lore, representing 10, making, 



TELEGRAPHIC SIGNALS. 



149 



when added together, 2110, and so forth, from 1000 to 9999 signals 
inclusive. 

Preparative signals to the different arrangements of which the Table is 
susceptible, can be made without interfering with the tabular numbers ; vig. 
flag A hoisted over flag B at the most conspicuous part, would denote the 
numbers of the Table to be applied to the significations or sentences so 
numbered. 2dly. Flag B hoisted over flag A at the most conspicuous part, 
would denote the Alphabetic Table II. for spelling of words. 3dly. Flag G 
hoisted over flag D at the most conspicuous part, would be the preparative 
for the subsequent signals or numbers to be applied to the words of a vwca- 
bulary or dictionary. Several other preparative signals may be made, with- 
out interfering with the tabular numbers. 

TABLE IT. 

Representing the letters of the alphabet by the six flags in the preceding 
Table I. having only one flag hoisted at a time at the parts specified. 
N.B. The six flags are distinguished by Roman numerals. 




The annexed Table, representing letters of the alphabet, requires little 
or no explanation, as the flags I. II. and III. express the first nine letters; 
namely, from A. to I. inclusive, under the parts where they are to b 
respectively hoisted, and so forth of the other flags as represented iu the 
Table, each flag indicating a letter of the alphabet. 

The termination denoting a word being spelt, may be represented by 
foisting flag IV, inverted, The termination of 3 sentence by flag V. in- 



150 HYDROGRAPHY. 

verted; and the annulling or negative signal by flag VI. inverted, or by 
any other flag or combination of flags that are not in the Alphabetic Table. 

Third arrangement to represent words of a vocabulary or dictionary, by 
resorting to the Alphabetic Table of letters last explained, and Table I. 
representing numbers from 1 to 999 inclusive. 

By having the most essential words, or those in common use for naval 
or military purposes, falling under the 26 letters of the alphabet, num- 
bered from 1 to 999 inclusive, affixed on the margin of a vocabulary or 
dictionary, it would only be necessary in referring to the correspondent 
number prefixed to the word, to make in the first instance the alphabetic 
signal or letter under which the word was numbered ; and 2dly, the signal 
ia Table I. correspondent to the number of the word ; consequently, by 
making two signals for a word, no less than 25,974 words may be indi- 
cated, which is demonstrated by multiplying the 999 numbers of Table I. 
by the 26 letters of Table II. 

N.B. As several letters of the dictionary do not contain 999 words, the 
blanks might be filled up with sentences, names of ships, &c. 

To prevent discovery of the signals, the order of the flags may be trans- 
posed, while the numbers and letters in the Tables would remain per- 
manent. 



HYDROGRAPHY, PILOTAGE, &c. 



EUROPE. 

BRITAIN. 

OX Thursday the 17th of March, 1814, the LIGHT which has hitherto 
been exhibited on the elevated part of the Hill of Ilowth, in Dublin 
Bay, will be discontinued; and that, on the same day, it will be replaced 
by n LIGHT, to be shewn in the New Light-house, lately erected on the 
Little Baily. The Little Baily of Ilowth bears S.S.W. three quarters of a 
mile from the Old Light-house ; the elevation of the Light from the sea 1 10 
IVct, and its bearings from the Headlands and Kish Light, nearly the same 
as the Old Light-house." 

ORIENTAL NAVIGATION. 

WARLF.Y'S SHOAL, 

Is described by Capt. Collins, of that ship, to be a small coral bank 
(which she parsed over, at 7 A3I. May 7th, 1813), about 100 feet long, 
and 50 feet broad, which was too distinctly seen to admit of any mistake;* 
lor its edges were clearly delineated, and upon it several ridges of rock 

* I think it nevertheless possible, that it might have been a shoal of Devil-fish 
which the Warley passed over, us they are gregarious, and very large near the 
equator; and as they swim at great depths, their variegated backs appear 
exactly like coral rocks. (llor.SBURGn). 



HYDROGRAPHY. 151 

appeared, with sand between them. The ship passed too quickly over it to 
admit of time to sound, as it was accidentally seen by Capt. Collins, whea 
looking over the quarter. He thinks there may be full 7 fathoms water over 
the shoalest part ; and a quarter-master, who also saw it, thinks the least 
water on this shoal may probably be 10 or 12 fathoms. The fleet at this 
time consisted of 8 ships, including II. M.S. Salsette, their convoy; and 
by mean of all the observations and chronometers of those 8 ships, this 
rocky bank is situated in latitude 5 4' 23" N. longitude 21 25' 40" W. 
It is a matter of regret that this bank was not carefully examined, so as to 
have established its existence beyond alWoubt.* 

DOUBTFUL SHOA13, 

Situated to the eastward of the Cape of Good Hope, hare recently called 
the attention of those who navigate the Eastern Seas. One of these 
shoals was seen by Capt. Macneven, of the American ship Union, fct 
4 P.M. 22d July, 1812, when the weather was clear, with a light breeze of 
wind. They saw a rock, 20 yards in length, and 6 feet above water, sur- 
rounded by a sand-bank, with breakers as far as the eye could discern from 
the main-top-mast-head ; and at sunset the ship was about three miles 
from the body of the shoal, bearing from N.E. $ E. to E. b. S. no bottom 
with 120 fathoms of line. The latitude at noon was 35 23' S. ; longitude 
41 29' E. by chronometer, and 41 12' E. by lunar observations; and the 
distance run from noon was very little, until the shoal was seen, having 
just wind enough to steer the ship. His Majesty's sloop Otter, in Novem- 
ber, 1810, saw a very extensive shoal, no part of it above water, which 
she made in latitude 33 56' S. longitude 36 E. The American brig 
Atalante, is said to have seen a shoal in latitude 37 S. longitude about 
52 E. The existence of these shoals appears very doubtful ; for after an 
examination of the Otter's journal at the Admiralty it seemed to me very 
probable, that it was only a strong rippling produced by a collision of cur- 
rents, or by a shoal of fish, which was mistaken for a dangerous shoal. 
The supposed rock seen by the American ship Union, might probably be 
a dead whale, surrounded by a bed of fish-spawn resembling a sand-bank, 
with ripplings like breakers extending from it ; -for if a danger of the na- 
ture and extent described by this ship, existed in the situation assigned to 
it by her, it certainly could not have escaped the vigilance of navigators so 
long. It may, however, be prudent to keep a good look-out, when near 
the situations described above.f 

CAHGADOS GARAJOS, 

Is now ascertained to be the St. Brandon Reef of the charts. His Ma- 
jesty's ships Cornelia and Sir Francis Drake, visited this group of low islets 

* NAVAL CHRONICLE : i, 357 ; xii, 452 ; xxv, 222 ; xxvii, 26; xxviii, 71 ^ 
xxix, 220, 303. 

f The scientific author of these directions will find, upon examination, that the 
doctrine lie now recommends has been sedulously inculcated in various parts of 
the NATAL CHRONICLE, and more especially in the twelve latter volumes. See 
S'.C. xis, 279, 426; xxr. 136; xxvi, 234. ( 



152 HYDROGRAPHY. 

and shoals, in January, 1810, and Lieut. J. Henderson determined their 
situations as follows : The anchorage at the south islet is in latitude 
16 47' S. longitude 50 34$' E. by Q D , and 59 53}' E. by chronome- 
ter.* The anchorage of the north islet, where there are several huts, is 
in latitude 16 27' S. longitude 59 39' E. by chronometer, and 59 40J' 
E. by ]) . On this islet there is brackish water, but none at the south 
islet ; the water being procured at an islet called Water Isle, which bears 
S. b. E. 7 miles from North Islet. The flag-staff of the South Islet bears 
S. 27 W. from the flag-staff of the North Islet, distant 23 miles. Tiie 
south point of the shoal bears from the north S. 20 W. distant 30 miles. 
These are all true bearings, the variation of the compass being 9 westerly. 
The narrow chain of islets and reefs called Cargndos Garajos, is steep-ta, 
on the east side, having in general 32 or 34 fathoms water within a J or \ 
mile of the breakers ; but the west side is not so steep, and may be 
approached in several places to 18 or 20 fathoms, 

SAYA DE MALHA, 

Has lately been found more extensive than represented in all former 
descriptions, particularly in a north-westerly direction. His Majesty's 
hip Galatea, July 26, 1811, got upon a coral bank of 9 and 10 fathoms, 
the rocks distinctly seen under the bottom of the ship : she was at this 
time in latitude 8 36' S. longitude 59 58' E. by chronometer, and the 
bank appeared to extend in the direction of east and west about 5 miles. 
This was probably the, north westernmost patch of the bank Saya deMalha, 
Tfhich the Galatea got upon ; for several ships have recently had soundings 
near the same place, and the bank (particularly its N.W. and western 
sides) seems to be formed by detached large coral patches, having very 
deep water between them, as will be perceived by the following extracts 
taken from the journals of the Honourable Eastlndia Company's ships. The 
Northumberland got upon the Saya de Malha at daylight, 1st January, 
1811, in latitude 9 19' S. longitude 60 26' E. 

I. at, Ltng. 

Sounding t. " ' ' 

This ship had - 7 to 10 fathoms coral, in 9 3 S. 60 43 E.") Bj; lunar observations agree- 

18 fathums - - do. - 8 55 60 3D [- ing v.-itliiu 3 miles of cliro- 

40 - - - - - do. . 8 51 60 37 J nometers. 

Huddart had \S2 - - coral and sand 1044 <iO 44 by chronometer. 

December, iio J Hand 15 do. - ... 965 60 56 and then no ground steering N.bE. 

Preston and Pho-nix 10 fathoms - - coral 9 45S. 60 32E.- 

In December, 1810 no ground -. - 942 eo 31 TI, O _ !, ,! . v., 

6} and 7 fathoms do. 9 21 60 14 I .uj 1 '", 6 , lo71 E lt des are ]> 

9jand,0--. do. 844 6010 I ^ * " 



Hand IS fathom, do. 8 tt 

12 to 15 do. do. 819 60 

no ground - 17 eo 



nix Tl p 

1 ? fSSS^kSSS 

l \ !& ul ' 5 railcs more 1 ' 
3 

-* 



English navigators have hitherto considered no part of the Saya de Malha 
Bank dangerous; but as the Northumberland had 7 fathoms coral rock OR 

* The Huddart, in December, 1810, made the South Islet in latitude 1C 4?' S. 
longitude 5i Si'E. by chronoim-ter ; and the Semillante French frigate made it 
also in longitude 59 31* . as will be seen at page 499, Part Second, of th 
Judia Directory. 



MWMMMKfi 15$ 

ne part of it, and the Preston only 6| fathoms coral rock, on a different 
part, it seems necessary that ships which happen to get upon this bank 
should use caution, and, if possible, avoid the shoal patches ; more parti- 
cularly, if confidence an be placed on the statement of an experienced 
French navigator belonging to the island Mauritius, who nsserls, that ou 
the southern extremity of the Saya de Malha, there are breakers on som 
of the coral patches, where a ship would be liable to strike. The Eliza 
schooner is said to have been in 4 fathoms close to breakers, on this part 
of the bank. The northern extremity of Fortune Bank, is likewise said to 
have dangers on it. And the bank S.W. of the island Coetivy is said to be 
dangerous for large ships. 

MA.LDIVA ISLANDS, 

Have been described in Part First, page 301, of the India Directory, 
and in Part Second, page 499 ; but as these islands, and their separating 
channels, have never been regularly investigated, the additional informa- 
tion now to be given (for which I am principally indebted to Capt. 
W. F. W. Owen, of the royal navy) will probably be acceptable to navi. 
gators, and enable ships coming from the S.W. when bound to Ceylon or 
the Coromandel Coast, to approach the southern Attollons of the Maldiras 
with confidence, and to pass through their contiguous channels, the boun- 
daries of which seem well ascertained. Our knowledge of the channels 
which separate the Northern Attollons is still very imperfect, excepting 
that the northern limit of the chain, called the Head of the Isles, or Tilla 
Dou Matis, may be considered well determined by the following state- 
ment : 

l.at. Long: 

01 01 

Tilla Dou Matis Northern limit 7 6 N. 73 8 B. Mean of several ships observations. 

75 . 733 Mr. Topping, astronomer. 

74 . 73 o Ship Aitcll's chronometers, 1813. 

Monsieur Fortin, says, " he has run through all the channels which se- 
parate the Northern Attollons, and found no anchorage outside of any of 
the Attollons, but within them good anchorage may be found of 20 and 
30 fathoms on a bottom of white sand." He says, " there is particularly a 
channel between latitude 4 and 5 N. which would be adopted if its pre- 
cise limits were known." The channel here alluded to, is probably that of 
Caridou or Cardiva, situated to the north of the Attollons Ari and Male, 
and its western entrance is perhaps in latitude about 4 40' north. 

ARI-ATTOLLON, 

Is one of the westernmost, and was seen by the Snpw Fancy, 26th April, 
17P4-: the following observations were taken from the journal of Captain 
Win. Dcnniston, then an officer in the Fancy: 

Lat. Long. 

Westernmost of 11 isles seen from S. %o E. to S. 48E. 4 9'N. 73 7'E.obs.of J) 

Other isle 4 16 

A single island to the north of the Aitollon ... .4 24 73 15 

The channel to the southward of the Ari-Attollon is probably in lat. >\boat 

G&ton. filol. XXXI. * * 



154 IIYDEOGRAPHT. 

4 N. and although formerly frequented by Europe ships, the knowledge of 
it is lost to navigators of the present time, and therefore it should not be 
.entered until better known, unless in a case of necessity. 

COT.LOMANDOUS-ATTOLLON, 

Was examined very close on the west side, by his Majesty's ship Sir 
Francis Drake, 27th July, 1808, and found to consist of small islets covered 
with cocoa-nut trees, and united together by necks of sand partly dry. These 
islets are all low, well wooded, and many of them inhabited. By endea- 
vouring to pass between this Attollon and that of Adoumalis, in the night, 
she ran upon the steep reef which forms the northern boundary of the 
latter; but fortunately the sea being smooth, she was hove off the reef by 
an anchor laid out in 60 fathoms water, at less than a cable's length dis- 
tance from the ship. When clear of the reef, she steered to the north- 
eastward through the channel, which Lieut. J. Henderson, of the Sir Fran- 
cis Drake, describes to be perfectly free from hidden danger, about 7 or 8 
miles wide, and as many leagues in length. The flood was found to set 
-through the channel N.E. and the ebb S.W. about of a mile per hour. 

coLLOMANnous (or SIR FRANCIS DRAKE'S) CHANNEL, 

Described above, was found by the observations of Lieut. Henderson, 
to be bounded on the northern side as follows : 

Lot. Long. 

Colloinandous Attollon N.W. extremity 2 30' N. 73 8' E. by chro. 
S. West or Long Island -2 21 - 73 8 
.South Islet 2 13 - 73 21 

From this South Islet, the southern edge of the Attollon takes a direc- 
ting N.E. b. E. about 7 leagues. On the south side, tiie channel is 
bounded by the northern edge of Adoumatis Attollon. 

Lot. Long* 

N.W. Islet 2 7'N. 73 35' E. by chronometer. 

N.E. Islet 2 9 - 73 46 

so that the western entrance of this channel is in latitude 2 10' N. longi- 
tude 73 2l' E. for the South Islet of Collomandous Attollon may be con- 
sidered as the northern boundary of the entrance, which extends farther 
.westward than any part of the Adoumatis Attollon : and the latter Attollon 
is of much Jess extent east and west, than is the Collomandous Attollon 
which forms the northern side of the channel. With a steady wind in the 
day-time, this channel seem? to be safe ; but it ought probably not to be 
entered in the night, particularly as a %vide and safe channel, now to be 
described, is situated near it to the southward. 

ADOUMATIS (or ONE AND A HALF DEGREE) CHANNEL, 

Is formed by the Attollon of this name on the north, and by the 
Attollon of Suadiva on the south side, being 17 leagues wide, and per- 
fectly free from danger. This channel seems not to have been known to 
English navigators, until Capt. Win. Richardson passed through, in the 
Thetis, 1st September, 1805, and determined its norlhern boundary ; aud 



HYDROGRAPHY. 155 

Capt.Owen, in H. M. brig Seaflower, explored its southern boundary when 
he passed through it) September, 1806. Captain Richardson made the 
northern boundary of this channel as follows : 

Lot. Long. 

Adoumatis Attollon, S.W. extremity 1 50'N. 73* 2?'. Lunar observations 

Southernmost islet 1 49 73 33 and chronometers 

Another islet more easterly 1 51 - 73 38 corresponding. 

Lieut. Henderson, of the Sir Francis Drake, states, that the southern 
limit of this Attollon appeared to him to extend from longitude 73 30' E. 
to 73 45' E. 
Captain Owen made the southern boundary of the channel thus : 

Lat. Long. 

Suadiva-Attollon, N.E. islet seen 58' N. 73 33'E. Lunar observa- 

N.W. islet 51 - 73 '20 tions. 

S.W islet of north group 48 - 73 19 

Between this last mentioned islet and the other part of the Attollon to 
the southward, there is an apparent separation, through which the Sea- 
flower endeavoured to pass, in tracing the west side of the Attollon very 
close, but she was obstructed by a narrow isthmus of sand above water, 
which connected the two parts of the Attollon, and extended from the islet 
before mentioned S.W. b. S. about 5 leagues, in which there appeared only 
one very small opening close to the islet. This isthmus of sand was noc 
seen until within 3 miles of it, and it may be said to separate the Suadiva 
Attollon into two groups or divisions on the western side. As the foregoing 
channel contains a clear space from latitude 58' N. to latitude 1 49' N. 
it may be considered very safe ; and for ships coming from the S. W. 
towards Ceylon or the Coromandel coast in the S.W. monsoon, or from 
March until November, it is certainly preferable to the circuitous route by 
the eight or nine degrees channel, with the additional advantage of proba- 
bly having more clear and favourable weather for observations than is 
experienced in those northern channels. Ships running to the eastward in 
November, December, and January, may also adopt either the one and 
a half degree channel, or the equatorial channel, where variable westerly 
winds, with a current setting to the eastward, may generally be expected 
in these months, by ships which keep near the equator. 

SUADIVA-ATTOLLON. 

Was seen by the Snow Fancy, April 26th, 1794. The noon observed 
latitude was 44' N. when eight islets on the west side of the Attollon 
bore from E. b. N. to E. b. S. \ S. distant about 5-J leagues, which made 
the westernmost islet in latitude 43' N. and in longitude about 73 10' E. 
by computation from observation ]) of the preceding day.* The 

* The Fancy places these islets in the space where Captain Owen's observations 
of latitude give only 1 an extensive sand bank without islets, which unites the 
north and south parts of the Attollon .; - but probably his observations nay be 
more correct than those of the Fancy. 



156 HYDROGRAPHY. 

limits of the southern group, or apparent division of the Suadiva Attollon, 
seem to be ascertained with considerable precision, by the following 
observations : 

Lot. Long* 



f North Islet 34 N. 73 8E. 
Suadiva, I N.W. Islet 28 - 73 2 
Southern Group,] S.W. Islet 18 - 73 4 

[South Islet 11 - 73 12 

South extremity of Reef 9 - 73 15 

Of all those seen the N.E. Islet 28 - 73 38 



Capt. Owen, in 1806, 

by lunar obs. and. 

chron. 
Capt. Owen, in 1811, 

by lunar obs. aud 

chron. 



S.W. extremity of Islets 11 - 73 / Fancy by carried 

' \ on o days. 

S.W. do. do. 12 - 73 12 Southampton* D *\ 17H , 

73 18 do. BQ*J 

South do. do. 13 - * - Mr. Bonvouloir, 1795. 

N.E. do. do. 52 - - - do. 

N.E. do. do. 51^ - 73 SO Europe by Account 1707. 

The eastern extremity of this Attollon appezns to be in longitude about 
73 40' E. 

EQUATORIAL (also SOUADOU Or SUADIVA) CHANNEL, 

' Is bounded on the north side by the southern extremity of the Attollon 
of Suadiva, as described above, being about 10 leagues wide, free from 
danger, and may be used in either monsoon, by ships which approach the 
south part of the Maldiva chain. This channel is bounded on the south 
side by the Island Addon, situated by itself, and having a reef projecting 
2 miles from its southern extremity. The true position of this island may 
be approximated as follows . 

Lat. Long. 

O I O I 

Addon Island, Body 2JS. 73 35 E. Contractor by J 1792. 

- - - 021- 73 35 1 Fancy by different observa- 
NorthendO 19 - 73 20 J tions, 1794. 
Body - 21 - 7335 Southampton by 5 * \ 17R 
73 29 do. *D* J 1 

73 25 French M.S. 

The north extremity of Addon Island seems to be in latitude 19' S. 
from whence it extends about 2 leagues to the southward, including th 
reef, and except at the south part, it is apparently safe to approach: like 
many of those islands, it is inhabited. 

SOUTH (or ADDON) CHANNEL, 

Is about 7 leagues wide, and clear of danger, by giving a birth to the 
Island Addon, which bounds it to the north-east, and to the Attollon 
Pona Molubque, or South Atlollon, which bounds it on the S.W. side. 
This South Attollon is well inhabited, and its geographical situation seeias 
nearly ascertained as follows 



HYDROGRAPHY. J57 

Lot. Long. 

O / Of. 

Pona r North extreme 34 S. 73 10 E. to 73 20'E. \French M.S. 
Molubque \South do - 44 - 78 15 - - - - J& Capt. Owen. 

North Part 34 - 73 25 Southampton J) * - 1782. 

North do. - 34$ - - Bonvouloir .... 1795. 

N.E. do. - 36 J 73 25 Contractor J) - - - 1792. 

West do. - 36 - 73 25 Fancy D and Account 1794. 

South do. - 40 - - - Bonvouloir - ... 1795. 

South do. - 36 - - - M. Violette .... 1773. 
This Attollon, which terminates the Maldiva chain to the southward, 
consists of 14 islets, forming a bay in the shape of a horse-shoe, open to 
the northward. The islets being covered with tall trees, are discernible 
at the distance of 5 or 5$ leagues, and are tolerably bold, having no reefs 
that project farther than 2 miles from them. 

OWEN'S BANK, 

Situated to the westward of Diego Garcia, and considerably to the west- 
ward of the Pitt's Bank, and to the N.W. of the Centurion's Bank, was 
discovered 20th November, 1811, by Capt. Owen, when giving convoy to 
some transports from Batavia towards Bombay. He accidentally saw the 
bottom, and carried soundings of 19 and 20 fathoms for half an hour on the 
bank, although the other ships had no soundings. He made the latitude 
at the time 6 46' S. longitude 70 12' E. by chronometer, from Diego 
Garcia in 3 days, and observes that the bank may be of considerable ex- 
tent, as they probably were on it some time before it was perceived. 

INSTKUCTIONS ISSUED BY THE MASTER ATTENDANT AT CALCUTTA, TO PILOT 
VESSELS PROCEEDING TO THE CRUIZING STATION. 

1st. " THE vessel under your charge, being ready for sea, equipped, 
and completely stored for a cruise of three months, you are hereby 
directed to proceed out with her into the roads with all practicable expe- 
dition, in order to cruise (for the general benefit of the trade resorting to 
this port) off the outer edge of the reef off Point Palmiras, bringing the 
point to bear by sight or computation W. which position will place you 
in about 16 fathoms water (the ground composed of sand and gravel, with 
broken shells and black specks), or in latitude about 20 43' N. and this 
line is to be the southern boundary of your cruising station during the 
S.W. monsoon. 2d. As the position above assigned is invariably passed 
or crossed by all ships and vessels bound into the Kiver Hoogly, during 
the S.W. monsoon, it is therefore desirable that you should keep as near it 
during the continuance of your cruise, as the state of the winds, weather, 
and tide will admit ; all considerations which comprehend the security of 
the vessel under your charge from the enemy, and other disasters, are left 
to your discretion, as the necessary consequence of the dependence plnced 
in your zealous and faithful execution of the important trust confided to 
your management. 3d. On the change of the seasons, you are to quit the 
station prescribed in the preceding paragraph, and to cruise off the tail of 



158 HYDROGRAPHY. 

Saugor Reef, in latitnde 21 N. longitude (about) 88* 40' E. being parti 
cularJy cautious in guarding against the designs of the enemy's cruisers." 

AMBOINA SHOAL, 

Mentioned in the India Directory, part second, pages 373 and 374, has 
been ascertained to exist beyond all doubt, by Capt. T. Harrington, of the 
Scaleby Castle, from whose journal the following description is taken : 
" On the 17th January, 1812, about 11 A.M. discovered shoal water on the 
larboard bow when steering E. b. S. put the helm down, with the hope of 
clearing it to the southward, but immediately afterward seeing coral rocks 
under water, close to the ship, on the weather quarter, up helm again and 
providentially cleared the shoal, although not without touching on it, at the 
same time there appeared to be 4j fathoms alongside by the lead. We had 
no soundings till close upon the shoal, and the water over it was of a bright 
green colour, with a strong rippling, but not breaking sufficiently to attract 
notice at any distance. The shoal appeared to be about half a mile across 
in an east and west direction, and immediately after clearing it, Bonthian 
Kill (indistinctly seen) bore N.W. ; Point Lassoa E. b. N. ; body of North 
Island E. 4 N. ; Middle Island E. 1 S. ; body of South Island E. 21 S. ; 
North point of Salayer E. 24 S. j and the S. W. point of Hog Island S. i E." 

ROYAL GEORGE SHOAL, 

Was examined by Capt. Gribble, with the boats of the Royal Gr , -s;e, on 
the 25th November, 1812, this ship having got into J less 5 fan; . TUS water 
on it, when proceeding towards China by the Strait of Macassar. This 
shoal seemed to be nearly circular, about three quarters of a mile in extent, 
aid situated in latitude 4 17^'S. ; when upon its centre, in 4% fathoms, 
Dwaalder Island bore W. ^ S. distant about 3 leagues; Button Hock 
N. | E. about 7 miles ; and the south end of Pub Laut N.W. b. W. This 
no doubt is the shoal mentioned in page 332, part second, of the India 
Directory, bearing about E. b. N. 10 miles from Dwaalrler Inland, and 
saitl to have six fathoms water on it. But in sounding carefully over it, 
Capt. Gribble found only 4| fathoms coral, and he thinks there may pro- 
bably be rather less water on some of the patches. 

OREIG'S SHOAL, 

Was discovered by Capt. William Greig, of the ship Lord Minto, in 
1809, and he gives the following description of it, in a letter dated Malacca, 
14th October, 1809: " This dangerous shoal we got upon at noon, the 
9th of June last, and found it to extend from latitude 52' S. to latitude 
58' S. ; although there is deep water within this extent, I think it ought 
to be considered as one shoal. On both extrerres of it, we were often in 
yearly the same depth of water as the vessel drcv.- which was 13 feet, and 
this was in steering through between much shoaler spots, with the body of 
Carimata then seen from the deck, bearing between S.S.E. \ E. and S.E. b S, 
and the shoal btars nearly N. ^ W. from the west point of Souroutou." 
This may probably be the shoal mentioned in page 324, part second, of 



HYDROGRAPHY. ,1$0 

the India Directory, which the ship General Wellesley* got upon near noon; 
but cloudy weather prevented her from determining its situation. 

PALMER'S SHOAL, 

On the east coast of Banca, has been recently discovered by the ship 
Palmer, Capt. Rordem, who describes it as follows: " August 27th, 1811. 
At 45 minutes P.M. the ship suddenly struck, having sounded about five 
minutes before in 14 fathoms ; saw the water discoloured on both sides un- 
der the quarters, and had then 10 fathoms by the lead in the main chains, 
the vessel having passed rapidly over the shoal; next cast had 11, 10, 11 
fathoms, then anchored, the wind blowing fresh from S. E. against us. 
When at anchor, Tanjong Ryot bore W.N.W. distant 5 leagues, the 
southernmost low islands in sight (named Vansittart's-Wreck Island in the 
charts) S.S.W. J W. distant 12 or 14 miles, the shoal on which we struck 
bearing about N.N.E. 2J miles, according to the distance run until 
anchoring." 

TRINDER'S SHOAL, 

In the Strait of Macassar, seems not to have been known hitherto ; 
Capt. John Trinder, of the armed brig Amboyna, describes it thus: "At 
noon, October 12th (1803 or 1804), saw an extensive shoal bearing from 
south to N.W. the nearest part distant about a mile : no part of it appeared 
above water, but small breakers were seen in various parts of the shoal, 
the centre of which is in latitude 2 59* S. Cape Mandhar bearing from it 
S.E. b. E. distant 18 miles." If the latitude assigned to this shoal is cor- 
rect, and the relative position of Cape Mandhar, it would place this cape 
in latitude 3 9' S. ; but observations taken in the Arniston,f made it in 
latitude 3 35' S. which will place the shoal much farther to the southward 
than the latitude assigned it above. But its relative situation, as given 
from Cape Mandhar, will be the best guide for avoiding this apparently 
dangerous shoal ; for as Capt. Trinder seems not to have examined it 
closely, its existence is not very satisfactorily ascertained. - 

STAG'S SHOAL, 

In the China Sea, seen also in the brig Amboyna, is described by Capt. 
Trinder as follows: " September 7th, 1802. At 6 A.M. saw a reef of 
rocks extending from E.N.E. to S.E. the nearest part distant about l mile. 
Had no soundings at 80 fathoms within half a mile of the north end of the 
reef, the rocks upon it being as high as boats out of the water, from 
whence it extends S.E. and S.S.W. in a triangular form, with breakers on 
various parts, and the intermediate space apparently very shoal, the reef 
extending farther to the southward than the eye could discern from the 
mast-head. Latitude of the north end of the reef, by observation, 8 24'N. ; 
longitude 112* 57' E. I have called it the Stag's, from the resemblance 
of the rocks to the horns of that animal." The above shoal is situated 

* NAVAL CHRONICLE: xviii, 115. 

f The Arniston's position of Cape Mandhar, is corroborated by other obier- 
atioas in my possession. 



160 HYDROGRAPHY. 

nearly midway between the easternmost shoal seen by the London, and 
that seen by the Walpole nnd by other ships, and seems to be another addition 
to the multitude of shoals which occupy the south-eastern part of the 
China Sea. The Amboyna brig saw another sand-bank and rocks above 
water, in latitude 7 51' N. ; longitude 113 6' E. 

SEAFLOWER'S CHANNEL, 

Is situated between the Islands Se-Beeroo and Se-Pora, near the west 
coast of Sumatra ; and to English navigators it appeals to be a New Dis- 
covery, made by Capt. Owen, who passed through it in H. M. brig Sea- 
flower, 10th November, 1806, during the night. Being in latitude 2 18' S. 
longitude 99 5' E- at noon, with the appearance of a clear passage open 
to the N.Eastward between the Islands Se-Beeroo ayd Se-Pora, he steered 
for it N.E. b. E. and afterwards N. E. in passing through the channel, 
which he entered in the evening, and got clear of it about 10 P.M. This 
channel is bounded on the west side by an islet that lies near the S.E. point 
of Se-Beeroo, and on the east side by the N.W. end of Se-Pora, and an 
islet near the north end of the latter. These isletb bear about E. \ N. and 
W. $ S. of each other, distant 12 or 13 miles, and when about half way 
between them in midchannel at 8| P.M. the Seaikmer's place was latitude 
2 O'S. longitude 99 33' E. or 1 20' W. from Indrapoor Point, by 
chronometer. The islet off Se-Bceroo that forms the west side of the 
channel, appeared to be in latitude 2 l' S. deduced from noon observa- 
tion, and 1 26' west from Indrapoor Point. Capt. Owen describes this 
channel to be 8 miles wide, clear of danger, and they got no soundings at 
30 fathoms in passing through it. The Seaflower went through this channel 
again in 1808, steering about N. b. E. \ E. until clear of it to the east- 
ward, but the officer named above was not in her at this time. These 
observations of Capt. Owen make the south end of Se-Beeroo about 12 
miles to the southward of what Capt. Torin's observations made it, as 
stated in India Directory, Part 3d, p. 82. The Seaflowei's Channel, de- 
scribed above, certainly cannot be that mentioned in page 81, Part 2d, of 
the India Directory, through which the Jenny passed ; as the latter was 
found to be intricate and winding, not more than a mile wide in the nar- 
rowest part, with soundings of 20 and 25 fathoms. It is probable, there- 
fore, that Se-Beeroo is'not one continued island, but is separated into two 
parts by a Gat which the Jenny went through, in latitude about 1 40' S. 
or 1 45' S. 

PULO NYA?,* 

Bearing from E.X.E. to E. b. S. estimated distance 8 or 9 leagues. At 
30 A.M. 31st October, 1812. Capt. Bean, of the Lady Barlow, states, that 
high breakers were seen from the poop, bearing E.N.E. only two miles 
distant. Steered from this time S.S.E. 5 miles until noon, when the ob 

*At the south part of Pulo Nyas, ihere is good anchorage in an excellent hay, 
where bullocks, bufFalos, goats, poultry, &c. are in great abundance, and water 
easily procured. The natives friendly, and of a different character from the 
generality of Malays. 



HYDnOGRAPHY. 1151 

served latitude was 37' N. longitude 95 32' E. by a good chronometer. 
If this was a real danger, seen by Capt. Bean, it 'is certainly at a greater 
distance from Pulo Nyas than what has hitherto been assigned to any tf 
the reefs fronting the west side of that island. 

BUCCLEUGH'S SHOAL., 

Seems to be the danger mentioned in the India Directory, Part 2d, 
page 389 ; but the following description, taken from the Duke of Buc- 
cleugh's Journal, shews that it is farther distant from Waygeeooe than has 
been hitherto supposed, and that it is probably separated from the coast of 
Waygeeooe. August 24th, 1797, at half-past 1 P.M. saw coral rocks un- 
der the bottom, apparently 5 or 6 fathoms under water, up helm imme- 
diately as the water appeared shoaler on the weather bow. When the lead 
was got ready, the reef was half a cable's length astern, had then 20 
fathoms sand and gravel, the extremes of Waygeeooe bearing from 
N. 52 W. to Point Pigot S. 60 VV. and the small island just open with 
the pcint, the nearest part of Waygeeooe distant 12 or 13 miles j our lati- 
tude at this time 17' S. from noon observation. The shoal appeared of 
2 or 3 miles extent, as the discoloured water over the rocks shewed from 
the mast-head ; and although squally weather prevented -us from sending a 
bout to sound, I have no doubt but there is little water on some parts 
of it. 

SYDNEY SHOAL, 

Was discovered by Capt. Austen Forrest,* bound from Port Jackson 
towards Bengal in the ship Sydney. At 1 A.M. 20th May, 1800, she 
struck upon it, and soon bilged, it being then covered at high water, but 
the points of some of the rocks appeared above the surface at low water, 
and there were no soundings close to the shoal. The boats steered from it 
N. b. E, \ E. 58 miles, and the Admiralty Islands then were seen bearing 
N.N.E. distant 3 or 4 leagues, by which, and other observations, this 
dangerous shoal was found to be situated in latitude 3 20' S. longitud* 
146 50' . E. 

LAUGHLAK'S ISLANDS. 

Appear to be a new discovery rnadc by Capt. David Laughlan, in the 
ship Mary, from Port Jackson bound to Bengal, with the ship Clarkson in 
company. The following description of them, extracted from the journal 
of the navigator named above, shews them to be situated nearly in the 
direct route of ships steering for St. George's Channel, formed between New 
Britain and New Ireland. August 16th, 1812, at 2 P.M. saw from the 
deck a group of islands a-head, distant about 7 miles, hauled to the wind 
in order to clear the reefs, which appeared to surround seven inlands, ex- 
tending E.S.E. and W.N.W. and bearing by compass from N.N.W.$ W. 
to N.W. b. W. At 3J P.M. the extremes of the land bore from West to 
S.W. 1 W. distant 7 or 8 miles, appearing then like two islands. Sa\v 
several cocoa-nut trees on the western extremity, and a reef with high 

* See the biographical memoir of this officer, NAVAL CHRONICLE, xxix, 90. 

Art. &ron. flol. XXXI. Y 



\6<* HYttKOORAPUY. 

breakers appeared to encompass these islands. Their southern extrerci:/ 
13 in latitude 9 20' S. and longitude 153 40' E. by chronometer, mea- 
sured back from Cape St. George, which we made two days after passing 
these islands. 

MAC-ASKILL'S ISLANDS, 

Were discovered 29th of October, 1809, by Capt. Mac Askill, of the 
ship Lady Barlow, on his passage from Port Jackson towards Chin:i. 
Thev appeared to be two islands covered with trees, extending about 
S leagues S.E. and N.W. and seemed to be bold to approach on the west 
f i(] e . By good observations, the centre of these islands was found to be 
in latitude 6 ISi'N. longitude 100 53' E. and the nearest land to thi 
situation in Admiral Espinoza's chart (which is the last chart published 
of the Pacific Ocean), are two islands about 82 mi'es farther to the west- 
ward. The Lady Barlow passed over the situation of the large islands 
llogoleo and Tor'ris, as represented in most of the cliart*, and also over 
the assigned places of others of the Carolina?, without discerning any signs 
of land ; from which, compared with the observations of other ships, it 
appears that the islands which form the Carolina Archipelago, are not 
near so numerous as represented, and that tlieir geographical situations are 
not well determined. 

SAIIUL BANK,* 

Has been described in pages 93 to 95 of Part 1st, of the India Directory ,f 
and an exposition given of the known dangers situated between the 
island Timor and the coast of Xew Holland. But the fo!! iwtng danger, 
seen by Capt. Ashmore, of the Hiberuia, appears to be a late discovery ; 
and there are probably other dangers still unknown, in this part of the 
Eastern seas. May 8th, 1810, at 8 A.M. saw from the mast-head two 
small snnd-banks, distant 5 or 6 miles to the S. Westward, and situated 
upon a shoal, the breakers on which appeared to extend nearly east and 
west about 4 miles. The two sand-banks lie near the centre of the shoal, 
elevated about 10 feet above water, and each appeared to be in extent 
about a cable's length. At nine A. M. the shoal bore from S.S.E. to 
S.W. b. S. distant about 3 miles, and some rocks were visible above water 
upon its western extreme. This sho;il was found to be in latitude 
11 56' S. longitude 123 28' E. deduced from Port Jackson by chronome- 
ter in a run of 34 d;iys through Torres Strait. 

RAJAH BASSA KOAD, 

Situated directly under the high land called Refreshment Head, that 
forms the S.E. angle of Lampoon Bay in the Strait of Sunda, is an excellent 
place for the homeward-bound China ships to touch at, to procure refresh- 
ments and fill up their water, and far preferable to North Island for this 
purpose. Captain Owen, of H. M.S. Cornelia, anchored the China ships in 
Rajah Bassa Road 21st January 1813, where they got plenty of turtle at a 
dollar each, and filled up with excellent water, and found the natives verj 

NAVAL CHRONICLE, jcxvi, 318. f Ibid. 



163 

cvvi'l. The Neptune at anchor in 16 fathoms blue mud, had the western- 
most of the Three Brothers bearing S. 56 W. Crockotua Peak in one with 
the highland of Poolo Sebese S. 20* W. distance from the nearest of the 
Three ijrothers 3| miles, and from the Sumatra shore about Rajah Bassa 
Smiles. The soundings decreased regularly to 5 and 4 fathoms soft mud 
within | mile of the shore, 50 that ships may anchor much nearer it than 
the Neptune did Within the disiance of 2 miles along a sandy beach, 
were 3 rivulets of excellent water, either of which would supply a fleet of 
ships. When the fleet left this anchorage; they worked to the westward ia 
Laojpoon Day with regular soft soundings of 13 to 16 fathoms, and passed 
out between Middle Island And Tiems Rock, which is n good channel. 
Captain Owen intended to have taken them out through the Western Chan* 
nel, formed between the west point of the bay and and Pulo Gondy (which 
although rather narrow for large ships, seems safe to adopt to run out by, 
with a leading land-breeze in the morning), but the Arniston in standing 
near the north end of Poolo Gondy, struck on a sunken rock about a mile 
off, which induced them to bear away round Middle Island. Ships from 
China should certainly prefer this route along the Sumatra shore, where 
they will preserve good anchorage, and have less sea than outside, by 
rounding Hog Point within a moderate distance, and then keeping along 
the coast to Rajah Bassa Road., From hence, they may work to the west- 
ward in Lampoon Bay, and pass out between Middle Island and Tiems 
Rock, as above mentioned, or through the Western Channel if circum- 
stances permit, which would enable them to lead out of the Strait well 
clear of Prince '-s Island with the westerly winds. 

NORTH ISLAND, 

The body of it bearing S.E. about \ or 1 mile, the Royal Charlotte 
grounded on a small know!, 18th January 1813, with 3J fathoms water oa 
it, and 4| to 5 fathoms close to it on both sides, 

CVMBTUAN'S REEF,* 

Described in the India Directory, Part 2d, page 305, seems to have Wen 
seen very distinctly by H. M.S. Cornwallis, as will appear by the following 
extract from the Journal of Lieutenant Smyth, who was an officer of that 
sliip at the time the reef was seen: " January 6th, 1808, feeing under 
double reefed topsails, going about 8 knots, at 11 h. 50 minute 1 } A. W. sa*y 
the Island Botel Tobago X-ima bearing N.N.W. distant 8 or 9 leagues, 
At 11 h. 50 min. we suddenly observed the water to break a-head, and 
soon after perceived the rocks: on which we bore up, and passed to lee- 
ward of them, keeping them pretty close aboard. At t.oon the breakers on 
the rocks bore N. 47 E. distant if mile, our latitude then 21 41' N. ami 
we make this reef in latitude '21 4fc' N. and due south from Little Bottl 
Tobago Xima. It is remarkable, that the latitude assigned to tlu's reef by 
the Coniwallis, differs 7$ miles f.-oin the observations of Capt.Tare, of the 
Cumbrian, and agrees nearly with the latitude nwigned to it by Captain 
. The latitude of this dangerous reef seems, therefore, not per- 



CUROXICLR : xxir 






161 ' PLATE CCCCIX. 

fectly determined ; but-as Captain Tate had favourable observations, his 
position of the reef is probably nearest the truth.* To avoid it, ships 
should borrow either towards the North Bashee Islands, or keep near the 
Botel-Tobago-Xima Islands, as the reef is not much to the northward of 
the Mid-Channel Track. (IIonsuuiiGu'b Sailing Directions : additional 
Appendix, 1H14J 



PLATE CCCCIX. 



>ACK. Bay is situated on the eastern coast of Ceylon,^ and on the north 
side of the peninsula which separates it from Trincomaley; it is about 

4 miles wide, and 1 mile inwards, bounded by Flag-staff* point southward, 
and by Elizabeth point northward. The common anchorage is in the 
southern part of the bay, with Flaw-staff point bearing from S. b. E. to 

5 E.b.S. distant \ or 1 mile, in from 1 to 12 fathoms sandy bottom. The 
soundings decrease gradually to the sandy beach, except about 1 mile to 
the N.W. of the point where rocks project from the shore to 4 fathoms. 
Ships may lie secure in this anchorage during the S.W. monsoon, and can 
procure supplies of wood and water. Buffalo beef may be gotten ; but 
vegetables and other refreshments are scarce. Ships of war sometimes go 
into the harbour to careen, or to escape the bad weather often experienced 
on the eastern coast of Ceylon, and on the coast of Coromandel, about the 
commencement of the N.E. monsoon : but as there is little trade at Trin- 
comalcy, it is seldom frequented by merchant vessels.^ From September 
to March a ship bound to this place should take care not to fall in with the 
land to southward of Flag-staff point, as the currents often run strong on 
this side of Ceylon during the N.E. monsoon. On the same coast they are 
liable to fluctuate in the S.W. monsoon, although then it is prudent to fall 
in with the land rather to the southward than to northward of Trincomaley. 
In the north part of Back bay, distant from Elizabeth point 8.S.E. about 
\\ mile, there are several rocks under water, having 5 or 6 'fathoms close 
co them on the outside, and 5 fathoms within. Directly eastward of the 
same point, d^tant \ mile, two rocks are seen, about the size of a boat, 
with others under water, projecting from them about | mile to seaward ; 
iheseare called the Lively rocks, having foul ground 7 and 8 fathoms very 
close to them, and they ought not to be approached nearer than 1'2 fathoms 
wutcr on the outside. A ship being abreast of Elizabeth point and the 
Lively rocks, ought in coasting to the northward to come in-shore under 
18 fathoms, on account of several sunken rocks situated between that 
pjint and Pigeon isle, which arc dangerous to ships making too free with 

* Particularly! as cloudy weather prevented the Cornwailis from obtaining a 
satisfactory observation at noun. 

f- A chart of Ceylon i to be found in the XXIXili Volume of N.C. 

The naval establishment formed at pi.-auiit: l-.^s ft-cuuijy been removed hither 
upon a pcrmanvnt luo'in^. (HvDit.). 




Lirdv Rocii 



S jMt.'tt 



S EMtm * 



BACK BAY 

iii the 

ISLAND of CEYLON. 

Siirveyeilin June ,18O6, 
r.M c . KeiLa: S^s JMaster of 
H3tS.BeiE^aeux:. 



4 y* js 

4'i 
6 :', * Scale f One ^Re. 


i!i ''* '? 
J3 

" 9 \ 
S*, 9 

\ ' 
\ 

\ ** J " * 


4 4 1 

/ 



i 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1814. 165 

the land. Two of these rocks, lying near to each other, bear N. f W. from 
Flag-staff point, and S.S.E. \ E. from Pigeon isle, nearly mid way between 
these places, distant about 2 miles from the shore. In 1797 the ship 
Fairlie struck on the southernmost rock, and found about 20 fathoms in 
diameter, with 16 feet water on it, and from 9 to 11 fathoms close to it 
all around. In 1795, 2d August, H.M.S. Diomede * struck on the other, 
which was thought to be about a mile farther northward than its true 
situation, and after getting off, the ship sunk about 3 miles to the north- 
ward of Flag-staff point : the depths close to the Diomede were 9, 10, and 
11 fathoms; by which it seems probable that in fact the Fairlie rock and 
it are the same, although they have usually been deemed different dangers. 

S. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 

(January February. ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

WE briefly noticed, in our last Retrospect, the loss of the D&dalu* 
frigate ; but have since been favoured with a sight of a letter from 
an omcer of that ship, dated Madias, August 5, 1813, containing some 
particulars of that misfortune ; and from which we have selected the fol- 
lowing extract, for the information of those who may be more particularly 
interested in the circrmstance : 

" On tlie first of July, after a prosperous, though tedious, voyage with our con- 
voy, we made the Island of Ceylon, near Point de Galle, aaci not more than four 
days sail from our destination, Madras. On the morning of the 2d, about eight 
o'clock, going very fast through the water, all hands were roused aud afarmed, as 
you may eaiily conceive, in consequence of the ship touching the ground, and 
then sticking fast ; we all rushed on deck, when the distressing truth too evidently 
appeared. , The ship had struck and grounded on a shoal. Fortunately for us 
and convoy it did not occur at night, if it had, certainly not a soul would have 
been saved to relate the lamentable tale. Necessary signals were immediately 
thrown out by us to the convoy, which saved them from sharing the same fate 
with ourselves. N indication of shallow water had been perceptible ; though 
coloured, it was not more so titan all the morning and evening previous. We re- 
mained on the shoal for twenty minutes, rolling considerably, and while the boats 
were ascertaining the deepest water, the ship gathered way; sail was immedi- 
ately set, and she once more floated. Whilst aground, we observed the false keel 
and several splinters separate from her but had thought the damage extended 
no fan her. 

" A report was now made that the bread-room and cockpit were full of water. 
The chain and hand-pumps, which hud been previously manned, were uo> 
vigorously woikcd, and lor a time, our exertions seemed successful. At this time, the 
ship had run into deep water, and the fleot out of all risk, and hove-to, by signal, 
to send all boats to our assistance. For some time, the principal injury was sus- 
pected to be far aft, and not much under the water-mark : the cabin and afu-r- 

* That ship was then commanded by Captain Matthew Smith, now on the 
superannuated list, whose case (one of peculiar hardship) is stated in the VC. 
Vol. XXII. page 42. 



ltJ6 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1814. 

most guns wtre run forward to bring the ship by the head for the purpose of 
gettmg at the leak, but without effect. Soon the order was given lo throw all 
the guns, with their shot, &c. overboard, which was done with !he greatest expe- 
dition. All hands were alert with hope and zeal, and particularly active in the dis- 
charge of their duty. 

" The carpenters now declared the leaks to be far under water, about the keel 
andsternpost ; and the rudder was found to work so much, that it was thought 
judicious to get it unshipped, which was very soon done, and brought alongside. 

" The lower piece of the stern-post was, at this time, observed to he gone ; liie 
water gaining considerably on the pumps though actively worked, and approach- 
ing the orlop-deck. A sail, prepared with oakum and tar, was now got over the 
stern, for the purpose of stopping the leaks, which were now discovejcil ; but, 
alas ! only to shew their extent and danger, with the impossibility of stopping 
them, They were on both sides, very far aft ; and, at another, where the stern- 
post fell out, a stream rushed in nearly as large as a man's body. 

" The stale of the ship was now nearly hopeless ; the leaks were too numerous 
and large to be remedied in the smallest degree by any means: the ship's crew, 
nearly exhausted by unremitting labeur for eight hours at the pumps, and seeing 
th water, in spite of their exertions, rising to the lower deck, began to flag. 

" Nothing remained untried to save the ship, and, I am sorry to say, without 
success. Our worthy commander, Captain Maxwell, now thought necessary la 
provide for the safety of the people ; they were put into the different boats in 
waiting, and taken on board the nearest Indiamen. At this time, the ship began 
to take in water at the main-deck ports, and was fast settling ; consequently, we 
were well assured that her time was very short for remaining visible ; when the 
officers, after seeing all the ship's company out of her, and going through every 
part of the vessel yet above water, for the purpose ot making sure that not a soul 
remained, with heavy hearts quitted the ship. Our worthy captain remained 
till every one was in the boats, and, about six in the evening, he took a final leave 
of her. In about five minutes, after lurching very deeply, she fell on iicr beam- 
ends, and continued so nearly a minute, then she righted shew ing only her quarter- 
deck ports above water, when gradually and majestically disappearing, the Dx- 
dalus sunk forever! I assure you the sight was sublime, but awful. I am happy 
to add, that every soul was saved, and a great deal of their private property."* 

It is with regret that we have to add to the losses mentioned in our 62d 
page, those of the Queen Charlotte packet, the Holly schooner, and the 
Bercsford and Nancy transports. 

The two first mentioned met their fate in the harbour of St. Sebastian. 
On the 16th of January, at noon, a gale suddenly arose from the N.W. and 
at four 1MVI. the Queen Charlotte parted from her anchor, and was re- 
tained by a small anchor nnd cable for half an hour ; but before others of 
& sufficient strength could be got out, she was driven on shore at five, and 
about ten or half-past ten at night, went to pieces. Every exertion was 
made by the agent for packets at Passages. Mr. Sehright, to afford asMr-tance 
to the crew. A party of artillery drivers were immediately marched down 
to the bead) by their officers. A party ot' artillery were ordered by Major 
Dyer to act as a guard, and prevent confusion ; and the crew of a gun-boat, 

* The Daxldlus appears to have been lost on one of the Basses. Vide Chart of 
Vol. XXIX. ED. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 167 

With several seamen of transports, also attended. It was, however, found 
impossible to send boats to her from the mole, on account of the night; 
nnd although, by the exertions of the packet-agent, a boat was brought 
round on men's shoulders from the mole to the beach, it proved impracti- 
cable to use it. The surgeon swam on shore at an early period ; and the 
master and two men were picked up from the wreck. The others who were 
on board, seventeen in number, including Captain Mudge, the comman- 
der, unfortunately met a watery grave. The remainder of the crew had, 
luckily for them, received permission to go on shore on the previous day, 
and had not been able to join the ship. 

On the 29th of January, at four A. M. H. M.'s schooner Holly, in a 
violent gale, parted her cables, and ran on the rocks under the Mount of 
St. Sebastian.* Her commander, Lieutenant Samuel Sharpe Treacher* 
Mr. Crane, the surgeon, and several of the crew, were washed overboard, 
and seen no more : the rest were with difficulty saved. 

The Beresford transport, Hope, master, and the Nancy (marked W.) 
Potter, master, carrying troops from the Downs to Holland, were both lost 
on the Ilaake Sand. From the former vessel about 40 persons were saved ; 
but all the troops on board the Nancy perished. 

From this gloomy picture it is a gratification to pass to one more pleasing ; 
and, first, to state, that II. R. II. the Prince Regent has been pleased to 
reward the meritorious services of Admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth, 
K B.t and Capt. P. B. V. Broke,* R.N. with the dignity of Barontts of 
the United Kingdom. 

The French frigates AJcmene and Iphigenia have been captured, off Ma- 
deira, by H. M.'s ships Venerable, and the Cyane sloop, of 20 guns. 

Capt. Sir P. Parker, Bart, in the Menelaus frigate, has arrived at Ply- 
mouth with a very valuable Spanish ship (said to be called the St. Jean de 
Baptiste, which she captured on the 14th inst. oft'L'Orient, in sight of the 
Rippon, of 7-4 guns, Capt. Sir C. Cole. She is from Lima, with a cargo of 
cocoa and bark, together with dollars, diamonds, and pearls, valued at an 
immense sum, and was bound to Cadiz ; but captured on her passage, near 
the A/ores, on the 3d inst. by the French frigates Terpsichore and Atalante. 

A letter from Holland, dated the 23d January, relates the following 
gallant affair, in which Mr. Coilicott, a midshipman, with 42 marines, en- 
gaged ten times, and destroyed thrice his own number of the enemy : "The 
French landed 800 men in South Beveland ; and from the Dutch sentinels 
neglecting the alarm, the enemy advanced so suddenly upon Mr. Coilicott 
and his little party, that he found it necessary immediately to commence a 
retreat, but succeeded in bringing off a piece of artillery: 400 men pur- 
sued him to the great road, where he halted, and commenced a. well- 
directed fire on the enemy at 300 yards distant ; a sharp action ensued, 
and the enemy were completely repulsed, leaving 100 men upon the field 
of battle.'' Mr. Coilicott was not materially hurt, though he was struck 

* See a View of this place, Vol. XXX. p. 41G. 

t See N. C. Vol. XVIII. 

4 See Index to N.C. Vol. XXX. Art. Broke. 



168 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESEN1 YEAH, 1814. 

by several balls, but his little band oflieroes lost near half their number. 
The thanks of the commander-in-chief have been sent to Mr. Collicott, for 
his distinguished bravery on this occasion. 

On the 12th of February, his Majesty's Custom House, in Thames Street, 
was totally consumed, with almost all its contents, by fire. Several of the 
opposite houses suffered in the same conflagration ; and we lament to say, 
that two young orphan girls perished in the flames. 

Caution to Mastert of Merchantmen. Mr. Xewlands, master of the 
Coquette, of Glasgow, sailed from St. Thomas's on the 12th February, 
1813, under convoy of H. M. S. Kangaroo, and ran away from the fleet. 
The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty instituted a prosecution against 
him for the offence; and he has been sentenced to a month's imprisonment 
in the Marshalsea, where he is now confined. 

In consequence of an invitation from the Admiralty, 150 shipwrights 
(unmarried) from Plymouth yard have volunteered to go to the Lakes irs 
Canada, to construct vessels. They are, we are told, to have 10. a day ; 
15s. for Sunday ; 2s. subsistence ; Is. for lodging ; and Is. for every extra 
hour ; and those who conduct themselves properly will be entitled to a'u 
apprentice on their return. 



on 

Copied verbatim from the LONDON GAZETTE. 



ADMIRALTY-OFFICE, JANUARY 22, 1814. 

Copy of a Letter from Vice-admiral Sir Edward Pellew, Barf, to John Wif- 
son Croker, Esq. dated on board H. M. S. Caledonia, at Port Muhon, the 
24/A December, 1813. 

SIR, 

T WlIIE enclosed narrative will convey to their Lordships the details of a 
JB_ gallant enterpri/e, very ably directed by Captain Sir Josias Rowley, 
and most zealously executed by the force under his command, in co- 
operation with the battalion of Colonel Catanelli, who made a descent on 
the coast of Italy, under a hope of surprising Leghorn. 

The loss sustained in this affair has been inconsiderable, when compared 
with that of the enemy. I am sure their Lordships will do ample justice to 
the merits of Sir Josias, and the captain 1 ?, officers, seamen, and marines, 
engaged in this spirited service. I have the honour to ho, &c. 

EDWARD PELLEW. 

SIR, H. M.S. America, off Leghorn, 15ih December, 1813. 

I have the honour to inform you, that in pursuance of my preceding com- 
munication t.i you from Palermo, I sailed thence on the 29th ult. ia com- 
pany with t e Termagant, and anchored at Melaz/.o on the following 
night, where having Joined the ships named in the margin,* and embarked 
on board them on the following day the troops of the Italian Levy, amount- 
in'.: to :i out one thousand men, under the command of Lieutenant-colonel 
CH melli, we sailed the same evening, and arrived on the coast of Italy, 

* Edinburgh, i'urieuse, Mermaid. 



KAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814, 169 

off Via Reggio, on the 9th instant : having fallen in with the Armada and 
Imperieuse oft' the north of Corsica, I detained them to assist us in getting 
the troops on shore. Having anchored with the squadron off the town, the 
troops and field pieces were immediately landed ; a small party of die 
enemy having evacuated the place on a summons that had been sent 
in, and possession was taken of two eighteen and one twelve-pounder guns, 
which defended the entrance of the river The lieutenant-colonel pro- 
ceeded immediately to Lucca, which place was surrendered to him at twelve 
the same night. The following day a detachment of forty royal marines 
from tliis ship, under Captain Rea, was sent to a signal station to the 
northward, which, on his threatening to storm, surrendered to him, and 
eleven men who defended it were made prisoners : he found it to be n 
castle of considerable size and strength, walled and ditched, and capable 
of containing near one thousand men. On receiving this report, I sent 
Mr. Bazalgette, senior lieutenant of the America, who, with a few barrels 
of powder, completely destroyed it, bringing off a brass nine-pounder gun, 
which was mounted in the castle. Parties from the Imperieuse and Furi- 
eusc also brought off two other brass guns from the beach to the northward 
and southward of the town, those at the lauding place having also been 
embarked. 

Ttie lieutenant-colonel not judging it advisable to continue at Lucca, had 
given me notice of his intended return to Via Reggio, where he arrived on 
the morning of the 12th, and signified his intention to proceed in another 
direction. 

Not conceiving my stay with this ship any longer necessary, I had made 
arrangements for leaving the Edinburgh, Furieuse, and Termagant, under 
the orders of Captain Dundas, to keep up (if practicable) a communica- 
tion with the troops, and purposed sailing to rejoin your flag as soon as it 
was dark, when, towards sunset, we perceived a tiring at the town, and 
found that the troops were attacked by a force of about six hundred 
cavalry and infantry, with a howitzer and two field pieces. They con- 
sisted of a detachment from the garrison of Leghorn, which had been 
joined on iis march by some troops at Pisa; the lieutenant-colonel com- 
pletely routed them, with the loss of their guns and howitzer, and a con- 
siderable number of killed, wounded, and prisoners ; the remainder re- 
treated in much confusion towards Psa. Information having been ob- 
tained from the prisoners of the weak state of the garrison at Leghorn, the 
lieutenant-colonel proposed to me to intercept the return of the routed 
troops, by proceeding immediately off Leghorn, in the hopes that by 
shewing ourselves in as much force as possible, the inhabitants, who, it 
was supposed, were inclined to receive us, might make some movement in 
our favour, and that we might avail ourselves of any practicable opening to 
force our way into the place. 

I acceded to this proposal, and the troops were immediately embarked 
in a number of country vessels, which were towed off by the boats of the 
squadron, and the whole being taken in tow by the ships, we proceeded 
the same night for Leghorn Roads, where we anchored about three o'clock 
on the following day, to the northward of the town. The Imperieube 
having previously reconnoitred the best spot for landing, the vessels were 
immediately towed in-shore, and the troops and field-pieces landed with- 
out opposition. The boats then proceeded to land the marints; but the 
weather, which had been hitherto favourable, in the course of the evening 
became so bad, that o.-y a part could be .got on shore ; a;id I regret to 
state, that the pinnace of the America was swamped, and Lieutenant 
Moody (a most valuable officer), and two seamen were drowned. Early 
in the morning the remainder were landed, and proceeded to the positions 
assigned them. 

er&ron, del. XXXI. z 



!70 NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 

The corps of the enemy which had been defeated at Via Reggio, was a 
second time reinforced at Pisa, and at this period made an attack on our 
marines without the tower. I beg to refer you to Captain Dundus's re- 
port, for the particulars of their defeat. The lieutenant-colonel suggested, 
as a proper time after this advantage, to summon the commandant, which 
was accordingly done, but an answer returned that he would defend 
himself. 

The gates of the town hnd heen closely examined during this day and the 
preceding night, to ascertain the practicability of forcing an entrance; but 
that or any other means of immediate attack not being considered practica- 
ble against a place so strong and regularly fortified, and there not appear- 
ing any movement of the inhabitants in our favour, the precarious and 
threatening state of the weather, a change of which would have prevented 
all communication with the ships, rendered it expedient to reimbark the 
whole without delay : by very great exertions, this was effected in the best 
order during the night, and early the following morning, in very severe 
weather, without any molestation from the enemy. 

On returning from the shore to the America at sunset, I found a depu- 
tation from the mayor and inhabitants of the town, who had been per- 
mitted by the commandant to come off with a flag of truce, to petition us 
to cease our fire from the houses, he having threatened to dislodge us by 
setting fire to the suburbs ; as arrangements were already made for em- 
barking, I consented to a cessation of firing on both sides till eight the 
next morning ; a favourable circumstance for us, the troops on their march 
to the boats being exposed to a fire from the ramparts 

I have very great satisfaction in reporting to you the zeal and good con- 
duct of all the officers, seamen, and marines employed on the above-men- 
tioned services. 

To Lieutenant-colonel Catanelli every praise is due, for his able and 
indefatigable exertions ; and I feel thankful for his cordial co-operation. 
The conduct of the. troops of the Italian Lc vy, both for bravery and disci- 
pline in the field, and the cheerfulness \\ith which they endured the con- 
stant exposure in boats in the most severe weather, excited our admiration. 

I am much indebted to Captain Grant, for lii 8 able advice and assistance; 
' to the Honourable Captain Dundus, who undertook the direction of the 
"marines and seamen; and to Captain Hamilton, who volunteered his ser- 
vices on shore, my thanks are particularly due, for the gallant manner in 
which they conducted them ; and I feel much indebted to the Honourable 
Captain Duncan, for the ready and useful assistance he afforded me on 
every occasion. Captain Mounsey, when the landing was effected, had 
moved with the 1'urieuse and Termagant to watch the motions of three 
brigs of war lying in the outer mole, but which afterwards moved into the 
inner one, the crews having landed to assist in the defence of the place. 

Captain Uunn was indefatigable in his exertions at the landing place, and 
I feel called upon to notice the good conduct of the orlicers aim crews of the 
boats, through a continued and most fatiguing service. 

I beg that I may be permits d to mention the assistance I received from 
Lieutenant Bazalgette, senior of this ship, a most deserving officer ; and 
to notice the conduct of Mr. Bromley, the surgeon, who volunteered his 
services on shore with the troops. 

I herewith enclose a list of the killed and wounded, and am happy to say 
our loss is much smaller than might have been expected. I have no ac- 
count of that of the Italian Levy, but I beliex : it is not considerable, 
There have betn no correct returns of prisoners, but Captain Duudas 
informs me, that above three hundred have been taken in the two affairs. 

I have the honour to be, &r:. 
Edxard Pdlew, $c. JUS. ROWLEY, Captain. 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESEXT YEAR, 1814. 171 

SIR, H.M.S. Edinburgh, off Leghorn, Dec. 15, 18 lo. 

In obedience to your directions, Captain Hamilton and myself landed 
On the evening of the 13th, with the marines of his Majesty's ships named 
in the margin,* to co-operate with Lieutenant-colonel Catanelli. We 
pushed on that evening with the advance of the marines and Italian Levy, 
and got possession of the suburbs of the town of Leghorn. The extreme 
darkness of the night, and the road being nearly impassable, prevented 
the body of the troops joining until the morning ; the moment a sufficient 
number had come up, in compliance with the lieutenant-colonel's arrange- 
ments, die Italians occupied the suburbs and buildings close to the ram- 
parts ; the marines occupied a position on the Pisa road ; as soon after day- 
light as possible, we reconnoitred the town ; just as we had finished, and 
were returning from the southern part of the town, a firing was heard in the 
direction of the Pisa road, where we proceeded instantly, and found the 
marines were at that moment attacked by a considerable body of the ene- 
my's troops, consisting of at least seven hundred men, cavalry and infantry,, 
supported by two field pieces; the charge of the ravalry was received with 
great coolness by the marine?, they opened and allowed, them to pass, 
killing all but about fourteen, who, with two oihcers, succeeded in getting 
through, but who were all killed or wounded, excepting one officer, by a 
small detachment of the Italian Levy, that was formed at the entrance of 
the suburbs of the town. After the charge of the cavalry, the marines 
instantly closed and charged the enemy's infantry, and put them entirely to 
the rout ; they lost in this affair the officers commanding their cavalry and 
infantry, with about from two hundred and fifty to three hundred killed, 
wounded, and prisoners J the remainder retreated in the greatest disorder 
to Pisa. 

In this affair my most particular thanks are due to Captain Hamilton, 
who, I am sorry to say, is slightly wounded, as well as to Captain Beale, 
of the Aroynda, who commanded the marines, ns also to Captains Rea and 
Mitchell, of the America and Edinburgh ; to the other officers, non-com- 
missioned officers, and privates, all possible credit is due for repelling the 
attack, and putting to route the enemy, who were certainly double their 
force ; the marines lost on this occasion, one killed and seven wounded. 

The Italian Levy, who were on the houses close round the ramparts, as 
well as those in the advance, were indefatigable in their exertions, and 
their bravery was truly conspicuous on all occasions. The enemy suffered 
hy the destructive fire they kept up on the ramparts, killing or wounding 
those who attempted to couie near the guns. 

It being arranged between you and tiie lieutenant-colonel, that we 
should re-embark, the wounded and prisoners, with our two field guns and 
ammunition, were embarked at twelve o'clock last nuht, marched off in 
the best possible order, through bad roads, and incessant ram. 

I beg to offer my thanks to Lieutenant-colonel Catanelli, for his attention 
in pointing out what he wished to be done by us. to forward his plan. My 
thanks are due to Captain Dunn, of ihe Mermaid, for forwarding every 
thing from the beach to us in advance ; as well as to Lieutenant* Mason, 
of the America, and Mapleton and Leach of this ship, and Travers, of the 
Imperieuse ; and to the midshipmen, and small-arm men, and those sta- 
tioned to a howitzer, for their steady good conduct. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

G. II. L. DUNDAS, Captain. 

SirJoslaf, Rozuky, Bart. Captain of II. M.S. America. 

* America, Armada, .Edinburgh, Imperiease, Furieuse, Rainbow, Termagant, 
and ;Vi',Tiuaid, 



172 NATAL HISTOEY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1&14. 

Return of killed and wounded Seamen and Marines of his Majesty's Ships 
off Leghorn, 14th December, 1813. 

America. James Moodie, lieutenant, drowned by the swamping of a 
btiar. on the 13th December ; George White, able seaman, ditto ; William 
Ford, able seaman, ditto. 

Armada. Richard (jorton, private marine, severely wounded ; John 
Sueli, ditto, dangerously wounded ; Robert Clark, ditto, severely 
wounded. 

Edinburgh. Emanuel Key, private marine, dangerously wounded ; 
Richard Wilson, ditto, severely wounded ; Christopher Robson, ditto, 
slightly wounded. 

Jmperieusc. William Vaughan, private marine, slightly wounded. 

Rainbow. Captain Hamilton, slightly wounded ; Samuel Page, marine, 
killed; John Todd, master's-mate, severely wounded. 

Termagant. James Rowley, marine, severely wounded ; Robert 
Williams, ditto, severely wounded. 

Total 1 killed, 3 drowned, 11 wounded. 

JOSIAS ROWLEY, Captain. 
E. F. BROMLEY, Surgeon. 

JANUARY 29. 

Admiral Sir John Warren has transmitted to John Wilson Croker, Esq. 
a letter from Captain Brown, of II. M.S. Loire, giving an account of his 
having, on the 10th of December, captured the Rolla, American privateer, 
of' five guns and eighty men, out the night before from Newport. 

And also the following letters, forwarded to the admiral by Captain 
Barrie, of the Dragon, senior officer in the Chesapeak, viz. 

A letter from Captain Cator, of his Majesty's sloop Actason, dated 29d 
September, reporting his having landed with a party of marines in Lynha^ 
ven Bay, and destroyed a barrack of the enemy, with all the military 
stores, after a short action with a body of American dragoons and infantry 
stationed there, in which nine of the enemy were taken, and several killed 
or xvounded, with the loss of only one marine badly wounded. 

A letter from Captain Jackson, of II. M.S. Lacedemonian, dated 23d 
September, stating the destruction of several American vessels, by the 
boats of the above ship, and Mohawk sloop, in C'hereton and King's 
Creeks. The enemy assembled in numbers on the shore, but were scat- 
tered by the fire from the boats, with the loss of from twenty to thirty 
killed and wounded ; one man in the boats was killed, and two wounded. 

A letter from Lieutenant Pedlar, of the Dragon, dated the 5th Novem- 
ber, giving an account of his having, with the boats of that ship and 
Sophie sloqp, brought out, without loss, three American vessels, from it 
creek in the River Potowmak. 

Copy of a letter from Captain Manscll, of his Majesty's Simp Pdicarj, 
addressed to Vice-admiral Sauyer, and transmitted to John Wilson 
Croker, Esq. 

SIR, H. M. Sloop Pelican, Plynouth, January 20, 1814. 

I beg to acquaint you, that, on the 13th instant, 1 captured, after a 
chase of twelve hours, the American schooner Siro, letter of marque, of 
225 tons burthen, mounting twelve nine pounders, with -19 men, and a 
cargo of cotton, from South Carolina, bound to Bourdc;!ux ; is a -fe- 
inarkably fast-sailing vessel, quite new, picrred for sixteen guns, coppered, 
and copper- fastened, had bet-n chased by several of our cruisers, but 
escaped by her superior sailing, and was intended to cruise fur the annoy- 
ance of our trade. 1 have the honour to be, iS:c. 

THUS. iMAXSELL. 
To Vice-admiral Sawyer, Commander-in-chief, $c. Cvrk. 



173 

FEBRUARY 1. 

Admiral Lord Keith has transmitted to John Wilson Croker, Esq. a 
letter from Captain Tobin, of II. M.S. Andromache, giving an account of 
his having, on the 18th of January, captured, otf Bourdeaux, the Fair 
American ship letter of marque, of four guns and nineteen men, bound 
from Boston to France. 



promotions ant! appointments. 

Captains, &c. appointed 

Edward Lloyd, to the Raven; John Coode, to tl;e Porcupine; A; 
M'Meckan, to the Griper ; Charles Mitchell, to the Savage ; Lord George 
Stuart, to the Newcastle ; John Hancock, to the Liffy; Matthew Smith, to 
the Nymphea ; Lord Cochrane, to the Tonnant. 

Lieutenants, &c. appointed. 

P. C. Anstruther, to the Basilisk ; Lieutenat John Hewett, to he a com- 
mander ; D. Buchan, to the Sprightly ; J. Jackson, to the Spencer; J. 
Waldron, to the Hope; E. Gordon, to the Barossa; W. Stuck, to the 
Espoir ; T. Rohbins, to the Conflict ; H. Belson, to the Sybille ; J. Strover, 
to be a lieutenant, and to the Marlbro' ; R. Iloiman, to the Salvador ; A. 
Wilson, to the Elephant; J.Derby, to command the Genereux, prisori- 
sln'p ; T. W. Davis, to the Pomone ; John Hickraan, to the Redwing; W. 
B. Weekes, to the Regulus ; Nicholas Tomlinson, to the Hazard ; J. I> 
Lauzan, to the Dannemark ; Charles (iolroyd, to the Badger ; Hon. James 
Boyle, to the Barfleur ; H. D. C. Douglas, to the St. Domingo ; James 
Quinton, to the Trident; G- B. Burton, and Sylvester Austin, to the Ton- 
nant; William Curlewis, to the Warrior; Nathaniel Barwell, to the 
Wizard; John Chainberhyne, to the Weazle ; John Lihon, C. D. Jeremy, 
J. B. Tartnell, and Thomas Studdert, to the Tonnant ; Alexander Bucha- 
nan, *o the Barracoutta ; J. H. Belliars, to tlie St. Juan ; Charles Crole, 
to the Rodney ; Stephen Dillon, to the Carnation ; Robert Brash, to the 
Nisus; George Burt, to the Sylph; Christopher Beer, to the Shark; WiU 
liam Henry Brand, to the Ganymede; James Richard Booth, to the Gor- 
gon; William Berkitr (2), to the St. Domingo; John Coleman, to the In* 
constant; Alexander Murray, to the Espoir; Marshall Hoyle, to the Tri- 
dent ; Francis Hallowes, to the Zenobia ; Robert B. Fenwicke, to the St. 
Josef; S. R. VVeddle, to the St. Juan ; John Murray (3), to the America ; 
John Coleman (2), to the Princess Carolina ; RobertSnell (2), to the Bom- 
bay ; William Trotter, to the Astrea ; William r'aimer, to the Rollaj 
Henry Love, to the Cydnus ; Jenkin Jones, to the Pompe ; J. F. J. Dixon, 
to the Magicienne ; Jonathan Faulknor, to the Statira ; Jos. Bailey, to the 
Nautilus; Stephen Hodge, to the Wolverene: Joseph Smith, to tht 
Ulysses; Charles Maitland, to the Esk; S. M. Colquhoun, to the Queen 
Charlotte ; Henry Nason, to the Tigre; Henry E. Etough, to the Chanti- 
cleer; Robert II. Storck, to the Insolent; Robert Watts, to the Warrior; 
Robert Gore, to the Horatio ; Thomas Stone, to the Horatio ; John Camp- 
bell (4), to the Apelles; Edward Collins, to the Challenger; Harry Wil- 
ton, to the Gritlbn; John Lyons, to the Ville de Paris ; John Bull, to the 
Thracian ; Richard Soper, to the Brilomart ; W. A. Baumgardt, to the 
Queen Charlotte ; Rawdon M'LeaH, to the Royal Sovereign ; Michael 
Bahb, and Charles Sterling, to the Spencer; Frederick Marryatt, to the 
Newcastle ; Benjamin Smart, to the Pomone ; Richard Hetherington, to 
the Martial ; Robert Hohnan, to the Salvador; Robert Forster, to th 
Tonnant ; William Gray, to the Snipe ; James Stone (2), to the Rolla ; 
John James Hough, to theEgmont: Thomas Alexander Watt, to the Spen- 
cer; Watkin William Little, totheTagus; W.G.Roberts, to the Asia; 



174 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814* 

Thomas Moubray, to the Surprize; William Downey, to the Carrion; 
Francis Brace, to the Berwick ; Roger Longlands, to the Pilot; John llnd- 
son, to the Repulse ; Patrick Wallis, to th-. Romulus ; Georgr Palmer, to 
theBriseis; Harry B. Richards, to the Leveret; John B. Joyce, to the 
Caledonia; Arthur Fanshawe, to the Endymion ; Jnmes Richard Booth, to 
the Gorgon ; James Poad, to the Scipion ; Horatio B. Cock, to the Griffon ; 
Hon. F. Napier, to the Snake ; William Muriel, to the Mermaid ; James 
Murray (2J, to the Mcnelaus ; James Lew, to the Mermaid ; John S. 
Rowlands, to the Jasper; Charles Keith, to the Antelope; Joseph Mar- 
shall (l), to the Onyx ; Joseph Marshall (2), to the Venus : Francis Hal- 
lowes ; to the Zenohia; John Morrison (2), to the Onyx ; William Keats, 
to the Partridge ; William Caswell, to the Plantagenet: Patrick Wiig lit, 
to the Ramillies; W. P. Green, to the Resolute; George Bury, to the 
Ringdove ; W. B. Dohson, to the Royal Sovereign ; Richard James, to 

the Royalist; Theed, to the Superb; James F.Fletcher, to the 

Achilie ; Charles H. Crookc, to the President ; Robert Scalloii, to the Na- 
rnur; Edward Dillon, to the Lyra; Mark Haynham, to the Ceylon ; James 
F. Arnold, to the Puissant ; Richard Rason, to the Cretan ; Thomas 
Pickernell, to the Oberon ; Thomas Davis, to the I'oiuonc ; A. II. Wilson, 
to the Abercromby ; Robert Forester, to the York; John Wilson, anil 
George Tyrrell, to the Newcastle. 

Masters appointed. 

J. Britton, to the Hotspur; J. Caiger, to the Redwing ; J. Jay, to the 
Magnificent; J. Crear, to the Cherokee; J. Johnson, to the Am; T. Trel- 
wing, to the IJydra; J. Mills, to the Newcastle; G. Dujaiden, to the 
Dauntless; E. R. Wilde, to the Carron; J.C.Atkinson, to the Penguin; 
J. B. North, to the Rosario; W. Balliston, to the Spencer; W. Craig, to 
the Erebus; W. Sheehan, to the Myrtle; T.Phillips, to the Horatio; II. 
Langon, to the Tonnant; J. Park, to the Porpoise; D. Bulberney, to the 
Colossus; J. Finlayson, to the Nymphen ; J. Lewis, to the Sultan j C. 
Cleveland, to the Mnros; A.Chalmers, to the Terror; W. White (2), to 
the Venus ; A. Lyall, to the Wanderer ; T. Miller, to tiie Thais ; W. 
Smith (2), to the Espiegle; H. Howell, to the Barossa; J. Barrie, to the 
Melpoflfnene ; M. Coleman, to the Defence; J.M' Donald, to the Puissant; 
J. Kitchener, Royal Sovereign. 

List of Midshipmen passed for Lieutenants. 

Sheerness. Robert Robinson, Hqn. G. K. Barnngton, W. II. Brady, 
George Gregory. 

Portsmouth. William Hewitt, W. B. M'Leroth, W. Clarinsrbodd, J. 
P. Elston, Henry Bayficld, VV. G. White, G. II. M'Dougall, 11. C. Gordon. 
Plymouth Richard Drake, Augustus Henniker, William Brian, Edward 
Houghton. 

Surgeons, &c. appointed. 

Henry Barnes, to the Terror; P. Henry, to the Vulture; R. Gillespie, 
to the Esk ; James Brown, to the Carron; Isaac Johnson, to the Hlakc, 
prison ship; John Grant (2), to the Atlas; Thomas Reed, to the Strom- 
bolo; Ptter Cunningham, to the Barbados; J. P. O'Bernc, to the Renown, 
prison hospital ship; Robert Crowe, to the Temcraire ; Charles Kent, to 
the Fylla ; James Stewart, to the Rinaldo; George Ilogan, to the Had^rr ; 
\V. Dickson, to the forces in South Bevcland ; John Forbts (2j, to the Ve- 
nerable ; J.O.Martin, to the Leander; Henry Hall, to the Espciale ; 
Elias Ryall, to the Insolent; Alic-k Osborne, to the Tigress; Robert Scott, 
to the Bahama; John Richardson, to the 1st Battalion Royal Marine*; 
James Guthrie, to the Spencer ; John Dnke, to the Barossa ; John Mor- 
gan (2), to the Espoir; Thomas Thomas (2), to the Peruvian; William M. 
Kennedy, to the Liberty ]. i ig ; William Rogers, to the Dover ; Alexander 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE FRESENT YEAR, 1814, 175 

nirvan, to the Sullan; Robert Abbott, to the Levant; John Strang, to the 
Galgo ; James Arnott, to the Rosamond. 

Assistant-surgeons, &c. appointed. 

J. M'Ennally, to the Warrior; P. Butler, to the Havock ; Alexander 
Linton, to the Protector ; David Grier, to the Chatham; J. H. Dalziel, to 
the Hearty ; James Gregory, to the Regulus ; Joseph Reardon, to the Re- 
nown ; James Lawrence, to the Caton, prison hospital ship ; James M'Al- 
pine, to the Ville de Paris ; James Cuthbert, to the Penelope ; D. B. Con- 
way to be hospital-male at Haslar; John Edwards, to the Venus; Aliek 
Osborne, to the Mnninouth; J. M. Madden, to the Malabar; Thomas 
Connolly, 10 be hospital-mate at Mill Prison ; Samuel Irvine, to be hospi- 
tal mate at the same place ; James Robertson, to be hospital-mate at Port- 
chester Castle ; Samuel Irvine, to the Spencer ; Francis Marsh, to the 
Newcastle ; Maurice Roberts, to the Tigre ; J. Reardon, to the Spencer ; 
Alexander Anderson, to be hospital-mate at Mill Prison ; John lliddell, to 
the Barbara ; Law M Kay, to the Teazer ; E. A. Smith, to the Abundwnce ; 
IN. Morris, to the Thisbe ; J. Glencorn, to the Sussex, hospital-ship ; Wm. 
Aitkin, to the Bramble; Wm. Whittaker, to the Trusty, port hospital ship"; 
John Cameron, to the Salvador. 

BIRTHS. 

On the 18th February, the lady of Rear-admiral Malcolm, of a son. 

20th February, the lady of Sir Peter Parker, Bart. R.N. was safely deli- 
vered of a son. 

At Bath, the lady ef the Hon. Rear-admiral Gardner, of a son. 

At Sandwich, the lady of Capt. Warren, R.N. of a daughter. 

At Kingston Crescent, Portsea, the lady of Capt. Balibur, of H. M.S. 
Woodlark, of a son. 

MARRIAGES. 

Captain Sir James Dunbar, of Boath, North Britain, to the eldest 
daughter of J. Coul, Esq. of Ashgrove. 

At Plymouth Dock, Lieutenant William Lowcay, of H.M.S. Trazer, to 
Miss Lawrence, sister of Captain John Lawrence, of H. M. sloop Fautome. 

On the 2d February, Captain Kains (late first lieutenant of the Warrior), 
to Miss Gold, of Giliingham. 

On the 12th February, at St. George, Southwark, Lieutenant Samuel 
Kentish, R.N. to Miss Barnes, only daughter of Peter Barnes, Esq. of 
Surry Place, Kent Road. 

Mr. Lemon, purser R.N. to Mrs. Lemon, widow of Mr. J. Lemon, late 
quartcrmau of Plymouth Dock-yard. 

Lately, at Lisktard, Robert P. Hillyar, Esq. surgeon in his Majesty's 
royal navy, to Miss Bennicke, widow of William Bennicke, Esq. lutcofCal- 
liugton. 

DEATHS. 

On the 23d of June, 1813, at Hill's Place, Lucca, Ja.miica, Mrs. Sarah 
Hill, a lady whose amiable qualities most justly entitled her to the love and 
fsteeiii of all those who had the happiness of her acquaintance: an inter- 
mittent ffver, which occasioned extreme debility, closed tht: life of this 
valued and truly virtuous woman. She was mother-in-law to Captain 
Paterson, R.N. 

Killed, on board a tender belonging to H.M.S. Poictiers, whilst in action 
with an enemy's vessel up the Chesapeake, Mr. Henry Morris, master's- 
mate, a promising youth of great courage, and of an enterprising and deter- 
mined spirit. 

In January, at his lodgings in London, of a consumption, Mr. Benjamin 
Emerson, late surgeon R.X. 

At Exeter, Captain John Stockhnm, RA T . Tie was first lieutenant of the 
Thunderer, of 74 guns, at the battle of Trafalgar ; which ship he fought on 
that memorable day (the Captain being called to England on a court-mar- 



178 V\TA^ HISTOUY OF tHE PnESENT 1 YEAR, 



tial), anr. frr 'his gallant conduct was shortly after promoted to tljp 
rank of rest captain, and presented with a sword by the Committee ad Lloyd's, 

On tne 21st of" Jariuitry, at Plymouth, Mrs. Price, wife of Captain John 
Price, RN. : 
> On thr22d of January ,. at Plymouth, Mrs. Brice* wifeofC:ipt.'Brice, R.N. 

On the S3d of January, at Ayr ( Scotland, John Morrison, seaman ; and, 
en the 18th, Elizalieth Wallace, his wife, both 'aged 86, having "been 53 
years married. 

. On the 24th of January, in Portlandrsquare, G. Gregory. Esq. rear-admi- 
ral of the red. 

On the 8th of February, 1814, at Bah'.rxgown Castle, county of Ros% 
Lieutenant-general Sir Charles Ross, Bart, colonel of the 37 ih regiment of 
foot, and eldest son of the late Admiral Sir John Lockhart Ross, of Balnn- 
gown, Bart. 

On the 16th of February, at his residence in Torpoint, near Plymouth, 
John Stephens Hull, Esq. vice-admiral of the blue, aged 66 years. This 
.officer was made post, 21st September 1790 ; a rear-admiral, 28th April 
1808 ; and vice-adaiiral of the blue in 1812. 

Lately, J. A. Norway, Esq. a commander in the R.X. lie commanded 
the Montague packet, and was killed \vhen that vessel beat off the American 
privateer Globe, off the Western Islands. 

" England expects that every man will, do his duty;" but England ex- 
pects also to know when every man has done his dtity : and that she will hear 
it, whether it is the poor sailor before the mail, or him whose flag flies at 
the main, is England's boast and glory. .England is the fostering mother of 
.alJ her heroes; let her then publish the, deeds tiiqt are done, while they set 
a bright example to her sons. The following letter pays the tribute due to 
the gallant youth, who had juBt reached his eighteenth year, who fell in an 
.enterprise, under the command of Lieutenant' Sweedland, first of the Ber- 
wick, and whose dying words would have graced a Nelson. 

Copy of a Letter from Captain Brace, of tf.AJ.S. Berztick, lo Admiral 
llmvkms Whitsfied. 

Berwick, nt Sea, Dec. 12, 1813. 

, " MY DEAR SIR. From the nature of your last letter, on the serious ill- 
. ness nf your son James, I am led to hope that your mind will bear with 
tolerable fortitude the afflicting news it is my unhappy situation to have to 
communicate the loss of that amiable and much-to-be-lamente>d youth, 
\\hosepoodnessofheart was alone rivalled by his course. He unfortu- 
nately fell in the morning of tl.e 1 1th instant, when attempting to haard thfc 
second srhooner in Negate, by a musket-ball passing through his head. His 
last words were, " Carry her if you can : I am no more." He lived as he 
Hied, beloved and adored bv his shipmates; and no feeling mind passing 
that of a parent, can more sjnceYely deplore his loss thau the unhappy being 
tiiat addresses you. How truly nnd sensibly do I feel for you, Mrs. Whir- 
s!.e<l and family, to whom 1 ran offer no consolation bevond that ot his 
falling in n glorious way, in the service of his country. I am, my dear Sir, 
with kind remembrance to Mrs. Whitshed and family, your obliged and 
faithful Friend E. BRACE, 

James Bentinck Hawkins Whitshed wns-the eldest son of Admiral H. Whitsherl, 
and was under the orders of that gallant officer, Lieutenant Ssvtedlund, on a simi- 
lar enterprise a few months past, and whose youthful mind gare hiyh pronm'', 
'inder the car^, direction and example of his distinguished captain, of becoming 
an ornament to his profession and of possessing those virtues* eminently ci>;>- 
?pirnoii< in the Orticer whoe fate he shared, whilst his disconsolate parents feel 
a melancholy consolation in the bravery he displayed, and the glory which he 
shared. They deeply mourn his loss; and in humble resignation bend to the 
v.ili of Divine Providence, that snatched him from an adoring family. 

~Se p. 88. ~ 7 ~ 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR 

OF 

SIR GEORGE YOUNG, KNT. 



ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE. 



* His fair renown shall never fade away, 

Nor shall the mention of Ms uame decay." 

GEORGE YOUNG, Esq. the grandfather of this officer, 
resided at Hal well, in Blackmore Forest, Dorsetshire, and 
had issue seven sons ; of whom the eldest, the Rev. George Young, 
was a clergyman at Bere Regis and, by Eleanor his wife, daugh- 
ter of Joseph Knowles, of Froster's Dountain, near Eastingfon, 
in Gloucestershire, had issue several sons, and a daughter, Eliza, 
beth, who became the wife of Charlus Broughton, Esq. The 
sons of the Rev. Mr. Young were 1st, George, the subject of 
this memoir ; of whom hereafter ; 'Zd, Robert, lieutenant in the 
navy, and captain in the Hon. East India Company's ship Van- 
sittart, who died in 1782 5 leaving a daughter ; 3d, Thomas, late 
storekeeper at Feversham, in Kent, who died without issue ia 
1810 ; and, 4th, James, late an officer in the marines. 

George Young, the eldest son, was born at Painswick, in 
Gloucestershire, June 17, 1732; and went to sea in 1745, in the 
Namur, with Air.iiral Boscawen ;* to whose notice, we under- 
stand, he was recommended by the late Admiral the Hon. John 
Forbes. + How he came to remove, we know not ; but he after- 
wards sailed under Sir Charles Saunders, | and was honoured by 
his public thanks, for the coolness, intrepidity, and ability, which 
he evinced in several engagements. 

By a certificate from Captain Roberts, commander of the Prince 
of Wales East Indiaman, dated December 20, 1757, we find that 
he had served with great credit as midshipman in that ship ; but we 
have no knowledge of the length of time that he acted in that 
capacity. 

In the year 1758 he came again under the command of Admiral 

See N.C. Vol. VII. f See N.C. Vol. XXV. + See N.C. Vol. VIII. 
?Tj>-on. flol, XXXI. A A 



178 KAVAL BIOGRAPHY. 

Boscawen, and had an opportunity of distingaishing himself at the 
famous siege of Louisbourg, in the York, Captain (afterwards 
Admiral) Hugh Pigot. On the 25th of July, about noon, Ad- 
miral Boscawen, observing that all the ships in the harbour had 
been destroyed, except two, viz. the Prudent and the Bienfaisant, 
ordered two boats (a barge and pinnace, or cutter) from every 
ship of the fleet (except the Northumberland, an invalid). These, 
manned only with their proper crews, and armed with muskets and 
bayonets, cutlasses, pistols, and pole-axes, each boat under the 
direction of a lieutenant and mate, or midshipman, rendezvoused 
at the admiral's ship : from thence they were detached, by two's 
and three's at a time, to join those of Sir Charles Hardy's squa- 
dron, off the month of the harbour. There they were in the 
evening, ranged in two divisions, under the command of the two 
senior masters and commanders in the fleet, the Captains Laforey 
and Bui four. 

In this order they put off from Sir Charles's squadron about 
twelve o'clock, and by the advantage of the foggy darkness of the 
night, and the inviolable silence of their people, paddled into the 
harbour of Louisbowrg, unperceived cither by the island battery 
they were obliged to come very near to, or by the two men of 
war that rode at anchor at no great distance from them. There 
was no probability of their being perceived from any part of 
the garrison, not only on account of their greater distance, but 
also of the preconcerted brisk diversion, made upon them from all 
our batteries about that time. Besides, the besieged themselves 
left nobody an opportunity to hear any noise : for, from having 
in the day-time observed the numerous scaling ladders that were 
brought into our trenches, they were under some apprehensions of 
an escalade intended as this night, and kept a constant fire with 
their musketry from the ramparts during the whole time ; with the 
design, if possible, to deter the besiegers from that attempt, by 
shewing them how well they were upon their guard in all the 
places where it could probably be mado. 

During this seeming security and prudent precaution on both 
sides, the bold stratagem of the boats, for surprising the two re- 
maining ships in the enemy's harbour, every moment ripened for 
the execution. After pushing in as far almost as the grand bat- 
tery, lest the ships should be too soon alarmed by their oars ; they 



SIR GEORGE YOUNG, KNT. 17g 

took a sweep from thence towards the part of the bafboar *here 
the gentlemen knew the ships were, who had before very well re- 
conuoitred it and presently discovered them. Each division of 
the boats was no sooner within sight and hail f the noble object 
of their attempt, Captain Laforey's, of Le Prudent, and Captain 
Balfour's, of Le Bienfaisant, than, while the sentinels on board, 
having hailed them in vain, began to fire on them, each of the 
commanders ordered his boats to give way alongside their respec- 
tive ships, and to board them immediately with all the expedition 
and good order they could observe. 

The boats crews, no longer able to contain themselves in silence, 
after their manner, gave loud cheers as they were pulling up 
alongside, and with the most intrepid activity, followed their 
brave leaders, and boarded the ships in an instant, with great 
spirit, on each bow, quarter, and gangway and after very little 
resistance from the terrified crews, soon found themselves in 
possession of two fine ships of the enemy, one of 74, and one 
of 61 guns, with the loss of very few of the seamen, and but 
one mate. 

The besieged were now sufficiently alarmed on all sides, by the 
noise of the seamen at boarding ; the cheers leaving them no room 
to doubt that it was from English seamen, and the direction of the 
confused sound of voices and firing afterwards, soon leading them 
to suspect the real fact, an attempt upon their ships. The heroic, 
successful adventurers were employed in securing their prisoners 
in the ships* holds, and concerting the most effectual me- 
thods for securing their prizes out of the reach of the enraged 
enemy ; when both the ships and boats received a most furious fire 
of cannon, mortars, and muskets, from all parts fromwhich-it 
could be directed to them, from the island battery at no great 
distance, from the battery on Point Maurepas a little farther off, 
and from all the guns of the garrison that could be brought to 
bear on that part of the harbour. 

After endeavouring in vain to tow off Le Prudent, they found 
she was a-ground, with several feet water in her hold. There 
now remained nothing in their power to do, to prevent her being 
recovered by the enemy, but to set her on fire which they did 
with all possible expedition, leaving alongside her a large schooner, 
and her own boats, for her people to escape in to the 



180 NAVAL BIOGRAPHY. 

which was at no great distance from her. On board of this ship 
they found a deserter from our camp, who was killed in the little 
bustle at our people's taking possession of her, and by that means 
rescued from the ignominious execution of military justice. 

The boats from Le Prudent now joined the others about 
Le Bienfaisant, and helped to tow her off triumphantly in the 
midst of a formidable fire from the mortified enemy ; which they 
did with great speed, by the assistance of a little breeze, and what 
ragged sails, yards, and rigging, she had left of any service, after 
the constant fire she had so long received from our batteries. When 
they had thus got her out of the distance and direction of the 
enemy's guns, they secured her till the next day by a hawser in 
the N.E. harbour, and enjoyed on board her the first joyful mo- 
ment's leisure of securely Congratulating each other on their suc- 
cess and safety in this hazardous enterprize. 

The taking of these two ships by our fleet's boats on this memo- 
rable occasion, gave conviction to the whole world, that, however 
arduous, however apparently impracticable, any proposed naval 
attempt may be, English seamen are not to be deterred from it by 
any prospect of difficulty or danger, but will exert themselves as 
far as men can do, and at least deserve success, when led on to it 
by such as are worthy to command them. The bold and suc- 
cessful execution of this enterprize, with the preparations made 
for a general assault, so icrrified the garrison, that next day they 
surrendered. 

Mr. Young afterwards served with Captain Pigot in the Orford 
and Royal William ; was at the sieges of Quebec, in 1759,* and 
the Havannah + in 1762 ; and in this last affair particularly dis. 
tinguished himself at the storming of the Moro Castle. 

He had, previously to this, that is, in 1761, been made lieute- 
nant. In 1767 he was pro-noted to the rank of commander, and 
appointed to the Ferret sloop of war, in which he was sent to the 
coast of Guinea. He afterwards made two other voyages to 
Guinea, in the Weazle sloop ; and, having returned for the third 

* His services on this occasion, both by sea and land, obtained enco- 
miums from General Wolfe, v/hich were officially communicated to his 
Majesty's ministers. 

t See N.C. Vol. XVIII. 



SIR GEORGE YOUNG, KNT. ISj 

time, had the coasting station assigned him, from Portsmouth to 
Milford Haven. 

lu 1775, the unfortunate Avar with the American colonies broke 
out ; toward the commencement of which Captain Young had the 
Alderney sloop on the Yarmouth station. In 1776, he went to 
the East Indies in the Cormorant sloop with Sir Edward Vernon,* 
who was in the Rippon ; into which last ship he was made post 
and flag captain, November 7, 1777, and served with great eclat, f 
On the 16th of March, 1779, he arrived at the Admiralty with the 
despatches from Sir Edward respecting the capture of Pondicherry. 
" I have (said the commodore) appointed Captain Marlow, of 
the Coventry, to be captain of the Rippon, in the room of 
Captain Young, whom I have thought a proper person to take 
charge of my despatches for their Lordships, and his Majesty's 
Secretary of State. I beg leave to recommend Captain Yeung to 
their Lordships' notice, and to refer them to him for any further 
particulars they wish to be informed of, respecting the operations 
of this last campaign in India." 

The captain was soon after appointed to the William and Mary 
yacht, and had the distinguished honour of taking the Prince of 
Wales to the Nore, when his Majesty reviewed Admiral Sir Hyde 
Parker's J fleet; on which occasion he received the honour of 
knigh'thood, August 24, 1781. 

Captain Young had afterwards the Catherine yacht ; and for a 
short time, during the Prussian armament, commanded the Zealous, 
of 74 guns ; but on the differences being settled with that Court, 
lie returned to the yacljt, which he held till his promotion to a flag, 
July 4, 1794. His subsequent promotions were, Vice-admiral 
Feb. 14, 1799 ; Admiral of the Blue April 23, 1804 ; Admiral 
of the White April 28, 1803. 

Sir George was twice married. By his first wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Samuel Bradshaw, of Marlow, in the county of 
Buckingham, Esquire (which lady died Feb. 19, 1779), he had 
issue two sons and two daughters. The sons were, 1st, Sir Samuel 
Young, now of Formosa Place, Berks, F.R.S. and F.A.S. who 
v, as advanced to the dignity of a Baronet by letters patent, bearing 

* Sec N.C. Vol. IX. 

+ In N.C. Vol. XVI. p. 91, note, for Wddf grate, read Yows, 

* See N.C. Vol. XX. 



182 NAVAL BIOGRAPHY. 

date November 3, 113. [He married, in 1796, Emily, daugh- 
ter of Charles Baring, of Exmouth, in Devonshire, Esquire, and 
has issue five sons ; viz. George, a midshipman in the royal navy ; 
Charles-Baring, Henry, Horatio-Beauman, and William-Jack- 
son ; and two daughters, Emily and Lucy.] The second son 
of the Admiral -was George-Forbes-Frecman, a lieutenant in the 
navy, -who circumnavigated the globe in the Providence as second 
lieutenant, and died unmarried in 1799. The daughters of Sir 
George were, Lucia.Maria, who died unmarried in 1786 \ and 
Maria, who is now living. 

By his second wife, Anne, daughter of William Battie, of 
London, M.D. Sir George had no issue. This lady is still living. 

Sir George had once, in the exercise of his profession, received 
a severe wound in the neck ; but we do not know in what action it 
happened. 

For his behaviour at the siege of Lonisbourg Sir George had 
received a medal of merit ; bearing on one side a representation of 
the cutting out of the Prudent and Bienfaisant, superscribed 
Ltouisbourg taken, 1758 ; and on the other, an allegorical design, 
in which France lies prostrate on the earth, depressed by a globe 
inscribed Canada, &c. supported by a British sailor and soldier, 
surmounted by a figure of Victory, with appropriate emblems, and 
the motto over the supporters, Pariter in Bello. 

Sir George died, at his seat, Formosa Place, Berks, June 28, 
1810, aged 78, and was buried in the family vault at Cookhara. 
He was one of the best of men, of patriots, and of officers, as the 
late Captain Edward Thompson* often said. So said also our 
immortal Nelson, t after whom one of Sir George's grandsons has 
been christened Horatio. He was likewise held in high esteem by 
Admirals Sir John Colpoys* and Bourmaster, who were once 
lieutenants in the same ship with him ; we think, the Phoenix, of 44. 

For many of the latter years of his life, Sir George was either 
confined by gout, or bed-ridden ; and, consequently, his King 
and Country had been deprived of his services. He was a Fellow 
of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies ; and a zealous promoter 
of many public charities. It was he who first proposed the plan 
of the establishment at Botany Bay ; and also of the settlement of 

* See N.C. Vol. VII. t Sec N.C. Vol. III. * See N.C. Vol. XI. 



. XAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C. 183 

Sierra Leone, of which Company he was for some lime a Director ; 
but withdrawing in consequence of his not approving of the system 
adopted, he did not engage in public business afterwards. 

His only surviving son, Sir Samuel Young, Bart, inherits all 
his estates and funded property. His widowed lady has his town, 
house (built by her father, the late Dr. Battie) in Great Russel- 
street, Bloomsbury, in addition to her dowry ; and his daughter 
Maria possesses an ample fortune. Among other legacies to rela- 
fires and friends, Sir George willed a handsome one to Admiral Sir 
Thomas Boulden Thompson.* 

ARMS. Per fess sable and argent, in chief two lions passant guardant of 
the last, in base an anchor erect proper. 

CHEST. On a wreath a demi-unicorn ermine, armed and maned or, 
gorged with a naval crown azure, and holding between the paws an anchor 
erect proper. 

MOTTO. Be right, and persist. 



NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &c. 



ECROTAS AND CLORIKDE FRIGATES. 

THE CLorinde is one of the finest ships of her class in the French navy, 
She was engaged in the action off Madagascar, wherein La Nereide 
and Renommee (Madagascar and late Java) were taken, but made her 
escape. Her commander, Captain St. Cricq, was brought before a Naval 
Court of Inquiry for deserting his companions, and sentenced to have his 
epaulets wrested from his shoulders in the presence of the Court, and dis- 
missed the French service. This sentence at the time was considered a 
extremely harsh, as a further perseverance on the part of Captain St. 
Cricq would have been of no avail, and only brought about the loss of his 
ihip. He was considered as the victim of Buonaparte's irritability. We 
are happy to learn that Captain Phillimore is doing well. 

When the Dryad frigate, Captain Galway, coming from Newfoundland, 
appeared in sight of the Clorinde, the Frenchman hoisted his colours, low- 
ered down a boat, and, putting a flag of truce in it, he sent an officer to 
the Dryad. The French officer acquainted Captain GIway that his ship 
had had a very severe action with an English frigate, but that his captain 
had resources, and he was determined not to surrender his ship, unless 
Captain G. would offer him terms I Captain Galway saw the Eurotas 
coming down under jury-masts, and said to the French officer, that he sup- 
posed the frigate to the windward was the one he bad engaged : he said h 

See N.C. Vol. XIV. 



184 NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C. 

did not know it might be so Captain Galway told him he had no other 
terms to propose to him, than to proceed immediately to his ship and strike 
the colours ; if he did not, he should soon be alongside of him, and then 
his captain might use his resources. None other reply, we are persuaded, 
would Captain G. have given the Frenchman, under circumstances the 
mqst favourable to him. As the Dryad approached the Clorinde, she fired 
a few shot at her, and the Frenchman hauled down his colours, and went 
on board the Dryad to surrender his sword to Captain G. but he refused 
to receive it, saying, he had not struck to the Dryad, but was the prize of 
the frigate coining down to him, meaning the Eurotas. The crafty French- 
man denied the fact, and returned to his ship, The Dryad took the Clo- 
rinde in tow, and being under orders to proceed to Spithead, she brought 
her to Portsmouth ; the Eurotas arrived at Plymouth. We regret to hear 
that Captain Phillimore's wound is a very dangerous one a grape shot in 
the shoulder, from which, it is apprehended, he will lose his arm : the ball 
jias not been extracted. He set a noble example of heroism and fortitude ; 
although he was .wounded early in the action, he refused to quit the deck, 
or receive any assistance from Mr. Jones, the surgeon desiring him to 
attend to the wounded men. Three times before the action ceased, Cap- 
tain P. fainted upon the deck, which he did not leave whilst a shot 
was fired. He landed at Plymouth. The. Achates brig, Captain 
Morrison, was also in sight when the Clorinde struck. The Clorinde was 
returning to Brest from a four months cruise, during which she captured 
the Townshend packet, from the Brazils, and eleven other prizes. The 
Townshend had 30,000/. on board, which, we understand, sunk in her. 
The Clorinde burnt all her prizes. The Sirius French fiignte, which sailed 
from Brest with her, is still cruising. The Clorinde is a frigate of the 
largest class, carrying 18-pounders (French) on the main-deck, and 400 
men : the Eurotas 24-pounders, on Congreve's principles, and 330 men. 

On Thursday morning Lord Keith sent his barge alongside the Eurotas, 
when her gallant captain, after requesting his crew not to cheer him, was 
lowered in bis cot, and carefully removed to the Royal Hospital, accom- 
panied by the most heartfelt wishes of his men and officers, who saw him 
quit the ship with the strongest grief. The following letter has been 
addressed to Captain Phillimore by Lord Keith, which we are enabled 
to communicate through a private medium : 

SIR I have had the honour to receive your letter of yesterday's Half, giving 
an account of the capture of La Clorindu French frigate, after a most severe 
conflict, on the evening of the 25th ult. between her and the ship you command; 
I have not failed to represent to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that 
the action reflects the highest honour upon your own bravery and professional 
skill, and upon that of your officers and ship's company. 

You will be pleased to acquaint them, that I most highly approve of the zeal 
and good conduct which they have shewn on tiie occasion; and while I regret 
exceedingly that you have been so severely wounded, I entertain a flattering 
hope that his Majesty's service, aud the country at large, will not long be de- 
prived of your valuable services. KEITH. 



NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C. 



185 



WHALE FISHERY. 

No fewer than fifty-eight vessels have been fitted out at the port of Hall 
nlone, for the Greenland and Davis' Straits whale fishery, this season. In 
consequence of the great importance of this branch of trade, and the exten- 
sive property aud great number of valuable seamen employed tlierein, Go- 
vernment have determined to send for their protection a very strong fleet 
to each fishery, to remain there during the whole of the season. For Hull 
whale-fishing enterprise ; see N.C. vol. ii, 1,21 ; xxiv, 235. 

THE STATE OF THE PRIVATE SHIP BUILDERS* YARDS IJJ THE RIVER 
THAMES, ON THE 26TH OF FEBRUARY, 1814. 







-a 
11 


Jocks to 
pairing S 


r re- 
liips. 


Ii' 


| y 




situate* 


Srcc 

11 
53 


Double 
taking 
two. 


<u 
~3t 

'-f> 


a> ~C 

a,~ 
~ s 

w-fi 


fi *C2 

i- 2. 

75S 




x'orthfleet 


4 


1 


1 


__ 




Wallis 


Blackwall 


1 






1 


_ 




Ditto 


7 


2 


2 




..^ _ 


Pitcher and Sons . 1 
Barnard and Robarts .... 
Dudiuan and Co. . ... 


Ditto 

Deptford 
Ditto 


1 

4 
5 


2 
2 
2 


1 





2 
1 


S. and D. Brent 


Kotherhithe . . 


7 


2 


1 


.. _ 


I 


Blackett . . 


Mill Wall 




1 




. 


1 


Hill and Sons .......... 


Liraehouse 


9 


2 


__ 


_ 


1 


Curling am' Co. 


Ditto . 


3 


2 


1 


_ 


3 


Ttbbutt and Co. 


Ditto ....... 


1 


1 




___ 


1 


Dowsou and Co. .... . 


Ditto 




1 


_ 


__ 


1 


Young and Co. ......... 


itotherhithe. - - 


9, 


2 


_ 


_ 






Ditto 


1 


1 


_ 


_ 


.. 


Mestaer . ............ 


Ditto 


9 


1 


1 





- 




RatcliiTCross. . 




1 







_ 


Fletcher and Son 
Luke and Co. ....... 

I3eatson and Co. . ....... 


Shadwell 
Wapping .... 
Ftotherhithe . . 


1 


1 
1 
1 


1 





2 
2 


Brent . . 


Ditto .... 






1 


_ 


1 


Rattenbury ........ 

\Yestlake ... 


Ditto 
Ditto 








1 

1 





I 

1 


















Total . . 


41 


51 


11 


1 


18 



ABSTRACT. 

Slips for building ships, 41 And only one ship now building. 

Kepairiniz; docks capable 1 M ,- B And only 18 ships now under blight 

of receiving ....../* repairs. 

In consequence qf tlie great full off in the building of ships in the port 
of London, and the few repairs going on, thousands of industrious indivi- 
duals, connected with these establishments, are now pining in misery and 
distress, from the want of employment ! ! \Ve understand that only one 
merchant ship Ips been built in the River within the last eighteen months. 



, (Bol. XXXJ. 



BB 



18$ NAtfTlCAf, AtfECpOTESj &C. 



THE THIEF SUMMARILY PUNISHED. 

A FEW clays ago an Inquest was held in London, on the body of a rnnn 
who had been killed i'i an extraordinary way, by a youth belonging to a 
vessel of the port of -Boston, called the Joseph and Ann, then lying in the 
Thames. It seems that, in consequence of the shipping in the River being 
completely fst in the ice, a number of robberies had been committed on 
vessels, by thieves from the shore, who got on board them during the 
ru'ght. Early ou Wednesday morning, the 12th instant, one of these pirates 
visited the Joseph and Aim, and was in the act of rummaging a box of 
clothes belonging to a boy named William Catley, when the boy awoke, 
and, calling out from his hammock, the robber immediately seized him by 
the throat, and threatened to murder him if he maiie the least noise. 

Close beside Catley lay another youth of the crew, named Irish Jemmy ', 
who, being sufficiently awakened by what had passed, thrust at the robber 
with a cutlass (with which, from a precaution of Mr. Bergh, the master of 
the vessel, he had been armed only on the night before, and which he had, 
ready beside him in his hammock). The blow, although aimed in the 
dark, was given with such good will as to be fatal ; for the weapon passed 
through the heart of the robber, and went cut on the other side of his 
body. Captain -Bergh being immediately alarmed, the watch was called in 
from the shore ; and no other invader than the then-dead man being found, 
Irish Jciumi/ surrendered himself to the civil officers until a Coroner's 
Inquest should be held ou the body : which taking place on the following 
Tridav, a verdict of Justifiable Homicide was returned, after a full investi* 
gation of tl;j circumstances ; and the young man was therefore suffered to 
return to his duty on board his vessel. 

FLIGHT OF LARKS. 

CN the Iflth February, the Hilsborougli packet, on Jthe passage 
between Portpatrick and Donaghadee, was literally covered in the 
rigging and deck by a most numerous flock of larks ; they had taken their 
departure from some place at or neur Portpatrick, and, in osder to have a 
TOM: bv the way, swarmed about the packet; some clinging to the shrouds, 
some to the gulf and top-masts, nnd otlvers upon deck. Vast quantities 
Jet themselves down upon the water alongside ; all those which alighted 
with extended wing?, .went head foremost under the water, and such as had 
their wings close to their sides, were able .to take wing again and proceed. 
So soon as they got near shore, they made a rapid flight for the land. 
Many tlioosands alighted not 200 yards from the pier of Donaghadee. 

NAVAL TACTICS. 

WUEX the island of St. Clara was stormed by nur seamen, one of the 
latter (the coxswain of the Revolutiomiaire's cutter), armed with a cullaos 
and two pistols, attacked P.French soldier; who, however, got the first fire, 
suid slightly wounded his opponent. The seaman, who-e name is Barton, 
then attacked the soldier, and having killed him, proceeded to strip him, 
and riei/ himself irv the i'renchinau's g:ar. Ail this yvas the work of a 



ANECDOtW, &C. 187 

fe-.v minutes only, and Jack proceeding in search of fresh adventures, met 
two French soldiers, who, deceived by his appearance, suffered him to 
come near, mid were soon disarmed by him. The conqueror then drove 
his prizes to the beach ; and, dressed in his " glorious apparel," got on 
board with them. 

THE BRITISH FISHERIES'. 

Tr we except the agricultural improvement of a country, there is no 
other source of national wealth and strength more productive and perma- 
nent, than that of the fisheries ; and more particularly, when the circum- 
stances and situation of its coasts are favourable for the prosecution of 
them on a grand scale. The greater the extent of coast compared with the 
area of the laud which it embraces, the nearer will the benefits derivable 
from the fisheries approach to those which are drawn from the soil. Our 
sea-girt islands are most happily situated in both respects. In addition to 
a highly productive soil, the sens which surround us afford an inexhaustible 
mine of wealth a harvest, ripe for gathering at every time of the year- 
without the labour of tillage, without the expence of seed or manure, 
without the payment of rent or taxes. Every acre of those seas is far more 
productive of wholesome, palatable, and nutricious food, than the same 
quantity of the fichest land ; they are fields which, perpetually " white to 
harvest," require only the labourer's willing hand to reap that never-failing 
crop which the bounty of Providence has kindly bestowed. 

These islands are, indeed, favoured in a peculiar manner for carrying on 
the fisheries to the greatest possible extent. Not only the seas belonging to 
them, but all their numerous inlets, creeks, bays, and havens ; the lochs, 
the lakes, and the rivers, all swarm with esculent fish. They are blessed 
moreover, with an abundant population to en;oy this plentiful harvest- 
they have capital to supply all the necessary menus for collecting, pre- 
paring, and distributing this valuable article of human sustenance they 
have the uncontrolled command of the s>ea, which not only secures their 
fishermen from the molestution of an enemy, but prevents the interference 
of a rival in the field. An increased and increasing population ensures a 
consumption at home ; and mines of salt, as inexhaustible as the supply of 
h'bh, enable us to export with advantage the surplus produce to such foreign 
nations as affurd, in return, those necessaries and luxuries of life that are 
not raised by ourselves. 

But other considerations combine at this moment to excite us to a vigo- 
rous prosecution of the fisheries. Food of every description has risen to an 
extravagant and unprecedented price ; butcher's meat, once in ordinary 
use, is now nearly beyond the reach of the great mass of the people ; the 
labouring poor can scarcely hope to taste it ; and as tojfo//, whether in the 
metropolis or the great inland towns of England, that mny be con.sidered 
as a prohibited article, even to the middling ranks in life. If then the ScaJ 
which surround Great Britain and Ireland are, and nobody will deny that 
they are, capable of affording an inexhaustible supply of 6s!.~if fishermen 
are able, with all imaginable ease, to take it in unlimited quantities and 
if, notwithstanding; th supply is not equal to the demand, either in the 



188 NACTICAt ANECDOTES, &C, 

home or the foreign market, there must be some defect or discouragement 1 , 
or some want of systematic regulations, to withhold so important an article 
of food from the community t large- Highly, however, as we estimate 
the public advantages derivable from the fisheries, and they can scarcely be 
too highly estimated, we are not sanguine enough to join in the confident 
expectations of Mr. Schultes, that the " establishment of a national fishery 
(on his own plan, of course) would extinguish the poor's rate, afford uni- 
versal employment, prevent ihe necessity of naval impress, increase trade, 
diminish taxes, supply constant and perpetual food, and augment the 
wealth of the nation annually twenty millions of pounds." But we willingly 
yield our assent to the more moderate eipectations of the Members who 
form the Committee of the " Fish Association," that, by the removal of 
certain obstacles to a more general use of fish in this country, sustenance 
may be provided for a great additional population, employment afforded 
for a numerous class of courageous and adventurous individuals, provision 
made for unfailing nurseries of seamen for our navy ; and a considerable 
increase to the trade of the United Kingdom. 

That the mine we have to work Upon is in reality inexhaustible, a tran- 
sient inspection will be sufficient to satisfy the mobt sceptical inquirer. 
We now know that travellers do not exaggerate, when they tell us of 
swarms of locusts obscuring the light of the sun; of flights of white ants 
filling; the whole horizon like a snow shower; of herds of antelopes scouring 
the plains in thousands j neither are fishermen disbelieved when they speak 
of shoals of herrings, occupying, in close array, many millions of acres 
near the surface of the sea ; nor when they tell us that, on the coast oJ 
Ttforway, in passing through the narrow inlets, they move in such ileep 
columns, that they are known by the name of herring mountains. The 
cod, hake, ling, mackerel, pilchard, and salmon, though not quite so nu- 
merous as the herring, are all of them gregarious, and probably migrating 
animals. In thus ordaining that the most numerous of the finny tribe 
should be those which afford the most wholesome food for man, \\e acknow- 
ledge the benevolent intentions of an all-wise and good Providence. 

We are yet imperfectly acquainted with the natural history of the Her- 
ring. Its winter habitation has generally been supposed within the arctic 
circle, under the vast fields of ice which float on the northern ocean, where 
it fattens on the swarms of shrimps and other marine insects which are said 
to be most abundant in those seas. On the return of the sun from the 
southern tropic towards the equator, tlje multitudinous host issues forth in 
numbers that exceed the power of imagination. Separating about Iceland 
into two grand divisions, the one proceeds to the westward, filling, in it* 
progress, every bay and creek on the coast of America, from tl>e Strait* 
of Bellcisle to Cape Ilatteras ; the other, proceeding easterly, in a number 
of distinct column?, of five or six miles in length, and three or four in 
breadth, till they reach the Shetland inlands, which tlwy generally do about 
ttic end of April, is there subdivided into .1 number of smaller columns, 
$ome of which taking the eastern const of Great Britain, fijl every creek 
mid inlet in succession, frorn the Orkneys down to the British Channel . 
nnd others, hwnnch'i^ yit to the -.vcv.vyard, surround the const of the 



XAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C, 

Hebrides, and penetrate into the numerous firths and lochs on the 
tern shores of Scotland. Another shoal, pursuing the route to Ireland, 
separates on the north of that island into two divisions, one of winch, 
passing down the Irish Channel, surrounds the Isle of Man ; the other pours 
Its vast multitudes into the bays and inlets of the western coast of Ireland. 
The whole of this grand army, which the word herring emphatically ex- 
presses, disappears on the arrival of the several divisions on the southern 
coasts of England and Ireland, about the end of October; to which period, 
from its first appearance in April, it invites the attack of a variety of ene- 
mies, besides the fishermen, in every point of its route. In their own 
element, the herrings furnish food for the whale, the shark, the grampus, 
the cod, and almost all the larger kind of fishes ; and they are followed in 
the air by flocks of gulls, gannets, and other marine birds, which conti- 
nually hover about them, and announce their approach to the expectant 
fisheiman. ' 

To keep up this abundant supply, and to provide against all the drains 
which were intended to be made upon it, nature has bestowed on the her- 
ring a corresponding fecundity, the spawn of each female comprehending 
from thirty to forty thousand eggs. Whether these eggs are deposited in 
the soft and oozy banks of the deep sea, abounding with marine worms and 
insects, and affording food for winter's consumption, or whether they lie 
within the arctic circle, amidst unremitting frost, and six months perpe- 
tual darkness, is yet a doubtful point ; but the former will probably be 
considered as the less objectionable conjecture. 

The esculent fish, next of importance to the herring, in a national point 
ef view, is the Cod fish, which is also considered among the number of 
those which migrate from the north, in a southerly direction, to nearly the 
same degree of latitude as the herring. But there is reason to believe that 
its constant residence is on the rough and stony banks of the deep sea, and 
that it is rarely found beyond the arctic circle, and there only sparingly, 
and in the summer months. On the great bank of Newfoundland, on the 
coasts of Iceland, Norway, Shetland, and the Orkney Islands, on the 
Well-bank, the Dogger-bank, the Broad Forties, on the northern, western, 
and southern coasts of Ireland, the cod is most abundant, and of the best 
quality : in some or other of these situations, the fisheries may be carried 
on with certain success, and to great advantage, from November to Mid- 
summer. On the western coasts of Scotland and Ireland, all the different 
species of the cod genus, usually known under the name of white fish, are 
plentifully dispersed. Every bank is, in fact, an inexhaustible fishery ; for, 
with fewer enemies than the herring to prey upon it, the cod is at least a 
hundred times more productive. The fecundity of this fish, indeed, so 
far exceeds credibility, that had it not been ascertained by actual experi- 
ment, and on the best possible authority, it would have been considered as 
fabulous to assign to the female cod from three to four millions of eggs. 

Not only the Hake, sometimes known by the name of " Poor John," 
but more commonly by that of stock-fish, and the Ling, are to be reckoued 
among the valuable products of the British fisheries, especially as articles 
of foreign consumption, but we may also include the Haddock} wine's is 



15)0 

another species rtf cod, as equally important for the supply of the liom'S 
market. Haddocks assemble in vast shoals during the winter months, in 
every part of the northern ocean, and bend their course generally to the 
southward, proceeding beyond the limits of the cod and the herring; hu: 
it is remarked, that they neither enter the Baltic nor the Mediterranean. 
The two dark spots a little behind its head are supposed to have gained the 
haddock, in days of superstition, the credit of being the fish which St. 
Peter caught with the tribute money in its mnuth, in proof of which the 
impression of ths Saint's finger and thumb lias been entailed on the whole 
race of haddocks ever since. Unfortunately, however, for the tradition, 
the haddock is not a Mediterranean fish, nor can we suppose it to have 
belonged to the lake of Tiberias. The truth is, the Italians consider a very 
different fish as that which was sanctified by the Apostle, and which, after 
him, they honour with the name of 11 Jdnitot-e, u name that \ve have con- 
verted into Johnny Dory, with the same happy ingenuity that has twisted 
Hie giranolp) or turnsol, into a Jerusalem artichoke. 

Several other kinds of white fish, as Turh'bt, Plaice, Sole, and Whitings, 
are plentifully dispersed over various parts- of the British seas, so ns to 
afford an ample supply for the home market, the whok year round, with- 
out the smallest danger of that snipply being exhausted or diminished. 

The Mackerel fishery IM the KriL-h'-h Channel continues about four inonihs 
in the year, commencing in .April or M'ay. This tod is a fish of passage, 
tut, contrary to the course of the herring, is supposed to visit the .British 
seas in large shoals from the southward. The mackerel is chiefly caught 
for immediate consumption, but is sometimes pickled for winter use. Its 
fecundity is very great, each Female depositing, at least, half a million 
of eggs. 

1*1)6 Pilchard, like the herring, of which it is a species, is a fish of 
passage. It makes its appearance, in vast shoals, on the coasts of Devon- 
Shire and Cornwall, aiid in the neighbourhood of the Scilly Islands, from 
July to September. About the time that the pilchards are expected on the 
Coast, a number of men called huers, po^t themselves on the heights tn 
took out for their approach, which is indicated by a change in the colour 
of the water. The boats, in the mean while, with their nets prepared, 
are held in momentary readiness to push forth in the direction pointed 1 
out to them by die biters. On the coast of Cornwall alone, fifty or sixty 
thousand hogsheads of this fish are annually salted for home consumption. 

But of all others the Salmon rusty, perhaps, be considered as the king of 
fishes; and no part of Europe is more bountifully supplied with it than the 
coasts of Great Britnin and Ireland. At certain seasons of the year, whole 
shoals of this noble fish approach to the mouths of rivers, which thry- 
ascend to Considerable distances, surmounting every obstacle, in order to 
find a safa and convenient spot to deposit their Spawn. From January to 
September they are in high 3' aso'n, but in some part or other of the co;ist 
are fit for use every mouth in the year. The salmon fishery is of great 
value, whether for home consumption or exportation. Prodigious quanti- 
ties are consumed ffesh iw the London market, and in almost all the sen- 
i&ort towns in JEft^toftd, Ifeland, Scotland, and Wales ; btit a far greater 



ANECDOTES, &C. 191 

quantity is salted, dried, or pickled in vinegar. The lochs antf friths of 
Scotland and Ireland arc visited by salmon iu such copious shoals, that 
more than a thousand fish have sometimes been takeo at a single draught. 
The two most productive fisheries are that of the Tweed, ae^r Berwick, 
jind (if the ann, near Coleraine ; at the latter of which, Mr. Young savs; 
1,450 salmon have been taken at one drag yf a single uei. The salmon 
jalso frequents die coasts of Norway and Iceland in the summer months iu 
prodigious quantities. Hooker describes the salmon fishery iu the river 
Lax FJbe on the latter island, where women, as well as men, took with tiiek 
hands, in a few hours, 2,200 salmon. { ,i , 

The banks of the North Sea, the rocky coasts of the Orkneys, and 
the eastern shores of Britain afford, in abundance, two articles of luxury 
for the London market, though but .sparingly drawn from those sources; 
we allude to the Turbot and Lobster. For a supply, however, of the former, 
we have always had recourse to the Dutch, to whom we paid about 80,000/. 
a year ; and for about a million of the latter, taken on the coast of .Nor- 
way, the Danes drew from us about 15,0001. a year ; for Eels we gave the 
Putch about 5,000/, a yea--. These fisheries are calculated to give employ- 
ment to not less than 10,000 seamen. 

Even the Oyster fishery supplies the market of the metropolis with an 
article of nutritious food for eight months in the year ; anu if cultivated 
with the same care ia the neighbourhood of Chichester, Portsmouth, 
Southampton, Plymouth, the coasts of Wales, and among the Hebrides, 
as it is at Colchester, Milton, Feversham, &c. there is not a town in Great 
Britain which might not bes abundantly supplied with oysters as the Lon- 
don market. 

NEPTUNE, CUPID, AUD HYMEN. 

Dundee, February 25. Two faithful lovers were united in the hymeneal 
bands on Monday, after a c lurtship and separation of more than ordinary 
length. The happy husband had just returned, with honourable scars and 
spoils, from the sea, where, in his country's service, he had spent the last 
five-and-twenty years of his life, without having once seen or writteq to, 
or received a letter from, his love. The disconsolate lady, now the blith- 
some bride, in the mean time supported herself with the wages of honest 
industry. About the middle of last week, she was astonished and de- 
lighted at the re-appearance of her long lost sailor, whose first care, on 
returning to this his native place, was to discover the mistress of his youth- 
ful affections. We need not say with what raptures she listened to the 
renewal of his suit. The bans of marriage were proclaimed on Sunday, 
the nuptials were celebrated on the day following, and the parties are now 
solacing themselves with a matrimonial pleasure jaunt. Their ages are 
alike ; and, united, amount to 106. 

CONGELATION OF THE BRITISH SEA. 

ON Monday, the 24th January, was witnessed, on the Solway Frith, a 
singular phenomenon. The Channel, from the English side to Scotland, 
was a complete body of ice, without any opening, even for a boat to pass, 



192 NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C. 

resembling in appearance a vase plain covered with rugged frozen snow. 
It extended as tar to the westward as below Workington, and presented a 
most singular aspect. 

Upon this subject, a Maryport Correspondent also writes us as follows: 
" The Solway Frith and Channel towards the Isle of Man, for the whole of 
last week, presented a phenomenon never before witnessed by the oldest 
inhabitant. While the tide was making, all to the northward of Working- 
ton seroed like a large plain covered with hillocks of snow, and on the 
ebbing of the tide, this scene was exhibited till the eye met thp horizon. 
On Monday last, the revenue boat, stationed at Whitet.aven, inane an 
attempt to visit Maryport, to which place it got within about a mile, when 
it was enveloped among innumerable lumps of ice, some of which were 
from seven to 10 feet in thickness. The boat was obliged to return to 
Whitehaven. The oldest seamen say they never saw such a field of ice 
(as they term it) but in high northern latitudes, or on the banks of New- 
foundland." 

GALLANT ACTION. 

ACCOUNT of a gallant action between the merchant ship Hibernia, of 
London, Captain John Lennon, with sir guns and 22 men and boys, and 
the Comet American privateer, of 14 guns and 125 men : 

" St. Thomas's, January 27M, 1814. 

" Captain Crabtree, of the brig Wasp, arrived here the 10th inst. 
from London. He states, that he fell in with a privateer to the west- 
ward of Saba, on the 9th instant ; which, supposing the Wasp to be a man 
of war, made sail from her upon being chased. This privateer has for some 
time past been cruising to intercept the outward-bound ships for this 
island and St. Croix, and would no doubt have done much mischief, but 
for the very gallant conduct of Captain Lennon, and his ship's company. 

" The Hibernia fell in with her on the llth, having only tn'cnh/-luo 
men and boys on board, and six guns. The privateer (we learn from Porto 
Rico, where she is now refitting) is the Comet, of Baltimore, Captain Boyle, 
mounting fourteen 12-pounders, and carrying 125 men. Against this very 
superior force, Captain Lennon and his little ciew bravely defended the 
Jliberuia, for nine hours, the greatest part of which time the two vessels 
were on board of each other. The situation of the Hibernia, when she 
came into port, shewed the effects of the tremendous fire which tbe enemy 
must have kept up ; not a sail which was bent escaped the enemy's shot, 
and her spars and rigging are much destroyed. Out of the small comple- 
ment of 22, one man was killed, and 11 wounded ; the latter, I am happy 
to say, are all doing well. 

' Too much praise cannot be given to Captain Lennon for his con- 
duct during this arduous undertaking ; at the latter part of the action, he 
had only two or three men left, besides himself, at the guns: he has fortu- 
nately escaped, but has received several contusions, and had two musket* 
balls through his hat. The captain of the Comet acknowledges having 
three men killed and 1 1 wounded, but it is generally supposed he must have 
lost more." 



NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C. 193 

FORCING OF THE WEST SCHELDT. 

SHORTLY after the Forth and Nyrnphen frigates had penetrated into the 
West Scheldt, and passed the batteries of Flushing and Cadsand without 
loss, certain movements of the enemy, both at Antwerp and Flushing, ren- 
dered it necessary to send a reinforcement into that branch of the river, to 
support our frigates, in the eveiUof an unequal contest. About the llth of 
February, the Antelope, of 60 guns, the Sweabourg Russian frigatt, and 
Resolution cutter to lead, were despatched from the Roompot, to lie at the 
entrance of the Wieland channel, and be ready to make a dash into the 
West Scheldt, as soon as circumstances proved favourable. It so hap- 
pened, however, that a series of easterly winds set in, and completely pre- 
cluded any attempt till the 1st of March. About mid-day (March J) the 
wind veered from S. to S.S.W. and cleared ; and the ships prepared to 
weigh anchor. The enemy seemed aware of our intention, and tried the 
range of their shot between Flushing and Cadsand. On the latter island a. 
strong buttery (Buonaparte) has been erected since our last expedition, 
mounting the heaviest ordnance ; in fact, it is now ascertained that nearly 
200 pieces of cannon, including mortars, can play upon the passage into 
the West Scheldt, which is precisely three miles from shore to shore. At 
40 minutes past three the ships weighed, and in 18 minutes the Wulpirt 
battery opened a heavy fire upon us. At 4. 10. we were abi'east of the 
point of Breskins, when forts Buonaparte and Imperial opened on one side, 
and at the same instant the batteries of Flushing on the other. The Ante- 
lope and Sweabourg now commenced a well-directed cannonade on the 
Cadsand batteries, along which they ran pretty close, in consequence of 
the wind being so scant, that they were obliged to haul their bowlines on 
the starboard tack. This running fight continued about half an hour, 
without any material injury to our ships. The Antelope, however, re- 
ceived many shot ; and one, from the Imperial battery on CudsaiuJ, which 
penetrated through the hammocks on the starboard side of the poop, and 
went out through the bulwark on the other side, was very destructive; it 
carried off both legs of a Dutch pilot, who was standing on the poop, and 
waiting to take charge of the ship, as soon as she should get past the Hoog- 
plat ; two other men (a sailor and t marine) each lost a leg by the same 
ball, which also wounded several others, but not severely. The frigate lost 
no men, nor had any wounded ; and the Resolution cutter had only her 
gaff top-sail shot away by a shell from off Flushing, which occasioned hc-r 
to fall astern of the ships, instead of leading a-head, and directing their 
course by her soundings. 

A little before five o'clock, it being thick and hazy, the Antelope unfor- 
tunately grounded on the hook of the Hoog-plat, and nearly at the same 
time the frigate also took the ground astern of the Antelope. In ten mi- 
nutes the wind shifted, all at once, round to W.N.VV. and blew fresh, with 
a strong flood-tide right upon the shoal. The stream anchor was got out, 
but the wind and tide counteracted all attempts to heave off the ship. At 
high tide the ship was shored up, and yards and top- masts struck. Next 

. fffrron. ttol.XXXI. c c 



194 NAUTICAL ANECJ>OTESj &C. 

day, March 12, the Cretan and Banterer came to our assistance ; snd at 
high water all sail was made in order to force her over the shoal, but 
without success. The Sweabourg, however, got off, and anchored in 
deep water. All this day, while the crew were using every exertion to 
lighten the ship, the shells from a battery to the westward of Rammekins 
were falling in every direction round the ship, the officers a'.id men exhi- 
biting the most undaunted courage and firmness in this trying scene, and 
never for an instant interrupting their labours. Meanwhile the Nymphen 
frigate, Captain Hancock, anchored close ahead of the Antelope, and 
within range of shot from Walcheren: and the end of her bovver cable was 
got on board the Antelope, for the purpose of heaving her off, if possible, 
next high water. The enemy now redoubled his fire, and shot and shells 
were incessantly poured at the Nymphen and Antelope ; but, strange to 
say, without producing any material effect. One ahcll burst in the centre 
ofaclustre of boats, without injuring a single person ! The undaunted 
boats' crews only returned three huzza's, and coolly went on with their 
work. 

AH efforts were this day also ineffectual, and even in the night the enemy 
kept up their fire from the mortar batteries. On the 3d of March, at ten 
in the forenoon, the ship was fortunately hove off, amid showers of shot 
and shells, without much injury, and to the utter mortification of the 
enemy, who considered her as lost. Too much praise cannot be bestowed 
on Captain Butcher, his officers and men, for their steady courage and 
unwearied exertions; while Commodore Owen and Mr. Douglas (master of 
the fleet, who went in the Antelope) most ably and judicidu&ly united their 
efforts in the common cause. Captain Hancock displayed his usual zeal 
and ability in placing the Nymphen in an admirable though dangerous 
situation, for heaving the Antelope off the shoal. Admiral Scott, from 
South Beveland, arrived on board at the instant of her starting from her 
position. Thus this boasted and narrow channel, bristled on each side 
with cannon of the widest calibre, was forced in the open day; and when 
misfortune threw our ships into a situation (the most galling of all others) 
where they could not return their adversary's fire, it only proved the 
touchstone of Anglo-Russian bravery, and taught our enemies what they 
may expect when, in future wars, new Nelsons shall rise to perpetuate the 
invincibility of the British navy. 

NAVAL PREACHING. 

A CLERGYMAN, preaching in the neighbourhood of Wapping, observing 
that most of his audience were in the seafaring way, very naturally em- 
bellished his discourse with several nautical tropes and figures. Amongst 
other things, he advised them to be ever on the watch, so that upon what- 
ever Jack the devil should btar down upon tfam, he might be crippled in 
action. " Aye, Master," cried ;i jolly son of Neptune, " but let me tell 
JOL'., that will depend upon your having the weather-gage of them*" 



195 
CORRESPONDENCE. 



MR. EDITOR, ISf/t November, 1813. 

TTTlGHLY important as is the consideration of every thing relating to the 
*-* good of the naval service, it must be allowed, even by the men of 
office themselves, that much remains at this moment to be done for the im- 
provement of every part of this widely extended system. To call the atten- 
tion of thobe at the Admiralty Board to this highly necessary duty (of which 
they are beginning now to be aware), has been the aim and intention of 
several of your able and zealous Correspondents, whose anxious wishes for 
the good of that highly honourable service to which they belong, or of 
which they *re admirers, cannot, I maintain, be doubted. They have done 
more than barely state the necessity of reform ; they have, in many in- 
stances, pointed out the means and way of making it; nor will it be denied 
that their suggestions and animadversions (severe as they may occasionally 
prove) have been of use. Together with some of these valuable Cor- 
respondents, I have endeavoured to point out the propriety and necessity 
of some change in the constitution of the Board of Admiralty, which cer- 
tainly ought to be composed entirely of naval members, with perhaps the 
exception of the First Lord ; this is but a reasonable demand and expecta- 
tion of our naval officers, and I am inclined to think will not much logger 
be withheld ; so completely is the public voice -and opinion in favour of this 
great and necessary change, that I take leave of the subject, hoping, 
when the present land Lords have had their day, to see their places tilled 
by men who have first directed the operations of British fleets on the 
ocean, and whose experience and scientific knowledge give them a greatly 
superior claim to seats at the naval helm. At the present moment, I am 
glad to observe, there appears a decided intention of the Admiralty Board 
to follow up the suggestions and hints thrown out to them for improve- 
ment. I noticed the other day a paragraph in the newspapers, stating the 
appointment of two excellent officers (captains) to superintend the outfic 
and equipment of our men of war ; and it was added, they were to reside 
at Plymouth; now I could not for a moment doubt, that the appointment 
of these wo'rthy officers was, in some degree, owing to the able communica- 
tions of your Correspondents, Impartial, Iron Gun, &c. &c and am 
inclined to think it very proper ; alt.'iough I cannot exactly understand, 
how officers residing at Plymouth can superintend the outfit of ships at 
Portsmouth, and in the river; but, no doubt, they will move from place to 
place, or perhaps other officers be appointed at the other great na-val j.ons; 
at any rate, 1 consider that it will be highly useful, and will give employ^ 
ment to some deserving officers; although at the same time I consider that 
it is part of the port admiral's duty to superintend the outfit of ships newly 
commissioned. Whilst speaking of the outfit of our men of war, it will 
not be improper to mention the very inferior class of line-of battle shi0s 
built in our merchant yards ; I mean in point of durability. The Blake, on$ 
of these, only five years old, is already so unfit for service, as to ue or- 



195 CORRE620MDEKCE, 

dered to be fitted for 3 receiving Mp ; the Rodney, another of them, only 
three years old, has been scarcely twelve months at sea, met with no acci- 
dent, and yet is now undergoing great repairs before she can be commis- 
sioned ; tliQ Dublin, only two years old, has also undergone repairs, with- 
out suffering damage ; and the Anson, launched twelve months ago, is be- 
lieved, although a new ship, to be unworthy of being commissioned, until 
some time hence she can be decently ordered to be repaired fur commission. 

I am far from meaning to say, that we can uphold our present naval 
establishment, without the assistance of private builders; but surely, if 
the foregoing instances are correct, or nearly so, there must be some great 
neglect or fault on the part of the Commissioners ot the Navy, which 
ought to be looked into and remedied ; that the ships in question were 
built too rapidly will most probably be urged as the excuse; but surely it 
is no adequate one : for six or seven years past, we have had no occasion 
for this destructive rapidity in building, although, at the beginning of the 
\var, I am sensible it was most important for ships to be built as fast as 
possible. Within the present year, we have seen unexampled despatch in 
building twenty new frigates, from 36 to 50 guns ; they were undoubt- 
edly wanted as fast as possible, and, being of fir, can only last for a c.rtaia 
number of years-; in this case we know the sacrifice we make, which is 
necessary, and far less than in the case of liive-of-battlc ships. 

Before concluding, I beg to mention the high sense I entertain of the 
advantages to be derived, in obtaining and waking able seamen, from the 
judicious hints and suggestions of your mzc Correspondent Barney, whom 
I hope to see again appearing in your useful pages. Much is to be done 
for our gallant tars, whom we must learn to nurse and reward adequately ; 
and his plan would form no contemptible beginning to the grand system 
of amelioration. If the extracts you have given from Lieutenant flodgskipsV 
book describe what -may exist, what undoubtedly has existed, and 1 fear 
no& actually dots in some ships, who will say that our naval code of disci- 
pline does not want, docs not imperiously call for, revision ? Let discipline 
subxi& f , but let tyranny and oppression exist no longer. I maintain, it is 
disgraceful that it should. " Fiat juttilia, et ruat caslum," . 

NESTOR. 

**~^^r> 

MR. EDITOR, Glasgow, ls< March, 1814. 

THE feelings of Britons nre agnm touched by the unfortunate action on 
Lake Erie ; and the letter of the brave but unsuccessful Captaia 
Jfetrclay ;<gain rouses us by the achievements of our American toes. 

In contemplating the statement of this engagement, it is pleasing to ob- 
serve, tha| neither individual bravery nor general exertion were o.n our 
part wanting; but an unlucky combination of circumstances, the number 
of the enemy's men, and the weight of his metal, effected what superior 
^oumue could not avert, nor much nautical skill avoid. 

What \ mean principally to observe at present, however, is, Captain 
Barclay's observation, by which he attributes the capture of his squadron 
jn % great tneasiueto the. eqeii^'s having the weathcr-jrnge. The importauco 



CORRESPONDENCE. 197 

of -this position has been often dwelt upon; and the many benefits which 
belong ID it arc so obvious, that I shall not at present repeat them : how- 
ever, to set on foot an inquiry, how, in certain cases, it may he obtained, 
will, 1 trust, be deemed of sufficient importance to merit a place in the 
NAVAL CHRONICLE. 

Your readers are, probably, acquainted with the invention attributed to 
Admiral Schank ; namely, that of sliding keels ; the complete success Of 
which has been proved by the manner in which the Lady Nelson, a brig of 
sixty tons, performed a voyage to New South Wales, entered and made 
several discoveries in Bass' Straits, and returned again to Europe; and 
also by the Experiment made by the Trial cutter, of less dimensions than 
the former, which, although of a very flat construction, beat upon a wind 
several of II. RI. Ships, the KingVFisher brig, and the Nimble, Sprightly, 
and Ranger cutters. 

Although this invention may be attended with inconvenience in very 
large ships, yet [ doubt not, in any of those which Captain Barclay com- 
manded, it would have been found of the greatest consequence; for it not 
only enables a flat vessel to go to windward with equal facility as a 
sharp one, but also can at anytin:e be made to supply the place of a> rudder; 
the raising or depressing the keels in a particular manner having the same 
power upon the ship as a helm. This again would have been of much ser- 
vice in the Lake Erie engagement ; for Captain B. expressly attributes his 
loss, in part, to the Lady Prevost having her rudder injured, and being 
thus prevented from joining the Queen Charlotte, which vessel she ought 
to have supported. 

The many prejudices which exist amongst seamen against any deviation 
from the good old way, is probably the reason of these keels not being 
more generally in use ; yet I am convinced, a fair trial would sufficiently 
shew their advantages ; which, besides those formerly pointed out, are, 
the manner in which they contribute to the certainty of a vessel's putting 
about. The Lidy Nelson, in all her voyage, only missed stays once, and 
this may be fairly attributed to the vessel being ill managed at the time : 
the keels can also be hove up at pleasure, and thus give a flat vessel all the 
advantages which such a mould possesses in going large : when they are 
down, ,and the vessel at anchor, they add much to her steadiness. 

These are only a few of the advantages which this invention gives a 
vessel; yet they are such as, in my opinion, ought not lobe overlooked. 
The opinion of some of your readers might be very useful, in bringing the 
subject into notice, and would confer a favour on your constant reader and 
obedient servant, C. II. 

MR. EDITOR, February 1814. 

THE rapid succession of glorious events, which have emerged Europe 
from its lung thraldom, and which hold out to happy Britain, a pros- 
pect of the full harvest of her persevering exertions, may possibly be 
conceived to make the subject on which I have entered, of inferior 
importance. Itegutuioiis, it may be said, for dismantling of our fleets, and 



198 CORRESPONDENCE. 

the discharge of our seamen, would be more seasonable, than suggestions 
for the better organization of the otie, and for measures of incitement to 
the other. 

On the ground, however, that any treaty with the inveterate Corsican, 
will be but precarious surety for the repose of Europe, bt't more especially 
of this kingdom, I shall not deviate materially from the track which I had 
marked out for myself. Besides, whether in war or peace, alterative 
institutions are strenuously to be recommended ; indeed, the latter may be 
the preferable period of the two, that, by progressively arranging and ap- 
plying them, we may find ourselves, at the commencement of another war, 
with a renovated naval constitution : in its present state, I much doubt the 
practicability of keeping up, by -volunlary service, even a peace estab- 
lishment. 

To resume ; the topic of bounty, with which I concluded my last letter, 
might well sanction a much more lengthened exposition than I have given 
it; for its strange disparity in the two services strikes me to be one of the 
chief props of impressment. It certainly is a cause of landsmen, and 
those but slightly initiated in nautical knowledge, so decidedly selecting the 
army; and the modern practice may also be chiefly attributed to it, of 
seamen, of all classes, being found in regimental ranks. 

From a desire to avoid prolixity, I will refrain from dwelling further on 
this most material theme : the basis on which I have reasoned is undeniably 
correct, and must, of itself, be amply sufficient to convince the many, of the 
untenable foundation on which this dissimilitude of bounty rests. I shall 
feel indebted to any of the worthy correspondents or readers of the Naval 
Chronicle, who will produce one solid reason for bounties being continued 
in their present state, or one equitable objection to their being equalized. 

The third point I shall introduce to notice, is of ea?y attainment, but 
not less necessary to be adopted. It is the custom of withholding from 
petty officers and seamen all portion of their pay, whilst serving abroad, 
however long such service may be, and under whatever circumstances. 

Here, again, I may instance the army for a direct contrary system ; and, 
in truth, it is not easy to comprehend why, in almost every case, the sailor 
is placed under such comparative disadvantage to his contemporary fol- 
lows in arms. If the two professions were, in their leading establishments 
and incitements, on a similar scale, they might then, at least, be advocated 
0:1 the ground of reciprocity and impartiality ; and being nothing in the one 
to expose the imperfections of the other, we might have the credit or con- 
solation of acting on wrong principles with our eyes shut : hut, as they 
now stand, Sir, the departure from equity is doubly great, and doubly glar- 
ing. It is wrapping one arm in flannel, and exposing the other to the 
inclemency of the weather : can we then wonder at its sinews and compor 
nent parts becoming relaxed and enervated. 

The soldier, unless impracticable from insurmountable causes, is punc* 
tually paid monthly; the sailor, from the period of leaving England, to his 
return, receives no part of his pay, although he is commonly three, four, or 
five years absent. This being the true state of the case, let us first see, what 
can be advanced against a nearer approximation, I can anticipate but 



CORRESPONDENCZ. 199 

two objections that it would withdraw the check on desertion from ships 
abroad, and that, frorn the different nature of the services, money is not 
so essentially required by the seamen. 

In answer to these, I will concede a little to both, inasmuch as the prone- 
ness (which I have invariably laboured to press into notice) to run from the 
navy, is certainly too great to take off preventive restraints too suddenly, 
and arrears of pay are neither so fully or so frequently called for. Hence, 
I will not argue for the exact same system being established as in the army, 
but will confine myself to contending against the notorious extremes of the 
existing regulations. 

The plea of giving facility to desertion, would gradually be obviated, by 
the alterative measures I am in the course of recommending, which, by en- 
gendering improved feelings and better motives, would mitigate the weari- 
ness of maritime duties, and give birth to that desideratum, professional 
attachment and partiality in the lower orders. 

As to the second objection which I have supposed, that seamen have lit- 
tle use for money abroad, there is a wide difference between wanting 
but little, and their not having any. Naval officers need not to be informed, 
that their crews being enabled to manage at all tolerably, as they are now 
circumstanced, on foreign stations is, by trafficking slops, provisions, or 
tobacco, for articles of clothing or refreshment ; a practice which, although 
a breach of regulations, their superiors are either induced to wink at, or 
cannot prevent. 

If I may venture to go further than reason against the system as it now 
stands, and to suggest specific improvement, it would be shortly this. 

Petty officers and seamen to receive annually, whilst abroad, sir 
months pay ; to take date from the last payment in England ; to be under 
the superintendence and charge of the resident naval commissioners of 
dock-yards, on foreign stations, and to be distributed at that port only 
at which such commissioners reside. To some such arrangement as this, 
I can conceive no adverse argument which could be conformable to justice, 
without losing sight of caution. 

I cannot conclude this letter, without thanking you, Mr. Editor, for 
placing in your Chronicle the feeble, but honest, effusions of my pen ; it 
shall never knowingly trace a sentence discordant to its pages, or incon- 
sistent with its views that of wishing to advance the honour and welfare 
of the British navy. AEOLUS. 

P.S. I hope the coincidence of opinion, which Nestor expresses, will not 
be interrupted ; but regret that I should have interfered with his intention, 
of communicating his ideas on the important subject in which I am en- 
gaged. I am fully sensible of the value of his continued estimation. 



MR. EDITOR, Halifax, Noun Scotia, 1st February, 1814. 

I HEREWITH send you a plan of mine which was carried into execution, 
for raising the merchant brig Bcllona, of 200 tons, which vessel sunk 
in the best anchorage of this port, on the 12th November last, in 12 fathoms 



200 CORRESPONDENCE. 

water : the said vessel had on board a full cargo, very few buoyant article* 
in it, and upwards of 40 tons of ballast, iron and shingle." Mr. Robert 
Gibson, flag lieutenant to Rear-admiral Grifh'th, superintended the whole 
process ; to his great perseverance in a very inclement season am I indebted 
for the complete success with which it was crowned, the Bellona being 
carried on shore, and her cargo got out ; the rise at spring tides in this 
harbour seldom exceeds 5 or 6 feet ; the Bellona was sunk in me mud so 
much, that only six feet of her hull a midships was above tin- b.ittom : the 
vessels used were two of 160 tons each, and two schooners of 40 snul GO 
tons each ; the cables l-l| inches, and 1S| inches. Had I been furnished 
with vessels calculated to heave a great strain, like our mooring lighters in 
England, the Bellona could have been hove up to the surface, without the 
assistance of tide. You will perceive, by the plan pursued, cables might 
have been placed, if necessary, every six feet, and of any size: two Ime- 
of- battle ships, with trunks and holes through their bottoms near the keel, 
would lift three thousand tons, the precaution being observed or' heaving 
every cable taught separately, to a certain strain, and marked. A first 
rate of smaller class displaces, with every denomination of stores and ord- 
nance on board, including provisions, weight of men, &c. &c. &c. about 
3,900 tons; under the surface, the difference between the space such a 
ship would occupy, and the gravity of water, would be about 900 tons ; 
to this is to be added cohesion, which increases daily where the bottom 
is soft. 

The feasibility of raising any ship that has not been long under water, 
must appear obvious to every one, and I hope this simple plan in a like 
disaster may be the means of recovering valuable property. 

I remain, your most obedient servant, 

EDWARD FAIRFAX, Master Attendant. 

Mr. FAIRFAX'S Plan to get up Vessels that Founder in Harbour, Kith the 
Process observed in raising the Brig Bellona, which sunk in Halifax Har- 
bour on the I'lth November, 1813. 

1st. A small vessel was placed on the wreck over the centre as near as 

possible. 
2d. The large vessels employed had anchors, with Inrge hawsers, carried 

out 250 fathoms from wreck ; one a- head, the other a-stein, as near 

on the line of the keel as possible. 
3d. The vessels were now placed twenty fathoms from the wreck cables 

clinched and well greased. 
4th. Small buoy ropes ,same length as depth of water, and red buoys, were 

attached to the clinches ; also, to the end of * loO fathoms of rope ; 

a pig of ballast was fastened four feet from each clinch ; likewise a pig 

of ballast seven fathoms from each clinch, with a buoy rope and 

black buoy. > 

5th. The bottom r.ear the wreck was examined with creepers, and found 

clear ; mark buoys were then placed sixteen fathoms distance (all 

round; from the wreck. 



CORRESPONDENCE, 201 

6th. The cables were carried outside of the mark buoys; the end of one 
and clinch of the other on board each vessel ; when rove, they were 
Jotvered down by the * rope mentioned No. 4 ; when at the bottom 
marked buoys were taken up. 

7th. The cables were now paid out, and each vessel was warped one hun- 
dred and forty fathoms from the wreck, by the hawsers mentioned 
No. 2, which were laid out for this purpose. 

^th. When arrived at 140 fathoms from wreck, the cables (or hawsers 
Jast to them) were gradually hove taught on board each vessel, and 
clinches eased away and kept in a proper direction by the ropet fast to 
them, mentioned in No. 4. 

9th. When the red buoys that were attached to the clinches came close to 
the head and stern of the wreck (which was easily known by the 
IcaJ), and a strain hove upon the cables so as to cause the black 
buoys (mentioned in No. 4) to Come witiiins 25 feet of each other; 
then, and not till then, were the two largest vessels allowed to approach 
and heave a perpendicular strain. 

I Oth. The same process as before-mentioned was again followed, and the 
vessel swept on the broadside, with the inteniion to assist in lifting; 
and at the same time keep the wreck upright. 

llth. All the cables were now hove taught at very low water, and a pur. 
chase made fast to the hawser out of the stern of the vessel that had 
the head cable in ; this purchase was hoveu taught (being in the same 
direction of the keel) with the intention to loosen her in her bed, and 
let the air get between her bilge and the bottom ; on the second day 
the air bubbles at half tide shewed this point was accomplished ; at 
high water the Belloua was removed from her bed. 

12th. The cables were hoven taught every low water (weather would per- 
mit), and the wreck carried into shoaler water daily, until placed in a 
situation to get the cargo out. 

UftUK0M 

MR. EDITOR, \5th February, 1814. 

7"1~1 BE difference of opinion, which appears to subsist between Impartial 
-* (whose communications are in general valuable) and myself, relative 
to the Lords of the Admiralty being all naval men, or of the appointment 
of a subordinate board of naval officers, if the present system of having the 
greatest proportion of the Board of Admiralty civilians, is continued, might 
not perhaps have led to any reply on my part, had not this writer set out 
with the declaration, thnt, " as his motives were pure and impartial, lie dirt 
yot hold the same opinion which I had given, and \\hich he supposed might 

* To catch a vessel that is sunken iu twelve fathoms water, and her gunwales 
onl} six feet above the bot'om (which was the case with the brig Beilona), it was 
necessary to go to this distance, as trigonometry will erplain. 

f Siveti fathoms from clinches, where black buoys were placed, wasfcalftha 
length of the Brllor.a ; 25 feet her breadth. 

, (Bol. XXXI. DC 



$02 CpaRESPQSDEKCE. 

be attributed to turn ; however little interest the public may take, either in 
his insinuation, or ray declaration, as the subject in question is no further 
interesting tome, than as a well-wishar to my country, and the naval pro- 
fession, and as the pure and impartial motives which no doubt actuate 
him, have an equally firm root in my mind, it is proper I should make this 
assertion ; and I declare at the same time, that the Board of A y 

can neither reward my humble labours as their defender, nor purchase my 
silence wJien I see cause for animadversion. Let not this writer forget that 
the insinuation and calumniation which he has used, not only against me, 
but also your instructive correspondent, A. F. Y. whose correspondence has, 
(I am certain), been of the greatest consequence to the service, and is likely 
to be of still greater utility, if continued with temper and moderation, 
vliich his judgment and experience will insure. Let not Impartial forget, 
that assertions without proof return with double disgrace on the head of 
Liin who uses them ; and whilst his own motives are pure, which I doubt 
not they are, let him not shoot his darts at random, and insinuate that you 
Lave no honest correspondent but himself. 

Having in former letters given it as my decided, and my honest opinion, 
that there are at present too few naval men at tlie Board of Admiralty, and 
having proposed either to increase their number, or to form a subordinate 
board of naval officers only, to whom the Lords of the Admiralty might 
refer such subjects, as either their time did not allow the mature consi- 
deration of, or on which perhaps their experience did not enable them to 
form correct opinions ; I must be allowed to maintain, that, in either case, 
I can see no cause for fear of jarring and disagree me- tit that is not cominvn 
to every association of men, whose opinions will occasionally be very 
different : but that such a subordinate board (although I greatly prefer the 
plan of an entire naval supreme board) would be useful and advantageous 
to the service, can scarcely admit of a doubt, and that this is the opinion 
of the present Board of Admiralty themselves, is clearly evinced by the 
missions on which they have of late frequently sent officers of talents and 
experience to the out-ports, not only to superintend different services, but 
to report to them the advantages and disadvantages of different plans, &c. 
I miijht also add, that officers in command of ships fitting, &c. have of 
late been very properly employed in examining the utility and advantages 
of different improvements suggested by ingenious men for the good of the 
'service; and certainly the Board of Admiralty deserve much credit for the 
attention they have lately given to these subordinate, although very 
important matters. I know also, that for months past, some of tha 
Lords of the Admiralty have been unremittingly employed in examining the 
different great naval arsenals and dock-yards, with regard to which some 
arrangements, highly important and interesting to the country, must s-oon 
be made. These visits of the Board (or part of it), to the great naval ports, 
are, in my opinion, highly proper; and were the Board wholly composed of 
naval men, it is evident these could be much oftener made, with great 
advantage to the public, whilst at the same time the ordinary routine of 
business at ihe Admiralty would go on as usual, without experiencing an; 
delay or relaxation. From all I can learn on this j.u ! >jecl. 'u'.-re seems t 



CORUESPO.VDENCE. 205 

be but one opinion, that the management of the navy ought to be vested in, 
naval men, with the exception of the First I/ird, who is a cabinet minister, 
nmy with advantage be selected from his rank and influence, and I hope 
his respectable character. Could we have such men as Earl Spencer, or 
several who have followed after him, at the heat! of thut Board, with able 
naval assistants, the service would be unquestionably conducted better. 
Let not, however, the name of the present head of the Bourt) be omitted; 
what his conduct is individually to officers going to the Admiralty I know 
Jiot, but I hope it is not ungracious; if it is, at least he seems to be 
anxious to rectify errors, and redress grievances and abuses, as far as lies in 
his power; and I hope his administration at the Board will, on the whole, be 
marked with vigour and judgment, and a brilliant winding up of our 
differences with America, in the destruction of their annada. I have great 
hopes the appointment of Lord Cochrane to that station will }ead to this 
" what man dares, he dares;" and, however great his zeaf, his judgment 
hath not yet in naval enterprises been far misled. Before I close, allow 
me to advert to ^Eolns's invaluable letters; they are fraught with useful 
suggestions, they are the eiYusions of an honourable and deeply thinking 
mind, guided by prudence, and acting from the best principles which ever 
actuate a Briton and a man: this tribute I think due to his exertions; they 
are truly praiseworthy. NESTOR. 



MR. EDITOR, Newstlls Park, 13th March, 1814. 

HIS Majesty's ship Sir Francis Drake, under my command, arrived at 
St. Helena from Bengal, with convoy and treasure to the amount of 
three hundred thousand pounds, in the month of February, 1813. During 
the stay of the Sir Francis Drake ac St. Helena, for the purpose of com- 
pleting the water of the convoy, H. M.S. President, bearing the flag of 
Vice-admiral Stopford, arrived there on her way to England (the Vice- 
admiral having been superseded in the command at the Cape of G. II. by 
Kear-ndmiral Tyler.) On the arrival of the President, I waited upon the 
Vice-admiral, and, as usual, carried my orders; in one of which was a 
clause, directing me to urge to any officer I might meet, on their return to 
England, or cruising for the protection of the trade, the absolute necessity 
of their affording additional protection to the valuable fleet under my. 
guidance. It may be proper to observe, that the order alluded to was given 
by Vice-admiral Sir Samuel Hood, before it was known in India that war 
had been declared by the United States of America against Great Britain ; 
that the clause alluded to was applicable to the situation of the President, 
I should presume nobody would pretend to deny. 

The Vice-admiral, instead of paying attention to this, although urged 
and repeated to him the ensuing morning, both by the captains of the 
India ships, and by the governor of St. Helena, ordered the treasure to be 
removed into the President, and sailed himself the same evening for 
England, directing me to remain at St. Helena for the arrival of H. M.S. 
Horatio, till the 10th of March : this was given in consequence of my 
request, as the Vice-admiral told me he did not think I should be justified 



204 . CORRESPONDENCE. 

in attending to any requisition from the Governor of St. Helena, to pro- 
ceed alone with the convoy, a measure which I was aware the Governor 
had in contemplation. 

At the time Admiral Stopford delivered to me the order for the removal 
of the treasure, Captain Warren, commanding the President, asked, 
" How are we to arrange the freight ? " I replied (imagining, of course, 
that an officer of the Vice-ad.miral's rank and experience would never have 
given an order that was not only perfectly legal, but also perfectly con- 
sistent with the Osage of the service), that I supposed we were to divide 
it ; and consequently, acting on that principle,'! wrote to my agents, stating, 
that Captain Warren and myself were to divide the freight ; and there, for 
the time, the matter rested, and the President sailed on the same day. 

On my arrival at Deal, ahout the 15th or 16th of May, T found a letter 
from Captain Warren waiting for me at that place, informing me that the 
Court of Directors refufed the payment of the freight, notwithstanding the 
money had been actually delivered, and the original bills of lading duly 
presented by Captain Warren, unless they heard from me ; a 

circumstance in itself strongly proving my right to the whole of it. 

Unfortunately, I did not at the moment observe the full force of their 
meaning; and I answered Captain Warren's letter, by writing to the Court 
of Directors, as he desired, adhering to the verbal agreement between us 
at St. Helena, explaining at the same time to Captain Warren, that the 
only officer of our own rank I had seen, was of opinion that he, Capt. W. 
had no right to a shilling of it. On my landing at Deal, and having fre- 
quent opportunities \>f consulting many officers of equal rank, and many 
who were much superior (and one in particular of very high rank, no\T 
absent on service, who expressed an opinion, that under all the circum- 
stances, it was an unjustifiable act, on the part of Vice-admiral Stopford, 
the ordering the treasure to he removed), and all concurring in its being 
extremely arbitrary, and some deeming it even illegal ; and as far as the 
public service went, although the Vice-admiral's order was prefaced with 
its being essential to his Majesty's government, &c. 1 think there will be 
liut one opinion, that it would have been benefited much more, by bring- 
ing home a fleet, at the very lowest estimation worth three millions sterling, 
than of bringing home.,only three hundred thousand pounds, and detaining 
-so many valuable ships at so long and heavy a demurrage. All these cir- 
cumstances combined, induced me to resist the claim of Captain Warren 
to participate in the freight in question ; and consequently I entered a pro- 
test at the India House, against Captain Warren'sclaim ; and, notwithstand- 
ing my former letter, dated from Deal, written almost at the moment of 
my arrival, recognizing the right of Captain Warren, I had the satisfaction 
of finding my protest immediately attended to; but upon a recent con- 
ference with the legal advisers of Captain Warren, and after a more 
mature consideration of the contents of the letter written by me from Deal, 
I was advised to discontinue the contest ; as that letter plainly inferred the 
existence of an agreement between the captain of the President and myself, 
though made with only a single opinion on the subject, and which, 



"CORRESPONDENCE. 205 

not having kept a copy of it, I did not perfectly recollect the contents of 
when I was first induced to resort to legal advice. 

I trust I have made it evident, that Captain Warren has no right to this 
freight, excepting from my own improvident agreement, made of course 
under the circumstances alluded to in the early part of this statement, and 
that he is only indebted to my inexperience in transactions of this nature 
and to the precipitancy with which I answered his letter which was waiting 
for me at Deal : for under any other circumstances than those alluded to, 
it cannot he supposed I could have consented to an engagement, by which 
I was to lose 1,000/. 

I have been thus minute in endeavouring to elucidate this case, as it is 
one I believe perfectly novel ; and, as I think it may be interesting, and 
perhaps instructive, to the naval service in particular, and especially to 
my brother captains, I have to request you will do me the favour of taking 
an early opportunity to insert it in your useful work, as I am particularly 
solicitous to have it known that I have not in any way compromised their 
interests ; and that, to say the least of it, Admiral Stopford's right to issue 
the order still remains very questionable; and the claim of Captain Warren> 
under any other circumstances than the arrangement I was inadvertent 
enough to enter into so unadvisedly, would be perfectly nugatory. 




Captain R.N. 



MR. EDITOR, 

I HAVE just read an English translation of the two first volumes of my 
Voyage round the World, which were published during the course of 
last summer, by Mr. Murray, of Albemarle-street. As the history of sucli 
a voyage, performed for the first time by Russian ships, will probably be 
-read with some curiosity by officers of the British n*vy, it cannot, of course, 
be a matter of indifference to me, how the account I have given of this ex- 
pedition will he received by them. I am the more concerned about it, as, 
having served myself for several years on board British men of war, I am 
personally known to many, whose good opinion is of infinite value tu me. 
Their more or less favourable opinion of my book will, in a great measure, 
depend on its translation into English being well executed or not ; I regret 
sincerely, that this is done in a manner which makes every apology unne- 
cessary for offering to the attention of my brother officers in the English 
navy the following remarks on that performance, and which I request you 
tu insert in your valuable CHRONICLE. 

The first thing that will strike a seaman, on perusing it, is, that it has been 
translated by one totally ignorant of nautical science ; for there is hardly a 
eingle scientific or technical term that has not been disfigured in the transla- 



206 CORRESPONDENCE, 

tion to such a degree, that frequently the meaning of it cannot be even 
guessed at. It is really surprising that the translator did not cure tr 
procure the assistance of some professional man, which in England could 
by no means be a matter of difficulty; The translator has, besides, been 
guilty of many inaccuracies, the source of which is even not ignorance ot 
the subject, but merely a negligence, which certainly precludes all excuse. 
Although Mr. Hoppner ought to have been sensible of the deficiency of his 
translation with respect to correctness, he nevertheless declares, in a very 
positive manner, to have executed his ta?k " with that precision which he 
conceives to be absolutely necessary in translating a work of this nature, 
and on which indeed its value so mainly depends." Many, then, not 
doubting Mr. Hoppner's precision, will, of course, be tempted to suspect^ 
that what is unintelligible in the translation (and there is a great deal of 
it) must equally be so in the original. It is a duty I owe to myself to ob- 
viate such suspicions : my voyage is written, though in a plain, yet in ;t 
perfectly intelligible manner; and whoever is master either of the Russian 
or the German language, in both of which I have published an account ot 
my voyage, may convince himself of it. But as this assertion of mine 
may not, however, satisfy every body as to the validity of my declaration, 
that the translator has frequently miscomprehended his original, I shall 
point out a few of such passages ; yet confining myself only to what may 
most puzzle a seaman. 

In pointing out some of the inaccuracies of the translation, I shall place 
in one column to the left Mr. Hoppner's words, and opposite to it I shall 
attempt to translate those passages into English as well as I am capable of; 
by doing which I shall aim at nothing but to render them intelligible. But 
previous to it, I may be permitted to insert the whole of that passage (a 
curious one in more than one respect) in the preAtce, in which Mr. Hopp- 
ner speaks of the merit of his translation : 

" The motto which Captain Krusenstern lias prefixed to his book, ' Que les 
roaring crivent mal, &c.' is certainly exemplified in his own instance. The cha- 
racteristic feature of the work is that of accuracy, rather than elegance of 
description. An uncouth stile, and a cold precision of expression, must ever 
preclude the author from ranking with some of our circumnavigator?, who, in 
their descriptions and narratives, have displayed a warmth of colouring, a taste 
and feeling, worthy of the wonderful talents which insured the successful execu- 
tion of new and adventurous voyages. The translator felt, however, that any 
improvement which might bring it nearer to other works of a similar nature, could 
only be effected by a considerable alteration in the stile, and the infusion of some 
little warmth and sentiment into those descriptive parts which would admit of 
it without injury to the sense, or a departure from the truth. But such a step 
wonld have been to assume a licence which he conceived he was by no means 
wnrranted to take ; and, as his aim was to produce a correct, and not n 
amended copy, he had no alternative but to follow the original, with that preci- 
sion which he conceives to be absolutely necessary in translating a work of ihi* 
nature, and on which, indeed, its value so mainly depends." 



207 



First Volume. 



Mr. Hoppner's Translation. 

Introduction, p. xxiv. That ships 
should be scut to the east sea, round 
Cape Horn or the Cape of Good 
Hope, to ihe N.W. coast of America. 

Page 8. An achromatic telescope 
with tripod and equatorial motions, 
for observing on shore the eclipses 
of Jupiter's satellites, which I had 
bespoken, was not sent, but I sup- 
plied the want of the former in 
England. 

Page 9. Tbeir (Burg's lunar ta- 
bles) surprising exactness enabled 
us to ascertain our longitudes within 
a few minutes; while the Ephemcri?, 
calculated according to Mason's lunar 
tables, put us out of our reckoning, 
even in our best observations, nearly 
half a degree. 

Page 54. By these means (cross- 
ing the parallel of the Isl. of St. An- 
tonio in 27 longitude, and then 
steering S.E. b. S. towards the equa- 
tor) they will entirely avoid these 
islands, which are of sufficient mag- 
nitude to alter the direction of the 
trade-wind, for it frequently happens 
that S.YV. winds are met here. Even 
it' this should not be the case, the 
wind is always very moderate in their 
vicinity ; and it cannot therefore be 
of much hinderance to steer 1* more 
to the west than the coarse lies, when 
it is with the certainty of keeping a 
stealy wind. 

Page 55. Although we had lost 
sight of the Island, and were in 27 
of longitude ; the wind blew very 
moderately from the south and east. 
I waited now with impatience for t!ie 
true N.E. trade-wind, that I might 
return to the eastward, which I pro- 
posed to do for about 90, in order 



K. 



That ships should be sent from the 
Baltic round Cape Horn or the Cape 
of Good Hope, to the N.W. coast of 
America. 

Although I had ordered a marine 
dipping-neeille, and an achromatic 
telescope of three feet focus, in order 
to observe on shore the occultations 
of stars and the eclipses of Jupiter's 
satellites, they were not sent out, 
but I supplied the want of them in 
England. 

Their surprising exactness enabled 
as to ascertain our longitude within 
a few minutes ; while the longitudes 
deduced from the Nautical Almanack 
and Connaissance des Terns, calcu- 
lated according to Mason's tables, 
were, even in our best observations, 
frequently wroug by nearly half a 
degree. 

By these rrfbans they will entirely 
avoid these Islands, which are of 
sufficient magnitude to alter the 
direction of the trade-wind, for it 
frequently happens that S.W. winds 
are met with here. But even if this 
should not be the case, the winds are 
always very light in the vicinity of 
these Islands ; it cannot be then con- 
sidered as a loss of time, when a ship 
k^eps 15 out of her course, as s'ne 
is sure of carrying with her a steady 
and a fresh breeze. 



Although we had lost sight of the 
Island, and were in 27 of longitude, 
the winds were very ligld from the 
southward and eastward ; I waited 
with impatience for the true A.K. 
trade-wind, that I might be able to 
get to the eastward, and regain the 
Wth de*ee of longitude, in order to 



208 



CORRESrONDEXCE. 



Mr. Hoppner 1 ! Translation. 

to keep clear of the southerly winds, 
and strong eastward currents, which 
are found in the regions between the 
N.E. and S.E. trade-winds. 

Page 91. At 11 this promontory 
lay as much as we wanted it, in a true 
southward direction. 

Page 92. Probably owing to the 
distance we kept from the land, in 
which I entirely followed Captain 
Cooks advice, never to approach 
this Island nearer than 12 leagues, 
or 36 miles, to secure yourself against 
the strong currents, and not be obliged 
to put in o New Year harbour. 

Page 88. At ten o'clock at night 
Dr. Homer calculated the longitude 
by some altitudes of the Aldebaran 
to be by our waiciies 62 44'. 

Page 109. At a distance of two 
miles from the land we were unable 
to strike ground ; we next found a 
bottom of fine sand in 50 fathoms 
water, and this depth decreased to 15 
J'athoms, when again close along the 
coast it was 35 fathoms. 

Page 149. The longitude of Port 
Anna Maria at the entrance, deduced 
from 42 sets of lunar observations 
taken by Dr. Homer an'l myself, be- 
tween the 29th April and 4th May, 
and from the 4tli to the 7th May at 
noon, by a. mean of the chronometer 
X. 128. reduced to its new rate of 
going, is 139 39' 45" \V. 

Page 187. The current, as I ex- 
pected, setting constantly to the 
westward, Vancouver observed that 
it sometimes set to the northward ; 
and I xvas not a little surprised to 
find -it flow two days following to the 
south, and on the 21st and 22d of 
this month, between the 4th and 6sh 
degree of latitude, 49 miles in the 
direction of S.W. 65. This induced 
r.is to steer another point to tlie N. 
*-d eieu .V. b. W. 



secure ourselves against the southerly 
winds and strong westerly currents, 
which are commonly found between 
the X.E. and S.E. trade-winds. 

At 11 this promontory bore due 
south. 

Probably owing to the distance 
we kept from the land, in which I 
followed Captain Cook's advice, on 
account of the strong currents in the 
vicinity of the Island, not to ap- 
proach it nearer than 12 league's, 
unless you intend to put into New 
Year harbour. 

At 10 o'clock at night Dr. Homer 
calculated the longitude by some 
altitudes of Aldebaran 6i'o 44'. 

Till wt got within 2 miles off the 
land we could get no soundings ; at 
that distance we had 50 fathoms, 
which did not decrease more than 15 
fathoms, for close to the shore we still 
had 35 fathoms. 

The longitude of Port Anna Maria 
we settled at 139 39' 45", from a 
mean of 42 sets of lunar distance* 
observed by Dr. Homer and myself, 
between the 29ih April and 4th iMny, 
and from that day reduced to the 7th 
(the day we entered the bay) by 
N. 128. according to its new regu- 
lated rate. 

The current, as I expected, setting 
constantly to the westward. Ac- 
cording to the observations of Cap- 
tain Vancouver, it also sets to tlie 
northward ; I was therefore not a 
liule surprised, for two days follow- 
ing, the 21st and 22d of this month, 
between the 4th and 6th degree of 
latitude, instead of 8 northerly, to 
find astrongscuthern set, vu.S. 65\V. 
49 miles. This induced me to haul 
up a point more to the 
and to steer N.b.W. 



eORRSSFONDENCE. 



20? 



Mr. Hoppner'fi'jTranslation. 
1'age 202. As the meridian alti- 
tude of the sun on the 22d June, 
would be nearly 90 when the sun is 
very difficult to observe, Dr. Homer 
reckoned before hand the true time 
of noon, and the height thus obtained 
we admitted as that of the meridian. 

Page 205. La Perouse continued 
in the same parallel from 165 5l' 
east longitude of Paris to 179 9 51 ', 
one point from 13 41'. 
*Page 250. As we did not find the 
harbour so much to the south, vis. 
32 32' N. as we expected it to be 
from the general plans, we sailed 
parallel with the coast at a short dis- 
tance from these rocks, of which we 
saw several on the northern coast. 

Page 279. This eclipse could not 
influence our determination of the 
geographical longitude of Nanga- 
saky, which had been much more 
correctly ascertained by a number of 
lunar observations, and by the eclipse 
ff one or two scars, than it could be 
done with our imperfect means ofob- 
terving it. 

Page 294. He (Captain Bornoy) 
has deduced it (the longitude of 
Nangasaky) from the ascertained 
longitude of Tsus-sima, and the dis- 
tance of this Island from Nangasaky ; 
and it appears that he has taken the 
mean of La Perouse's and Brough- 
ton's longitude of the north end of 
Tsus sima, and of Kaeropfer and 
Valentines, 'a* the ground of his meri- 
dian distance. 

Page 306. I have always deter- 
mined the time of the highest flood 
and lowest ehb by corresponding 
altitudes ; and, as I- had several ob- 
servations between each change, I 
could invariably lake the mean of 
them. In the syzigies the time of 
the- highest flood is at 7 h, 52' 4l". 



K. 

As the meridian altitude of the sun 
on the 22d June would he nearly 
90 when the sun is very difficult To 
observe, Dr. Homer previously cal- 
culated the true time of noon, and 
the altitude of the sun taken at that 
moment was admitted as the meridian 
altitude. ;- , 

La Perouse sailed in the same 
parallel from 165 5l' east longitude 
of Paris, to 179 31', a space of 
13 41'. 

Not finding Nangasaky so much to 
the south as it is generally allowed to 
be, viz. 32o 32', we sailed parallel to 
the coast at a short distance from these 
rocks, of which we could perceive 
some even to the northward of the 
bay. 

With respect to {the longitude of 
Nangasaky, the observation of this 
eclipse of the moon was of no mo- 
ment, since it has been determined 
by a great number of lunar dis- 
tances, and several occupations, with 
much more correctness, than it could 
he done by the imperfect method of a 
lunsr eclipse. 

He has deduced it from tlie longi- 
tude of Tsus-sima, and its distance 
from Nangasaky. With respect to 
the longitude of Tsus-sima, he seems 
to have taken ihe mean of Brough- 
ton's and La Percuse's determina- 
tion ; and with respect to the distance, 
the mean of Valentine's and Kaemp- 
fer's difference of longitude between 
these two places. 

The time of high and low water I 
have always determined from cor- 
responding heights ; and having * 
number of them between each liHe, 
I was enabled to take the mean of 
many. At full and change it is high 
water at 7h. 5'*' 41''. 



l. XXXI. 



210 



Stcond Volume. 
Mr. Iloppnef't Translation. 

Page 10. The middle of that parf 
of the coast of Japan which we saw, 
and of which a line of ahout 15 miles 
ran before us in an almost north and 
south direction, lies in S3* 52' N. 
and 230 18' 30" W. 

The whole of the 14th, and part of the 15th page, is very badly trans- 
lated, and hardly to be understood. 



K. 

The middle of what we *aw of the 
coast of Japan, extending about 15 
miles N. and S. lies in 35 52' N. and 
230 18' 30" W. 



Page 20. 'In preparing my chart 
df the Japanese sea, I have, howe- 
ver, made no remarks on the variation 
of the compass. 

Page 29. The proving of the chart 
in this manner was very much to its 
advantage ; for although it described 
the western entrance of the Straits of 
Sangar of a degree too much to the 
southward, we nevertheless disco- 
vered the two Islands Osiraa and 
llosima, which are both nearly oppo- 
site the Straits of Sangar, and arc de- 
scribed in this chart. 

Page 60. I was very curious to 
hear from him whtit connexion this 
place had with Karafuto. 

Page 61. By this he must have 
meant the channel ofTarlary, which 
LaPerouse imagined was not naviga- 
ble, and which we afterwards thought 
ve ascertained no longer to exist, 
although it once did, and gave rise 
to this opinion in Japan. 



Page 63. In the rivt- were ten 
large fiat-bottomed vessels, and 
judging from the preparations in the 
magazines. 

Page 93. Towards noon if cleared 
p, aud we obtained au observation 
as well of the latitude as of (he 
longitude, namely, 47* S9' 04" N. 
mid 215 15' 5', * .W. The tame as 
rttults from the tables I corrected in 



On constructing my chart of the' 
Japanese sea, I have not assumed any 
variation of the compass. 

We had at first every reason to be 
satisfied with the accuracy of this 
chart ; for although the western en- 
trance of the Straits of Sangar was 
placed on it of a degree too much 
to the southward, we nevertheless 
found the two Islands, Osima and 
Kosima, which are both nearly op- 
posite the Straits of Sangar, exactly as 
they are delineated on this chart. 

I was very curious to hear from the 
master, what he knew about Kara- 
futo. 

By this he must have meant tlie 
channel of Tartary, which La Pe- 
ronse imagined was not navigable, 
and of which we, to all appearance, 
have convinced ourselves that it no 
longer exists, although it may have 
existed at some early period, and, 
thus have given rise to such an opi- 
nion in Japan. 

In the river were, ten large flat- 
bottomed vessels, and to judge from 
their weU-ttared magazines. 

Towards noorj it cleared up, and 
we got observations both for 1-ititudq 
and longitude; ri:. 47 3'j' 04" A T . 
and 215 l.V .52'' W. to which a cor- 
rection, calculated on our arrival at 
Karntscbaika, Las already li.cn ap- 
plied. 



211 



Mr. Hoppner's Translation. 

Page 213. In Awatsha Bay the 
variation of the needle was found by 
observations ou board the ship, by 
means of Azimuths and Amplitudes of 
the sun to be in the mean 5o 39' east. 

Page 273. I altered ray course 
.to the N.W. by N. to gain the north 
end of it (Formosa), which we had 
lost by steering too much to the 
southward during the night. 

Page 363. I had already com- 
pared the longitude of these points 
vytli the data imparted to me by 
Captain M'Intosh, at Canton, before 
I saw Captain Horsburgh's new chart 
of the China Sea, 

Page 373. The navigation of the 
Straits of Caspar is attended with 
much less difficulty than that of Ban- 
C; and it is seldom necessary to an- 
chor more than once, as was the case 
with us (nor is thii at all timei wia- 
vaidable.) 

Page 131. The observations made 
during three days always proved the 
error of the time-pieces to be a few 
minutes east ; but it might have been 
just as weij to the west, as such ob- 
servations at sea are generally liable 
to great inaccuracy : at all events, I 
think, so long as the difference be- 
tween the chronometer and the lunar 
distance docs not exceed a quarter of 
a degree ("provided the former be 
well regulated, and a constant rate 
of going can be deduced from it), 
that the longitude by the chronometer 
generally deserves the preference, 
unless by any great deviation from 
its usual rate it should become at all 
suspicious. A heaviness of the at- 
mosphere, the uneasy motion of the 
ship, the shaking of the instrument 
by any gust of wind, an uncomfortable 
as well as an insecure position of the 



K, 

In Awatscha bay the variation af 
the compass by a mean of several 
sets of Azimuth and Amplitudes, vb- 
served on board the ship 5o 39/cast. 

I hauled up to N.W. by N. in or- 
der to regain the Northing, which vi;e 
had lost by steering too southerly a 
course during the night. 

I had already discussed the longi- 
tude of these places, according to 
the astronomical observation com- 
municated to me by Captain M'In- 
tosh, at Canton, when I received 
Captain Horsburgh's new chart of the 
China Sea. 

The navigation of the Straits of 
Caspar is attended with ranch less 
difficulty than that of Banca ; by sail- 
ing through the former, you anchar 
seldom more than once, as was tlie 
case with us, and it is not even im- 
possible to pass them without an- 
choring it* all. 

According to the lunar observa- 
tions made the 17th, 19th, and 20th 
July, the error of our time-keepers 
was uniformly a few minutes east,; 
yet the real error of them might have 
been just as well as many minutes 
west; for observations made at sea 
are liable to still greater errors. I 
am of opinion, that as long as the 
longitudes given by a chronometer 
and by lunar distances do not differ 
from each other above a quarter of 
a degree (allowing, of course, the 
chronometers to have been, well re- 
gulated, and their daily comparisons 
leaving no cau. a e to suspect that-the 
rate of them should have been 
altered), the longitudes by cbronw- 
meters should no doubt have the pre- 
ference; and they are not to be called 
m question, till a greater difference 
than {o take place. A misty air f 



COttUESrONDEKCE. 



Jtfir. Hoppner's Translation. 
body, added to the want of common 
sextants, frequently occasion an error 
of 20" in the distance measured ; and 
if, besides these, any mistake should 
occur in casting up, or there should 
be any in that of the. moon's longi- 
tude, which, as we have experienced, 
is sometimes the case ia the best 
ephemerides, even to a minute on an 
average ; an error of J of a degree 
may easily be made in observations 
by no means had.* 



violent motion of the ship, shocks to 
which instruments may be exposed 
from sudden gusts of winds, and an 
uncomfortable and unsteady position 
of the observer, added to the gene- 
ral imperfections common to all sex- 
tants, may frequently produce an 
error of 20 M in the measured dis- 
tances; if we add to this, errors tbat 
will sometimes creep into the calcula- 
tions of lunar observations, and the 
errors of lunar tables, which, as w 
have ourselves experienced, amount, 
even in the best ephemerides, some- 
times to a minute of a degree ; it may 
easily happen, that in observations 
by no means bad, the longitudes are 
wrong by ^ of a degree. 

Bef >re I conclude, I must yet mention a few errors, which frequently 
occur during the course of the work. 

Mr. Hoppner translates to mmr, to moor with double anchors ; a kedge, 
a sheet anchor ; hawsers, cables; a marine barometer, nautical barometer ; 
a mural quadrant, quadrant to fix in the wall ; an achromatic telescope of 
10 feet focus, a 10 feet nchrometer ; dipping needle, inclinatorium ; Board 
of Longitude, Commission for nautical longitude; light-houss, fire-beacon ; 
Transit instrument, a passage instrum&ut ; minutes of a degreCi minutes on 
average ; circular instrument y complete circle. 

This mny suffice to shew, how ill qualified Mr. Hoppner was to translate 
a nautical work ; nor is he master enough of the German to translate from 
that language. A competent judge will find almost in every page proofs in 
Support of this charge. I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 



St. Petersburgh, the J December, 1813. 



* What I have said on this occasion, on the use. of the reflecting circle and tit 
jextant, has been entirely omitted, by the translator. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 213 

MR. EDITOR. 26iA February, 18 14. 

rilllE recommendation of the cases of old Commanders and Lieutenants 
-- to the consideration of the Lords Commissioners of the Board of Ad- 
miralty, xvhich lately appeared in your CURONICLE, from " A Friend to 
Naval Merit," must have appeared to every professional reader, as no less 
well-timed than praiseworthy. In the promotion which immediately fol- 
lowed, I was happy to observe several very old and meritorious lieutenants 
advanced to be commanders ; and from all I have had an opportunity of 
hearing on the subject, the general promotion at that time has given great 
satisfaction, having been impartially made ; this is certainly honourable to 
the Board, and worthy of men of liberal and patriotic minds. The perusal 
of the before-mentioned letter, however, led me to look over Steel's List 
of the names of commanders, from 1796 to 1804; and on that list, within 
these periods, I could not but feel surprise and indignation, at perceiving 
the names of such men as Captains Boorder, Carew, Ellicott, Butt, Leef, 
England, Oilman, Tliicknesse, Johnson, Waring, and many others equally 
deserving, perhaps, who commanded sloops of war during a considerable part 
of last war, or in the early period of the present, or if they have held no com- 
mands, who were promoted, at the close of the last war, or the beginning 
of this, expressly for good conduct : how these worthy and brave officers have 
come to be neglected, and now nearly forgotten altogether, appears to me 
surprising ; but I believe it can be accounted for in the following manner : 
Some years ago (there being then no general promotion in the navy, except 
when a change of the Boari took place) men without interest, unless 
they were fortunate enough to perform some action of particular brilliancy, 
had very little chance of advancement, as interest alone could effect it ; 
and in the promotion of those days, certainly long services and meritorious 
conduct for less actual employment, although sometimes, were not uniformly 
as they are now attended to and rewarded ; hence, the gentlemen now 
remaining on the list of commanders, 1796 to 1304, have fallen into un- 
merited neglect and obscurity. " A Friend to Naval Merit" has pointed 
out a mode to the present Board, were they inclined to befriend these 
officers, of restoring them to the rank they merit, by appointing them to 
some of the ships vacant by the late promotion ; that has, however, been 
unattended to, whether from their declining to serve or not, I do not pre- 
tend to know, but should be much obliged to any of your Correspondents 
who would inform me (and I think the public would be in general interested, 
as well as the service), if they are still able and willing to serve. I cannot 
help considering them as equally unfortunate and ill used ; already they 
have lost a great deal of their most valuable time; but were post rank 
granted them note, it would be a consolation, as few, I .think, will deny it 
would be matter of right. How this is to be accomplished by the present 
Board of Admiralty, may, indeed, be matter of some difficulty ; they have 
the promotion of men who distinguish themselves, whose claims for imme- 
diate services are great, and their own friends (for I assert it is fair and 
proper that they should patronise these, under proper restrictions) ; they 
have all these to attend to, and the lists are already swelled beyond 
founds : tliis is certainly true, and J only see one way of overcoming th* 



difficulty ; it is this select six ; Captain Boorder, whom, although re* 
tired, his country will receive again as a veteran hero I have heard that 
he resigned through ill usage from a former Board ; I believe, Lord St. 
Vincent's he was a brave, zealous officerlet him now receive post rank, 
and his commission be ante-dated several years at least; as well as five 
others. Let six more of these worthy veterans be immediately appointed 
to sloops of the largest class, and promoted at the next general promotion, 
if no opportunity sooner offers ; and if some others in the same situation 
are then put in command of ships, the number at the top of the list will 
lie soon reduced. If this could be done, it would confer honour on the 
Board of Admiralty ; and I am sure they are willing to do every thing for 
the good of the service in their power; and it would heal the wounded 
spirits of men who have often fought for their country, which they would 
no longer call ungrateful. To redress this heavy grievance at once, I 
think impossible ; but to do it by degrees I would hope is not so, and that 
the Admiralty will take it into consideration. 

OCEANUS. 

N.B. The employment of Lord Cochrane, Captain Maitland, and Sir 
Christopher Cole, affords me great pleasure, as it docs the strongest hopes 
of brilliant achievements gracing the commencement of Sir A. Cochrane's 
command on the coast of America, where much surely might be done. 
Allow me to point out for the command of some of our fine new frigates, 
ready to be launched, the following officers ; Captains Cole, of the Nereid, 
"Willoughby, Henry Gordon, of the Wolv^ne, J. W. Maurice, who de- 
fended the Diamond Rock and Anholt so gallantly, Sir James Lind, a very 
gallant officer, who defended the Centurion against Linois, and \Vooldridge, 
as men of no common energy, enterprise, and determined resolution. 



MB. EDITOR, Brompton, March 7th, 1814. 

THE armament which we are preparing, to meet our foes on the OV* 
nadian Lakes, will, I trust, be equivalent to theirs, affording an op- 
portunity to our brave tars of trying them on fairer terms than they have 
hitherto done; and it is to be hoped, that we shall not again he distressed 
at the recital of misfortune or failure from want of men, long guns, or 
indeed from any cause that may be foreseen. That the American force is 
decidedly superior to our little navy there, is a plain matter of truth; but 
that they should ever have been permitted to hold such power over us, is a 
circumstance as much to be wondered at, as it is deeply to be regretted. 
However, as the only remedy for an error committed, is to endeavour to 
amend it, which it seems we are about to do, I am therefore willing to 
anticipate the brilliant result of this expedition. Although I am fully aware 
of the folly of allowing our expectations to be too sanguine, yet the judici- 
ous selection of the captains to be employed on tl.is particular service, by 
the B. of A. gives us every reason for indulging the thought. We need not 
speak of those already there Sir James Yeo and Captnin Mulcastei (his ftir- 
aoer first lieutenant in the Confiancc) are officers oi" the first inerit. CSD- 



CORRESPONDENCE. 215 

tain G. Downie, the senior officer going out, is w'Ul known for his vigilance 
when commanding H. M. brig Royalist in the Channel service, and for his 
indefatigable zeal wfts rewarded with promotion on the 1st of January, 
1813. The second officer, Captain F. Hickey, is eminently conspicuous 
for his zeal, and the promptitude and correctness with which he has always 
performed those services allotted to him for execution whilst in command 
of H. M. late ship Atalanta for seven years on the American station : his 
prowess, and firmness in moments of danger, are not to be surpassed. The 
very high compliment (that of being promoted so shortly after the loss of 
his ship, and appointed to very active and arduous service) which has been 
paid him by the L. C. A. shews in what very great estimation he is held 
by those who know how to appreciate merit. The third officer, Captain 
H. T. Davies, is as noted for ability, and the other requisite qualities to 
form the good officer, as the two preceding ones : therefore, we have every 
thing to hope for, from their known abilities. ^r: *-* 

It appears that all the junior officers, that is, commanders, lieutenants; 
and midshipmen, are sent out for the purpose of fighting their way up to 
promotion ; no volunteers, as I am told, being admitted. It is to be pre- 
sumed, if all those who go out impressed with such idea, are not fortunate 
enough to gain their wishes before the termination of the war, that they 
will have amply merited them, if it continues until the close of the year, 
and I have no doubt will be rewarded. 

I an* led to understand, that vi the frames of two 36-gun frigates, and 
several brigs of war, are to be sent out with the expedition to Canada. 
Perhaps some of your readers may be better informed on the subject than 
I am, and can explain the weight of metal they are intended to carry ; 
doubtless there will not be any carronades, or at least but few, after the 
remarks in one of Sir James Yeo's letters, wherein he gives an account of 
his partial action with the enemy's squadron off Genesee river, Lake 
Ontario, in September last year. He says, " having a partial wind, suc- 
ceeded in getting within range of their long twenty-fours and tlitrty-two- 
pounders ; " and again, " we remained in this mortifying situation five 
hours, having only six guns in all the squadron that would reach the enemy, 
not a carronade being fired." 

It is to be hoped, that the gallant commodore will be enabled to get his 
large frigate in readiness to meet that of the enemy's, by the early spring. 
Volunteers from the ships at Halifax have been sent to man her; and I pray 
we may soon be gratified with the glad tidings that his efforts have been, 
<rownedwith success. 

Your obliged servant, 

SERUS. ' 



216 
PLATE CCCCXI. 



THE accompanying Plate represents Bull and Cow Rocks ; and part of 
Dursey Island, on the west coast of Ireland. 
A frigate is running for Bear Haven, with a signal for a pilot. 

HYDROGRAPHY, PILOTAGE, &c. 



MAGNETISM. 

A CORRESPONDENT has remarked, that the needle, which in this 
latitude pointed truly to the north in 16.57, and lias been inclining to 
the westward ever since, at the average rate of about ten minutes 
yearly, has reached tkeutmost extent of its variation has been stationary 
and is now receding. From this fact, if the observation be correct, it seems 
that about 25 degrees is the extent of its variation westward that it will 
in about 150 years again point truly to the north, and probably for the next 
150 years will incline to the east taking up a period of 600 year* in making 
an oscillation. Our correspondent wishes to know if other observers have 
remarked the same fact ? 

Another correspondent ("Atlas") happens to have chosen this very 
time to favour the N. C. with the following contribution on the subject ia 
question : being a comparative statement of magnetic variation, observed 
in four different places of the north Atlantic ocean, little more than a 
twelvemonth ago : 

Variation of the Comrass, February, 18 IS. 
Latitude N. Longitude W. by ckrnnomttir. Variation by amplitude. 

O I O I O I 

41 46 15 10 . 22 SO West. 

27 32 26 14 17 54 

15 59 45 45 6 33 

15 30 66 27 4 40 East. 

This appears well worthy the attention of the former observer ; who, it 
inclined to pursue the subject farther, will find the mariner's compass spe- 
cifically treated of in the undermentioned partsof the NAVAL CHUONIC-I.E : 
r vol. i, p.515; ii, 59; xv, 460 ; xvii, 200,405; xx, 21; xxiv, 10o ; 
auvii, 194; xxviii, S18, 321, 400; xxx, 59, 324. S. 

EUROPE. 

NORTH-BRITAIN. 

CONSIDTRING the great accession to geographical knowledge which has 
marked the last century, it is strange that a danger to mariners, such/ as 
is described in a certain hydrographical notice, which has recently appeared 



HYDROGRAPHY. 

in most of the newspapers, and situated in a manner at our very doors, 
should be so imperfectly known, as to induce a journalist in the year 18 14, to 
deem the fact of its existence an article of news ; and that the original 
informants even should feel that their testimony on the occasion required 
the confirmation of an oath. But such being the case, and as practical 
knowledge cannot be too extensively circulated, we here transcribe the 
article itself at length, previous to making a few remarks which its perusal 
has suggested : 

" SUNKEN ROCK OFF CAPE WRATH. The following are the bearings and 
distance of the rock, with some useful observations to mariners, for ascertaining 
tlieir approach to it: From Cape Wrath, N.E. b. N. E. 15 miles. From 
Whiting Head, N. \ W. 20 miles. From Farout Head, N. by E. 13 miles. 
About half a mile to the southward of the shoals forming part of the rock, you 
will have 40 fathoms of fine sand ; and to the east, west, and north, when you 
fall into 23 fathoms, with coarse gravel, and frequently black stones, you are 
close to the rock. The exact depth over the rock of itself can be best ascer- 
tained from ihe log-book of H. M.'s sloop Cherokee, which vessel went in search 
of the above rock from the information of Mr. James Brown, confirmed by the 
oalh of Mr. Lachlan Kelly, before Mr. Gerrard, deputy Mayor of Liverpool, 
and forwarded through the medium of Copt. M'Leod, regulating captain at Li- 
verpool, to the Lords of the Admiralty, in the summer of 1813." 

In the first place we feel ourselves not only emboldened, but bound to 
vindicate the priority and authenticity of that information, given to the 
nautical world on this specific subject as long ago as the 1st of August, 
1810, in this publication. The NAVA.L CHRONICLE, in its xxivth Vo- 
lume, No. 140, page 43, under tlie standing head " Hydrography," con- 
tains this paragraph : 

SCOTLAND. The following declaration was left with Mr. Campbell, ofScalpa, 
in Harris (Hebrides), by Captain George Maughan, of Seton-sluice, near King- 
ston-upon-Hull : " I saw the rock bearing from Cape Wrath [N. W. point of 
Scotland] N.W. by W. distant between 4 and 5 leagues : appear* at last quarter 
jfelib. 30th June, 1785." 

This, which is as historical as names, dates, and facts can make it, the 
reader will perceive not only places the existence of the said rock beyond 
doubt, but takes us back a period of twenty-eight years, for ocular proof 
of it: and even then it is not spoken of as a discovery, but called simply 
THE ROCK, like any other notorious but ill defined danger. Still, however, 
to render our present information on this subject complete, there remains 
to be adjusted, a difference of no less than 9 points of the compass ; 
which is so enormous as to be utterly irreconcileable by magnetic variation 
or by common allowance for error in unscientific observers, and only to be 
accounted for by a graphical erratum, &c. It is, however, generally to be 
wished that navigators would be more attentive in noting whether ibeir 
bearings are given by compass or by the pole of the globe : which leads us 
to recommend to their consideration, the rule by which we are governed 
in employing the common terms denoting situation so astoavoid ambiguity, 
throughout this CHRONICLE : a rule in which we are countenanced by an 

. Qol. XXXI. ? r 



HYDROGRAPHY. 

authority no less eminent than that of the Hydrographer to the E. I. Tom* 
pany,* that is to say : the bearings of land, taken from a ship, are to be 
understood by compass if not otherwise expressed : the direction of any 
coast, or bearing of any headland, island, danger, &c. from any other 
place, to be understood as the true bearing by the world if not otherwise 
expressed. 

If these remarks meet the eye of any member of the Admiralty establish^ 
ment, we hope that person will consider it consistent with his duty to em- 
ploy his influence to cause such official notice to be made by the Hydrogra- 
pher of that office, as may definitively settle the discordance between 
Captain Maughan's and Mr. Brown's bearings, and moreover give us so 
much of Cherokee's log as appertains to this investigation, conformably to 
the very proper hint of the contributor of the paragraph herein quoted first 
in order. And we farther beg leave to recommend to the publishers of 
maps, &c. that this rock be forthwith added to their plates of this portion 
pf our coast : in as much as it ought to be holden as a fundamental maxim 
.in geography, that a chart, so far as lies within the power of its construc- 
tor, should be the sum total of all the existing geographical information 
respecting the space delineated. S. 

SPAIN. 

IN consequence of H.M.S. "Desirte having stricken the ground in coming 
out of the harbour of Passages on 6th February, Rear-admiral Penrose 
ordered the spot to be carefully sounded ; when at a very low spring-ebb 
the following day there was found a rocky shoal, on one point pf which 
was only 14 feet water. This danger is directly in the fair-way ; where the 
first 4j fathoms is marked in Tofino's plan of the harbour. Concerning 
Passages, in " the English Pilot for the Southern Navigation, &c." (Lon- 
don : 177?)) are the following directions : " About 1 j league W. b. S. off 
Cape de Figure, lifs Passage, also a fair haven. At the W. side of the 
haven's mouth, which is very narrow, lies a round rock ; so that it is bad 
to come in here with an ebb, but with a flood it is better; on the E. side 
of the haven stands a battery; without, it is very clean, there being no 
shoal nor foul grounds, bat only the before-said round rock. The town 
stands a little within the haven on the water side ; you may lie before it in 
7 fathoms." S. 

KORTII ATLANTIC OCEAN. 



" FOR the information of mariners, we have extracterl the following par- 
ticulars fro-m the log-hook of the brig Betsey, Capt. Hattrick, by which it 
would appear that even the Atlantic Ocean, in the most frequented parts, 

See HOR?BVROH' " Direclionsfor tailing toandfnm the Fait Indies," &c 
fart i ; 18V9, 



HYDROGRAPHY;: 

Its dangerous places that have not yet been noticed in any Chart* The 
Betsey was on her passage from Greenock to this island, and on the 17th 
September, 1308, in lat. 18 ?' N. long. 50 W. passed, within a few feet 
distance, a large sunken rock, of the appearance of limestone, about seven 
or eight feet under water, and, as low as it could be observed, of a conical 
form. These particulars were distinctly perceived by the master, passen- 
gers, and watch. From the ship's place it would seem that this rock is 
about 830 miles E. b. N. from the island of Antigua. (Jamaica Neats* 
paper.} 

KEW CHART OF ATLANTIC OCEAST. 

THE Hydrographer of the East India Company has recently published a 
chart of the Atlantic ocean, intended as an accompaniment to his book of 
directions, on a scale of | inch to a degree, comprehending the routes of 
the East India ships : the space delineated extends from latitude 62 N. to 
43 S. and from the meridian of Greenwich to longitude 44 W. which is 
divided appropriately at the equinoctial line in two sections, containing- 
respectively the north and south Atlantic. The charts hitherto published 
for the navigation between England and the Cape of Good-hope extend to 
eight sheets, including North America and the West-Indies, parts that can 
hardly be found useful by oriental navigators ; the introduction of which 
swells the price of those charts beyond the convenience of most young 
officers, who may be desirous of a chart to mark their track upon. Thesa 
two charts therefore may be considered as constructed principally for the 
benefit of such persons ; and accordingly a price is put upon them which 
we think extremely fair, viz. six shillings for the North-Atlantic on atlas 
paper ; seven shillings for the South Atlantic on double elephant. In fact, 
when it be recollected that the charge attending the engraving two such 
phites cannot be much less than ISO/, the value put on these charts nlay 
certainly be considered moderate. As far as we can perceive, these twd 
sheets comprise every thing useful, with much new matter : besides the 
islands and principal head-lands on the coasts of Portugal, Africa, and 
Brazil, there is appended to the North Atlantic an extra-compartment, 
shewing the coast of Guinea from Cape St. Paul to Cape Lopez : and the 
South Atlantic has a similar addition, shewing the coast of Paraguay from 
Ilha Grande to Hio de la Plata. The soundings, which are abundant be- 
yond former precedent, but somewhat confusedly engraved, are given from 
the author's personal experience, from navigation of the East India ships, 
or from the authority of Captain P. Hey wood, R.N. We do not recollect 

* In as much as caution is the parent of security, the mariner ought never 
and no where to disregard the brief but pithy admonition conveyed by a single 
word in the languages respecttTely of tke four principal maritime nations oi 
Europe ; that is lo say by the Spanish miraptritos, the Portuguese abrolhos, the 
French vigie, and the good old English look-out. Farther, the nautical reader 
who may indulge incredulity on this subject, is invited to consult the catalogue 
t>f oceanic dangers comprised in the following pages of the NAVAL CHRONICLE : 
vol. i, p. 337 ; iii,452j xxv, 222 ; xxvii, 26; xxviii, 71; xxix, 220, 303. 



220 HYDROGRAPHY. 

to have ever before seen the soundings along the coast of South America 
between the rivers Janeiro and Plata, in any charts, English, Spanish, or 
Portuguese. The variation of the compass is marked in numerous place? 
from the same trust-worthy authorities already mentioned. In the cursory 
view we have hitherto been able to take of this valuable addition to our 
stock of knowledge, and most acceptable contribution from the author to 
the hydrographic library of the N. C. we have observed these pecu- 
liarities. The north-western territory of Africa is very properly deno- 
minated Morocco instead of Morocco, according to vulgar usage. The 
most northerly and southerly limits of the gulf- weed are marked 41 N. 
and 21 N. The following explanatory remarks occur upon the coast of 
Brazil : 

" Cape Roque, the N.E. promontory of Brazil, is generally placed in latitude 
5* S. but the ship King-George, and another journal seen by the author, place 
this cape much farther south. The former, 5th June, 1792, at 6 P.M. stood 
within 3 miles of Si. Roque's bank, and made the northern extremity of the 
breakers in latitude 4 oi'S. I'rora noon observation takn the same day ; which 
determination is probably near the truth. By crossing the equator too tar W- 
that ship fell to leeward, and was obliged to recross it in order to obtain easting, 
which greatly prolonged her voyage to India." 

To enable the reader to form a more connected idea of the useful labours 
ftf the indefatigable author of this chart, we beg to refer to our account of 
liis last preceding publication; given in the NAVAL CHRONICLE, Vol. xxix. 
(1813) page 315. S. 

OCKAMC DANGERS; 
MR. HYDROGRAPIIER, GrcenwicTt, March bih, 1814. 

IN looking over the list of the many British vessels lost this war, I find 
that one or two which sailed for Halifax have not since been heard of: it 
appears to me, that most of those vessels which have left England for 
America, or America for Europe, between the months of April and Octo- 
ber, and are missing, have foundered by striking on floating logs of ice 
which, during the summer season, drift over to the southward of the 
parallel of the Azores, or Western islands ; how far eastwardly they are 
driven, I cannot take upon me to determine, but they are seen on the 
coasts of Newfoundland, and the northern part of Nova-Scotia, formed in 
masses of several miles extent." The object which leads me to enter on 
this subject, is that of drawing the attention of such nautical men as are 
readers of your work, and who perhaps in the course of their different ser- 
vices may have occasion to traverse the space wherein these dangers are to 
be apprehended ; for it must be observed, that although we have frequently 
heard that such and such a vessel has been lost in her passage across the 

I was informed by an officer of H. M. S. Cleopatra, who had an opportunity 
of observing a very large field of ice off St. John's, Newfoundland, in 1805, that 
it* progrc-ss through the water was so slow, notwithstanding the eft'ect of high wind 
"and sea, as to have carci-!y- made any visible alteration in its position for three. 
days. it had not grounded, as many might imagine. 



HYDROGRAPHY. f2l 

North Atlantic, but in what manner unaccounted for ! and likewise are 
well aware that these fields of ice in foggy and tempestuous weather bring 
inevitable destruction on the unwary mariner : yet, with all this knowledge, 
no apprehension is ever entertained, no look-out kept more than ordinary j 
in short, no thought of such things, I am convinced, enter the minds of 
the greater part of naval officers, or masters of merchant vessels, for they 
carry sail with as much indifference during the thick fogs which prevail in 
the northern ocean, as if they .were running down a coast in mid-day, 
where all is clear. I have seen these much to be dreaded dangers, and 
have witnessed the negligence, and want of care, when sailing in thes 
foggy regions, and therefore speak from experience : two instances will 
fully point out, that the subject is not an unimportant one ; but, on the 
contrary, should be present in the minds of all commanders, as the pre- 
servation of a number of valuable lives depends principally upon their care 
and judgment. 

The homeward-bound fleet from the West Indies in 1810, on the 15th 
of June, in latitude 41 N. and longitude 50* W. running at the time 
eight knots, passed several islands of ice ; on the following day more of 
them were seen approaching, like ships with steering sails set ; some of the 
fleet hauled up to pass near them, whilst others kept away to avoid them : 
the fog, which had been extremely thick for several days, cleared away on 
both these days for a short time only, giving the fleet an opportunity of 
avoiding these lurking dangers ; had it not become clear at the moment it 
did on both days, some of the ships, it may be supposed more than pro- 
bable, would have struck, against them and gone down, without it being 
known in what way they were lost. 

The second danger of which lam about to spealc,was farmore alarmingin 
its nature and extent than the preceding one, and will tend to shew how fre- 
quently (indeed I may dare venture to say constantly, as the dissolving 
season comes), these fields of ice are drifted to the very part of the ocean 
more regularly passed, and by a greater number of vessels, than that of 
any other, and consequently should most seriously fix the attention of the 
mariner. The fleet from Jamaica on the 2d of August, 1813, in latitude 
45 N. and longitude 48 W. with a fresh gale, passed several stupendous 
islands of ice ; a ledge or reef of ice, just even with the water's edge, ex- 
tended N.VV. and S.E. about two miles, over which the sea broke with 
some violence ; it was attached by its northern extreme to a very high and 
craggy block of ice : the fog, which had been so dense during the night and 
morning, as to prevent any object being seen, suddenly cleared away about 
8 A.M. when this novel* and imminent danger was discovered: out of one 
hundred and sixteen sail of vessels, nearly one half came within the space 
occupied by this icy bar, and doubtless would have foundered, had not the 
clearing away of the fog happened just when it did, affording the s(ps 
barely time to clear it, when every object was again enveloped. The 

* I say aovel, because very few persons in. the fleet had ever before seen s 
xU-usive and singular a floating danger. 



422 UYDRdGRAFHtY 

thrmometfcr was at 64, with cold variable winds from S.\V. to W.N.W. 
The bank of Newfoundland had been passed over in 36 and 40 fathoms br 
the fleet, two days before ; so it is not improbable to suppose that 
these logs of ice sometimes ground on the bank,* and forming a resting 
place for the oceanic birds, have, in hazy weather, been taken by naviga- 
tors for rocks, &c. A lieutenant of one of H. M.'s brigs, on her passage 
home from Barbados, declared most seriously to me, that they had seen a 
rock above water, and a dangerous led^e even with the surface, on the 
southern extreme of the Great Bank ; the weather would not admit of it 
being examined : may not all those dangers seen, or said to have been seen, 
by different navigators, in these northern latitudes, and which are still 
doubtful, have been ice islands as those I have been describing? Imagina- 
tion, fog-banks, ice-islands, and hazy weather, will go a great way towards 
the formation of such rocks, breakers, and other dangers we so frequently 
hear of. But I hope I shall not be deemed too presumptuous in saying, 
that I think it rather a reflection on this country, as being the first mari- 
time power in the world, to observe, numerous doubtful and imaginary 
dangers delineated in our national charts ! Surely there are officers to be 
found capable, and vessels enough to be spared from the great number of 
which our navy is composed, for the determining of an object not only of 
such national consequence, but of such general importance. We ought, 
if no other motive can induce us, to be proud of shewing to the world, the 
most correct plan of that ocean over which we rule. It may be advanced 
by some, that the wars have been the occasion of the neglect ; but who 
can affirm this, after knowing that these dangers, whether real or imagi- 
nary, have been pointed out years before the present or last war, and that 
the intervals of peace have given time enough for proving the existence or 
non-existence of thesedangers ; and in fact time plenty to have re-surveyed 
all those places but indifferently known : that it ought to be done, every 
person will allow ; but why it is not so, I have no just reason to assign ; 
however strange it may appear, I have heard it remarked frequently, that 
there is not a country of Europe which gives so little encouragement as 
England for the diffusion of the knowledge of that useful branch of science, 
which some of our naval characters were so famed for at the beginning of this 
reign ; and I am told that so trifling is the notice, if any taken at all, of the 
numerous hydrographic contributions made to the Admiralty, that 
the officers of the navy are induced to find a more ready way of making 
their observations of places publicly known for the general good and 
improvement of geography.! It is reported, how true I cannot say, that 

* It may appear rather problematical, tliat any of these logs occupy so great 
a depth as to reach the bottom in 3C fathoms, or i.'lo feet; but I aiu told that 
their depth under water iv as much again, as their height above; that is, they 
float with Y immersed. See NATAL CHRONICLE, vol. v. 4C4; viii. 587; 
x. 181. 

J- Remarks and instructions are as necessary in their way, for the guidance of 
h'u MnjesU's ibip, as the charts with which thev are supplied. Why then (toes 
cot the B. u I<ougitudo cause to be selected iroiu tlie great ccHection in its 



HYDROGRAPHY. 223 

two small vessels are to be equipped in April, for the purpose of 
re-surveying Newfoundland and the coast of Labrador,* under the 
guidance of a master in the royal navy. It does not become the great 
naval nation to use means so contracted as this, when she has the power of 
performing such services in a manner which would reflect credit on her. 
Many captains, and other officers no doubt, would be happy to be em- 
ployed on such service; but their ardour in so laudable a pursuit, it 
damped for want of encouragement. I have, however, wandered from my 
original subject ; but as I have started a fresh one, I hope it will draw th 
attention of your correspondent, A. F. Y. who, as an old experienced 
officer, I trust will give exercise to his raaturer judgment, and expatiat* 
more fully upon it, than I am capable of doing. 

ATLAS, 

AZORES. 

IN answer to the Correspondent, who under the signature of DAViD,f 
enquires : " what is the best mode of making a passage from Spithead to 
the Azores, in the months of January, February, and March; and so on to 
the end or" the year?" theHYDRocRAPHER of N.C. cannot positively say 
what are the best means to ensure a quick passage thither, in as much as 
the winds in the tracks comprehended between the English channel and 
those isles are sometimes very different in the same seasons. However, at 
most times westerly winds prevail, and a direct course is consequently to 
be preferred, taking every advantage of the changes of wind. In the Bay 
of Biscay, and to the westward of Ushant, the current often sets westward 
in winter; but in summer it generally is easterly. The Lizard point is in 
latitude 49 57' 55"N. longitude 5 11' 17.7"W. The Formigas [Ant?] 
islots and rocks (the nearest portion of the Azores) are in 37 17' N. 
04 56' VV.J 

ASIA. 

SUMATRA. 

"Remarks respecting the West Coast, Inner Passage, Winds, Currents, $c.$ 

I QUITTEP Madras on th* 30th May, 1809, and was two days before I 

stood over for Sumatra, having it in Rear-admiral Drury'g order not to quit 

possession, those that are deemed most correct, have them printed, and distribute 
them with the charts; likewise the views of particular lands, all which would 
tend to ensure the safety of our ships. The French navy, that hare less occasion 
(or such things, are supplied with them, in exemplary abundance. 

* The Bahamas, the shoals off Jamaica, Cuba, all the Spanish Main, islfs, 
&c. and the gulfs of Mexico and Florida, require to be re-surveyed: here tlicu 
ii a wide field for such pursuits. 

f NAVAL CHHONICLE : xxix, 480. 

$ N. C. xxi, 105; xxiv, 384; xxvi, 147, 199; xxvii, 219, 221 ; xxviii, 479. 

^ These observations, which are comprised in an anonymous appendix, to the 
Ms>. remark book, kept by Lord Torrington, when commanding the Bclliqueux, 
ptFer every internal evidence of being the work of the saptam of H. M. S. i| 
Jjiiucis Drake. (live 



224 HYDROGHAPHYc 

the coast of Coromandel until I had made the Basses : finding it impracti- 
cable for our convoy (the Bombay-merchant) to keep up along-shore, on 
1st June I kept full-and-by, and made the islands in latitude 1 30 1 S. on 
the 16th. We were a considerable time becalmed off the Poggy isles 
(this will happen 18 times out of 20). We anchored in Bencoolen road on 
24th June, which was reckoned a good passage : but no doubt it would 
have been effected in 16 days, had we made the islands in latitude about 
4 N. and come down inside them. From the month of May to August, 
the most expeditious track is to stand over from Madras road for the 
opposite coast, always keeping full-and-by, making as much of your wind 
as possible : by not coming near the line you will carry your South-wester 
strong: do not mind if you make the land so far north as Achin head, 
would recommend to make it in 4 30' N. being certain to meet with 
strong N.W. squalls, and a S.S.E. current: seldom or never S.E. winds ; 
and when they do blow, they are so feeble as scarcely to turn the course 
of the current, so that you may generally reckon upon it in your favour. 
It also frequently sets to S.W. as well as S.E. and sometimes I have known 
it run 12 miles an hour. In 11 days we were sel; 180 miles to S.S.E. being 
70 miles from the islands : this was when we experienced frequent heavy 
N.W. squalls ; which always happen before and after the full and change 
of the moon. If you can readily make the south part of Hog island, shape 
a course for Poolo Baby on the N.E, part of Poolo Neas, then steer for 
P. Bintame off the S.W. part of Mansillea [Mensular ?] leaving that island 
to the southward, and steering for the north point of Mansillea, you have 
nothing to fear : this is certainly the best passage if you are bound to 
Peduiig, as the in-shore passage from Mansillea is beyond a doubt the 
safest. You will find but little difficulty in getting down along the coast 
from Achin head to Bencoolen, although perhaps attended with some dan- 
ger; but not so much so as represented : great alarm is made about the 
N.W. squalls ; you can always perceive them rising, and they give you 
time to take in sail, not lasting longer than an hour, generally very heavy, 
attended with much rain, and so hazy that you can hardly see two miles 
round you, which makes it unsafe to run. I generally reefed close, let the 
top-sails remain on the cap, and hove- to : they rise in the N.W. ; W.N.W.; 
W. to S.W. and you always find the effect of a strong southerly current for 
hours after the squalls have cleared away : take in sail the moment you per-, 
ceive them, as they approach quickly : these, I think, are the greatest dan- 
ger to be apprehended on this extraordinary coast. The islands are most 
commonly steep- to, and the shoals plainly to be seen from the mast-head ) 
I am inclined to believe that many of the shoals laid down in charts must 
have been fish a-pliiying, as the rippling frequently appears like shoal" 
water. At night run not; you can always anchor: I never saw a coast 
abounding with so many fine harbours : it is but very seldom you cannot 
shelter yourself against the N.W. winds: it may be worthy of remark, that 
the French are much on this coast, finding that few English ships of war 
visit it, and it affording them good spars, wood, and water; the natives 
of the isles supplying them with refreshments: not a year passes but they 
take several of our traders : the islands as well as the coast are laid down 



HYDROGRAPHY. 225 

from 30 to 40 miles too far westward ; nor is there any reliance to be 
placed on any charts that I ever saw, nor on very few of the plans of har- 
bours, &c. I do not think it safe to trust in any surveys or remarks extant : 
I have very many, but few correct : infinite caution is indispensably ne- 
cessary ; for I have been fortunate enough to have the opportunity of 
making timely discovery of egregious errors both in charts and plans. 

Receiving intelligence of two French privateers being off the Banjak 
islands, on 30th June I sailed, determined to proceed in search of them 
by the inner passage : we had under convoy the E. I. ships Lord Castle- 
rengh, the country traders Bombay-merchant and Bengal-Anna. Three 
days we were using our utmost endeavours to get to the northward, instead 
of which we got set ^0 miles southward of Bencoolen ; the northing that 
we made during the land and sea wind, was overpowered by the southerly 
current during the calms, between the setting in of the respective breezes : 
by ourselves, we sailing much better than the convoy, and being able to 
take advantage of squalls, and anchoring expeditiously in calms, might 
have succeeded ; indeed, under such circumstances, I always advise early 
anchorage, for you cannot make certain of the currents : as we got to the 
westward, we lost the strength of the current; in longitude 96" E. and 
latitude 1* S. it took a sudden turn westward, with perhaps a little nor- 
thing : therefore I would advise for a passage back to Madras to steer 
W.S.W. from Bencoolen till you get into the steady S.E. winds ; then run 
down your longitude ; not crossing the line till 8<; E. when I think you 
may be pretty sure of few calmS) and be certain of making and carrying-on 
the S.W. monsoon to Ceylon. 

On 16th July, compared chronometers with those of the convoy, five in 
number, and found all agreeing to a mile. On 17th, at noon, onr longitud* 
was 94 55', allowing 10 miles for westerly current. I am most sorry we 
could not obtain any observation this day to satisfy my doubt respecting 
Le-Mewe's* reef. In coming to Bencoolen I passed it 8 miles to the 
westward: I now suppose it to bearr N. 78 W. 19 miles : our convoy 
W.S.W. distant 15 miles, which makes Le Meme's reef bear from them 
N. 57 W. 11 miles: they did not see it, or would have made me a signal 
to that purpose : still it may exist ; but I must owu I have my doubts. 
(To be continued.) 

* NAVAL CHRONICLE: vol. viii. (1802)338 ; xxii. (1809)99. Asiatic Annual 
Register : vol. x. (1803) 65 1. Horsburgh's " Directions,i<)r sailing toandfrofnthe 
* East Indies, &c." part ii, ( I8il) |>. 77. Ou iho discordance between the lust 
mentioned authority and the two others cited immediately before, concerning both 
of (lie discoveries of danger in these seas attributed to Captain Le-Meme, the 
navigating reader must be left to excise hi* own judgment. (Hva.) 



flfcat. fttm. Bol.XXXI. <s * 



NAVAL BULLETINS 

OF 

tlEUTENANT O'BRIEN'S RECENT CAPTIVITY AND ESCAPE. 

[Continued from page 143.] 



ULLETIN IHE FOURTEENTH. 

SEPTEMBER, 1808. About seven o'clock we got into a sort of 
tavern ; a servant maid and child were the only people up we wer 
French travellers from Prussia going to France, and wanted breakfast. 
The landlady was roused breakfast was prepared a barber sent for 
(who was surgeon as well) ; got our cloaths brushed. Found it a private 
very well-calculated house; and the barber, or surgeon, was an intelligent 
sort of man. Rastat* was but three leagues from us ; and, from different 
questions we asked the fellow, we found we had crossed the Rhine close 
to Dourlach. We quitted the place about nine, having well satisfied thtf 
landlady, and being well pleased with our breakfast, which consisted of 
coffee, &c. 

We now directed our course towards Rastat ; Barclay was very lame ; 
everybody we met took great notice of him, and it was impossible he could 
continue the march many hours longer. As I have before observed, we 
had intended to separate from him and the doctor the moment we got 
across to Germany ; but his state rendered him incapable of proceeding, 
and we now agreed not to quit the other : the great point was, where la 
place the invalid, so as to ensure his safety until he had recovered the use 
of his limbs. He regretted not having remained where we breakfasted. 
\Ve found Rastat, though an open town, too dangerous to pass through ; 
therefore made its circuit, and struck otf the road, to a small village, about 
two leagues distant, where we went into a public house. They could nojt 
speak French, nor could we sufficiently explain, in their language, what we 
wanted respecting our sick friend ; an old man was sent for as interpreter, 
who happened to be a shoemaker by trade; we bcgnn by ordering a pair of 
shoes for Barclay; and then observed, that we were Frenchmen from Prus- 
sia, going to Strasburgh ; our comrade was knocked up, and we wished him 
tp explain to the people, that we meant to leave him with them a few days, 
until he had gathered strength. We requested he would pay every atten- 
tion, and explain matters for him. lie and they agreed. A bed was 
immediately prepared for him. We dined together; then took our leave 
of this poor fellow; and a painful leave it was. He, of course, felt for the 
miserable situation he was now in; and we, in being compelled, for our 
own safety, to abandon him. But there was no alternative, aud our 
engagement was fulfilled with both these gentlemen. 



* Rastat, a town of Germany, in the marqui'nte of Baden ; it i< seated on the 
rirer Merg, four miles north of linden. 



KAYAL BU1.Z.ET1JW. 227 

September, 1808. We continued our pretended mate, until we lost 
sigh; of the village, and then changed our course. We commiserated the 
misfortunes of our poor companion; and feared even the shoemaker would 
discover what he was, as he spoke French so very indifferently. The day 
was closing fast, and it behoved us to look out for a lodging for the night. 
We were at that time in Baden ; and, as this was the northernmost part, I 
sometimes feared there might be different regulations from those I before 
experienced to the southward. 

We advanced towards a large village, in our direction. It was quite 
dusk. Passed through it to the opposite extreme; when it was about 
eight o'clock. We were undecided how to act ; it began to rain very hard. 
We were met by an old man genteely dressed, marching on very fast, to 
avoid getting wef. He stopped, evidently with a design to speak to us. We 
accosted him in French ; asked him what distance Baden was from os, 
and if we were likely to fall in, shortly, with any place we could put up at 
for the night, that is to say, in the direction we were then going to take. 
He replied, in broken French (which we were pleased to hear), that it would 
be midnight before we could arrive at any sort of place that would answer 
our purpose; as the weather was inclement, and the hour so very late, lie 
advised us to turn back with him to the village we had just passed, where 
there were excellent accommodations; and he would take upon himself to 
shew us to a decent tavern, where we should be well attended to, and 
made comfortable. 

The desperate state of the weather ; our wearitd and fatigued situation, 
having been six nights without any rest, together with the kind and disin- 
terested manner which the old gentleman displayed, and almost an assur- 
ance of running no great risk, induced us to accept of his services. He, 
accordingly, conducted us to a genteel house, close to a^lass manufactory; 
all the workmen lodged here. We ordered supper ; invited the old gentle- 
man to partake of it, which, after some hesitation, he agreed to. I began 
to apprehend they might demand to see our passports, which lessened my 
enjoyment until nearly bed time ; I then made myself quiet upon that 
head. We spoke to each other, and conversed with such of them as could 
in French. I am certain they took us for Frenchmen ; which was a for- 
tunate circumstance, and, perhaps, prevented their making any further 
inquiries. Shortly after supper our old friend departed, and we wer 
shewn to our chamber, where each had an excellent bed. When in bed, 
the servant retired, and our happiness was great, in fact, impossible to b 
described. The hail and rain dashing against the windows, convinced us 
of what we should have suffered had we not taken the old man's advice. 
This was the first very bad night since we quitted the Mansion of Tears. 

We agreed to be off from this place very early, lest any accident should 
prevent our proceeding ; and then, in a few minutes, were lost to every 
idea of danger in the arms of Morpheus. Nor did I unseal my wearied 
yes until I had been repeatedly called by my comrades the next morning, 
the weather was still very inclement. However, we got breakfast and 
proceeded, without asking to be directed to any particular place, that they 



228 NAVAL BULLETINS. 

might not suppose us unacquainted with the country. I knew it was i>ece3- 
sary to keep to the southward, in order to avoid a chain of inaccessible 
mountains, that would prevent our advancing into the interior; but, owing 
to the heavy rain and bad weather, the sun did not shew itselr, and we had 
no other means of directing our course. We were now surrounded by 
w.oods and deserts, and could not tell which way to turn or proceed ; when 
we saw, ac a distance, a peasant and a little boy, loading a cart with wood,. 
We made towards them, but could not make him understand, for a long 
time, that we had lost our way, and wished to be directed towards Fribourg, 
as we knew that was to the southward of us. At length we succeeded. He 
left his boy and cart, and went nearly two miles, to put us in the right 
road. We paid this honest fellow for his trouble, and had some difficulty 
to make him accept it. 

About noon we passed by the palace of the Grand Duke of Baden; and, 
owing to the intricacies of the mountains that surround it, we were obliged 
to border closer than we wished ; it had a romantic appearance. In one of 
the walks we had to pass, we discovered two officers on horseback , we im- 
mediately quitted it, and got concealed amongst some adjacent trees, until 
they passed. We soon got on an immense high road, where we perceived a 
number of horsemen, dressed in scarlet, preceding a carriage ; they were 
in full speed. We turned off towards some huts, close by, and barely 
avoided being met by them. The peasantry were all uncovered as the 
carriage passed. On enquiry, we found this was the Duke of Baden's son, 
who had assumed already the title of king. We found that we were in the 
proper direction, and proceeded in great spirits. 

September, 1808. We had now to pass through several respectable 
vjllages on the highway. About six in the evening, in passing through one, 
Barclunore being a good way in ths rear, I heard him call out to us to stop, 
as there was a man \vho wanted to see our papers ; we were in too great 
haste to be retarded. The man whom he alluded to, we saw standing at 
his door, which was the last in the village. He certainly was looking very 
hard; but, if he had been a police officer, he would not have hesitated 
pursuing us. When we had got to a respectable distance we halted, for Ear- 
climpre to join: he assured us, that he was confident the above mentioned 
person asked for our papers, but could not account for his not pursuing us. 

About seven, we discovered another village in the direction we had to 
take; from the above recent circumstance we were fearful of entering, 
much more of attempting to stop there for the night. We withdrew into ; 
field on the road-side, to deliberate, and waited there about an hour. It 
was then dusk, so we proceeded on the road again, and entered the village, 
which was much smaller than we had imagined. We approached a public- 
house, called for some beer, and enquired if we could be supplied with 
beds? " No." But they directed us to another house ; where all the beds 
were also occupied ; and they sent us to a third, with no better success. 
We did not know what to do, and regretted much not being able to remain 
- little village fin- the night, as, from its appearance, we had no reason 
to be under the slightest apprehension. A person, apparently a publican, 
peeing us in a state of suspense, addressed us in French, aud said, " Gentle- 



NAVAL BULLETINS. i29 

men, you appear to want lodgings ; there is a small town, about two or 
three miles on, where you can get good accommodation." We returned 
him thanks, and appeared pleased at the intelligence; though, in fact, we 
dreaded being accommodated with lodgings gratis. I asked him if he did 
not suppose the gates would be shut before we had arrived ? He assured 
us it liad none, and that it was an open town. We were not sorry for this 
last oiece of news; and agreed to march on cautiously towards it. As it 
was late, we could reconnoitre it; and, if it appeared dangerous, we could 
continue our route the whole night, although we were extremely fatigued. 

At about half past nine we arrived ; it did not appear to be a place that 
we had much to fear from. We looked out for an inn resolved, if pos- 
sible, not to go to the first; discovered one, and entered it; were shewn 
into a very genteel coffee-room, and, from the appearance of the guests, 
landlady, &c. were certain we must be in the very inn we had wished to 
avoid ; however, it was now too late, and we were under the necessity of 
putting a bold face on the business: so called for some wine, and my 
friends ordered supper. I was indisposed, and requested the chamber- 
maid to light me to bed ; informing my companions, if they should dis- 
cover any danger, I would be instantly ready, and we must immediately 
decamp. One very fortunate circumstance the landlord was much in- 
toxicated ; he often looked earnestly at us, as if he wished to ask some 
question ; but could not articulate a syllable. I took my leave (as is the 
custom) of every body in the room, and withdrew. I then lay down, not 
without some anxiety, particularly from what Dr. B. had asserted, relative . 
to the man asking for our papers. 

After supper my friends came to bed. They informed me they did not 
suppose we were in imminent danger, nor were we particularly safe; it 
chiefly depended on the state the landlord vvns in. We were, therefore, 
determined to rise, before this fellow became sober, to pay our reckoning 
and be off. At twilight we dressed ourselves, awakened the servants ; who 
instantly went to inform their master that we were preparing to go. He 
appeared, but could scarcely open his eyes, and demanded where we were 
going so early ? " To Strasburgh." He observed we should be there very 
soon, it being only five leagues distant; we were aware of that, and wished 
him a good morning. At ten we were in sight of Offenbourgh ; made its 
circuit, and got on the road to Gibenbach, which we saw about six o'clock. 
It was dangerous to approach the town so early, therefore got into a wood, 
where we lay concealed until dark ; and then passed round under the walls 
of the town ; crossed the river Kinzig, on which it is situated, and pro- 
ceeded on the direct road towards Tutl'mgen. I perfectly recollected now 
bur route, from having so recently passed it with the Bavarians. At mid- 
night we halted in a small poor village ; got supplied with refreshments, and 
a kind of beds. The doctor had a severe fit of the fever and ague. 

On the morning of the 22d of September, we got some breakfast, and 
proceeded. We made the circuit of several small towns this day. At 
about six, we discovered a kind of fortress on the side of a mountain, over 
a small town. We advanced with all possible precaution; but, as we ap- 
proached, it appeared to be a place of little consequence, therefore marched 



130 NAYAL BULLETINS. 

forward boldly. What we took for the entrance of the town, proved to be 
onlv a few straggling houses in the suburbs. When we had passed them 
we found ourselves close to the gate of a snug little town. Seeing no 
military or police officers, we advanced without much hesitation ; and pro- 
ceeded right through. After passing the opposite gate, we "stopped at a 
wine house, refreshed ourselves, and was informed the name of the town 
was Hornberg.* The next halting place was Kriemshieldach, where there 
was a post house; it was about three or four leagues off, and on the verge 
of the Black Forest, which we had to march through before we arrived at 
it. All travellers, they informed us, preferred stopping at Hornberg, to 
marching through so lonely and disagreeable a place at a late hour ; how- 
ever, we were exceptions to this general rule, and so marched on. 

Black Forest is a name very applicable to this dreadful place ; I never 
remember seeing a more dismal, barren, mountainous country ; it was for- 
merly infested by bandittis; and the Germans, lying concealed here during 
the late wars, committed great depredations on the French troops in passing 
through. We met with two or three people only before we arrived at 
Kriemshieldach. The road on each side was covered with trees, admirably 
well calculated for robbers. 

At about eleven we arrived at the post house ; surveyed very attentively 
the yards, coach-houses, &c. There were no carriages, except a kind of 
cabriolet, which made us conjecture there were not many strangers; we, 
therefore, advanced, and rapped at the door; were asked who we were ? 
" Three French travellers who wanted lodgings." The door was opened, 
and we were shewn up stairs, into the public room. The appearance of 
the juests there inspired us with confidence. We called for supper, and 
desired they would prepare our beds; which they did. We supped. Dr. 
Barclimore had been very much indisposed all day. The family and 
strangers began a dance ; our music was what the Germans called doodle- 
tack (a kind of bag pipe). Waltzing was introduced ; the doctor forgot 
his illness, engaged a partner, and danced in great glee. Thev all observed 
what a lively merry people the French were ! My other companion 
joined ; however, I remained an exception, and never moved from table 
until we withdrew to go to bed. 

In the morning the doctor was scarcely able to move. I found the 
benefit of having remained quiet, when they were dancing; however, 
weak as he was, we payed our bill aud pursued our route. We had to 
make the circuit of several large towns. Early in the afternoon, having 
failen in with a small village, we halted, refreshed ourselves, and went to 
bed very early. The doctor was extremely ill, and sorry for having so 
strenuously supported the French character. 

September, 1808. At day-light we proceeded ; passed round several 
towns ; and, at eight in the evening, stopped at a small village, and got 
refreshed. The people were particularly attentive, speaking often in praise 
of the French nation they had very frequently some of our countrymen 
billeted on them. We found we were within three leagues of Guisingen. 

* Hornbers, a town of Suabia, in tb Black Forest, seated on the Gutlasb. 



BULLETINS. 231 

Left Rothwiel* upon the right ; and were told we should be early the next 
day at Tutlingen, where I was in hopes of heing favourably received. We 
were in great spirits ; passed the evening pleasantly; and imagined that 
the principal difficulties were surmounted. 

At day-light the next morning (Sunday, September 25) we breakfasted, 
and passed on towards the much wished-for town. At eleven, we were in 
sight of it. I proposed to my companions to remain concealed in an adja- 
cent wood, while I went into the town, to try what could be done; they 
agreed, and we only regretted not having our companion Barclay with us. 

I entered the town abont noon, and went where I expected some assist- 
ance ; but, to my great mortification, could obtain none. I returned with 
these doleful tidings. My companions had been much alarmed for my 
safety. I assured them there was no danger; and went back again, to use 
every effort to procure papers. I met the second time with some people, 
who promised to assist, as much as they possibly could, in promoting my 
wishes : so returned to the wood after dark, and conducted my poor com- 
panions into the town, and placed them up stairs in a friend's tavern ; and 
here we remained concealed, in daily expectation (from promises) of being 
supplied with what we wanted, until Tuesday, October the 4th ; when, 
with depressed spirits and a light purse, we were conducted, before day- 
break, on the direct road to Mernmingen.t as we had determined to take 
that course to Salzbourgh. During our stay in this last place we procured 
an old German map, which we found of material service. About noon, 
we made the circuit of Maeskirch, keeping about two miles to the right 
of it. 

October, 1808. At one we halted at a small village for some refresh- 
ments; were informed that Pfullendorf * was about four leagues off. We 
continued our route, and, by great exertion, passed it by nine o'clock, 
having numerous rounds to make. We crossed the river Andalspatch, 
and determined to stop at the first proper place we should meet. We 
soon discovered a house on the road-side ; it appeared to be an inn ; we 
entered and called for some bread and wine, which was all the house 
afforded. A light-horseman acted as waiter I did not much approve of 
his services ; he spoke French. We, of course, expected to have beds ; 
but the moment we asked for them they declared they had none; The 
waiter, however, had the goodness to say, there was some clean straw, 
where he and his comrades slept every night, and we were welcome to 
partake of part he was excessively kind. We returned him many thanks, 
and proceeded on ; having been previously informed, that the next village 
was about a league distant. I was pleased at having quitted this place 

* Rothwiel, a city of Suabia, lately an imperial city. A mile and a half from 
it is a famous abbey, where they receive none but noblewomen. It is seated on 
the Neckar. 

f- Memmingen, a town of Suabia, defended by art; it has a considerable 
trade in linen, fustian, cotton, paper, salt, and hops; and is seated on the tive.r 
Her. 

J Pfullendorf, a town f Suabia, seated on the river Andalspatch. 



232 NAVAL BULLETINS. 

the waiter, I thought, was much too inquisitive. We pursued our route, 
at least a league, through the centre of a forest ; 'tis true the road was a 
very good one. At last \re heard a prodigious shouting a-hesul, and could 
not account for such a noise at so late an hour. However, it announced 
the proximity of a village, perhaps the one that had been described to us. 
We advanced a pace ; the shouting, singing, &c. &c. still continued we 
shortly discovered an immense concourse of people of both sexes on the 
road, coming towards us; they passed us, decorated with ribbands, cock- 
ades, &c. from which we concluded it was a r estival, or wedding. We 
now saw the village very plain, and soon arrived ; went to the first public- 
house we could discover, but it was so thronged thru they could not receive 
us. By a great deal of persuasion we prevailed en them to direct us to 
another ; where we got beds and refreshments. There were a great num- 
ber of police-officers, soldiers, &c. in the first house, but tl py were so much 
elated and amused, that they could not attend to make any observations. 

We paid excessively dear here for every thing: and in the morning we 
quitted, and proceeded on towards Waldsee.* At an jut six in the evening 
we passed it, leaving it a respectable distance on the right. It appeared 
to be a snug compact town on the edge of a lake. At eight we stopped at 
a small village, where we got a bed and supper. At day-light we commenced 
our march; and, about four in the afternoon we discovered the river Her, 
which we had to cross. We were quitting the territory of Wirtemberg, 
and entering Bavaria. We saw abridge ; but imagined also, that we could 
distinguish a look-out house, or turn-pike on it, which alarmed us greatly. 
We tried to find another passage, but failed; so concealed ourselves in a 
wood until dusk, and then advanced, and crossed the bridge, without any 
difficulty; there were several houses on each side, but, fortunately, we saw 
no police officer, or any person that could cause the least apprehension- 
Continued our route above a league, when we saw a small village, in which 
we halted for the night. The tavern was thronged with waggoners; got a- 
private room, and went very early to bed ; our landlady was a mellow old 
lady, and an intimate friend of Bacchus. 

The doctor had a severe fit of fever here; and, as it behoved us to be 
very circumsprrt now in Bavaria, we were fearful we should be under the 
necessity of quitting our sick companion. In the morning we were happy 
to find h was much better, and felt able to attempt the day's fatigue. We 
walk-H slowly, to prevent harassing him. Stopped at eight, and break- 
fasted at a imail village, about four miles from Memmingen. About noon 
we passed a very fi:;e palace, on our road towards Eauf'beuren. We halted^ 
daring the night, at a small village, iho people in which were very civil, and 
our landlady not each of us a shirt washed. The landlord, who was in the 

st sta^e of ousumption, was a will-informed man, and very inquisitive. 
We told him ^c w.rc French travellers going to Kaufbueren, where we 
had many friends; and from thence, perhaps, we should proceed towards 
r^h. 

[To be continued.] 

* A town of Suabia, with castle. ' 



233 
NAVAL LITERATURE. 



Oriental Commerce ; containing a Geographical description of the principal 
Places in the East Indies, China, and Japan, with their Produce, Maim* 
facturcs, and Trade, including the Coasting or Country Trade from Port 
to Port ; also the Rise and Progress of t lie Trade of the various 'Euro- 
pean Nations with the Eastern World, particularly that of the English 
East India Company, from the Discovery of the Passage round the Cape 
of Good Hope to the present Period ; with an Account of the Company's 
Establishments, Revenue, Debts, Assets, fyc. at Home and Abroad. De- 
duced from Authentic Documents, and founded upon practical Experi* 
ence, obtained in the course of Seven Voyages to India and China, by 
WILLIAM MILBURN, Esq. of the Hon. East India Company's Service. 
Tico Volumes Royal 4to. price 67. 6s. in boards. Published by Black, 
Parry, and Co. 7, Leadinhall- Street > 

THE Work now before us is dedicated to the Earl of Buckingham- 
shire. In tlie preface will be found the author's reasons, and the 
source from which he has obtained the information contained in his pub- 
lication. 

" The commercial concerns of the extensive countries within the limits of the 
East India Company's charter are so Jittle known in Great Britain, that any 
attempt to elucidate them must be always acceptable, but more particularly so at 
the present time, when the public attention is directed to the consideration of 
East India affairs. 

' The materials of which this work is composed) have been collected during a 
period of twenty-five years, actively employed in the sea service of the Com- 
pany, and in commercial pursuits in England immediately connected with it. 
During the above period, the Author performed seven voyages to and from the 
East Indies and China, and had the benefit of repeatedly visiting the principal 
places referred to in the work. These opportunities were well calculated to 
qualify him for the task he has undertaken ; and with what success he has per- 
formed it, is now submitted to the judgment of the public. It has been his aim 
through the whole to render every thing in the numerous subjects it compre- 
hends, as plain and intelligible as possible, 

" The geographical and historical matter has been drawn from the best and 
latest writers, and the Author has endeavoured to be accurate without being too 
diffuse. 

" The statements of the relative value of the coins, weights, and measures, 
were made from personal observations at the different places the Author lias 
visited, from the authorities of such as have treated on these subjects before him, 
and from the kind assistance of various friends conversant therein. He lias to 
regret, however, that they are less perfect than he could wish, from the want of 
a fixed standard even at the principal settlements. Here it may be necessary to 
remark, that Indian accounts are kept in lacs of one hundred thousand each ; 
thus, 1,234,567/. would be stated in rupees 12,34,567: twelve lacs, thirty-four 
thousand, five hundred and sixty-seven rupees. 

*b. $r0ru ttol. XXXI. H H 



234 NAVAL LITIRATUKI. 

" The statements of duties, and the various regulations in the shipping and 
commercial departments of the principal settlements, have been brought down to 
the latest period,- and, as observations upon the provisions and refreshments pro- 
curable at the various places must be admitted to be essentially necessary to 
those connected with the commerce of the East Indies, particular care has al3 
been taken to give a correct detail of them. 

" The lists of European and other commodities suitable to the markets at the 
British Presidencies are made up from actual transactions. Those at Bombay 
will appear more extensive than at the other settlements. The Author's connexions 
were chiefly there ; and the calamitous fire which, a few years since, destroyed 
the warehouses of the merchants, made the orders from that settlement more 
numerous. By a reference to these lists it will be seen that there is scarcely an 
Article manufactured in Great Britain, or any other part of Europe, but what i 
carried in considerable quantities to India in the investments of the commanders 
and officers in the Company's service. 

" The directions for chusing the various productions of India and China arc 
given from the best authorities; and the quantities imported and sold will enable 
the merchant to ascertain, with a great degree of accuracy, the demand for each 
article, and the price it has generally borne at the Company's sales. 

" The trade from port to port in India, carried on by Native or European 
merchants resident there, commonly called the Country Trade, is fully shewn 
by numerous tables: and, from the lists of the articles which compose the im- 
ports and exports, it will be seen that the productions of the western hemisphere 
bear but a very small proportion in this trade. 

" The commerce carried on by foreigners with the British settlements is ex- 
tremely beneficial to the latter, the greater part of the imports consisting of 
treasure, and the exports of the manufactures of England. The articles imported 
are principally wines, spirits, naval stores, and metals, interfering in a very small 
degree with the trade carried on by the East India Company, or the. Commanders 
and Officers in their service. 

" In stating the rise and progress of the commerce carried on with India and 
China by the various nations of Europe, the best authorities have been consulted ; 
and the Author has entered into a detail of their commercial transactions, par- 
ticularly those of the English, to a much greater extent than has hitherto been 
done. It was intended to close the account of the English East India Company 
with a detail of the particular branches of their service at home, the benefns 
resulting to individuals belonging to their numerous establishments, and the 
internal arrangement of the various departments; but, as delays have already 
occurred in the publication of this work, and it seems particularly called for at 
the present juncture, it has been judged best to give the public that part of it 
which is now ready, and to reserve what remains for a future opportunity. 

" It will easily be seen that a work of this nature required great labour and 
attention, diligent reiearch, and persevering enquiry, to render it worthy of public 
attention; and the Author, as he has already stated, has had the advantage of 
many years' experience. Having thus briefly acquainted the reader with the 
nature of it, it is only necessary to add, that it Tt-as begun, and has been carried 
on, under circumstances very adverse to such an mulertuking ; and, should it 
experience thfr-public patronage, the Author will think himself happy in having 
contributed to the commercial interests of the empire. A work so arduous and 
complicated can hardly be thought to be without errors ; the Author, therefore, 
npon thii p<jinl cluiinj the indulgent candour of liis reader." 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 



235 



As our limits will not allow us to devote so much space as we could wish 
to the remarks we have to often, we must endeavour to lay the same be- 
fore our readers, in a very compressed form, as they occur to us on 
perusing the Volumes, and with our usual impartiality. 

The introduction (ciii pages) gives a copious account of the Rise and 
Progress of the Commerce between England and the East Indies, In the 
second paragraph our author surmises that India was not unknown in very 
antient times, even by sea. Qiuere : does not our old friend Horace allude 
to something of the kind when he says, 

f Impiger extremes curris uiercator ad Indos per Mare." 

In tracing the rise and progress of the Commerce between England and 
the East Indies, Mr. Milburn has shewn great research. He begins with the 
reign of Henry VII. (An. 1497) and gives an interesting account of the 
principal events connected therewith, as they occurred, from that period 
to the present time : we recommend the perusal of the Introduction to our 
readers, not doubting that it will amply repay them for .their trouble, as it 
furnishes much information that they may probably not be able to obtain, 
except from the work now before us. 

The first Volume is divided into xviii chapters, which are arranged in 
local order, and givjng an historical account of the places at which the East 
India shipping generally touch in the outward-bound voyage from the Ma- 
deiras to Madras, as also of the coins, weights, measures, articles of 
import and export, port charges and regulations, provisions and refresh- 
ments, &c. 

There are 8 charts in the first Volume now under consideration, in 
which, although they are sufficiently useful, the meridian of London seems 
to us ill chosen for any purpose of geography or navigation, because longi- 
tude is always computed from some known point astronomically deter- 
mined, like the Observatory at Greenwich. Whereas London is so wide a 
field, that it contains no less than 10 minutes of longitude in itself com- 
puted from Greenwich ; and, for instance, the following positions therein 
ought to be known to the Hydrographercjf Oriental Commerce to have been 
astronomically determined ; -viz. travelling westward from Greenwich you 
ome to ; 

/ a 

1st. Spital Square 4 SOW. 

2d. St. Paul's Cathedral 5 47 W. 
3d Christ's Hospital .. 5 51 W. 
4th. Surry Street ...... 6 45 W. 

6th. Navy Office, (Somer- 
set-place 54 W. 



6th. Leicester-square . . 7 42 W. 
7th. St. James's Church, 

Piccadilly 8 5W. 

8th. Argyle Street 8 19 W. 



We couhl add many more, but these may suffice whereon to found an 
inquiry from whence does the author of the frontispiece chart compute his 
longitude under the arbitrary term "MERIDIAN OF LONDON?" other- 
wise the simple outline is quite a sufficient companion to the text. 

In the chart facing Chap. I. we cannot help noticing a grammatical error 
fcoo commonly adopted in the denomination of Cape de Verde, the real 



236 UAVAL MTERATURK. 

name being Cape Verde, or in English, Cape Verdant, so called from its 
appearance : the same remark also applie* to Chap. III. p. 17 we merely 
offer this hint for the author's attention in case he should re-print his work, 
and which we hope will not be long first. 

A list of the coins in circulation at Rio de Janeiro, in South America, is 
given at pp. 24 and 25, describing the names of the gold and silver ones, 
with their weight, sterling and current value. Quere ? is there not some 
incongruity between the golil and silver crusados ? * or are there two coins 
so denominated ? 

An historical account is given in Chap. V. of the Cape of Good Hope, 
fsaldanha Bay, Table Bay, Cape Town, Simon's Town, Mossell Bay, and 
of Algoa, or Zwartkop's Bay, with a list of the provisions and refresh- 
ments, coins, weights, and measures European articles suitable for the 
markets articles for export the duties port regulations hire of wag- 
gons and horses, and other information relative to each of these places. 

The East Coast of Africa is treated on in Chap. VI. and the Islands off 
the same coast in Chap. VII. We extract the mode adopted at St. August 
tin's Bay for salting provisions : " The bullocks were killed in the after- 
noon, and cut up at two in the morning, salted and put in casks ; and 
about noon taken out, placed on four thick deals supported on casks, then 
four deals laid over the meat, and large stones or other heavy articles 
placed thereon, to press out the pickle, &c. for 3 or 4 hours ; then salted i 
packed in clean casks, and headed up. Boiled pickle, with a little saltr 
petre in it, was, when cold, poured into the casks at the bung-hole, till 
quite full." 

The Islands situate in the Red Sea, or Gulf of Arabia, are described in 
Chapter VIII. with the articles of import and export, prices of provisions, 
&c. and instructions respecting the trade from India to Judda, by Mr. 
J. II. Elmore, wljich being too long for us to insert, we recommend to the 
attentive perusal of persons interested therein. 

Mokha, the principal port in the Red Sea frequented by Europeans, our 
author says, was first visited by an English fleet under Sir Henry Middleton, 
in 1(510, having presents from the King to the Basha and Agha, and who 
was received with all possible murks of distinction and friendship. The 
civilities of the Turks were intended to ensnare the admiral, and to allure 
him and bis officers on shore, as well as to entice their ships into the har- 
bour ; but disappointed in the latter part of their scheme, they fell upon 
the admiral, killed eight of his attendants, wounded himself and 14 men, 
and after stripping them, threw them chained into a dungeon. They next 
made an attempt upon one of the ships, but were repulsed with great loss. 
Finding that open force could not reduce the ships into their power, they 
threatened the admiral with death and the torture, if he did not order 
t: em to surrender; but Sir Henry, preferring the alternative of torments 

* For the numismatic history of Crusado, see N. C. Vol. XXI. p. 389, ir* 
' Traiunctiuns on the Coast of Portugal. 



VAVAL LITERATURI. 237 

\ 

and death to an ignominious life and the loss of honour, bravely defied 
them, and triumphed over their malice and cruelty. After six months im- 
prisonment, he found means, with most of his attendants, to escape, and 
arrive at the ships, which had lain in an harhour on the Ahyssinian shore. 
He now had an opportunity of shewing his resentment, which he did 
accordingly in a message to the Agha that if he did not instantly release 
the remaining prisoners, and render ample satisfaction for the damages he 
bad received, the English would sink all the ships in the road, and batter 
the town about his ears. This menace had its effect ; his men and pinnace 
were set at liberty, and 18,000 reals of eight paid him for damages; after 
which he proceeded with the fleet to India." After describing the coins, 
&c. as in preceding chapters, we make an extract of one article of export, 
whose name has been rendered well known in this country, through the 
advertising medium of the renowned Doctor Solomon. " BALM OF GILEAD, 
or balsam of Mecca, is a resinous juice that distils from an evergreen tree* 
or shrub, growing between Mecca and Medina ; it is much used by the 
Asiatic ladies as a cosmetic. The tree is scarce; the best sort is said to 
exude naturally from it, but the inferior kinds are extracted from the 
branches by boiling. It is at first turbid and white, of a strong pungent 
smell, and of a bitter and acrid taste; upon being kept some time, it be- 
comes thin, limpid, of a greenish hue, then of a golden yellow, and at 
length of the colour of honey. This article, being scarce and valuable, ig 
very liable to adulteration." 

Never having seen or tasted Doctor Solomon's Balm, makes us incompe- 
tent to offer a comparative opinion of its genuine merits; but that the pur- 
chasers of it may, if they think proper, satisfy themselves on this head, 
the practical method for discovering imposture are to be found in Mr. Mil- 
burn's 1st Vol. p. 104. 

Our author, in Chap. IX. gives every requisite information to traders 
from the coast of Arabia to the Persian Gulf. In Chap. X. a list of the 
articles procurable in the Gulf of Persia, with directions how to chuse 
them. We recommend this chapter to the attention of importers and 
dealers in drugs. 

The settlement of Surat, belonging to the English East India Company, 
is described at considerable length in the Xllth chapter. By the author's 
account, in the year 1795-6, the charges of collecting the revenue exceeded 
the receipts in the sum of 22,7001. 4s. : why should the Company saddle 
themselves with such an expense ? 

Having thus far accompanied our author in his voyage from England to 
Surat, to whom we feel much indebted for the amusement, information, 
and instruction, we have obtained through his means, the next station 
we arrive at is, the island of BOMBAY, on which is the seat of government 
for the western part of India : it is situated in lat. 18 56' N. and long. 
72 56' E : according to the author (for we must observe, that he omits to 
name his authorities), its length, from north to soutli is about 6 miles, and 
its extreme breadth near the castle about a mile. It is separated from the 
land by an ana of the sea, and with the- islands Colabah, Salset, 



238 KAVAL LITERATURE. 

Butcher's Island, Elephanta, and Caranjah, forms one of the most coramo- 
dious harbours in India. 

' The town of Bombay is near a mile long, from the Apollo gate to that of the 
bazar, and about a quarter of a mile broad in the widest part, from the bunder, 
or custom-house, across the green to Church gate, which is nearly in the centra 
of the walls, between the Apollo and bazar gates. There are likewise two marine 
gates, having commodious wharfs, and cranes built oat from each, with a land- 
ing-place at the dock-head, for passengers only, under certain regulations. 
Between the two marine gates is the castle, called Bombay castle, a regular 
quadrangle, well built of strong hard stone. In one of the bastions is ;i large 
tank, or reservoir for water. The fortifications are numerous, particularly to- 
wards the sea, and are so well constructed, the whole being encompassed by a 
broad and deep ditch, which can be flooded at pleasure, that it is now one of the 
strongest places the Company have in India ; besides which there are several 
forts and redoubts, the principal of which is Mahira, situated at the opposite ex- 
tremity of the island ; so that, properly garrisoned, Bombay may bid defiance to 
any force that can be brought against it. 

" In the centre of the town is a large open space, called the Green, which, iu 
the fine weather season, is covered with bales of cotton, and other merchandise, 
entirely unprotected : around the green are many large well built and handsome 
houses. The government house, and the church, which is an extremely neat, com,- 
roedious, and airy building, are close to each other, on the left of the church gate. 
On the right of the church gate is the bazar, which is very crowded and populous, 
and where the native merchants principally reside ; at its commencement stands 
the theatre, a neat handsome structure. This part of the town suffered much by 
a destructive fire, which broke out iu February 1803, and destroyed nearly three- 
fourths of the bazar, together with the barracks, custom-house, and many other 
public buildings, and property of immense value belonging to the native mer- 
chants. Many houses in the neighbourhood of the castle were battered dowa 
y the artillery, to stop the progress of the flames, and preserve the magazine* 
or, in all probability, the whole town would have been destroyed. Since which 
period this part of the town has been rebuilt, and the whole much improved, at a 
considerable expence to the company. 

"The dock-yard is large and well contrived, having naval stores of all kinds 
deposited in warehouses, together with large quantities of timber for repairing 
and building ships, and forges for all kinds of smith's work. The dry dock h;,s 
scarce its equal for size or convenience; it has three divisions, and three pair of 
strong gates, so as to be capable of receiving three ships of the line at the same 
timr. Near the dock is a convenient place to heave down several ships at once, 
which is done well, and with great expedition. Here is also a rope walk, which, 
for length, situation, and convenience, equals any in England, that in the king's 
yard at Portsmouth only excepted ; and, like that, it has a covering to protect 
the workmen ; cables, and all sorts of lesser cordage, both of hemp and coir, are 
manufactured here. 

Our readers, under the head Bombay, will find a description of the neigh- 
bouring islands, by whom first settled, the inhabitants, their classes, houses 
of agency, its revenue, &c. 

The government of Bombay and its dependencies is vested in a governor 



NAVAL POETRY. 239 

and three councillors, who are under the controul of the government-ge- 
neral of Bengal. 

Some useful remarks on the coins of Bombay will be found at pp. 174, 
175, 176; and, in the four following pages, lists of the weights and mea- 
'sures used in commerce, with explanations. , The next subject noted is, 
the traffic between Bombay and Surat : extract from Act 33 Geo. III. cap, 
62, relative to the East India trade ; the terms and conditions under which 
the East India Company are willing to furnish tonnage, European articles, 
uitable to the Bombay market, and price current of European goods. 

[To be continued.] 



MR. EBITOR, No. 5, Upper East Hayes, Bath, March 7, 1814* 

OU have, no doubt, read, and will most likely perpetuate in your valu- 
able CHRONICLE, the account of young Whitshed's glorious death,* in 
the Courier of the 10th ult. as related by Captain Brace, of the Berwick 
(under whose command he was), to his afflicted father. I knew him well ; 
and such was the promise of his early youth, that had it pleased God to 
have extended his life, and opportunities had occurred, I have no doubt 
but that he would have rivalled, in splendid actions, the most distinguished 
of our naval heroes. As an humble tribute to his worth, I transmit a 
Cenotaph, concluding with exactly the w.ords that he uttered with his last 
breath. They shew how gallant a soul he possessed, and how much his 
country has lost by his premature departure from this world. It will be a 
melancholy gratification to those, to whom he had made himself very dear, 
by his private as well as the promise of his public virtues, if you will give 
what follows a place in the NAVAL CHRON T ICLE for the ensuing month. 
I am, Sir, your most obedient humble servant, 

J. B. HAY, 
Captain, Royal Navy. 

CENOTAPH. 

Sacred to the Memory of James Bentinck Hawkins Whitshet), Esq. eldest 
son of Admiral and Mrs. Whitshed, and late midshipman of H.M.S. Berwick, 
who was killed, at the head of a few seamen, in the act of boarding a French 
vessel of war, of considerable force (which was ultimately sunk), on the 
eleventh of December, 1813, after having assisted in boarding and cap- 
turing another national vessel that morning : both having unexpectedly 
arrived, while the British party, during the preceding night, was on shore, 

* See p. 176 of our last Number, 



KAVAL POETRY. 

taking possession of a battery and a fortified house, in the port of Xegage, 
in the Mediterranean, while the Berwick was at a distance from the land, 
having been driven off by the variable state of' the wind. 

What though but eighteen fleeting years on earth 
Had nurs'd ingenuous Whitshed's growing worth ; 
Still he had liv'd to be belov'd by all 
Who love the good, and can lament their fall. 
His heart was open as the summer's day, 
When not a cloud obscures the rising ray; 
Kind as the spring, that round the verdant fields 
IlA beauteous blossoms in abundance yields, 
.And smiles, in promise of the fruit in store, 
When time extends, to make that fruit mature. 
His time was short ! and yet his glorious name 
Shall live in mem'ry, and be dear to fame; 
Nelson, expiring, could have said no more 
Than he, whose fate the brave must HOW deplore. 
.Leading his band to board his country's foe, 
Too true, alas ! was aim'd the fatal blow ! 
The ball had pierc'd the youthful hero's head ; 
But, e'er to heav'n his gallant spirit fled, 
His look display'd a soul despising death ! 
He cheer'd his men and with convulsive breath, 
Dying, exclaim'd, amid the battle's roar, 
" Carry her, if you can ! I am no more." 



DULCE DOMUM. 

TH1OR thee the tempest-beaten sailor sighs, 
-- When horrid storms deform the angry skies; 
Thy soothing ray, like some fair friendly star, 
Cheers the mad frown of elemental war ; 
Vent'rous for thee, he dares the faithless waste, 
Exhausts a youth of toil, in hope to taste, 
When life's wild storms exhaust their passing rage, 
The sober calm of soft-reposing age. 



THE SAILING OF ARGO. 

FKOM APOLLOXIUS RHODIUS. 

round the bark, as plows the solar beam, 
The oars wide dashing dart a fiery stream ; 
The long extended track one foaming white, 
As the worn pathway through the wood to sight. 
His gallant bark, in this auspicious hour, 
Fraught with her hosts, surveys each woud'ring power; 



NAVAL FOETKY. 

The demi-^ods in arms ! nor many a maid, 
Peliadae yclept, whose charms displayed, 
Smile o'er the mountain's brow, a look forbear 
To the dread fabric of Minerva's care ; 
Nor lest; enraptur'd view the intrepid band, 
Who ply the stubborn oar with conqu'ring hand, 
At once sage Chiron, from the heights he lov'd, 
(Parental fondness) !) ocean's pathway prov'd ; 
Bath'd are his feet, as rolls the tide along, 
Am] much his waving arm inspires the throng ; 
And much benignant, for the warrior prays 
A safe return and quiet's happier days ; 
His wife's affection bore the Pelean boy, 
And to the sire upheld his infant joy. 
Now from the winding shore the warriors roll, 
When, such the counseled thought ofTiphys' soul, 
Whose matchless skill the polished helm to guide, 
Nor leave the wayward baric to stem the tide ; 
Fast to the vessel's depth, thy rooted place, 
With cords affix'd, they rear thy tow'ring grace,, 
Thou solid mast ; the flutt'ring sail they spread 
Wide to th'unbending wood's associate head. 
Full breathes the whistling gale ! the cable's length 
Brac'd to the deck, where boast resistless strength 
The well wrought beams, the waves serene they plough. 
Wing'd in their course beyond Tisseus' brow. 
The sweet musician sweeps the magic lyre, 
Chaste Dian's smiles th' ecstatic note inspire ; 
Thy empire hers, thou promontory strand, 
The watchful guardian of lolcos' land. 
The great, the small, promiscuous in their play, 
Danc'd o'er the surge the finny nations stray, 
They dart innum'rous, radiant to the view, 
And here and there a winding maze pursue, 
As fleecy myriads o'er the verdant reign 
Track the slow footsteps of the guardian swain j 
Fili'd with the luxury of nature's treat, 
Till evening's fold, the bleating wanderer greet, 
Guide of Iheir paths, he careless plods along, 
And modulates the shrill pipe's warbled soug. 



tfjjtoru Slot, XXXI, i i 



242 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 

C February March . ) 
RETROSPECTIVE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

WE have much satisfaction in announcing to our readers, that since 
our last retrospective address, the army tinder the command of 
Field Marshal the Marquis of Wellington has got possession of the im- 
portant {>ort and city of BOURDEAUX ; and we hope, before another month 
elapses, to be enabled to place on record the further successes of our gal- 
lant countrymen in the capture of other ports belonging to the French. 

On the entry of our army into Bourdeaux, the French inhabitants dis- 
played the white flag and cockade, and declared in favour of the Bour- 
bons, issuing at the same time a well-written and spirited address (signed 
by die Mayor), inviting their countrymen to follow their example. 

What effect this address and example of the Bordelaise may have, a few 
weeks, nay days, may probably decide ; should success attend their endea- 
vours, a grttei'al peace must be the result ; but, on the contrary, should Duo- 
naparte's army prove victorious, and re-possess themselves of Bourdeuux, 
we tremble lor the fate of its inhabitants. 

The capture of two French frigates, the Iphigenia and the Alcmene, by 
the Venerable and Cyanc, has been as beneficial to our trade as it was 
honourable to British valour* As supplementary to the Gazette accounts 
of this affair, we give the following particulars, collected from private 
communications : 

These frigates escaped from Cherbourg on the 26th of October last. 
Tliey had proceeded first to cruise off the Western Isles, and next to tiie 
coast of Africa, where they made prizes of two Guincamen, which they 
burnt, after taking out the valuable part of their cargoes, consisting of 
elephants' teeth, &c. From Africa they sailed to the Canary Isles, in the 
vicinity of which they took six other prizes. Oo the 16th January, they 
were fallen in with by the Venerable, 74, Admiral Durham, Capt. Worth, 
and the Cyane, being descried from the mnffUhead of the latter ship early 
in the morning; of rhat day, and soon (wcertnrncd, bv (heir mameuvring, to 
be enemy's frigates. About half past 6, i\ M. the Venerable was suf- 
ficiently near to commence firing at tle A1cmcne-, which attempted to run 
across the Vencrable's bow, in order to disubie her; but the endeavour 
was productive of more injury to her than benefit, the Venerable being 
enabled to close the sooner; when her boarders, springing on the Alcmene * 
decks, knocked few of the enemy overboard, and compelled her to strike 
her colours. During this period the Cyhne, under all sail, v.;is Hearing the 
Iphigenia, and saluting her with her bow-chasers ; the Jphigenia returning 
the compliment with her stern-chasers, with such precision, that not s 



NAVAL HISTORY OT THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 24S 

shot missed the Cyane's sails or rigging. At half past three in the morning 
of the 17th, the Cyane gave the Iphigenia a broadside, and repeated her 
fire three times; but at day-light the Iphigenia, perceiving the inferior 
force she had to cope with, took in her studding-saiis, and gave the Cyane 
several broadsides, without effect, the shot passing either over her mast- 
heads, or between the masts. The Cyane, undaunted by the size of her 
opponent, continued to chase until Wednesday the 19th ; when, the Ve- 
nerable and her prize heaving in sight, the Iphigenia lightened herself in 
every possible way to effect her escape; but- the Venerable, being an ad- 
mirable sailer, closed with her on the morning of the 20th; and, after 
receiving three broadsides, she shared the fate of her consort. The txvo 
frigates, escorted by the Venerable, are gone to Barbadoes, where they 
<0ill be soon manned ; and their arrival in England is expected every day. 
Nothing could exceed the eagerness of the Cyane's crew to engage the 
Iphigenia. Every sailor burned with impatience to achie\ ? e her conquest. 
The Iphigenia and Alcmene had captured and destroyed, during their cruise, 
four English merchantmen, one Spanish, and one Portuguese.' 

lu our extracts from the London Gazette will also he found the interest- 
ing account of a naval engagement between the Eurotas, of 38 guns, and 
La Clorinde French frigate of 44 ; which terminated in the surrender of 
the latter, on the Dryad frigate and Achates brig appearing in sight. To 
that official account we are enabled by our correspondents to add the fol- 
lowing authentic detail, some of the particulars of which have not been 
noticed; and they gratify us, in as much as they exalt, if possible, our 
almost enthusiastic admiration of the spirit of our naval heroes, from the 
highest to the humblest rank. 

Though the Eurotas had had 20 men killed, and 40 wounded, her gallant 
commander, Capt. Phillimore, most dangerously wounded in the arm, and 
was lying upon the water wholly unmanageable, from the loss of her masts, 
ike. ; yet did the remaining part of her brave crew, the instant that the ships 
separated, commence clearing the decks of the wreck, and rigged up jury- 
masts, to recommence the action as soon as daylight should appear. This 
they most dexterously performed an exertion that we believe lo be unpa- 
ralleled in British naval history. 

We regret to hear, that Cupt. Pliillimore's wound is a very dangerous 
one a grape-sfiot in the shoulder. He set, however, a noble example of 
heroism and fortitude ; for although he was wounded early in the action, 
he refused to quit the deck, or receive any assistance from Mr. Jones, the 
surgeon desirj^g him first to attend to the wounded men. Yet this is the 
officer upon whom Sir Francis Burdett some time since demanded an in- 
quiry, on a charge of great oppression and inhumanity ; which was an- 
swered by proofs, that, in the instance referred to, Captain Phillimore had 
shown the utmost moderation ; that, in his general conduct, he w;is dis- 



144 HATAL HISTORY OP TUE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 

tinguished for his benevolence; and that his government of his ship was 
marked by such a decree of mildness, as other officers wondered to find 
consistent with discipline : Lonl G.chrane, we think, bore testimony to this. 

We have much pleasure in announcing the capture, also, of the Sirius 
and Sultaiie French frigates. The former was taken by the Niger and 
Tagus, off San Antonio, one of the Cape Verde islands. The lalter was 
captured by the Haunibal, and has been brought into Portsmouth. This 
makes seven captured out of the ten which ventured to sea; and we trust 
that we shall shortly hear of the remaining three.* 

The means which have been some time in preparation, for a more vigo- 
rous and powerful prosecution of the war in America, are nearly com- 
pleted, and OB the point of proceeding to Quebec. The Spencer, 74, Capt. 
Raggett, has the convoy in charge. Four post-captains, eight lieutenants, 
and 14 midshipmen, are going out to command, under Sir James Yeo. Tfife 
frigates going out in frame are to be called ihe Pysche and Prompte; the 
brigs, Calibre and Goshawk. The Vittoria, and another frigate, are ready 
i"jr launching on the Lakes. Sir G. Collier has also sailed for the Ame- 
rican station, in the Leander, a new ship, of the same tonnage and force, 
in every respect as the large American frigates. 

Sir Samuel Romilly presented a few days ago, to the House of Com- 
mons, a petition signed by upwards of 2000 shipwrights, caulkers, saw- 
yers, &c. of the port of London ; and Mr. Mellish has since laid before 
the same House a petition from the master-shipbuilders in the river 
Thames ;t praying that, in future, the ships employed in the China trade 
should be built in GreatBritain; and that all the India-built ships employed 
in the trade between India and the United Kingdom, should, on their ar- 
rival here, be subject to such a duty on entry, as will protect the various 
and numerous interests in this country which are connected with and de- 
pendent on ship-building. During the last session we observed, that pe- 
titions were presented from the following out-port? against India-built 
ships : Greenock, Liverpool, Lynn, Bideford, Bristol, N'ewcastle-upon- 
Tyne, Hull, Ipswich, Sunderland, Whitehaven, Yarmouth, &c. c. 

So great a national question, it is evident, should be disposed of this 
session, and be no longer driven off by the temporary expedients hitherto 
adopted ; for if it he at all essential, to retain within this kingdom the va- 
rious mechanics, &c. employed in this branch of naval manufacture, the 
question should now be settled, and not left open, as at the close of the 
I.istwar; when, in consequence of the want of employment, upwards of 
10,000 shipwrights, caulkers, seamen, and others, emigrated from this 
country to France, and other parts of the continent. 

* While this ?!iv-t was at pic.--, a very strong report prevailed, that tuo ftf 
Ihera had been captured ; viz. l.'Eioile and Ln 'IVrpsichore ; the former by the 
,s, of Sfiginis, Cajjf. Ediuuud Palmer ; tin- latter hv the Majestic, and car. 
ried into the Madeiras. t See N.C. Vol. XXXI. page ic:>. 



KAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 245 

On the 14th February, H.M.S. Orestes, Captain Smith, sailed from Ply- 
mouth Sound, with Mr. Stevenson, the engineer, employed in the erection 
of a light-house on the Bell-rock, off the coast of Scotland. Mr. Stevenson 
is to make a survey of the Wolf Rock, which is a dangerous sunken reef, 
situated between the Land's End, and the Scilly Islands, and has long 
formed a great bar to the navigation of the British channel ; on which, it is 
hoped, that it may be found practicable to erect some permanent land- 
mark, for the safety and protection of the innumerable ships which navi- 
gate the Strait.* 

Bergen-op-Zonm was always considered to be one of the strongest forti- 
fications in Europe : it has undergone various sieges. la the years 1586 
and 1622, it was besieged by the Spaniards, but they made scarcely any 
impression upon it. About the commencement of the last century, the 
fortifications were rebuilt by the celebrated Dutch engineer, Cohorn, and 
it has beeujiMtly regarded by all engineers as his master-piece. In 1747, 
to the asix'iiishment of all Europe, it was taken by the French by storm, 
after a gallant defence of three months. It was restored at the peace of 
1748, and the works were dismantled. 

The progress of the Allies in France has caused a very general removal 
of the prisoners of war ; but, we believe, no statement has yet been pub- 
lished, of the precise situation to which they have been transferred. 
The following is a libt of British prisoners in France : 

At Arras 1800 

Longwy, removed to Amiens . . 1400 

Besancon, removing to ditto .... ..... . 1600 

Bitche, removing to Sedan .... 200 

Briancon, removing to Maubetige 1950 

Givet, removing to Poictiers 2600 

Montly, removing to Autun .... 1050 

Sarrelouis and Sarreliou, removing to Baucfyain and 

Baupsaume . 2380 

Sisteron, removing to Guise ; depot of punishment for 

sailors and soldiers SOO 

Catnbray 1670 

Valenciennes 16CO 

Verdun 230 

4 16,890 

The Favourite, of 20 guns, Captain John Maxwell,- arrived at Ports- 
mouth, from the coast of Africa, has been absent nine months ; in the 
course of which time, she visited all the British settlements on that coast, 
burnt and destroyed several blave factories on the RioPongus, and captured 
four Portuguese ships, which were found employed in that cruel traffic. 

* For Bell Rock, see N.C. XI. 37. 73. XVIII. 154. XXII. 361. XXIV. 
198.' XXV. 46. XXVIII. 399. 



246 3JAVAL HI3TOKY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1814. 



Uttttr* on 

Copied verbatim from the LOKDQN GAZETTE. 

ADMIRALTY-OFFICE, FEBRUARY 5, 1814. 

Copy of a Letter from Captain Shepheard, of H. M.S. Fylla, addressed la 
Rear-admiral tiarpood, Commander-in-chief at Guernsey, and transmitted 
by the latter to John Wilson Croker, Esq. 

SIR, H M.S. Fylla, at Sea, January 30, 1814. 

IFIA VE the honour to acquaint you, that this morning; at ten, the island 
of Guernsey bearing S.E. eight leagues, I saw a sail in the S.S.W. and 
after a chase of four hours captured the French lugger privateer Ulsiconnu, 
of St. Muloes, of 180 tons, pierced for twenty guns, mounting 15, com- 
manded by Gilles Jean Geffroy, with a complement of 124 men, and 
having 109 on board ; attempting resistance, she had her 2d captain and 
foiir men killed, and four wounded ; Lieutenant W. II. Pearson, first of 
this ship, and William Read, corporal of marines, are slightly wounded ; 
the lugger is quite new, a very fine vessel, snils well, and is the largest of 
that class out of St. Maloes, sailed from the Isle Bason on the 27th inst. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
Rear-admiral Hargood, $c. WM. SiiEPHEARD, Captain. 

FEBRUARY 8. 

Vessels captured, burnt, or destroyed by his Majesty's Ships and Vessels 
employed in the Blockade of the Chesapeake, under ihe Orders of Cap fain 
Barrte, of H. M.S. Dragon, between the 6th day 0f September, 1813, and 
the \-2th day of January, 1814. 

American sloop Alphonso, of 2? tons, and 3 men, from New York, 
bound to Charleston, captured by the Lacedemonian, off tin; Capes, Sep- 
tember 7, 1813 ; cargo taken out and vessel burnt. American sloop Dol- 
phin, of 58 tons, and 5 men, from New York, bound to Charleston, cap- 
tured by the Lacedemonian, off the Capes, September 8, 1813. Ameri- 
can eloop, name unknown, burnt by the Lacedemonian and Mohawk's 
boats, in King's Creek, September IS, 1813. Three American schooners, 
names unknown, burnt by the Lacedemonian and Mohawk's boats, in 
King's Creek, September 23, 1813. American sluop Little Belt, of 18 
tons, and 3 men, from New York, bound to Charleston, destroyed by the 
Armide off the Capes, September 26, 1813; cargo taken out. American 
sloop Ambition, destroyed by the Acteon, off the Capes, same date; cargo 
taken out. American schooner Farmer, of 20 tons, and 2 men, from 
Norfolk, bound to Baltimore, destroyed by the Lacedemonian, up the 
bay, between the 21st and 30th September, 1813. American schooner 
Lively John, of 27 tons, and 2 men, from Vienna, bound to Norfolk, 
destroyed by the LacedemonHui up the bay, between the 21st and 30th 
September, 1813. American sclooner Nancy, of 30 tons, and 2 men, 
from Vienna, bound to Norfolk, destroyed by the Lacedemonian tip the 
bay, between the 21st and 30th Septe'mber, 1813. American schooner 
IlalCYOU, of 80 tons, and o' men, from Baltimore, bound to Norfolk, cap- 
tured by the Lacedemonian up the bay, between the 21st and 30th Sep- 
tember, 1813. American schooner, name unknown, destroyed by the 
Lacedemonian up the bay, between the 21st and 30th September, 1813. 
Aimric*n schooner, name unknown, destroyed by the Lacedemonian up 
the bay, between the 21st aud 30ih September, 1313. American sloop 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT TEAR, 1814. 247 

Ela, of 60 tons, and 4 men, from New York, bound to Savannah, cap- 
tured by the Armide off the Capes, October 23, 1813. American schooner 
Circe, of 7 tons, and 3 men, from New York, bound to Charleston, cap- 
tured by the Actseon off the Capes, October 23, 1813. American brigan- 
tine, name unknown, of 110 tons, burnt in the Potowmac by the boats of 
the Dragon and Sophie, October 27, 1813. American schooner, name 
unknown, burnt in the Potowmac by the boats of the Dragon and Sophie, 
October 30, 1813. American schooner Two Brothers, of 70 tons, and 3 
men, from Kinsail, bound to Norfolk, captured by the Sophie and boats. 
in the Potowmac, same date ; cargo taken out, vessel destroyed. Ameri- 
can schooner Gannet, of 36 tons, and 2 en, from Baltimore, bound to 
Norfolk, captured by the Sophie and boats in the Potowmac, October 31, 
1813 ; cargo taken out, vessel destroyed. American schooner Minerva, of 
29 tons, and 3 men, captured by the Sophie and boats in the Potowmac, 
same date; cargo taken out, vessel destroyed. American schooner Alex- 
ander, of 90 tons, captured by the Dragon's boats in the Potowmac, No- 
vember 5, 18 13. American schooner John, of George Tower, of 36 tons, 
captured by the Dragon's boats in the Potowmac, same date. American 
sloop Quintessence, of 60 tons, captured by the Dragon's boats in the 
Potowmac, same date. American schooner, name unknown, burnt by the 
Sophie in the Chesapeake, November 6, 18J3. American sloop Frank- 
lin, of 12 tons, and 1 men, from New York, bound to South Carolina, 
cnptured by the Sophie off the Capes, November 14, 1813. American 
schooner Gleaner, from New York, bound to Charleston, captured by the 
Armide off the Capeb, same date. American sloop Liberty, destroyed by 
the Armide off the Capes, November 15, 1813. American schooner Har- 
mony, of 25 tons, and 5 men, captured by the Lacedemonian off the 
Csipcs, same date. American sloop Betsey, captured by the Lacedemo- 
nian off the Capes, November 16 1813. American schooner, name un- 
known, of 60 tons, from Norfolk, burnt by the Sophie up the Bay, No- 
vember 17, 1813. American schooner l!ee, of 21 tons, and 4 men, from 
New York, bound to Charleston, burnt by the Lacedemonian off the 
Capes, November 19, 1813. American sloop, name unknown, burnt by 
the Sophie off Smith's Island, same date ; not reported. American 
schooner Regulator, of 80 tons, and 4 men, from Norfolk, bound to Port- 
land, captured by the Dragon's guard-boat, running out, November 22, 
1813. American schooner Sukey, of 80 tons, and 6 men, from Norfolk, 
bound to Baltimore ; sunk from a leak sprung in her hold at night. Ame- 
rican sloop New York, of 28 tons, and 4 men, from New Yurk, to Nor- 
folk, captured by the Sophie and Actzeon, up the Bay, New York, between 
the 22d and 28th November, 1813. American schooner Phosbe, of 48 
tons, and 5 men, destroyed by the Sophie and Actaeon up the Bay, New 
York, between the 22d and 28th November, 1813. American sloop Ca- 
roline, of 4o tons, and 4 men, captured by the Sophie and Action up the 
Bay, New York, bc-tweon the 22d and 28th November, 1813. American 
schooner Fre:lericksburh, of 38 tons, and 2 men, captured by ihe Sophie 
and Acr&on up the Bay, New York, between the 22d and 28th Novem- 
ber, 1813. American sloop Polly, burnt by the Sophie and Action up the 
Bay, New York, between the 22d find 28th November, 1813. American 
schooner Peg^y, burtrt by the Sophie and Act&ott up the Bay, between the 
22d and 28ih November, 1813. Atner.can schooner Lucy and Sally, of 
48 tons, and 4 men, from Frederic .ksburgh, bound to Ommcohe, captured 
by the Sophie and Actaeon up the Bay. betwcpn the 2'2d and 28th Novem- 
ber, 1813. American schooner Poor Jack, of 26 tons, and 3 men, from 
Kredericksbnrgh, bound to Onnacoh*, captured by tl-e Sophie and Actaeon 
up the Bay, between the 22cl and 28th November, 1813. Spanish schooner, 
name unknown, of 1'JO tons, and C men, from Norfolk, bound ? to Havan. 



248 XAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT Y-EAR, 1814. 

nah, cantured by the Dragon's boat, attempting to ran out, November 30, 
1813. American schooner Caroline, of 73 tons, and 6 men, from Nor- 
folk, bound to Havannah, captured by the Dragon's boat, attempting to 
runout, Deceir>i<er3, 1813. American schooner, name unknown, burnt 
by the Armide off t'<e Capes, December 7, 1813. American schooner 
Republican, of 43 toi x a.id 4 men, from New York, bound to Norfolk, 
captured by the Dragon's boats off the Capes, same date American 
schooner Peggy, of 5 tons, and 2 mep, from New York, bound to Norfolk, 
captured by the Dragon's boats 'off the Capes, same date. American 
schooner, name unknown, burnt by the Dragon's boats off the Capes, same 
date. American schooner Teacher, of 25 tons, and 5 men, from New 
York, bound to Wilmington, captured by the Dragon's boats off the Capes, 
December 10, 1813. American schooner Mariner, of 44*ons, and 4 me;;, 
from Salem, bound to Norfolk, captured by the Dragon's boats off the 
Capes, Dccer.ilier 11, 1813. American schooner Sukey, from Norfolk, 
bound to Baltimore, captured by the Armide off the Bay, same date. 
American schooner, name unknown, of 37 tons, burnt by the Sophie and 
Action off the Bay, same date. American schooner Erie, of 78 tons, and 
9 men, from liavannah. bound to Baltimore, captured by the Sophie and 
Actaeon off the Bay, December 12, 1813. Two American schooners, 
Barnes unknown, one of 25 tons, the other 60 tons, burnt by the Sophie 
and Actseon off the Bay, same date. American schooner Little Ealnea, of 
59 tons, and '2 men, from Charleston, bound to Baltimore, burnt by the 
Sophie and Actxon, December 16, 1813. American sloop, mime un- 
known, of 69 tons, burnt by the Sophie and Actajon off the Bay, same 
date. American schooner Phoebe, of 61 tons, and 3 men, from Balti- 
more, bound to Savannah, captured by the Dragon's boat running out, 
December 17, 1813. American schooner Sea Flower, of 66 tons, and 4 
men, from Bal'.imore, bound to Savannah, captured by the Actseon off the 
Capes, having escaped the boats, same date American schooner Ante- 
lope, of 69 tons, Irom Charleston, bound to Baltimore, burnt by the 
Sophie up the Bay, same date. American sloop, name unknown, of 4 
tons, from Norfolk, bound to Baltimore, burnt by the Dragon's boat oil' 
Smith's Island, same date. Three small craft, destroyed by the Actison 
off the Capes, not reported. American sloop Sampson, of 80 tons, and /? 
men, from Richmond, bound to New York, captured by the Erie tv,udrr, 
Lieutenant Douglas, off the Capes, December 18, 1813. American 
schooner George, of J05 tons, and 11 men, frrm Baltimore, bound to 
JIavannalt, captured by the boats of the Dragon running out, 'December 
22, 1813. American schooner Michaol and Eliza, of 105 tons, and 9 
men, from Baltimore, bound to Havannah, captured by the boits of the 
Dragon running out, same date. American schooner Atalanta, of 149 
tons, 1 ij;n n, and 15 mm, from Baltimore, Ix.und to San Domino, cap- 
tured Ly the 1 Loats of the Dragon running out, same date. American 
schooner, name unknown, of 9 tons, burnt by the Dragon's boat off 
Smith's island, same date. American schooner Tartar, of 300 tons, 18 
guns, and 76 men, run on shore near Cape Henry by the Dragon's boat?, 
and buint. American schooner F.xpress, or 150 tons, and 40 men, run 
on shore near Cape Ilenrv by UK; Dragon's boats, and burnt. American 
brig (icorgr, of 240 tons, from Balliin. re, bound to Lisbon, captured by 
the Sophie ami Acta-on up the Bay, December 23, 1813. American brig 
Bc-tvey. of 249 tons, from Baltimore, bound to Lisbon, captured by the 
Sophie ni'd AcueiHi up the Bstv, same date. American schooner Packet, 
of oO tons, and 4 men, from Boston, bound to Savannah, captured by the 
Arnndc of) ihc Cape*, v:;u,e date. Amciican ship Mry Ami, of 250 tons, 
and Hi men. from the South Sens, hound to Nuntncki t, raptured by the 
Sophie off the Capes, December 56, 1K13. Anurk-au s-chooncr, name 



KAVAfc HISTORY OF THE PltESENT YEAR, 1814. 243 

Unknown, of 31 tons, run on shore near Cape Henry by the Dragon's boat. 
Hud burnt, December 28, 1813. American schooner, name unknown, of 
.*>4 tons, burnt by the Dragon's boat under Cape Charles, at anchor, De- 
cember 2l>, 1813. American sloop, name unknown, of 51 tons, burnt 
Ly the Dragon's boat under Cape Charles, at anchor, same date. Ameri- 
can schooner Friends, of 49 tons, and 4 men, bound to Norfolk, destroyed 
Ly the Erie, Lieutenant Douglas, on the beach near Cape Henry, January 
0, 181 4. American schooner Pioneer, of 320 tons, 17" guns, and 170 
men, from Baltimore, oa a cruise, destroyed by the Sophie up the Bay, 
December3], 1813. ROBERT BARR1E, 

Captain and Senior Officer. 

COLONIAL DEPARTMENT. 

DOWNING-STUEET, FEBRUARY 8, 1814. 

Despatches, of which the following are copies, have been this day re-* 
ceived from Lieutenant-general Sir G. Prevost, Bart, addressed to nrl 
Bathurst, one of his Majesty's principal Secretaries of State. 

MY LORD, Head-Quarters, Montreal, December 12, 1813. 

Having had tTie honour to report to your Lordship, on the 30th of Octo- 
ber and the 15th November last, the affairs which took place between 
his Majesty's forces and the American, armies, led on by Major-general 
Hampton and Major-general Wilkinson, I have now the satisfaction to 
inform your Lordship, that the signal defeats experienced by the enemy on 
the Chatcauguay River, in Lower Canada, and near Chrystler's Farm, in 
Upper Canada, have relieved both provinces from the pressure of the 
armies invading them, and have obliged the divisions of General Hampton 
and General Wilkinson to retire to their own territory, and seek for winter 
quarters, under circumstances so highly disadvantageous as to have pro- 
duced in both of them discontent, desertion, and disease. 

The well-timed appearance of a small regular force in General Wilkin- 
son's front, which I had pushed forward from the Cuteau de Lac to sup- 
port and iiive confidence to the Glengarry and Stormont militia, very shortly 
after the severe lesson his vanity had received from the corps of observation, 
operating so powerfully as to induce him to commence a precipitate retreat 
from onr shore to St. Regis, and up the Salmon River, and to abandon his 
avowed project, of passing his winter in Montreal. 

It appears the American army, upon arriving at the French Mills, which 
are situated on the Salmon River, about six miles from its mouth, pro* 
ceeded to dismantle their river craft and gun-boats, and to arrange on. 
shore, round their block-house, a most cumbersome train of artillery, for 
the preservation of which the whole of Major-general Wilkinson's infantry 
is retained in tents and huts, at this most inclement season of the year, 
until the winter roads should be sufficiently established to enable him to 
retire his guns to Platsburg. 

A rapid succession of severe frost, light snow, and sudden thaw, to 
which the American army has been so long and so much exposed, has made 
it impossible for me to execute any enterprise against it, without risking 
more than my means could justify. 

A division of gun-boats, with a detachment of troops, which I had or- 
dered on the 1st of this month to advance into Lake Cham plain, for the 
purpose of molesting General Hampton's division, succeeded in burning an 
extensive building lately erected near Platsburg, as a depot magazine ; 
some batteaux, together with the ammunition, provisions, and stores found 
an it, were either brought away or destroyed. 

ol. XXXI. jt K 



NAVAL mSTORlr OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 

The severity of the weather obliged Captain Pring, of the royal navy", 
under whose command I had placed the expedition, to return to the Isle 
mix Nois on die 5th ; in effecting which, he was obliged to cut a channel 
for his boats through several miles of ice. The enemy's troops were in 
considerable number in the vicinity of Platsburg, but no attempt was made 
to annoy our force employed on this occasion. 

In Upper Canada a conjoint attack on Burlington Heights, planned by 
Major-general Harrison and Commodore Chaimceyj has been frustrated 
by the lateness of the season and severity of the weather. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

GEORGE PREVOST. 

MY LORD, Head-Quarters, Montreal, 25th Nov. 1813. 

I have the honour to transmit to your Lordship, copy of a letter from 
Commodore Sir James Yeo, together with Captain Barclay's official ac- 
count of the action on Ijike Erie, referred to in my despatch to your Lord- 
ship of 22d September and 8th October last. I am happy to be able to add, 
that Captain Barclay is recovering of his wounds, and that there is a pro* 
spect of his valuable life and services being preserved for the benefit of his 
country. I have the honour to be, &c. 

GEORGE PREVOST. 

The Right Honourable Earl Batlturst, $c. 

SIR, H.M.S. Wolfe, at Kingston, November 15, 1813. 

I yesterday received Captain Barclay's official statement of the ill-fated 
action in Lake Erie, and as your Excellency most wish to be informed of 
every particular, I have the honour to enclose a copy of the same ; it ap- 
pears to me, that though his Majesty's squadron were very deficient in sea 
men, weight of metal, and particularly long guns, yet the greatest misfor- 
tune was the hiss of every officer, particularly Captain Fin'nis, whose lite 
had it beeu spared, would, in my opinion, have saved the squadron. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 




Jits Excellency Sir George Prevost, Bart* Commodore. 

Governor and General- in-Chief. 

His Majesty's late Ship Detroit, Put- in "Bay, lake Eric, 
s**> September 12, 1813. 

The last letter I had the honour of writing to you, dated the 6th instant, 
I informed you, that unless certain intimation was, received of more seamen 
being on their way to Amherstburg, I should be obliged to sail with the 
squadron, deplorably manned as it was, to fight the enemy (who block- 
aded the port) to enable us to get supplies of provisions and stores of 
every description ; so perfectly destitute of provisions was the post, that 
there was not a day's flour in store, and the crews of the squadron under 
ny command were on half allowance of many things, and when that was 
done there was no more. Such were the motives which induced Major, 
general Proctor (whom by your instructions I was directed to consult, and 
whose wishes I was enjoined to execute, as far as related to the good 
>t live country) to concur in the necessity of a battle being risked, under 
*ut many disadvantage which J laboured,, and it now remains for me the 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 251 

roost melancholy task to relate to you the unfortunate issue of that battle, 
as well as the many untoward circumstances that led to that event. 

No intelligence of seamen having arrived, I sailed, on die 9th instant, 
fully expecting to meet the enemy next morning, as they had been seen 
among the islands; nor was I mistaken : soon after daylight they were 
seen in motion in Put-in-Bay, the wind then at south west, and light, 
giving us the weather-gage. I bore up for them, in hopes of bringing them 
to action among the islands, but that intention wp.s soon frustrated, by the 
wind suddenly shitting to the south-east, which brought the enemy directly 
to windward. 

The line was formed according to a given plan, so that each ship might 
be supported against the superior force of the two brigs opposed to then;. 
About ten the enemy had cleared the islands, and immediately bore up, 
under easy sail, in a line abreast, each brig being also supported by the 
small vessels. At a quarter before twelve I commenced the action, by 
firing a few long guns j about a quarter past the American commodore, 
also supported by two schooners, one carrying four long twelve-pounders, 
the other a long thirty-two and twenty- four-pounder, came to close action, 
with the Detroit ; the other brig of the enemy, apparently destined to en- 
gage the Queen Charlotte, supported in like manner by two schooners, 
kept so far to windward as to render the Queen Ch'.irlotte's twenty- 
pounder carronades useless, while she was, with the Lady Prevost, 
exposed to the heavy and destructive fire of the Caledonia and four 
other schooners, armed with long and heavy guns, like those I have 
already described. 

Too soon, alas ! was I deprived of the services of the noble and intrepid 
Captain Finuis, who soon after the commencement of the action fell, and 
with him fell my greatest support ; soon after Lieutenant Stokes, of the 
ftueen Charlotte, was struck senseless by a splinter, which deprived the 
country of his services at this very critical period. 

As I perceived the Detroit had enough to contend with, without the 
prospect of a fresh brig, Provincial Lieutenant Irvine, who then had 
charge of the Queen Charlotte, behaved with great courage, but his expe- 
rience was- much too limited to supply the place of such an officer as Cap- 
tain Finnis, hence she proved of far less assistance than I expected. 

The action continued with great fury until half-past two, when I per- 
ceived my opponent drop astern, and a boat passing from him to the 
Niagara (which vessel was at this time pen'ectiy fresh), jthe American 
commodore seeing that as yet the day was against him (his vessel having 
struck soon after he left her), and also th& very defenceless state of the 
Detroit, which snip was now a perfect wreck, principally froua the raking 
fire of the gun-boats, and also that the Queen Charlotte was in such a 
situation, that I could receive very little assistance from her, and the Lady 
Prevost being at tliis time too far to leeward, from her rudder being 
injured, made n noble, and, alas ! too successful an effort to regain it, for 
be bore up, and, supported by his small vessels, passed within pistol-shot, 
and took a raking position on our bow ; nor could I prevent it, as the un- 
fortunate situation of the Queen Charlotte prevented us from wearing ; 
in attempting it we fell on hoard her; my gallant first lieutenant, Garland, 
was now mortally wounded, and myself so severely, that I was obliged to 
quit the deck. Manned as the squadron was, with not more than fifty 
British seamen, the rest a mixed crew of Canadians and soldiers, and who 
were totally unacquainted with such service, rendered the loss of officers 
more sensibly felt, and never in any action was the loss more severe; every 
officer commanding vessels, and their seconds, was either killed, or wounded 
so severely, as to be unable to keep the deck. 

Lkuteuaut Buchun, in the Lady Prevost, behaved most nobly, and dick 



XAVAL HISTORY OV THE PUESENT YEAR, 1814. 

every tiling that a hrave and experienced officer could do in a vessel armed 
with twelve-pound cannonades, against vessels carrying long guns. I regret 
to btate, that he was severely wounded. Lieutenant Bignell, or" the Dovtr, 
commanding the Hunter, displayed the greatest intrepidity; hut his guns 
being small (two, four, and six-p under:), he could be of much less ser- 
vice than he wished. 

F-very officer in the Detroit behaved in the most exemplary manner. 
Lieutenant In<Jis shewed such calm intrepidity, that I was fully convinced 
that, on leaving the deck, I left the ship in excellent hands; and for an, 
account of the battle after that, I refer you to his letter which he wiote 
me, for your information. 

Mr. Hoftmeister, purser of the Detroit, nobly volunteered his services 
on deck, and behaved in a manner that reflects the highest honour on him. 
1 regret to add, that he is very severely wounded in the knee. 

Provincial Lieutenant Purvis, and the military officers, Lieutenants 
Garden, of the Royal Newfoundland Rangers, and O'Keefe, of the 4 1st 
regiment, behaved in a manner which excited my warmest admiration ; the 
few British seamen I had, behaved with their usual intrepidity, and as long 
as I was on deck the troops behaved with a calmness aud courage, worthy 
of a more fortunate issue to their exertions. 

The weather gage gave the enemy a prodigious advantage, as it enabled 
them not only to choose their position, but their distance also, which they 
did in such a manner as to prevent the carronades of the Queen Charlotte 
and Lady Prevost from having much effect ; while their long guns did great 
execution, particularly against the Queen Charlotte. 

Captain Perry has behaved in a most humane and attentive manner, not 
only to myself and officers, but to all the wounded. 

1 trust that although unsuccessful, you will approve of the motives that 
induced me to sail under so many disadvantages, and that it may be here- 
after proved that, under such circumstances, the honour of his Majesty's 
flag has not been tarnished. 

I enclose the list of killed and wounded. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

R. II. BARCLAY, 
Commander, and late Senior Officer. 

SIR, His Majesty's late. Ship Detnit, September 10, 1813. 

I have the honour to transmit you an account of the termination of the 
Jate unfortunate battle with the enemy's sijuadron. 

On coming on the quarter-deck, after your being wounded, the enemv's 
second brig, at that time on our weather beam, shortly afterwards took ;i 
position on our weather bow, to rake us, to prevent which, in attempting 
to wear, to get our starboard broadside to bear upon her, a nmr.bcr of the 
pans of the larboard broadside being at this time disabled, fell nn board (he 
Queen Charlotte, at this time running up to leeward of us; in this situation 
the two ships remained for some time. As soon as we got clear of her, t 
ordered the Queen Charlotte to shoot abend of us if possible, and attempted 
to back our fore-lop-sail to get astern, but the ship laying complete!* un- 
manageable, every brace cut away, the mizrn-top-mast and gaff clown, a{l 
the other masts badly wounded, not a stay left forward, hull shattered very 
much, a number of the guns disabled, and the enemy's squadron raking 
fcolh ships ahead and astern, none of our own in a situation to support us, 
1 was under the painful necessity of answering the enemy, to say we had 
Struck, the Queen Charlotte having previously done so. 

i bare the foonour to be, &c. 
TO Captain Barclay, <$-c. GEORGE LNGLIS. 



SAVAt HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 253 

^i Statement of the Force of his Majesty's Squadron on Lake Erie, and that 
of the United States. 

BRITISH SQUADRON. 

Detroit. 2 long twenty-four-pounders, 1 long eighteen-pounder, 6 long 
twelve-pounders, 8 long nine-pounders, 1 tweuty-four-pounder carronade, 
1 eighteen-pounder carroiwle. 

Queen Charlotte. 3 long twelve-pounders, 14 twenty-four-pounder 
earronades. 

Lady IVerwsJ. 3 long nine-pounders, 10 twelve-pounder earronades. 

Hun/er. 2 long six- pounders, 4 long four-pounders, 2 long two-poun- 
ders, 2 twelve pounder earronades. 

Little Beit. 1 long nine-pounder, 2 long six-pounders. 

Chippeway. 1 long nine-pounder. 

UNITED STATES SQUADRON. > 

Lawrence. 1 long twelve-pounders, 18 thirty-two-pounder earronades. 

Niagara. U long twelve-pounders, 18 thirty-two-pounder earronades. 

Caledonia. 2 Jong twenty-four-pounders, 1 thirty-two-pouuder carro- 
nade ; all on pivots. 

Ariel. 4 long twelve-pounders ; all on pivots. 

Summers 1 long twenty-four-pounder, 1 thirty- two- poui der carronade; 
all on pivots. 

Porcupine. 1 long thirty-two-pc under, on a pivot. 

Tigress. 1 long thirty-two-pounder, on a pivot. 

Scorpion. 1 long thirty-two-pounder, 1 twenty-four-pounder ; all on 
pix-ots. 

2'iiji. 1 long twenty-four-pounder, on a pivot. 

(A true copy.) R. H. BARCLAY, Commander. 

A List of Killed and Wounded in his Majesty's Ships and Vessels in an Action 
with th* American Sguadrown Lake Erie, the 10th September, 1813. 

3 officers, 38 men, killed ; 9 officers, 85 men, wounded. 
Total. 41 killed; 94 wounded. 

Names of Officers Killed arid Wounded. 

Lieutenant James Garden, Royal Newfoundland regiment, killed. 

DETROIT. Killed First Lieu tenant; John Garland. 

Wounded. Captain It. II. Barclay, dangerously; J. R. Hoffmcister, pur- 
ser, dangerously. 

QUEEN CHARLOTTE! 'Killed Captain Robert Finnis. 

ffoundedYirst Lieutenant Jamts Stokoe, severely; James Foster, 
jnifishipman, slightly. 

LADY PREVOST. Wounded Lieutenant Edward Buchan, commanding, 
dangerously; First Lieutenant F. Rolette, severely. 

HUNTER. Wounded Lieutenant George Bignell, commanding, severely; 
Henry Gateshill, master's-mate, slightly. 

CHIPPEWAY, Wounded Master's-mate, J. Campbell, commanding, 

flightly. 

R. II. BARCLAY, 

Commander, and late Senior Officer, 



254 WAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 

FEBRUARY 12. 

Copy of a "Letter from Captain Carter, of his Majesty's Sloop Thracian^ 
addressed to Vice-admiral Foley, and transmitted by the latter to Johr^ 
Wilson Croker, Esq. 

SIR, His Majesty's Sloop Tkracian, Downs, February 8, 1814. 

His Majesty's sloop under my command, captured, yesterday afternoon, 
a French lugger privateer, L'Einile, of 14 guns, and 42 men, of and from 
St. Valery en Caux, out three days, during which time she had not made 4 
capture. I have the honour to be, &c. 

JOHN CARTER, Commander, 

To Vice-admiral Foky, SfC. 

FEBRUARY 26. 

Copies of three letters received at this office, from Rear-admiral Dur- 
ham, commander-in-chief of his Majesty's ships and vessels at the Leeward 
Islands, addressed to John Wilson Croker, Esq. 

SIR, Venerable, at Sea, December 31, 1813. 

I have to acquaint you, for their Lordships' information, that in the 
execution of my orders, the Venerable this day captured the French lette* 
of marque brig Le Jason, of 264 tons, pierced for 22 guns, but mounting 
only 14, twelve of which had been thrown overboard in the chase. She 
left Bourdeaux five days since, bound for New York, with a cargo com-* 
posed of silks, wines, and other articles of merchandise : sixty-four per- 
sons were found on board, ten of whom are passengers ; this is the first 
time of her having been at sea. She is a fine new vessel, copper-bottomed, 
and sails so well that I take her under protection to Barbadoes, for adju^ 
dication. I have the honour to be, &c. 

/. W. Croker, Esq. P. C. DURHAM, Rear-admiral. 

SIR, Venerable, at Sea, January 16, 1814. 

I have the satisfaction of stating, that this day, at nine A.M. the Cyane 
made the signal for two strangers in the north-east, which were immedi- 
ately given chase to, and owing to the very superior sailing of the Vene- 
rable, I was enabled to corne up within gun-shot of them at the close of. 
the day, leaving the Cyane far astern. On ranging up with the lee ward * 
most (the night was too dark to distinguish her colours), desirous of saving 
her the consequences of so unequal a contest, I hailed her twice to surren- 
der, but the evasive answer returned, obliged me to order the guns to be 
opened, as they would bear ; upon this the enemy immediately pat his he!u> 
up, and, under all sail, laid us on beard, for which temerity he has suffered 
most severely. 

The promptitude with which Captain Worth repelled the attempt to 
board, was not less conspicuous than the celerity with which he passed his, 
men into the enemy's frigate, and hauled down her ensign. I have much 
pleasure in naming the petty officers who distinguished themselves on this 
occasion, Messrs. Mailman, Walker, and KnevilT, master's mates, and Mr. 
Grey, midshipman, 

This ship proves to be the Alcmene, a beautiful French frigate, of 44 
guns, having a complement, at the commencement of the action, of 319 
men, commanded by Captain Ducrest de Villeneuve, an officer of much 
merit, and who was wounded at the time of boarding. 

To his determined resistance, aided by the darkness of the night, the 
other frigate for the present owes her escape, but I have every hope that 
tUe Cyant will be enabled to observe her until I have shifted the j>n:aua*, 



KAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 255 

land repaired the trifling injury done to the rigging, during the period of the 
'enemy being on board. 

Our loss consists of two seamen killed, and four wounded ; that of the 
enemy two petty officers and thirty seamen killed, and fifty wounded. 

Lieutenant George Luke, whom I have placed in the frigate, is an old 
and very deserving officer, who has served twenty years under my com- 
mand. I have, &c. 

J. W. Croker, Esq. P. C. DURHAM, Rear-admiral. 

SIR, Venerable, at Sea, January 20, 1814. 

It affords me much pleasure to communicate to you, for their Lordships* 
information, the capture of the French frigate that escaped on Sunday 
night. 

The vigilance of Captain Forrest enabled him to keep sight of her during 
the night, and two following days, when, having run 153 miles, in the 
direction I judged the enemy had taken, the Venerable's superior sailing 
gave me the opportunity of again discovering the fugitive, and, after an 
anxious chase of nineteen hours, to come up with and capture. 

She is named the Iphigenia, a frigate of the largest class, commanded by 
Captain Emerie, having a complement of 325 men, and, like her consort 
the Alcmene, perfectly new. 

Every means to effect her escape were resorted to, the anchors being cut 
away, and her boats thrown overboard. 

On our coming up we had run the Cyane out of sight from the mast-head. 

These frigates sailed in company from Cherbourg on the 20th October 
last, and were to cruise for six months. 

It becomes me now to notice the very meritorious conduct of Captain 
Forrest, not only in assiduously keeping sight, hut repeated ly offering battte 
to a force so superior ; nor less deserving of my warmest approbation is 
Captain Worth, of this ship, whose indefatigable attention during the many 
manaeuvres attempted by the enemy in this long and arduous chase, WHS 
equalled only by the exemplary behaviour of every officer aad man under 
his command. I have the honour to be, &c. 

J. W. Croker, Esq. P. C. DURHAM, Rear-admiral. 

Copy of a Letter from Captain Dttndas, of H. M. S. Pyramns, addressed to 
Admiral Lord Keith, and transmitted by his Lordship to John Wilson 
Croker, Esq. 

MY LOttD, H.M.S.Pyrsmis, 18th February, 1814. 

The French privateer schooner La Ville de L'Orient, of 14 guns, and 
97 men, was captured this day by the frigate under my command. 

She is only two months off the stocks, five days out, and has taken 
nothing. I have the honour to be, &c. 

J. W. D. DUNDAS, Captain. 
The Right Hon. Admiral Lord Keith, K.B. 

BIARCH 5. 

Copy of a Letter from Admiral Lord Keith, K.B, to John Wilson Croker, 
Esq. dated on board H.M.S. York, in Causand Bay', the 2d inst. 

SIR, 

I have the lionour to enclose, for the information of the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty, a copy of a letter from Captain Phillimore, 
reporting the capture of La Clorinde French frigate, -after a most severe 
conflict, on the evening of the 25th ultimo, between her and the Eurotas ; 
an action which reflects the highest honour upon the bravery and pro- 



255 ITAVAI, HISTORY dF THE PRMENI YEAR, 1814. 

fessional skill of Captain Phillimore and his officers, and upon 
and good conduct of his crew. Captain Phillimore has been severely 
wounded on the occasion, but I entertain a flattering; hope that his Majes- 
ty'^ service, and the country at large, will not long be deprived of the ser- 
vices of so valuable an officer. I have the honour to be, &c. 

KEITH, Admiral. 

MY LORD, H.M.S. Eurotus, Plymouth Sound, March 1, 1814. 

I have the honour to inform your Lordship, that H.M.S. under my com- 
mand, parted company from the Rippon on Monday night, the 21st ult. 
in chase of a vessel which proved to be a Swedish merchant ship, and on 
Friday the 25th, in endeavouring to rejoin the llippon, being then in lati- 
tude 47 40'N. and longitude 9 30 1 ' W. we perceived a sail upon the lee 
beam, to which we gave chase. We soon discovered her to be an enemy's 
frigate, and that she was endeavouring to out manoeuvre us in bringing her 
to action ; but having much the advantage in sailing (although the wind 
had unfortunately died away), we were enabled at about five o'clock to pass 
under her stern, hail her, and commence close action. 

When receiving her broadside and passing to her bow, our mizen-mast 
was shot away. I then ordered the helm to be put down to lay her aboard, 
but the wreck of our mizen-mast lying on our quarter, prevented this 
desirable object from being accomplished. 

The enemy just passed clear of us, and both officers and men of the 
Eurotas renewed the action with the most determined bravery and resolu- 
tion, while the enemy returned our fire in n w,,nn and gallant manner. 
We succeeded in raking her again, and then l?.y broadside to broadside ; 
at 6. 20. our main-mast fell by the board, the enemy's mizen-mast falling 
at the same time ; at 6. 50. our foremast fell, and the enemy's main-ma^t 
almost immediately afterwards. At ten minutes after seven she slackened 
her fire, but having her foremast standing, she succeeded with her fore- 
sail in getting out of range. During the \\hole of the action we kept up a 
heavy and well-directed fire; nor do I know which most to admire, the 
seamen at the great guns, or the marines with their small-arms, they vying 
with each other who should most annoy the enemy. 

I was at this time so much exhausted by the loss of blood, from wounds 
I had received in the et-.rly part of the action from a grape shot, that I found 
it impossible for me to remain any longer upon deck. I w;<s, -there fore, 
tinder the painful necessity of desiring Lieutenant Smith (first lieutenant) 
to take command of the quarter-deck, and to clear the wreck uf the fore- 
mast and main-mast, which then lay nearly fore and aft the deck, and to 
make sail after the enemy ; but, at the same time, I had (he satisfaction 
of reflecting, thut I had left the command in the hands of a must active aud 
zealous officer. 

We kept sight of the enemy during the night, by moons of boat sails and 
a j'g er on 'he ensign staff; and before twelve o'clock the next day, 
Lieutenant Smith reported tome, that, by the ^reat exertions of every 
officer and man, jury-courses, top-sails, stay-sails, and spanker, were set 
in chase of the enemy, who had not even cleared away his wreck, and that 
we \\ere cumir.g up with her very fast, going at the rate of six and a half 
knots; that the decks were perfectly clear ; and that the officers and men 
were as eager to renew the action as they were to commence it; but, to the 
great mortification of every one on board, we perceived two sail on the lee 
bow, which proved to be the Dryad and Achates, and they having crossed 
the enemy (we only four or five miles distant) before we could get up to 
her, deprived us of the gratification of having her colours hauled down 
to us. 

Tbe enemy's frigate proved to be the Clorinde, Captain Dennis Legard, 



NAVAL HISTOUY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 257 

mounting 44 giins, with four brass swivels in each top, and a complement: 
of 360 picked men. 

It is with sincere regret I have to state that our loss is considerable, 
having twenty killed and forty wounded ; and I most sincerely lament the 
loss of three fine young midshipmen, two of xvhom had served the whole of 
their time with me, and who all promised to be ornaments to the service. 
Among the wounded is Lieutenant Foord, of the royal marines, who re- 
ceived a grape shot in his thigh, while gallantly heading his party. 

I learn from Monsieur Gerrard, one of the French officers, that they 
calculate their loss on board the Clorinde at 120 men. It is therefore 
unnecessary for me to particularize the exertions of every individual on 
"board this ship, or the promptness with which every order was put into 
execution by so young a ship's company : but 1 must beg leave to mention 
the able assistance which I received from Lieutenants Smith, Graves, 
Randolph, and Beckham, Mr. Beadnell, the master, and Lieutenants 
Foord and Council, of the royal marines; the very great skill and attention 
shewn by Mr. Thomas Cooke Jones, surgeon, in the discharge of his 
important duties ; the active services of Mr. J. Bryan, the purser, and the 
whole of the warrant officers, witli all the mates and midshipmen, whom I 
beg leave most strongly to recommend to your Lordship's notice. 

I enclose a list of the killed and wounded, and have the honour to be, &c. 
Admiral Lord Keith, K.B. J. PIULLIMORE, Captain. 

A 'List of Killed and Wounded on board H. M.S. Eurotas, in an Action 
with the French Frigate Clorinde, on the 25th February, 1814. 

Killed. Mr. Jeremiah Spurking, midshipman ; Mr. Charles Greenway, 
ditto; Mr. J. T. Vaughan, volunteer first class ; W.Logan, quarter-mas- 
ter ; lludolph Jansenbus, able seaman ;^Vm. Johnston (1), landman ; John 
Bell, ordinary searnau ; Robert Brown, ditto; Ed. Meadows, ditto; John 
Neil, able seaman ; Robert Crawford, ordinary 'seaman ; John Hawse, 
landman; George Fox, able seaman; John Gribble, landman; Robert 
Barber, ditto ; John Buxton, Serjeant marines ; Carle Hayne, private ma- 
rine ; Wm. Rodgers, ditto; Richard Artis, ditto ; Chapman Ilardick, su- 
pernumerary boy second class. 

Wounded. J. Phillimore, Esq. captain, severely ; J. R. Brigstocke, mid- 
shipman, slightly ; T. Hutchinson, quarter-master, severely ; Andrevr 
White, captain of the fore-top, ditto; George Ansell, ordinary seaman, 
ditto; Martin Vanduplans, able seaman, ditto; Robert Cobley,captuin of 
the main top, slightly; John Hughes (2), severely; Frs. Foley, able sea- 
man, ditto; John Skitton, able seaman, slightly ; Jeremiah Lee, ordinary 
seaman, severely; Edward Owens, landman, slightly; William Bromley, 
ordinary seaman, severely ; William Evans, able seaman, slightly ; 
Pttnie, ordinary seaman, severely ; Chisndl, able seaman, slightly ; 
Leonard Smith, able seaman, ditto ; John Forster, ordinary seaman, 
severely ; George Wright, able seaman, slightly ; Wm. Johnston (2), ordi- 
nary seaman, severely ; John Backhouse, ordinary seaman, ditto ; 

Thomas, ordinary seaman, ditto ; Thomas Johnston, ordinary -seaman, 
ditto; John Egan, ordinary seaman, ditto; Morgan Hayse, landman, ditto j 
George Dyson, landman, ditto; J. Fremingham, ordinary seaman, ditto ; 

Sutherland, captain of the forecastle, ditto; John Glynn, ordinary 

seamaH, ditto ; James Shaw, able seaman, slightly ; John Fowkr, ordinary 
seaman, severely ; Wm. M'Namara, ordinary seaman, slightly. 

MARINES. 

Lieutenant Foord, severely; Js, White, corporal, ditto; Ji, 
0lf XXXI, L b 



258 NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814; 

drummer, slightly ; Js. Grundy, scrjeant, severely ; Phil. Prosser, private, 
slightly ; J. Hitchin, private, severely ; J. Cray, private, ditto. 

THOS. COOKE JONES, Surgeon. 

Copy of a Letter from Caftain Byron, of H. M.S. Belvidera, addressed t& 
Admiral Sir John Warren, and transmitted by the Admiral to John Wil- 
ton Croker, Esq. 

SIR, H.M.S. Behidera, Bermuda t Januarys, 1814. 

I V>eg leave to acquaint you, his Majesty's ship under my command, on 
Christmas Day, captured the United States schooner Vixen, endeavouring 
to make her passage from Wilmington, North Carolina, to Newcastle, 
Delaware. I have the honour to be, &c. 

R. BYRON, Captain. 

Admiral Sir John Warren has also transmitted to John V/ilson Croker, 
F.sq. a letter from Lieutenant Pechell, acting commander of his Majesty's 
sloop Recruit, giving an account of his having, on the 2d of November 
last, in company with the Doterel sloop, run aground on Cape 'Roman 
Shoals, the Inca American letter of marque schooner, of six guns, and 
35 men. 

The under mentioned letters have been transmitted by Vice-admiral Sir 
Edward Pellew, to John Wilson Croker, Esq. viz. 

From Captain Napier, of H.M.S. Euryalus, dated off the Bay of Calvi, 
23d December, 1813, giving an account of his having run on shore in the 
bay, where she bilged on the rocks, the Baleine, French store-ship, of 22 
guns, and 120 men, hound from Toulon to Ajaccio : 

From Captain Coghlan, of H.M.S. Alcmene, dated at sea, the 23d De- 
cember, 1813, stating the capture, between Corsica and Cape Delle 
Mojle* of the French national schooner La Fleche, carrying 12 guns, and 
99 men, with 24 soldiers, from Toulon, bound to Corsica : 

From Captain Dilkes, of H.M.S. Castor, dated off Barcelona, the 15th 
January last, stating that her cutter, commanded by Lieutenant Loveless, 
had boarded and captured the Heureux French privateer, carrying one 
twelve-pounder and 25 men, close under Monjui. Lieutenant Loveless 
and one seaman were severely wounded : 

Another from Captain Dilkes, dated off Barcelona, 23d January, stating 
that her boats, under Lieutenant Stanhope, had captured another privateer, 
called Le Minoit, carrying one gun and small arms : her crew escaped on 
shore. 

MARCH 8. 

Extract off. Letter from Captain Lloyd, of H.M.S. Plantagenet, addressed 
to Admiral Sir John Wurrtn, and transmitted by the latter to John Wit- 
ton Croker, Esq. 

ff.M.S. Plantagenet, off Bermuda, December 29, 1813. 
I beg leave to enclose you a list of vessels taken and destroyed by his 
Majesty's ship under my command, between the 8th day of September laat 
and the 17th instant. 

A Lift of American Vessels captured and drs' rayed by H.M.S. Plantagenet, 
Robert Lloyd, Esq. Captain, between the Slfi September and 17th De- 
cember, 1813. 

$loop Jllj Robin, of 4 men, and 50 tons, from Boston, bound to 



HAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEA.R, 1814. 

Charleston, captured September 8, 1813. Schooner Torpedo, of40tois, 
from New York, bound to New Orleans, captured September 11, 1813. 
Sloop Olive Branch, of 50 tons, captured same date. Schooner Delight, 
of 50 tons, captured September 15, 1813. Schooner, name unknown, of 
50 tons, captured same date. Schooner Jack's Delight, of 1 gun, from 
New Orleans, bound to New York, captured October 12, 1813. Schooner 
Sparrow, of 1 gun, and 100 tons, from New Orleans, bound to New York, 
captured November 3, 18?3. Sloop Elizabeth, of 30 tons, captured No- 
vernber 5, 1813. Sloop James Madison ; of 1 man, and 25 tons, from 
Charleston, bound to New York, captured November 7, 1813. Sloop 
Active, of 5 men, and 57 tons, from New York, bound to Savannah, 
captured November 12, 1813. Sloop Lady Washington, of 15 men, and 
7O-tons, from Savannah, bound to New York, captured November 15, 
1813. Schooner Betsey, of 5 men, and 60 tons, from Savannah, bound 
to New York, captured November 21, 1813. Schooner Margaret and 
Mary, of 5 men, and 37 tons, from Philadelphia, bound to New York, 
captured November 27, 1813. Sloop Anna Maria, of 7 men, and 60 
tons, from Philadelphia, bound to New York, captured same date. 
Schooner John and Mary, of 60 tons, from, New Orleans, bound to New 
York, captured November 29, 1813. Sloop Five Sisters, of 5 men, and 
60 tons, from New York, bound to -Philadelphia, captured December 2, 
1813, Sloop New Jersey, of 42 tons, from Barnygate, bound to New 
York, captured same date. Sloop Two Peters, of 3 men, and 38 ton?, 
from Little Egg, bound to New York, captured same date. Schooner 
Batsh, of 3 meH, and 6J tons, from New York, bound to Little Egg, cap- 
tured December 4, 1813. Schooner Unicorn, of 6 men, and 30 tons, from 
Savannah, bound to New York, captured December 5-, 1813. Schooner 
Margaret, of 2 men, and 36 tons, from New York, bound to Barnygate, 
captured December 8, 1813. Sloop Victory, of 60 tons, from Savannah, 
bound to New York, captured December 10, 1813. Schooner Little 
Mary, of 3 men, and 26| tons, from New York, bound to Charleston, 
captured December 12, 1813. Schooner Rapid, of 21 men, 1 gun, and 
lla tons, from Havannah, bound to New York, captured December 16, 
1813. Schooner Mary, of 4 men, and 34 tons, from Philadelphia, bound 
t? Salem, captured December 17, 1813. 

,R. LLOYD, Captain. 



Jpromotiona anti Appointment*. 

WHITEHALL, FEB. J 6. 

TJis Royal Highness the Prince Regent having, in the name and on the 
behalf of his Majesty, in consideration of the distinguished zeal, cou- 
rage, and intrepidity of Philip Bowes Vere Broke, Esq. post-captain in 
the royal navy, and commander of his Majesty's ship the Shannon (par- 
ticularly displayed by him in his recent brilliant engagement with the 
United States frigate Chesapeake, of superior force, off Boston, on the 
Jst day of June last, when, after a most severe, arduous, and decisive 
condict, the enemy were compelled, in the short space of fifteen minutes, 
to surrender to his Majesty's ship), been pleased to advance the said 
Philip Bowes Vere Broke to the dignity of a Baronet qf the United 
Kingdom, by letters patent under the Great Seal, bearing date the 2d 
day of November last ; and his Royal Highness being desirous of con- 
ferring upon the said Sir Philip Bowes Vere Broke such a further mark 
of his Majesty's royal favour, as may, in an especial manner, evince the 
pease which he entertains of his able conduct and signal intrepidity, in 



260 NA1AL HISTORY O* THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 

personally boarding the enemy's ship at the head of his men (on which 
occasion he was severely wounded), hath given and granted to him his 
Majesty's royal licence and authority, that he and his descendants may, 
as a memorial of his highly-distinguished conduct and gallantry, bear the 
crest of honourable augmentation following ; that is to say, issuant 
from a naval crown, a dexter arm embowed, encircled by a wreath of 
laurel, the hand grasping a trident erect, together with the motto 
Saevumque tridenlem servamus ;" provided the same be first duly 
exemplified according to the laws of arms, and recorded in the Herald's 
Office: And also to order, that the said royal concession and especial 
mark of his Majesty's favour be recorded in his College of Arms. 

Major George E. Roby, of Royal Marines, to be a lieutenant. 
Colonel, vice Sir John Douglas, deceased ; Captain II. P. Lewis, to be a- 
major; Second Captain J. M'Callum, to be a full captain ; Second Lieu-, 
tenant John Fraser, to be a first lieutenant. 

Brevet Major Nicholls to the Tonnant. 

Dr. Dickson has been appointed physician to the fleet, and inspector 
of hospitals, on the North American, instead of the Mediterranean, 
station. 

Captains, &c. appointed. 

Captain J. Johnstone, to act in the Tonnant for Lord Cochranej 
James Wallis, to the Pincher ; W. F. Carroll, to the Revenge ; 
Lieutenant Thomas Forster, to be a commander, and to the Kite sloop ; 
Frederick Hickey, Henry Thomas Davis, and Peter Fisher, to the rank 
of post captains, and to serve in the Lakes under Sir James Yeo ; 
lieutenants James Groves and W. C. Dalyell, to the rank of com- 
manders ; Lieutenant Q. F. Weatherall, to act as governor of the 
Naval Hospital at Madras; Lieutenant Samuel U ad ford, to the rank of 
commander; V.Jones, to the Conflict ; Hon. Alexander Jones, to the 
Levant ; George Hayes, to the Peller ; James Boxer, lo the Albncore; 
H. T. Davies, to be a post captain ; George Henderson, to the Minden ; 
Joseph Prior, to the Acorn; Charles Mitchell, to the Eftptegtei 
S. Roberts, to the Meteor ; E. L. Graham, to the Caledonia ; 
John Allen, to the Hecate ; Hon. J. Napier, to the Erne ; Frederick 
Warren, to the Clarence; J.T. Devonshire, to the Sceptre ; C. B. Ross, 
to the Albion, the flagship of Uear-admiral George Cockburne; 
Thomas Forrest, to the Sybille; Gordon Falcon, to the Cyane ; Hon. 
J. A. Maude, of the Nemesis, to the rank of post-captain. 

Lieutenants, &c. appointed. 

Peter Alston, to the Stork ; John Bnllantyne, to the Ariel ; George 
Blackman, to the Hamadryad ; Lauchlan Burn, lo the Havook ; 
Richard Bluett, to the Impregnable; David Biichan, to the Sprightly ; 
John Bull, to the Thracinn ; John Crosbie, to the Elephant ; 
C. P. Coffin, to the Xephyr : G. Castle, to the Espiegle -, B. S. Daniels, 
to the Hesper ; Charles Ducane, to the Spencer ; Andrew Drew, master's 
mate of the Eurotas, to be a lieutenant of that frigate ; John Davis, to 
theWarspite; John R. Drew, to the Erne ; J. Evans, Jo the Achille ; 
Custavus Evans, to the Sheldrake; H. P. Furze, to the Regulus ; 
W. Flinn, to the Ariel ; George Green, to the Espiegle ; Richard 
Gregory, to the Prince ; John Houghlon, to the Colombia ; 
A. B. Howe, to the Newcastle ; J. B. Harrison, to the Oiseau ; 
John Henderson (2), to the Levant; G. C. Johnson, to the Salvador 
del Mundo ; T. JOIK-S, to the Dcsiree ; Hon. J. Jones, to the Conflict ; 
eter P. James, to the Pelter ; Waller Kirby, to the Benbuw ; Richard 



NATAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 261 

Henry King, to the Alert ; George Ley, to the Hope ; Edward Lus- 
combe, to the Horatio; Robert M'Kirdy, to the Cornwallis ; 
H. C. Mercer, to the Tonnant ; J. Marshall, to the Onyx ; H. M. Mar- 
shall, to be first lieutenant of the Prince; Alexander M'Kenzie (2), to 
the Cyane ; John Newall, to the Bristol $ J. G. Nops, to the Achille ; 
Charles Pollard, to the Hope; Thomas Pearce, to the Sybille ; Hon. 
Jos. P. Proby, to the Mercurius ; John Pendegrast, to the Teaser; 
Thomas Simmonds, to the Tigre ; Robert Stuart, to the Warspite ; John 
C. Snell, to the Sybille ; R. Stuart, to the Dauntless ; John Russel, to 
the Brevdrageren ; George Reid, to the Castilian ; Michael Raven, to 
the Colossus; William Reeve, to the Pheasant; William Robert- 
son (2), to the Erne; Nathaniel Ratsey, to the Esk; W. Simkin, to 
the Mercurius ; P. Sheppard, to the Owen Glendower; Thomas Stone, 
to the Rosario; James Shrapnel!, to the Espiegle ; Thomas Skede, to 
the Elake P.S. ; Robert Smith, to the rank of commander; John 
Theed, to the Superb ; George Tyrrel, to the Newcastle; J. B. Tartnel, 
to the Tonnaut ; W. Trotter, to the Astrea; Nicholas Toralinson, to 
the Hazard ; J. T. Tatlock, to the Sabrina; Joseph R. Thomas, to the 
Piercer; H. B. Woodhouse, to the Crocodile; Christopher Wyvill, to 
the Leopard; Thomas Waley, to the Ulysses j Charles Wood, to the 
Queen Charlotte. 

Masters appointed. '.. . 

B. Ainworthy, to the Erebus; W. F. Baker, to the Tigris; J. Bur- 
ness, to the Comet; J. Bates, to the Princess Caroline; J. Boyd,, 
to the Grampus; R. Cubison, to the Medina; John Cragg, to the 
Ariel ; T. Chillingworth, to the Psyche; D. Dickson, to the Prompte ; 
W. Folhergill, to be superintending master at Chatham; S.Giles, to 
the Helicon ; T. Greensides, to the Devonshire; M. G. Holhrook, to 
the Sydney surveying vessel ; J. Mills, to the Horatio ; J. J. M'Cay, to 
the Goshawk; J.Phillips, to the Newcastle; T. Paddon, to the Esk; 
A. Seaman, to the Portia ; A. Thompson, to the Meteor ; C. White, to 
be superintending master at Chatham; J. T. Watson, fo the Sabine ; 
Edward Martin, to the Halcyon ; William Brown, to the Oberon. 

List of Midshipmen passed for Lieutenants. 

Sheerness. James O'Brien, Neil Clark, John Parsons, C. G. Butler, 
J. C. Townsend, Henry Tomkins, Charles Mallard, George Harris. 

Portsmouth. Joseph Martin, William Knocker, F. Blacker, J. H. 
Whealley, Charles Paynter. 

Plymouth. Joseph Rawling, F. Prangnell, Charles March, James 
S. Hore, Henry Lawrence, C. W. Sauudersou, B. Edwards, Robert 
Lucas. 

Pursers appointed. 

John M. Hope, to the Pheasant ; W. Crisp, to the Piercer ; John 
Howard, to the Surveillanle ; H. D. Garwood, to the Flamer ; W. 
M'Lellan, to the Eden; P. Duffers, to the Podargus. 

Surgeons appointed. 

James Arnott, to the Rosamond ; John Morgan (2), to the Peru- 
vian ; G'eorge Clayton, to the Defiance, P. S. ; W. M. Kennedy, to the 
Liberty brig ; John Langhna, to the Sabrina ; Andrew Morrison, to 
the Audromeda ; J. E. Anderson, to the Alert sloop ; Charles Queade, 
to the Newcastle ; William Claperton, to the Electra ; J. L. Paterson, 
to the Mohawk ; John Whitaker, to the Prompt ; A. Blacklock, to 
|he Psyche j William Simpson, to the Goshawk ; James Kay, to the 



262 KA.VAI* HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 

Colibri ; James Brenau, to the Bahama, F.S. ; John Allen, to the Erne; 
Jeha Campbell, to the Causo schooner ; P. C. Parlebieo, to the Cla- 
rence ; James Billing; to the Belliqueux ; George Galbraith, to the 
Kroa Pripds' (formerly Kron Princen) ; James M'Beath, to the Comet ; 
R. B. Sanderson, to the Nautilus. 

Assistant-surgeons. 

James M' Alpine to the Ville de Paris ; John Cameron (1) to the Sal. 
T ador del Mundo ; Andrew Creighton, to the Abundance, S.S.; William 
Bruce, to be hospital-mate at Haslar ; J. VV. Langstaff, to the Gladia- 
tor ; E. A. Smith, to the Vonero ; John Hail, to be hospital-mate at 
Deal ; A. C. Hyndman, to the Hasty sloop ; William Dennison, to 
the Solebaj ; William Bell, to the Prompte ; H. Stewart, to the Hora- 
tio ; D. Bennet, to the Psyche ; C. O. Friell, to the Swift, S.S. ; Wil- 
liam Black (1), to the Newcastle ; M. Sheahan, to the Achille ; A. Small, 
to the Argonaut, H.S. ; Charles Kennedy, to the Bellerophon ; C. C. 
Todd, to the Magnificent; John Curtis, to the Monmouth ; . Ruther- 
ford, to the Venus ; Thomas Brownrigg, Robert Dunn, W. Smith (2J, 
to proceed as supernumeraries to America, for the Lake service ; Alex- 
ander Baird, to be hospital-mate at Plymouth. 

BIRTHS.^ 

On the 2d of March, the lady of Captain A. B. Binghara, of H.M.S. 
Myrtle, of a son. * 

On the 3d of March, the lady of Captain G. B. Hatnond, of H.M.S. 
Ivivoli, of a son, 

MARRIAGES. 

Lately, at Bath, Captain J. D. Markland, R.N. to Miss Helen Tregon- 
nell, of Cranborne Lodge, Dorset. 

Lately, Captain Prevost, flag-captain to Admiral Surridge, at Chat- 
ham, to the only daughter of the late Lewis Theisser, ES<I. of Wood- 
cole Park, Surrey. 

DEATHS. 

On the 31st of December, at the Royal Naval Hospital, Deal, 
Lieutenant John Gordon, late of H.M.S. Theban, and nephew to the 
Hon. John Gordon, of Kinmore Castle, near Galloway. 

Lately, at an advanced age, at Mintern Magna, Dorset, Richard 
Digby, Esq. senior-admiral of the red, and uncle to the Earl Digby. 
It was under this admiral that the Duke of Clarence entered the navy. 

Lately, at Cowes, Lieutenant Robert Ratrey, R.N. aged 40 years. 

On the 26th of February, at Rochester, Mrs. Dick, mother of Captain 
Dick, R.N. 

On the 12th of March, at Maize Hill, Greenwich, Major-general Sir 
John Douglas, Knt. lieutenant-colonel of the Woolwich division of royal 
marines. His remains were interred with great military pomp io tha 
church at Charllou, near Woolwich. 



THE I.ATE I.1EOTF.XANT THOMAS VflLLIAi^ JOVES, R.W. 

Lieutenant Thomas William Jones, commander of H.M. schonner 
Alphea at the lime of her late catastrophe, was horn July 5, 1783 ; 
being the youngest son of the late Mr. Richard Jones, surgeon, 
of Plympton, Devon. He served the greater part of his time as 
midshipman, on board the Trent frigate, iu the West Indies; and 
on his return to England was promoted to a lieutenancy by Sir Hyde 
Parker at the attack 011 Copenhagen; oa which occasion he had the 



NAVAL HISTORY OF THE PRESENT YEAR, 1814. 

Command of an armed flat-boat, and, amongst other services, was 
charged with the destruction of some of the Danish ships. He after- 
wards served as lieutenant on board various ships of different rates from 
the highest to the lowest, and was engaged in the Walcheren expedi- 
tion, where he was employed with other uaval officers in the landing of 
the troops. t 

In August 1812, he was appointed to the command of the Arrow 
schooner, as acting for Lieutenant Knight, who afterwards died of the 
wounds he received in her. During this service he was attached to the 
squadron then stationed in Basque Roads ; where he so distinguished 
himself by his activity and gallantry, that, on being superseded from the 
Arrow, he was immediately appointed 'by the Admiralty, from the 
recommendation of his commanding officers, who witnessed and 
approved bis conduct, to the command of the Alphea. In this vessel 
he was sent with despatches to America ; and having, whilst on that 
station, ventured to detain an American vessel, at the commencement of 
the war, before receiving actual commission for such procedure, the 
Admiralty, on his return to England, thought proper to dismiss him, 
his ship ; to which, however, he was restored after the interval of a few 
months. He was then destined to the Channel station, for the protec- 
tion of the coasting trade ; and sailed from Dartmouth, September 7th, 
1813, on a cruize, in which, beyond all doubt, his career was terminated, 
as detailed in the annexed account, faithfully translated from the Moni- 
teur of September 21. In this action, allowing the enemy all due credit 
for his narrative, there seems to have been displayed, on both sides, a 
much determined intrepidity as is to be found recorded in the naval 
annals of any country. 

It should be observed, that, from the last returns to the Admiral's 
Office at Portsmouth, it appears the Alphea then mustered one lieute- 
nant, a master, ten petty officers, twelve able seamen, six ordinary ditto, 
three landsmen, a corporal and six private marines, and one boy of the 
third class. Her regular complement was only thirty-six, including offi- 
cers and men; and it i believed, that the supernumeraries had been, 
afterwards discharged. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

MONITEUR, SEPT. !ST. 

" Administration of the Navy. 

w Report of the Cruize of the Renard Privateer Cutter, of 14 Guns and 
60 Men, to the Maritime Prefect of Cherbourg. 

" I have the honour to inform you, that I anchored yesterday even- 
ing in the road of the great bay, Port Dulette, on return from a cruize. 
We sailed from the Isle of Bas on the 8th, with a strong westerly wind ; 
ve stood across Channel during the night; and at four in the morning, 
we made the Start point, bearing S. W. distant four leagues. On the 
9th, at three o'clock, we descried a sail to leeward, on the starboard- 
tack. I gave chase to her, and at five o'clock I discovered her to be a 
man-of-war schooner. I hauled to the wind ; she followed my 
manoeuvres, and was then at the distance of two leagues astern of us. 
She came up with me at one o'clock. 1 made preparation for battle, and 
stationed every man at bis post. 

" The enemy's schooner began the action by firing her chace-gnns. 
The enemy luffed up to the wind, and I gave him my larboard broad- 
side ; he bore away to pass to leeward, and returned us his own. 
I tacked to starboard, and gave him several broadsides at pistol-shot, 
supported by the whole of our musquetry. During these first broad- 
sides, my First-Lieutenaat Devose, and, the two Lieutenants Bertliolet 



jfH KATAL HISTORY OF ill* VRESEXT YEAfe, 1814. 

and Ramarie, were wounded and disabled, as well as a great 'number of 
the crew. It was dead calm, though with a high sea ; and the enemy 
was thrown by the swell under our lee-bows. I gave orders for board- 
ing: the enemy, superior in number*, repulsed us with loss; and gave 
u a volley of grape-shot, which swept the whole of the forecastle. My 
second in command was killed in this broadside, and I had several 
wounded. I had no occasion to excite the courage of my people; and 
Mr. Herbert, the officer of the forecastle, with Mr. Lavergne, a mid- 
shipman, rallied together several men to make a second attempt ;. but 
the vessels burst the grapplings, and parted. 

" During the whole of this time, the batteries on both sides kept up a 
constant fire; and the officers of the forecastle threw several hand- 
grenades. While the vessels were aboard each other, we tore the pikes 
and pistols from each other's hands, and mangled one another without 
being able to leap on board on either side. The enemy now dropped on 
our starboard quarter, firing broadsides into us in quick succession. In 
one of these broadsides, I had an arm carried away ; but encouraged my 
people by crying " Courage, my friends ; the enemy is about to sur- 
fender." I intimated to Mr. Herbert, the only lieutenant I had left, to 
take command of the privateer; he caused me to he carried iuto the 
cabin; it was then three o'clock. Mr. Herbert, with Mr. Lavergne, 
cheered the courage of the small number of men that remained,' and 
continued the engagement ; when two guns, which- were fired at once 
from our deck, appeared to throw the enemy into disorder; and just as 
the commanding officer was in the act of crying out, ' They have 
struck; cease firing;" the schooner blew up, within pistol-shot to lee- 
ward. We were ourselves at the same instant covered with flames, and 
pieces of wreck on fire, which fell all over our decks. The comnjamlmg- 
officcr caused water to be thrown over the whole, and gave orders tof 
manning the boats, in order to save those of the enemy's crew who 
might haTe escaped the explosion ; but our launch was shattered 
to pieces, and the jolly-boat in tow was sunk. Three or four were per- 
ceived swimming on the wrecks, and all that could be done Mas to desire 
them to come on alongside of us, the calm preventing us from 
manceuvring ; but none of I hem were able to come near us. They 
cried out, they could see nothing. It was then haif-past-ihree. Our first 
attentions afterwards were engaged in the care or the wounded, who 
were in number thirty-one ; five men only had been killed. We had but 
thirteen seamen remaining in condition to work the ship. We repaired 
our damages as well as we could, a,nd steered for the coast of France, 
where we arrived on the 14th. 

Signed for the Captain, LF, Rorx, 

" J. HERBERT, Lieut." 

" Deposition of one of the Officers of the Renard, taken Prisn?r 
in another French I'rivaletr, and brought into Plymouth about 
Christmas 1813. 

Sept. 1813. On the 9th, at three in the afternoon, the Renard 
<teicried a schooner, to which she gave chace. At four, having disco- 
vered her to be a roan of war, the privateer made off. At midnight the 
rchooner commenced firing her chace-guns : at one the engagement be- 
gan, and lasted till half-past- three ; when the schooner blew up, from' 
the grenades which were thrown on board. Some minutes after the ex- 
plosion, three men were perceived on the wrecks, who were not saved 
tor want of boats. They wefe called to, to come alongside; but they 
answered, they were unable, having their sight scorched, A short time 
afterwards they scnk." 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR 

OF 

PHILIP DE SAUMAREZ, 

CAPTAIN 



*' Orbe Circumcincto." 



At hand, or remote, still that moment must come, 
Which hath not a successor on this side the tomb 
Fate hurls his dark mandates imperious on all 
But in Victory's arms for our Country to fall 
Is Heaven's high behest is a privilege divine." 
THE MORN OF 



IT is much to be regretted that the biography of this skilful 
navigator, and intrepid seaman, should have beau so long 
withheld from the world. The protracted delay that has taken, 
place between his glorious death, and the record of his achieve- 
ments, looks like injustice mingled with ingratitude. The con- 
sciousness that the historian of the day will do justice to his fame, 
elates the heart of the warrior, animates him to deeds of the great- 
est daring, gives the finest zest to victory, and smooths the rugged 
path of death. 

There are few, if any, naval captains who have perished in 
combat with the enemies of their country, whose professional 
adventures were better worth preserving than those of Philip dc 
Saumarez : yet, unfortunately, so great is the lapse of time which 
has intervened between the period of his existence, and the record 
of his achievements, that his biographer has to commence his 
grateful duty very slenderly, indeed, provided with materials. It is 
not ascertained in what ship, or under whose command, he mads 
his first essay as a naval officer ; nor when he passed for lieutenant : 
nor have we any account of him till we find him, in 1740, serving 
a? a lieutenant in the Centurion, under Commodore Anson.* 
fae was then in his thirtieth year ; and had entered into the navy 

* For a memoir and portrait of Commodore Anson, see N. C. Vol. VIII. p. 272. . 

. Gof, XXXI. ? F 



466 NATAL BIOGRAPHY. 

fourteen years prior to that period. As Commodore Anson had 
the privilege of selecting his officers, and as he was well aware how 
greatly the success of the important expedition he was about to 
commence, depended upon the qualities of the officers scrying 
under his orders, it may fairly be inferred that Philip de Sauma- 
rez had not been selected to accompany the commodore in a voy- 
age round the globe, if he had not previously distinguished 
himelf, and given the fairest promise of becoming a great sea 
captain. 

Upon the vacancies which occurred by the death of Captain 
Kidd,* of the Wager, Mr. de Saumarez succeeded Mr. Charles 
Saunders, as first lieutenant of the Centurion, when she lay in 
the bay of St. Julian, on or about the 17th February, 1741. It 
is not certain when he was made commander ; but it is probable 
he took that rank in September, 1741 , on being appointed to the 
command of the Spanish prize, the Ncustra Senora del Monte 
Carmelo, which the Centurion captured not far from the island of 
Juan Fernandez. Upon the capture of that glorious prize, the 
Manilla galleon called the Neustra Senora del Cabadonga, by the 
Centurion, on the 20th June, 1743, Philip de Saumarez was 
appointed to command her, with the rank of post captain. + 

The poverty of biographical materials is in a great measure 
compensated by an original letter possessed by his noble relative, 
Admiral Sir James Saumarez ; + and by him transmitted for inser- 
tion in this memoir, which was written by Philip de Saumarez on. 
board the Centurion, in November or December 1742, at the 
island of Macoa. 

As long as the NAVAL CHRONICLE remains, or a taste for naval 
literature shall be cherished, this important letter will be read with 
lively interest. It exhibits a bold and glowing picture of a suc- 
cession of mournful events, of which this officer appears to have 



* Captain Dandy Kidd died on board the Wager frigate, 3lst January, 1741. 

f It is mentioned in the N. C. Vol. III. p. 350, that, on the 21st June, 1743, 
Mr. Saumarez was appointed Commander of the Cabadonga, the Centurion's splen- 
did prize ; but it is expressly stated in Anson's Voyage, that the Cabadonga was 
made a post ship in H. ftl.*s service, and that the command was bestowed on 
Mr. de Sauniarez : and that he afterwards commanded the Sandwich, a second 
ntc. Eo. 

J ride memoir and portrait, N. C. Vol. VI. p. 87. 



PHILIP DE SAUMAREZ. 267 

had his full share, and to have endured the almost unparalleled 
hardships to which he was exposed, with a fortitude that reflect* 
honour to his memory. Of his own peculiar services, he treats 
rery sparingly. We find him involved in a continual round of 
perilous adventures, and still surmounting all difficulties. Court- 
ing danger? in every shape, eager for promotion, indulging in 
bright visions of wealth and glory, and afterwards narrating the 
wreck of his sanguine hopes amidst such miseries as few minds or 
bodies could have endured. 

It is singular that a letter so truly interesting, and differing as 
it does in some particulars from the printed voyage, should never 
have been published. It is to be hoped it will appear with the 
future editions of Anson's voyage ; as having been penned by one 
who had so great a share in the dangers and the glories of that 
eventful expedition. As this valuable document furnishes a plain 
connected narrative of the most important events of his short but 
glorious professional career, we shall lay it in its native dress be. 
fore our readers, adding an occasional extract from Commodore 
Anson's Voyage, to illustrate those interesting passages wherein 
we conceived a little elucidation might be judiciously introduced. 

Copy of a Letter written in the Year 1742 ly PHILIP DE SAUMAREZ, Esq. 
at <that time 1st Lieutenant under Commodore Anson.* 

On board ff.M.S. Centurion 1742. 

I shall run over briefly the several dates of our voyage, and give you a 
rude sketch of our proceedings for to enlarge on particulars would exceed 
the limits of a letter. 

You will recollect our squadron left England the 18th September, 1740.f 
\Ve had a tedious passage of 41 days to Madeira, f the usual one being 
ten ; to this accident several secondary ones succeeded as loss of time and 
of the season proper for navigating the Southern Seas, and declining health 
of our men, especially the soldiery : we stayed a week at this island, em- 
ployed in watering and taking in our stock of wine. It is highly probable 
we narrowly escaped a squadron of the enemy, which were discovered 
from the mountains, cruising off the west end or the island; and which, 
if the commanders had behaved like discipliuarians, might have intercepted 
us, and it would have fully answered the designs of the Spanish Court, if 
they had disabled us trom pursuing our voyage, which must have been 

* Vide Anson's Voyage, 1813 p. 28. f Idem. Page 30. 

$ Madeira (Funchal) is in latitude 32o 3?' 20" JS". longitude 16 9 55' 36" W. 
(HYDHOGRAPHSR.) 

$ Fide Ansou's Voyage, 1813. p. 31 and 32, 



WAVAt BIOGHAPHT. 

the consequence of an engagement. They had also the advantage of berog 
double our number ; but leaving them to their own reflections, we pursued 
our course, and crossed the Use and tropics without any remarkable acci- 
dents occurring, excepting that fevers and fluxes began to attack us, 
especially the soldiers, and in 44 days we arrived at the island of St. Cathe- 
rine,* on the coast of Brazil, the 19th December, 1740. 

We stayed at St. Catherine's! 28 days, employed in recovering our sick, 
yvho lived on shore in tents, and in making preparations for doubling Cape 
Horn in a tempestuous advanced season ; we sailed hence the 18th of 
January, and soon after began to meet with uncertain stormy weather, in 
which the Tiyal sloop ^ lost her main-mast, and was towed by one of the 
squadron. The Pearl separated from us, but as our rendezvous was at St. 
Julian's,|| a port on the coast of Patagonia, or as others term it, Terra 
j\I(igella?iica, in 49 30' south, we rejoined here ; by which we learnt of 
Pizarro's squadron, from whom she narrowly escaped, off Pessy's Island. 
We stayed here 8 days, employed in putling all our lumber on hoard the 
tore-ships, and were in hopes of meeting with the Spanish squadron. The 
coast here is a sulphurous nitrous soil, abounding with salt lakes, but des- 
titute of verdure, shrub, tree, or fresh water, and seems the seat of infer- 
nal spirits; nor indeed was there the tract of any terrestrials, besides seals 
and birds. We here took in salt, and refitted the sloop. Captain Kidd's 
death^ made a revolution in promotion amongst us, and I was appointed 
Jst lieutenant of the Commodore: but my predecessor,** to whose command 
the sloop descended at that time, was taken dangerously ill, and became 

* Vide Anson's Voyage, p. 50, &c. 

-r St. Catherine's isle is situated in latitude 27 32' 32" S. longitude 49 ID' 3?" W. 

J As the seasons in the southern hemisphere are reversed from their course in 
the northern, Midsummer falls in January, and consequently the writer's com- 
plaint on 18lh January, of having to double Cape Horn in an "'advanced season," 
seems to require some degree of explanation : perhaps there are local hurricane* 
or periodical monsoons off that promontory, as at the place near the Mauritius in 
December, January, and February : certain it is that more modern navigators 
do not re-echo Anson's lamentable account of the terrors of Cape Horn, which is 
in latitude 55 58' 30" S. and in longitade 67 26' W. 

Vide Anson's Voyage, page 64. 

j| The geographical site of Tort St. Juliaa is 49 10' S. 680 40' W. 

^J Dandy Kidd was chief matt of the great South-sea ship when a lieutenant 
in the navy. He was made post captain in the Wager on 26th December, 1739, 
nd died 31st January, 174 . 

** Vide N. C. Vol. VIII. p. 2. While we stayed at this place, the commodore 
appointed the Honourable Captain Murray to succeed to the Pearl, and Captain 
Cheap to the Wager, and he promoted Mr. Charles Saunders, his first lieutenant, 
to the command of the Tryal sloop. But Captain Saunders lying dangerously ill 
of a fever on board the Centurion, and it being the opinion of the surgeons, that 
the removing him on board his own ship, in his present condition, might tend to 
the hazard of Ins Jife, Mr. Arson gave an order to Mr. de Saumarez, first lieutenant 
of the Centurion, to act as master and commander of the Tryal, during the illness 
of Captain Sauiiders. 



THILTP DE SAUMAtttZ. 26t 

incapable of taking possession of his charge. I was ordered to take the 
command* of her till his recovery, and here I must confess to you, I was 
Sanguine enough to flatter myself with the same addition of good fortune, 
Some favourable crisis in my behalf but I was born to be unfortunate. 

We sailed hence the 27th February, 1741.f My station in the sloop 
being a-head of the squadron, to keep sounding, and make timely signals 
of danger. The 4th March we discovered the entrance of the strait of 
Magellan,:}: and on the 7th passed through the strait Le Maire, lying at 
the extremity of Terra-del-Fuego, between that and Staten-land. This 
day was remarkably warm and favourable, though in latitude of 55 06' 
south. We began to look on the conquest of the Peruvian mines, and 
principal towns in the Pacific Sea, as an amusement which would naturally 
occur. From this time forward we met with nothing but disasters and 
accidents. Never were the passions of hope and fear so powerfully agitated 
and exercised; the very elements seemed combined against us.jj I com- 

* Vide Anson's Voyage, p. 67 and 68. f Idem. Page 74. 

$ The proper orthography of this name is Magelhaens. 

$ Tide Anson's Voyage, page 77. 

(| From the storms which came on before we had well got clear of strait Le 
Maire, we had a continual succession of such tempestuous weather, as surprised 
the oldest and most experienced mariners on board, and obliged them to confess, 
that what they had hitherto called storms, were inconsiderable gales, compared 
with the violence of these winds, which raised such short, and at the same time 
such mountainous waves, as greatly surpassed in danger all seas known in any 
other part of the globe ; and it was not without great reason that this unusual 
appearance filled us with continual terror ; for had any one of these waves broke 
fairly over us, it must, in all probability, have sent us to the bottom ; nor did we 
escape with terror only, for the ship, rolling incessantly gunwale-lo, gave us such 
quick and violent motions, that we were in perpetual danger of being dashed in 
pieces against the decks or .sides of the ship. And though we were extremely 
Careful to secure ourselves from these shocks, by grasping some fixed body, yet 
many of our people were forced from their hold ; some of whom were killed, and 
others greatly injured ; in particular one of our best seamen was canted over- 
board and drowned ; another dislocated his neck, a third was thrown into the 
main hold and broke his thigh, and one of the boatswain's mates broke his collar 
bone twice ; not to mention many more accidents of the same kind. These tem- 
pests, so dreadful in themselves, though unattended by any other unfavourable 
circumstances, were yet rendered more mischievous to us by their inequality, and 
the deceitful intervals which they at some times afforded ; for though we were 
afterwards obliged to lie-to for days together under a reefed roizen, and were 
frequently reduced to lie at the mercy of the waves under our bare poles, yet now 
and then we ventured to make sail with our courses double-reefed, and the 
weather proving more tolerable, would perhaps encourage us to set our top- 
sails ; after which the wind, without any previous notice, would return upon us 
with redoubled force, and would in an instant tear our sails from the yard. And 
that no circumstance might be wanting which could aggravate our distress, those 
blasts generally brought with them a great quantity of snow and sleet, which cased 
our rigging, and froze our sails, thereby rendering them and our cordage brittle, 
and apt to snap upon the slightest strain, adding great difficulty and labour to 



270 NAVAL BIOanAPHY. 

manded the sloop at the time of the separation of the ships that returned 
home, being stationed to look out for islands of ice, and had to endure 
such fatigues from the severity of the weather, and the duty which the na- 
ture of the sloop naturally brought on me, that really life is not worth pre- 
serving at the expence of such hardships, having had several miraculous 
escapes from our own ships, which, in the obscurity of the night, and 
violence of the weather, often endangered foundering the bloop. Having 
had the command of the sloop seven weeks, I was at length superseded by 
her proper captain, who bad recovered on board the Commodore, and I 
returned to my post. During this time the scurvy* made terrible bavock 

the working of the ship, benumbing the limbs of our people, and making them 
incapable of exerting themselves with their usual activity, and even disabling 
many of them, by mortifying their toes and fingers. It were indeed endless to 
enumerate the various disasters of different kinds which befel us. Idem. p. 79, 80. 

* This disease, so frequently attending long voyages, and so particulaily 
destructive to us, is surely the most singular and unaccountable of any that affects 
the human body. Its symptoms are inconstant and innumerable ; and its progress 
and effects extremely irregular, so that scarcely any two persons have complaints 
exactly resembling each other ; and where there have been found some confor- 
mity in the symptoms, the order of their appearance has been totally different. 
However, though it frequently puts on the form of many other diseases, and is 
therefore not to be described by any exclusive and infallible criterion, yet there 
are some symptoms which are more general than the rest, and, occurring tha 
oftenest, deserve a more particular enumeration. These common appearances 
are large discoloured spots, dispersed over the whole surface of the body, swelled 
legs, putrid gums, and above all, an extraordinary lassitude of the whole botly,espc- 
cially after any exercise, however inconsiderable ; and this lassitude at last dege- 
nerates into a proneness to swoon, and even to die, on the least exertion of 
strength, or even of the least motion. 

This disease is usually attended with a strange dejection of spirits, and with 
stiverings, tremblings, and a disposition to be seized with the most dreadful terrors 
on the slightest accident. Indeed it was most remarkable, in all our reiterated 
experience of this malady, that whatever discouraged our people, or at any time 
damped their hopes, never failed to add new vigour to the distemper; for it 
usually killed ihose who were in the last stages of it, and confined those to their 
hammocks who were before capable of some kind of duty ; so that it seemed as 
if alacrity of mind, and sanguine thoughts, were no contemptible preservatives 
from its fatal malignancy. 

But it is not easy to complete the long roll of the' various concomitants of this 
disease; for it often produced putrid fevers, pleurisies, the jaundice, and violent 
rheumatic pains, and sometimes it occasioned an obstinate costiveness, which 
was generally attended with difficulty of breathing : and this was esteemed the 
most deadly of all the scorbutic symptoms. At other times the whole body, but 
more particularly the legs, were subject to ulcers of the worst kind, attended with 
rotten bones, and such a luxuriancy of fungus flesh, as yielded to no remedy. 
But a most extraordinary circumstance, and what would be scarcely credible upon 
any single evidence, is, that the scars of wounds which had been for many years 
healed, were forced open again by this virulent distemper. Of this there was a 
remarkable instance in one of the invalids on board the Centurion, who had beeu 



DE SAUMARfiZ. 2?I 

amongst us, especially the soldiers, who being either infirm old men, or raw 
inexperienced youths, they soon lost their spirits, grew sick and disabled ; 
and from jthe stench they occasioned, contributed to infect our seamen. 
This distemper is only known to those who make long voyages, and ex- 
presses itself iu such dreadful symptoms as are scarcely credible, vis. 
asthma, pains in all the limbs and joints, the bodies covered with blotches 
and ulcers, idiotism, lunacy, convulsions, and sudden death : uor can all 
the physicians, with all the Materia Medico, find a remedy for it equal to 
the smell of a turf of grass, or a dish of greens. It is not my province to 
account for what the most learned only confuse and perplex ; but I could 
plainly observe that there is a je ne sfais quoi in the frame of the human 
system which cannot be removed, cannot be preserved without the 
assistance of certain earthly particles, or in plain English, the landman's 
proper element and vegetables and fruits his only physic. For the space 
of six weeks we seldom buried less than four or five men daily, and at last 
it amounted to eight or ten. I really believe, had we stayed ten days longer 
at sea, we should have lost the ship for want of men to navigate her. At 
length we arrived at the island of Juan Fernandez,* in the South Sea, after 
having escaped several imminent dangers of shipwreck on the coast of 
Chili, off which the nature of our rendezvous required us to cruise, in hopes 
of rejoining the squadron. 

We anchored here on the 16th June, 1741, and as we subsequently 
learned, ten days after the departure of a Spanish ship of war, which was 
sent by the admiral of these seas to gain intelligence ; himself having 

wounded fifty years before, (a) at the battle of the Boyne ; for which he was cured 
soon alter, and had continued well for a great number of years past; yet, on his bs- 
ing attacked by the scurvy, in the progress of his disease, his wounds broke Out afresh* 
and appeared as if they had never been healed : nay, what is still more astonish- 
ing, the callus of a broken bone, which had been completely formed for a long 
time, was found to be hereby dissolved, and the fracture seemed as if it had never 
been consolidated. Indeed the effects of this disease were, in almost every 
instance, wonderful ; for many of our people, though confined to their hammocks, 
appeared to have no inconsiderable share of heahh ; for they ate and drank 
heartily, were cheerful, and talked with much seeming vigour, and with a strong 
loud tone of voice ; and yet, on their being in the least moved, though it was only 
from one part of the ship to the other, in their hammocks, they have immediately 
expired ; and others, who have confided in their seeming strength, and have 
resolved to get out of their hammocks, have died before they could well reach, 
the deck : nor was it an uncommon thing for those who were able to walk the 
deck, and to do some kind of duty, to drop down dead in an instant, on any 
endeavours to act with their utmost effort, many of our people having perished in 
this manner during the course of this voyage. Idtm. p. 96, 97. 

* Juan Fernandez is in 33 40' S. 78o 33' W. * Idem. Page 102, &c. 

(a) Was it not extremely inhuman to select such art old veteran, to send him on 
an expedition of this nature, for which none but the healthy and strong were 
fitted ? What a powerful argument does thi* tact afford in favour of limi.ed 
sarvice. F/B. 



175 NAVAL BIOGRAPHY. 

cruised with liis squadron of four sail a considerable time, in hopes of 
meeting with us: well judging the condition our ships might be in. You 
will be surprised to hear, that in a 60-gun ship, on our arrival at this 
island, we mustered but 72 persons, including officers and boys, capable 
of appearing on deck, the rest being all sick, having lost 228 men since our 
leaving England, and which includes nine months. We were joined by the 
Gloucester and Tryal sloop,* the crews of which vessels suffered still more 
so, that had there been an experienced enemy to have dealt with us, they 
might have made a very easy conquest of us all. Uut, " whatever is, it 
right." They gave us time to recover our spirits, and rally our forces 
again, for which we visited them afterwards, and shut up their ports. 

I shall not attempt a description of this island at present; but only tell 
you it is the most romantic and pleasant place imaginable, abounding with 
.myrtle trees, and covered with turnips and sorrei. Its bays, abounding 
with all kinds of fish, seem calculated for the reception of distressed sea- 
men. We stayed here three months, employed in refitting our ships, and 
restoring the health of the sick ; and this without the loss of time to us, it 
being the winter season, in which, from April to September, navigation is 
judged unsafe by the Spaniards in the beginning of which month (Septem- 
ber) we were agreeably surprised with the sight of a sail, to winch we 
immediately gave chase, slipping our cable, but night intervening, lost her. 
Soon after we fell in with another, who was her consort, of 500 tons,t 
and much richer, having about 18,000/. on board in money, besides her 
cargo, which would have been very valuable (being chiefly sugar) could 
we have brought it to a proper market, but in these parts, it is a misfortune 
that nothing but money is truly valuable, having no ports whereat to dis- 
pose of any thing ; and here I commenced captain again, having 12 guns, 
besides swivels, with 30 men, and had a separate cruise ordered me, with 
Captain Saunders,* in the; TryalV prize, a ship he had taken in the sloop, 

* Vide Anson's Voyage, page 114, &c. 

f As soon as the vessel came within hail of us, the Commodore ordered them 
to bring-to under his lee quarter, and then hoisted out tho boat, and sent 
Mr. de Saumarez, his first lieutenant, to take possession of the prize, with diroctioni 
to send all the prisoners on board the Centurion, but first the officers and passen- 
gers. When Mr. de Saumarez came on hoard them, they received him at the ship's 
side with the strongest tokens of the most abject submission, for they were all of 
them (especially the passengers, who were twenty-five in number) extremely 
terrified, and under the greatest apprehensions of meeting with very severe aud 
cruel usage : but Mr. de Saumarez endeavoured, with great courtesy, to dissipate 
their fright, assuring them that their fears were altogether groundless, and that 
they would find a generous enemy in the Commodore, who was not less re- 
markable for his lenity and humanity, than for his resolution and courage. 

J A memoir and portrait of this officer (afterwards Sir Charles Saunden,), are 
to be found in N.C. Vol. VIII. p. 1. 

$ The Tryal's prize was to continue on this station twenty-four days, and if 
not joined by the Commodore *t the expiration of that time, she H as then to pro* 
ceed down the coast to Pisco or Nasca, where she would be certain to meet with 



FHILTV DE SAUMAREZ. 

w'nich -then proved so leaky and disabled in her masts by a gale of wind, 
that she was sunk,* and her prize commissioned in her room. But nothing 
appeared in our station, which was to leeward of Valparaiso : we had no 
opportunity of exerting ourselves. After a month's cruise, we rejoined the 
Commodore, who, we found, had been as unsuccessful as ourselves. Wo 
then proceeded along the coast of Peru, and took two prizes, both very 
valuable (o the Spaniards, the one being loaded with ship's timber, the 
other f with steel and iron bars, but to us of no great service. By the latter 
ure had information of a rich vessel in trie road of Paita,t bound to Lonso- 
unta, on the coast of Mexico, the money being still in town. This was a 
chance worth pursuing, and having arrived off the port in the night, we 
snt all the boats, manned and armed with 50 men, and surprised and took 
the town, with scarcely any resistance or loss, except one killed and one 
wounded on our side. The inhabitants, abandoning their houses, had 
retired to the neighbouring mountains. This event happened on the 15th 
November, 1741. We kept possession of the town two days and a half, 
without any disturbance from the natives, having plundered it, and set it 
on fire, but spared the two churches. We found here about 30,000/. ster- 

lUr. Anson. The Commodore likewise ordered Lieutenant de Saumarez, who com- 
manded the Centurion's prize, to keep company with Captain Saunders, both to> 
assist him in unloading the sloop, and also that by spreading in their cruise, there 
might be less danger of any of the enemy's ships slipping by unobserved. These 
orders being despatched* the Centurion parted from the other vessels at eleven 
itt the evening, on the 27th of September, directing her course to the southward, 
with a view of cruising for some days to the windward ol Valparaiso. Page 147-8. 

* Vide Anson's Voyage, page 149. 

f- Neustra Senora del Carmin, 250 tons, invoice price of the cargo, 400,000 
dollars. Page 157. 

* Payt.i, or Pai'ta, is in latitude 5 li"' S. the longitude is not correctly known. 

(HYDR ) 

$ And now, before I entirely quit the account of our transactions at this place, 
it may not, perhaps, be improper to give a succinct relation of the booty we got 
here, and of the loss the Spaniards sustained. I have before observed that there 
were great quantities of valuable effects in the town; but as most of them were 
what we could neither dispose of nor carry away, the total amount of this mer- 
chandize can only be rudely guessed at. The Spaniards, in the representations 
sent to the Court of Madrid (as we were afterwards assured), estimated their 
whole loss at a million and a half of dollars; and when it is considered that no 
small part of the goods we burnt there, were of the richest and most expensive 
species, as broad-cloths, silks, cambrics, velvets, Sec. I cannot but think their 
valuation sufficiently moderate. As to ourselves, the acquisition we made, though 
inconsiderable in comparison of what we destroyed, was far from despicable ; 
for the wrought plate, dollars, and oth'trcoin which fell into our hands, amounted 
to upwards of S0,000/. sterling, besides several rings, bracelets, and jewels, 
whose intrinsic value we could not then determine ; and over and above all this, 
the plunder which became the property of the immediate captors, was very great j 
o that upon the whole, it was by much the most jmportaut booty we met with on 
tiiat coast. Vide Anson's Voyage, p. 149. . 

ftoi. XXXI. y N 



474 NATAL BIOGRAPS?. 

ling, besidts some jewels : there was much more, but the inhabitants 
carried it off. We sunk two half galleys, and two snows, and carried 
away a small ship with us, that was intended to have carried this money. 

We departed hence the 16th, and some days after joined the Gloucester,* 
which had been ranging the coast, and had intercepted some vessels, though 
not so valuable as ours. We then proceeded along shore, burning some of 
our prizes which proved dull sailers, and arrived at the island of Quibo t 
on the 17th December, 1741,:}: a delightful uninhabited place, abounding 
with a great quantity of wild deer, and other refreshments. Having 
watered here with all imaginable expedition, we sailed hence the 9th of 
December, with a design to cruize oft' Acapulco on the coast of Mexico, 
for a rich ship that was expected from Manilla,)) on the island of Luponia, 
in the East Indies. This is a yearly ship,^[ whose cargo amounts to an 
immense sum, and could we but have had a favourable passage thither, 
she must inevitably have been ours ; but we were disappointed, being 79 
days in effecting a passage which has been performed in twenty ; meeting 
with a long series of calms and uncertain weather. Thence we arrived five 
weeks too late, and therefore hoped to speak to her on her return, which 
generally is in March. She would then have been worth as much, being 
laden with money to purchase another cargo. We cruized off this part of 
the coast of Mexico two months,** at such a distance as not to be disco- 
vered from the shore, and having intelligence by a boat we took the day 
of her sailing, we made no doubt of her being ours. We were five sail in 
all, with our prizes, and lay at three leagues distance from each other, and 
at ten from the port. During this time we lived on turtle, which we 
caught daily alongside with the boats. The squadron described a half 
moon, our boats being at the same time three leagues from the shore 
within us, to watch the port. The disposition was so just and regular, it' 
was impossible she could have escaped. I was so curious as to calculate 
my share, which would have amounted tolO,000/. but Providence ordained 
it otherwise. 

I should have told you that that ship mounted 60 guns. Having cruized 
till our water was almost all expended, and having an enemy's coast 
whereon to replenish, we were obliged to depart, but left a boat behind to 
watch her motions. At last, after many searches, we found a convenient 
bay for watering, called Chiquitan,ft where Sir Francis Drake ^ refitted : 
here we watered and burnt all our prizes,$ in order to cross the great 

* Vide Anson's Voyage, page 173. 

f Quibo, according to the " Requisite Tables," lies in latitude 7 27' N. ion- 
;'ude 82 10' VV. 

$ Vide Anson's Vojagc, page 177. $ Idem. 

|| Manilla is in 143<>' 8" N. 120o 51' 15" E. 

5J Vide Anson's Voyage, page 187. 4 

* Idem. pae202, &c. ft Idem, pag* 207. Cheqnetan. 

$J A memoir aud portrait of this distinguished navigator are given at page 1 
Vol. XXIX. 

5$ Vide Anson'i Voyage, page 217. 



PHILIP DE SAUMAREZ. 275 

Southern Ocean, and, with the Gloucester in company, goto the East Indies. 
We learned afterwards, that this rich ship was detained, having had 
information from the coast of Peru of our being on the coast. 

We left Acapulco the 6th of May, 1742, and here hegins another series 
of misfortunes and mortality surpassing the first, in which we were very 
near having never been heard of more. We had a passage of three 
months and a half to the Lad rone Islands, which is generally made in two, 
yet it was a vulgar opinion amongst our people, that we had sailed so far as 
to pass by all the land in the world. Length of time and badness of wea- 
ther rendered both our ships leaky ; this, joined to our mortality, the 
scurvy raging amongst us as much as ever, obliged us to destroy the 
Gloucester,* which ship was ready to founder, and receive the men on 
board, who were all sick and dying. It is impossible to represent the 
melancholy circumstances wherein we were involved previous to our 
arrival at these islands. We anchored at one called Tinian, t uninha- 
bited, but abounding with wild cattle, hogs, fowls, and fruits ; | we could 
not have fallen in with a better place. 1 am convinced, had we stayed out 
ten days longer at sea, we should have been obliged to take to our boats, 
our leak increasing so fast, and our people being all infirm and disabled. 
We immediately sent all our sick on shore, and began to hope for better 
times, feeding plentifully on roast beef, when an accident fell out on the 
22d September, 1742, which had like to have ruined us all. 

My post of first officer generally confined me on board the Commodore, 
whilst most of the officers and men were on shore for the recovery of their 
health ; when a storm came on and rose so mountainous a sea as none of, 
us ever saw before. The ship was in danger of being pooped as we lay at 
anchor ! At last we parted both our bower cables, and drove out to sea 

* Our boat soon returned with a representation of the state of tbe Gloucester, 
and of her several defects, signed by Captain Mitchell and all his officers; whence 
it appeared, that she had sprung a leak, by her stern-post being loese, and 
working with every roll of the ship ; and by two beams amid-ship being broken 
in the orlop, no part of which, as the carpenters reported, could possibly be re- 
paired at sea : that both officers and mm had worked twenty-four hours at the"' 
pumps without intermission ; and were at length so fatigued, that they could con- 
tinue their labour no longer, but had been forced to desist with 7 feet water in 
I he hold, which covered all the casks, so that they could neither come at fresh 
water nor provisions ; that they had no mast standing, except the fore-mast, the 
iuizen-innst, and the mizen-top-mast ; nor had they any spare roasts to get up in 
the room of those they had lost ; that the ship was besides extremely decayed in 
every part ; for her knees and clamps were all become exlremely loose, and her 
upper works in general were so crazy, that the quarter-deck was ready to drop 
down; and her crew was greatly reduced, as there remained alive on board of 
her, officers included, no more than seventy-seven men, eighteen boys, and two 
prisoners ; and that of this whole number, only sixteen men and eleven boys wera 
capable of keeping deck; several of these, too, being very infirm. Jbid. p. 236, 
She \s.as burnt ou the 15th August. Vide Alison's Voyage, page 237-8. 

t Tinian or Tenian lies in latitude 15 N. longitude 14555 ( 30"-E. 

$ Vide Arson's Voyage, page 240, &c, $ Idem. p. 25 1 to 259. 



76 NATAL BIOGRAPHY. 

with the sheet anchor hanging ia the hawse, with a cable, and J of another 
(excuse these barbarous sea terms), and uarrowly escaped driving on a 
ledge of rocks which was very near to us, leaving the Commodore and all 
the rest behind. The ship, by her labouring in such a troubled sea, made 
so much water that I was in doubt whether she would not have foundered, 
our ports being but ill secured, as were likewise the guns, owing to the 
suddenness of the storm, which likewise overset the long-boat. In these 
circumstances I drove to sea, having 100 men and boys on board, not 
knowing whether I should not be at last a captain in spite of my teeth. 
In this manner I drove 70 leagues, and was 15 days before I recovered 
land, beating up against a fresh trade wind, and lee current. The Com- 
modore, you may imagine, was overjoyed at my return,* as were all the 
rest. They were very busy in building a vessel for to carry them all to 
China, preferring to venture in it to sea, than to remain on an uninhabited 
island, or to be exposed to the cruelty of the Spaniards who live on the 
neighbouring islands ; the Commodore concluding, that either the ship was 
lost, or that I should never be able to beat up to windward. At hist, 
after many hazards whil-t staving here, we sailed hencef the 22d of Octo- 
ber, 1742, and met with a tolerably good passage to the Island of Macao,* 
a Portuguese settlement on the coast of China, arriving there on the 1 1th 
November, having buried 160 men since our leaving Acapulco, or 430 
since we left England, including Indians and Negroes whom we detained 
prisoners " 

* Treating of the labours of the Commodore and people, in conducting a bark 
to carry them from Tinian, after the supposed loss of the Centurion, the author 
proceeds : " But their projects and labour were now drawing to a speedier and 
happier conclusion; for on the llth October, in the afternoon, one of the 
Gloucester's men being upon a hill in the middle of the island, perceived the 
Centifrion at a distance, and running clown with the utmost speed towards the 
landing place, lie, in the way, ssw some of Ins comrades, to whom lie hallooed 
with great ecstasy- The Ship! the Ship ! This being heard bv Mr. Gordon, a 
lieutenant of marines, who was convinced by the fellow's transport that this report 
was true, Mr. Gordon directly hastened to the place where the Commodore and 
his people were at work ; ant), being fresh, and in breath, easily outstripped the 
Glouccsti r's man, and got before him to the Commodore, who, on bearing this 
pleasing and unexpected news, threw down liis axe, with which he was then at 
work, and, by his joy, broke through for the first time, the equable and unva- 
ried character which he had hitherto preserved ; whilst the others who were pre- 
sent, instantly ran down to the gea side, in a kind of frenzy, eager to feast them- 
selves witli a sight they so ardently longed after, and of which they had now, 
for a considerable time, despaired. By five in the evening the Centurion was 
visible ia the offing to them all ; and a boat being sent off with eighteen men to 
rein force her, and with fre^b meat and frails for ttie refn shrnent of'her crew, she 
the next afternoon happily cast anchor in the road, where the Commodore imme- 
diately came on board of her, and was received by us with the sjncerest and 
heartiest acclamation?." Alison's Voyage, p. 253 and 259. 

f- Idem, page 264. 

J Macao (Pia grand) is placed by the " Requisite Tables," in latitude 
J2 ll'aG"N. longitude Jj^o J5' 15" fc. 



PHILIP DE SAUMAHE. 277 

This highly interesting letter, as its termination proves, reaches 
no lower than November or December, 1742, when the Centurion 
lay off the island of Macoa. Shortly after which, in his very next 
cruize, Philip de Saumarez happily attained the two great ob- 
jects of his honourable ambition, namely, the accession of rank 
as a captain, and the capture of a Manilla galleon ; for as soon as' 
the Commodore had refitted his ship,* replenished his stores, and 
laid in an additional stock of provisions, he determined, notwith- 
standing his former disasters, to cruize again for the Manilla 
galleons, in the Pacific Ocean, off Cape Espiritu Santo. The 
Centurion, on the last day of May, arrived off Gape Espiritu 
Santo, and upon the 20th June, O. S. they discovered a sail from 
the mast-head in the S.E. quarter. On this a general joy spread 
throughout the whole ship, for they had no doubt this was one of 
the galleons, and they expected soon to descry the other. 

Immediately on the commencement of the action, the nmts, 
with which the galleon had stuffed her netting, took fire, and 
burnt violently, blazing as high as the mizen-top. This accident, 
supposed to be caused by the Centurion's wads, threw the enemy 
into the utmost terror, and also alarmed the Commodore, for he 
feared lest the galleon, and lest he himself too, might suffer by her 
driving on board him. However, the Spaniards at last freed 
themselves from the fire, by cutting away the netting, and tumbling 
the whole mass which was in flames into the sea. At this interval, 
the Centurion kept her advantageous position, firing her cannon 
with great regularity and briskness, whilst, at the same time, the 
galleon's decks lay open to her top-men, who having, at their 
first volley, driven the Spaniards from their tops, made prodigious 
havoc with their small arms, killing or wounding every officer but 
one that appeared on the quarter-deck, and wounding in particu. 
lar the general of the galleon himself. Thus the action proceeded 
for at least half an hour ; but the Centurion lost the superiority 
arising from the original situation, and was close alongside the 
galleon, and the enemy continued to fire briskly near an hour 
longer ; yet even in this posture, the Commodore's grape-shot 
swept their decks so effectually, and the number of their slain and 
wounded became so considerable, that they began to fall in,to 

* Vide Ar-ison's Voycge, page 287, &c. 



578 JlAVAL 

great disorder, especially as the general, who was the life of the 
action, was no longer capable of exerting himself. Their confu- 
sion was visible from on board the Commodore : for the ships 
were so near, that some of the Spanish officers were seen running 
about with much assiduity, to prevent the desertion of the men 
from their quarters : but all their endeavours were in vain : for 
after having, as a last effort, fired five or six guns with more 
judgment than usual, they yielded up the contest ; and the galleon's 
colours being singed off the ensign staff at the beginning of the 
engagement, she struck the standard at her main-top-galiant-mast 
head : the person who was employed to perform this office having 
been in imminent peril of being killed, had not the Commodore, 
who perceived what he was about, given express orders to his 
people to cease from firing. 

Thus was the Centurion possessed of this rich'prize, amounting 
in value to near a million and a half of dollars. She was called 
the Neustra Senora de Cabadonga, and was commanded by General 
Don Jeronimo de Mentero, a Portuguese, who was the most 
approved officer for skill and courage of any employed in that ser- 
vice. The galleon was much larger than the Centurion, and had 
five hundred and sixty men, and thirty-six guns mounted for 
action, besides twenty-eight pedererocs in her gun quarters and 
tops. She was very well furnished with small arms, and was par- 
ticularly provided against boarding, both by her close quarters, 
and by a strong net work of two-inch rope, which was laced over 
her waist, and was defended by half pikes. She had sixty-seven 
killed in the action, and eighty-four wounded ; whilst the Centu- 
rion had only two killed, and a lieutenant and sixteen wounded, 
all of whom, but one, recovered : of so little consequence are the 
most destructive arms in untutored and unpractised hands. 

The treasure thus taken by the Centurion having been, for at 
least eighteen months, the great object of their hopes, it is im- 
possible o describe the transport on board, when, after all their 
reiterated disappointments, they at last saw their wishes accom- 
plished. But their joy was near being suddenly damped by a most 
tremendous incident ; for no sooner had the galleon struck, than 
one of the lieutenants coming to Mr. Anson to congratulate him 
on his prize, whispered him at ths same time that the Centurion 



PHILIP DE SAUMAREZ. 270 

was dangerously on fire near the powder room ! * The Commo- 
dore received this dreadful news without any apparent emotion, 
and taking care not to alarm his people, gave the necessary orders 
for extinguishing the fire, which was done in a short time, though 
its appearance at first was extremely terrible. 

The Commodore appointed the Manilla vessel to be a post ship 
in his Majesty's service, and gave the command of her to his first 
lieutenant, Mr. de Saumarez, who, before night, sent on board the 
Centurion all the Spanish prisoners, except such as were thought 
io be most proper to be detained to assist in navigating the galleon. 

When the particulars of the galleon's cargo were ascertained, 
it was found that she had on board 1,313,843 dollars, and 
35,682 01. of virgin silver ; besides some cochineal ; this being 
the Commodore's last prize : it hence appears, that all the treasure 
taken by the Centurion was not much short of 400,000/. exclu- 
sive of 600,000/. more destroyed. Hence it is probable that Cap. 
tain de Sauraarcz realized more than the 10,000/. of which he made 
mention in his interesting narrative. 

Owing to the dispute which arose at Canton, the Commodore, 
on his departure for that city, ordered, in the event of matters 
not being arranged in an amicable manner, that the people should 
be taken out of the Cabadonga, and the vessel destroyed. Matters, 
however, were accommodated, and on the 7th, the Centurion and 
Cabadonga unmoored and stood down the river, passing through the 
Bocca Tigris on the 10th ; and on the 12th anchored before the 
town of Macoa. 

Whilst the ships lay here, the merchants of Macoa finished their 
purchase of the galleon, for which they refused to give more than 
6000 dollars ; on which event taking place, Captain de Saumarez re- 
turned to the Centurion ; and, on the 15th December, 1743, set 
sail for England. On the 3d January, the Centurion came to an 
anchor at Prince's Island, in the Straits of Sunda : on the 8th 
she weighed and stood for the Cape of Good Hope, where, on the 
llth March, she anchored in Table Bay. 

Having completed his water and provisions, and entered 40 new 

* It is singular that neither the name of the first lieutenant, Mr. de Saumarez, nor 
any individual, is given, as having distinguished themselves in this combat. Pro- 
bably itjvasour hero who whispered in the ear of the victorious Commodore the 
appalling intelligence of the imminent peril the Centurion was in.- 



580 NAVAL BIOGRAPHY. 

men, the Commodore weighed on the 3d April, and stood to sea; 
on the 19th saw, but did not touch at, the island of St. Helena. 
By the 12th of January, 1744, got sight of the Lizard ; and on 
the 15<h, in the evening, to their infinite joy, they canoe safe to 
an anchorage at Spithead ! Thus, the yoyage round the globe 
was completed in three years and nine months ; accompanied by 
the most signal perils to the ycry last ; the Centurion, on her 
arrival in the chops of the Channel, having passed in safety 
through a French fleet, from which a fog concealed her ! 

After this long and perilous voyage, it is to be presumed that 
Captain Philip de Saumarez enjoyed for some time that repose in 
his native country, to which his valour and his toils had so justly 
entitled him. 

In the year 1746, we find him invested with the command of 
the Nottingham, a sixty-gun ship ; and on the llth October, in 
that year, being then alone, he fell in with the Mary, a French 
sixty-four, manned with 560 men, off Cape Clear, which he 
immediately attacked, and after a close engagement of two hours 
and a ha'f, she struck her colours, and was added to the British 
navy On board the enemy there were 23 men killed, and 19 
wounded. 

The next public mention of this officer, states that Captain Philip 
dc Saumarez, in the Nottingham, sailed on the 9th April, 1747, 
with the fleet under the command of Vice-admiral Anson, and 
continued to cruize off Cape Finisterre,* till the 3d May, when 
the French squadron was discovered, consisting of thirty sail. 

For a full account of this battle, the result of which was so 
glorious to the British fleet, we refer our readers to Vice-admiral 
Anson's official letter, given at full length in his very interesting 
lifc.+ All that we shall remark is, that ths van of the enemy's 
fleet having attempted to steer off, Captain de Saumarez, in the 
Nottingham, was sent with the Monmouth in pursuit. Having 
largely partaken of the toils, dangers, and miseries, which attended 
the voyage of his friend, Mr. Anson, round the globe, we find him, 
though in a more elevated rank, still serving under the command 
of that distinguished officer, and partaking of the glory he ac. 
quired on the memorable 3d of May. 

Vide X. C. V- ] VIII. page 90. t Vidt N.C. Vol. VIII. p. S90. 



DE SAUMAUEZ. 

The riext battle in which he was engaged, closed his short but 
brilliant career. On the 9th of August, the Nottingham, Cap. 
tain de Saumarez, forming part of the fleet commanded by Admiral 
Hawke,* after a tedious cruize, at seven o'clock in the morning, 
obtained sight of the French fleet. For an account of this action, 
we refer to Admiral Hawke's official letter in the NAVAL CHRONI- 
CLE, + where that interesting document may be found at full length. + 

In that hard-fought battle, the only ships which escaped were 
Le Tonnant, of 80 guns, and 882 men, on board of which was 
M. de Letender, Chef d'Escadre ; and L'Intrepide, of 74 guns, 
and 686 men, Count de Vaudreui). When Admiral Hawke per- 
ceived the above ships were making sail to get away, Captain 
Saunders, of the Yarmouth, Captain Philip de Saumarez, of the 
Nottingham ; and Captain Rodney, of the Eagle, || were ordered to 
pursue them. Those three ships having come up with the flying ene* 
my, engaged them near an hour, aud, disabled as they partly were, 
would probably have overpowered them, had not Captain Philip 
de Saumarez been killed by a shot from the Tonnant, which forced 
the Nottingham to haul her wind. Thus gloriously perished, in. 
the moment of victory, and in the flower of his days^ Captain Philip 
de SaumareZj who, at that early period of his rank as post cap- 
tain, had acquired distinguished eminence ; and if his valuable 
life had been spared, there is no doubt but he would have raised 
his own glory and that of his country to as elevated a pitch as ever 
was attained by any of his illustrious predecessors. He died un- 
married, and was only thirty. seven years old when he perished. 

This distinguished officer appears io have been but little indebted 
to the ostensible, or the actual Editor of Anson's Voyage. 5 His 



* Vide N.C. Vol. VIII. 

f Vol. VII. p. 455-6. Vol. III. p. 427, 428, and 429. 

$ The life, of Admiral Sir John Moore, K.B. having been given in the Hid 
Vol. of the N.C. who distinguished himself in Admiral Hawke's engagement with 
the French on the 14ih October, 1747, Admiral Hawke's official letter was given 
in the life of Sir John Moore. The life of Admiral Lord Hawke appeared in the 
VHth Vol. of the N.C. p. 453, to which a note should have been added, stating 
where the Gazette account of the victory of that day (14th October, 1747) wa to 
b found. EDIT, 

4 Vide N.C. Vol. I. p. 7. |) Ibid. p. 555. 

fi Vide N.C. Vol. VIII. p. 267. 

. tf&ron. Hoi. XXXI. o o 



}$' MAVAL BIOCUATHV. 

name occurs so very rarely in the course of a narrative, in which 
he played so important a part, that it looks as if, from feeling* 
of private pique, it had been purposely kept in the back ground. 
And, however great its merit as to style and composition, so intri- 
cately is the relation carried on as to dates, that it is difficult to 
ascertain even the year in which the events narrated had place. 

Of his personal disposition we know nothing. From the rank 
which his family had long possessed, it is probable he received a 
liberal education, at least in as far as his going to sea at sixteen 
years of age permitted. From an observation dropped as it were 
by accident from the pen of the Editor,* as to the courteous man- 
ner in which Philip de Saumarez strove to dissipate the fears of the 
Spaniards, when he took possession of the Carmelo prize-ship, 
we may fairly infer, that he was a man of polished manners ; and 
indeed, leaving morals out of the question, the gentry of Guern- 
sey have long been celebrated for suavity of manners. 

Philip de Saumarez, whose memoirs we have given in the best 
manner we were able, was descended from a very ancient Norman 
family, which has for many centuries been established in the island 
f Guernsey ; for we find by authentic records, that shortly after 
the Norman conquest, one of his ancestors was Lord of the 
Seigneurie of Saumarez in that island. His nephew, Matthew de 
Saumarez, father of the Admiral, Sir James, is now in possession 
of that Lordship. 

Philip (the hero of this biographical sketch) was born the 17th 
November, 1710, in the town and parish of St Peter Port, in- 
the island of Guernsey. He was the second son of Matthew de 
Saumarez, Esq. and Ann Durell, daughter of John DureH, Esq. 
who waa at that period chief magistrate of the island of Jersey. 

The brothers of Philip de Saumarez were, John, attorney, 
general in the island of Guernsey ; Matthew, eminent in the medi- 
cal profession, father to the Admiral, Sir Jarfes Saumarez, K.Rr; 
and Thomas, + a captain in the royal navy. 

* Vide Alison's Voyage, p. 140 anil 141. 

f Captain Tiioma* Saumarez alio sailed in the squadron under Commodore 
Aaen, u4 was capUin of H..M.S. Antelope, of 50 guns, in which ship be cap. 
lured the Bell.queux, a French 64, off the island of Lundy. in the Bristol Chan- 
Bel. He wa married to Mis* Mountstephens, of the county of Cornwall, and 
icitded at Alonev Hill, aear Rikmaosworth, Herts; where he died without issue 
in tL year 1764. 



SAUTieAL ANECDOTES, &C. 2S3 

The sisters of Philip de Saumarez were, Ann, married to Philip 
Dumaresq, captain in the royal navy ; and 2dly, to Admiral 
Richard Collings ; and Magdalen, married to Admiral Philip 
JDureU.* 

An half length portrait, thought to be a striking resemblance 
of Philip de Saumarez, is preserved in the possession of his ne- 
phew, the father of th Admiral, Sir James Saumarez. 

Of his monument in the Abbey, the inscription has been twice 
given, by mistake, in the NAVAL CHRONICLE. + A design of the 
monument forms the frontispiece of the 29th Volume. 



o 



NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &c. 

EVENTS AT CALAIS. 

IN Easter-day, the 10th of April, 1814, His Majesty Louis the XVIIIth 
was Proclaimed with general joy. 

At twelve in the morning, the English navy brig Cadmus, Captain Evans, 
cruising before the harbour, and perceiving the white flag on the tower 
gallantly sent an officer in a boat with a letter to the Mayor, expressing the 
wish to come, if possible, on shore, and share the general joy. The officer, 
Mr. Stevenson, came at the moment the Mayor and principal Authorities 
were marching out to make the Proclamation. He was received with the 
greatest joy, and placed close to the Mayor, and went with him about the 
town during the whole ceremony. 

In the mean time, Chevalier Tomsouville, of the navy, was despatched 
in the English boat to bring onshore the captain of the Cadmus, Mr. Evans, 
and such of his officers as could conveniently come on shore with him. 
They were received by the principal Authorities on the quay, and compli- 
mented by Mr. Pigault Maubaillareg, banker to the English Ambassadors, 
as were his father and grandfather, and who, when all placemen were 
obliged to vote for Buonaparte as French Emperor, by placing on a public 
register yes or no, was the only one in Calais who boldly dared write no, 
and experienced ever since the severity of Buonaparte's police, and was 
often in danger of beinj* taken up. They marched into town with a band 
playing alternately God sane the King, and the French national tune of the 
favourite royal song Vive Henry Quaire, amidst shouts and huzzas for the 
^ - 

* Admiral Durell commanded a division under the orders ofSirCharlesSaonders, 
at Louisbourg.(a) and Quebec. He died the 6th December, 1766, on board of 
the Launcesion, at Halifax, on assuming the chief command on that station. 

t Vol.111, p. 430. and Vol. XXX. p. 496. 

(a) See N.C. Vol. VIII. p. 11. 



284 NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C. 

Prince Regent and for Louis XVII I. They were thus conducted, amidst 
an innumerable crowd of the whole population, to the Hotel d'Angleterre, 
where an elegant dinner was prepared. 

The Mayor, Mr. Neuard, presented himself, with a party of ladies, 
who wished to partake of the general joy, and express theirs to the English 
officers. 

The dinner was extremely gay and friendly. Several national tunes, now 
in favour, were pluyed by the band, and Mr. Boyer, one of the gentlemen 
present, sung a song he made extempore in honour of England, the British 
navy, and more particularly of the Cadmus's captain, officers, and crew. 
The captain desired the song, and it was delivered to him. 

Mr. Palyart, Inspector of Customs on the coast from Boulogne to Dun- 
kirk, who speaks very good English, distinguished himself very much in 
token of friendship and joy ; as also Captain Chevalier Tomsouville, of the 
navy, well known by his generous conduct to English prisoners ; by his 
bravery, which was rewarded with the cross of honour, and his philan- 
thropy, in exposing often his life to save that of an unfortunate shipwrecked 
friend or foe, which was rewarded by general esteem ; in one word, it 
would be too long to enumerate all those who vied in the wannest demon- 
jt rations of joy, of esteem, and friendship, to the English nation at large, 
and crew of the Cadmus. 

Our pleasure, however, was darkened in the middle of the dinner, by 
geveral military messages to the Mayor, from General Barbasan, Com- 
niandant of the town, an old and generally detested jacobin. On these 
messages to the Mayor, this gentleman left table five or six times with great 
concern. NV'e soon learned with grief and surprise, that a boat, with the 
captain and three officers of a second brig cruising, having presented itself 
in t!ie harbour to share with us the general joy, were refused to land by 
General Barbasan, and ordered to leave the port immediately. 

The whole population, justly incensed at such illiberal orders, was at 
once in an uproar, would oppose these officers' return on board, would 
carry them into :own, and force the way ; and the Mayor wa? obliged to 
le.n-e company, and run in haste to, restrain the people's just indignation, 
which he did with great difficulty. At the same lime General Barbasan 
sent another order to the Hotel d'Angleterre, that Captain Evans and his 
officers should immediately return on board, and not approach again the 
spor, or they would be fired at. 

This order was prudently concealed by the Mayor from the company at 
table, from the people of the town for fear of the consequence, and im- 
parted to Captain Evans only as he went oft" from the Hotel tp return oa 
>>;>arJ. However, dinner was shortened to put an end to these violent and 
Unprecedented proceedings among civilized nations. 

CapUm Evans and his officers were, in spite of Barbasan, with the music, 
nd arnidtt the whole inhabitants who guarded, them, conducted back tg 
t'rf port, where an affectionate leave was taken of them, fearing every mo- 
rn*. t till they were gone, they might be detained by Barbasan'* orders. 
This man, so late as three days ago, had forced the garrison to take an 
oalh iti favour of Bucnpparte, and of firing on -.he mhabitr.nttifr.hey moved. 



NAOTICAI, ANECDOTES, &C. 285 

in favour of the Bourbons. His worthy counsellor, Label, Colonel of the 
Engineers, who encouraged him in these outrageous proceedings, had also 
three clays before ordered that the sluices might, be in readiness to let the 
sea-water in the country, which would have ruined the landlords and 
tenants up to St. Diner's. 

The inhabitants of Calais intend to beg, as a first favour of the Bour- 
bons, to be rid of these two worthy friends of Buonaparte. They also 
refused to release some English sailors, prisoners of war, when the inha- 
bitants wished to make them partake of the pleasure generally felt on this 
occasion. Such are the events of this day, which would have been a moss 
glorious one, had it not been darkened by these two jacobins. 

THE ISLAND OF ELBA. 

THIS island is situated in the Mediterranean, between Corsica and the 
coast of Tuscany. Jt contains two excellent harbours, Porto Ferrajo, and 
Porto Longone, which belonged to Naples. In 1801, the rights of Tus- 
cany in this island were ceded by the fifth article of the treaty of Luneville 
to the Infant of Spain Duke of Parma ; and the rights of Naples were 
ceded to France by the treaty of peace concluded at Florence on the 28th 
March, 1801. The port belonging to the Duke of Parma was afterwards 
ceded to, or rather seized by Buonaparte, who thus describes it in the 
Expose" of the State of the Republic, 2d Ventose, year 180J. 

" The island of Elba was ceded to France : it gave to France a mild in- 
dustrious people, two superb harbours, and an abundant and valuable 
mine (marble), but separated from France; this island could not be inti- 
matety attached to any of the departments, nor submitted to the rules of a 
general administration. Principles have, therefore, been compelled to 
yield to the force of circumstances, and we have established for the island 
of Elba, the. exceptions which its position and the public interest 
demanded." 

This island is again noticed in a report of the minister of war, Berthier 
(now Prince of Neufchatel), dated 9th November, 1803, to the First Con- 
sul : " The triangular measurement of the island of Elba is finished, and 
Js connected with Corsica, with the continent, and with the little island 
and shoals that surround it. I have the honour to present to you the plans 
finished of Porto Ferrajo, and of Porto Longone : they, as well as six views, 
are destined lor the atlas of the First Consul. The map of the whole island, 
on a very hirc,e scale, is already in great forwardness, and will be finished 
in the month of Brumaire. The most detailed memoirs regarding the 
topography of this island, will afford a complete knowledge of this 
important point of the new territory qf the Republic." 

A French gazetteer further describes this island as being " the seat of 
the sub-prefecture of the department of the Mediterranean." It has a 
criminal court, and tribunal of the first resort, with an appeal to Aix. It 
is from 25 to 30 leagues iii circumference, and has a population uf 

;.3,7pQ 



286 NAUTICAL ANECDOTES, &C. 



NAUTICAl 

THE Thisbe. This frigate, lying off Greenwich, Rear-admiral 
flag-ship, was most spIendidJy illuminated on Monday night (llth April), 
Within a few minutes of the time appointed, some very powerful rockets 
were let off from the main deck, and afterwards from the main-top-mast 
bead ; on the explosion of which, at their utmost height, the air was illu- 
minated by a mass of brilliant lights. After near a dozen had ascended in 
grand style, the Thisbe, from yard-arm to yard-arm, and from the deck to 
the main-top-mast head, became instantaneously a most beautiful illumina- 
tion of what are called blue lights, whose chastened lustre produced an 
effect the most pleasing and beautiful. This was done twice, and with the 
same celerity as with gas lights. The sight was very novel, and highly gra 
jifying to a great number of spectators. 

SWEDISH ANECDOTE. 

WHEN the brilliant court of Gustavus III. was at the zenith of its glory, 
the amours of the wife of a certain admiral afforded food for the gossips of 
the court and city. One day, when the court were at Ekolsuncl (a country 
palace in Sodermanland, now belonging to the son of the late Sir Alexander 
Seton, and lately inhabited by Mr. Dundas), as the Duchess of Soder- 
manland, now Queen of Sweden, was looking out of the window of the 
palace, which commands a view over a vast extensive lake, she saw a huge 
monster swimming across, whose large antlers and long neck were reared 
high above the flood. " What have we here," said the Royal Duchess, to 
a lady who stood near the King. *' It is an Elk," replied the lady. " Dear 
me," said the worthy King, " I was just going to desire the ladies to retire, 
for I really took it for Admiral - bathing." 

CAPTAIN MILLMAN. 

CAPT. MILLMAN, son of Sir Francis Millman, Bart, just arrived frotn 
Verdun, where he was some time a prisoner of war, owed his liberation 
to the influence of Doctor Jenner, now in Paris, who was in such high 
esteem with Buonaparte on account of the success of his vaccination in 
that capital, that he was informed the French Emperor would readily grant 
him any favour he might request. The Doctor, in consequence, solicited 
the exchange of Captain Millman, which was immediately granted. 

CAPTAIN SIR HOME POPHAM. 

WHEN this officer was at St. Petersburg!], in 1799, the hired armed lugger 
the Nile, being celebrated as the fastest sailer in the service, Sir Home 
Popham was honoured with a visit by the Emperor Paul, to witness her 
manoeuvres. Her master was Mr. Stephen Butcher, of Folkstone, a sea- 
man of first-rate abilities, and no less celebrated as a smuggler : the crew 
wore chiefly smugglers; a set of men peculiarly expert in the management 
of luggers, a class of vessels which roen-of-war's-men can seldom ma- 
nage. In the midst of the manoeuvres, the Emperor Paul being engaged 
in conversation with Captain Popham, the watchful eje of the master, siw 
tb main lanyard block descending, and by an instar-laneous effort he 



NAUTICAL ASECDOTES, &C. 287 

pushed die Emperor away, and saved his life ; for the block fell upon the 
identical spot where Paul had been standing. We do not hear that Mr. 
Butcher was noticed ; but to this little nautical trip was attributed the 
honour of knighthood bestowed by the Emperor on Captain Popham. 

THE DUCHE9S OF OLDENBURG. 

HER Imperial Highness on landing at Sheerness from the Jason frigate, 
commanded by the Honourable Captain King, bestowed many munificent 
tokens of gratitude on the officers and ship's company, in return for the 
attention shewn her. The Princess presented the captain with a ring 
worth three hundred guineas ; and to each of the other officers a ring of 
one hundred guineas value. To the wife of one of the sailors, she pre- 
sented a broach of eighty guineas value ; and she directed three hundred 
ducats to be divided amongst the crew. To Mrs. Lobb, the wife of the 
commissioner, she presented a broach set round with brilliants worth one 
hundred and twenty guineas. 

A SUBMARINE BOAT. 

THIS singular vessel, in shape much resembling a porpoise, 27 feet in 
length, five in depth, and five broad, arched over, sharp at each end ; her 
materials, principally consisting of wrought and cast iron, is in a state of 
considerable forwardness. The inventor of this extraordinary machine 
undertakes to sail her on the surface of the water as an ordinary boat ; he 
can immediately strike her yards and masts, plunge her to any depth he 
pleases under water, and remain there 12 hours without any inconvenience 
r external communication, as occasion may require. To strike her yards 
and masts, and descend under water, is but the work of two or three 
minutes. He can row, and navigate her under water at the rate of four 
knots an hour; remain stationary at any particular depth, and descend or 
ascend at pleasure; this vessel is so strongly built and so well fortified as to 
defy the effect of a twelve -pounder at point-blank shot. It is supposed 
government designs this formidable invention to counteract the torpedo* 
system of America : the proprietor can attach any quantity of gun-powder 
to any sunken body and explode the same at pleasure. 

MATHEMATICAL QUESTION. 

Given x -f- y -f- ^ a a> 



and a* + y* -f 
x 

To find tfcg value of y, without substitution, by a simple eauntios- 



288 
PLATE CCCCXII. 

WIE Portrait prefixed to this page, is of ALEXANDER FRASER, Esq. 
Rear-admiral of the White Squadron, whose Memoir we presented 
to our readers at page 89 of the present Volume ; and gentlemen will be 
pleased to direct their binders to pay attention to the proper placing of 
this engraving. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

KK. EDITOR, 23d April, 1814. 

^flTrrni a view of giving the greatest degree of publicity to the letter 
* ^ herewith enclosed, addressed to the King of Prussia (to whom I 
shall forward a copy of this number) I request the favour of its insertion. 

The references, unintelligible to the general reader, refer to those parts 
of the MSS. transmitted to the king, containing the most copious and com- 
plete legal evidence of the atrocious conduct of those judges, magistrates, 
and others, who suld the rights of Prussian neutrality to the foe. 
I am, Sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 
) 

rown. 
TO HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF PRUSSIA. 

SIRE > London, 25th April, 1814. 

IT is rational to suppose that the restoration and extension of the mari- 
time commerce of your kingdom form one of the principal subjects of 
your solicitude. The object of this letter is to display the hidden source 
whence danger and dishonour have proceeded, and whereby the maritime 
commerce of Prussia, previous to the invasion of your dominions in 1806 
was polluted and half destroyed. The intention of the maritime laws of 
Prussia was, to create and cherish a spirit of naval and commercial enter- 
prise in every port of tho monarchy. The intention of the legislator was 
to secure every possible advantage for the trade ancfflag of Prussia but as 
certamly ,t was also the design of the law-giver? to limit and confine to 
Prussian subjects, ships, and commerce, all the rights and privileges at- 
tached to the Prussian flag. 

In direct violation of their duty to their wverelgn, many of the judges, 
ba.hfTs, and other persons residing in the province of East Fricsland, irv 
every manume war which has occurred since the year 1779, wherein 
Prussu was neutral, have openly sanctioned the most radical prostitution 
of your Majesty's flag, and sold to a horde of perjured men, publk doc*- 



CORtlESPO.NDENCJE. 239 

men ts of the most solemn description, which should have been reserved for 
Prussian Chips' and commerce^ and such only, whereby the rights and pri- 
vileges of the maritime neutrality of Prussia have been systematically 
transferred to the ships and merchandise of Holland, France, and Spain; 
and the shipping, mariners and products of great belligerent states, with- 
drawn from the imminent peril which awaited the appearance of their 
national flags upon the ocean ; of the commercial spoils of which, by this 
base subterfuge, the royal navy of Great Britain has long been to a very 
great extent deprived. In almost every situation, by a principle of moral 
justice that can seldom be averted, every species of crime produces its own 
punishment. Tt is true, that our invincible navy has been deprived of 
many millions of prize-property during the present war; but, Sire, placing 
tarnished faith and honour out of the question, the maritime wealth of 
Prussia suffered still more. It was not possible that our Courts of Prize 
could be deceived by a fraud which attempted to cover the trade of bel- 
ligerent states under a neutral mask : why they did not make a more reso- 
lute stand against the recognition of spurious documents and perjured 
evidence is not my province to inquire: but, the commanders of our fleets 
and cruisers, in obedience to their instructions which commands them to 
detain all suspicious cases, being unable to distinguish between the neutral 
and neutralized vessels and cargoes, (the papers of the whole being alike as 
to form and tenor,) commonly detained every vessel found navigating under 
the Prussian flag if laden with the produce of an enemy's country or co- 
lony, or bound to or from an enemy's port. Thence, the capture of 
vessels under the Prussian flag was multiplied to a prodigious degree; the 
security of property, really Prussian, became loose and uncertain, being 
incessantly exposed to the most fatal delays and ruinous litigation in 
our expensive Courts of Admiralty jurisdiction, and whilst, by the dexte- 
rity of the neutralizer, and the shameless perjuries of the master and 
mates, in nine cases out of ten, the disguised enemy escaped, it some- 
times happened, perhaps, from some technical conformality, that propwty 
really Prussian, has been condemned ! 

The perjured neutralize;^, at the instigation of the enemy owners, ad- 
dressed numerous memorials to your Majesty, stating, in exaggerated- 
terms, the losses and injuries to which they had been exposed by wchat 
those mercenary and perjured wretches dared to term the lawless violence 
of Great Britain, calling on your Majesty to protect your flag! which com- 
plaints had, of course, an inevitable tendency to create a coolness between, 
jour Majesty's government and that of Great Britain, whereby the views 
of the common enemy were greatly facilitated. Independently of the ho 
nour of the Prussian monarchy being sullied by that organized violation of 
ks maritime neutrality, the injury done to public morals was irreparable 
and boundless. Perjury became exalted to a kind of new science, and 
those who could forge signatures adroitly were munificently rewarded. 
The master of a Dutch vessel, navigating under your Majesty's flag, which 
was sent into Harwich in 1805, being" about to be examined before the 
actuary, exclaimed with every appearance of real anguish, My God I 

(ZCjjtoR. dot. XXXI. f P 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

my God ! what shall I do ! If I swear to truth, I lose my bread : if I stctar 
falsely, I lone my soul. 

In this manner, Sire, has the honour of your flag been compromised, 
and the morals of your subjects polluted. To the unprincipled conduct 
of neutral flags was France, notwithstanding reiterated defeats, and the 
blockade of her ports of naval equipment, indebted for the means of con- 
structin" new navies and carrying on without a navy, not only her foreign, 
but even her coasting trade: and in the ever memorable invasion of your 
'Majesty's dominions, the frauds of neutral flags enabled the enemy, m 
anticipation of war, to collect magazines in the Baltic ports, and after- 
wards to supply his hospital at Lubeck, and the army that besieged Dantzig. 
In short this vile mercantile system furnished the enemy with the means of 
overwhelming Prussia. Happily, Sire, you have re-established the inte- 
grity and independence of your kingdom, and carried your victorious arms 
to the capital of your invader. 

Although the present aspect of affairs afford* a flattering promise of a 
long duration of tranquillity, yet, it might be prudent to adopt such 
measures as the occasion may require to prevent the future recurrence of 
danger or dishonour. To enable you, Sire, the better to comprehend the 
nature and extent of the abuses practised under your flag, I shall imme- 
diately transmit to Berlin a most important assemblage of legal evidence, 
such as shall Iccu-e no doubt as to the truth of every allegation this letter 
may contain. 

I shall also transmit two pamphlets relative to the frauds of neutral flags, 
and more particularly of the flag of Prussia. The earliest I published in 
January 1805 : its object was, to fix the attention of government to this 
momentous subject to undeceive the' royal navy, and lay the disguised 
fleets of the enemy open to capture and condemnation. The second 
pamphlet, printed in January last, will be found to contain an authentic 
history of the rise and progress of the organized violation of the flag of 
Prussia. The original MS. is still in my possession, and at your Majesty's 
service it is a document well worthy the notice of your ministers. But I 
beg to be distinctly understood; it is not my meaning to involve any in- 
dividual in punishment; for J, expose the crimes of your judges, ma- 
gistrates, and subjects, with no other view than to prevent their future 
recurrence. 

Ly the documents transmitted, which will be found to contain a faithful 
picture of the commerce of Europe drawn by a hand of no common 
skill, it will be satisfactorily proved that the judges, bailiffs, magistrates, 
and others of your subjects resident in your province of East Friesland, 
have, in each maritime war since 1779, derived enormous gains bv their 
organized violations of the Prussian flag ; and that, in the year 1806, there 
w<re upwards of THREE THOUSAND SAIL of vessels belonging to .the mer- 
chants ot" Holland, France, and Spain, navigating under the Prussian flag, 
each of which vessels yielded an annual tribute to the perjured neutralizes 
And also, that the venal judges who issued the papers, derived a con- 
siderable profit from e:ich set of papers ; and from every other document 
iisued'by them, in support of the innumerable fraudulent transactions m 
^rhich the perjured neutralizes were incessantly engaged. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 291 

j 

The first regular establishment formed for the sale of neutral rights, and 
the commission of all the forgeries and perjuries incidental to such traffic, 
was that of Van Olst Erouwer^ and Co. in Embden, in the year 1799,* 
and before the next general peace, there were neutralized by that firm no 
less than five hundred and twenty sail of ships and cargoes incalculable. 
Amongst these ships were ten East Indiamen, twenty West Indiamen, and 
forty large Greenlanders ! There were three other similar establishments at 
Embden. In 1806, OH the name of the Van Cammingas of Embden, there 
were upwards of five hundred sail of belligerent vessels navigating as Prus- 
sian property : and their revenue, at that period, is supposed to have 
amounted to forty thousand pounds sterling ; yet they charged no more 
than one per cent, on merchandise^ and two per cent, on ships and 
freights! There were then in existence nearly sixty other establishments 
of the same base nature. The admission of so prodigious a number of 
belligerent ships within the pale of neutral commerce, necessarily dimi- 
jiiahed the demand for neutral vessels, as the owners of the neutralized 
ships must have chartered neutral vessels, if they could not have neutra- 
lized their own. It retarded ship-building, and deteriorated very mate- 
rially from the value of shipping. Nor were the neutralized vessels 
repaired iu the countries whose flag they bore, but at the belligerent ports 
whereto they belonged. No national advantage of any kind arose to tha 
neutral states whose flag was violated. In short, Sire, the frauds of neu- 
tral flags were alone beneficial to the perjured neutralizes and their base 
confederates, to the enemies of Great Britain, and the members of the. 
Prize Tribunals, 

Enonnouily great, as unquestionably was the wealth gained by the venal 
judges and the perjured neutrah'zers of East Friesland, it was equalled, if 
not surpassed, by that which arose from this diabolical system to the 
members of our prize tribunals, 1 have beeu informed, from a person 
holding a situation of great importance in the High Admiralty Court of 
England, that the judge derived a revenue in the first years of the present 
war exceeding to thirty thousand per annum : the King's Advocate, from 
thirty to foriy thousand pounds per annum ; the King's Procurator General, 
sixty thousand pounds per annum fund his conducting clerk is believed in 
the course of a few years to have acquired a considerable fortune); the 
Registrar of the Court from thirty to forty thousand per annum ; and some 
of the Proctors of the Court, are supposed to have derived enormous reve- 
nues from the vast increase in the number of litigated cases; and it is 
capable of proof, and I pledge myself to prove it, that far very far the 
greater par.t of those princely revenues arose from the detestable system 
pf false papers and false oaths, tle systematical organization, and enormity 
of which, from public motives, I first developed to my country and the 
world. 

Where such prodigious gains arose, it was not very wonderful, Sire, 
if some individuals contemplated the detestable source with less de- 
testation than the officers and seamen of our injured navy whom it insulted 

* Vide Pamphlet, 1814, p. 2.5. 



and impoyerisbed. When I urged the immorality of receiving the ri- 
dence of men known to subsist by mercenary perjury, 1 was told, that as 
Ion* as neutral princes suffered their neutrality to be violated, our courts 
were obliged to receive the simulated documents, and give credit to the 
perjured witnesses ! Our prize courts certainly acted upon that principle ; 
and if the papers were in what was technically called " proper .order," and 
if the witnesses swore in conformity to the papers, in all cases of pro- 
perty, it was restored as claimed. And thus might be obtained, by fraud 
and perjury combined, every advantage connected wiih the popular doc- 
trine of free ship free goods. The High Court of Admiralty, Sire, were 
riot, and could not be ignorant of those enormous frauds : for in 1805, I 
deposited in that tribunal, in the second capture of the Hoop, Askcrgrcn, 
master, the very important documents relative to those frauds of which I 
herewith transmit translated copies to your Majesty, 

Had you been duly informed, Sire, of those mal-practices, no douht they 
would have been terminated. Amongst other regulations, your Majesty, 
in 1799, issued a proclamation in the Aurich Gazette, with a view to insure 
a more strict administration of oaths in all cases of maritime jurispru- 
dence; but the judges,* and other officers of the crown, whose peculiar 
and personal duty it was, to have given full effect to your upright inten- 
tion, were those by whom that proclamation was rendered abortive and 
of no effect. 

1 consulted, in March 1804, with persons holding respectable situations 
under your Majesty's government, but, averse as they were, and as every 
honourable mind must ever be to such unparalleled nets of depravity, they 
dissuaded me from proceeding to Berlin, and laying those proofs before 
your Majesty, which I now transmit, representing the wealth and influence 
of the criminals, as being sufficiently great to render it a dangerous en- 
terprise, independent of the great and hourly-increasing prevalence of 
the politics of France in the court of Berlin. 

In July following, I wrote to Mr. Jackson, the British minister at your 
^Majesty's court. The spars, masts, and other contraband of war, after- 
wards employed in the construction of the Scheldt fleet, were then daily 
arriving in the Ems, having been neutralized by Claas Tholen, and D. T. 
Van ComiTiinguf. I caused many cargoes to be captured by II. M. 
cruiwrs, but was unable to procure any effectual interference on the part 
of my Sovereign. In all these cases, Sire, J acted on principles entirely 
disinterested, without any prospect whatever of gain. 

I next relumed to London, and made an unconditional tender to his 
Majesty's minister of the important documents relative to the organized 
prostitution of the Prussian flag. How I obtained possession of them, the 
affidavits exhibited in the High Admiralty Court will prove, and convince 
your Majesty t obtained them in a fair and honourable mariner, and per- 
severitufly endeavoured to apply them to the best possible end. For 

Vide. MS. bock A. p. 55. sec. 1425. 

i MS. B. p. 24. tec. 1486. n, o, p. and MS. A. p. 246 ec. 1326 J35O. 

J Vide, MS. A. p. 6. 1 u. 



CORRESPONDENCE. OQJ 

years in succession, I offered them to the different administra- 
tions which had place ; but in vain; and when I strove to break down in a 
court of law, the rampart thrown up by forgery and perjury round the 
violation of maritime neutrality, I found' myself opposed in a quarter 
where, of all others, I had the least right to expect it, and where oppo- 
sition was the most fatal to my hopes. 

Although repelled, I never despaired, nor lost sight of the great object 
I still hoped to accomplish. The violation* of martime neutrality produced 
their own punishment, and led to multiplied captures by die British fleets ; 
and those captures, though fully justifiable, gave birth to loud and angry 
complaints from neutrals and neutratozers, addressed not only to your Ma- 
jesty, but to every sovereign prince in Europe. Availing himself of those 
events, the enemy made greater and greater encroachments on neutral 
rights, and ventured to seize or confiscate British colonial produce and 
manufactures, although unquestionably the property of neutrals, in its 
transit to foreign markets through neutral states. This monstrous stretch 
of arbitrary power was followed by more rigid and more extensive systems 
of blockade of the enemy's coasts by the fleets of Great Britain ; and those 
blockades by the celebrated Berlin and Milan decrees, which quickly pro- 
duced our memorable orders in council, and those our immoral system of 
licensed trade. The effect of the above was, to drive every neutral flag 
from the ocean, and degrade the occupation of a merchant to the lowest 
possible ebb. It would require no great degree of talent. Sire, to trace 
these terrible calamities up to the first great and systematical prostitution 
of neutral flags, which commenced in your dominions in 1779. 

The "continental system, Sire, was the most formidable weapon thai 
ever was wielded by any enemy against my country. Nothing could hav 
defeated its object but the unconquerable impetuosity of its projector. 
Too impatient to wait the effects of its slow but sure operation, anxious to 
accelerate his triumph over Great Britain, he poured his colossal strength 
upon Russia. The severity of the climate, the falelity of the people, the 
courage of the Russian armies, destroyed the mighty hosts of the invader, 
and, with a rapidity of ruin which stands without a parallel in history, the 
proud conqueror was overwhelmed and reduced to abdicate his throne. 

The present juncture, Sire, is beyond any that ever preceded it the 
most auspicious for rooting out for ever from every maritime state, the 
loathsome practice of false papers and false oaths. The former system 
of neutral trade now lies broken in fragments, and this is the moment, 
Sire, to introduce a more perfect organization. 

In the name of the morajs and happiness of mankind in the name of the 
deeply injured navy of Great Britain I implore you, Sire, to adopt such 
measures regarding the persons to whom in future your Majesty may dele- 
gate the power of issuing documents of Prussian citizenship, shipping, or 
merchandise, as may serve as a model to every maritime state, and put nn 
effectual end to a practice founded on fraud and perjury, to which might 
fairly be ascribed much of the misfortunes which lately overwhelmed your 
monarchy, and which has also been the producing cause of those heavy 
wUfortirues which, at the present moment, tLfeatens with new calamities 



294 CORRESPONDENCE. 

the extensive coasts of America. In short, Sire, there is no part of th 
world washed by the ocean, nor visited by commerce, where its polluted 
influence has not been shed ; it is a modern Python, engendered in the 
lime of a contaminated commerce, and far more dreadful than that fabled 
monster of antiquity, as that only fed upon the bodies but this upon 
the morals of mankind. 

In the list of neutralized ships in MS. book A. p. 17 to 49, may be found 
evidence of such gigantic frauds practised under your Majesty's flag, as 
might appear incredible, were the proofs of a nature that could be ques- 
tioned. In every separate ship, there is evidence of the most infamous 
frauds committed by the neutralizer, and sanctioned by. your magistrates. 
In these the term " Remersal" frequently occurs, which means a counter- 
deed, or acknowledgment that the neutralizer had no legal claim or preten- 
sion to the property neutralized ; that the Prussian documents of neutrality 
were merely nominal, and intended to procure the vessel the privileges of 
Prussian neutrality. In the MS. book B. p. 21, is a translated copy of the 
original renversal for the brig Calo, mentioned in MS. A, p. 21, 

To the greater part of Schroder's neutralized ships is attached the term 
" Protection Money." This signifies the annual tribute paid for the use of 
the Prussian flag. See the translated copy of an original deed, book B f 
p. 21. 

Almost ever}* case shews the .facility with which Burger Briejx were pro. 
cured for Dutch and French skippers, of the Amtmen of various districts iu 
East Friesland. 

Iu the entry of the ship No. 5, p. 20, MS. A. it is expressly stated that 
the master was not a Prussian, but that the netitralizer procured him a 
Burger Brief. 

In ship No. 12, p. 24, the name of Baumgaurten occurs, who was hired 
as a deputy false swearer, by C. F. Schroder, to swear to whatever he should 
be required by his master, at an annual stipend. This man's name occurs 
in ship No. 13, p. 25 ; ship No. 27, p. 33; ship No. 28, p. 84 ; ship \o. 33 
p. 36 ; ship No. 34, p. 37 ; ship No. 35, p. 37. In the letters, No. 77, 
p. 206, and 218, 228, and 229, may be seen the reasons assigned for the 
hire of this deputy false swearer; namely, that tlie performance of some very 
gross perjuries might lessen Schroder's credit with our High Admiralty Gmrr. 
Yet, with this evidence fully verified before that Court, in the case of the 
Juffirouw Mindel, Bos, master, on the oath of this miscreant, were the ship 
and cargo restored, and the captors condemned in costs and damages ! when, 
by the maritime law of Prussia, neither the one nor the other were entitled 
10 the privileges of Prussian property. 

In the ships, No. 20, p. 28, a clerk of the neutralizer, a young man, just 
then turned of twenty years of age, was employed to commit a forgery, and 
appear under false names in fraudulent deeds, to which the most solemn 
oaths appear to have been attached. The same occurs also in ship No. 21 
p. 29 ; ship 22, p. 30 ; ship 23, p. 31 ; ship 25, p. 32 ; ship 27, p. 33; ship' 
28, p. 34 ; and in ship No. 33, p. 36, a youth only seventeen years vld, 
named Waltman, borq in I lushing, is introduced to commit a forgery, and 
sanction a fraud ; the same jgain occurs iu ship No. 35, and 36, p. 37. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 295 

Relative to the ship No. 49, p. 43, there is in MS. B. p. 19, an account 
of the prices paid by Schroder, the neutralize?, to the judge, for a set of 
ship's documents, by which you may perceive the price paid and the price 
charged for each document. The Sea Pass is charged by the judge to the 
neutralizer. 33f. 16. ; who in his turn charges the Dutch owners, 116f.W. 
the judge charges for a muster roll in blank, 6f. 2. with the magisterial 
seals and signatures affixed, for which the neutralizer charges the Dutch 
owner, 18f. 8. The neutralizer pays the bontona, or bailiff, for a Burger 
Brief for the Dutch master, 8 1/. 4. and charges the Dutch merchants, 
115/. 4. The tofal expense of all the papers was 179/. 18. the price 
charged, 478/. ; the difference was the neutralizer's profit. 

In the ship No. 52, p. 45, is the entry of a Dutch snow, called the 
Susannah Margaretha, belonging to a merchant of Dordrecht. In the 
same book, p. 219 and 220, is the whole plan, as arranged between the 
Dutch owner and the neutralizer, relative to this curious specimen of 
mercantile dexterity, wherein the most artful precautions were used to 
prevent detection ; but in which all the latent frauds were developed 
and laid open. In the book B. p. 15, is the copy of the sea pass, granted 
in your Majesty's name to that ship ; p. 17 is the ship's certificate, and 
p. 18 the certificate of the cargo. The ship was captured by the Cruizer, 
Captain Hancock, 23d August, 1805, and condemned. Yet, after this very 
extraordinary proof of the perjury of Carl Frederick Schroder, his oath was 
still continued to be received as evidence in the High Admiralty Court. 

In the book A. p. 175 and 6, are two letters from a Dutch house of 
trade, to C. F. Schroder, relative to his terms for the neutralization of car-- 
goes; and p. 195 is an order for a crtificate of property for 

27 sacks, or 1 last of peas. 

27 do. or 1 do. wheat. 
108 do. or 4 do. horse beans. 

10 chests, or 108 small Edam cheeses. 
264 sacks, or 10 lasts of barley. 

To be shipped in the Vrede, Oelsen, Master. 

In page 193, is a simulated letter, expressly written to deceive our Admiralty 
Court, ordering the same goods as though it really were upon Schroder's 
account and risk. The Vrede was captured by H. M. gun-brig the Adder, 
the cause was tried before the Right Hon. Sir William Scott, and the 
cargo restored to the perjured claimant. In the MS. book B. p. 1, is the 
claim on oath for that cargo, by C. F. Schroder. It is not possible to refer 
your Majesty to a stronger case than this, in support of the necessity of 
putting an end to such atrocious crimes. Yet, this very complete, evidence 
of the perjuries of C. F. Schroder and his confederates, were insufficient to 
produce his exclusion as a suitor from the Admiralty Court. 

I shall proceed no further than to state, that the neutralizes charged 
money for taxes paid to your Majesty, which were nerer levied. (MS. book 
A. p. 136, sect. 576, 597). That they sold all kind of instruments in 
blank, as certificates of property, muster-rolls, burger-briefs, and clear- 
ances; in fact, that ther* was, 0.0 proof whatever required by our 



CORRESPCVOTEKCS. 

Admiralty Court, but was to be bought of a hundred envious competitors, 
who sent printed circulars to the ports of Holland and France (book A. p. 66, 
tec. 72, 73 ; p. 68, sec. 81 , 82) and also despatched travellers (p. 69, 
ec. 89, 90, 91) to solicit business (p. 200, ^01), with the same regularity 
as thouiih it were an open and honourable trade. There was a violent com- 
petition for employ in this mart of perjury. They even stated the terms on 
which that work of infamy was to be performed (125, sec. 497, 8, 9. 
600, 1, 2). A certain Jew was employed in London to carry into effect 
the perjuries of the neutralizers. He committed perjury without hesitation 
himself, and corresponded directly with the enemy owners, (p. 82, sec. 186 
to 20 1). This perjured being also boasted, in his confidential letters, of 
standing on terms of intimacy with persons of rank belonging to the Admi- 
ralty Court, through whose means he could obtain the release of ships and 
merchandise, when no other person could, (p. 77, sec. 147, 8; and pam- 
phlet, 1314.) 

I publish thi letter, Sire, in the NAVAL CHRONICLE, to give the widest 
possible circulation to the important truths it contains. Should your 
Majesty require further elucidation, I am ready to afford it ; and I most 
sincerely hope the extraordinary mass of original evidence which I 
respectfully lay before your Majesty, may induce you to make the requisite 
changes in your Maritime Courts ; and also, to induce the ministers of the 
Prince Regent to introduce that change in the practice of the Admiralty 
Court, which is so essentially wanting for the conservation of public morals, 
and the rights of a greatly injured navy. 

If on this occasion I am again doomed to experience a failure if I can* 
not induce your Majesty to take any steps to eradicate this frightful evil, 
I shall, early in the ensuing sessions of Parliament, bring the whole case 
before the Honourable House of Commons ; but it would be much more 
agreeable to me, and more useful to the royal navy, if the ministers of the 
Prince Regent would themselves bring about that reform so essential!/ 
wanting in the practice of our High Admiralty Courts the first impulse to 
which would be irresistibly felt, were it to originate wkh your Majesty* 
I have ever been, to the utmost of my humble lalents, a strenuous advo- 
cate for the moderate exercise of the right of search, and the strict mainte- 
nance of our general rights as a belligerent power; yet, rather than see con- 
tinued a system so radically vicious and imbecile, I would that our govern- 
ment, to relieve mankind from such prolific sourcesof mental depravity, should 
at once renounce every principle for which we have for ages contended, and 
accede to the simple and moral doctrine of , free ski/) -fret gouclt. 

The M9S. which I herewith transmit to your Majesty, I shall expect ta 
be returned, in case, Sire, you should*not see the evils I have depicted 
as being of a nature to require investigation or redress : for, in that unfor- 
tunate predicament, T shall stand in need of the MSS. to submit them to the 
consideration of the House of Commons in the enduing sessions. If you 
tliould graciously please to institute any inquiry, and deerte any redres* 
of these enormous evils, were these documents a hundred (old more valuable, 
1 should be happy to lay them at your Majesty's feet. 

Accept, illustrious Sovereign, my siucere assurances of the most pro- 
found veneration. JOHN CROWN. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



297 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 

MR. EDITOR, Ibbotsori's ffotel, Vere Sired, 6th April, 1814. 

TTUDGING that it might Jae satisfactory to the feelings of those who 
^^ may have relations or friends amongst the detenus, or officers prison- 
ers of war, who were lately stationed at Verdun, I herewith enclose you 
an original list of the same, as 'delivered to me by permission of the gallant 
and generous commandant,Major De Meulan, in December last. 
I am, Sir, your very humble servant, 

W. C. DALYELL. 

** The Editor returns Captain Dalyell his best thanks for the valuable 
document above alluded to ; anxious to fulfil the benavolent wishes of this 
distinguished officer, he has selected an alphabetical list of all the naval 
officers, to which he has subjoined the names of the masters of merchant- 
men ; and in the following number the rest of the paper shall be inserted. 



A List of Naval Officers and Marines, Prisoners of War, on their Parole, 
at Verdun, December, 1813. 



Past Captains. 
Joyce, John. 
Lavie, Sir Thomas. 
Lyall, William. 
Miller, Simon. 
Otter, Charles. 
Walker, Benjamin, 

Captain. 
Blennerhnsset. 

Lieutenants. 
Apreece, William. 
Allan, James. 

Boyack, Alexander. 
Bastin, Robert. 
Binham, John. 
.Bo^le, Warner. 
Brown, George William. 
Brine, John. 

Callas, John. 
Carslnke, John. 
Crosbie, Robert. 
Cowley, George. 
Crocket, George. 



Dalyell, W. C. 
Donaldson, Augustus. 
Donavan, Richard. 
Davis, Hamilton. 
Davidson, Alexander. 

Fabian, William. 
Fennell, Johq. 
Foster, Thomas. 
Filleul, John. 

Gratrix, George. 
Gooch, Henry. (Master.) 
Green, Charles. 
Gunnel, Robert. 
Gilpin, William. 

Hall, Thomas. 
Hawkey, John. 
Hawkins, John. 
Hales, John. 
Higginson, George* 
Handby, William, 

Jones, Thomas. 
Inglnm, George. 

Johnson, 



Q Q 



996 



COKKESrONDENCB. 



Jervoise, William. 
Johnson, William. 

Kennicott, Gilbert, 
Kingdou, John. 

Lambert, John. 
Liddle, Robert. 
Lloyd, Frederick. 
Lew, John. 

M'Kenzie, John. 
Mantor, .fohn. 
Milne, William. 
M'Namara, Jeremiah. 
Miller. Joseph. 
M'Dougal, John. 
M'Konochie, Alexander. 
Munro, Andrew. 
Mahoney, Jeremiah. 

Norie, Elvyn. 
Napier, Andrew. 

Pennie, John: 
Pridham, Richard. 
Parkman, John. 

Richards, William. 
Rigby, Robert. 
Ross, Richard. 
Robins, Thomas. 

Sanders, John. 
Shuldham, MoUneux, 
Stewart, Charles. 
Smith, Thomas. 
Snell, Robert. 
Stackpoolc, Edmuad. 

Thomas, Abel. 
Tuckey, James. 
Tapper, William. 
Tuck, Samuel. 
Taylor, John. 
Tapley, Jeremiah. 
Trackston, Henry. 
Tracey, John. 



Wingate, George. 
Westlake, William. 
Wills, George. 
Walker, William. 
Wigley, John. 
Young, Matthew. 

MARINE OFFICERS. 

Armstrong, Nathaniel, Ueut. 

Bourne, George, do. 
Bell, George, do. 
Blakeney, John, do. 

Clark, Thomas, do. 
Champoniere, , do. 

El wood, Charles, do. 
Eckford, Alexander, do. 

Farmer, Jasper, do. 
Field, Edward, do. 

Guy, Henry, do. 
Gibbons, John, do. 
Gibbons, Jeremiah, do. 

Howard Robert, do. 
Innes, John, do. 
Morgan, Thomas, do. 

Ryan, Thomas, do. 
Richardson, George, do, 

Sullivan, William, do. 
Sutton, Peter, do. 
Sanderson, George, do. 
Simpson, Alexander, do 
Sampson, William, do. 

Masters. 
Bishop, Gams. 
Beatson, John. 

Frazer, Henry. 

Hernaman, Francis. 
Hazell, Benjamin. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



29* 



Long, James. 
Pickersgill, Richard. 
Read, Thomas. 

Taylor, Rogers. 
Thompson, Robert, 

Armourer. 
Bertes, John. 

Pursers, 
Bastin, Thomas. 

Ellis, George. 
Hanny, Hugh. 

M'Millan, Archibald. 
Mackay, Donald. 

Richardson, John. 
Sullivan, Daniel. 

Wilson, James. 
Wilcock, Joseph. 

Pilots. 
Atherton, Thomas. 

Clayton, David. 

Edwards, Henry. 
Eastle, Robert. 

Harrow, John. 
James, Thomas. 
Le Corney. 

Priaux, Pierre. 
Prior, Thomas. 
Pope, Robert. 

Rose, Hugh. 

Midshipmen, 
.Allan, Peter. 
Auk in, Roger. 
Astley, Wilkinson, 



Adams, John. 
Arabin, Augustus. 

Blakeney, Robt. (Permission. } 

Bradshaw, William. 

Back, George. 

Bee, John. 

Berkeley, John. (Passed,) 

Baker, William. 

Blackmore, Samuel. 

Bold, Edward, master's mate. 

Brothers, John. 

Boyle, George. (La Ferte.) 

Bridges, Edward* 

Bushel, William. 

Barret, Joseph. 

Byasse, Weatlr. 

Bartoe, James. 

Baird, Daniel. 

Bland, George. 

Burch, James. 

Barrow, Henry. 

Barns, John. 

Boyle, George. (La Ferte). 

Blisset, Charles. 

Batty, Michael. 

La Cost, Frederick. 

Crick, John. 

Carter, George. 

Caulficld, Edwin. (Languelet). 

Cordrey, George. 

Craggs, George. 

Carrique, Henry. 

Callagan, Henry. 

Cornish, Samuel 

Carrol, Hugh. 

C'ornat, Ralph, 

Clements, Handby. 

Dupree, John. 
Davis, Henry. 
Davis George. 
Digges, Montgomery. 
Downey, John. 

Elvy, George, master's mate. 



300 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Evans, George. 

Fosbery, Godfrey. 
Furze, Robert. 
Forrest, Thomas. 
Frith, John. 
Freeman, Frederick. 

Gregg, Thomas. 
Gordon, Adam. 
Gale, James. 
Gillo, John. 
Gibbs, Antony. 
Gowdie, John. (Passed.) 
Galway, Daniel. 
Grant, Lachland. 
Green, Stephen. 
Grant, Archibald. 

Hepkiuson, John. 

Hamilton, William. 

Hoy, Robert. 

Harries, Joseph. 

Hill, Henry. 

Hernaman, William. 

Hennessy, Augustus. 

Hearbown, William. 

Hart, Benjamin. 

Hamilton, Thos. master's mate. 

Haberficld, James. 

Haines,Williara. master's mate. 

Hodder, Peter. 

Hcroer, Robert. 

Harvey, Phillip. 

Harrop, David. 

Hubbard, William: 

Hall, Joseph. 

Hindley, Thomas. 

Jackson, Henry. 
Jackson, Thomas. 
Jennings, Thomas. 
Johnston, Joseph. 
Johnson, John. 
Jeaffresen, Charles. 
Johnston, William. 



Knipp, Edward. 

King, Henry. (La Ferte.) 

Kneeshaw, Samuel. 

Kirkpatrick, Henry. 

Lechmere, John. 
Lyall, James. 
Lewis, Thomas. 
Lynche, John. 
Litchford, Thomas. 
Lane, Isaac. 
Longmore, William. 

Moyses, William. (Passed.). 
Morris, Richard. 
Marsden, Robert. 
Matthias, James. 
Mullet, Henry. 
Moythen, Field. 
Malcolm, Niel. 
M'Cartey, Daniel. 
M'Dougal, Thomas. 
Miller, Edward. 
Marc he, James. 

Nichols, Edward. 

Nichols, Abraham. 

Nepean, Evan. (Permission). 

O'Brien, Joseph. 
O'Brien, Donat. 
O'Neil, Robert, master's mate. 

Potts, George. 
Paynter, Charles. 
Price, Edward. 
Parson, John. 
Peard, George. 
Parry, Lewis. 
Pearsons, Robert. 
Pace, Phill. 
Pettigrew, Thomas, 

Rowe, Thomas. 
Ramsey, John. 
Ramsey, William. 
Reid, James. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



301 



Rawlins, Robert. 

Robinson, Abraham. 

Robins, William. 

Rosser, Richard. 

Russel, Francis, master's mate. 

Reynolds, John. 

Rodnel, Thomas. 

Randall, Henry. 

Stockings, Richard. 
Stone, Valentine. 
Secretan, Thomas James. 
Slingsby, Joseph. 
Smith, John, master's mate. 
Shakleton, John. 
Sullivan, James. 
Stevenson, Frederick. 
Sutton, William. 
Sutherland, Francis. 
Sarsfield, Dom. 
Strong, John. 
Sadler, Henry. 
Sterling James. 
Simeon, Charles. 
Stewart, John. 
Simmonds, George. 
Sharwell, Benden. 
Savigny, William. 
Strange, Thomas. 

Taylor, John. 

Thomas, William. 

Turrel, Charles. 

Taylor, Thomas. 

Thompson, Charles. 

Taylor, Henry. (Sub Lieut.) 

Templeton, Robert. 

Turner, Edward. (Passed ) 

Tyler, Thomas. 

Townsend, Joseph. 

Taylor, Thomas. 

Turner, Edward. (Passed.) 

Tighe, Robert. (Ratisbon.) 

Vale, John. 
Viret, Francis. 

Wingate, John. 



Williams, William John. 
Walker, Edward. 
Weatherly, Richard. 
Waller, Obadiah. 
Webb, Thomas. 
Walker, William. 
Wildey,John. 
Wilson, David. 
Webster, John. 
Whitefield, John. 
Walstrand, Peter. 
Were, John. 
Wall, John. 
Woolcock, James. 
Willis, William. 
Ward, John. 
Wilkey, James. 
Whitcomb, Mark. 

Yellard, Edward. 



Masters of Merchant Ships. 
Allen, George. 
Allison, Robert. 
Akerman, John. 
Allison, Israel. 

Bruce, Thomas. 

Baily, John. 

Begnou Thomas. 

Burn, John, traveller& merchant 

Brooks, Joseph. 

Babb, Nicholas. 

Bowen, Joseph. 

Bailhacke, Francis. 

Booth, Thomas. 

Broom, Thomas. 

Blair, William. 

Ballame, John. 

Brin, Thomas. 

Bravinder, William . 

Broocks, William. 

Bell, William. 

Corney, William. 
C'hamberlaiue, Biis. 



301 



Carter, Edward. 
Close, David. 
Canny, William. 
Cultberson, Andrew. 
Carter, Daniel. 
Crabb, Isaac. 
Cornish, John. 
Coleman, Thomas. 
Cooper, William. 
Clark, John. 
Cragie, Andrew. 
Christie, William. 

Domcson, John. 

Dandson or 

Davidson, Charles. 

Dayment, Samuel. 

Dunn, Robert. 

Davidson, George. 

Donovan, Patrick. 

Dunn, James. 

Davison, George. 

Degaris, Peter. 

Davies, AlieT. 

Duncan, William. 

Delisle, Isaac, Capt privateer. 

Davison, Samuel. 

Donaldson, Alexander. 

Davies, John. 

Dawson, Robert. 

Ewen, William. 
Ellis, John. 
Evans, John. 
Erery, Samuel. 
Ebbets, John. 

Ford, Andrew. 
Forrest, Robert. 
Fogo, Alexander. 
French, John. 
Ferry, Paul. 

Gillingham, John. 
Gordon, John. 
Giles, John. 
Gay, John. 



Gallop, Joshua. 
Gibbs, John. 
Gifford, Francis. 
Greenwell, Kinswd. 

Holby, Robert. 
Hogarth, Robert. 
Hamilton, John. 
Hussey, Thomas. 
Helyar, John. 
Howell, David. 
Harrison, Joseph, 
llixon, Thomas. 
Hall, Thomas. 
Hodgson, Thomas. 
Hutchinson, Robert. 

Jewith, Robert. 
Judge, Joseph. 
Jebb, Thomas. 
Jenkins, William. 
Jones, John. 

Langley, Johnson. 
Le Feuvre, Thomas. 
Lowes, James. 
Lawes, John. 
Langlas, Hillier. 
Langford, Richard. 
Laws, Thomas. 
Lane, Benjamin. 
Le Feuvre, Francis. 
Le Rossignol, John. 
Lee, Daniel. 
Lewis, William. 
Larwood, Nathaniel. 
Le Cheminant, Nicholas. 

Middleton, Joseph* 
Moulin, Nicholas. 
Morton, William. 
Marchand, Thomas. 
M'Cain, William. 
Mansfield, William. 
Mastin, Alexander. 
Mossman, John. 
Murphy, George. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



303 



Purchase, William. -. . 


Swinburn, Mitchel* 


Patrick Thomas. 


Swinburn, James. 


Pitt, Richard. 


Swaisland, John. 


Phillips, James. 


Smart, George. 


Potts, Lewis. 




Pills, Robert. 


Tr cine tie, John. 


Palmer, John. 


Trannach, William. 


Peacock, Joseph. 


Terry, David. 


Pleasents, Charles. 


Thompson, James. 

* ' ' * J-V 


Palk, John. 


Taylor, John. 


Pen, Thomas.. 


Tidball, Benjamin. 


Purcell, John. 


Thompson, Moses. 


Pickance, Thomas. 


. Tomlenson, Richard. 


Rizzo, Antonio. 


Vibert, John. , K nt f a V)g 


Ram age, Robert. 
Read, George. 
Richardson, John. 


White, Edward. 
White, Robert. 


Robley, John. 


Williamson, Richard. 


Revans, Charles. 


Way, William. 


Rendall,Elias. 


Way, John. 


Richards, William. 


Williams, Robert. 


Rodwell, Robert. 


Watson, Francis. 


Rogers, George. 


White way, William. 
Wilcock, Thomas. 


Service, John. 
Spencer, Edward. 


Wren, John. 
Williamson, Richard. 


Stephens, Henry. 
Story, John. 


Willis, James. 
Wood, William. 


Smith, Charles. 
Strong, Richard. 


Yeames, Peter. 

Yexley, William. 


Sims, Francis. 




Sherwin, Samuel. 


Packet Boatt. 


Simons, William. 




Stephens, Thomas. 


Marchese William, Captain. 


Summerland, Benjamin. 


Sedotti, Antonio, Mate. 



MR. EDITOR, Twickenham, Sd April, 1814. 

CONCEIVING that any recent and authentic intelligence from our 
^ officers, prisoners of war in France, would at any time be welcome, 
and more particularly so at the present crisis, I have transmitted you 
copies of two letters, the one written at Blois on the route to Gueret, 
Department de la Creuse ; the second at Guerct, the seat of the depot re- 



304 

moved from Verdun. As well as copies for insertion, I send you the 
original letters, of which you will please to take care till I call for them. 
I take this step the more readily, in the hope that by my example others 
may be influenced, and send to you any interesting letters or documents 
they may possess to add to the invaluable store of naval subjects already 
recorded in your Chronicle. 

The disposition of the writer of the above letters will best be gleaned 
from his own observations : for the rest, his bravery is on record ; h 
has been many years a prisoner, a lieutenant in rank, and was born in 
Scotland. I ain, Sir, 

Your sincere well wisher, 



MY DEAR runvD, Blois, 17th Feb. 1814. 

I AM truly happy to hear of your safe arrival in England, and thank 
you for your kind inquiries respecting me. I should have written to you 
by Capt. Millman, but having nothing material or new to communicate, I 
omitted that opportunity. 

You are no doubt informed of the removal of the depot from Verdun. 
No more than twenty-four hour's notice was given ; and knowing as you 
do the situation of too many of us, in arrears for lodgings, and in debt 
in every quarter of the town, you will be better able to conceive than I am 
to describe the clamours, reproaches, uproar, and confusion that took 
place. Many were forced to leave their goods and baggage behind them ; 
and others, with their wives and numerous families, in the midst of winter, 
were compelled to undertake a dreary joun:ey, over bad cross-country 
roads, ill provided with raiment, money, or conveyances. The miseries of 
war in an invaded country extend far beyond its actual theatre, and Ver- 
dun has already experienced some portion of its sorrows. Instead of join- 
ing the national guard, many of the Bourgeois set off to Germany t in con- 
sequence of which, their houses have been filled with soldiers who live 
upon the property of those new emigres. 

We set off by detachments, in every possible mode ; but were obliged to 
go a prescribed road, and to reach this at a given time : during our march 
\ve experienced all the rigours that extreme cold and bad weather could 
produce. We were billeted upon the inhabitants of the places where we 
halted; but, I am sorry to s>ay, in general, we were very badly lodged t 
However, all things considered, I got over it tolerably well. I left Ver- 
dun with no more than twenty-one francs, out of which, and the marching 
money, I not only contrived to meet the expences of the journey to Blois, 
"but also to buy me a new pair of shoes. I walked the whole of the w?.y, 
and acquitted myself much to my satisfaction. Except the cathedrals at 
Troyes and Sens, I met with little worthy of notice, or, speaking more cor- 
rectly, I bad not time nor opportunity to search for objects; nor was I in 



COttRtSPONDENCC* 305 

ttife happiest possible mood for enjoying the sight of them. The paintings 
On glass, in the windows of those cathedrals, are, however, so exquisitely 
fine, it was impossible not to be struck by their beauty and magnificence. 
Indeed they are generally allowed to be the finest specimens of the art in 
the whole world. Over an altar I remarked a curious deception wrought 
in stone: it was a representation of a curtain, but so well executed, that 
at a short distance it was difficult to discover it was not a real curtain. 
They displayed a number of curiosities, more than I can recollect, and I 
took no notes. Amongst other elegant trifles wrought in ivory, I was par- 
ticularly struck by the beauty and anatomical correctness of a small figure, 
wrought by the hands of Madame Sophie, Epoust du Dauphin ; and this 
fecals to my mind the splendid monument erected to the memory of the 
Dauphin : the design to me appeared as a grand conception of an abl 
artist, and the workmanship most admirable. I also noticed a very pretty 
toy, most elaborately wrought, on which a deal of time must have been 
consumed, and an inconceivable stock of patience exerted : it consisted of 
seven ivory balls, cut one within the other, all detached, moveable, and 
visible. Of a more solemn description was a cross, said to have been 
presented by Charlemagne to this cathedral. The time was, and for many 
ages that time lasted, \vhen this cross was never shewn but With solemn 
pomp, nor viewed but with a reverence bordering on idolatry : but passed 
are those times ; the Frenchman smiled as he shewed ; and as for us, sea- 
men, we were totally incapable of appreciating its value: besides this 
ancient cross, we were treated with the sight of a ring once belonging to 
a bishop, said to be upwards of a thousand years old. If its principal 
value had consisted in precious gems, instead of its great antiquity, I ques- 
tion if it had not disappeared during the anti-clerical fury of the revolu- 
tionists. But how will you refrain from laughter when you learn that a 
garment which belonged to that daring and ambitious priest, Thomas & 
Becket, is said to have been preserved ever since his death, and exhibited 
a's a precious relict in this cathedral. We turned from it with disdain, 
after bestowing a malediction or two on the memory of the turbulent ruf- 
fiap to whom it was said once to have belonged. But notwithstanding his 
disloyalty to his king, he was the glory of priestcraft, and launched as a 
first-rate saint. 

Arrived at Orleans, you will readily believe that thought revolved back 
to that eventful period of our annalb when our armies conquered France, 
and when the Pucelle waved the sacred standard within those walls, 
and roused the dormant spirit of France against our legions. Her courage, 
patriotism, and devotion to her king and country, rank her memory high 
in the pantheon of illustrious women. The cruel death to which the 
fegent condemned her, has entailed on his character a deathless reproach. 
Orleans is still a noble city, though less populous, wealthy, and magnificent 
than before the revolution. The bridge is a grand structure; the princi- 
pal street is a very fine one, and remarkably well built. In short, Orleans 
Was by far the cleanest and handsomest city through which we passed. I 
remained in this city three nights. I breakfasted, dined, and spent 

. Cfcion, fflol. XXXI. R 



308 CORRESPONDENCE, 

of my time with Mr. Thompson and his family.* This gentleman displayed 
a most hospitable mini). He was kind and attentive to all ; to many h* 
advanced cash ; and entertained as many as his house would accommo- 
date, whilst the depot was passing ; more than twenty sat down at his table 
to dine. You cannot think, how much it cheers one's spirit, after a long and 
fatiguing march on foot, to partake of his hospitable cheer, and sit by 
his bla/ing fires of wood. To-morrow we are to leave Blois for Gueret, de- 
partment de la Creuse, where we are to arrive on the 26th. I have thus 
eight days march before me. The roads are uncommonly bad, are all 
cross-country roads, and we shall start without our marching money. The 
sailors and private soldiers belonging to the depot, who have preceded us, 
have suffered dreadfully, poor fellows, being ill clothed, and in want of 
necessaries of every kind. In short, the whole depot are hard run ; how- 
ever I hold up, and shall, by fortitude and perseverance, surmount all 
these trifles ; but, under any circumstances, I rejoice that I am no longer 
in Verdun. My mind has become much more tranquil since I left that 
detested place. When I beheld St. Menehoud, I felt as though I were 
transported to another world. I was grown, from long captivity and ad- 
verse circumstances, weary of the place, and out of humour with every- 
thing within its wails. 

Our new depot is a place consisting of three thousand inhabitants only ; 
of course we shall be badly off; but " never despair," is a maxim to the 
pirit of which I am determined to act. Still, it is terrible to be thus cut 
off from one's profession, family, and early connexions. I have sometimes 
wished 1 had been left to perish of the wounds I received when I was 
made prisoner ; we are, as you will readily conceive, most anxious to hear 
if there is any prospect of an exchange; and even then, how many of us, 
poor lieutenants, are there, who have neither friends nor fortune, would 
find themselves worse off on half pay in England, than full pay in France? 

I shall rejoice most heartily in your promotion, which I hope and trust 
will have taken place before this was written. Make my kind remem- 
brance to J ; he cannot be happier married than I wish him. 



THE SAME TO THE SAME. 

Gueret, Dep. de fa Creuse, 

MY DEAR FRIEND, 13th March, 1814. 

My last was dated from Blois, and acquainted you with the unpleasant 
circumstances under which 1 had began my march. However, unfortu- 
nately tor them, there were many who were less able to endure privation* 
an myself, and I got on quite as well as I expected with bad roads, bad 
weather, and slender resources. The depot arrived here on the 26th ult. 
and were generally and severely disappointed. Lodgings are extremely 

Thi gentleman wai member for Evesham, in 1803, when, being on hi 
travel* in France, he and his family, contrary to the letter and spirit of th 
kw of nationi ; and in direct violation of the Jaws of hospitality, were made pri- 
luncrs of war ' 



CORRESPONDENCE. 307 

<5tar, and no less scarce. A single room, badly furnished, lets for 50 or 
francs a month. Thence, most, or a very great part, live in the coun- 
try, which, at this time of the year, is sufficiently wearisome and unplea- 
sant. There are two and thirty villages appointed, in which we may reside, 
and make our own selection : some of them are five leagues distant from 
the town. This place consists of no more than three or four thousand 
inhabitants, and has, for a century past, been termed " La Siberie Fran* 
f<Mse." It gained this appellation from its having been chosen by Lewis 
XlVth. as the place of exile for those nobles who were troublesome to that 
monarch. Mr. Hamilton is here, as well as Captain Allen ; in short, the 
depot has increased near three hundred. Watson, I believe, has permis- 
sion to remain at Bluis ; we expect to be removed ; our good and bene- 
volent commandant Major de Meulan, having written for that purpose. 
I difl not notice many interesting objects as I passed alowg the road : per- 
haps there were not many very remarkable to be seen. The weather was 
extremely cold, the roads in general execrably bad, and all the Etapes wer 
across the country. As usual, the wealthy travelled post, arrived first at 
this place, and secured the best lodgings. The clubs fall off; the forty- 
five is knocked up, the twenty-five is irregular a few of the party smoke 
away the evenings, the other hangs on so so ; half a dozen of them are not 
to be met together of an evening. The general resort is at a coffee-house, 
where smoking prevails. The depot, however, is much improved as to 
morals : regarding play, there is little or none, except among a certain de- 
scription unworthy of naention. I have already stated, that lodgings are 
exorbitantly dear in the town they are but little cheaper in the country. 

J saw Captain B this morning, who, as well as myself, is most anxious 

to hear from you. Your last to him which he has received, was dated the 
95th January. As you may well suppose, nothing can be more miserable 
than our situation, living in a state of tormenting suspense, anxious for 
news, and knowing nothing of what is passing. This place is situated 
seven leagues from the high road, and we receive the papers but three 
times a week. II- n married Mademoiselle R e, and had the mis- 
fortune to lose all her stock of clothes. Mr. Garland, whom you might 
remember at Verdun, and who was plundered in so bhameful a manner by 
General Wirion and his vile associates, married, a week past at Orleans, 
Miss Cope, daughter of Mr. Cope, one of our wealthy detenus, and who 
formerly resided at Valenciennes, who settled upon her a fortune of two 
thousand five hundred per annum. 

Tins place is wretchedly dreary. However, a few of the leading party, 
through the polite attention and introductions afforded by the commandant, 
pass their time tolerably agreeable. The prefect, Baron de Martrois, is a 
jnan of large fortune, who married one of the daughters of the Doc de 
Cadore. He is about twenty-five years of age. 

We are in high glee here, at least some of us, in consequence of the 
famous news afloat, that a change beneficial to the service is immediately 
to be introduced into the navy, with increase of pay. We learnt this from 

. f who arrived here a short time since, and was in London three 

inontlis ago. We haye, however, many disbelievers. God knows, that 



308 COURESPONPENCE* 

officers in England, who have to subsist on half pay, must suffer dreafully. 
How much better had I been off, had I been bred to the counting-house, 
or any mechanical trade. The ardent hopes of my youth are all blasted ; 
and here I am, without friends, without fortune, and hopeless of pro- 
motion or employ. Yel, no one strove more to merit promotion. How 
many unhappy young men, cut off from their friends, and abandoned to 
the follies of youth, and the seductions of the vicious, have we seen de- 
ploring the choice of a profession made by their friends ! But, a truce 
with gloomy reflections. If yon can confirm the good news relative to the 
reported improvements of the condition of the navy, and increase of pay, 
pray do so it will raise our spirits prodigiously. Your details of those 
events would be well worth communicating;. By this time, I hope your 
promotion is secured. How does our friend D get on? Is he pro- 
moted ? If so, congratulate him in my name. I expect it is so, as I 
accustom m}self to look on the best side of the question. Has he ob- 
tained his pension ? As you have all ray news, I beg you to give me yours, 
and believe me, dear Sir, with sincere friendship, yours ever truly. 



MR. rpiTon, Peek's Coffee- flouse, 5th of April, 1814, 

HAVING very recently returned from Verdun where I had been resi- 
dent on parole upwards of seven years, it struck me that it might 
liot be uninteresting to your general readers, and that it would be interest- 
ing to naval ones, were I to attempt a character of the different command- 
^nts who have governed at that grand depot since the commencement of the 
present eventful war, now apparently about to close in a manner so deci* 
sively glorious, as two years since it was improbable. 

Of the multifarious instances of knavery and extortion, fraud, insolence, 
and despotism, practised by the ever execrable WIRJON and his vulgac 
spouse, I have the less occasion to treat because the Chevalier Lawrence, 
in his picture of Verdun, has given a correct and animated description of 
those distinguished characters and most disgraceful scenes. During the 
reign of that contemptible tyrant there was nothing odious in power abused 
by vulgar bands, nothing base and disgusting in meanness or rapacity, but 
what was exercised with impunity against the feelings, property, and persons 
of the detenus and prisoners of war. If our reformers wanted a finished, 
picture o( insolence, fraud, and despotism, combined, Verdun, under the 
$wuy of General Wirion, was, of all others, the place best calculated to gra- 
ufy '"S wish. Having accumulated a large fortune by the open exercise of 
every dishonourable artifice, he was displaced and succeeded by Courcelles, 
a creature who trod in the vi|e footsteps of his predecessor. Thisotficer, as 
veil as I can recollect, succeeded Wirion, about 1803, and kept in power till 
J81I. During the reign of those two miscreants, it was in vain, or it was 
dangerous, in any individual to attempt to convey a statement of his wrongs, 
Itowever grievous, to the ear of the ministers. It was intercepted by the 
agents of the petty despots of Verdun, or pau> d over without attention ; 
and not few were the instances wherein the complainants were made to fce^ 



CORRESPONDENCE. . 3Q9 

the dark -and cowardly revenge of which their base and contaminated 
minds were so eminently susceptible. 

The BARON DE BEAUCHESNS succeeded the infamous COURCELLES; of 
the latter it is difficult to speak too highly. It was an angel presiding where 
a fiend had ruled before. Full of generosity, honour, and dignity, this 
worthy nobleman, in every respect, was the reverse of his base predeces- 
sors. When he died, which was early in 1813, his death was deeply and 
generally deplored by the detenus and officers, who raised six thousand 
francs to rear a monument to his memory in token of their love and gra- 
titude. 

It was an arduous duty for an officer to succeed this worthy man, with- 
out suffering greatly by comparison. It was however, the happy lot of our 
countrymen at Verdun to have Major de Meulan appointed to succeed Ba- 
ron de Beauchesne. I cannot recollect the place of the Major's nativity, 
but his father was an Intcndant de Frovms. His family was wrecked and 
his fortune destroyed, by the early storms of the revolution ; and at the age 
of 14 he emigrated to Cayenne. There he remained till the tempest was a, 
Jittle wasted, when he returned to his native country. Here he found him- 
seit' rich only in honour, for of his patrimony nothing could be gleaned. 
Being liable to the conscription he was soon called into the field; and not 
having wealth to hire a substitute, he was forced to serve in person. He 
hud thus his military career to begin de now. He served as a private in 
the ranks, but his courage, activity, and soldier-like conduct, soon recom- 
jnended him to notice, and before he was twenty-eight, he had by dint of 
merit alone, attained the rank of Major, which assimilates with that of 
Lieutenant-colonel in the British service. He distinguished himself in 
Jtaly, Germany, and Spain ; he received many medals and other flattering 
jnarks of distinction. In different actions he received seven musket balls 
in his body, of which some of the wounds are yet open, besides sabre cuts, 
and contusions. Such is Major de Meulan, and I dare with confidence an- 
ticipate the general voice of my countrymen, when they shall read this 
unbought tribute of respect, will unanimously admit its justice. Accessible 
Jo the meanest individual: dignified, yet unassuming, he was distinguished 
more by the urbanity of his manners and integrity of his mind, than by the 
glare of official pomp. 

When our officers broke their parole, which from the fear of a gaol was 
pometimes the case, and were retaken, this generous man never failed to 
niitigate if not totally remit their punishment, and not unfrequenily pro- 
cured their re-admission to the comforts of parole, by becoming personally 
responsible for their future conduct. He kept within proper bounds the 
Gens d'armes, whose insolence and rapacity had been so severely felt under 
the infamous patronage of Wirion and Courcellcs. Endowed by nature with 
a heart filled with the noblest qualities, no unfortunate person ever appealed 
to him in vain. The lew whom he honoured with his friendship know 
what an inexhaustible fund of sensibility was covered by the stern front of 
a warrior. Towards many a friendless officer has he acted the part of an 
affectionate brother, towards many an unguarded youth, exposed in a 
peculiar manner at Verdun, to the most dangerous seductions, has the brave 



310 CORRESPONDENCE. 

and good De Meulan displayed the tenderness and solicitude of a parent 
and snatched them from impending ruin and indelible disgrace. 

Distinguished no less by valour, science, and military enterprise, than by 
the most active benevolence, he was a formidable enemy to whomsoever 
he was opposed. But his was the warfare of a Sidney or Bayard ! The 
Spaniards too often felt his prowess in the 6eld, but happy, in comparison 
with others, was the captive who fell into his merciful hands. By his bra- 
very he rendered himself respected, and dreaded by his activity and en- 
terprise ; but it was dread unmixed with hatred. Ask the gallant Mina, 
or D'Eroles, what was the character of Major de Meulan, and they will 
tell it was that of a brave and generous foe. And farther, that whenever 
they captured any soldiers serving under his command, they treated them 
with peculiar respect in return for the honourable manner in which he con 
ducted the warfare in which he was engaged. 

Far from availing himself of the opportunities afforded by the situation 
he occupied, his very manner repelled the idea of a pre$cnt, and as to 
a bribe, no one, in all probability, ever harboured the idea of insulting him 
by an allusion of that base kind. He was much more likely to divide his 
purse with some poor Lieutenant or friendless Midshipman ; and most cer- 
tainly, when the sudden route came to remove the depot from Verdun, he 
left that city richer only in honour; and happy it was for our countrymen 
he was continued in his command. 

It is impossible to know such a man without loving him. How often 
have we regretted the just war we wage should oblige us to call him anene* 
my! Let whatever be the part he may take in the terrible tragedy novy 
drawing to its catastrophe in France, he will act honourably. May he sur- 
vive the storms which now dislract his unhappy country. May he live long 
and happy in the land of his forefathers ; and should he ever visit this 
happy and envied island, I am sure there is not a detenu or an officer, na- 
val or military, who would not vie with each other in demonstrations of the 
warmest regard and sincerest attachment, 

O 

eno. 



R. EDITOR, 21sf April, 1814. 

|"X composing the Memoir of the late Captain Newman, which you fa- 
voured with insertion in your Number for November last, I exerted 
every possible endeavour to state all facts with accuracy, nntl to avoid giv- 
ing any reasonable ground of offence in those instances in which tiny thing 
like controversy could be excited on the part of other officers. It was with 
regret, therefore, that I saw from your CHRONICLE of February, (p. 127,) 
that my efforts had failed, as far as Captain Horton was concerned ; and it 
was with still more regret that I perceived him endeavouring to attach the 
charge of " want of candour," and of illiberal treatment, to my de- 
ceased friend : erroneously speaking, at the same time, of the statements 
in that memoir as the stntements of Captain Ntwman. I repeat the asser- 
tion before made, and would add all practicable force to it, that no man. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 311 

who really knew that lamented officer, will believe that he ever laid himself 
open to such an imputation, knowingly and deliberately. 

The point at issue is, that Captain N. did not assign to Captains Horton 
and Bazeley, in his public letter announcing the capture of La Pallas, the 
credit which was due to them : first, for their attack on that frigate on the 
morning ; and secondly for their assistance in subduing her at night. 

As to his silence on the first point, I am contented to rest his cause on 
the circumstances already stated ; that he could not report an event which 
he did not see, but from the relation of those who did see it ; and that 
Captain Horton, by writing to the admiralty his own account of the ac- 
tion, and giving that despatch (sealed) to Captain Newman to forward, 
testified his choice to tell his own story, and precluded Captain N. from 
interfering with it. In this light, I know, it appeared to Captain N. ; and 
on this account only he omitted to allude to the affair. 

As to the second point, the share borne by the Fairy and Harpy, in the 
night action, and Captain Newman's mention of it in his public letter, I 
stated the facts according to the evidence in my possession ; and 1 now 
send you an official extract from the log-book of the Loire (Captain N.'s 
ship), and a letter communicated to me by one of his officers who has seen 
Captain Horton's remarks: both of which confirm my representation. 
That a difference exists between the log of the Fairy and that of the Loire, 
particularly as to time, will be obvious to any person who compares them : 
bdt it is not for me to account for this difference ; nor to explain why the 
Fairy's log, as printed in your CHRONICLE for February 1800, p. 147, va- 
ries in several points (as to time) from the said log, as re-printed in the 
CHRONICLE for February 1814, p. 128. 

That great praise is due, and has always been given, to Captains Horton 
and Bazeley, for their spirited and zealous conduct, is undeniable: the 
success of their endeavours to share in the night-action is the question in 
dispute. Lord Proby (of the Danae) declared that the Fairy and Harpy 
were never up with the enemy at night, so that their shot could reach, till 
the action closed; and his ship being equally to leeward, he himself never 
allowed a gun to be fired from her, seeing that it would be useless, or mis- 
chievous to the Loire. Captain Newman always stated the same fact; 
his log-bog testifies the same; and one of the Loire's officers asserts 
the same in the letter which I subjoin. Captain Horton says otherwise, 
and his log-book seems to say otherwise, though not decidedly> as to dis- 
tance and effect. With this variation of evidence, I leave the reader to. 
orra his own judgment. 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 



C0?y OF THE LOG-BOOK OF H. It. SHIP LOIRE, 6 FEB. 1800. 

" Remarks, Ire. H.M.S. Loire, 6th Feb. 1800. 
*< Fresh breezes, and thick weather. In chase, | past noon. The chasa 
proved to be H. M. S. Danae, wljp made the signal to speak us. 



to, and Danae's boat came on board. Half-past two, Danae made tlie sie(* 
nal for an enemy: made all sail in chase, ditto in company; Railleur in 
chase in the southwest quarter. At 3, tacked, enemy S. W. b. S. three 
leagues : a ship and a brig in chace of ditto. Half-past 7, II. M. S. made 
the signal for the enemy on the larboard tack. Quarter before 8, saw the 
enemy right a- head : at 8 ditto tacked : fired our larboard guns as she 
passed to windward. Tacked; soon after spoke H.M. sloop Fairy, who 
informed us the chase was La Pallas, from St. Maloes. At 9, the chase 
tacked : fired our starboard guns as she passed. Tacked: at J past 10, the 
enemy tacked : fired our larboard guns at ditto. Tacked, and set top-gal- 
lant studding-sails. At 11, came up with the enemy hailed the Railleur 
to fire her broadside and drop a-stern, wlu'ch she did. Commenced a smart 
fire which the enemy returned : the nearest of the Seven islands S. W. b. S^ 
three cables length, from which we received a smart fire. At J past 1, 
A.M. the enemy struck, Railleur in company; Dai;ae, Fairy, and Harpy, 
in sight : the two latter continued their fire for f after the enemy struck ; 
their shot falling short of us had no effect. Sent an officer on board the 
prize. Bore up for the ships to leeward, to get assistance of their boats to 
exchange prisoners. Employed stopping the rigging, and carpenters stop' 
ping the shot-holes. At 3, wore and made sail, prize and Railleur in com- 
pany. At noon, strong breezes. Ditto in company. Killed and wounded, 
82." 

Extract of a Letter from an Officer (late) of the Loire, 28th March, 1814. 

u Observing in the NAVAL CHRONICLE for February last, p. 127, an attack 
on the memory of ruy lamented friend the late Captain James Newman 
Newman, with whom I had the honour of serving nearly six years, I fael 
myself called on to relate the circumstance of the capture of L;\ Pallas 
as it really happened. 

" I will not pretend to say, nor can I suppose, that Captain Horton's 
Statement is wilfully wrong ; but that he is in error I think I shall have 
no difficulty in proving. I cannot see any thing in the memoir of the late 
Cuptain N. which could provoke such a statement; there is nothing in it 
that could possibly impeach the honour of Captain Horton, or of his friend 
Captain Bazely ; and, thoujih I feel some reluctance in confuting their 
narrative, I conceive myself bound not to allow the honourable character 
of my departed friend to be frittered away unnoticed. I had the honour of 
being in his confidence, and can boldly say, he was the last man who could 
justly be accused of want of candour. I cannot wish to detract from the 
merits of Captain Horton; but, as iie has accused my lamented friend of 
want of candour in his public letter, I must say the charge comes from 
him with a bad grace ; (or, had he been candid enough to have allowed 
Captain Newman the perusal of his letter on the subject, instead of send- 
ing it to him sealed, every thing possible would have been said by him id 
favour of the two sloops. It was his most anxious wish to do so ; but 
Captain Horton shut the door : Tuinst it ; and it was impossible for him 
to say more than he did, as they certainly had no share in the night~ac;ion % 
and he could not represent what he had not seen nor heard of j I believe,' 



CORRESPONDENCE. 313 

tut am not certain, that Captain Horton saw Captain Newman's letter to 
the Admiralty, on the subject, before it was closed. I know that my Lord 
Proby did, and that it met his most unqualified approbation. 

" From the time the Danae made the signal for an enemy at J past two 
o'clock, till La Pallas struck her colours, at | past one o'clock, I was not 
off the Loire's quarter-deck, except for a few minutes to get refreshment* 
and can, therefore, speak not only to the correctness of the Loire's log, but 
also from my own recollection. The Danae had been sent to Jersey for 
intelligence respecting the Pallas and Didon, where Lord Proby was di- 
rected to return with all possible despatcli to the Loire off the Seven Islands, 
as the former of those ships had put to sea ; and when his lordship came 
on board the Loire at 2 o'clock, he said the enemy might be expected in 
sight every moment, and that he had left directions on board for the signal 
to be made the moment she was discovered from the mast-head, having 
Jeft his ship a considerable distance to windward for that purpose. At 
2 o'clock, the enemy and both sloops were all in sight, carrying a press of 
sail ; and it was evident the Pallas had the advantage of them in sailing, 
and might have brought them to action whenever she pleased. The only 
effect produced on her by the action she had sustained, which we could 
discover at the above-mentioned time, was, the fore-top-sail sheet shot 
3way, which they were then in the act of splicing. 

<' When the Pallas struck her colours, at { past one o'clock, the Loire 
of course ceased firing : but the Fairy and Harpy were to leeward, and (I 
suppose) did not discover it, as they continued their fire for a long time, 
to our great annoyance. Fortunately, however, none of their shot reached 
the Loire, but fell into the water considerably short of her. At length, 
however, the Harpy got within reach, and one of her shot killed a man on 
board the enemy who was going up the mizen-shrouds, with a lanthorn, to 
repeat the signal of having struck, the signal halliards being all shot away. 
This must have brought from Captain Epion the expression mentioned by 
Captain Horton, that " he received more injury from the little black brig 
than from all the other ships ;'' and I must add that I heard him repeatedly 
say, he should have sunk or taken both the sloops, but for discovering the 
Loire and her squadron ; and, without any reflection on the courage or 
ability of their commanders, it is evident he might have done so, as the 
Fairy (carrying only six-pounders} could not fight, and sailed so very badly 
that it was impossible for her to run away. 

" It is unfortunate for those who wish the memory of my departed 
friend to be handed down untarnished to the world, that my Lord Proby 
(Captain of the Danae) and Captain Turguand (who commanded the 
Hailleiir) are also both no more ; those meritorious officers, as well as 
Captain Newman, having lost their lives in the service of their country ; 
or I am sure they would feel pleasure in refuting this unmerited attack. 
When the Fairy and Harpy began to fire, the Danae was as near the 
enemy as either of them ; but Lord Proby did not fire a shot, and 
expressed^ his astoni-shmeiit (on board the Loire) at their having done so, 

I? 8V- er&roru 21 ol, XXXI. s s 



314 COHRESPONDENCE. 

saying he saw the impossibility of their shot reaching the enemy, and tl; 
probability of their doing much injury to the Loire and Railleur. 

" AN OFFICER OF THE LOIRE, 
In the action with La Pallas." 



MR. EDITOR, , March \\lh, 1814. 

I HAVE been for some time unwilling to take up any space of your 
valuable work that might be more ably filled by your numerous pro- 
fessional correspondents, but in perusing some of the letters in your 30th 
Volume (p. 202) particularly one from Nestor, alias Albion, wherein he 
says, speaking of the gradual abolition of corporal punishment, that he 
" hopes to see a milder and better system of government on board our men 
of war," I have been tempted to offer a few remarks on the subject. If 
Nestor had a thorough knowledge of the general disposition of our seamen, 
and others which make up ships' companies, he would be convinced that 
it is utterly impossible to keep under that due contrcul, which is so highly 
necessary for the establishment of discipline and good order, the many 
ardent and restless spirits always to be found amongst such a body of men, 
without at times having recourse to corporal punishment. I am far from 
being an advocate for an indiscriminate use of the lash ; but having often 
weighed and considered this subject in my mind, I am convinced that there 
cannot be pointed out any punishment which will be found to answer as a 
substitute for flogging at the gang-way. 

" To the discipline of the.British navy is wholly owing its boasted supe- 
riority over that of every other state. The free, turbulent, and intrepid 
Spirit of the British seaman, when unawcd by authority, defeats its own 
jxmer by diversity and exuberance ; but brought under controul by well 
regulated discipline, it consolidates and forms a bulwark, which no human 
force is equal to subdue."* There are nnuiy men amongst our sailors, it 
is true, that never require chastisement, and many who perform their duty 
so well as not even to subject themselves to reprimand ; but the greater 
number are not of such dispositions ; indeed it would be acting against the 
common course of nature to suppose them all made of such tractable stuff. 
That such punishment should not be inflicted but when found absolutely 
necessary, is indisputably proper; and although we have heard of instances 
where milder means might have been adopted as a sufficient chastisement, 
yet those instances have been but few, and I believe none such are to be 
heard of at the present day. I wisii with all my heart that some milder 
mode of punishment could be discovered, which might supersede the ne- 
cessity of using the more cruel one of flogging with the cat-of-nine tails ; 
but I fear no such an one will be found. I cannot but remark (which I 
hope will not be Considered presumption), that although the order 
issued by the B. of A. to all captains, requiring them to transmit a quar- 
terly account of punishments to the Admiralty Orfice, might have been put 

\f I luve had the al ove quotation by me some time, I am not certain to' 
whom I am ludebted for it, but I believe Adolubus's reign of George the Third. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 315 

in force from the best of motives; yet it has been the occasion of more 

serious injury to the discipline of the service, than perhaps their L ps 

imagine, had they sent their directions in a private way, with strict injunc- 
tions to the captains not to make the order known (which certainly from 
its tenor was necessary), and the captains had acted with caution, it might 
not to this period, or indeed ever, have got to the knowledge of the 
foremast- men, and the consequences, which are obvious to all naval men 
would have been prevented : but the captains, imagining it to be an inno- 
vation to the general instructions by which they are guided in the internal 
regulation and management of their ships ; and finding that that discre- 
tionary power which is vested in them would be subject to scrutiny, and 
perhaps to their disadvantage if they should have performed rigidly what 
they conceived to be their duty, are less willing to use the cat than for- 
merlywhat is the consequence ? The offiers complain that their captains 
will not punish those men that have been reported for neglect cf duty, c. 
The men, aware of this existing order, say, the captains are afraid to flog 
us, they have an account to send to the Admiralty. The manner in which 
this order was first known to the sailors was briefly this : In a ship of the 
line, several writers from the ship's company were employed with the cap- 
tain's clerk to assist in getting up the ship's accounts, &c. amongst them 
was an intelligent marine, who, looking over the different papers that lay 
scattered about, accidentally cast his eyes on the above mentioned order, 
and of course spread the intelligence: thus the endeavour to prevent any 
existing tyranny in the service has produced incalculable injury to naval 
discipline. Notwithstanding the issuing of this order, I really believe the 
L s of the A. are clearly of opinion, that corporal punishment is uua- 
'voidably necessary, and that it is their wish to mitigate the infliction of it 
as much as possible, without entirely doing away with it. Now, Sir, I 
will turn from this subject to that of impressing seamen for his Majesty's 
naval service.* I beg leave, before I commence my feeble observations, to 
present the great Lord Chatham's sentiments on the subject, as delivered 
in a speech on the 22d November, 1770. " The subject on'which I am 
speaking seems to call upon me, and I willingly take this occasion, to de- 
clare my opinion upon a question on which much wicked pains t have been 
employed to disturb the minds of the people, and to distress government. 
My opinion may not be very popular; neither am I running the race of 
popularity. I am myself clearly convinced, and I believe every man who 
knows any thing of the English navy will acknowledge that, without 
impressing, it is impossible to equip a respectable fleet within the time 
which such armaments are usually wanted. If this fact be admitted, and 
if the necessity of arming on a sudden emergency should appear incontro- 
vertible, what shall we think cf those men who, in a moment of danger, 

* See Albion's letter on the ' brutal horrors" of impressing seamen, XXIXth 
Volume, page 475. 

t Some persons, averse to the government, had endeavoured to persuade the 
Lord Mayor not to sign the impress warrant issued by the Admiralty ; but they 
failed in their insidious attempt. 



CORRESFONDtNCK. 

would stop the great defence of their country ? Upon whatever princip!* 
they may act, the act itseli'is more than faction ; it is labouring to cut off 
the right hand of the community. I am satisfied that the power of im- 
pressing is founded on uninterrupted usage it is the consuetudo regni, and 
part of the common law prerogative of the crown." 

\Vhat I said of corporal punishment, I again apply to impressment, 
that it cannot, consistently with the calls of the service, be totally dis- 
pensed with. \Ve have no other means (if we except that of raising the 
bounty of seamen equal to what is given to the soldiers) of paining able 
and ordinary seamen. Beating up for volunteers, even admitting an 
increased bounty were given, would not, in my opinion, from the know- 
ledge I have of dispositions and opinions of sailors,* be attended with 
success. There is scarcely a doubt, however, but this mode would be 
found to |answer in the procuring of landsmen and boys, whose minds 
being free from the knowledge of those restrictions and privations which 
must be endured by every seafaring person, particularly men-of-war's men, 
are more easily gained over to the service, it is to be presumed, than 
those who already have felt such difficulties and hardships. The plan to be 
adopted for the accomplishment of so desirable an object, would be to 
appoint a recruiting party to each county, composed of marines t in the 
attire of sailors (being more calculated and accustomed to an employment 
which requires some act and judgment for its attainment), with flags, drums, 
and all the et ctteras under the command of a sea lieutenant, native of 
the county to which he is sent, and with such liberal addition to his pay as 
would enable him to support his rank; an old Serjeant should be attached 
to each party, who could be capable, to use Jack's words, " of giving the 
lads a long-winded story," and inspiring them with the " amor palrics." 
This plan, if adopted and found to be successful, would be attended with 
the advantage, at least, of lessening the necessity for rigid impressment, 
and vrould insure to the service healthy able bodied youths, who in a short 
time might be cnnde tolerable sailors ; none under 13 and above 35 years 
of age should be enlisted, and those only for a term of years, renewable 
with some additional bounty : men who voluntarily enter a service, feel 
within themselves a conscious pride J in tfre performance of their duty, 
particularly when it is their country they serve, aud consequently with a 
more willing mind, than those who are forced to act, in a measure, con- 
trary to their natural inclinations. We may therefore rest upon the pre- 
sumption, that fewer desertions would take place, and that there would be 

* The old vulgar savine, of " Old birds are not to be caught with chaff," may 
be applicable to tins subject. 

t It would be difficult to find sailors steady enough to be employed on such 
service. 

* lam K-d to advance this doctrine, as a truth, from the very manly, and 
patriotic f. ling, I have seen recently expressed in the letters of several private 
marines to their parents : those men being all volunteers, it is but justice to al.'oir 
the same sentiiuenti to those who may cuter into the service in a different 
capacity. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 3J7 

less need of the lash, which now is pretty generally used upon that class 
called landsmen, they being for the most part composed of worthless cha- 
racters, denominated by sailors " My Lord Mayor' t men," 

OCEANUS. 

<^><^>x 

MR. EDITOR, Edinburgh, 10th March, 1814. 

I" HAVE been much amused with the lucubrations of your correspondents, 

u Tom Starboard and Jack Larboard, in your last two numbers, respect- 

ing the notice said to be on a board in front of the Admiralty Office, viz. 

" Whoever is found begging here will be prosecuted." But my laugh, Sir 

has not been occasioned by the supposed jest itself, for that I laughed at 

in the Cockpit 40 years ago (though perhaps like Mr. Hardcastle's good 

story (in the play), of " grouse in the gun-room," we may still laugh at it). 

No, Sir, I laugh at the serious vindication of the poor Admiralty Board by 

Jack Larboard, from the pointed attack of Tom Starboard ! I 

My friend Admiral M has frequently said in the lower House, 

that sailors are no orators ; yet we may be allowed, I hope, to have some 
little knowledge of the vernacular tongue ; and with the little of it I 
possess, I think I am quits correct in asserting, that if Tom Starboard is so 
in his version of the notice, and the. punctuation of it, viz. " Whoever is 
found begging (it matters not where), here will be prosecuted, or (by a 
small inflexion) will be prosecuted here., i. e. by the Admiralty Board. I 
say I may in that case safely assert, that the said Admiralty Board are 
bound to prosecute, not only the mendicants of the Captain's Room, and 
the Admiralty Ha//, but all beggars whatever that are found ! Now really, 
Mr. Editor, I think if such is the ease, that their Lordships are very much 
to be pitied, to have such an arduous task imposed upon them, at a period 
when I imagine they have already enough on their hands. But I shall not 
prosecute the subject farther, so begging pardon I here make afull stop. 

OCCASIONAL, 

MR. EDITOR, 10th March, 1JJ14. 

I HAVE often wondered, that considering the very great number of 
naval officers, many of them men of science, and a still greater num- 
ber men of information and talents, you appear to have so few regular 
scientific Correspondents ; men who could often, through the medium of 
. your entertaining and interesting CHRONICLE (which will be a most valuable 
source of information to future historians), point out errors, and suggest 
plans of improvement, of the greatest importance and utility to the naval 
service : nor is the deficiency less observable at present in the departments 
of relations of shipwrecks uncommon occurrences at sea escapes jour- 
nals of interesting voyages, &c. &c- with which your earlier volumes, and 
indeed some of more recent date, are interspersed. I should conceive 
that it would be a source of pleasure and amusement to many officers, to 
iteep very full journals of the different services the ships and squadrons they 
belong to are engaged in, and as your useful work is so generally and 
widely circulated through the navy, I am surprised naval officers do not 



318 COftRMPONDENCI. 

more frequently transmit you copies of those interesting papers for inser- 
tion in your pages, from which they must so often derive pleasure and 
entertainment, during a long cruise, or after their return into port, from 
being long at sea. In your last number, one of your most zealous cor- 
respondents, as well for the good of the naval service, as the improvement 
of your CHRONICLE, recommends your increasing its embellishments with 
a set of naval drawings on a regular plan ; it has already been enriched 
with a great number of valuable marine views, and this department wilt 
certainly be much benefited by the adoption of the plan of A. F.Y. : here, 
also, your naval correspondents have ample room to shew their good Will 
to the NAVAL CHRONICLE, by continuing and increasing their valuable 
contributions. The department of biography has been so lately recom- 
mended to the notice of friends of deceased naval officers, and others, who 
have it in their power to furnish you with memoirs of eminent naval heroes, 
the props of Britain's naval power and glory, that it is unnecessary to say 
more now, than that it is hoped the hints already given have been attended 
to, and have produced a supply of biography still further to enrich that 
valuable department of your work. It is my opinion, that some alteration 
might also be made for the better, with regard to port news and shipping 
lists. In your earlier volumes they were found at great, perhaps too great 
length (taking so much room), but still I think the port news of so much 
consequence, as well as the accounts of ships building, fitting, repairing, 
&c. in the different dock-yards, that could this part of the work (which to 
future compilers of uaval memoirs will be most materially useful) be again 
adopted, I am certain it would afford gratification to many of your readers 
and admirers. 

Of the department of your work allotted to original Correspondence, it 
is perhaps not too much to say, that it has hitherto abounded with much 
valuable information, and often suggested improvements in the service, 
which had not before been brought to notice, or attended to. At the same" 
rime, I think there are letters inserted, which, on mature consideration, 
Mr. Editor, you would have perhaps wished had been omitted. I need 
only particularize one which appeared lately, accusing the A. B. of 
refusing access to officers applying for employment ; and, undfir the deno- 
mination of beggars, forbidding their appearance or assembling at the 
Admiralty. That this could be true, appears to me quite impossible, and 
I wonder you could have given credence to the supposition : your last num- 
ber refuted the charge. If, indeed, it met with any belief, it could only 
be so from strongly prejudiced minds. You will, I trust, pardon my 
advising you in future to be less easily induced to insert letters of such a 
tendency, except assured of the truth of the charge. No one wishes 
better to your excellent interesting work than does yours, &c. 

ORION. 



MR. EDITOR, > > 

ULD not have noticed the splenetic effusion of " Jack Larboard," 

had he not, with the greatest effrontery, accused me of advancing an 

untruth. I have attentively again perused the notice mentioned in my 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

former letter, and find the copy I then sent perfectly correct. Jack 
Larboard " asserts the comma is placed after " here, 1 ' and NOT " begging." 
This I positively deny; and to use the expression of a great and learned 
Law Lord, and Judge, in the highest Court of Judicature, " it is as false as 
H 11." To quiet the " surprise " of " Jack Larboard," I request you to 
decide the question in dispute, by taking a view of the mysterious notice, 
and then giving your observations, to the many readers of the N. C. I 
must add, that I conceive you are in some measure called on to adopt this 
course, as by the insertion of my letters on this subject, your own veracity 
is called in question,* as also to prevent your excellent miscellany from 
being charged with inserting falsehoods, which must follow from two 
different statements appearing on one subject. 

TOM STARBOARD. 



MR. EDITOR, London, 21*i March, 1814. 

I PERCEIVE that since my letter appeared iu your valuable publication, 
on the propriety of removing all officers in stationary situations, after 
the expiration of three years, that the captains of the prison ships (to 
whom I alluded) have been superseded ; not that I have the smallest idea 
it originated from my letter, but I think it probable, that it pointed out a 
circumstance to the Board of Admiralty, which might have escaped their 
notice, from the multiplicity of public business to which they have to 
attend, but it certainly had the appearance of partiality. Mr. Editor, I 
now wish to ask, why a captain on the impress service (not many miles 
from Deal), holds that situation many months beyond the regulated time ? 
particularly as all the rest have been relieved, after three years in that 
employ. I have not the smallest knowledge of that noble captain, but 
assuredly he comes under the regulation as well as others; nor have I ever 
seen one circumstance recorded in the Gazettes, which entitles him to that 
indulgence ; nor have I heard of any particular services, wounds, or a 
numerous family, to justify a larger portion of favour : indeed, I must still 
think, there is no occurrence which ought to break through a standing 
regulation ; when made, it ought to be strictly abided by, as other officers 
have been refused on that pretext alone. Hoping this will meet the eye, 
for whom it is intended, I am, &c. 

IMPARTIAL 

^^s^- 

MR. EDITOR, 22d March, 1214. 

IN the NAVAL CHRONICLE for this month, I observe several errors in mj 
letter, in answer to A. F. Y's inquiries, wherein you describe the 
allowed windage of a 32-pounder to be " 3 inches," and that of the carro- 
nade to be " 15 inches;" also in stating a French 26-pounder shot being 
" 14 inches " less in diameter than our 32-pounder. This, I apprehend, 

Being so paintedly called on by Tom Starboard lo settle this weighty point in 
dispute (liaving perused the Board alluded to), our decision is, that the comma 
is placed after the word begging. ED. 



320 K.ATE ccccxm. 

will, on examination, be found a typographical error; as the compositor 
has not noticed the decimal point , prefixed to the figures, and concluded 
them to be whole numbers, and as such inserted them in words at full 
length. Please to rectify it ; "the allowed windage of a 32-pounder is 
inches ,3" That of the 32 pounder carronade is only inches ,15" and 
" the shot were French 26-pounders, which are inches ,14 less in diameter 
than our 32-pounders." 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

IRON GUN. 



PLATE CCCCXIII. 



SANDY-HOOK is a long point of sand belonging to New-Jersey in North 
America, and running northward with considerable curvature westerly 
so as to form the larboard or southern shore of the entrance to New-York. 
There is a bank, called in some pilotage directions " Middle-ground '* 
without it, lying in a direction almost parallel to the main land, or rather 
island which forms the hook; for the peninsular part was broken through 
by the sea in the winter of 1777 8, and thereby became an islot. From 
the N. E.side of this Middle-ground, due N. to the S. E. point of the sand 
called the East-bank, is the bar ; over which shrps must pass along the S. 
part of the said bank in from 4 to 6 fathoms water, until the channel 
of New- York opens between it and the West-bank at N. b. E. The point 
of the hook may be approached pretty near to avoid the bank, after bring- 
ing it on at W.S.W. sailing on VV. between 2 and 3 miles beyond it ; when 
the channel to New-York will be fair to N. b. E. easterly: or that of the 
Rariton at W. b. N. for Perth- Amboy. On the bar there is 4 fathoms 
water ; and on the point of the hook is a light-house with one lantern for 
the directipn of shipping into the road. We have seen accounts which 
state the situation of the sands somewhat differently : but we have com- 
piled the foregoing directions from the latest authorities accessible to us ; 
in which it is natural to place most confidence, though strangers would not 
act prudently in attempting the passage unnecessarily without a pilot ; of 
which assistance there is ample provision. The Tables published by autho- 
rity of our Board of Longitude give the geographical site of Sandy-Hook, 
light as beiiig in latitude 44 26' 30" N. longitude' 74 6' 42" W. it's differ- 
ence of time from Greenwich being 4 h. 56 tn. 27 s. 

This is a cruizing ground for the national pilots, and also a customary 
station of warlike cruizers, of which too, a line of battle ship and a frigate 
are represented in the plate, as employed in the service of blockade. 



321 

NAVAL BULLETINS 

OF 

LIEUTENANT O'BRIEN'S RECENT CAPTIVITY AND ESCAPE* 

[Continued from page 232.] 



BULLETIN THE FIFTEENTH. 

, 8th, 1808, At day-light we took leave of our consump- 
tive landlord; left Kaufbeuren* to the left, crossed the Wardach, 
and directed our courbe towards Schongau. At about six in the evening 
it began to snow so very liard, that we took shelter in an adjacent villaoe 
for the night. It was small and suited us very well. At the public house 
there was a shoe-maker at work for the family, and they had the kind- 
ness to allow him to repair our shoes. 

The next morning we proceeded on our journey, though the weather was 
very severe, snowing and blowing right in our teeth. The doctor was 
much better, and we did not deem it prudent to remain long in one place. 
At noon, finding an excellent halting house, in consequence of the severity 
of the weather and being wet to the skin, we stopped a bit. This little 
public-house supplied us with an excellent fire. We dried our things, 
got refreshed, and went to bed early. At day-break we recommenced 
our journey; and, at about eleven, we saw Schongau,f which appeared 
to be a very strong place ; consequently, to us, a dangerous one. We 
could discover no possibility of crossing the Lech without passing close, 
if /lot through it, at least, fom the spot we then were on. The weather wa 
still very bad. We consulted what was best to be done; and, without 
hesitation, decided upon turning to the left, and keeping on the banks of 
that river, uniil we could find some other place to cross over. We, accord- 
ingly, continued to the northward about eight miles, when we perceived 
a ploughman at work with some strong horses in an adjacent field. It 
immediately struck me, that by mounting them, we might be able to swim 
them across ; and I accordingly endeavoured to make a bargain with the 
ploughman; who appeared thunder-struck at the temerity of the proposition. 
At length, after repeating frequently the word " schiff" he pointed to a ferry 
on the opposite side. We came close down to the river, and, after waving 
some time, had the satisfaction of seeing a man embark in the boat; and, 
notwithstanding the flood was very rapid from the late falls of rain, he 
conducted himself across in a very masterly style, and then ferryed us over. 
We paid him the usual fare, which was, I believe, about a penny each, and 
proceeded back the eight miles on the opposite side, to get into our direct 
road; this we compleated by eight at night. Weilheim was the next large 
town in our route. We halted in a small village, very much fatigued ; 
got something to eat, and went to bed. 

* Kaul bueren is in the territory of Kempten, and is seated on the Wnrdach. 
f Schongau, a town of Bavaria, with a cas.le, seated ou mounuiu, by th* 
river Lech. 

* Vol. XXXI. x x 



3i2 NAVAL BULLETINS. 

In the morning we proceeded onwards: about ten wft made A circuit, 
passed Weilheitn,* and crossed the river Amper; and then directed our 
course for Toitz. At night we halted in a peasant's hut, at the foot of 
the mountains which separate Bavaria from the Tyrol. I must observe, 
that, in consequence of having nothing to direct us, but an old incorrect 
map, we made a number of circuits that might have been easily- avoided, 
had we possessed a knowledge of the country. 

In the morning we continued our walk, and, about 11, espied the town of 
T6itz,in a valley, upon the above-mentioned river. It appeared to be a very 
difficult place to pass. We turned to the southward, and, aftermarching seve- 
ral miles, over mountains and through forests and morasses, we) discovered 
a bridge, which we crossed without any difficulty ; I observed a number 
of floats or rafts of timber, admirably well constructed, and steered with 
the stream, which was excessively rapid. After crossing the bridge, we 
stopped at a public-house and procured some fish, bread, and beer, for 
dinner. There were a number of both sexes intoxicated in this house; 
they all appeared to be employed in conducting the timber down the river, 
and reminded me of Billingsgate and ballast-heavers. Although it rained 
excessively hard, we were under the necessity of proceeding. Dr. B. got 
a lift in a waggon fur three or four miles, and the waggoner declined 
receiving payment for it. Shortly after dusk we halted in a small village 
on the road- side; a little bread and milk was the only refreshment the 
house afforded. The landlady got our cluthes dried for us ; we were very 
happy at being so well situated, and went to bed, felicitating ourselves 
with the hope of being in the Austrian territories after two days. 

October 12th. At day-light we recommenced our route towards Neu- 
beuren ; and, in the evening, at eight, we slopped for the night at a 
small village, where the inn was a very decent one, and were well en- 
tertained. In the morning we parted from these good folks, who were, 
apparently, very partial to the French. 

At eleven we espied Neubeuren. It is a fort, situated on the side of a 
hill, on a branch of the river Inn ; we were on the opposite side to it, and 
were very much confused, and at a loss how to get across. There appeared 
a small town also, which I suppose bore the same name. We approached 
the banks of the river, and discovered a ferry-boat on the opposite side. 
On each bank sheers were erected, with a stay or rope from one side to 
the other, to which the ferry-hoat was made fast with a long rope and 
traveller to traverse upon the stay. It was constructed in such a manner 
that (let the current be ever so rapid) one man was sufficient to conduct 
the ferry-boat across. There was, on our side, a shed, with seats for pas- 
sengers to rest themselves and wait for the ferry-boat. In this place we 
found an old gentleman, who, from his garb and apron, we supposed to be 
either a hatter or dyer. He spoke nothing but German; he lived (as he 
made at understand) in the opposite village, and was a hatter by trade. 
He informed us that the ferryman was getting his dinner, and would not 
attend until after one o'clock. We enquired it' the fortress was strong ? 

Weilheim, a town of Bavaria, with a castle ou the river Auper. 



NAVAL BULLETINS. 323 

** Only a few veterans." This old man was rather curious and inquisitive; 
and wished to know if we were going to Salzbourgh? We answered in th 
affirmative ; and asked the distance we were from it ? " Fifteen leagues," 
he replied. Pleasing intelligence for us wearied travellers. 

We now dreaded lest there should be a guard at the ferry-boat, to inspect 
passengers, passports, &c. as is common on the greater part of the con- 
tinent ; and most particularly so near a garrison. We endeavoured to 
sound the hatter; but could make no discovery that in the smallest degree 
justified our suspicion. 

One o'clock arrived. We saw the ferry-man, accompanyed by a soldier, 
approach his boat; the feather of the latter was so immense, and wove so 
conspicuously in the air, as to render it impossible to be mistaken. What 
to do we knew not ; we were loath to ask the hatter any more questions, 
lest it might cause suspicion. They were now embarked, and coming to- 
wards us ; 'tis true we had sufficient time to make off, but the difficulty we 
might find in crossing this river, and an idea that our suspicions were ill 
founded, rendered us unsettled. We hesitated considered first pro- 
posed one thing, then another. All were in the utmost consternation;' 
when, at length, we came to a resolution to walk into the fields, in an oppo- 
site direction to the road that led to the boat, and there wait the result of 
the soldier's landing. If he made towards us, we were to decamp in differ- 
ent directions; if towards the road, he was only a passenger, and of course 
there would be little or no danger. The critical moment arrived. The son 
of Mars jumped out, and, to our inexpressible satisfaction, pursued his 
direction towards the highway. We embarked, in company with the old 
hatter; and, in a few minutes, were safe landed on the opposite side. 
The fare was a mere trifle. We had to ciiange a florin ; and, although we 
would willingly have paid five times the sum to be clear off, we waited to 
have our change regularly made out, which took some time, as the pieces 
were so difficult to be comprehended, r.nd the ferry-man had to borrow 
some from the hatter, but we dreaded, if we had not been thus particu- 
lar, they might suspect us, and give information at the garrison. Matters 
being arranged, we continued our route carelessly, until we were out of 
sight of the fortress ; then pushed on as fast as we possibly could, to make 
up for the delay of the ferry. 

About seven o'clock in the evening, we halted at a very convenient 
house on the road side ; got beds and supper ; and, at day-light, recom- 
menced our march. We were now on the high-road to Reichenhall, the 
last Bavarian town we should have to pass. Each of us was in excellent 
spirits, and almost confident of getting clear, from the success that had 
lately attended us. We exerted all our force to get as soon as possible into, 
the Austrian territories, and walked at least twelve leagues this day. Passed 
over a very large bridge, that leads across a branch of the lake of Kemp?f e, 
and found we were still five leagues from Reichenhnll. Being very much 
fatigued, we agreed to proceed to a village about a mile off the road, on 
the borders of th= lake, and to stop there for the night. We soon made 
oat a public house ; got supper, and retired early to bed. The people wore 
civil, and not at all inquisitive. There were several boati on tho lake, 
which, to us, was a most pleasing prospect. 



324 NAVAL BULLETINS. 

We ros early and pursuseu our journey. At about eleven, we halted sirs 
village and got breakfast. We here met several people (being Sunday) but 
none very curious. We found out that we were still three leagues from 
Reichenliall. Advanced a pace, but with precaution, knowing hour 
particular tliey generally are on the frontiers. We also agreed, if we 
could get safe into Austria, to take the direct course for Trieste, and not to 
go to Salzbourgh. The doctor was getting very weary, the road rough 
and intricate, no public-house or village to be seen. Drawing near 
Ileichenhall fast, we overtook two waggons going to that town; and pre- 
vailed on one to allow our weak companion to mount, which proved a 
very fortunate circumstance; for he had scarcely secured himself when 
two Bavarian gend'armes passed. Hewson, and myself, were on different 
sides. I imagine they supposed we belonged to the waggons, for they 
took no notice whatever of us. 

I had observed for several days past, that the directions, notices, 
&c. on the posts as we passed, were in French as well as German. 
Our present road was quite new, and appeared to have been made 
since the battle of Austerlitz, for the purpose, no doubt, of entering 
the Austrian territories with more facility at a future period. It must have 
cost an immensity of labour and treasure, being cut through immense rocks 
and mountains, ft was one of the finest military roads I ever beheld. We 
also observed an aqueduct for a number of miles along the road; and were 
informed it was to conduct water from the salt springs which that country 
abounds in, to Transtein, where there is an extensive salt manufactory. We 
were now within two miles of the town, and begged the waggoner to stop, and 
allow the doctor to descend ; which he did, offering, him, at the same time, to 
carry him into the town, if he pleased. We thanked the waggoner, but 
declined it, telling him we were not certain but we might remain at a 
friend's house in the suburbs that night. The waggoners then proceeded 
onwards, and we halted to consider how we were to act. Now what zi-as 
to be done ? was the general question. It was too late to attempt making a 
circuit of the town, and getting into Austria, which was at least four or 
five miles farther:, besides, from the intricate appearance of the situation 
of the town, lurrounded by immense mountains, it was impossible to get 
round it in the dark. 

All matters having been deliberately weighed and considered, we resolved 
to take our abode up in a public- house, at a little distance on the road 
side ; and this we trusted would be our last night in Bavaria; We accord- 
ingly entered ; there were several decent looking people : I made our host 
understand our comrade hud been taken suddenly ill, that 1 wished to 
pet him to bed as soon as we could, and that we preferred remaining with 
bi:n to going into town, as it was then late : he politely told us we should 
be instantly accommodated. 

At about half past eight we were shewn to bed ; wo were in great spirits. 
The next morning would decide our destiny, and we were very sanguine. 
We knew it was necessary to be cautious aho in Austria: but considered 
the great point attained, when out of the power of the Rhine Confedera- 
tion. I confess I sometimes diuught, how unfortunate we should be, if 



arrested in the vicinity of the last Bavarian town, and again conducted back 
to the horrible Mansion of Tears. I frankly declare I would sooner have 
suffered death. These ideas prevented my sleeping much ; however, I did 
not disclose them to my companions. 

October 17 th, 1808. At the dawn of day we rose, ordered a cup of coffee 
each, and pushed forward with great circumspection for the town of Reichen- 
hall. Saw very few people moving. Every thing, we imagined, favoured us 
as yet ; and the next moment we discovered a bridge, which we inevitably 
must pass; at the end of it was a turnpike, and the Bavarian harrier, blue 
and white, which we were tolerably well acquainted with. There were 
two men who appeared at a short distance from the turnpike. We were 
advanced on the bridge. The two men entered a house close to the 
turnpike. We advanced rapidly. Supposing this to be a most favourable 
opportunity, we passed the turnpike very fortunately, and turned short round to 
the right, which led us directly as we wished, and also clear of the town. We 
then passed another barrier, where there was no house, and I supposed, 
as they were so contiguous, that both were attended by the same people. 
We then imagined ourselves to be in Austria, and had advanced nearly a 
mile. I do not pretend to describe our feelings, or the sensations we expe- 
rienced. The road was getting excessively dirty, a pathway led through 
the fields in the exact direction we intended to take. I pursued it, whilst 
Mr. Hewson continued in the road ; and, on looking back, I found the 
doctor was following me at some distance. In a short time I lost sight of 
Hewson. We had made a kind of obtuse angle in quitting the road. I 
soon got on it again, but could not see my friend Hewson ; I conjectured 
that he had walked faster than me, and consequently was farther advanced. 
To my great astonishment, I soon espied a house close by, with the Bava- 
rian arms, and a turnpike; the door was most fortunately shut. I passed 
it without being really sensible of my narrow escape. T then quickened 
my pace, and observed the doctor equally successful. I had been mistaken 
with respect to our being in Austria; yet this must certainly be the last 
Bavarian barrier. I now became very uneasy for the safety of my friend, 
and dreaded that some accident might have retarded him ; not expecting 
that he had another Bavarian barrier to pass, he might unfortunately fall 
upon it, at the moment the door was opened. I stopped, replete with 
these ideas, to wait the doctor's coming up, that we might consult one 
another how to act ; and in a few seconds I had the unspeakable joy to be- 
hold him a head, advancing towards rne. How he could have got so far 
was to me inexplicable. I made towards him, expressing my astonishment 
at being thus separated at so critical a time: he retaliated, and said, he 
thought we must have been a head, as he imagined by crossing through the 
fields, we had cut off a considerable angle of the road : and, added he, 
I should have continued to think so, had I not been prevented from ad- 
vancing any further, by an Austrian officer, who is placed with a guard at 
yon turnpike : He demanded my passport, 1 told him my companions, 
who were coming on had it; he desired me to wait until they arrived ; but 
I thought it more advisable to return and give you the information. " About 
this very spot," added he, " I met the man's wife who loeks out at the Bava- 



KAVAL BULLETINS. 

rian turnpike ; she was going towards her house, and asked me if I had shewn 
her husband rny papers, I answered yes?" This I considered as critical 
sa situation as we had been yet placed in. We now were, (as one might 
say) between the frontiers of two nations. One would not allow us to 
advance without the proper documents; and the other, if we remained a 
moment, would pursue and arrest us for having passed theirs, withont 
shewing them what entitled us to do so. Well knowing which power we had 
to apprehend most, I proposed to endeavour to avoid the Austrian officer, 
and to get into their territory as soon as possible. We accordingly chose 
a pathway that led into a wood, on the side of an immense mountain, 
expecting to be followed instantly by the Austrian guard ; but also calcu- 
lating, in being too far in their dominions, for any one to return us to 
the Bavarians. I need not say that we advanced very briskly, and we 
got into the wood quite out of breath, tolerably sure that we were now in 
Austria, and astonished that we were not pursued. After stopping some 
little time to breathe, we again proceeded. It was impossible to cross the 
mountains, they were quite inaccessible. We therefore kept the wood 
as long as it led in the direction that suited us; and, in a short time, we saw 
the high road, and found we were about a mile within the Austrian barrier. 
This was an inexpressible consolation. 

We proceeded with confidence to the road; but just as we had 
stepped on it, four men sprang up from behind a rock, where they had 
lain concealed, and presented their pieces at us. The headmost of them 
took his hat off, and asked us for our papers. I shewed him an old pocket 
book, and pretending to look for mine : The man said, we must 
accompany him to his officer he was no judge pointing towards the 
Austrian turnpike. ' : With a great deal of pleasure," we replied, and asked, 
" if we were not in the Emperor's dominions? " he answered, Yes. We ac- 
companied these soldiers to their officer, who was a young man, and spoke 
no other language than German. However, we comprehended perfectly, 
that he was displeased at our attempting to elude him and the gu;ird. He 
examined us, and we made him understand as well as we possibly could, 
" That we were American seamen, who had escaped from the Dunes at 
Altona, and were making the best of our way to Trieste, where we ex- 
pected to procure a passage to our native country." He desired one of his 
soldiers to go, and inform the Bavarian at the next barrier, that he wanted 
him. This circumstance occasioned me much uneasiness. I endeavoured 
to learn from him, if he intended to send us to Salzbourgh. He said 
we should be dispatched there immediately. We were much pleased at 
this, as we dreaded being given up to the man at the next barrier, who 
now had arrived; and was astonished, when the officer observed that 
he had lei us pass without examining or interrogating us. My friend 
the Bavarian was excessively nettled at the information. 

October 17th, 1808. Our escort for Salzbourgh being appointed, we pro- 
ceeded once more in bondage. Kvery thing now depended upon the dis- 
position of the Austrians, with reject to America and England-. We re- 
solved to perievere in our American tale, unless we had sune great m- 



NAVAL BtTlLETINS. 337 

^ucement for acting otherwise. At about two, we arrived at Salzbourgh,* 
and were instantly conducted to the town house. We were interrogated by 
the director of Police, a very civil gentleman, who spoke several lan- 
guages fluently. He asked us in French, what countrymen we were > We 
would not understand him. He then asked the same in Italian and Ger. 
man ? we were equally ignorant. At last he asked us in English, we then 
perfectly understood him, and answered, Americans. " How have you 
contrived (said he) to enter the Emperor of Austria's territories without 
regular passports? You will be considered as spies." We belonged, said I, 
to an American ship taken by the Danes, in consequence of being boarded 
by two English frigates in the English channel, on her passage up the Baltic. 
Our names are Manuel, alias Hewson, chief mate; Henderson, surgeon, 
alias Barklimore ; and myself, Lincoln, who happened to be theu a pas- 
senger. 

The Director requested we would each make out a civil decla- 
ration, who and what we were, and bring it him the next morning. 
He should send us to a tavern for the night, and requested we 
%vould not stir from it without his permission. He expressed also his 
astonishment at our having crossed the Continent, without being able to 
speak any other language than English ; and added, That if we z