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Full text of "The navigation of the Pacific Ocean, China seas, etc."

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UNITED STATES HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 

BUREAU OF 




THE NAVIGATION 



OF THE 



PACIFIC OCEAN, CHINA SEAS, ETC, 



TRANSLATED AT. 



THE UNITED STATES HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE, 



FROM THE FRENCH OF 



MONS. F. LABROSSE, 



j. w. MILLER, 



LIEUTEXAXT U. S. KAV1'. 



WASHI^GTOX: 

OOVEENMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1875. 



V i 5; 



!: 






ADVERTISEMENT. 

6 Q 

_____^__^ 

3 
_j 

Ul 

The Navigation of the Pacific Ocean has been translated at this office 
from the French of M. F. Labrosse, as a valuable addition to our knowl- 
edge of the winds and currents of, and routes through, this ocean. 

B. H. W. 
U. S. HYDRoaRirmc OFFICE, 

April 20, 1874. 



NOTE. 



The bearings are true. The distances are expressed in nautical miles. 
The orthography of the geographical names is in accordance with the 
latest English and Americas standards. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAET I. 

CALMS, WINDS, TYPHOONS, USE OF THE BAROMETER, CURKENT8, ICKHKKGS. 

CHAPTER I. 

Calms, winds, typhoons, cyclones, barometer. 

Paragraphs. Page. 

$ 1. Calm-belts; equatorial and tropical calms 1 

2. Northeast trade-winds 7 

$ 3. Southeast trade-winds 8 

4. Prevailing winds of the west Pacific 8 

1. North of the equator 

2. South of the equator 9 

5. Zones of general westerly winds 10 

6. Prevailing winds on the coast of Australia 13 

$ 7. Prevailing winds in Bass strait 15 

$ 8. Prevailing winds on the coast of New Zealand 16 

9. Prevailing winds in New Caledonia 18 

$ 10. Prevailing winds in the Society islands 18 

$ 11. Prevailing winds in the Marquesas islands 19 

$ 12. Prevailing winds in the Sandwich islands 19 

13*. Prevailing winds in the Java sea 20 

$ 14. Prevailing winds in the Banda, Timor, and Molucca seas 20 

$ 15. Prevailing winds in the Sulu and Celebes seas 21 

$ 16. Prevailing winds in the Arafura sea 21 

$ 17. Prevailing winds in the China sea 22 

$ 18. Prevailing winds on the coast of Luzon 24 

$ 19. Prevailing winds in the sea and islands of Japan 24 

$20. Typhoons of the China sea ... 25 

$ 21. Prevailing winds on the coast of Chile 30 

$ 22. Prevailing winds on the coast of Peru 31 

$ 23. Prevailing winds on the coast of Colombia, and in the bay of Panama 32 

$ 24. Prevailing winds on the coasts of Guatemala, Mexico, and California 35 

$ 25. Use of the barometer 37 

$26. Cyclones of the Pacific ocean 41 

CHAPTER II. 

Currents, icebergs. 

27. The equatorial current ., 49 

$28. The equatorial counter-current 50 

$29. The Australian currents, (east coast) -51 

$ 30. The Australian currents, (south coast from cape Leeuwin to Bass strait).. 52 

$31. The Rossel current 53 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page. 

32. General currents in the " Seas of Passage " 54 

9 33. The great Antarctic drift-current 54 

$34. The Mentor current - 55 

$ 35. The currents of the China sea... v 55 

$ 36. The currents of the Japan sea 57 

$ 37. The Kuro-Siwo or Japan current 59 

$ 38. The Kamchatka and Behriug currents 61 

$ 39. The currents of the coasts of California and Mexico 61 

$ 40. Deep currents of the bay of Panama 62 

$ 41. The currents of the coasts of Chile and Peru 62 

$ 42. The Cape Horn current 63 

$43. Icebergs 64 

PART II. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE PRINCIPAL ROUTES ACROSS THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 

CHAPTER I. 
Routes from south to north on the western coast of America. 

$ 44. Route from cape Horn or the strait of Magellan to Valparaiso 71 

$ 45. Route from cape Horn or the strait of Magellan to the " intermediate ports" 

of Coquimbo, Mexillones, Islay, Iquique, and Arica 81 

$ 46. Route from cape Horn or the strait of Magellan to Callao 81 

$ 47. Route from cape Horn or the strait of Magellan to Payta and Guayaquil.. 84 

$ 48. Route from cape Horn or the strait of Magellan to Panama 84 

$ 49. Route from cape Horn or the strait of Magellan to Acapulco, San Bias, and 

Mazatlau 85 

$ 50. Route from cape Horn or the strait of Magellan to San Francisco 88 

$51. Route from Valparaiso to the "intermediate ports" and Callao 95 

$ 52. Route from Valparaiso to San Francisco . . : 99 

$ 53. Route from Callao to Payta and Guayaquil 99 

$ 54. Route from Callao to Panama 100 

$ 55. Route from Callao to Guatemala and Mexico . .*. 103 

$ 56. Route from Callao to San Francisco 104 

$ 57. Route from Payta or Guayaquil to Panama 105 

$58. Route from Payta or Guayaquil to San Francisco 105 

$ 59. Route from Panama to Mexico 105 

$ 60. Route from Galapagos islands to cape San Lucas 106 

$ 61. Route from Panama to Reakjo and from Reakjo to Acapulco 107 

$ 62. Route from Panama to Sau Francisco 109 

63. Route from Mexico to San Francisco 112 

$ 64. Route from Monterey to Sau Francisco 115 

$ 65. Route from San Francisco to Vancouver 115 

CHAPTER II. 
Eoutcs from north to south on the western coast oj America. 

$ 66. Route from Vancouver to San Francisco and Monterey 116 

$67. Route from San Francisco to Mexico -. 117 

$68. Route from San Francisco to Panama 117 

$ 69. Route from San Francisco to Callao 119 

$ 70. Route from San Francisco to the " intermediate ports " 123 

$ 71. Route from San Francisco to Valparaiso 123 



CONTENTS. VII 

I';i K .-. 

72. Route from San Francisco to cape Horn 124 

73. Route from Mexico to Panama 124 

74. Route from Mexico to Guayaquil 125 

$75. Route from Mexico to Callao 120 

76. Route from Mexico to the " intermediate ports," Valparaiso, and cape Horn 128 

77. Route from Panama to Guayaquil, Payta, and Callao 128 

78. Route from Panama to the " intermediate ports," Valparaiso, and cape Horn 129 

79. Route from Guayaquil and Pay ta to Callao 129 

80. Route from Guayaquil and Payta to the "intermediate ports" llil 

81. Route from Guayaquil and Payta to Valparaiso and cape Horn 131 

82. Route from Callao to the Chiucha islands 132 

83. Route from Callao to the "intermediate ports" i:j:5 

84. Route from Callao to Valparaiso 135 

85. Route from Callao to cape Horn 128 

86. Route from the " intermediate ports " to Valparaiso and cape Horn 139 

87. Route from Valparaiso to cape Horn 139 

88. Route from Valparaiso to Concepcion 141 

CHAPTER III. 
Routes from the western coast of America across the Pac'ijic. 

89. Route from Valparaiso or Callao to Australia, (by the trades) 144 

90. Route from Valparaiso or Callao to the Indian ocean, Saigon, Jiatavia, 

and Melbourne, etc 145 

91. Route from Valparaiso or Callao to New Caledonia and New Zealand 148 

92. Route from Valparaiso or Callao to China 149 

$ 93. Route from Valparaiso to the Marquesas and Tahiti 150 

94. Route from Callao to the Marquesas and Tahiti 151 

95. Route from Valparaiso or Callao to the Sandwich islands 152 

96. Route from Panama to Australia, New Caledonia, and New Zealand 15:i 

97. Route from Panama to China 153 

98. Route from Panama to the Marquesas and Tahiti 153 

99. Route from Panama to the Sandwich islands 154 

100. Route from San Francisco to Australia, New Caledonia, and New Zealand 155 

101. Route from San Francisco to China 15(5 

102. Route from San Francisco to the Sandwich islands 159 

103. Route from San Francisco to Tahiti 159 

CHAPTER IV. 
Routes from Europe to Australia, New Caledonia, and Tahiti, and return rouh*. 

104. Route from Europe to Australia 161 

105. Route from Europe to New Caledonia 177 

106. Route from Europe to Tahiti 18C 

107. Route from Australia to Europe 187 

108. Route from New Caledonia to Europe 195 

109. Route from Tahiti to Europe 198 

CHAPTER V. 
Eoutes from the ports of Australia or Asia to the east. 

110. Route from Australia to the western coast of America 200 

111. Route from Australia to New Caledonia 202 



VIII CONTENTS. 

Page. 

112. Koute from Australia to New Zealand 20? 

$ 113. Route from Australia to Tahiti aud the Sandwich islands 207 

$ 114. Route from Singapore to the Molucca islands 208 

115. Route from Singapore to Torres strait 212 

$ 116. Route from Singapore to the western coast of America 213 

117. Route from Saigon to the western coast of America 215 

$ 118. Route from China to Valparaiso, Callao, and Panama 216 

119. Route from China to Mexico aud California 219 

120. Route from Yokohama to San Francisco 220 

CHAPTER VI. 

i 
Routes from the ports of Oceania. 

121. Route from the Sandwich islands to San Francisco 222 

$ 122. Route from the Sandwich islands to Panama 223 

$ 123. Route from the Sandwich islands to Valparaiso and Callao 224 

$124. Route from the Sandwich islands to Europe 225 

125. Route from the Sandwich islands to New Caledonia and Australia 225 

126. Route from the Sandwich islands to China 226 

127. Route from the Sandwich islands to Tahiti 226 

128. Route from the Marquesas to the Sandwich islands 227 

$ 129. Route from the Marquesas to Tahiti 227 

130. Route from Tahiti to San Francisco 228 

131. Route from Tahiti to the Gambier islands, Tubuai, Valparaiso, Callao, 

and Panama 228 

132. Route from Tahiti to New Caledonia, New Zealand, and Australia 230 

$133. Route from Tahiti to China 234 

134. Route from Tahiti to the Marquesas islands 234 

$135. Route from Tahiti to the Sandwich islands 235 

136. Route from New Caledonia to San Francisco 236 

137. Route from New Caledonia to Valparaiso, Callao, and Panama 236 

138. Route from New Caledonia to Australia 236 

139. Route from New Caledonia to Singapore, China, and Japan 240 

140. Route from New Caledonia to Tahiti 247 

$ 141. Route from New Caledonia to New Zealand 252 

142. Route from New Caledonia or the Fijis to the Sandwich islands 253 

143. Route from New Zealand to Europe 256 

144. Route from New Zealand to the western coast of America 257 

$ 145. Route from New Zealand to New Caledonia 257 

$ 146. Route from New Zealand to Australia, Singapore, aud China 

$ 147. Route from New Zealand to Tahiti and the Sandwich islands 259 

CHAPTER VII. 

Routes from Europe to China, and return routes. 
$ 148. Showing under what circumstances the Suez route is preferable to and 

from China 260 

$ 149. Route from Europe to China, (during the SW. monsoon, from April to 

October) 261 

150. Route from Europe to China, (during the NE. monsoon, from October to 

April) 263 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page. 
$ 151. Route from China to Europe, (during the NE. monsoon, from October to 

April) 273 

$ 152. Route from China to Europe, (during the SW. monsoon, from April to 

October) 274 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Routes to the northward in the China 8ra. 

$ 153. Route from Singapore to Saigon 278 

$ 154. Route from Singapore to Hong-Kong 281 

$ 155. Route from Singapore to Manila 285 

$ 156. Route from Singapore to Shanghae and Yokohama 286 

$ 157. Route from Saigon to Hong-Kong 288 

$ 158. Route from Saigon to Manila 291 

$ 159. Route from Hong-Kong to Shanghae 292 

$ 160. Route from Hong-Kong to Japan 296 

$ 161. Route from Manila to Hong-Kong 297 

$ 162. Route from Manila to Shanghae and Yokohama ... 298 

$ 163. Route from Shanghae to Japan , 298 

CHAPTER IX. 

Routes to the southward in the China sea. 

$ 164. Route from Japan to Shanghae 301 

$ 165. Route from Shanghae to Hong-Kong 303 

$ 166. Route from Hong-Kong to Manila 303 

$ 167. Route from Hong-Kong to Saigon and Singapore 304 

$168. Route from Manila to Saigon 309 

$ 169. Route from Manila to Singapore, the strait of Sunda, and Europe 310 

$ 170. Route from Saigon to Singapore 311 

CHAPTER X. 

Routes from the Australian ports to Asia and China. 

$ 171. Northerly route from Australia to India, Batavia, and Singapore 318 

$ 172. Southerly route from Australia to India, Batavia, and Singapore 332 

173. Route from Australia to Coch in-China, China, and Japan 336 

$174. Route from Port Adelaide or Melbourne to Sydney 340 

CHAPTER XI. 

Routes from China and Asia to Australia. 

$ 175. Route from Singapore to Australia -342 

$ 176. The easterly routes from Singapore or Batavia to Australia, New Cale- 
donia, and New Zealand, (when starting from the 15fft November to the 

15th February) 345 

$177. Route from China and Japan to Australia 353 

$ 178. Route from Sydney to Melbourne 358 

II N 



PA.RT I. 



CALMS, WINDS, TYPHOONS, USE OF THE BAROM- 
ETER, CURRENTS, ICEBERGS. 



CHAPTER I 

CALMS, WINDS, TYPHOONS, CYCLONES, BAROMETER. 

1. CALM-BELTS, EQUATORIAL AND TROPICAL CALMS. 
In the author's Instructions for the Navigation of the Atlantic, 
tables were given indicating, for every season, the percent- 
age of calms experienced in each square of 5 degrees. 
The following tables are prepared in a similar manner : 
As may be observed, information is wanting for the cen- 
tral portion of the North Pacific, comprised between the 
meridians 365 W. and 150 E. Directions for the other 
parts, including the most frequented routes, are, on the 
contrary, as full as could be desired. 
IN 



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6 REGION OF CALMS. 

An inspection of the preceding tables proves the existence 
of a clearly denned region of calms, lying between the two 
sets of trades in the eastern part of the Pacific. These 
calms are termed equatorial. It is also shown that the 
zone in which the navigator is most exposed to detention 
from calms, takes the form of a wedge, the base resting on 
the coasts of Guatemala and Mexico, between 5 and 25 
K, and the apex extending to the westward for a distance 
varying according to the season. 
January, Febru- Thus, in JanuarVi Februarv, and March, calms are com- 

ary and March 

mon on the western coast of America from the equator to 
20 N. Vessels making passage to the northward, east of 
110 W., will find a calm-belt about 20 wide, when they 
will be liable to from 4 to G per cent, of calms. 

Between 110 and 130 W. the belt is only 10 wide 5 
here there are only 4 per cent, calm chances. Finally, west 
of 130 W. the calm-belt may be said to cease, vessels 
usually passing from one set of the trades to the other 
without being appreciably detained. 
April, May, and In April, May, and June, the calm-belt extends from the 

JllD6 

120th meridian to the coast of America, causing navigation 
on the Mexican coast, from the gulf of Tehuantepec to cape 
Corrientes, to be almost impossible for sailing-vessels. The 
calms in this locality often last for several successive weeks. 
Well defined equatorial calms are not encountered west of 
,120^ w. ; or a t the farthest 130 W. 

July, August, The equatorial calms are of greater duration during these 
' months and prevail north of 10 N. They extend from the 
coast of Mexico to 140 W. East of 130 W. they extend 
as far north as the 30th parallel; between 130 and 140 
W. the calm-belt is only 10 broad, while west of 140 W- 
calms are no longer common. 

Se" * 11 ^ ct Der ? November, and December, a calm-belt ex- 
tends from the Mexican coast to 120 W., and from 10 to 
20 or .25 2f. Farther to the westward several calnvregious 
exist, but they have none of the attributes of genuine calm- 
belts. Equatorial calms also exist in the West Pacific, 
especially between the equator and 10 S. ; in the Central 
Pacific, however, though the numerous groups of islands 
interrupt the trades, calms rarely prevail to any great ex- 
tent. 

Tropical calms. Tropicul calms are those which prevail on the polar bor- 



NORTHEAST TRADES. 

ders of the trades. The calms of the tropic of Cancer are 
only well defined in the eastern part of the Pacific, and 
during the months comprised between April and Septem- 
ber. They are common between the parallels 30 and 40 
N. East of Japan, however, and between the same paral- 
lels, the calms are of greater duration, except during Octo- 
ber, November, and December. 

The calms of the southern hemisphere, near the tropic of 
Capricorn, are especially prevalent from October to April. 
During this season they occupy a belt extending over 
nearly the whole breadth of the Pacific, and reaching from 
25o to 4Qo s. 

During the rest of the year they are not comprised in so 
well defined a region. But it is important to note that in 
the eastern portion tropical calms exist at all seasons in a 
more marked manner, and have a greater width in latitude, 
appearing to increase on approaching the coast of America. 

Later will be given, in the descriptions of the various 
routes, more detailed information on the chances of deten- 
tion by calms. 

2. NORTHEAST TRADE- WINDS. The trade- winds of the 
Pacific Ocean blow, in the northern hemisphere, from a gen- 
eral northeasterly direction. They are usually stronger than 
the NE. trades of the Atlantic Ocean. 

We have already had occasion to observe, in the Instruc- 
tions on the Atlantic, how difficult it is to solve the question 
of the limits of the trades. We again repeat that it is not 
best to rely too much on the mean latitudes indicated in 
the Instructions, because there will sometimes exist a dif- 
ference of 600, and even 900, miles between these mean 
limits and those which may be found in attempting to enter 
or leave the trades. 

We think it best, however, to give below the parallels 
between which the regular NE. trades are most often en- 
countered : 

In .January, February, and March, the trade- winds blow a 
from KB., between 6 and 25 N. 

In April, May, and June, they blow between 7 30' and j^ ril * May> and 
29 N. 

In July, August, and September, between 14 30' and ai & 
280 N. 



SOUTHEAST TRADES. 

vero c ber e ami Se" In Octo ^^ r ? November, and December, between 9 and 

cember.' " 25O Jf. 

The trades do not begin to be well defined within 300 
miles of the western coast of America. On coming closer 
to the coast variable winds are found, according to the sea- 
son of the year. (Vide 23 and 24.) 

Though the western limits of the NE. trades can hardly 
be definitely fixed, it is generally conceded that these winds 
extend, all the year round, as far as the Caroline and Ma- 
riana Islands. Monsoons prevail westward of these groups. 
(Vide 4.) 

Finally, the NE. trades of the Pacific attain their greatest 
force while the sun is in the southern hemisphere, or, in 
other words, from October to March. This remark applies 
to all trade-winds, for they are always stronger when the 
sun is in the opposite hemisphere ; when the sun is in their 
own hemisphere, they are, on the -contrary, always weak, 
baffling, and often changed to monsoons blowing from an 
opposite direction. 

3. SOUTHEAST TRADE-WINDS. The southeast trades are 
especially prevalent in the eastern part of the Pacific, be- 
tween the following parallels : 
January, rebru- In January, February, and March, between 4 and 31 S. 

ary, and March. 

jun p e ril ' May>and In April, May, and June, between 2 30' X. and 27 S. 
and u se' tetS 5 *' In Jul ^> August, and September, between 5 30' K. and 

25o S. 
October, NO- in October, November, and December, between 3 K. 

vember, and De- 
cember, and 26 S. 

These limits are, however, merely approximative, especi- 
ally for the SE. trades, which are much less regular than 
the northeast. 

Settled SE. winds will be found from 250 or 300 miles off 
the coast of America to 108 or 118 W., while west of 
. these meridians the wind shifts to E. and ESE. Beyond 
138 W. the trades become exceedingly variable, undergoing 
such changes, especially from October to April, that some 
authors consider them to possess all the characteristics of 
genuine monsoons. 

This question will be reconsidered in the second part of 
4. 

North of the 4. PREVAILING WINDS OF THE WEST PACIFIC. In- 
formation concerning the prevalent winds north of the 



PHEVAILING WINDS. <> 

Line is far from being complete; consequently too muck 
confidence must not be placed in the following remarks: 

NE. winds prevail in the West Pacific during this season. A p r ^ to ber to 
Though called the NE. monsoon, they are in reality only 
the steady trade-wind. Near the Caroline islands the NE. 
monsoon does not set in steadily until January, while north 
of this group and among the Mariana islands it sometimes 
begins in November and lasts till May or June ; in short, the 
duration of the monsoon varies considerably. The NE. 
winds are generally accompanied with good weather. 

All authorities agree in stating that steady SW. winds April to octo- 
prevail at this season ; near the Philippine islands, from 
May to September, and in the Mariana group, from July to 
August, they are especially common. This is the rainy 
season in these localities. SW. winds are frequent in the 
neighborhood of the Bonin islands from April to July, but 
too much reliance must not be placed on the chance of 
meeting winds from this direction, in the western portion 
of the North Pacific; and even in the neighborhood of the 
Mariana and Caroline groups, due allowance should be 
made for variations in the SW. monsoon. 

Hurricanes are common among the Marianas, and to Hurricanes. 
eastward of the group, especially in June, July, August, 
December, and January. They follow the laws governing 
cyclones in the northern hemisphere. (Vide 26.) 

In 3 we stated that the SE. trades are unsettled to west- E s ut j r of the 
ward of 138 W. ; this is especially the case from October to 
April. 

The winds are very variable during this season, through- A ^ 1 tober to 
out the region included between 138 W. and about 170 
E., and from the Equator to 25 S. 

Westerly winds are here nearly as frequent as easterly 
winds ; that is, the squares on the wind-charts, where the 
westerly winds predominate, are almost as numerous as 
those containing winds from an opposite quarter. It fol- 
lows, therefore, that at this season passages from west to 
east are made under sail with less difficulty than during 
the rest of the year. 

The NW. monsoon prevails, at this season, to the west- 
ward of about 170 E. ; and from the Equator or 1 N., to 
15 S., or even 19 S. This monsoon begins in October, 
with winds shifting from N. to NW., and from W. to SW., 



10 MONSOONS, 

accompanied by storms, calms, and rain. The west winds 
begin to be regular after the month of November and last 
until March. The NW. wind, or rather N W. monsoon, pre- 
vails, during January and February, along the coasts of 
New Guinea and the adjacent islands, and extends to 170 
E., but after March the direction of the wind again varies 
considerably. 

storms. It can be stated in general terms, that the bad season of 

the whole extent of the South Pacific, west of 138 W., lasts 
from October to April; the weather is then rainy and 
stormy and the wind exceedingly variable. Storms are 
common at this season between 10 and 25 S., and com- 
mence as simple squalls, the wind not changing in direc- 
tion. Near the Tonga group they appear to follow the law 
of cyclones for the southern hemisphere, (vide 26.) The 
worst gales are from November to April, but fortunately 
they are of rare occurrence. 

The good sea- The good season of the South Pacific lasts from April to 
October. The trades are then found to westward of 138 
W. They are, however, variable for different localities, 
shifting from SSE. to E., and even to NE. Voyages from 
east to west are then easily made. Even at this season, 
however, the winds are scarcely ever steady and strong 
from SE., except in the extreme west of the Pacific, near 
the New Hebrides, Solomon, and New Guinea, during the 
months of June, July, and August. In these quarters the 
SE. trades may be justly termed the SE. monsoon, in con- 
tradistinction to the NW. monsoon, which begins to blow 
there in November. The change occurs during September 
and October. In September the SE. winds blow gently. 
In October squalls and variable westerly winds set in. 

5. ZONES OF GENERAL WESTERLY WINDS. The In- 
structions on the North Atlantic ( 3) and on the South 
Atlantic ( 4) contain descriptions of the prevailing west- 
erly winds, which are applicable in all respects to the 
Pacific. We shall merely give a summary review of those 
descriptions, adding a few further details. 

General westerly winds are encountered at some distance 
beyond the polar limits of both sets of trades, the trade- 
wind limit itself following the changes in the SUQ'S declina- 
tion, (vide 2 and 3.) Two principal antagonistic currents 
in the atmosphere called the polar and tropical winds 



POLAR AND TROPICAL WINDS. 11 

exist in the region of variables. A rotary movement in the 
atmosphere is produced by the meeting of these currents, 
causing cyclones or revolving storms. 

Navigators at the present time are, however, a little too 
apt to fall into the error of imagining that every storm they 
encounter is a cyclone. This remark is especially applicable 
to the Pacific, where real circular storms, with the excep- 
tion of the typhoons of the China seas, are very rare. 

In either hemisphere the wind from the direction of the ^cede n S b Jnd 
adjacent pole is cold, dry, and squally ; while the wind from tropical winds. 
the equator, or tropical wind, is warm, damp, and rainy. 
Thus, when the wind is blowing from SW., in the northern 
hemisphere, and the sky shows signs of clearing to the 
NW. or N"., while at the same time the thermometer falls, 
and the deck, sails, and rigging dry rapidly, it follows that 
the wind will soon come out from NW. and N. These signs 
are verified by a rise in the barometer. 

The same rule applies for the southern hemisphere, when 
the wind is from N W., and the sky is inclined to clear to the 
SW. or S., the wind then of course shifting to the southward. 

On the other hand, the N"., NE., and E. winds of the north- 
ern hemisphere will change to SE., S., and SW., when the 
sky becomes overcast to the south ward, the weather warmer, 
and the deck, rigging. &c., covered with dampness ; while 
at the same time the glass falls. 

The corresponding changes for the southern hemisphere 
are from S. to E., and then to the northward and westward, 
with the northern horizon overcast. 

In spite of their apparent irregularity, the so-called vari- 
able icinds follow a general law in all their changes of direc- 
tion. In the northern hemisphere they all rotate with the 
hands of a watch, thus W. Q E. ; in the southern, their ro- 
tation is in a contrary direction, thus, W. O E. When, as 
sometimes occurs, the winds act contrary to this law of rota- 
tion, they are said to back ; and in such an event it is pru- 
dent to take precautions against bad weather, and to watch 
the barometer and the horizon. 

A fact of equal importance, and one well known to sail- 
ors, is, that when the westerly winds are well from the 
southward in the northern hemisphere, or well to the north- 
ward in the southern, they do not attain much strength until 
they have blown for some time. On the contrary, the shifts 



12 SOUTHEAST GALES. 

of wind toward the adjacent pole are generally quick, and the 
subsequent weather bad. On this account it is advisable 
for vessels encountering bad weather from the SW., in the 
northern hemisphere, to lie to on the starboard tack, in order 
to guard against sudden changes of wind from SW. to FW. 
On the port tack they would be liable to be taken aback, 
and their spars endangered. In the southern hemisphere, on 
the other hand, with bad weather from the XW., it is advis- 
able to lie to on the port tack in order to keep the sails full 
when the wind shifts violently from !NW. to SW. 

Observations of Captain Prouhet, on the usual course of 
storms in the southern hemisphere, (Ann. Hydr., vol. 31 :) 

" Besides numerous gales, we experienced continued bad 
weather, while in the high latitudes of the Pacific. 

" The SB. gales began and ended at nearly the same com- 
pass point ; the wind blowing furiously, but scarcely ever 
changing more than from 4 to G points ; SSE. and E. were 
the extreme limits. At times the wind sprang up, increased, 
and died away from the same point ; at others, it shifted to 
E. before falling, when it quickly fell calm. 

" The shifts of wind did not take place as they should, 
from the northward to the westward ; the gales, on the con- 
trary, being preceded by a retrograde motion of the wind. 
If the wind, after shifting from W. or l^W. toward N., got 
as far round as SE., and the horizon became overcast, a 
southeaster was almost sure to follow. The wind very 
rarely shifted in a contrary direction as far as E., for 
when it reached the SE. point it died away altogether, and 
afterward sprang up from NE., blowing a gale. In passing 
to the northward it increased slowly, blowing violently 
when it reached the NW. point ; after having blown from 
this direction for a little while, it inclined toward *W. 
and SW., and sometimes suddenly shifted to the latter 
point. Here the squall was at its worst, though it fortu- 
nately lasted for only a short time. If it continued to rotate 
toward S. the weather quickly cleared, and the wind abated ; 
though a gentle breeze from S. and SE. could be expected 
for a day or two. But, now and then, the wind did not 
even follow this law, and backed again toward the west- 
ward, after the first burst from the SW. In this case the 
wind returned with fresh vigor, after a considerable inter- 
val, during which numerous gusts showed that this was 



PREVAILING WINDS AUSTRALIA. 13 

only a lull in the violence of the storm. After this the wind 
always came out very strong from SW. 

" The squalls, which afterward blew fiercely from the W. 
and SW., began generally from W. and NW., with gusts, 
fog, or rain ; they grew violent from SW.. and continued to 
increase, swinging slowly around to the southward, ending 
at the SE. in furious blasts. Throughout they were more a 
succession of violent shocks than a steady gale. At times 
there were intervals during which the weather moderated 
and seemed on the point of clearing; but these lulls were 
followed by renewed squalls from SW., which blew with 
redoubled violence. Each new blast drew nearer to SE. 
than the preceding ones, until having finally reached this 
point the wind died away without returning to the south- 
ward ; in fact, it more often fell after reaching E. We en- 
countered these " bursters " in quite high latitudes for vari- 
able winds; between the latitudes 56 and 45 we were 
driven before one for five days." 

6. PREVAILING WINDS ON THE COAST OF AUSTRALIA. 
On the NW. coast of Australia, between Melville island and 
cape Northwest, the winds are irregular from March to De- 
cember. But in summer, that is to say, from December to 
March, the land-breezes are steady from E. to NE., and the 
sea-breezes from SSW. to SSE. The usual winds prevail 
along this coast. From October to April, the west monsoon, 
with variable gusts from SW. and NW.; from April to Oc- 
tober, the east monsoon, with variable winds from E. and SE., 
when the dry season commences. These laws hold as far The west coast. 
as the tropics; but on going farther south, from cape Cuvier 
to cape Leeuwin, the prevalent winds are from NW. to SW. 
The northerly winds blow only for short periods, but are 
excessively warm ; those from NW. are common and often 
violent in the vicinity of cape Leeuwin. Next to the NW. 
winds the SW. are the strongest. In short, this part of the 
coast of Australia is exposed to very heavy winds and seas; 
the vapor in the atmosphere is condensed on approaching 
the coast and causes showers, squalls, and bad weather, 
particularly during the rainy season, from May to October. 
Land-breezes from E. and NE. are common during the sum- 
mer mouths, while in with the land sea-breezes prevail from 
W. and SW. The latter are particularly to be noticed in 
December, January, and February. 



14 PREVAILING WINDS AUSTRALIA. 

The south coast. [North of a line drawn from the Recherche islands to capes 
Northumberland arid Bridgewater, regular land and sea 
breezes, varying from SE. to ENE., may be expected from 
the 15th January to the 15th April. During this season 
stiff blows are sometimes met with, which, in case of their 
shifting to SW., become violent. During the remainder of 
the year the prevalent direction of the wind to northward 
of the line given above is west. 

Westerly winds prevail in the offing at all seasons, es- 
pecially from April to November, when stiff gales, with a 
high sea and heavy swell setting to the eastward, are found. 
The gales usually begin from NW., and after an interval 
shift suddenly to SW. ; frequently they work back to NW., 
following the general law given in the preceding paragraph. 
During the summer, particularly in February, there will 
sometimes be an easterly wind favorable to vessels making 
passage from cape Otway to cape Leeuwiu. Still, it would 
not be advisable to count upon such a wind. 

The east coast. Dry weather and west winds prevail during the winter 
months, from May to September, from Bass strait to Sandy 
cape; rain and warm NW. and N. winds are, however, quite 
frequent. Well off the coast the weather is bad, and the 
prevalent wind from NE. to S. 

During the summer months the wind on this part of the 
E. coast is usually ft*>rn SE. and the weather fine. The 
land-breezes near the shore increase in steadiness near the 
tropic; but while running to the southward, past cape Howe, 
navigators should be on the lookout for southerly and south- 
westerly squalls and strong winds from N. to ENE., fol- 
lowed by rainy weather. The warm NW. summer winds 
of the east coast generally terminate in a sudden shift to 
SE. and SSW. A description of the prevalent winds of 
the coast from the tropic of Capricorn to Torres strait will 
be found in 4. From the end of April to September 
the wind is SE., while during the remainder of the year 
the NW. monsoon prevails, with its accompanying bad 
weather, rains, and variable winds. 

The following quotation is taken from the Ann. Hydr., 
vol. 31 : 

Southerly burs- "Strangers sailing along the east coast of Australia 

ters or brickfield- , , , , ,. ,, -, ,, , 

era. should take every precaution against the tornadoes called 

'southerly bursters,' which are common during the sum- 



PREVAILING WINDS AUSTRALIA. 15 

mer months. They generally set in after the ordinary NE. 
winds and blow a gale for from 2 to 12 hours. If the 
weather be clear, the wind NE., and black thunder-clouds 
and forked lightning are noticed to the SW., the barometer 
falling, it is necessary to shorten sail, for the wind, after 
blowing very stiffly from NE., will die away calm, and 
then after a few moments' calm come out from S. with great 
strength. After having blown from 2 to 12 hours it will 
pass from S. and SE. to E., after which the usual summer 
wind will set in with a rising barometer. Sometimes the 
wind blows violently from the S. for two or three days, af- 
terward veering from E. to NE. 

"Dangerous squalls may also be expected from NW. 
These winds are warm, accompanied by thick clouds charged 
with electricity, the barometer being low ; they shift ab- 
ruptly from W. to SSW. and S. with lightning and occa- 
sional rain, and blow violently for a short time. Forked 
lightnings on this coast invariably indicate more wind, or a 
sudden change of wind from the quarter in which it light- 
ens, or at least unsettled weather. 

" The winter squalls generally come from the west with a 
clear sky and blow furiously for two or three days, com- 
mencing at NNW. and passing to the westward with a low 
barometer. The barometer rises after the wind reaches 
SW., and the force of the storm gradually abates. Some- 
times the wind jumps from NW. to SW., with a loss of 
strength. 

" The easterly squalls are the most dangerous for stran- 
gers ; they begin from SE. with the barometer at 30 in .OO and 
overcast weather and heavy swell from the eastward ; they 
pass from E. to ENE., then return to E. and E3E., blowing 
with great violence, accompanied by rain and a heavy cross- 
sea. They last from 24 to 48 hours. Sometimes they begin 
with gloomy and overcast weather, light baffling winds, an 
easterly swell, and forked lightning from all points of the 
compass. In this case vessels should put to sea to await 
good weather." 

7. PREVAILING WINDS IN BASS STRAIT. W. and SW. 
winds prevail in this strait the whole year round. The 
winds are generally strong and the squalls frequent. The 
latter begin at NNW. with the barometer falling from 29 iu .92 
to 29 in .G8, and even lower, they become very strong in shift' 



1C 



PREVAILING WINDS NEW ZEALAND. 



ing to W. and SW. When they back from SW. and W. 
toward NW. the weather generally becomes worse. Jan- 
uary, February, and March are the only months during 
which a vessel may pass through the strait with a favor- 
able easterly wind. When these winds blow the weather is 
ordinarily fine. 

In conclusion, the system of winds is here the same as 
that of the south coast of Australia, described in the pre- 
ceding paragraph. But at the eastern entrance of the 
strait, and E. of Van Diemen's Land, the winds are similar 
to those of the E. coast of Australia, also mentioned 6. 
It is necessar5 T to be extremely cautious against squalls from 
SW. to SE., especially those from the latter point. NE. 
winds are also common, but never attain any great strength. 

8. PREVAILING WINDS ON THE COAST OF NEW ZEA- 
LAND. New Zealand includes three large islands : the north- 
ern, or Ika-Na-Mawi ; the middle, or Tavai-Pounainou ; and 
the southern, or Stewart. The northern and middle islands 
are separated by Cook's strait; the middle and southern by 
Foveaux strait. 

is T ortb island. On the east coast the weather generally moderates in 
summer. At this season, from cape North to cape East, 
the sea-breezes blow regularly from NE. during the day ; 
and the land-breezes from W. during the night. On this 
part of the coast the winter winds prevail from NW. to 
SW. ; they also blow strongly from NE. and NW., shifting 
at the end of 24 hours toward WSW. and SW. with clear- 
ing weather. The SE. winds are very cold, being frequent 
and violent near cape East. Between cape East and Cook 
strait squalls are common in winter from SE. and S. ; the 
climate, however, is good on this part of the coast. 

On the west coast of North island the winds are steady 
from NW. to SW. during the year. In winter the NW. 
wind is naturally rainy. The most violent squalls are in 
the spring and autumn. The great rains take place in July, 
August, and September; fogs are frequent in October and 
November, particularly in the morning. 

Cook strait. In this strait it is almost always windy either from the 
NW. or SE. On approaching the strait the wind is nearly 
always from one or the other of these directions. It fre- 
quently blows a gale from NW. or SE. In crossing, the 
wind often shifts from cape to cape, especially on leaving 



PREVAILING WINDS NEW ZEALAND. 



17 



the strait. There is then danger of being taken aback, 
and it would be advisable for steamers under sail to light 
their fires. April, August, November, and December are 
months of comparatively good weather. SE. winds pre- 
ceded by a fall in the barometer are most frequent in winter, 
(May, June, and July;) at this season it is not advisable to 
pass through the strait from west to east. Violent squalls 
from NW., with a very high barometer, occur oftenest in 
spring and summer, from September to March. 

The best months on the eastern coast are December, Jan- Middle island. 
nary, February, and March $ winter is the season for squalls 
and rain, especially in June, July, and August. 

In summer, from December to April, NE. winds are com- 
mon during the day ; laud-breezes do not blow steadily at 
night. In winter, NW. squalls blow sharply and with great 
force; they are preceded by an unusual clearness of the 
atmosphere, and by a falling barometer; like the sirocco of 
the Mediterranean, they cause an increase of ten degrees in 
temperature. Squalls from SSE. and SSW. are preceded 
by a falling barometer, which rises as soon as they begin. 
They make overcast weather, and in winter bring rain ; in 
spring and autumn they are accompanied by strong gusts, 
hail, and sleet. On the west coast of Middle island the 
prevailing winds are from NW. to SW. The NW., bringing 
rain and cloudy weather, hauls often to the N. on nearing 
land. Rains are frequent on this coast. The SW. winds 
prevailing in summer are fine and clear. Vessels coming 
up the coast from Foveaux strait have to encounter a 
southerly current, and steady winds from NW. and NNW. 
until they have doubled cape West. 

Strong winds from N W. to SW. blow here almost inces- Foveaux strait 
sautly, particularly from the former point, accompanied by 
cloudy, rainy weather. It often happens that the wind 
blows from SW. on the eastern coast of Stewart island, 
and from NNW. on the western coast at the same time. 
The NW. wind is preceded by a falling barometer, and at 
the end of several days usually shifts to SW., with a rising 
barometer and clearing weather. The worst storms in this 
strait occur in July. 

Occasionally heavy SE. winds enable vessels to pass 
through the strait from east to west. These may be fore- 
told by a rise in the barometer and a long strip of clouds in 
2N 



18 PREVAILING WINDS NEW CALEDONIA. 

the SE., and ti light haze over the mountains and horizon. 
These winds are frequently violent and bring a drizzling 
rain and overcast weather. 

9. PREVAILING WINDS IN NEW CALEDONIA. The wet 
season lasts four months, from the end of December to 
April ; rain is then frequent, particularly when the wind 
blows from ENE. to WSW. and shifts by the north point 
of the compass. The other eight months of the year are 
the dry season. 

In the southern part of the island the winds during the 
winter are irregular and variable, often blowing very 
strongly ; particularly in January and February,* when 
storms are to be feared. In the northern part the trades 
blow from SE. and ESS. nearly the whole year, except in 
September and October, when one is particularly exposed 
to violent westerly storms, preceded by lowering, foggy 
w-eather, and a dead calm. 

To the southward of the island the ESE. trade-winds 
prevail, especially during the eight months of the dry sea- 
son. From NW. and W. winds are frequent in the neigh- 
borhood of Noumea. They blow freshly for several hours, 
accompanied by rain, and preceded by a barometer at 
between 29 in -68 and 29 in -80 ; the wind afterward shifts to 
SW. and S., with clearing weather. When there are NW. 
winds in the vicinity of Noumea, it frequently blows from 
SE. in the eastern part of the island and in Havannah 
channel. Inversely, the wind is often from NVV. in the SE. 
part of the island, while it is blowing from SE. near Noumea. 

In conclusion, the trade- winds are especially prevalent on 
the E. coast j in June and December they occasionally blow 
violently. 

If at this time the barometer fall, look out for heavy 
squalls and driving rain. A continued fall of the barome- 
ter indicates a change of wind to N. and NW., whence it 
will blow with great strength for several hours. After- 
ward, as we have already said in speaking of Noumea, it 
will pass to SW. with clearing weather. 

10. PREVAILING WINDS IN THE SOCIETY ISLANDS. 
The Society or Tahiti group are situated in that part of 
the West Pacific where, as we have already stated in para- 
graphs 3 and 4, the SE. trades do not blow with regularity. 
* Vide note 011 cyclones, $ 26. 



PREVAILING WINDS MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 19 

In tbe eastern part, the winds ordinarily prevail from 
SE. to E. and NE. during the whole year; they are now 
and then interrupted by breezes from W. and NW. These 
winds are frequently rainy, and blow strongest during 
April, May, and June, liains are to be expected also in 
November, December, and January. When the SE. trades 
blow strongly, it also rains at times. 

The trades blow in January, February, and March, but 
they vary greatly in. direction. There are seven to ten 
per cent, chances of calms during these three mouths, 
(vide tables 1.) In April, May, and June the chances 
of calms are from five to six per cent.; westerly winds are 
frequently felt in April ; in May they blow steadily from W. 
and NW.; in June the trades are prevalent, though still 
frequently interrupted. In July, August, and September 
there are only four to five per cent, of calms; and the 
trades, though very variable, steadily increase. In Sep- 
tember, October, and November, they are steadier than at 
any other time. For the last quarter of the year the table 
in 1 indicates only from two to three per cent, of calm- 
chances. 

11. PREVAILING WINDS IN THE MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 
In the Marquesas group the trades, from April to Octo- 
ber, blow from ESE., varying at times a few points to the 
southward or eastward. During the other six months of 
the year they often haul to ENE. and even to NNE. 
When the wind passes the north point and comes out 
from NNW. the weather is squally. 

It often rains in torrents during May, June, and July, and 
is windy and squally from S. and SSW. In January it 
rains hard, and violent NW. gales are then common. 

Most of the bays, particularly the harbor Tai-o-hae, are 
completely sheltered from the prevailing winds. It is ex- 
tremely difficult for sailing-vessels to enter or quit] these 
bays, and they are often obliged to be towed by their boats, 
or at least to have them in readiness in case the vessel is 
taken aback by baffling breezes. Vessels with auxiliary 
steam-power will, however, experience no difficulty in com- 
ing to anchor or leaving the harbors, as the shore is high 
and steep-to. 

12. PREVAILING WINDS IN THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 
During the entire year the trades prevail from NE. The 



20 PREVAILING WINDS JAVA SEA. 

raiuy season lasts from January to May ; during which pe- 
riod occasional N W. and SW. gales occur. In the Hawaiian 
group the chances of calms never amount to more than from 
2 to 3 per cent. 

Land and sea breezes blow on the western coast of Hawaii. 
The damp or rainy season lasts from May to September, 
with occasional strong winds from SW. In December, Jan- 
uary, and February the weather is dry, with prevailing 
northerly winds. 

13. PREVAILING WINDS IN THE JAVA SEA. The Java 
sea is bounded on the north by the islands of Borneo and 
Celebes ; on the south by the islands of Java, Bali, Lom- 
bok, Sumbawa, Sapi, and Flores. It communicates with 
the China sea by the straits of Banca, Gaspar, and Cari- 
mata, with the Celebes sea by the strait of Macassar, and 
with the Indian ocean by the straits of Sunda, Bali, Lombok, 
Alias, Sapi, and Flores. 

In the Java sea two monsoons prevail ; the SE., though 
frequently interrupted by calms, begins in April, becomes 
strong in May, and ends in October. During this month 
of transition calms occur. The NW. monsoon commences 
during the first fortnight of November, blows with full force 
iii December, and lasts till the end of March. In April the 
winds are again light, accompanied by showers and squalls. 

14. PREVAILING WINDS IN THE BANDA, TIMOR, AND 
MOLUCCA SEAS. The Banda sea is bounded on the north 
by the islands of Bouro, Atnboina, and Ceram ; on the south 
by the islands of Flores, Pantar, Ombay, Serwatty, and 
Timor-laut. The Molucca sea, situated to the north of 
Bouro and Ceram, is bounded by Waygiou, Gillolo, and Cel- 
ebes 5 it communicates with the Pacific by Pitt, Gillolo, and 
Dampier straits. The Timor sea stretches from Timor, Ser- 
watty, and Timor-laut, on the north, to Mellville island and 
The Banda sea. the coast of Australia on the south. Here the monsoon 
generally blows from WNW. from October to March, and 
from ESE. from April to September. The latter is called 
the SE. monsoon, (notwithstanding the fact that it blows 
from nearer east than south.) It begins during April, and 
tQward the end of May has set in steadily at Amboina, Ce- 
ram, and Banda islands, when it corresponds to the rainy 
season; but it is well to remark that, even at this season, 



PREVAILING WINDS SULU AND CELEBES SEAS. 21 

the weather is always good at Bouro island. Between 
Bouro and Ceram the SE. monsoon is sometimes very fresh. 

The NW. monsoon generally brings squalls, overcast 
weather, rain, and easterly currents. 

In the Molucca sea the NW. monsoon sets in during the^ 1 * 6 Molacca 
first two weeks of November, and blows strongly from 
December to March. Then the transition period begins, 
with variable breezes, calms, squalls, and rain. In April 
we have the SE. monsoon, which prevails from May to the 
end of September. In October the transition period is 
repeated. 

In the passage between Celebes and Gillolo the general 
direction of one monsoon is NNW., and of the other SSE. 
At times these directions are the same in Gillolo strait; 
but the monsoons do not blow at all regularly in this strait, 
and still less so in Dam pier and Pitt straits; vessels can 
consequently often pass through against the monsoon. 

In the Timor sea the westerly winds are prevalent from 
October to April, with squalls from the Banda sea. This 
monsoon extends to 15 or 16 S. and hauls toward the 
SW. The SE. monsoon sets in during the last of May, 
and lasts, in Ihe neighborhood of Timor, until the 15th of 
November. 

15. PREVAILING WINDS IN THE SULU AND CELEBES 
SEAS. The Celebes sea is bounded on the south by the 
northern coast of Celebes, on the west by the NE. coast of 
Borneo, on the north by the Sulu and Mindanao islands, 
and on the east by the Sanguir, Saddle, etc., chain of 
islands. 

The Sulu sea is bounded on the south by the Sulu islands 
and the north coast of Borneo, on the west by Palawan, 
and on the east by the Philippines. 

In the Celebes and Sulu seas the easterly monsoon is 
variable in October, though blowing strongly from NE. and 
E. from November to April. During the last days of May 
the westerly monsoon commences ; it is very variable, both 
in strength and direction, with squalls and rain. In June 
it is well established, in July rainy and stormy, ending in 
September. 

10. PREVAILING WINDS IN THE ARAFURA SEA. The 
Arafura sea lies between the northern coast of Australia 
and the southern coast of New Guinea; it is bounded on 



22 PREVAILING WINDS CHINA SEA. 

the west by the islands of Arm aud Tirnor-laut, and on 
the east by Torres strait. 

In the Arafura sea the westerly monsoon brings the rainy 
season, when thunder storms are violent and frequent. 
Captains having a proper regard for the health of their 
crews or passengers will avoid the locality at this season. 
Toward the end of December the NW. or W. winds are 
strong and regular 5 in February and March they commence 
to be variable. During the latter month the weather is 
often gloomy and overcast, with a variable wind from SW. 
After the beginning of April the winds are from SE. and E. ; 
they become settled after eight or ten days of storm and 
rain. From May to August the monsoon blows strongly 
from ESE. to SE., and lasts irregularly until the month of 
October. In November the winds are uncertain and the 
calms frequent, until in December the westerly monsoon 
sets in. 

17. PREVAILING WINDS IN THE CHINA SEA. The SW. 
monsoon prevails in the China sea from the loth April to 
the 15th October. It is variable in force and direction, 
especially in May ; on the south coast of China it is some- 
times interrupted by a series of winds from S. and SSE., 
and by winds from E. and SE., especially in the northern 
part of the China sea. 

Near Formosa and Formosa channel it is not uncommon 
to find winds from N. to E. during the months of July, 
August, and September, but it is not well to rely upon this 
chance. 

The SW. wind is first felt in the neighborhood of the 
gulfs of Siam and Tonquin, toward the middle of April, but 
the true monsoon does not reach its full force until June, 
July, aud August, when it brings dull and rainy weather. 
It should also be borne in mind that typhoons are frequent 
during these three months. 

Violent squalls preceded by heavy clouds coming from 
the gulf of Siam are dangerous, as far as Pulo Sapata, 
from May to September. 

Strong squalls, rotating from NW. to WSW. and S., and 
accompanied by heavy rain, are also frequent at this season 
oft' the gulf of Tonquin. 

Vessels coasting from the gulf of Siam to cape Padaran 
between May aud September meet with light land-breezes 



PREVAILING WINDS CHINA SEA. 23 

at night; slight Calais in the morning and a steady monsoon ' 
from SW. during the day. This is especially the case be- 
yond cape Padarau, and as far as the gulf of Tonquiu. 
Instead of the SW. monsoon, a genuine sea-breeze often 
blows from SE. during the day, alternating with light land- 
breezes at night. 

The SW. monsoon, which first becomes settled in the 
southern part of the China sea, lasts longer in this region 
than in the northern part. Thus during the month of Sep- 
tember and a part of October strong breezes from SW., 
bringing overcast, rainy weather, are often found at the en- 
trance of Balabac strait. Southerly winds frequently pre- 
vail between Singapore strait and Pulo-Sapata, from the 
10th to the 15th of October, while NE. and E. winds are com- 
mon in the northern part of the China sea. 

The NE. monsoon begins in the north of the China sea Northeast mon- 
toward the end of September or the beginning of October ; 
but to the southward of Pulo-Sapata and off the western 
extremity of Palawan it seldom sets in before the month of 
November, on account of the greater persistence in these 
quarters of the variable southerly winds which end the SW. 
monsoon. 

Although the SW. winds blow in September, they have 
to contend against variable breezes from NE. to E. and SE. 
This state of things continues till the October full and 
change, at which time there is often a storm from SW., va- 
ry ii g to W. and NW. Then the wind passes to NNE. 
and NE., sometimes bringing with it the NE. monsoon. 
Some years the weather during September and October is 
fine, and the NE. monsoon is not always preceded by a 
squall. During these months strong winds from ENE. and 
NE. sometimes blow for several successive days, on the 
coast of China. 

In November the NE. monsoon is generally established ; 
it attains its greatest force and regularity in December and 
January. During these two months heavy rains and seas 
are found, especially between Singapore, Pulo-Condore, and 
Pulo-Sapata. In October, November, and the commence- 
ment of December the weather is overcast and rainy ; as the 
wind is variable it is possible at this season to sail either up 
or down the coast of Palawan. In February the NE. mon- 



24 PREVAILING WINDS LUZON. 

soon abates: in March it blows moderately 5 during these 
two months the weather is fine in the China sea. 
Gulf of Ton- The NE. monsoon prevails from the latter part of Septem- 
ber to the first of April in the gulf of Tonquin and along 
the coast to cape Padaran ; ENE. winds, shifting from NNE. 
to SE., are then common on the southern coast of China. 

Western coast. 18. PREVAILING WINDS ON THE COAST OF LUZON. Oil 

the western coast of Luzon the monsoon varies from N. to 
NNE. from November to April. The winds at this season 
sometimes shift to NW. and AY., blowing violently, and ac- 
companied by rain. During March and April the weather 
is usually fine, with land and sea breezes. The SW. mon- 
soon begins in May, becomes settled in June, blows with 
full force in July, and lasts until the end of September. 
From June to September the weather is usually overcast 
and very rainy. The monsoon begins to abate after the first 
of October, and soon after gives way to that from the NE. 

Eastern coast. The weather is fine on the eastern coast of Luzon during 
the SW. monsoon, from May to September, the rainy season 
occurring at different seasons on the eastern and western 
coasts of the island. 

The monsoon blows quite as often from S. as it does from 
SW.; winds are steadier during June, July, and August ; 
during these months, however, there is frequently a series 
of winds from SE., NE., and NW. In April and May it 
blows quite as often from NE. and E. as from SE., S., and 
SW. Finally, from the beginning of October to the end of 
March the wind is steady from NE., shifting only to NNE. 
and E. 

Squalls near Around the island of Luzon, and especially on the west- 

Lnzou. 

ern coast, from June to October, and particularly during 
September and October, it is advisable to guard against 
strong squalls which begin from N. and NW., shifting to 
W., SW., and S. Though fortunately of short duration 
they blow with great strength, producing a very heavy sea 
and rain. 

19. PREVAILING WINDS IN THE SEA AND ISLANDS OF 
JAPAN. The Japan sea is situated between the coast of Tar- 
tary and the Japan islands. The system of winds in this re- 
gion is far from being accurately known. The winds are va- 
riable; those from the NE. are cold, with frequent fogs; those 
from the NW. and SW. bring fine weather. The dry season 



TYPHOONS CHINA SEAS. 25 

lasts from April to August, and the rainy season from Sep- 
tember to March. Squalls appear to be frequent during the 
bad season, especially from September to December. They 
begin by winds from S., SE., or NE., which rotate to NW. 

It is generally admitted that the monsoons blow on the S., 
&'., and E. coast of Niplion from NE., from September to 
April, and from SW., with bad weather, gusts, and storms, 
and water-spouts, from June to September. 

The transition period is from the 15th of May to the 15th 
of June, when rains are abundant Typhoons are prevalent 
from July to November. 

But it is not advisable to rely too much on the monsoons 
of these latitudes. For the prevailing winds in January, 
February, and March off the eastern coast of Japan are from 
NNW., W., and WSW.; and in April, May, and June from 
S. and SW., being very variable, and often hauling as far 
as E., NE., and NW. as they leave the coast. In July, 
August, and September variable winds, mainly from a SE. 
direction, are to be expected ; close to the islands they 
blow from NE. and N., while out at sea winds from SW., 
S., SE., and especially from E., are found. In October, 
November, and December, the winds off the coast prevail 
from NE. and N., and especially from N W. : they also some- 
times blow from SW. and S. 

20. TYPHOONS OF THE CHINA SEAS. Typhoons are 
circular storms, which, though of short duration, are often 
extremely violent. Two or three typhoons may be en- 
countered during one year, while during others not one 
will occur. 

They make their appearance generally in the northern 
part of the China sea, along the E. and S. coast of China; 
also on the coasts of Luzon ; between this island and For- 
mosa; in the Meiaco-Sima, Loo-choo, and Clursau islands, 
and on the coast of Japan, etc. They do not appear to have 
been found in the China sea southward of 12 S. 

Out of forty-six typhoons mentioned by Piddingtou as 
occurring between 1780 and 1845, two occurred in June, 
five in July, five in August, eighteen in September, ten in 
October, and six in November. 

The most dangerojis_moths are therefore September, 
October, ajuLJjovernber ; it is best also to be cautious in 
June, July, and August; finally, from September to the 




26 TYPHOONS CHINA SEAS. 

end of May there is little danger of meeting these storms. 
According to Horsburgh, the most terrific typhoons happen 
in June, July, and during the September equinox, especially 
if the moon is new or at its perigee at the same time ; the 
strongest kind do not occur in May, November, and Decem- 
ber, except occasionally in the neighborhood of the Bashees 
and Formosa islands, where there are very violent squalls 
in November. The wind is strongest close to shore, and 
less outside and in the southern part of the China sea. 

It is imprudent to trust to the chance of not meeting a 
typhoon during May, November, and December; unfortu- 
nately we can cite in support of this opinion the late exam- 
ple of the Mongo, a large screw mail-steamer, which was 
lost, with all hands, in November, during a typhoon, sev- 
eral days after leaving Saigon for Hong- Kong. 

The fall of the barometer is the principal sign of the ap- 
proach of a typhoon, (vide 26.) 

Great care is to be taken whenever any of the following 
signs are observed between the beginning of June and the 
first of December: the horizon clear in some points, the 
tops of the mountains and islands enveloped in heavy black 
clouds ; on the NE. horizon a low, thick, black cloud of a 
coppery tinge, growing whiter toward the top. In this last 
case, when the cloud comes up rapidly, the typhoon bursts 
with rain, thunder, and lightning. The hurricane generally 
lasts for about twelve hours; afterward it falls calm for 
about an hour; the wind then shifts to SW., and blows as 
violently as before. 

Finally, it is important to notice that typhoons often burst 
suddenly, and without any warning whatsoever. 

Referring again to Horsburgh, we will quote the passage 
in which he states the manner in which the winds rotate, 
after which we shall enumerate the principal rules regulat- 
ing these storms: 

Horsburgh on " Many ships have been driven from the Grand Ladrone 
to the Mandarin's cap, and even to the Taya islands, near 
Hainan, during typhoons ; for among the islands and near 
the coast these tempests generally commence between NW. 
and N., then veer suddenly to NB. and E., frequently blow- 
ing with inconceivable fury, and raising the sea in turbu- 
lent pyramids, which impinge violently against each other; 
the current at such times runs strong to the westward. From 



TYPHOONS CHINA SEAS. 



27 



D 



On their tuck. 



eastward, the wind veers to the SE. and southward, and 
then moderates. This rotary motion of the wind during 
typhoons is generally experienced contiguous to and within 
a moderate distance of the coast of China ; but about 2 or 
3 from the coast, a contrary motion often takes place. 
Here, as before, typhoons commence from the northward, 
but instead of veering to the NB. and eastward, as in the 
former case, the wind veers to NW. and W., blowing very 
severely; it afterward changes to SW. and S., where it 
gradually abates in violence."* 

The diameter of the typhoons of the China ^eas varies on th e eir a diame 8 
from GO to 200 miles, and their axial rotation is the same as ler 
that of the cyclones ofjhe northern hemisphere, viz : 
the bands of a watch, or Q. Consequently the bearing of 
the storm center is eight points to the right of the wind, 
your face being to it. Thus when the wind is E. the center 
is S. ; and when the wind is WNW. the center is NNE. 

But the onward ino_vement T orj:rack oftyphoonSjt.hfl speed 
of which varies from 7 to 24 miles an hour, obeys neither 
the generaMaw governing cyclones of the northern hemi- 
sphere, nor a_ny_lixed^ rule ; and this uncertainty, added to 
the innumerable other dangers to which the navigator is 
liable in certain parts of the China sea, makes these typhoons 
especially dangerous. After a perusal of Piddington's re- 
searches, it must be admitted that the track of the typhoons 
lies between NNW. and SSW. ; but it is best not to rely too 
confidently on this, as typhoons have been known to move 
toward the W., then toward the K, and afterward turn 
sharp around toward the E., in the direction of the Bashee 
isles. 

This being allowed, it is clear that no fixed rule can be 
given to avoid typhoons ; but we shall confine ourselves to 
giving general advice by which the navigator can profit, 
modifying it more or less according to circumstances. 

Therefore, if the wind is from NE., passing to ENE. and 
E., vessels are almost always in the right semicircle of the 
typhoon,! and, consequently, if they lie-to it should be on the 
starboard tack. 

* This shifting of the wind simply shows the two different semicircles 
of the same typhoon. Translator. 

\ The right or left semicircle is the one situated to the right or left of 
the track of the center, (vide $ 26.) 







TYPHOONS CHINA SEAS. 

On the contrary, if the winds are from NW., passing to 
WXW. and W., vessels are almost always in the left semi- 
circle ; and if they lie-to it should l)e on the port taclc. 
^should ^ or exam l^ e ? ^ n the first case, with violent winds from 
tbe ENE. to E., and an hourly fall of O in .G in the barometer, 
there would be danger of passing in or near the typhoon's 
track. That is to say, in lying-to (on the starboard tack) 
there would be many chances of passing through the cen- 
ter, and being exposed to the greatest danger. Hence, 
wind and sea permitting^ and if there be sea room, it is best 
to run to the K, or, if possible, to NNE., even if bound to 
the southern part of the China sea. In disregarding this 
advice, and continuing on a southerly course, vessels would 
be apt to fall into the storm-center. 

In the second case, with violent winds from W.NW. to 
W., for example, and an hourly fall of O in .6 in the barome- 
ter, there would also be much danger of passing in or near 
the track. And a vessel lying-to (on the port tack) would 
be liable to be overtaken by the storm-center. Whence we 
conclude that, icind and sea permitting, and with no land or 
reefs in the neighborhod, it is best to run to the SE., even 
if the ship be bound to the northern part of the China sea. 
If in spite of these precautions the course should be shaped 
to the northward, the central and dangerous portion of the 
typhoon will be encountered. 

Toward the beginning of a typhoon the wind nearly 
always blows from some point between ENE. and NE., or 
between WNW. and NW. 

If, during any mouths between May and December, indi- 
cations of an approaching typhoon are evident, the barom- 
eter and the direction of the wind should be attentively 
watched. As long as the barometer falls it sho\vs that the 
center of the typhoon is approaching, and the position of 
the vessel becomes more and more critical until the barom- 
eter again rises. 

If the direction of the wind does not perceptibly change, 
and if its strength increases while the mercury falls, the ves- 
sel is in the track of the cyclone. In this case, unless ab- 
solutely prevented, it is best to run before the wind at first ; 
then bring it on the starboard quarter, and continue on the 
same compass course, no matter how the wind may happen 
to change. When the wind changes it will be in a direction 



TYPHOONS CHINA SEAS. 29 

contrary to that of the hands of a watch ; for example, from 
NE. to K, or from K". to oSTW. The vessel will then be en- 
tering the left semicircle, or comparatively moderate part 
of the typhoon. If the vessel continue on this same course 
until the barometer rise, she will be gradually drawing away 
from the path of the storm. She will then shape her course 
with the wind on the starboard beam. 

If the direction of the wind changes icith the hands of a 
icatch, it is safe to conclude that the vessel is in the right or 
dangerous semicircle. If forced to bring to it should be on 
the starboard tack. If the course can be shaped with the 
wind abeam, or close hauled on the starboard tack, there 
are more chances of avoiding the center. As soon as the 
barometer rises the vessel can run off with the wind a little 
free on the starboard tack. If the wind change in a direction 
contrary to that of the hands of a icatch, the vessel is in the left 
or less dangerous semicircle. If it be decided to lie to, it 
should be on the port tack. But if land or reefs are not in 
the way it is certainly preferable to run off with the wind 
two or three points on the starboard quarter. After a little 
time the wind will change and moderate, but still continue 
as nearly as possible on the same course, bracing up suffi- 
ciently, until the barometer commences to rise. Then, by 
letting the vessel fall off, bringing the wind on the star- 
board quarter, you will be at a safe distance. 

The above precautionary measures are the best which 
can be given. Ko more remains to be said, except that a 
typhoon is always to be feared, and that hardly any precau- 
tion can be considered as absolutely efficacious for avoiding 
their effects, (vide 157.) 

Ships overtaken by a typhoon near the E. coast of China Harbors of ref- 
an find shelter in the following ports : The island of Tarn- " 8 
ta ; Mirsbay ; the isle of Ty-sami, (9 miles on a course E. 
8 1ST. from Hong-hai island,) if the vessel does not draw 
more than 13 feet; the island of Namoa, abreast of Stew- 
art's house ; port Tung-shan ; port Amoy ; Quemoy island ; 
port Makung, (in the SW. part of Ponghou, the largest 
of the Pescadores;) port Chinchew; Hungwa channel; 
strait of Haetan, (southern entrance ;) port Pih-quan ; 
port Bullock ; port Kelung, (at the K. extremity of For- 
mosa;) the inner and outer harbors of Ting-hae, (S. coast of 
Chusau ;) port Chinkeamun, (SE. extremity of Chusan ;) 



30 PREVAILING WINDS COAST OF CHILI. 

port Chin-keaug, (W. coast of Chnsan ;) Chaug-pili, or 
Fisher island, (off N. coast of Chnsan ;) port Ta-outse, (NW. 
of Kintang.) 

21. PREVAILING WINDS ON THE COAST OF CHILI. 
From the island of Chiloe, where it rains nearly all the year 
round, to 35 S., the winds are very variable in strength, 
but prevail from the westward. During the months of 
December, January, February, and March they blow fre- 
quently from SSW. to WSW. 

The winds prevail from SE. to SW., between 35 and 25 
S., during the dry season, which lasts from the middle of 
September to the end of May. During this period of nearly 
nine mouths the wind between 35 and 30 S., generally 
blows from some point between S. and SW. Near the par- 
allel 30 S. this general direction of the wind changes to S. 
or SB., but it is generally fixed between 30 and 25 S., at 
some point to the eastward of S. The weather, from Sep- 
tember to May, is generally clear and little rain falls ; some- 
times, however, it rains south of 31 S. for two or three suc- 
cessive days, with strong northerly winds. 

southerly wS? Alon g tlie coast > between 33 and 23 S., the dominant 
southerly winds are often so strong that vessels close-hauled 
are obliged to take two reefs in their topsails. When the 
wind sets in strong from this direction vessels are often pre- 
vented from gaining an anchorage Valparaiso, for iu- 
. stance notwithstanding the fact that they may have sent 
down top-gallant masts, and close-reefed the topsails. 

During the three months of the rainy season, from the end of 
May to September, calms, variable breezes, and bad weather, 
are to be expected, as well as squalls from the northward, 
with rain and a heavy sea, on the coast, and far out at sea. 

In June the winds blow as often from N. as from S., be- 
tween 35 and 30 S. j between 30 and 25 S. they prevail 
from S. and SE. In July there are variable winds between 
35 and 25 S.; they are nearly as frequent from the N. as 
S., though the majority, perhaps, come from SW. In Au- 
gust, from 33 to 30 S., the winds are variable, but prevail 
from S. and SE. ; between 30 and 25 S. the general direc- 
tion of the wind is from SE. and S W. 

The northerly The northerly winds of the rainy season rarely amount to 
a squall. Years will occasionally elapse without a norther, 
while two or three will occur in a bad season. At Valpa- 



PREVAILING WINDS COAST OF PERU. 31 

raiso, from May to September, (especially in July and Au- 
gust,) it is well to look out for northers. 

Overcast weather, a swell from the north, and a falling 
barometer are certain indications of the approach of these 
storms, during which a large number of vessels have been 
driven ashore. During the good season the southerly winds 
in this roadstead are fresh enough to make vessels drag 
their anchors. Northers are felt all along the coast, includ- 
ing the harbor of Copiapo, when at certain periods of the 
bad season they are sometimes tolerably strong from NW. 

22. PREVAILING WINDS ON THE COAST OF PERU. 
From 25 S. to cape Blanco and Guayaquil the wind blows 
all the year round from SE., varying from SSW. to ESE. 
The SE. wind becomes gradually steadier as the coast is 
left. Within 100 miles of the shore the winds partake more 
of the character of land and sea breezes. 

The wind rarely blows at sea from SSE. and SE. with 
sufficient strength to make vessels by the wind take a second 
reef in their topsails. 

To the southward of the parallel of 16 S., and near cape 
Blanco, or Nazca point, it reaches its greatest strength. 

The weather often looks bad, but the squalls which fol- 
low are almost always to be weathered with single-reefed 
topsails and courses. At all seasons the winds vary in force 
and direction within 300 or 400 miles of the coast ; beyond 
this limit the trades are well established. But, from April 
to August in the zone comprised between 100 and 400 miles 
off the coast, the winds are particularly subject to changes. 
At this time, and particularly in July, between 20 and 25 
S,, N. and NW. winds and calms are frequent. 

The winds close to the coast are more variable ; they are winds along 
particularly so from Cobija to Callao ; north of Callao they tb 
are steadier. A land-breeze, varying from SE. to ESE., 
begins ordinarily an hour or two after sunset and lasts till 
morning j during the night it is dewy, cool, and damp, but 
the breeze is never strong. A sea-breeze, varying from SE. 
to SSW., sets in between 10 and 11 a. m., and dies away 
during the afternoon ; it sometimes blows quite stiffly ; it is 
then best to be careful in entering the harbors, on account 
of the sudden violent squalls which sweep down from the 
high lands. 



32 PREVAILING WINDS COAST OF COLOMBIA. 

Occasionally dead calms, lasting for several hours, occur 
between the land and sea breezes. In April and August, 
light puffs of wind from K and NW. sometimes happen ; 
these, however, never last more than 5 or 6 hours. 

The belt of winds we have just described varies in width, 
being from 100 to 120 miles broad on the parallel of Arica, 
and from 30 to 35 miles off Callao. 

The coast of Peru is not subject to storms or tempests ; 
thunder and lightning are unknown there ; gentle rains are 
common from July to August; near the coast calms are 
frequent in the interval between the land and sea breezes. 
The percentage of chances of calms is shown in the tables, 
1. 

From December to May, fogs are very thick and frequent, 
particularly on the southern part of the coast. They last 
sometimes from 24 to 36 hours. 

23. PREVAILING WINDS ON THE COAST OF COLOMBIA 
AND IN THE BAY OF PANAMA. Between cape Blanco and 
cape San Francisco, situated about 1 N., SE. and S. winds 
prevail all the year round. They frequently shift from S. 
to SW., particularly during the months of February, March, 
July, August, October, and November. 
Between cape Between cape San Francisco and point Guascama, situated. 

S d> n Francisco 

and point Guas-24 miles to the southward of the island of Gorgona, the 
winds, though quite variable, generally blow from SW. and 
W. In January, February, and March alone northerly 
winds become rather 'frequent. Generally the SE. winds 
haul to the S. and SW. on going up the coast from cape 
Blanco and the bay of Guayaquil ; and on passing cape 
San Francisco they shift still farther to the westward. 
This belt of winds extends seaward for 100 or 200 miles. 
Farther from land they gradually shift to S. and SE. 
Between point Beticeen point Guascama and cape Corrientes the breezes 
s! are very baffling; sometimes they come from SW. ; in Jan- 
uary, February, and March' they are often from N. to NE. 
Calms are frequent, and rains persistent during the greater 
part of the year, especially during June, July, and August, 
when it rains in torrents. During these mouths, and even 
until November, violent squalls occur. 
an p l Between c'ape Corrieutes and Panama the prevalent 

Panama. winds are from NW., with squalls. Southwesterly winds 



PREVAILING WINDS GULF OF PANAMA. 33 

and damp weather care frequent between June and Decem- 
ber. 

In the gull of Panama the fine or dry season does not Gulf of Panama, 
actually commence until December, and lasts till April. 
During this period the winds are regular and prevail from 
ENE. ; near the coast, however, land and sea breezes exist. 
The land-breeze varies from N. to NNE., the sea-breeze 
coming from SSW. At this season the winds in the south- 
ern part of the gulf are often very fresh ; and, abreast of 
the coast of Veragua, vessels are frequently obliged to take 
two reefs in their topsails. In April and May the weather 
is variable and squally; the NE. winds begin to be inter- 
rupted by calms and southerly or southwesterly breezes, 
which bring rain. The rainy season commences in June, 
with strong settled winds from S. to SSW., interrupted at 
times with those from NW. There is often much rain in 
June, July, and August, and sometimes in September. The 
mouth of October is damp, but in November the weather 
begins to improve, the wind setting in again from E. to N. 

We shall complete these instructions on the system of 
winds in the bay of Panama by quoting verbatim Maury's 
observations, (edition, 1859:) 

" In the discussion of the winds as it is conducted for the 
pilot-charts, Panama and its approaches are included be- 
tween the parallels of 5 and 10 N. Between these paral- 
lels, and east of 85 W., it appears, from the observations 
which have been discussed, that the prevailing winds in 
November, December, January, May, June, and July, are 
between NW. and SW. inclusive; that in December, Janu- 
ary, February, and March they prevail about one-fifth of 
the time from the northward and eastward ; that calms are 
least prevalent in the month of March, the prevailing wind 
for March being N W., and for June S W., though N W. winds 
are also frequent in June, and that for the other months the 
observations are too few to give any indication as to the 
prevailing winds. 

"Between the same two parallels, but to the west of 85, 
and as far as 95, the prevailing winds are in December, 
January, and February NE. ; in March and April they are 
variable, prevailing alternately from NE. and NW. From 
May to September they prevail from S. to SW., inclusive; 
in October from SE. to SW., inclusive. In November they 
SN 



34 PREVAILING- WINDS BAY OF PANAMA. 

are inclined to be variable, though from SE. by the way of 
S. to WSW. is the favorite quarter. 

"It is, moreover, indicated that to the east of 80 the 
winds in December, January, and February, prevailing as 
they do from the northward and westward, are generally 
favorable for getting to the southward and westward, by 
steering SSW. or SW. ; that in May calms are frequent, 
and the prevailing points of the wind are decidedly WSW., 
SW., and SE.; and in June W., WSW., SW., and NW.; 
but as the favorite point is W., and calms are not so fre- 
quent as in May, June appears to be a more propitious 
month than May for crossing the parallel of 5 N. by a 
southwardly course from Panama. Between 5 and 10 N". 
for the other months, I have not observations enough to 
the east of 80 to justify me in any remarks as to the winds. 

''Neither have I observations enough for January, Feb- 
ruary, or March to the east of 80, and between and 5 
K, to authorize deductions; but for all the other months 
of the year they are abundant. They show that, to the 
east of 80, between the equator and 5 N., the winds are 
steady between SE. by the south to west, and that calms 
are most frequent in this part of the ocean during the 
months of December and April/ The points from which 
the winds most prevail are, in December, SW. ; in April, 
SSW. and SW. ; in May, June, and July, SW. ; in August, 
SSW. and SW.; in September, SW.; in October and No- 
vember, from SE. to W^SW. 

"Between 80 and 85 W., from the equator to 5 N., 
the prevailing direction of the wind all the year is between 
SE. and W. by the way of S. ; though from March to 
August, inclusive, it is most inclined to be variable. In 
December, March, and April, calms are most frequent. 

"Between 85 and 90, the prevailing quarter for the 
wind all the year from the equator to 5 K, is between SE. 
and SW. It is most variable from January to June, inclu- 
sive. In March and June the NE. trades are frequently 
found here; calms are most prevalent in March. 

" Continuing west between the same parallels, the region 
from 90 to 95 W. seems to be of all the most liable to 
calms the year round. From October to January, inclusive, 
they are not so frequent as in the other months, being less 
frequent in October. From SE. to SSW. is the ruling 



PREVAILING WINDS COAST OF GUATEMALA. 35 

quadrant for the winds here all the year ; though from Jan- 
uary to June, inclusive, they go from NE. around by the 
way of E. to W. 

"To the west of 95 they are steady between SE. and S., 
except from January to May, inclusive. In January, Feb- 
ruary, arid March, they often get as far north as NE., and 
in April and May as far as ENE." 

24. PREVAILING WINDS ON THE COASTS OF GUATEMALA, 
MEXICO, AND CALIFORNIA. From the gulf of Panama to 
cape Blanco (gulf of Nicoya, about 10 N.) the winds are 
variable, but prevailing between SW. and NE., passing 
around by the way of S. and E. in January, February, and 
March. The two principal directions are S. and SE. The 
winds are, as a rule, steady the rest of the year ; they pre- 
vail from SW. to SE., particularly from the southward. 

From cape Blanco to cape Corrientes (about 20 30' ^.) B ianc to 
the prevailing winds in January, February, and March are, Corriente3 - 
first, those from NE., varying from N. to NW., between 
cape Blanco and Acapulco; second, those from NW., vary- 
ing to N. and NE., between Acapulco and cape Corrieutes. 
The first three months of the year correspond to the dry 
season ; at this time the winds often blow violently from 
NNE. to NE. In April, May, and June, calms are continu- 
ous, and the breezes light and variable. From cape Blanco 
to Acapulco the wind prevails from S. and E., and from Aca- 
pulco to cape Corrientes from NE. to N. and NW. July, 
August, and September are the bad season, which actually 
lasts from May to October. SE. and E. winds prevail as 
far as 15 N. Near Acapulco, and continuing as far as 
cape Corrientes, variable winds blow, principally from 
NW., but also often from SW., S.. and particularly from 
SE., ESE., and E. At this season the winds from SSW. to 
SSE. bring heavy rains and tornadoes, followed by calms 
all along the coast. (Vide 1.) Frequently the SW. winds- 
are violent : sometimes the heavy squalls from this direc- 
tion at Acapulco, San Bias, etc., render it dangerous for 
vessels to come to anchor or remain any length of time 
until December. 

In October, November, and December prevailing winds, 
are found from NE., N., and NW. to the northward of capo 
Blanco; these often haul to the westward between the gulf 
of Tehuantepec and Acapulco ; afterward, between Aca- 



36 PREVAILING WINDS CALIFORNIA. 

pulco and cape Corrientes the prevalent winds are found to 
be from NE., N., and especially NW. The fine season can 
be considered as commencing in December. 

Co^Stes C afl Between cape Corrieutes and cape Mendocino (about 40 
cape Mendocino. 30' N.) moderate weather may be counted upon. The winds 
generally prevail from NW. The southwesterly winds bring 
rain, especially in November. In January, February, and 
March the prevalent winds are from N. to NW. and W., 
with a few southerly breezes between capes Corrientes and 
San Lucas. From cape San Lucas to about 30 N. they vary 
from NE. to N. and from NW. to SW., the greater part 
coming from NW. and N. Farther to the northward, from 
the parallel of 30 to cape Mendocino, variable breezes from 
all points of the compass may be encountered, especially 
from NW., N., and NE. Between Corrientes and San 
Lucas the winds in April, May, and Jane are from NW.. 
varying to W. and SW.; from San Lucas to 30 N. from 
NW. varying to NNW. and N., while from 30 N. to cape 
Mendocino they still blow from NW., though varying to IN". 
and NNE. In July, August, and September the winds be- 
tween Corrientes and San Lucas are from NW., shifting 
very often to W. and SW.; from San Lucas to 30 1ST. they 
also prevail from NW., varying to N. and NE. Finally, 
from 30 N. to Mendocino, they come from NNW., fre- 
quently passing to ST. and NNE. In October, November, 
and December the prevalent winds are from NW., varying 
to NNW. and N. between Corrientes and San Lucas, and 
also extending to 30 N. 

Beyond this parallel they are dominant from NNW., N., 
and NE.; but during this season they often blow from some 
point between WNW. and SS W.. in which case they are ac- 
companied by rain. During the whole year thick fogs are 
frequent, to the northward of 30 N., extending to the 45th 
parallel. They constitute the principal danger to naviga- 
tion, and to making a land-fall on the coast of California. 
North of cape North of cape Mendocino the winds are variable and pre- 
sent a certain analogy to those which prevail off the coasts 
of England and Ireland. They are, however, prevalent 
from NNW. from cape Mendocino to about 50 N., except 
in December, January, February, and March, when they 
blow oftenest from SE. to SW. During this winter season 
the weather is bad, with rain and strong winds which are 



BAROMETER. 37 

especially to be feared when they back from WSW. toward 
the SW., S., and SE. Winds from WNW. and N. are dry; 
those from SW. and SE., foggy and damp. The strongest 
squalls seem to come from between SW. and SE. During 
all the year fogs are to be expected as far to the northward 
as 45 N.$ they are less frequent in winter than during the 
rest of the year. 

25. USE OF THE BAROMETER. In the Instructions for 
the Atlantic Ocean it has been stated that it is indispensable 
to know, in order to make use of the barometer, the mean 
barometrical height, or mean level of the mercury at the 
position of the observer. The data collected for the Pacific 
are not sufficient to give a table of barometrical heights 
which would be as reliable as that given for the Atlantic. 
But this want of definite and absolute information does not 
prevent us from taking advantage of barometrical observa- 
tions in practical navigation. 

Thus the mean barometric height in the part of the 
Pacific where the trades continually blow, varies ordinarily 
from 29 in .S4 to 29 iu .9G. But it is worthy of remark that, 
especially in the western part of the inter-tropical region, 
the barometer rarely remains steady within the above 
limits. 

Experience shows that decided falls precede or accom- 
pany the westerly winds, which sometimes take the place 
of the trades, during the summer months of each hemi- 
sphere. (Vide 4.) Barometric heights are often observed 
between 29 iu .29 and 30 in .08 in both the NE. and SE. trade 
regions; but bad weather is only to be feared when the fall 
is rapid. 

At 30 N. the mean level appears to be about 29 in .81 ; at 
35 N. we find it 29 in .69; at 40 N. only 29 iu .57; and from 
40 to 45 N. it is very variable, ranging from 29 iu .45 to 
30 in .32. 

In the southern hemisphere we obtain 30 in .OO at 30 S. ; 
29 in .88 at 35o S.; 29 in .73 at 40 S.; 29 in .65 at 45 S. ; 29 in .57 
at 50 S. ; 29 in .53 at 55 S. ; and 29 in .45 at 57 S. 

As stated in the Instructions for the Atlantic the mean 
barometric height at cape Horn is 29 in .25. 

Wejirill now give the principal rules for obtaining the 
requisite information in regard to the working of the 
barometer in the Pacific. 



BAROMETER. 

We will not treat of the fall in the barometer which an- 
nounces the approach of the cyclones and typhoons of the 
western portion of the inter-tropical zone and the China 
sea, as ideas on that subject will be given in a subsequent 
paragraph. 

We will also omit the instructions on the use of the 
barometer near cape Horn, as they were given in the 
Instructions for the Atlantic. 

In the region of geueral westerly wiuds the barometer 
ordinarily announces several hours in advance any im- 
portant changes in the force or direction of the wind, (vide 
5.) Gales may nearly always be foretold twelve hours in 
advance. 

In the northern hemisphere, when the wind is about to 
shift from E. to SE. and S., the barometer falls ; if the wind 
passes the SW. point and comes out from W., NW., and N"., 
the barometer rises. When the wind gets to NE. the glass 
ceases to rise, and begins to fall again with wind from E. 

In the southern hemisphere the glass is affected in a 
similar manner when the wind is about to shift from E. to 
!NE. and N., etc., or, in general terms : 

The barometer is high, or rises, when the wind is from 
the adjacent pole ; and low, or falls, when it blows from the 
opposite pole. When the barometric level remains station- 
ary for five or six hours, changes in either the force or direc- 
tion of the wind need not be apprehended. 

If the barometric level oscillates, or, in other words, falls 
and rises alternately from .02 to .06 of an inch for the 
space of half a day, the weather will be uncertain. 

If it rises gradually from .04 to .08 of an inch in five 
hours, less wind may be expected or colder and drier 
weather. 

If it falls gradually from .04 to .08 of an inch in five 
hours, more wind or warmer and damper weather may be 
looked for. 

As a general thing, if the barometric height remains sta- 
tionary at .16 to .20 or even .39 to .47 of an inch above or 
below the mean level, the weather will be steady and 
moderate ; from the northward in the first case and from 
the southward in the second. 

The barometer rarely attains the height of .59 to .78 of 



BAROMETER. 39 

an inch or more, above or below the mean level, unless 
during or just before very bad and windy weather. 

Nevertheless, the principle that extremes in the barometer 
denote wind is generally taken too literally. 

The following rule is more certain : 

It will blow a gale ivhenever the barometer rises or falls 
very suddenly ; especially when the level reached is distant 
from the mean level. 

It is best, then, in observing the barometer, to note Dot 
only if it is above or below the mean level, but particularly 
to observe the number of inches it has risen or fallen since 
evening, since morning, or during the three or four hours 
previous. Thus a moderate movement say of .04 to .08 of 
an inch in four hours indicates moderate winds ; while a 
sudden rise or fall say of .16 to .20 of an inch in five hours, 
or .5 to .8. of an inch in twenty-four hours foretells a gale. 

If the wind is from the direction of the elevated pole and 
the barometer stands very high, (at .C to .8 of an inch, or 
more above the mean level,) a sudden fall, accompanied by 
a rise in the thermometer, shows that the wind will soon 
come out strong from the direction of the opposite pole. 

If, on the contrary, the wind is from the direction of the 
equator, and the barometer stands very low, (at .6 to .8 of 
an inch below the mean level,) a sudden rise foretells a shift 
of wind toward the adjacent pole. 

Cold weather and a sudden fall in the barometer below 
the mean level indicates snow. 

Finally, according as the rise or fall of the barometer is 
more or less rapid the weather predicted is more or less 
close at hand, and will last a longer or shorter time. 

OBSERVATIONS OF M. LE COMMANDANT PROUHET. On 
i;he use of the barometer in the southern hemisphere (Ann. 
Hydr., vol. 31:) 

" It may be observed, as applicable to the whole zone, 
that the direction of the wind has more influence on the 
barometrical height than even the state of the weather. 
This influence is much stronger in the variable winds of the 
southern hemisphere than in those of the northern. It may 
be also observed that all meteorological phenomena are char- 
acterized more strongly in the southern hemisphere. On 
the parallels of 42 and 43 the barometer, which marked 
29 in .88, with squalls from SE., stood steady at 29 in .53, with a 



40 BAROMETER. 

gentle breeze from NE., varying to N.; and at29 ln .21, with 
winds from W. and fine weather. Several hundredths of an 
inch fall in the barometer, when the wind is from SE., may 
indicate worse weather than a fall of twice the amount when 
the wind is from NE., or of three times the amount when it is 
from NW. This influence that the direction of the wind has 
over the barometer becomes more and more marked as the 
latitude increases. So that the standard established for our 
climates, and which is accurate enough as far south as 41 or 
45 S.. becomes altogether inexact in higher latitudes. 

a It would appear to be almost necessary in these lati- 
tudes to graduate a scale for each of the four principal di- 
rections of the wind, viz., SE., NE., NW., and SW.; thus a 
level at 29 in .90, with winds from SE., can be considered as 
very low, and in no sense gives the idea of variable weather, 
while 29 in .10, with winds from NW., is a mean level, which 
answers very well to this kind of weather. 

" On the parallels 56 and 57 S., a slow and uniform fall 
to 28 in .35, with winds from NW. or W., causes less anxiety 
than a level of 29 in .50 on the W. coast of France. If sudden 
oscillations occur, however, there is grave cause for alarm. 
Everywhere, I think, but principally in these latitudes, 
movements of this nature foretell bad weather, which is 
never caused by a slow and regular change. A change of 
.02 of an inch per hour, might here take place without excit- 
ing apprehension ; a greater rapidity of movement is inva- 
riably succeeded by squalls, and if it attains a rate of .04 of 
an inch per hour, gusts of great violence are to be expected. 
There is, therefore, considerable difference in the laws of 
the barometer according to the latitude ; half the above move- 
ment, in the neighborhood of 40, indicated the approach of 
furious squalls, 

" The line of demarcation which it is the practice to draw 
near the parallel 44 or 45 S., to denote the limit at which 
our barometers cease to be exact, would appear to be arbi- 
trarily placed. In the South Atlantic, where the first ob- 
servations on this subject were undoubtedly made, it ap- 
pears to be quite accurate ; but in the middle of the South 
Pacific, the change in the laws regulating the barometer is 
not appreciable until we reach 48 or 49 S. In mid-ocean, 
half way between the cape of Good Hope and the southern 
point of New Zealand, it is, however, very distinctly marked 



CYCLONES PACIFIC OCEAN. 41 

near 42 S. Now, whether this line of demarcation ought 
to be drawn parallel to the equator or not, it is still admis- 
sible to divide the zone into two parts, near the latitudes 
mentioned above, and this division will allow us to proceed 
in the following manner with our observations on the law 
regulating the rise and fall of the barometer. 

" In the northern part of the zone of variable winds the 
barometrical indications are to be interpreted in the same 
manner as those of the corresponding zone north of the 
equator ; provided, it be remembered that the southerly 
winds here correspond to the northerly ones of our climate. 
The easterly and westerly winds have the same respective 
influence in both hemispheres; the points of comparison in 
the barometric scale also remain nearly the same; but the 
variation of the wind has more effect upon the barometer 
in the southern hemisphere. 

" In the southern part of the zone of variable winds the 
laws governing the movement of the barometer are the same 
as in the case last mentioned, depending upon the direction 
of the wind; a rise indicating pleasant weather without a 
change of wind, or that the wind tends toward SE. ; a fall 
indicating that the wind tends toward NW., or, if it does 
not change, that the weather will grow worse ; but the ex- 
tent of rise or fall is not at all the same as it is in the other 
part of the zone, and we would be very apt to be misled if 
we relied upon a knowledge of the working of the barome- 
ter obtained in other localities/' 

26. CYCLONES OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN. Independ- 
ently of the typhoons of the China sea, a description of 
which is given 20, cyclones are encountered in many other 
parts of the Pacific. We give below localities where 
cyclones are found, the laws they obey, the information to 
be deduced from watching the barometer, and the precau- 
tions necessary to take to weather these storms with the 
least possible damage. cC*#w>^ 

Cyclones have been reported in the Marianas and Caro- Latitudes in 

which cyclones 

line islands, and from these groups to the Sandwich islands, La r v v e ed been ob ' 
and the west coast of North America. They seem to travel 
in a curve, inclining generally to the northward ; there are, 
however, but few examples. Thus, in the Eadack islands, 
10 K. and 170 E., SW. storms occur in September and 
October. Piddington appears to lean to the opinion that 



42 CYCLONES SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 

these have the characteristics of "cyclones. A hurricane 
(not circular) was observed 13 N., 147 40' W. A squall, 
rotating from NNE. to E. and S., was felt in September, 15 
N., 119 40' W. 

Another genuine cyclone was observed in the beginning 
of October at about 27 N. and 135 W. On this latter 
occasion, the wind shifted successively from ESE. to SB., S., 
SW., and W. The track of the cyclone was first to NW., 
afterwards to N. and NE., following the general law of cir- 
cular storms. 

southern 68 h n eS In tue southern hemisphere it is certain that cyclones 

sphere. occur from Australia to the Pauinotas, and even farther to 

the eastward, particularly between the equator and 25 S. 

We shall briefly quote the examples mentioned by Pidding- 

ton. 

At Viti-Levu (Fiji Islands) a cyclone passing to the south- 
ward was observed in February. At Apia (Samoa islands) 
a very violent cyclone occurred toward the end of Decem- 
ber, and in the same group another cyclone was observed 
traveling to the southward and eastward. Between the 
Tonga and Samoa groups several vessels have been lost at 
different times, during these cyclones. At the Kingsmill 
islands, on the equator, there are sometimes violent tem- 
pests. At Yavu, (Tonga group,) in December, an American 
whaler was thrown ashore by a hurricane, but was floated 
off during a shift of the wind. At Earotouga (Cook group) 
a circular storm has been observed ; also one in December 
on the passage between Tahiti and Mangaia. Cyclones are 
unmistakably felt at New Caledonia and the Loyalty islands, 
and between the latter and New Hebrides. Cyclones are to 
be dreaded, especially from the 1st of December to the 15th 
of April, in the neighborhood of New Caledonia, and par- 
ticularly in the channel between the mainland and the Loy- 
alty islands. 

The route followed by the circular storms, between New 
Caledonia and Australia, probably corresponds to the part 
of their curve, which, though first directed toward SW., is 
gradually inflected to S. and SB. Finally in. New Zea- 
land, and in all the space between Van Diemeirs Land and 
cape Horn, gales, with all the appearances of circular 
storms, have been encountered. In conclusion, we repeat, 
that in the southern hemisphere, especially in the western 



CYCLONES. 43 

part and between the tropics, it is advisable to look out for 
cyclones, particularly from November to April. 

The cyclones of the Pacific seem to obey certain general cy ^ e o e e r a allaw80f 
laws, well known to sailors. 

In the northern hemisphere, the rotation of the wind is 
against the hands of a watch. In the southern hemisphere 
the winds rotate in a direction corresponding to that of the 
hands of a watch. 

From thess facts the following excellent rule has been 
deduced : 

That in the northern hemisphere the center of the cyclone 
bears eight points to the right of the icind, your face being to 
the point of the horizon whence the wind blows ; or eight points 
to the left in the southern hemisphere. 

The onward movement of a cyclone seems to be in a 
course dependent upon the bearing of the neighboring pole. 

In the northern hemisphere, for instance, the cyclones 
seem to travel toward NW. from the equator to the outer 
limits of the tropics, then toward N., and finally toward NE., 
beyond the parallel 30 N. 

In the southern hemisphere they seem to travel first 
toward SW. from the equator to the outer limits of the 
tropics; then toward S., and finally toward SE., beyond 30 S. 

But it would be wrong to trust too implicitly to this 
track, which is theoretical to a certain extent; under many 
circumstances these revolving storms have deviated con- 
siderably from these directions. 

With the instructions given in the preceding paragraph, 
no danger is to be apprehended, unless in the event of being 
surprised by a cyclone in the neighborhood of reefs or land 
without shelter. 

Supposing the line followed by the storm-center to be 
traced upon a map, it invariably divides the cyclone into 
two semicircles : the right, or that to the right hand of an 
observer facing with the storin ; and the left, or that to the 
left hand of an observer in this position. 

In the northern hemisphere the right semicircle is the 
dangerous, and the left semicircle the moderate side. 

Inversely, in the southern hemisphere the right semicir- 
cle is the moderate, and the left semicircle the dangerous 
side. 

One example is sufficient to illustrate these observations, 



44 . CYCLONES. 

Suppose a cyclone in the northern hemisphere, traveling to 
the northward ; suppose at the same time two vessels .011 
the northern edge of the storm. One of these vessels being 
to the right of the track, experiences winds from SE. ; the 
sea and leeway set her toward the center ; she is therefore 
on the dangerous side. The other vessel being to the leffc of 
the track, experiences winds from XE.; the sea and leeway 
set her away from the center 5 she is therefore on the moder- 
ate side. However, the conclusion must not be drawn that 
these terms, dangerous and moderate, imply that the 
weather is worse on the one side than on the other. This is 
not proved by facts. 

The truth is that vessels are more often directly in front 
of a cyclone when they are overtaken by the storm ; there- 
fore as a general thing, if the vessel is to the right of the 
track in the northern hemisphere, or to the left in the south- 
ern hemisphere, she will have much more difficulty in es- 
caping than if she were in the other semicircle. Her posi- 
tion is therefore more critical, whence the name of danger- 
ous given to the side in question. 

Aboard a vessel lying to or close-hauled, in either hemi- 
sphere, or in any latitude, when the shifts of wind occur to 
the right of N. you are in the right-hand semicircle; on the 
contrary, when the wind shifts to the left of north, you are in 
the left-hand semicircle. 

Thus, either X. or S. of the Line, if the wind changes in 
the direction NE. SW., (that is to say to the right of the K,) 
you are on the right-hand side of the cyclone. If, on the 
contrary, the wind veers in a contrary direction, NW. SE., 
(that is to say to the left of .N".,) the vessel is certainly in the 
left semicircle ; and we again repeat, that these directions 
hold true in either hemisphere and in all latitudes. 

The law can be put under a different form, thus: 

1. In the northern hemisphere, a vessel being close-hauled 
or lying to, if the wind shifts to the right of ET., or with the 
hands of a watch, she is in the right or dangerous side. 
When the wind shifts inversely the vessel is in the left or 
moderate side. 

2. In the southern hemisphere, a vessel being close-hauled 
or lying to, if the wind changes to the left of N., or in the 
direction contrary to that of the hands of a watch, she is 



13AROMETE11. 45 

in the left or dangerous side. When the wind shifts in- 
versely the vessel is in the right or moderate side. 

In both hemispheres and in any latitude, when a vessel 
directly in the path of a cyclone is obliged to lie to, she re- 
ceives the wind constantly from the same direction, and the 
barometer falls, with a speed which increases in proportion 
as the center of the tempest approaches. The moment the 
vessel is reached by the center, the wind falls for a short 
time, sometimes for a period of one or two hours; the 
barometer then reaches its lowest level. A fall of l iu .97 to 
2 in .lG has been often observed, also one extraordinary 
fall of 2 in .79 at the center of a cyclone. The sea is then 
wild and furious, and the short breathing space allowed 
by the storm is none the less mentioned as the most 
frightful position by those who have been fortunate 
enough to escape. Suddenly the wind comes out with 
equal fury from the opposite quarter; if the vessel be able 
to bear this new shock, she will soon be out of harm's reach, 
as the center leaves with the same speed as it came. This 
speed, which is that of the movement of translation, is very 
variable ; in the regions between the tropics it is generally 
about six miles per hour. Some of the cyclones observed 
had an onward movement of only two or three miles per 
hour, while others moved at the rate of from ten to twelve 
miles. Beyond the tropics, the speed is greater, and often 
reaches from fifteen to twenty or twenty-five miles per hour. 
As a rule, vessels finding themselves in the path of a cyclone 
should calculate on au hourly speed of from ten to twelve 
miles. 

The barometer always gives sufficient learning of the ap- T0 ^ Q f tlie ba ' 
proach of a cyclone, and of the distance that the ship is 
from the center of the revolving storm. 

In cyclones the barometric level becomes lower as you 
near the center. Therefore a vessel is forewarned of the 
approach of the center if the barometer falls, and of its de- 
parture if the barometer rises. 

In the tropics, where the accidental variations are rela- 
tively small, (vide 25,) it is best to be always on the look- 
out when the barometer is from .4 to .6 of an inch below 
the mean level, especially when the hourly fall is great. 
Numerous observations seem to show that, with the barom- 
eter at .8 of an inch below its mean level, it generally blows 



46 BAKOMETEE. 

strong enough to take three reefs in the topsails. When 
the glass stands at an inch or more below the mean level, 
vessels are compelled to lie to or run before the wind. 

At the storm-center the barometer often sinks to l iu .6 or 
2 :u and even to 2 in .4 below the mean level. In the temper- 
ate zones beyond the trades the fall of the barometer should 
be greater by from .2 to .4 of an inch on the approach of a 
cyclone. The conclusion is to be drawn from the facts col- 
lected by Piddington, that every observer placed in the 
track of a cyclone will notice the barometer fall from .02 to 
.06 of an inch per hour, when the distance of the center 
is from 150 to 250 miles. When the hourly fall of the 
barometer is from .06 to .08 of an inch, the center is distant 
150 or 100 miles: when the hourly fall is from O in .OS to 
O in .12, the center is from 100 to 80 miles off; finally, with 
an hourly fall of from O in .12 to O in .15, the center is at a dis- 
tance of not more than 80 or 50 miles. 

In certain cases the barometer has been known to fall .50 
and even .75 of an inch in an hour. 

In general, when the barometer does not fall more than 
.08 of an inch per hour, a vessel placed in the path of a 
cyclone may avoid the center by running off before the 
wind. But it becomes nearly impossible to escape it when 
the hourly fall is more than from .08 of an inch to .1 of an 
inch. 

After the center has passed, the barometer rises as fast 
as it fell ; that is to say, it first rises very rapidly, then 
slower and slower, as the center recedes. 

On board a vessel lying to, in either the dangerous or 
moderate side, the barometer falls quickly as the storm-cen- 
ter approaches; then rises as the center departs. These 
movements, however, are not so sudden as in the preceding 
case, because the center of the cyclone does not pass over 
the vessel as before, but at a greater or less distance from it. 

When a vessel, with the wind on the quarter, is in a cyclone, 
the barometer varies moderately. If it rises, the ship is 
leaving the center, and the course is a good one ; if it falls 
more than .08 of an inch an hour, the ship is approaching 
the center, and will be unable to clear or outsail it. The 
course is, therefore, a bad one. Finally, if a vessel is run- 
ning before the wind, (which ought not to occur, unless she 
were directly in the path of the cyclone,) she will revolve 



BAROMETER. 47 

with the storm, without being able to get out. lu this case 
the distance o^he vessel from the center of the cyclone 
would not vary, and the barometer would remain nearly 
stationary. Several instances of this nature have been 
known to occur to ships which persisted in running before 
the wind in a cyclone. 

We have given above reliable information on the regular iu 
changes of the wind, for vessels lying to in cyclone. All 
sailors know that if the wind hauls ahead, when a vessel is 
lying to, there is danger of being taken aback, and even 
under low sail of making stern-board, in which case there 
would be great danger. On the contrary, if the wind draw 
aft, a vessel gathers way, and afterward In fit's to her course 
without difficulty. 

In order to be sure that the wind will draw aft, while 
lying to in a cyclone, it is best to conform to the following 
rule, taken from Reid's work on storms: u In, both hemi- 
spheres, lie to on the starboard tack, when you are in the right 
semicircle of the cyclone ; or on the port tack in the left semi- 
circle." 

1. When the signs, furnished by the steadiness of the 
wind and the fall of the barometer, show that you are 
directly in the track of the storm-center, run oft' at once before 
the wind, or with the wind a little on the quarter, unless 
neighboring land or reefs absolutely prevent. 

If you are unable to run off before the wind, the only 
alternative left is to let the center pass over you. 

As soon as you judge that you have escaped the track of 
the center, continue on the same compass course, with the 
wind on the quarter, no matter how it may happen to 
change. In tfce northern hemisphere the wind should be 
kept on the starboard quarter ; in the southern on the port. 
In both cases the wind will gradually haul ahead, but con- 
tinue on the same course, if possible, until the barometer 
rises, or at least ceases to fall. As soon as the barometer 
shows any signs of rising, (or before, if the wind and sea 
permit,) more sail may be set, and the vessel brought grad- 
ually to the starboard tack in the northern hemisphere, and 
to the port in the southern. 

2. Suppose the observer to be in the N. hemisphere, and 
admitting that the order in which the wind shifts proves that 
the ship is in the right semicircle of the cyclone, or danger- 



48 BAROMETER. 

ous side. Then, if you are forced to lie to, it should be on 
the starboard tack. But, if it be possible t^shape the course 
with the wind on the starboard beam, or even a little closer, 
the chances are greater that you will avoid the track of the 
storm-center. When the barometer commences to rise, you 
can run off a little, with the same tacks aboard. 

3. Suppose the observer to be in the K hemisphere, arid 
admitting that the order in which the wind shifts proves 
that the ship is in the left or moderate semicircle of the 
cyclone. Then, if it be decided to lie to, it should be on the 
port tack. But, if land or reefs are not in the way, it is cer- 
tainly preferable to run the ship off at once with the wind 
two or three points on the starboard quarter. After a little 
the wind will change and commence to haul ahead, but still 
continue on the same course, as nearly as possible, bracing up 
as the wind hauls, until the barometer begins to rise. Then, 
if the wind and sea permit, make sail, and run off again with 
the wind free on the starboard tack. If the observer be in 
the southern hemisphere, substitute starboard for port and 
right for left in the two preceding cases. 



CHAPTER II. 

CURRENTS ICEBERGS. 

27. THE EQUATORIAL CURRENT. According to the 
researches of Captain Duperrey, the waters of the Pacific 
ocean show in the tropical regions a tendency to drift 
toward the west with a variable rate ; the mean rate of this 
movement being about 24 miles per day. This vast stream, Sty '. If* 
about three thousand miles wide, is called the equatorial 
current. It appears to have been particularly observed be. 
tween the parallels 26 S. and 24 N. 

A counter-current has been proved to exist, setting to 
the eastward, at some distance north of the line, and espe- 
cially in the western part of the Pacific. This counter-cur- 
rent, of which a description will be given, 28, divides the 
great equajxmaijcurrent into two branches, which set to 
leeward in both the NE. and SE. trade regions, and which 
are distinguished by the names of the northern equatorial 
current, and the southern equatorial current. 

The northern equatorial current begins in the neighbor- The northern 

equatorial cur- 

hood of 126 W., and sets toward the W. and WSW. with***- 
a mean speed of about 1 knot per hour ; it is especially ob- 
served between 10 and 24 N., to the eastward of the 
Sandwich islands, and between 10 and 19 N., to the west- 
ward of this group. South of 10 U. its speed is less, losing 
itself in the northern limit of the counterjcurrent, which is 
ordinarily felt between 1CP and 5^N\ The temperature of 
the water increases from the 24th parallel, where it stands 
at 74.5, to the equator, where it reaches about 81.7 in 
the eastern portion of the Pacific ; 83.l in the central part ; 
88.5 in the western part, and in the neighborhood of New 
Guinea. The northern equatorial current is felt in the 
West Pacific as far as the Loochoo islands, (China.) It is 
bounded on the meridian of 142 E. by the parallels 26 and 
12 N. Its southern limit passes between Guam island <f aun/W**-^ 
(Mariana group) and the islands of Oulouthi, situated about ' 
360 miles to the SW. Beyond the meridian 142 E. the 
drift is toward WN W., and the bed of the current contracts 
4N 



50 SOUTHERN EQUATORIAL CURRENT. 

as it approaches the island of Formosa. At some distance 
from this island the current inclines to the northward, form- 
ing a circuit analogous to that of the Gulf stream in the 
Atlantic. From this point the stream comes under the head 
of the Japan current, (vide 37.) 

Alternate currents, depending upon the prevailing mon- 
soon, exist between the equator and the southern limit of 
the northern equatorial current, and from the meridian of 
142 E. to the Waygiou, Gillolo, and Philippine islands. 
These are sometimes called the currents of the Caroline- 
monsoons, because the maximum speed of this current, to- 
ward NE. and ENE., is observed a little to the westward of 
the Caroline islands during the SW. monsoon, (from June to 
October;) but during the NE. monsoon, (from October to 
May,) the current sets to SW. and WSW., and forms a pro- 
longation of the northern equatorial current. 



e ua riaT^u r n ^ ne soutnern equatorial current begins near 88 W., and 
rent. flows toward W. and WNW., with a mean and constant 

speed of about one knot per hour; it reaches from the 
equator to the tropic of Capricorn, and even to 26 S., in 
the part comprised between the Paumotas and Tongas. 
But the drift of the stream is no longer regular beyond the 
meridians of the Samoa and Tonga islands ; this may be 
accounted for by the variable winds which prevail from 
November to March in the western part of the South Paci- 
fic, (vide 4.) Between 20 and 26 S. and west of 178 W. 
the waters of the southern equatorial current divide into 
two branches, called respectively the Eossel current (vide 
31) and the Australian current (vide 29.) The maximum 
temperature of the southern equatorial current appears to 
be reached on each meridian between the parallels 8 and 
15 S. This maximum is about 78.8 between 105 and 
120 W., 80.6 between 120 and 135 W., and 84.2 near 
1780 W. 

28. THE EQUATORIAL COUNTER-CURRENT. The equato- 
rial counter- cur rent is an irregular stream, setting toward the 
east; it is about three hundred miles wide, and lies between 
the northern and southern equatorial currents. Though 
the limits of the counter-current are imperfectly defined, it 
appears to be comprised between the equator and the par- 
allel 8 N. ; the greatest width of its bed is never more than 
5 of latitude. In the eastern part of the Pacific it gene- 



AUSTRALIAN CURRENTS. 51 

rally keeps between 5 and 8 K, while in the Central Pa- 
cific it is generally nearer the equator. 

It sets toward the east with a speed of sometimes two- 
knots and a half per hour ; but its rate is ordinarily much 
less; the mean speed being about .6 of a knot. 

The existence of an easterly counter-current in all that) 
part of the Pacific which lies between the Carolines arid the 
coast of America is very doubtful. But the motion of the- 
sea appears, without doubt, to be constant in the western, 
part of the ocean to the southward of the Carolines, and 
even as far as the Mulgrave islands. Therefore, sailing- 
vessels can make their "eastings" without much difficulty 
by keeping a little to the northward of 2 N., which appear* 
to be the limit of the southern equatorial current. Natur- 
ally navigation is here rendered still easier between June 
and October, when the SW. monsoon may be expected. 
This wind sometimes extends even beyond tlie Caroline 
islands. The reader should also remember what was said 
in 27 upon the subject of the alternate currents which 
predominate to the westward of the Carolines, and which 
certainly sustain the equatorial counter-current during the 
SW. monsoon. 

29. THE AUSTRALIAN CURRENTS, (EAST COAST.) A 
distinction should be made between the great ocean current 
and the coast current. 

The ocean current off the eastern coast of Australia is 
only the prolongation of one of the branches of the southern 
equatorial current, which divides a little to the southward 
of the Fiji islands and west of 178 W. As has been, 
staled in 27, one branch forms the Kossel current, (vide 
31,) the other the Australian current. 

This latter current first sets toward the west and passes 
to the southward of New Caledonia, then it turns to the 
SW. and passes to the westward of Norfolk island. It con 
tiuues to run to the SW., setting toward Howe island and. 
to about 28 or 30 S. Here the current is found about 
300 miles from the coast, and extends to about 480 miles 
that is, its breadth is about 180 miles. It stretches toward 
the south, particularly between 152 and 157 E., and in- 
clines to the SE. after passing the parallel of the extreme 
southern limit of Tasmania. The strength of this current 
varies from 6 to 19 miles per day; its temperature, which, 



52 AUSTRALIAN CURRENTS. 

decreases rapidly as the waters advance to the southward 
has been found to be (in the center of the current) 70 on 
the parallel of port Jackson ; 60.8 on the parallel of Bass 
strait; and from 53.6 to 55. 4 on the parallel of Tasmania. 
Currents on the On the eastern coast of Australia and to the southward 

eastern coast of /. oo^ ct x- m ^.i 

Australia. of 28 8., as far as Tasmania, there are two sets of opposite 
currents, one within 21 miles of the land, the other beyond 
that distance from the coast. 

Thus, during the southern summer, from 15th August to 
15th April, the current, within 21 miles of the coast, gener- 
ally sets toward S. by W., with a mean speed of 6 miles per 
day. At the same time and beyond 2L miles, a current is 
found setting to N. by E., with a speed of about 18 miles 
per day. 

On the contrary during the southern winter, from 15th 
April to 15th August, the direction of the current is toward 
N. by E., with a daily speed of 6 miles, within 21 miles of 
the coast; while, beyond 21 miles, it runs toward S. by W., 
with a speed of 18 miles. It should be added that the pre- 
vailing current, which exists beyond 21 miles from the coast, 
from 15th August to 15th April, and which sets toward N. 
by E., rarely extends beyond 60 miles. Farther from the 
coast, the ocean current, alluded to at the commencement of 
the present paragraph, is found. 

30. THE AUSTRALIAN CURRENTS, (SOUTH COAST, FROM 
CAPE LEEUWIN TO BASS STRAIT.) On the southern coast 
of Australia a tolerably regular current exists, flowing to 
the eastward. This motion appears to be the natural effect 
of the permanent winds which blow from NW. to SW., as 
has been stated in 6. 

Off cape Leeuwin the stream coming from W. and SW. 
appears to be divided into two branches : one striking to 
the northward, along the western coast of Australia; the 
other to the eastward, with a variable speed, influenced no 
doubt by the force and direction of the prevalent winds. In 
the vicinity of cape Leeuwiu, and as far as King George's 
sound, the rate is often more than a knot, say 28 or 29 miles 
per day, and even more than a knot and a half, say 36 miles 
per day, in the part of the ocean comprised between point 
D'Entrecasteaux and King George's sound. Farther to the 
eastward the speed diminishes, and it is especially variable 
and feeble in the large gulf lying between the Recherche 



THE ROSSEL CURRENT. 5$ 

islands on one side, and capes Northumberland and Bridge- 
water on the other. Nor does it seem astonishing that, in 
this large bight, when the wind no longer blows from the 
westward with any regularity, (vide 6,) the current should 
not set to the eastward with the same strength as between 
the parallels 38 and 40 S. It would seem only natural 
that eddies and return westerly currents should be found in 
the bight and along the land, particularly from January to 
April, when the winds are here from SE. and ENE. 

Beyond cape Bridgewater and in approaching Bass strait 
the easterly current again becomes manifest with a speed of 
about 1 knot per hour. 

The body of the current passes to the southward of Tas- 
mania, though a part crosses Bass strait. Therefore a ship 
is nearly always set to the eastward along the coast of 
Australia, between cape Otway and Wilson promontory. 
After passing 2 or 3 degrees beyond the longitude of the 
Furneaux islands easterly currents are found ; their exist- 
ence has also often been proved between Wilson promontory 
and cape Howe, near which they flow to the eastward with 
a speed of about 1 knot per hour. 

The tides can scarcely be relied upon in Bass strait. In 
this passage the food tide sets to the westward ; as may be 
seen by comparing the establishments of the port for differ- 
ent points on the coast of Australia and Tasmania. Thus, 
at full and new moon the tide is high successively at cape 
Howe at 9 b and at Wilson promontory (Refuge creek) at 12 h . 
Again, at the same epochs, it is high water in the Furneaux 
islands, between 10 h and 11 h ; at port Dairy mple, at 12 h 5 m ; 
and in Franklin roads, (King island,) at I 11 . The ebb tide 
naturally makes in an opposite direction, or to the eastward, 
in King strait, and upon the adjacent coast of Australia. 

From these observations it will be seen that a vessel mak- 
ing passage through Bass strait, from west to east, has the 
flood tide longer than the ebb ; this is unfavorable, as the 
flood tide sets to the westward. Inversely, ships making 
passage to the westward have the flood in their favor. 

31. THE ROSSEL CURRENT. As has been stated in 27, 
the waters of the southern equatorial current, comprised 
between 20 and 26 S., and to the southward of the Fiji 
islands, divide into two branches. One of these branches 
stretches to the SW., increasing the current off the eastern 



54 ANTARCTIC DRIFT- CURRENT. 

coast of Australia, (vide 29 ;) tbe other sets toward NW., 
-and is called the Kossel current. 

The waters of this current pass between New Caledonia 
:and the New Hebrides, and about 150 miles to the eastward 
of this group. They flow toward NW. and pass south of 
Vanikoro island and the Solomon group, when they change 
their direction to W. and WNVV., and set toward Torres 
strait The speed of the Eossel current varies generally 
from 4 to 18 miles per day ; its mean rate is from 8 to 10 
miles. The temperature of the water is about 78. 

32. GENERAL CURRENTS IN THE " SEAS OF PASSAGE." 
In the "seas of passage," that is, in the Java, Celebes, 
Banda, Timor, and Arafura seas, the currents generally set 
in the same direction as the monsoons. The water appears 
to be put in motion by the wind. The currents usually 
flow in a westerly direction while the NE. and SE. mon- 
soons prevail ; on the contrary, their direction is toward the 
ast during the SW. and NW. monsoons. 

The direction of the current varies, not only with the 
change in direction of the wind, which occurs at times dur- 
ing a monsoon ; but also, in consequence of the impulse 
received in the neighborhood of the straits from the cur- 
rents which run rapidly in all narrow channels. 

*Che usual speed is rarely over 1 knots per hour, except 
through the straits, where it is often much more. Thus, in 
the straits of Sunda, Bali, Lombok, Alias, Sapi, Flores, 
Alloo, Pantar, and Ornbay, the currents are often very 
rapid ; they depend upon the direction of the wind, and es- 
pecially of the tide. Though they are uncertain and irregu- 
lar, they ordinarily set toward the east in the strait of 
-Sunda from January to April, and in the opposite direction 
during the rest of the year, with a speed of often 3 knots 
per hour. 

33. THE GREAT ANTARCTIC DRIFT- CURRENT. This 
name is given in the Pacific, as well as in the Atlantic and 
in the Indian oceans, to the great body of water moving to- 
ward the east, between 40 and 60 S., with a constancy 
analogous to that of the prevalent westerly winds. 

This current is particularly noticed in the Pacific, between 
45 and 55 S., from Tasmania, and the S. point of Stewart 
island, (New Zealand,) to about 118 or 108 W. At this 
longitude a portion branches off and forms the Mentor cur- 



CURRENTS OF THE CHINA SEA. 55 

rait, (vide 34,) which flows to the NE., toward St. Am- 
brose islands, near 78 W. and 26 S. The greater part of 
the main current continues to drift to the eastward, as 
far as 84 or 86 W., where the waters of this southern 
branch divide into two currents, between the parallels 42 
and 47 S. $ one bears to the northeast in the direction of 
Valdivia and Valparaiso, forming the Chile current, (vide 
40 ;) the other tends to ESE. and SE., in the direction of 
the gulf of Peiias and the strait of Magellan, and forms the 
cape Horn current, (vide 42.) 

The Antarctic drift-current has apparently a mean speed 
of about 20 miles per day ; but the figures on this subject 
are not thoroughly reliable. 

A much stronger current is sometimes noticed setting 
toward NE. or SE., generally after a series of strong west- 
erly winds. Under other circumstances there is either no 
current at all, or one in an opposite direction, particularly 
during the southern summer, and after easterly winds. 
Generally the current is strongest and most favorable for 
vessels crossing the Pacific near 50 S. 

34. THE MENTOR CURRENT. It has been seen above 
( 33) that a part of the Antarctic drift-current sets toward 
ENE., near 118 or 108 W., in the direction of the St. Am- 
brose islands. This branch, which is called the Mentor cur- 
rent, has a mean speed of 0.7 of a knot per hour. It is com- 
prised in a zone of several degrees of latitude, lying to the 
northward and southward of a line drawn from 42 S. and 
1280 W., to 30 S. and 85 W. Beyond 85 W. the waters 
shape their course to the northward ; first, toward NE., 
then toward N., after they reach the parallel of the St. 
Ambrose islands. Beyond this latitude the current bends 
rapidly to the NW., passing the parallel 20 S., between 
83 and 88 W. ; it then bears to the westward and becomes 
merged in the southern equatorial current. 

The Mentor current, in the eastern part of the Pacific, unites 
the Antarctic drift-current to the southern equatorial cur- 
rent, in the same manner as these two currents are united 
by the Australian current (vide 29) in the western Pacific. 

In the northern hemisphere the equatorial current also 
describes a complete circuit by uniting the Japan current 
(vide 37) to the California current, (vide 39.) 

35. THE CURRENTS OF THE CHINA SEA. The currents 
of the China sea appear to be caused by the wind ; during 



56 CURRENTS OF THE CHINA SEA. 

the NE. monsoon they tend generally to the SW., and dur- 
ing the SW. monsoon to the NE. 

This fundamental principle being admitted we shall men- 
tion as briefly as possible the principal exceptions, and the 
most important facts which have been observed and which 
demand attention. 
C arr ent during During the NE. monsoon the direction of the current on 

tne JN.L. moil- 

soon. the S. coast of China is WSW.; its speed is sometimes 2, 3, 

and even 4 knots, particularly in shoal water, and within 
60 miles of the shore. Between Pulo-Canton and cape Pa- 
daran (Cochin-Chin a) the current is southerly, and some- 
times reaches, near land, a speed of from 2 to 2.5 knots. 
From cape Padaran to Pulo-Obi it flows to SW., but it 
should be added that on this coast the ebb tide sets to the 
NE., and the flood to the SW. ; from Pulo-Obi to Pulo- 
Capas and Pulo-Brala there are SSW. and S. currents, run- 
ning at a rate of 2 or 2.5 knots per hour. On the north- 
ern coast of the Malay peninsula the currents flow to 
SSE. ; between Bintang and Borneo the general direction 
is southerly. 

On the ETW. coast of Borneo, and NE. of the Natunas, a 
counter-current often flows to KE. and N. This can be 
often utilized while beating up the China sea against the 
monsoon. On the west coasts of Palawan and Luzon the 
currents are variable, and ordinarily dependent on the pre- 
vailing winds ; they often set to the northward, especially 
along the coast of Luzon. When these currents are strong 
as far as cape Bojeador, they then bend to KB. and ENE. 
toward the Babuyan islands, where they meet the SW. cur- 
rent coming from the north of the China sea ; and also the 
westerly current coming from the northern equatorial cur- 
rent. Consequently, eddies and variable currents are here 
found flowing in different directions, and often obtaining 
considerable speed. 

In Formosa channel the current sets to the southward. 
Current during During the SW. monsoon the flow of the current varies 

b\? monsoon. 

on the E. coast of China, from NNE. to ENE.; its speed be- 
ing sometimes 3 or even 4 knots. At the Pescadores isles, 
a current has been noted during the month of August, set- 
ting to the northward at the rate of 4 knots. Oil the south- 
ern coast of China the current flows to the eastward. The 
waters of the Canton river make out to sea in a direction 



CURRENTS OP THE JAPAN SEA. 57 

between WSW. and WNW., forming a genuine current 
with a speed which often reaches 1 or 2 knots between Macao 
and St. John. Still it is best not to rely on this current, as 
it sometimes amounts to little or nothing or is replaced by 
an easterly one during the SW. monsoon. Between cape 
Padaran and Hainan the stream is very irregular and feeble, 
especially along the coast between Padaran and Pulo-Can- 
ton. Abreast of the gulf of Tonquin, and during N W. and 
W. gales, the current flows to SW. and S., and as it sets 
across the direction of the monsoon, a heavy and broken 
sea is produced. From Padaran to Pulo-Obi the current 
flows toward E., but the tide must be taken into account 
along this coast; the flood setting to SW. and the ebb to 
NE. Abreast of the gulf of Siam the currents are to the N. 
or NE. ; on the northern coast of the Malay peninsula they 
flow to the N. ; on the western coasts of Palawan and Luzon 
a moderate current sometimes flows to the N. Northerly 
currents sometimes make out from near cape Bojeador with 
great swiftness, and tend to the NE., toward the Calayan 
and Camiguin islands, (Babuyans;) one part of the stream 
follows the north coast of Luzon, flowing ESE. ; then, meet- 
ing cape Engaiio, bears to the northward. The waters are 
then affected by the northern equatorial current, which im- 
pels them to the NW. They have sometimes a speed of 5 
knots per hour, which slackens quickly some distance beyond 
cape Engaiio. The current which we have already noted 
as existing during the NE. monsoon, causes strong eddies 
among the Babuyans islands, but rarely reaches to the 
Bashees. In this last group of islands the current flows 
swiftly in a northerly direction ; sometimes it tends toward 
the east when there are strong westerly breezes. 

36. THE CURRENTS OF THE JAPAN SEA. It has been 
seen, 19, that information is not yet complete concerning 
the system of winds prevalent in the Japan sea, which lies 
between the coast of Tartary and the islands of Japan. This 
remark is equally true of the currents. The only thing which 
can be positively asserted is that both winds and currents 
in this sea are variable, and that it is necessary for navigators 
to be extremely careful while passing from Corea channel 
to Tsugar strait. 

Vol. 11 of the North Pacific Pilot contains the following 
remarks by Lieut. Silas Bent, U. S. Navy: 



58 CURRENTS OF THE JAPAN SEA. 

"I am inclined to believe that a current from the Arctic 
ocean exists, running counter to the Kuro-Siwo, and which 
passes to the westward through the strait of Tsugar, down 
through the Japan sea, between Corea and the Japanese 
islands, and forms the hyperborean current on the east 
coast of China, which is known to flow to the southward, 
through the Formosa channel into the China sea. For, to 
the westward of a line connecting the north end of Formosa 
and the southwestern extremity of Japan, there is no flow 
of tropical waters to the northward ; but, on the contrary, 
a cold counter-current filling the space between the Kuro- 
Siwo and the coast of China. As far as this cold water ex- 
tends off the coast the soundings are regular, and increase 
gradually in depth j but simultaneously with the increase of 
temperature in the water, the plummet falls into a trough 
similar to the bed of the Gulf-stream." 

According to this quotation, the sea of Japan is traversed 
from N. to 8. by a cold current coining from the coast of 
Kamtchatka and the Kuriles; entering by the strait of 
Tsugar, and leaving by Corea channel, thus opposing the 
entrance through the strait of Corea of the warm waters of 
the equatorial and Kuro-Siwo currents, which tend to NE. 
to the northward of the Loochoo islands ; but we would add 
that the foregoing assertion is too positive, in proof of 
which we cite the following passage from the instructions 
of Captain Legras : 

" The speed of the currents is at times very slow; at others, 
very considerable. It is only known that a branch of the 
Kuro-Siwo is directed usually (although with numerous 
variations in its strength, direction, and breadth, and- 
greatly influenced by the wind,) toward the NE., after leav 
ing the strait of Corea, and enters into the Pacific by Tsugar 
strait. It is also a known fact that, in the autumn, another 
current is found, generally setting to ESE. in La Perouse 
strait, and to SW. in summer along the coast of Manchuria." 

We will finish with an extract from the Coast Survey 
lieport of 1867, which shows, in a more general manner than 
that of Lieutenant Bent, the existence of a cold current set- 
ting to the southward in the Japan sea : 

" Bet ween the Kamtchatka current and the Asiatic coast 
and islands is a cold polar counter-current coming from the 
Behriug sea. It follows the coast of Kamtchatka, the trend 



THE JAPAN CURRENT. 50 

of the Kurile islands, gives rise to the currents flowing 
west into the south part of the Okhotsk sea, and strikes the 
northern and eastern part of the sea of Japan. A small 
amount of the water of this current passes into the Japan 
sea through Tsugar strait, but the greater part keeps along 
the east coast inside, and probably underruns the great 
Japan current, the northwestern ledge of which is strongly 
marked by a sudden depression in the temperature of the 
water." ^cJiJjJ^ 

37. THE KURO-SIWO OR JAPAN CURRENT. One branch 
of the northern equatorial current, after having passed the 
Marriana islands, flows toward the eastern coast of For- 
mosa, in a WN W. direction. It makes a sharp turn toward 
north while passing between Formosa and the Meiaco-Sima 
islands. Next flowing toward NE. it makes the circuit of 
the Loo-Choo islands ; then it passes between the islands of 
Kakai-Sima, and Ou-Sima to the southward ; and the large 
island of Kiusiu to the northward. It bears off along the 
coast of Niphon, passing by the bay of Yedo, and opens 
out, in a fan-shaped manner, toward the different points of 
the compass between NE. and E. ; after leaving South 
island and Bayounaise rock, situated nearly on the meri- 
dian of the bay of Yedo, the current occupies nearly the 
whole sector, which extends from 40 K". to Moor island. 

This current is called Kuro-Siico by the Japanese, that is 
black current, on account of its dark-blue waters, and pre- 
sents many analogies to the Gulf stream of the Atlantic. 

Its breadth, between the islands of Formosa and Majico- 
Sima, is hardly 100 miles ; but it rapidly grows wider after 
the current has doubled the Loo-Choo islands. Between the 
Bonin islands and the coast of Niphon it attains a width of 
about 500 miles. 

Its average speed appears to be about L.5 knots. From 
the strait of Formosa to the coast of Japan it increases, and 
reaches its maximum between the meridians of Kiusiu and 
the bay of Yedo. 

In this part of the current a speed of from 72 to 80 miles 
per day is sometimes observed. On the parallel 35 ]S"., and 
at a distance of 200 miles from the coast, a current setting 
to ENE. has been proved to exist, with a speed of 48 miles 
per day ; and on the same parallel, at a distance of only 



CO THE JAPAN CURRENT. 

75 miles from the coast, the speed has been found to be 72 
miles. 

King states that in the same latitudes there is a current 
of 5 knots per hour. During the winter (November) the 
currents on the coast of Japan have a more northerly direc- 
tion ; in summer (July) they incline more to the eastward. 

The mean maximum temperature of the Kuro-Siwo is 
about 86. The northern edge of the Kuro-Siwo is sepa- 
rated from the coasts of Yesso and Niphon (to the K. of 
Yedo bay) by a cold current coming from Karntchatka and 
the Kurile islands, (vide the end of 36.) This cold cur- 
rent is analogous to the one which lies between the Gulf- 
stream and the coast of the United States ; its temperature 
is about 16 or 20 below that of the Kuro-Siwo. The limit 
of the two currents is marked by the sudden change in the 
color and temperature of the waters. 

As in the Atlantic, eddies, bad weather, and thick fogs 
are here found. It is not so easy to determine the south- 
ern limit of Kuro-Siwo. The change of color in the water 
is nearly imperceptible ; the change in temperature cannot 
be more than 7 or 9, and is only gradually felt. Near 
146 or 147 E., between Moor island and 40 N., the Kuro- 
Siwo current divides into two parts. One, called the Kamt- 
chatka current, (vide 38,) flows in a NE. direction, hav- 
ing for its axis a line drawn through 151 E. and joining 
40 N. with Behring strait. The other branch, which is 
by far the larger, crosses the Pacific in a general easterly 
direction, in the same manner as the Antarctic drift-cur- 
rent in the southern hemisphere. 

This main branch of the Kuro-Siwo is generally called the 
Japan, or Tessan current. The waters of this stream flow 
toward E. and SE., after passing the meridian 152 E,, 
until they reach 172 E., between the tropic of Cancer and 
40 N. The current bears toward E. between 172 E. and 
163 W., and particularly in the zone to the westward of 
the Sandwich islands, included between 20 and 24 N. 
On the meridian of 163 W., and N. of the tropics, as far 
as 44 ]$"., the direction of the current is nearly NE. ; the 
southern part of the current is bounded by a line passing 
through 103 W., and joining the tropic, and 40 K at 148 
W. On this meridian of 148 W. the current flows NE. 
between 40 and 50 N., it then tends to E. and SE., and 



THE JAPAN CURRENT. 61 

unites with the current of the coast of California, (vide 
39.) 

The temperature of the current of Tessan has been found 
to be 810.5 at 27 N. and 177 E. ; only 61 at 36 N. 
and 128 W. This shows the cooling of the waters during 
their passage through 55 of longitude. The temperature 
has been found to be from 77 to 79 at 21 N. and 163 W.; 
in other words, at this point on the southern limit of the 
Tessan current the water was at least 3.o warmer than in 
the northern equatorial current, which flows in an opposite 
direction, a short distance farther south. 

38. THE KAMTCHATKA AND BEHRING CURRENTS. The 
waters of the Kuro-Slwo separate into two branches, as 
has been stated above, near 146 or 147 E., between Moor 
island and 40 N". The least known, as well as the least im- 
portant, of these branches takes the name of the Kamtchatka 
current ; it flows toward NB., having for axis a line passing 
through 151 E., and joining 40 N. and Behring strait. This 
current, about which little is known, passes to the west of 
the Aleutian islands, at -a distance of about 150 miles from 
the coast of Kamtchatka. In August and September the 
temperature has been found to be 52 off Petropaulski ; its 
vSpeed is about 0.3 of a knot per hour. 

It may be here stated that there exists a cold polar 
counter-current (vide end of 36) between the current 
above mentioned and the coast of Kamtchatka. It comes 
from Behring sea, follows the coast of Kamchatka and 
the direction of the Kurile islands, and gives rise to 
currents which cease in the southern part of the sea of 
Okhotsk. 

Behring current is a stream which runs at a rate of re ^HS rins , CDr " 
about half a knot, and appears to issue from Behriug strait, 
and bends first toward SSE., afterward passing to the east- / / 

ward of St. Lawrence island. It then flows S. and SSW., C_ / 

toward the Aleutian islands, passing to the eastward of St. " 
Mathew's island. 

39. THE CURRENTS OF THE COASTS OF CALIFORNIA /^) A A_^ 

AND MEXICO. On the coast of California, from about 50 C^^T* 
N. to the mouth of the gulf of California, 23 N., a cold ' -* 

current, 200 or 300 miles wide, flows with a mean speed of 
0.7 of a knot, being generally stronger near the land than at 
sea. 



G2 CURRENTS ON THE COAST OF MEXICO. 

Usually it follows the trend of the land, that is nearly 
SSE., as far as point Conception, (S. of Monterey,) when 
the current begins to bend toward S., SW., and then to 
WSW. off capes San Bias and St. Lucas. The temper- 
ature off Monterey is not more than 55.5 or 57 and only 
590 at 30 ^. 

currents on the On the coast of Mexico, from cape Corrientes (20 K) to 

' cape Blanco, (gulf of Nicoya,) there are alternate currents 

extending over a space of more than 300 miles in width, 

which appear to be produced by the prevailing winds, (vide 

24.) 

During the dry season, January, February, and March, 
the currents generally set toward SE. During the rainy 
season, from May to October especially in July, August, 
and September the currents set to NW., particularly from 
Cocos island and the gulf of Nicoya to the parallel of 15. 

40. THE CURRENTS OF THE BAY OF PANAMA. After 

leaving cape San Lorenzo, or the equator, a current is found 
along the coast of South America, sixty miles in width ; it 
follows the direction of the land, and, entering the bay of 
Panama, makes a complete circuit of that gulf. After meet- 
ing the western coast of the bay of Panama the current 
turns to the S. and acquires considerable velocity, espe- 
cially during the dry season, from December to April, when 
the winds are frequent from ENE., (vide 23.) 

In the bay of Panama, and at its entrance, the currents 
are far from being regular, and, under certain circumstances, 
are quite strong. Eddies and a short, chop sea are particu- 
larly noticed in the SW. part of the mouth of the gulf. 
Farther out, near Malpelo island for instance, very rapid 
currents are found; these have been observed to set in en- 
tirely opposite directions, sometimes toward ENE., at oth- 
ers toward SW. 

41. THE CURRENTS OF THE COASTS OF CHILE AND 

PERU. It has been stated. 33, that the Antarctic drift 
current is separated into two branches, between 42 and 
47 S. One of these branches flows toward NE., in the 
direction of Valdivia and Valparaiso. 

This stream follows the various sinuosities of the coasts 
of Chile and Peru, and forms the important current, the 
existence of which was first noted by Humboldt. 



CAPE HORN CURRENT. 63 

The principal characteristic of this current is its relatively 
low temperature. 

Abreast of Valparaiso 52 have been noted ; of Coquimbo, 
57 ; of Arica, <>4.5 ; of Callao, G5.5 ; of Truxillo, 69 ; 
and off Cape Blanco, CG to 73.5. The general direction 
of the waters between Pisco and Payta is toward NNW. 
and NW. 

Near cape Blanco the current leaves the coast of America, 
and bears toward the Galapagos islands, passing them on 
both the northern and southern sides. Here it sets toward 
WNW. and W. The breadth of the bed, on the meridian 
of the Galapagos, is from 400 to 500 miles ; beyond this it 
widens rapidly, and the current is lost in the equatorial 
current near 108 W. 

The breadth of the current near the coasts of Chile and 
Peru and as far as cape Blanco is about 150 miles. Its 
mean speed is nearly 15 miles. Between Payta and the 
Galapagos, where it obtains its maximum rate, it has been 
known to run on rare occasions as last as 50 miles in 
a day ; but on the coast, from Valparaiso to Callao, the 
greatest speed appears to be 24 miles per day; sometimes 
it is only 3 miles in 24 hours ; nor is it very rare to find 
currents setting to the southward. These act in the most 
unforeseen manner, but usually last only for a short time. 

As often happens in similar cases, the existence of a 
counter-current has been proved on different occasions. 
This sets toward the S. with a maximum speed of 0.5 of a 
knot per hour, is very irregular, and extends only a little 
distance from shore. 

42. THE CAPE HORN CURRENT. In the "Navigation 
of the South Atlantic ocean," page 131, will be found a de- 
scription of the cape Horn current, to which the reader 
is referred, and which will be here completed. 

The waters of the Antarctic drift-current (vide 33) 
divide, between the parallels 42 and 47 S., into two 
branches, one of which flows ESB. and SE., in the direction 
of the gulf of Peiias and the strait of Magellan, and forms 
the cape Horn current. 

The stream follows the indentations of the west coast of 
Patagonia, though with a general SE. and ESE. direction, 
being about 150 or 200 miles in width. The current runs 



64 ICEBERGS. 

around Terra del Fuego, toward E. ; then flows to NE., pass- 
ing through the strait of Lemaire, and by Staten island. 

The swiftness of the current is uncertain, on account of 
the great variation of the winds in these quarters. How- 
ever, the following observations can be considered as form- 
ing a reliable average. 

On the meridian of 80 W., and between 55 and 60 S., 
the current flows to SE. and ESE. at a rate of from 12 to 24 
miles per day. On the meridian of 75 W., and about 120 
miles to the southward of cape Pillar, the current flows to 
SE. at about 12 miles. On the same meridian, between 55 
and 60 S., its speed is from 18 to 24 miles in an easterly 
direction. At 70 and 71 W. and 58 S., its direction is 
easterly, and rate about 30 miles per day. South of cape 
Horn, on the meridians of 68 and 69 W., it often attains 
a speed of 30 miles. To the southward and eastward of the 
cape the stream begins to curve to the northward and east- 
ward, while between cape Horn and Staten island its speed 
near land is about 24 miles, toward NE. The regular cur- 
rents are, however, affected by the tides running through 
Lemaire strait. 

The flood is from east, on the northern coast of Staten 
island, and from north in Lemaire strait; according to 
Horsburgh it runs at about 2 knots per hour, and is influ- 
enced by the wind : the speed of the ebb is never more than 
1 knot. King and Fitz-Koy state that the flood runs as fast 
as 5 or 7 knots through Lemaire strait. 

Between cape Horn and Staten island the flood flows 
toward !NE. Thus, at the full and change, high water 
occurs at 3 h 50 m at cape Horn; and at about 4 h 30 m at 
Staten island. The flood tide flows toward NE., with a 
speed of 3 knots or more per hour, between cape Horn and 
the strait of Lemaire. These currents are scarcely felt S. 
of Staten island. 

Therefore, vessels entering the strait of Lemaire with 
favorable winds can easily pass through during the flood, 
and afterward take advantage of the ebb tide which sets to 
SW., between the strait and cape Horn. 

43. ICEBERGS. In the northern Pacific there is no dan- 
ger of meeting floating ice below 50 N., but it is not ad- 
visable to pass that parallel in making passage between 
Japan or China and California. In the southern Pacific 



ICEBERGS. 



G5 



floating ice has been encountered at all seasons, and often 
in quite low latitudes. Icebergs are, therefore, always to be 
feared, especially during the southern winter, as the nights 
are then long. They constitute a real danger, and the prin- 
cipal difficulty in making a passage from Australia, New 
Caledonia, New Zealand, or Tahiti, to cape Horn. 

Icebergs have been encountered in March and April. 
They have also been frequently seen from April to August, 
particularly between 90 and 1GO W., and as far north as 
41 45' S. Finally, icebergs have been found in great num- 
bers, especially between these same meridians, from Sep- 
tember to January. There is, however, danger of meeting 
them at all times of the year. 

In the following table will be found the latitude-limit of 
floating ice, on each meridian, for every 10, or even for 
every 5, when the changes are great. Though vessels may 
run south of this limit without encountering ice, they should 
always keep a bright lookout while in or near these locali- 
ties. 

Latitude-limit of floating ice. 










75 




JS 




a 




1 




I 




| 




a 


'S 


i 


'4 


cb 


4 


~ 


-1 








S 


"3 


P 





S 




jj* 


Is 


-*- 


S 








3 


EC 




'So 




*io 


4i 


"ti 




1 


1 


a 


1 


3 


rt 


3 


i 





o / 


o 


o / 


o 


' 





b / 


60 W. 


53 15 


110 W. 


42 45 


170 W. 


40 10 


150 E. 


51 30 


65 W. 


56 30 


120 W. 


42 20 


175 W. 


45 50 


140 E. 


47 15 


70 W. 


57 15 


130 W. 


41 45 


180 W. 


49 30 


130 E. 


45 20 


75 W. 


57 00 


140 "W. 


41 20 


170 E. 


51 15 


120 E. 


45 00 


80 W. 


55 10 


150 W. 


40 45 


160 E. 


53 00 


110 E. 


45 00 


90 W. 


47 00 


160 W. 


40 30 


155 E. 


52 45 


100 E. 


44 40 


100 W. 


44 00 















A few general principles will now be given which should 
govern the navigator of the South Pacific. For informa- 
tion on this subject we are indebted to Messrs. Towson> 
Weddel, Boulton, Scoresby, etc. 

From the 1st April to 1st October floating ice is hardly 
ever found to the northward of 50 S., and is rarely met 
even as far south as 50 or 53 S., except between 148 and 
93 W. During this season it may be expected between 
530 and 60 S., from 158 W. to cape Horn. 
5 N 



66 ICEBERGS. 



From the 1st October to 1st April, icebergs are more 
numerous, stray bergs sometimes drifting as far to the 
north as 40 S., though they are rarely observed to the 
northward of 50 S. But navigators should be very vigi- 
lant after passing 50, as there is very little space between 
50 and 60 where icebergs have not been observed. They 
are particularly abundant beyond 52 S., and from the 
meridian of 173 W. to that of 88 W. Many are also found 
to the eastward of 70 W., and to the southward and east- 
ward of cape Elorn. 

d ra e te d e The icebergs of the Pacific generally drift toward E. by 
INT., with a speed of 10 miles per day. Bufe to the eastward 
of cape Horn they drift first to KE., then change their direc- 
tion more to the eastward in approaching 40 S. On this 
parallel, and between 25 and 15 W., they set toward E., 
rarely advancing more than 1 mile per day. Then they 
bear away toward ESE. and SE. 

icebergs be- Between the cape of Good Hope and Australia it is im- 

tween the cape ot . * 

Good Hope and possible to state the parallel on which icebergs may not be 
encountered by a vessel making passage to the eastward j 
one year icebergs are found on one parallel, the next on 
another. 

If, however, the parallel 52 S. is passed, the chances of 
meeting icebergs are undoubtedly increased. It is therefore 
best to keep to the northward of 51 S. 

Between 70 and Icebergs appear to be more numerous between 70 and 
8Qo \v. and 56 and 58 S. than farther to the southward. 
This statement does not, however, hold true for the region 
east of 70 W. 

^ e f^ ow i n & si & n s indicate the approach of an iceberg : 
A peculiar light, known as u ice-blink," which is sometimes 
seen at a great distance, even on a dark night. On coming 
close to the iceberg, this light has the effect of a white 
cloud settling over the rigging. The most certain indica- 
tion is the falling temperature of the water, and its com- 
parison with that of the air ; it is therefore important to 
make frequent observations of the temperature of the 
water. This fall often amounts to 3.5 and even 5.5. 

The proximity of icebergs is also known by the noise of 
the waves breaking over them ; this is sometimes heard at 
a great distance, and resembles breakers on the shore. 



ICEBERGS. 6 7 



With fair winds it is best to pass to windward of large Pass to 
icebergs, for then there is less danger of encountering the w 
detached masses of ice, which always drift faster to leeward. 
These small icebergs are the most dangerous ; they hardly 
show above the water, and cannot be seen when the sea is 
rough ; they are often very deeply submerged, and if run 
into will cause bad leaks. 

The " ice-blink" of which we have spoken is, as a rule, ice-biinkswhea 

806D. 

observed only above large masses of ice, which are more or 
less flat and covered with snow. But this luminous appear- 
ance does not show above icebergs whose surfaces present 
a rugged appearance, or above those which have been cap- 
sized. 
It cannot be too often repeated that watchfulness is A good lookout 

necessary. 

necessary. The man on lookout should be often relieved. 
He should keep his eye continually on the black line of the 
horizon ahead, and if he discover a white spot or even a 
light streak on the horizon, he may know it is ice. If a 
good watch be kept in this manner there is no danger of 
coming upon ice unexpectedly. It is also well to have 
another man on the watch for small icebergs, which are 
only to be seen at short distances. 

As has been said above, icebergs are most numerous dur- . Numerous dur- 
ing the southern summer. This is fortunate, as the nights summer. 801 
are then shorter. Out of 550 icebergs, nearly one-half were 
seen in November, December, and January, while there 
were only 5 found in June and 3 in July. One-fifth of the 
whole number of icebergs seen in a year were observed in 
December alone. There are more from January to April 
than from August to November; thus the number in March 
and April is to the number in September and October as 5 
to 3. 

According to Scoresby, the fall in temperature of the sea Warnings. 
and air foretells icebergs, but it is extremely imprudent to 
trust to this warning. It is best to rely chiefly on the 
vigilance of those whose duty it is to keep a " sharp look- 
out." Have your yards nicely trimmed, and be ready at 
any moment to go about or haul up on either tack, as may 
be necessary. The reader should also refer to 104, where 
further information on this subject will be found. 



PA.RT II. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE PRINCIPAL ROUTES IN 
THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 



CHAPTER I. 

ROUTES FROM SOUTH TO NORTH, ON THE WESTERN 
COAST OF AMERICA. 

44. IlOUTE FROM CAPE HORN OR THE STRAIT OF 

MAGELLAN TO VALPARAISO. In the Navigation of the 
South Atlantic it was stated that vessels bound to Val- 
paraiso from cape Horn should not cross the parallel of 
50 S. farther west than the meridian of 80. A summary 
of instructions for doubling cape Horn was also given, (p. 
186 to 194.) Finally in a paragraph on the passage of the 
strait of Magellan, ( 1C of the same work,) it was stated 
that it is preferable to enter the Pacific by cape Pillar, dur- 
ing the southern winter ; while during the southern summer 
vessels can take the lateral channel and come out by the 
gulf of Penas. 

I. EOUTES AFTER LEAVING CAPE HORN. The passage 
around cape Horn is usually made by good staunch sailing- 
vessels, or vessels with auxiliary steam power. The in- 
tention is generally to economize coal without prolonging 
the voyage. They cross 50 S. at about 80 W., that is 
between 78 and 82 W., and more or less to the westward 
according to the weather and winds they may have encoun- 
tered. After having doubled the cape, and while making 
to the northward, it is a good plan to make the westing so 
as to cross 50 S. rather to the westward than to the east- 
ward of 80 W. ; but this parallel may be crossed at 79, or 
even 78, though it is not desirable to do so. After passing 
50 S., keep to the northward, following 80 W., as nearly 
as the sea and dominant winds from N W. to SW. will allow. 
Beyond 45 S. it is best to keep between the meridian 78 
10' and 790 40' W. Cross the parallel 40 S., near 78 1C 7 or 
78 40' W., then continue toward the north till you reach 
37 30' or 37 S., thence make your easting and cross 35 
S., between 74 40' and 75 W W. From this point you can 
proceed without difficulty toward Valparaiso, merely mak- 
ing allowances for the leeway and current, which usually 
set to the northward and are apt to cause errors in the 
course. 



72 



ROUTES AFTER LEAVING CAPE HORN. 



Though it will generally be found easy to follow this 
route, as above described, we will give the difficulties to be 
encountered at each season of the year, and the course it is 
best to pursue in each case. 

in January. In January it is advantageous to cross 50 S. a little to 
the westward of 79 40' W., as winds from NW. and NNW. 
rarely prevail in that locality. But between 45 and 40 
S. it is preferable to keep to the eastward of that meridian, 
where the winds are often more favorable. Calms and 
baffling airs are frequent during this month. 

in February In February it is still more important, if it be possible, 
to cross 50 S. to the westward of 79 40' W. It may be 
generally stated that vessels will make this passage from 
cape Horn to Valparaiso much more rapidly if they cross 
the parallel of 50 S. even much farther to the westward. 
Thus quick passages can be made under canvas when 50 S. 
is crossed at 80 40' W. or to the westward of that meridian ; 
450 S. at between 80 40' and 81 10' W. ; 40 S. between 
79 40' and 80 10' W. ; then 35 S. at about 74 40' W. In 
crossing the parallels at these points do not hug the NW. 
wind too closely, as there is danger of being driven to the 
eastward of the advised route. If the wind afterward shift 
to W. and SW., it is evident that you would not volunta- 
rily lay as high as NW. to regain the points of crossing. 
You should merely try not to get too far from them. 

in March. In March the best route is, on the other hand, to the 

eastward of 79 40' W.; it will therefore be sufficient to cross 
50 S. just far enough to the westward to avoid the land, 
in case of several successive squalls from the W. This 
point should be left to the discretion of the captain : a sail- 
ing-vessel might pass near 78 40' or 78 10' W., while a 
vessel with auxiliary steam power would find no difficulty 
in crossing at 77 40' or 77 10' W. The winds are gener- 
ally steady and favorable ; yet there are always chances of 
winds from NW.; in case the wind does come out from 
NW., keep on the port tack as long as it can be done with 
prudence. On the one hand, be very careful not to get 
too close to the shore; on the other, remember that there is 
more chance of finding favorable winds near shore than out 
at sea in the neighborhood of 80 W. 

Thus 50, 45, and 40 S. may be successively crossed 
at the meridian of 77 10' W. ; the rest of the passage 



ROUTES AFTER LEAVING CAPE HORN. 



73 



is easily made, crossing 35 S. at about 75 10' or 74 40' 
W. Calms and light airs are the only causes of detention 
north of the 35th parallel. 

In April the same general route, given for the whole in April 
year, should be followed. 

We would merely remark, that at this time, between 50 
and 35 S., the wind prevails more from NW. than during 
the first months of the year. This should therefore be 
borne in mind, to profit by any favorable wind, in order to 
keep as much as possible to the westward of 79 40' between 
50 and 45 S. ; and to the westward of 78 40' between 
45 and 40 S. With this precaution it is possible to con- 
tinue on the port tack when the wind comes out from NW., 
cross 35o S. near 75 40' W., and 34 S. between 74 10' 
and 74 40' W. North of 35 S., on nearing Valparaiso, 
calms are less frequent than earlier in the year, the winds 
blowing steadier from NE. to, N. and N W. (Vide 21.) 

In May, as in February, it is best to make the northing 
to the westward of 79 40' W., when the winds permit. 
May is not a bad month if the route prescribed for Feb- 
ruary be followed. Near Valparaiso this is the winter sea- 
son, (vide 21.) 

In June, as in February and May, it is advisable to cross 
50 S. as far as possible to the westward. Between 50 and 
45 S. the winds are more favorable to westward than to 
eastward of 79 40' W.; besides it is best, and nearly always 
possible, to profit by all the fair winds, in order to cross 
45 S., and particularly 40 S. near 80 40' W. This advice 
is considered important, for in June the winds very often 
blow from NNE. to NNW. between 40 S. and Valparaiso. 
A vessel will not really be in a very good position to fetch 
this port under sail if she steer to the northward of NE. 

It is well known that W. and SW. winds are to be found 
between 40 S. and Valparaiso, and that in all cases the 
current is favorable. In 21 will be found a description of 
the system of the winds in this region. 

In July and August the same observations hold true. 
The only remark to make is, that during August there is 
no necessity of crossing 50 S. very far to the westward, as 
the wind is generally favorable, between 50 and 45 S., to 
both the eastward and westward of 79 40' W. But it is 
prudent, and always possible, to cut 45 S. between 79 40' 



In May 



In Jane. 



In July and 

August. 



74 ROUTES AFTER LEAVING CAPE HORN. 

and 80 40' W.; and afterward 40 S. at the same longitude 
as bas been stated for June. 

in September. i n September it is easier to make the passage between 
50 and 45 S. by sailing to the westward of 79 40' W., 
as here the winds prevail from W. and SSW., whereas to 
the eastward of this meridian they are from ^W. After 
passing 45 S. the general route, given for the whole year, 
may be followed without difficulty. 40 S. should be crossed 
between 77 10' and 79 10' W. ; thence the winds are fair 
and steady. 

in October. j n October, as in September, it will be more advantageous 
to cross 50 S. to the westward of 79 40' W. Settled and 
favorable breezes will nearly always be found in crossing 
45 S. between 80 10' and 81 10' W. ; 40 S. at 79 40' W. ; 
and 350 S. at 74 40' W. 

in November. j n November the passage is slow and tedious. The gen- 
eral remarks which are given on the proper route to be 
followed during the wbole year, apply particularly to this 
month. It is only to ba noted that at this time the 
NW. winds are frequent from the parallel 50 to 35, and 
both to the E. and W. of 79 40' W. Still it is better to 
cross 50 S. to the westward of 79 40' W. when it can 
possibly be done. As a general rule advantage should be 
taken of every favorable slant in the wind that may help 
the vessel to the northward and westivard, for then a long 
stretch may be taken on the port tack when the wind comes 
out from NW. If possible cross 40 S. at about 78 40' W., 
as the wind is better to the eastward of 79 40', between 
40 and 35 S. Beyond this point the voyage will be easily 
made. 

in December. In December the same observations as for November. 
The winds will be found favorable and from W., SW., and 
S., after leaving 40 S., if that parallel be crossed to the 
eastward of 79 40' W., or even at 78 40' or 78 10' W. 

II. ROUTES AFTER LEAVING THE STRAIT OF MAGELLAN. 

The route through the strait of Magellan is always taken 
by steamers, or auxiliary-steam vessels, when the con- 
sumption of coal is a secondary consideration, (vide The 
Navigation of the South Atlantic, pages 194 to 198.) Conse- 
quently the passage from cape Pillar, or the gulf of Peiias, 
to Valparaiso, presents no serious difficulty. 

Steamers can make their northing, merely taking care to 



ROUTES AFTER LEAVING MAGELLAN STRAIT. 75 

keep at a safe distance from land, that they may not be 
driven ashore in case of bad weather. As for vessels with 
auxiliary steam-power, they first make to the westward, 
steering on a WNW. or NW. course, either under steam 
or sail, if the winds allow. No other advice need be given 
for the beginning of this route, except to profit as much as 
possible by every favorable wind, so as to get away from 
the coast, when the fires may be hauled and the voyage 
continued under sail. The more the coast is left, (as far as 
79 40', if it be possible,) the more chance there is of mak- 
ing a quick passage to the northward. 

When vessels with auxiliary steam-power, leaving cape 
Pillar, shall have gone far enough to the westward and 
made sail, their route will not differ greatly from that of 
sailing-ships coining from cape Horn. This route, however, 
will be 2 or 3 degrees more to the eastward, and will be 
made under less favorable circumstances, the wind being 
more ahead, as may be seen by referring to the observations 
at the beginning of the present paragraph. This observa- 
tion is still more applicable to vessels, with both steam and 
sail power, entering the Pacific by the gulf of Penas, as 
their route is still farther to the eastward, and as it is ad- 
vantageous, during nearly every month of the year, to keep 
well to the westieard after passing cape Horn under sail. 

The most prevalent winds, and those which are most to 
be feared as head- winds, come from NNW. and NW. It is 
therefore advisable to take advantage of every favorable 
breeze, after leaving the strait of Magellan, in order to 
make to the westward and to the northward. If this be 
done, a long stretch can afterward be made on the port tack 
without fear when the wind comes out from NW. And 
we repeat, there will be no serious difficulty to a ship that 
can, if it become necessary, start ahead under steam and 
fore-and-aft sail in taking the NNW. wind four points on 
the bow. The use of sail and steam combined has simplified 
all these routes, and there are no special points of crossing 
to be recommended for auxiliary steamers. 

As an illustration of a voyage between cape Pillar and 
Valparaiso, we will first give an extract from the Hydro- 
graphic Annals, (vol. 12, p. 322.) This extract is compiled 
from the log of the Rattlesnake, captain Henry Trollope: 

"The Rattlesnake made cape Virgins the 10th of May, 



7<> LOG OF THE RATTLESNAKE. 

1853, and the same clay was taken in tow by the steamer 
Vixen. They anchored seven times in eight days, and at 
noon on the 18th the tow-lines were cast off, at 20 miles to 
the westward of cape Pillar. 

" The barometer rose until ten o'clock in the morning, 
when it commenced to fall very rapidly. The wind sprang 
up ; and the Rattlesnake made good way under royals and 
port studding-sails, the wind being from eastward. 

" Fitz-Eoy recommends to run as far as 79 40' W., if you 
are bound to the northward; our voyage proved him right. 
The wind, which would have been ahead if we had not 
shaped our course as we did, came out favorable. It re- 
mained steady from the eastward until the 19th ; but the 
weather was overcast, and the barometer fell l in .34 during 
the eighteen hours included between the 18th at 6 p. m. and 
noon of the 19th. About one o'clock in the afternoon, after 
a calm lasting about one hour, and during a furious squall 
from NE. and ENE., the wind jumped around suddenly to 
TW., and blew from this direction with extraordinary vio- 
lence. We la#-to on the starboard tack under the main 
topsail and storm-stay-sail. The barometer commenced to 
rise an hour after the commencement of the squall, and this 
was the time of its greatest strength; the wind, however, 
continued to be violent for 10 or 12 hours. 

" Afterward we had a series of smaller squalls with a heavy 
sea, coming especially from W. and WNW. As we were 
well off shore, the wind was favorable and allowed us to 
steer N., without being set to the eastward of that point, 
until we struck 36 S. and 74 40' W. During all this 
time we encountered squalls and violent gusts. 

" In approaching Valparaiso we nearly ran past the har- 
bor, though we hove to when we judged we were 10 or 12 
miles to the southward of point Curaumilla." 

The following is an account of a voyage from cape Pillar 
to Valparaiso, made in 1860 by the Duguay Trouin, (sail 
and steam power,) the flag-ship of Rear-Admiral Larrieu, 
commanding the Pacific Squadron, (Ann. Hyd., vol. 18 :) 

" We doubled Tamar on the 20th March, about 1.30 p. m., 
and made little way during the rest of the day, the weather 
being alternately clear and foggy. About 8.30 p. m., the 
wind having shifted, we were in very good position for 



VOYAGE OF THE DUGUAY TROUIN. 11 

leaving the strait, being from 3 to 4 miles from Westmin- 
ster Ilall, bearing SW. At 8.30 p. m. the course was set at 
WSW., so as to pass through mid-channel, but at 9 o'clock, 
the wind having hauled ahead, it was changed to WSW. 
W., the fore-and-aft sails being still carried. About 10.30 
we sighted cape Pillar, bearing SS W., and very close aboard ; 
this gave us a little uneasiness, as the wind had freshened, 
and we were already as close to the wind as we could lie 
with safety. Fires were lighted under another boiler, but 
we doubled the cape rapidly, and at midnight were out of 
all danger, having passed the meridian of the Judges and 
Apostles, which lie to WSW. of cape Pillar. Experienced 
strong head-winds and sea till we reached the parallel of 
cape Tres Montes. Having doubled cape Pillar, and wish- 
ing to make westing, I was obliged to steer to the south- 
ward on account of the wind, which varied from NNW. to W. 

"At noon on the 2Gth March, we were at 5028 / S. and 83 
55' W. On the evening of the 2Gth, the wind having shifted 
to WSW., we were able to take the port or northerly tack, 
but were compelled to lie-to all night under fore-and-aft- 
sail, as the wind was violent and the sea carried away our 
starboard quarter-boat. The Duguay Trouin labored 
greatly, notwithstanding her excellent qualities. The wind 
having moderated on the morning of the 27th, I set the 
maintop sail close reefed. After this we kept on a north- 
erly course, the winds varying from NW. to SW. and S., 
with a regular barometer. As the barometer fell the wind 
remained steady from NW. and WNW., and I kept on the 
starboard tack; when it died away, I went about, the wind 
soon springing up from S., and blowing with extreme vio- 
lence. About 8 o'clock on the evening of the 31st March, 
being at 48 23' S., we could only scud under a close-reefed 
maintop sail and a double-reefed foresail ; about this time 
the barometer fell very rapidly to 28 in .54. 

"We could not keep on our course, as our 'latteen' sails 
were not able to stand the heavy squalls ; but, luckily, 
these violent squalls did not last long, moderating as they 
shifted toward SW. The weather became better after the 
1st April, and we arrived at Valparaiso on the morning of 
the 7th." 

Volume 22, "Annales Hydrograpliiques? contains the fol- 
lowing observations on the voyage from cape Pillar to Val- 



78 LOG OF THE ASSAS. 

paraiso : " After a vessel has reached 72 40' or 77 40 
W.,* she can steer rapidly to the N. The winds are here 
generally from SW.; they are interrupted, according to the 
season, by calms and northeasterly gales. The weather be- 
comes better when the wind hauls to S. ; it shifts ordinarily 
from right to left. After a violent squall from SE. the wind 
may be expected to return to S., and haul again to SW., 
with better weather ; thus following the laws of cyclones. 
The passage from cape Pillar to Valparaiso is sometimes 
made in 6 or 7 days. The mean length of the passage is 
about 12 days." 

We will also quote an abstract from the log of the Assets, 
a screw-corvette, commanded by Captain DeKergist, (Ann. 
Hydr., vol. 26 :) 

" Leaving cape Pillar on the 9th July, I kept to the west- 
ward, under steam, until the morning of the next day at 
7.30 o'clock. Having made 105 miles, the fires were hauled. 
During the night the breeze had freshened and hauled to 
SW. and WSW. I then came-to on the port tack, with 2 
reefs in the topsails, and at noon found a current of 16 
miles, setting S. 60 B. The weather was bad during the 
following night, the wind strong from WJSTW. ; went about 
on the starboard tack, to make to the westward as far as 
possible. On the llth the barometer fell rapidly, and we 
lay-to under the main-topsail. On the evening of the 12th 
ship rolled 35 to leeward and 12 to windward. The 
barometer, already indicating a storm, went still lower, and 
I decided to light one fire to keep the ship from being 
driven to leeward. We kept on in this manner until the 
14th, the wind varying from NW. to WNW. On the 14th 
July the barometer stood at 28 in .03. After a calm the wind 
slowly changed to SW. An observation obtained on the 
14th put us 48' more to the northward and 91' more to the 
westward than the dead-reckoning for the four preceding 
days. The engine, which had been in motion for forty 
hours, had assisted the ship more than I had presumed. 
The squalls were not, however, over ; those from the N W. 
having died away, the SW. ones began, shifting to WSW. 
and W. These soon raised a heavy sea, which made the 

* This is probably an error, and should read, 77 40' or 82 40' W., as 
the longitude of cape Pillar is about 74 40' W. 



PASSAGE OF THE VENUS. 79 

vessel labor extremely ami deadened her way, as we bad to 
take it abeam. At daylight on the 15th, the sea having 
moderated, I bore up ; the ship rolled 35 to one side and 
28 to the other. 

"On the 16th, the wind being from NW. and E"., hauled up * 
on the starboard tack. During the night of the Kith and 17th 
the barometer read: At midnight 28 in .74; at 1 a. m. 28 iu .54; 
at 3 a. in. 28 in .31 ; at 5 a. m. 28 iQ .27. The wind suddenly 
failed, and we had scarcely time to set enough canvas to 
keep the ship steady against the broken sea, when a mod- 
erate breeze set in from S., freshening by degrees, and haul- 
ing to SW. After this the weather improved, and on the 
21st we were able to cast loose the guns, and dry tbe deck 
under the carriages. On the evening of the 23d we thought 
we sighted land at Bucalemo, and on the morning of the 
24th made Valparaiso light, after a 15 days' passage from 
cape Pillar." 

Passage of the Venus Captain Koy from cape Pillar to 
Valparaiso : 

"We passed through the straits in four days and six 
hours. The thermometer only once fell as low as 44.5. 
We had splendid weather for a landfall at cape Virgins, 
and very little wind in the strait. The fog was quite thick 
and rendered it difficult for us to see the land at the western 
end of the strait; but this was compensated for by a smooth 
sea and a light breeze from N. and NW., which lasted until 
the following day, enabling us to make 60 miles to west- 
ward, under steam. On the 13th February, at 6.30 p. m., 
the breeze came out from WJS W. ; we then hauled fires and 
made sail. On the 15th the wind hauled to NW. and K"., 
and increased, obliging us to lie to. On the 16th the wind 
fell a little, returning toward WNW. and W., from which 
points it blew freshly, until the 19th, when it shifted to 
SW. and SSW., blowing a gale with a heavy sea, but giving 
us good way. On the 21st, being at 41 S., 81 40' W., the 
barometer, which had fallen to 29 in .37 with the wind from 
K, rose to 30 in .47 with winds from SW. ; the wind then 
abated and shifted to SSB. and SB., from which points it 
blew with great strength the following day. It gradually 
diminished until the morning of the 24th, when it died 
away altogether, after having brought us 90 miles from 
point Coronilla. Lighted fires and steamed. The horizon 



80 CRUISE OF THE BELLIQUEUSE. 

was very foggy, and, contrary to my expectation, we did not, 
sight land before dark. At 10 p. m. we sighted Valparaiso, 
where we dropped anchor on the 25th February, at 9 a. m. 
In this passage we were fortunate enough to lose nothing 
*in latitude after leaving cape Pillar, and were able to make 
our westing so as to cross 50 S. at 78 W., after which 
we bore up toward our destination.' 7 

We will conclude with the account of the cruise of the 
iron-clad Belliqueuse, flag-ship of Admiral Penhoat, (Ann. 
Hydr., vol. 30 :) 

" After doubling cape Pillar, (a sharp-pointed sugar-loaf, 
united to the land by a low isthmus,) on the 6th of March, 
we stood on our course to the westward. My intention had 
been to pursue this route to 80 W., but about 2 a. m. the 
breeze which had set in from W. at midnight, freshened 
considerably, and, the sea increasing, we steamed only about 
3 knots. The wind then shifting to WSW., the fires were 
banked, and we hauled up on the port tack, on a JS"W. by 
N. course. 

" On the 7th of March we were at 50 S. and 78 03' W. 
The breeze continued to freshen, the gusts became heavier 
and more frequent, soon blowing a gale. We lay to under 
two close-reefed topsails, two reefs in the fore trysail, and 
the storm stay-sail. 

"On the evening of the 8th the wind moderated, and 
finally died away, though the sea still ran very high. The 
wind soon came out strong from NNW. ; we then went 
about on the starboard or west tack, with two reefs in the 
topsails. About 3 a. m. it blew a violent squall from NW. 
to SW. ; but shortly after the wind died away, and the 
weather improved. 

During these gusts we had been carried considerably to 
the eastward, but had gained in latitude. In the evening 
we were 60 miles west of the middle of Campana island, 
with a light breeze from SW., but the sea still so rough 
that the vessel could make BO headway under sail. The 
fires were lighted, and we continued on our course to 
the west. On the llth of March a good breeze set in 
from SW., and the sea became considerably smoother. 
Hauled fires and made sail. The same day we crossed 45 
S. at 78 40' W. ; from this point we had favorable breezes 
from SW., shifting to S. and SE. On the evening of the 



FROM CAPE HORN TO THE u INTERMEDIATE PORTS." 



81 



15th we were 45 miles from Valparaiso, where we anchored 
the 17th of March." 

45. EOUTE FROM CAPE HORN OR THE STRAIT OF MA- 
GELLAN TO THE " INTERMEDIATE PORTS " OF COQUIMBO, 

MEXILLONES, ISLAY, IQUIQUE, AND ARICA. The route to 
be followed to reach these ports is nearly the same as that 
prescribed for making Valparaiso, (vide 44.) The vessel 
should be steered so as to make land about 28 or 30 S., 
(unless the destination be Coquimbo ;) thence follow the 
coast with a steady wind from S. and SE., (vide 22,) keep- 
ing between 5 and 15 miles from shore. The position can 
always be obtained by sighting the land, and a good land- 
fall can be made, which the winds and currents might pre- 
vent if the off shore were followed. 

If it is not deemed advisable to approach the land so far to 
the southward of the destination, steer for the island of Juan 
Fernandez. Here the chronometers can be corrected, and 
the main land afterward approached with greater assurance. 

46. ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN OR THE STRAIT OF MA- 
GELLAN TO CALLAO. Ships bound to Callao, from cape 
Horn or the strait of Magellan, will first steer as if they 
were going to Valparaiso. Their route will only be differ- 
ent after leaving about 40 S. ; from this parallel they will, 
if possible, steer a little more to the northward. We will, 
however, give a few observations, relative to this passage, 
for each season of the year; these will complete those 
given in 44, to which the reader should first refer. In in January. 
January, after having crossed 50 S. at 79 40' W., or even 
a little to the westward of that meridian, if possible, ships 
coming from cape Horn should shape their course so as to 
cut 45 S. at 79 40'. Between 45 and 40 S. it is prefer- 
able to keep to the eastward of 80 W., where the winds 
would appear to be steadier and more favorable than far- 
ther to the westward. Cross 40 S. at 77 40' W., and 
make the northing from 40 to 30 S., between 77 and 78 
W., as the winds near those meridians are more favorable. 
A light SSW. to SSE. wind will probably be found near 
30 S. and 77 W., which will shift to SE. beyond 25 S. ; 
thence the passage to Callao will be easily accomplished. 

In February, after having crossed 40 S. near 79 40' W., In February, 
there is no better rule than to sail immediately to the north- 
ward. In case winds blow from N. or NW., which rarely 
GN 



82 



ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN TO CALLAO. 



happens, keep the sails full. The wind is sure to shift soon 
to its usual quarter, WS W. and SW. Between 40 and 35 
S. the wind is more favorable and steadier east of 80 W. 
than to the westward of this meridian ; the reverse is the 
case between 35 and 30 S. Beyond 30 S. the wind will 
always be favorable. The 30th parallel should be crossed 
between 78 and 80 W. 

in March. In March, beyond 40 S. and 78 W or 78 40' W., the 

winds will be generally favorable, though as far as 30 S. 
they frequently blow from NW. Make as much northing 
as possible without hugging the wind too closely, and keep 
between 76 and 80 W. 

When there are leading winds it is well to keep as close 
as possible to the meridians 79 and 80, so as to prolong the 
port tack in case of a series of winds from NW. or JSTNW. 

It is also important not to cross 30 S. to the westward 
of 80 W. ; this parallel should be crossed between 77 and 
80 W. The winds will be constantly favorable from this 
point to Callao. 

in April. In April, after having reached 35 S., near 76 W., (vide 

44 7 ) steer to the northward. The winds will be generally 
favorable, though frequently from NNE. to NNW. It is ad- 
vantageous to cross 3Qo g. ? between 73 10' and 74 40' W. 
From this point steer so as to cross 25 S. at 74 W. ; the 
winds are here nearly always steady between SSE.and SSW.; 
thence the winds are favorable. Though this route is more 
easterly than those for the preceding months, still it is ad- 
visable to follow it, as NW. winds are common between the 
parallels 30 and 25, and west of 75 W. This unfavorable 
direction of the wind is even more noticeable farther to the 
westward. 

in May. In May, if it is possible, cross 40 S. between 78 W and 

79 40' W, From 40 to 30 S., the winds usually vary from 
NNE. to NW. and WNW., occasionally interrupted by 
winds from SW. 

Unfavorable northerly winds are still more frequent, and 
the breeze generally less steady to westward of 80 W. It 
is therefore well to keep between 78 and 80 W. in mak- 
ing to the northward, and to choose that tack which will 
-f 1 " help most to run down the latitude. After having crossed 
30 S. near 79 W., the dominant winds are from SB.; they 
will become steadier as the vessel makes to the northward, 



11OUTE FKOM CAPE HORN TO CALLAO. 



83 



though there is always a chance of finding a breeze from 
NNE. to NW. as far as 20 S. This mouth corresponds to 
the beginning of the winter season, (vide 21.) 

In June, 40 S. should be crossed to westward of 80 W., In June - 
if possible at 81 or 82 W. The parallel of 35 should be. 
crossed if it can be done between 80 and 83 W. ; here the 
winds blow nearly as often from N. and NNW. as from SW. 
To the eastward of 80 W., the chances are not so good. 
Beyond 35 S. the winds are generally favorable to 30 S., 
which you should try to cross between 78 10' and 80 10' 
W. Afterward continue to steer to the northward, keeping 
to eastward of 80 W.j^the winds will be throughout favor- 
able. 

In July, cross 40 S. and 35 S. between 80 and 82 W.; in July. 
30 S. between 78 and 80 W., and 25 S. between 77 
and 80 W., taking care, however, not to go farther to the 
westward. These crossings, or rather this large belt, would 
seem to be the most favorable for vessels making passage 
to the northward under sail. However, N. and NW. winds 
are always to be expected at this season, and often keep 
vessels jammed on the wind until they have passed 25 S. 

August is also an unfavorable mouth; the following cross- in August, 
ings are, however, the best: 40 S. between 80 and 82 
W. ; 35, 30, and 25 S., crossed successively between 77 
and 80 W. Between 40 and 35 S. there is apt to be a 
series of winds from NNE. to NW., while southerly winds 
prevail between 35 and 25 S. Beyond 25 S. the winds 
are generally favorable. 

In September, make as much northing as possible be- in September. 
tween 40 and 30 S., keeping, as much as circumstances 
will allow, between 77 and 79 W. The winds often blow 
from SW., but there will sometimes be a series of NW. 
winds, though they are less common than during the pre- 
ceding months. Beyond 30 S. the wind is favorable, and 
from S. to SE. * , 

In October, cross 40 S. near 79 40' W. if possible, (vide in October. 
44.) After passing this parallel, make to the northward, 
keeping between 79 and 82 W. In this part of the route 
the winds are almost always favorable, varying generally 
from WN W. to S W., S., and SE. Cross 30 S. at about 80 
W.j thence the winds predominate from S. to SE. 



84 ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN TO PANAMA. 

in November. In November, it will be found .better to cross 4(P S. east 
of 80 W., as the winds are here a trifle better than to the 
west of this meridian : besides, farther to northward the 
NW. winds become rarer, and are inclined to shift to SW., 
S., and SE. After crossing 30 S., between 77 and 80 W., 
southerly and southeasterly winds predominate. 

in December. In December, the same route is advisable, with this dif- 
ference, that it is still more important to cross 40 S. east 
of 8Qo \y., between 78 and 80 W., for example, You will 
generally find favorable winds from some point between 
WSW. and S. NW. winds are rare. The chances are even 
more favorable north of the parallel 35; here the wind fre- 
quently blows from SS W. to S. and SSE. Beyond 30 S., 
which should be crossed between 77 and 78 W., steady S. 
and SE. winds prevail. 

47. EOUTE FROM CAPE HORN OR FROM THE STRAIT 

OF MAGELLAN TO PAYTA AND GUAYAQUIL. The in- 
structions given in paragraphs 44 and 46 should be followed. 
SE. trades are met at 30 S.; afterward steer directly for 
the port, with favorable winds; or sight "Lobos de 
Afuera' 7 and point Aguja, afterward passing close to cape 
Blanco if the destination be Guayaquil. Additional in- 
structions will be found in 56. 

48. EOUTE FROM CAPE HORN OR THE STRAIT OF 
MAGELLAN TO PANAMA. The observations given in para- 
graphs 44 and 46 are applicable as far as 30 S. Here 
steady trades will be encountered from S. and SE. The 
route then passes about 30 or 40 miles from point Aguja 
and cape Blanco. Thence head to the northward, with 
leading winds, so as to make cape San Francisco if need be. 
In this neighborhood the land is high, bluff, and covered 
with large trees ; the sea-breeze blowing from S., the land- 
breeze from SSE. To the southward of the line, say 5 S. 
of the equator, the winds are nearly always favorable ; 
still, be on the watch for northwesterly winds, as they 
sometimes blow from February to June. During these 
months it is advisable to pass about 100 or 150 miles from 
cape Blanco, so as to be able to make a good stretch on the 
port tack : rap full if you happen to have a NW. wind. 
When the wind blows from NNE. or NE., which, however, 
seldom happens except in May, keep well full on the starboard 
tack. North of the line the winds are generally favorable, 



ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN TO MAZATLAN. 85 

except in January, February, and March, when they fre- 
quently blow from the northward, (vide 23.) 

For full directions on the latter part of this voyage, vide 
54. 

49. ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN OR THE STRAIT OF 
MAGELLAN TO ACAPULCO, SAN BLAS, AND MAZATLAN. 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R. N., makes the following notes 
on this passage: "Supposing a vessel, bound for the 
western coast of Mexico, safely round cape Horn, and run- 
ning before the southerly gale which almost constantly 
blows along the shore of South America, she ought to shape 
a course so as to cross the equator in about 98 or 99 W. 
long., so that when she gets the NE. trade she will be at 
least six or seven degrees to the eastward of her port, San 
Bias or Mazatlan, and have at the same time a sufficient 
offing from the Galapagos islands to avoid their currents 
and variable winds. 

" We crossed in 105 W. long., having been recommend- 
ed to do so by some old merchants at Valparaiso, and were 
consequently, although a remarkably fast-sailing ship, a 
lamentably long time making the distance. Our track led 
us to be exactly in the same longitude as our port when 
we got the trade, and it hanging well to the northward, we 
were constantly increasing our distance until in the latitude 
of San Bias, when an in-shore tack of course shortened it. 
But by the course I have recommended the first of the 
NE. trade will drive the vessel into the meridian of her 
port, and she will thus daily decrease her distance. 

U 0are must be taken, in standing in for land, not to get 
to leeward of San Bias, as there is a strong southerly cur- 
rent along the coast, especially off cape Corrientes." 

These instructions are meant for vessels bound to San 
Bias or Mazatlan. Those bound to Acapulco, Istapa or 
Realejo should cross the line more to the eastward, where, 
however, calms are common, particularly near the Galapa- 
gos islands in January, February, and March. It will there- 
fore be advantageous to cross the equator between 86 
and 88 "W., if running for one of the eastern ports of the 
Mexican coast, or about 98 W. if bound to one of the 
western. Steamers can, of course, run through the " dol- 
drums" whenever most convenient. 



86 ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN TO MAZATLAN. 

In paragraph 55 will be found an account of an easterly 
passage between Callao and San Jose de Guatemala, (Frig- 
ate Havana.} We will also give in 60 the remarks of 
Captain Wood on the passage between the Galapagos 
islands and cape St. Lucas. Information on the winds and 
currents of this passage may also be found in paragraphs 1, 
24, and 39. 

We would also state that instructions have been given 
on the route between cape Horn and the equator in 44 
and 46. 

in January, From a careful study of the wind-charts the following 
March Uary ' an facts are deduced concerning the voyage from the line to 
the port of destination. In January, February, and March, 
ships bound to Acapulco, San Bias, and Mazatlan should 
cross the line at about 100 W. They should steer, the 
winds being strong and steady from SE. and S., so as 
to reach 10 N. near the meridian of their port. If they 
are going to Acapulco, they should cross 10 K, between 
101 and 103 W. Thence, till they make the laud, they 
will have from 6 to 7 per cent, of calms, and NW., jS"., and 
NE. winds. Ships going to San Bias and Mazatlan should 
cross the parallel of 10 between 105 and 107 W. Be- 
yond this point they are liable to about 5 per cent, of calms 
and variable winds from NE. to NW. 

During this season, vessels bound to Istapa and Eealejo 
should cross the equator between 85 and 87 W. They 
will then have about 5 per cent, of calms, and variable SE. 
and S. winds. The parallel of 10 N. should be crossed to 
the eastward of the meridian of Istapa or Eealejo, as the 
case may be ; as NE. and N W. winds are common north of 
10 N., ships keeping to the westward of 78 or 80 W. 
are very likely to be becalmed after passing 10 IS". 

in April, May, In April, May, and June, vessels bound to Acapulco 
should cross the line in the neighborhood of 97 or 98 W. 
Thence they will be able to make quick time to the north- 
ward, with the wind quite steady from SE. and S. 

They should reach 10 K at about 97 W., and will be 
exposed to more and more calms as they sail to the north ; 
especially if they run to the westward of the meridians 98 
or 100 W. The southerly winds die away on approaching 
Acapulco, and come out from E., NE., and N. This is a 
very long and tedious passage for sailing-vessels. 



ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN TO MAZATLAN. 87 

Vessels bound to San Bias and Mazatlan should cross 
the equator at about 98 W. They should then steer so as 
to cross IQo & between 100^ and 102 W.; the SE. breeze 
dying away toward the parallel of 10. North of 10 it is 
usually calm, though light airs are found, especially from 
NE. to N., as far as 20 N. ; beyond this parallel steady W. 
and NW. winds generally prevail. Ships are sometimes 
becalmed for a long time, between 10 and 20 N. 

Ships going to Kealejo and Istapa should cross the equa- 
tor between 85 and 87 W. From this point they can 
easily steer for their destination with southerly winds, vary- 
ing at times from SW. to SE. 

In July, August, and September the route for vessels pu T 9 ( 
bound to Acapulco is shorter than that of the preceding ber> 
months. They should cross the line at about 96 or 97 
W., and steer with the variable southerly and southeasterly 
breeze, so as to reach 10 N. at 98 W. Thence they will 
be exposed to more and more calms as they approach and 
pass 100 W. In the neighborhood of 15 N., variable N W. 
and SE. winds may be expected. 

Ships bound to San Bias and Mazatlan shoukl cross the 
line in the neighborhood of 100 W. The SE. trades are here 
prevalent, and will be kept as far as 10 N. This parallel 
should be crossed at about 107 or 108 W. Beyond 10 N. 
there are about 6 per cent, of calms, and the prevailing winds 
are westerly, varying from NW. to SW. If possible cross 
15o N. at about 108 or 109 W. Beyond 15^ N., NW. 
winds are common as far as Mazatlan or San Bias. The 
chance of meeting calms will be at first 6 per cent, j it will 
afterward increase, and reach as high as 11 per cent, beyond 
20 N. If the above crossings be followed the last part of 
the passage will be rendered easier, for the course can be 
laid at NNE. on the port tack. 

Ships bound to Istapa and Kealejo should cross the equa- 
tor at about 85 W. They will find very favorable south- 
erly winds, varying from S W. to SE., until they reach their 
anchorage. 

In October, November, and December vessels going to 
Acapulco should cross the line near 96 or 97 W., and cember 
then, with favorable winds from S. to SE., head for 10 N. 
at about the same longitude. 

Beyond 10 N. both easterly and westerly winds are fre- 



88 ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN TO SAN FRANCISCO. 

quent, with 5 per cent, of chances of calms. On approach- 
ing 15 N., which should be crossed between 98 and 99 
W., the chance of meeting calms and NW. winds becomes 
much greater. The latter part of this route can be greatly 
shortened by vessels with steam-power. We do not think 
that even sailing-vessels need follow a more westerly route ; 
for west of 100 W., and north of 10., there are 9 per cent, 
of chances of calms, and NW. and NE. winds. 

Vessels going to San Bias and Mazatlan are obliged to 
make their northing in the unfavorable belt above men- 
tioned. They should cross 10 N. near 106 or 107 W., 
where they will have steady winds from SE. They should 
then try to get as far as possible to the northward, taking 
advantage of the NW., N., and NE. breezes, and going 
about whenever they can make to the northward. 

Vessels bound to Realejo or Istapa will make good head- 
way with the southerly winds, from the line between 86 
and 88 W. to 10 N., crossed a little to the westward of 
the port of destination. The wind becomes variable after 
passing this parallel ; in fact westerly winds are the com- 
monest, the usual directions being NNE., NNW., NW., 
and sometimes WSW. 

50. ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN OR THE STRAIT OF MAGEL- 
LAN TO SAN FRANCISCO. Captain Osboru says : " I would 
cross the equator in about 100 W. longitude, cross the NE. 
trade with a topmast studding-sail set, and thus pass into 
the limit of the westerly winds about 300 miles to windward 
of the Sandwich islands, and once in them take good care 
to keep to the northward of any port, for as you approach 
the shore the wind will draw round north, and the current 
to the southward increase." 

This advice is good, with the exception of the point at 
which the line should be crossed. 

We give below a summary of Maury's instructions, to 
which we shall add a few remarks on the best points of 
crossing, taken from information furnished by the late 
Superintendent of the Naval Observatory at Washington : 

" The California-bound vessels should aim to enter the SE. 
trade-wind region of the Pacific as far to the west, provided 
they keep on the eastern side, say, of 118 W., as they well 
can ; they should not fight with head winds to make westing, 
nor should they turn much from the direct course when the 






ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN TO SAN FRANCISCO. 89 

winds are fair. But when winds are dead ahead, stand off 
to the westward, especially if you be south of the trade- 
wind region. Having crossed the parallel of 35 S. and 
taken the trades, the navigator, with the wind quartering 
and all sails drawing, should now make the best of his way 
to the equator, aiming to cross it between 105 and 120, 
according to the season of the year and the directions and 
tables hereinafter given. 

"In urging upon California-bound vessels the importance 
of making westing about the parallel of 50 S., 1 do not 
mean that they should expose themselves to heavy weather, 
or contend against adverse circumstances, in order to get 
west on this part of the route. I simply mean that, if a 
vessel, after doubling the cape, can steer a WNW. course, 
as well as a NW., or a NW. as well as a NXW., or a NNW. 
as well as a is", course, that she should on all such occa- 
sions give preference to the course that has most westing 
in it, provided she does not cross 50 S. to the westward 
of 10(P or thereabouts, nor 30 S. to the westward of 115, 
nor enter the SE. trade-wind region to the west of the last- 
named meridian. This is the western route, and is to be 
preferred by all vessels at all seasons. 

" Between the equator and 10 or 12 K., according to 
the season of the year, the California-bound navigator may 
expect to lose the SE. and to get the NB. trade winds. 
He will find these last nearest the equator in January, 
February, and March ; but in July, August, and Septem- 
ber he will sometimes find himself to the north of the par- 
allel of 15 N. before he gets fairly in the KE. trades. And 
sometimes, especially in summer and fall, he will not get 
them at all, unless he keeps well out to the west. Having 
them, he should steer a good rap-full, at least, aiming, of 
course, to cross the parallel of 20 N. in about 125 W., or 
rather not to the east of that, particularly from June to No- 
vember. His course, after crossing 20 N., is necessarily 
to the northward and westward until he loses the NE. 
trades. He should aim to reach the latitude of his port 
without going to the west of 130 W., if he can help it, or 
without approaching nearer than 250 or 300 miles to the 
land until he passes out of the belt of the NE. trades, and 
gets into the variables, the prevailing direction of which is 
westerly. 



90 ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN TO SAN FRANCISCO. 

" The Farallones, seven small islands, about 30 miles from 
San Francisco, are in the fair-way to the harbor. They 
afford a fine landmark, and should be made by all inward- 
bound vessels. The course from the south Farallone to the 
mouth of the harbor is about N. 73 E. ; true distance 27 

I miles. The fort on the south point of Alcatraz island is 
said to be the best course in. Vessels, upon approaching 
the heads of San Francisco, especially in the winter months, 
are liable to be beset by fogs, and delayed for many days. 

" Between the northwest coast and the meridian of 130 
W., from 30 to 40 N., the prevailing direction of the wind 
in summer and fall is from the northward and westward; 
whereas, to the west of 130, and between the same paral- 
lels, the NE. trades are the prevailing winds for these two 
seasons. There is a marked difference in the directions of 
the winds on the opposite sides of the meridian of 130 W. 
in the North Pacific. 

" Vessels bound to San Francisco should not, unless 
forced by adverse winds, go any farther beyond the merid- 
ian of 130 W. than they can help. 

" Supposing that vessels generally will be able to reach 
30 N. without crossing the meridian of 130 W., the distance 
per great circle from cape Horn to its point of intersection 
with that parallel is about 6,000 miles. 

"And supposing, moreover, that California-bound vessels 
will generally, after doubling cape Horn, be able to cross 
the parallel of 50 S. between the meridians of 80 and 100 
W,, their shortest distance in miles thence to 30 N., at its 
intersection with the meridian of 130 W., would be to 
cross 40 S. in about 100 W. ; 30 S. in about 104 ; 20 S. 
in about 109; the equator in 117Q W.; and 30 K. about 
130 W., (126 if you can.) By crossing the line 10 farther 
to the east or 10 farther to the west of 117, the great cir- 
cle distance from cape Horn to the intersection of 30 N. 
with 130 W. will be increased only 150 miles. 

" Navigators appear to think that the turning-point on a 
California voyage is the place of crossing the equator in 
the Pacific. But the crossing which may give the shortest 
run thence to California may not be the crossing which it is 
most easy to make from the United States or Europe ; and 
it is my wish to give in these Sailing Directions the routes 
which, on the average, will afford the shortest passages to 



ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN TO SAN FRANCISCO. 



91 



vessels that have doubled cape Ilorn and are bound direct 
to California." 

Such is the principal advice given by Maury on the pas- 
sage between cape Horn and San Francisco. We will add 
the following remarks. 

After leaving cape Horn it is well to make as much west- 
ing as possible. Vessels are quite certain to be delayed* 
not only by the wind, which often blows from W., but by 
the strength of this wind, and the heavy swell and rough 
sea it causes. It should, therefore, be understood that the 
advice to make westing merely means to neglect no oppor- 
tunity of getting to the westward whenever it can be done 
without making anything to the southward. In 44 and 
46 detailed instructions will be found on the part of the pas- 
sage between the cape and 30 or 25 S. ; that is on the 
route to be followed to reach the SE. trades. 

After entering this zone it is perfectly easy to steer for 
the equatorial crossing. But it is an open question at 
which point it is best to cross. We shall, therefore, pursue 
this question still further with the view of determining its 
best solution. 

We will first give the following table, (extracted from the 
Sailing Directions,) which gives for each month the average 
of the shortest passages which were made prior to 1854 : 

Mean of the best passages prior to 1854 from 50 S. to San Francisco. 



Months. 


Ifo. of passages from 
which the mean has 
been taken. 


Longitudes west at which the paral- 
lels have been crossed. 


Days of passage. 


02 
1 


02 




i 


02 

1 


02 

S 


& 


From 50 S. 
to the line. 


a 
58 

5-3 

a 

! 


32 = 

ji 

|*i 

43J 
45 
49 

54* 
55 
55 

51 
56 
45 

47 
47 
43 


January ...... 


9 
8 
13 

9 
12 
11 

6 
8 
4 

12 
11 
10 


o 
80 

82 
82 

83 

82 
82 

82 

84 
82 

80 
83 
83 




83 
85 

85 

87 
85 
84 

88 
86 
88 

82 
85 
83 




87 
88 
88 

86 

87 
86 

90 
85 

87 

84 
84 

84 


o 
90 
90 
89 

89 

87 
89 

92 

87 
87 

86 
84 

87 




92 
93 
93 

92 
90 
91 

95 
90 
90 

89 
88 
91 




111 
111 
110 

109 
109 
110 

115 
108 
111 

110 
108 
113 


22J 
25 
25 

24* 

24| 
27 

23 
25 
21 

24 
24 
22 


21 
20 
24 

30 
30i 
2ti 

28 
31 
24 

23 
23 
21 


February . 


March 


April . . 


May 


June 


July 


August 


September 


October .. 


November 


December 





92 ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN TO SAN FRANCISCO. 

After an examination of this table, we determined to see 
if there would not be some advantage, at certain seasons of 
the year, in crossing the equator on a more westerly merid- 
ian. With this intention we constructed the following table : 

For each mouth, we have placed on the first line the 
mean point of crossing, corresponding to the most rapid 
passages which have been made between the equator and Cal- 
ifornia. These points of crossing, as well as the number of 
days at sea from the line to San Francisco, have been taken 
from the tables in Maury's work. The number of days 
of passage from 50 S. to the line is placed in the first 
line, and represents the means of the monthly tables of 
routes. 

The second line for each month contains analogous in- 
formation, taken from the preceding table, and which cor- 
responds to the best passages made before 1854. 

Thus the first line is reserved for the new or westerly 
routes j the second line for the best routes prior to 1854. 

In comparing these two lines, it is important to note 
that the total number of days of passage for the old route 
(second lines for each month) corresponds to the observed 
minimum. 

But it is not so for the first lines of each month (western 
routes,) for which the number of days of passage from the 
line to San Francisco only represents the minimum. We 
have not been able to determine the minimum number of 
days from 50 S. to the line, and have confined ourselves 
to putting the monthly mean in its place. 



ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN TO SAN FRANCISCO. 



93 



Comparison between the eastern and western routes, from cape Horn to San 

Francisco. 



Months during 
which the lino 
was crossed. 


Number of passages 
of which the mean 
was taken. 


Meridians between 
which the line was 
crossed. 


Number of days of passage 


From 500 g. to 
the line. 


II 

<e* 

5 a 

-2 '5 


0* 

21 

II 
lls 


January 


4 
9 

1 

8 

13 
13 

7 
9 

13 
12 

21 
11 

7 
6 

3 

8 

5 
4 

16 
12 

14 
11 

3 

10 


Longitude W. 
Between 115 and 125 
At 111 


23 
22* 

22 
25 

31 

25 

29 
24J 

3 

30 
27 

31 

a 

33 

25 

25 
21 

25| 
24 

26 
24 

25 
22 


From 18 to 19. 
21 

18 
20 

25 
24 

93 

30 

2H 
30i 

f 32 
28 

From 29 to 30. 

28 

25 
31 

20 
24 

26 
23 

24 
23 

18 
21 


w 

rt 

40 
45 

56 
49 

52 
54J 

S 5 

62 
55 

From 60 to 61. 
51 

58 
56 

51 
45 

51| 

47 

50 

47 

43 
43 


Between 115 and 12(P 
At 111 


March 


Between 11(P and 115 
At 110 


April 


Between 115 and 120 
At 109 


May 


BetweenllOandl?0 
At 109 




Between 110 and 120 
At 110 


July 


Between 115 and 125 
At 115 




Between 105 and 110 
At 108 


September 
October 


Between 115 and 125 
At 111 


Between 110 and 120 
At 110 


November 
December 


Between 110 and 120 
At 108 . 


Between 115 and 120 C 
At 113 





Notwithstanding the unfavorable manner in which this 
table was necessarily constructed, it will still be seen that 
the total length of the passages, on the first line for each 
month, is less than the total length of those on the second 
line in January, February, and April. 

This result shows that there is some advantage in follow- 
ing a western route, at least during the above-mentioned 
months. 

Findlay also states that the mean passage from 50 8. to 
San Francisco, is 53J days for ships that cross the equator 
between 115 and 120 W. ; while it is 53.8 days for those 
which cross the line between 110 and 115. This fact 



94 ROUTE FROM CAPE HORN TO SAN FRANCISCO. 

again shows that there is an advantage to be gained (how - 
ever slight) by taking a westerly route. 

In conclusion we would state that the line should never 

be crossed, by sailing-vessels, to the eastward of 110 W. 

Februar^aiui "^ n J anuar y? February, and March cross 10 N. between 

March ua 1U 120 and 123 W. To the southward of this point the 

trades blow ; but soon after leaving 10 N. the wind will 

come out steady from NE. 

The change will generally take place without an inter- 
vening calm. Vessels will be able to steer a little free 
through the NE. trades; as 20 N. will not have to be crossed 
to the eastward of 128 W., nor 30 N. to the eastward of 
133 W. Beyond 30 N. the wind will become variable, first 
hauling to ENE. Make as much to the northward as pos- 
sible ; but do not attempt to make any easting until the 
region of westerly winds, or what is generally the same, the 
latitude of San Francisco, is reached. 

in April, May, In April, May, and June, cross the line between 118 
and 1230 W.; here the wind prevails from SB., and the 
course can be laid to reach 10 N., between 123 and 125 
W. Thence keep the sails well full, with the NE. trades, 
which will often haul to N. and stand on the same tack to 
30 ^ between 133 and 138 W. 

The last part of the passage will be the same as that for 

the preceding mouths; and the winds will not generally 

become favorable, or westerly, south of 37 or 39 N. 

in July, An- J 11 Jul.V> August, and September, the best point to cross 

jst,andseptein- the ]ine j s about -^50 \\r. . an d the parallel HP N. at 130 

W. The SE. trades will be carried across the line and as 
far as this latter parallel ; but from 10 to 20 N"., about 
7 per cent, of calms and prevailing KB. breezes may be 
looked for ; SW. winds have also been found in this locality. 
Cross 20 N., between 133 and 136 VV.; beyond this 
parallel the steady NE. trades will be found, and the at- 
tempt should be made to cross 30 N. near 140 W. After 
this the wind may be very variable in direction, though 
probably from the northward and eastward as far north as 
34 or 30 N., where the first puffs of the westerly wind will 
be felt. To make a quick passage run well up into the 
zone of west winds, and make the easting to the northward 
of the parallel of San Francisco. 



ROUTE FROM VALPARAISO TO CALLAO. 95 



In October, November, and December the equator should ^^i^JJJ 1 De- 
be crossed near 113 W. ; and 10 X. between 118 and 120 cember.' 
W. The SE. trades will be carried to nearly 10 N., ves- 
sels usually running from one set of trade-winds into the 
other without any intervening calms; then keep a point 
or two free, and cross 20 N. between 127 and 129 W. It 
will, however, be necessary to lay a little closer when be- 
tween 20 and 30 K, so as to reach the latter parallel at 
133 or 134 W. As the wind becomes variable north of 
30, advantage should be taken of every favorable slant. 
The parallel of 38, or perhaps 40, once reached, bear to 
the eastward with the west wind, taking care, however, to 
cross the 130th meridian north of the parallel of San Fran- 
cisco; as northerly winds in that locality are common. 

51. KOUTE FROM VALPARAISO TO THE INTERMEDI- 
ATE PORTS AND CALLAO.* Remarks by M. Lartigne, (vide 
S. Pacific Directory, page 911.) " The navigation of the 
Peruvian coast is very easy in summer ; the land-breezes 
are moderate ; the weather, which is generally clear, allows 
the latitude to be observed nearly every day, and to recog- 
nize, by this means, the part of the coast opposite to which 
you may be. There is then no inconvenience in keeping a 
moderate distance off, so as to meet with fresh breezes, and 
thus shorten the passage. 

"The weather, which is often cloudy in winter, will not 
allow of observations to be taken every day, and you must 
then direct your course by your dead reckoning, or from 
the more remarkable objects tying on the coast. Those 
which are met with between the Quebrada Camarones and 
the valley of Tambo may be made out at a considerable 
distance, so that when between these two remarkable points 
you may proceed by keeping 20 or 25 miles off the land. 
At this distance the sea-breezes keep up through the greater 
part of the night. 

"The only objects at all remarkable that are to be met 
with between the valley of Tambo and that of Quilca, are 
the points of Islay and Cornajo, but these cannot be made 
out at more than ]0 or 12 miles off, for when farther off 

* Intermediate ports (" Intermedias") is the name given to the har- 
bors along the west coast of S. America between Valparaiso and Callao. 
Translator. 



96 ROUTE FROM VALPARAISO TO CALLAO. 

they appear confounded with the, high land of Peru. It 
seems that in this season, you must continue to fix your 
position by the sight of the land, and so follow the coast at 
less than 10 or 12 miles distant ; but as you then only find 
light airs, interrupted by calms, which may last for several 
days together, you run the risk of being carried too near 
the land by the heavy swell which is felt on all its extent. 
The depth off it is considerable, and the quality of the bot- 
tom very bad ; it is only at the opening of the valleys that 
you can hope to find, at 2 or 3 miles from the shore, less 
than 30 fathoms water, over a bottom of mud or fine sand. 
The only advantage that will be gained by sailing so near 
the land will be to profit by the slightest breeze to get an 
anchorage, and to be seldom exposed to the chance of over- 
running it ; but these advantages, as will be seen, are nob 
of a nature to compensate for the inconveniences, or rather 
the dangers, to which a ship is exposed. 

" It would, therefore, be better to sail farther off the 
laud, keeping at 20 or 25 miles 7 distance ; as when between 
the Quebrada Camarones and the valley of Tambo, the 
swell is not felt at this distance, and the winds will be 
fresh; but the currents, which constantly run to NW.. 
cause the reckoning to be very erroneous, and you may be 
carried to lee ward of your port or the anchorage you maybe 
seeking. Beyond this, this inconvenience is without dan- 
ger, and cannot occasion more than a hindrance ; for in re- 
turning to the required destination, sailing to the south- 
ward, you must run to the offing, bear up to the wind, and 
then, approaching the land, reach the port which has been 
overrun. It is, notwithstanding, necessary, following the 
general rule, to make an exception, which in some circum- 
stances may shorten the passage. We have said that the 
breeze was sometimes tolerably fresh, and that then the 
counter-current, which runs to the south along the land, 
extends some miles in the offing ; it is evident that it would 
be better to work in this counter-current, at all times when 
the force of the wind allows it, and you have not overran 
your port more than 5 or 10 miles ; but if you should have 
done so to a greater distance, it will be preferable to take 
directly the first course, and profit by this breeze to get 
away from the land. 



FROM VALPARAISO TO CALLAO. 97 

" It will be advantageous to maneuver thus, every time 
you are on any portion of the coast which is described. 

" What has just been said, relative to the mode of navigat- 
ing and running along the coast of which we have just been 
speaking, applied to the portion comprised between the 
valleys of Quilca and Ocona. But it is necessary to observe 
that the valley of Camana, which is as easy to be made out 
at 20 or 25 miles' distance as that of Quilca, has the incon- 
venience, as well as the latter valley, of not being perfectly 
recognizable until it bears to the NE., when it is passed, 
and you cannot reach the anchorage on that tack. 

" In winter, as in summer, you must always be particular 
to approach the land to the south of the intended port, and 
then range the land at a short distance. The breezes being 
fresher in summer and the sea smoother, the land is made 
more easily than in winter." 

Captain Fitz Boy says : " When going to the north- 
ward, along the coast of Chile, steer direct to the place, or 
as nearly so as is consistent with making use of the steady 
winds which prevail in the offing. Little difficulty is found 
in going to the northward along the coast of Peru j a fair 
offing is all that is required to insure any vessel making a 
certain port in a given number of days." 

Captain Chardonneau gives the following instructions for 
the coast of Peru : 

"As fogs are frequent, vessels should not get within 4 
miles of the coast, yet in order to reach their destination 
easily they should not, on the other hand, run out to sea for 
more than 15 miles; that is, the prominent headlands 
should be kept within sight, as no confidence can be placed 
in the dead reckoning on account of the strong and vari- 
able currents." 

This is an easy passage, and we will confine ourselves to M From y&1 
a few observations on the voyage, taken from Capt. BasilparaisotoCaiiao. 
Hall's log while on this coast : 

"From Valparaiso to Callao, 27th January to 5th February, 
1821. The wind on this passage is always nearly the same, 
viz, SSE. It sometimes hauls a point or two to the east- 
ward, but the passage is always practicable. The only pre- 
caution to be attended to is to run well off the land in the 
first instance, say 150 miles, on a NW. course, and then 
steer direct for San Lorenzo, a high and well-defined island 
7 N 



98 FROM VALPARAISO TO CALLAO. 

forming the eastern side of Callao bay. It is usual to make 
the land of Morne Solar, which lies 10 miles to the south- 
ward of Callao, and then run into the roads by the Boqueron 
passage, or proceed around the north end of San Lorenzo. 
In entering by the Boqueron great attention must be paid 
to the lead and the bearings, and an anchor kept ready to 
let go. 

" It is generally calm in the mornings, and sometimes 
fggy but about 11 o'clock it clears up and a breeze 
springs up from the southward, which enables ships to 
reach the anchorage generally without a tack, after round- 
ing the north end of Lorenzo, so that upon the whole this 
outer route, which is entirely free from danger, is preferable 
to the other, at least for a stranger." 

cJiaortouching "Passage made between the 27th May and the 2th June, 
diate h ports terme 1821. From Valparaiso we steered at the distance of about 
60 miles from the coast as far as lat. 22 30' S., when we 
hauled in ; afterward coasted along in sight of the shore, at 
the distance of 20 or 25 miles, as far as Arica. The winds 
being light from SSE., it was not till the 7th June that we 
anchored there. Thence we coasted along by Quilca, Sama 
point, and Ilo to Mollendo, the winds being generally from 
the eastward, and drawing off shore at night ; calm in the 
mornings, and hauling in from the sea in the day; the 
weather invariably fine. From Mollendo to Callao we had 
a fresh breeze off shore about SE. On approaching Solar 
point the wind fell light, and we were obliged to tow the 
ship through the Boqueron passage into Callao roads.' 7 
CaTko^touching "Passage made between the 15th November and the 9th De- 
Hna5, cipipo, cwibWi 1821. The winds during these passages along shore 
and Mo1 " are a l wa y s light and from the southward, hauling in from 
sea during the day and freshening from off the land in the 
night. 

" Between Mollendo and Callao there is a pretty steady 
breeze from ESE., with a drain of current along shore a 
remark which applies to the whole coast from Valparaiso to 
Lima. 

U A remarkable increase of the great SW. swell is observ- 
able at the full and change of the moon, on the coast, es- 
pecially from Arica to Huacho inclusive, a circumstance 
which renders it difficult, and sometimes impossible, to land 
at those places." 



FROM VALPARAISO TO SAN FRANCISCO. 99 

52. ROUTE FROM VALPARAISO TO SAN FRANCISCO. 
After leaving Valparaiso, a ship will generally find no diffi- 
culty in steering NW. and reaching the region of the SE. 
winds. After striking the trades, the course should be 
shaped so as to cross the equator at the point mentioned in 
50. 

53. EOUTE FROM CALLAO TO PAYTA AND GUAYA- 
QUIL. As the wind in this locality always prevails from 
the southward and eastward, the passage from Callao to 
Payta and Guayaquil may be made without any difficulty. 

Capt. Basil Hall gives the following example : 

" Voyage from Callao to Pacasrnayas, Payta, and Guaya- 
quil, 17th to 25th December, 1821. The winds between Cal- 
lao and Guayaquil are moderate from the southward ; at 
night hauling to the southeastward, and in the day from 

ssw. 

"This is the period at which the rains are expected to set 
in, and the heavy, threatening aspect of the clouds over the 
hills gave us reason to expect that we should not escape ; 
but none fell during our stay." 

Vessels coming from Callao should steer to double point 
Aguja, which is long and level, terminated by a bluff about 
160 feet high. 

Vessels bound to Payta will find, " after leaving Foca BoundtoPayta. 
point, a line of cliffs, about 130 feet high extending as far 
as Payta point, which is 9 miles distant, N. by E. Between 
these points and 1 miles from the coast is a group of hills 
called the Silla, or Saddle of Payta, thus described by Capt. 
Basil Hall : "The Silla is sufficiently remarkable; it is high 
and peaked, forming three clusters of peaks, joined together 
at the base, the middle being the highest ; the two north- 
ern ones are of a dark-brown color, the southern is the low- 
est and of a lighter brown. These peaks rise out of a level 
plain, and are an excellent guide to vessels bound for the 
port of Payta from the southward." 

There is no danger in entering the harbor of Payta; after 
rounding the outer point with a signal-station on its ridge, 
False bay will be opened; this must be passed, as the true 
bay is round Inner point. That point ought not to be hug. 
ged too closely, for there are some rocks at the distance of a 
cable's length, and the wind baffles often. After rounding 
Inner point a vessel may anchor where convenient, in quiet, 



100 PEOM CALLAO TO PANAMA. 

still water, in about 6.5 fathoms, oyer a muddy bottom. The 
holding-ground is excellent, and notwithstanding the fresh 
breezes, there is nothing to apprehend. These winds are 
constant every day, setting off the laud from 10 a. m. to 
sunset, but they raise no swell, as they blow over the high 
land. In entering the roadstead it is better to shorten sail 
before rounding the Signal point, as heavy gusts sometimes 
occur in Colorado bay as well as off that point. It is sel- 
dom that the anchorage is reached in one tack, but there is 
plenty of room for working. 

Vessels bound to Guayaquil should make the land at 
point Picos, which is easily known by its sand dunes. 

A few miles farther north is the low, wooded point of Ma 
pelo. 

Ten miles to the northward and westward of this point the 
depth is about 41 fathoms, sand and mud. Vessels should 
pass about 5 miles to the southward of Santa Clara island, 
with a depth of between 15 and 20 fathoms, and then steer 
IN". 59 E. for 25 miles, passing between point Arenas an 
the S. buoy on Mala bank. 

A pilot will generally be found at point Arenas; if not, 
it is easy to reach the anchorage at Puna. The channel W. 
of Mala bank is the best; Mala hill being a good landmark, 
vessels drawing 18 feet can, at high water, clear the bar 
north of Puna (with a pilot) and ascend the river to Guaya- 
quil, a distance of 80 miles. 

54. ROUTE FROM CALLAO TO PANAMA. Paragraph 48 
contains the proper instructions for reaching Panama from 
30 S. The reader should keep in mind, while running 
through the SE. trades that it is advisable to make 
point Aguja and cape Blanco before standing up the coast 
for cape San Francisco with the favorable wind. The wind 
is usually fair to northward of the line, except occasionally 
in January, February, and March, (vide 23.) 

Captain De Eossencoat gives the following excellent in- 
structions on this route : 

"After leaving Callao and doubling the Pescadores and 
Pelado islands, steer for point Aguja, where the wind is 
generally fresher than at other points on the coast. Keep 
about 20 or 25 miles from the coast between point Aguja 
and cape San Francisco, and then head for the Pearl islands, 
where the land-fall is always uncertain, as the currents at 



FROM CALLAO TO PANAMA. 101 

the mouth of the gulf arc always more or less affected by 
the prevailing winds. 

" During the fine season, when the NE. wind is well es- 
tablished, that is after the beginning of January, the cur- 
rents set to W. During the winter, on the contrary, the 
pre valence of the S W. winds makes an easterly current. In 
both cases their strength is sufficient to make grave errors 
in navigating. 

"Apart from this uncertainty of the currents the gulf of 
Panama is easy of access. As soon as the Pearl islands are 
sighted steer for Otoque islands, which are high, and visible 
at quite a distance ; there are two principal ones and be- 
tween them a small islet. On reaching this point, Taboga 
island, where ships generally anchor, will be in sight. 

" To reach the anchorage pass between Taboguilla and 
Urana, being careful to keep sufficiently close to Tirana to 
avoid a ridge of rocks which is only awash at very low 
water, and is situated half way between point Urana and 
a small round island, about 1 mile SSE. of Taboguilla. If 
this passage cannot be made without going about, it will 
be better to keep to the eastward of Taboguilla; vessels 
can anchor very near land in this roadstead with 11 or 13 
fathoms of water. 

" Steamers ply regularly between Taboga and Panama. 
To reach the anchorage off the town, steer so as to pass to 
the eastward and quite close to the Farallon of San Jose*. 
When this bears S. 11 E. by compass, and the steeples of 
the cathedral N. 60 W., drop anchor in 5 fathoms of water, 
muddy bottom." 

Captain Harvey, of H. If. 8. Havana, remarks as follows 
on this voyage, (Naut. Mag., Nov., 1860 :) 

" We left Callao on the 14th May, crossed the equator on 
the 20th, in 82 37' W. With the exception of some varia- 
ble weather on the 26th, we took the wind with us up to 
the Pearl islands, making Galera at 3k a. m. on the 28th, 
and anchored off the town of Panama on the following day. 
A ship bound for Panama should make her way up the bay 
on the eastern side of it and work up inshore between the 
Pearl islands and the main, where there is good anchorage, 
should it fall calm or the current prove too strong against 
her. During our stay of six weeks we had the usual sultry 
weather, with ra.in and thunder storms/' 



102 FROM CALLAO TO PANAMA. 

Captain Fitz-Roy says : " Sailing-vessels bound to Pana- 
ma should endeavor to get within 3 or 4 miles of Chepillo 
island, especially between December and June, and so have 
all the advantage of the prevailing wind. From this posi- 
tion Ancon hill will be seen, and should be kept a little on 
the port bow, as the wind hauls to the westward on ap- 
proaching Panama. 

" The passage from the southward into the gulf of Pana- 
ma is easily made during the greater part of the year, by 
keeping about 60 miles from the coast north of Guayaquil, 
and, after crossing the line, shaping a course for the Galera 
islands, at the same time taking care, especially in the dry 
season, to stand inshore with the first northerly winds. By 
so doing vessels will most probably have the current in their 
favor along the coast, whereas by keeping in the center or 
on the western side of the gulf, a strong southerly set will 
be experienced. 

"After making Galera and clearing the San Jose" bank, 
the navigation between the Pearl islands and the main is 
clear and easy, with the advantage of being able to anchor 
should the wind fail or the tide be against the vessel. As 
a rule, this passage should be taken ; but, with a strong 
southerly wind, the navigator is tempted to run up the bay, 
in which case he should still keep on the western shore of 
the Pearl islands, where anchorage and less current will be 
found should the wind fail, an event always to be expected 
in these regions." 

Observations of Commander James Wood ; " The passage 
from the southward to Panama bay is easily made during 
the greater part of the year ; but in the fine season, when 
within the influence of the northers, the following plan 
should be adopted : Make short tacks inshore, as there is 
generally a set to the northward found within a few miles of 
. the land, and where that is interrupted, a regular tide is 
exchanged for a constantly contrary current farther off. 
Between Chirambira point and cape Corrientes the laud is 
low and faced with shoals, caused by the mouths of the nu- 
merous rivers which have their outlets on this part of the 
coast 5 but after passing cape Corrientes, it may be ap- 
proached pretty closely, except off Francisco Solano point, 
where some rocky-shoal patches extend to seaward, as the 
coast is in general bold-to. Care, however, should be taken 



FROM CALLAO TO MEXICO. 103 

not to run into the calms caused by the highlands, as it is 
difficult to get off into the breeze again, and the swells set 
inshore, where it frequently happens that no anchorage is 
to be found till close to the rocks. 

" In beating up the bay of Panama, in the fine season, 
the eastern passage, or that between the Islas del Key and 
the main, is to be preferred, as, with one exception, it is free 
from dangers. The water is smooth, and a regular tide en- 
ables you to make more northing than it would be possible 
to do, in nine cases out of ten, against the strong current 
and short, high sea which at this season prevail in the cen- 
ter or on the western side. During the rainy season a 
straight course up the bay is preferable to entangling your- 
self with the islands, the current generally following the 
direction of the wind." 

55. EOUTE FROM CALLAO TO GUATEMALA AND MEX- 
ICO. After leaving Callao and entering the SE. trades, first 
steer for point Aguja, (vide 54.) Then if bound to Eealejo 
or Istapa, shape the course so as to cross the equator be- 
tween 85 and 88 W. But if the destination be Acapulco, 
San Bias, or Mazatlan, it is best to pass to the southward 
and westward of the Galapagos islands with the prevalent 
SE. winds. In this case the line should be crossed between 
the meridians 96 and 100 W. 

The last part of the voyage, from the equator to the port 
of destination, is the worst. Instructions were given in 49, 
on the route from the line to the principal ports of Guate- 
mala and Mexico, to which the reader should refer. The 
following example of a passage between Callao and the coast 
of Guatemala is taken from the remarks of Captain Harvey, 
of H. M. S. Havana, (Naut. Mag., Nov., 1860 :) 

u Leaving Callao, we stood well out from the land, cur- 
rent in our favor. In 7 30' S. and 83 W., we had as much 
as 36 miles K. 72 W. ; and in the same afternoon we were 
running through patches of brick-colored water. At noon 
on the 29th, in lat. 1 6' K., long. 86 54' W., we ran through 
a strong tide rip, extending NW. and SE. as far as could be 
seen. It was most distinctly marked, the water to the 
southward having a greener color. The temperature before 
entering it was 72 ; when 500 yards farther, and inside or 
north of the line, it was 78 ; at half past twelve it was 80. 
Up to this we had had a current to the NW. by W. of more 



104 FROM CALLAO TO SAN FRANCISCO. 

than a mile an hour; but now we had less, about half a 
mile an hour, and in a more northerly direction. The next 
day the wind shifted to WSW., and we lost the trade in 3 
19' 1ST. and 87 34' W. amid thunder-storms and squalls of 
rain. 

" On the 1st May Cocos island was seen from the mast- 
head, bearing E!NE. ; and tropic birds and black fish came 
about the ship. After dallying with calms and westerly 
winds from the 1st to the 6th, we were treated with a fine 
easterly breeze and a current to the W. by N. of 38 miles. 
We concluded that it was the end of a papagayo, and for 
several days after we had the usual Central American 
weather. On the llth we found ourselves inshore looking 
about for Istapa. The Guatemala peaks could not be seen, 
and the shore showed us nothing but one unbroken line of 
beach and trees, with a heavy surf; but in the evening we 
had the satisfaction of making out El Agua, or Water vol- 
cano, the east center peak of the range. The next morn- 
ing, on standing in, we observed three vessels at anchor to 
the westward, and running down to them came to in 13 
fathoms, thinking that we had reached Istapa. The first 
visitors informed us of our mistake and that we were really 
at San Jose de Guatemala." 

56. ROUTE FROM CALLAO TO SAN FRANCISCO. The 
passage from Callao to the equator can be accomplished 
with a leading or fair wind. The line should be crossed west 
of the Galapagos islands, though it is not necessary to keep 
as far to the westward as advised in 50. 
in January, During these months the equator should be reached near 

l 



vessels will have the SE. trades, and only 4 per cent, of 
calms north of the line. After striking the NE. trades, at 
about 10 K, steer a trifle free, and cross 20 N. about 127 
W., as farther to the eastward, and near 120 W., the wind 
is sure to haul to the northward. Nothing will therefore 
be gained by hugging the wind, as eventually more westing 
will result, and the voyage be lengthened. 

The last part of the voyage is the same as that described 
in 50. 

in -April, May, In April, May, and June strike across the prevalent SE. 
trades, and reach the equator between 108 and 113 W. r 



FROM PANAMA TO MEXICO. 105 

and 10 N. at about 120 W. ; thence continue according to 
the directions given in 50. 

In July, August, and September, sailing-ships leaving pu ^ Jjjjr. ^n- 
Callao should follow the same route as vessels coming from tember. 
cape Horn ; that is, they should not cross the equator to 
the eastward of 125 W. By keeping on this route they 
will have steady SE. trades until they reach 10 K, which 
should be crossed at 130 W. The remainder of the pas- 
sage should be made as described in 50. 

In October, November, and December cross the line near ve Si2?I i0 imd t D^ 
1080; an( i IQO jf. between 118 and 120 W., with steady cemb r ' 
SE. trades. After this keep a little free with the NE. wind. 
Ships generally run from one set of trades to the other 
without any intervening calm. This passage should also 
be finished according to the instructions given in 50. 

57. EOUTE FROM PAYTA OR GUAYAQUIL TO PANAMA. 
We recall this route only from memory. In 54 instruc- 
tion will be found for making the passage from Callao to 
Panama, which also apply for the voyage from Payta or 
Guayaquil to the same destination. 

58. EOUTE FROM PAYTA OR GUAYAQUIL TO SAN FRAN- 
CISCO. It will be advantageous at all seasons to keep to 
the southward and westward of the Galapagos islands. 
Cross the equator in the same manner as described in 56. 
Complete instructions for the route north of the line will be 
found in both 56 and 50. 

59. EOUTE FROM PANAMA TO MEXICO. It is exceed- 
ingly difficult to determine which is the best route between 
Panama and the Mexican ports. Calms (vide 1) and light 
baffling airs often make the passage excessively long ; and, 
coasters excepted, ships without steam should, if possible, 
avoid making this passage. 

According to Fitz-Eoy's instructions vessels can only go 
up the coast by keeping near land, after doubling cape 
Mala, and by making use of the land and sea breezes. But 
the voyage should not be attempted at all, except by good 
ships with a large crew, unless the destination is one of the 
ports of Central America, and then only because it is the 
only one to take. 

Commander James Wood says : " If bound to the west- From Decem- 
ward during the season of northers, a great deal of time may 
be saved by keeping close inshore, and thus taking ad van- 



106 FROM THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS TO CAPE SAN LUCAS. 

tage of them ; they will carry you as far as the gulf of Ni- 
coya. When past the Morne Hermoso, * papagayos ' may 
be looked for, and with them a course should be steered 
for the gulf of Tehuantepec, when it will depend on the 
port you are bound to whether, after crossing the gulf by 
the aid of one of its gales, you should keep in or off shore. 
If bound for Acapulco, keep in and beat up ; but if bound 
to the westward, you cannot do better than make a W. 
course as nearly as the winds will allow you. 
May to " Tne passage to the westward from Panama during the 
rainy season is a most tedious affair ; calms, squalls, con- 
trary winds, and currents, a heavy swell and extreme heat, 
as well as an atmosphere loaded with moisture and rain, are 
the daily accompaniments. It often occurs that 20 miles of 
westing are not made in a week, and it is only by the indus- 
trious use of every squall and slant of wind that the passage 
can be made at all. Opinions are divided among the coast- 
ers as to the propriety of working to the southward, and 
trying to get rid of the bad weather, or beating up within 
a moderate distance of the land. My experience would lead 
me to prefer the latter, as the strong winds and frequent 
squalls, which so often occur near the land, sometimes allow 
a good long leg to be made to the northwestward, while, 
farther off, this advantage is sacrificed for only a shade 
finer weather." 

These instructions will be completed by referring to 1, 
23, and 24. 60, 61, and 62 should also be consulted. 

60. KOXJTE FROM THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS TO CAPE SAN 

LUCAS. Commander Wood gives the following instructions 
for this passage : " The trade- wind seems to possess no 
steady influence to the eastward of a line drawn from cape 
San Lucas, in 23 ET., to the Galapagos islands on the equa- 
tor. Among these islands the southeastern trade-wind is 
steady during nine or ten months of the year, and it is only 
in January and February, and sometimes in March, that 
they are interrupted by long calms, and occasional breezes 
from north and northwest, but these are never of any 
strength. To the northward of them the eastern limit of 
the trade seems to depend upon the time of the year. In 
the early part of April I have found it between the paral- 
lels of 8 and 13 K, 900 to 1,000 miles farther to the east- 
ward than at the end of June ; and in the intermediate 



PROM PANAMA TO REALEJO. 107 

months, cither more or less to the eastward, as it was 
earlier or later in the season, but in no case that I have met 
with has a steady or regular trade been experienced until 
the above line has been reached. It is this circumstance, 
and the prevalence in the intermediate space of westerly 
winds, calms, and contrary currents, that makes the passage 
from Panama to the westward, as far as this line, so tedious. 
I have been 40 days beating from the entrance of the bay, 
in 80 W., to the eastern edge of the trade, in HIP W., a 
distance of less than 2,000 miles, or, on an average, about 
40 miles per day." 

61. EOUTE FROM PANAMA TO EEALEJO, AND FROM 
REALEJO TO ACAPULCO. Below will be found Captain 
Basil Hall's observations relative to the passages from Pan- 
ama to Eealejo and Acapulco. We would also refer the 
reader to 59 for further information on this subject: 

" On leaving Panama for Eealejo, come out direct to the 
northwestward of the Pearl islands ; keep from 60 to 90 
miles off the shore as far as cape Blanco, (gulf of Nicoya 5) 
and on this passage advantage must be taken of every shift 
of wind to get to the northwestward. From cape Blanco 
hug the shore, in order to take advantage of the north- 
easterly winds which prevail close in. If a papagayo (as 
the strong breeze out of that gulf is called) be met with, 
the passage to Eealejo becomes very short. 

" From Eealejo to Acapulco keep at the distance of 60, 
or, at most, 90 miles from the coast. We met with very 
strong currents running to the eastward at this part of the 
passage ; but whether, by keeping farther in, or farther out, 
we should have avoided them, I am unable to say. The 
above direction is that usually held to be the best by the 
old coasters. 

" If, when off the gulf of Tehuantepec, any of the hard 
breezes, which go by that name, should come off, it is ad- 
visable, if sail can be carried, to ease the sheets off, and 
run well to the westward, without seeking to make north- 
ing ; westing being, at all stages of that passage, by far the 
most difficult to accomplish. On approaching Acapulco 
the shore should be got hold of, and the land and sea 
breezes turned to account. 

" This passage in summer is to be made by taking advan- 
tage of the difference in direction between the winds in the 
night and the winds in the day. During some months, the 



108 FROM EEALEJO TO ACAPULCO. 

land winds, it is said, come more off the land than at others, 
and that the sea-breezes blow more directly on shore ; but 
in March we seldom found a greater difference than four 
points; and to profit essentially by this small change, con- 
stant vigilance and activity are indispensable. The sea- 
breeze sets in with very little variation as to time, about 
noon, or a little before, and blows with more or less strength 
till the evening. It was usually freshest at two o'clock, 
gradually fell after four, and died away as the sun went 
down. The land-breeze was by no means so regular as to 
its periods or its force. Sometimes it came off in the first 
watch, but rarely before midnight, and often not till the 
morning, and was then generally light and uncertain. The 
principal point to be attended to in this navigation is to 
have the ship so placed at the setting in of the sea-breeze 
that she shall be able to make use of the whole of it on the 
port tack, before closing too much with the land. If this 
be accomplished, which a little experience of the periods 
renders easy, the ship will be near the shore just as the sea- 
breeze has ended, and then she will remain in the best sit- 
uation to profit by the land wind when it comes, for it not 
only comes off earlier to a ship near the coast, but is stronger, 
and may always be taken advantage of to carry the ship off 
to the sea-breeze station before noon the next day. 

u These are the best directions for navigating on this 
coast which I have been able to procure ; they are drawn 
from various sources, and, whenever it was possible, modi- 
fied by personal experience. I am chiefly indebted to Don 
Manuel Luzerragui for the information they contain. In his 
opinion, were it required to make a passage from Panama to 
San Bias, without touching at any intermediate port, the 
best way would be to stretch well out, pass to the south- 
ward of Cocos island, and then run in with the south- 
erly winds as far west as 96 before hauling up for San Bias, 
so as to make a fair wind of the westerly breezes which be- 
long to the coast. An experienced old pilot, however, whom 
I met at Panama, disapproved of this, and said the best 
distance was 50 or 60 miles all the way. In the winter 
months these passages are very unpleasant, and it is indis- 
pensable that the whole navigation be much farther off 
shore, excepting only between Acapulco and San Bias, when 
a distance of 30 or 35 miles will be sufficient." 



FROM PANAMA. TO SAN FRANCISCO. 109 

02. ROUTE FROM PANAMA TO SAN FRANCISCO. The 
following is a resume of Maury's instructions for this route: 

"The passage under canvas from Panama to California, 
as at present made, is one of the most tedious known to 
navigators. 

" From the bay of Panama make the best of your way 
south, keeping near 80 W., until you get between 5 N. 
and the equator. After crossing 5 N., make a SW. course 
if the winds allow ; if the wind be S W., brace up on the star- . 
board tack ; but if it be SSW., stand west, if it be a good 
working breeze. But if it be light and baffling, with rain, 
know that you are in the doldrums, and the quickest way 
to clear them is by making all you can on a due south 
course." 

Speaking of the barometer in the Pacific, Maury says : 

" The mean height in the equatorial calms is less than the 
mean height in the trades on either side. This difference 
does not probably exceed one-tenth of an inch (0.1 inch.) 
But close attention to the barometer in and about these 
calms will often enable the navigator to decide whether the 
winds he may have be really trade-winds or not ; for, after 
having been fighting these calms, if you get the wind from. 
NE. or SB., as the case may be, and the barometer rises, 
then you may be sure that you have the trades. In the 
calms of Cancer and of Capricorn there is a descending in- 
stead of an ascending current of air; therefore the barome- 
ter ranges higher, on the average, within those two calm- 
belts than it does anywhere else. The difference, however, 
does not exceed the tenth of an inch. Close attention to 
this instrument will often enable the navigator to decide, 
when he has crossed this belt and got into the region of 
trades, even before he gets the wind from the trade-quarter. 
He determines this by the fall of the barometer, when he 
enters the trades from the calms of the " horse-latitudes," 
but by its rise when he enters the trades from, the equatorial 
calm-belt. 

"Suppose that after crossing 5 N. you have got to the Ja ^^ y June to 
west of 85 without having crossed the equator. Now, if 
the time of the year be in that half which embraces July and 
December, the prevailing winds will be between SE. and S. 
inclusive, and the course is west as long as there is a breeze; 
as soon as the breeze dies, and you begin to fight the baf- 



110 FROM PANAMA TO SAN FRANCISCO. 

fling airs, conclude that you are in the vicinity of the dol- 
drums that are often found here, either between the NE. 
and SE. trades, or between one of these trades and the sys- 
tem of southwardly monsoons that blow north of the line, 
and between the coast and the meridian of 95 W. These 
belts of doldrums lie east and west, and the shortest way to 
cross them is by a due north and south line. Having 
crossed 95 W., stand away to the northward and westward 
with a free wind, and after reaching 100 W., aim to pass 
some distance from Clipperton. 

" If the passage from Panama be attempted in January, 
February, March, April, May, or June, time will probably 
be saved by going south of the equator, for at this half of 
the year the KE. trades and the equatorial doldrums are 
often found between and 5 IS". Between the meridians 
of 80 and 85 W., in this part of the ocean, these winds 
and calms are found even in the mouths of July and August. 
The navigator should therefore run south of the Galapagos 
islands, and not cross the equator again to the northward 
before he reaches 105 W. Aim to cross 10 K. at 120 W., 
when the NE. trades will probably be found. 

" West of longitude 100, and between the parallels of 5 
and 10 N., the winds Jin the months of November and De- 
cember are variable between NE. and S. by way of the east. 
In January, February, and March they are quite steady as 
NE. trades. In April they are variable. The doldrums are 
generally found between those parallels in this month. 
During the rest of the year the winds are all the time be- 
tween SE. and SW. 

" It will be well to cross the parallel of 10 N. at least as 
far west as the meridians of 105 or 110 W. Here be- 
tween the parallels 5 and 10 N. the winds in November 
are steady from SSE. and S. December, April, and May, 
are the months for the doldrums in this part of the ocean. 
Having crossed the parallel of 10 N. between 105 and 110 
W., the navigator is then in the fair way to California. 

" In making the west coasts of Mexico and the United 
States, the kelp is said to form an excellent landmark. 
This weed is very long, and grows in the rocks at the bot- 
tom. When, therefore, on approaching the coast, you come 
across lines or swaths of tangled kelp, its being tangled or 
matted is a sign that it is adrift. But when you come 



FROM PANAMA TO SAN FRANCISCO. Ill 

across it tailing out straight, it is then fast to the rocks at 
the bottom, and it is dangerous to get among it. 

"Vessels with steam-power should steam whenever 
necessary, after leaving Panama, and aim to cross the line 
near 85 W. Thence the route lies either to northward or 
southward of the Galapagos, according to the season. The 
remainder of the voyage can be easily made under canvas." 

Such are Maury's instructions. The following abstract is 
also eloquent upon the same subject : 

" Passage of the Havana, Captain Harvey, from Panama to 
San Francisco. July 27th, sailed from the anchorage off' 
the island of Taboga, for San Francisco. On the 1st 
August, in lat. 2 30' K, the land obliged us to tack off. 
On the 6th we passed four miles to the southward of the 
position of Eivadera shoal, continued westward, although 
forced northward, until the 10th, when we tacked to make 
southing. 

" On the 21st sighted Clipperton island, bearing W. by 
N. J N". Hauled up to pass south of it, and stood along the 
island, trying for soundings, but no bottom at 150 and 180 
fathoms, two miles distant. It was covered with myriads 
of birds, abundance of large drift-wood and pieces of wreck. 
On the north side the sea was much less, and landing was 
apparently easy in whale-boats. The island is correctly 
stated as being visible between 12 and 15 miles, but it is a 
formidable danger, and a wide berth should always be given 
to it at night. On the 24th August, in lat. 14 11' N., long. 
114 IS' W., picked up the trade-wind after only a few 
hours of variables. In lat. 34 30' N., long. 140 06' W., 
we tacked to make easting, as the wind was hauling more 
northerly; and made the Farralon light at three in the 
morning of September 15th, and were soon after in the 
midst of fog. Anchored in San Francisco harbor at four 
p. m., having been forty-nine days twenty hours on our 
voyage. 

" This passage is at all times a trying one, lasting fre- 
quently 60, 70, and even more than 100 days. Vessels 
formerly took the inshore track, which may occasionally 
succeed. But by following Maury, the heavy rains, excess- 
ive heat, and doldrums certain to be met with inshore are 
avoided, perhaps entirely, but certainly to a very consider- 
able extent. The U. S. frigate Independence arrived on 



112 MEXICO TO SAN FRANCISCO. 

October 1st, fifty-nine days froin Panama. The shortest 
passage on record is 45 days." 

63. KOTJTE FROM MEXICO TO SAN FRANCISCO. Cap- 
tain Sherard Osborrts instructions : " A vessel making the 
passage northward from San Bias had better make an in- 
shore tack until she reaches the latitude of, or sights, cape 
San Lucas, as she will then get the true wind, which blows 
almost without intermission along the line of coast from the 
northward. A west, or may be south of west course will 
only be first made good, but as the offing is obtained, the 
wind will be found to veer a little to the eastward. How- 
ever, it will always be the object to make headway, and 
get out of the tropic without any reference to the longitude, 
as a strong NW. wind will soon in lat. 25 or 28 run off 
the distance, provided you have sufficient northing. 

"The attempt to beat up inshore amounts to perfect 
folly, if it does not deserve a worse name, a strong current 
accompanying the wind ; and the latter must be taken into 
consideration when running in for your port with westerly 
winds." 

Commander James Wood's instructions : " When once 
within the influence of the trades, a passage is easily made 
either to the southward, westward, or northward ; but it 
must be borne in mind that the eastern verge of this trade 
seems, in these parts, to be influenced by the seasons, (vide 
60.) Thus in June and July, I found it fresh from KN"W., 
and even at times NW., as far out as the meridian of 125 
W., whereas in March and April it was light from NETE. to 
E. and ESE. from our first meeting it in 98 W. till past 
the meridian of cape San Lucas in 110 W., where I picked 
up a good steady breeze from NNE. 

" As a general rule the wind is found to haul more to the 
eastward as you get farther from the land, and I did not 
find this rule affected by the latitude, as, although, as I 
have stated, the wind hangs to the northward, and even at 
times to the westward of north, near the eastern limit of 
the trade, from the tropic of Cancer to the variables near 
the equator, I found it about the meridian of the Sandwich 
islands as far to the eastward on and near the line as it 
was in 35 K., in which latitude the westerly winds are in 
general met with." 



MEXICAN PORTS TO SAN FRANCISCO. 113 

The following remarks may be added to the advice given 
by Captains Osborn and Wood : 

A vessel sailing from one of the ports of Mexico or Guat- 
emala, should gain the NE. trades as soon as possible. 
When they are reached keep the ship a little free on a 
NNW. course, until the brave west winds are found to 
northward of the parallel of San Francisco. 

Vessels leaving Mazatlan during these months will have in January, 
quite fr6sh winds varying between N. and W. ; with these MwSSf 7 ' 
they can easily pass to the northward of the Revillagigedo 
islands. 

Ships leaving San Bias can also fetch to the northward 
of these islands, by making up the coast on the land tack 
if necessary. After they have crossed the meridian of 120 
W. between 20 and 24 N., they will enter the region of 
steady NE. trades. 

During the same season, vessels leaving Acapulco will 
have at first 6 per cent, of calms and variable NE. and NW. 
winds. They should make as much to the westward as pos- 
sible, and will meet the NE. trades beyond and near 110 
W. After this they should run a little free on the star- 
board tack and end the voyage as already described. 

Ships leaving Istapa and Eealejo should steer as nearly 
as possible SW., with the prevalent NE. wind, and thus 
reach 8 or 7 N. near 93 W. Thence the course should 
be due west to 108 W., the wind being quite fresh from SE. 
After crossing this meridian vessels should begin to bear 
to the northward, and cross 10 N. near 111 or 112 W. 
The NE. trades will be found in this locality. 

Ships coming from San Bias or Mazatlan during these in April, May, 
months will do well to beat up against the NW. winds, as ai 
advised by Sherard Osborn, as far as cape San Lucas. 
They should then keep close to the wind which will be 
variable and from N. to W., mainly from NW. standing 
well out to sea on the starboard tack. Nothing will be 
gained by crossing 120 W. to the northward of 20 N., as 
beyond this parallel the wind hauls more to N., while to the 
southward it inclines toward NE. In all cases the wind will 
become more and more favorable to the westward, enabling 
vessels to gradually bear away to the northward for the 
region of west winds. 

Vessels leaving Acapulco at this season are liable to be 
detained by numerous calms, (vide 1,) and NW. to NE. 
8N 



114 MEXICAN PORTS TO SAN FRANCISCO. 

winds. They should therefore run to the southward and 
westward for the SE. trades, near 10 or 8 N. Good way 
may be made to the westward, near these parallels, and to 
118 W. ; when, bear to the northward and cross 10 N. near 
120 W. Here vessels usually run into the trades without 
meeting any calms. 

The course from Istapa or Eealejo to 8 or 7 N. and 92 
W. is SSW. or S. Vessels will here strike the southerly or 
south-easterly wind and then should steer due west, the SE. 
wind freshening as they go^ to the westward. Near 118 W. 
they should begin to make northing, probably meeting the 
NE. trades at 10 N. and 120 W. 

in July, AU- Ships sailing from Mazatlan or San Bias, during July, 
gust, and Septem- ^-^g^ or September, should take the route given for the 
preceding season 5 the circumstances attending the passage 
will, however, be more unfavorable, the calms more numer- 
ous, (vide 1,) and the baffling airs from NW. more fre- 
quent. Vessels with steam-power will therefore have a 
great advantage, as they can steam to cape San Lucas. 

During this season it will be greatly to the advantage of 
sailing-vessels leaving Acapuico, Istapa, and Eealejo, to 
make for the SE. trades, to the southward of 10 N. 
Steamers, while they should take advantage of every puff 
of wind that may help them on their course to W. or NW., 
should keep up steam until they reach the NE. trades. 

in October, xo- Ships starting for Mazatlan or San Bias during this sea- 

vember, and De- * th * n .11 n n t r> AI 

cember. son will find almost the same weather as that tor the pre- 

ceding three months; it will, however, be a little better. 
Those leaving Acapuico should steer to the westward, as in 
Janua'ry, February, and March. They will first have light 
variable winds from NE. to NW., and be liable to about 9 
per cent, of calms. The NE. trades blow beyond 110 W., 
and become steadier and steadier to the westward of that 
meridian. Ships leaving Istapa or Eealejo should first 
make to the southward and westward, in search of the SE. 
trades, to the southward of 10 N. From the beginning of 
the passage they will generally have gentle, though varia- 
ble, winds to help them toward the trade- wind region. 
After meeting the SE. wind, good way can be made to the 
west on the parallel of 8 N. Vessels should commence to 
bear to the northward at 113 W., and cross 10 N. between 
116 and 118 W. After this the NE. trades will be found, 
when the ship can be hauled up on the starboard tack. 



FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO VANCOUVER. 115 

64. EOUTE FROM MONTEREY TO SAN FRANCISCO. 
The following instructions are from the " V. S. C. fl. 
Reports : " 

"Sailing-vessels bound to the northward from Monterey raring the 

summer. 

during the summer season should stand well oft shore, not 
too close-hauled until about 200 miles from the land, when 
they will be beyond the influence of the southerly current, 
and in a situation to take advantage of a slant of wind, 
which frequently occurs from the WNW. They would do 
well not to approach the land, unless favored by the winds 
so as to enable them to lay their course, or nearly so, until 
up with the latitude of the destined port. 

" Steamers should follow the coast from point to point as 
nearly as possible, always keeping within 15 miles of the 
land. They will by this means shorten the distance, and 
frequently avoid the strong NW. wind, as they will often 
find it quite calm close in with the shore, when there is a 
wind to seaward. 

"Vessels bound to the northward in the winter season Paring the 

winter. 

should keep as close along the land as practicable, and take 
every advantage of all southerly winds to make latitude. 
They should always endeavor to make the land at least 20 
or 30 miles to the southward of the destined harbor." 

65. KOUTES FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO VANCOUVER. 

In the last part of 24 instructions relating to the pre- 
vailing winds between San Francisco and Vancouver will 
be found. 

From November to April, or during the bad season, the From Novem- 
passage should commence by putting well out to sea. This 
will generally be easy to do, as the wind is oftenest from 
NW. When far enough from land to have nothing to fear 
from SW. or NW. squalls, make as much to the N. as pos- 
sible. Beyond the parallel of cape Mendocino the SW. 
winds prevail, enabling vessels to finish the voyage without 
difficulty. 

From April to November, or during the good season, the N ^ r e b ^. pril to 
wind almost invariably blows from the northward, between 
NW. and NE. NW. is the favorite quarter, though SW. 
and SE. winds have been known in this locality. After 
leaving San Francisco run about 100 or 150 miles off shore, 
and then make to the northward, profiting by every shift in 
the wind, and always standing on the most favorable tack. 



CHAPTER II. 

ROUTES FROM NORTH TO SOUTH ON THE WESTERN 
COAST OF AMERICA. 

60. EOUTES FROM VANCOUVER TO SAN FRANCISCO 

AND MONTEREY. In 24 the reader will find information 
concerning the winds to be expected on this passage. 

The following instructions are taken from the U. S. C. 
S. Eeports : 

"If bound to the southward keep the coast in sight, and 
take advantage of either tack upon which the most latitude 
may be made, always making the land to the northward of 
the port in summer, and to the southward in the winter 
season. 

" Bound to San Francisco or Monterey, use every oppor- 
tunity to observe for latitude and longitude, so as to know 
the vessel's position up to the latest moment, as fogs and 
haze, preventing observations, prevail near the land. Allow 
generally for a southerly set of J a mile per hour, until 
within about 50 miles of land; after which, at times, it is 
not appreciable. With these precautions vessels may steer 
boldly on, shaping a course for the south Farallon, an islet 
about 250 feet high and a mile long, having 14 fathoms 
water, and good holding-ground on the SE. side." 
govern- From November to April, or during the bad season, vessels 
are liable to have head winds from S W., between Vancouver 
and the parallel of cape Mendocino. However, these winds 
are variable, blowing quite often from NW. ; the currents, 
moreover, are generally favorable, and consequently there 
will be no serious difficulty to overcome. To the southward 
of 40 N. the NW. winds will become more frequent, and 
consequently the weather more propitious. 

From April to From April to November, or during the good season, the 
NW..wind prevails from Vancouver to Monterey, and even 
beyond this point. This is therefore an easy passage to be 
made at this season as the current is also favorable. Keep 
between 50 and 100 miles of the coast, thus avoiding the fog 



FROM SAN FRAK CISCO TO PANAMA. 117 

and the anxiety caused thereby. The wind frequently 
blows from SW. during the morning, and from NW. during 
the afternoon. 

07. ROUTE FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO MEXICO. Ships 
leaving San Francisco for Mazatlan or San Bias will, at all 
seasons, have the wind and current favorable. The former 
is generally from the northward and westward ; and from 
December to June is well settled as far as the port of desti- 
nation. 

To the southward of 30 N. the winds usually become 
lighter from July to December. During this season the 
chances of becoming becalmed off the coast of Mexico are 
greater. It will be a good plan to run in close to cape San 
Lucas, and to be careful that the vessel is not set to lee- 
ward of her port by the current. 

Vessels bound to Acapulco will experience the same wind 
and weather. Beyond cape Corrientes they are liable to be 
delayed by calms, particularly between June and October. 
During these months, which correspond to the bad season, 
the winds usually blow from NW., (vide 24,) but they are 
generally so light, and last for such a short time, that pa- 
tience only is necessary. Auxiliary steam-vessels will, 
therefore, have an immense advantage during the latter 
part of this voyage, as well as on all the coast of Mexico 
and Colombia. During the winter, or the good season, the 
chances of calms are less, and the descent of the coast can 
be made with more facility, from, cape Corrieutes to Aca- 
pulco, or even to Istapa and Kealejo. 

68. EOUTE FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO PANAMA. Maury 
says : " Vessels out of San Francisco, intending to touch at 
Panama or any of the ports south, should stand out well 
from the Mexican coast. Information as to the best route 
for these passages is wanting. But I should, with such 
information as I at present have with regard to this navi- 
gation, feel disposed, were I bound from San Francisco to 
Panama, to steer straight for the lino somewhere about 
104 W., and stand on S. until I could, with the SE. trades, 
run in on the starboard tack for the land.' 7 

This off-shore route is undoubtedly the best for sailing- 
vessels, at least during the rainy season of the coast of 
Mexico, (from May to October.) Vessels keeping near the 
coast at this time of the year may find themselves, at any 



118 FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO PANAMA. 

moment, becalmed or headed off by the SE. winds, which 
are quite frequent. Auxiliary steam-vessels can, if need 
be, use their engines, and make good headway by crossing 
20 K near 108 or 109 W.; and 10 IS", at about 98 W. 
To the southward of 10 X. they will find quite settled 
winds from S. and SE., which, at times, shift to SW., to 
the eastward of 88 W. 

From May to From May to October, as has been already said, sailing- 
vessels leaving San Francisco should stand well out to sea, 
with the favorable NW. winds. They should steer so as to 
cross 20 K near 118 or 120 W. ; then head S. or SSE., 
with the NE. or NW. winds. If these grow light it should 
be remembered that the wind is more settled to the west- 
ward, and that the chance of meeting calms is greater near 
the coast. To the southward of 10 K. settled SE. trades 
will be found. Here haul up on the port tack, and stand 
on until sure of reaching Panama, on the starboard tack, 
when go about. The Galapagos islands can be passed to 
the northward, and 90 W. near 4 N. To the eastward 
of this proposed point of crossing the winds will generally 
be found to be settled from SE. and S. ; however, they often 
veer as far as SW. 

From Kovem- The dry season on the coast of Mexico lasts from Novem- 
ber to April, when vessels should also follow the off-shore 
route ; they should not, however, go quite so far to the west- 
ward at this season, though it will probably be found neces- 
sary to make a little more southing. From San Francisco 
to 20 N. the winds are' generally favorable from NE. to 
NW. ; and this route passes some distance to the westward 
of the Eevillagigedo islands. Below 20 ]$". the NE. trades 
blow with such regularity that 10 N. can be crossed at 
110 W. As soon as the wind begins to grow light steer 
S. for the SE. trades; with which stand on on the port tack 
until certain that the vessel will fetch to southward of the 
Galapagos on the starboard tack. The starboard tack will 
bring the ship near cape San Francisco, and the last part 
of the voyage will be identical with that described in 54 
and 57. 

Vessels with auxiliary steam-power should cross 20 N. 
at 109 or 110 W., and go down the Mexican coast with 
the prevalent NW. winds, steaming when becalmed. It 
will be to their advantage to cross 10 K in the neighbor- 



FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO CALLAO. 119 

hood of 89 or 91 W. ; but they will afterward encounter 
SE. and S. winds ; these being often variable and light, steam 
will have to be used to reach Panama, (vide 73.) 

G9. EOUTE FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO CALLAO. This 
is one of those routes which Maury has studied, and for 
which he has given good instructions. We can do no bet- 
ter than quote below the principal passages : 

" The best route is still undecided. 

" Many very clever navigators give a decided preference 
to the eastern passage from California ; but while they 
judge, for the most part, each by his own individual ex- 
perience, I have the experience of them all to guide me in 
mj- judgment. I think it not at all unlikely that the opin- 
ion expressed by Captain Shreve, of the Cleopatra, may be 
found, on further investigation, to hold good for a.part of 
the year. He says : 

" 'I would advise all captains leaving San Francisco for 
Callao in the months of August, September, and October 
to take the inner passage, that is, being in the long, of 110 
W., lat. 8 N., steer along the equator by the wind, passing 
either side, or between the Galapagos islands, as the wind 
will permit. Had I taken this route instead of crossing the 
SE. trades, it would have shortened my passage one month, 
which has been proved by the West- Wind and several other 
ships during the above months. I inquired of several dis- 
interested captains as regards the passage to Callao ; all 
advised crossing the SE. trades. It may do when the sun 
is far north. This passage is little understood as yet. I 
had no difficulty with my ship (steady trades) in beating 
from Callao to the Chincha islands in three days j therefore, 
what difficulty can exist in beating from the equator to Cal- 
lao t> 

u Individual cases may be cited in favor of each route, 
but upon the whole, and with such lights as I have, I am 
inclined to give the preference to the western or off-shore 
route as the one which for most of the year and on the long 
run will give the shortest average passage, and which aver- 
age, when the route comes to be properly understood and 
followed, will probably be brought down as low as 50 or 52 
days the year round. 

" Most vessels on this voyage make a mistake, especially 
in summer and fall, in the passage across the belt of KE. 



120 PROM SAN FRANCISCO TO CALLAO. 

trades. Being anxious to get to the east, they edge along, 
aiming to lose these winds in 90" or 100, as the case may 
be. Then they encounter the southwardly monsoons that 
are found at this season of the year between the systems of 
trade-winds in the Pacific off the American coast, as they 
are along the African coast in the Atlantic. The vessels 
taking this course, and being so baffled, have now to make 
a sharp elbow and run off 8 or 10 or even more degrees 
to the westward before they clear this belt of calms and 
monsoons and get the SE. trades. Of course the voyage is 
greatly prolonged by this. 

"The route which, as at present advised, I would recom- 
mend is that navigators steer the same course from Cali- 
fornia that they should if bound to the United States, until 
they pass through the SE. trades and clear the calms of 
Capricorn. Therefore I say to the Chincha-bound trader, 
when you get your offing from the ' heads,' steer south, aim- 
ing to cross the line not to the east of 115, for the rule is 
the farther east the narder it is to cross the equatorial dol- 
drums in the Pacific, as well as it is in the Atlantic. 

"When you get the SE. trades, crack on with topmast 
studding-sail set, until you get the ; brave west winds' on the 
polar side of the calms of Capricorn. Now turn sharp off 
from the route around cape Horn, and run east until you 
bring your port to bear to the northward of NE., when you 
may 4 stick her away.' Now, by this rule, the Chincha- 
bound navigator may sometimes, before he gets these 
westerly winds, find himself as far south as 40 or 45, and 
as far west as 120 or 125. Let him not fear, but stand on 
until he gets the winds that will enable him to steer east, or 
until he intercepts the route from Australia to Callao, when 
he may, without fear of not fetching, take that. 

" In the summer and fall of the northern hemisphere June 
to November the calm belt of Capricorn will be cleared 
generally on the equatorial side of the parallel of 30 S.; at 
the other seasons you will have frequently to go 6 or 8 
farther. 

"On this voyage, navigators, as soon as they leave the 
SE. trades, are often tempted by puffs and spirts of west- 
erly winds to stand east; and thus time is lost by running 
east with a 4 or 5 knot breeze in the calm belt of Capricorn. 
They should stand south until they clear it, preferring, as a 



FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO CALLAO. 121 

rule, to take the chances of better winds and the certainty 
which is some compensation of shorter degrees of longi- 
tude beyond/ 7 

After these statements Maury gives a series of u tables of 
passage," containing for each month a certain number of 
west and east routes. 

In examining these tables the first point that strikes the 
eye of the reader is, that the general mean for the whole 
year is shorter by 9 per cent, for the west route than that 
obtained for the other route. 

The following results were deduced from a comparative 
examination of the two routes for each month : 

In January, the mean from San Francisco to the line by 
the western route is 21 days ; and from San Francisco to 
Callao, 55.8 days. By the eastern route, 41 days were con- 
sumed in reaching the line, and 81.5 days in the whole pas- 
sage. 

The advantage in favor of the western route is therefore 
26 days. 

In. February and March, the total length of the voyage by 
the W. route is 57 days. Examples of the E. routes are 
rare j if it were possible to obtain them they would undoubt- 
edly be longer. 

In April, 25 days to the line by the W. route, and 54.7 
days for the whole passage j 22 dajs to the line by the E. 
route, and 89 days for the whole passage. By keeping to 
the westward 34 days were therefore saved. 

In Hay, 26 days to the equator by the W. route, and 61 
days from San Francisco to Callao ; by the E. route, 31 days 
to the equator, and 66 days to Callao. Advantage in favor 
of the W. route 5 days. 

In June, 22 days to the line by the W. route, and 50.5 
days for the whole passage ; by the E. route, 31 days to the 
line, and 62.3 to Callao. Gain of 12 days by W. route. 

The next four months show opposite results. 

In July, 26 days in reaching the line, and 57 days for 
the whole passage ; by the E. route, 29 days to the line, 
and only 48 to Callao. Gain of 9 days by the E. route. 

In August, 26 days to the line by the W. route, and 57.6 
days for the whole voyage ; by the E. route, 33 days to the 
line, and 57 days in all. A very small advantage on the 
side of the E. route. 



122 FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO CALLAO. 

In September, 25 days to the line, by the \V. route, and 
58.8 days to Callao ; by the E. route, 23 days to the line, 
and 48.5 to Callao. Ten days' gain by the E. route. 

In October, 27 days to the line, by the W. route, and 71 
days for the whole passage ; by the E. route, 28.2 days to 
the line, and only 57 days to Callao. Gain of 14 days in 
favor of the E. route. 

In November, 27 days to the line, by the W. route, and 
55.5 days for the whole voyage ; by the E. route, 30 days 
to the line, and 55.5 days, or in other words the same length 
of voyage to Callao. 

In December, 23 days to the line, by the W. route, and 
58.8 to Callao. Iso example of the E. route given. 

From which we conclude that nothing will be gained by 
taking the E. route, except during the months of July, 
August, September, and October ; while by the W. or trade- 
wind route the passages will be much shortened, especially 
between January and June. 

We would therefore advise sailing-ships, leaving San 
Francisco, to regulate their course in accordance with the 
instructions given in 68 and the principles lai'd down by 
Maury : that is, to endeavor to cross the equator near 118 
W., between May and October, and near 113 W. between 
October and May. 

Auxiliary steamers, frigates, and corvettes, for instance, 
should follow the route given in the preceding paragraph, 
( 68,) that is, keep nearer to the Mexican coast, and make 
the coast of S. America near cape San Francisco. 

Vessels taking the trade-wind route should keep on the 
port tack until Callao bears to the northward of KE. 

They may often be compelled to go to the southward of 
3Qo s. before they meet the W. winds. With these they 
should steer to the eastward until they are in good position 
to make their northings. 

In January, 30 S. will generally be made, on the port 
tack, between 118 and 122 W., then run to the east on 
the parallel 33 until near 98 W. 

In February, March, and April, cross 30 near 118 W., 
and then steer to the eastward on 35 or 36 S. 

In May, cross 30 in the neighborhood of 123 W., and 
make to the eastward between 32 and 33 S. 



FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO VALPARAISO. 123 

In June, 30 S. can be crossed between 123 and 128 
W. ; the west winds prevail at 35 S. 

In July, cross 30 S. between 118 and 123 W. ; and as 
the west winds are to be found a little farther north, run 
down the easting between 33 and 34 S. 

In August, the SE. trades will be very variable, and 30 
S. should be crossed between 118 and 128 W., more or 
less to the east or west, as circumstances allow. The east- 
ing should be made on the parallel of 32. 

In September, 30 S. cannot be crossed to the eastward of 
128 W.; the easting should be made on 33, or near that 
parallel. 

In October, 30 S. can be crossed a little farther to the 
eastward than during the preceding month, and the easting 
made on 32 S. 

In November, after having crossed the line near 113 W., 
and 30 S. between 118 and 122 W., steer to the eastward 
near 33 S. 

In December, cross 30 S. near 118 W., then follow 32 
S. to the eastward. 

Auxiliary steam -vessels, taking the E. route, will be en- 
abled to cross 10 N. between 89 and 91 W. They will 
then experience variable winds till they reach cape San 
Francisco. These winds blow quite often from S. and SE., 
with 5 per cent, of chances of calms. 

Steam will have to be used about half the time in this 
locality. The passage from cape San Francisco to Callao will 
be tedious, as both wind and current are from the south- 
ward. If this part of the voyage be made under canvas it 
will last at least 25 days. For further observations on this 
subject consult 75. 

70. EOUTE FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO THE INTERME- 
DIATE PORTS. This voyage should be made in exactly the 
same manner as that described in 69 ; that is, keep always 
to the west, or SE. trade-wind route. Stick to the port- 
tack until you strike the west winds to the southward of 
30 S. Afterward the course should be to the east until 
the port of destination bears to the N. of KE. Thus, if 
the port of destination be Iquique or Arica, 92 W. should 
be reached before bearing away to the northward. 

71. KOUTE FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO VALPARAISO. 
According to Maury, the route to Callao is longer than that 
to Valparaiso; owing to the fact that sailing-ships have to 



124 FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO CAPE HORN. 

make the parallel of Valparaiso before striking to the north- 
ward for Callao, consequently the mean of the voyages from 
California to Peru being about 56 days, vessels can count 
on a mean passage of about 50 or 55 days from California 
to Valparaiso. 

If the reader will refer to 68 and 69 he will there find 
all the necessary instructions relating to this passage. 

Thus, as has been stated, the equator should be crossed 
very near 118 W. from May to October, and at about 113 
W. from October to May. 

Make a long port tack rap full through the SE. trade-belt 

In January, vessels can make good headway to the east- 
ward after reaching 34 or 35 S. In February, bear away 
to the east, between 35 and 36 S. In March, at the same 
latitude, or a little farther south. In April and May, bear 
to the eastward near 34 or 35 S. In June, steer east, 
when south of 35 S. In July, August, and September, 
near the parallel of 34 S. In October, November, and De- 
cember, at 36 S. In no case begin to steer directly for 
Valparaiso before reaching 83 W. 

72. EOUTE FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO CAPE HORN. 
Nothing especial is to be added to what has been stated in 
the preceding paragraphs, particularly in 69. 

After standing well full on the port tack, through the SE. 
trades, steer south until the region of W., NW., and SW. 
winds is reached, or in other words until between 35 and 
40 S. Then bear away around cape Horn on a great circle 
route, as nearly as the wind will permit. 

Information relating to icebergs will be found in 43. 
The reader should also consult 107, 108, and 109. 

73. EOUTE FROM MEXICO TO PANAMA. Reference 
should first be had to 63, where will be found Captain 
Wood's instructions. According to this officer, vessels 
leaving Mexico will have no difficulty in going either north 
or south after they have once penetrated the NE. trade 
region. He also shows how the eastern limit of the trades 
changes at different seasons. 

Observations of Captain Basil Hall : " The return pas- 
sages from Mexico to Panama are always easy. In the 
period called here summer, from December to May, a dis- 
tance of 90 to 150 miles from the coast insures a fair wind 
all the way. In winter it is advisable to keep still farther 



FROM MEXICO TO GUAYAQUIL. 125 

off, say 300 miles, to avoid the calms, and the incessant 
rains, squalls, and lightnings, which everywhere prevail on 
the coast at this season. Don Manuel Luzurragui advises, 
during winter, that all ports on this coast should be made 
to the southward and eastward, as the currents in this time 
of the year set from that quarter." 

Captain Hall's instructions seem to be completely indorsed 
by a study of the prevailing winds in these quarters. 

From December to May vessels can easily keep along the M J y e . C6mber to 
coast as far as 10 N., or even all the way to Panama, the 
wind generally varying between NE. and NW., but there 
is a chance of meeting south-easterly and southerly winds 
in the offing, south of the 10th parallel. 

After May, calms will render the passage particularly 
difficult, and it will be advisable to keep farther from the 
coast. Vessels coming from Mazatlan or San Bias should 
cross 12 or 130 tf. n ear 100 W. ; then 10 N. at 92 or 
93o W. 

From May to October the direction of the wind is gener- Oc p rom Ma ? to 
ally favorable as far as 103 W. ; prevailing SE. winds will 
then be found, becoming steadier and stronger to the south- 
ward and eastward of that meridian. The last part of the 
passage will ordinarily be long and irksome. Vessels leav- 
ing Acapulco during this season should at first make as 
much to the southward as possible, and not attempt to 
work to the eastward until they are in the neighborhood of 
12o S. 

We will finish with a quotation from Fitz-Koy : 

" Vessels bound to Panama from northward should make 
the island of Hicaron, which lies about 50 miles westward 
of Mariato point, and from this endeavor to keep under the 
land as far as cape Mala. If unable to do this, they should 
push across for the opposite side of the continent, when the 
current will be found in their favor. On getting eastward 
of cape Mala the safest plan is to shape a course for Galera 
island, and to use the eastern passage. At the same time, 
if tempted up the gulf by a fair wind, vessels should endea- 
vor to get on the western coast of the Pearl islands, which 
have the advantages already explained." 

-74. BOTJTE FROM MEXICO TO GUAYAQUIL. The prin- 
cipal points of this route, which is usually long and tedious, 
will be found in 69, under the head of the E. route from 



126 FROM MEXICO TO CALLAO. 

California to Callao. The reader should particularly refer 
to the assertions of Captain Shreve, quoted by Maury. 
Useful information will also be found in 73 and 75, which 
contain extracts from Basil Hall and Eosencoat. 

We shall therefore confine ourselves to the following 
advice (from Findlay) relative to the best manner of ap 
preaching Guayaquil : 

u Coming from the northward Santa Clara island may be 
made, which is visible about 16 miles, and at first appears 
like three hummocks; and Zampo Palo, the high range on 
Puna island, will generally be seen at the same time. 

" Santa Clara should not be approached nearer than 2 
miles, or within the depth of 12 fathoms, the best track 
being about 5 miles to the southward of it, in from 20 to 15 
fathoms water, whence a KE. J E. (by compass) course for 
25 miles will lead toward Arenas point, (vide 53.) 

75. BOUTE FROM MEXICO TO CALLAO. Auxiliary 
steam-vessels should always approach the land near cape 
San Francisco. Their steam-power will help them both in 
the first part of the voyage and while beating up to Callao 
beyond capes San Francisco and Santa Elena. 

Sailing-vessels and auxiliary steamers desiring to econo- 
mize coal, will find it generally advantageous (at least from 
May to December) to take the west route. 

The first part of this route is nearly identical to that given 
in 68 and 73, while the latter part will be the same as 
that described in 69. The west route seems to be undeni- 
ably the best for vessels leaving San Bias, Mazatlan, or 
Acapulco. If the point of departure is farther S., Istapa or 
Kealejo for instance, there may be some doubt as to which 
is the best route; but even then it would seem that the 
westerly passage is the one to be preferred. The SE. trade* 
will be found to the southward of 10 S.; when haul up a 
little free on the port tack, and pass [a trifle, west of the Gal- 
apagos islands. 

Below are the instructions given by Captain Basil Hall ; 
it will be seen that they do not absolutely conform to our 
own advice on this passage, for we still hold to the opinion 
that the W. route is the preferable one for sailing-vessels : 
" If it is required to return direct from San Bias to Callao, 
a course must be shaped so as to pass between the island of 
Cocos and the Galapagos, and to the south-eastward, till 
the land be made a little to the southward of the equator, 



FROM SAN JOSE DE GUATEMALA TO CALLAO. 127 

between cape San Lorenzo and cape Santa Elena. Then 
work along shore as far as point Aguja, in lat. 6 S., after 
which work due S., on the meridian of that point, as far as 
11 30' S. and then stretch inshore. If the outer passage 
were to be attempted from San Bias it would be necessary 
to run to 25 or 30 S., across the trade, which would be a 
needless waste of distance and time." 

Observations on the route from San Jose de Guatemala to 
CallaOj by Captain Eosencoat. " Following the information 
I had on this route, I decided to make for Cocos island, 
where I presumed I would find westerly winds, to carry the 
ship a little to northward of the gulf of Guayaquil and 
thence to the Peruvian ports by the usual route. We fol- 
lowed this route, but instead of the westerly winds near 
Cocos island found a light though steady breeze from E . 
and ESE. The wind held from this quarter till we reached 
Chatham island, (the most eastern of the Galapagos,) and 
instead of dying away, as is usual in this locality, freshened 
and still kept steady from the eastward. I was therefore 
compelled to run through the SE. trades and then make 
my easting with the variables near the tropic of Capricorn, 
in order to reach the prevalent winds of the coast of Peru. 

"Vessels deciding to cross the SE. trades should, however, 
run boldly through the region of SE. winds, no matter how 
much they may at first be set to the westward. Those, on 
the contrary, deciding to make the passage along the coast, 
should, from January to April, keep within 15 miles of land, 
and take advantage of the Mexican current, which sets 
ESE. with a speed of one knot and a half per hour. The 
WNW. and SSW. winds which we found during these four 
mouths, on the coast of Central America, would have given 
us a quick passage to cape San Francisco, or even to a more 
southerly point on the coast, as the prevalent wind is SE. 
in the gulf of Panama at this season ; except near Gorgona 
island, where frequent calms are said to exist. 

" Vessels taking the inshore route can hardly expect to 
make the passage from San Jos6 de Guatemala to cape 
Blanco in less than 15 days; and the whole voyage to 
Callao in less than 35 days. We took 40 days, but our 
unsuccessful attempts to make to the eastward at the be- 
ginning, probably lengthened the whole voyage. If we 
had steered boldly for the SE. trades at first, we probably 
would not have been delayed by cairns north of the equator. 



128 FROM MEXICO TO CAPE HORN. 

76. ROUTE FROM MEXICO TO THE INTERMEDIATE 
PORTS, VALPARAISO AND CAPE HORN. It was stated in 
the preceding paragraph that the W. route seems to be the 
best for sailing-ships making passage from Mexico to Cal- 
lao. We have also stated that the E. route has its parti- 
sans, and that vessels leaving the southern ports, such as 
Istapa or Realejo, may have quite a short passage. 

But when vessels, bound to a port south of Callao, leave 
the Mexican coast, it seems impossible thai they should 
prefer any other to the W. route. Therefore ships leaving 
San Bias, Mazatlan, or Acapulco should profit by every 
breeze that will set them to the southward, always choosing, 
if the wind comes out ahead, that tack by which they can 
make S W. or SSW. in preference to the one which will take 
them to the southward and eastward. Vessels leaving 
Realejo should steer SSW. as nearly as possible. By fol- 
lowing this advice they will find the SE. trades near 10 N. 
No other recommendation is needed, except to keep u rap 
full" on the port tack, and never hug the wind. If bound 
to one of the intermediate ports, do not go about in the 
trades until your port bears N. of NE. But if the destina- 
tion be Valparaiso, keep on the port tack to the region 
of prevalent westerly winds, near 32 or 34 S., (vide 71.) 
Ships bound around the Horn should steer S. until they 
have settled and steady west winds, when they can gradu- 
ally bear away to the eastward, (vide 72, 107, 108, and 
109.) 

77. ROUTE FROM PANAMA TO GUAYAQUIL, PAYTA, 
AND CALLAO. After leaving Panama the end in view 
should be to make as much as possible to the southward, 
and thus reach the SE. trade-region. 

This advice, given by Fitz-Roy, is certainly the best, but 
sailing-ships cannot always follow the most favorable route, 
especially in a locality of calms, squalls, and light breezes. 

Referring to James Wood, we find the following : " But 
the great difficulty at all times consists in getting either to 
the southward or westward of Panama. The passage to the 
southward is made in two ways either by beating up the 
coast against a constantly foul wind and contrary current, 
or by standing off to sea till sufficient southing is made to 
allow you to fetch your port on the starboard tack. Both 
plans are very tedious, as it frequently takes twenty days 



FROM GUAYAQUIL TO CALLAO. 129 

to beat up to Guayaquil, whilst six or seven days are an 
average passage down." (Vide Maury's instructions, 62.) 

In short, it will be to the advantage of ships leaving 
Panama for Guayaquil to keep close to the land. If they 
are bound farther down the coast, they should, after doub- 
ling cape Blanco, follow the instructions given in 79. 

78. ROUTE FROM PANAMA TO THE " INTERMEDIATE 
PORTS," VALPARAISO, AND CAPE IIORN. As stated in the 
foregoing paragraph, make to the southward as much as 
possible, taking advantage of every favoring breeze, and 
thus reach the SE. trades by the most direct route. Below 
5 N., and especially to the westward of 80, settled south- 
erly winds will be found, ranging between the SE. and SW. 
points of the compass. 

The passage may be made along the coast to cape San 
Francisco, or even to cape Blanco, though if the wind shows 
a tendency to come from the southward and eastward, it is 
well to stand off-shore on the port tack before reaching San 
Francisco. If bound to any of the intermediate ports, the 
inshore route is preferable, as a long stretch on the port 
tack is liable to set vessels too far to the southward and 
westward of their destination. We again repeat the rule, 
that vessels should never go about in the SE. trades until 
the port of destination bears north of NE., (vide 71, 72, 
76, and 84.) 

79. ROUTE FROM GUAYAQUIL AND PAYTA TO CAL- 
LAO. Fitz-Roy gives the following instructions on this 
route : 

" On leaving Guayaquil or Payta, if bound to Callao, 
work close inshore to about the islands of Lobos de Afuera. 
All agree in this. Endeavor always to be in with the land 
soon after the sun has set, so that advantage may be taken 
of the land-wind, which, however light, usually begins about 
that time ; this will frequently enable a ship to make her 
way along shore throughout the night, and will place her in 
a good situation for the first of the sea-breeze. 

"After passing the above-mentioned islands, it would be 
advisable to work upon their meridian until the latitude of 
Callao is approached ; then stand in, and if it be not 
fetched, work up along shore, as above directed, remember- 
ing that the wind hauls to the eastward on leaving the 
coast. Some people attempt to make this passage by stand- 
9 N 



130 FROM GUAYAQUIL TO CALLAO. 

ing off for several days, hoping to fetch in well on the other 
tack ; but this will generally be found a fruitless effort, ow- 
ing to a northerly current which is often found on approach- 
ing the equator. The mean passage for weatherly vessels 
is 15 or 20 days from Guayaquil to Callao." 

Oapt. Basil Hall gives the following instructions : 

"The passage from Guayaquil to Callao requires atten- 
tion, as may be seen from the following directions, which I 
obtained from Don Manuel Luzurragui, captain of the port 
of Guayaquil : 

" 'The average passage in a well-found and well-managed 
ship is twenty days ; eighteen is not uncommon ; and there 
is an instance of a schooner doing it in twelve. From the 
entrance of the river as far as Punta de Aguja, (in lat. 6 
S.,) the shore must be hugged as close as possible, in order 
to take advantage of the changes of wind, which take 
place only near the shore. In this way, by due vigilance, 
slants may be made every day and night. On reaching 
Punta de Aguja, work to the southward, as nearly on the 
meridian of that point as may be, as far as 11 30' S., and 
then strike inshore for Callao, and if it is not fetched, creep 
along shore, as formerly directed. 

" i Persons accustomed to the navigation between Callao 
and Valparaiso are tempted to stand boldly out in hopes of 
making their southing with ease, and then run in upon a 
parallel. But this is not found to be practicable, and indeed 
the cases have no resemblance, since the passage to Val- 
paraiso is made by passing quite through the trade-winds 
and getting into the variables ; whereas Callao lies in the 
heart of the trades j accordingly, a ship that stretches off 
from Guayaquil comes gradually up as she stands out, and 
finally makes about a south course ; when she tacks again, 
the wind shifts as she draws in, and she will be fortunate if 
she can retrace her first course, and very often does not 
fetch the point left in the first instance. 

" * To work along shore with effect, the land must be kept 
*well on board, and constant vigilance be bestowed upon the 
navigation, otherwise a ship will make little progress.'" 

Capt. Andrew Livingston, well known in the nautical 
world, makes the following remarks on navigating to wind- 
ward from Huanchaco to Callao : 

"The most intelligent, experienced persons with whom I 



FROM GUAYAQUIL TO THE INTERMEDIATE PORTS. 131 

conversed generally recommended standing off sbore dur- 
ing the night, and inshore during the day; but advised 
that any person in charge of a vessel beating thus to wind- 
ward should take care to be pretty close to the shore by 
sunset, to take advantage of the wind, which about that 
time generally draws rather off the land, though not suffi- 
ciently to deserve the name of a land-breeze." 

On the above 1 remark, that on account of the land 
trending so much to the eastward, if you stand twelve 
hours off shore and twelve hours inshore, at the same rate 
of sailing, and have gained any southing of consequence, 
you will still be a considerable distance off shore when y6ur 
twelve hours are completed standing in; and I think that 
it will be found in general most advisable to stand off only* 
about ten hours and in for fourteen hours; as, even if you 
get inshore rather too soon, you can, by making a short 
tack or two, be sure of being near the shore at sunset, when 
you may expect the wind rather to favor you for gaining 
southing with your port tack on board. 

On the off-shore tack you will generally find that the 
vessel comes up more and more as you stand off, but do not 
let this persuade you to stand off too far, even should the 
vessel head up S., or S. by E. by compass, as you will lose 
more on the inshore tack, when you must be headed off in 
proportion as you have headed up on the off-shore tack. 
The inspection of the chart will at once convince any per- 
son of this fact, even if there is no northerly current. Of 
course, bringing that directly on or abaft a vessel's beam 
must sag her to leeward. 

On the coast of Peru the water is frequently of a dirty- 
brown color, and sometimes quite red, as if mingled with 
blood. 

80. KOUTE FROM GUAYAQUIL AND PAYTA TO THE 
INTERMEDIATE PORTS. Vessels should strike through the 
trades on the port tack, as if bound to Valparaiso, and go 
about when their port bears to northward of NE. They 
will consequently leave the trades, and make their ea ting 
near 30 or 32 S. (Vide 70, 76, 78, and 81.) 

81. EOUTE FROM GUAYAQUIL AND PAYTA TO VALPA- 
RAISO AND CAPE HORN. Fitz-Roy's instructions on this 
route may be condensed as follows : 

" Sailing-vessels bound from Guayaquil to Valparaiso 



132 FROM CALLAO TO THE CHINCHA ISLANDS. 

shoujd stretch out to sea, crossing the Peruvian current be* 
fore passing the meridian of 92 W. From this the3 r should 
push to southward, not caring about being driven to the 
westward if southing can be made, as they will have no dif- 
ficulty in making their easting on the parallel of Valparaiso. 
This passage is generally made in 37 days." 

We have nothing to add to these general observations ; 
besides, detailed instructions will be found in 71, 72, and 
84 on the proper manner of steering through the trades and 
prevalent W. winds in order to reach Valparaiso or cape 
.Horn. 

82. ROUTE FROM CALLAO TO THE GHINOHA ISLANDS. 
We will cite the instructions on this passage given by 
* Captain Chardonueau, in his work on the coast of Peru, 
(pages 22 and 94 :) 

"Going from Callao to the Chincha islands or Pisco, it is 
best to keep at a distance of from 25 to 40 miles from the 
coast, until SW. of Cerro-Azul. Then stand in to within 
10 miles of the land, as, from this point to Pisco, there is 
nearly always a light northerly breeze during the morning. 

" It frequently happens that after finding a calm in the 
morning abreast of Cerro-Azul the ship will at night be 
anchored off Pisco. The current sets steadily to WNW. in 
this locality. 

"It is advisable to keep away from the shore during the 
night, and near it during the day, until beyond the 13th 
degree of latitude, then work along at a distance of 4 or 5 
miles from the land. 

"Captain Harvey's advice for the autumn months is to run 
2G hours to seaward and 22 to landward, thus being at the 
end of 48 hours to windward of San Gallan." 

Fitz-Roy also states that it is best to beat up near land, 
between Callao and the Chincha islands. The same rule 
should be followed as he has given in 79, for the passage 
from Guayaquil or Payta to the Lobos de Afuera islands. 

Lastly, Maury cites, in the Sailing Directions, an extract 
from the log of the Hornet, Captain Knap, which we quote 
below : 

" The passage frpm Callao to the Chincha islands offers 
no especial peculiarities. I would simply state that it had 
better be made in the region of steady trades, that is, clear 
of the land, and out of the influence of calms and baffling 



FROM OALLAO TO THE INTERMEDIATE POETS. 133 

airs, as these make vessels lose at least twelve hours out of 
the twenty-four. I think you cannot count on land-breezes 
near the shore, at any rate not in the autumn. 

<; I reached the Chinchas by two tacks, one of twenty-six 
hours off shore, the other of twenty-two hours, which 
brought me to San Gallan, fifteen miles to windward of the 
group. Forty-eight hours in all from Callao. I observed 
the same rule while descending the coast from cape Blanco 
to Callao, that is, I kept an offing of three or four degrees, 
thus getting away from the influence of the coast calms, an 
influence which I had unfortunately experienced while sail- 
ing from point Santa Elena to cape Blanco." 

The above quotations do not absolutely agree. It is, 
however, certain that long and rapid passages have been at 
times made by ships keeping near the land, and again by 
others which have given the shore a wide berth ; and the 
successful captains have never failed to praise the respect- 
ive routes which they have followed. We believe, however, 
that as a general rule it is best to keep a good distance from 
the land at the beginning of the passage. But we would also 
add that it is not advisable to run too long off shore on the port 
tack, as the wind may haul toward ESE. toward the end of 
the off-shore tack, and the ship may be set back to the 
northward while approaching the coast on the starboard 
tack. 

Fitz-Boy's instructions to approach land during the after- 
noon and thus be in readiness to take the off-shore tack at 
sunset would seem to be the best. Stand on this tack 
until the morning at 9 o'clock, when go about. 

By proceeding in this manner navigators need not fear 
(if the wind haul ahead) that they will be as . f ar from the 
Chinchas at the end of twenty-six hours as they were at 
starting. 

83. Eou'j'E FROM CALLAO TO THE " INTERMEDIATE 
PORTS." After stating that vessels bound to Valparaiso 
should run off shore, Fitz-Koy remarks : 

" But for the intermediate ports the case is different, (ex- 
cepting Coquiinbo,) as they lie considerably within the 
trade- wind, and must be attained through that medium 
alone. A very dull sailer might indeed do better by run- 
ning through the trade, and making southing in the offing, 
so as to return to the northward along the coast, than by 



134 FROM OALLAO TO THE INTERMEDIATE PORTS. 

attempting to work to windward against a trade-wind, 
which never varies more than a few points. 

"It may be recommended to work along shore, in a good 
sailer, as far as the island of San Gallan, whence the coast 
trends more to the eastward, so that a long leg and a short 
one may be made (with the land just in sight) to Arica, or 
to any of the ports between it and Pisco. 

" From Arica, the coast being nearly north and south, 
vessels bound to the southward should make an offing of 
not more than 45 or 60 miles, (so as to insure keeping the 
sea-breeze,) and work upon that meridian, till in the paral- 
lel of the place to which they are bound, but on no account 
is it advisable to inake a long stretch off; for as the limit 
of the trade- wind is approached, it gradually hauls to the 
eastward, and great difficulty will be found in even fetching 
the port from which they started." 

Captain Basil Hall makes the following remarks on this 
passage : 

" There is no difficulty in making a passage along the 
south coast of Peru from the eastward ; but from the west- 
ward a great deal of vigilance is requisite to take advan-. 
tage of every occasional shift of the wind, since by this 
means alone can a passage be made. The best authorities 
are, I think, against standing out to sea, to the southwest- 
ward, in the hopes of fetching in upon the starboard tack. 
The Constellation, American frigate, tried this passage, but 
she lost a great deal of time thereby, being at least three 
weeks in going from Callao to Mollendo. The San-Martin, 
bearing Lord Cochrane's flag, made the passage from Callao 
to Arica, which is considerably farther, iu thirteen days, by 
keeping inshore and taking advantage of the changes 
which take place, with more or less regularity, every even- 
ing and morning. 

"As the weather along the south coast of Peru is in- 
variably fine, ships are not otherwise incommoded at the 
various anchorages, than by a high swell, which always 
rolls in at the full and change of the moon. Arica is the 
only place having any pretensions to the name of a 
harbor." 

Commander Chardonneau gives the following advice: 

" Vessels bound from Callao to Iquique, Arica, and Islay 
should work along the coast to Morro de Chala. The 



CALLAO TO VALPARAISO. 135 

boards should be short and close tinder the land, so as to 
take advantage of the fresh wind in the offing during the 
day, and the land-breeze during the night. Between San 
Lorenzo and San Gallan islands it is advisable to keep 
clear of Asia or Cerro-Azul bight, as vessels are liable to 
bo becalmed in that locality and the eddy currents are 
strong and uncertain. The best plan is to keep to seaward 
of a line drawn from San Lorenzo to the northernmost of 
the Chincha islands. 

" To southward of Morro de Chala vessels should keep 
from 30 to 100 miles from the coast, as beyond the latter 
distance the wind hauls to the eastward, and renders it 
difficult to fetch the port when bound in on the land tack. 

"The parallel of their port once reached, vessels should 
run in for the land, being careful not to lose anything that 
they have made in latitude. If the landfall be made a few 
miles to windward the anchorage can always be reached, 
even during a calm, as the current and 'catspaws' are 
sufficient for working up to the port.' 7 

84. KOUTE FROM CALLAO TO VALPARAISO. Fitz-Roy's 
instructions : " For a sailing-vessel bound from Callao to 
Valparaiso, there is no question but that by running off 
with a full sail the passage will be made in much less time 
than by working inshore, for she may run quite through 
the trade, and fall in with the westerly winds which are 
always found beyond it. The average passage is about 
three weeks. Fast-sailing schooners have made it in much 
ess time; and there is an instance. of two men-of-war sail- 
ing in company, having gone from Callao to Valparaiso, 
remained there two days, and re-anchored at Callao on the 
twenty-first day. But these are rare occurrences, and only 
to be done under most favorable circumstances, such as 
meeting with a norther soon after leaving Callao." 

Captain Basil Hall's passages ; Callao to Valparaiso, 2Sth 
February to ISth March, 1821. The return-passage from Peru 
to Chile requires some attention, and may generally be made 
by a man-of-war in less than three weeks; it has been made 
in less than a fortnight by a frigate, which, however, on 
the next occasion, took twenty-eight days. The point which 
contributes most to the success of this passage is keeping 
well off the wind after leaving Callao, and not having any 
scruples about making westing, provided southing can 



136 FiiOil CALLAO TO VALPARAISO. 

also be gained. The SE. trade-wind, through which the 
greater part of this course is to be made, invariably draws 
to the eastward at its southern limit, and therefore event- 
ually a ship can always make her southing. The object, 
however, being to get past the trade and into the westerly 
winds, which lie to the southward, a ship ought to keep 
the wind at least abeam, while crossing the trade. In win- 
ter, that is when the sun is to the northward of the equator, 
the trade- wind blows steadier, and its southern extreme lies 
40 or 50 to the northward of its summer limit, which may 
be taken at about 30 or 31 S. 

"Chorillos (near Callao) to Valparaiso, Wth to 28th August, 
1821. This being what is called the winter passage, we lost 
the trade-wind in lat. 25 S., after which we had the winds 
to the SW. as far as lat. 27 S., long. 88 W., when they 
shifted to the NW. and W., and so to the SW. and S,, as 
far as lat. 33 S., long. 78 W. We were much embarrassed 
by calms, light winds, and heavy rains, after which the 
wind came to the northward and NNW., with thick, rainy 
weather. We made the land to the southward of Valparaiso 
on the 27th, and got in next day by the wind coming round 
to the SW. . 

"At this season of the year, when northerly winds pre- 
vail, with heavy rain, and unpleasant weather, it does not 
seem advisable to make the coast to the southward of the 
port. Neither ought a ship, I think, to run into Val- 
paraiso in one of these gales, since the wind frequently 
blows home, and is attended by a high swell. During the 
winter the barometer, the threatening aspect of the 
weather, and the rising swell generally give sufficient 
warning. Previous to a nortlier, also, the land of Concon, 
and that beyond it to the northward, are seen with unusual 
sharpness and distinctness. 

"This passage in eighteen days may be termed short. 
Formerly thirty days was usual ; it afterward sunk to 
twenty-five days, and, at the period of our arrival, three 
weeks was considered good. Sir Thomas Hardy, in His 
Majesty's ship Creole, made the passage from. Huacho in 
something less than fourteen days, the distance being more 
than 2,200 miles. This was early in May, 1821 ; and it is 
well worth attending to, that the trade-wind was crossed, 
with a foretop-mast studding-sail set, no regard being paid 



FKOM CALLAO TO VALPARAISO. 137 

to any object but getting through the trade-wind as fast as 
possible. The same ship, however, in February and March 
of the following year was twenty -eight days making the 
passage ; but this is unusually long for a man-of-war." 

Commander Ckardonneaifs observations. "A ship leaving 
one of the ports of Peru for Chile should make a good 
offing, work to the southward and westward, and keep J or 
1 point free. The wind will become fairer and fairer as the 
ship leaves the coast and makes to the southward. Many 
captains brace their yards so that the foretop-mast stud- 
ding-sail will just i touch, > and then steer by it. This 
seems to be a good plan. Stand on in this manner for the 
variable winds, always to be found south of the tropic, and 
between it and the parallels of 28 or 30 S. These winds 
are often fresh and blow from SW., S., and NW., with 
squalls and rain. Then steer to the southward and east- 
ward without seeing land as far as the parallel of the 
port of destination, or a little to the south of that parallel, 
if it is summer, (from September to April.) Make the laud 
to southward of your port. 

"Vessels going to Valparaiso should head for the island of 
Juan JFernandez as soon as they strike the variable winds, 
and passing to the northward of the island and in sight of 
it, stand to the eastward until they sight point Curaumilla, 
if it is the summer season. But in winter (from May to 
August) steer for Valparaiso, taking care not to enter the 
port if the wind be from the N. and the barometer be fall- 
ing, for the anchorage is then dangerous, and it is prefer- 
able to lie-to outside until the wind comes out from the 
west, when there will be no risk. 7 ' 

We will complete these instructions by giving, for each 
month, the principal crossings on the route from Callao to 
Valparaiso. By first tracing on the chart the indicated 
route, the navigator will be enabled to make the passage 
under approximative mean conditions. Still it should be 
understood that the route may be altered if the wind is 
contrary. As a general rule, the ships which keep a little 
free are the ones which make the quickest passages ; con- 
sequently it may become necessary to make a longer circuit 
than that given, and yet have a quick voyage. 

In January, cross 15 S. near 79; 20 S. near 81 ; 25 



138 FROM CALLAO TO CAPE HORN. 

S. near 82; 31 S. near 82 ; 32 30' S. near 80 W.; then 
head for Valparaiso. 

In February the port tack carries vessels to 25 S. and 
83 W. ; beyond this parallel the chances will vary, and 
they may find winds from S. and SW. ; 80 W. should gen- 
erally be crossed between 32 and 33 S. 

In March, 20 S. can generally be crossed near 81 W. ; 
30 S. near 84 : here the winds are from SE. to S W., and 
haul to the westward as the ship goes south. The parallel 
of 32 30' should be crossed near 80 W. 

In April, cross 20 S. at about 81 W. ; vessels can often 
reach 25 S. between 81 and 82 W. ; 30 S., near 81 W. ; 
31 or 32 S., near 80 ; and thence steer for their port, 

In May, cross 20 S. at 81 W. ; 25 and 30 S. at 82, 
and then make for Valparaiso. 

In June, cross 20 S. at 81 W. ; *25 S. at 82; 30 S. 
between 80 and 81 ; and then shape the course so as to 
make the parallel of Valparaiso near 75 W. 

In July, vessels will often be able to cross 20 and .25 S. 
at 81 VV. ; as the northerly winds are more frequent than 
during the preceding month they may fetch 27 30' S. at 
79 W.; 30 S. at 77 W. ; sailing directly for their port 
from this point. 

In August, cross 15 S. in the neighborhood of 80 W. ; 
20 and 30 S. near 82 W. ; 32 S. at 80 ; and 32 30' S. 
at 75 W. 

In September, cross 20 S. a little to the eastward of 81 
W.; 25 and 30 S. between 81 and 82 W. ; and 32 S. at 
79 W. 

In October, cross 25 S. between 82 and 83 W. ; beyond 
30 or 31 S. a fair or leading wind will generally be found. 

In November, cross 20 S. near 82 W. ; 25 S., between 
82 and 83 ; and attempt to reach 30 S. near 80 W. 

In December, 15 S. should be crossed at 80 W. ; 20 S. 
at 82; 25 S. at 81; from this parallel to 30 S. the wind 
varies from S W. to E3E. ; beyond 30 S. the direction of 
the wind is favorable for running down the easting. 

85. ROUTE FROM CALLAO TO CAPE HORN. We have 
seen in the preceding paragraph that ships, leaving Callao 
for Valparaiso, should keep a good full while passing through 
the SE. trades. This recommendation is just as important for 
ships bound around cape Horn. In this passage the region 



FROM VALPARAISO TO CAPE HORN. 139 

of westerly winds should be readied as soon as possible ; no 
matter if the ship be carried very much to the westward in 
search of them. In short, the farther the ship crosses the 
parallel of 35 to the westward, the more favorable will be 
her position for doubling the cape with the NW. and SW. 
winds. 

As we have stated in 72, the great-circle route is the 
best for doubling the cape. 

A very good point to cross 30 and 35 S., is between 88 
and 93 W. 

86. EOUTE FROM THE "INTERMEDIATE PORTS" TO 

VALPARAISO AND CAPE HORN. The following quotation 
is from Fitz-Roy's instructions for the navigation of the 
coast of Chile, and may be of use to vessels bound from the 
intermediate ports to the southward : 

"If bound to the southward steer direct for the place, if 
fortunate to have a wind which admits of it; but if not, 
stand out to sea by the wind, keeping every sail clean full, 
the object being to get through the adverse southerly winds 
as soon as possible, and to reach a latitude from which the 
ship will be sure of reaching her port on a direct course. 
Every experienced seaman knows that, in the regions of 
periodic winds, no method is more inconsistent with quick 
passages than that of hugging the wind. When Rear Ad- 
miral Sir Thomas Hardy was on the coast, he used to cross 
the southerly winds with a topmast studding-sail set, his 
object being to get through them." 

This advice is especially given to vessels bound to Valpa- 
raiso. We have nothing to add to what we have said on 
analogous routes in 71, 76, 78, 81, and 84. 

After leaving the intermediate ports it will be still more 
to the advantage of ships bound to cape Horn to keep a 
" clean full " while making passage through the zone of 
southerly winds j in fact, they should steer a trifle freer 
than if bound to Valparaiso. It is probably best to cross 
35 S. near 83 W., or even farther to the westward ; and 
it can be generally stated that the farther 35 S. is crossed 
to the westward, the sooner the cape will be doubled. The 
length of the route will certainly be compensated for by the 
increase of speed, caused by keeping away, both in the 
trades and in the belt of westerly winds. 

87. ROUTE FROM VALPARAISO TO CAPE HORN. After 



140 FROM V ALPAEAISO TO CAPE IIOEN. 

leaving Valparaiso southerly winds will be encountered, 
except during the rainy season, when they are interrupted 
by northers, (vide 21.) 

It will therefore be easy for ships to make to the west- 
ward as far as Juan Fernandez. 

As a general rule 35 S. should not be crossed at less than 
80 or 82 W. It will be advantageous as stated in the 
foregoing paragraph to cross this parallel as far to the 
westward as possible; that every advantage may be taken 
of the prevalent W. winds, which haul to northward and to 
southward as far as 40 or 42 S. 

In January, cross 35 S. at 82 W. ; 40 S., when possi- 
ble, between 80 and 85 W. ; 50 S. at 81 or 82 W. 

In February, the same route. 

In March, cross 35 S. at 80 or 80 30' W. Aim to cross 
40 between 80 and 83 W. ; after which bear to the south- 
ward. 

In April, May, and June, vessels are sufficiently far to the 
westward if they cross 35 S. between 78 and 80 W. ; and 
40o S. between 80 and 83 W. 

In July and August, cross 35 S. between 81 and 82 W. ; 
40 S. between 82 and 83 W. 

In September, October, November, and December, cross 35 
S. as far as possible to the westward. Thus, if it can be 
done, the parallels of 35 and 37 should be crossed between 
82 and 85 W. The S. winds at this season prevail as far 
as 40 or 42 S. The west route is therefore much the best. 

The crossings just indicated for the different seasons show 
approximately the route which the winds allow. Sailing- 
vessels should keep still farther to the westward if the 
wind permit. Auxiliary-steam vessels need not, of course, 
make such a long circuit. They can head, for example, for 
35 S. near 78 W. ; and 40 S. near 80 W., using steam if 
necessary. 

We take from the Ann. Hydr. the following extract, relat. 
ing to a voyage from Valparaiso to cape Horn, made by the 
sailing-frigate Alceste, Captain Brosset : 

u In order to double cape Horn the proper route to be 
made, after leaving Valparaiso, is to keep 150 or 200 miles 
from the coast of Chile ; thence to descend parallel to this 
coast until 50 S. is reached ; after this, to make an oblique 
route around the cape. 



FROM VALPARAISO TO COXCEPCION. 141 

u I left Valparaiso on the 14th December, and was favored 
with moderate winds from SSW., varying to S., SSE., and 
even SE. I made my offing by passing to the northward of 
Juan Fernandez islands. 

" On the 18th December I was about 570 miles from the 
coast of America, lat. 33 30' S., long. 85 W., and in good 
position to make to the southward ; but I crept along at a 
slow rate, and was off my course when close-hauled, being 
several times obliged to take the port or west tack in order 
to keep at a convenient distance from land. From the 
18th to the 28th December the wind blew constantly from 
S. to W. ; oftenest from SSW. and S W., varying in intensity 
from a light breeze to a moderate gale. 

"At 50 S. and 80 W. I commenced to bear away toward 
E., and, assisted by the SSW. wind which now became 
favorable I crossed, on the 31st December, the 50th de- 
gree south latitude at 76 W. I supposed that, in all prob- 
ability, I should quickly double cape Horn with the strong 
west winds which seem to reign perpetually in these locali- 
ties, when the SW. wind hauled to S. and SSE., and dying 
away altogether was succeeded by a calm. Nor did I make 
Staten island until the llth January. During the 12 days 
taken to double cape Horn (from 56 S. and 70 W. to Sta- 
ten island) I constantly experienced winds from ESE., E., 
light breezes from NE., and calms and light airs from S. 
to SSE., with which I slowly made headway to the eastward. 

" On both the 5th and Gth January I had a gale from the 
east. 

" Although this gale only took place on the 5th and Gth 
January, the rotation of the wind commenced from W. on 
the 2d, and with the hands of a watch ; that is, in a direc- 
tion opposite to the usual one. According to ttie Dutch 
instructions this is nearly always a certain sign of a tem- 
pest." 

88. ROUTE FROM VALPARAISO TO CONCEPCION. Be- 
low will be found the instructions of Gapt. Basil Hall on 
this passage, from whom we have had occasion to quote 
several times before : 

"Passage made in 20 days, October, 1821. As the preva- 
lent winds along this coast are from the southward, it is 
necessary to take advantage of every slant that will allow 
of southing boiog made; and we were fortunate in meeting 



FROM VALPARAISO TO CONCEPCION. 

with a westerly wind on the third day after sailing, which 
carried us more than half the distance. The wind subse- 
quently was S. by W., which made the rest of the passage 
to Concepcion almost a dead heat. We arrived at Talca- 
huana, in Concepcion bay, on the 8th. During the 9th it 
blew fresh from the northward. We afterward beat up to the 
bay of Arauco, and to the island of Mocha, in 38 19' S., hav- 
ing on this occasion been favored with a south-easterly breeze, 
and then a southerly one to stand in with. 

" We endeavored to reach Valdivia also, but the wind 
came from S. by E., and blew so hard that we were obliged, 
for want of time, to give it up. On the return passage to 
Valparaiso, we had light !NW. and W. winds, then SW., 
and so on the southward and S. by E., which is the most 
common wind. 

"These particulars would seem to point out that a pas- 
sage may always be made to the southward, for the winds 
are seldom steady for twelve hours, and by taking care to 
profit by every change, southing must be made. 

"The passage from Valparaiso to Concepcion is generally 
made in ten days, which is also the usual time required for 
a passage to Callao. The distance, however, in the first 
case is 200 miles, and in the latter, 1,320 miles a circum- 
stance which points out very decidedly the direction of the 
prevalent winds." 

We will also give an abstract of the instructions of Cap- 
tain Fleuriot de Langle, (vol. 22 Ann. Hydr:) 

According to this superior officer, the winds which pre- 
vail during the greater part of the year from SSE. to SS W., 
along the coast of Chile, render the passages from Valpa- 
raiso to the southern ports long and tedious. These winds 
are interrupted in winter by northers of short duration. 
Ships will consequently be obliged to beat up on the port 
tack ; and will find enough wind and sea to compel them 
to take at least two reefs in the topsails. It would, at cer- 
tain times, seem preferable to stand well out to sea, and 
not to go about until the latitude of the port is reached ; at 
others it is best to beat up the coast. If bound to Maule or 
Talcahuana it is not advisable to stand on the port tack 
farther than to mid-distance between Valparaiso and Juan 
Fernandez. 

If this advice be followed there is a chance of striking a 



FROM VALPARAISO TO CONCEPCION. 143 

northerly breeze, even during the fine season. The weather 
is also better and the sea smoother than it is farther to the 
westward. 

Between Juan Fernandez and the coast of Chile, it often 
happens that the wind prevails from SW. near the coast 
and from SE. farther out ; or vice versa. Thus it is some- 
times very difficult, after having made a great deal of lati- 
tude, to run down the longitude. By tacking under the 
laud the passage will generally be shortened ; the time from 
Valparaiso to Concepcion being only from 4 to 8 days by 
the coast route : while it is from 10 to 15 days by the ofi- 
shore route. 

While beating up the coast the temperature of the water 
will show whether or not the ship is close to land, as the sea 
is colder near shore. According to M. Fleuriot de Langle, 
vessels bound to Yaldivia or the Chilo6 islands, and 
those bound around the cape, should keep on the port tack 
until they sight Juan Fernandez ; they will usually make 
this island in three days. As the land is high, be careful 
not to approach too close to leeward, as ships are apt to 
lose the wind. 



CHAPTER III. 

Routes from the western coast of America, across the Pacific. 

89. EOUTE FROM VALPARAISO OR CALLAO TO AUS- 
TRALIA, (by the trades.) Vessels boimd to Australia from 
the coast of Chile or Peru, should first strike for the SE. 
trade region. Those leaving Valparaiso will therefore steer 
immediately NNW. or STW.; while those starting from 
Callao should head W. The settled SE. trades being once 
found, the passage to the Marquesas islands is quickly made. 

Fatu-Hiva, or Madeleine island, is a good land-fall, and is 
8 miles long N. and S., and 4 miles broad. The land is 
high, with a peak rising for nearly 4,000 feet. 

Between the coast of America and the Marquesas the 
wind will become steadier and haul more and more to the 
eastward as the ship goes to the westward. 

Beyond the Marquesas constant trades can be relied upon, 
particularly from July to October ; but they will not be so 
fresh or steady during the rest of the year, (vide 4.) Dur- 
ing the spring months, and after the sun has passed the 
summer solstice of the X. hemisphere, the voyage can be 
made to the northward of the Samoa group ; passing close 
and to the southward of Uvea island, to the westward ot 
the Fijis, the tropic can be crossed a little west of the 
meridian of the isle of Pines. During the rest of the year, 
from November to June, steer direcc from Fatu-Hiva to 
Tonga-Tabu, and thence so as to cross the tropic near the 
same meridian, 166 E. 

For further instructions on this route vide 132 and 133. 

Auxiliary steamers, starting from Valparaiso, can short- 
en this passage by passing the Paumota islands to the 
southward or by sailing through the group on the 20th 
parallel, (vide 93.) After reaching about 141 W., they 
can leave 20 S., and steer so as to intersect the parallel of 
Tahiti near 158 W. They can then pass between the 
Samoas and Tongas. The last part of the passage is simi- 
lar to that already given. Bufc we think that it will be ad- 
vantageous for sailing-ships to keep to the route we have 



FROM VALPARAISO TO INDIAN OCEAN. 145 

indicated, especially from March to October ; that is, to sight 
Fatu-Hiva and pass to the northward and clear of the 
Paumotas. It often happens that calms or westerly breezes 
are found south of the Paumotas; though that, of course, 
will be no inconvenience if steam-power is available. 

90. ROUTE FROM VALPARAISO OR CALLAO TO THE 
INDIAN OCEAN, SAIGON, BATAVIA, MELBOURNE, ETC. 
This passage can be made in two ways : by the trades, and 
by the cape Horn route. 

These two routes are so different that it is difficult to de- 
cide which is the better. To make a choice between the 
two, one should take into account the qualities of the ship ;' 
the importance attached to making a passage more or less 
rapid, no matter what it may cost ; the season of the year, 
etc. 

The trade- wind route will be less boisterous, but even this 
is often dangerous; in certain cases it will be sensibly 
longer. The cape Horn route is severe and generally 
quicker, passing through higher latitudes. 

Vessels bound to Melbourne should navigate in the SE. * rade " 



roto 

trades according to the instructions given in 89. Once 
south of New Caledonia, they should approach the coast of 
Australia, in the manner described in 138; the 'passage 
should be finished as stated in 178. Sailing-ships are 
almost certain to have head winds and squalls between 
New Caledonia and Melbourne, (vide 6 and 7.) It will 
be especially difficult to pass through Bass strait, as Jan- 
uary, February, and March are the only months when o#- 
casional easterly winds may be expected. 

During these months, and from November to March in 
general, vessels bound to the Indian ocean and Batavia 
should, after sailing over the route just described, pass to 
the southward of Australia. This part of the route will be 
found in detail in 172. 

It is possible to pass north of Australia at all seasons ; 
the weather being better by this route. From March to 
September there will therefore be a choice between Torres 
strait, which can be traversed with the SE. monsoons, and the 
route by St. George's channel and the N. of New Guinea. 

In either case pass north of the Samao islands, close to 
the southward of Ho turn ah island and north of the New 
Hebrides. For further information vide 171. During the 
10 N 



146 FROM VALPARAISO TO INDIAN OCEAN. 

other season, from September to March, the NE. trade route 
can be taken, (vide 92.) Make the Bashee islands between 
Formosa and Luzon, and run down the China sea with the 
NE. monsoon. Instructions relating to the latter part of 
the voyage will be found in 168 and subsequent para- 
graphs. 

The following quotations, referring to trade-wind pas- 
sages made during the seasons of both monsoons, are from 
Horsburgh, (vol. 3, p. 764:) 

" Several ships have made very rapid passages from the 
coast of South America to India. Captain Peircy left Val- 
paraiso in January, 1814 ; after crossing the Pacific, he 
entered the China sea, passing through the Bashee group ; 
crossing the strait of Malacca, he arrived at Bengal 86 days 
after leaving Valparaiso. 

" The Sherburne left Copiapo for Calcutta on the 27th 
February, 1824 ; sailed between the Marquesas and Society 
groups, and sighted the most easterly of the Navigator 
islands. Instead of the prevalent SE. winds, she often ex- 
perienced light and variable airs 5 she took the route 
through St. George's channel ; thence sailed along the north 
coast of New Guinea, through Gillolo and Ombay chan- 
nels, and entered the Indian ocsan on the 15th June, after 
doubling the S. point of Sandal wood." 

ad. The capo When the destination is Reunion, Bombay, Calcutta, Ba- 
tavia, or even Saigon, quicker passages will undoubtedly be 
made by this route. It will be particularly advantageous 
for ships leaving Valparaiso and Callao, between the months 
of August and January. During this season the weather 
will not be so severe in that part of the passage made in 
high latitudes ; the temperature will be warmer, and, the 
days being longer, the floating ice can be more easily 
avoided, (vide 43.) Moreover, during this season the 
trade-wind passage will be more uncertain as bad weather 
and westerly winds are common in the western part of the 
intertropical zone, (vide 4.) 

During the rest of the year, and particularly when start- 
ing between March and June, the SE. trade passage can be 
made with steady winds ; the weather will be fair, and the 
difference in time between the two routes will be little or 
nothing. It is well understood, however, that the only 



FROtf VALPARAISO TO INDIAN OCEAN. 147 

route at all seasons, for good and well-equipped vessels 
bound to Reunion or Bombay, is that by the cape. 

One of the inconveniences of the southern route, espe- 
cially during the winter, when the nights are very long, is 
the danger of meeting icebergs. The chances of running 
foul of them can, however, be diminished after leaving cape 
Horn, by steering so as to cross 40 S. near 41 or 42 W.j 
when run down the easting ; but this circuit will greatly in- . 
crease the length of the voyage, and a more rapid passage 
will probably be made, by gradually shaping the course 
(after leaving cape Horn) for 40 S. to the eastward of 28 
or 29 E. if bound to Eeuriion ; for 40 S. at 37 or 42 E. if 
bound to India, or near 62 E. if the destination is Batavia. 

Maury gives the following instructions for this route : 

" I have advised a ship-master who consulted me by let- 
ter to go by way of cape Horn. The distance, by the way 
of the cape, to Calcutta is 10,500 miles; while the distance 
by the usual route west, or i running down the trades,' as it 
is called, is 13,000 miles. The difference in time will be 
quite as great as this difference of distance would indicate. 
Indeed, in addition to distance, time is also in favor of the 
cape Horn route, for the winds are stronger and quite as 
fair. 

"As one stands between the capes of the South Atlantic 
and looks north upon the chart, he sees a part of the ocean 
in the shape of the letter A, without the cross, which is un- 
traveled, except by whalemen and sealers. The track to 
and around the cape of Good Hope forms one side of the 
letter; the track to and fro around cape Horn, the other. 
Between these two the ocean is a solitude. Among the 
many thousand logs on file in the observatory there is not 
one to show that any trader has ever performed the voyage 
from the offings of cape Horn to the offings of the cape of 
Good Hope. 

" The way by the cape Horn route to India is to proceed 
from Valparaiso as though you were homeward bound 
around the cape, and then, with l the brave west winds' 
which prevail there, to run east with flowing sheets, passing 
between the isles of South Georgia and Sandwich-land, 
keeping a bright lookout for icebergs. The route thence 
crosses the prime meridian in about 54 S., 20 E. in 50 S., 
35 E. in 40 S., by which time the navigator will again 



148 FROM VALPARAISO TO NEW ZEALAND. 

find Limself in the traveled thoroughfares, and will know 
how to proceed. 

"Distance in miles from Valparaiso via 

Cape Horn Western 
route. route. 

To Canton 11, 500 10, 800 

ToShanghai 12, 200 10, 500 

To Java-head 9, 700 

" In tbe southern summer the voyage from Valparaiso to 
Canton may, on account of the winds, be performed quite 
as quickly via cape Horn as it may be by the route west. 
If the 'brave west winds 7 will enable a ship by cape Horn 
to average only ten miles a day more during the voyage 
than she can in running down the trades west, time, which 
now is worth so much in navigation, would be somewhat 
in favor of the cape Horn route, even to Canton." 

91. EOUTE FROM VALPARAISO OR CALLAO TO NEW 
CALEDONIA AND NEW ZEALAND. General observations on 
this route will be found in 89, to which we will add the 
following instructions : 

After leaving Valparaiso, especially in an auxiliary 
steamer, and when the sun is in the S. hemisphere, the 
route lies through the southern part of the Paumota archi- 
pelago and along the parallel of 20 S., (vide 93.) But 
sailing-ships will, we think, always do better if they steer 
for Fatu-Hiva, after entering the trades. Starting from 
Callao, they should certainly head for the Marquesas. Af- 
ter correcting their position, by sighting Eatu-Hiva, they 
should follow the instructions given in 132 for vessels 
bound to New Caledonia and New Zealand. 

As a general rule, it is always easy to reach Noumea, 
since this route lies entirely in the trade belt. The wind 
will always be found steady, and especially settled, from 
March to October, (vide 4.) 

Prom Decem- Ships bound to New Zealand during these months should 
steer, after leaving Fatu-Hiva, so as to pass to the west of 
Cook's group j thence S. of Nicholson's shoal ; they should 
cross the tropic near 173 W. ; and pass to the westward 
of the Kermadec isles. 

From May to At this season it is preferable to pass to the northward 
and westward of the Tonga islandsand to intersect the tropic 
near 180 or 178 E. From this west point there will be 



FROM VALPARAISO TO CHINA. 

fewer chances of being set to leeward after running out of 
the trades and while heading for the Bay of Islands with 
the prevalent westerly winds, (vide 132.) 

92. BOUTE FROM VALPARAISO OR CALLAO TO CHINA.* 
The passage from South America to China may be made 
by either the NE. or SE. trades. These two routes are 
called respectively the northerly and southerly. 

The southerly route is to be preferred by vessels leaving 
Valparaiso or Callao from February to July. The northerly 
route is the better one during the remainder of the year. 

1st. The southerly route. First head, as has been stated 
in 89 and 91, so as to make Fatu-Hiva, thence steer to 
the southward of the Gilbert group and to the northward 
of the Pelew islands. After this shape the course if the 
passage is being made between March and October toward 
the strait of San Bernardino, (vide 101,) and enter the 
China sea through the passage between Luzon and Mindoro. 
Here the SW. monsoon prevails. But from October to 
March, after leaving the Pelew islands, keep to the north- 
ward of the Philippines, and gain the China sea by passing 
through the Bashee group. Thence the passage to Hong 
Kong will be easy, the NE. monsoon being favorable. 

There is also another route which has its advantages for 
ships coming from the coast of America from February to 
July. To follow it, steer, after sighting Fatu-Hiva, so as 
to intersect the line near 166 or 168 W. Then take a N W. 
direction, and pass north of the Marshall group. After 
crossing the line at 166 W., vessels can equally as well pass 
between Bonham island (Ralick group) and Mulgrave island 
(Radack group ;) and then make to N W. between the two 
chains of islands. In both cases, after they have once 
passed to the northward of the Marshall group, they will 
make rapidly to the westward, keeping to the southward of 
Guam island, (Marianas ;) after this make for San Bernardino 
strait, in the same manner as advised during the SW. mon- 
soon. 

2d. Northerly route. After leaving Valparaiso or Callao, 
head, with the SE. trades, to cross the line near 138 W., 
and 10 N. near 143 W. ; the NE. trades will be found near 
this parallel. The parallel of 18 N. should be crossed in 

* Instructions for the " cape Horn route" will be found in 90. 



150 FROM VALPARAISO TO TAHITI. 

the neighborhood of 160 W. Thence follow the instructions 
given in 101. 

93. KOUTE FROM VALPARAISO TO THE MARQUESAS 
AND TAHITI. Vessels starting from Valparaiso and bound 
to the Marquesas islands should cross the tropic near 88 
W., and 12 S. at 108 W. ; and then lay a course straight 
for Fatu-Hiva, (or Magdelena;) from this island the anchor- 
age in Ta'io-Hae bay (Nukathiva) is easily reached. Sail- 
ing-ships bound to Tahiti will also find it to their advan- 
tage to use the same route. After sighting Fatu-Hiva 
they can run through the Paumota group, as stated in 
129 ; but it is shorter to cross the tropic near 98 W. and 
20 S. near 118 W., and make the westing through the 
archipelago on this parallel, which is comparatively clear 
of dangers. 

According to Wilkes a ship may keep on the 20th par- 
allel until she reaches 141 or 142 TV., and then head for 
Tahiti direct. On this route, Carysford island (Tureia) 
will be sighted to the southward at about 138 W., and 
Whitsunday island (Xukutavake) to the northward at about 
139 W. Still keep on the 20th parallel and run between 
Barrow island, (Vanavana,) long. 139 05' W., and Byam- 
Martin island, (Pinaki,) long. 140 25' W. Thence pass to 
northward of St. Paul, (Hereheretue,) long. 145 05' W. All 
these islands are visible at a distance of from 7 to 10 miles. 

Captain Richard Fay gives the following directions for 
making a landfall at the Society islands from the south- 
ward : " It is always dangerous to approach the Paumota 
group from the southward or southward and westward ; 
pass west of Moorea, and then steer for Tahiti. However, 
it is an easy matter during the good season to make Tahiti 
from the east by passing between Auaa and Maitea islands, 
and very near the latter. Keep a good distance from the 
NE. coast of Tahiti, and make the landfall at point Venus ; * 
but do not run in closer than 6 miles, on account of the 
reefs which extend for 4 or 5 miles off shore, especially be- 
1 tween Mahena and an islet situated to the E. of point Venus. 

u By following this last route you will be able to make to 
the northward on the starboard tack, with a free wind, 
which afterward hauls aft as you approach the land. 
When as high as point Venus you can run inside the reef 
by the Tanoa or Papiete passage, according to the appear- 

* There is a light on point Venus, (vide 184.) 



FROM CALLAO TO TAHITI. 151 

ance of the weather. The pilot will, however, come on 
board and take the ship, by one or the other of the passes, 
to the anchorage of Papiete, where come to in 7, 8, or 9 fath- 
oms of water; bottom, sand and mud. 

" Vessels coming from the E. or Valparaiso, and bound 
to Nukahiva, should sight Magdelena island, situated to 
the southward of Nukahiva. They should then head for 
Taio-Hae bay or Comptroller bay. The latter is situated 
on the eastern coast of the island, and is larger than the 
former ; but it is far from the French station and the resi- 
dence of the chief at Taio-Hae." 

Observations on this route by Mr. 0. Biddlecombe, Master 
E. M. 8. Actwon. " On leaving the coast of Chile or Peru, 
run into the SE. trade-wind, or in latitude 20 S., as soon 
as possible, when you will generally have strong easterly 
winds and fine weather; you may then stand to the west- 
ward in that latitude till you bring Pitcairn island to bear 
about SW., when you should steer for it, taking care not to 
get to the westward of the island, as the current runs 
strongly to the westward, owing to the prevailing easterly 
wind, except about December and January, when a north- 
erly or NW. gale sometimes sets in. From Pitcairn island 
you will be enabled to shape a course for the Marquesas, 
taking care then to keep to the eastward, as the SE. or 
SSE. trade blows through the islands." 

94. EOUTE FROM CALLAO TO THE MARQUESAS AND 
TAHITI. After leaving Callao or any of the adjacent ports 
the course should be west to gain the trades, which will be 
found quite near land. Afterward, there are two routes, 
either of which may be followed. The first is a direct one 
to the Paumota islands; the second takes the navigator 
within sight of Fatu-Hiva, and then along the northern 
edge of the Paumotas. 

Both passages are easy, and only demand attention while 
passing the low islands of the Paumota group. The trades 
grow fairer as the ship clears the coast. In the neighbor- 
hood of the Paumotas they often become squally and vari- 
able. 

Apropos of the direct route we will cite Wilkes> ? s remarks, 
(vide " U. S. Exploring Expedition:") 

a Coming from the eastward, from Callao for instance, 
the most direct route is to follow the parallel of 18 30' S. 



152 FROM VALPARAISO TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

You will thus sight Clermont-Tonnerre island, (PuJcaruha,) 
long. 136 20' W., and can pass either to the northward or 
southward of Series island, (Reao ;) thence shape the course 
to double Aki-Aki to the northward, and pass Harp island 
(Hao) to the southward. Afterward, sail to the southward 
of Dawhaidia, (or of the two groups, Eavahere and Maro- 
kau,) and head for Tahiti. The only danger by this route 
appears to be the Bayers. (Reiotoua;) but this group, sup- 
posed to be situated at 18 20' S., 143 07' W., has been 
looked for in vain by Lieutenant Parchappe, and has been 
erased from the latest edition of charts. 

"There is still another route, on the parallel of 15 S. 
By this you will first sight Honden, (Puka-Puka,) from which 
make a straight course for Kotzebue, (Aratika,) or the 
northern part of King, (Taiaro.) Thence pass to the north- 
ward of Vincennes, (Kauehi,) and to the southward of 
Elizabeth (Toau) and Greig, (Niau,) and steer for Tahiti." 

As we have stated, it is preferable to sight Fatu-Hiva or 
Magdelena before making for the Pauraota group, (vide 
103 and 129.) This is the most frequented route from Gal- 
lao or Payta to Ta'io-Hae bay, (Marquesas.) 

A westerly current may be looked for in this passage run- 
ning at the rate of at least 10 miles per day. If no observa- 
tions can be obtained, it will be well to count on a speed 
of 20 miles, especially if the course be for the Paumotas 
direct. 

95. ROUTE FROM: VALPARAISO OR CALLAO TO THE 
SANDWICH ISLANDS. After losing sight of the coast of 
South America, make for the SE. trade region, steering 
NIJTW. or KW. from Valparaiso, and W. from Callao. Af- 
ter reaching the trades head for the crossings mentioned 
below. 

OcTobS-. June to From June to October cross the equator between 133 
and 138 W., and 10 N. at 140^ or 141 W., thus avoiding 
the constant calms which prevail to the eastward of 333 
W. Ships generally carry the SE. trades to 10 U., and 
even beyond that parallel ; passing from one set of trades 
to the other without intervening calms. 
From October From October to June cross the line between 132 and 

to June. 

1340 W., and 100 K at 138 W. The ship will lose the SE. 
trades between the equator and 10 N. and experience few 
or no calms. 



FROM PANAMA TO CHINA. 153 

Beyond 10 N., steer with the NE. trade-winds, so as to 
fetch well to windward of the port of destination, keeping 
well to the E. of Hawaii, and stand in for the land on a 
parallel north of the port. Navigators should remember 
that the equatorial current may get them to the westward 
and to leeward. If bound to Honolulu, they should make 
the island of Maui from the northward. 

96. BOUTE FROM PANAMA TO AUSTRALIA, NEW CALE- 
DONIA, AND NEW ZEALAND. Starting from Panama and 
bound to the W., it will be advisable to make as much 
southing as possible in order to reach the SE. trades, (vide 
62 and 77.) Vessels whose destination is Australia, should 
therefore head on the same route as that described for the 
passage to San Francisco or Callao., 

It will generally be very advantageous to cross the line 
east of the Galapagos, near 83 W., when possible. Auxil- 
iary steamers will, of course, always follow this easterly 
route. If compelled to pass north of the Galapagos, the 
chances are great that they will be detained by calms and 
light, baffling airs, except during October, November, and 
December, when the winds are more settled. 

After the trades are once reached to the southward of the 
line, they should steer for the high lands of Fatu-Hiva, 
(Marquesas.) For details concerning the remainder of the 
voyage vide 91. 

97. BOUTE FROM PANAMA TO CHINA. First follow the 
routes given in the preceding paragraph, and that for mak- 
ing the passage from Panama to San Francisco contained in 
62. 

If the point of departure be Central America or Mexico, 
follow the instructions given in 63. An example of this 
passage will also be found in 99. These instructions all 
apply until the region of steady NE. trades is attained. 

Vessels should afterward steer (with the NE. wind) a 
course that will bring them to the meridian of the Sand- 
wich islands between the parallels of 15 and 20 N., and 
then finish the voyage as described in 101. 

98. BOUTE FROM PANAMA TO THE MARQUESAS AND 
TAHITI. Instructions relating to this passage may be found 
in 96. They can be abbreviated as follows : 

After leaving Panama make to the southward as much as 
possible, until the SE. trades S. of the line are reached. 



154 FROM PANAMA TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

Then head for Fatu-Hiva, and finish the voyage as described 
in 103 and 129. 

99. KOUTE FROM PANAMA TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 
Reach the SE. trades as soon as possible, following the 
instructions given in 62 and 96. Afterward cross the 
equator (to the N.) near 128 W. ; 10 N. near 138 W.: and 
finish the passage in accordance with 95. Be careful to 
reach a parallel to the northward of the destination as soon 
as possible. 

We will, in addition, give as an example of this passage 
an extract from volume 19, Ann. Hydr.< taken from the log 
of the frigate Havana, Captain Harvey : 

" On the 30th June we left Herradura bay, (E. coast of the 
gulf of Nicoya.) We experienced light and variable winds, 
calms, squalls, rain, and often thunder-storms, until we 
reached 106 W. 5 and, indeed, the weather was always 
variable and squally until the last week of the passage. 
From the 28th July, lat. 15 K, long. 113 W., to the 9th 
August, lat. 14 N., long. 127 W., we had westerly winds, 
in accordance with Maury's instructions for this season. 
Between 125 and 140 W. the wind was from N. by W. to 
N. by E. ; it then shifted to NE. We sighted the island of 
Maul on the morning of the 19th, and anchored the same 
evening at Honolulu in 8 fathoms; that is too close inshore, 
for the best anchorage is in 14 or 15 fathoms. 

u According to Maury this passage can be more quickly 
made by pushing to the S. and S W., until you meet the SE. 
trades well over the line, between 2 and 5 N. ; then run 
to the westward till between 115 and 125 W. Then bear 
to the northward, sooner or later, according to the season. 

" In summer the last longitude (125) should be preferred. 
After the zone of 'doldrums' you will reach the region of 
NE. trades. You will thus avoid the unfavorable weather 
of the Central American coast. 

" The Swift, by taking this route, went from Panama to 
Honolulu in 47 days. But in 1848, the Herald, notwith- 
standing the fact that she was towed a distance of 1,000 
miles from Panama, took 42 days to clear the ' doldrums,' 
crossing them on the parallel of 9 or 10 N. 

u It is best at all seasons, when approaching the Sand- 



FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO AUSTRALIA. 155 

wich islands, to give Hawaii a wide berth, and to make the 
land on the north coast of Maui. Do not anchor off Hono- 
lulu during the four winter months, (from December to 
April,) as the southerly squalls are dangerous and the hold- 
ing-ground poor. During the rest of the year vessels can 
safely anchor in from 15 to 20 fathoms ; bringing Punch- 
bowl to bear NE. by E., and the point on Diamond head E. 
byS. 

"Though the passage leading to the port is well buoyed, 
it is dangerous to pass through, even with a favorable wind, 
unless thoroughly acquainted with the reefs." 

100. BOUTE FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO AUSTRALIA, 
NEW CALEDONIA, AND NEW ZEALAND. We will first give 
Maury's instructions for the passage from San Francisco to 
Sidney : 

" From California to Australia the route out of San Fran- 
cisco should be down as soon as possible into the NE. trades, 
as though you were bound to China, India, or the Sand- 
wich islands, crossing the equator anywhere between the 
meridians of 140 and 150 W., according as you prefer to 
run down your westing principally in the NE. or SE. trades. 

" I give the preference to the latter, generally, because 
they are more steady, reliable, and certain than their conge- 
ners of the northern hemisphere; at least such is the rule. 
The distance by this route to Bass strait will be about 
7,000 miles, and an increase upon this of the average dis- 
tance to be sailed on the passage going, together with the 
distance returning, will not amount, as before stated, to 
more than six or eight hundred miles. 

u Aim to cross 30 S., on the passage from California to 
Australia, in the neighborhood of 170 E. Thence the 
course is between Australia and New Zealand, direct for 
your port. 

" In these passages, as on the California routes generally, 
navigators have to cross the calms of Cancer and Capricorn, 
as well as those of the equator, which last are found between 
the NE. and SE. trade- winds, but upon different parallels, 
according to the season of the year. 

u It may therefore be remarked here, once for all and 
which remark navigators, bound either from the United 
States or from Panama to California, are requested to bear 
in mind that the barometer will often enable the navigator 



156 FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO CHINA. 

to tell when he has crossed these belts of calms and entered 
the trades." 

The course should therefore be first down into the region 
of the ]SE. trades, as stated in 69. After reaching these 
steady, settled winds, make the following crossings : 
January From January to July, cross 10 N. at 143 W. ; and the 
equator at 148 W. 

In January, February, and March, no calms, properly 
speaking, will be found between the NE. and SE. trades. 

In April, May, and June there will be only about 2 per 
cent, of chances of calms in this region. 

gtS, S' st Iu Jul y> August, and September, cross 10 N. at 148 W., 
and the equator between 150 and 153 W. In this season, 
and if the precaution be taken not to follow a more easterly 
route than the one indicated, there will be only from 2 to 3 
per cent, of calms between 10 K and the line. 

to^aZa?y. tober From October to January, cross 1(P N. at 138 W., and 
the equator at 143 W. By following this route there is 
only from 2 to 3 per cent, chances of calms between the two 
trade-wind regions. Farther to the westward, at this sea- 
son, the ship would be liable to meet more calms. 

At all seasons cross 10 S. near 154 or 156 W., or any- 
where between those meridians. For information regarding 
the termination of the voyage, vide 91, 96, and 132. 

101. KOTJTE FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO CHINA. We 
will commence with Maury's instructions on this passage : 

" The distance between California and China being nearly 
double the distance between the United States and Europe, a 
vessel navigating these waters has a wider range in latitude 
than one trading across the Atlantic has, in which to hunt 
good winds. All vessels going west from California will, 
almost of necessity, stand to the southward and westward 
for the NE. trades. In summer and fall they need not go 
as far south for steady trades as they do in winter and 
spring." 

Maury then gives a copy of a letter addressed to him by 
Captain Ranlttt, of the Surprise, observing at the same 
time and with reason that this ship made her westerly pas- 
sage on a parallel too near to the u calms of Cancer ;" that is, 
too far north. We will quote a portion of Captain Ranlett's 
letter, though it should be understood that the same route 
is not to be followed : 



FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO CHINA. 157 

" Last year I crossed from San Francisco to Shanghai in 
the Surprise, and had a good ran of 38 days across. Your 
'wind and current charts ' were not then out, I think; at 
least I had not seen them ; I, for want of some such direc- 
tions as you give, took my own course, and kept far to the 
north of the Sandwich islands, and had a tolerably good 
run all the way, with much fine weather, while the Mystery 
and some others went farther south in the old track, and 
had much wet and squally weather, and longer passages 
generally. This voyage I left nearly one month later; and, 
although I have your charts of the Pacific, I kept north of 
all the tracks given, and have had very light winds all the 
way across; in fact, my sails have flapped against the 
masts all the way. I sailed, after leaving San Francisco, 
5,580 miles by log, without taking in a skysail or a royal stud- 
ding-sail, the wind veering and hauling from ESE. to ENE. 
generally; weather fine as one could wish, but too hot to 
work in the sun much of the time. I passed between North 
and Sulphur islands, two of the Volcano group. The north 
and south islands of this group may be run for at any time, 
being high and bold; but the middle one is low to the east- 
ward, and cannot be seen far in the night ; the high hill is 
on the western side. I passed between Ousima and Kaki- 
rooma without difficulty, and saw no dangers, except a 
high lot of rocks about five miles from the N\V. point of 
Kakirooma, and what appeared to be an island off the SW. 
end of Ousima. The seas break heavily all around this 
heap of rocks, and in places between it and the mainland 
of Kakirooma, and, although there is a wide passage be- 
tween that and the shore, I would not attempt it unless 
surveyed. 

" I arrived on the 22d October, after a passage of 55 days. 
Found the Golden Gate in before me; she sailed 10 days 
after me, and had a strong KE. wind all the way across, ex- 
cepting a few days. The Sicordfish was 42 days from San 
Francisco to Hong Kong; she sailed two days before me. 
I presume she went well south. I beat all the passages across 
last year, but this year was beaten by all, though I took 
the same track." 

Our own advice, therefore, is : To reach the NE. trades as 
soon as possible, (vide 67, and the following.) Then run 
to the west, on a parallel, not too near the northern limit of 



158 FROM SAN FKANCISCO TO CHINA. 

the trade-winds, thus avoiding the " horse latitudes." In 
order to do this choose some parallel between 20 and 15 
K, keeping near 20 K, between June and October ; and, 
on the contrary, in the neighborhood of 15 between De- 
cember and March. At all seasons pass south of the Sand- 
wich islands and ET. of the Marshall group. 

From May to Erom May to October, when the SW. monsoon prevails, 
keep to the northward of the Carolines islands, and leave 
the Marianas on the northern hand. If deemed advisable 
Guam island can be sighted. The island is low on the north 
coast, but quite mountainous and steep on the south side. 
Afterward steer for the strait of San Bernardino, with the 
"NE. winds. These will gradually change to variable winds 
with squalls, and then to the SW. monsoon as the vessel 
approaches the Philippines. Enter the China sea by the 
passage between Mindoro and Luzon, and end the voyage 
as stated in 161. Keep a lookout for leeway while ap- 
proaching the coast of China. 

ct ber From October to April, when the HE. monsoon prevails, 
run north of the Mariana group, sighting, if convenient, 
the Farallons de Pajaros. These are volcanic rocks, the 
highest of which has an altitude of about 800 feet. Some 
captains pass between the Grigan islands and Assumption ; 
the former are a mass of mountainous rocks, the most ele- 
vated peak being about 1,300 feet high. Assumption is a 
volcanic cone; its diameter at the base is about one mile, 
and its height about 2,GOO feet. It will generally be .best 
to pass to the northward of all the Mariana group, as we 
have before stated; quicker passages are generally made 
in this way. 

The entrance to the China sea is by the Bashee islands. 

Note on the passage via the strait of San Bernardino, on 
the voyage to Hong Kong, from June to October. Before en- 
tering the strait of San Bernardino, it is recommended, 
when the ivind is from 8. or _E7., to sight cape Espiritu- 
Santo, which can be seen for forty miles. Leave the 
island of San Bernardino on either hand, according to cir- 
cumstances, then pass to starboard of Capul, and to port of 
the islets off the SE. point of Luzon. Look out for currents 
which often run here very violently. Sail around Ticao from 
the E. and N., and pass between Burias and Masbate, then 
between Marinduque and the islet of Banlon. Thence run 



FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO TAHITI. 159 

between Mindoro and Luzon, and pass successively to the 
south of Green island and Maricaban ; skirt point Santiago, 
and double from the north, and at a good distance, Ambil, 
Lubaug, and Cabra islands. From this position a ship can 
run up, off the W. coast of Luzon, on a N. by W. course, as 
far as cape Boliuao. For further information vide 161. 

102. EOUTE FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO THE SANDWICH 
ISLANDS. After leaving San Francisco run for the trades, 
with the prevalent north-westerly winds common on the 
coast. (Vide 24, 67, and the subsequent ones.) 

From June to December clear the coast as soon as possi- D JeTber Une to 
ble, steering WSW. for instance. The calms to the east- 
ward of 128 and 133 W. will thus be avoided. The trades 
always blow south of the tropic of Cancer. Near the Sandwich 
islands the trades may possibly haul to E., or even to SE. 

From October to January, particularly, the wind may 
blow from SE. in the neighborhood of the tropic. to^aZary? tober 

The land should be approached from ENE., when all the 
possible winds will be fair. When making a landfall re- 
member that the currents often run at the rate of 20 miles 
per day, and that calms ancf baffling winds are common to 
leeward of the islands. 

103. ROUTE FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO TAHITI. The 
portion of this route from San Francisco to the trades is 
the same as that described in the preceding paragraphs. 
Afterward head, nearly, as if bound to Valparaiso, (vide 
71.) Cross the equator between 118 and 123 W., from 
May to October, and between 113 and 118 W., from Oc- 
tober to May. 

Beyond the equator run for the high lands of Fatu- 
Hiva, then through the Paumota group toward Tahiti. 
As this island is surrounded by a belt of reefs, b very 
watchful on Hearing it. Artemise bank is especially dan- 
gerous. The following extract from Wilkes indicates the 
best passages through the Paumotas : 

" When making passage from the north to Tahiti, my 
advice is to sight Bangiroa, (Uliegen, Dean, or Nairsa,} and 
to pass between this island and Tikahati, (Krusenstern ;) 
this passage would appear to be the best and safest. If 
obliged to make the Paumotas more to the east, (which will 
be the case when coming from Fatu-Hiva,) you can sight 
Ahii, (Peacock ;) the position of the W. point of this island 



160 FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO TAHITI. 

is 14 35' S. and 146 21' W. ; in this case the passage be- 
tween Bangiroa (Nairsa) and Arutua (Rurick) can be taken. 
You can pass still farther to the eastward, between Earaka 
and Katiu, (Sacken ;) before reaching these islands you can 
sight Taiaro, (King,) and afterward sail through the pas- 
sage between Earaka, Katiu, and Tahanea. The wind often 
allows vessels to keep to the east of this last island. 

"We would also recommend another more westerly 
route. By this captains should first take the bearings of 
Napuka island, (Disappointment,) and then steer about SE., 
so as to make Angatau island, (AraktcJieff.) Afterward 
double successively Ainanu, (Holler,) Hao, (The Harp,) 
Kengo-Nengo, (Henry,) and Hereheretua, (St. Paul.) 

"In all this advice, I have taken into consideration the 
prevalent winds, or at least those which one has any prob- 
ability of meeting. It is very evident that the Paumotas 
can be crossed in all directions by navigators at home in 
the group and by those willing to run the risks incident to 
this locality. I only give, however, the surest routes, and 
those which I would use myself. By these routes, several 
islands, where shelter can be found, are passed, and advan- 
tage may be taken of the resources of the group." 

For further information concerning that part of the pas- 
sage comprised between Fatu-Hiva and Tahiti, vide 129. 



CHAPTER IV. 

ROUTES FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA, NEW CALEDONIA, 
AND TAHITI, AND RETURN ROUTES. 

104. KOUTE FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. This pas- 
sage can be made by two different routes: first, by the cape 
of Good Hope, or the southerly route; second, by Suez. 

1st. The southerly route.* Vessels leaving Europe should 
cross the equator west of 25 W. from November to May, 
and east of this meridian from May to November. In the 
SE. trades they should run a little free, and always attempt 
to cross the meridian of the cape of Good Hope south of 
40 S. Much depends upon the parallel on which the pas- 
sage is to be made; the length of the voyage especially is 
dependent on the captain's choice in this matter. 

Yet the views of different authorities are widely diver- 
gent : Thus the instructions of the British Admiralty ad- 
vise 39 S. as the proper parallel. In the extracts from 
these instructions, to be found farther on, useful observa- 
tions are given on the passage to Sydney after leaving 
Tasmania. Horsburgh favors the same parallel, and ex- 
presses a very marked preference for the passage through 
Bass strait. In the present paragraph will be found quo- 
tations relating to the proper route to be taken when the 
passage through this strait is used. If Maury be consulted, 
it will be noted that he is strongly in favor of the extreme 
southerly route, between the latitudes of 45 and 55 S. j 
the choice of the parallel depends on the season, according 
to him, as well as on the winds, the qualities of the ship, 
etc., etc. 

The voyage to Australia only being made by good, staunch, 
well-fitted-out ships, we think that the general instructions 
should particularly relate to the route to be followed under 
ordinary conditions. Our opinion is that merchant-vessels 

* The Atlantic portion of this route is also treated of in the author's 
work on the "Navigation of the Atlantic Ocean." 

11 N 



162 FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 

should follow Maury's route, but without going too far to 
the southward. During the southern winter, and especially 
from. November to February, they should keep on a parallel 
south o/43; they can descend as far as 50 S., or even be- 
yond that parallel. Quite rapid passages have been made, 
in summer, near 50 S. The weather is often better, the sea 
smoother than it is between 42 and 46 S., while the chance 
of meeting icebergs is the same. 

During the southern winter, that is from May to Septem- 
ber, the length of the nights (dangerous on account of ice- 
bergs) and the extreme cold will generally prevent vessels 
from going so far south. If the route be chosen between 42 
and 45 S., we think a good passage ought to be the result at 
this season. 

This advice accords with Maury's, and that of many offi- 
cers who have made the passage. 

The logs of the Dutch merchantmen bound from the 
English channel to Java, prove indisputably that the ships 
which kept N. o/40 8. met twice as many gales as those which 
kept S. of the same parallel. 

This observation, being the result obtained from the 
mean of a great many voyages, seems to destroy the reason- 
ing of certain navigators who think that by following the 
English Admiralty route they will have less bad weather. 

This latter is also a longer route than the more southerly 
one, where the degrees of longitude are shorter, and it 
would also seem that navigators who choose it, willingly 
place their vessels in a zone where the chances of storms 
are twice as numerous. 

It also appears probable that there exists an intermediate 
belt, situated between 40 and 43 S., or thereabouts, where 
the winds are unsteady, very variable, and accompanied by 
rainy and damp weather. This belt, in which some cap- 
tains believe the scurvy is apt to be developed, probably 
changes its latitude, following the declination of the sun j 
it is found, for instance, between 39 and 41 S. from May 
to August ; and between 41 and 43 S. from November to 
February. 

If it be decided not to follow the route south of 42 or 
4 S., we think that tbe parallel of 39 is to be preferred 
to that of 40 or 41 S. 

Ships following the Admiralty route, on 39 S.,* will have 



FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 163 

warmer weather ; but will generally make longer passages. 
It will, however, be shortened by going through Bass 
strait. Sailing-ships should, however, avoid passing through 
this strait during the months of January, February, and 
March, when the winds come out from ahead or the east. 

Sailing-vessels preferring the southerly route, between 
43 and 52 S., more or less to the south according to the 
season, should not generally pass through Bass strait. 
They should rather round Tasmania to the eastward and 
make Sydney, as stated farther on at the end of our ex- 
tract from the Admiralty instructions. 

Auxiliary steamers following our advice and taking the 
southerly route, can shorten the last part of the voyage a 
little by running through Bass strait. 

A ship will of course be exposed to floating ice if she fol- 
lows the southerly route j but the chances of meeting it are 
small on the parallel 39 S. 

We consider the Admiralty route as disadvantageous to 
the interests of ship-owners; we hold to our opinion, already 
stated, that the southerly route is the best ; and that it pre- 
sents no especial dangers to stout and well-equipped vessels. 
Finally, we reiterate that the chances of meeting storms are 
less on the southerly route than on that of the 39th parallel. 

There now only remains to find out if there be a greater 
chance of meeting icebergs on 43 S. than on 40 or 50. 
Now, nothing proves (vide 43, observation No. IV) that 
vessels sailing on the various parallels between 43 and 52 
S. should expect to see fewer icebergs at one edge of the 
belt comprised between these two parallels than at the 
other. 

Icebergs are more numerous in high latitudes, (from 60 to 
50 S. ;) but they drift rapidly to the north and quickly 
leave these localities. On the contrary, after they have 
been carried beyond 50 S. they are set toward NE., then 
toward E. by the current, and remain in warm latitudes 
until they melt. Still it is best, especially in the south- 
ern winter, not to go farther S. than the 51st parallel. 

Captain Guerin, commanding the St. Paul, gives the fol- 
lowing account of his meeting with icebergs between 46 
and 470 S. and 4 and 12 E. : 

" On the 1st January, 1867, lat. 45 51' S., long. 4 28' E., 
sighted an iceberg to port, distant 6 miles; sighted another 



164 FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 

2 hours afterward. Next day strong breeze from NW., with 
thick fog ; position at noon, 46 31' S. and 9 08' E. At 8 
p. m., an immense mountain of ice loomed up in the fog 
right under our bow ; succeeded in avoiding it. At 10.15 
p. m. we passed close by a small detached piece of floating 
ice. This was the last, though we kept the courses clewed 
up all the night. 

At daylight we were completely surrounded by icebergs. 
There were seven large ones, and numerous little bergs 
about them. At noon on the 3d January, lat. 46 56' S., 
long. 11 53' E., took an ENE. course, in order to run out of 
these high latitudes ; the advantages of the southerly route 
being hardly apparent, at least in January. We passed our 
last ice-island on the night of the 3d and 4th. 

" Nothing announced the approach of these icebergs ; the 
thermometer showed no sudden change in their vicinity. 
At 46 S. the temperature of the air was 41, and the water 
36^. It was almost useless to keep a lookout at night, on 
account of the thick fog ; and the greatest danger we had 
to fear was from the numerous little icebergs that showed 
for only a few feet above the sea. The principal bergs were 
from 160 to 330 feet high. They should, by rights, drift 
faster than the small ones; consequently, to avoid them, I 
think it is best to cross the groups on the side of the largest 
berg. The only peculiarities I noticed in this region were 
the tbick fogs, the absence of birds, an unusually smooth 
sea, and some old pieces of wreck." 

We extract the following table from the Annales Hydro- 
graphiques, (vol. 18.) The reader should also refer to 43. 



ICEBERG TABLE. 



165 



In the month 
of- 


Latitude 

S. 


Longitude. 


Name of vessel. 


Remarks. 


Jannary 


o / 
At 44 00 

45 33 


o / 
2 40 W 

10 40 W 


The White Swal- 
low. 

....do 


Met floating ice. 
Met three icebergs, one 




43 40 


16 40 W 


The Malay 


of them 100 feet long 
and 150 feet high. 

Met twenty -six icebergs 


June 


42 18 
45 00 


12 08 W 
48 43 E 


....do 
The Panama 


of different sizes. 

Met thirty-four icebergs 
of different sizes. 

Met two large icebergs. 


July 


49 32 


8 30 E 


The Beverly 


Met an ice-field and ice- 




48 35 
47 15 


11 00 E 
16 03 E 


....do 
....do 


bergs- 
Met forty icebergs. 
Met thirty icebergs. 




46 50 
47 30 


20 23 E 
19 25 E 


....do 
....do 


Met two icebergs. 
Met one iceberg. 




48 08 
48 44 


37 45 E 
43 00 E 


...do 
....do 


Do. 
Do. 


September . . 


46 00 
47 30 


12 00 W 
10 55 W 


The Gertrude 
. do 


Met one large iceberg. 
Met two small icebergs. 




49 24 


1 39 "W 


....do 


Met two icebergs. 


October 


48 15 

52 10 
50 09 


45 00 E 

37 07 E 
29 26 E 


....do 

The Great Britain. 
The Marion 


Met one very large ice- 
berg. 

Met two large icebergs. 
Met one large iceberg. 




40 39 
53 12 

51 10 


46 10 E 
21 23 E 

26 20 E 


....do 

The Auckland 

....do 


Do. 

Mot a field of ice and 
two icebergs. 

Met one iceberg. 


November . . 


52 26 


19 42 E 


The Oriental 


Met one large iceber^. 




52 20 
51 03 


27 47 E 
32 21 E 


....do 

do 


Met three large icebergs. 
Met four large icebergs. 


December... 


51 20 
53 51 
43 38 

52 57 
43 33 
48 45 


37 06 E 
86 40 E 
8 15 E 

95 20 E 
18 10 E 
37 24 E 


....do 
....do 

The Flying Dutch- 
man.' 

The Oriental 
The Kongleader . . 
The Malay 


Met one large iceberg. 
Met two large icebergs. 
Met four large icebergs. 

Met one large iceberg. 
Met two large icebergs. 
Met one icebcrf well 










worn. 



166 FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 

Having given these general considerations, we will now 
quote some of the most important passages from the Admi- 
ralty instructions, Horsburgh, Maury, and Desnoyers. We 
will afterward give a few extracts from the logs of ships 
which have made this passage. After a perusal of these 
various authorities each captain can form his own opinion, 
which, we candidly admit, may be very different from our 
own. At whatever conclusion the navigator may arrive, 
he will, however, find several authors for and several against 
his route. Our preceding advice seems to us correct for 
merchant- vessels, and is based on all past experience j the 
accumulation of twenty years' knowledge proving the cor- 
rectness of Maury's theory, that the southerly route is the 
best. 

The Admiralty Instructions. The English Admiralty give 
the following instructions on the a Eoute to Australia:' 7 

" Should the southern route to Sydney be preferred, a ship 
running down her longitude in 39 S., as recommended, and 
having arrived at 130 E. ? should get to the southward of 
Tasmania on the meridian of 145 E., before making the 
land, in order to avoid falling in with its rocky western 
coast in the night, from any error in the reckoning, or being 
caught on a lee-shore by a SW. gale. After rounding the 
South cape, a ship, not bound into Hobart-town, should 
give a berth of at least 20 or 30 miles to cape Pillar and the 
east coast of Tasmania, by which she will escape the baf- 
fling winds and calms which frequently perplex a ship in- 
shore while a steady breeze is blowing in the offing. This 
is more particularly desirable in suininer,when easterly winds 
prevail, and a current is said to be experienced on the SE. 
coast running to the N. by E. at the rate of three-quarters 
of a knot at 20 to 60 miles off shore, while inshore it is run- 
ning in the opposite direction with nearly double that velocity. 
From 30 miles to eastward of cape Pillar, the distance to 
cape Howe is 350 miles ; and the course N. by E. After 
just sighting the cape stand to the northward for Port Jack- 
son, remembering that there will probably be a contrary 
current running down the coast at a distance of from 20 to 
60 miles from the land." (Vide 29.) 

paraiiei h ice f a HorsburyWs Instructions. "Since the discovery of Bass 
strait, the passage through it is generally preferred to that 



FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 167 

around Van Diemeu's Laud, as it is equally as safe and 
greatly shortens tlie distance. 

"A ship, having passed the island of St. Paul, and intend- 
ing to pass through Bass strait, may get into lat. 30 or 39 
15' S., then steer east on this parallel. As she advances, 
the variation will rapidly decrease; in about long. 132 E. 
there will be 1 E. ; and having advanced 1 or 2 more 
to the eastward, she will begin to have more easterly vari 
ation ; at King island, the west entrance to Bass strait, it 
is 8J East in 1863. Although the opinion appears to be held 
by many that the passage is best made by keeping a high 
southern latitude, the propriety of adopting the parallel of 
39 S., as above recommended, has* been already confirmed 
by the experience of Captain Erskiue, of H. M. S. Havannah, 
who performed the voyage from the cape of Good Hope to 
Sydney in the very short period of 34 days, leaving the cape 
on the 3d July and arriving at Sydney on the 7th August. 
Captain Tudor, E. ]$"., when in command of the East India 
steam-vessel Pluto, however, met with baffling winds on the 
northern parallel, and was obliged to run to the southward 
for the westerly wind.* 

"Bass strait is the navigable route for all vessels passing 
round south of Australia, and is consequently much fre- 
quented. t King island divides its western entrance into 
two channels, that north of the island being far the safer of 
the two, and therefore the one constantly adopted. 

** Bass strait should be approached with caution by ves- 
sels corning from the westward, if not certain of their lati- 
tude, which ought to be correctly ascertained before they 
reach 143 E. ; and the strait ought not to be entered in 
the night, unless the land has been previously seen or both 
latitude and longitude be known by observation. The par- 
allel of 39 or 39 15' S., according as the wind may incline, 
is the best track for passing between King island and cape 
Otway; and a sight of either, or, preferably, of both, will 
point out the true situation. 

u Westward of the north end of King island, at 30 miles 
distance, there are soundings from 65 to 70 fathoms, sand 

* It is ^yorthy of remark th at Horsbnrgb, wbile advocating tbe route 
by tbe 39th parallel, should quote one bad and one good route. 

tit is frequented by vessels which have chosen 3 S. for their east- 
ing a route we do not advise. 



168 FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 

which will indicate the proximity of this strait in thick 
weather. The only danger to be apprehended here is the 
Harbinger reefs, two patches situated nearly 6 miles to the 
WNW. of the north end of King island but they are so far 
separated from it, and from each other, as to leave passages 
between them, in case of necessity, where the shoalcst water 
found by the Cumberland schooner was 9 fathoms. 

" Having passed the north end of King island, on which 
is a fixed light, visible 24 miles, a course should be made 
good from it, E. by S., for Sir Roger Curtis island, and part 
of this distance may be run in the night with a good look- 
out,* the soundings in this track to the eastern part of the 
strait are regular, from 35 to 48 fathoms, fine sand and 
shells. The best track is on the south side of Sir Roger 
Curtis isles, and on either side of Kent groups, keeping 
near the southernmost island of the group. If the south 
channel is chosen, to avoid the Endeavor rock, then steer 
EXE., (E. by N. true,) if nearly before the wind, or on 
either side of this course as the wind may incline, taking 
care not to approach the northern Long-Beach, formed be- 
tween Wilson promontory and cape Howe, which becomes a 
concave lee-shore with a SE. gale. This makes the channel 
south of Kent groups preferable, at times, to those north of 
them but with a steady NW. wind and settled weather, 
either of the channels south of Redondo might be pursued 
occasionally. Then a course steered well to the eastward, 
to give a berth to the Long-Beach, and cape Howe may be 
rounded at any reasonable distance. 

Anchoring- " The most convenient places for anchoring in the strait 
with easterly winds are: under the NW. end of King island; 
on the east side of New Year isles, which anchorage is now 
called Franklin road Port Phillip ; Hunter isles, between 
Three-Hummock and Barren (or Hunter) islands, taking 
care not to anchor too close to the weather shore, lest the 
wind change suddenly; and on the west side of Wilson 
promontory, in a case of necessity only, for this place is dan- 
gerous if the wind change suddenly to SW., as a deep bay 
is formed between the promontory and cape Liptrap. There 
is also anchorage in the channel called Murray pass, formed 
by the islands of Kent group ; and there is one anchorage 
in East cove, on the eastern side of the pass, and another 
farther to the northward, in West cove, (Erith island,) on 



FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 169 

its western side. Strong squalls may be expected off the 
land and eddy tides near the shore." 

Naury's Instructions. " Vessels that are bound to Aus- 
tralia, after crossing the line in 30 W., can generally reach 
30 S. between 30 and 20 W. The great-circle distance 
thence to Melbourne is, if it could be followed, about 6,700 
miles ; but it crosses the barriers of .perpetual ice, which 
forbid the passage through the antarctic regions. But if 
a vessel do not go south of 55, she cannot accomplish the 
distance to Melbourne from the parallel and meridian of 30 
in less than 7,300. 

" The majority of vessels bound around the cape of Good 
Hope cross the meridian of 20 W. between the parallels of 
30 and 35 S. Here they generally aim to make a course 
a little to the south of east. But the great-circle route to 
Australia would, were it practicable, require them to pass 
the parallel of 70 S. before crossing this meridian of 20 
W. That route is the nearest which, being practicable, 
deviates the least from the great circle. From the moment 
that vessels leave the calm belt of Capricorn, between 20 
and 30 W., this route is tangential to the parallel of the 
highest degree of latitude that they intend to make. 

"Admitting that the tropical calm belt is left near 30 S., 
the distance via the 'composite' routes for the parallels of 
45, 50, and 55 taken as * vertices,' and from the meridians 
of 300 an d 20 W. is as follows : 

"1st. From 30 .S. and 30 W. to 45 S. in 20 E.; thence 
east to 120 E. ; and thence by tangent to Melbourne, is 
8,000 miles. 

"2d. From 30 S. and 30 W., to 50 S. in 30 E. ; thence 
to 100 E. ; and thence to Melbourne, 7,700. 

"3d. From 30 S. and 20 W., by tangent, to 45 S. in 30 
E.; and thence, as upon the parallel of 45 from 30 W., to 
Melbourne, 7,600. 

"4tb. From 30 S. and 20 W., by tangent, to 50 S. in 40 
E.; and thence to Melbourne, as before, from 30 W., 7,300. 

"5th. From 30 S. and 25 W., by tangent, to the parallel 
of 55 in 40 E.; and thence along this parallel to 90 E.; 
and thence, by tangent, to Melbourne, the distance is 7,300 
miles. 

"These tangential curves are arcs of great circles, and the 
navigator who will not take the trouble to get out these 



170 FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 

curves, so that he may follow them to and from the parallel, 
or 'vertex,' upon which he proposes to 'run down his longi- 
tude,' but prefers the rhumb-line course, must make up his 
mind to the loss to be incurred, for even in the cases above 
quoted, he will lose by the rhumb-line course from a few 
hours' to a day's sail, according to circumstances. 

"At any rate, when he conies to view the route to Aus- 
tralia as here described, he will perceive that the route to 
the cape of Good Hope turns off from it about the parallel 
of 30 S., and that therefore Australian-bound vessels need 
not hug the trades as close as the cape-bound vessels do. 
Here, then, as you clear the belt of the SE. trade-winds there 
is a fork in the road the vessel bound by the beaten track 
to the cape or Calcutta going to the east ; but she whose 
destination is Australia should stand on to the southward, 
not thinking of hauling up to the eastward until she clears 
the calms of Capricorn and finds herself well within the 
region of the trade-like westerly winds of the southern 
hemisphere. 

" She may then begin to edge away and haul up grad- 
ually to the eastward, crossing 10 W. between 40 and 50 
S., according to the season, and reaching her extreme south- 
ern parallel in our winter mouths, near the meridian of 20 
E. Upon this parallel (say from 45 to 52 S.) she should run 
along her 'vertex' till she cross the meridian of 100 or 120 
E.,* when she may begin gradually to edge up for her port, 
but still keeping to the right of the rhumb, line on her chart 
that leads to it. Hence, it will be perceived that Austral- 
ian-bound vessels have nothing to do with the cape of Good 
Hope j nor should they icish to go within six hundred or eight 
hundred miles of it. 

"The best crossing-place of 25 or 30 S,, that the SE. 
trades will generally allow for the Australian route, is about 
30 W., a few degrees more or less. The distance from it 
to Melbourne is about 6,500 miles, the arc of the great cir- 
cle crossing the prime meridian between the parallels of 70 
and 75 S., the meridian of 55 E. between the parallels of 
80 and 82 S. Here it reaches its greatest southern decli- 
nation, and begins then to incline northwardly. Australian- 

*The author translates these meridians as 90 and 100 E., (merid. 
Paris.) Maury, however, gives them as 93 and 118 C E., (merid. Paris.) 
Translator. 



FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 171 

bound vessels are advised after crossing the equator near 
the meridian of 30 W., say between 27 and 32 as the case 
may be, to run down through the SE. trades with topmast 
studding-sail set,* if they have sea-room, aiming to cross 
250 or 3Qo g. a t about 28 or 30 W., and so on ; shaping 
their course, after they get the winds steadily from the west- 
ward, more and more to the eastward until they cross the 
meridian of 20 E. near 45 S., and afterward reach if pos- 
sible 55 S. near 40 E. The Nightingale ran as far south 
as 57 S., and made the quickest time of all the passages 
we possess. Therefore, there will be a great advantage in 
keeping to the S. of E., as much as the ice, etc., will allow, 
without attempting to return north until the meridians of 
90 or 92 E. are reached. The best plan is to make the 
extreme southern latitude between the meridians of 52 and 
82 E,, afterward bearing away more and more to the north 
and east as Van Diemen's land is ueared. 

" Such is the best route to Australia, the highest degree 
of south latitude which it may be prudent to take depending 
mainly on the season of the year, the ice, the winds, the state of 
the ship, and the ivell-being of the passengers and crew. If the 
winds are not good and strong, bear south to look for them. 
In our summer, one will not have to go so far south to look 
for these winds as he will in our winter. The shortest pas- 
sages, therefore, will probably be made in the southern spring 
and early summer, when daylight, the winds, the state of the 
weather, and all, except ice, are most favorable for reaching 
high southern latitudes. 

u I have endeavored to impress navigators with a sense 
of the mistake they commit in considering the cape of Good 
Hope as on the way-side of their best route to Australia. 
It is not only a long way out of the best and most direct 
route for them, but the winds also to the north of the 40th 
parallel of south latitude are much less favorable for Aus- 
tralia than they are to the south of this .parallel. 'Sailing 
Directions 7 issued by the British Admiralty, I am aware, 
recommend the cape of Good Hope route, and the parallel of 
39 S. as the best upon which to run down easting to Australia. 

"It is in the fall and winter months (not in summer, as 

*Frorn this it is evident that Maury does not advise that you should 
always cross even the equator very far to the westward, as some au- 
thors have accused him of doing. 



172 FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 

the i Sailing Directions' state) when the sea is most free from 
icebergs, for every one knows that icebergs are often seen 
in the North Atlantic in June, and not unfrequently in July. 
December and January* are the worst months for ice along 
the Australian route. By March t well-nigh all that the 
summer heat could set adrift has been borne north and 
melted ; the southern winter is the time when the icebergs 
are held fast, for then they are forming for the heat of the 
next spring and summer to break out and set adrift. 

"In recommending this new route, and a route which 
differs so widely from the favorite route of the Admiralty, 
I should remark that I do it, not because it is an approach 
to the great circle route, nor because it has anything to do 
with the composite track, but because the winds and the sea 
and the distance are all such as to make this route the 
quickest. I say the sea, because I suppose there is no more 
danger from icebergs, if a proper lookout be kept, than 
there is on the voyage between New York and Liverpool. 
I do not even see them mentioned in the voyage to Austra- 
lia, except by three ships, namely: the Malay, on the 21st 
December, 1853, in lat. 48 25' S. and long. 35 24' E.; the 
Oriental, on the llth December, 1853, in lat. 46 25' S. and 
long. 1250 E. ; the Aucldand, on the 25th October, 1853, in 
lat. 53 12' S. and long. 21 23' E. 

u Furthermore, Horsburgh says that H. B. M. Guardian 
fell in with one, in lat. 44 15' S. and long. 44 30' E., on the 
24th December, 1789 ; also that the French ship Harmonic 
met one in April, at lat. 35 50' S. and long. 18 E. In sbort 
it can be said that icebergs are very rare in these localities. 

" There seem to be two spots in the Pacific where ice- 
bergs are frequent : one near the meridian of the cape of 
Good Hope 5 the other in the neighborhood of the longitude 
of Australia. I therefore would advise navigators not to 
cross the prime meridian to the south of 45 S. ; then to 
run for their extreme southern parallel 55 S. for example 
near the meridian 40 E. 

"In further proof that the route recommended in the 
'Sailing Directions' of the Admiralty is too far to the 
north I have prepared tables, and so far as the facts de- 

*From November to April according to Maury; edition of 1859. 
Translator. 
tMay; Maury edition, 1859. Translator. 



FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 173 

duced from these tables go, they justify the assertion that 
for every degree you go south of the Admiralty route, you 
gain three days on the average, until you reach 45 and 
4G S., for the averages of the tables are not below these 
parallels. I believe it will turn out that the best streak 
of wind, on the long run, is to be found between 45 and 
50 S. It seems to be almost as steady between these 
parallels from the westward as it is anywhere from the east 
between the trade- wind parallels of 15 and 20." 

Captain Sallot Desnoyer's Instructions. " There seeins to 
be a choice between two routes in making this passage: 
First, the Admiralty route, near 39 or 40 S. ; second, the 
route near 45 S., more or less to the southward of that 
parallel, according to the season and the winds. During 
the southern winter, when the nights are long and the 
weather cold, it is natural for one to hesitate before taking 
the southern passage, notwithstanding the fact that ice- 
bergs are less numerous than they are in summer. At this 
season the Admiralty route can be followed on the parallel 
of 42 S. I do not think there is any danger in running 
well to the southward in summer, for if icebergs should 
chance to be encountered, the long days will be of much 
assistance in avoiding them. Of course, the wind and 
weather will at all times be taken into consideration j and 
if settled winds are not found on the parallel chosen, the 
best thing to do is to run south, remembering that the 
farther south vessels go, the shorter their passage.' 7 

The observations of various captains on the choice of a 
parallel.* We will first quote the following extracts from 
volume 29 Annales Hydrographiques, relating to this very 
disputed question. Lieutenant Galeche, of the French navy, 
expresses himself in these terms : 

" Maury advises vessels leaving the cape of Good Hope 
to run for the meridian of 32 E. near 45 or 50 S. lati- 
tude, thus approaching the great circle which curves into 
still higher latitudes as nearly as possible. This is with- 
out doubt the most direct route, being 300 or 400 miles 
shorter than the Admiralty route. By it the passage is 
shortened two days. But Maury himself admits that the 
Toy age is boisterous and stormy, and should only be under- 
taken by stout ships. He speaks of the ships that have 

* The extracts in 105 will also be interesting in this connection. 



174 FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 

made magnificent passages from Europe to Australia by 
descending to 55 S. j but makes no mention of those 
which have been lost, or have sustained extraordinary 
damage to their masts and rigging. Therefore I think that 
a man-of-war, bound to her station in China or Oceanica r 
and wishing to arrive there in ship-shape condition, should 
not go lower than 45 8. in summer, and 40 S. in winter. 
Bad enough weather will be found even on these parallels, 
but in spite of it a good passage may be made. Going from 
Reunion to Bass strait, in the Marceau, I ran down my 
longitude on the 40th parallel ; and from 67 E. on 36 S. 
I had no easterly winds (September and October) until I 
reached Bass strait." 

Captain Yeillet, of the Hoogly, says : " I scudded along 
the parallel of 50 S. for two weeks, with a violent west 
wind after me all the time ; but I would not follow this 
route in a weak vessel." 

Captain Fernaud, of the Eeunion, who made voyages to 
the East Indies for 15 years, makes the following remarks : 

" The most convenient place to cross the equator, after 
leaving Europe, is between 23 and 28 W. After passing 
the Tristan islands, head for the parallel of 42 or 45 S., 
upon which run down the longitude. Here the sea will be 
found very much smoother and the weather better than on 
the parallels of 36 and 40 S. I have always experienced 
fine weather, variable wind, sometimes even exceedingly 
variable, but no gales ; while between 36 and 40 the sea 
is very rough, the gales very violent, and the danger of 
damage to the ship great. After the heavy squalls there 
are generally two or three days of calm, when the ship will 
not make more than two or three miles per hour and labors 
greatly. The heavy squalls do not seem to be found lower 
than 40 S. ; the wind begins from NE., jumps violently 
around to NW., and shifts gradually to W., then to SW., 
finally to S., where it dies away." 

Captain Prouhet makes the following remarks, (Ann. 
Hydr., vol. 31 :) 

" The bad weather we experienced in our passages toward 
Van Diemen's land gave us an entirely different idea of the 
'brave west winds 7 promised by Maury. They undoubt- 
edly blow, in the zone of variable winds, especially in high 
latitudes j but they are very variable, and suddenly shift,, 



FROM EUROl'E TO AUSTRALIA. 

at times, to all points of the compass. One moment we 
would be sailing along with a moderate breeze, the next a 
squall would be upon us, strong enough to carry every mast 
by the board. We were continually shifting or taking in 
sail. The sea was also entirely different from what Maury 
would lead one to expect. Instead of the long swell that 
was to set us a little ahead of our dead-reckoning every 
day, we very often experienced a heavy cross and broken 
sea, the waves breaking in all directions, and making the 
vessel labor violently. Nevertheless the route to the east 
advocated by this superior American officer is a good one; 
bat navigators must not fall into the illusion that they are 
going to have good weather ; for I found that all the 
descriptions fell short of the reality. The speed by this 
route is more rapid, and as the crew cannot be drilled they 
will not object to the rough weather." 

The following is an extract from the report of Captain 
Binet, of the Isis, on the passage from Reunion to Sydney, 
(vide Ann. Hydr., vol. 28 :) 

" Left Saint Denis on the 20th February ; lost the SE. 
trades on the 27th, lat. 38 S., long. 54 E.$ and without 
experiencing a moment's calm, found a light breeze from 
NE., which soon freshened and shifted to NW. 

"From that time till the 20th March, when we sighted cape 
Otway, (lat. 42 S.,) we made 200 miles per day, with fresh 
winds from NNW. to SS W. The only change in the weather 
was that the wind lessened in intensity, now and then, for 
a few moments. We experienced a few calms and light 
airs near laud in Bass strait." 

We would call special attention to the following quota- 
tion from the report of Captain Jouan, relating to the pas- 
sage of the sailing-transport Bonite, from the cape of Good 
Hope to Sydney, (Ann. Hydr., vol. 27 :) 

lt The routes to Australia, as prescribed by Maury and the 
British Admiralty, are essentially different. The Admiralty 
directs that the 39th parallel is to be followed in the Indian 
ocean as far as the meridian of 107 or 112 E., whether 
bound through Bass strait, or to the south of Tasmania. 
Maury, on the other hand, advises a ship to gain as high a 
latitude as possible. The Admiralty route, if not very rapid 
offered more inducements for a transport like the Bonite, as 
her people were ill clothed, etc. We left the cape on the 2d 



176 FROM EUROPE TO AUSTRALIA. 

May, and on the 24th were in sight of St. Paul, and south 
of the island. The length of the nights, and the want of a 
detailed chart of Bass strait, made me decide to go to the 
southward of Tasmania. 

" I found better and more settled weather on the parallel of 
46 8. than nearer the equator. Between the cape and the 
S. of Tasmania the currents were generally to the east, 
sometimes to the north. Along the east coast of Australia, 
from cape Howe to Port Jackson, the winds, during the firs t 
two weeks of June, were gentle, and from WNW. to WSW., 
freshening at night ; the sky was clear, and the stars very 
brilliant. The westerly squalls, common here at this season, 
are apt to set vessels from the land. We also encountered 
several thunder-storms, during which the wind shifted. 

" The barometer on this coast rises with the S. wind, and 
falls with the N. Near the land, and when the wind is from 
WNW., the glass varies from 29 in .76 to 29 in .92, as the wind 
hauls to N. or S. The rain-storms seem to have no appre- 
ciable influence on the barometer. On the evening of the 
25th June we were in sight of Port Jackson light. 

"The next morning there was a dead calm, and we were 
towed to our anchorage at Farm cove ; at noon the ther- 
mometer stood at 59 or 60. From cape Howe to Sydney 
the currents set me to the northward, when I was near 
land ; and to the southward, when I was about CO miles off 
the coast. 

" While at Sydney I met several captains who were in 
the habit of making the voyage from London to New South 
Wales. All of them informed me that in winter nothing was 
to be gained by going through Bass j s strait. They differed as 
to the best route through the Indian ocean ; some recom- 
mending the route along the 39th parallel j others maintain- 
ing that ships should go higher, and on the parallels of the 
Prince Edward islands, Kerguelen land, and the Macdonald 
group, (520 40' S.) 

" In these localities the wind is steadier, but the weather 
stormy. Icebergs make this route dangerous in summer. 
Good passages have been made by both routes. All the cap- 
tains said that vessels should never keep between 40 and 
42 S., as the weather is never settled, and calms and head- 
winds are common in that locality." 



FROM EUROPE TO NEW CALEDONIA. 177 

2(1. The Suez route. The reader should first refer to the 
observations on this route, which he will find in the " Navi- 
gation of the South Atlantic ocean." 

Reference should also be had to 148 of this volume. 

From April to October a sailing-vessel or an auxiliary ^JJ, April to 
steamer can, if need be, sail down the Red sea without great 
difficulty, for, at this season, the winds prevail from the 
north. Inversely the passage from Aden to Suez will be 
impracticable during these mouths, and rendered too long 
for commercial purposes. During the rest of the year the 
N. winds prevail only in the northern two-thirds of the Red 
sea. In the southern third they blow from S. and SSE., 
often quite stiffly. 

Therefore, from October to April it is almost impossible tc) 1 ^ ) JJ 1 October 
for a sailing ship to go either up or down the Red sea. 

Sailing-vessels wishing to pass through Torres strait 
should aim to arrive at the Malay peninsula between De- 
cember and February, so as to take advantage of the NW. 
monsoon. 

It is even then extremely difficult for a sailing-ship, or 
for an auxiliary steamer wishing to economize coal, to go 
through both the Suez canal and Torres strait. The only 
possible way of doing this is to descend the Red sea during 
the first of October, so as to arrive at the sea of Arafura in 
November or the beginning of December. In this manner 
the strong SE. winds of the R3d sea will be avoided, as 
these do not set in until November. In the sea of Arafura 
the N W. monsoon will be found ; but it should be stated 
that this is the worst season in the Indian ocean, especially 
to northward of the line, for the change in the monsoons 
takes place at this time. 

In short, sailing-vessels, or auxiliary steamers wishing to 
economize coal, should not go through Torres strait. 

The best season to go down the Red sea is between April 
and October, for then the SVV. monsoon will be found N. of 
the equator; the easting can then be run down, and the line 
crossed in a good position to haul up on the port tack in 
the SE. trades. Bear away to the southward and eastward 
near 30 S., and pass south of Australia. 

105. ROUTE FROM EUROPE TO NEW CALEDONIA. 
Navigators intending to make this passage should refer to 
the instructions given in 104, as the route discussed in 
12 N 



178 FROM EUROPE TO NEW CALEDONIA. 

that paragraph is nearly the same as the one under discus 
sion. 

We have already stated that sailing-ships should pass to 
the southward of Tasmania. We will now point out the 
best crossings thence to Noumea : 

As will be seen, the general rule for the last part of this 
voyage is, not to edge away too quickly to north, and to 
pass, or at least reach, the meridian of New Caledonia before 
clearing the parallel of 35 S. Auxiliary steamers can 
naturally make a more direct route. 

The following crossings are to be preferred between Tas- 
mania and Noumea: 

In January, cross 40 S. between 165 and 106 E. ; 35 
S. and 300 g. between 168 and 169 E. 

In February, cross 43 S. at 155 E. ; 40 S. at 163 E. ; 
35 S. and 30 S. at 168 E. 

In March, 40 S. at 165 E. j 35 S. and 30 S. between 170 
and 171 E. 

In April, 40 S. between 156 and 158 E. ; 30 S. be- 
tween 163 and 165 E., and thence directly for Noumea. 

In May, 40 S. between 158 and 159 E. ; 35 S. at 163 
E., and 30 S. at 166 E. 

In June, 40 S. between 157 and 158 E. j 35 S. at 165, 
and 30 S. at 167 E. 

In July, 35 S. between 164 and 166 E. ; and 30 S. 
between 167 and 168 E. 

In August, 40 S. between 154 and 156 E.; 35 S. 
between 161 and 162 E. ; and 30 S. between 165 and 
166 E. 

In September, 35 S. between 165 and 166 E. ; and 30 
S. between 167 and 168 E. 

In October, 40 S. at 160 E. ; 35 S. between 165 and 
166 E. ; and 30 S. between 167 and 168 E. 

In November, 40 S. between 160 and 162 E. ; 35 S. 
between 166 and 168 E. ; and thence for Noumea. 

In December, 40 S. between 162 and 163 E. ; 35 S. at 
167 E. ; and thence steer for Noumea. 

For instructions relating to the last part of the voyage, 
and to the landfall, consult 111. We will now give a few 
extracts relating to this passage, and we would especially 
draw the reader's attention to the voyages of the Sibylle 
and Garonne. 



FROM EUROPE TO NEW CALEDONIA. 179 

Passage of the Sibylle, Captain Brossalet, (Ann.Rydr., 1871.) 
" I kept a clean full on the port tack while running through 
the SE. trades of the Atlantic. Between 8 and 17 S. the 
trade- winds were quite squally. 

"At 26 S. they commenced to haul to the east, and even 
NE. ; and I was enabled to come up a little to the eastward? 
and crossed 2 E. at 41 S. Arrived at this meridian on 
the 19th October. Experienced variable winds from EXE. 
to NNE., which, at times, compelled me to take two reefs 
in the top-sails. These winds were, for three days, inter- 
rupted by light airs from KNW. to W. and SSW. At 41 
S. and 2o E. I bore for the 45th parallel at 20 E. 

" I expected to run down my longitude to Tasmania on this 
parallel, but just before I reached Marion and Crozet islands 
the wind which had been from N. for several days hauled 
to E. ; so that instead of giving the islands a wide berth I 
had to run to leeward of them. I therefore had to run 
down my longitude on 47 and 48 S., and arrived at 150 
E. on the 19th November. The wind, during this run, was 
continually varying from XNE. to NW. and W. and even 
to S., but the prevalent direction was N. 

"It seemed to have a rotary motion, and after blowing 
strongly from N., it hauled to W., dying away a few hours 
afterward, while shifting to SW. ; after an interval of calms 
and light airs it would again come out from NNE. 

" I might have found the winds more to the westward in 
higher latitudes, but I doubt if I would have made a quicker 
passage, nor would the health of the crew have been as good. 
If I had intended to take a south route, I should have had 
to make up my mind early in the voyage to double the 
Macdonald islands (lat. 53) to the southward. As the wind 
in this locality is squally, and often hauls to SW., and then 
to SE., I should have probably lost a great deal of time. 
Besides, Kerguelen land situated in nearly the same me- 
ridian as the Macdonald islands, and extending from 50 
50' to 52 20' E. makes the situation less desirable. 

" I did not deem it prudent to run between these two 
groups, as the winds are variable and the chances of ob- 
taining observations rare. 

" I incline to the opinion that the northerly route is the 



180 FKOM EUROPE TO NEW CALEDONIA. 

better one. During the two days prior to my reaching this 
position the winds were inclined to haul to NNE. and NE.? 
and I was uncertain whether I could double the islands or 
not, but I was enabled to do so without making a tack, thus 
economizing time and avoiding much anxiety. Even if 
you have to go about, there will be plenty of sea-room. 

" The current averaged 1 knot per hour for 25 days, and 
set the ship to the eastward. This current seems to follow 
the variations of the wind, inclining to the N. or S., as the 
breeze hauls in either of those directions. During the 25 
days the frigate made 5,539 miles, and, though the wind 
was not very fresh nor always fair, we averaged 221.5 
miles per day. We nearly always carried whole top-sails ; 
in the worst weather we furled the upper foretop-sail, and 
put two reefs in the main-sail. Once I was nearly lying- 
to under the two lower top-sails; but, even then, made over 
5 knots per hour ; the breeze grew light at the end of a few 
hours, and, the sea not having had time to rise. I again made 
sail. 

"I encountered, at 108 E., a single iceberg, about 400 
feet high and 1,300 feet long; its shape very irregular. 
When I sighted it the weather was fine, clear in the zenith, 
and slightly foggy in the horizon. It was distant about 4 
miles when I made it out, and I lost sight of it when it was 
a little over 4 miles off'. The thermometer showed no 
signs of its proximity, even when it was within 1 miles of 
us. The southern aurora was also very magnificent one 
night while we were in these latitudes. 

" Thinking that I would have better weather, I passed 
midway between Australia and New Zealand, the result 
justifying my anticipations. I ran from 48 S. to Norfolk 
island in less than seven days ; and, taking my departure 
from that island, I anchored in Noumea on the 28th Novem- 
ber ; 94 days from Toulon and 76 from St. Vincent." 

Passage of the transport Garonne, (auxiliary steamer,} Cap- 
tain Rallier." Arrived at Dakar, Senegambia, on the 27th 
August, 1872, and left that port on the night of the 2d and 
3d September. Crossed the line between 16 and 17 W. ; 
then, contrary to the usual custom the Garonne making 
very good way close-hauled T hugged the trades, and 
passed 450 miles to windward of Trinity island. I reached 



FROM EUROPE TO NEW CALEDONIA. 181 

Tristan da Concha 19 days after my departure, and on the 
very day when I should have anchored at St. Catherine had 
I not kept close-hauled. By steering this course I had, 
therefore, gained 1,800 miles on my route, and was from 15 
to 20 days ahead of the time I would have made had I 
touched on the South American coast. 

" In the southern part of the equatorial and Capricorn 
calm belts I met stubborn S. winds, which sensibly diminished 
our supply of coal 5 contrary to my original intention, I was 
therefore obliged to make the greater part of the passage 
under sail, using the engine only in cases of the most ur- 
gent necessity. 

" I ran well south from Tristan da Concha, crossing 45 
S. at 2 E., and 50 about the meridian of the cape of Good 
Hope ; here I was delayed for 6 days by calms and light 
baffling airs ; the fog was also thick and ' glacial,' which I 
attributed to the meeting of antarctic and Indian ocean 
currents. 

" Thence I ran in an oblique course to the Macdouald 
isles, which I intended to make the vertex of our route. I 
wished to sight these islands, as (according to my judgment) 
they are located near the best route between the two capes, 
and should be used by vessels to rectify their positions. It 
also seemed to me best to give Kerguelen laud a wide berth, 
as its exact position is doubtful and the winds in that local- 
ity are unfavorable. Unfortunately, I passed the Macdon- 
ald isles in the night, and could not obtain all the informa- 
tion I had wished. I was able, however, to fix the exact 
position of the islets off the western part of the group, as 
our chronometers proved to be only two minutes out when 
we reached Noumea. The principal peak of the island 
stands out in bold relief; we made it at a distance of 45 
miles at sunset, and judged its elevation to be about 7,000 feet. 

"After clearing the Macdonald group I found a fresh 
wind from K to NNE., which drove me down to 54 S. ; 
this was the only violent wind we experienced south of the 
50th parallel, and it lasted only a short time. During the 
passage of 21 days in these latitudes the royals were only 
furled 10 times, and 76 hours in all. The sea was remark- 
ably smooth ; the wind moderate, and the only heavy swell 
from NW. The wind which caused this swell did not reach 
us. It probably came from a locality GOO miles distant, as 



182 FEOM: EUROPE TO KEW CALEDOMI. 

we did not strike the corresponding wind until we reached 
45o S. 

"The temperature did not fall below 25 ; this was not 
very cold, but was very much felt by the crew, as the 
weather changed so rapidly that they had not time to become 
acclimated. The nights were especially severe, and I had 
to serve out an extra allowance of grog. Still, few were 
taken sick, the air being dry and healthy. 

"The danger from icebergs can hardly be exaggerated, 
especially during the foggy nights and the long snow-squalls- 
We met our first one at 51 47' S. and 35 08' E. ; it was 270 
feet high, and made such an impression on the crew that I 
knew I could count on a * good lookout ; ' we also passed 
through a group of them on the 16th, 17th, and 18th Octo- 
ber, between the parallels of 52 23' and 52 06' S. and the 
meridians of 92 and 104 E. At noon on the 18th, lat. 52 
06', long. 105 17', we thought we saw land to the south. I ran 
for it, but at the end of an hour saw nothing to fully confirm 
my belief. These latitudes are so little frequented that land 
may possibly be there; but as signs of the scurvy were begin- 
ning to make their appearance among the crew, I could not 
delay any longer. If this land exists its position is 52 30' 
S., and 105 20' E. 

" I bore away gradually to the north on the 14th of Octo- 
ber, and recrossed 50 S. on the 20th, after making 100 de- 
grees in longitude to the southward of this parallel, or an 
average of 5 degrees per day. 

"To the north of 50 S. the weather completely changed, 
rain took the place of snow, the sea became heavy, and the 
wind violent, especially in the squalls, when only low sail 
could be carried. The wind was usually fair, though very 
variable, obliging us to be continually bracing and hauling. 
In short, this zone was worse than the more southern one, 
with the one exception that the weather was warmer. This 
higher temperature of the atmosphere acted favorably on 
our passengers, though our efforts to make a quick passage 
had to be renewed to avoid the tendency to scurvy caused 
by the dampness. 

" We doubled South cape, Tasmania, on the 26th October, 
26 days from the meridian of the cape of Good Hope, and 
an average of 200 miles per day. 

" East of Tasmania I found one day's calm, and two of 



FROM EUROPE TO NEW CALEDONIA. 183 

head winds. The breeze then sprung up from the east, and 
we arrived at Noumea on the 4th November, 63 days from 
Dakar, with an average speed of 7.8 knots." 

The opinions given in the following quotations differ ma- 
terially from the preceding : 

Passage from Europe to New Caledonia by the sailing-frig- 
ate Aleeste, Captain Brosset, (Ann. Hydr., 1871.) " I ran out 
of the SE. Atlantic trades at 20 S. and entered the region 
of the i variables' without meeting any calms. I headed to 
double the cape of Good Hope at 38 S.'; thence, bearing 
to the S., I made for about 41 S. 

" Made my easting between 40 and 42 S. At the 102nd 
meridian I again ran to the southward so as to double Tas- 
mania at 46 30' S. ; this mean route, between that of the 
British Admiralty and the one indefinitely laid down by 
Maury, appeared to me the best for the winter season. On 
this long passage I found very fresh and settled winds, and 
no too violent squalls ; nor was the temperature very low 
even in the heart of this bad season. 

" In this passage the various meteorological observations 
agreed exactly with those taken on my preceding voyage . 

" The rotation of the wind is invariably the same ; it comes 
out from NE., shifts to N. and NW., fresh and squally ; then 
veers suddenly to SW. with clearing weather. The wind 
then oscillates between SW. and N. for a longer or shorter 
period, according to the latitude; it then hauls to S., dying 
away at SE., and comes out once more from NE., after a 
few hours' calm. The farther south you go the longer it 
takes the wind to complete this entire revolution ; in other 
words, the wind is steadier between K, W., and S. in high 
latitudes; from which Maury's instructions 'to run well to 
the south when Australian bound.' 

u These rotations of the wind occurred very frequently 
when the Alceste was N. of 38 S., but S. of that parallel 
the wind never got to the E. of S." 

Passage of the Alceste from Reunion to Noumea. "As I 
had to make this passage in the middle of winter I did not 
think I was justified in taking Maury's route, especially as 
the ship was crowded with passengers and prisoners in con- 
finement. On the other hand, as the route of the British 
Admiralty seemed a little too far north, I took, with all due 
deference to Maury's rules, an intermediate route ; and left 



184 FROM EUROPE TO NEW CALEDONIA. 

Reunion, with the intention of running down my longitude 
between the parallels of 41 and 42 S. 

" I left Keunion on the 16th July. I ran out of the trades 
at 27 S. and 53 E., and the variable winds which then 
sprang up allowed me to run on the arc of a great circle 
passing 90 miles S. of Van Diemen's land. I then reached 
about 410 30' S. and 70 E. I then headed E. until I crossed 
110 E. Thence, bearing to the south, I doubled Van Die- 
men's land (long. 145 E.) at 46 S. 

"During the whole length of this 'composite' route 
the wind was nearly always from N. to SW. ; shifting by 
the W. point of the compass, it generally blew very strong, 
causing us sometimes to scud under the fore-sail. Maury's 
charts show conclusively the prevalence of the west winds 
in these latitudes. 

"I think I can deduce from my personal observations, 
that the farther one goes to the south, the longer it takes 
the wind to make a complete revolution of the compass. 

"Thus I experienced, in the Alceste, between the parallels 
of 42 and 46 S., a wind that blew for 10 days from SW. 
to N. (shifting by W.) before it went completely around the 
compass ; while in lower latitudes (between 33 and 40) 
the time required for its complete revolution was never 
more than 4 or 5 days. Still farther tp the northward, be- 
tween 30 and 33, it is not a rare thing to see the complete 
rotation peformed in 24 or 36 hours. Finally, in the vicini- 
ty of the trades, the wind runs around the compass even in 
half a day ; whence the calms and baffling airs near the 
tropic of Capricorn. 

"From all the data we have on the subject, we can con- 
clude that there is probably some parallel, still undeter- 
mined, where the wind never blows from the eastern semi- 
circle of the compass." 

Passage of the Saint-Michel, Fradin. master, (vide Ann. 
Hy dr., vol.23.) "We doubled Pernambuco during the night 
of the 8th of August, and experienced fine weather and 
light winds until the 15th. We were then at 33 33' S. and 
29 15' W.; steered south for the parallels of 43 and 45 
S., on which we intended to make our longitude. On the 
5th September we were in lat, 43 18' S., long. 9 40' E. 
Thence to cape Otway experienced moderate winds from 



FROM EUROPE TO KEW CALEDONIA. 185- 

NW. to SW., aud quite favorable currents. In niy opinion, 
the passage should be made between the parallels of 48 and 
50 S., for here the wind is more settled, the current stronger, 
and the sea smoother. After running to the east between 
43 and 45 S., we arrived at the boundary of changeable 
winds ; every fourth or fifth day we had a few hours of 
calm; then the south winds, shifting to SE., became 
squally; they afterward hauled to the E., NE., N., and 
from NW. to SW., from which point they blew for a long 
time. These sudden changes caused a heavy sea, which 
made the ship labor greatly, and deadened her headway. 
At daylight on the 12th October, we were out of Bass 
strait. From the 12th to the 16th October we had fine 
weather with light winds from NE. to NNE. ; the 17th, 
wind from SSW. to S. j making good headway ; on the 
forenoon of the 19th we passed close to the E. of Lord Howe 
islands, and about 9 miles from the Ball pyramid. Weather 
fair and wind from S. to SE. On the evening of the 22nd 
we were in sight of l mount d'Or.' We anchored at Nou- 
mea on the 23rd." 

We will finish with an extract from the observations of 
Captain Rion-Kerangal, of the Isis, on the passage from 
Eeunion to New Caledonia : 

" The westerly winds never failed us in high latitudes ; 
they were as settled as the SE. trades of the Atlantic, and 
strong enough to enable a smart sailer to make 240 miles 
per day. These winds usually prevail from 35 to 55 S. 

" From 35 to 40 S. the NW. wind is dominant; from 43 
to 55 the wind from W. and SW. prevails. 

" On the Admiralty route the winds are more moder- 
ate and variable than they are farther south ; this pas- 
sage is also damp and rainy ; and the scurvy is liable to 
break out in these latitudes. On the 45th parallel we find, 
it is true, a very strong wind, but it is steady, the sea being 
constantly from the west, the sky clear, and there is no 
dampness when the winds are from the south. It is colder 
on this route, but on the other hand the health of the crew 
will be better. 

The zone between 40 and 43 S. is to be avoided, as the 
wind is variable and the sea irregular and very heavy ; 
u solar "winds are also very frequent in this locality, and 
the barometric changes very great. 



186 FROM EUROPE TO TAHITI. 

"The Sibylle left Reunion 24 hours after the Isis, and ar- 
rived at Noumea 5 days before her, although their sailing 
qualities were about equal. 

"The Sibylle made a portion of her longitude on the paral- 
lel of 36 30', and afterward bore south for Maury's route, 
at 45 S., crossing 40 and 43 S. at nearly right angles. 

" The Isis ran down her longitude on 39 30' S., the route 
given by Horsburgb. Near Bass strait the NE. winds 
forced her to the south of Tasmania, but the Sibylle was 
ahead of her, having doubled Van Diemen's Land. 

" The route between 40 and 43 S. is not followed much, 
captains being careful to avoid this locality. The winds in 
this zone will be found farther to the north in the southern 
winter than they are in summer. 

" Maury's route is better than the Admiralty's for well- 
equipped vessels. 

" I found a vessel from Bordeaux at Noumea, which by 
following Maury's route had made the passage in 105 days." 

106. ROUTE FROM EUROPE TO TAHITI. The track 
from Europe to Tahiti by the cape of Good Hope follows 
the parallel of 50 S., or the belt comprised between 45 
and 50 S. The passage is 45 degrees longer in longitude 
than that to New Caledonia, 

Ships bound to New Caledonia commence to bear north 
at 137 or 142 E. ; while those destined for Tahiti should 
run to the east until they cross 173 or 168 W., a differ- 
ence in longitude of 50. Tahiti is situated in 17 30' S., 
and Noumea in about 22 S., a difference of 5 in latitude. 
The difference to Tahiti is therefore, in round numbers, 55, 
and the passage from 18 to 20 days longer. The whole voyage 
roin France to Tahiti can be accomplished in from 110 to 130 
days at most; while by the cape Horn route, touching at Val- 
paraiso, it will take at least from 120 to 130 days to reach Tahiti. 

1st. The cape Horn route. Quick passages have been 
made by this route, but instances of them are rare. In the 
" Navigation of the Atlantic" instructions are given on the 
passage from Europe to and around cape Horn. The reader 
should also refer to 44 of this volume. The last part of 
the voyage will be found in 93 and 94. 

2d. The cape of Good Hope route. Probably the passage 
from Europe to Tahiti via the south of Australia will be 
generally quicker than the one by cape Horn. The in- 



FllOM AUSTRALIA TO EUROPE. 187 

tttructions given in 104 and 105 should be followed 
until the ship is south of New Zealand, after which the 
crossings should be approxiinatively as follows: 

In January, cross 45 S. between 174 and 176 W. ; 40 
S. between 161 and 163 W. ; 35 S. between 154 and 
156^ \y. ; and 25 S. between 147 and 149 W. 

In February, 45 S. between 173 and 175 W. ; 40 S. 
between 154 and 150 W. ; 35 S. and 25 S. between 147 
and 149 W. 

In March, 45 S. between 169 and 171 W. ; 40 S. be- 
tween 155 and 157 W. ; 35 S. at about 153 W., and 
thence for Tahiti. 

In April, 45 S. between 177 and 179 E. ; 40 S. be- 
tween 164 and 166 W. ; 30 S. between 153 and 155 W. 

In May, 45 S. between 174 and 176 W. ; 35 S. be- 
tween 163 and 165 W., and then head for Tahiti. 

In June and July, 45 S. between 174 and 176 W.; and 
35 S. between 157 and 159 W. 

In August, 45 S. between 174 and 176 W., and 35 S. 
between 154 and 156 W. 

In September, 45 S. between 174 and 176 W. ; 35 S. 
between 151 and 153 W. ; 30 S. between 148 and 150 
W., and head for port. 

In October, 45 S. between 174 and 176 W.; 35 S. be- 
tween 158 and 160 W., and 30 S. between 152 and 
154 W. 

In November, 45 S. between 177 and 179 E. ; 40 S. be- 
tween 165 and 167 W. ; 35 S. between 156 and 158 W. ; 
30 S. between 152 and 153 W., and 25 S. between 150 
and 151 W. 

In December, 45 S. between 174 and 176 W. ; 40 S. 
between 157 and 159 W. ; 35 S. and 30 S. between 146 
and 148 W. 

Ships generally pass west of Eapa island, and some dis- 
tance to the eastward of Vavitao. For instructions con- 
cerning the end of the voyage, vide 140. 

107. ROUTE FROM AUSTRALIA TO EUROPE. There are 
also two ways of making this passage, viz : the cape Horn 
route and the westerly route by way of the cape of Good 
Hope or Suez. 

1st. The cape Horn route. The cape Horn route is the best 
and quickest for sailing-vessels at all seasons of the year. 



188 FROM AUSTRALIA TO EUROPE. 

It passes right through the middle of New Zealand, there- 
fore the islands can be doubled either to N. or S. ; or after 
leaving Sydney vessels can take either Cook or Foveaux 
strait. We think that it is always best to pass to the 
southward of New Zealand and between " The Snares" and 
Auckland. 

If the weather shows every prospect of remaining fine 
and the wind comes out ahead, there is no special reason 
for not taking Cook strait in the good season, especially if 
on board an auxiliary steamer.* 

th T rSu g h a co?k A shi P Deciding to take this strait will find shelter at port 
Gore or Guard bay in case of strong SE. winds ; if not up to 
these ports when the wind begins, she can anchor at Port 
Hardy or in the harbor of Croisilles on the west side of D'Ur- 
ville island. The latter anchorage is the better, for a heavy 
swell,caused by the tide, sets through the inlet at Port Hardy. 
On approaching Cook strait with the N. W. wind mount Eg- 
mont will be sighted, situated in 39 18' S. and 174 05' E. It is 
a regular cone and very high, the diameter of its base being 
about 30 miles, and its altitude about 8,500 feet ; its summit 
is always covered with snow. On the contrary, when near- 
ing the strait with the 8W. wind, endeavor to pass by cape 
Farewell, situated in 40 30' S. and 174 42' E.; but be care- 
ful to avoid the dangerous bank which extends to the east 
of the cape for 17 miles. This can be done by heading for 
Burnett or Knuckle mountain, a remarkable peak on the 
western coast of Massacre bay. Knuckle hill is about 2,000 
feet high, has two round summits, the northern one being 
the highest, and lies 9 miles SW. from cape Farewell. The 
light-house on Bush-end point can be advantageously used 
as a leading mark to clear Farewell spit. 

The light is white with a red sector, revolves every min- 
ute, and is visible 17 miles. It is built on a wooden scaf- 
folding with white and red bands, and is about 120 feet 
above the water ; position of light, lat. 40 33' S., long. 
1730 01' 45" E. The red light shows between S. 27 E. 
and E. 29 S., or in the direction of the spit, and is hidden 
by the sand-dunes from S. to E. 20 S. The vessel should 
be at least 4 miles from the N. edge of the red light when 
she opens it. 

* Vide Sand 111 oil the uncertainty of the weather in these latitudes. 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO EUROPE. 189 

Only auxiliary-steam vessels and ships bound to Otago The passage 

. through Foveaux 

should use Foveaux strait; it is 15 miles broad, except strait, 
west of Kuapuke island, where it is less than 10. The 
variable wind and weather make navigation through this 
strait dangerous for a sailing-vessel, and a sharp lookout 
should at all times be kept for SW. and NW. squalls. 

The current along the SVV. coast of Middle or Tavai- 
Pounamou island sets south. Vessels striking the W. wind 
out of Melbourne can take Bass strait, and pass south of 
Kent islands, heading about E. by N. in order to double 
Wright rock and Endeavor reef; thence pass south of New 
Zealand between " The Snares " and Auckland island. 

If after leaving Melbourne an E. or NE. icind is found, run 
SW. and between cape Otway and King island. After 
doubling the north point of this island steer about S. by E. 
and give the western coast of Tasmania a wide berth, for 
sea-room will be necessary in case of one of the SW. squalls 
frequent in these parts; thence steer for the passage north 
of Auckland. 

After passing New Zealand make for the parallel on The choice of a 
which it may be decided to run down the longitude. 

There are fewer parallels from which to choose on this 
route than on the one from Europe to Australia. Cape 
Horn being in 56 S., the easting will have to be made in 
quite high latitudes, in order to double the cape with plenty 
of sea-room. Ships passing either north or south of New 
Zealand will then find themselves in respectively 45 or 49 
south latitude; even then they will be south of the Admi- 
ralty route of 39 S. From this it results that this passage 
is necessarily made in high latitudes, and that the voyage 
is rarely a long one, for the winds are here very stiff from 
the west. 

Without fixing on any particular parallel, we will only 
indicate the route which we consider the best. 

We think that a ship should at first steer to the east be- 
tween 48 and 53 S., more or less to south or north, accord- 
ing to the season. 

Farther south icebergs and cold weather will be encoun- 
tered. By referring to 43 it will be seen, however, that float- 
ing ice only passes beyond the 50th parallel from October 
to April, and that it may not be met south of 50 even at 



190 FROM AUSTRALIA TO EUROPE. 

this season. There is less danger of meeting ice from April 
to October. Therefore the extreme southern limit for this 
route to the east should be 50 8. from October to April, and 
52 or 53 8. from April to October. 

If willing to run every risk for the sake of a quick passage, 
make for 57 or 58 S., and run to the eastward on that 
extreme parallel; but we cannot advise such a high latitude. 

In short, 50 S. during the southern summer, and 52 S. 
during the southern winter, would seem to be the extreme 
limits. During the long days of December and January a 
ship might run a little higher; for instance, after crossing 
98 W., bear to the south for the parallel of the Diego-Ka- 
mirez islands, near 76 W. Both winds and currents will 
of course always be favorable for doubling cape Horn. 
., The , v + .y a ff e Instructions relative to the voyage from cape Horn to 

through the At- ' * 

lantic. Europe will be found in the " Navigation of the Atlantic 

ocean." 

Never hurry to the north, and of course do not pass west 
of the Falkland islands. We would also state that sailing- 
vessels bound to Europe should never, unless under very 
extraordinary circumstances, cross 30 S. west of the 28th 
meridian. 

In January, February, and March cross 30 S. between 
14 and 16 W. 

In April, May, and June, 30 S. between 19 and 21 W. 

In July, August, and September, sailing-vessels should 
cross 30 S. between 8 and 10 W., and auxiliary steamers 
3Qo g. near 27 W. 

In October, November, and December, 30 S. between 7 
and 9o W. 

In general, the farther 30 and 40 S. are crossed to the 
eastward the quicker the passage. 

Suppiy-poits. In the author's work on the Atlantic (pages 172 and 173) 
a few details were given in regard to Port Stanley. 

We take from Ann. Hydr., vol. 30, the following extract 
relating to the Falkland or Malouines islands : 

" Coal and provisions can be obtained at these islands. 
Rear-Admial Hastings states that he procured from u Dean 
and Son" 408 tons of coal in 16 hours. This firm also had 
all kinds of ship-stores. According to the admiral, every 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO EUROPE. 191 

ship bound around the cape should revictual at the Falk- 
lands." 

Another account of these islands (Ann. Hijdr., 1872) gives 
an entirely different idea of the islands : 

" The pilotage is not all that could be desired. I would 
not advise a ship to touch at Port Stanley when she can 
reach La Plata or Rio. The smallest repairs take 2 or 3 
months, and a captain wishing to careen his ship may be 
forced to wait weeks for a still enough day in which to do 
it." 

The following passage is from the report of Captain Lau- 
nay, commanding the Virginie, which vessel touched at Port 
Stanley in March, 1873 : v 

" In a commercial point of view this port is important, 
as 30 or 40 ships in distress usually touch there every year j 
some of these are condemned on account of the high price 
of labor. Provisions, &c., are quite moderate. Soft coal 
costs (coal was very high in 1873) 818 per ton ; tallow, 1ft 
cents per pound ; fresh beef, 10 cents per pound ; strong 
mutton, 10 cents per pound. If provisions are brought off 
in the ship's boats the prices are lower. Canned fruits and 
vegetables are abundant." 

The following circular has been issued by The Falkland 
Islands Company : 

u Good water from the government reservoir is worth 2s 
6d. per ton when taken off' by the ship's boats, and 12s. 6d. 
delivered alongside. The price is 16s. when less than 5 
tons are taken. If delivered outside, it brings 20s. Ballast 
can be found ashore, or delivered for 7s. per ton. Fresh 
beef and mutton are worth &d. per pound ; vegetables sell 
from \d. to 2%d. A supply of coal is always on hand.' r 

We will conclude by repeating that Saint Helena is the 
lest supply port for sailing-vessels, but that Port Stanley 
may be useful in case of necessity. 

The following instructions from Horsburgh, Fitz-Roy, and 
Maury may be useful : 

Horsburgh's instructions. " Ships from Port Jackson or 
Tasmania, bound to Europe in the summer months, and per- 
haps at all seasons, may expect to make a quicker passage 
around cape Horn than by any other route, for the preva- 
lence of westerly winds in high southern latitudes is favor-- 
able for that passage. 



192 FROM AUSTRALIA TO EUROPE. 

" Ships pursuing ths route from Port Jackson round cape 
Horn have in general made favorable passages round cape 
Horn ; but, as stormy weather and high seas may be ex- 
pected at times in high southern latitudes, this route ought 
not to be chosen in a leaky or crazy ship, and those who 
pursue it ought particularly to keep a good lookout for ice- 
islands, both to the westward and eastward of cape Horn. 

" Icebergs are most constantly found between 133 and 
110 W. during the winter season, probably drifted from 
a large extent of undiscovered land to the southward." 

Fitz-Rotfs instructions. " In crossing the Pacific, toward 
the east, in southern latitudes, a ship should not go beyond 
50 S. till near cape Horn, as there is usually much ice 
southward of that parallel, especially in the eastern part of 
the South Pacific, and occasionally it is met with some de- 
grees farther north in autumn (February, March, and April,) 
after long continuance of westerly gales. 

"A few hundred miles may be saved in distance out of 
about twelve thousand by going into very high southern 
latitudes, but at the risk of encountering ice, and with the 
certainty of a very cold, disagreeable climate. This applies 
equally to Australian passages by the cape of Good Hope, 
where great -circle sailing has been carried too far by some 
ships. 

"In the long, dark nights of an antarctic winter, when 
the moon is not nearly full, ice (especially the low, less visi- 
ble floes which are not many feet above the surface of the 
water) is especially to be guarded against by the most vigi- 
lant lookout, and by keeping under manageable sail, in readi- 
ness to alter the course instantly it' danger is suddenly re- 
ported. 

" In the summer of the southern seas there is so little 
night that ships may run with security, provided that (even 
in broad daylight) a good lookout ahead is invariably main- 
tained under all circumstances. Foggy weather is compar- 
atively rare, unless very far south. 

" The distance on the great circle between the SW. cape 
of Van Diemen's land and cape Horn is 5,100 miles. The 
average length of the voyage (from 17 logs) from Melbourne 
to cape Horn is 35 days; the distance sailed, about 5,500 
miles." 

Maimfs imtruciions. " The same 'brave west winds," 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO EUROPE. 193 

\vbich take vessels so rapidly from the meridiaii of the cape 
of Good Hope eastwardly along the parallels of 50 to GO 
toward Australia, will also bring them over eastwardly 
along the same parallels toward cape Horn. 

"The investigations which have been carried on at this 
office, concerning the winds of that part of the ocean, forbid 
me to recommend the Admiralty route to any homeward- 
bound European or American vessel, under any circum- 
stances whatever; always assuming that these directions 
are intended for ships that are seaworthy, properly fitted 
out, and sound. The average passage to Europe by this 
Admiralty route is 120 days. Ships may occasionally find 
the easterly winds as low down south as the directions of 
the Admiralty suggest ; but it is the exception, not the rule, 
so to find them. In proof of this I refer to the pilot-charts 
of that part of the ocean, arid shall quots other authorities. 

"Returning by way of cape Horn homeward, the best 
routo is to get south of the parallel of 40 as soon as you 
can, and then shape the course direct for cape Horn, recol- 
lecting that the farther you keep south of the middle of the 
straight line on your chart from Van Diemen's land to cape 
Horn, the nearer you are to the great-circle route, and the 
shorter the distance the difference by the great circle and 
by the straight course on the charts being upward of 1,000 
miles. 

" In the passage from Australia to cape Horn, by keeping 
between the parallels of 40 and GO all the way, you will, 
I am of the opinion, feel more or less the warmth and set 
of a current that passes south of Australia from the Indian 
ocean. Whether the boisterous weather to which a warm 
current in suck latitudes would give rise will compensate 
for the advantages to be gained in other respects, must be 
left for experience to determine. For my own part, I do 
not suppose this current to be as strongly marked as is 
our Gulf Stream in the Atlantic ; though the passage 
from the capes of the Delaware to-Liverpool may be consid- 
ered as affording us the means of judging pretty accurately 
as to this passage from Australia the chief difference be- 
ing, I suppose, in the climate and the gales. 

" The climate in the Pacific, along this route, will be found 
not quite so mild as is that along the European route in the 
Atlantic. But the gales in the Atlantic are probably more 
13 N 



194 FROM AUSTRALIA TO EUROPE. 

frequent and violent than they are in the South Pacific at 
any rate, I suppose that such will be found to be the case 
until you reach the regions of cape Horn. 

" The Australian routes present occasional opportunities 
for fine runs. In the South Pacific ocean, below the paral- 
lel of 35 or 40 S. and away from the influence of the land 
as along this route, especially from New Zealand to cape 
Horn the westerly winds blow almost with the regularity 
of the trades ; and a fast vessel, taking a westerly gale as 
she clears the New Zealand islands, may, now and then, run 
along with it pretty nearly to cape Horn. 

" These winds are already beginning to be known so well 
to the Australian traders, that it is usual for them, I am 
told, when bound home by this route, to strike top-gallant 
masts before leaving port. It is a voyage that tries ship 
and crew ; but of all the voyages in the world, that part of 
it between the offings of Australia and cape Horn is per- 
haps the most speedy for canvas. There it may outrun 
steam." 

2d. The westerly route. The Australia Directory advises 
ships bound from Australia to Europe or Hindostan, from 
September to April, to proceed to the westward, passing 
south of Australia and by Torres strait during the southern 
winter. Maury strongly opposes these directions, and with 
reason, as may be seen by reference to the extract in the 
first part of this paragraph. 

As, however, the opinion of the British Admiralty has 
much weight, we would refer the reader to 172, where will 
be found a quotation from the Directory. 

Still, the cape Horn route is, in our opinion, the best on 
which to make the return passage to Europe. 

Vessels bound to Singapore, Cochin-China, or Keunion, 
can round Australia either to N. or S. Instructions relating 
to this passage will be found in 171 and 172. 

Auxiliary steamers will find this west route the most rapid, 
especially as they can make the return passage from Aus- 
tralia through the Suez canal. 

A ship starting from Sydney, between May and August, 
can count on the SE. monsoon to set her through Torres 
strait, (vide 171.) SE. winds will also be experienced while 
crossing the Indian ocean near the parallels of 12 or 15 S. 
Cross the equator a little to the north of the Seychelles, and 



FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO EUROPE. 195 

rim for Aden, under low steam, if uecessary. Before Octo- 
ber a ship will probably have strong head winds all the way 
up the Bed sea. 

The worst time of the year to leave Sydney is between 
July and January. The NW. monsoon will at this season 
prevent the passage through Torres strait, and as the route 
north of New Guinea will be too long, the cape Horn voyage 
will almost invariably be preferable. In January, February, 
and March, there is no reason why vessels should not run 
south of Australia, especially if their port of departure be 
Melbourne or Port Adelaide, (vide 172.) After doubling 
cape Leeuwin run to the west with the SE. trades between 
22 and 17 S. ; but do not cross 15 S. before reaching 62 
and 64 E. Thence bear north, when the SE. trades will 
be replaced by the NW. monsoon, or rather by the variable 
winds from NW., SW., and SE., which generally come un- 
der the head of the N W. monsoon. 

The NE. monsoon prevails at some distance north of the 
line, except toward the end of March and the beginning of 
April, when the change in the monsoons takes place. 

At this time vessels will have to steam for Aden. From 
October to April the winds are from S. and SE., in the 
southern part of the Red sea, and as far north as the 17th 
parallel. 

The Suez route is therefore not favorable for sailing-ves- 
sels, and only for auxiliary steamers, from the beginning of 
May to the end of July, when they can pass through Torres 
strait. Of course, we do not bring the mail steamers into 
these considerations. 

The cape of Good Hope route seems hardly admissible 
for auxiliary steamers that can take the Suez canal, nor 
would we recommend it for sailing-vessels.* It is always a 
tedious passage, particularly when doubling the cape, in 
June, July, or August. During these months the weather 
off the cape of " Tempests" is alternately stormy and calm. 
Cyclones also are frequent from December to March, in the 
neighborhood of Reunion. By all means take the cape 
Horn route. 

108. ROUTE FROM: NEW CALEDONIA TO EUROPE. 
1st. The cape Horn route. The reader should refer to the first 
part of 107, where he will find useful information. 

* Vide p. 103, " Navigation South Atlantic." 



FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO EUROPE. 

The greatest difficulty on this route for a sailing-ship will 
be doubling the N. and NE. capes of North island, New 
Zealand. We will, therefore, give the following instructions, 
which, if not absolutely indispensable, are at least very nec- 
essary for passing north of New Zealand. The passage 
through Cook or Foveaux strait is not advisable on account 
of the exceptionably bad weather which prevails near the 
west coast of New Zealand, (vide 8.) Ships often have to 
lie-to in this locality with a lee-shore close aboard. Pre- 
suming that the ship is not pooped, (as a certain frigate 
was,) she will be forced to run through Cook strait, with a 
gale of wind after her from NW., a bad horizon, no land in 
sight, and with the danger of being " broached-to," etc. In 
fact, the climate to the west of New Zealand is about the 
worst in the world, and if she should chance to fall in with 
a good spell of weather, it is not likely to last more than 12 
hours. Even an auxiliary steamer will find it to her ad- 
vantage to double cape Otou to the northward. 

Therefore, after leaving Noumea, run to the southward 
and eastward for New Zealand ; if in an auxiliary steamer 
do not hesitate to use even one-third of the whole allowance 
of coal ; if in a sailing-vessel remember that the length of 
the passage to Europe depends greatly on the time spent on 
this, the first, part of the voyage. From Noumea to 30 S. 
the wind will be from SE. but very variable. After leaving 
New Zealand use every means to make to the east and 
south ; if, therefore, the wind should come out from S. and 
SSE., take the starboard tack; if it should haul ahead, do 
not keep off to the north of east, but go about immediately. 
South of 30 S. the wind will become still more variable, 
when take advantage of it by either beating or scudding, as 
the case may be. Here stearn will outrun sail. The worst 
months for doubling New Zealand are those between the 
beginning of September and the end of February. 

After leaving cape Otou, or North cape, it will be com- 
paratively easy to double East cape and to pass east of 
Chatham islands. After crossing 48 or 49 S. between 
158 or 163 W., run down the easting to northward of 50 
S., from October to April; and north of 52 S. between 
April and October. Beyond 98 or 93 W., commence to 
bear away around cape Horn. We once more repeat that 
when detained for an unusually long time between Noumea 



FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO EUROPE. 197 

and New Zealand, the whole first half of the voyage to Eu- 
rope will be prolonged. 

But, beyond cape Horn, it will be the captain's own fault 
if he strike north too quickly and thus lengthen the pas- 
sage j in other words, the passage will be a long one if 30 
S. be crossed to the westward of 28 W. Navigators 
should particularly remember this and cross 30 S. some- 
where between 7 and 21 W., according to the season and 
the instructions in 107, (vide also 14 " Navigation of 
South Atlantic.") 

In the "Navigation of the Atlantic ocean "it is stated 
that the line should be crossed at the following points : in 
July and August, at 21 W. 5 in September, at 22 W. ; in 
June, October, and November, at 23 W.j in January, at 
25 W. j during the remainder of the year at 24 W. 

After crossing the NE. trades rap-full the easting for 
Gibraltar, or the channel will have to be made well to the 
northward, as the west winds keep to high latitudes in this 
part of the Atlantic. 

There are many instances of quick runs from New Cale- 
donia to Europe. 

The Garonne, Captain Kallier, left Noumea on the 6th 
December, 1872, and anchored at Brest on the 7th March, 
1873, 90 days at sea. The Orne left New Caledonia on the 
8th June, 1873, put in at St. Helena on the 9th August, and 
arrived at Brest on the llth September, 94 days at sea, and 
1 day at St. Helena. 

2nd. The westerly route. It is generally conceded that 
the cape Horn route is the only one for sailing-ships. Small 
auxiliary steamers, fearing the rough seas of high latitudes, 
can take the westerly route, especially if they are bound to 
one of the Mediterranean seaports, and pass through Torres 
strait and the Suez canal. In this case, they should leave 
Noumea between the beginning of May and the last of July, 
or at the furthest not later than the first days of August. 

The SE. monsoon will carry them through Torres strait 
without difficulty, (vide 139 and 171.) Thence the track 
lies through the Indian ocean, between the parallels of 12 
and 15 S., and crosses the line N. of the Seychelles. Fin- 
ish the passage as stated in 107. 

There is nothing to be gained by taking this route at any 
other season, for a ship would have to pass either south of 



198 FROM TAHITI TO EUROPE. 

Australia in January, February, or March, or north of New 
Guinea from October to January. In the latter case a large 
detour through Gillolo or Dampier straits will have to be 
made, (vide 139 and 171.) 

Sailing-vessels should therefore never take the west route? 
and small auxiliary steamers only when they can leave 
Noumea between May and August, or when bound to one 
of the Mediterranean ports. Large auxiliary steam-vessels, 
frigates and corvettes for instance, can make a quick trip 
by this route, through Torres strait, and thence to Suez ; 
always provided they start between May and August. At 
all other seasons they should take the cape Horn route, 
particularly if bound to one of the Atlantic ports of the 
French coast, and wishing to save coal. 

The following account of a west passage is from the log 
of the dispatch-ship Guichen, (screw,) Captain Perrier: 

' Left Noumea on the 1st July, 1871; passed through Tor- 
res strait by the Eaine island channel, on the llth and 12th 
July. Arrived at Kupang (Timor) on the 19th, and left 
on the same day. Kan through the Indian ocean between 
the parallels of 12 and 15 S., with steady winds from 
SSE. to E. Anchored at Mahe (Seychelles) on the 12th 
August; coal-bunkers still full. Left on the 18th August, 
and reached cape GuardaM under sail; then got up steam. 
Arrived at Aden on the 28th August, and left the same day. 
Found a stiff breeze from NNVV. and rough sea, in the 
southern part of the Bed sea. 

''Head winds forced us to anchor, on the 2d September, 
at Djeddah to take in coal. Arrived at Suez on the 9th 
September, and at Port Said on the llth. Seventy-two 
days from Noumea to Port Said."* 

109. EOUTE FROM TAHITI TO EUROPE. After leaving 
Tahiti keep the sails full and make as much to the south- 
ward and eastward as the variable direction of the trades 
w 7 ill permit. 

The prevalent west winds do not generally come north of 
35 S. After finding them the ship should follow as nearly as 
possible a great-circle route to cape Horn. Thus, after 

* The reader will note that this passage was made during the favor- 
able season, and that the only difficulty experienced was the head winds 
in the Red sea. The Guichen arrived at Rochefort on the 12fch October 
103 days from Noumea. 



FROM TAHITI TO EUKOPE. 199 

crossing 40 S. near 140 W., head her for 50 S. in the neigh- 
borhood of 123 W. ; and 55 S. near 103 W. 

Probably the passage will be nearly as quick, and the 
chances of meeting ice less, especially from October to 
April, via the following route. After reaching 40 S. steer 
nearly SE., if the winds allow. When near the highest lati- 
tude 50 S. from October to April, or 52 S. from April 
to October run down the easting, keeping a little to the 
northward of this extreme latitude-limit ; for south of it the 
ice is dangerous. Do not commence to bear south until 
beyond 98 W., or rather, near 93 W. ; when steer to cross 
the parallel of Diego liamirez islands near 76 W. ; then 
double cape Horn. 

It is impossible to indicate the crossings which should be 
made between Tahiti and the parallels of 35 or 40 S. ; 
for they will be different according to the season and the 
direction of the wind. The wind, south of Tahiti, may be 
said to be generally from E. and SE., yet even here it often 
blows from all points of the compass. The observations of 
two or three consecutive months go to prove that the direc- 
tion of the wind is variable for almost every day. 

The only advice therefore that can be given is to make 
south as soon as it can be done without hugging the wind ; 
the west wind will be found near 35 or 40 S. The passage 
from cape Horn to Europe is the same as that in 107.* 

Passage of the sailing-frigate Alceste, Captain Brosset, 
(Ann. Hydr., 1871.)" I left Tahiti on the 18th November, 
or, in other words, at the beginning of the winter months, for 
the groups S. of the line. At this season the trades are 
often interrupted by variable winds and long calms, and 
the Alceste took 14 days to make the 660 miles to the par- 
allel of 300 s. 

" At 30 S. I ran out of the belt of calms and variable 
winds; and at 39 S. met the west winds. These blew 
freshly from N., W., and S., and as they never got to the 
eastward of the latter point, I made rapid way. At 53 S. 
and 88 W. I met a violent westerly gale. It sprung up 
from SW. at 1 a. m. on the 23d. The aneroid barometer in- 
dicated its approach by a slight rise. The wind shifted 
according to the law for the southern hemisphere ; that is, in 
a direction against the hands of a watch." 

* The Sibylle made the passage from Tahiti to Toulon in 107 days. 



CHAPTER V. 

ROUTES FROM THE PORTS OF AUSTRALIA OR ASIA TO 
THE EAST. 

iaMe? mPortAde " 11() - ROUTE FROM AUSTRALIA TO THE WESTERN 
COAST OF AMERICA. A ship starting from Port Adelaide 
should proceed south of Tasmania. Off Melbourne the 
winds are generally westerly, and enable vessels to run 
along the south coast of Sir Eoger Curtis islands, and 
thence, either north or south of Kent group. 

If the wind come out from the eastward, as it is likely 
to do in January, February, and March, pass west of King 
island, and well to the west of Tasmania. For the passage 
through Bass strait vide 104. The reader should also 
refer to 107. 

From Sydney. jf tne p | nt o f departure be Sydney, the beginning of the 
voyage should be in accordance with the instructions in 
107. 

In all cases, after a vessel is once to the eastward of New 
Zealand, she should head as near as the wind will allow 
for her extreme parallel, or rather a little to the north of it; 
this extreme latitude will be 50 S. from October to April, 
and 52 S. during the rest of the year. Thence make the 
easting, but do not get to the south of these parallels if it 
can be avoided. 

arao d to Val If the point of destination be Valparaiso, do not make any 
northing until near 103 W. Cross 48 or 47 S. near 98 
W. ; and approach the land to the southward of your port. 
Look out for a norther near the coast of Chile, especially 
during the bad season, from the end of May to September, 
(vide 29, 69 to 71, and 110.) 

Bound to cai- Vessels bound to Callao can begin to bear to the north- 
ward after crossing the meridian of 123 or 120 W. They 
should strike the SE. trades near 90 W., and then steer 
for their destination; being careful to keep it bearing to 
the northward of !NE., to avoid the necessity of hugging 
the wind in case it haul ahead. 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO THE WESTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 201 

A ship, about to make passage to Panama, can follow a m nnd to Pana - 
more westerly route than the above. She should sight cape 
San Francisco, and finish the voyage as stated in 48 and 
54. 

If going to Mexico, she should follow the same route, ic ^ und to Mex ' 
entering the SE. trades near 30 S. and 93 W., and crossing 
the line, either to east or west of the Galapagos islands, 
according to the season. For instructions relative to the 
last part of the voyage, vide 49. 



When bound to San Francisco, Maury says to cross 45 

and 40 S. betwee 150 and 140 W.; and the equator be- 
tween 130 and 120 W. Information concerning the last 
part of this passage will be found in 50. 

Maurtfs instructions on the passage from Australia to Cali- 
fornia. " In coming out of the Victoria ports go south of 
Van Diemen's land, or through Bass strait, as you have the 
winds and find it expedient. 

" Being south of Van Diemen's land makes it convenient 
to pass south of New Zealand, if the wind be fair, as in the 
majority of cases it will be. Having passed south of New 
Zealand steer for the parallel of 40 or 45 S., between the 
neridians of 150 and 140 W. ; thonco for the equator !><- 
120 and 130 W., crossing by a north course both 
the horse latitudes of the southern hemisphere and the 
equatorial doldrums ; then run through the NE. trades as 
best you may, keeping a " rap-full," and running up into the 
variables beyond the horse-latitude calms of the northern 
hemisphere, if need be, to complete your easting, and make 
your port. 

"If the winds be not fair for passing south of New Zea- 
land, try Cook strait in preference to passing to the north 
of New Ulster. 

" If you pass through Cook strait, then stick her well to 
the eastward, and take the eastern passage. On this pas- 
sage you should run down your easting pretty well before 
you get far enough north to be bothered by tue baffling 
winds of the horse latitudes south. If these come as low 
down as 38 or 40 S., stand north the moment you feel 
them till you get the SE. trades ; then cross these and the 
NE. trades, both as obliquely to the eastward as they will 
permit, with fore-topmast studding-sail set. 

" On this passage you will have, finally, to run down 



202 FROM AUSTRALIA TO NEW CALEDONIA. 

your easting when you get in the variables beyond the NE. 
trades, and, of course, you will aim to reach the parallel of 
38 or 40 N., or even a higher one north, to do this. How 
far you will go north depends somewhat upon the distance 
you may be west of California when you lose the NE. trades. 
If you be only a degree or two from the laud you wijl steer 
straight for your port without caring to get to the north- 
ward of it; but if you be ten or twenty degrees to the west 
of it, or even farther, then, of course, the distance to be 
run makes it an object to turn out of your way and go north 
in search of good winds. 

u The most difficult and uncertain parts of this passage 
will be in the time required to cross the three belts of calms, 
and to clear the winter fogs of California. But for these 
the eastern passage, from Victoria to California, would be 
one of the most certain passages in the world. 

u The distance from Victoria to California cannot be ac- 
complished under canvas, by the eastern route, much 
short of 8,700 miles. But driving captains, with clipper- 
ships under them, may expect to average, one trip with 
another, along this route, not far from 200 miles per day ; 
for I feel assured there is no part of the ocean in which the 
winds generally admit of more heavy dragging and constant 
driving than they will in the extra-tropical regions of the- 
South Pacific ; say on the polar side of 43 S." 

111. EOUTE FROM AUSTRALIA TO NEW CALEDONIA. 
After leaving Sydney run to the eastward, without bearing 
north, until about 450 miles from the Australian coast. 
Then commence to make the northing and gain the exceed- 
ingly variable SE. winds, which are here termed trades. 

The length of this passage, under sail, will be very irreg- 
ular; perhaps only 8 days; perhaps over three weeks. 
From June to September the voyage will be quite easy, and 
vessels can run straight away north. During the rest of 
the year the east winds come farther south ; it will then be 
advisable to run farther to the eastward on the parallel of 
Sydney. The following crossings will give an approxi- 
mative idea of the mean route : 

In January, vessels may follow the parallel of Sydney to 
160 E. ; cross 30^ S. near 167 E., and then easily bear to 
the northward. 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO NEW CALEDONIA. 203 

Iii February, cross 155 E. between 33 and 35 S.; 165 
E. between 31 and 33 S., and 30 S. between 166 and 
IGTo E. 

In March, 155 and 160 E. between 33 and 35 S., and 
the parallel of 29 S. between 166 and 168 E. 

In April, 155 and 160 E. between 33 and 35 S., and 
30 S. between 163 and 165 E. 

In May, 160 E. near 33 S., and the parallel of 30 S. 
between 165 and 167 E. 

From June to September, vessels will be able to pass close 
to the east of Ball pyramid, and to cross 30 S. in the neigh- 
borhood of 162 E., whence the passage will be easy. 

In September and October they can reach 30 S. without 
difficulty between 162 and 164 E., and thence for Noumea. 

In November and December they can follow the parallel of 
Sydney until they are near 162 E., and then bear away 
in order to cross 30 S. well to eastward of 165 E., espe- 
cially in December. 

The light-house on Amede"e islet has greatly facilitated 
the approach to Noumea. One very important injunction 
is still necessary, which is to make the light between NNE. 
and E. by X. 

If the light be sighted, bearing NB. for instance, irom 
deck on a clear day, the reefs will be at least 15 or 20 miles 
distant. A ship endeavoring to make the light-house in 
any other bearings than the ones mentioned above, may be 
on top of the rocks even before she sights it. Therefore 
place the vessel to the SW. of the light when at least 60 
miles off and lay a NE. course. 

The tower is a good mark in daytime. Ships generally 
run in by one of the Bulari passes, between To and Toombo 
reefs. There is a small shoal between the two passes, on 
which the sea always breaks. The south pass is the nar- 
rowest, being about 1,400 yards wide ; it lies between the 
shoal and Toombo reef, and being to windward, is the bet" 
ter one of the two. The other pass lies between To reef 
and the shoal ; it is about 1,800 yards wide, and can be 
taken in case of a head wind from westward. There are no 
dangers in either channel. Dumbea pass can be used if the 
ship fetch to leeward of the Bulari passages.* 

* These instructions on the approach to Noumea are from the work of 
M. Bouyuet de la Grye. 



204 FROM AUSTRALIA TO NEW CALEDONIA. 

In 6 the reader will find indications on the wind-system 
of this locality. Eeference should also be had to 138 for 
an account of the gale experienced by the Morceau near Syd- 
ney. The following accounts, furnished by Captain Jouan, 
of the Bonite, contain much useful information. The voy- 
ages of the Bonite were made prior to the erection of the 
light-house at N oumea, in 1865 : 

"The distance in a straight line from Sydney to Noumea 
is about 1,020 miles. Half way lies a group of reefs, be- 
tween 29 and 32 S. ; these reefs are terminated by two 
highlands: Howe island, (2,600 feet,) and Ball pyramid, a 
gigantic leaning obelisk, which, from a distance, has the 
appearance of a ship under sail. The position of these rocks 
is not accurately put down on the charts, and the existence 
of some of them is doubtful. Vessels generally pass to the 
southward of them on the voyage from Sydney to Noumea ; 
and to the northward, on the return voyage. I think that 
it is preferable to pass south of them when you leave Syd- 
ney in the winter, as the west wind is then fresh on the 
extra-tropical coast of Australia, and carries a ship rapidly 
toward the trades. On the other hand, after leaving Nou- 
mea, I would pass north of them, as vessels generally make 
the coast of Australia near Moreton bay, where they strike 
the NW. wind, and, if compelled to beat, have the current 
in their favor. In no case would I attempt to shorten the 
passage by getting into the neighborhood of Eliza, Sering- 
apatam, Elizabeth, etc., reefs. The weather is rarely set- 
tled in this locality, the group appearing to be situated near 
the limit of both the New Caledonian and Australian winds ; 
the currents about it are also strong and irregular. 

" The portion of the ocean lying between New Caledonia, 
Australia, and New Zealand from 152 to 177 E., and 
from 20 to 40 S. is about the worst place in the world 
for variable and bad weather. The W. and NW. winds 
blow a gale, on the west coast of New Zealand, nearly all 
the year round. In winter, from June to September, the 
wind on the east coast of Australia is very stiff from WNW. 
to WSW. These winds meet the regular trades, south of 
New Caledonia, at this season, causing calms, arid some- 
times violent squalls. In summer, from May to October, 
the wind is ordinarily from NE., and the weather fine on 
the Australian coast; sometimes a hot wind blows from 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO NEW CALEDONIA. 205 

NW.; the weather is then close and oppressive, but at the 
end of two or three days the wind jumps around to south 
with heat lightning. Keep a good lookout for this shift of 
wind, as it is very rapid and may dismast your ship. While 
this south wind blows the sea is usually rough, and a voy- 
age is rarely made through this portion of the ocean with- 
out experiencing a gale. During the southern winter the 
wind prevails from W. to SW. for quite u distance off the 
coast of Australia. At this season quick passages are made 
from Sydney to Noumea; inversely the return voyage is 
long. Sometimes vessels are a month going from Noumea 
to Sydney. 

k 'A three years' experience on the W. coast of New 
Caledonia has convinced me that the winds there are 
prevalent from the westward during one-third of the year. 
After the fresh ESE. winds have blown, in gusts, with a 
few drops of rain, for 2 or 3 days, (barometer 29 in .80 to 
29 in .92,) the wind hauls to E. with an overcast sky; then to 
NE. with steady rain, and to N., N W., and W. ; the weather 
does not become fine until the wind has reached SW. and 
SSW., and then it very soon comes around again to SE. 
and ESE. With the NW. wind the weather is uncertain ; 
sometimes close, calm, and extremely hot, with violent 
squalls at intervals. 

"On her first voyage the Bonite left Sydney on the llth 
July, 1860, and steered south, passing 45 miles from Ball 
pyramid. From the 13th to the 21st variable winds from 
WSW. to S., weather very fine, barometer between 30 in .16 
and 29 in .96. On the 21st, 120 miles SSW. from Noumea, 
wind SE. to ESE., usual direction at this season. The next 
morning, about 9 o'clock after a squally night saw the 
reefs distinctly. The mountains being enveloped in a heavy 
fog were not sighted till long afterward. This coast is often 
hidden by clouds, and it is necessary to be careful while 
steering for Bulari or Dumbea passes, for if once set to lee- 
ward it is difficult to beat up against the NW. current. 

u ln a second voyage, the Bonite left Port Jackson on 
the 22d December, 1860, with a good breeze from S., (bar. 
29 in .S4.) This was followed by a rain-squall from the same 
point, during which the barometer stood at 29 in .6S. The 
wind then came out strong from SSE. with a heavy 
swell; I steered to pass to the northward of Elizabeth, 



206 FROM AUSTRALIA TO NEW CALEDONIA. 

Middleton, etc., reefs. At noon on the 25th, position of ship, 
29 28' S., 158 21' E. On the 28th, being 180 miles SW. 
of Noumea, experienced several thunder-storms; wind 
variable and light from IS". ; thermometer 79. On January 
3d sighted land to leeward of Dumbea pass. The Bonite 
could not make anything against the current, though all 
her sail was set. At nightfall weather looked very ugly j 
barometer falling rapidly ; lay-to on the starboard tack. 
After sunset the wind sprung up furiously, raining in tor- 
rents, barometer 29 in .37 ; force of the wind equal to that of 
the heavy squalls of India. This gale ended on the 6th 
January, after driving the ship 180 miles from Noumea. 
After two days of respite had another lighter gale. We 
did not reach our anchorage until the llth January. 

"Third voyage. The Bonite left Sydney on the 26th 
March, 1862. Found a light breeze from ENE. to NNE. r 
and good weather outside. I tried for some time to make 
to the southward, but a squall from SSE. made me give up 
the idea. At sundown on the 6th April, sighted New Cale- 
donia, very far off. During the night the wind shifted to 
NW., W., and WSW. Ean for land under all plain sail ; 
very stiff breeze, weather overcast. At 3.30 p. in. made the 
reefs; no land in sight all day. A short time after they 
showed up plainly, and we found that we were in a kind of 
gulf, formed by the reef S. of Bulari pass. Not being able 
to double these reefs, took the south tack, in order to give 
them a wide berth ; sky overcast in the west ; a bad appear- 
ance. Violent squalls and very heavy sea during the night. 
The weather being more moderate and the wind from ESE. r 
on the 10th, we succeeded in entering. Fifteen days at sea. 

"In a fourth voyage, made in 11 days, (August and Sep- 
tember,) the Bonite took the southerly route. The weather 
was nearly always fine, except on the 26th, 150 miles from 
Noumea, where we had a very strong breeze and heavy sea 
from E. For several days the barometer stood between 
30 in .20 and 30 in .23. 

The following quotation is from the log of the sailing- 
frigate Isis, Binet, (vol. 28, Ann. Hydr. :) 

"Left Sydney (in April) with a light breeze from SSE. 
Next day a light breeze and calm. Afterward experienced 
a day's NW. to SW. winds. The SE. wind then began to- 
prevail, blowing light and gentle from ESE. to E. 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO SANDWICH ISLANDS. 207 

112. ROUTE FROM AUSTRALIA TO NEW ZEALAND. 
Vessels bound to Otago harbor should pass through 
Foveaux strait, (vide 107.) Those bound to Port Nichol- 
son should take Cook strait, (vide 107.) Those destined 
for Auckland or the bay of Islands, should double cape 
Otou (north) and pass N. of New Zealand. 

Leaving Sydney from the beginning of September to the end 
of April, and bound to Auckland or the bay of Islands, first 
head SE. and then keep S. of the 35th parallel until the 
ship is in the neighborhood of 170 E., when commence to 
bear to the NE. By steering in this manner a vessel will 
meet fewer head winds, as they blow from the east quite 
frequently north of 35 S. during the southern summer. 
When bound out of Sydney, from May to the end of 
August, a more direct route can be taken. 

Vessels leaving Melbourne or Port Adelaide should begin 
the voyage by passing through Bass' strait, or going S. of 
Tasmania, as described in 107. 

113. EOUTE FROM AUSTRALIA TO TAHITI AND THE , lat.rro Tahiti, 

from May to Au- 

SANDWICH ISLANDS. A ship leaving Sydney, from May to gust. 
August, can pass north of New Zealand, thence south of 
the Kermadec islands, and then make her easting south of 
30 S., crossing that parallel between the meridians of 158 
and 153 W. She can generally run between Vavitao and 
Tabuai. 

Cook strait is to be preferred at this season, (vide 107 From the be- 
for the passage through this strait.) After leaving the fem n bT?tothe en p a 
strait run down the easting, doubling Chatham islands to f 
the northward, and crossing 30 S. near the meridian of 
Rapa island. During the first season a ship can generally 
pass to the westward of Moorea, and then go about for 
Papiete. During the other season make Tahiti from the 
eastward, and pass between Anaa and Maitea islands, as 
stated in 93. 

Vessels starting from Melbourne or Port Adelaide can 
either go south of Australia or through Bass strait, 
according to circumstances, (vide 107 and 110.) If they 
take the latter route, Foveaux strait can be used, (vide 
107,) though we think that the passage between the 
Snares and Auckland islands will be preferable in either 
case. The parallel of 40 S. should always be crossed 
between 158 and 153 W. ; and that of 30 S. between 



208 FROM SINGAPORE TO THE MOLUCCA ISLANDS. 

153 and 143 W. Cross both 40 and 30 S. farther to the 
west in June and July than in December and January. 

For instructions concerning the first part of this passage 
vide 110. 



1 - 1 ! 6 ^ rom Sydney go through Cook strait, (vide 107.) From 
auds. ' s "Melbourne and Port Adelaide pass between the Snares and 
Auckland. Always cross 40 S. near 143 W. Thence 
pass near, and a little to the westward of Pitcairn and 
Oeno islands. Cross the line in the neighborhood of 133 
W., and finish the voyage as described in 95. 

^st. During the 114. EOUTE FROM SINGAPORE TO . THE MOLUCCA 

monsoons. ' ISLANDS. A ship bound from Singapore to the Moluccas, 
from May to September, will find the SE. monsoon south of 
the equator, and the SW. monsoon north of it. She should, 
at this season, run south of the Anambas and Great 
Natuna, thence between Charlotte and Louisa reefs, being 
careful to give Friendship and north Luconia shoals a good 
berth. The north points of Balambangan and Banguey can 
be passed close aboard and the exit made through Balabac 
strait; thence pass through the Sulu group, double the N. 
point of Celebes, and make south through Molucca passage. 
strait. Balabac strait has three channels : the two near Balabac 
are narrow and rarely used; the southern one near Banguey 
is the best. Approached from the west, the high mountain 
of Kinibalu in Borneo is a good mark; its position is lat. 
C 5' N., long. 116 40' E. There is also a conical peak on 
the NW. coast of Bauguey island close to the shore ; it can 
be seen for 40 or 50 miles; and is situated in lat. 7 19' ST., 
long. 117 06' E. If short of water run south of Balam- 
bangan and anchor about a mile and a half from shore, 
when the peak on Banguey bears NETE. Good water will 
be found in a small river bearing E. A launch can cross 
the bar, but the crew should be armed. 

Approaching the southern (and best) channel of Balabac 
strait from the west, guard against being set too far to lee- 
ward, during the season of the SW. monsoon. Fifty or 
sixty fathoms of water will be found about 35 miles off the 
west coast of Balambaugau ; and the north coast can be 
approached to within 5 miles. Steering E. by K, 5 or C 
miles off the north coast of Banguey, a ship will sight the 
Mangsee islands, bearing ENE. She should keep on the 
Banguey side of the channel, and thus avoid the reef 



FROM SINGAPORE TO THE MOLUCCAS. 209 

which extends for 9 miles west of the Mangsee group ; the 
position of this reef may be recognized by the green color 
of the water over it. The soundings will show a coral 
bottom at 7, 14, and 17 fathoms; 3 or 4 miles from the 
coast of Banguey the depth is about 6 fathoms. When 
bound east, and the Mangsee islands bear NNE., a small 
sand-bank, surrounded by reefs, will be sighted, bearing 
ESE. ; pass at least 3 miles to north of this, where over 8 
fathoms of water will be found. 

Do not head to the southward of ESE. J E. after leaving 
Balabac strait, until the soundings show from 7 to 8 
fathoms ; then stand for the south coast of Cagayan Sulu ; 
thence steer so as to pass close to the south coast of 
Pangutaran, and through the channel between this island 
and Obian. 

No soundings will be found on approaching this channel 
from the TF., and vessels should keep well to the S. during 
the SW. monsoon, as the current near the W. coast of these 
islands sets rapidly to IN". On nearing the south point of 
Pangutaran island, keep it bearing to the N. of E., and run 
close to the island until through the channel, and thus 
allow for any drift. 

Sulu anchorage is 33 miles ESE. of the southern extrem- 
ity of Pangutaran. 

In all cases double the W. point of Sulu by leaving it to 
the northward, and pass south of Pata and the adjacent 
islets. On the contrary, run to the northward of Tapul, 
Taluk, and Kabinguan islands. Tapul is high; the two 
others low. The ship will be on soundings nearly the whole 
time in this neighborhood, and can anchor if the currents 
should prove violent, or beat up during the night in clear 
weather. 

Once clear of the Sulu islands, head for the north point/ 
of Celebes and Molucca passage. 

The SE. monsoon prevails in this passage prior to the 
month of October, and the NW. monsoon in November. In 
the first case the track, after leaving the north point of 
Celebes, passes near and to southward of the Tifore islands, 
thus striking the SE. monsoon well to the east. After the 
month of October steer from the north point of Celebes 
straight for Buru and Amboina. 
14 N 



210 FHOM SINGAPORE TO THE MOLUCCAS. 

NE d ' ?nd n NW 6 ^ n ^ ne P assa S e fr m Singapore to the Moluccas, from 
monsoons. October to May, the KE. monsooos will be struck north, and 
the NW. monsoons south, of the equator. At this season 
the passage should be made through Carimata strait. 

After leaving Pedra-Branca, run for 27 or 30 miles on an 
E. by S. course, if the wind permit ; then 24 or 27 miles 
ESE., in order to get well clear of the Geldria and Fred- 
erick banks ; thence steer to leave Saint-Barbe on the north, 
and run for Soruetou. If the wind come out from W. or 
SW., Biliton can be doubled to the northward 5 thence pass 
south of Ontario reef and around the Montaran islands. 

The best route through Carimata strait, especially in over- 
cast weather, when coming from the N W., is to pass to the E. 
of Ontario reef. Vessels should keep from 30 to 45 miles from 
Soruetou and steer SSE., when the W. point bears at least 
3 to west of N., and thus give Ontario reef a wide berth. 
After keeping the point on this bearing until well clear of 
the reef, steer so as to pass about 20 or 30 miles from Bor- 
neo. The depths along this coast will vary from 14 to 17 
fathoms, increasing sometimes near the banks. South of 
Rendezvous* the depth of water is from 19 to 21 fathoms 
until within 30 or 33 miles SW. of Pulo-Mankap, nor should 
you approach any closer than this distance with a large ves- 
sel. If uncertain of the longitude, it would be well to sight 
Borneo, if possible, and then head SW., after doubling 
Rendezvous island, thus clearing Mankap banks. 

In clear weather vessels can also go to the westward of 
Ontario reef. It will then be necessary to double Soruetou 
at a distance of 15 or 18 miles, and to head SE. by S., or 
SSE. when that island bears NE. If it be not advisable 
to round the bank, the west point of Soruetou should be 
brought to bear to the east of N. 8^ E. Steer in this way 
until 25 miles south of the island, when the west point will 
be on the horizon, and will bear K. by E. By keeping on 
the same course a vessel will sight Montarau islands, and 
pass 15 or 18 miles to eastward of them ; thence steer SS. 
by S., and leave Cirencester and Discovery banks on the 
west, and the reefs SSW. of Pulo-Mankap, on the east. 
Alongside of these banks do not run into less than 15 or 
16 fathoms, nor into more than 20 fathoms near the banks 
on the west coast. The soundings are very irregular. 

* Sometimes called Kumpal island, (lat. 2 44' 30" &) 



FROM SINGAPORE TO THE MOLUCCAS. 211 

After running out of Carimata strait, head so as to pass 
about 10 miles south of Great Soloinbo ; thence make your 
easting of 150 miles between the parallels of 5 36', and 5 
50'. S. A ship can run over Laars shoal (5 43' S.) if sure 
of her latitude ; if not, she should run farther south, and 
not double Brill (TaJca-romata) shoal in the night-time, as 
the currents are very strong and irregular. If running east 
on 5 43' S., the Tonyn islands will be sighted from the 
masthead in clear weather; they are situated near Brill 
shoal. Continue to tlie eastward after doubling the Tonyn 
islands, and sighting Tanakeke, pass it at a distance of 12 
or 15 miles. 

When the wind is SW. during the day and the weather 
dear, head for Salayer strait, passing south of Mansfield 
bank. If Bonthein mountain be visible, steer straight for 
Middle island, when the peak bears between N. by W. \ W. 
and .N. by W.; and then pass between this island and the 
one to the south. 

During the night, the ivind being uncertain and the iceather 
overcast, the best plan is to pass inside of Mansfield bank 
and along the coast of Celebes. The soundings here extend 
from 6 to 9 miles off the coast, and a ship can anchor if 
necessary. On this route keep from 4 to C miles off the 
Celebes coast, until Bonthein mountain bears N. by W. J W. 
After doubling Mansfield bank to the north, keep 12 or 15 
miles off the coast. As soon as Middle island is sighted, 
keep well out to sea until it bears E. by N., thus avoiding 
Amboina bank; thence steer between Middle and South 
islands. 

Once clear of Salayer strait, Amboina and the Banda 
islands are easily reached by passing successively to south 
of Hegadis, Groenwout, and Binonko islands. But vessels 
bound through Pitts passage, from October to May, should run 
around the S. point of Buton, and skirt along the shore 
until they reach the E. point, passing to the west of the 
Wangi-Wangi islands. They should then bear north for 
Weywongy island, and thence run for the S. point of Xulla- 
Bessi ; the currents in this locality set to the south and are 
very strong. If drifted to leeward of the K point of Buru, 
they should pass to the southward and eastward of this 
island, between Buru and Manipa. 



212 FROM SINGAPORE TO TORRES STRAIT. 

NE 8t ? n l a in f w e 115< EouTE FROM SINGAPORE TO TORRES STRAIT. 



monsoons. 



The NE. and EW. monsoons blow from October to April ; 
but sailing-vessels should not leave Singapore for Torres 
strait until November, and then invariably pass through 
Carimata strait, as stated in 114; thence they will have a 
choice of two routes through the Java sea : The first, the 
southerly route, especially adapted to sailing-vessels; the 
other, the northerly route, more advantageous for steamers 
and auxiliary-steam vessels. 

The -outheriy ^ soutji erly route tlirowjli Java sea. After leaving 
route. Carimata strait, steer for Baean island, and pass it to the 

northward and eastward. According to Captain MacKen- 
zie, a ship near Bawean at night should run for Giliang (or 
Pondi) island, a little to the eastward of Madura, and after- 
ward cross Saposdie strait between Giliang and Sapcedie.* 
If, on the other hand, she should lose sight of Bawean be- 
fore nightfall, she can run for Kangeang island, and pass it 
to the south and between it and the islet of Urk ; thence 
the route is north of Lombok, and the course SE. J or 8 S. 
Keep on this parallel, as it is free from all dangers, until 
north of Ombay strait, when run between Oinbay and Kam- 
bing, or between Kambing and Babi, and afterward be- 
tween Wetta and Timor, and between Kissa and the KE. 
point of Timor; this latter passage is 18 miles from the 
Timor coast. Once clear of the Java sea, run straight 
through the sea of Arafura for Torres strait. If deemed 
advisable the high and wooded islands of Karimon-Java 
can be passed 10 or 12 miles to the northward, and after 
running south of Hastings rock, the route already given 
may be rejoined in passing between Kangeang and Urk. 

The best and safest route is that which passes south of 
the chain of islands lying east of Lombok. To follow it a 
ship should conform to the preceding instructions relating 
to the manner of reaching the passage between Kangeang 
and Urk, or to those referring to the passage between Pondi 
and Giliang, and afterward run for Lombok or Alias strait. 

Horsburgh states that the northerly currents in Lombok 
strait will lengthen the voyage, and that Alias is the best 
strait for vessels coming from Carimata during the NW. 
monsoon. 

Babi strait is never advisable. After leaving Alias or 

* Sometimes called Galioen, or Ecspondi island. 



FROM SINGAPORE TO THE WESTERN COAST OF AMERICA* 213 

Lombok straits run about SE. by E. for 150 or 200 miles, 
then 200 more E. by S., changing the course if necessary to 
pass south of Damo island. This island is situated to the 
southward of Eotti. Coal may be obtained at Kupang, but 
the anchorage there is not very safe during the west mon- 
soon. Steer east from Damo, and thus run a few miles 
north of Echo bank, over which there are hardly 12 fathoms 
of water. After a run of about 5GO miles from Damo 
island, cape Croker will be sighted to the southward. After 
passing about twenty miles from capes Croker and Wessel, 
head for the Wallis islands if bound through Endeavor 
strait, or for Booby island if making for Prince of Wales 
channel. 

The northerly route through the Java sea. Some authors The northerly 
recommend the route through Saiayer strait during the sea- 
son of the NW. monsoon, (vide 114, 2d part.) This is a 
good route for auxiliary-steam-vessels and steamers, but 
we think that the passage through the south of the Java 
sea will be a better one for sailing-vessels. A ship taking 
the route through Saiayer strait should steer east until the 
peak of Kambyna bears JSTW., then run SE. by E. for Om- 
bay strait. She can pass between Ombay and Kambing, or 
between Kainbing and Babi ; thence between Kissa and the 
NE. point of Timor, and run for Torres strait. 

At this season, (from May to September,) only steamers ad. During the 
can make the passage from. Singapore to Torres strait, monsoons. 
They should take the route through the south of the Java 
sea, as given above. They should keep to northward of the 
islands, on the parallel of 8 S., until they are N. of Ombay 
strait; and then pass between Ombay and Kambing, or 
between Kambing and Babi, and thence as already stated. 
Coal can be obtained at Kupang, where the anchorage is 
good at this season. Kupaug can be approached from the 
north through Ombay strait, or more directly through Alloo 
or Pantar straits. 

116. EOUTE FROM SINGAPORE TO THE WESTERN COAST 
OF AMERICA. At this season (from October to May,) the monsoons. 
passage may be made in two ways, either by the easterly 
routes, or by taking the route south of Australia. 

The easterly routes are two : first, that by the N. of New 
Guinea, described in 175 ; second, that by Torres strait, 



214 FROM SINGAPORE TO THE WESTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 

(vide 115 and 175.) For information concerning the route 
south of Australia, vide 176. 

In a good vessel, the passage south of Australia will 
of Australia, probably be quicker and safer. If this route be decided 
upon, follow the directions given in 176, and keep a clean 
full through the SE. trades of the Indian ocean; thence 
make south for the steady west winds ; these once found 
head SE. for the parallel on which you intend to run down 
the easting ; this parallel should be between 46 and 50 S. 
at this season. The track is close to the northward of 
Auckland island, and east of New Zealand is the same as 
that given in 107 or 110. Information concerning float- 
ing ice may be found in 43, 104, and 107. 

Navigators deciding to take one of the easterly routes, 

route! * ery and preferring the one by the N. of New Guinea, should 

conform to the instructions in 175, and cross 10 S. near 

172 E., and thence keep west of the Fiji group and east 

of New Zealand. 

Between 45 and 48 S. the west winds prevail, but run 

still farther south, say to about 50 S., if bound to any of 

the ports of South America or around Cape Horn. 

The Torres Vessels choosing the route through Torres strait should 

ate< first head according to the instructions given in 115, then 

run through Prince of Wales channel and Bligh passage, 

and along the southern coasts of New Guinea and the Louis- 

iade group. The winds in this locality are generally from 

W. to NW. ; therefore southing and even easting can be 

made with facility. 

Vessels running north of New Zealand will have a quicker 
passage ; but it will be difficult to double cape Otou (North) 
at this season unless advantage be taken of every chance 
for making to eastward as well as to southward. If it be 
found impossible to double cape Otou run through Cook 
strait, (vide 8 and 107.) For information concerning the 
latter part of the voyage, vide 110. 

SE d * ?nd ing sw e At tllis season (fr om May to October,) ships bound to 

monsoons. ' cape Horn and the ports of South America will find it 

greatly to their advantage to go south of Australia, (vide 

176,) but they will encounter the severe weather of the 

southern winter, and should be well fitted out in every way. 

The prevalent SE. winds will render the passage difficult 

as far as the straits of Sunda, but once in the Indian ocean 



FROM SAIGON TO THE WESTERN COAST OF AMERICA. 215 

a vessel can run across the trades rap-full, and probably 
find the west winds at 30 or 32 S., and thence bear away 
to the SE. and run down to 50 or even 52 S. Pass either 
IN", or S. of the Auckland islands, and keep to the eastward 
on the same parallel, then make north again as stated in 
110. For information in regard to floating ice, vide 43, 
104, and 107. 

But forCalifornian or Mexican-bound ships the northerly 
route is preferable. They should, on leaving Singapore, 
cross the China sea, as stated in 153 and 150, and enter 
the Pacific near the Bashee group, if sailers, or through the 
strait of Formosa, if steamers; 35 "N. should be reached 
as soon as possible. Vessels taking the strait of Formosa 
will be less liable to meet typhoons, or if they should hap- 
pen to fall in with one, there are plenty of ports of refuge. 
(Vide 20, 157, and 159.) 

By running through the Bashees, a ship will be the sooner 
out of the dangers of the China sea, and can take advan- 
tage of the full force of the Black current, or Kuro Siwo, 
(vide 37.) Still, typhoons are common in this neighbor- 
hood, especially in July and August, and even until Novem- 
ber. The region of west winds once reached, the voyage 
should be finished according to the instructions given in 
119 and 120. Most of the easting can be run down be- 
tween the parallels of 40 and 45 N., where both wind and 
current are generally favorable. 

We have stated that vessels bound to South America 
should take the southerly route; but it should be under- 
stood that they can also take the northerly route. After 
meeting the west winds they should run down their easting 
north of the parallel of 40 K, commencing to bear south 
after passing 158 W., and the NE. trades should be left 
near 118 \V. and between 10 X. and the equator. The 
last part of the track lies south of the line, as stated from 
68 to 72. 

117. EOUTE FROM SAIGrON TO THE WESTERN COAST OF 

AMERICA. This route is nearly identical with the preced- 
ing. 

Thus, if it be decided to go south of Australia, during the ^During the 
season of the NE. monsoon, (from October to May,) run out 
of the China sea according to the instructions given in 
151 ; thence according to 176 and 116. If one of the 



216 FROM CHINA TO VALPARAISO. 

easterly routes be decided upon, run through Carimata 
strait, as stated in 151, and then follow the advice given in 
115, 116, and 175. 

During the During the SW. monsoon (from May to October] staunch 
auxiliary steamers bound to South America will find it 
greatly to their advantage to go south of Australia. They 
can fill up with coal at Singapore and make the first part 
of the voyage as described in 170. They should then 
follow the route given in 116 and 176. But auxiliary 
steamers making passage to the coast of North America, and 
all sailing-vessels bound to any American port on the west 
coast, should take the northerly route at this season, and 
pass through Formosa channel or the Bashee group, as 
stated in 116. 

NE mSTs r oon the 118< K UTE FKOM CHINA TO VALPARAISO, CALLAO, 

AND PANAMA. Starting from Hong Kong at this season, 
(from October to Hay,} the best and shortest' route is that 
south of Australia. After sailin g down the China sea, as 
stated in 151, follow the instructions given in 116 and 
176. If, however, the port of departure be Shanghai or 
Yokohama, the northerly route will be the best. The ship 
will probably strike the west winds between 35 and 40 
N., and should finish the voyage as described in the present 
section, under the head of SW. monsoon, 
ad. During the The only practicable route at this season (from Nay to 

SW. monsoon 

October) is the northerly one. After leaving Hong Kong 
steer for the Bashees in a sailing-vessel, or for Formosa 
channel in an auxiliary steamer. Bun down the easting 
near the parallel of 45 N., where both the winds and cur- 
rents are generally very favorable, (vide 116.) The NE. 
trades should be struck between 148 and 143 W. 5 and 
the SE. trade-winds near 5 N. and between 118 and 123 
W. From here shape the course as stated in 68 and 72. 

Maury gives a more westerly route, advising ships to run 
into the NE. trades near 152 E. ; to cross the equator in the 
neighborhood of 172 E., and thence to pass either east or 
west of New Zealand. The last part of the voyage is easily 
accomplished. 

But we think this route hardly advisable for sailing-ves- 
sels, as several groups of islands are in the way j it is also 
difficult to double New Zealand, and there are many dan- 



FROM CHINA TO VALPARAISO. 217 

gers in the route. An auxiliary steamer can, of course, 
steam around the northern end of New Zealand, (vide 108.) 

Below is found the main portion of a letter addressed by 
Maury, in 1854, to a Boston merchant, relating to the 
proper route from Hong Kong to Valparaiso : 

" To reach Valparaiso from Hong Kong you have to make 
nearly 180 of longitude, and the question is, in which hemi- 
sphere will you run down this easting '? If in the northern, 
you will have, for the sake of the winds, to run to the north 
of your place of departure ; and, if in the southern, you will, 
for the same reason, have to run to the south of your port. 
But the 'bravo west winds 7 of the southern hemisphere will 
decide the question for us. 

" This point being settled, the question is, will you rim 
down for those winds by passing to the east or the west of 
Australia! Clearly not to the west, if you take your de- 
parture from Shanghai or Japan. From Hong Kong there 
is room for difference of opinion, and I have not observa- 
tions enough on the winds and currents of those seas to 
enable me to decide. The shortest distance from Canton, 
west of Australia, is about 500 miles less than it is east of 
New Zealand, and 800 miles less than it is by the south 
side of that island and east of Australia; and the route 
east contemplates your going as far as the variables of the 
northern hemisphere, say between the parallels of 30 
and 35 N., in order to get far enough east to clear Austra- 
lia. The question of going west of Australia is debatable 
only during the strength of the NE. monsoons, or from Oc- 
tober to March, inclusive. During the rest of the year east 
of New Zealand is the only route. 

" I recommend the western route only in the NE. mon- 
soons and when they do not admit of a good offing for the 
eastern route. In December the Flying Cloud made the 
run from Hong Kong to Java-Head in 7 days. When the 
winds are fair for such runs as that, the western route is the 
passage; and the question as to routes, like the route 
north or south of Ireland, from Liverpool to New York, 
ought to be decided at the moment of coming out of port, 
and finding how the wind is. 

"Before I go further in discussing routes I will state the 
shortest practicable distance by the several routes from 
Hong Kong to Valparaiso : 



218 FKOM CHINA TO VALPARAISO. 

Miles. 
From Hoog Kong via strait of Sunda and south 

of Australia ' 11, 400 

From Hong Kong via 33 N. and 150 E., to and 

163 E., and south of New Zealand 12, 200 

From Hong Kong via 33 N. and 157 E., to and 

170 E., and south of New Zealand 11, 900 

From Shanghai via 33 N. and 157 E., to and 

170 E., and south of New Zealand 11, 100 

From Shanghai via 33 N. and 150 E., to and 

1630 E., and south of New Zealand 11, 500 

From Japan via 33 N. and 150 E., to and 163 

E., and south of New Zealand 10, 900 

From Japan via 33 N. and 157 E., to and 170 

E., and south of New Zealand 10, 400 

" So you observe that the route east of Australia and south 
of New Zealand is the longest, and the route west from 
Hong Kong is 500 miles shorter than the route which passes 
east of New Zealand, and this is the route which, I think, 
experience will probably prove to be the best in the long 
run ; certainly from Shanghai and Japan it is the best. 

" I give the preference to the east side of New Zealand, 
because better winds are found along that route, and which 
will probably more than make up for the difference of dis- 
tance from Hong^Kong. 

"I take it that a vessel steering from 30 or 35 N. in the 
Pacific, and entering the NB. trades in April, will be able 
to make, with a good ' rap full, 7 a course between SE. and 
SSE. to the line, and, after crossing the line and entering 
the SE. trades, she will be able to make a course through 
them with not more than one point westing. From the 
equator, and between 170 and 175, (west of New Zealand,) 
is plain sailing $* therefore, if, after turning to the south- 
ward and eastward from 30 N., or whatever be the parallel 
attained, the winds will, without pinching, allow you to 
cross the line between 170 and 175 E., do so, and then stand 
as straight as the wind will allow you for the brave west 
winds' of the extra-tropical south, shaping your course for 
50 S. about the meridian of 140 W., taking care not to 
recross the parallel of 45 to the west of 90 W. If it be 
found practicable to accomplish this route, the distance will 

* The author thinks that ships should-always pass east of Now Zealand. 



FROM CHINA TO MEXICO AND CALIFORNIA. 219 

be about 11,900 miles. I am particular in stating these dis- 
tances, because intelligent navigators, in case they be 
pinched, will have no difficulty in determining which side 
of New Zealand to pass. Of course it will be understood 
that there is no virtue in the parallel of 30 N.; I only indi- 
cate that as the lowest parallel upon which, in the month 
of April, good westerly winds prevail. Now, with all these 
preliminaries before us, the instructions are, after getting 
an offing from Hong Kong, make the best of your way to 
the meridian of 150 E., without making any southing ; and 
the nearest way to get there, that is by great circle, is to 
reach, say the parallel of 30 N., long. 137 E. So you ob- 
serve that it is not much out of the way to run up to 30 
or even 35 N., for the sake of better winds. With a smart 
ship a good navigator on this route can reach the line in 25 
days ; in April it may be done in 18, and perhaps sooner in 
other months ; it will take him thence 15 days to cross the 
SE. trades and get into the brave west winds ' of the South 
Pacific. Suppose he gets them in 48, long. 180, he will 
be into Valparaiso in 25 days more. 

" So, tell your captain that you expect him to make the 
passage, if he succeed in getting clear of the Asiatic coast 
without delay, in about 70 days. He ought to average 
175 miles a day. Caution him, after he gets south of the 
SE. trades, not to be deceived by the first spurt of westerly 
winds. He should reach 48 or 50 before bearing away 
for his easting." 

119. ROUTE FROM CHINA TO MEXICO AND CALIFOR- 
NIA. Vessels always take the northerly route from Hong 
Kong or Shanghai to the Mexican or Californian coasts, 
running to the northward and eastward at first, as stated in 
160 and 163. Although the winds of the SW. monsoon 
are favorable, typhoons are to be feared, especially from 
July to November. After the month of November, that is 
during the strength of the NE. monsoon, the difficulty of 
beating to northward will be counterbalanced by the fact 
that the weather is generally less inclement. 

The region of westerly winds once reached, the route fol- 
lows the arc of a great circle as nearly as possible ; it runs 
up as high as 48 N. from April to October, and keeps be- 
tween 40 and 45 N. from November to March. Here both 
wind and current are favorable. 



220 



FROM YOKOHAMA TO SAN FRANCISCO. 



Maury says : " All vessels from China or Japan will first 
make for the variables, which they will find strong and 
good from the westward, between 35 and 40 N. in winter 
and spring ; between 40 and 45 in summer and fall. 

" Vessels from China may follow pretty closely the great 
circle route, which crosses the meridian of 180 in about 50 
N. The route in the Pacific is free from icebergs, and is 
not more foggy than that in the Atlantic. As to the rela- 
tive fury and frequency of the gales, I cannot speak." 

The reader should also refer to the following paragraph 
for further instructions : 

120. EOUTE FROM YOKOHAMA TO SAN FRANCISCO. 
This is an easy passage. The westerly winds will be found 
near 40 S"., and the current will be favorable for the ship 
almost as soon as she is out of sight of land. 

Vessels should follow a great circle route as nearly as 
possible, though it is not advisable to pass 48 N. in sum- 
mer, (from April to September,) nor 44 and 45 N. in win- 
ter, (from October to March.) The onlg drawback to the 
voyage is the fogs on the Californian coast, which are espe- 
cially common from April to November. The land-fall 
should generally be made to the northward of the destina- 
tion. Reference should also be had to 119 and 121. The 
following extract is from the U. S. Coast Survey Report for 
1867 :/ lirt*, s&&+<^?**^ Aty*^ #*%&**&+. 

" A vessel making the great circle track to the eastward 
would have the great Japan stream in her favor to about 
43 N. and 156 E., or about 1,440 miles; then the cold 
Behring sea current and the end of the Alaska current to 
47 K and 157 W., or 1,980 miles ; finally to San Francisco, 
about 1,860 miles, passing through the great bend of the 
Japan stream, where so many indications of land have been re- 
corded, and where the weather is almost invariably thick and 
bad in summer and cold and boisterous in winter. On this 
track the summer winds would generally be favorable, and, 
with good weather, it would be altogether the desirable route ; 
but with thick, foggy weather for nearly the whole of this 
distance, undetermined velocity and direction of the cur- 
rents, (except in general terms,) great variability of climate 
to passengers and cargo, and extra hazard and risk to life 
and ship, some great positive advantage over all th ese must 
exist to warrant the adoption of it. 



FEOM YOKOHAMA TO SAN FRANCISCO. 221 

"The commercial advantages of the steam route to China, 
through the warmer and more equable latitudes, must al- 
ways outweigh any merely theoretical and shorter but more 
hazardous route. A study of the currents, winds, and 
weather, on the lower latitude route, will lead to the con- 
clusion that is being solved practically. From the south 
end of Japan to San Francisco, a course very little north 
of a direct line on a Mercator projection carries a vessel 
across the great Japan stream, in part through the axis of 
the main branch flowing eastward, across the northern part 
of Flieureus whirlpool, and across the California stream, 
with favorable or light winds the greater part of the dis- 
tance." 



CHAPTER VI. 

ROUTES FROM THE PORTS OF OCEANIA. 

121. ROUTE FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS TO SAN 
FRANCISCO. A ship starting from the Sandwich islands 
should run north on the starboard tack for the westerly 
winds and then make her easting, approaching her port 
from the northward. From July to September she may 
have to run as high as 44 or 45 K, for the west wind, 
though they may be struck during the rest of the year, 
especially in winter, even before the parallel of San Francis- 
co is reached. Fogs are very frequent on the coast of Cali- 
fornia throughout the year, and especially from April to 
November. 

Captain Wood gives the following instructions : 

" The passages from the Sandwich islands to any part of 
the NW. coast of America are made by standing to the 
northward till the westerly winds are reached, when the 
run into the coast is easily made, taking care, however, if 
bound to a port to the southward of you, not to bear up till 
well in with the land, when northwesterly winds will be 
found to carry you down to the southward. 

" On this coast, as a general rule, the land should be 
made to the northward of the port you are bound to, as in 
almost all cases the wind and current prevail from the 
northward from Vancouver island to cape Corrientes of 
Mexico. 

" Though lying between the parallels of 19 and 23 K, 
the Sandwich islands are often visited during the winter 
months with strong breezes and gales from S. and SW., but 
for the rest of the year the trade- wind blows pretty stead- 
ily." 

Maurtfs observations on this route. " From the f Islands ' 
to San Francisco, the course is to the northward ; so steer 
with a rap-full, and, as the winds will let you, lay up till 
they are found to be fair. The navigator, as a rule, will 



FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS TO PANAMA. 223 

always have to go to the northward of San Francisco to be 
sure of good winds, which are frequently found near the 
parallel of 38 ; but sometimes, as from July to September, 
inclusive, as far as 45 X. 

" The islands, such as the Society and Sandwich, that 
stand far away from any large extent of land, have a very 
singular but marked effect upon the wind. They interfere 
with the trades very often, and turn them back ; for west- 
erly and equatorial winds are common at both these groups, 
in their winter time. Some hydrographers have taken those 
westerly winds of the Society islands to be an extension of 
the monsoons of the Indian ocean. Not so ; they are local, 
and do not extend a great way either from the Sandwich or 
Society islands. 

" These winds at the Sandwich islands often come from 
the south as well as the west ; and on such occasions they 
afford vessels bound for any of the Pacific ports of North 
America a fine opportunity of running to the northward, 
clearing the NE. trades, and getting the westerly winds of 
the variables beyond." 

The following passages were made by Captain Paty, 
who has been running constantly on this route ever since 
1837: 

u From Honolulu to San Francisco. 

Clipper-brig Zoe, October and November, 1853 ... 14 days. 

Clipper-brig Zoe, January, 1854 13 days. 

Clipper-schooner Eestless, April, 1854 13 days. 

Clipper-schooner Eestless, May and June, 1854 ... 16 days. 
Clipper-schooner Eestless, July and August, 1854. 21 days. 
Clipper Francis Palmer, February, 1855 11 days. 

"This last is the shortest ever made. The St. Mary's, 
Captain Bailey, made the next quickest passage, leaving 
Honolulu at the same time. 

" The track up (from Honolulu) requires the most skill in 
navigating 5 the track down is pretty generally understood. 
The average of passages from Honolulu to San Francisco is, 
in length, to the passage down, as 6 to 5. Therefore, ten days 
down is no better than twelve days up, and vice versa." 

122. EOUTE FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS TO PAN- 
AMA. The first part of the route is the same as that described 
for San Francisco in 121. Vessels should not bear south 



224 FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS TO VALPARAISO.. 

until they have passed beyond the meridian of 138 W. ; 
this will bring them into the NE. trades near 133 W. The 
voyage should be finished as described in 68. 

123. BOUTE FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS TO VAL- 
PARAISO AND CALLAO. After leaving the Sandwich islands 
keep a clean full, on the port tack, through the NE. trades, 
and run out of them in the neighborhood of 148 W. A 
vessel will strike the SE. trades somewhere between 10 N. 
and the equator, (near 10 between June and September, 
and near the line between December and March 5) after 
crossing them a trifle free and passing to the west of the Paum- 
otas, the west winds will be found either at 30, 35, 40, or 
even 45 S., according to the season, as these winds reach 
lower latitudes when the sun is in the southern hemisphere ; 
thence the run to the eastward is easily made. Do not 
stand to the northward, or for the SE. trades, until the port 
of destination bears to the north of NE. The landfall should 
be made to the southward of your port, except at Valparaiso, 
during the bad season. (Vide 21, 69 to 71, and 110.) 

James Wood's instructions. " In making a passage from 
the Sandwich islands to the coast of Chile or Peru, the best 
way is to stand across the trade as near the wind as the top- 
mast studding-sail will stand. This, as the direction of the 
wind is in general from EKE. to E., will enable you to make 
Tahiti, and pass the Society islands by one of the clear 
channels to westward of them. It is of little use trying to 
fetch to the eastward of these, as not only do you lose much 
time by hugging the wind too close, but also the strong cur- 
rent, which sets to the westward from 20 to 40 miles per day, 
is pretty sure to drift you that much to leeward ; and even 
if this were not the case, so difficult, tedious, and dangerous 
is the navigation among the archipelago of low coral islands 
w.hich lie to the eastward, that, unless you can weather the 
Marquesas altogether, it is better even to bear up than to 
entangle yourself in such a labyrinth. After passing the 
Society islands stand to the southward, till on or about 
the 30th parallel, when the westerly winds will be found. 
These will carry you into the coast, care being taken not 
to bear up when within the influence of the southerly winds 
till near enough to the land to insure keeping them down 
to your port." 



FROM SANDWICH ISLANDS TO AUSTRALIA. 225 

124. KOUTE FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS TO Eu- 

ROPE. The first part of the passage is identical with that 
described in 123. The west winds will generally be found 
near 35 or 40 S. ; cross these parallels near 158 \V., or 
more to the eastward if the trades allow. Thence run to 
the southward and eastward as much as possible, so as to 
put your ship between 47 and 50 S. from October to April, 
and between 48 and 52 S. from April to October. Then 
run east until near 98, or rather 93 W., and cross the par- 
allel of the Diego-Eamirez islands in the neighborhood of 
7G W. This route is quite free from ice. 

It should be understood, however, that a ship in great haste 
need not make such a detour as that above stated ; but steer 
so as to reach the parallel of cape Horn at about 98 W. But 
the danger from meeting icebergs will be great on this 
route, and will necessitate a sharp lookout, (vide 43.) 

The voyage will end as described in 107. 

125. ROUTE FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS TO NEW 

CALEDONIA AND AUSTRALIA. Vessels leaving the Sand- 
wich islands should shape their course so as to run out of 
the trades near 168 W.; and cross the line between 168 
and 173 W. The track lies to leeward of the following low 
islands: Swallow, (with a lagoon in the center;) McKean, 
(coral island, about 20 feet above water j) Gardner, (an atoll, 
visible 15 miles, a few trees upon it ;) Mitchell islands, lat. 
9 27' S., long. 179 54' E., (covered with cocoa-nut trees, 
and visible about 10 miles ;) it then runs west of Meek shoal ; 
a good lookout is necessary near this coral bank, as the wa- 
ter does not always break over it. The South Pacific Di- 
rectory for 1871 gives its position as 10 40' S. and 179 08' 
E. Its longitude according to the French charts is 178 30' 
E. Botuinah should be sighted and passed to the westward. 
There are two small islets about 2 miles north of this island ; 
one of them is very low. The route also lies west of Ham- 
mond reef, the position of which is doubtful. Vessels bound 
to New Caledonia should sight Hare* island and run through 
Havannah passage with the prevalent E. and SE. winds. 

If the wind should come out from W. or even from NW. 
or NE., east of the pass, it will be better to give the isle of 
Pines and the Great reef a wide berth, and enter by Dum-< 
bea pass, as stated in 111. 

If bound to Australia, pass west of Mathew island ; thence 
15 N 



226 FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS TO TAHITI. 

steer about WSW., and clear the great New Caledonian reef 
well to the southward. For the end of the passage, vide 
138. 

As the Pacific is not thoroughly explored between the 
equator and the south of New Caledonia, a sharp lookout 
must be kept in that portion of the route. The winds in 
this locality are generally from E. and SE. Occasionally 
heavy squalls blow near the New Hebrides and New Cale- 
donia, (vide 4 and 26.). 

126. KOTJTE FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS TO CHINA. 

Make your westing between 20 and 15 N. ; keeping 
farther to the north in summer than in winter. Information 
concerning the latter part of the voyage is given in 101. 

127. KOUTE FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS TO TAHITI. 

This passage presents certain difficulties, and should only 
be undertaken by vessels that can lie very close to the 
wind. 

Mr. Biddlecombe, Master H. M. S. Actaeon, says : lt On 
leaving the Sandwich islands, you should stand south till 
in the latitude of the southern part of Hawaii, when you 
should haul your wind to cross the line, if possible, in the 
longitude of Tahiti, as the SE. trade breaks you off when you 
first make it, and then you do not fetch it within several de- 
grees. It is tedious to get to the eastward in the latitude of 
Tahiti, owing to the strong westerly current ; therefore, you 
should lose no chance of preserving your easting." 

The most favorable time to make this passage is from the 
end of March to the loth of June. But the most difficult 
season in which to reach the equator on the meridian of 
Tahiti is during the months of July, August, and Septem- 
ber, when the SE. wind prevails, south of 10 N. During 
October, November, and December the direction of the wind 
will be a little more favorable; and in January, February, 
and March the wind will keep well to the northward and 
eastward until you reach the line. But navigators should 
always bear in mind that even in April, May, and June it 
will be difficult to fetch Tahiti without going about, unless 
with an exceedingly fine ipiiler. 

If the ship be not weatherly, or is a very small auxiliary 
steamer, the better plan will be to run up beyond 30 N., on 
the starboard tack, and make the easting on that parallel ; 
even half the allowance of coal may be usefully expended 



PROM THE MARQUESAS TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 227 

oil this part of the passage. Sailing-vessels will be delayed 
by calms arid baffling airs unless they run well north, espe- 
cially from July to November. They should, therefore, recross 
30 if. at 153 or 150 W., if they can possibly do so, and then 
stand across the trades with the wind abeam, and try to 
reach 10 N. at 140 or 138 W., as soon as possible. If the 
wind then haul to the south, they will be far enough to 
windward to fetch the equator to eastward of Tahiti. 

Once south of the line, they can take one of the passages 
through the north of the Paumotas, (vide Wilkes's instruc- 
tions in 103.) 

128. ROUTE FROM THE MARQUESAS TO THE SAND- 
WICH ISLANDS. This is not a difficult passage. Starting 
from the Marquesas, a vessel should cross the equator as 
far east of 143 W. as she can, with a clean full on the star- 
board tack. From the end of June till November the SE. 
trades usually blow as far north as 10 N. Later, and es- . 
pecially from February to June, the NE. winds reach nearly 
to the line $ naturally this last season is the worst for a 
passage from the Marquesas to the Sandwich islands. The 
chances of meeting calms near the equator in this locality 
are small ; and the frequency of baffling airs from the west 
is certainly overdrawn by some authors. Information con- 
cerning the last part of this voyage can be found in 95 
and 99. 

Biddlecombe remarks as follows on this passage: "Cross 
the equator, if possible, to the eastward of 145 W., as you 
will then be enabled to steer for Hawaii, or a degree to the 
eastward of it, if you should fall in with the NE. trade early, 
although you seldom meet it till you are in 10 N. The va- 
riable winds are generally westerly,* and the current runs 
with the wind ; but if you get easterly variables you may 
expect to be set a long way to the westward, as the currents 
run more strongly in that direction than in any other. You 
should, therefore, cross the line well to the eastward, to in- 
sure your fetching to windward of Hawaii. In passing 
Hawaii, do not go nearer than 40 mile$-*o it, as vessels often 
get becalmed for many days together under the land." 

129. EOUTE FROM THE MARQUESAS TO TAHITI. This 

is an easy voyage, with a fair wind all the way. It only de- 

* I do not think that this assertion is often realized. 



228 FROM TAHITI TO VALPARAISO. 

mauds attention near the Paumota group and Tahiti, (vide 
103, and 93, 94, arid 98.) 

Captain Richard Foy makes the following remarks on 
this passage, (Ann. Hydr., v. 29 :) 

" The voyage from Kuka-Hiva to Tahiti is generally ac- 
complished in five or six days; course about SW. \ S. ; 
this brings you a little to windward of the central islands 
of Taiara and Raraka, to starboard of Faaite island, and 
then to windward of Faarava.* Or, if deemed advisable, 
run between Toau, or Elizabeth island, and Aura, and then 
near Greig (Niau) island, sighting the lofty peaks Orohena, 
of Tahiti, rising about 7,360 feet above the horizon." 

130. ROUTE FROM TAHITI TO SAN FRANCISCO. Keep 
a clean full and cross the equator, if possible, on the star- 
board tack between 152 and 148 W. ; or, in other words, 
as far to the east as the variable ESB. trades will allow. 
The best season is from the end of June till November, 
when the SE. trades reach nearly to 10 N. From Febru- 
ary to June the NE. trades come well south toward the line. 
Few calms and usually a westerly current will be found. 
Run through the NE. trades on the starboard tack. 
^From June to After crossing 10 N. well to the eastward, the starboard 
tack will fetch a ship to windward of the Sandwich islands. 



From Novem- Advantage must be taken of every favorable shift in the 

ber to June. 

wind that will set the ship to the northward and eastward, 
remember, however, that it is never well to lie too close. 

The SE. wind inclines to the eastward near the equator, 
and to NE. to northward of the line. ]n order to make to 
windward of Hawaii, cross 10 2f. near 148 W. If this can- 
not be done, run off and pass well to leeward of the Sand- 
wich islands, thus avoiding the calms nearer the group. 
For information concerning the beginning of the voyage, 
vide 135 ; for the last part, vide 121. 

131. ROUTE FROM TAHITI TO THE GAM BIER ISLANDS, 
TUBUAI, VALPARAISO, CALLAO AND PANAMA. Ships 
bound to -Valparaiso, Callao, and Panama should run for the 
region of west winds, as stated in 109. These winds will 
usually be found beyond 35 S. With these winds ves- 
sels make to the eastward between the parallels of 35 and 
45 S., and, if their port of destination be Valparaiso, ap- 
proach the land to the southward, except during the season 

* Faarava should probably read Anaa. Translator. 



FROM TAHITI TO VALPARAISO. 229 

of northers, (vide 29, 09 to 71, and 110.) Vessels bound 
to the intermediate ports and Oallao should not again enter 
the SE. trades until their port bears to north of NE. ; thry 
should also make their land-fall to southward of their port, 
(vide G9 to 71, 110, and 123.) Vessels bound to Payta or 
Panama should not run into the trades until cape Blanco 
bears north of NE. ; while those for Panama should sight cape 
San Francisco, and end the voyage as stated in 48 and 54. 

The following remarks by Captain Toy may be of interest : 

"Every vessel bound from Tahiti to Gambler or Valpa- 
raiso, should double the north point of Moorea at a distance 
of 8 or 9 miles and pass to westward of that island. This 
precaution is necessary, as the mountains of Tahiti inter- 
cept the prevailing winds. Time will therefore be saved by 
keeping well off shore ; still if the wind be from X. or N W., 
she may take the channel between 'Tahiti and Moorea, ex- 
cept from June to November, when the sea is heavy and 
the currents strong. This passage is 10 or 11 miles broad. 

u Once clear of the group, steer about 8SE. or even a 
little to the eastward of that point, as the current sets to 
west. Cross the meridian of Tubuui near 20 S., and stand 
on the same course to 22 S., thus clearing the doubtful low 
islands situated a little to the W. of the meridian of 
Tubuai and beyond 22 S. Vessels bound to Tubual 
should then head a little west of S. ; after running about 
64 miles on this course, they ought to make the island off 
the lee (starboard) cat-head. At a distance, Tubuai resem- 
bles a " ham." 

Passage of the Sibylle, Captain Brossolet, (Ann. Hydr., 
1871.) "1 ran from Tahiti to 27^ S. in four days. Wind 
moderate and from SE. to ESE. The trades then died 
away and were succeeded by calms and rain -squalls, lasting 
for several days; headed S. to clear this locality. Struck the 
W. wind on the 9th February, near 36 S. ; attempted to 
steer a great-circle route for Valparaiso, but the wind not 
.holding, 1 did not reach 40 S. till the 16th. Here the wind 
set in steady from WNW. and I ran at the rate of from 7 
to 10 knots, until I reached Valparaiso, on the 7th March, 
1869 ; 35 days at sea. One day during the passage the 
wind grew so strong that I feared I would have to lie to. 
Near the Chilean coast it died away calm. 

" Though I passed within 3 or 4 miles of the supposed 



230 FROM TAHITI TO NEW CALEDONIA. 

position of Tabor* island, in broad daylight, I saw nothing 
of it." 

Passage of the Alceste, Captain Brosset. "Maury does not 
mention the passage from the Society islands to Valparaiso. 
The route, however, is quite simple. 

" You should run through the SE. trades rap-full, and 
when you reach the region of west winds make a great- 
circle route for Valparaiso. Maury's pilot-charts prove this 
to be the best route. 

"I left Tahiti on the 31st October. Experienced 
calms and light variable airs instead of the usual stiff 
trades. Did not clear the Tubuai group until the 6th 
November. On the 7th ran into a NE. wind, at 30 S., and 
steered a. great-circle route 5 the wind shifted from NE. to 
N. and NW. on the 9th ; lat. 34 S., long. 147 W. The 
great-circle route brought me to 40 S. During the voyage 
the wind followed the usual laws, arid was as a general 
thing moderate. I arrived at Valparaiso on the 30th 
November after a passage of 30 days." 

1st. Route to 132. BOUTE FROM TAHITI TO NEW CALEDONIA, NEW 

ZEALAND, AND AUSTRALIA. As a general rule vessels 
should run N. of the Tongas from July to October, and S. 
from November to June. By making the following cross- 
ings the voyage will be easy and the wind fair : 

In January, cross 18 S. at 160 W. ; 22 30' S. at 175 W., 
or S. of the Tongas; and make a straight wake for your 
port. 

In February, run S. of the Samoas, cross 17 S. at 175 
W., and 20 S. about 178 W., then steer westward. 

In March, 20 S. at 154 W. ; 22 S. at 160 W. ; and 22 
30' S. at 175 W., south of the Tongas. 

In April, 20 S. at 152 10' W. ; 22 S. at 155 W. ; 23 
S. at 160 W. ; thence pass N. of Minerva reefs, and sight 
Fearn and Mathew islands. 

In May and June, 15 S. at 152 W. ; 13 S. at 155 W., 
and follow this parallel to 165 W. ; thence run to south- 
ward of the Samoa group ; cross 18 S. at 176 W., and 
pass west of the Tongas and south of the Fijis. 

In July, 15 S. at 152 W. ; 12 30' S. at 160 W. ; 15 S. 
at 169 W., and run along this parallel to 180 j cross 18 S. 
at 174 E., and 22 S. at 170 E. This route carries the 

".Should probably read Tabon. 



FROM TAHITI TO NEW CALEDONIA. 231 

ship south of the Samoas, and north and west of the 
Fijis. 

In August, 15 S. at 151 10' W. ; 14 S. at 160 W., and 
keep on this parallel to 165 W. ; 17 S. at 175 W., and 
20 S. at 178 W.; in other words run south of the Samoas, 
north and west of the Tongas, and south of the Fijis. 

In September, 18 S. at 160 W. ; 21 S. at 170 W. ; 22 
S. at 175 W., and thence to the westward. This route lies 
south of the Tonga group. 

In October, 15 S. at 152 10' W.; and follow this parallel 
to about 175 50' E.; thus passing south of the Samoas and 
north of the Fijis. Thence cross 22 S. at 170 E. Onase- 
use, or Hunter island, can be sighted ; it is situated in lat. 
15 31' S., long. 176 19' E., and is a cultivated and inhab- 
ited volcanic island. 

In November and December, 20 S. at 152 10' W. ; 22 S. 
at 160 W. ; and thence make the westing south of the 
Tonga group. 

After making these crossings, as nearly as circumstances 
will allow, run through Havannah pass, with the prevailing 
E. or SE. winds. But if to eastward of Havannah passage 
the wind come out from W., NW., or even NE., give the 
isle of Pines a wide berth and enter by Dumbea passage, 
as stated in 111. 

The following observations on this route are by Captain 
Foy, (Ann. Rydr., vol. 29 :) 

" After leaving Papiete for Noumea, vessels run down 
their westing with the wind astern. They keep a good dis- 
tance from Morea island, and leave the Borabora group on 
their starboard hand ; thence they run through the Cook 
group. The principal island of this group is Aitutaki, and 
may be recognized by its remarkable hummock, which 
slopes to the southward. This island should be left well to 
port; still, if a shift of wind to west, or any other cause, 
should compel a vessel to run 'through the group, she can 
double Aitutaki to southward, keeping a good lookout for 
shoal water. Thence the route should be resumed, so as to 
profit by the trades. Tonga-Tabou may be recognized by 
the shape of Eooa, which is a round, large island with two 
summits ; it is situated south of Tonga. Vessels may pass 
between these islands, or south of all. In the N. channel 



232 FROM TAHITI TO NEW CALEDONIA. 

the currents set toward the eastern coast of the island ; 
while well off shore and south of Tonga their direction is 
westerly. I sighted Fearn and Mathew islands, and left 
them to port; also Walpole to starboard. The first is about 
400 feet high; the second, 340 feet; and the third, 210 feet 
at its northern extremity, and about 480 feet at its southern. 
The distance between the N. and S. summits of Walpole 
island is about 4,140 yards. A short distance to the west 
is the isle of Pines, a low sugar-loaf, covered with pines, 
and about 870 feet high. 

"The length of the voyage is from 1C to 17 days, and the 
sailing distance about 2,475 miles." 

Passage of the Bonite, Lieutenant Jouan commanding r 
(Ann. Hydr., vol.21.} "Left Tahiti at daylight on the 13th 
September. Gentle breeze from ENE. until the 17th. 
Sighted Pylstaart island during the night of the 23d and 
24th and lost it, bearing NE. by N,, the next morning at 9 
o'clock, llain-squalls and variable airs. At 11 a. m. on 
the 29th sighted Fearn island ; this is a barren rock and 
quite steep-to. The volcanic island, Mathew, was reported 
in sight during the afternoon. At sunset on the 30th made 
Walpole island, very low on the horizon. As the wind was 
light and variable during the night I did not reach Havan- 
nah strait till 4.30 p. m. on the 1st of October. It was 
then too late to attempt the passage, especially as the tide 
was running ebb, so I stood off and on during the night 
and ran through at daylight. Although it was nearly low 
water, the current was still very violent, with a heavy chop 
sea at the entrance to the strait. Notwithstanding a good 
breeze from the east, the Bonite only forged ahead about a 
knot per hour, until the tide turned ; when I ran through 
Woodin channel, and anchored off Noumea at 5.15 p. m.* 
T 2d. Route to From April to November pass north of the Tongas, and 
cross 17 S. at about 175 W. Thence, running to wesfc- 
From April toward of the Tonga group, cross 20 S. near 178 W. 

November. 

Make the westing on the parallel of 20 S., thus passing 
to southward of Batou-bara (Vatu-rera) island ; when steer 
SW., and cross the Tropic near 178 or 177 E. ; when the 
ship will probably meet the SW. or NW. winds, which will 
easily enable her to make the bay of Islands. 
" vem " l ?rom November to April, after passing north of the 



FROM TAHITI TO NEW ZEALAND. 233 

Cook group, run south of the supposed position of Nichol- 
son reef,* and cross the tropic at 373 or 175 W. Kim to 
westward of the Kermadec isles, and thence for the bay of 
Islands, with the wind abeam. 

The foregoing routes apply only to vessels bound to the 
bay of Islands. If bound to port Nicholson or Otago, it 
will be better to follow the route given for the passage to 
New Caledonia, and cross the tropic south of the isle of 
Pines; thence, after striking the west winds, run for Cook's 
strait, (vide 107,) if bound to Port Nicholson ; or Favorite 
strait, if for Port Otago. 

Captain Foy makes the following observations on this 
passage, (Ann. Hydr., vol. 29 :) 

" The route from Tahiti is nearly identical with that to 
New Caledonia, keeping to the tropics until it reaches 168 
W. A ship should pass CO miles south of Nicholson reef, 
as it is long and dangerous ; cross the tropic at 173 W., 
south of Tonga-Tabou; and head for the bay of Islands, 
running w T est of Kaoul island, one of the Kermadec group. 
From December to May the wind is nearly always abeam, 
from NW. or SE. On approaching New Zealand a vessel 
should keep a little to windward of Kororarika, so as to be 
sure to fetch the anchorage. 

" The bay of Islands is easily recognized by a large rock, 
with an opening, which forms a good landmark. New Zea- 
land is visible, in clear weather, at a distance of 30 miles ; 
and when first sighted looks like a vast plateau covered 
with low hummocks. The land will gradually make out to 
the eastward as you approach ; it looks like a group of 
islands, and is surrounded by peculiarly-shaped rocks, with 
daylight showing through the large openings in many of 
them. At a distance these rocks have the appearance of a 
vessel under canvas, the white strata in them looking like 
sails.' 7 

Follow the track given in the first part of this paragraph, 3d. Route to 
under "the route to New Caledonia." Pass south of the Al 
isle of Pines and the Great reef; thence run some distance 

* The position of Nicholson reef is doubtful ; its existence even is 
uncertain. Beveridge shoal has recently been located by R. Ad. 
Roussin ; it is 5 miles long N. and S., and 3 miles E. and W., and is 
just awa-h, with a lagoon in the center. 



234 FROM TAHITI TO THE MARQUESAS ISLANDS. 

to the west before standing to the southward. For informa- 
tion concerning the last part of the voyage, vide 138. 

From March to 133. EOUTE FROM TAHITI TO CHINA. FrOIB March 

to August, head about NW. to 3 or 2 S., and follow 
one of these parallels to 163 or 108 W. Thence bear 
north for the NE. trades. Keep to northward of the Eat- 
ack and Balick groups. From May to October, steer from 
the north of the Marshall group for the south of the 
Marianas, keeping to northward of the Carolines, and 
enter the China sea through the strait of San Bernardino, 
(vide 101, note.) The SW. monsoon prevails at this 
season. 

From August From August to March, and especially after October, the 
route is a little more to the southward. It passes within 
sight of the Suwarrow islands, and runs north of the Sa- 
moasj thence steer NNW. and pass west of Duke of Clar- 
ence, Duke of York, and Gardner islands. Cross the line 
at 178 W. or 180, and keep east of the Eatack chain. 
After doubling these islands to the N., pass between Grigan 
and Assumpcion, or rather north of the Marianas, (vide 
101,) and enter the China sea to northward of the Bashee 
group. The NE. monsoon prevails at this season. 

134. EOUTE FROM TAHITI TO THE MARQUESAS ISL- 
ANDS. This passage, though quite difficult under canvas, 
can, with the assistance of steam, be rendered compara- 
tively easy. Vessels could easily fetch Nuka-Hiva if the 
Paumota group were not in the way. As it is, they should 
be very careful if compelled to go about in the middle of 
the group. An auxiliary steamer should always enter 
through the strait between Fakarava (Faarava) and Faaite 
islands; keep to windward of Earaka and Taiara, and leave 
the group by running to windward of Tika, (or Tikei.) 
From this point it is generally possible to fetch Nuka-Hiva. 

The following instructions are due to Captain Foy, (Ann. 
Hydr., vol. 29 :) a The approach to the Marquesas being 
simple, the delicate part of the route is that through the 
Paurnotas. The wind in the western part of the group is 
generally from NE., and in the eastern part from SE., 
though variable in both instances. 

"After leaving Tahiti and doubling point Venus you should 
lie very close and take advantage of every shift in the wind, 
and if lucky, you will be able to run through the passage 



FROM TAHITI TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 235 

between Fakarava and Faaite tbe next day at daylight. 
If possible keep to windward of Earaka and Taiera islands, 
and leave the group by passing to windward of Tikei, if the 
wind incline to shift to SE. or ESE. But if the wind 
freshen from ESTE. to NB., it will be difficult to make cast- 
ing, as the current sets west, or very often south, so strong- 
ly that it will be difficult to make headway against it, in 
which case you will be compelled to cross the Paumotas 
between Vliegen (Nairsa) and Arutua islands, and if possi- 
ble run out to windward of Manihi island. 

" Once clear of the Paumotas, beat to eastward as far as 
possible, as northing can be made at any time, especially if 
the SE. trades be found north of the largest of the Napuka 
group. Make the land at Roa-Poa, which lies south of the 
principal island, and thence run for Tai-o-hae bay, where 
there is an anchorage in from 7 to 9 fathoms. The harbor 
is sheltered, except from SW. and S. 

"This passage can generally be made in 15 or 1<> days, and 
the weather, especially among the islands of the Paumota 
group, will be quite bad." 

Lieutenant Parchappe makes the following observations 
on this voyage, (vide Ann. Hydr., vol. 12 :) 

" The Paumota islands are very low, of coral formation, 
and here and there covered with clumps of trees. Most of 
them have a lagoon in the center. They are rarely visible 
at a distance of over 12 miles. 

" Formerly vessels bound from Tahiti to Nukahiva, used 
to run to southward and then to eastward of the Pauraota 
group ; since the position of the islands has been better 
determined, the route is generally through the archipelago." 

135. EOUTE FROM TAHITI TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 
The reader should first refer to 130, where, speaking of 
the route from Tahiti to San Francisco, we stated that, 
from June to November, vessels could easily fetch to wind- 
ward of the Sandwich islands if they crossed 10 2s\ at 148 
W. During the rest of the year it will be difficult to cross 
the 10th parallel so far to the east, and almost impossible 
to make Hawaii. 

Captain Beechey gives the following instructions : " From 
the time we passed Mai tea we endeavored to get to the east- 
ward and to cross the equator in about 150 W. longitude, 
so that when we met the NB. trade- wind we might be well 



236 FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO AUSTRALIA. 

to windward. There is otherwise some difficulty in round- 
ing Hawaii, which should be done about 40 miles to the 
eastward to insure the breeze. The passage between the 
Society and Sandwich islands differs from a navigation be- 
tween the same parallels in the Atlantic, in the former being 
exempt from the long calms, which sometimes prevail about 
the equator, and in the SE. trade being more easterly. The 
westerly current is much the same in both, and if not at- 
tended to in the Pacific will carry a ship so far to leeward 
that by the time she reaches the parallel of the Sandwich 
islands she will be a long way to westward, and have much 
difficulty in beating up to them." 

136. EOUTE FROM: NEW CALEDONIA TO SAN FRAN- 
CISCO. For instructions concerning the first part of the 
voyage, vide 108, (cape Horn route.) Vessels should 
double New Zealand to northward, and bear away for 48 
or 50 S., keeping on this latitude until they reach about 
138 W. Thence the track is to northward and eastward, 
and enters the SE. trades near 128 W. Finish the voyage 
as stated in 50 and 110. 

137. ROUTE FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO VALPARAISO, 
CALLAO, AND PANAMA. 108 also contains instructions for 
this passage. After passing north of New Zealand vessels 
gradually make to the southward and eastward. From 
October to April they run down their easting between 45 
and 50 S. ; from April to October, between 47 and 52 S. 
The voyage is generally ended as stated in 110. 

138. ROUTE FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO AUSTRALIA. 
This is a voyage of fair winds. In order to meet them a 
ship should first steer for Sandy cape, and then round off 
to the southward so as to reach the parallel of Moreton 
island, near 157 E. The course is afterward S., with 
variable winds and a current generally favorable. The land 
should be made to northward of the port. 

In 111 the reader will find a long extract from the in- 
structions of Captain Jouan, concerning the proper route 
from Sydney to Noumea. We give below an abstract from 
the log of the Bouite, Captain Jouan, for three voyages be- 
tween Noumea and Sydney, (Arm. Hydr., vol. 26 :) 
First voyage. " Left the. 23d Novem ber, 1860 ; cleared the reefs at 6 p. m . ; 
wind SE. ; breakers close to leeward ; outside gentle 
wind from WSW. Becalmed for 2 days on the tropic ; 



FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO AUSTRALIA. 



237 



afterward 2 days' wind from E. and EXE., which carried us 
close to Middleton island. There the weather became over- 
cast and variable, wind generally from NW., fulling light 
and calm about 2 p. m., and followed by unsettled weather 
in the evening, with a thunder-storm from southward. 
During the night of the 3d and 4th December, experienced 
a brick- fielder, the wind shifted suddenly to SSE., squalls 
violent; notwithstanding this shift of wind, the upper strata 
of clouds still drifted to NW.; barometer 29 in .72 ; thermom- 
eter, 73. The bad weather lasted only a short time; gen- 
tle breeze from NE. on approaching the coast. Anchored 
at Sydney on the 7th December, after a passage of 13 days. 

"Left Noumea on the 2Cth February, 1862, with a second voyage, 
light breeze from N. Had to let go again inside the 
reefs, as the wind shifted to SW. Kan out on the 
1st March with a NW. wind, but was hardly clear of the 
reefs when it again shifted to W. and SW. The weather 
became fine as we drew away from the land. But the 
barometer, generally high with south winds, fell to 29 in .57; 
stars brilliant; sea phosphorescent. Dead calm and heavy 
SE. swell during the afternoon of the 3d ; suddenly a 
violent squall from SE., and an extraordinarily heavy sea. 
Fine weather on the 5th; barometer rising gradually to 
30 in .12 ; light breeze from SSE. to SE., shifting to E. and 
NE. On the 10th, being 210 miles NE. of Sydney and 120 
miles E. of Hawke head, the wind shifted to NNW., blow- 
ing very stiffly ; bar. 29 in .92 ; sky very clear to NNW., and 
slightly overcast to E. At daylight, the wind died away 
and after a day's tow we reached Farm Cove just in time to 
avoid a brick- fielder. 

"Cleared Dumbea pass at 9.30 a. m. on the 2d July, 1862, Third voyage, 
with a light breeze from NW. Heavy surf on the reefs. 
At 10 a. in. wind shifted to W. With the exception of 2 
days' calms and light variable airs from SSE. to NNE., the 
whole passage of 24 days was one succession of squalls ; 
during the short periods between the squalls the wind was 
light and always from the westward. Lightning on the 
horizon always showed the direction from which the wind 
was to be expected." 

Captain Eichard.Foy makes the following remarks upon 
this passage, (Ann. Hydr., vol. 29 :) 



238 FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO AUSTRALIA. 

From Decem- "The passage to Moretoo bay, Newcastle, and Sydney 
can always be made with fair winds from December to 
May. The route is direct, but a3 the current sets to the 
southward, it is best to head for the land at least a degree 
to the north of your port. Once in sight of laud of course 
your future action will depend upon the direction of the 
prevailing winds. The approach to the coast is rendered 
dangerous by the frequency of the heavy wind and rain 
squalls from ESE. to ENE. They rarely last for more than 
2 or 3 days. It is then advisable to keep well off shore un- 
til the weather changes. When bound to Newcastle the 
land should be made near port Stevens.' 1 

The heavy squalls mentioned by Captain Foy are the 
same as those referred to in 6. The following account, 
though long, we consider necessary to give our readers an 
idea of the bad weather in these parts : 

Passage of the Marceau, Lieut. Galaclie, commanding. 
" The Marceau left Noumea for Sydney on the 5th Febru- 
ary, 1868 ; weather fine, breeze light from SSW. On the 
morning of the 7th the wind was light and varied from 
ENE. to NE. Same weather till the 13tb. The weather 
became more dull as we approached the Australian coast, 
the barometer falling from 29 in .92 and 29 in .96 to 29 in .84 and 
29 in .SO; this is the normal fall, and in these localities be- 
tokens fine weather, calms, and light northerly airs. I 
sighted successively the paps called the Three Brothers, 
situated north of Caniden haven, cape Hawke, and the 
laud near Sugar-Loaf point. 

" The foggy weather and heavy appearance of the sky be- 
token a rain-squall from NW. and a shift of wind to SE. or 
S., for the next evening, (burster or brick fielder.) At this 
season these signs never fail, but I expected to make Syd- 
ney by noon the following day, and the shift of wind rarely 
takes place before 3 p. m. 

" I therefore kept about 15 or 20 miles from the coast, 
and made moderate headway with the light wind from N. 
and the current which set to the S. at a rate of about 1 
knots per hour. On the night of the 13th we sighted port 
Stevens light and headed for Broken bay, judging that the 
current would drift us to the south. - 

" The breeze died away, however; the sky became over- 
cast, and a single violent flash of lightning illuminated the 



FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO AUSTRALIA. 239 

horizon from S. to E. ; this flash was the only warning we 
had ; the barometer was steady and everything seemed to 
indicate a squall from SE. About 2 a. m. the SE. horizon 
became overcast, and the wind came in hot and cold puffs, 
as it often does before a rain-storm. Furled the light sails, 
and clewed up the mainsail; had taken one reef theoight 
before; braced up the yards and received squall with the 
sails full. It did not blow very hard, and a quarter of an 
hour afterward reset the topgallant sails and mainsail and 
headed for Sydney. Lost sight of port Stevens light to 
NNW., at 3 h 45 m , Sydney bearing NE. by X., distant about 
50 miles. 

"From 2 to 4 a. in. the wind did not freshen or change, 
but the sky looked heavy and threatening ; barometer 
steady. After 4 o'clock the wind hauled to the southward, 
and grew rapidly stronger. I could not keep the ship on 
her course ; but still hoped, with the assistance of the cur- 
rent, to reach Sydney or at least Broken hay, situated 15 
miles to the northward. Kan in for the laud, hauled on the 
port tack, but could not make it out on account of the 
heavy rain and overcast sky; dead reckoning put us about 
25 miles off shore at 6 a. in. All the appearances betokened 
bad weather. 

"I immediately made everything snug aloft and went 
about to the eastward, the wind having hauled to SSVV. ; 
made 5 or 6 knots per hour; very heavy sea running, 
occasioned by the S. wind acting against the current; made 
from 25 to 30 miles on a good course from 7 a. m. to noon. 

" On the night of the 14th and 15th the weather was 
passable ; but on the morning of the 15th the wind was 
very strong and blew violently during the whole day ; the 
sea was frightful during the whole of the 14th and 15th; the 
wind remained steady from S., but after the 15th shifted to 
SE. Sounded on the evening of the 15th and the morning 
of the 16th, but found no bottom at 82 fathoms. If we had, I 
should have considered the Marceau in a very dangerous 
situation, as the depth of water in this locality is 100 fathoms 
at a distance of only about 30 miles off the coast. Besides, in 
my preceding voyages I had carefully noted the color of 
the water off Sydney ; witliin 30 miles it is of a dark olive 
green, easily recognized, especially on the crest of the 
waves. Where we were it appeared green or light blue. 



240 FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO SINGAPORE. 

''Lighted the fires and steamed on the evening of the 16th, 
thus reducing our leeway from 8 to less than 5 points. 
Course NE., Sydney bearing nearly NNW. 

u During the night of the 16th and 17th the gale was at 
its height, the wind striking the masts and rigging with 
terrific force, and nearly throwing the ship on her beam 
ends ; the sea was frightful, and broke all over the ship, in- 
undating the hold, and sweeping everything before it. 

" As the wind blew furiously, first from SSW. and after- 
ward from ESE., it caused a frightful cross-sea, which 
sometimes struck us to windward and again to leeward, 
loosening the gripes on the boats, and rushing down the 
hatches. 

"During all this time, from the 14th till the morning of 
the 17th, the barometer only varied between 29 in .SO to 29 in .88. 

" After this the wind hauled to the E., and I went about 
to the southward on the morning of the 17th. Contrary to 
my expectations, the wind shifted toENE. in the afternoon, 
and I again spread the fires, which I had banked in the 
morning. Near midnight the wind moderated and hauled 
to NE. and NNE., the barometer commencing to fall slowly j 
at 6 a. m. on the 18th 1 headed W. on the starboard tack, 
the wind growing lighter. About 8 o'clock the weather 
cleared and the rain ceased. Our position at noon was 65 
miles ESE. of Jervis bay, and 120 miles SSE. of Sydney. 

" Although I was quite sure that the easterly squalls had 
sagged the ship to SSE., I hardly expected that, after a 
three days' gale from S., I should find the southerly current 
as strong as it was. 

"Navigators acquainted with these localities state that, 
although the strong S. winds occasion a surface-current 
toward the N., when the east wind again sets in, the mass of 
water rushes back in a SSE. direction, with a speed pro- 
portional to the length of time it has been kept from its 
normal direction. 

" We sighted point Jervis light on the evening of the 
18th ; weather calm ; at 2 a. m. spread fires and reached 
port Jackson at 8 p. m. on the 19th." 

139. EOUTE FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO SINGAPORE 
1st. During QHINA, AND JAPAN. Starting from Noumea, bound to Ba- 
mousowui? K ' tavia and Singapore, at this season, (from April to October,) 
a ship should, as soon as the passes are cleared, head NW., 



FROM NOUMEA TO BATAVIA. 241 

and then run E. of Fairway reef. Thence, with the SE. 
trades fair, the route lies to northward ; giving Bampton 
and Hellish reefs and Diana bank a wide berth. Kim 
through Torres strait, and finish the voyage as stated in 171. 

Bound to Saigon or Hong Kong, between March and the 
end of July, take the same route, with the SE. monsoon 
after you. Cross the Java sea and enter the China sea 
through Carimata strait. Here the SW. monsoon prevails, 
and lasts till the end of October. For information concern- 
ing the end of the passage, vide 173. 

The following voyage was made in October and Novem- 
ber, or the season of change in the monsoons, when calms 
and light baffling airs are frequent. 

Passage of the Guichen, (screw,) Captain Perrier. from Nou- 
mea to Batavia. "Left Noumea on the 16th October, 18G9; 
headed straight for Raine island ; the east winds being 
very light, had to get up steam. Kan through Raine island 
pass on the 26th, and anchored at Sommerset on the 27th. 
Fresh beef was obtained here, but no coal. Left for Torres 
strait and Timor on the 28th. Found a dead calm in the 
Arafura sea. Headed for the N. coast of Timor, so as to 
make the anchorage of Dula ; arrived off this place on the 
3d November; no coal here either; kept on without anchor- 
ing. Arrived at the Dutch coal depot of Kupang 
on the 4th. Distance run 2,700 miles, without filling up 
with a fresh supply of provisions, and with a very light 
wind through the Coral sea. 

" Left Kupaug on the 7th November, and anchored at 
Sourabaya on the nth, after crossing Loinbok and 
Madura straits. Left for Batavia on the 16th, and arrived 
at that port on the 18th. Total length of passage from 
Noumea 33 days ; steamed nearly all the way." 

During this season (from October to April) sailing-vessels, ,2d- Dunns the 
and auxiliary steamers wishing to save coal, should take Solans. d 
the northerly route for Hong Kong, Saigon, and Singapore. 
Auxiliary steamers carrying enough coalto make the pas- 
sage from Noumea to Kupang, a distance of 2,700 miles, can 
take the Torres-strait route. The anchorage at Kupang is 
tolerably good at this season. The route from Kupang to- 
Batavia passes through Lombok and Madura straits; thence 
the passage is direct for Singapore. Vessels will be com- 
pelled to steam nearly the whole time. 
16 N 



242 



FROM NOUMEA TO BATAVIA. 



1st route. 



2d route. 



But, as we have stated, the northerly route is preferable 
for sailing-vessels and auxiliary steamers. Once to east- 
ward of Fairway reef, stand to the northward, and pass 
between the Solomon and Santa Cruz islands. From this 
point there is a choice between two routes. 

If bound to Hong Kong or Saigon, make to the northward, 
and cross the line between 162 and 160 E. The track 
passes a little west of Knsaie or Ulan island, (Carolines;) 
and either E. or W. of the Providence isles, according to 
circumstances; keep north of the Marianas, or between 
Grigon and Assumption, and enter the China sea by the 
passage north of the Bashees. For further information, 
vide 173. 

There is but one route to Yokohama. Pass to westward 
of the Volcano group, aud cross 30 N. a little west of the 
meridian of your port. Navigators should recollect that 
the Kuro Siwo sets to NE., (vide 37.) 

Vessels bound to /Singapore can keep to the eastward of 
the Solomon islands, and then skirt them either to N. or S. 
They should leave New Iceland to the southward, and enter 
the Celebes sea bypassing between the Serangani islands; 
reach the Sulu sea by Basilan strait and the China sea by 
Balabac strait. Thence to Singapore they should follow 
the return route to that given in 154 for going from Sing- 
apore to Palawan passage. Useful instructions concerning 
the first part of this voyage will also be found in 173. 

Passage of the screw Transport Tarn, Captain Martin. 
"Left Noumea, bound to Saigon, on the 14th October. 
Steamed for 36 hours. Experienced ENE. and E. trades as 
far as 11 S. Here the wind died away ; lighted two fires 
aud steamed 1,500 miles to 9 N. ; dead calm all the way. 
Ship to eastward of the Solomon islands on the 19th ; sight- 
ed Ulan island on the 26th. Passed between Ulan and Pro- 
vidence islands and crossed the Mariana group. 

Light breeze from NNE. on the 28th, latitude 9 N.; stop- 
ped the engine and made sail. Settled trades on the 29th. 
On the night of the 2d aud 3d November ran between liota 
and Agrigan with a fine breeze from ENE. On the 10th 
sighted the Balintang islands, and doubled Luzon to the 
northward between Balintang and Batan island. The trades 
held to this point; but instead of finding the NE. monsoon 
in the China sea, the wind grew light and shifted to E., SE., 



FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO SINGAPORE. 243 

and SSE., with raiu-squalls and calms. As the wind died 
away completely on the 15th, got up steam. Made cape 
Padaran on the 16th, and cape St. James on the 17th ; an- 
chored the same day at Saigon, after a passage of 34 days." 
Passage of the Saint Michel, Captain Fradinfrom New Cal- 
edonia to Singapore, (Ann. Hydr., vol. 23.) u Left Noumea 
on the 17th November, and were outside the coral reefs by 
noon; wind SB.; gentle breeze until the 20th, when we 
were in 15 40' S. and 161 29' B. As the wind showed 
signs of holding, I decided to run W. of the Solomon group. 
The wind died a way on the 24th. Eainy weather and variable 
winds from S.andE., toN.on the 25th. Several of the islands 
of Solomon group in sight at daylight of the 25th ; ran along 
the coast of Hammond island at a distance of about 20 miles ; 
at noon, point Nepean bore about NNB. The same weather 
on the 26th, Dyston island about 20 miles off. The weather 
still rainy and the wind light on the 27th and 28th ; ship 
still among the islands. At daylight on the 28th the largest 
of the Treasury islands bore NE. by N., distance 25 miles. 
From Noumea to the Solomons the current was favorable, 
and about 1 knot per hour; among the islands it was vari- 
able, but generally in our favor. Position at noon of the 
28th, 7 24' S. and 155 06' E. Set a course to clear the 
rocks lying NW. of the Treasury islands, and ran up along 
the shore of Bougainville; wind light and variable. Our 
dead-reckoning put us at daylight on the 29th near the N\V. 
islet ; instead, we had been set far to WSW. Headed for 
Bougainville, and at 12.30 p. m. we were a mile and a half 
from the island, in 22 fathoms, good holding-ground. Po- 
sition 6 52' S. and 154 50' E. Continued our route on the 
29th, and at daylight of the 30th we were 7 or 8 miles off 
shore ; fine weather and very light breeze from SE. to E. 
At 8 a. m., noticing a heavy ground-swell a short distance 
off, sent a boat to examine the locality; found a coral reef 
825 feet long and 330 feet broad, with 3 to 6 fathoms of wa- 
ter over it ; position of reef, 5 58' 50" S. and 154 44' 57" E. 
Bouka island is in sight from this point, but well to NNW.; 
also several islets lying SE. of Bouka island. Kept along 
the coast of Bougainville at a distance of 6 or 7 miles. At 
10 h 45 m two more coral rocks reported, one on each bow; 
wind being light, was compelled to pass between them; all 
clear at ll h . The one to port extended from NNE. to SSW., 
and was about half the size of the reef met in the morn- 



244 FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO SINGAPORE. 

ing. The oue to starboard was much larger than its neigh- 
bor and extended from NW. to SE. ; found 4i fathoms of 
water upon it; position 5 52 7 26" S. and 154 3G' 24" E., 
and about 7 or 8 miles off the coast of Bougainville. Soon 
after noon we sighted four islets 7 or 8 miles off Bouka. 
The breeze freshened a little, and we passed close to Sir 
Charles Hardy island. Gentle breeze all night from SE. to 
ENE. At daylight, on the 1st December, sighted what we 
supposed to be one island, but on coming up to it at noon 
it turned out to be four islands. At 4 p. m. the north point of 
the most southern island bore about E. Continued on a 
NNW. course and sighted St. John island, bearing NW. by 
W. ; it has at a distance the appearance of two distinct 
islands. At 6 h the N. point of the most northern island 
bore about E. Position of this island, 4 17' S. and 153 
OO 7 E. Passed close to eastward of St. John island, and at 
noon on the 2d were at 3 43 7 S. and 153 53 7 E. ; light 
winds from NW. to W. ; sighted Oraison island, bearing 
WNW. ; and Antoiny Kaan on the 4th ; position at noon, 
2o 45 7 S, and 153 30' E. Light airs during the night of 
the 4th and 5th. Sir Charles Hardy islands, sometimes 
known as the Green islands, extend for about 23 miles in a 
SSE. and NNW. direction. The current is variable and the 
weather uncertain in this locality. Light NW. breeze on 
the 6th; more land in sight; position, 2 12 7 S. and 153 32 7 
E. Hauled the starboard tacks on board on the 7th, with 
breeze from N W. to NE. ; position, IP 56' S. and 153 23 7 
E. Same weather on the 8th ; position, 1 41 / 'S. and 153 
21' E. Light squalls from NE. and N. on the 9th ; position 
1 03 7 S., and 152 54' E. ; swell, etc., showing us we were in 
shoal water, probably over Syra shoal. On the 10th, llth, 
and 12th, light breezes and strong currents against us. 
Wind freshened a little from NE. on the 13th and 14th ; 
position at noon on the 14th, 1 3V N. and 150 2S 7 E. 
Breeze a little fresher on the 15th, 16th, and 17th ; current 
setting W. and SW. ; position on the 17th, 4 45 7 N. and 
144 2 1 7 E. From the 17th to the 20th variable winds, with 
squalls, after which the wind generally came out from NE. 
to N.; position, 5 06 7 N. and 136 50 7 E. Position on the 
21st, 5 23 7 N. and 134 55 7 E. ; headed for the passage be- 
tween St. Andrew's and Current islands. Position on the 
22d, 5 02 7 N. and 132 20 7 E. Strong and very variable 



FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO SINGAPORE. 245 

currents from the 17th to 25th. Kan between Palmas and 
Meangis islands, but did not see them as we made the pas- 
sage during the night of the 24th and 25th. At daybreak 
on the 25th sighted Mindanao, Serangani, and Hummock 
islands ; passed south of the two latter. At 9 a. m. E. point 
of Serangani bore N. 13 E., and the W. point of Hummock 
N. 340 W. From the 25th to the 30th light baffling airs 
and calms, and strong tidal currents, alternately favorable 
and contrary. On the evening of the 29th sighted Sibago 
islands, situated near the entrance to Basilan strait ; gentle 
breezes from NE. to NNE. Entered the strait about mid- 
night, with fresh breeze, made little headway about 2 a. m.. 
as the flood was running strong against us; tide turned 
about dawn, when we soon cleared the strait. Strength of 
tide from 4 to 5 knots. Passed the town of Samboangan at 
7 a. m. Position at noon on the 30th, 6 52' N. and 121 48' 
E. On the 31st at daylight we entered the Sulu sea, and 
were becalmed off the western shore of the group of islands 
situated to the westward of the strait. It is best to leave 
them to port. Fresh breeze from NNE. and NE. during the 
middle of the day; steered for Balabec strait. Lagayau 
Sulu was in sight at daylight of January 1st. Shaped our 
course to pass to N. of the principal island and between it 
and the islet closest to it; but as soon as I saw the pass, de- 
cided to run between the islet and the other small islands 
lying to the N. ; were to the westward of this group at 9.30 
a. m. My impression is, however, that either of the above- 
mentioned passages can be taken in very clear weather, but 
in ordinary weather it is best to run well north of them all. 
Position at noon 7 09' N. and 118 02' E. ; gentle wind 
from NE. and NNE. The islands we had just left, the en- 
trance to Balabac strait, and Banguey island were all in 
sight at sundown. Kept under low sail during the night, as 
we did not wish to run through the strait before daylight; 
sounded and found about 10 fathoms, bottom clay and mud ; 
at 8.30 p. m., vessel touched, but was off' again in 2 or 3 min- 
utes, ran clear of the bank on the starboard tack, and an- 
chored in 10 or 11 fathoms of water ; reefs to southward and 
eastward, but the sea appeared clear between SE. and NE. 
Mangsee islands bore N. distant about 8 or 9 miles. Be- 
tween our anchorage and Mangsee (Mangui) islands there was . 
a reef of rocks and sand, covered at high water. The E. 



246 FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO SINGAPORE. 

point of this bank bore NNE-, and the W. point 
there is a passage between it and the most northern of the 
5 islets,* there is also a passage between the bank and the 
Mangsee islands. This last passage seemed to be the best, 
but we could riot fetch it under sail, and passed between 
the W. point of the bank and the islet. At 9.30 we were in 
the center of the main channel, steering for Banguey island ; 
Balambangan being a little on the starboard bow. Sighted 
all the dangers put down on the charts as situated SW. 
and W. of the Mangsee islands; left them on our starboard 
hand. The soundings showed from 13 to 22 fathoms. 
Therefore vessels should not attempt to run through Balabac 
strait at night, and should keep a man at the masthead 
if the passage is made during the day. I also think 
that the best pass is the one between the Mangsee islands 
and the reef of rocks and sand. Keep a sharp lookout if it 
be covered ; pass close to port of the Mangsee islands, and 
head a little to starboard of the most northern islet; you will 
thus run to starboard of the bank, which can always be 
seen in the daytime. The dangers SW. and W. of the 
Mangsee islands should be left on your starboard hand- 
On the 2d January, about 10.30 a. m., we were clear of the 
strait and in the China sea. No observation at noon, as the 
weather was squally ; fine weather during the afternoon ; 
wind from NB. to EXE. Same weather on the 3d ; position 
6 33' N. and 113 54' E. ship making 7 knots steered to 
double Louisa reefs to the northward. They were in sight 
and only half a mile off to the S. at 5.30 p. m.j only a few 
rocks showed above the water. Continued fine weather on 
the 4th and 5th; currents setting to S. and SW. Some 
very large trees drifted past us. At noon on the 5th raised 
point Pulo-Laut and Solo-Kong bearing NW. by N. N.; 
shaped the course to pass between Pulo-Laut and Great 
Xatuna. At 5 p. m. sighted the SW. point of Pulo to the 
northward ; at 6 p. m. Semoiue islet boe W. and ' the Rock' 
S. by E. ; the latter distan-t 14 miles, and Semoine 8 miles. 
" Weather still fine. Passed close to N. of Anambas 
islands, on the 6th ; position at noon 3 25' N. and 105 49' 
E. ; at 4 p. m. the most western of the Anambas islands 
bore about S., distant 3 or 4 miles ; thence we steered for 
Singapore strait ; at 8 p. rn. made out the Rock,' situated 
SW T . of Mobur. 



FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO TAHITI. 247 

"At daylight ou the 7th we were off the strait; and at 10 
a. m. inside Pedra-Branca light. Anchored at Singapore in 
the evening after a passage of 51 days from Noumea." 

140. ROUTE FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO TAHITI. 
This is a difficult route for sailing-vessels. For information 
concerning the first part of the voyage the reader should 
refer to 108 ; we would especially call attention to the 
instructions for doubling New Zealand to the northward. 

The meridian of cape Otou or that of the bay of Islands 
once passed, the difficult portion of the voyage is over. 
Vessels should stand to the eastward with the prevalent 
though variable west winds. No rule can be given as to 
where a ship will strike these winds, as they are liable to 
be found on very different parallels, even during the same 
season. However, it will generally be the best plan to 
make the following crossings : 

In January, cross 35 B. between 178 E. and 178 W. ; fol- 
low 30 or 37 S. from 178 W. to 163 W. ; cross 35 S. at 
155 W. ; 30 S. at 151 W. ; 25 and 20 S. near 149 W. 

In February, follow 30 or 37 S., from 178 W. to 150 
W. ; cross 35 S. at 148 W.; thence make the northing to 
25 S. ; and steer for Tahiti. 

In March, follow 35 or 30 S. to 158 W. ; and thence 
steer so as to reach the tropic near 149 W. The SE. 
winds will often allow this route to be followed. 

In April, the south winds will frequently enable vessels 
to run north of the Kermadec islands. They should after- 
ward cross 30 S. at 108 W.; 31 S. at 163 W. ; 30 S. 
again at 153 W. ; arid thence running E. of Tubuai for 
Tahiti. 

In. May, vessels usually pass N. of the Kermadec group, 
with the south winds, which then incline both to the east- 
ward and westward. 

There is no need of running into a higher latitude than 
28 S. ; cross 25 S. near 158 W. ; pass between Rurutu 
and Tubuai; cross 20 S. near 149 W.; and thence for 
Tahiti. 

In June, the same route. After running down the east- 
ing on 28 or 27 S., cross 26 S. near 158 VV. ; and thence 
head for Tahiti. 

In July, vessels will usually be compelled to pass S. of 
the Kermadec group; and thence steer directly for 27 S. 



248 FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO TAHITI. 

between 154 and 156 W. ; after crossing 25 S. near 151 
W., they should run E. of Tubuai. 

In August, the Kermadecs can easily be cleared to south- 
ward ; thence the track reaches 30 S. between 153 and 
155 W., and runs to eastward of Tubuai. 

From September to January, pass to southward of the 
Kerinadec group. In September, keep between 32 and 33 
S. until you reach 153 W. ; cross 25 S. at 149 or 150 
W., and run east of Tubuai. In October, reach 34 S. as 
soon as possible and at about 180 ; and keep between 34 
and 35 S. until across 166 or 164 W. ; cross 30 S. be- 
tween 153 and 154 W. ; sight Tubuai ; and make 20 S. 
near 150 W. In November, the same route on 34 S. to 
about 160 W. ; cross 30 S. between 152 and 153 W., 
and pass to windward of Tubuai. In December, a ship can 
reach 35 S. between 175 and 177 W., and thence keep 
between 36 and 37 S. until she is near 152 or 150 C W. ; 
she should cross 35 S. at 148 W., and 30 S. at 146 W., 
passing either E. or W. of Lancaster reef, according to cir- 
cumstances; to eastward of Vavitaoj and then heading 
for Tahiti. 

As already stated in 108, the worst months for doubling 
New Zealand are those between September and February. 
Voyages will usually be long at this season ; still a good 
sailer can generally make the passage from New Caledonia 
to Tahiti in from 50 to 55 days. 

We. can also conclude from the foregoing facts that the 
NW. monsoon only prevails, in the western part of the 
South Pacific, to the northward of New Caledonia. On the 
contrary, south of 20 S. the SE. trades, though variable, 
exist during the entire year, their southern limit following 
the declination of the sun the same in these localities 
as elsewhere. 

Abstract from the log of the sailing-transport Bonite, (Ann. 
Hydr., vol. 21.) * 4 Left Noumea on the 2d August ; becalmed 
between the Signal island and Dumbea passage ; breeze 
springing up from SSE. in the afternoon, we were outside 
the reef at 4 p. m. Very fine weather till the 5th, wind 
hauling from SE. to E. and NE. It shifted on the 6th to 
NW. and NNW., bringing very rainy weather. On the 
night of the 6th and 7th passed close to southward of Nor- 
folk ; light wind from SSVV. to SSE. Captain Jotian wished 



FIIOM NEW CALEDONIA TO TAHITI. 249 

to sight Kaoul (Kermadec group) in order to correct the 
chronometers; but on the night of the llth and ll'tli, after 
excessive lightning to eastward, the wind hauled to ESK. 
and headed him off to the northward. Position on the 13th, 
27 S. and 170 W. As we could make neither northing 
nor easting, went about on the south tack ; stood on till we 
reached 32 S. ; the wind shifting successively from E. to 
NE. and NW., with rain and very heavy sea, then to W. 
and SW. On the 20th, the wind being steady from S\V., 
headed KB. for Vavitao island ; but the breeze soon shifted 
to the eastward and we were compelled to again run south 
of 30 S. ; near 140 W. moderate winds from W., S., and 
SSE. On the 27th sighted Kapa to NNE. distant 42 miles. 
From Noumea to Kapa island noted a current of 3 miles 
per day setting to the westward. After leaving Kapa the 
winds were from E. to NE. Sighted Mehelia* on the 1st of 
September, and anchored at Tahiti on the 2d, after a pass- 
age of 31 days." Captain Jouan states that the Bonite was 
a slow sailer ; and that he would have gained at least 4 
days if he had not attempted to sight Kaoul island. He 
thinks that he ought to have passed through, or even to 
southward of the Kermadec group, and followed 30 or 31 
S. 'until he reached the meridian of Kapa, instead of at- 
tempting, as he did, to steer for Vavitao. Between 29 
and 32 S. the rotation of the wind was in accordance with 
the law for this hemisphere, viz, from SSE. to E. and NE., 
fine weather; then to^NNE. with stiff breeze blowing in gusts, 
overcast sky, close heavy weather, and falling barometer; 
then a very fresh IS W. wind with rain ; and last to WNW., 
W., and frequently a sudden squall from SW. The sea 
having risen quickly, then commenced to grow smoother; 
the barometer rose, and the weather was fine when the 
wind got back to S. and SSE. It generally takes the wind 
5 or 6 days to make the complete rotation. 

The following quotation from the Ann. Uydr., vol. 28, 
refers to the passage made by the //, Captain Biuet, dur- 
ing the mouths of April and May: 

"Applying the experience I had gained by my preceding 
voyages, I beat to the southward in search of the favorable 
winds ; these I found near the parallel of 33 S. They 
varied from N. to WSW. ; and I ran from the meridian of 

* Mehelia should probably read Maitea. Translator. 



250 FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO TAHITI. 

cape Otou to Tubuai island in 12 days. I headed for 
Tubuai after reaching 160 W., and ran from this island to 
Tahiti with light trades, varying-from E. to SSE." 

Captain Eichard Foy remarks as follows on this passage, 
(Ann Hydr., vol. 29:) 

" Setting sail from Noumea you will first have the wind 
abeam, and as soon as you have cleared the small pass, 
well abaft the beam. Take the SW. outer pass; leaving 
Prony ledge to port or to windward, and the Signal island 
to starboard. Once outside, brace up and make for the 
variables. Vessels generally keep between 30 and 36 S., 
but sometimes have to run as far south as 40 in search of 
the W. wind, when they again bear to the north and sight 
Kemin island. It is flat, wedge-shaped, and slopes to the 
W. Or the tropic can be crossed near 158 W. Approach 
Bora-bora or Moorea, and then go about for Tahiti. The 
average length of the passage is 42 days, the worst part 
being between 30 and 36 S." 

We will close our remarks on this route with the follow- 
ing quotations, relating to the voyages of the Alceste and 
Sibylle : 

First passage of the Alceste, Captain Brosset. '' The route 
from New Caledonia to Tahiti is as follows: first, through 
the SE. trades to 32 or 33 S., in search of the W. winds j 
it passes N. of New Zealand and S. of the Kermadec group ; 
thence it follows the arc of a great circle, and again enters 
the trades near the meridian of Tahiti, and thence makes 
directly for that island. 

"As the wind was not favorable at the commencement of 
our passage, we could not follow this route. 

" Left Noumea on the 10th September. Calms and light 
airs from ESE., SE., and SW., during the first three days; 
only 180 miles to southward of my point of departure on 
the 13th. The wind then becoming settled from SSE. and 
S., I decided to haul up on the E. tack, and reached 
175o 59' E. and 26 06' S. On the 17th, the wind having 
headed me off and hauled to ESE., I went about. As I 
approached New Zealand the weather became squally and 
threatening. On the 20th the wind shifted to SE., SSE., 
and SW., and blew a gale; the barometer fell to 29 in .49; 
the sea became enormous, and the wind having changed, I 
again went about on the starboard tack, but could not 



FUOM NEW CALEDONIA TO TAHITI. 251 

make anything to the eastward, as the heavy head sea, 
caused by the previous ^wind, greatly deadened the head- 
way of the vessel. I was then in 32 S. and 174 E., south 
of the Kermadecs, which I had doubled in moderate 
weather. I bore up about midnight and headed to clear 
the N. point of ttaoul island. During the bad weather, of 
which we have just spoken, the wind shifted in a direction 
corresponding to that of the hands of a watch ; that is 
contrary to its usual manner in these latitudes. I kept 
between 30 and 31 S. till I reached 155 W.; fine weather, 
and moderate wind from SW. to SSW., and from S. to SSE. 
Stood to the northward after crossing 155 W. at 30 30' S.; 
steady wind from ESE. to E., all the way to Tahiti. The 
trade limit seemed to lie between 30 and 31 S. ; though I 
made my easting. between these parallels I experienced no 
calms or baffling airs. I proved several times that the least 
deviation to the northward of my route caused a shift of 
wind to SSE.; while if I headed, even a trifle, to the south- 
ward, the wind was inclined to haul to SSW. or even SW. 

" Despite all detentions, I made the passage from Noumea 
to Tahiti in 25 days." 

Second passage of the Aleeste, Captain Brosset, (Ann. 
Hydr., 1871.) "Left New Caledonia for Tahiti on the 7th 
October. Found the wind from E., and ran due south. 
Passed close to westward of Norfolk island. Lost the 
trades at 30 S., and after 24 hours of calms and light airs 
struck the west winds. Passed between New Zealand and 
the Kermadec islands; and ran down my longitude on 32 
S. ; wind on this parallel steady between N. and W. After 
crossing 155 W. bore to the northward. Met the trades at 
31 S., and assisted by them reached Tnbuai on my 19th 
day out. Calms, squalls, and variable winds from N., NE., 
and N W. during the remainder of the passage. Did not reach 
Papiete until the 2d November, after a passage of -7 days. 

" When the trades haul to SSE., near New Caledonia, as 
they are likely to do, I think it is best to haul up on the 
starboard tack. If a vessel keeps on the port tack she will 
be set far to the westward and lose much time. In the pre- 
ceding voyage I met the SSE. winds 150 miles S. of Noumea; 
and by hauling up on the starboard tack made a good 
passage." 

Passage of the Sibylle, Captain Brossolet, (Ann. Hydr.. 



252 FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO NEW ZEALAND. 

1871.) "Left New Caledonia on the 14th December anil 
arrived at Papiete on the 15th January. Experienced fre- 
quent calms. The passage, however, would have been 
made in 20 days if I had not met a series of squalls and 
local head winds off the coast of Papiete. I learned at 
Papiete that the weather was exceptional. 1 therefore am 
of the opinion that vessels should head straight for Papiete, 
if the wind permit, after, they reach the latitude of Norfolk 
island ; and that the passage is usually made too far to the 
southward. Each time I went south of Norfolk island I 
met calms. Some authors advise vessels to keep to the 
northward immediately, in the rainy season, but this seems 
hardly advisable, as the dangers from reefs and gales, as 
well as the hot weather, counterbalance the slight chances 
of meeting west winds." 

141. ROUTE FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO NEW ZEA- 
LAND. The length of this passage is quite variable, and 
the route differs according to the port of destination. 
BoundtoAuck- Vessels bound to Auckland should set the course as if 

land. 

they were going to Tahiti, (vide 140,) or should follow the 
instructions concerning the first part of the voyage to 
Europe, (vide 108.) 

By referring to 108, it will be seen that from September 
to February advantage should be taken of every shift in 
the trades, in order to make as much to the southward and 
eastward as possible. It will probably be found difficult at 
this season to reach the meridian of the bay of Islands ; 
but from March to July vessels can commence to make 
easting soon after leaving Noumea, and can run to the 
southward at any time. 

Vessels bound to Port Nicholson or Otago should run 
south, rap-full, with the east winds; and when they have 
reached the prevalent west winds, still keep to the south- 
ward, being careful not to get too close to the west coast of 
New Zealand. They should take Cook's strait, (vide 107,) 
if bound to Port Nicholson; and Foveaux strait, (vide 107.) 
if bound to Otago. 

We will complete our instructions on this route by giving 
an account of two voyages made by the Bonite, Captain 
Jouan, (Ann. Hydr., vol. 26 :) 

"First passage. Left Noumea on the llth November, 1861. 
Encountered a series of winds from SSE. to ENE., blowing 



FROM NEW CALEDONIA TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 253 

a. tfalu, with rain, and a very heavy sea. Put in to the bay 
of Islands on the 2d of December. Experienced a series 
of heavy squalls iu this short distance, which delayed me 
for some days. Although it was the middle of summer we 
had as bad weather as is usual during the winter months, 
except that it was warmer. We were 21 days from Noumea 
to the bay of Islands, and 6 days from the bay to Auckland. 
The barometer, during all this time, did not at all corre- 
spond to the changes in the weather; it varied from 29 in .72 
to 30 iQ .04. 

"Second pansagc. Fine weather all the voyage. Left Nou- 
mea on the IGth November, 1862, with a stiff wind from E. ; 
it soon grew light and shifted to NNE. and N. Anchored 
at Auckland on the morning of the llth day; heavy dews 
near the coast of New Zealand ; barometer steady between 
29 in .9G and 30 in .12; temperature of the air between 75 and 
68; water the same, except near the shore, where it was 
about 2 lower. Tbe currents set to SE., speed about 17 
miles per day.' 7 

142. KOUTE FROM NEW CALEDONIA, OR THE FiJ 
TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. On leaving New Caledonia, 
a ship should follow the instructions given in 108. It will 
not, however, be necessary from November to March to run 
lower than 3G or 38 S., and only to 33 or 35 S. from 
March to November. Pass either N. or S. of the Kermadec 
islands, according to the season, as stated in 140, and 
do not bear to the N. until 135 or 134 W. is reached. 
The course should be laid so as to pass S. of Pitcairn island 
and thence east of the Paumotas and Marquesas; head to 
strike the NE. trades between 5 and 10 N. and 133 and 
138 W. From this point the route is easy if you are care- 
ful to keep to windward of Hawaii, (vide 128 and 135.) 

If thep^utof departure be the Fiji or Tonga islands, 
take the southerly route just-described. Run through the 
SE. trades on the port tack; the west winds will generally 
be found near 30 S. Strike the SE. trades again to east- 
ward of the Paumotas. This is the shortest and surest route.* 

Wilkes, however, advises a direct route for vessels leav- 

* Vessels can also run through the SE. and NE. trades on the star- 
board tack and make their easting near 30 N. This is the preferable 
route for vessels leaving the Tongas between October and March, and 
always the best for ships from the Samoas. 



254 FEOM THE FIJIS TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

log the Fijis, or any point E. of the 180th meridian. His 
route does not, of course, apply to vessels whose point of 
departure is Noumea, nor would we advise navigators to 
follow it in any case. 

As the vessels of the U. S. squadron parted company as 
soon as they were clear of the Fiji group and made the 
passage to the Sandwich islands by entirely different routes, 
much useful information may be drawn by a perusal of the 
logs of the several ships : 

"After the squadron had cleared the reefs of Mali pas- 
sage, (Yanua-Leou,) I made signal to the Porpoise to part 
company for the purpose of visiting the eastern part of the 
group. I afterward dispatched the Flying-Fish to run 
along the sea -reef as far as Hound island before shaping 
her course for the Sandwich islands. 

tlie "The Vincennes and Peacock parted company on the 
evening of the 14th August. We stood to the northward 
on the meridian of 17G E., and kept the SE. trades until 
we reached the 8th parallel of south latitude, when we 
struck an ENE. wind and a long swell from the same direc- 
tion. The weather was fine and the wind light. On the 
19th we made an island in the neighborhood of the position 
assigned to Keniiu or Gardner island, and remained a day 
to make observations. The 'next day another island was 
discovered from the mast head. I called it McKeau island, 
after the man who first sighted it. It is about a degree 
north of Gardner island. On the 21st we had showers of 
rain accompanied with a light wind from the westward. 
On the 22d we again had a light breeze from the northward 
and westward, and, what surprised me, a heavy rolling sea 
from SW., toward which quarter we experienced a current 
of some strength. On the three following days the wind 
was light and variable, and the weather squally^ 

"We remained 10 days among the islands of tlie Phoenix 
group. 

a On the 4th September we crossed the line in longitude 
167 4o' 30" W. with delightful weather, but met no west- 
erly winds. I put the ship's head to the northward and ran 
up to 8 N". before meeting settled weather or the NE. 
trades. On the 12th the wind hauled to northeast, when I 
tacked to the southward and eastward, but soon went about 
again, deeming it advisable to run at once through the 



FROM THE FIJIS TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

trades. On the 17th we were about 200 miles to westward 
of Oalju. I determined to beat up for it, and on the 20th 
made the island of Kauai. On the 23d September we an- 
chored at Honolulu after a passage of 41 days, of which 
10 were passed in exploring the Phoenix group." 

" The Peacock took a different route. Captain Hudson IV jJJ5* e of tbe 
continued to the northward and crossed the line on the 27th 
August at about 177 W., or 420 miles to westward of the 
Vincennes. 

"The winds, until the latitude of 3 S., were from east, 
after which they became more variable between NE. and 
SE., accompanied with light squalls of rain and frequent 
lightning. The weather was at times hot and sultry. Be- 
tween tbe latitudes of 5 and 8 N. the Peacock experienced 
a similar current with ourselves, setting northeast; wind 
and weather still variable. On the 8th September in lati- 
tude 14 N., the wind hauling to NB., she tacked to the 
southward until the 17th, when, having reached the longi- 
tude of 1GO 21' W., her head was again put to the north. 
They continued to have squalls and variable winds, with a 
current setting to the westward, and lost much time owing 
to the lightness of the winds. On the 30th September the 
Peacock reached Oahu ; 50 days at sea. 

u On the 10th September the Porpoise left the Sarnoas for Passage of the 

Porpoise from the 

the Hawaiian islands. In this passage they experienced simi 
lar weather and winds to those described in speaking of the 
passage of the Vincennes. They crossed the equator in 16C 
W. They had the ESE. and E. winds until 5 N. Between 
that and latitude 10 N., they experienced the same easterly 
current that we had done. In that latitude the NE. winds 
were fallen in with, accompanied with squalls of rain, and 
sometimes of wind. The whole passage from the Sarnoas 
was made in 27 days, and the time from the line to the 
Sandwich islands was 17 days, while the Vincennes and 
Peacock took respectively 26 and 33 days. Still I would 
not state positively that this result shows that the Por- 
poise crossing is the best, for it should be remembered 
that the Samoas are more than 500 miles to windward of 
the point where the other two ships crossed the same paral- 
lel. I think, however, that it is always well to cross the 
equator well to the eastward, as the SE. winds can be 



256 FROM NEW ZEALAND TO EUROPE. 

longer kept and the calms are fewer. The Porpoise also 
found the NE. trades steadier and more favorable than we 
did. 

f tbe " ^ e Tender crossed the equator in longitude 166 W., 
(same crossing as Porpoise.) She passed to eastward of all 
the small groups and kept the SE. trades longer than the 
other vessels. The weather they experienced seems to have 
been much of the same kind as heretofore described ; there 
was little interruption of the easterly winds, and the Ten- 
der being a very fine sailer made the voyage in 33 days. 

"The length of these passages can be considered as 
nearly the same when we take into consideration the differ- 
ent classes of the vessels of the squadron. 

u The westerly current, on the same parallels, was found 
to be greater by the vessels which took the west route than 
they were by those which crossed the line well to the east- 
ward. A northeasterly current was found to affect all of 
them in latitudes from 4 to 9 N., while a westerly current, 
running at a rate of 15 miles per day, was experienced in 
the NE. trade belt. 

" It is therefore evident that vessels bound to the NE. 
portion of the North Pacific need not run up to the vari- 
able region north of the NE. trades, for this route takes 
them very much out of their way and leads them into bad 
weather. The direct route, however, which we followed, is 
only applicable to ships starting from points situated to 
eastward of the 180th meridian. Navigators deciding to 
stand across the NE. trades for the region of westerly winds, 
should always recollect that they are rarely found lower than 
27 or 30 N., and that even when they are met with, it is 
very uncertain how long the wind will hold from the west- 
ward." 

m>?u route. ^^ 143. KOUTE FROM NEW ZEALAND TO EUROPE. Once 

to eastward of the group, steer as nearly SE. as the wind 
will allow, and gradually bear away for the parallel on 
which you wish to make the easting ; keeping N. of 50 S. 
from October to April ; and N. of 52 S. from April to 
October. For information concerning the end of the 
voyage, vide 107. 

ad. Tiie Suez Small auxiliary steamers will find it to their advantage 
to take this route, provided they leave New Zealand after 
the 15th April and before the 15th July. They should run 



FROM NEW ZEALAND TO NEW CALEDONIA. 257 

to the north for the SE. trades, which they will find a little 
S. of the tropic, thence pass S. and W. of New Caledonia 
and head for Torres strait. For particulars concerning the 
remainder of the voyage, vide 108 (2d part) and 139. 

The route south of Australia can only be followed by 
large ships. There will be no advantage in taking this 
route during the southern summer even if bound to one of 
the Mediterranean ports, as vast quantities of coal will be 
consumed, and the toll through the Suez canal is heavy. 

144. EOUTE FROM NEW ZEALAND TO THE WESTERN 
COAST OF AMERICA. Once clear of the land steer to the 
southward and eastward, as stated in 143 and 108. * The 
reader should also refer to 110, 136 and 137. 

145. KOUTE FROM NEW ZEALAND TO NEW CALEDO- 
NIA. Starting from Otago, Port Nicholson, or Auckland, 
a vessel should make to the north along the eastern coast 
of New Zealand, as the weather is always bad off the west- 
ern coast, (vide 8.) She should run west of the Kermadecs, 
if the winds allow. From September to February, the SE. 
trades will generally be found near 30 S. During the 
remainder of the year they do not come much below 25 S. 
Havannah pass is the best entrance with the prevalent E. to 
SE. winds. 

A sailing-vessel approaching Havannah pass and finding 
the wind from W. or even from NW. or NE. should give 
the isle of Pines and the great reef a wide berth ; and run 
in through Dumbea pass, being first careful to get well to 
SW. of the light on Amedee islet, (vide 111.) 

Passage of the Bonite, Captain Jouan, from New Zealand 
to Noumea. " During our first stay at Auckland, from the 
llth December to the 17th January, the wind was generally 
fresh from W. with the sky clear ; at times we had a very 
stiff wind, bringing rain. The regular sea-breezes did not 
set in until the day of our departure, and we had difficulty 
in leaving the gulf of Hauraki. Seven days gentle wind, 
varying from S. to E., brought us to Noumea. 

" On my second voyage I remained at Auckland for two 
months; magnificent weather all the while; calms and 
light airs from the laud during the night, and a gentle sea- 
breeze during the day. Only twice the wind hauled to N. 
with rain, after which fresh winds from W. Left Auckland 
on the 22d of January, 1863, with a light head wind from 
17 N 



258 FROM NEW ZEALAND TO AUSTRALIA. 

NE. ; and as the tide ran very strong we did not clear the 
gulf of Hauraki until the morning of the 25th, when we ran 
out, with a stiff breeze from E. ; barometer 30 in .10. We 
kept this wind till we reached 24 S. ; when we met calms 
and rain-storms. Sighted the New Caledonian reef on the 
afternoon of the 2d of February ; land completely invisi- 
ble in the fog. As the moon was up we ran through Dum- 
bea pass that night. During our passage of 11 days the 
barometer stood between 29 in .88 and 29 in .63. The current 
was generally to S., at a rate of 20 miles per day." 

Captain Richard Foy says, (Ann. Hydr., vol. 29:) 

" The passage from New Zealand to New Caledonia can 
be made in 8 days, if you take advantage of every shift of 
wind, especially in the trades. The latter are often met at 
26 or 25 S., that is long before a vessel enters the tropics, 
ist. TO AUS- 146. ROUTE FROM NEW ZEALAND TO AUSTRALIA, 
SINGAPORE, AND CHINA. From Otago, Port Nicholson or 
Auckland, and bound to Moreton bay or Sydney, vessels 
should keep B. of New Zealand as stated in 144. Having 
reached the east wind near 25 S. they should run to west- 
ward; and finish the passage as stated in 138. 

If bound from Otago to Melbourne, we think that it will 
also be advantageous to keep N. of New Zealand and run 
to the northward as far as 30 or 25 S. ; and thence to run 
down the E. coast of Australia and through Bass strait as 
indicated in 178. 

This route is about twice as long as the one by the S. of 
New Zealand, but quicker and easier. But captains decid- 
ing to run through Foveaux strait will have to wait for an 
east wind, (rare in this locality,) and even if they are lucky 
enough to carry it through the strait, they may meet a gale 
from NVV. a few miles to the westward, (vide 8,) in 'which 
case they will have to put back through the strait, to the 
eastward. 

Navigators deciding to pass S. of Stewart island must 
look out for the Traps and Snares. Between Stewart island 
and Tasmania, the current and wind will both be contrary. 
The weather is, however, a little better during the southern 
summer. 

ad. TO china Vessels should at first follow the instructions given in 145. 
Then those in 139. The reader should also refer to the 
two easterly routes given in 171 and 173; one ef these 



FROM NEW ZEALAND TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 259 

passes to E. and the other to W. of New Caledonia, and a 
third through Torres strait. 

147. ROUTE FROM: NEW ZEALAND TO TAHITI AND lst - 
THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. After a vessel is once well to 
the eastward of New Zealand, she should steer for 30 S. 
near 153 W., from April to November; and for 30 S. near 
150 or 148 W., from November to April. Thence the 
track passes between Vavitao and Tubuai ; it is best to 
sight one of these islands, whichever may be most conven- 
ient, and to make the northing so as to fetch to windward 
of Tahiti, (vide 93, 94, and 140.) 

The parallel on which to make the easting will depend 
on the latitude of the port left. The attempt should be 
made to reach 30 S. between 135 and 133 W. Conse- 
quently a vessel should commence to make northing when 
this crossing bears ENE. or NE. The SE. trades once reached, 
pass east of the Paumotas and the Marquesas ; and strike 
the NE. trades in the region between 133 and 138 W. and 
about the parallels 5 and 10 N.; thence to windward of 
Hawaii, (vide 95 and 135.) 



CHAPTER VII. 

ROUTES FROM EUROPE TO CHINA AND RETURN ROUTES. 

148. SHOWING UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES THE 
SUEZ ROUTE IS PREFERABLE TO AND FROM CHINA. The 
reader should refer to the second part of 104 and 107. 
We will here begin a resume of all the instructions that 
relate to the China voyage. 

r " te ^ * s un derstood f course that the Suez route is not prac- 
ticable for 'sailing-vessels, for independently of the long 
Mediterranean passage and the cost of transit through the 
canal," they can only descend the Eed sea from April to 
October. If they should clear the Eed sea about the end 
of May, they will find the SW. monsoon, N. of the equator, 
in the Indian ocean, and can reach Singapore during the 
first days of July, and run up the China sea with the SW. 
monsoon. At no other season should this route be taken ; 
and we can hardly advise it for sailing-vessels, even if they 
leave one of the Mediterranean ports of France in March or 
April. 

The best route to China for mail steamers and auxiliary- 
steam vessels, starting from Marseilles, is by the Suez canal. 
From March to June is the most favorable season, and 
a vessel will then find north winds in the Eed sea ; and the 
SW. monsoon, north of the equator, in the Indian ocean 
and the China sea. 

From October to February ships are liable to be detained 
by strong head winds in the Eed sea, and will use up all 
their coal if the attempt be made to steam against the NE. 
monsoon of the Indian ocean. They should therefore run 
south of the line for the winds known as the N W. monsoon ; 
these are, however, no others than the SE. trades which are 
interrupted at this season, and vary to S., SW., W., and 
NW., accompanied with rain and squalls. In the China 
sea the NE. monsoon will be found. 
21. ihe ro.te Sailing-vessels should not attempt to reach Europe via 

fro a China. 

Suez, as the north wind prevails nearly the whole year 
round in the lower two-thirds of the Eed sea. 



FROM EUROPE TO CHINA. 2G1 

Steamers and auxiliary-steam vessels wishing to take 
the Suez route should leave Yokohama about the end of 
October, and Hong-Kong in November. They will have 
the NE. monsoon in their favor, and after running through 
the strait of Malacca, should cross the Indian ocean north 
of the line. From October to April, and especially in Jan- 
uary and February, the wind is generally from the south- 
ward in the southern part of the Ked sea, but north of 
Jebbel Teer, steam will have to be used against the head 
wind. Voyages at this season are comparatively safe, 
rapid, and economical. 

Vessels leaving China or Japan after the month of April 
will have to steam against the SW. monsoon of the China 
sea. This is also the season for typhoons, (vide 20.) 

After passing through the straits of Suuda they should 
run down their longitude in the Indian ocean, by keeping 
south of the line, with the SB. trades well abaft the beam. 
In the Red sea the wind will be ahead all the way to Suez. 
The voyage therefore at this season will be long and expen- 
sive. 

149. KOUTE FROM EUROPE TO CHINA, (during the W. 
monsoon, from April to October.} Instructions relative to 
this route will be found in the "Navigation of the Atlantic 
Ocean." The reader should also refer to 104 of the present 
volume. 

The Indian ocean once reached, run down the easting be- 
tween 43 and 46 S., keeping in a higher or lower latitude 
according to the weather, (vide 104.) Thence steer NE. 
so as to cross 40 S. between 80 and 84 E. The SE. trades 
should be struck north of 30 or 28 S., and the tropic of 
Capricorn crossed near 102 E. According to Horsburgh 
vessels should then head for the strait of Suuda, being care- 
ful to make the meridian of Java head several degrees to 
the southward of the island and then run north. In March, 
April, and May, the prevailing winds haul to the eastward, 
making a westerly current along the south coast of Java; 
this fact will necessitate keeping well to windward, and 
making the landfall near Klapper point. From April to 
October, or the season of the SW. monsoon, the China sea 
should be entered by Banka or Gaspar strait. If going to . lst - if bound to 
Singapore, Banka strait will be preferable, when the 



are light and unsettled, as the approach to this passage is 



262 FROM EUROPE TO CHINA. 

easy and a ship can anchor anywhere. Stanton channel is 
generally considered the best; it runs along the SW. coast 
of Banka j is 19 miles long, and 3 miles broad in its narrow- 
est part. The depth varies from 7 to 20 fathoms in mid- 
channel. At the SE. extremity the depth is 7 fathoms, and 
20 at the other. Once through, head for Ehio strait. 

With a fresh, steady wind vessels should take Gaspar 
strait. The approach to this strait is dangerous in thick or 
bad weather, and the water very deep.* 

Passage of the sailing-vessel Duperre, Captain Bourgois, 
(Ann. Hyclr., vol. 23,) from the strait of Sunda to Singapore. 
" As the Constantino and Didon had been detained for 
15 days in the strait of Malacca, I decided to take the strait 
of Sunda. Passed safely through. As the water in Banka 
strait is shallow and requires frequent anchorages, and Car- 
imata strait took me too much out of my route, I decided on 
Gaspar. This strait is itself divided into several channels ; 
I ran through the one called Macclesfield. Left Anjer on 
the 16th May with a light breeze from SSW. to SSE., and 
during the night cleared the narrow channel which sepa- 
rates the Two-Brothers island from Schabunder bank. 
Sighted the entrance to Macclesfield strait on the evening 
of the 19th; ran through the next day. The breeze fresh- 
ened as we went to the north, increasing our speed grad- 
ually to 6.5 knots. Barometer about 29 iu .69. At daylight 
on the 23d the Duperre was among the low wooded islands 
of Ehio strait ; picked up a native pilot acquainted with this 
locality and Singapore. Current running at the rate of 
knot against us ; did not clear Pan shoal, at the extremity 
of Ehio strait, till 9 p. in. Afterward passed between Affre 
reef and Johore bank. Made little or no headway during 
the night, the breeze being light and from SE., and the cur- 
rent setting to east. Anchored on the morning of the 24th 
at Singapore. During this 8 days' passage, though the moon 
was new, the sky was generally clear, and the land visible 
during the night ; Enough we had to lie-to 2 or 3 times, we 
did not once anchor." 

if bound to Sal- Vessels taking Gaspar strait should cross the line near 
105 E. If they take Bauka strait, they should pass be- 

* Sailing-vessels bound to Singapore can also cross the line in the In- 
dian ocean at 90 or 92 E., thence they can head to double Sumatra, 
with the SW. monsoon, and take the strait of Malacca. 



FROM EUROPE TO CHINA. 



2C3 



Outer route. 



t \veeii Taya and Toejoe islands, and thence lay a course 
to cross the equator at 105 E. Once past the line 
the course is for Pulo-Aor, keeping well clear of Frederic 
bank, and to eastward of the reefs lying off Bintang. After 
leaving Pulo-Aor finish the voyage as stated in 153. 

When bound to Hong-Kong there is a choice of three 
routes : the inner route, the outer or deep-sea route, and the 
Palawan route. 

On leaving Batika or Gaspar straits in February, March, inner route, 
or April, vessels should take the inner route ; to follow it 
they should first steer for Pulo-Aor ; and thence keep along 
the coast of Cochiri-China, passing W. of Pulo-Sapata and 
the Paracels. Although this is the best route at this season, 
the passage will probably be long and tedious under canvas. 
Complete instructions for the inner route from Pulo-Aor to 
Hong-Kong will be found in 154. 

A ship running clear of Banka or Gaspar, between the 
end of April and the beginning of September, will find the 
outer or deep-sea route preferable. In this case she 
should steer to pass a few miles to the E. of Pulo-Aor, and 
finish the passage in accordance with the instructions given 
in 154; passing E. of Pulo-Sapata, the Catwicks, and 
crossing Macclesfield bank. In order to follow this route 
Pulo-Sapata must be made before the beginning of October. 

A ship running clear of Banka or Gaspar during Septem- 
ber and October, should take the Palawan route. Coming 
from Banka strait, cross the line near 105 E., as before 
stated. Thence steer to pass S. and E. of Barren island ; 
thence E. of Low island and Hutton reef, and run between 
the Auarnbas and Soubi islands. Coming from. Gaspar 
strait, during September and October, shape the course a 
little to eastward of St. Barbe island ; thence head for the 
passage to the east of the Tambelan islands ; rejoin the 
route S. of Low island and Hutton reef, and pass between 
the Auambas and Soubi. For information concerning the 
termination of the route, vide Palawan route in 154. 

150. ROUTE FROM EUROPE TO CHINA, (during the NJE. 
monsoon, from October to April.) As stated in 149, in- 
structions relative to this route will be found in the "Nav- 
igation of the Atlantic." The reader should also refer to 
104 of the present volume. The Indian ocean should be 
crossed between 43 and 45 S. This is the season of the 



to 



Talawan route. 



264 FROM EUROPE TO CHINA. 

southern summer, and a ship can run as far south as 46 or 
48 S., before meeting cold weather. The parallel of 40 
S. should be crossed between 90 and 92 E. ; 30 S. be- 
tween 1050 and 107 E. ; thence the track is through the 
trades, for 20 S. near 112 E.; and for either Bali or Lom- 
bok, Alias, or Sapi straits, as may be thought best. 

There is a choice between three routes at this season, viz : 
The first, by Macassar strait, can be followed in October, 
November, and March ; the second, by Pitt's passage, is the 
surest, especially from the beginning of December to Feb- 
ruary ;. the third passes around the south of Australia, and 
is very little used. It is advantageous for vessels bound to 
Shanghai and Japan, 
ist. The route This route should only be taken in October, November, 

to Hong-Kong by 

Macassar strait, and March. After crossing 20 S. near 112 E. any one of 
the following straits may. be taken, viz : Bali, Lombok, 
Alias, or Sapi. The first two are generally preferred. 

A ship taking Bali strait in September and October should 
bear north and pass between Sapoedie and Giliang, and 
afterward give a wide berth to the Kalkpen reefs and 
islands, situated north of Kangeang, passing them to the 
westward ; Pulo-laut may be passed on either side, as cir- 
cumstances allow. 

The Lombolt-strait route seems to be the best from the 15th 
January to the 1st March. Vessels should keep in the mid- 
channel, between Pandita island, on the W., and Lombok 
island, on the E., and afterward to the eastern side of the 
strait. Once out of this strait the course is NNE. for that 
of Macassar, the track passing between the most western 
island of the Pater-Noster group and Hastings island. Af- 
ter sighting Hastings, head to northward, for the Two- 
Brothers and Great Pulo-laut. 

Vessels choosing Alias strait, should, when clear of it, 
head NNW., and afte'rward JS\ for Hastings island. After 
running east of it they should finish the voyage as if coming 
from Lombok strait. 

On arriving from Sapi strait during the months of Sep- 
tember and October, a ship would, according to the prevail- 
ing winds, pass to the east or west of the Postilions, and 
proceed to the north between Tanakeke and the Tongu 
islands ; then pass at a good distance the isles and banks 



FROM EUROPE TO CHINA. 205 

of Spermonde, and enter Macassar strait near the Celebes 
coast. 

The route through Macassar strait, (Horsburgh, vol. 3.) 
The Pater Noster islands divide this strait into two passages. 
The W. channel is from 30 to 33 miles broad, and the E. 
channel from 45 to 48 miles. The first is the most frequented, 
notwithstanding its dangers, as the depth of the water is 
less on the coast of Borneo, and vessels can anchor all the 
way to 1 N. In October and November the winds are 
exceedingly variable in this channel. 

In the E. channel there is no anchorage on the Celebes 
coast, as the shore is steep-to all the way up the strait; how- 
ever, this seems to be the best passage in October and No- 
vember, when the wind is light from the southward. 

A ship coming from Sapi strait should take the E. channel 
of Macassar strait; and from cape Mandhar to cape Rivers, 
follow the Celebes coast, keeping from 6 to 9 miles off tin- 
land, if the wind be light. But a vessel beating up against 
a head wind and current will have to approach the coast 
much nearer at times, especially in the bay 8. of cape Te- 
rn oel. 

Vessels coming from Bali, Lombok, or Alias strait, and 
wishing to take the W. channel through Macassar strait, 
should double Great- Pulo-Laut to the SE., passing either E. 
or W. of the Alike islands, and thence steer for Shoal point. 
If compelled to beat they should stand on the off-shore tack 
until 12 or 15 miles from the coast, and in 14 or 16 fathoms 
of water, then go about and stand in until about 6 miles 
from shore, and in 7 or 8 fathoms. 

There is generally a southerly current in Macassar strait. 
It is violent in January and February, and moderates in 
March. It sometimes sets to northward in October; this 
is, therefore, the most favorable month for going to China 
by this passage. 

After having passed through Macassar strait, from Sep- 
tember to the beginning of December, and especially in 
September and October, run into the Pacific, between Ce- 
lebes and Mindanao, and then head for Hong- Kong; but 
in March it will be too late to take Pitt strait, or to enter 
the Pacific between Celebes and Mindanao, and the remain- 
der of the voyage will have to be accomplished by running 



266 FROM EUROPE TO CHINA. 

to westward of the Philippines. We therefore have the two 
following routes : 

First route A vessel clearing Macassar, from September to the end of 
strait. November, should enter the Pacific by steering from cape Riv- 

ers to Sangui or Siao, and thence north of Morti. After pass- 
ing between Siao and Tagolanda, or through one of the adja- 
cent passages of Sangui, Horsburgh advises an E. course, 
so as to round the northern extremity of Morti. If the wind 
come out from NE., and the current be southerly, after pass- 
ing S. of Siao, the ship will probably be drifted within sight 
of Gilolo or Morti, and perhaps Meyo and Tyfore islands. 
The southerly current generally ceases near these islands, and 
sets north along the W. coast of Gilolo. Still it i best to 
give Morti and Gilolo islands a wide berth when doubling 
them to the northward, as the southerly current, combined 
with the NB. swell, may sag the ship too close to the shore. 
After doubling Morti island (and. always according to Hors- 
burgh) do not go beyond 4 N. to make the easting, as 
the W. or variable winds appear to be dominant in low 
latitudes. On the contrary, if a ship run into a higher lati- 
tude sh will strike the NE. monsoon. At the commence- 
ment of this monsoon that is, at the season when this 
route should be followed a vessel should keep south of 4 
N. until the Pelew islands can be doubled to the eastward, 
and then bear N. In case of doubt it will be best to sight 
the most southern one of these islands, and then run up to 
westward of the group. In November, December, and Jan- 
uary the wind is generally strong, and 'from NE., between 
the Pelew islands and Luzon ; and, as the currents also set 
to W., it is necessary to make plenty of easting, in order 
to clear the N. point of Luzon and the Babuyans. As the 
wind and current are less violent in February and March, it 
will be safe to pass W. of the Pelew islands. 

As an indorsement to this last observation we will quote, 
a few pages further on, the opinion of Captain Polack, who 
advises vessels leaving Gilolo passage not to lose time 
making to the eastward, but to bear north immediately, 
and keep along the coast of Luzon. According to this nav- 
igator it is useless to go toward the Pelew islands, unless 
for north winds. But we would draw the reader's attention 
to the fact that Captain Polack's observations refer to the 
passage from Gilolo to Bashees, which is generally made in 



FROM EUROPE TO CHINA. 207 

January, February, and March, when Horsburgh himself 
maintains that the W. currents and NE. winds are more 
moderate, and adds, " that vessels may pass W. of the 
Pelew islands." 

On clearing the strait of Macassar in March and April a second route 
ship should pass W. of the Philippines; and, after leav- strait, 
ing cape Donda, steer for the E. extremity of Basilan, being 
careful that the westerly current aud east winds do not 
drift her upon the Sulu chain of islands. 

In Basilan strait keep close to the coast of Mindanao, 
thus avoiding the shallow water off the Santa Cruz 
islands. By following this advice a ship can anchor, if 
necessary, off Samboangau, or on the coast of Mindanao, 
when she will have nothing to fear but the fishing stakes, 
as the dangers are well beaconed. The tides are here alter- 
nately strong and weak ; the currents are generally very 
strong, and set sometimes to E., and sometimes to W., 
changing suddenly from one direction to the other. 

Stand to the northward from Basilan, aud keep near to 
the west coasts of Mindinao, Negros, Panay, Mindoro, and 
Luzon. While coasting these islands, from November to 
April, variable land and sea breezes will probably be expe- 
rienced, although the direction of the dominant wind is N. 

Between Miudiuao and Negros, and between Payua and 
Mindoro, look out for the strong NE. winds aud W. currents, 
which sweep through these passages, and may drift the 
ship near the Cagayanes. Being abreast of point Balago- 
nan, (lat. 7 46' 30" 'K, long. 122 E.,) with a steady SVV. 
or S. wind, steer a direct course for point Naso, keeping a 
little to the eastward. If the winds are unsettled, light, 
and variable, keep along the coast of Mindinao to point 
Galera, or thereabout, prior to stretching off from that coast 
for point Naso ; and, in crossing, endeavor to approach the 
west coast of Negros island. On leaving Panay head the 
ship for Ylin and Ambolon islands, and give a wide berth 
to the Buffaloes and the sand-bank off the Semirara islands- 

When within 18 miles of Ambolon and Yliu islands stand 
to the westward, and keep 12 or 13 miles from that coast 
until the southern extremity of the islands bears SE. by E. 
\ E. Double the reefs lying west of these islands to the 
northward, and approach Mindoro if the ship is to take the 
E. channel between Mindoro and Appo shoal. Keep about 



268 FKOM EUROPE TO CHINA. 

G miles from the islets off Paridan poiut, especially during 1 
the night; the E. extremity of Appo shoal being narrow 
and difficult to see if the wind is from the west. There are 
no breakers over the shoal. 

The west channel of Mindoro strait is known as Northum- 
berland passage, and is perhaps the best. It is from 15 to 
18 miles broad. A vessel can here sight the Appo islands, 
and, if deemed advisable, run within a mile of the west 
coast of the largest of this group. 

HoSg-Kon? b * This route should be taken from the beginning of Decem- 
pitt passage. b er to February. Pitt passage is bounded on the W. by Bol - 
ton island; on the E. by Batauta and Salawati islands; on 
the N. by the Xallas and Obi Major ; and on the S.by Bouro 
and Geram. It was followed for the first time by Gaptain 
Wilson, commanding the Pitt, in 1758. It has three commu- 
nications with the Pacific, viz: Gilolo strait, between Gilolo 
and Waygiou islands; Dampier strait, between Waygiou 
and Batanta; and Pitt strait, between Batanta and Sala- 
wati. Vessels corning from Europe should ordinarily take 
Ombay strait, leaving Sandalwood island to north, and 
thence, running between Timor arid Ombay, pass the east- 
ern extremity of Ombay, stand north close-hauled on the port 
tack, with the NW. monsoon, and thus endeavor to double 
Bouro to windward; that is, to westward. If they do not 
fetch to windward, the passage east of the island and west 
of Manipa can be used. Thence head EXE. so as to pass 
E. of Obi-Major, and through Gilolo or Dampier strait. 
.This route can be followed after the 15th ISTovember, and is 
probably the best during December, January, and February. 
Pitt strait, between Batanta and Salawati, is rarely used. 

Gilolo strait is to be preferred toward the end of Novem 
ber and during December, as the NE. wind is not then very 
fresh in that locality. It can also be taken in March when 
the NE. winds begin to moderate. It is broader than Dam- 
pier strait, and the shore near the islands is clean and 
steep-to, enabling a ship to beat through at night. The 
currents are rarely strong. As the NE. wind is often fresh 
in Gilolo strait during the months of January and February, 
and the Pacific swell heavy, it is best to take Dampier 
strait, where the wind is sometimes variable and favorable. 
But it should be remembered that there are in this locality 
several dangers, lying in deep water; that the tides are 



FROM EUROPE TO CHINA. 209 

very strong, and that vessels should keep close to poiut 
I'igot, so as not to be set toward the coast of New Guinea. 

Alter passing east of Obi-Major (in December and March) 1st. The rap- 
steer so as to double the southern extremity of Pulo GassesiokTstiJit!^ 
very close aboard ; while passing between Pulo Gassesand Ke- 
kik remember that the current often sets to east. After doub- 
ling the former island the highest of the Dammer isles will 
come in sight; (at a distance it has the form of a saddle;) 
thence run between Gebe island and poiut Tabo, (Gilolo.) 
Look out for Fairway ledge and the Weedah islands, if this 
passage be made during the night. As the currents often 
set to NE. and E., keep on the west side of the channel if the 
wind be light. If the wind be NNW., and the vessel can- 
not double Gebe to northward, pass between it and Gagy, 
and run into the Pacific, leaving the Syang islands to the 
eastward, if possible. If unable to double the Asia islands 
to northward, run between them and the Aiu isles; if abso- 
lutely necessary, the passage between the north coast of 
Waigiu and the Aiu islands can be taken. Thence steer 
east, keeping south of 3 N., and between 1 30' and 2 N., 
if possible, until the ship reaches 130 E., when let her run 
east of the Pelew islands, from October and December, and 
close to the westward of them from January to March. 
Horsburgh thinks that there are N. and NW. winds and 
S. and SE. currents between 1 30' and 2 IS. Beyond 3 
X. the winds are from NE. and the currents set to E., and 
even to the northward of E. When the NE. monsoon is 
well settled, they sometimes set to the westward. 

The Dampier-strait route is taken in January and Feb- M< The pa6 . 
ruary. Once to the east of Gomouo, shape the course for Dopier ^tr^t* 
the passage between Pulo-Popa and the Bu isles. There is 
also a good passage south of Pulo-Popa, and between it and 
the Kanari isles. 

If the wind be from NW., the passage north of Pulo-Popa 
is the best. To follow it, round the low chain of islands,* 
situated NW. and WNW. of cape Mabo. When this cape 
bears S. keep 9 miles from Batanta, and do not let Pigeon 
island bear to east of ENE., as there are banks along the 
north coast of the channel. When 9 or 12 miles NE. of 
Fisher island the ship will be on soundings, but the bottom 
off the Batanta coast is foul, and if compelled to anchor till 

* Probably the Tarneay isles. Translator. 



270 FROM EUROPE TO CHINA. 

the tide turns use a stream-anchor or a kedge. When stand- 
ing along the west coast of Batanta, at a distance of 8 or 9 
miles, steer NE., keeping Augusta bearing nearly NE. by 
E. If Mansfield island is visible keep it nearly in range 
with the southern point of Fowl island, and run south of all 
the shoal water. 

When Augusta island bears N. by E., distant 4 or 5 miles, 
steer a little more to the northward, and pass 2 or 3 miles 
south of Pigeon island, and keep well to W. and N. of Van- 
sittart shoal. To clear it the ship must be more than 4 
miles from Fowl island, when she raises it between E. and 
SSE. Then lay an E. course and keep north of a line join- 
ing Fowl and Mansfield islands. 

A ship clearing Dampier straits in December and January 
will be exposed to heavy northerly squalls and an accom- 
panying swell. It is, therefore, best to keep within 2 or 
3 miles of the small islands off Pigot point; then keep 
Pigot point, or the islet close to it, bearing west of W. 30 
S. until they are out of sight. By following this precaution 
Buccleugh shoal will be avoided. Thence head NB., if the 
wind permit, and clear the coast of New Guinea well to 
windward. 

According to Horsburgh, vessels wishing to pass east of 
the Pelews should run east, between 1 30' and 3 N., until 
near 136 E. A good weatherly ship can, however, even 
in November and December, pass close to westward of the 
group. Between the Bashees and the Pelews the current is 
generally westerly, with a speed of from 10 to 15 miles per 
day; the wind NE., and the sea heavy, especially in Decem- 
ber, January, and the beginning of February. Near Luzon, 
the Bashees, and Formosa, typhoons are rare after the mouth 
of December, (vide 20.) In February and March a vessel 
can easily run west of the Pelews, and weather the northern 
point of Luzon, as the trades often haul to ENE. 
The end of the The northern extremity of Luzon once cleared, take 

Y0y3.6. 

any of the channels between the Babuyaus and Bashees, 
except at the beginning of the monsoon, and when the 
winds are from NE., in which case run north of the Bashees 
and either north or south of Gadd rock. In clear iveather 
and in the day-time vessels pass between the south point of 
Formosa and the Vele-Rete rocks. Between Formosa and 
China the prevailing wind is northerly. But during the 



FROM EUROPE TO CHINA. 



271 



Captain 



night or in bad weather the Bashees must be doubled to 
the northward, and the ship kept well south of the Gadd 
and Vele-Rete rocks. In all cases try to sight Pedra-Brauca 
or the China coast, and keep the lead going during the 
night. Enter Canton river by the Leina channel. 

We give below the observations of Captain Polack, com- 
manding the barque Esmeralda, (Ann. Hydr., vol. 23.) It 
will be noticed that his advice differs materially from Hors- 
burgh's instructions for this route. 

u The passage from Hamburg to Hong-Kong was accoin- The 
plished in 112 days. I was 10 days in going from Gilolo IScif 
passage to the Bashees, and did not attempt to make any 
easting; while three other vessels, at the same time, took 
respectively 13, 15, and 16 days to make the run from Gilolo 
to the Pelew islands. Two Siamese captains told me that, 
although they often made this voyage, they never attempted 
to run to the eastward, but always bore right away north, 
during the NE. monsoon. They thus had no difficulty in 
reaching the Bashees, and always had a great advantage 
over those who sighted the Pelew islands. Consequently, 
it is advisable to make to the northward as soon as possi- 
ble. In 10 days I encountered eight times a NW. current, 
and twice a NE. current, with rates of from 22 to 50 miles 
per day. It is, moreover, a known fact that vessels bound 
from Hong-Kong to Shanghai, during the NE. monsoon, 
pass east of Formosa, and beat up with the Kuro Siwo in 
their favor. Why, therefore, should you lose time by run- 
ning for the Pelews, when you can bear north under the 
east coast of the Philippines, where the current is favor- 
able ? It should be well understood, however, that if you 
find a favorable wind for making easting on leaving Gilolo 
passage, the ship should be headed about NE., but not E.; 
because it is always prudent to clear the zone of calms as 
soon as possible." 

Although this route is rarely used, it may be taken with 3d . Rou te to 
advantage, under certain contingencies, in time, of war, for 

instance. Australia. 

Horsburgh quotes the passage of the Walpole, which left 
the cape of Good Hope on the 21st September, 1794, 
doubled Van Dieinen's Land on the 31st October, passed 
east of New Caledonia, and arrived at Canton on the 5th 
January, 1795. 



2,2 FROM EUROPE TO CHINA. 

He also cites the Atheuienne, which vessel doubled the 
island of St. Paul on the llth October, 1804 ; entered Bass 
strait on the 28th of the same month ; and after running 
east of New Caledonia, reached Pedra-Brauca on the 28th 
December. 

We think that this route can be advantageously followed 
by vessels bound to Shanghai, during the season of the NE. 
monsoon of the China sea; and we deem it the best route 
at this time for ships bound to Yokohama. 

Vessels should first steer as stated in 104, and afterward 
follow the instructions given in 139 and 173. The reader 
should refer especially to the description of the two easterly 
routes, given in 173. The second of these routes passes 
between Xew Caledonia and the Fijis, and is generally pre- 
ferred by ships coming from Europe or Port Adelaide. 
Koute from EU- , Vessels l)ound to Singapore should, if possible, cross the 
an d Singapore tropic of Capricorn, in the Indian ocean, east of 82 E., and 
he mon- thence set the course a little to eastward of Eugano island, 
so as not to fetch to leeward, that is to eastward, of Java 
head or Palembang. The easterly currents and west winds 
are strong in these localities. After running through the 
strait of Sunda, (especially with an auxiliary steamer,) 
either Banka or Duriaii strait can be taken. It often hap- 
pens that sailing-vessels have to pass through Gaspar strait. 
In this case a sharp lookout must be kept during murky or 
overcast weather. The line should be crossed near St. 
Barbe islaiid, and Singapore strait made with the ETE. 
monsoon. 

Auxiliary-steam vessels bound to Saigon should, if pressed 
for time, take the inner route given in 149 and 153, and 
steam against the monsoon ; they can touch at Singapore, 
in which case they should run through Banka or Durian 
strait. 

Sailing-vessels bound to Saigon should take the route by 
Macassar, already described in this paragraph. They should 
ascend the Sulu sea and enter the China sea by Mindoro 
strait. They should cross the China sea, and head for Cape 
Padaran, making a good allowance for the current, and 
keeping well to windward of all dangers the Trident, 
Alexander, Minerva shoals, etc. 

For information concerning the termination of the voyage 
vide 167. We would observe that the route by Macassar 



FROM CHINA TO EUROPE. 273 

strait is a bad one in December, January, and February. 
Vessels bound to Saigon should not reach these waters at 
that season. 

151. ROUTE FROM CHINA TO EUROPE, (during the NE. 
monsoon, from October to April.} From September to the 
end of February vessels descend the China sea by the inner 
route, described in 1G7. This route seems preferable at 
this season, as it is shorter, and a ship can scud, in case she 
finds violent NE. winds on leaving the Great Ladrone. On 
the contrary, if the outer route be taken, a ship will, under 
like circumstances, have the wind and sea abeam, and be 
exposed to much danger, especially if ladened deeply. 

The track for March and April runs by Macclesfield bank 
and east of Sapafca, when it joins the outer route, described 
in 167. Quicker passages are made by this route at this 
season, as it keeps well to the eastward in the China sea. 

In all cases, the entrance to the Indian ocean is made by 
the strait of Sunda. 

Vessels should keep a trifle to eastward of 105 E. while 
crossing the equator, and run through Banka strait, when 
they come from the inner route; still Caspar can be used, 
in which case, after leaving Pulu Aor, the course is 15 or 
18 miles east of Toty island, and thence for the strait. 
Coming from the outer route the rule is to take Caspar 
strait, as it offers the most direct voyage ; still it is a dan- 
gerous passage, and there are many instances of shipwreck 
in that locality. Macclesfield and Stolze channels are the 
best. On the homeward passage from Singapore either Khio 
or Durian and then Banka strait are taken. Vessels leaving 
Saigon should reach Pulo Aor, as stated in 170, and then 
take Banka strait. 

Once clear of the strait of Sunda lay the course with the 
variable N W. winds, to pass east of the Keeling islands, and 
reach, as soon as possible, the parallel on which it is the 
intention to run down the longitude. The trades will be 
found steady between 18 and 19 S., except from February 
to May, when they are settled at 15 S. It is best to pass 
about 240 miles east of Rodriguez island, so as to avoid, as 
much as possible, the zone of cyclones, which are to be 
feared until April. Thence pass about 100 miles south of 
Madagascar. After reaching 26 or 26 30' S., head WSW. 
and sight the African coast near Port Natal or Algoa bay, 
18 N 



274 FROM CHINA TO EUROPE. 

For further instructions vide the " Navigation of the At- 
lantic." 

152 ' KOUTE FROM CHINA TO EUROPE, (during the SW. 

monsoon from April to October.} Ships should return to 
Europe, at this season, by one of the easterly routes described 
below. 

After leaving Hong-Kong about the end of April or the 
beginning of May they should take the first easterly route, 
follow the west coast of the Philippines, and take Mindoro 
and Basil an straits. Thence they can either run through 
Macassar and the strait of Sundaj Molucca passage, Salayer 
and Lombok straits ; Molucca passage and Oinbay strait, or 
finally passing the Sevangani islands, Gilolo passage, the 
strait between Burn and Mauipa, and Ombay strait. 

Vessels leaving Hong-Kong, from the 15th May to the end 
of July, can take the second easterly route, and enter the 
Pacific north of Luzon. Pass east of the Philippines and 
make Pitt passage by either Gilolo or Dainpier straits. 

It is not advisable to leave Hong-Kong in August unless 
absolutely necessary, or in a well-fitted-out and weatherly 
ship. However, if it be decided to sail during this month, 
take the inner route, follQwiug the coast of Cochin-China, 
as stated in 167. The inner route will also be easy to follow 
after the 1st of September, (vide 151.) 

Starting from Saigon, conform to the instructions given in 
170. 

Starting from Singapore, it is generally best to run through 
Durian and Bauka straits. 

In all cases, after the Indian ocean is once reached, run 
down the SB. trades, with the wind free on the port tack, 
and reach 19 or 20 S. near 82 E. Make the westing on 
this latitude, as the trades are here steady, and pass about 
120 miles east of Eodriguez, then about 100 miles S. of 
Madagascar. When about 26 or 26 30' S. steer WSW. 
and sight the African coast near Port Natal or Algoa bay. 
Once around the cape of Good Hope follow the instructions 
in the " Navigation of the Atlantic." 

We will now give Horsburgh's instructions on the two 
easterly routes : 

roite, when 6 yoJ " Departing from the Grand Ladrone in May, steer south- 
b e e a tw^ n on the K i 5tS ward to the Macclesfield bank. Then steer to the SE. by 
i5th il May *J? the wind; although unable to weather point Calavitte, 

ater. 



FROM CHINA TO EUROPE. 275 

variable winds may be expected near the coast of Luzon to 
carry you round the NW. end of Mindoro. If you adopt 
the eastern strait, or that formed between Mindoro and 
Appo shoal, keep within 10 miles of the coast in passing the 
latter in day-time. Keep about 15 miles from the islands 
Ambolon and Ylin in passing, when their southern extrem- 
ity bears between SE. by E. E. and ENE., to give a berth 
to coral shoals which lie to the westward of them. 

" Northumberland strait, or that formed between Appo 
shoal and the Calamiaues, should be chosen if the wind 
admit.' 7 

Whatever passage may have been taken when the wind 
is from W., and you have raised the southern extremity of 
the Calamianes, 16 or 18 miles to the westward, head S. by 
E. or SSE. and run toward Quinuluban island, to pass 
to the westward of Dry Sand bank. Thence bear S. along 
the west coast of Panay, with the prevailing S. to W. winds. 
The weather is frequently cloudy and rainy when these 
winds blow. The currents are moderate and sometimes set 
E. between Negros and the N. of Mindanao. 

After leaving Kaso point, if possible, head SSW., unless 
the wind is from E., in which case stand for point Balago- 
iian. After reaching the SW. extremity of Mindanao run 
for Basilan strait. 

Route by Macassar. After leaving Basilau pass through 
Macassar strait, especially if bound to Batavia or through 
the strait of Sunda. European-bound vessels, taking this 
route, should shape their course as stated in 167, and thus 
sight Tanjong Kauiongan and run down the west coast of 
Celebes east of the Little Pater Noster group. Thence they 
should attempt to fetch Alias strait, which can rarely be 
done without tacking, in order to double theKalkoen islands 
and the shoals to eastward. Just here is the real difficulty 
of the Macassar route, as vessels generally have to work to 
windward at this season to reach Alias strait. Molucca 
passage is therefore perhaps preferable for a sailing-vessel, 
as it will enable her to strike the SE. monsoon well to wind- 
ward. 

Eoute by Molucca to Gilolo passage. After leaving Basilan 
steer for the KE. extremity of Celebes, pass between Banka 
and Bejaren ; thence bear south and run through the chan- 
nel between Lisa-matula and Obi Major, or through Grey- 



276 FROM CHINA TO EUROPE. 

hound strait. The currents in the Molucca passage gener- 
ally set to the N. ; they are not, however, steady, and the 
head winds are light and variable. 

Vessels arriving off the N. extremity of Gilolo or Morty, 
and finding the monsoon strong from SW., will do well to 
take Gilolo strait instead of the Molucca passage, (vide sec- 
ond easterly route.) 

The Molucca passage may be pursued, keeping close to 
Obi Major and passing E. of Buru, and between it and 
Marripa.* 

Thence, if the prevailing ESE. winds allow, run to wind- 
ward of Ombay, between that island and Wetta. Follow 
the NW. coast of Timor, and enter the Pacific by the pas- 
sage between Semao and Savu. 

If unable to fetch to windward of Ombay, run through 
Alloo or Flores strait. Bat, these passages being narrow 
and subject to rapid currents, it is preferable, under such 
circumstances, to keep along the north coast of Flores, on 
the parallel of 8 S., thus avoiding the shoal water near the 
coast of this large island. The vessel can afterward enter 
the Pacific by Sapi strait, 
sa. Easterly After clearing Lema channel, head S., and thus place the 

route, when you . .... , , , . ,, . ,. 

leave from the vessel in good position for entering the Pacific, if possible, 
May\o July. by the channel between the Babuyans and Bashees. SE. 
winds may be expected between Luzon and Formosa; ty- 
phoons are also common in this locality, (vide 20.) Once 
within the limits of the Pacific, SW. winds and NE. or E. 
currents, with a rate of from 8 to 10 miles per day, may be 
looked for. After standing SE. and giving cape Engano 
and Luzon a wide berth, pass W. of the Pelew islands, if 
the wind permit, and a little to E. of "Saint Andrew and 
Mariere islands and Helen reef. The currents are not very 
strong north of the latitude of the southern extremity of the 
Pelew group. But south of 6 N., and particularly between 
5 and 2 N., during June, July, and August, an easterly 
current, varying from 30 to 60 miles per day, may be ex- 
pected. Cross this zone as quickly as possible on a S. or 
SW. course, and, if drifted very far to the eastward, seek 
the westerly currents, which prevail between 2 N. and the 
equator. These have a speed of from 15 to 30 or even 40 

* If you cannot run E. of Buru, double the W. extremity of the island, 
as stated under the head of the second easterly route. 



FROM CHINA TO EUROPE. 277 

miles per day near New Guinea and the N. coast of Way- 
giou. Near the entrance of Dampier strait the current sets 
to the east. 

The best route is through Gilolo channel, and to follow 
it a vessel should, after reaching 2 N., steer for the Asia 
islands, rounding them to north ward if possible; if not, to 
southward, between them and the Aiu islands. Afterward 
double Eye and Syang islands, and pass Gebe on either 
side, unless the weather is uncertain, when run west of this 
island. Thence a vessel will have to keep a little east of 
S., to allow for the westerly current, which prevails oft' the 
southern extremity of Gilolo. Finally enter Pitt passage by 
the large channel, between Pulo Pisang and the Bu islands, 
or by the passage between Kekik and Pulo Gasses, and 
after running between Buru and Manipa, make for Ombay 
strait. But, if unable to reach the passage east of Buru, 
or, as sometimes happens, the wind comes out strong from 
S., follow the north coast of Buru and run west of that 
island. Then, if the ship be kept close to the wind, she 
may still fetch Ombay strait. Look out for the St. Mathew 
and Welthoen islands, while standing between the west 
extremity of Buru and Ombay on the port tack. Make 
Ombay strait if possible; if impossible, run through one of 
the straits to westward Sapi strait is the best. Instruc- 
tions are also given on the last part of this voyage under 
the head of the " First easterly route." 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Routes to the northward in the China sea. 

153. BOUTE FROM SINGAPORE TO SAIGON. The fol- 
lowing quotation is from the Annales Hydrographiques, voL 
23. and is a description of this routs given by Captain Lof- 
tus, of the Kensington: 

" ^ n ^ eav i n g Singapore in December, January, or Feb- 
ruary, it is advisable when the wind is strong from NE. to 
anchor under the lee of the Water islands in 9 or 10 fath- 
oms. While these gales prevail it is generally rainy for 2 
or 3 days. At the same time, the currents outside the 
straits set to SSE., with a speed of 2.5 or 3 knots. If once 
under way the port tack will take the vessel well to leeward 
of St. Barbe island ; navigators are thus enabled to beat up 
under the west coast of Borneo. After these NE. ivinds the 
weather is generally fine ; the wind shifts to N. and NW., 
and the current in the offing has a rate of only 1^ knots. 
The best time to heave up anchor at the Water islands is at 
the beginning of the ebb; the course thence is NE., rap-full, 
so as to pass between Subi or Low island and the Great 
Natunas. This is easy to accomplish at full and new moon, 
as the wind after several hours of calm often hauls to the 
west with rain-squalls, then shifts to S W. and S., from which 
point it blows moderately for about 26 hours. Vessels tak- 
ing advantage of these circumstances, and passing to wind- 
ward of Subi, will avoid the difficult channels which sepa- 
rate that island from the NW. coast of Borneo. If able to 
reach Low island, (107 48' E.,) and if the wind is steady 
from E., head about N. on the starboard tack, and keep at 
least 3 miles W. of the SW. coast of Low island. Thence 
continue to run N., and give Haycock island a berth of at 
least 3 or 4 miles, thus avoiding a coral bank which extends 
for more than 3 miles from its SW. shore. During the 
night it is dangerous to run east of this island. After pass- 
ing Low and Haycock islands, no difficulty will be ex- 
perienced in beating up for the SW. point of the Great 



FROM SINGAPORE TO SAIGON. 279 

Natuua, as the islands break the force of the SW. current. 
If the weather be fine a land-breeze will be found at night 
off the S. coast of Great Natuna, but do not get closer than 
2 or 3 miles if the wind be light, as the water is deep and 
affords no anchorage. Between Great Natuna and South 
Natuna, the passage is about 50 miles broad and clear of 
dangers. Koti passage, between Pulo Pujang and Sirhas- 
san, is equally good and about 10 miles broad. There is 
another good channel south of Sirhassan ; it is not as broad, 
but by keeping close to the south coast of the island all 
dangers will be avoided. Api passage is the worst of all 
for a large ship, as the currents are irregular and sometimes 
set to SW. with great force ; besides, she will have to beat 
through it close under the Borneo coast in 10 or 11 fathoms 
of water in order to avoid the current and take advantage 
of the land-breeze. Very strong squalls from SE. are, more- 
over, common in this locality; they are preceded by black 
rain-clouds and last about 2 hours, the wind hauling to the 
E. as they pass over. 

"If the north wind holds as far as West island after 
leaving the straits, take Koti passage, keeping a good dis- 
tance from Pulo-Pujang in order to avoid the reef situated 
south of Flat island. The coast of Sirhassau can be ap- 
proached from the northward, as there are no dangers in 
that locality. After clearing the passage do your best to 
reach 112 E.; this will be easy to accomplish, as the wind 
is often N. and NNW. near these islands ; but beyond cape 
Sirik (about 111 E.) the wind generally hauls to N. and 
NE. Thence, stand on the starboard tack, under all plain 
sail, for cape Tiwane, on the coast of Cochin-China. The cur- 
rent will be trifling until the west coast of the banks and 
7 N. is passed ; but farther north and until the mouth of 
the Cambodia bears W., distant about 70 miles, SW. 
currents exist, running at a speed of 3 knots during the 
strong winds which blow at the beginning of the monsoon- 

"Toward the end of March and in April, east winds are 
often found to the eastward of the Anambas islands ; these 
will be kept as far as the Brothers, about 24 miles W. by 
S. of Pulo Condore. Beat up inside of this island as far as 
cape St. James, keeping close to the coast of Cambodia, 
which is very low and hard to see during the night. After 
the mouths of the Cambodia are opened, the ebb tide sets 



280 FROM SINGAPORE TO SAIGON. 

to windward, and is consequently very favorable for vessels 
skirting the land on the starboard tack ; on the other hand? 
they should not approach the mouths of the river during 
the flood, nor get inside of 11 fathoms during the night- 
The land can be seen for 10 miles from deck on a clear day. 
Keep the lead going when on the shore tack. 

" In May, vessels make the quickest passage from Singa- 
pore to Saigon by keeping along the coast of the Malay 
peninsula and crossing the gulf of Siam. At this season 
squalls, calms, rain, and a light NE. current are often found 
off the gulf. 

" In December, January, February, and sometimes in March, 
vessels are exposed to gales from NE. and NNE. between 
Pulo-Sapata (109 E.) and the coast of Cochiu-China. They 
can be foretold by a gradual rise of the barometer and last 
2 or 3 days, with a heavy sea and strong current ; the ba- 
rometer begins to fall before the end of the gale; the sky 
is overcast and heavy. If the laud has been seen, and the 
meridian of cape St. James can be made during the gales. 
run for Pulo-Condore and find a sheltered anchorage in 
Great bay. If the wind be E., vessels will find a more 
snug anchorage at the harbor of Pulo-Condore, situated be- 
tween the western extremity of the largest islands and 
Little Condore. 

"Coming from the south during the NE. monsoon, make 
the landfall well to windward and thus avoid being carried 
too close to Bassok bank and to leeward of cape St. James 
by the flood tide and permanent SW. by W. coast current. 
The ebb tide is strong and to NE. by E. ; at full and 
change it commences to run out of the river about mid- 
night. In fine weather the wind commences about 90 miles 
from land to haul to ENE. and E. after 4 p. m., and is 
quite fresh and squally during the night. Should the ship 
be to leeward or on the meridian of cape St. James while 
running for the land, the ebb tide will set her to windward 
of cape Tiwan by morning. This cape can be seen for 40 
miles. It bears E. 19 N. from cape St. James, distant 13 
miles, and is generally the first land sighted coming from 
the south. Being abreast of cape Tiwan, cape St. James 
looks like two low islands. There is a fixed white light on 
this cape elevated 483 feet and visible 28 miles in clear 
weather, (HP 20' N., 107 05' E.) Cape St. James is the 
first land sighted when coming from SW. 



FROM SINGAPORE TO HONGKONG. 281 

"During tins season the wind blows from SE. to W. in ^d. Dunne the 

?5 w. monsoon. 

the strait of Singapore; consequently, vessels can easily 
make to the eastward. Once clear of the strait they should 
lay a course that will take them between the Brothers and 
the western extremity of Pulo-Condore. Due allowance 
should be made for the current while crossing the gulf of 
Siam, as it sets to E. at about 26 miles per day in this 
locality. This current is strongest in June, July, and 
August, at which season there are strong W. squalls, heavy 
thunder, violent lightning, and plenty of rain. The wind 
remains steady at W. for 24 hours after these squalls, then 
hauls to SW. and moderates. When the western extremity 
of Pulo-Coudore bears S., and the wind is W., and the cur- 
rent setting to the east, head N. for the bar at the mouth of 
the Cambodia. As the rapid currents from this and the 
Saigon rivers join with the regular easterly current, it is 
best to keep near the edge of the bar so as not to be set to 
leeward of the meridian of cape St. James. Keep the lead 
going, and when less than 10 fathoms are found edge away 
to the eastward, and thus raise cape St. James to NNE.; 
thence, head a little above it and run clear of the coral 
bank lying SW. by W. of the cape." 
154. ROUTE FROM SINGAPORE TO HONG-KONG. it. During the 

o >V. niODSoon. 

We give below three different routes : 1st, the inner route, 
followed by vessels starting in March, April, and May; 
2d, the outer route, used from the end of May to the begin- 
ning of October; 3d, the route by Palawan passage, to be 
followed after the 15th October. 

The inner route runs along the coast of Cochin-China, 
and passes W. of the Paracels. The outer route passes E. 
of Pulo-Sapata, and crosses Maedesfield bank. The third 
route follows the W. coast of Palawan island, and the 
northern part of Luzon. Most of the following observations 
are from Horslurgh. He advises this route for March, T **^ Tbe inner 
April, and May, and adds that it will be preferable even in 
June and July if your ship is in bad condition. He re- 
marks that the NW. and W. gales, which come from the 
gulf of Tonquiu, are not very frequent, and that by taking 
this route, disabled vessels will be almost continually in 
sight of laud. 

Vessels deciding on the inner route should, after leaving 
Pulo-Aor, run along the land as far as the Eedang islands, 



282 FROM SINGAPORE TO HONG-KONG. 

then cross the entrance to the gulf of Siain. Thence double 
Pulo-Obi, and follow the coasts of Cambodia and Cochiii- 
China as far as cape Tourou. Prom this point make for 
the SW. point of Hainan, and skirt the eastern coast of 
that island to its NE. extremity, passing west of the Taya 
islands. Then, stand for the China coast near Hai-ling-shan. 
According to Horsburgh, all the islands lying between 
Tien Pak, Hai-ling-shan and Macao can be approached 
without danger ; there are also several harbors of refuge in 
this locality. Typhoons are common after April, (vide 
20.) The reader should also refer to the instructions of 
M. Noel, given in 157. 

sd. The outer A vessel running out of Singapore, from the end of May 
to the beginning of October, should, when a trifle to east- 
ward of Pulo-Aor, head for Pulo-Sapata, making due 
allowance for the easterly current which comes from the 
gulf of Siam. Horsburgh advises large vessels to steer 
NNE. after leaving Pulo-Aor, and until they reach the 
latitude of Charlotte bank. Thence they should head NE. 
by N., and sight Pulo-Sapata, and, after passing about 15 
or 20 miles east of this island, stand about NE. N. , allow- 
ing for the easterly current; soundings may be obtained 
over the Macclesfield bank. The course from this point to 
the Great Ladrone is N. by W. ; but when it blows fresh 
from S. or SW., keep this island to the north of N. by E. 
It will likewise be prudent not to sight the land west of 
Great Ladrone, and to keep clear of St. John island. 

Vessels should not take this outer route unless certain of 
reaching Pulo-Sapata by the first of October. Toward the 
middle of October the currents about this island set strongly 
to the southward, and the northerly winds are often light 
or variable. A ship taking the outer route, and reaching 
Pulo-Sapata after the 1st October, should not stand to the 
eastward until she reaches 13 or rather 14 K, when, the 
wind being from the north ward and eastward, all the shoals 
will be passed to northward, provided long stretches to 
northward and short ones to southward be taken while 
beating over for the Luzon coast. Finish the voyage as in 
the route by Palawan passage, by running up the coast of 
Luzon to beyond cape Bolinao. 

It is imprudent, especially at the end of October and in 



FROM SINGAPORE TO HONG-KONG. 283 

November, to approach the China coast to westward of the 
Great Ladrone. 

Passage of the Duperre, Captain Bourgois, (Ann. Hydr., 
vol. 23.) Left Singapore on the 25th May with a variable 
breeze from S. to ESE. Experienced near Pedra-Brnnca 
light a strong squall from WNW., after which the wind 
shifted to S\V. and SSE. Gentle and light breeze from 
SSE. till the 30th May, position GO N. and about 108 E., 
when the wind hauled to WSW., and died away at S. on 
the following days. Position on the 3d June, 12 40' K 
and 112 10' E.; light breeze from SE. ; next day it shifted 
to NE., by the east, and after jumping around to SW. in a 
light squall, once more came out from SE. after a few hours' 
calm. From the 5th to the 6th moderate wind from S. to 
NE. ; coppery clouds, and a typhoon sky. On the 7th, 
violent squalls and rain in torrents ; then the wind hauled 
to S. and moderated. The weather grew fine and we cleared 
Macclesfield bank. On the 9th, light variable breeze from 
SSW. ; 10th and llth, calms and light airs from W. to 
NNW.; on the 12th, fine weather and light west wind; 
passed east of the Lema islands; beat up between them 
and Potoe island; crossed with everything "touching" 
the narrow channel between Lema and Hong-Kong islands; 
doubled Kellett bank to the north ; and anchored off Hong- 
Kong in the evening. 

On departing from Pulo Aor after the beginning of Octo- M . The route 
ber pass south of the South Anambas, Low island, andjj g ala 
Great Natuua, then head NE., so as to pass between Louisa 
and Koyal Charlotte banks. Afterward edge away to 
ENE. so as to keep clear of both the Viper shoals, and to 
sight Balambangan. With a S. wind pass from 24 to 27 
miles from this island ; but when the wind is from W. keep 
about 45 miles off, and head for Balabac island, rounding it 
at a distance of 27 or 30 miles ; finally if the wind be east- 
erly keep closer to both Balambangan and Balabac, as a 
strong westerly current runs out of the strait when the 
wind is from that direction. A vessel standing NNE after 
leaving Balabac will pass well clear of the banks around 
Palawan island, and to W. of Half-Moon, Investigator, 
Bombay, and Carnatic shoals. The channel is 27 or 30 
miles broad ; and it is well to sound during the night, 
especially between 9 and 10 K, as in many places there 



284 FROM SINGAPORE TO HONG-KONG. 

is a depth of 50 fathoms close to the edge of the shoals. It 
is best to pass the SW. extremity of Palawan at about 30 
miles, if the wind will permit, and keep along the coast at 
the same distance. A sharp lookout should be kept for the 
shoals and rocks, which extend for 15 or 18 miles in a NW. 
and W. direction from the SW. extremity of Palawan. 

If the wind should come out from the E., as it is apt to 
do after the end of October, head for the NE. point of 
Palawan and the Calamiaues when to northward of the 
shoals; and after sighting the islands steer for Lubang. 
Thence, coast along the shore of Luzon, and pass near the 
Sister and Serpent islands. If the wind be from S W. or 
west, do not keep so close to the shore, especially near cape 
Bolinao, which is surrounded by reefs; the currents may 
also set the ship toward the gulf of Lingayen if care be not 
used to keep at a good distance from its mouth. 

Once past cape Bolinao, vessels can ordinarily cross the 
China sea by running B. of Pratas reef ; unless the wind is 
strong from NE., and the current setting rapidly to SW. 
In this case it will be better, in an ordinary sailer, to run 
up the coast of Luzon as far as cape Bojador; from which 
point the China coast can be made to eastward of the Lema 
islands. Never run to leeward of this group. 

Independently of the Palawan route, just described, 
which can be followed at the beginning of the NE. monsoon, 
there are two other principal routes from Singapore to 
Hong Kong.* 

The first route by Macassar strait can be taken when 
Pulo-Laut is reached, before the 15th November, or toward 
the middle of February. The second route by Pitt passage, 
which also runs through Gilolo or Dampier strait, is advised 
for December and January. 

After leaving Singapore vessels should follow the instruc- 
tions given in 114, for the run through Macassar strait. 
After doubling Mankap shoals and reaching 3 50' S., on 
soundings of at least 19 or 20 fathoms, they should head 
about E. by S., keeping along the coast of Borneo in about 
18 to 25 fathoms. They should not get in less water until 
over the bank off Salatau point, where the depth is from 12 
to 15 fathoms. This point bears E. S. from Mankap 

* We think that auxiliary steamers can steam through Palawan pass- 
age during the NE. monsoon. 



FROM SINGAPORE TO MANILA. 285 

shoals, distant about 276 miles. The track keeps in about 
14 fathoms while doubling the highlands of Salatan point ; 
and within 24 or 30 miles of it. Thence, head B. for the 
Moresses islands; but do not follow the 18-fathom line, as 
Horsburgh states there is a rock near that locality ; how- 
ever, careful navigators can run into as shoal water as 8 or 
even 7 fathoms. Do not approach the Moresses nearer 
than 3 miles during the night, and run either north or south 
of this group. Beyond this, there are two little islands, 
united by a reef, and called the Brothers. Keep a lookout 
also for the three islets lying near the S. point of the large 
Pulo-Laut. Button rock is off the E. coast of the southern 
island. Do not attempt to pass inside of these islets. 

The SE. part of Great Pulo-Laut once passed, head up for 
Macassar strait, and follow the coast of Borneo, as stated 
in the second part of 150. But vessels desiring to ascend 
the W. coast of Celebes should, after leaving the SE. ex- 
tremity of Great Pulo-Laut, steer ENE., if possible, and thus 
reach Celebes a little to northward of cape Maudhar. 
Soundings should be frequently taken during this part of 
the voyage, as there are several shoals between Borneo and 
Celebes. The Triangles and Union bank should be left 
to northward, and Laurel and Waller banks to southward. 
In both cases the. voyage should be finished as indicated in 
150 under the head of the route by MMHXMU'. 

This route should be followed from December to Febru- ad. Route by 
ary. The voyage from Singapore to Pitt passage should 
be made according to the instructions given in 114, under 
the head of the proper route during the NE. monsoon. 
Pitt passage can be reached either from the north of Buru, 
or from to eastward of that island, between it and Manipa. 
For information relative to the latter part of the voyage 
vide 150, second route. Gilolo strait is most frequented, 
especially during December and March. Dam pier strait 
should only be taken in January and February. 

155. EOUTE FROM SINGAPORE TO MANILA. Either ist.Duringthe 
the inner or outer route can be taken as far as Pulo Sapata, sw>m 
according to circumstances, (vide 153 and 154.) From 
Pulo-Sapata stand to the northward and eastward, and 
finish the passage as described in 158. In October take 
Palawan passage, (vide 154.) 



286 FROM SINGAPORE TO SHANGHAE AND YOKOHAMA. 



The route by Macassar strhit (vide 154) is used in Octo- 
ber, November, and even in December; also during the 
month of March. After having followed the W. coast of 
Mindoro as far as point Calavite, keep west of Lubang and 
Cabra islands, and steer for Corregidor islet. 

But, from December to February, sailing-vessels are 
obliged to take the easterly route, described in 154 under 
the head of the route by Pitt passage. Thence, they should 
run through San Bernardino strait, and pass between Min- 
doro and Luzon. 

In short, sailing-vessels should avoid leaving Singapore 
between the beginning of November and the beginning of 
February, so as not to have to make the long easterly route. 
If possible, they should only take the direct route during 
the SW. monsoon ; the Palawan route at the end of the 
SW. monsoon ; or the Macassar route in October, Novem- 
ber, December, .and March. 

1st. During the 156. EOUTE FROM SINGAPORE TO SHANGHAE AND YO- 

sw. monsoon. KOHAMA .__Make the northing in the China sea, by follow- 
ing according to circumstances one of the three routes 
given in 154. Whether bound to Shanghae, Nagasaki, or 
Yokohama, run through Formosa channel. The passage 
from Van Diemen's strait to Yokohama will be easy, as both 
wind and current will be favorable. Auxiliary steamers can 
sail through the Inland sea. 

It may be shorter, but is certainly less prudent, to run 
east of Formosa. Vessels bound to Nagasaki, and taking 
this route, should sight the Hoa-pin-su islands after leav- 
ing the E. coast of Formosa ; and afterward head so as to 
pass close to the eastward of Meico-sima chain. 

Those bound to Yokohama should leave the China sea 
north of the Bashees, and keep in the Kuro-Siwo, (vide 
37 ;) they should also pass east of the Meico-siina, and Loo 
Choo chain of islands. 

We cannot advise the route via the east coast of Formosa, 
as vessels are very likely to meet typhoons in that locality, 
a danger they will probably avoid if they run through For- 
mosa channel. 

The reader should also refer to 159, where he will find 
a few instructions for the end of this voyage. 

The following observations are by an old steamboat cap- 
tain, of great experience in the China sea : 



FROM SINGAPORE TO YOKOHAMA. 287 

"July and August are tbe worst months in the north of 
the China sea; that is, beyond the head of Formosa chan- 
nel. In the southern part from the lower end of Formosa 
channel to cape Varela September and October are the 
worst. Navigation is therefore dangerous from July to the 
beginning of November. It can be stated, in a general way, 
that there are no typhoons in the Formosa channel ; as these 
storms, ordinarily coming from the east, are broken by the 
high mountains of Formosa. 

" It is advantageous at all seasons to take Formosa chan- 
nel when bound north. I once attempted the outside route, 
and had a hard time of it, encountering a gale and a con- 
trary current setting to S. at a rate of 80 miles per day. 
Another steamer that left the same time I did, took the 
channel, and, though a slow vessel, arrived the day after. 
She had experienced no gale, and found very strong east- 
erly currents. 

" The Meico-sima islands seem to be especially attractive 
to all the Pacific storms; besides, the hydrography is uncer- 
tain. 

u Ill-conditioned vessels leaving Saigon for Yokohama 
will do well to put into Hong Kong, and wait there for a 
good spell of weather, and until after the new moon. Keep 
an eye on the barometer after leaving Hong- Kong. 

" The beautiful and safe bay of Pescadores is in Formosa 
channel ; you never lose sight of the China coast, and its 
numerous harbors, and the typhoons of this locality never 
attain the violence that they do off the east coast of For- 
mosa. A vessel can make Chusan, if necessary ; and thence 
run for Nagasaki. After waiting here for good weather, 
she can take the Inland sea, and reach Yokohama with a 
smooth sea all the way. 

" In this manner all the dangerous localities are avoided, 
while the voyage from Saigon to Yokohama is only length- 
ened by about 150 miles. The most important point is to be 
acquainted with the Japanese ports of refuge. Simoda, not- 
withstanding all that has been thought to the contrary, is 
a safe, deep anchorage. 

" The Kuro-Siwo, or black current, is very changeable. 
It is hardly 40 miles wide ; is sometimes found near the 
coast of Japan, and at others far from it. It does not ap- 



288 FROM SAIGON TO HONG-KONG. 

pear to have much depth, and too much reliance must not 
be placed upon it. 

" The regular S. monsoon, between Saigon and Hong- 
Kong, is variable, and uncertain between Hong-Kong and 
Yokohama. In July and August northerly gales are quite 
common near Formosa.' 7 

ad. During the Vessels leaving after the beginning of October will do 
well to take the easterly route, by Pitt passage, described 
in 114. They can make Pitt passage, either from the 
north of Buru, or by passing between this island and Ma- 
nipaj and, afterward, make their northing according to the 
instructions given in 150. 

It will be particularly advantageous to vessels bound to 
Shanghae and Yokohama to run to the east between 1 30' 
and 3 N., until they can pass to eastward of the Pelew 
islands. We think this recommendation important. Once 
beyond 3 N. and the Pelews, the wind will generally vary, 
(from December to April,) from W. to E., passing by the 
IS", point. The prevailing direction, however, will be be- 
tween NE. and NW., until north of 10 N. As a general 
rule, captains should choose that tack which will give them the 
most northing. From 10 to 20 N. the prevailing winds are 
NE., varying sometimes to ENE. and E. A good sailer can 
cross 200 N. about 1 32 or 134 E. Between 20 and 30 K 
the winds are as often from N W. as they are from NB.; at rare 
intervals they blow from SE. It is, therefore, generally easy 
if bound to Nagasaki to cross 30 N. near 132 E. and thence 
to take the Yan Diemen passage. Captains bound to Yo- 
kohama should aim to cross 30 IS", between 132 arid 134 
E.; the current will be favorable ; and north of 30 N. the 
variable winds will be favorable. If bound to Shanghae, 
run between the Loo-choo islands and Ou-Sima island ; and 
thence stand for the Yang-tse-Kiang, with the wind abeam. 

1st. Duringthe 157. ROUTE FROM SAIGON TO HONG-KONG. The track 

SW. monsoou. 

follows the inner route described in 154. Typhoons may 
be met at this season, on the voyage from Saigon to Hong- 
Kong. The reader should therefore pay great attention to 
the observations contained in 20 ; and will find much in- 
teresting information in the following quotations: 

Passage of the steamer Cambodge, Lieutenant Noel u Mes- 
sageries imperiales"from Saigon to Hong-Kong, (Ann. Hydr. 



FROM SAIGON TO HONG-KONG. 289 

vol. 28.) "Left Saigon on the 27th September, 1865, and met 
a fearful storm between Hainan and the Paracels. 

41 From St. James to cape Varela, fresh SW. monsoon ; th JfJ^JjJ5j". of 
barometer 29 in .96. On the 28th, blowing hard off Pad- 
aran ; ran in toward the land, where I found a calm and 
smooth sea. Threatening sky during the day, barometer 
falling slowly. Ship 50 miles from Batangan, at daylight 
of the 29th ; very heavy swell from N., which shifted to NW. 
during the day. The barometer still falling at 7 a. m. The 
sky becoming of a grayish-lead color, with a black scud 
chasing in all directions ; land birds and insects falling on 
the decks ; blasts of wind from the N., and heavy, oppres- 
sive atmosphere. Barometer, at 4 p. m., 29 in .69 ; at 5 p. in., 
29 in .65. About 8 p. m. on the 29th the wind burst upon us 
from NW. in a very violent squall, carrying away the fore- 
stay-sail and mainsail; raining in torrents; shipped a 
heavy sea. The barometer continued to fall during the 
night ; squalls frequent ; wind already very strong and haul- 
ing successively to WNW. and WSW. At 3 a. m. on the 
30th barometer, 29 in .53 ; soon after it reached its extreme 
fall, 29 in .49 ; terrific wind from SW. ; torrents of rain ; torn- 
looking clouds; violent bursts of wind; enormous and bro- 
ken sea. Luckily we were in the more moderate semicircle ; 
and about 6 a. m., were about 40 miles from the center, 
bearing NW. From the evening of the 29th till 2 a. m. of 
the 30th ran NE., thus leaving the center and approaching 
Hong-Kong. Without a stitch of canvas, and with the 
engine only just turning over, we ran off from 10 to 11 knots, 
ship behaving admirably, steering well notwithstanding the 
heavy sea, and rolling very easily. At 3 p. m. fewer squalls 
and less rain ; set the foresail, close-reefed. At 4 p. m. the 
barometer commenced to rise rapidly and in a little over six 
hours reached 29 in .73. Though we were all the while leaving 
the center, we still experienced a frightful sea, coming from 
several directions ; at 9 p. m. it reached its worst, (we were 
then at the point over which the center had passed the night 
before.) The wind moderated considerably about 9 p. m., after 
having hauled to S., SSE., and SE. At 10 o'clock the ship 
was out of the track of the typhoon. On arriving at Hong- 
19 N 



290 FROM SAIGON TO HONG-KONG. 

Kong we found that the storm had passed over the island,* 
and lasted two days." 

" ^ n ^ s typhoon was traveling from E. to W. when we 
struck it, and seemed stationary from the morning of the 
30th at 4 a. m. until 4 p. m. of the same day. When the 
typhoon broke upon us at 6 a. in. on the 30th, I had not 
been able to obtain any observations for 36 hours, and w r as 
very uncertain of my position ; for the currents had proba- 
bly set us within dangerous proximity to Hainan, while on 
the other hand it was quite reasonable to suppose that the 
currents had been deflected from the neighboring coasts and 
were drifting me to SE. or toward the Paracels. 

" In 1859 a French vessel, while on the dangerous side of 
a typhoon, went ashore on Hainan, at the very moment 
when the captain thought she was dangerously near the 
Paracels. By analogy, as I was on the moderate side, and 
feared Hainan, there was a chance of my bringing up on 
the Paracels. Moreover, if I had to .go ashore, I preferred 
Hainan, as there we had some chance of saving our lives. 
As I ran N. from the afternoon of the 29th till the next 
morning, I must have been tolerably clear of the Paracels. 
My observations on the 1st October put me 60 miles to SSE. 
of my dead reckoning ; and if I had commenced to bear 
toward the northward and eastward on the 29th it is highly 
probable that the ship would have been lost on the Paracels, 
as these 60 miles of SSE. current occasioned by the typhoon, 
(the westerly current of the storm was deflected by the 
coasts of Hainan and Cochin-Ohiua,) took place from the 
29th to the 30th, at which time the swell was heaviest from 
NW., and the wind strongest from NW. and W. 

" My opinion, therefore, is that, whenever you find your- 
self off the mouth of the gulf of Tonquin, and have certain 
signs of an approaching typhoon, the only thing to do is to 
look for an anchorage on the coast of Cochin- China. Nor should 
you get under way until the barometer and state of the sky 
clearly show that the storm has passed." 

Wben tne NE - monsoon has once fairly set in, the best 
route is that by Palawan passage. Cross the China sea 
with a clean full, making due allowance for the SW. current. 

*As I write the above there comes, by telegraph, the account of the 
fearful typhoon at Hong-Kong on the 27th September, 1874. A singular 
coincidence. Translator. 



FROM SAIGON TO MANILA. 291 

Pass well to the northward of Charlotte bank, and afterward 
S. of Luconia reef. The aim should be to fetch Louisa reef, 
especially in an auxiliary steamer. Pass either north or 
south of this reef, according to circumstances, but keep well 
clear of all the banks lying north of Lucouia shoal, viz, 
Sea Horse, George, and Friendship. They extend for a 
long distance, and generally compel vessels to run south of 
Luconia shoal. 

In all cases, whether trying to reach the passage between 
Louisa and Royal Charlotte, or that S. of Lucouia, invaria- 
bly give a wide berth to the Viper shoal, and sight Balam- 
bangau island. Finish the voyage as described in 154 
under the head of " the Palawan route.' 7 

This is a long, tedious voyage, but surer and subject to 
less bad weather during the strong winds of the monsoon. 

Vessels starting from Saigon in October, or at the begin- 
ning of November, (especially auxiliary steamers,) can 
greatly shorten the route by keeping along the coast of 
Cochiii-Chma; taking advantage of the land and sea breezes, 
they can beat up, on short tacks, as far as cape Padarau j 
from which point the port tack will fetch them across the 
China sea to windward of all dangers, after making plenty 
of allowance for the current. The route then keeps along 
the coast of Luzon, and again crosses the China sea, as 
stated under " the route by Palawan passage" in 154. 

158. ROUTE FROM SAIGON TO MANILA. According 
to Horsburgh, vessels should sight Pulo-Sapata, and after 
passing the island either to the southward or eastward, 
head NE., but not to eastward of that point, until they have 
reached 12 30' N. Beyond this parallel the track is for 
Lubang or Cabra island, and keeps north of all the banks 
in this eastern part of the China sea. After passing about 
9 miles west of Fortune island, which is about a mile in ex- 
tent and high and rocky, head for Corregidor island, situ- 
ated in the middle of the entrance to Manila bay. 

We can only repeat the instructions given in 157. The N | d - 
Palawan route is generally taken, especially by sailing- 
vessels ; but the route across the China sea north of all the 
shoals is perhaps preferable for vessels leaving Saigon in 
October or at the beginning of November ; it is especially 
adapted to auxiliary steamers. For further instructions 
the reader should refer to 157. 



292 FROM HONGKONG TO SHANGHAE. 

159. KOUTE FROM HONG-KONG TO SHANGHAE. Maury's 

instructions contain a description of this route, which- is 
due to Captain Potter, of the Architect, and runs as follows : 

" Vessels departing from Hong-Kong, bound to Shanghae, 
i Q the northeast monsoon, should be in good condition to 
contend with rough weather, and to carry sail. Upon leav- 
ing, the Lyemun or Laruma channel can be taken, the lat- 
ter being preferable in a large vessel. When clear of the 
islands, the wind will be found to be about ENE. generally, 
or as the line of coast trends, and when the monsoon is not 
heavy, periodical changes of wind occur. At such times 
vessels should be close in with the laud, early in the morn- 
ing, and tack off shore at about 8 o'clock, standing off 
till about 2 p. m., and on the inshore tack standing 
boldly in to the coast, making such arrangements during 
the night as will bring the vessel in a position inshore 
again in the morning. When the monsoon is moderate, 
vessels should not stand far into the bays, as they will, by 
so doing, experience light winds, and often calms, and, on 
the contrary, when the monsoon is strong, they should 
stand as far as possible in to the bays, and not stand farther 
off than is actually necessary, especially as the changes of 
wind above alluded to seldom occur at such times. It 
would be well to add here, that vessels almost always go 
faster inshore than they do off, as there is a ground swell 
heaving after them when in with the laud. 

" During the severe monsoon gales, which last about 
three days, vessels should seek shelter in one of the numer- 
ous good anchorages to the westward of Breaker point, 
when, upon the breaking up of the gale, they can. make a 
fresh start, and perhaps get around Formosa before encoun- 
tering another, especially after the month of November. 

" Having reached Breaker point> vessels should then 
stretch over for the south end of Formosa, and upon getting 
to the eastward, the wind will be found to veer northerly, 
or more, as the coast of Formosa trends ; and a good sail- 
ing-vessel will be almost sure to fetch the south cape or 
Lamay island to windward. Upon getting in with the 
land, light variable winds and calms are often met with, 
but the strong current to the SW. will very soon drift the 
vessel down, when she will find the breeze coming on fresh 
again. In passing South cape in the daytime, vessels 



FROM HONG-KONG TO SHANGHAI'. 293 

should keep close in to the land, and the nearer the shore 
the stronger the favorable current, there being no hidden 
dangers. In passing round in the night, however, and 
when there is no moon, it will be advisable to pass to the 
southward of the Vele-Rete rocks, and to tack to the NW. 
when nearly in the longitude of Gadd reef, or sooner if it is 
daylight, as the South cape of Formosa is very low, and 
rather unsafe to approach in a dark night. When a gale 
comes on, and a vessel, being to the westward of the cape 
and near it, is obliged to heave to, a strict lookout should 
be kept during the night, as several vessels, under these 
circumstances, have found themselves to the eastward of 
the cape in the morning, having been drifted to windward 
during the night, and passed, probably, within a dangerous 
proximity of the Vele-Rete rocks. The current sets some- 
times with incredible velocity round the cape, and then up 
northward, along the coast, and the stronger the northerly 
gale, the stronger the weather current, gradually diminish- 
ing in strength toward the north end of Formosa. After 
rounding the cape, vessels should work short tacks along 
the east coast of Formosa, keeping close inshore to get the 
benefit of the current. 

" Having reached the northeast cape of Formosa, and the 
wind does not veer to the eastward, which is sometimes the 
case, vessels should keep between the meridians of the 
Barren islands and the islands off the north end of Formosa, 
and not stretch in for the coast of China until able to make 
a lead in for Video or Leuconna." 

The following description of this passage is from the log 
of the British ship Wanderer, (Nautical Magazine:) 

We left Macao roads on the 28th December, 1842, but 
did not get under way from Harlem till 'the 3d January, 
the wind being light and ahead ; beat up, close to the coast, 
as far as Breaker point, against a double-reefed topsail, 
NSTE. and ENE. wind, and chop sea. 

u Off the entrance to Formosa strait the northerly wind 
became more settled ; sighted the South cape of Formosa 
on the 6th. On approaching the Bashees the wind came 
out again strong from ENE., with a heavy sea abreast 
the northern part of the group. The wind freshening 
as we made to the southward and eastward, went about, and 
on the 9th were off Botel-Tobago ; on the 10th, doubled 



294 FROM HONG KONG TO SHANGHAE. 

Samasana; on the llth sighted Kami, bearing E. ; and on 
the 12th left the high rocky islands of Hoa-pin-su andTi-ao- 
yu-su to the westward j the wind was then E., but quickly 
shifted to S. and W., and came out violently from NNE. 
On the 13th, being in 27 28' K and 120 26' E., went about 
to the northward and westward, and crowded on all sail pos- 
sible to reach anchorage to leeward of the islands. On the 
15th rounded the Kweshan islands and let go two anchors 
off the Buffalo's Kose, but the weather was not good enough 
for entering the inner harbor until the 19th. Passage 22 
days. 

" It will thus be seen that the wind was almost invariably 
from the northward and eastward. It may be stated as a 
general rule that if the wind does get to the southward of 
E., it invariably returns, with the sun, to the northward, 
and then blows with redoubled fury. NW. winds some- 
times blow for several days end on, on the north coast of 
Formosa, and are felt for some distance at sea. 

" Easterly currents are strong, as far as the strait of 
Formosa j here they generally set into the China sea, and 
to the southward. We found little current to leeward of 
the Pescadores. The current divides near Botel-Tobago, 
one of its branches setting strongly athwart the Bashees, 
while the other runs north along the coast of Formosa. 

" In the open sea north of this island the movement of 
the waters is irregular and governed by the prevailing 
winds, setting rapidly to the southward during the north- 
erly gales frequent in this locality. 

General re- " This is a dangerous voyage during the strength of the 
NE. monsoon, and ships generally experience a double- 
reefed topsail breeze and nasty sea until they pass the 
Bashees, when the weather becomes considerably better. 

" After leaving the Lemas the best plan is to keep well 
in with the land and make to the eastward as much as pos- 
sible. As the current is contrary it is well to beat up in 
the smooth waters of the bays during the day, and in 
case of heavy winds to anchor until the weather moderates. 
Do not be afraid to work to the eastward whenever the 
wind permits, and run in for the land when the wind comes 
out ahead. This is the worst part of the voyage, and 
requires much attention. 



FROM HONG-KONG TO SHANGHAE. 295 

" Once clear of the South cape of Formosa, vessels can 
run either east or west of the Ty-pan-san group, (Meiaco 
Sima islands,) but vessels keeping close to the coast will 
find a northerly current as far as cape Formosa. When the 
wind varies from N. to E. off shore, it sometimes blows 
strong from NW. inshore, and it is then advisable to take 
that tack which will keep the ship out of the influence of 
the land-breeze, and to stand on until a good anchorage 
can be fetched to leeward of one of the Kweshan islands. 

u With northerly winds the barometer is always very 
high, and is therefore of much use in this locality. After 
reaching the south point, the wind often jumps around 
suddenly to N. Look out for this shift of wind, and reduce 
sail in time. The squalls never last long." 

Captain D. W. Stephens gives the following route as the 
best in his opinion for reaching the south point of Formosa 
in March and April, (Ann. Hydr., 1870:) 

"One of the usual routes at this season runs through 
Bashee channel, or through one of the passes between For- 
mosa and Luzon, but vessels sometimes by so doing are 
delayed a week, beating along the coast for Breaker point 
against the NE. monsoon and a westerly current. A better 
route from Lema channel is to run SE., with everything 
full. The westerly current will thus be avoided, and east- 
erly or southeasterly winds found near the coast of Luzon. 
A ship by following this track can then head NNB., and, 
the strong current helping her, will probably fetch to east- 
ward of Formosa in. less time than if the attempt had been 
made to beat up for Breaker point along the China coast." 

If reference be had to 156, it will be seen that Formosa 2d- Daring the 

SW. nionsooo. 

channel is rarely visited by very violent typhoons. The 
following quotation also gives additional testimony on this 
subject : 

Observations of Captain Potter. u Regarding the passage 
to Shanghae in a fair monsoon, little can be said excepting 
that coasting vessels, when without observations, are in the 
habit of sighting the laud to verify their reckoning. 

" From the mouth of July to the latter part of Septein- Typll3cng . 
ber, and sometimes October, is considered the typhoon sea- 
son, and at this season a barometer cannot be watched too 
closely. Typhoons have happened in May and June, but 
very seldom. These storms appear to originate to the east- 



296 FROM HONG-KONG TO JAPAN. 

ward in the Pacific ocean, and passing the Bashee islands, 
traveling to the southward of west, their centers pass nearly 
over the parallels of Hong-Kong and Macao. A falling 
barometer, with a northerly wind, is almost a sure symptom 
of the approach of a cyclone in this vicinity. These storms, 
coming from the eastward, are sometimes probably turned 
off from their usual course by the highland of Formosa in- 
tervening between them and the China coast, and at such 
times they travel up north, curving again to the westward. 
This inference somewhat accounts for the fact that Amoy 
is seldom visited by typhoons, and they are never felt there 
with such a degree of severity as at the other ports to the 
northward and southward of Formosa. These storms are 
also generally preceded by a heavy swell from NE. to E." 

Passage of the sailing-vessel Duperre, Captain Bourgois, 
from Hong-Kong to the mouth the Yang-tse-kiang, (Ann. Hydr., 
vol. 23.) " Sailed from Hong-Kong on the 18th June; dur- 
ing the first few days fresh breeze from W. and SW., with 
heavy rain ; afterward light wind from E. ; squally. Ean 
through Tartani channel and cleared it during the night. 
We then tacked up along the China coast for Formosa 
channel. On the 19th and 20th, gentle breeze from E. to 
S.; on the 21st and 22d wind SW. and W., shifting to S. 
and E. on the 24th. On the 24th the wind hauled com- 
pletely around the compass, from SE. to SW., NE., and 
again to SE., with lightning to NN W. On the 25th, wind 
ESE., very foggy weather. While steering for the Broth- 
ers, sighted, during a flash of lightning, Video island, 
toward which the vessel had been drifted 20 miles during the 
previous 24 hours ; current WNW. Prior to this current, 
the flow had been to NE. with the same velocity. On the 
26th, the wind was from S., the weather overcast and very 
rainy. Sighted the Saddle islands and rounded them at a 
distance of several miles. During the evening a calm com- 
pelled us to anchor NW. of these islands ; position, 30 54 7 
F. and 128 26' E.; bottom, muddy; depth, 8 fathoms." 

1st. During the s IgQ. ROUTE FROM HONG-KONG TO JAPAN. Vessels 
SW. monsoon. 

should take Formosa channel, and first run as if bound to 
Shanghae, (vide 156 and 159.) 

Sailing-ships should go through Van Diemen strait, or 
the two passages more to the southward; and thence can 
easily reach Yokohama. Steamers and auxiliary steam- 



FROM MANILA TO HONG KONG. LM7 

ships can follow tbe same route, but it is probable that they 
would do better if they took the inner route, as described 
in the extract given in loft. 

Whether bound to Nagasaki or Yokohama, vessels should, 
on starting, follow the instructions given in 150, for reach- 
ing the S. point of Formosa, and for ascending the E. coast 
of this island. Thence they should keep to westward of the 
Meiaco-Sima and Loo-Choo chain, and thus take advantage 
of the Kuro-Siwo or black current, The NE. winds are not 
here so persistent or strong as they are to eastward of the 
islands, and there is a chance of finding variable winds. If 
the wind allow, stand well to the northward and eastward, 
and pass north of Ou-Sima island; but if headed off, take 
the port tack and run west of the Linschoten group. As 
soon as the ship strikes favorable winds, which she will 
generally do about 30 N., head her to the eastward, and 
take one of the passages N. of the Linschoten group, or 
strictly Van Biemen strait. The run from here to Yoko- 
hama is easily accomplished. 

Passage of the screw corvette Dupleix, Captain Bergasse-du- 
Petits Thoiiars. " After leaving Hong-Kong on the 20th 
January, and running out of the China sea by the S. point of 
Formosa, I had the choice of standing well to the east and 
outside of the Loo-Choo islands, or of keeping in the Japan 
current and inside of the Loo-Choos, etc. I took the latter 
route, as I wished to take some observations of the current, 
and also expected to find a smoother sea. I ran from the 
S. point of Formosa to Van Diemen strait in 9 days, with a 
favorable current all the way, and my observations proved 
that the waters of the black current after running along the 
E. coast of Formosa, flow directly toward the S. point of 
Japan, without entering the channel between Meiaco-Sima 
and the Hoa-pin-su islands. I found a thick fog near Van 
Diemen strait, and was compelled to retrace my steps a 
little, in order to pass through the passage between Alcmene 
and Pacific islands, which I could have easily taken the 
night before. Once outside of the Liuschoten archipelago 
I found stiff NW. winds. Anchored at Yokohama on the 
10th February after a passage of 21 days from Hong-Kong." 

161. ROUTE FROM MANILA TO HONG-KONG. This is*"* 

SW. monsoon. 

an easy passage at this season. After crossing the China 
sea, head directly for the Great Ladrone. If the wind is 



208 FROM SHANGHAE TO JAPAN. 

free and from SW., Horsburgh advises ships to make this 
island, bearing N. by E., or N. when approaching it from 
the China coast. If the wind incline toward NE., it is best 
to sight Great-Lema and enter the neighboring channel. 
Keinember that typhoons are frequent from July to Novem- 
ber, (vide 20.) 

nPonso n on theNE> - Kun U P tne W< coast of Luzon to ca P^ Bolinao ; a good 
vessel can cross the China sea from this point if the wind 
draw aft enough to let her head N. But when the wind is 
from NE. or N., and the current sets to SW., it is prefera- 
ble, especially with an ordinary sailer, to beat up the coast 
of Luzon as far as cape Bojador, and then cross the China 
sea. For information concerning the latter part of the voy- 
age, vide 154, under the head of the route by Palawan 
passage. 

1st. During the 1(52< R UTE FROM MANILA TO SHANGHAE AND YOKO- 

sw. monsoon. HAMA. This route does not present any difficulties. Ves- 
sels should steer straight for Formosa channel; and thus 
avoid the typhoons frequent among the Bashee and Meiaco- 
Sima islands. For further information, vide 159 or 160. 
2d. During the At this season keep along the coast of Luzon until near 

&&. monsoon. ' 

cape Bojador. On leaving this cape or even point Ban- 
qui, with a settled NE. wind make a long stretch, on the 
starboard tack, to NNW. However, as it is not well to get 
too far from the Bashees and the Babuyanes, the ship 
should, now and then, go about, and stand toward them on 
the port tack, heading about ESE. The S. point of For- 
mosa should then be reached as soon as possible. Auxil- 
iary steamers can, of course, keep their engines turning 
over slowly, and, lying a little nearer the wind when on the 
starboard tack, reach Formosa in less time than sailing-ves- 
sels. Pass east of this island, and stand to the northward 
with the current in your favor. For information concerning 
the latter part of the voyage vide 159 or 160. 

163. ROUTE FROM SHANGHAE TO JAPAN. As this route 
lies north of 30 N., the variable winds beyond that parallel 
will materially assist vessels on the voyage to Japan. 
When bound to Nagasaki they can steer a direct course. 
Sailing-vessels bound to Yokohama should, as a general 
thing, take Van Diemen strait, or one of the more southern 
passages, if forced by the wind. Steamers, and auxiliary 
* steamers, bound to Yokohama, should generally pass through 



FROM SII ANGHAE *TO JAPAN. 209 

the Inland sea, especially during the summer, (vide extract 
in 156.) 

Ships bound to Hakodadi will find useful information in 
the following report by Captain Scott, (Merc. Mar. Maga- 
zine, 1863 :) 

" After leaving the light-ship off the mouth of the Yang- 
tse-Kiang, I usually ran close to the Amherst rocks, wheu 
the wind was favorable ; passing them on either side, ac- 
cording to circumstances. I then headed for Fsti-Sima in the 
strait of Korea, and left it to port. Thence I sailed through 
the mid channel, between Hornet and Oki, where the current 
is strongest. Sometimes, when the wind was strong from 
the eastward, I had to keep north of this route, and run 
between Quelpart island and the Korean coast. I found 
this a safe passage, the current being rapid and favorable. 
After passing Hornet rocks it is best to stand for the coast 
of Nippon, and cape Yokoiso ; behind which there is a very 
high mountain, visible 60 miles in clear weather. In order 
to counterbalance the effect of the current, head about half 
a point to eastward of the direct course, until beyond 39 
30' N. As the current here commences to run to NNW., 
and beyond that parallel often attains a speed of from 40 to 
50 miles per day, (when the wind is strong from S.,) a whole 
point should be allowed for drift. 

" Due allowance should especially be made for the cur- 
rent when the weather is overcast or foggy, and no observa- 
tions have been obtained. 

" Notwithstanding the fact that we always allowed for 
drift, we invariably found that it set us well over toward 
Ou-Sima and Ko-Sima islands, when we were standing 
for the western coast of Japan. These islands form an 
excellent landmark to the entrance of the Tsugar strait. 
They can be seen for 25 or 30 miles on a clear day, and a 
ship can pass on either side of them, or between them, the 
shore being bold and clean. It is, however, always prefer- 
able to leave them to port ; that is, to northward, as they 
bear due E. from Matsumai point, which forms the NW. 
limit of the strait. 

" We do not think it advisable for navigators unac- 
quainted with this locality to run through Tsugar strait at 
night, as the breeze often dies away about sunset. Mis- 
takes may be made about the different points, and the ship 



300 FROM SHANGHAE TO JAPAN. 

be drifted into the Pacific; in which case it may take her a 
week to make up for lost time. 

" On approaching the land during the day it is best to 
keep close to cape Tsiuka, situated about 18 miles north of 
Hakodadi, on the north coast of the strait. Thence keep 
along the north coast for Mussel point, thus taking advan- 
tage of the favorable eddies in the current, if the wind die 
away." 



CHAPTER IX. 

ROUTES TO THE SOUTHWARD IN THE CHINA SEA. 

164. EOUTE FROM JAPAN TO SHANGHAE. Sailing-ves- 
sels, leaving Yokohama during the winter, (from October to 
March,) should stand out to sea, and make to the south- 
ward. They will generally find the NE. monsoon south of 
30 N., at this season. Thence they should head for Ou- 
Sima ; and passing to northward of this island, make due 
allowance for the current, which sets to N. and NE. In 
summer it is possible to keep near the land, and in the 
strength of the Kuro-Siwo current. Sailing-vessels should 
afterward run through Van Diemen strait, unless they wish 
to take the route through the Inland sea. 

Auxiliary steamers will find it greatly to their advantage 
to take the route through the Inland sea, especially during 
the summer. From May to October it is never safe to 
approach Ou-Sima island, as typhoons are frequent in that 
locality. 

The following observations, on the voyage from Hako- 
dadi to Shanghae, by Captain Scott, may be of interest : 

u The westerly winds render it sometimes difficult to cross 
Tsugar strait ; however, I incline to the opinion that this 
route is better than the one to eastward of the Japan is- 
lands, as it is about 300 miles shorter 5 and the weather, in 
Van Diemen strait, is worse, and the contrary currents 
much stronger, than they are in Tsugar strait. It is a known 
fact that vessels taking the easterly route make long pas- 
sages. 

" When I run out of Hakodadi, with the wind between 
W. and SW., I always stand for Mussel point, which is sit- 
uated on the opposite side of the bay. After rounding this 
point as close as possible without danger, I beat up along 
the coast of the bay, making short tacks, and thus keeping 
within the counter-current. In this manner I generally 
reach cape Tsiuka before dark, where there is an excellent 



302 FROM JAPAN TO SHANGHAE. 

anchorage in from 6 to 12 fathoms off the little village. 
Cape Tsiuka bears S. from this anchorage, distant a little 
less than a mile. I think this the safest spot in the bay, as 
a ship can always get under way without difficulty, if the 
wind should suddenly shift to E. ; and the SE. counter-cur- 
rent is not very strong. It is certainly a far better anchor- 
age than the one marked on the Admiralty chart, as it is 
difficult to beat up from the latter, in case the wind should 
come out from E.; the holding-ground, also, is not good, the 
bottom being of hard sand, while the bottom off cape Tsiuka 
is a kind of mud, formed by the debris from the adjacent 
mountains. 

" If the west wind hold, get under way at daylight, and 
run along the north coast of the strait as far as point Mat- 
suma'i. Thence stand across the strait on the starboard 
tack for cape Greig; the wind will generally draw aft one 
or two points abreast the entrance of the strait. Between 
cape Tsiuka and point Matsuma'i the coast is not clean, but 
there is no necessity of running close to it, as the current 
moderates considerably beyond cape Tsiuka. After clearing 
the strait, and reaching 37 1ST., it is well, when the wind is S., 
to stand in for the coast of Japan, and run inside of the Oki 
islands. By so doing a ship will be out of the strength of 
the current, and may even find a favorable drift as far as 
Hirado channel. I have often passed inside of the Miuo- 
sima, Katsu-siina, and Oro-no-sima islands, and found 
the coast clear as far as Oro-no-sima. ESE. of this island 
lies a small rock, 8 or 9 feet above water, with a consid- 
erable outlying reef. During the night this rock is easily 
mistaken for a small vessel or a junk. 

"After this it is best to make for Korea strait ; but it is 
to be hoped that when the survey of these localities is com. 
plete, vessels will be able to keep inside of the Gotto islands, 
and thus avoid the strong currents of Korea strait, when 
the wind is strong from the west. 

"Once clear of Korea strait, it is not usually difficult to 
reach the China coast, as the monsoons generally blow from 
N. or S. This part of the passage is ordinarily made in from 
3 to 5 days, and sometimes in 36 hours when bound north. 
During either monsoon it is best to make the land near 
Shaweishan island or Amherst rock, where there is an an- 
chorage in 6 or 7 fathoms, if the wind die away. Vessels 



FROM SHANGHAE TO HONG KONG. .303 

are also likely to have one or two tides in their favor in this 
locality. Near the Saddles the southerly currents and tides 
are often strong during the NE. monsoon. 

"The passage from Shanghae to Hakodadi has always 
seemed to me shorter and easier than the return voyage; 
the current being more favorable. We made our quickest 
passage to the northward in May, and our longest in Octo- 
ber ; the length of the respective voyages being 9 and 16 
days. Our quickest passage to the southward was made in 
11 days, during November, while our longest was 29 days, 
in June. Passages have been made in 6 or 7 days." 

165. KOUTE FROM SHANGHAE TO HONG-KONG. In 
159 we quoted Captain Potter's instructions for the voy- 
age from Hong-Kong to Shanghae. We will now reproduce 
his observations on the return route, first remarking, how- 
ever, that vessels should always pass through Formosa 
strait : 

"In the NE. monsoon there is a constant current down During the XE. 

monsoon. 

the coast, running with more or less velocity, according to 
the strength of the wind ; and the wind generally blows 
along the line of coast, that is ENE. from Hong-Kong to 
Breaker point, NE. in the Formosa channel, and NNE. from 
Formosa north. The first part of the monsoon is very strong, 
and frequently in the mouth of October it is almost an in- 
cessant gale; in the latter stage, from January to May, SE. 
winds are not uncommon, and the more frequent as the sea- 
son advances ; there is considerable thick weather in the lat- 
ter part of the monsoon, and a SE. wind to the northward 
of Formosa almost invariably brings a dense fog with it. 

u The passage from Shanghae to Hong-Kong in the SW. Duriugthesw. 
monsoon is very tedious from the frequent calms and squalls 
and constant strong current up ; and coasting- vessels gen- 
erally use their kedge when there is not sufficient wind to 
make any progress. In working down it is well to keep in 
with the coast, stretching into bays and by headlands to 
get out of the current, if there is sufficient wind to preclude 
the probability of getting becalmed. 

166. EOUTE FROM HONG-KONG TO MANILA. Accord- e lst - During the 

SW. inonsouii. 

ing to Horsburgh, vessels should aim to leave Macao for Ma- 
nila when the wind hauls to SE. or E., so as to make to 
SSW. or S. toward Macclesfield bank. This bank once 
reached, it is easy to fetch to windward of Manila unless 



304 FROM HONG -KONG TO SINGAPORE. 

the wind comes out from SSE. and S. If the wind is from 
the southward, sight Goat island or the land south of the 
bay. 

It will be perceived that this route is the same as that 
given in 152 in the description of the first easterly route. 
We think it is not advisable to leave Hong-Kong from May 
to September, as it is exceedingly difficult to reach Maccles- 
field bank during these months. Of course the difficulty 
will be less with steam to fall back upon. 

The reader should remember that typhoons are frequent 
in these parts, (vide 20.) 

ad. During the This is the favorable season for making this passage. 
SE. monsoon. According to Horsburgh vessels should run out by the Leina 
channel, and head up well to the east for cape Bolinao, 
if possible, as the currents set to leeward. When nearly as 
high as cape Bolinao they should keep some distance from 
the banks along the coast of Luzon. After doubling cape 
Bolinao and the Sisters, (Las Hermanas,) keep along the 
land at a distance of from 12 to 18 miles, until past the 
islands and rocks off point Capones, when run in closer and 
steer for Manila bay. 

1st. During the 167 ROUTE FROM HONG-KONG TO SAIGON AND SlNG- 

:NE. monsoon. ^PORE. From September to the end of February it is best 
to take the inner route, along the coast of Cochin-China, 
(vide 151.) This route is especially advantageous for 
deeply laden vessels, as they will have the wind aft all the 
way from the Great Ladrone. In March and April the 
outer route is preferable. 

route Som"se er Ca P tain Blake, of H. M. S. Larue, adding to his own ex- 
tember to March, perience that of several commanders of opium clippers, gives 
the following remarks : 

" In running down the China sea with the NE. monsoon, 
the direct line mostly adopted is nearly mid-channel be- 
tween Hainan and the Paracels, holding rather to the latter, 
when a southerly current of 30 to 50 miles a day is usual, 
and between 14 and 11 N. I have known it to reach 60 
miles in twenty-four hours. Thence making the coast of 
Cochin-China about Varela, and shaping a course south- 
ward, so as to pass 30 or 40 miles outside of Pulo-Sapata, 
whence the course to Singapore is clear, giving the Anam- 
bas a berth of about 40 miles, and always, if possible, sight- 
ing Pulo-Aor, to insure the reckoning ; more especially 



FROM HONG-KONG TO SAIGON. 305 

should the weather be thick, when the lead should be con- 
stantly attended to." 

The following instructions are condensed from Hors- 
burgh's work : 

" The course from the Great Ladrone is SSW. J W., the 
route passing between the Taya islands and St. Espiritu 
shoal, and at a convenient distance from the Paracels. 
The currents are very strong along the China coast, and run 
at the rate of from 15 to 24 miles per day in the offing. 
When the wind is ENE., between the Paracels and Hainan, 
it causes a current in the opposite direction. Between the 
Great Ladrone and the coast of Cochin-China the westerly 
currents have a speed of 15 miles per day in moderate 
weather, and of 24 miles with strong winds; vessels should 
not, therefore, steer too southerly, but keep between SSW. 
and SW. by S. ^ S. prior to reaching 17 N. and the channel 
to westward of the banks. This course should fetch them 
3 to the westward of the longitude of the Great Ladrone, 
when on the 17th parallel ; the course thence to cape Varela 
being S. \ W. or S. by W. If the weather be overcast or 
the wind be inclined to haul to the eastward, (as the cur- 
rent sets in toward Quin-hon,) it is well not to approach laud 
before up to cape Varela. Beyond 15 N. the littoral cur- 
rents are strong and southerly, reaching a rate of from 40 
to 60 miles in 24 hours, from 14 30' to 11 30' N. If land 
was not sighted above cape Varela it is advisable to run in 
for it, and keep 12 or 15 miles from the coast. 

" The route to Saigon is near land and to westward of Bound to Saigon. 
Holland bank. Abreast the southern part of false cape 
Varela the course is SSW. or SW. by S. S., across the 
gap of Padaran. The SSE. current should be attended to 
in this locality, and at a moderate distance from shore the 
lead will show 40 or 50 fathoms. Cape Padaran is easily 
recognized on a SSW. course, and cannot be mistaken, as 
the low land at the bottom of the gap gives the cape an iso- 
lated appearance. It should be passed at 5 or 6 miles on a 
SW. by W. course, which will carry the ship about 6 miles 
outside of Pulo-Cecir de Terre ; cape Padarau can, however, 
be approached much closer, and Pulo-Cecir de Terre still be 
doubled. The island once passed at a distance of from 4 to 
6 miles, in daytime, steer SW. by W. until it bears N. by E. 
J E.; it will probably be lost on this bearing. Then, after 
20 N 



30G FROM HONG-KONG TO SINGAPORE. 

running 18 or 21 miles SW. by S., the ship will be west of 
Holland bank, and the remainder of the passage is easy. As 
at night Saigon light is visible 28 miles, and during the day 
cape St. James is easily recognized, the only precaution is 
to round Britto shoal to the eastward. 

Bound to sing- "After passing west of Holland bank, the course is SW. 
by S. for Pulo-Aor ; but it is preferable to keep outside of 
Pulo-Sapata ; in which case the course from false cape Va- 
, rela is S. or S. E., and to eastward of Pulo-Cecir de Mer 

and Pulo-Sapata. In overcast weather it is best to be on 
the safe side and steer SSB., as the currents set rapidly to 
SW. and WSW. toward Pulo-Sapata, and a ship may be 
forced to pass the night between the island and Catwick. 

" In very clear weather vessels may pass close to eastward 
of Pulo-Cecir de Mer, and run west of Great Catwick on a 
SW. course; whence the course is straight for Pulo-Aor. 
When east of Pulo-Timoan in thick weather, keep in 32 or 
33 fathoms. 

" After passing from 6 to 12 miles from Pulo-Aor., the 
course for Banka strait is SE. by S. S. or SSE., depend- 
ing upon the strength of the wind and current, being care- 
ful to keep in at least 23 or 24 fathoms when between 040' 
and 56' N. After passing outside of Geldria bank a 
SSW, course will carry the ship 12 or 15 miles from the 
east point of Linga; this offing is necessary, as Ilchester 
bank bears south from the point (distant 8 miles) and the 
current sets toward the shoal. 

u When abreast of the east point of Linga, distant 15 
miles, set the course at SW. by S. J S., and run between Pulo- 
Taya and the Seven islands, and then head S. by W. for 
point Batakarang, passing it at a distance of 20 miles, as 
Frederick-Hendrick rocks are on the east side of the chan- 
nel." 

ro^e SVaroh ^his route passes over Macclesfield bank and east of 
and April. Pulo-Sapata. Horsburgh says : " Vessels should adopt the 
outer passage in March and April. They should run for 
Macclesfield bank on a S. by E. E. course, with moderate 
winds, or on a SSE. course with strong winds and a heavy 
sea and current. From the bank to Pulo-Sapata the course 
is SW. But if soundings are obtained over the bank, it is 
best to head SW. S. until the parallel of Pulo-Sapata is 
reached, and then if the island be not sighted, to steer SW. 






FROM HONG-KONG TO SINGAPORE. 307 

by W. or WSW. until in 35 or 36 fathoms. This caution is 
.necessary, especially in thick weather or at night ; in fact, 
at such times it is advisable to keep well to the eastward of 
Pulo-Sapata until near 10 K, when head SW. by W. or 
WSW., and run for soundings. Some captains keep SW. 
by S. from Macclesfield bank, and in March, April, and 
May run a great distance to the eastward of Pulo-Sapata. 
If this route be taken, look out for the SE. currents, which 
are liable to sag vessels over toward the shoals to eastward 
of Pulo-Sapata. 

"The parallel of 10 N. once reached, the course is SW. 
by W. and WSW. until bottom is found at 35 fathoms, then 
S. 28 W. or S. 30 W. for Pulo-Aor or Pulo-Timoan. When 
near 7 G' N. do not get in less than 30 or 32 fathoms, and 
look out for Charlotte bank. European -bound vessels 
should, in March and April, stand well to the eastward, and 
passing between the Natunas and Anambas, run for Gaspar 
strait." 

According to Horsburgh, if a good sailer take advantage During the sw. 
of the series of E. or SE. winds which often blow for sev- 
eral successive days at this season, she can make the voy- 
age from the Great Ladrone to the Indies by the inner route. 
In this way the voyage from Hong-Kong to Singapore is 
sometimes made in 20 or 30 days ; but in order to succeed 
they must, from the beginning, take advantage of every 
favorable circumstance, and while standing to the south- 
ward and westward keep as close as possible to Hainan and 
the coast of Cochiu-China. However, the very best sailing- 
vessels should not attempt this route in June, July, and 
August unless absolutely necessary, but take the easterly 
route. 

Captain Blake advises the outer route at this season. He 
says: 

a Vessels going either up or down the China sea when 
the SW. monsoon is blowing in full force, should pass to 
leeward of the Paracels, the Pratas, and Scarborough bank, 
as the current is strong with the wind. 

" Ships descending the China sea against the SW. mon- 
soon, should stand to the southward after they have passed 
Macclesfield bank, being careful to keep between 115 50' 
and 118 50' E. They should profit by every shift of 
wind. 7 ' 



308 FROM HONG-KONG TO SINGAPORE. 

Bound to sai- In short, we think it important, if not indispensable, that 
sailing-vessels bound to Saigon should start before May 
when they can make quite a rapid passage by the inner 
route. But even the outer route will be difficult for a sail- 
ing-ship in June, July, and August; the head-winds and 
currents, the reefs to be avoided, and the danger of meet- 
ing a typhoon, all combining to make the voyage long, and 
even dangerous. The inner route is not so bad for a staunch, 
well-fitted out, auxiliary steamer, and can be followed with- 
out great difficulty. Still, she should not attempt to econo- 
mize coal, but get up steam as soon as possible. 

Bound to Sing- Vessels bound to Singapore should follow the instructions 
apore. g . Ytjn iu ^ ^ Thus,if they leave Hong-Kongfrom the 15th 

April to the 15th May, they should take the first easterly 
route; if they sail from the 15th May 'to the end of June, 
they should take the second easterly route. They should 
avoid starting in August, and if they leave in September, 
should take the inner route described at the beginning of 
the present paragraph. 

First easterly After leaving Hong Kong from the 15th April to the 15th 
sa^Ytraft OT a Mo^ av > vessels should run through Mindoro and Basilan 
lucca passage, straits, as described in 152. The winds and currents from 
Basilan to cape Donda are very variable. If the wind be 
found steady from E., the aim should be to sight cape 
Donda to SSB. or S. Ordinarily, the winds haul to the 
westward on approaching Celebes; these, of course, making 
an ettsterly drift, it is prudent to keep well to the westward 
and sight Tanjong Kaniongan. A ship fetching to the east- 
ward of cape Donda will find it slow work beating up for 
the strait. 

Keep along the coast of Celebes while in Macassar strait, 
and thus find the vessel well to windward oh striking the 
SE. monsoon. The only place where it is important to keep 
an especial lookout is near the latitude of Laurel bank and 
the dangers situated N. of the Noesa-Seras islands. For 
information concerning the remainder of the voyage the 
reader should refer to 154, where will be found instructions 
relative to this route under the head of " the route from 
Singapore to Macassar strait during the NE. monsoon." 

If the wind is foul for Macassar strait, head for Molucca 
passage, as stated in. 152, and pass successively between 
Bauka and Bojaren, (NE. point of Celebes,) then between 



FROM MANILA TO SAIGON. 309 

Lisa-raatula and Obi-Major, or through Greyhound strait, 
situated west of Xulla Taliabo. As the wind prevails from 
SE. and E. beyond Obi-Major, a ship will be in a particu- 
larly good position for making from that point to the NW. 
part of Buru, and for finishing the voyage, as indicated at 
the end of the second easterly route. 

Starting from Hong-Kong, from the beginning of May 
the end of June, a vessel should shape her course as stated Dampi 
in 152, for entering the Pacific by one of the* passages 
north of Luzon. After running down the E. coast of the 
Philippines as far as Gilolo or Dam pier strait, head for 
the NW. part of Buru. Observations on this part of the 
route will also be found in 152. After reaching the NW. 
extremity of Buru head about SW., and if the wind be 
fresh from the SE., allow half a point for northerly drift. 
Navigators should, if possible, manage to make the most 
Dorthern of the Token-Bessi islands during the day, and 
double it a distance of 2 or 3 miles. Thence they can 
easily weather the south point of Butou, and head W. N. 
for Middle island in Salayer strait, being careful to avoid 
Cambyna island if in that locality at night. It is not ad- 
visable to run between Middle and South islands after dark, 
unless at home in the neighborhood, as these islands are 
easily mistaken for each other. After leaving Salayer strait 
make to the westward, running on either side of Brill 
(Taka-Eamata) shoal, as most convenient. Pass close by 
Great Solombo j keep clear of the reefs off Pulo-Maukap, 
and make for Carimata passage. Thence shape the course 
for the northern extremity of Banka and run through 
Singapore strait. Vessels should reach this strait by giv- 
ing a good berth to Geldria bank, and then running for Pulo- 
Panjang, afterward sailing close around the north coast of 
Bintang and passing between that island and Pedra-Branca. 

168. EOUTE FROM MANILA TO SAIGON. Once in the Durin th63rB 
offing, stand across the China sea, making due allowance " 8001 ", 
for the SW. current, so as to pass well to windward of all 
the reefs, particularly Trident, Alexander, and Minerva. 
Make the coast of Cochin-China near cape Padaran, and 
finish the voyage by following the inner route given at the 
beginning of 167. 

The passage will be rough, long, and very difficult at this 
season. Sailing-vessels should avoid it during June, July, 



310 



FROM MANILA TO SINGAPORE. 



and August. There are, however, three routes from which 
to choose. 

First route. In March, April, and the beginning of May, it is possible 
to cross the China sea, after leaving Manila bay, by keep- 
ing north of Macclesfield bank and the Paracels. After 
running close to the coast of Hainan the aim should be to 
follow the inner route described in 167. Good vessels can 
do this even in June and July, but should not attempt it, 
unless absolutely necessary, after the SW. monsoon has 
reached its maximum strength, as typhoons are then com- 
mon. 

second route. This route runs through Mindoro strait ; E. of Palawan ; 
across Balabac strait, and thence along the W. coast of 
Borneo, until far enough south to cross the China sea. As 
the currents are strong to ET. and NE., it is necessary to 
keep well to windward of all reefs, especially Luconia and 
Vanguard. 

Vessels can also follow an analogous route through Pala- 
wan passage, but only in April, or at the beginning of May. 
Both these routes will, of course, be greatly facilitated by the 
assistance of steam. 

Third route. This route passes through Macassar strait, and, though 
longer than the others, will be found easier for average 
sailing-vessels, (vide 167, 1st easterly route.) By taking 
this passage they will avoid the chance of meeting a 
typhoon, and will always find favorable winds beyond 
Great-Pulo-Laut, from SE. to southward of the line, and 
from SW. to northward. 

During the NE. 169. EOUTE FROM MANILA TO SINGAPORE, THE STRAIT 

monsoon. 

OF SUNDA, AND EUROPE. Horsbtirgh advises vessels to 
steer W. by S. from Manila bay to the parallel of 12 N. ? 
and recommends them to keep on this course if they are 
not certain of being at least 9 west of Goat island. They 
should afterward head SW. for Pulo Sapata, thus allowing 
for drift, as the westerly currents are at times very violent, 
and the dead-reckoning is not to be relied upon. If the 
island is not sighted after the parallel of Pulo-Sapata is 
reached, the course should be SW. by W., until soundings 
are found; thence SSW; J W. for Pulo-Aor, as stated in 
167, outer route. For information concerning the end of 
the route, vide 151. 
nSn r 8 o n on the SW ' We think that the 1st easterly route, described in 167, 



FROM SAIGON TO SINGAPORE. 311 

can be followed during the wbole period of this mon- 
soon. Vessels should run through Mindoro and Basilan 
straits, and then make for Macassar strait, when the winds 
will allow, that is to say, in April and May; otherwise, 
Molucca passage may be taken. In this case they should 
double Burn to N W. ; Buton to SE. and S., and then take 
Salayer strait and Carimata passage. 

It does not seem that there is any especial advantage in 
taking the Pacific or 2d easterly route. It can, however, be 
followed ; in which case the track is through San Bernardino 
strait, and reaches Pitt passage, by Gilolo or Dampier 
strait, as described in the description of the 2d easterly 
route, 152. Finish the voj'age as indicated at the close 
of 167. European-bound vessels should follow the same 
route and end the voyage as stated in 152. 

During the months of March, April, and May, vessels 
can still take the Palawan route ; and, in relation to this 
subject, we give the instructions of Captain Stephens, com- 
manding the Harkaway, (Ann. Hydr., 1870 :) 

"Vessels leaving the coast of China, or Manila, and 
bound to the strait of Sunda, during March, April, and the 
beginning of May, should expect to make a long passage if 
they follow the old route, which passes near Pulo-Sapata. 
If, on the other hand, they keep along the coast of Luzon, 
cross Palawan passage, run along the Borneo coast, pass 
near Direction island, double Soruetou, take Carimata 
strait, running close around the North Watcher, and thence 
steer for Saint Nicholas point on the island of Java; they will 
probably meet E. winds, fine weather, and a smooth sea all 
the way. This is a direct route, and clear of calms. Prior 
to the end of May the currents are more favorable than by 
the other route. 

" On nearing the strait of Sunda, vessels should stand 
over for the coast of Java, and in May keep close to the 
land, as the wind is then light; from SE. during the night, 
and from NE. during the day. By following these direc- 
tions they will avoid all danger of being set toward Button 
islet by the westerly current. The current always sets to 
SW. in the middle of the strait; its force is diminished 
during the short flood tide, but increased during the long 
ebb." 

170. EOUTE FROM SAIGON TO SINGAPORE. The follow- 



312 FKOM SAIGbN TO SINGAPORE. 

ing instructions are due to Captain Loftus, of the ship Ken- 
sington, (Ann.Hydr., vol. 23 :) 

ist. Daring the "After leaving cape St. James pass east of the coral 
shoals and Pulo-Oondore ; thence head for Pulo-Aor, allow- 
ing for the currents which set toward the gulf of Siain. Ap- 
proaching Polo-Timou during the night, or in bad weather, 
it is necessary to look out for the SW. current, which tends 
to set vessels into the bay on the coast of Malay, to west- 
ward of Pulo-Timoan. When the weather is overcast and 
the wind strong it is best to bear up and double Pulo-Aor 
to leeward, so as to wait for a favorable opportunity for 
running through the straits. The current sets to SSE., be- 
tween Pulo-Aor and the eastern point of Bintang; it is also 
well to steer S. 28 W. from Pulo-Aor to the Malay coast ; 
and then to keep along the land at a convenient distance. 
Vessels should pass through the north channel, doubling 
the Romania islands at a distance of 3 miles. They will 
then be on the windward side of the straits, and can anchor 
under the tee of Water island if the weather be bad. Ves- 
sels keeping too far to the southward, after leaving Pulo- 
Aor, are often drifted to leeward of Bintang by the current 
and ebb tide, which runs out of the straits. If this happens 
they are obliged to take Rhio strait. In March the east winds 
are fresh, the current slow, and the weather fine. In April 
the east winds are interrupted by calms and squalls. The 
monsoon dies away between the end of April and the 15th 
May. In May the winds and weather are variable, with 
thunder-storms and squalls. Toward the end of this month 
the northerly current commences to flow. 

ad. During the "At this season a fair wind will be carried from the river 

o w monsoon. 

to cape St. James. The wind along the coast is frequently 
from K. and NE. at night, and at times from these points 
for a few moments during the day. A ship taking advan- 
tage of these local winds, while running to the SW., can 
sometimes carry them for 40 or 50 miles to the southward 
and westward of Pulo-Condore. Quick passages have been 
made by keeping under the coast of Cambodia, as far as the 
Brothers and Pulo-Obi, and thence by crossing the gulf of 
Siain with a strong NW. wind, beating up the coast of 
Malasia with the tide, and passing inside of Pulo-Timoan, 
Siribuat, and Pulo-Sibu. Thence make for Singapore strait , 
taking advantage not only of the tides, but of the land and 



FROM SAIGON TO SINGAPORE. 313 

sea breezes, which are frequent at this season during fine 
weather. This route is used by vessels returning from 
Siam, and sometimes from Saigon ; but the passage to east- 
ivard of the Great Natuna is considered the best, especially 
for large ships. 

" Vessels heading SE. on the long starboard tack meet 
the strongest current near Charlotte bank. It afterward 
diminishes and becomes slightly favorable SW. of Great 
Natuna. Here a SE. or E. wind is generally struck, and a 
bad sailer can often pass between Subi and Low islands, 
and then lay a course for Singapore strait. Strong west 
winds and rain are common at the beginning of the mon- 
soon, though the wind is sometimes from S. Bad sailers 
should therefore be very careful how they approach the 
coast of Borneo near cape Sirik ; and make the land between 
Tanjong-Datou and Boerong islands, by taking the Api 
passage. This they can easily do, as they will find land and 
sea breezes, and only a slight current near the shore. In 
Api passage, between Tanjong-Datou and Tanjong-Api, a 
ship should not go closer than 2 or 3 miles to the islands, nor 
in less than 14 fathoms of water; it is also advisable to 
have an anchor ready for letting go. 

After leaving Boerong, the attempt should be made to 
fetch Pulo-Panjang on the port tack, passing either N. or 
S. of the Tambelaus. Pulo-Panjang is off the east coast of 
Bintang. Take the south channel, passing 2 or 3 miles 
from the NE. point of Bintang, in order to clear the Postill- 
ion and make allowance for the tide by keeping on the 
southern or windward side of the strait. When off Khio 
strait remember that the flood sets toward it." 

Passage of the sailing-vessel La Forte, Captain Bourgois, 
(Ann. Hydr., vol. 23.) "The Forte was towed out of Saigon 
on the llth May. Once clear of the river we beat up 
against the SE. wind, in order to double the banks off the 
mouth of the Cambodia. The currents in this locality are 
sometimes very violent. 

" On the 12th, wind from NW. and then from SW., blowing 
fresh. I wished to cross the line as far to the eastward as 
possible, as in all probability I would find the SW. mon- 
soon north of the equator, and the SE., south of it. I there- 
fore steered for the passage east of Great Natuna, leaving 
the island to windward during a violent NW. squall. 



314 FROM SAIGON TO SINGAPORE. 

"The peak of Great Natuna can be seen for 60 miles ; the 
small island north of Pulo Laut is visible for 30 miles ; the 
eastern coast of Great Natuna is clear of all dan gers. Passed 
the island on the 16th ; beyond this, light winds from SSE. 
to SSW., with moderate rain-squalls from S. to W. Beat 
through the passage situated between Great Natuna and 
Low island on the right, and Subi and West islands on the 
left; current about 1 knot to NE.- On the 21st, 22d, and 
23d frigate becalmed near West island; drifted from 15 to 
18 miles per day, to the NE. On the 24th bore to the 
southward and lost sight of Great Natuna peak. On the 
27th, while beating up with a light SSE. breeze, sighted 
Tambelan island, distant from 45 to 55 miles. Between 
Borneo, Tambelau, and the Direction and Pulo-Datou chain 
of islands, there is a large basin where a vessel can beat 
up against the monsoon, and even anchor in 20 or 25 fath- 
oms of water, muddy bottom. On the 27th, Direction 
island bore S. 9 W. and Tambelan peak N. 62 W.; breeze^ 
moderate and from SW.; sky cloudy and overcast. We 
had scarcely hauled the frigate up on the starboard tack, 
and taken two reefs in the topsails, before the wind jumped 
around to W., blowing fresh. Squalls from west all the 
rest of the day and night; between them, however, the 
breeze was regular and moderate from SSE. to SW. 

4i ln Bouillet's Dictionary these squalls are called the 
4 Borueos.' Commencing from the SW. they shift to W. 
and NW. ; consequently, if well clear of the coast ot Borneo 
a captain can use them to make to the southward on the 
starboard tack. As the weather became better, the wind 
returning to SSE., we ran out of the basin on the evening 
of the 29th, passing 5 miles to leeward of Direction island 
on the port tack. The wind in this locality followed to a 
certain extent the motion of the sun. blowing from SE. in 
the morning, and from SW. in the evening. 

u This point of the voyage reached, Captain Bourgois 
states that he decided to keep to windward, and if possible 
reach Carimata passage by the north of Billiton ; and thence, 
if the wind should haul to the southward, to still keep on 
the starboard tack as far as Borneo, when he intended to 
go about and stand for Java ; or if, on the other hand, the 
wind should come out from the eastward, to round close to 
the NW. point of Billiton on the port tack, and thus reach 



FROM SAIGON TO SINGAPORE. .'51 "* 

the Java sea through Stolze channel. This idea proved 
successful. The Forte beat to SE. from the 30th May until 
the 4th June, to reach the north point of Billiton. The 
weather, however, was not very good, squalls being frequent 
from ESE. to SE. during the day, and from SSE. to S. 
during the night. On the morning of the 4th, when we 
had nearly finished the starboard tack, we sighted Carimata 
island, distant 36 miles to the E. ; but the wind had as 
usual shifted to ESJ3. Though we endeavored to reach Billi- 
ton, so as to be ready to go through Stolze channel the next 
morning, a NE. squall, followed by a calm, compelled us to 
anchor before we were up to the west coast of the island. 
Our anchorage was about 10 miles NE. from the outer one 
of the Eleven islands, and was well protected from the 
winds of this season ; bottom mud; depth 16 fathoms. We 
got under way on the morning of the 5th and rounded the 
islands at a distance of about 2 miles ; reeling off about ten 
'knots during a heavy NE. rain-squall, which hid all the 
land. 

"When the sky cleared we were abreast of Tjeroutjoup 
roads, where we found two Dutch men-of-war at anchor. 
This seems to be a very safe anchorage during the south 
monsoon. During the evening of the oth the wind died 
away, and we anchored in 18 fathoms, bottom sand and 
gravel, to west of a beautiful bay with a sandy beach, situ- 
ated between Pulo Batu and Mendanao islands. From this 
anchorage the islet off the W. point of Meudanao bore ESE., 
and the one off the W. point of Pulo-Batu NE. Got under 
way on the 6th, after a heavy SE. squall, and stood for 
Stolze channel with a gentle ESE. breeze. 

" Stolze channel may be divided into two parts. The 
first is the basin, bounded on the NE. by the Mendauao 
islands ; on the SW. by the North, South, and Table islands ; 
and on the SE. by the group of Six islands. In this basin, 
open to NW., and 7 or 8 miles wide, a ship can beat up 
against the SE. wind with some chance of success, the cur- 
rent being moderate and the sea quite smooth. It will not 
take over a day to reach the anchorage to leeward of the 
Six islands. Another 24 hours on the port tack will carry 
the ship through the second part of Stolze channel. This 
second part lies south of the first, and has a channel 5 miles 
wide; stretching to SW., between Table island and the 



316 FROM SAIGON TO SINGAPORE. 

Six islands. Leave Vansittart bank to NW. It will be 
necessary to beat up against a 8. wind, even after doubling 
the Six islands. Besides, it has already been stated that 
it is best to haul up on the starboard tack before entering 
Stolze channel with a S. wind ; and to keep on this stretch 
through Carimata passage, as far as Borneo. There, the 
wind will probably shift to the eastward and enable you to 
fetch the strait of Sunda on the port tack. But with a SE. 
wind a ship can easily clear the strait on a SW. course. 
Soon after leaving the Six islands, Shoal- water island will be 
sighted at a distance of 15 miles in clear weather. The 
bearings of this and the other islands (especially Saddle 
island) will serve as ranges for doubling Shoal- water island 
to NW., for clearing Embleton rock, and for passing on 
either side of Fairlie rock according to the direction of the 
wind. Finally, if the wind come out from east after doub- 
ling the Six islands, or even if it tends a little more to the 
northward, head between S. and SSE. ; and run to wind- 
ward of the line of dangers formed by Shoal-water island, 
Sand island, and the adjacent shoals. But the want of an 
anchorage and the SE. swell will generally prevent vessels 
from following this route, except during steady leading 
winds. 

u To return to the case of the Forte. We left the Six 
islands on the morning of the 6th June, on the port tack ; 
wind ESE. and E. As the wind moderated and hauled 
ahead, we did not succeed in passing to eastward of Shoal- 
water island ; the SE. swell also drifted the vessel to the 
westward ; and the weather becoming overcast it was not 
deemed advisable to beat up among the reefs between Sand 
island and Pulo-Selio ; we therefore bore up and ran to west- 
ward of Shoal-water island. The difficulty consisted in 
doubling Einbletou rock during the squalls, when no bear- 
ings could be taken. The wind freshening, took 3 reefs in 
the topsails. Sighted a rock just awash, near the position 
of Embleton, also other reefs in different directions; the man 
at the masthead also reported breakers between Shoal- 
water and Sand islands. The islands were not in sight at 
the time. Wind steady from ESE.; weather better. After 
rounding Shoal-water island, steered S., full and by. As 
the wind died away at sunset, anchored 8 miles SW". of 
Shoal- water island in 10 fathoms, bottom sand and gravel. 



FROM SAIGON TO SINGAPORE. 317 

At daylight on the 7th got under way with a SE. wind and 
doubled Fairlie rock on the port tack, taking our bearings 
from Shoal-water island. After sighting the little island 
called North Watcher, we reached the entrance to the strait 
of Sunda on the 8th ; arid anchored during the evening at 
Anjer, after a passage of 28 days from Saigon." 



CHAPTER X. 

ROUTES FROM THE AUSTRALIAN PORTS TO ASIA AND 

CHINA. 

During the SE. 171. NORTHERLY ROUTE FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA, 

Say toAugu r st m BATAVIA, AND SINGAPORE. 1st. From Sidney to Torres 
strait. Steamers and auxiliary steamers should, after leav- 
. ing Sidney, follow the inner route advised by King, and 
keep along the coast of Australia inside of the reefs. 

Sailing-vessels, starting from May to the end of June, 
should follow the outer route, which passes E. of Gato 
bank and Wreck, (Naufrage,) Kenn, and Diana reefs. Thence, 
they can cross Torres strait, by the passage near Eaine 
island or the one near Bligh island. The Bligh passage is 
preferable. 

In support of these opinions we will give the following in- 
structions from the Australia Directory : 
Relative merits The outer route is more likely to interest commanders 

of the two routes. 

of merchant- vessels, whose chief object is generally to make a 
quick passage with the least amount of labor. This route, no 
doubt, possesses thi-s advantage; but it must be borne in mind 
that the passage through the Great Barrier reefs, from the 
Coral sea into Torres strait, is frequently attended with dan- 
ger, and sometimes the loss of the vessel, notwithstanding 
the recent surveys and the erection of the beacon on Eaine 
island. These disasters, however, would doubtless be less 
frequent were the Great Northeast (Bligh) channel more 
used, as it may be generally navigated by night, so that the 
time and labor saved by not being compelled to anchor so 
frequently as in the route by Eaine island, would more than 
compensate for the 90 miles which the former route exceeds 
the latter in distance. 

"Notwithstanding all that has been said in favor of the 
inner route, supported by the weighty authority of Captain 
King, the outer route is undoubtedly preferred by nearly all 
the merchant-vessels bound from Sydney to Torres strait, 
more especially since the late survey of the Coral sea." 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 319 

Captain Blackwood remarks as follows : 
" Opinions are divided as to the respective merits of the 
various routes through Torres strait. During the season of 
SE. winds, that is, from May to September, either the chan- 
nel by the Ilaine-island beacon or that near Bligh island, sit- 
uated north of Darnley, furnishes a quicker route than the 
passage along the coast inside the reefs. Such being the 
case, merchant-vessels make use of this outer route, as much 
time is gained thereby. 

u Steamers bound to India during the W. monsoon, that 
is, from November to March, will find it greatly to their ad- 
vantage to take the Torres-strait route. And I think Cap- 
tain King's inshore route is the best for them, as wood may 
be obtained along the east coast, nor do I see why the voy- 
age from Sydney to Singapore need take more than five 
weeks, as the SE. winds will be carried up to 14 or 15 S. 
before the west wind sets in." 

We will finish these considerations on the best route by 
giving the principal results obtained at the Dutch Observa- 
tory relative to passages from Australia to Java. 

Below will be found the mean crossings of 14 ships which 
took the Maine-island passage. One of these vessels left in 
April, three in May, four in June, five in July, and one in 
August. 

30 S. crossed at 156 20' E., after 2.1 days at sea. 
25o S. u 157 20' E., after 4.0 
200 S. 1560 20' E., after 6.7 " 
150 S. 150 20' E., after 9.6 " 
1400 E. loo 30' S., after 16.8 " 
1300 E. 100 12' S., after 20.5 
1200 E. 100 12' S., after 25.2 " 
110 E. " 9 12' S., after 27.3 " 

The points of departure for the above table were Sydney, 
Newcastle, and Bass strait. The vessels which left Bass 
strait took a mean time of 2.5 days to reach 35 S. at 154 20' 
E., and 2.6 days to go from 35 to 30 S., crossing the latter 
parallel at 156 20' E. 

We will now give the mean crossings of 21 vessels ichich 
took the Bligh-island passage. Three of these left in April, 
4 in May, 7 in June, 4 in July, 2 in August, and 1 in Sep- 
tember. The points of departure were the same as those in 
the preceding table, except four, which were from Melbourne. 



320 FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 

30 g. crossed at 156 20' E., after 3.3 days at sea. 
25 S. " 157 20' E., after 5.9 " 
20 S. u 1550 20' E;, after 9.1 " 
150 s. " 1510 50' E., after 11.7 " 
1500 E. " 13o 30' S., after 12.7 
1400 E. " HP 36' S., after 20.0 
1300 E. u 10 o 00'S.,afte: 23.5 " 
1200 E. u 100 54' S., after 28.1 " 
1100 E. 90 12' S., after 30.2 

The four vessels which left Melbourne took a mean time 
of 6 days to reach 35o S. at 158 20' E. Those which left by 
Bass strait were 3.2 days in reaching 35 S. at 152 20' E.; 
and afterward from 2 to 3 days in reaching 30 S. at about 
1570 E. 

By comparing these two tables it will be seen that 27 days 
were consumed in reaching 110 E. when the Raine-island 
passage was used on the route from Australia to Java, and 
30 days by the Bligh-island passage. 

Notwithstanding this result, we still are in favor of the 
route by Bligh-island passage, as it is less dangerous and 
only gives an increase of two days' voyage for vessels leav- 
ing the same Australian port. 

2d. The Bligh-island-passage route* After doubling cape 
Rodney and the SB. part of New Guinea, vessels should 
reach 9 10' N. and make the westing on that parallel, pass- 
ing north of the Eastern Fields and Portlock reefs. Thence 
run 4 or 5 miles south of Bramble key, a sand-bank about 9 
or 12 feet above low water, and visible 7 or 8 miles from the 
mast-head. 

During the night it is well to avoid the southern part, be- 
tween Bramble key and the ledge of reefs to northward of 
Darnley island, and anchor north of Bramble key in about 
22 fathoms of water. However, a ship can lie-to or stand 
off and on to the northward of the key, being careful not to 
get inside of 7 fathoms on the coast of New Guinea. 

Near Bramble key the flood comes from NE. or E. at 
a speed of, sometimes, 2 knots; the ebb comes from the op- 
posite direction, and is swifter. It is generally safe to count 

* Indications concerning the beginning of this voyage, from Sydney 
to the end of the reefs, will be found under the head of " 3d. The Raine- 
island-passage route." 



FROM: AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 321 

on a knot of westerly current, unless the strait is approached 
after a squall, when a greater allowance should be made. 

Water may be obtained on Daruley island, but the men 
should never go on shore in these localities without being 
well armed. 

We will now cite several accounts of different trips made 
through Bligh passage : 

Passage of the Pactole, Captain Allaire, through Torres 
strait, (Ann. Hydr., vol. 30.) " I was off Portlock reef on 
the 16th August. Shaped my course for Bligh passage ; at 
six shortened sail ; squally ; strong breeze and rain from 
SE. At 5 a. m. got bottom at 31 fathoms, sand. During 
the night ship drifted 15 miles WSW. in 12 hours, from 
which I inferred that the current sets toward the strait at 
this season. Headed for the strait at 7 o'clock ; sighted 
Darnley island, bearing SSW., also the breakers NE. of that 
island ; passed 1 mile from the reef. Darnley island is very 
high; it can be seen for 25 or 30 miles in clear weather, and 
is a good mark for entering the strait. At noon on the 17th 
Darnley island bore N. ; position, 9 37' S. and 143 22' E. 
Passed between Daruley and Marsden; at 1 p. m. doubled 
Kennel island to the northward, at a distance of 1 mile; at 
3.30 I was in mid-channel between Cocoa-nut and Dove 
islands. Headed for Bet-island pass. Strong SSE. and SE. 
breeze all day, with squalls. Ship making 10 knots with a 
double-reefed topsail breeze ; pressed on more sail in order 
to clear the difficult passes before dark. At 5 p. m. anchored 
under the lee of Bet island. Vessels can anchor to leeward 
of any of the islands in this locality. Found a westerly cur- 
rent at our anchorage until 11 p. m. ; about 2 hours after- 
ward it changed. The ship swung to the ESB. current, 
notwithstanding the strength of the wind. After running at 
about 2.5 or 3 knots until 5 a. m. the current again changed 
and set to the westward. Got under way and at 9 a. m. 
passed between Ninepin rock and Saddle island ; at 10.30 
I was abreast of Double island ; at 11.45 on the meridian of 
Ince point, at the entrance to Prince of Wales channel ; at 
1 p. m. on the meridian of the west point of Goode island, 
and consequently out of all danger. I was, therefore, 29 
hours in Torres strait, 13 of which I lay at anchor. I con- 
sider Bligh passage the best at all seasons, on account of 
21 N 



322 FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 

its numerous anchorages. I never found more than 11.5 
fathoms of water, nor less than 8 fathoms." 

Observations by Captain Croudace, (Mer. Mar. J/a^.,1864.) 
" Left Sydney July 1st, 1860, becalmed 40 miles from the 
Heads for five days, then a nice westerly breeze took us 
down to the trades; pursued thenew route through the 
Coral sea, as far as lat. 18 S., long. 155 E., from which 
point, instead of steering for Baine island, we shaped a 
direct course N W. j W. by compass, to pass midway be- 
tween the Eastern Fields shoal and the coast of Guinea, and 
on the morning of July 17th, at 7 o'clock, we sighted the 
breakers on East cay, having seen nothing from the above 
given point of departure until sighting the cay itself; the 
weather was very hazy on this run of nearly 700 miles, and 
the nights very cloudy ; we felt little or no current, and the 
ship made the course good very accurately; we ran down 
fearlessly until we sighted the Cays, never having reduced 
sail; at 8 a. m., the 17th, we were abreast of Anchor cay, 
the opening to Bligh passage, and having passed it, we 
hauled up, and by 6 p. m. (same day) we had reached Dove 
islet, and anchored under the lee of an. island, (without a 
name,) bearing E. by N. from Dove islet; the next day the 
weather was very unsettled and squally, with shpwers; re- 
mained at anchor, having been joined by the ship Storm 
Cloud; on the 19th, at 5 a. m., we both weighed and pro- 
ceeded for Prince of Wales channel, passing close round 
Bet rock or islet, and thence close past Ninepin rock. The 
course from this rock to the entrance of the Prince of Wales 
channel is SW. S. by compass, and there appear to be no 
dangers in the way, with depths of 8 and 9 fathoms. 

As we neared Double island and Mount Earnest, the look- 
out from the fore-topsail yard reported breakers on the 
starboard bow. As we approached them, the ship's position 
was taken as accurately as the opportunity afforded, and 
the shoal at the same instant being judged nearly one mile 
distant, was placed as follows : A line drawn from the cen- 
ter of Double island to center of Mount Earnest will pass 
through the center of the new reef, (now called Campbell 
reef;) it is 6| miles from the former,* and 5J miles from the 
latter; it appeared to trend SW. and NB., about 1 mile 

* Ou the charts of 1873, the center of Campbell reef is 1 or 2 miles east 
of the line given by Captain Croudace. 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 323 

long, and very narrow; should say it may have 4 to G feet 
over it when smooth water. It lies much in the track of 
vessels coming up from Bligh passage. 

Captain Campbell, of the Storm Cloud, who passed it at 
the same time, assigns the same position to it. Both ships 
anchored at Booby island at 1.30 p. m., having come from 
our last anchorage 80 miles in 7 hours. For large, or 
indeed for any ships, I consider the Bligh passage prefer- 
able to the Raine island passage, there being no sunken 
reefs or dangers, and smooth-water anchorages the entire 
lugth, with a bank of soundings as you approach the en- 
trance of the channel ; 110 embarrassment from the glare of 
the sun, as in the passage from Raine island. As a general 
rule also, a ship will only require to anchor once, and even 
that may not always be necessary, for, if taking the channel 
early, as we did for example, had the wind been more east- 
erly, we should have passed the narrows before dark, and 
could then have hove-to until daylight, keeping mount 
Adolphus in sight, or any of the islands in that locality, 
but being the syzygy we found weather unsettled, and the 
winds far from the south." 

Observations by Captain Ankers, (Mer.Mar. Mag., 1865.) 
u The ship Queen of the East, under my command, left Syd- 
ney on the 29th June, 1864, with horses, bound to Madras, 
and, although I had never been through Torres strait, I 
determined to take that route rather than attempt a winter 
passage round cape Leeuwiu in a large ship with the cer- 
tainty of losing some of the horses. 1 accordingly took the 
ordinary route to the northward, but owing to a succession 
of very light winds, and four days' calm, I did not sight the 
Eastern Fields until the 14th July, and from the same cause 
did not pass Bramble cay until daylight on the 16th, hav- 
ing passed the north end of Portlock reef on the previous 
evening. The sea breaks high on both Portlock reef and 
the Eastern Fields, and they are plainly visible from the 
mast-head at the distance of 6 or 7 miles in clear weather. 

u July 16th, at 7 a. m., Bramble cay bearing N., a mile 
distant, Darnley island peak being clearly visible bearing 
SSW., steered a direct course for Stephens island, making 
due allowance for the tide, (the flood setting pretty strong 
on the weather beam,) the shoal patches northward of Darn- 
ley island, showing quite plainly, being covered with a 



324 FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 

white sand or ground coral. Carried all sail during the day 
with studding-sails on the pore side, the wind being light 
from ESE. ; at 3 p. in. the weather thick and squally, the 
rain at times completely obscuring the land, I anchored in 
9 fathoms water, the NB. end of Stephens island on with 
the peak of Darnley island, about half a mile off shore, the 
water smooth and the holding-ground good. 

" Sunday, 17th July. Got under way at daylight with a 
fine breeze from ESE. and clear weather. Set all sail and 
proceeded, giving her all studding-sails as we went along, 
passing south of Dairy m pie island, and north of Camp, 
bell, Marsden, Eeunel, and Arden isles, between Dove 
and Cocoannt islands, and north of the Three Sisters, Bet, 
Sue, and Poll. The extensive reef running out to the east- 
ward from the northernmost of the Sisters (Bet) is steep 
and free from outlying dangers; I sailed along within a 
cable's length of it, in order to give a berth to some shoal- 
patches to leeward, which are, however, plainly in sight 
from the mast-head. After rounding Bet, the Ninepiu rock 
and Saddle island can be seen if the weather be at all clear 
the Niuepin rock being not unlike a vessel under sail. I 
then passed between the Ninepiu and Harvey rocks ; it is 
better to keep close to the Ninepin, in order to avoid some 
shoal-patches which lie to the north of Harvey rocks, some 
portions of which are only awash at low water. I then 
steered down for Double island, where I anchored at 11 p. 
m., in 7 fathoms of water, half a mile from shore. 

" Monday, 18th July. Got under way at daylight, made 
all sail and steered down for the Prince of Wales channel, 
rounding Wednesday spit at the distance of 80 yards, found 
the tide running like a mill-stream ; rounded Hammond 
rock at 30 yards distance, the eddies so strong that the 
helm was almost useless. From tlie top-gallant yard I 
coursed the ship through between Ipili and Sunk reef, keep- 
ing within 120 feet of the edge of Ipili reef, as Sunk reef 
being covered, renders it the more dangerous of the two. 

"The Prince of Wales channel, which I thought the best 
out to the westward, requires very great caution ; in pass- 
ing Hammond rock and Ipili reef, I feel certain the ship 
was going over the ground at the rate of 10 knots per hour, 
the current having such power on the ship that I was com- 
pelled to assist the helm by working the sails, although I 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 325 

had a good breeze at the time. I should therefore consider 
it advisable, especially if the wind be light arid baffling, to 
take the Prince of Wales channel as near slack- water as 
possible, and am of opinion that a commander would be 
justified in sacrificing a few hours in order to accomplish 
that object, especially in a dull-sailing or badly-steering 
ship, rather than run the risk of touching on the reefs when 
the passage of the straits may be said to be accomplished. 
I reached Booby island at noon, hove to, and deposited a 
few necessaries in the cave for the use of those less for- 
tunate than myself." 

Captain Ankers then goes on to state that, after reading 
some logs which he found on Booby island, and thoroughly 
considering the relative merits of Bligh and Kaine passages, 
he is still in favor of the former. He does not think the 
objection, that this route is too far to leeward, well sup- 
ported by facts. As to the inhabitants of these islands, they 
are a miserable race of savages, without good huts or the 
least civilization. No provisions are to be found on the 
islands, the natives not even cultivating bananas or corn. 

3d. The Raine island passage. Instructions of Captain 
Blaclcwood: "Captains wishing to take the outer route from 
Sydney are recommended to sight Cato shoal or Wreck reef. 
They should on no account pass west of 153 east longitude 
before reaching 17 south latitude. Lihou reef will be 
avoided on this track, and the current will be found 
variable, though generally setting to the westward, at a 
little over one knot per hour. 

" Osprey reef should be avoided by passing vessels. It 
is situated in lat. 13 51' 10" S., long. 1460 36' E. After 
leaving Osprey reef the course should be for the Great 
Barrier, at lat. 11 50' S. and 144 n/ E. ; this will keep 
the ship from being drifted to northward of the Raine 
island passages. 

"Eaine island lies nearly in the middle of the large 
opening in the reef, and has a clean, safe channel on either 
side. The islet is low, of coral -formation, and has no fresh 
water upon it; the soil being covered with a thick under- 
brush. A reef extends 1^ miles to the ESE. 

"A substantial round beacon of stone was erected in 
1844, on the SE. point of the island. It is CO feet high,* 

* Without the dome, which has decayed and fallen in, vide Australia 
D irectory . Translator. 



32G FEOM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 

and painted with alternate red and black vertical stripes. 
* It should be visible 8 miles in clear weather. 

" It is high water at Kaine island, full and change, at 
8 h 10 m . Spring tides rise 10 feet, the flood runs to WN W. ; 
the ebb to the eastward, the strength of the stream some- 
times exceeding 2 knots at full and change. 

u Provisions and water have from time to time been 
deposited in the chambers of the tower on Kairie island." 

Captain Charles Harrold gives the following full and 
complete instructions on the Eaine island route, (Mer. 
Mar. Mag., June, I860:) 
Captain Har- "Having made the passage from Australia to India 

rold's instruc- , , 

through Torres strait upward of a dozen times, and hence 
having had considerable experience of this route, the fol- 
lowing remarks may prove acceptable to those commanders 
who have not been through before. 

"A ship leaving Sidney early in the season, from the 
beginning of April to the middle of May, should at once 
get an offing; later in the season it is better to keep 
the land on board (and with strong westerly winds) as far 
as Solitary isle or Mount Warning j but should the wind 
veer to the southward, with a rising glass, shape a course 
at once to pass 40 or 50 miles to the eastward of Cato 
bank ; steering on a northerly course, keeping at least a 
degree to the eastward of Keen reef, after passing which, 
a NW. course may be pursued, taking care to give the 
Cayes and Lihou reefs a good berth of 50 or 60 miles. 
After leaving these dangers there is nothing on the track to 
the Great Barrier; the Osprey reef and some others to the 
southeastward are quite out of the way, and a ship has no 
occasion to go near them. 

" In approaching the Great Barrier considerable care is 
necessary, if no observations for latitude have been taken ; 
and an allowance must be made for the northwesterly set, 
so as not to get to the northward of Eaine island beacon. 
The plan I always adopted was not to run down on the 
Barrier and work to windward all night ; but should the 
ship be upward of 200 miles off at noon, and not be able to 
enter the next day, I would reduce sail at once and steer 
slowly on a course, from 2 to 5 knots, according to distance, 
so as to reach within 30 miles of the Great Detached reef 
by the second morning at daylight. Should no observations 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 327 

for latitude have been taken, (or whether or no,) when 
breakers are sighted from the mast-head, ahead of the ship 
or a little on the port bow, as you draw toward the reefs, 
or should you see them on the starboard bow as far as can 
be seen from the mast-head, you may be sure you are to the 
northward, and may haul up immediately on the port tack ; 
and if the wind is far enough to the eastward to lay along 
the reef, you will soon see clear water, and sight the bea- 
con from the mast-head; or should it be the Great Detached 
reef that you sight, clear water will be seen on the star- 
board bow, and by edging to the WNW. you will shortly 
see the beacon. I have always found this a good guide for 
Raine island, for if you get too far down toward the reefs 
before you find out your mistake, you will have great diffi- 
culty in working to windward. Should you be to the south- 
ward, which will rarely happen when steering for the Great 
Detached reef, you will be sure to see Yule reef, and could 
then take Stead passage, which, however, is not very easy 
to make. 

"After making, the beacon and steering down with it, a 
little on the starboard bow, the edge of the Great Detached 
reef will be distinctly seen,ialso the reefs oft' Raine island ; 
when the beacon bears N., haul up SW. by W. After a few 
miles a very small sand-bank will be visible from the mast- 
head, on the starboard bow, and if you see it distinctly 
from the deck of a small vessel you are falling to leeward, 
and should haul up more to the southward. This is one 
place, I think, that should have a mast with a sort of 
basket-top placed on it as a beacon j it would be a good 
guide for ships entering late in the afternoon ; for, after 
passing this, you are near the edge of soundings, and with 
night coming on, after getting on soundings, you should 
haul well to the southward and bring up at dark, taking 
care to give at least GO or 70 fathoms of cable, as the hold- 
ing-ground is here very bad, (hard coral.) From this 
anchorage keep well to windward of the course until you 
sight either Ash more banks or the Middle banks. Ashmore 
banks show much higher out of the water and whiter than 
the Middle banks, which latter are at high water nearly 
covered. This also would be an excellent place for a mast- 
beacon. If there is sufficient daylight to reach Ashrnore 
banks, or under the lee of Cockburn reef, a better anchor- 



328 FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 

age may be obtained ; or if it should be blowing a gale, 
with squally weather, good anchorage in smooth water may 
be obtained under the lee of Sir Charles Hardy islands. In 
going in, keep close to the weather island, and anchor well 
to windward in a small, sandy bay; by so doing you will 
be in a better position for weighing in the morning. In 
anchoring here one voyage the chain fouled on the windlass, 
and before the other anchor was let go we were in inid- 
channel. Next morning the tide would not let the ship 
cant any other way than head to the northward. The top- 
sails were single-reefed and yards hoisted to the mast-head 
before commencing heaving. The ship broke ground with 
the fifteen-fathom shackle in the hawse, and before we got 
the anchor off the ground and sail made we were close 
down on the leeward island, and only cleared it by scarcely 
a stone's throw. In coming out from here you will have to 
keep KE. by N. for a few miles, and might have to tack 
should the wind be to the eastward ; but you can see the 
Middle and Ashmore banks quite plainly. If there is 
sufficient daylight to reach Cockburn reef, it will be found 
a still better anchorage than under Ashmore bank. It is 
quite smooth, especially at low water, although you require 
a good scope of cable, as the ground appears to be hard 
coral. In weighing from here you will soon see the edge of 
the reef that stretches to the NW., and you may run down 
toward it until you can see it distinctly from the deck; then 
edge away along the reef, and as you draw toward the end 
you will see two sand-banks ; the nearest one is small, and 
probably may be covered at high water, although I have- 
never seen it quite covered, but you will be sure to see it 
from the fore-yard before you get too close, and very likely 
before they see it from the mast-head. If bound to Bird 
island, haul close round the small sand-bank, leaving the 
large bank on the starboard hand. This bank is high out 
of water, with an extensive reef running off the weather 
side of it, which is also seen distinctly from the deck. This 
track I prefer to going close round the end of Cockburn 
reef and having to haul to the southward. If bound on to 
Cairncross island, leave the large bank also on the port 
hand, and, steering for the Hannibal island, reefs Y and W 
will be seen, with a small sand-bank on reef V, also the 
Boydong cays. 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 329 

"After passing V and W reefs, the great danger of 
Torres strait is past, and all sail may be carried down to 
cape York ; or anchor at Cairncross, and the next day, with 
a fresh breeze you will get out in good time. 

" If the wind should be light, and a ship not able to 
reach cape York or mount Adolphus before dark, anchor 
close under the lee of a small sand-bank at the end of reef 
X, which is far preferable to Turtle island ; but should the 
night be fine and moonlight, having reached thus far, a 
ship could run on, and passing Albany isles, anchor round 
cape York. If rounding this cape in daylight, anchor 
abreast of two rocky islets, a short distance past the en pe- 
rn 7 or 8 fathoms water, cape York bearing E. N., Peaked 
hill SSW. ; this is a very good anchorage, and you will be 
in a position to choose either Prince of Wales passage or 
Endeavor strait. If intending to pass through the Prince 
of Wales channel, (which is as good as buoyed and beaconed 
by Hammond rock and the Ipili and North-West reefs, with 
no danger excepting a strong tide,) should the wind be light 
and contrary, after passing the Albany isles steer to pass 
point Ince half a mile off, taking care to avoid rock A; the 
North- West reef can be seen from the mast-head a long 
while before you reach the point ; at any rate should it be 
hazy or squally, by passing point Ince close, the North- 
West reef will be avoided, and Hammond rock will be seen; 
steer to pass close to, and before reaching it the Ipili reef 
will be distinctly visible, the rocks on it sticking up above 
water. Borrow toward Ipili reef to clear Sunk reef; after 
passing this danger, the last in the straits, Booby island 
will be seen. Should you intend to anchor, leave the island 
on your port hand, as the reef extends to some distance off 
the other side. The landing is very bad at low water, but 
you can pull close to the entrance of the cave at high water. 
I was once detained from noon till 9 p. m. to land a few 
casks of water sent by the Government. 

"If intending to go by Endeavor strait, which is quite 
safe, after passing Possession isle, you are soon out of the 
strong tide. I have always passed close to a high rugged 
island (Entrance island) west of Great Woody island, as far 
preferable, .and it leads you clear of McKenzie and Gibson 
rocks. My last voyage I towed through with the boat 
ahead, and shortly after a breeze came from the SW., and 



330 FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 

squally, and we worked down within 3 or 4 miles of Eed 
Wallis isle, and brought up when the tide turned. Should 
the weather be clear and fine as you draw abreast of Eed 
Wallis island, a good mark for mid-channel is cape Corn- 
wall on with Peaked hill, from which steer to pass out to 
the south of Kothsay banks. 

" In conclusion, I again repeat, that in running for the 
Great Detached reef, 25 or 30 miles is quite close enough to 
come to it until daylight; for if a ship get to either Ash- 
more bank or Cockburn reef the first night, or even only 
just on sounding, she will reach Cairncross island the next 
day, and out clear the day following, and she would not do 
any better by getting in earlier. She might reach Bird 
island the first night, but she would have to anchor under 
cape York the next, excepting she were -a very fast ship, 
with wind and tide in her favor, and she then might get 
through ; but it rarely happens that a ship passes through 
with once anchoring; and it is certainly not worth the risk 
of running down close on the barrier for the sake of twelve 
hours. I have often gone through it in 48 hours,' viz, 26 at 
anchor and 22 under way. I am satisfied that nearly all 
the wrecks have taken place through the anxiety of masters 
to get in early, and to running down too close on the Bar- 
rier. The wrecks inside I attribute to going off the tracks 
laid down, and running in squally and thick weather. 
Great improvement might be made by placing a few mast- 
beacons (with basket tops to distinguish them by) and 
buoys at various places, and the passage by Eaine island 
rendered much easier for a stranger going through for the 
first time." 

4th. Route from Torres strait to Singapore. After leaving 
Booby island or clearing Endeavor strait, vessels make to 
the westward, with a fair wind. A good lookout should be 
kept for the banks beyond Booby island, as they are not all 
accurately located ; especially Proudfoot, Lucius, and Aurora 
shoals. Wessel islands should always be passed about 20 
miles to the northward ; thence the track lies between Croker 
island and Money reef. Afterward the course should be 
shaped so as to run about 20 miles south of Damo or Dana, 
(to southward of Rottij) this will take the ship close to Echo 
bank, and well clear of Hibernia and Ashmore shoals; all 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 331 

of them being passed to northward.* Thence leave Hockie 
island (south of Savu) far to the northward, and give a 
wide berth to the south coast of Saudalwood. 

Either Lombok or Alias .strait can be taken, and the 
reef south of Baars island passed several miles to S W. ; 
thence the route lies through Sapoedie strait, between the 
island of the same name and Giliang. Vessels sometimes 
head straight for Urk island after leaving Alias or Lombok 
strait. The passage between Urk and Kangerang is better 
than the one to westward of the former island. 

The passage across the Java sea to Carimata strait is 
quite easy. After leaving Sapoedie strait or Kangerang 
passage it is safest to pass south of Bawean, a bright look- 
out being kept for Hastings rock ; thence the route runs 10 
or 12 miles north of the Crimou-Java islands. The depart- 
ure may be taken from Parang island the most north- 
westerly of the group for Carimata, and that island will 
soon after be raised, liun east of Discovery, Lavender, 
and Cirencester banks ; and when Carimata peak is sighted 
K. 20 W., head for it, until able to take the position of 
the vessel by cross-bearings on Carimata and Soruetou 
islands. Thence bear to the westward, and pass between 
Soruetou and Ontario banks. Auxiliary steamers can head 
for Rhio strait from this point j but sailing-vessels should 
make for Singapore strait, passing east of Bintang, and 
looking out for Pratt reef, Frederick rock, Geldria bank, 
and all the dangers off Panjang. This island should be 
doubled to NE., when the course should be for Horsburgh 
light. The South channel, 3 or 4 miles to southward of the 
light, can be used. 

It is hardly advisable to take the route through Torres 
strait from September to May. For though it is possible 
to run through Bligh passage at this season, the danger of 
losing your vessel among the reefs is great, and much time 
will be lost while at anchor during the squally weather 
frequent in that locality. Vessels with steam-power can 
take this route if they have enough coal on hand to reach 
Kupang, (Timor,) as it is doubtful if they can fill cheir bunk- 
ers on the NE. coast of Australia. 

The best route for sailing-vessels leaving Sydney during the 
JS W. monsoon consists in following at first the route for Bligh 
* Vessels can coal at Kupang, (Timor.) 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 

passage. Keep well to west of Bamptou reef, pass east of 
Mellish shoal, and round San Christoval island (the most 
eastern of the Solomon group) to the eastward. Some ves- 
sels prefer passing west of Mejlish shoal, coasting the south- 
ern shores of the Solomon group, and running north of New 
Ireland, where they sight St. John and the Green islands. 
Whether passing east or west of the Solomons, always keep 
clear of the New Guinea coast, particularly in November, 
December, and January. A ship should reach the neigh- 
borhood of 6 N. as soon as possible 5 here the prevalent 
NE. wiud will probably enable her to head for the Pelew 
islands. After passing these islands to the southward enter 
the Celebes sea, by the Serangani islands; the Sulu sea, by 
Basilan strait; and the China sea, by Balabac strait. 

For further information the reader should refer to the 
examples given in 139. Information concerning the first 
part of the passage will also be found in 173 ; and the voy- 
age should end by following the return route from Singa- 
pore to Palawan passage, (vide 154.) 

172. SOUTHERLY ROUTE FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA, 
BATAVIA, AND SINGAPORE. We do not advise this route, 
and the reader may perceive, by referring to the preceding 
paragraph, that Torres strait may always be taken from 
May to August, even if the port of departure be Melbourne. 

From September to May the route passing north of New 
Guinea, though longer, is, we think, preferable to that by 
the south of Australia, especially for poorly-fitted- out ves- 
sels or slow sailers. Still, this route can be taken, from 
October to March, by vessels leaving Port Adelaide, Mel- 
bourne, or even Sydney. Fine passages are often made at 
this season, but the voyage is generally boisterous, and the 
weather bad. From cape Otway to cape Leeuwin both wind 
and current are frequently contrary ; nor is it rare to strike 
a NW. or SW. gale and heavy sea in this part of the voy- 
age. Vessels leaving Sydney can run through Bass strait, 
especially in January, February, and March. Of course, if 
vessels have steam to rely on in case of necessity, and are well 
equipped in other respects, they can take the southerly route. 

We, however, would never advise this route for vessels 
leaving Sydney, or even Melbourne, during the southern 
winter; and captains bound to Port Adelaide should en- 
deavor to make their arrangements so as not to leave that 
port for Batavia or Singapore during the winter months. 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 

We will now quote Hie instructions of the British Admi- 
ralty, Jforsburgh, and the Dutch Observatory on this south- 
erly route : 

" British Admiralty route to the westward, south of Austra- 
lia. Ships bound from Sydney to Europe or Hiudostan 
may, from the 1st September to the 1st April, proceed by 
the southern route through Bass strait, or round Tasmania, 
easterly winds being found to prevail along the south coast 
of Australia at that season, particularly in January, Feb- 
ruary, and March, when ships have made good passages to 
the westward, by keeping to the northward of 40 S., and 
have passed round cape Leeuwin into the southeast trade- 
wind, which is then found to extend farther south than during 
the winter mouths. In adopting this route advantage must 
be taken of every favorable change of the wind, in order to 
make westing; and it is advisable not to approach too near 
the land, on account of the southwest gales which are often 
experienced, even in the summer, and the contrary currents, 
which run strongest in with the land. The prevalence of 
strong westerly gales renders the southerly route very diffi- 
cult ; indeed, generally impracticable for sailing-vessels in 
the winter, although the passage has been performed at 
that season by ships in good condition that sailed well ; 
but the northern route through Torres strait is preferred in 
the winter months." 

Horsburgli's instructions : " Ships bound from Sydney to 
Europe, or Hindostau, may adopt the southern passage, 
through Bass strait, or round Tasmania, if they depart be- 
tween the beginning of September and the end of March. 
In the months of January, February, and March, SE. winds 
frequently prevail about Tasmania, and near the coast of 
Australia, enabling ships to make considerable progress to 
the westward ; they ought, however, to preserve a consid- 
erable distance from the south coast, in order to benefit by 
every change of wind in their favor, and to avoid being 
driven too near the laud by southerly or SW. gales, which 
are likely to happen at times. The strong westerly gales 
which prevail here in winter render the southern passage diffi- 
cult ; yet it has sometimes been performed, even in that sea- 
son, by ships which were in good condition and sailed well. 

" Captain Middleton, however, is of opinion that the west- 
erly winds are not so strong or so constant near the south 



334 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO INDIA. 



coast of Australia, as they have been experienced in the 
winter months at a great distance from the land. While 
he lay in King George sound, a colonial brig arrived in June 
from Hobart-Town in nineteen days; in which month, also, 
an open whale-boat, employed sealing along the coast, 
arrived from the eastward ; and, in July, a small vessel, 
about twenty or thirty tons burden, arrived in thirty-nine 
days from Launceston, which was thought to have touched 
at Kangaroo island, and thereby prolonged her passage. 
Captain Middleton sailed from King George sound August 
12th in the ship James Pattison, rounded cape Leeuwin, and 
reached Swan river a week after his departure from the 
former place." 

A recent publication by the Dutch Observatory contains 
the data from which the following tables have been com- 
piled. The reader will perceive that each of the tables con- 
tains two lines for every month. The 1st line shows the 
crossings made by the shortest passage under canvas; the 
2d line, the crossings by the longest route. 

Table of routes from cape Otway to cape Leeuwin, showing the shortest and 
longest passage for each month. 



1. 


|t 


Crossings and time taken to reach them. 


1 


ll 


135 E. 


130 E. 


125 E. 


120 E. 


115 E. 


s 


,8 a 












|1 


< o5 


02 


00 


02 


. 


02 


L 


02 





02 


A , 




H 


3 




3 


1 


3 


1 


\ 


I 


3 








o 




o 




o 









o 




5 


January . . . < 


37.8 
37.5 


3.5 

7.0 


37.8 
36.8 


5.0 
9.0 


38.0 
35.8 


7.0 
13.8 


38.0 
36.0 


8.5 
16.0 


36.0 
36.2 


10.5 
20.0 


7 


February . . ? 


39.2 
38.2 


4.5 
8.0 


39.0 
37.2 


6.0 
12.5 


39.2 
37.5 


7.5 
15.8 


38.2 
39.0 


9.0 
20.5 


37.0 
36.0 


10.5 
23.5 


8 


March | 


38.8 
40.2 


1.5 
4.0 


37.0 
40.5 


3.5 
7.0 


36.2 
42.0 


4.8 
10.8 


36.2 
41.0 


6.0 
18.0 


35.0 
38.0 


9.0 
21.8 




( 


36.8 


2.8 


36.8 


5.0 


36.2 


7.5 


36.2 


9.5 


35.0 


12.5 


5 


April ? 


37.8 


6.5 


35.2 


11.0 


36.0 


14.8 


37.5 


16.8 


35.5 


20.0 


1 


May 


38.0 


2.5 


38.2 


4.5 


3e. 5 


5.8 


39.8 


7.2 


40.2 


11.2 






36. 


2.0 


36.8 


4.0 


37.0 


5.8 


36.0 


9.5 


37.0 


11.0 


2 


June ? 


39.2 


4.0 


39.8 


6.0 


39.0 


7.8 


39.8 


11.0 


39.5 


12.5 




f 


36.2 


2.5 


36.0 


4.5 


36.0 


6.0 


37.0 


9.0 


35.8 


11.0 


3 


July < 


41.0 


5.2 


42.2 


7.2 


40.8 


11.2 


41.0 


12.8 


37.0 


17.2 


3 


August < 


39.8 
36.5 


4.5 
4.0 


37.8 
36.2 


6.8 
6.8 


40.5 
35.8 


8.5 
10.0 


41.0 
36.8 


11.2 
13.8 


36.2 
35.5 


15.5 
17.0 


11 


September, 


37.2 
39.5 


3.8 
6.8 


37.5 

38.5 


5.8 
13.0 


37.2 
39.0 


6.8 
14.8 


37.2 
40.5 


8.0 
19.2 


37.5 
36.0 


9.8 
31.8 


10 


October . . . j 


36.2 
44.5 


4.2 
9.2 


36.8 
46.2 


6.8 
13.0 


38.0 
45.5 


7.2 
22.2 


38.0 
42.8 


11.0 
26.8 


35.8 
43.5 


12.8 
31.8 


6 


November. ? 


36.5 
39.8 


6.8 
3.0 


36.5 
37.5 


8.5 
6.5 


36.5 
37.8 


9.8 

8.8 


36.5 
37.2 


11.8 
17.2 


35.8 
36.5 


14.5 
19.5 


6 


December . ? 


38.2 
36.5 


2.8 
5.8 


37.0 
37.8 


6.5 
9.5 


36.5 
40.0 


8.8 
16.2 


36.8 
38.2 


10.5 

18.8 


35.5 
36.5 


14.0 
21.8 


67 


Means .. 


38.3 


4.4 


37.5 


7.1 


37.5 


9.8 


37.7 


12.9 


36.4 


17.0 



TABLE OF ROUTES FROM CAPE LEEUWIN TO JAVA. 



335 



OJ 



oJsJSSSS; 



IS'SSgi^sgiS'ssi 



QD \n oo o oo o c< i 



^ ej -* <jj n n si n n o o w cf - 



ving the meridian 
ape Otway. 



, 

liliiltli 






,-ici eo co -H o to 



-AoA jo 



336 FROM AUSTRALIA TO CHINA. 

e 173 ' R UTE FROM AUSTRALIA TO COCHIN-CHINA, 

CHINA, AND JAPAN. Vessels bound to Saigon, and even 
those bound to Hong-Kong, from May to August, should 
follow the route indicated in 171 and pass through Torres 
strait. They should enter the China sea by Cariinata strait 
and finish the voyage as stated in 153 and 154. 

Vessels bound to Hong-Kong can also take the route 
north of New Guinea. After passing the Serangani islands 
and Basilan strait, they should enter the China sea south 
of Mindoro. If it be decided to follow this route, the course 
from Sydney should be ENE. so as to pa'ss to southward 
and eastward of Ball pyramid. The northing should be 
made between 159 and 161 E. A good watch should be 
here kept for the reefs marked on the charts, as well as for 
those which are supposed to exist between 23 30' and 18 
S. After reaching 14 or 13 S., the course should be about 
NW. for St. George's channel; this will also carry the ship 
clear of Pocklington bank and Laughlan islands, as well as 
the west coast of Bougainville. Vessels should be careful 
not to let the current set them to the westward, as they 
may then be unable to make St. George sound. If this does 
happen, Dampier strait, between New Britain and Book 
island, can be taken. This strait is little frequented and 
oan only be crossed by watching the reefs carefully from 
the mast-head. 

After clearing St. George's channel the course should be 
W. or WNW. to pass to northward and eastward of the 
Admiralty isles, and thence between the Hermit and An- 
chorite islands, or a little to northward of the latter. 
Thence the route keeps south of the line as far as the 
Providence islands, which should be doubled to the north- 
ward 5 thence passes east of the Asia islands, and half way 
between Morty island to the west and Lord North island 
to the east. During this last part of the route it is prob. 
able that the currents will first set to NE., then to E., and 
finally to W. 

After leaving Lord North island the course is for Mean- 
gis and Sevangani islands and Basilan strait. A bright 
lookout should be kept for Iphigenia reef. The passage 
ends as described in 150 in the description of the route to 
hina (during March and April) for vessels which have 



FKOM AUSTRALIA TO CHINA. 337 

taken Macassar strait, and afterward passed through Basi- 
lan strait and along the west coast of the Philippines. 

Vessels bound to Shanghae and Yokohama can follow the 
same route until they are north of New Guinea. They 
should cross the equator near 142 E., and pass east of the 
Pelew islands, when they will begin to find the variable 
NE., NW., and SW. winds, generally known as the SW. 
monsoon. If bound to Shanyhae, they should run south of 
the Loo-choo islands, and thence easily finish the voyage 
with the frequent SW. winds. Typhoons are frequent in 
this locality from June to November, (vide 20.) If bound 
to Yokohama they should, after leaving the Pelews, head 
for the passage between the Borodino and Loo-choo islands; 
thence both the winds and Kuro-Siwo current will be favor- 
able, (vide 37.) 

* During this season (from September to March) you will ad. During the 
have a choice between two routes called the " Easterly "* 1 
Eoute." The first passes west of New Caledonia and the 

Santa Cruz islands, and east of the Solomon group. This 
is the shortest, but has the inconvenience of running through 
localities where reefs are numerous and not all located. The 
second route runs east of New Caledonia between the Fijis and 
the New Hebrides. It is longer, but safer and more clear 
of dangers. It also passes through a zone of steadier 
winds, and is probably the best for vessels leaving Mel- 
bourne or coming from Europe by the south of Australia. 
Passages by this route are quite as rapid as by the other. 

The course out of Sydney should be ENE. and to the 
southward and eastward of Ball Pyramid. 

The northing should be made between 159 and 161 E., 
between which meridians a careful lookout should be kept 
for reefs. Keep well clear of the reefs lying to NW. of New 
Caledonia, especially as the wind is liable to be from SSW. 
to NNW. in that locality. Afterward head NNE. as far as 
164 E., when follow this meridian to the north, and thus 
pass between San Christoval and Santa Cruz islands. 

Vessels to eastward of the Solomon islands, and the 
islands and reefs situated to the north, at the beginning of 
the NE. monsoon, should steer N. by W. or NNW. if pos- 
sible and cross the Carolines between 155 and 149 E. A 

* The instructions given in this second part are mainly extracts from 
Horsburgh. 

22 N 



338 FKOM AUSTRALIA TO CHINA. 

bright lookout should here be kept for new reefs, as well as 
for those on the charts, as the positions of many of them 
are not accurately determined. . 

Once north of the Carolines, the course should be laid for the 
south point of Guam island, (the most southern of the Maria- 
nas,) which can be passed on either side. A vessel north of 
the island can take either the channel south of Tinian, or that 
north of Saipan. Enter the China seas by the Bashees and 
finish the voyage as indicated in 150, under the descrip- 
tion of the route from Hong-Kong to Pitt passage. 

If the Solomon islands are doubled after January, when 
the SE. monsoon is no longer settled, the course should be 
NW., so as to run between Eap (or Yap) island and the Ngoli 
(or Matelotas) islands. Vessels can also go between the 
Goulou and Pelew groups;* thence round the NE. ex- 
tremity of Luzon at a convenient distance and tak6 one of 
the passages between Luzon and Formosa. Finish the 
voyage as stated in 150, (vide route by Pitt passage.) 
Route passing This route passes east of Norfolk island and close to 
"" Mathew rock ; the latter is visible for 25 miles. After run- 

ning to eastward of Mathew rock the course should be N. 
by E. or N., a good lookout being kept and due allowance 
made for the westerly current. Keep between the 171st 
and 172d meridians without attempting to sight Erronau 
island, and thus double the New Hebrides. Vessels can 
pass between Erronan and Tamra if drifted to westward. 
It is, however, generally best to pass well east of all the 
islands ; if the chronometers be faulty, Fataka (or Mitre) 
can be sighted at a distance of 22 miles. Thence the course 
is N. or NNW. for the line between 160 and 168 E. If 
the westerly current, which is strong in this locality, will al- 
low, the attempt should be made to run through the Caro- 
line group between 162 50' and 162 20'. But if the equa- 
tor be reached between 160 and 162 E., it is best to cross 
the Carolines between the meridians of 156 and 155, as 
there are fewer reefs and islands in that locality. 

Once north of the Carolines, the course should be about 
west in order to pass south of Guam, or through one of the 
passages situated in the northern part of the Mariana 
group, the one south of Tinian, or that north of Saipau, 

"According to the N. Pacific Directory the "Goulou" island is an- 
other name for the Ngoli islands. Translator. 



FROM AUSTRALIA TO CHINA. 330 

for instance. Thence the vessel should be headed for one 
of the channels between Luzon and Formosa. For infor- 
mation concerning the end of the voyage vide 150, (route 
by Pitt passage.) 

Vessels bound to Shanghae or Yokohama can follow 
either of the above-mentioned routes ; the latter is, how- 
ever, the preferable. Passing east of the Solomon islands 
they should cross the equator in the neighborhood of 166 
or 168 E. ; and, after striking the NE. trades, run on either 
side of Ualan and Providence islands, and thence north of 
the Marianas. 

Vessels bound to Yokohama should keep west of the Vol- 
cano islands, and reach 30 JS. to westward of their port. 
Between 28 and 31 N. the current will be found favorable, 
and the wind variable or westerly. Ships bound to Shang- 
hae should run north of the Marianas, or between Grigan 
and Assumption j thence north of the Borodino and Loo- 
choo islands, whence the voyage will be easy. 

Observations of Captain Win. Hall, (Ann. Hydr., 1870:) 
"Left Newcastle (New South Wales) on the 6th August, 
with a moderate SE. wind j SW. wind on the 10th ; sighted 
Middleton atoll j it seems to be placed correctly on the 
charts ; the sea breaks all around the reef, the water inside 
being smooth. From the llth to the 17th violent rain- 
squalls and wind from WS W. to WNW. As we were too far 
to the eastward, did not sight Hunter or Geru island. As 
we rounded it the wind gradually hauled to SE., and we 
sighted Mitre island on the 23d. When first raised it looks 
like two islands j off the north coast there is a rock which 
resembles a ship under canvas. At noon we sighted 
Anouda or Cherry island ; its position 11 36' S., and 1G9 
43' 15" E. 

u Experienced westerly currents until we sighted Pleasant 
island at daylight on the 29th. Between the equator and 
8 N. the wind was variable, and the current easterly, with 
a speed of from 25 to 30 miles per day. Though we headed 
for Ovalou, or Armstrong island, (?) we were drifted in 
sight of Baring island. Here a light SE. breeze carme to 
our assistance j also a feeble westerly current, which we 
kept till we reached 14 N. at 155 E., the wind shifting 
from SE. to SW., with a heavy SW. sea running. 

11 We passed in sight of Providence, or Arecifos islands, 



340 FROM MELBOURNE TO SYDNEY. 

with the intention of making Alamagan or Grigan, and 
running thence north of the Loo-choos, but did not strike 
the trades until we bad passed' the Marianas, and even then 
they only blew feebly for 2 or 3 days. The wind then caine 
out from the N., and obliged us to run to leeward of the 
Loo-choo group, and beat up for 3 or 4 days, notwith- 
standing the fact that we had the Kuro-Siwo in our favor. 
The wind then shifted to E.. and two days afterward we 
sighted the Saddle islands after a passage of 62 days from 
Newcastle. 

"We started in company with several other vessels ; two 
of these entered the China sea through Van Diemen strait, 
and made the passage in 51 days. The worst sailer of all 
reached the light-ship on the same day as we did; although 
we were 14 days ahead of her when we passed Providence 
island. As she struck fresh winds beyond this point she 
made up all the time lost. This is just the contrary to what 
happened to Captain Brown, making the same voyage in 
October and November, 1865. It is probable, if we had 
struck the trades a little later, and not run quite so far 
north just before reaching the Loo-choos, that we would 
have made the shortest passage." 

174. ROUTE FROM PORT ADELAIDE, OR MELBOURNE, 
TO SYDNEY. We will only give a resume of this route, as 
information concerning it will be found in several other 
paragraphs. After leaving Melbourne, or Port Adelaide, 
the course is through Bass strait, unless there are indica- 
tions of an east wind. January, February, and March are 
the months when a wind from this direction is to be feared. 
If Bass strait is taken, Horsburgh's instructions, given in 
104, should be followed. A NE. by E. course from the 
Kent group clears cape Howe by about 60 miles ; it is, 
however, advisable to head much farther to the eastward, 
if the wind is strong from the south. By disregarding this 
precaution as Horsburgh and the British Admiralty both 
remark a vessel may bring up on a lee shore in the center 
of the bight, which is 150 miles long and lies between Wil- 
son promontory and cape Howe, on the Australian coast. 
There is a fixed light on Gabo island, (south of cape Howe,) 
visible 22 miles. Cape Howe is a low, sandy, and rocky 
point, making out from the foot of the mountains. 



FROM MELBOURNE TO SYDNEY. -Ml 

Vessels passing west of Tasmania should keep well clear of 
the coast until they are to eastward of the island, when 
they should run up along the land for cape Howe, as stated 
in 104, in the extract from the " Australian Directory." 

The latitude is the surest guide in approaching the east- 
ern coast of Australia. The soundings extend for 12 or 15 
miles from the land. 



CHAPTER XI. 

ROUTES FROM CHINA AND ASIA TO AUSTRALIA. 
erlyrou?e! 801ltl1 " 175 ' ^OUTE FROM SINGAPORE TO AUSTRALIA. -This 

route may be taken at all seasons. The following observa- 
tions, on the voyage from Singapore to Australia and New 
Caledonia, are due to Captain Hunter, (Ann. Hydr., vol. 
16:) 

" The most frequented route to the SE. coast of Austra- 
lia is that which passes south of that continent. The mean 
passage to Melbourne and Sydney is from 9 to 10 weeks. 
Voyages, under canvas, have been as quick as 7 weeks to 
Sydney, and a few days shorter to Melbourne. The voyage 
to Port Curtis and New Caledonia is 10 or 15 days longer. 
Only well-equipped and staunch vessels should attempt to 
make this route. 

"From Singapore to Banka and Billiton the wind is N. and 
NW., between November and March ; there is, however, a 
slight chance of striking a W. or WSW. wind. If the wind 
be fresh arid steady, run for Bali strait ; otherwise, time 
may be lost in attempting to beat against the SW. wind in 
the strait of Sunda. Latterly, Bali strait is used by the 
Dutch vessels going from Batavia to Europe, as they pre- 
fer to run to the eastward, along the southern coast of the 
island rather than to beat through the strait of Sunda. 
Bali strait is clean, and does not need a pilot ; it is easy of 
exit from November to March, even when the wind is from 
SW., as it is open to SE.* Good water and provisions can 
be obtained at Banjoewangie. Vessels usually find calms 
and light, baffling airs, or southerly squalls, in the Indian 
ocean, between the monsoon region and the steady SE. 
trade-belt; sometimes the transition period only lasts a few 
hours. The zone of SE. trades lies between 10 and 32 S. 
The trades are occasionally found as far south as the 40th 
parallel. Ships bound to Port Curtis, or New Caledonia, 
should run south of Tasmania, and thus get clear of the 

* Alias strait is perhaps better, (vide 115.) 



FROM SINGAPORE TO AUSTRALIA. 343 

east winds, which, during the summer, are quite frequent 
in Bass strait. In the high southern latitudes the wind is 
cold and variable, but a well-clothed crew will not suffer 
much. After doubling Tasmania the course is straight for 
New Caledonia. Vessels bound to Port Curtis should not 
go within 300 miles of the east coast of Australia until they 
reach the parallel of Sandy cape, (24 40' S.,) as NB. winds 
are very frequent near the coast. If they need stores, they 
can stop at Hobart Town. 

" The southerly route is certainly the quickest from May 
to September inclusive. The winds will be ahead and from 
SE. as far as the strait of Sunda; it is, however, easy to 
clear the strait and enter the Indian ocean, when the SE. 
trades will be found strong and settled as far as 28 S. 
Below this parallel are the * brave west winds 7 to carry 
you toward your destination. These winds weather cape 
Howe and blow from S. and SW. along the eastern coast of 
Australia as far as the tropic, thus giving a fair wind to 
port Curtis or New Caledonia at this season. The faults of 
this route are: the SE. winds from Singapore to the strait 
of Sunda, and the cold winter weather in the high south- 
ern latitudes ; a heavy cross-sea is also here frequent, 
caused by the sudden shifts of wind from NW. to SW." 

The reader should refer to 104, where will be found 
instructions on the advantages and disadvantages of Bass 
strait ; also to Horsburgh's instructions, (vide 104.) We 
would especially caution the reader concerning the danger 
of running too close to the west coast of Tasmania, (vide 
104 and 107.) 

We are again indebted to the Dutch Observatory for the 
following table, which contains the crossings, etc., of 9 
routes, from the strait of Sunda or Lombok strait to cape 
Otway: 



344 



G^ABLE OF ROUTES FRO31 JAYA TO AUSTRALIA. 



g - 



g - 



g; ' 



O'in o ao <? o ao 



iiMM_ 



t-irtoaoaoocnino* 



O O <?<=> 00 <N~0rt 

C< fr! 0< Stt g? re gl M 






t~-(?<NOQOOOOO 



(N M TO ^' OS (N t-! 

O2OS5OS3OC1 



aoioiociaooffJoao 



o o m ft oo ao m <N 



t-mtfsoaoaoo<ne 
* irf iri -* cj co o irf r-i 



g -SHOT; 



oooooot-inoooaoo 



IrtCJfNOOOOQOXlQO 
W (J -J -H CD ffi 



the strai 
k strait. 



FROM SINGAPORE TO AUSTRALIA. 345 

This route should only be undertaken from May to Sep- er ^- r | north - 
tember. Captain Hunter remarks that the tracft from 
Singapore to Australia, by way of the North Pacific, has 
never been tried, nor is it practicable for vessels bound 
to ports south of Moreton bay on account of the frequency 
of the southerly winds between the east coast of Australia 
and New Zealand. Though the delay caused by these 
winds will be great, the voyage may be accomplished by 
jjassenger vessels wishing to avoid the cold weather of high 
southern latitudes. 

Vessels leaving Singapore, Saigon, or Hong-Kong during 
the season of the SW. monsoon, can pass through Formosa 
channel, if about to follow the northerly route ; or, what is 
perhaps better, they can enter the Pacific by the Bashee 
island channel, south of Formosa, as they will then have 
the Japan current in their favor. According to Horsburgh, 
it is well to run for 107 or 172 E. before bearing south of 
30 N. ; a good weatherly sailer, however, may enter the 
trades even 10 more to the westward. It would also seem 
that the easting might be made between 25 and 30 N., 
with the SW. monsoon of the China sea. Captain Hunter 
states that both water and stores may be obtained at Peel 
island, one of the Bonin group. 

The harbor on the western coast of the island is much 
frequented by whalers ; vegetables and turtles being there 
found. Vessels can also put in at the Kingsmill islands or 
Pleasant island, (0 35' S. and 167 10' E. ;) they are both 
abundantly provided with fresh provisions. 

Further information concerning this route will be found 
in 177. 

170. THE EASTERLY ROUTES FROM SINGAPORE OR 
BATAVIA TO AUSTRALIA, NEW CALEDONIA, AND NEW 
ZEALAND, (ivhen starting from the 15th November to- the loth 
February.) Captain Hunter has given interesting and de- 
tailed instructions concerning these easterly routes, between 
Singapore and Australia (vide Ann. Hydr., vol. Ifi.) We 
give his statements below in as condensed a form as possi- 
ble. 

Before deciding on a route the reader should, however, 
first refer to the preceding paragraph, where will be found 
instructions on the southerly route. 

Though the easterly route is the most direct from Singa- 



346 FROM SINGAPORE TO AUSTRALIA. 

pore to Sydney, port Curtis, and New Caledonia, the wind 
is not 'always favorable during the whole voyage. Still 
vessels leaving Singapore from the middle of November to 
the middle of February may count on a fair wind. 

There are two easterly routes : 1st, that passing north of 
New Guinea, which is best fitted for sailing-vessels of over 
150 tons ; 2d, the one through Torres strait, which is best 
for all vessels with steam-power and sailers of less than 150 
tons, especially if they are packets and have to stop for 
provisions or water. 

fo 1 ?' Jnfn| * Tne firsfc P arfc of this route was given in 114. From 
wLVd ^f i? r ew Singapore the course is for Gilolo or Pitt strait. Provisions 
Guinea. may be obtained at Bonthein, (southern extremity of 

Celebes,) or at Gebi, (Gilolo passage.) The anchorage at 
Bonthein is large, and safe during the westerly monsoon. 
Excellent water, wood, vegetables, etc., may be here obtained 
at moderate prices. At Gebi the anchorage is equally 
good ; though fresh water is abundant, the provisions are 
inferior. Vessels bound through Dampier or Pitt strait 
lengthen their passage somewhat by stopping at Gebi. It 
is never advisable to anchor at port Dorei, (?) as the harbor 
is small and the natives are dangerous. 

This passage is used by whalers ; if set to leeward by 
the easterly winds, they are in the habit of running down 
toward the line, in which locality westerly winds are com- 
mon from November to March. 

Dampier ran through the strait, which bears his name, 
in 1699, and, coasting the northern shore of New Guinea, 
rounded New Britain. He found the westerly monsoon 
quite strong, sometimes even amounting to a gale. 

Captain Hunter quotes from the logs of the Meaudre, 
Captain Keppel; the Rattlesnake; and a vessel under 
command of Forrest Thomas, to prove the possibility of 
making this passage to the eastward at any season of the 
year. He then gives his own experience, as follows: In 
October, 1855, he was off the Asia islands, (situated north 
of Waygiou island,) and aiming to make easting with a 
light, variable wind and strong westerly current against 
him; headed N., and on the 19th was in lat. 2 06' N., 

* The author again repeats that the route south of Australia is the 
best, for sailing-vessels. The reader is also referred to the Appendix at 
the end of 177. 



FROM SINGAPORE TO AUSTRALIA. 347 

long. 134: II 7 E. He here lost the contrary currents, and 
steered east, keeping between 2 15' and 2 34' N. On the 
27th the ship was in long. 146 59' E. Steering SE., St. 
Matthias island was sighted. His orders being to cruise in 
this locality, he ran into St. George's channel and with a 
favorable current stood for the Solomon group. Alter 
cruising among the islands until the 19th December, he 
carried a westerly wind as far as 109 3G' E. After passing 
south of Banks island on the 2Cth December, he was be- 
calmed for two or three days, then with variable ESE. by- 
winds he made to the southward, and anchored in the bay of 
Islands on the 15th January. Here is au example of a 
passage being made by an average vessel, unprovided with 
studding-sails, in the most unfavorable season, and over a 
route generally considered impracticable. It is therefore 
possible to make this easterly voyage by keeping between 
the trades and the monsoons and north of the equatorial 
current. 

On another occasion, being at 1 S. and 149 20' E., on 
the 23d June, and after having been drifted near New Han- 
over and St. Matthias islands, by a westerly current, run- 
ning at a rate of from 2.5 to 3 knots per hour, Captain 
Hunter stood north and found a west wind near the equa- 
tor. He then made to the eastward and reached 155 E. at 
45' S. on the 27th. He sighted point Bourka (Bougain- 
ville) soon afterward, and found the westerly current as 
strong as at Matthias island. At this season the westerly 
current does not extend quite to the equator. 

In September, 1840, the same captain could not hold his 
own against the westerly current, near the Admiralty isles, 
and had to run to 2 F. before losing the westerly set. He 
then went about to the eastward and made his southing 
under the eastern coast of the Monteverde islands, (154 05' 
E., 4 45' S.) Captain Hunter also made the passage from 
Morty to Bouka (Bougainville) in the month of August. 
He could, of course, have made the remainder of the voy- 
age, but his orders took him no further than the Solomon 
group. The line of the westerly current rarely runs north 
of the parallel of 2 N. Finally, he quotes five vessels 
which made this easterly passage between January and 
April ; one of them following the equator till east of the 
Kingsmill group, another keeping near the Solomon islands 



348 FROM SINGAPORE TO AUSTRALIA. 

and New Zealand, and the remaining three running near 
New Ireland and the adjacent islands. From all these ex- 
amples, he concludes that a vessel reaching Gilolo passage 
or Dampier strait, between the loth December and the 15th 
March, can make a rapid passage to any port situated in 
east longitude. Moreover, he thinks the passage practica- 
ble at all seasons, provided the ship is kept north of the 
equatorial current and between the monsoons. 

The following directions for the season of the west mon- 
soon are also given by the same authority : 

Northerly and northwesterly winds are common at this 
time near' the cape of Good Hope, (New Guinea.) To east- 
ward of this point the west wind is generally strong and 
steady, the current setting to the east, with a speed of from 
2 to 2.5 knots, between the coast of New Guinea and 1 N. 
This wind and current will hold while passing the St. David 
isles, and running north of the Providence islands, (0 20' 
S.) Hence there is a choice between several passages. 
The strait to eastward of Dampier (between Rock island 
and New Britain) is perhaps the most direct for Sydney, 
but can hardly be advised until a more complete survey is 
made of the locality. St. George's channel can be taken. 
The best way to make for this passage is to keep along the 
equator as far as the longitude of the Admiralty isles, and 
then edge away to the southward and eastward, passing to 
westward of Matthias island; the reefs and low islands 
farther to the southward will thus be avoided. Sail may 
be carried boldly while cruising north of the Admiralty 
group, as there are no dangers near the line in that locality. 
The best route, however, especially when bound to any of 
the islands to the eastward, is that running north of the 
Solomon. 

The following observations were published in the Indian 
Archipelago Journal, 1851 : 
lSd "The uly vessels which have used Torres strait, up to 

6 P resent time, are those making passage to the westward. 
strait. xhe three or four ships which attempted the voyage from 

west to east experienced great difficulty, from the irregu- 
larity of the westerly monsoon, (from November to March.) 
One vessel, however, bound from Sydney to Port Essing- 
ton, in April, via the Middle passage, met a NW. wind at 
19 S. She made six knots per hour for five days, and 



FROM SINGAPORE TO AUSTRALIA. 349 

a I forward held the same wind to the Arm islands and 
Macassar. The fine season in Torres strait, as far as cape 
York, is from November to March ; this is also the season 
of good weather iii the Molucca islands, (vide 13.) The 
winds are never strong enough in Torres strait to interfere 
with a steamer making passage in any direction." 
" Captain Hunter says: "The Torres strait route is the 
shortest, the distance from Singapore to Port Curtis being 
about 3,400 miles. It is advised for small vessels, as water 
may be obtained frequently. 

"Vessels bound from Singapore to Torres strait follow 
the same route as those bound north of New Guinea until 
they reach Salayer strait j here the tracks separate; the 
former, bearing to the SE., keeps along the north coast of 
Timor. Provisions may be obtained at Manatuti,* (126 
55' E.) This roadstead is sheltered from westerly winds, 
but it is dangerous to run in close when the wind is to the 
northward of west. Kisa bay (about 127 05') is a better , 
anchorage, as small vessels can run well in with the land, 
the coast being bold and the harbor safe at this season, 
(November to March.) Vessels can anchor with equal 
safety on the south coast of Moa, (127 55' E.) Water and 
provisions are obtainable at botli anchorages. The best 
roadstead at Moa is off the four villages, four miles from 
the SW. point of the island. 

" Endeavor strait is the best, when coming from the west- 
\vard. Vessels carry 4.5 fathoms, at low water, over the 
shoal est parts.! 

" The western entrance to Endeavor strait is easily recog- 
nized. The depths across the head of the gulf of Carpenta- 
ria are about 36 fathoms, while about 120 miles from the 
entrance the soundings diminish to 30, 19, and 9 fathoms. 
Captains should be careful to keep south of the parallel of 
Booby island, to avoid the banks to WNW. In clear 
weather Prince of Wales island will be sighted at a dis. 
tance of 30 miles, and before Booby or Wallis island, as the 
latter can only be seen for fifteen miles. There are several 
channels between the sand banks of Endeavor strait. The 
largest and best lies north of Red Wallis island. Steer 

* Probably Mantotte. Translator. 

t As will be seen hereafter, the author prefers the Prince of Wales 
channel, when running for Bligh passage. 



350 FROM SINGAPORE TO AUSTRALIA. 

for Red Wallis, when it bears E. 20 S., and Booby island 
K by E. (by compass) distant 10 miles. The strait can then 
be safely entered between the points extending from cape 
Cornwall and Wallis islands ; and the two 3-fathom ledges 
will also thus be cleared. The depths in the passage vary 
from 4 to 8 fathoms, and, with the exception of Heroine and 
Eagle rocks, the strait is clear of dangers. 

u 'MacKeuzie's three voyages in the Heroine, in 1844-'5-'6, 
together with a dozen others on record, do not speak very 
favorably for this route ; for after clearing the Barrier, the 
vessels were detained in the open sea by variable winds. 

" In 1847-'8 a vessel taking the inner route found that the 
easterly winds, frequent outside the Barrier, rarely blew in 
with the land; NW. winds were often found, and lasted for 
several successive days. Generally the monsoon began as 
a laud-breeze toward midnight, and, blowing all day, died 
away calm again in the evening. The inner route is clear 
of coral reefs, and the weather being fine at this season, the 
landmarks can generally be made out. Light squalls are, 
however, common, especially at night. 

" On' dark nights vessels should always anchor until they 
are 500 miles distant from cape York. 

" Twelve days is a good passage from cape York to cape 
Curtis." 

To complete the instructions already given in 115, and 
which refer to the route via Endeavor strait, we give below 
Horsburgh's observations : 

" Coming from the westward, for Endeavor strait, a ves- 
sel standing along the parallel of 10 50' S. will first sight 
at 20 or 25 miles' distance the high lauds of Prince of Wales 
islands, exteudiug from NE. to EKE. At 11 or 12 miles' dis- 
tance the northern Wallis island will be raised from the 
mast head, bearing S. 75 E. ; also Booby island, bearing 
N. 5 E. North Wallis island looks at first like two islands, 
about a ship's length apart, the southern appearing the 
larger of the two. South Wallis island is low, flat, and 
wooded, the largest trees being on its northern extremity. 
North and South Wallis islands are separated by a danger- 
ous channel a mile and a half wide; the channel south 
of the Wallis islands, between them and the mainland, 
should not be used, as it is full of shoals." 

Steamers follow the inner route from Endeavor strait to 



FROM SINGAPORE TO AUSTRALIA. 351 

Sydney. Auxiliary steamers and sailing-vessels should head 
for the Bligh passage. 

Once clear of Entrance island, they should head NE. 
for 30 miles; this will bring them near Harvey rock; they 
should then pass between the North Sister and Long island. 
But instead of Endeavor strait, the shortest and simplest 
route for auxiliary steamers and sailing-vessels is through 
Prince of Wales channel ; this track lies north of Booby 
island. All experience goes to prove that the Bligh passage 
is the best; this opinion being substantiated by the follow- 
ing remarks by Captain Blackwood : 

u Leaving Sourabaya on the 12th January, I took three 
weeks to reach Endeavor strait. Squalls and light westerly 
airs caused some delay. A good steamer ought to accom- 
plish the 2,000 miles, to cape York, in ten days. 

" From February to the end of March, when the monsoon 
changed to the SE., ending in a heavy NW. squall, the 
weather was never too bad to interfere seriously with our 
explorations ; and if this one was a fair sample of the usual 
westerly monsoon, I regard this season as much better than 
that of the SE. monsoon. 

" I think that Captain King's inner route should always 
be followed by a steamer, as the short delay occasioned by 
anchoring, during the first 5 or G nights, will be amply com- 
pensated for by the speed, during the day, in the smooth 
water of this sheltered route. Even with due allowance for 
the winter storms, common near Sydney, the 2,000 miles' dis- 
tance, from cape York to Sydney, ought to be run in 15 days. 

"I would recommend the Bligh passage for sailing-vessels, 
as the track is clear of coral reefs, and a ship can anchor 
anywhere." * 

Instructions relative to the greater part of this route will From Singapore 
be found on the preceding pages ; we will, however, com- 
plete them with a few considerations bearing especially on 
the latter part of the voyage. Captain Hunter remarks as 
follows : 

" When the route north of New Guinea has been chosen, 
the easting should be made along the line as far as the 152d 

* Detailed instructions for the Bligh passage will be found in 171. 
One of the advantages there enumerated is the faet that vessels bound 
to the westward have the sun behind them ; of course this is an objec- 
tion when going in an opposite direction. 



352 FROM SINGAPORE TO AUSTRALIA. 

meridian if the wind allow. Once arrived at this lon- 
gitude, and if bound for New Zealand, the attempt should 
be made to cross 10 C S. near 171 or 172 B. ; thence the 
course should be to the southward, close along the west 
coast of the Fijis, as the east winds draw to the southward 
in January, February, and March. Once beyond the reefs 
off the SE. extremity of New Caledonia, the track is clear. 
Vessels bound to New Caledonia should also do their best to 
work well east near the equator, as far as 152 E. It is 
especially necessary to cross 10 S. well to eastward, as the 
trades during the southern summer are from E. to ESE. as 
far as 20 S. In this way a ship can pass to windward of 
the New Hebrides, which, with New Caledonia, seem to 
form a barrier between the trades of the South Pacific and 
the variable winds of the Coral sea. 

" Vessels taking the Torres-strait route can make the strait 
by Prince of Wales channel or Bligh passage. Thence the 
route lies along the south coasts of New Guinea and Louis- 
iade ; where the wind will be found from W. and N W., and 
quite steady during the months of December, January, and 
February, if not later in the year." 

Auxiliary steamers can also take the inner route along the 
east coast of Australia. As an example of this latter route 
we quote the following : 

Passage of the Quicken, (2d rate,) Captain Perrier. "Left 
Batavia on the ICth December, 1869. Arrived at Soura- 
baya on the 18th and filled up with coal. Left on the 25th ; 
steamed through Madura and Bali straits ; banked fires; 
after passing south of Timor, reached Torres strait, wind 
very light and from SW. to NW. Ban through Torres 
strait on the 10th January. Took the inner route, an- 
choring sometimes at night. Although under the lee of 
the Great Barrier reef, we had to put into Cleveland bay 
and wait for a favorable slant to the strong SE. winds. 
Anchored off Townsville, a place of 500 or 600 inhabitants. 
Obtained 12 tons of coal and a little wood. Left on the 
19th. A violent gale from ESE. on the 21st compelled us 
to anchor under the lee of Percy islands. Remained there 
2 days; crew cutting wood on the islands. Got under way 
on the 24th. Anchored in Fitz-Eoy river on the 25th, 17 
miles from Kockampton ; vessel drew too much water to go 
any farther up the river. Obtained all necessary supplies. 
Sailed on the 30th, ran out by Curtis channel, and headed 



FROM CHINA TO AUSTRALIA. 053 

for Noumea, where we arrived on the 4th February, after 
a 50 days' passage from Batavia." 
177. ROUTE FROM CHINA AND JAPAN TO AUSTRALIA. ' fc ""ring tie 

J NK. iu ni soon. 

The NB. monsoon prevails from October to April. Sailing- 
vessels from Saigon generally run south of Australia, touch- 
ing at Pulo-Aor, (vide 170.) They reach Carimata pas- 
sage as stated in 114 and 115, and follow the southerly 
route through the Java sea as far as Alias strait. Thence 
they shape their course for the south of Australia, accord- 
ing to the instructions given in 175 and the latter part of 
104. 

Auxiliary steamers, bound from Saigon to Australia, can Fl "' Sa-gon. 
take the Torres-strait route from the middle of November to 
the middle of February. The passage from Saigon to Pulo- 
Aor should be made as stated in 170, and thence to Torres 
strait, as described in 115. For information concerning 
the termination of the voyage by the inner route, vide 170. 
It may be useful to remark, that it is not probable there will 
be any opportunity of coaling between Kupang and Syd- 
ney. 

Auxiliary steamers can also run from Pulo-Aor to the 
Moluccas, (vide 114,) and then, after passing north of New 
Guinea, finish the voyage as given for sailing-vessels in 176. 

It is hardly advisable for ordinary sized auxiliary steamers 
to take the route through Torres strait except from the 15th 
of November to the 15th of February, as they will at any -. 
other season be compelled to use a great deal of coal. They 
should, unless absolutely impossible, take the route south 
of Australia at the beginning and end of the monsoon. 

Sailing- vessels leaving Hong-Kong should run down the From Hong 
China sea by the outer route described in 151. From Pulo- 
Sapata they should pass east of the Auambas, and then 
make for Carimata passage. They can also steer straight 
from Pulo-Aor to Carimata passage, but this will make the 
voyage a little longer. Thence the route runs through the 
southern part of the Java sea to Alias strait, (vide 115.) 
For information concerning the route south of Australia, 
vide 175 and the end of 104. 

Auxiliary steamers leaving Hong-Kong should always 
follow the same track as sailing-vessels, and run south of 
Australia. If need be, however, they can pass north of 
23 N 



354 FROM CHINA TO AUSTRALIA. 

New Guinea, or through Torres strait, from November to 
March. 

If it be decided to take the route north of New Guinea, it 
will first be necessary to run through Mindoro and Basilan 
straits; and, after crossing the Celebes sea, to reach Mo- 
lucca passage as stated in 152 under the head of the first 
easterly route. This route has already been advised in 
152, for the return trip from China against the SW. mon- 
soon; it is also easy to follow it during the NE. monsoon. 
The Moluccas once reached, either Dampier or Gilolo strait 
may be used, as advised in the second route described in. 
150. The voyage will end as stated in 176. 

There is still another route for an auxiliary steamer, 
namely, that which, after leaving Basilan strait, runs near 
the Serangani and Meangis islands. For further informa- 
tion concerning this route, vide the first easterly route in 
152. Steam will probably have to be used against the 
NE. monsoon during a portion of the passage. This route 
passes far to the eastward of Morty and the Asia islands, 
and north of New Guinea, (vide 176.) 

If it be decided to pass through Torres strait, Molucca 
passage should also be used. Take the channel between 
Xulla and Obi-Major, and then the one between Buru and 
Manipa. Thence, with the NW. monsoon, pass south of 
Banda, Ki, and Arru islands. Cross the Arafura sea ac- 
cording to the instructions given in 115, and finish the 
voyage by following the route given in 176. 

From shang- The southerly route is probably the best for sailing-ves- 
sels coming from Shanghae to Australia. They should de- 
scend the China sea as stated in 165 and 167, and finish 
the voyage in the same manner as if they had started from 
Hong-Kong. 

Auxiliary steamers starting from Shanghae, and not wish- 
ing to run south of Australia, can first go to Yokohama, 
(vide 163;) and, after coaling there, proceed on their voy- 
age as follows : 

From Yokoha- Both sailing and auxiliary steam vessels, after leaving Yo- 
kohama, should take the northerly route, and commence the 
voyage as if bound to California, (vide 119 and 120.) The 
easting should be made north of the 30th parallel, or far- 
ther to northward, if necessary, to find the west winds. 
They should not bear south until the meridian of 165 or 



FROM CHINA TO AUSTRALIA. 355 

even 172 E. is reached. Thence, the voyage is easily accom- 
plished. Pass west of the Ealick islands ; and, if possible, 
east of Ualan island. The NE. trades will be lost between 
5 N. and the equator, which, should generally be crossed 
between 162 and 167 E. The variable winds near the 
equator predominate from the northward and westward afc 
this season, and usually allow vessels to pass, first, be- 
tween St. Ch.ristoval and the Santa Cruz islands ; then 7 be- 
tween Mellish and Bampton reefs ; and, finally, east of 
Kenn reef and Cato bank. Thence follow the route from 
New Caledonia to Australia given in 138.* 

The S W. monsoon prevails from April to October. Sail- *' During the 

BW. monsoon. 

ing-vessels from Saigon run through Mindoro and Basilan 
straits, (vide 158.) Thence, they have a choice between 
three passages: first, Macassar strait; second, Mulucca 
passage; third, the passage near the Serangani islands and 
Gilolo strait, (vide the easterly routes from Hong-Kong to Froin Sui s n - 
Europe in 352.) After striking the SE. winds of the In- 
dian ocean the course should be SW., clean full, for the west 
winds near 30 S. For information concerning the end of the 
passage, south of Australia, vide 175 and the end of 104. 

Auxiliary steamers starting from Saigon can make a more 
direct course, and steam to Singapore and the strait of 
Sunda. Thence the voyage will be the same as that for 
sailing-vessels. Auxiliary steamers can also run through 
Miudoro and Basilan straits, and pass near the Serangani 
islands. Thence they can make their easting between 4 
N. and the equator. They should run far enough to the 
eastward to make the Solomon islands with the SE. mon- 
soon, and finish the voyage as described in 176, (for the 
season from November to March.) Though several authori- 
ties state that easting can be mafle under canvas near the 
equator at all seasons, we can hardly advise this route for 
auxiliary steamers, (vide appendix to this paragraph.) 

Sailing and auxiliary -steam vessels leaving Hong-Kong From Hong, 
should according to the time of starting follow one of 
the two easterly routes described in 152. After crossing 
the SE. trades of the Indian ocean they will strike the west 
winds, and finish the voyage as described in 175, and the 
end of 104. The northerly route can also be followed dur- 

*The reader should refer to the Appendix at the end of 177. 



35o FROM CHINA TO AUSTRALIA. 

ing the SW. monsoon; in which case the course is the 
same as if bound for Japan, (vide 160;) and thence, as if 
the point of departure were Yokohama. 

Auxiliary steamers leaving Hong-Kong can take the 
same route as that indicated for those leaving Saigon, and 
r.un north of New Guinea; this, however, is a route we 
should not advise, 

From stang- Sailing and auxiliary-steam vessels, starting from Shanjrhae 
or Japan, should take the northerly route, beginning the 
voyage as if bound to California, (vide 119 and 120.) The 
west winds will not usually be found below 35 1ST. It is 
not advisable to bear south until beyond 167 E., nor is it 
well especially in a sailing-ship to enter the trades to 
westward of 172 E. This detour is more marked than that 
given for the route during the NE. monsoon ; the doldrums 
and counter-currents of wind in the western part of the 
north Pacific are thus avoided. The voyage will end in the 
same manner as that described for vessels leaving during 
theNE. monsoon. 

APPENDIX TO 177. We will complete the general 
instructions, given in the present paragraph, by quoting 
the following considerations on the voyage from China to 
Australia, (Ann. Hydr., vol. 31:) 

" In December, 18GC, nine vessels left Fu-chu for Sydney ; 
six took the China sea route, some ran through the strait 
of Sunda, and others through Alias strait for the Indian 
ocean. Two others and myself took the easterly route, and 
arrived at Sydney in 52, 54, and 56 days respectively, beat- 
ing the other vessels by from 12 to 25 days; and this was 
the worst season I ever had for making easting near the 
line. 

u On the 7th December, 1855, 1 left the Serangani islands 
with a NE. wind, and, steering to the eastward, ran through 
Saint George's channel, and south of the Solomon isles. 
After crossing 176 E. at 12 S. 1 experienced violent north 
winds until I reached the North cape of New Zealand on 
the 10th February. 

"Itosser quotes some passages made by the easterly 
route, from May to September; that is, during the SW. 
monsoon. 

" Several vessels, attempting this route, made very long 
passages; one took 101 days from Manila to Sydney, and 



FROM CHINA TO AUSTRALIA. 

tinotber 120 days from China to the same destination ; none 
of them, I believe, made a passage of less than 90 days. 

"All the captains who made this voyage state that, after 
losing the SW. winds near the Marrianas, they had light 
east winds and calms, with strong westerly currents. 
From May to October, according to my experience, the 
weather between 2 X. and 3 IS. is rainy and calm all 
along the northern coast of New Guinea after leaving the 
cape of Good Hope. During most years the currents be- 
tween these parallels are westerly after attaining a speed of 
from 30 to GO miles per day. Between 2 30' and 5 30' 
N. there is generally an easterly current at this season, but 
a merchant-vessel will find it hard work to make to the 
eastward, north of the trades, if she wishes to reach 170 
E. It is doubtful if she can always clear Pleasant island. 
As the natives of this island are very savage and well 
armed, a vessel in these localities, and in need of stores, 
will do better to put in at Arongs (?) island, where there is 
an American mission at the harbor on the NE. coast. As- 
cension island (Poiiapi) is also comparatively safe, though 
it is best not to trust too much to the inhabitants. 

u From November to February I think that the best route 
from China to Australia consists in making to eastward, 
as far as possible, with the NE. trades, and then crossing 
the equator. There is a clear passage between the Pelews 
and the Matelotas, thence keep along the line to 141 E. 
There is a low, rocky islet or reef at 1 X. and 111 E. The 
route passes north of the Anchorite islands, and along the 
equator as far as 163 E., passing E. of Saint Christoval, 
"W. of Bampton reefs, and approaching the Australian 
coast in the neighborhood of Moreton bay. It is best to 
keep near the coast, if bound to Sydney or Melbourne, as 
NE. and E. winds are frequent during the summer." 

Passage of the Esmeralda, (vide Nautical Magazine.} " ' Left 
Fu-chu on the 24th September ; passed north of Formosa, 
and ran to 30 N. and 150 E., in order to cross the line at 
162 E. ; passed east of the Solomon islands, west of New 
Caledonia, and arrived at Sydney on the 21st Novem- 
ber, after a passage of 58 days.' (Observations of Captain 
Polaclc, master of the Esmeralda.) After taking the above 
route, Captain Polack advises ships leaving China, from the 
end of October to the end of January, to pass north of For- 



358 FROM SYDNEY TO MELBOURNE. 

mosa, if they can, without losing time, (referring evidently 
* to vessels from Fu-chu.) If unable to double Formosa they 

can run between that island and the Pescadores ; and, 
after clearing the Bashees, stand to the southward and east- 
ward until able to cross the NE. monsoon with a topmast 
studding-sail set. The line will thus be made between 140 
and 145 E. From this point there is a choice between two 
routes : the first which appears to be the less desirable of 
the two lies close to the equator, and passes between New 
Ireland and Bougainville ; the second, and better one, runs 
along the north coast of New Guinea, and between that isl- 
and and New Britain. Once arrived at 10 S. and 157 E. 
the course should be made to pass some distance east or west 
of Fairway reef, (?) (about 161 42' E.) North winds will 
generally be found near the NE. coast of Australia. This 
route, from Fu-chu to Sydney, is some 600 miles shorter 
than the easterly route along 30 N. to 155 E. It is also 
2,300 miles shorter than the route south of Australia." 

Such is Captain Polack's advice. Nothing proves, how- 
ever, that he ever followed the route himself. Still, we will 
give his reasons for preferring the New Guinea route to that 
passing between New Ireland and Bougainville. He does 
not think that the SW. monsoon reaches as far to the east 
as Captain Hunter states. If the west winds reach 160 
E. it is only in exceptional cases. An experienced captain 
from Sydney states that, during a three years' cruise in 
these localities, he never found he could count on a west 
wind. This opinion is also substantiated by a whaler at 
home iu these latitudes. Captain Polack also states that, 
between the equator and 10 S., he found only calms and 
light northerly breezes, with no indications whatever of a 
west wind. He is firmly convinced that off New Guinea 
west winds are fresh and constant from November to Febru- 
ary, and he believes that the passage from China to Syd- 
ney may be made in from 35 to 45 days, especially if below 
the line in January. 

178. FROM SYDNEY TO MELBOURNE. Abundant infor- 
mation has been furnished by Captain Flinders, on this 
voyage, and especially on the passage through Bass strait 
from east to west. Following are his remarks : 

"The three months, (January, February, and March,) 
during which the voyage from Sydney to Melbourne may 



FROM SYDNEY TO MELBOURNE. 

best be made, correspond to the season when the passage 
through Torres strait is uncertain, if not impracticable. 
Nor would it be advisable to enter Bass strait before the 
middle of December or even the middle of January. 

u In coming from Sydney, or from any other port situated 
to the NE., the departure may be taken from cape Howe. 
Thence the course, by compass, should not be to the west- 
ward of SSW. until 39 30' S. is reached, as there is dan- 
ger of the wind coming out from SB., and setting the vessel 
into the long bight between cape Howe and Wilson prom- 
ontory. After reaching 39 30' S. steer about W. by S., 
leaving the Sisters, Craggy isle, and Wright rock (210 feet 
high) to port ; that is, to the southward. On Deal island 
the most westerly of the Kent group there is a revolving 
light, 884* feet above the level of the sea, and visible 37 
miles, unless hidden by the mist, which often happens 
on account of the great elevation of the light. It is 
situated in 39 29' S. and 147 22' E., and is a good land- 
mark. After passing 3 or 4 miles south of the light-house 
the other islands will be successively raised to the south ; 
pass these at about the same distance. The first island is 
a small one lying to SW., and S. of Judgment reef; next 
are the Sugar-Loaf rocks and Curtis island. After leaving 
the latter island the course for King island is about west, 
and the distance 120 miles. Here there is a fixed light, visi- 
ble 24 miles, but it is best to pass 15 or 18 miles north of 
the island, if the wind allow. 

" If the weather be thick or rainy, and the wind come 
out strong ahead, that is, from S\y., there are many points 
where a vessel can anchor. The following are the best an- 
chorages: 1st. West cove, in Erith island. This island is 
one of the Kent group, and is separated from Deal island by 
Murray pass. 2d. Hamilton roads, near the east point of 
Preservation isle. This small island is situated in the 
northern part of Banks strait between Barren island and 
Clarke island. It lies several miles east of a line joining 
the light on Swan island to that on Goose island. 3d. On 
the south coast of Swan island, suitable for small vessels ; 
or under the lee of Waterhouse isle, situated in about 148 
E. near the north coast of Tasmania. 4th. At Port Dalrym- 

* 950 feet above the sea, according to Am. Directory. Translator. 



360 FROM SYDNEY TO MELBOURNE. 

pie, near the mouth of Tamar river, (north coast of Tasma- 
nia.) 5th. At Port Sorrel, (12 miles west of Port Dalrym- 
ple,) suitable for small ships. 6th. Several places among 
the islands of the Hunter group, off the NW. point of Tas- 
mania. 7th. At Sea-Elephant bay, on the east coast of 
King island, where wood and water may be obtained. There 
is also an anchorage, sheltered from SW. winds, off tbeNE. 
point of this island. 8th. At Port Western, between Grant 
or Phillip island and the Australian coast, near the merid- 
ian of 145 10' E, Let go here as soon as you are under the 
lee. At this anchorage the wind will be fair for getting 
under way and clearing Bass strait. 9th. At Port Phillip, 
Melbourne roads. 

"As the weather in Bass strait is variable and sudden 
shifts of wind frequent, it is advisable to take all precau- 
tions before coming to anchor in an open roadstead, and 
even when partially under the lee of the land it is well to 
be ready to get under way at a moment's notice, in case 
the wind should suddenly change. There is no other ad- 
vice especially necessary, as navigation through Bass strait 
does not require more than the usual care and vigilance 
always requisite at sea."