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National Endowment for the Arts 


The National Endowment for the Arts is the largest 
annual hinder of the arts in the United States. An 
independent federal agency, the NEA is the official 
arts organization of the United States government, 
dedicated to supporting excellence in the arts, both 
new and established; bringing the arts to all Americans; 
and providing leadership in arts education. 

National Endowment for the Arts 

America's Highest Honor in Jazz 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 

A Message from the Chairman 

Since its creation in 1965, the National Endowment for the Arts 
has worked to further one of the country's greatest artistic 
inventions — jazz. The Arts Endowment's first grant in the jazz 
field went to George Russell (who became an NEA Jazz Master in 
1990), one of the great jazz composers and theorists who helped to further jazz not only 
musically but academically. Since that first grant, funding has exploded from an annual 
budget of $20,000 in 1970 to more than $2.8 million in 2005. 

Our premier program in jazz is the NEA Jazz Masters Fellowships. In 1982, the NEA 
created this lifetime achievement award to recognize and reward jazz musicians who 
have had a major impact on the art form. Since then, 87 of jazz's greatest living artists 
have been honored as NEA Jazz Masters and during this time, the award has come to be 
regarded as the nation's highest honor in jazz. 

To further expand the audiences for jazz, the Arts Endowment expanded the NEA 
Jazz Masters initiative to include three significant new components: NEA Jazz Masters 
on Tour, which brings awardees to various venues throughout all 50 states; NEA Jazz in 
the Schools, a curriculum for high school students that explores jazz as an art form and 
way to understand American history, developed in partnership with Jazz at Lincoln 
Center and with support from the Verizon Foundation; and a broadcasting program to 
provide greater public access to this great American art form on both television and radio. 

The National Endowment for the Arts believes these musicians and this music 
deserve the greatest possible recognition. The musicians who have won this award have 
not only shared then art with U.S. audiences, but have spread this intrinsically American 
music all over the world. Jazz may well be considered America's most influential and 
distinguished musical export, and these NEA Jazz Masters are the eminent ambassadors 
who promote and practice this vibrant and vital part of our nation's cultural heritage. 

QUAfc H^^ 

Dana Gioia 


National Endowment for the Arts 

Table of Contents 

Introduction 1 

A Brief History of the Program 3 

Program Overview 5 

2006 NEA Jazz Masters 7 

NEA Jazz Masters 1982-2005 (Year Fellowship Awarded) 

David Baker (2000) 16 

Danny Barker (1991) 17 

Count Basie (1983) 18 

Louie Bellson( 1994) 19 

Art Blakey( 1988) 20 

Cleo Brown (1987) 21 

Ray Brown (1995) 22 

Dave Brubeck (1999) 23 

Kenny Burrell (2005) 24 

Donald Byrd (2000) 25 

Benny Carter (1986) 26 

Betty Carter (1992) 27 

Ron Carter (1998) 28 

Kenny Clarke (1983) 29 

Buck Clayton (1991) 30 

Ornette Coleman (1984) 31 

Miles Davis (1984) 32 

Dorothy Donegan (1992) 33 

Paquito D'Rivera (2005) 34 

Sweets Edison (1992) 35 

Roy Eldridge (1982) 36 

Gil Evans (1985) 37 

Art Farmer (1999) 38 

Ella Fitzgerald (1985) 39 

Tommy Flanagan (1996) 40 

Frank Foster (2002) 41 

Dizzy Gillespie (1982) 42 

Benny Golson (1996) 43 

Dexter Gordon (1986) 44 

Jim Hall (2004) 45 

Chico Hamilton (2004) 46 

Lionel Hampton (1988) 47 

Slide Hampton (2005) 48 

I ferbie l lancock (2004) 49 

NEA Jazz Masters 

Barry Harris (1989) 50 

Roy Haynes (1995) 51 

Jimmy Heath (2003) 52 

Percy Heath (2002) 53 

Joe Henderson (1999) 54 

Luther Henderson (2004) 55 

Jon Hendricks (1993) 56 

Nat Hentoff (2004) 57 

Billy Higgins (1997) 58 

Milt Hinton (1993) 59 

Shirley Horn (2005) 60 

Milt Jackson (1997) 61 

Ahmad Jamal (1994) 62 

J.J. Johnson (1996) 63 

Elvin Jones (2003) 64 

Hank Jones (1989) 65 

Jo Jones (1985) 66 

Andy Kirk (1991) 67 

John Lewis (2001) 68 

Abbey Lincoln (2003) 69 

MelbaListon(1987) 70 

Jackie McLean (2001) 71 

Marian McPartland (2000) 72 

Carmen McRae (1994) 73 

Jay McShann (1987) 74 

James Moody (1998) 75 

Anita O'Day (1997) 76 

Max Roach (1984) 77 

Sonny Rollins (1983) 78 

George Russell (1990) 79 

Artie Shaw (2005) 80 

Wayne Shorter (1998) 81 

Horace Silver (1995) 82 

Jimmy Smith (2005) 83 

Sun Ra (1982) 84 

Billy Taylor (1988) 85 

Cecil Taylor (1990) 86 

Clark Terry (1991) 87 

McCoy Tyner (2002) 88 

Sarah Vaughan (1989) 89 

George Wein (2005) 90 

Rand) Weston (20Q1) 91 

Joe Williams (1993) 92 

Gerald Wilson (1990) 93 

Nancy Wilson (2004) 94 

fedd) Wilson (1986) 95 

NEA Jazz Masters by Year 97 

ri N. 


United States has produced three original art 
forms: movies, modern dance, and jazz. All 
speak to the genius of American culture. Film is 
indicative of our ability to convert new technology 
into a medium for mass consumption, frequently 
achieving the status of high art. Modern dance, 
an indigenous kinesthetic art capable of an 
unbounded range of expression, from treatments 
of contemporary issues to pure abstraction. 
And then there is jazz. 

Jazz lives at the very center of the American 
vernacular. It is the gift of the generations of new 
urban African American people whose capacity 
for the synthesis of diverse strains of musical forms 
brought schottisches, quadrilles, habaneras, and 
marches into the bases of the blues and ragtime to 
create a whole new way of making music. It was 
built on the discipline of collective improvisation, 
a remarkable skill when you think about it, which 
allowed for maximum expression of the individual 
within the context of the group. Jazz is democratic 
and virtually without hierarchy: the composer is one 
more collaborator in the group, and even bandleaders 
do not stand above the soloists. 

These qualities are entirely appropriate for what 
is best about America. The old jazz principle that 
"you've got to make it new" is so American that it 
could go on the dollar bill. These defining qualities 
have made jazz arguably the United States' most wel- 
comed cultural export. It has taken root wherever it 
has been planted, moving into and becoming a part 
of the cultures of other countries and then becoming 
an aspect of their national expression, in the way 
that Russian jazz is vastly different from Afro-Cuban 
jazz. Some years ago, just after apartheid had fallen, 
I heard a young South African ensemble that com- 
prised an Indian pianist, a tabla player, a white 
female flutist, and a black bassist. Distinct traces of 
each of these musicians' heritages were audible in 
their solos, yet they performed with intimate ease. 
I thought, how marvelous that, as these young peo- 
ple are at a point in history when they can speak to 
each other as equals, jazz provides the vocabulary. 

It is no accident that jazz has been a favored 
medium of cultural diplomacy. For decades, Willis 
Conover's jazz series on the Voice of America kept 
ears open to the United States Information Agency 
(I JSIA) all over the world. Uncounted numbers 
ol jazz musicians have traveled abroad under the 

NEA Jazz Masters 

auspices of the State Department. Many of the 
National Endowmenl lor the Arts Jazz Masters, such 
as Dizzy Gillespie, Randy Weston, and Billy Taylor, 
ba\ e toured the globe as our cultural representatives. 
The NEA Jazz Masters Fellowships program was 
created to say to jazz musicians that their govern- 
ment values the way that they keep our culture rich 
by continually producing such fabulous music. 
Mastery is a difficult status to achieve. No creative 
discipline has more than a few true masters, for it 
takes exceptional talent, dedication, hard work, and 

opportunitv to become one. NEA Jazz Masters 
have demonstrated these qualities and more. The 
National Endowment for the Arts is honored to 
recognize these great artists for the outstanding 
contributions thev have made to American culture. 

A. B. Spellman 

Poet and Author, Four Jazz Lives 

Former Deputy Chairman for Guidelines & Panel Operations 
National Endowment for the Arts 

2 NKA -\.\jj. rVLifltera 

NEA Jazz Masters Dizzy Gillespie and Max Roach, 1956. 

A Brief History of the Program 

music and cultures, jazz was born in 
America, a new musical form that used 
rhythm, improvisation, and instruments in unique 
and exciting ways. Jazz came to prominence in the 
early 20th century when recording techniques made 
it possible for many more people to hear the music. 
By the 1930s and 1940s, jazz had become America's 
dance music, selling albums and performance tickets 
at dizzying rates. But by the 1950s, with the advent 
of rock and roll and the tilt in jazz toward bebop 
rather than the more popular swing, jazz began a 
decline in its popularity. It was still seen as an 
important and exciting art form, but by an increas- 
ingly smaller audience. 

By the 1960s, when the National Endowment for 
the Arts was created hy Congress, jazz album sales 
were down and jazz performances were becoming 
more difficult to find. The music, starting with bebop 
and into hard hop and free jazz, became more cere- 
bral and less dance-oriented, focusing on freeing up 
improvisation and rhythm. It was moving to a new 
artistic level, and if this high quality were to be 
maintained, il would need some assistance. 

NEA assistance to the jazz field began in 1969, 
with its first grant in jazz awarded to pianist/ 
composer George Russell (who would later go on 
to receive an NEA Jazz Masters Fellowship in 1990). 
In a decade, jazz funding went from $20,000 in 1970 
to $1.5 million in 1980, supporting jazz festivals and 
concert seasons, special projects and services to the 
field, and fellowships for performance, composition, 
and jazz study. 

At the same time, the pioneers of the field were 
rapidly aging, and often dying without the recogni- 
tion of their contribution to this great American art 
form. Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington, two of 
the giants of jazz in terms of both musicianship and 
composition, both died in the early 1970s without 
the importance of their contributions being fully 
acknowledged and appreciated. 

The National Endowment for the Arts created a 
new program in 1982 to recognize these artists for 
their lifelong contributions to and mastery of jazz: 
American Jazz Masters Fellowships (now called NEA 
Jazz Masters). These would be awarded to musicians 
who have reached an exceptionally high standard of 
achievement in this very specialized art form. In 

NEA Jazz Masters 

addition to the recognition, the NEA initially 
included a monetary award of $20,000 for each 
fellowship. The rigors of making a living in the jazz 
field are well documented. Jazz is an art form to 
which the free market has not been kind. Despite 
their unparalleled contributions to American art, 
many of the jazz greats worked for years just barely 
scraping by. For some, the monetary award provided 
a much needed infusion of income. 

Demonstrating just how necessary the program 
was, Thelonious Sphere Monk — one of the great 
American composers and musicians — was nominated 
for a Jazz Master Fellowship in the first year of the 
program, but unfortunately passed away before the 
announcement was made. The three who were 
chosen certainly lived up to the criteria of artistic 
excellence and significance to the art form: Roy 
Eldridge, Dizzy Gillespie, and Sun Ra. 

The panel in that first year included stellar 
jazz musicians themselves, including some future 
NEA Jazz Masters: trumpeter Donald Byrd and 

saxophonists Frank Foster, Chico Freeman, Jackie 
McLean, and Archie Shepp. In addition, Riverside 
record company owner Orrin Keepnews was on 
the panel. 

From that auspicious beginning, the program has 
continued to grow and provide increased awareness 
of America's rich jazz heritage. The recipients of 
NEA Jazz Masters Fellowships cover all aspects of 
the music: from boogie-woogie (Cleo Brown) to 
swing (Count Basie, Andy Kirk, Jay McShann); from 
bebop (Dizzy Gillespie, Kenny Clarke) to Dixieland 
(Danny Barker); from free jazz (Ornette Coleman, 
Cecil Taylor) to cool jazz (Miles Davis, Gil Evans, 
Ahmad Jamal); and everywhere in between. What 
ties all these styles together is a foundation in the 
blues, a reliance on group interplay, and unpredictable 
improvisation. Throughout the years, and in all the 
different styles, these musicians have demonstrated 
the talent, creativity, and dedication that make them 
NEA Jazz Masters. 

4 NKA .hvy. Mjisters 

National Endowment for the Arts 
1991 American Jazz Masters Fellowship Awards 

Buck Hill (sax) and NEA Jazz Master Clark Terry (flugelhorn) at the 1 991 Awards ceremony. 

Program Overview 

The National Endowment for the Arts recognizes 
the importance of jazz as one of the great 
American art forms of the 20th century. As 
part of its efforts to honor those distinguished artists 
whose excellence, impact, and significant contribution 
in jazz have helped keep this important tradition and 
art form alive, the Arts Endowment annually awards 
NEA Jazz Masters Fellowships, the highest honor 
that our nation bestows upon jazz musicians. Each 
fellowship award is $25,000. 

The NEA Jazz Masters initiative has expanded 
in recent years to include a two-CD anthology of 
NEA Jazz Masters music by the Verve Music Group; 
the 50-state NEA Jazz Masters on Tour program, 
sponsored by Verizon, that includes community 
events and signings held at local Borders stores 
in connection with performances through a new 
partnership with Borders Books & Music; radio 
and television programming in partnership with 
National Public Radio and the Public Broadcasting 
System; and NEA Jazz in the Schools, a new 
curriculum for high school students, developed 
in partnership with Jazz at Lincoln Center and 
supported by the Verizon Foundation. 

The selection criteria for the fellowships remain 
the same: musical excellence and significance of 

the nominees' contributions to the jazz art form. 
The Arts Endowment will continue to honor a 
range of styles, musical instruments, vocalists, and 
composer/arrangers when making the awards, but 
now awards fellowships by category: rhythm instru- 
mentalist, solo instrumentalist, vocalist, keyboardist, 
arranger/composer, and the A.B. Spellman NEA Jazz 
Masters Award for Jazz Advocacy, which will be 
given to an individual who has made major contri- 
butions to the appreciation, knowledge, and 
advancement of jazz. 

Fellowships are awarded to living artists on the 
basis of nominations from the public, including the 
jazz community. The recipients must be citizens 
or permanent residents of the United States. An 
individual may submit only one nomination each 
year, and nominations are made by submitting a 
one-page letter detailing the reasons that the nomi- 
nated artist should receive an NEA Jazz Masters 
Fellowship. Nominations remain active for five 
years, being reviewed annually during this period. 

More information on submitting a nomination 
and all the components of the NEA Jazz Masters 
initiative is available on the NEA Web site: 

NEA Jazz Masters 


NEA Jazz Masters Ron 
Carter, Tony Bennett, and 
Wayne Shorter at a 1993 
inauqural ball. 



Ray Barretto 





Bob Brookm 


Chick Corea 

Names in bold in biographies denote NEA Jazz Masters awardees. 

All recordings listed in Selected Discography are under the artist's name unless otherwise noted. 

Years listed under recordings in Selected Discography denote the years the recordings were made. 



Born April 29. 1929 in Brooklyn. NY 

The most widely recorded conguero in jazz, Ray 
Barretto grew up listening to the music of Puerto Rico 
and the swing bands of Duke Ellington, Count Basie, 
and Benny Goodman. Barretto credits Dizzy 
Gillespie's recording of "Manteca," featuring 
conguero Chano Pozo, with his decision to 
become a professional musician. 

I [e first sat in on jam sessions at the 
( )i l.mdo. a GI jazz club in Munich. In 
1949. after military service, he returned 
to Harlem and taught himself to play 
the drums, getting his first regular job 
with Eddie Bonnemere's Latin Jazz 
Combo. Barretto then played for four 
years with Cuban bandleader/pianist 
lose* Curbelo. In L957, he replaced 
Mongo Santamaria in Tito Puente's band, 
with which he Mi ended his first album. 
Dance Mania. After four years with Puente, he 

me "i the most sought-after percussionists in New 

'lurk, attending jam sessions with artists including Max 

Roai 1 1 lil.ikrv and recording with Sonnj Stitt. Lou 

d ( iarland, Gene Amnions. Eddie "Lockjaw" 

mbaH Adderley, Freddie Hubbard. CaJ Tjader, 

larretto was so mu( h in demand that 


in 1960, he was a house musician for the Prestige, Blue 

Note, and Riverside record labels. 

Barretto's first job as a bandleader came in 1961. when 
Riverside producer Orrin Keepnews asked him to form a 
charanga for a recording, Pachanga With Barretto. 

Charanga Moderna, "Tico, 1 962 

Hard Hands. Fania, 1968 

Rican/Strucuon. Fania, 1979 

Ancestral Messages, Concord Picante, 1992 

Homage to Art Blakey and the Jazz 
Messengers. Sunnyside, 2002 

His next album, Charanga Moderna. featured 
"El Watusi," which became the first Latin 
number to penetrate Billboard's Top-20 
chart. In 1963, "El Watusi" went gold. In 
1975 and 1976, Barretto earned back-to- 
back Grammy nominations for his albums 
Barretto (with the prize-winning hit 
"Guarere") and Barretto Live... Tomorrow. 
His 1979 album for Fania. Bican/Struction. 
considered a classic of salsa, was named 
Best Album (1980) by Latin N.Y. magazine, 
and Barretto was named Conga Player of the 
Year. He won a Grammy Award in 1990 for the 
song "Ritmo en el Corazon" with Celia Cmz. 
Ray Barretto was inducted into the International Latin 
Music Hall of Fame in 1999. He was voted Jazz Percussionist 
of 2004 by the Jazz Journalists Association and won the 
Down Bent critics poll for percussion in 2005. His recording 
7Ime Was, lime Is was nominated for a 2005 Grammv Award. 

8 NEA A:\yy. Masters 



v \ 






Born August 3, 1926 in Queens, NY 

Called "the best singer in the business" by Frank 
Sinatra, Tony Bennett was born as Anthony Dominick 
Benedetto in 1926 in the Astoria section of Queens, 
New York. By age 10, he had attracted such notice that he 
was tapped to sing at the opening ceremony for the 
Triborough Bridge. He attended the High School of 
Industrial Arts, worked as a singing waiter, and then per- 
formed with military bands during his Army service in 
World War II. After the war, he continued his vocal studies 
formally at the American Theatre Wing school and infor- 
mally in the 52nd Street jazz clubs. His break came in 1949, 
when Bob Hope saw him working in a Greenwich Village 
club with Pearl Bailey, invited him to join his show at the 
Paramount, and changed his stage name to Tony Bennett. 

Bennett's recording career began in 1950, when 
he signed with the Columbia label, with the 
number one hit "Because of You," followed 
by his cover of Hank Williams's "Cold, Cold 
Heart." With a string of hits to his credit, 
Bennett was able to exert greater artistic 
influence over his recordings, allowing 
him to express his interest in jazz, notably 
The Beat of My Heart, on which he was 
accompanied primarily with jazz percus- 
sionists, and In Person with Count Basie 
and I lis Orchestra. 

The Beat of My Heart, Columbia, 1 957 

In Person with Count Basie and His 
Orchestra, Columbia, 1958 

The Tony Bennett Bill Evans Album, 
Column!? 1975 

On Holiday: A Tribute to Billie Holiday, 
Columbia, 1996 

In 1962, Bennett recorded "I Left My Heart in San 
Francisco," the song that would become his signature, and 
for which he won Grammy Awards for Record of the Year 
and Best Solo Male Vocal Performance. Over the next years, 
while putting out singles and albums that were consistently 
among the most popular in the country, he continued to 
infuse his singing with the spontaneity of jazz and to record 
and tour with bands composed almost exclusively of jazz 

In the 1970s, Bennett formed his own record company 
and made albums including two duet recording with pianist 
Bill Evans. His 1992 release, Perfectly Frank, a tribute to 
Frank Sinatra, and 1993 Steppin' Out, a tribute to Fred 
Astaire, went gold and won him back-to-back Grammy 
Awards. Bennett received Grammy's highest 
award, Album of the Year, in 1994 for his live 
recording, MTV Unplugged, and was 
honored with their Lifetime Achievement 
Award in 2001. He continues to perform 
to sold-out audiences throughout the 
world, appearing with his stellar 
jazz quartet. 

Playin with my Friends: Bennett Sings 
the Blues, Columbia, 2001 

NEA Jazz Musters 9 

Born December 19, 1929 in Kansas City, MO 



An innovative composer and gifted arranger for both 
small and large ensembles, as well as an outstanding 
performer on valve trombone and piano, Bob 
Brookmeyer bas been making music for more than 50 years. 
A professional performer with dance bands since the age of 
14. be studied composition for three years at the Kansas City 
( lonservatory of Music, where he won the Carl Busch Prize 
for ( horal Composition. In the early 1950s, he traveled to 
New York .is a pianisl witb Tex Benecke and Mel Lewis and 
stayed on in freelance witb artists including Pee Wee 
Russell, Ben Webster, and Coleman Hawkins. 

After .i period witb Claude Tbornhill. Brookmeyer 
joined Stan ( !etz in late 1952, an association that took him 
to California, where ( lerrj Mulligan asked him to join bis 
quartet. Brookmeyer gained renown as a member of that 
'4r<ni|i (19 aid .is ,i member ol the experimental 

limnu ( . i 1 1 1 f i < • 3 ( 1957-58), ( omprising Giuffre's ^<$£&i 

lira II. ill guitar, and Brookmeyer's 
trombone. I lis Inn- .issm iation with 
Mulligan included work with the Com ert 
[azz Band, which Brookmeyer helped in 
form and maintain, and foi whi( h be 

In ind Clark Terry 

idart quintet, whii h 
ikmeyei also 
: I trombonisl 
1 lie |'h. id [ones- 


Gerry Mulligan Quartet, At Storyville, 
Pacific Jazz. 1956 

The Blues Hot aivtfold. Verve, 1960 

Back Again. Sonet, 1978 

Paris Suite. Challenge, 1993 

Get Well Soon. Challenge, 2002 

Mel Lewis Orchestra, formed in 1965. After a decade spent 
in California as a studio musician, Brookmeyer returned to 
New York in 1978 to play with Stan Getz and Jim Hall, form 
his own quartet, and then in 1979 rejoined the Mel Lewis 
Orchestra, becoming its musical director after the departure 
of Thad Jones. 

From 1981 to 1991. Brookmeyer was busy as a composer 
and performer in Europe, working in both classical and jazz 
idioms. He began teaching at the Manhattan School of 
Music in 1985 and directed the BMJ Composers Workshop 
from 1989 to 1991. He has served as musical director of the 
Schlewsig-Holstein Musik Festival Big Band/New Art 
Orchestra, the Stanley Knowles Distinguished Visiting 
Professor at Brandon University in Manitoba, and director of 
the New England Conservatory's Jazz Composers' Workshop 
Orchestra. A composer whose work has been 
widely published, studied, and performed. 
•typ> Brookmeyer has received grants in composi- 
tion from the National Endowment for Uie 
Arts and nominations from NARAS for 
composing and performing, and be was 
commissioned by the 12 Cellists of the 
Berlin Philharmonic to write a piece 
for an EMI disc featuring trumpet 
player Till Broenner. A new concert- 
length piece for the New Art Orchestra 
will be recorded in January 2006. 

10 NEA.J. 



Born June 12, 1941 in Chelsea, MA 


Now He Sobs. Now He Sings, 
Blue Note, 1968 

Return to Forever, ECM, 1972 

Live in Montreux, Stretch, 1981 

Eye of the Beholder, GPP, 1W8 

Rendezvous in New York, 
Stretch, 2001 

A groundbreaking artist both as a 
keyboardist (piano, electric 
piano, synthesizer) and as a 
composer-arranger, Chick Corea has 
moved fluidly among jazz, fusion, 
and classical music throughout 
a four-decade career, winning 
national and international honors 
including 12 Grammy Awards. 
He ranks with Herbie Hancock 
and Keith Jarrett as one of the lead- 
ing piano stylists to emerge after Bill 
Evans and McCoy Tyner, and he has 
composed such notable jazz standards as 
"Spain," "La Fiesta," and "Windows." 

Corea began playing piano and drums at an early age 
and enjoyed a childhood home filled with the music of Bud 
Powell, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, and Lester Young, as 
well as Mozart and Beethoven. From 1962 to 1966 he 
gained experience playing with the bands of Mongo 
Santamaria and Will if; Bobo, Blue Mitchell. I [erbie Mann, 
and Stan Getz. He made his recording debut as a leader 
with Tones For Joan's Bones (1966) and in 1968 recorded 
the classic trio album Now He Sings, Now He Sobs with 
Miroslav Vitoua and Roy Haynes. Following a short period 
with Sarah Vaughan, Corea then joined Miles Davis' group, 
gradually replacing Herbie Hancock. Davis persuaded Corea 

to play electric piano on the influential albums Filles 
$P ^^> de Kilimanjaro, In a Silent Way. Bitches Brew, and 

Kilimanjaro, In a Silent Way, 
Miles Davis at the Fillmore. 

In 1971, Corea formed the ensemble Return 
to Forever with Stanley Clarke on bass, Flora 
Purim on vocals, her husband Airto Moreira 
on drums, and foe Farrell on reeds. Within a 
year, the samba-flavored group had become an 
innovative, high-energy electric fusion band, 
incorporating the firepower of drummer Lenny 
White and guitarist Al DiMeola. Spearheaded 
by Corea 's distinctive style on Moog synthesizer, 
Return to Forever led the mid-1970s fusion move- 
ment with albums such as Where Have I Known You 
Bejbre, Bomantic Warrior, and the Grammy Award-win- 
ning No Mysteiy. In 1985, Corea formed a now fusion 
group, The Elektric Band, and a few years later he formed 
The Akoustic Band. In 1992, he established his own record 
label, Stretch Records. 

On the occasion of his 60th birthday in 2001, Corea pul 
together an unprecedented musical gathering al the Blue 
Note Jazz Club in New York City. The three-week evenl 
resulted in a double CD, Rendezvous in New York, and a 
two-hour film of the same name. He continues to create 
projects in multifaceted settings for listeners around 
the world. 

NEA Jazz Mastei-s 1 1 



Born February 17, 1923 in Camden, NJ 

A brilliant improviser and prodigious 
ti 'clinician who has bridged the swing 
and bebop eras. Buddy DeFranco 
was born in Camden, New Jersey and 
raised in South Philadelphia, and began 
playing tbe clarinet at age nine. At 14, 
he won a national Tommy Dorsey 
Swing Contest and appeared on the 
Saturday Niglit Swing Club with Gene 
Krupa. Johnny "Scat" Davis soon 
tapped him for his big band, inaugurating 
DeFranco's road career in 1939. DeFranco 
subsequently played in the bands of Gene 
Krupa (1941] and Charlie Barnel (1942-43) and 
in i'i44 hi'i ame a featured soloist with Tommy 
l)nrs.-\. Meanwhile, the modern jazz revolution was in 

led bj Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. Excited 
li\ the improvisatory freedom of their music, DeFranco 

me the Brsl jazz i larinetisl to make his mark in the new 
idiom ol bebi 

In ' rani o joined the famous Count Basie Septet 

with Billie Holidaj in 1954, led a quartet 
\ii Blakey, Kenny Drew, and Eugene 
I w ith TOmmj Gumina in a quartet 
musii . further solidifying his repu- 
I 111 i.m " His other notable concert 

have included dates with Ari 
irker, Dizzj Gillespie. Stan 

Mr. Clarinet, Norgran, 1953 

Cooking the Blues. Verve, 1955 

Blues Bag. Affinity, 1964 

Wart. Pablo/OJC, 1985 

Do Nothing Jill You Hear From Us, 
Concord Jazz. 1998 

Getz. Lenny Tristano. Billy Eckstine, Barney 
Kessel. Herb Ellis, Ray Brown, Mel Torme. 
Louie Bellson, Oscar Peterson, and the John 
Pizzarelli Trio, as well as several 
Metronome All-Star sessions. He was a 
featured artist in numerous Jazz at the 
Philharmonic tours of Europe, Australia, 
and East Asia. In 1966. he became the 
leader of the Glenn Miller Orchestra, a 
post he maintained until 1974. 

Since the mid-1970s. DeFranco has 
combined a busy teaching career with 
extensive touring and recording. His numer- 
ous television performances have included 
appearances on The Tonight Show with botJi Steve 
Allen and Johnny Carson. He was a featured soloist on 
Stars of Jazz: had his own program on public television. 
77ie DeFranco Jazz Forum; and with his long-time musical 
colleague, vibraphonist Terry Gibbs, shared the spotlight on 
a segment of the PBS series Club Date. DeFranco has played 
at concerts and festivals throughout the United States, 
Europe, Australia. New Zealand. South Africa. Brazil, and 
Argentina. To date, he has recorded more than 160 albums, 
has won the Down Beat All Stars award 20 times, and the 
Metronome poll 12 times. The University of Montana. 
Missoula, now hosts The Buddy DeFranco Jazz Festival 
eat h April. 

12 NEA Jazz Mas 



Born April 7, 1938 in Indianapolis, 

One of the greatest trumpet virtuosos ever to play in 
the jazz idiom, and arguably one of the most influen- 
tial, Freddie Hubbard played mellophone and then 
trumpet in his school band and studied at the Jordan 
Conservatory with the principal trumpeter of the 
Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra. As a teenager, he 
worked with Wes and Monk Montgomery and eventually 
founded his own band, the Jazz Contemporaries, with 
bassist Larry Ridley and saxophonist James Spaulding. 
After moving to New York in 1958, he quickly astonished 
fans and critics alike with his depth and maturity, playing 
with veteran artists Philly Joe Jones, Sonny Rollins, Slide 
Hampton, J.J. Johnson, Eric Dolphy, and Quincy Jones, with 
whom he toured Europe. In June 1960, on the recommenda- 
tion of Miles Davis, he recorded his first solo album, Open 
Sesame, for Blue Note records, just weeks after his 22nd 
birthday. Within the next 10 months, he recorded two more 
albums, Goin' Up and Hub Cap, and then in August 1961 
made what many consider to be his masterpiece, Ready for 
Freddie, which was also his first Blue Note collaboration 
with Wayne Shorter. That same year, Hubbard joined Art 
Blakey's Jazz Messengers, replacing Lee Morgan. By now, 
he had indisputably developed his own sound and had won 
Down Beat "New Star" award on trumpet. 

Hubbard remained with the Jazz Messengers until 1964, 
when he left to form his own small group, which over the 
next years featured Kenny Barron and Louis Hayes. 
Throughout the 1960s, Hubbard also played in bands led by 

other legends, including Max Roach, and was a significant 
presence on the Blue Note recordings of Herbie Hancock, 
Wayne Shorter and Hank Mobley. Hubbard was also featured 
on four classic, groundbreaking 1960s sessions: Ornette 
Coleman's Free Jazz, Oliver Nelson's Blues and the Abstract 
Truth, Eric Dolphy's Out to Lunch, and John Coltrane's 

In the 1970s, Hubbard achieved his greatest popular 
success with a series of crossover albums on Atlantic and 
CTI Records, including the Grammy Award-winning First 
Light. He returned to acoustic hard bop in 1977 when he 
toured with the V.S.O.R quintet, which teamed him with 
the members of Miles Davis' 1960s ensemble: Wayne 
Shorter, Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, 
and Tony Williams. In the 1980s, C ^£D BIBIjqq 

Hubbard again led his own 
groups, often in the company 
of Joe Henderson, and he 
collaborated with fellow 
trumpet legend Woody 
Shaw on a series of 
albums for the Blue Note 
and Timeless labels. 



J/ /, 


Ready for Freddie, Blue Note, 1961 

Hub-Tones. Blue Note, 1962 

Straight Life. Columbia, 1970 

Live. CLP, 1983 

New Colors. Hip Bop Essence, 2000 

NEA Jazz Masters 13 



Born April 1 1 . 1 91 2 in New Orleans, LA 


Renowned as a leading representative of 
jazz musicians, and as the first African 
American to work in the music 
industry as a personal manager, John Levy 
was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 
L912. Mis mother was a midwife and 
nurse, and his lather was an engine 
sinker on the railroad. Whim Levy was 
six. his family moved to Chicago, where 
<i well-meaning schoolteacher would 
encourage him to find a steady job at the 
post ol!i( e. I le (lid work there lor a while. 
but he also began gigging around town as a 

j.l// b.issisl. 

In 1944, Lev) left Chicago with the Stuff Smith 
Iih. in play .in extended engagement at the Onyx club on 

:nd Street. Over the next years, he was to 
•• ith man) jazz notables, including Hen Webster, 
j Ri( h. I. iml ( lamer, Milt Jackson, and Billy Taylor, as 
i Millie Holida\ ,it her comeback performance at 
1 i li. ill in 1'I4H. 

Shearing heard Levy play at Birdland 
■ iand and hired him for his own 

Buddj DeFranco. As Lew toured the 

Stuff Smith. The 1943 Trio, 
Progressive, 1943 

country playing with the original George Shearing 

Billie Holiday, The Complete Decca 
Recordings, WP, 1944-50 

Erroll Garner, Penthouse Serenade, Savoy, 1 945 

Billy Taylor, 1945-49, Classics, 1945-49 

George Shearing, Complete Savoy 

Trio and Quintet Sessions. 

Jazz Factory, 1945-50 

Quintet, he gradually took on die role of road 
manager. Finally, in 1951. Levy put aside 
performing to become die group's full-time 
manager, making music-industrv historv 
and establishing the career he would fol- 
low for the next half-century. 

Levy's client roster over the years has 
included Nat and Cannonball Adderley. 
Betty Carter. Roberta Flack, Herbie 
Hancock. Shirley Horn. Freddie Hubbard. 
Ahmad Jamal. Ramsey Lewis. Abbey 
Lincoln. Herbie Mann. VVes Montgomen. 
Carol Sloane. Joe Williams, and Nancy Wilson. 
as well as Arsenio Hall (the only comedian he has 
managed among some 100 entertainers). In recognition of 
his achievements. Levy has received awards such as a cer- 
tificate of appreciation from Los Angeles Mayor Tom 
Bradley (1991), induction into the International Jazz Hall of 
Fame (1997). and the Lifetime Achievement Award of die 
Los Angeles Jazz Society (2002). John Levy continues to be 
active today in representing his clients. 

II Nl 


»■ * — ■»■ ■ 




Gerald Wilson leads 
his orchestra during 
the 2005 NEA Jazz 
Masters ceremony 
and concert in Long 
Beach, California. 


Names in bold in biographies denote NEA Jazz Masters awardees 

All recordings listed in Selected Discography are under the artist's name unless otherwise noted. 

Years listed under recordings in Selected Discography denote the years the recordings were made. 

Since 2004, NEA Jazz Masters have been awarded by categories, which are listed next to years for these Fellows. 



Born December 21, 1931 in Indianapolis, 


A true jazz renaissance man, David Baker has 
been active in the jazz community as musician, 
composer, educator, conductor, and 
author. Of all the NEA Jazz Masters, he is 
one ol the most active as a college and 
university educator. 

Baker's music career began on the 
trombone in the early 1950s as he 
worked with local groups, as well as 
Lionel Hampton, while working on 
his doctorate al Indiana University. 
He lived in California in 1956-57. 
pla) ing in the bands of Stan Kenton 
.ind Maynard Ferguson, and relumed 
to Indiana in 1958, leading bis own big 
hand lor two years. He then attended the 
s. hool oi la// in Lenox, Massachusetts in 

I 60, joining a stellar i lass of musicians that 
in< luded members ol the Ornette Coleman Quartet. Shortly 
- he worked with the George Russell hand, playing 
ifluentiaJ earls alliums. In Russell's hand. 

displayed exceptional technique, 
"tih. ai the songs. 

eventually Ton ed Baker to 

a trombonist He switi bed 
on ( omposition. As a 
an :■ ol works, from 

small ensemble to orchestral, often straddling the fence 
between jazz and chamber music. He has also worked on 
purely chamber and orchestral works. By the early 


George Russell, Stratusphunk, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1960 

George Russell, Ezz-thetics. 
Original Jazz Classics, 1961 

George Russell, The Stratus Seekers. 
Original Jazz Classics, 1961 

Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra, 

Big Band Treasures Live, Smithsonian 

Recordings, 1996 

Steppin'Out, Liscio, 1998 

1970s, he had returned to the trombone — playing 
on Bill Evans' 1972 album Li\ing Time, with 
George Russell arranging — while continuing 
to play the cello as well. Although a strong 
player on both instruments, he is most 
renowned for his compositions. 

Baker became a distinguished professor 
of music at Indiana Universitv and chairman 
of the Jazz Department in 1966. He has 
published in numerous scholarly journals 
and has written several musical treatises as 
well as having authored more than 70 books 
on jazz and African American music. Since 1991. 
Baker has been the artistic and musical director of 
the acclaimed Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra. 
He has received numerous awards and citations, includ- 
ing being nominated for a Pulitzer Prize in 1973 for his 
composition Levels, a concerto for bass, jazz band, wood- 
winds, and strings. He has served as a member of the NEAs 
National Council on the Arts, was founding president of the 
National fazz Service Organization, and is former president 
of the International Association for Jazz Education. 

1 1» NEA Jiizz Miistere 





Born January 13, 1909 in New Orleans, LA 
Died March 13, 1994 

Upholder of the New Orleans tradition of jazz and 
blues, this master guitar and banjo player was as 
well known for his humor and storytelling as for his 
playing. Many of the younger New Orleans musicians also 
credit him with providing invaluable information, instruc- 
tion, and mentoring. 

He started his musical training on the clarinet, instructed 
by the great Barney Bigard, and moved on to the drums, 
taught by his uncle, Paul Barbarin. These instances of musi- 
cal mentoring and instruction available in New Orleans 
would inspire him to carry on the tradition of mentoring 
younger musicians. He later took up the ukulele and the 
banjo, and began finding work with jazz and blues artists 
such as the Boozan Kings and Little Brother Montgomery. 
In 1930 he moved to New York, where he met his wife, 
vocalist Blue Lu Barker, with whom he frequently recorded. 
He also wrote many of the songs she performed, such as 
"Don't You Feel My Leg." By then he had switched from 
banjo to guitar and found work with Sidney Bechet, James P. 
Johnson, Albert Nicholas, Fess Williams, and Henry "Red" 
Allen. He spent the rest of the 1930s working with the big 
bands of Lucky Millinder, Benny Carter, and Cab Calloway, 
with whom he stayed for seven years. 

In the late 1940s he traveled as a freelance musician, 
making recordings in Los Angeles and New Orleans. In 
1947, Barker appeared on the This Is Jazz radio series, and 

began playing banjo again. He returned to New York in 
1949, working with trombonists Wilbur De Paris and Conrad 
Janis, and accompanied his wife on gigs. In the early 1960s, 
he led his own band at Jimmy Ryan's on 52nd Street, then 
returned to the Crescent City in 1965. Barker continued 
playing up to the end of his life, even appearing on the Dirty 
Dozen Brass Band's 1993 recording, Jelly. A number of his 
compositions have been widely interpreted, such as "Save 
the Bones for Henry Jones." 

Just as important as his performing career were his edu- 
cational activities. When he returned home to New Orleans 
in 1965, he worked for 10 years as an assistant curator for 
the New Orleans Jazz Museum, help- 
ing to continue interest in the ^c^ DISC °G/?,, 

culture and tradition of the 
music. He also mentored 
young musicians through 
his leadership of the 
Fairview Baptist Church 
Brass Band. Barker was a 
writer as well, co-author- 
ing with Jack Buerkle a 
study on New Orleans 
music, Bourbon Street 
Mack, and writing his 
memoirs, A Life in Jazz. 

4^ *y 

Blue Lu Barker, 1938-39, 
Classics. 1938-39 

Blue Lu Barker, 1946-49, 

Classics, 1946-49 

Save the flonflfOrleans, 1988 

Blue Lu Barker, Live at New Orleans 
Jazz Festival, Orleans, 1989 

Dirty Dozen Brass Band, Jelly, 
Columbia, 1993 

NEA Jazz Masters 1 7 



illiam "Count 


Born August 21. 1904 in Red Bank, NJ 
Died April 26, 1984 


Though a pianist and occasional organist. Count Basie's 
fame stems mainly from his history as one of the great 
1 1. n id leaders. Basie's arrangements made good use of 
soloists, allowing musicians such as Lester Young, Buck 
Clayton. Sweets Edison, and Frank Foster to create some of 
their best work. Although his strength was as a bandleader. 
Basie's sparse piano style often delighted audiences with its 
swinging simplicity. 

Basie's first teacher was his mother, who taught him 
pi. mo. Later, the informal organ lessons from his mentor 
I .its Waller helped him find work in a theater accompany- 
ing silent films. In 1927. Basie found himself in Kansas 
City, playing with two of the most famous bands in the citv: 
Wilier Page's Blue Devils and the Bennie Moten band. In 
Basie started his own Kansas City band, engaging the 
• the Moten band, Thej performed nightly radio 
broadi asts, which caughl the attention of music producer 
fohn Hammond In 1936, Hammond brought the Basie 
York, where it opened at the Roseland 
By the next \e,ir. the band was a fixture on 
ceat the Famous Door. 
s time the kej to Basie's band was what 

Ml Ainerii an Rhythm Section:" 

guitar. Walter Page on bass, and |o Jones 
iile potent, including 
and I lersc fiel Evans on saxc- 

lison on trumpets; and 
■n trombones. With a 
i top-noti h soloists in the horn 





The Original American Decca 
Recordings. MCA, 1937-39 

April in Paris. Verve, 1956 

The Complete Atomic Basie. 
Roulette. 1957 

Count Basie and the Kansas City 7, 
Impulse!. 1962 

77?e Basie Big Band. 
Pablo, 1975 

section, Basie's band became 
one of the most popular 
between 1937-49. scoring 
such swing hits as "One 
O'clock Jump" and 
"Jumpin" at the Woodside." 
Lester Young's tenor saxo- 
phone playing during this 
period, in particular on such 
recordings as "Lester Leaps In" 
and "Taxi War Dance." influenced jazz 
musicians for years to come. In addition. 
Basie's use of great singers such as Helen Humes and 
Jimmy Rushing enhanced his band's sound and popularity. 

Economics forced Basie to pare down to a septet in 
1950. By 1952 he had returned to his big band sound, 
organizing what became euphemistically known as 
his "New Testament" band, which began a residency at 
Birdland in New York. The new band retained the same 
high standards of musicianship as the earlier version. 
with such standouts as Frank Foster, Frank Wes. Eddie 
"Lockjaw" Smith. Thad Jones, and Joe Williams. Foster's 
composition "Shiny Stockings" and Williams' rendition of 
"Ia ery Day" brought Basic a couple of much-needed hits in 
the mid- 1950s. In addition to achieving success with his 
own singers, he also enjoyed acclaim for records backing 
mii h stars as Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis. Jr.. and Tony 
Bennett. Basie continued to perform and record until his 
death in 1984. 

NKA Jazz Musters 

* • <*5k±. •• 




Born July 6, 1924 in Rock Falls, IL 

Referred to by Duke Ellington as "not only the world's 
greatest drummer... [but also] the world's greatest 
musician," Louie Bellson has expressed himself on 
drums since age three. At 15, he pioneered the double bass 
drum set-up, and two years later he triumphed over 40,000 
drummers to win the Gene Krupa drumming contest. 
Bellson has performed on more than 200 

Live in Stereo at the Flamingo Hotel, Vol. 
Jazz Hour, 1959 

albums as one of the most sought-after big 

band drummers, working with such greats 

as Duke Ellington (who recorded many of 

Bellson's compositions). Count Basie, 

Benny Goodman, Tommy Dorsey, Harry 

James, Woody Herman, Oscar Peterson, 

Dizzy Gillespie, Louie Armstrong, and 

Lionel Hampton. He toured with 

Norman Granz's all-star Jazz at the 

Philharmonic, and worked with many 

vocalists, including Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah 

Vaughan, Tony Bennett, Joe; Williams, and 

his late wife, Pearl Bailey, for whom he served 

as musical director. He also appeared in several 

films in the 1940s, including The Power Girl, The Gang's 

All Here, and A Song is Born. 

A prolific composer, Bellson has more than 1,000 
compositions and arrangements to his name, embracing jazz, 
swing, orchestral suites, symphonic works, and ballets. 



Dynamite I, Concord, 1979 

East Side Suite, Musicmasters, 1 987 

Black, Brown & Beige, Musicmasters, 1992 

Live from New York, Telarc, 1993 

As an author, he has published more than a dozen books on 
drums and percussion, and is a six-time Grammy Award 
nominee. In 1998, he was hailed — along with Roy Haynes, 
Elvin Jones, and Max Roach — as one of four "Living Legends 
of Music" when he received the American Drummers 
Achievement Award from the Zildjian Company. 
Bellson also is a highly sought-after 
educator, giving music and drum workshops 
and clinics, teaching not onlv his dvnamic 
drumming technique but also the jazz 
heritage. He has been awarded four 
honorary doctoral degrees from Northern 
Illinois University, Denison University. 
Augustana College, and DePaul University. 

In 2003. a historical landmark 
was dedicated at his birthplace in Rock 
P'alls, Illinois, inaugurating an annual 
three-day celebration there in his honor. 
Continuing to compose and record, his 2005 
recording, The Sacred Music of Louie Bellson. 
showcases his prowess for blending orchestral 
music, choir, and big band. He continues to perform with 
his big band after more than 65 years onstage, still thrilling 
audiences worldwide. 

NEA Jazz Masters 19 



Born October 11. 1919 in Pittsburgh, PA 
Died October 16, 1990 

Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers not only supplied 
consistently exciting and innovative music for nearly 
40 years, but also provided the experience and men- 
toring for young musicians to learn their trade. Though self- 
taught, Blakey was already leading his own dance band by 
age 14. Blakey's first noted sideman job came in 1942 with 
Mary Lou Williams, whom he joined for a club engagement 
at Kelly's Stables in New York. The following year he joined 
the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra, where he stayed until 
joining Billy Fckstine's modern jazz big band in 1944. 
A subsequent trip to Africa, ostensibly to immerse himself 
in Islam, revealed to him that jazz was truly an American 
music which Ik; preached from the bandstand thereafter. 
He adopted the Muslim name of Abdullah Ibn Buhaina, but 
• ontinued to record under Art Blakey. 

In tin: earl) 1950s, he worked with such greats as Miles 
Davis, Charlie Parker, Horace Silver, and Clifford Brown. 
I In- latter two Imi imc members of the Jazz Messengers, 
i!\ a cooperative unit Brown, then 
to form their own hands and Blakey became the 
sengers. The Messengers went on 
I ailed hard bop, a logical 
the bebop style thai was mom hard-driving 
i i ' era made a concerted 

jazz that had 
n the ballroom era () | jazz dec lined. 

Blakey powered his bands with a distinctive, take-no- 
prisoners style of drumming that recalled the thunderous 
and communicative drum traditions of Africa. Though 
his drumming became among the most easily recognized 
sounds in jazz, Blakey always played for the band, 
prodding on his immensely talented colleagues' solos. 

From the first Jazz Messengers band he formed, Blakey 
has welcomed generations of exceptional young musicians 
who have evolved into prominent bandleaders and contribu- 
tors themselves. That list, reading like a Who's Who of jazz, 
includes Donald Byrd, Johnny Griffin, Lee Morgan, Benny 
Golson, Wayne Shorter, Freddie Hubbard, Keith Jarrett, 
Woody Shaw, Joanne Brackeen, Bobby Watson, James 
Williams, and three of the Marsalis brothers (Wynton, 
Branford, and Delfeayo). His mentoring of these musicians, 
helping them to hone their skills 
and preparing them to lead 
their own bands, has helped 
keep the jazz tradition 
alive and thriving. For 
the remainder of his 
career, Blakey contin- 
ued to take the Jazz 
Messengers message 
across the globe. 

A Night at Birdland, Vols. 1-2. 
Blue Note, 1954 

Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers 
with Thelonious Monk. Atlantic, 1957 

A lun! 

Moanin. B\W Note, 1958 

Buhaina's Delight. 
Blue Note, 1961 

Keystone 3. Concord, 1982 

20 NKA .1. 



Cleo Brown bears the distinction of being the first 
woman instrumentalist honored with the NEA Jazz 
Masters Fellowship. Her family moved to Chicago in 
1919 and four years later, at age 14, she started working pro- 
fessionally with a vaudeville show. Her brother Everett, 
who worked with "Pine Top" Smith, taught her the boogie 
woogie piano style that became her trademark. 

Brown performed in the Chicago area during the late 
1920s. In 1935, she replaced Fats Waller on his New York 
radio series on WABC, and soon began recording. Her 
version of "Pine Top's Boogie Woogie" was influential on 
pianists that came after her, and she 
is credited with being an early influence on 
Dave Brubeck, who played during the 
intermissions of her shows, and Marian 
McPartland, among others. Through the 
1950s she worked frequently at that 
city's Three Deuces club, establishing 
a reputation as a two-fisted, driving 


Born December 8, 1909 in Meridian, MS 
Died April 15, 1995 

pianist. Brown began to gain international renown for her 
work, and she continued to perform regularly in New York, 
Hollywood, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, and San Francisco until 
1953, making records for Capitol Records and performing 
with the Decca All-Stars, among others. 

Brown then dropped out of the music business com- 
pletely and took up full-time nursing. After retiring from 
nursing in 1973, she returned to music, spending her latter 
years as a church musician in her Seventh Day Adventist 
Church in Denver, Colorado. In 1987, Marian McPartland 
sought out Brown as a guest on her long-running radio 

series, Piano Jazz. A recording of the program was 
released as Living in the Afterglow, Brown's last 
recording. Although all the numbers are 
gospel songs (many are originals by 
Brown), they are played in the same rol- 

Various Artists, Boogie Woogie Stomp, 

ASV/Living Era, 1930s-40s hckm 8 st y le as her 1930s recordings 

The Legendary Cleo Brown, President, 1 930s 

Boogie Woogie, Official, 1935-36 

Here Comes Cleo, Hep, 1935-36 

Living in the Afterglow, 
Audiophile, 1987 

NEA Jazz Masters 21 



Born October 13, 1926 in Pittsburgh, PA 
Died July 2, 2002 

Ray Brown's dexterity and rich sound on the bass 
made him one of the most popular and prolific musi- 
cians in jazz for over 50 years. The Penguin Guide to 
jazz on CD notes that Brown is the most cited musician in 
the first edition of the guide, both for his own small ensem- 
ble work and as a sideman, testifying to his productivity. 

Brown studied the piano from age eight and began play- 
ing the bass at 17, performing his first professional job at a 
Pittsburgh club in 194:). His first significant tour was with 
bandleader Snookum Russell in 1944. whereupon he moved 
to Now York the following year. By 1946 he was working in 
l)i//\ Gillespie's band, and in 1948 he formed a trio with 
Hank Jones and Charlie Smith. In 1948. he married Ella 
Fitzgerald and be< ame musical director on her own tours 
and her la// at the Philharmonic lours until 

their breakup in 1952. In 1951. he 
>ii a stint with the f )s< ar Peterson 
■ d until 1966. It was 
in i, it Brown's 


loring the 
ad u both thi piano- 


Oscar Peterson, The Ultimate 
Oscar Peterson, Verve, 1956-64 

Much in Common. Verve, 1962-65 

Summer Wind: Live a*be Loa, Concord, 1988 

Some of My Best Friends Are... 
The Sax Players, Telarc. 1995 

In the mid-1960s. Brown co-led a quintet with vibist 
Milt Jackson, with whom he had worked in the 1940s 
as part of Dizzy Gillespie's rhythm section and later as a 
member of the Milt Jackson Quartet, the precursor to the 
Modern Jazz Quartet. In the late 1970s to early 1980s. 
Brown formed his first full-time trio, which was to become 
his favored touring and performance unit over the next 
couple of decades, and utilized a variety of up-and-coming 
musicians in his bands, including pianists Gene Harris. 
Monty Alexander, Bennv Green, and Geoff Keezer and 
drummers Jeff Hamilton. Lewis Nash. Gregory Hutchinson, 
and Kariem Riggins. 

Brown was also been involved in jazz education, includ- 
ing authoring the Ray Broun Bass Book 1. an instructional 
volume. He served as mentor to numerous young musicians, 
including those who have passed through his groups and 
special guests he invited to play on a series of 1990s 
recordings for die Telarc label titled Some of My 
Best Friends are.... These have included pianists, 
saxophonists, trumpeters, and vocalists. Some of 
the greal younger bassists, such as John Clayton 
and Christian McBride. count him as a major 
influence on their sound. 

Ray Brown with John Clayton and 

Christian McBride, Super Bass 2. 

Telarc. 2001 

22 NKA I 



Bom December 6, 1920 in Concord, CA 

Dave Brubeck, declared a "Living Legend" by the 
Library of Congress, continues to be one of the most 
active and popular jazz musicians in the world 
today. His experiments with odd time signatures 
improvised counterpoint, and a distinctive 
harmonic approach are the hallmarks of his 
unique musical style. 

Born into a musically inclined 
family — his two older brothers were 
professional musicians — he began taking 
piano lessons from his mother, a classical 
pianist, at age four. After graduating 
from College of the Pacific in 1942, he 
enlisted in the Army, and while serving 
in Europe led an integrated G.I. jazz band. 
At the end of World War II, he studied 
composition at Mills College with French clas- 
sical composer Darius Milhaud, who encouraged 
him to introduce jazz elements into his classical 
compositions. This experimentation of mixed genres led to 
the formation of the Dave Brubeck Octet that included Paul 
Desmond, Bill Smith, and Cal Tjader. In 1949, Brubeck 
formed an award-winning trio with Cal Tjader and Ron 
dotty, and in 1951 expanded the; band to include Desmond. 
Brubeck became the first jazz artist to make the cover of 
Time magazine, in 1954, and in 1958 performed in Europe 
and the Middle Last for the U.S. State Department, leading 
to the introduction of music from other cultures into his 
repertoire. In 1959, the Dave Brubeck Quartet recorded an 
experiment in time signatures, Time Out. The album sold 

Jazz at Oberlin, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1953 

lime Out, Columbia, 1959 

The Heal Ambassadors, 
Columbia/Legacy. 1961 

Classical Brubeck, 
Telarc, 2002 

Private Brubeck Remembers, 
Telarc, 2004 

more than a million copies, and Brubeck's "Blue Rondo a la 
Turk," based on a Turkish folk rhythm, and Desmond's "Take 
Five" appeared on jukeboxes throughout the world. 

Throughout his career, Brubeck has continued 
to experiment with integrating jazz and classi- 
cal music. In 1959, he premiered and 
recorded his brother's Dialogues for Jazz 
Combo and Orchestra with the New York 
Philharmonic under Leonard Bernstein. 
In 1960, he composed Points on Jazz for 
the American Ballet Theatre, and in later 
decades composed for and performed 
with the Murray Louis Dance Co. His 
musical theater piece, The Real 
Ambassadors starring Louis Armstrong 
and Carmen McRae. was also written and 
recorded in 1960 and performed to great 
acclaim at the 1962 Monterey Jazz Festival. The 
classic Dave Brubeck Quartet with Paid Desmond, 
Eugene Wright, and Joe Morello was dissolved in December 
1967 and Brubeck's first of many oratorios, The bight in the 
Wilderness, was premiered in 1968. 

In the early 1970s, Brubeck performed with three of his 
musical sons. He later led a quartet thai featured former 
Octet member Hill Smith. His current group is with Bobby 

Mililello, sax and flute; Randy Jones, drums; and Michael 
Moore, bass. He has received many honors in the U.S. and 
abroad for his contribution to jazz, including the National 
Medal of Arts, a ( Irammy Lifetime Achievement Award, and 
the Austrian Medal ol the Arts. 

NEA Jazz Masters 23 


Born July 31, 1931 in Detroit, 



Kenny Burrell pioneered the guitar-led trio with bass 
and drums in the late 1950s. Known for his har- 
monic creativity, lush tones, and lyricism on the gui- 
tar, he is also a prolific and highly regarded composer. Born 
in Detroil in 1931, he found musical colleagues at an early 
age among Paul Chambers, Tommy Flanagan, Frank Foster, 
Yusel Lateef, and the brothers Thad. Hank, and Elvin Jones. 
While still a student at Wayne State University, he made his 
Bret major recording in 1951 with Dizzy Gillespie, 
|ohn Coltrane. Percy Heath, and Milt 
|a( kson. 

AJtei graduation, be toured lor six 
months with the Oscar Peterson Trio 
and then moved to New York, where 
he performed in Broadwaj pit hands, 
on pop and R8d3 studio sessions 
(with Lena Home, Tony Bennett, and 
Brown), in jazz venues, and on 
He went on to work 
■ in h artists as Nal 
lie HoUday, Stan Getz, 

Dorham, Benny 

i lillllllV 

Smith irded more than 

nisi on more than 200 
ith Art Blakey, Herbie 
Hani i" k 


Kenny Burrell & John Coltrane, 
Prestige/OJC. 1958 

Midnight Blue, Blue Note, 1963 

Guitar Form's^Jene. 1 964 

Live at the Blue Note, Concord Jazz, 1 996 

Kenny Burrell & the Boys Choir of 

Harlem, Love is the Answer, 

Concord Jazz, 1997 

Kenny Burrell's compositions have been recorded by 
artists including Ray Brown, June Christy, Grover 
Washington, Jr., Frank Wess, and Stevie Ray Vaughan. 
His extended composition for the Boys Choir of Harlem 
was premiered at New York's Lincoln Center, and his "Dear 
Ella," performed by Dee Dee Bridgewater, won a 1998 
Grammy Award. 

In addition to performing and recording, he is a 
professor of music and ethnomusicology at the 
University of California at Los Angeles. A 
recognized authority on the music of Duke 
Ellington, he developed the first regular college 
course ever taught in the United States on 
Ellington in 1978. In 1997. he was 
appointed Director of the Jazz Studies 
Program at UCLA, where he 
has enlisted such faculty members 
as George Bohanon, Billy Quids. Billy 
Higgins, Harold Land. Bobby Rodriguez, and 
Gerald Wilson. 
Kenny Burrell is the author of two books. 
Jazz Guitar and Jazz Guitar Solos. In 2004. he 
received a Jazz Educator of the Year Award from 
Down Beat I [e is a founder of the Jazz Heritage 
Foundation and the Friends of Jazz at UCLA and is recog- 
nized as an international ambassador for jazz and its promo- 
tion as an art form. 

24 NKA .1. 


Born December 9, 1932 in Detroit, 

A pioneer jazz educator on African American college 
and university campuses, as well as general colleges 
and universities, Donald Byrd has also been a 
leading improviser on trumpet. Raised in the home of 
a Methodist minister and musician, he learned music 
in the then highly regarded music education system 
in the Detroit high schools. Byrd went on to earn 
degrees from Wayne State University and the 
Manhattan School of Music, eventually earning a 
doctorate from the University of Colorado School 
of Education. He studied music with the famed /\ 

teacher Nadia Boulanger in Paris in 1963. 

Byrd played in the Air Force band during 1951-52, 
then relocated to New York. Some of his earliest gigs in 
New York were with the George Wallington group at 
Cafe Bohemia. He joined Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers 
in December 1955. Following his Messengers experience, 
he worked in a variety of bands with Max Roach, John 
Coltrane, Red Garland, and Gigi Gryce, refining his playing 
skills. In 1958 he co-led a band with fellow Detroiter 
Pepper Adams, which continued for the next three years. 
In the early 1960s, he became a bandleader of his own 
touring quintet. During 1965-66 he was a house arranger for 
the Norwegian Radio Orchestra. It was also at this time that 



he became more active as an educator, 
teaching at New York's Music & 



First Flight, Denmark, 1955 

Early Byrd, Blue Note, 1960-72 

Electric Byrd, Blue Note, 1970 

Black Byrd, Blue Note, 1974 

City Called Heaven, Landmark, 1991 

Art High School. He held clinics 
for the National Stage Band 
Camps, giving private lessons 
and instruction. Among 
the college and university 
teaching appointments that 
followed were Rutgers 
University, Hampton 
University, Howard 
University, North Carolina 
Central University, North Texas 
State, and Delaware State 
University. He also earned a law 
degree between teaching appointments. 
At Howard University, where he was chair- 
man of the Black Music Department, he brought together a 
group of talented students to form Donald Byrd & the Black- 
byrds, a pop-jazz band that had a hit record for Blue Note, 
and continued to record — sans Byrd — for the Fantasy label. 
His recorded innovations also included the use of vocal cho- 
rus, which resulted in his popular recording of "Cristo 
Redemptor," as well as his engagements of gospel texts. 

NEA Jazz Masters 25 



Born August 8, 1907 in New York, NY 
Died July 12. 2003 


Benny darter made memorable impressions as a great 
bandleader and improviser with a highly influential 
style. Largely self-taught, Carter's first instrument the trumpet, altbough the; alto saxophone eventually 
hi'( .iinc his principle instrument. Some of his earliest 
professional jobs were with bands led by cornetist June 
( Hark .ind pi. mist Earl Hines, where his unusual ability to 
pla) both trumpel and saxophone was highly regarded. 
In i'i 10-3 l he spent a year with the Fletcher Henderson 
On hestra, then for a short time Ik; succeeded Don Redman 
is musi if McKinney's Cotton Pickers. During 

the earl) 1930s, be also made his Mist recordings with the 

date Dandies, which included Coleman Hawkins. 
In 19 i formed his own big band. At various 

times the band ini luded su< h significant players 

leading a multiethnic band in Scandinavia in 1937. 
Growing restless. Carter returned to the U.S. in 1938 and 
assembled a new big band, which became house band at die 
Savoy Ballroom through 1940. In 1942, with another new 
band in tow. he settled in Los Angeles, his longtime home 
base. With lucrative film studios calling. Carter began scor- 
ing films and television. He became one of the first African 
Americans to be employed in the field, easing the way for 
other black composers. His first film work was in 1943 on 
Stormy Weather. 

Starting in 1946. with his composing and arranging 
skills in constant demand. Carter disbanded his orchestra 
and became largely a freelance player. He participated in 
tours with Jazz at the Philharmonic and wrote 

n Webster, Chu Berry, Teddy Wilson, 
Di( k\ Wells, Bill Coleman, and Sid Catlett. 
In ! • i dissolved bis band and 

the next year, where be 
• i foi the BBC 
don until I 1 ' 18 His 

mb i adorial 
lisl u ith 

arrangements for major singers such as Ray 
Charles, Ella Fitzgerald. Peggy Lee. Sarah 


All of Me, 
Bluebird, 1934-59 

Jazz Giant. 
Original Jazz Classics, 1957-58 

Further ommtions, 
Impulse!, 1961-66 

In the Mood for Swing. 
MusicMasters, 1987 

Harlem Renaissance. 
MusicMasters, 1992 

Vaughan. and Louis Armstrong. Many of 
his subsequent recordings, such as the 
widelv hailed Further Definitions, were 
evidence of the depth of his composing 
and arranging mastery He received the 
National Medal of Arts in 2000. 

26 NEA .1. 



Born May 16, 1930 in Flint, Ml 

Died September 26, 1998 

Betty Carter developed a legendary reputation, along 
with Art Blakey, as one of the great mentors for 
young jazz musicians. Equally legendary was her 
singing prowess, creating a distinctive style of improvisation 
that could transcend any song. 

Carter studied piano at the Detroit Conservatory, a skill 
that served her well later in her career in writing original 
songs. Growing up in Detroit, she was exposed to numer- 
ous jazz greats who passed through town, even getting a 
golden opportunity as a teenager to sit in with Charlie 
Parker. Carter's big break came in 1948, when she was 
asked to join the Lionel Hampton band. Developing her 
vocal improvisations during the three years with the band 
led to her singular singing style. Hampton, impressed with 
her saxophone-like improvisatory vocals, dubbed her 
"Betty Bebop." After leaving Hampton's band, she worked 
variously with such greats as Miles Davis, Ray Charles, and 
Sonny Rollins before creating her own band. 

Although she recorded for major record labels early in 
her career, Carter became increasingly frustrated with record 
company dealings and disparities and formed her own label 
Bet-Car in 1971, one of the first jazz artists to do so. Selling 
her own recordings through various distributors, she was 
able to sustain her performing career. Carter was uncomfort- 
able with studio recordings, but live recordings, like The 
Audience with Betty Carter, demonstrate her remarkably 
inventive singing and her ability to drive the band. 

Carter's bands served a dual purpose: for her to create her 
own great music and to help the young musicians develop 
then craft. Many of the musicians who passed through 
her groups went on to lead their own groups, such as Geri 
Allen, Stephen Scott, Don Braden, and Christian McBride. 

She also developed a mentoring 
program called Betty Carter's 
Jazz Ahead through links 
with organizations 
like the International 
Association for Jazz 
Education, 651 Arts, 
and the Kennedy 
Center. The program 
was a one-to-two 
week teaching seminar 
where nationally 
selected promising 
young jazz musicians 
Learned from Carter and other 
seasoned musicians, culminating 
in a final concert of instructors and students together. Jazz 
Ahead was one of Carter's proudest achievements, and she 
worked with the program up until her death. 

I Can't Help It, 
Impulse!, 1958-60 

At the Village Vanguard, 
Verve, 1970 

The Audience with Betty Carter, 
Verve, 1979 

Look What I Got, 
Verve, 1988 

Feed the Fire, 
Verve, 1993 

NEA Jazz Masters 27 

• ••• 

• •• 



Bom May 4, 1937 in Ferndale, I 

Ron Carter's dexterity and harmonic sophistication 
have few rivals in the history of bass in jazz. In addi- 
tion to the bass, he has also employed both the cello 
and the piccolo bass (a downsized bass pitched somewhere 
between cello and contrabass), one of the first musicians 
to use those instruments in jazz settings. 
His pursuit of music began with the 
cello, at age 10. One of the many students 
aspiring to be musicians in the Detroit 
public schools, he switched to the bass 
I Eigb School. Hi? studied 
.it the Eastman Si hool of Music in 
K(« tester, New York and eventually 
made his way to New York City, 

aster's degree 

in Musii from the Manhattan Si hool 

ii 1961. He began freelancing, 
playing with a host of jazz greats, such as 
( bjco Hamilton, Ranch Weston. Bobby 

ill Monk, and Art Farmer. albums with the greal 
Dolphy, two undei Dolphy's name and 

ind Dolphy's Out There 
' played i ello against 
i in Ii lowei texture against 
his horn plaj ing. 
MiU's Davis in would bet ome 
intel iik ludcd VVavne 

Miles Davis, ES.P. 
Columbia, 1965 

Live at Village West, 
Concord, 1982 





Herbie Hani cm k l).i\is even 

: notably "R.J.," 

"Mood," and "Eighty-One" — and the rhythm section of 
Carter, Williams, and Hancock powered the horn section 
to greater heights. He remained with Davis from 1963-68, 
whereupon he grew tired of the rigors of the road, preferring 
to freelance, lead his own groups, and teach. Among the 
cooperative bands he performed with during the 
? °Q / *4/> remainder of the 1960s were the New York Jazz 
Sextet and the New York Bass Choir. 
Throughout the 1970s, he was a recording stu- 
dio bassist in high demand, though he never 
stopped gigging widi a variety of artists and 
bands, including several touring all-star 
units such as the CTI All-Stars, V.S.O.P. 
(ostensibly a reunion of die Davis band 
minus die leader), and Uie Milestone 
Jazzstars, which included Sonny Rollins on 
tenor saxophone. McCoy Tyner on piano, 
and Al Foster on drums. 

His freelance work has continued 
throughout his career, including chamber and 
orchestral work, film and television soundtracks, and 
even some hip hop recordings. Carter continues to record 
with young musicians such as Stephen Scott and Lewis 
Nash, and his college and university teaching career has also 
been quite active. He is Distinguished Professor of Music, 
Emeritus of the City College of New York, and has received 
honorary doi torate degrees from The Berklee School of 
Music, the Manhattan School of Music, and the New England 
Conservator] in Boston. He has also written several book on 
bass. ju( hiding Building A Id/:/. Bass Line. 

Brandenburg Concerto, 
Blue Note, 1995 

The Golden Striker, 
Blue Note, 2002 

28 NKA .1. 



Kenny Clarke, known among musicians as "Klook" for 
one of his characteristic drum licks, is truly a jazz 
pioneer. He was a leader in the rhythmic advances 
that signaled the beginning of the modern jazz era, his drum 
style becoming the sound of bebop and influencing drum- 
mers such as Art Blakey and Max Roach. 

Clarke studied music broadly growing up, including 
piano, trombone, drums, vibraphone, and theory while in 
high school. Such versatility of knowledge would later serve 
him well as a bandleader. Clarke moved to New York in late 
1935, where he first began developing his unique approach 
to the drums, one with a wider rhythmic palette than that of 
the swing band drummers. Instead of marking the count 
with the top cymbal, Clarke used counter-rhythms to accent 
the beat, what became known as "dropping of bombs." 

He found a kindred spirit in Dizzy Gillespie when they 
hooked up in Teddy Hill's band in 1939. A key opportunity 
to further expand his drum language came in late 1940 
when he landed a gig in the house band (with Thelonious 
Monk on piano, and Nick Fenton on bass) at Minton's 
Playhouse. It was this trio that welcomed such fellow 
travelers as guitarist Charlie Christian, Gillespie, and a host 
of others to its nightly jam sessions. These sessions became 
the primary laboratory for their brand of jazz, which came 
to be called bebop. 

A stint in the Army from 1943-4(i introduced him to 
pianist John Lewis. After their discharge he and Lewis 
joined Gillespie's bebop hig band, which gave Clarke his 
first taste of Paris during a European tour, a place that even- 


Born January 2, 1914 in Pittsburgh, PA 
Died January 26, 1985 

Modern Jazz Quartet, 

The Artistry of the Modern Jazz Quartet, 

Prestige, 1952-55 

Bohemia After Dark, Savoy, 1 955 

Discoveries, Savoy, 1 955 

Kenny Clarke Meets the Detroit Jazzmen, 
Savoy, 1956 

Clarke-Boland Big Band, 
RTE, 1968 

tually became his home for 
nearly 30 years. After 
returning to New York, 
he joined the Milt 
Jackson Quartet, 
which metamor- 
phosed into the 
Modern Jazz Quartet 
in 1952. Though he 
and Lewis remained 
friends, Clarke chafed 
at what he felt was the 
too-staid atmosphere of 
the MJQ. In 1956, he 
migrated to Paris, working 
with Jacques Helian's band and 
backing up visiting U.S. jazz artists. 

During the years 1960-73, he co-led the major Europe- 
based jazz big band with Belgian pianist Francy Boland, the 
Clarke-Boland Big Band. The band featured the best of 
Europe's jazz soloists, including a number of exceptional 
U.S. expatriate musicians living in Europe. Among these 
were saxophonists Johnny Griffin and Sahib Shihab, and 
trumpeter Idrees Sulieman. Alter the disbanding of his 
big band, he found numerous opportunities both on the 
handstand and teaching in the classroom, remaining quite 
active as a freelancer, often working with visiting U.S. 

jazz musicians, until his death in 1985. 

NKA Jazz Mastere 29 


Born November 12. 1911 in Parsons, KS 
Died December 8, 1991 


A valued member of a variety of classic big bands, 
liu( k ClaytOE was versatile enough to thrive as a 
bandleader, session man, and trumpet soloist. 
( l,i\ toil first studied piano with his father beginning at age 
six, taking up the; trumpet at age 17. He played in his 
( hurt lis on nostra until 1932 when he moved to California 
taking various band jobs. In 1934, Clayton assembled his 
own hand and took it to China for two years. 

I [e joined Count Basie's hand in Kansas City in 1936 at 
the height of its popularity, playing his first promi- 
nent solo on "Fiesta in Blue." He wrote several 
arrangements lor liasie. including '"laps 
Miller'' and "Red Hank Boogie," before 
joining the Ann] in 1943. following his 
disc harge, he performed around New 
through the t'n<\ of the decade. 

[azz .it the Philharmonii tours took him 
overseas, and he made ret ord sessions 
with artists like [immj Rushing and 
its foi Duke Ellington and 
Harry James. In the earl) 1950s, he part- 
ith pianist [oe Bushkin in the Bret 

of the influential Embers quartets. Other artists he worked 
with include Benny Goodman, Teddy Wilson, Eddie 
Condon, Sidney Bechet, and Humphrey Littleton. His 
ability to improvise in a variety of styles made him much 
in demand for sessions, especially with vocalists such as 
Billie Holiday. 

Physical issues with his embouchure — how the mouth 
forms against the mouthpiece of die instrument — caused 
him to relinquish the trumpet from 1972 until late in the 

decade, when he was able to resume playing. While 
he was unable to perform, Clayton wrote arrange- 
ments for various bands. That skill was fully 
exercised when he put together his own big 
band in the mid-1980s, playing almost 
exclusively his own compositions and 
arrangements. He also became an educa- 
tor, teaching at Hunter College in the 
1980s. He continued to freelance for 
the remainder of his career, being called 
upon as an honored soloist, and spent 
much of his last two decades teaching, 
lecturing, and arranging. 

The Classic Swing of Buck Clayton, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1946 

Buck Special, Vogue, 1949-53 

sjmn the Vaults, 

jiff 95: 

Jam Session. 



Buck and Buddy, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1960 

A Swingin Dream, Stash, 1988 

80 NKA .liiyy. M;ls-. 




Born March 9, 1930 in Ft. Worth, TX 

Ornette Coleman is one of the true jazz innovators, 
whose sound is instantly recognizable and unques- 
tionably unique. Coleman's work has ranged from 
dissonance and atonality to liberal use of electronic accom- 
paniment in his ensembles, as well as the engagement of 
various ethnic influences and elements from around the 
globe. While experimenting with time and tone, his strong 
blues root is always evident. 

For the most part, Coleman has been self-taught, begin- 
ning on the alto saxophone at age 14. Coleman's earliest 
performing experiences were mostly with local rhythm & 
blues bands. Coleman eventually settled in Los Angeles in 
1952. His search for a different sound and approach, a 
means of escaping traditional chord patterns and progres- 
sions, led some critics to suggest that he did not know how 
to play his instrument. However, he was studying harmony 
and theory zealously from books while supporting himself 
as an elevator operator. His performances in clubs and jam 
sessions were often met with derision if not outright rejec- 
tion and anger from his fellow musicians and critics. 
Coleman soldiered on, honing his sound with like-minded 
musicians, including trumpeter Don Cherry, drummer Billy 
Higgins, and bassist Charlie Haden. 

The year 1959 was an important one for Coleman and 
his band mates: he signed a recording contract with Atlantic; 
Records, recording the first album to really present his new 
sound, Tomorrow Is The Question!; his quartet was invited 
to participate in what became a historic session at the Lenox 
School of Jazz in Massachusetts, being championed by John 
Lewis and Gunther Schuller; and the band began an 
extended engagement at the Five Spot Cafe in New York. 


c ^ D DISCO G , 

The Shape of Jazz to Come, 
Atlantic, 1959-60 

free Jazz, Atlantic, 1960 

At the Golden Circle, Stockholm, 
Vol. 1-2, Blue Note, 1965 

In All Languages, 
Verve/Harmolodic, 1987 

Verve/Harmolodic, 1996 

Meanwhile, Ornette Coleman was 
developing an approach to his 
music that he was to dub 

Coleman's albums for 
AUantic, while tame by 
today's standards, were 
quite controversial at the 
time. Perhaps the most 
controversial of this series 
of albums was Free Jazz, 
recorded with a double quartet 
as essentially one continuous 
collective improvisation, which 
influenced avant-garde recordings in 
the 1960s and 1970s. After that recording, Coleman 
took time off from playing and recording to study trumpet 
and violin. 

Since that time Coleman has expanded his composi- 
tional outlook. His writing includes works for wind 
ensembles, strings, and symphony orchestra (notably his 
symphony Skies of America, recorded with the London 
Philharmonic). Coleman's ongoing experiments have taken 
him to Northern Africa to work with the Master Musicians 
of Joujouka, and in recent years he has performed with 
an electric ensemble he calls Prime; Time. A recipient of 
Guggenheim Fellowships for composition, a MacArthur 
grant, and the presigious Gish Prize in 2004, Coleman 
continues to astound audiences with his imaginative! 
approaches to music. 

NEA Jazz Masters 31 



Born May 25, 1926 in Alton, IL 
Died September 28, 1991 

Miles Davis is arguably the most influential jazz 
musician in the post-World War II period, being at 
the forefront of changes in the music for more than 
40 years. Bom into a middle-class family, Davis started on 
the trumpel al age 13. His first professional music job came 
when be joined the Eddie Randall band in St. Louis from 
1 '14 1-4.!. In the fall of 1944 Davis took a scholarship to 
attend the [uilliard School, a convenient passport to New 
York. It didn't take him long to immerse himself in the New 
York si cue mihI he began working 52nd Street gigs alongside 
Charlie Parker in 1945. Soon. Davis found work with 
Coleman Hawkins and the big bands of Billy Eckstine and 
Benny Carter. 

During the late 1940s, a number of musical contempo- 
- began to meet and jam regularly al the small apart- 
ment ni arranger-pianist Gil Evans. Among them were saxo- 
phonists Gerrj Mulligan and Lee Konitz, and pianist John 
Lewis Out of this group ol musicians, l).i\ is formed (he 
ooni l his liisi major musical statement, Birth of 

Iditiorj in thr standard piano, bass and drums 
i is' nonet horn section used French horn 
b trombone, alto and baritone saxo- 
land a unique harmonic sound. 
tnbled his Brsl important band with 
ind, Paul Chambers, and Philly foe 
nnball" Adderlej in 1958. By 
■r Knsscils theories, 

I than standard ( hnrd 
imiis album (and the 
nil. kind nt Blue, in 1" 

Davis also continued an important musical partnership with 
Gil Evans, recording four releases in five years: Miles Ahead. 
Porgy and Bess, Sketches of Spain, and Quiet Nights. 

In 1964, Davis assembled a new band of younger musi- 
cians, which became known as his second great quintet. 
This included Herbie Hancock. Tony Williams. Ron Carter. 
and Wayne Shorter. By this time, the Miles 
Davis Quintet was recording mostly 

originals, with all the band mem- ^t,b 

bers contributing memorable <& 

Birth of the Cool, 
Capitol, 1949-50 

Kind of Blue, 
Columbia. 1959 


tunes. Davis' horn playing 
also changed, increasing 
the spacing of notes to 
create more suspense in 
the music. 

In 1968. Davis again 
changed direction, leading 
the way for electric jazz with 
the release of In a Silent Way. 
By the L969 release of Bitches 
Brew, the transformation was 
complete as he deepened the elec- 
tronic elements and rock rhythms of his 
music. By the mid-1970s, following the debilitating effects 
of a 1972 auto accident. Davis went into semi-retirement. 
He returned to the scene in 1980 and resumed touring in 
1981, with even newer fans in his wake, from then to 1991. 

Davis remained vital and popular despite some i riticism 

that he had softened his electric approach. 

The Complete LiveWthe Plugged Nickel. 
Columbia, 1965 

Bitches Brew, Columbia, 1969 

Warner Brothers, 1989 

NKA .1. 


; ,D6roth 

'.9. •' 4EW 


Born April 6, 1924 in Chicago, IL 
Died May 19, 1998 

Blessed with an enormous orchestral capacity at the 
keyboard, Dorothy Donegan was fluent in several 
styles of jazz as well as with European classical 
music. Underrated by some due to her proclivity towards 
showy flamboyance and her penchant for entertaining an 
audience, she was nonetheless an exceptional pianist with a 
rich harmonic sense. 

Given her virtuosity, it's no wonder her earliest influence 
and one of her champions was the peerless master of the 
piano, Art Tatum. Encouraged by her mother to be a profes- 
sional musician, Donegan was playing piano for a dollar a 
night at Chicago's South Side bars when she was only 14. 
She subsequently attended the Chicago Conservatory, 
Chicago Music College, and the University of Southern 
California, where she studied classical piano. 

In 1943, Donegan gave a concert at the Orchestra 
Hall in Chicago, the first African American performer 
to do so. This created publicity that led to some 
work in film [Sensations of 1945) and theater (Star 
Time). Her playing career was largely centered 
around nightclub engagements, as Donegan was 
more comfortable in a live setting than a studio. 

In the 1950s, she developed her flamboyant performance 
style, which at times tended to obscure her extraordinary 
piano playing, deep sense of swing, and wide-ranging 
repertoire. She would often spice her performances with 
uncanny impressions of other pianists and singers, skills 
that enhanced her abilities as an entertainer. 

She spent the bulk of her career performing in trios 
with bass and drums. Her appearance at the Sheraton 
Centre Hotel in 1980 broke all previous attendance records. 
In the early 1990s, her show-stopping appearances on 
Hank O'Neal's Floating Jazz cruises brought her talents to 
the attention of another generation of jazz fans. She also 
lectured at several colleges and universities, including 
Harvard, Northeastern, and the Manhattan 

School of Music, and received an hon- 
orary doctoral degree from Roosevelt 
University in 1994. Donegan 
performed at the White House 
in 1993 and gave her last major 
performance at the Fujitsu 
Concord Jazz Festival in 1997. 

Dorothy Romps: A Piano Retrospective, 
Rosetta, 1953-79 

Makin' Whoopee, Black & Blue, 1979 

Live in Copenhagen 1980, 

Live at the 1990 Floating Jazz Festival, 
Chiaroscuro, 1990 

Live at the Floating Jazz Festival 
759?, Chiaroscuro. 1992 

NEA Jazz Masters 33 



Born June 4, 1948 in Havana, Cuba 

The winner of four Grammy Awards, Paquito D'Rivera 
is celebrated both for his artistry in Latin jazz and his 
achievements as a classical composer. Born in 
Havana, Cuba, he performed at age 10 with the National 
Theater Orchestra, studied at the Havana Conservatory of 
Music and, at 17. became a featured soloist with the Cuban 
National Symphony. 

D'Rivera co-founded the; Orquesta Cubana de Musica 
Modern;) and served as the band's conductor for two years. 
In 1 ( )73, he was co-director of Irakere, a highly popular 
ensemble whose explosive mixture of jazz, rock, classical, 
.iihI traditional ( !uban music had never before been heard. 
The blind loured extensively and in 1979 was awarded 
theGramm) Award forBesI Latin Jazz Ensemble. 
In 1981, while oil tour in Spain, D'Rivera 
lii asylum in the l Inited States embassy. 
Since then be has toured the world with 
jembles— the Paquito D'Rivera 
Band, the Paquito D'Rivera Quintet, 
and the Chambei fazz Ensemble. 

numerous recordings include 
lo albums In hihh. be 
member oi the United 
;.!■■! e ensemble 
l)i//\ Gillespie to showi ase 


the fusion of Latin and Caribbean influences with jazz. In 
1991, he received a Lifetime Achievement Award from 
Carnegie Hall for his contributions to Latin music. That 
same year, as part of the band Dizzy Gillespie and the 
United Nation Orchestra, he along with James Moody, Slide 
Hampton, Airto Moreira, Flora Purim, Arturo Sandoval. 
Steve Turre, and others were featured on the Grammy 
Award-winning recording, Live at the Royal Festival Hall. 

He has appeared at, or written commissions for, fazz 
at Lincoln Center, the Library of Congress, the National 
Symphony Orchestra, Brooklyn Philharmonic. London 
Philharmonic, Costa Rican National Symphony Orchestra, 
Simon Bolivar Symphonic Orchestra, and Montreal's 

Gerald Danovich Saxophone Quartet. He serves as 


Blowin'. Columbia, 1981 

Dizzy Gillespie and the United Nation 
Orchestra, Live at the Royal Festival Hall. 

~ I89 

Portraits of Cuba. Chesky, 1996 

Brazilian Dreams, MCG Jazz, 2001 

Big Band Time. Pimienta, 2003 

artistic director of jazz programming at the New 
Jersey Chamber Music Society and is artistic 
director of the Festival Internacional de Jazz 
en el Tambo (Punta del Este. Uruguay). He 
has become the consummate multina- 
tional ambassador, creating and promoting 
a cross-culture of music that moves effort- 
lessly among jazz, Latin, and classical. 
D'Rivera received the National Medal of 
Arts in 2005. 

34 NKA I 



Born October 10, 1915 in Columbus, OH 
Died July 27, 1999 

Known in the jazz world as "Sweets," for both his dis 
position and his playing ability, Edison was a con- 
summate big band section trumpeter and skilled 
soloist whose ability to enhance a piece without overpower 
ing it was renowned. 

A self-taught musician, his earliest gig came 
in high school with the Earl Hood band. 
From 1933-1935, he played in the Jeter- 
Pillars Orchestra, a prominent territory 
band of the time. After moving to New 
York in 1937, he spent six months with 
Lucky Millinder's band, until joining 
Count Basie later that year. It was with 
Basie that he truly began to distinguish 
himself, not only as a strong member of 
the trumpet section, but also as a distinc- 
tive soloist. His warm sound, using 
repeated notes thai lie would bend and rip- 
ple, was a welcome contrast to the usual high- 
note, piercing solos of most trumpet players. Edison 
stayed with the band from 1938 until Basie disbanded in 

Rarely a bandleader under his own name, he spent the 
hulk of his career working with singers and with big bands 
on the road and in the recording studio. Edison's work with 
Millie Holiday and the Nelson Kiddle Orchestra backing 


Frank Sinatra, Songs for Swingin' Lovers, 
Capitol, 1955-56 

Original Jazz Classics, 1962 

Edison's Lights, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1976 

Swing Summit, Candid, 1 990 

Live at the Iridium, 
Telarc, 1997 

Frank Sinatra during the 1950s is some of his finest, accent- 
ing the vocals and setting up the mood of the songs. His 
echoing trumpet on Sinatra's Songs for Swingin ' Lovers, for 
example, helped set the pace of the songs, playing off 

Sinatra's phrasing of the lyrics. Edison provided 
some of the bright moments in Holiday's output 
in the 1950s on albums such as Songs for 
Distingue Lovers. His tasteful playing cre- 
ated a great demand from singers for his 
services, and besides Sinatra and 
Holiday, Edison played behind Ella 
Fitzgerald, Josephine Baker, Sarah 
Vaughan, and Nat "King" Cole. Edison 
was also a welcome addition to the big 
bands he worked with, including Buddy 
Rich, Louie Bellson, and Quincy Jones. 
Although leaving the Basie band as a 
full-time member in 1950, he rejoined the 
band on many subsequent occasions for the rest 
of his career. He worked as musical director for 
such artists as Redd Foxx and Joe Williams, and collabo- 
rated with other soloists, such as Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis 
and Oscar Peterson. Valued lor his superb sense; of dynam- 
ics, he carved out a beautiful trumpet stylo noted for its sim- 
plicity and good taste. He also found a home in film and 
television soundtrack work. 

NEA Jazz Masters 35 

Born January 30, 191 1 in Pittsburgh, PA 
Died February 26, 1989 



Also known as "Little Jazz," Roy Eldridge was a fiery, 
energetic trumpeter, the bridge between the towering 
trumpet stylists Louis Armstrong and Dizzy 
Gillespie. Some of the great rhythmic drive of Eldridge's 
later trumpet exploits could be traced to his beginnings on 
the drums, which he began playing at age six. 
Eldridge's older brother Joe, who played alto saxo 
phone, was his first teacher. 

In 1930, Eldridge moved to New York, 
heading straight to Harlem where he 
gained work with a number of dance 
hands before joining the Teddy Hill 
band Fi\ 1'Ki5, Eldridge and saxophon 
isl Qui Berry (who would later join the 
Count Basie Orchestra] were Hill's prin- 
i soloists, and .liter gigs they would 
mnd town on cutting contests, chal- 
ians to see who could play 
with his Lightning speed and awe- 
Idridge rarely lost. After Hill's 
ame the lead trumpeter in the 
on Orchestra, where his upper register 

M didn't lake long lor Eldridge to 

iftei freelancing with a wide 

I iM.tic e as one of the swing 

^ D,SCOG v 

bands' most potent soloists. In 1941, he joined drummer 
Gene Krupa's band. Not only did he provide trumpet fire- 
works for Krupa's outfit, he also sang, recording a memo- 
rable duet with the band's female singer, Anita O'Day. on 
the tune "Let Me Off Uptown" in 1941. Later, after Krupa's 
band disbanded in 1943 and a period of freelancing, he 
toured with the Artie Shaw band in 1944. Then 

After You've Gone, 
GRP/Decca, 1936-46 

Little Jan: The Best of the Verve Years. 
Verve, 1951-60 



Roy and D/z, Verve, 1954 

Just You Just Me. 
Stash, 1959 

Montreux 77. 
Original Jazz Classics. 1977 

idei forming his own octel in 1936 

luded his brother foe. 

Eldridge led his own bands, usually small 
swing groups. 

In 1948, Norman Granz recruited 
Eldridge for his Jazz at the Philharmonic, 
an ideal situation since Eldridge was one 
of the ultimate jam session trumpeters. 
He toured briefly with Benny Goodman 
and took up residence in Paris in 1950. 
where he made some of his most suc- 
cessful recordings. He returned to New 
York in 1951 and continued freelancing 
with small bands, including work with 
Coleman Hawkins, Benny Carter. Ella 
Fitzgerald, and Johnny Hodges. He made notable 
albums for Verve Records alongside Hawkins and con- 
tinued freelancing and leading a house band at Jimmy 
Ryan's club in New York. A stroke in 1980 stopped him 
from playing the trumpet, but Eldridge continued to make 
music as a singer and pianist until his death in 1989. 

36 NKA .1.: 




Born May 13, 1912 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
Died March 20, 1988 

As an arranger, Gil Evans has few peers in jazz his- 
tory. His style is instantly recognizable, often using 
unusual brass colorations for jazz, such as combi- 
nations of tuba and French horn. Arranging started 

early for Evans, leading his own band when he 
was 16 and taking piano gigs at local hotels. 
In junior college, he and Ned Briggs joined 
forces to lead a 10-piece band modeled 
after the popular Casa Loma Band. The 
band was the house band at the 
Rendezvous Ballroom in Balboa Beach, 
California, where they remained for two 
years, up until 1937. 

In 1937, singer Skinny Ennis took over 
leadership of the band, retaining Evans as 
pianist and arranger as they moved to 
Hollywood, where they were regularly featured 
on the Bob Hope radio show. In 1941, Claude 
Thornhill, who had been associated with the Hope 
show, hired Evans as an arranger for his first orchestra, 
which lasted for seven years. Evans was influenced by 
Thornbill's unusual voicings, particularly for brass and 

Evans settled permanently in New York in 1947 and his 
unusual arrangements for Thornhill began to attract the 
attention of some of the nascent beboppers of the; tinii!. 
including Miles Davis, John Lewis, and (Jerry Mulligan. 
It was around this time that Evans' apartment became a 
meeting ground for these and other musicians seeking fresh 


approaches. These musical and conversational exchanges 
led to the recording of Miles Davis' Birth of the Cool session 
for Capitol Records. That album was marked by its 

cooler, less bustling tempos than was characteristic 

Miles Davis, Sketches of Spain, 
Columbia, 1959-60 

Out of the Cool, 
Impulse!, 1960 

The Individualism of Gil Evans, 
Verve, 1963-64 

Svengali, Atlantic, 1973 

Gil Evans Orchestra Plays the Music 

of Jimi Hendrix, Bluebird, 


of bebop, the modern jazz of the day. Several 
Evans arrangements stood out, especially 
"Moondreams" and "Boplicity." 

Evans spent much of the 1950s as a 
freelance arranger, until 1957 when he 
began working with Davis on the first of 
their four collaborations, Miles Ahead, 
featuring Davis on flugelhorn as the 
only soloist, an unusual arrangement in 
jazz at the time. Over the next few years, 
Evans and Davis worked together on 
Porgy and Bess, Sketches of Spain and 
Quiet Nights. 
In the 1960s, Evans began making his own 
recordings, displaying his unusual voicings and 
distinctive settings for some of the best soloists of the time, 
such as Steve Lacy, Wayne Shorter, and Eric Dolphy. In the 
1970s, Evans began exploring the music of Jimi Hendrix and 
taking on some of the accoutrements usually associated with 
rock music, including guitars, synthesizers, and electric 
bass. In the 1980s, his shifting cast of exceptional soloists 
included Billy Harper, George Adams, Howard Johnson, 

John Scofield, and David Sanborn, and Evans would have 
occasional weekly shows at New York clubs such as the 
Village' Vanguard and Sweet Basil. 

NEA Jazz Masters 37 



Bom August 21, 1928 in Council Bluffs. IA 
Died October 4. 1999 

One of the more lyrical of the post-bop musicians. Art 
Farmer helped to popularize the flugelhorn in jazz. 
He switched to a hybrid instrument known as the 
flumpet later in his career, an instrument that combined the 
power of the trumpet with the warmth of the flugelhorn. 
He and his late twin brother, bassist Addison Farmer, 
were raised in Phoenix, Arizona. Farmer took up the piano, 
violin, and tuba before settling on the trumpet at 14. He 
Inter moved to Los Angeles and worked with Horace 
Henderson, and Floyd Ray, eventually travel- 
ing east to New York with the Johnny 
Otis Revue in 1947. In New York, he 
studied with Maurice Grupp and 
freelanced in the clubs. In 1948 
be returned to the West Coast 
and found work with Benny 
Carter, Gerald Wilson. Roy 
Porter, lay McShann, and 

trough 1952. He 
ad W ith Lionel Hampton in 
ii to 
the tour. 

be intermit- 

Hi Silvei 

•'i. with whom 

he appeared in two films: J Want to Live and The Subter- 
raneans. Farmer's performances with the various groups 
earned him a reputation for being able to play in any style. 

In 1959, he and Benny Golson formed the Jazztet, whose 
first incarnation lasted until 1962. The Jazztet's tightly 
arranged music defined mainstream jazz for several years. 
Farmer switched to the flugelhorn in the early 1960s, finding 
a rounder, mellower sound with the instrument, and 
co-led a band with guitarist Jim Hall until 1964. He worked 
in Europe from 1965-66, and when he returned stateside 
he again co-led a band, this time with Jimmy Heath. In 
1968 he moved to Vienna, joined the Austrian Radio 
Orchestra, and worked with such European outfits 
as the Clarke-Boland Big Band, and Peter 
Herbolzheimer. He toured Europe and Asia 
with Jimmy Smith's band in 1972, and his 
appearances in the U.S. became rarities. 

In 1982, Farmer and Golson re-formed the 
Jazztet for a short while. Otherwise his perform- 
ances in the U.S. were on an annual basis. 
For a time he teamed up with yet another saxo- 
phonist. Clifford Jordan, for annual New York 
visits. He continued to lead his own bands on 
occasion, particularly at festival time. In 1991, he 
began employing the flumpet, specially designed for 

When Farmer Met Gryce. 
Original Jazz Classics. 1954-55 

Meet the Jazztet. MCA/Chess, 1960 

Live at tnaMall Note. 
Atlanta 1963 

Blame It on my Youth, 
Contemporary. 1 988 

Silk Road. Arabesque. 1996 

Farmer b\ David Monette. 

38 NKA.I. 








Born April 25, 1917 in Newport News, VA 
Died June 15, 1996 

It is quite apropos that Ella Fitzgerald was the first vocalist 
recipient of the NEA Jazz Masters Fellowship, as she is 
considered by most people to be the quintessential jazz 
singer. The purity of her range and intonation, along with 
her peerless sense of pitch, made her a signature singer. In 
addition, her scat singing, using the technique of a master 
instrumental improviser, was her hallmark. These 


characteristics make her an enduring purveyor 
not only of jazz and the art of improvising, 
but also of the classic American songbook. 

Fitzgerald was raised in Yonkers, New 
York, and her first artistic proclivities 
were as a dancer, even though she sang 
with her school glee club. At 17, she 
entered the famous amateur show com- 
petition at the Apollo Theatre, which led 
to her being hired as a singer for Chick 
Webb's orchestra. She soon became a pop- 
ular attraction at the Savoy, and Fitzgerald 
recorded her first song, "Love and Kisses," 
with Webb in June 1935. Three years of steady 
work later, she had her first major hit with her 
rendition of "A-Tisket, A-Tasket." That lightweight 
ditty remained a popular request throughout Fitzgerald's 
ensuing decades. 

When Chick Webb died in 1939, Fitzgerald assumed 
leadership of the band for the next two years, beginning her 
solo career. In 1946 she began an enduring relationship 

(jtfi D DISCOo^ 

with producer Norman Granz, becoming part of his Jazz at 
the Philharmonic concert tours. At the time her regular trio 
leader was bassist Ray Brown, to whom she was married 
from 1947 to 1953. By 1955, Granz had become her man- 
ager and had begun recording Fitzgerald for his Verve label. 
This affiliation led to her recording with numerous 

greats, including Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, 




75th Birthday Celebration, 
GRP, 1938-55 

The Complete Ella Fitzgerald 
& Louis Armstrong on Verve, Verve, 1 956-57 

Sings the Duke Ellington Songbook, 
Verve, 1956-57 

The Complete Ella in Berlin, Verve, 1960-61 

Montreux '77, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1977 

Count Basie, and Oscar Peterson. Among the 
landmark recordings she made with Granz 
were her historic songbook treatments 
of the music of Ellington, Cole Porter, 
Jerome Kern, Irving Berlin, Richard 
Rodgers & Lorenz Hart, Harold 
Arlen, Johnny Mercer, and Ira and 
George Gershwin. 

Fitzgerald's superb intonation and 
crystal clear voice was also blessed with 
a rhythmic flexibility to effortlessly swing. 
Though she came up in the swing era, 
Fitzgerald also could hang with the best of 
the beboppers. Her ability to scat with the 
most skilled instrumentalists served her well on such 
notable voice-as-instrument hits as "Lady Be Good," "Flying 
Home," and "How I ligh The Moon." Each became enduring 
parts of her repertoire. She forged memorable partnerships 
with her piano accompanists, most notably Tommy 
Flanagan and Paul Smith. 

NEA Jazz Masters 39 



Born March 16, 1930 in Detroit, 
Died November 16, 2001 

Tommy Flanagan was noted as both a stimulating 
accompanist and a superb small ensemble leader, 
p hiving with some of the biggest names in jazz. A 
product of a noteworthy arts education system in the Detroit 
public schools, he began his musical pursuits on clarinet at 
six years old, switching to the piano at age 11. At 15, he 
made his professional debut. Thereafter he performed with 
fellow Detroiters Milt Jackson. Rudy Rutherford, Billv 
\1il( hell, Kenny Burrell, and Thad and Elvin Jones as 
part ol the fertile Detroit jazz scene in the 1950s. 

I lanagan moved to New York in 1956, securing his first 
job as .i replai < mint lor Bud Powell at Birdland. Powell, 
along with Ail Tatum and Nal "King" Cole, was a major 
influeni e on Flanagan's playing, 
Throughout the 1950s, lie worked 
with many of the biggest names 
in jazz, including J.J. Johnson. 
Miles Davis Marry "Sweets" 


l (Iimiii Sonny Rollins. 

Enja, 1982 

Beyond the Bluebird. 
TimelesjL 1990 

G/anf StepSnja, 1992 

Let's Play the Music of Thad Jones, 
Enja. 1993 

Lady Be Good... For Ella, 
Verve. 1994 

Hall, and Tony Bennett, playing on some of the landmark 
recordings of that decade. One of his most significant 
recordings was with John Coltrane on the wildly influential 
recording. Giant Steps. His playing on the complex title 
track, using space between the notes to contrast Coltrane's 
rapid-fire attack, was especially inspired. 

He also met and began performing with Ella Fitzgerald. 
an association that lasted until the end of the 1970s, his trio 
touring exclusively with her from 1968-78. After leaving 
Ella Fitzgerald in 1978, some of his best, most compelling 
work was in the trio format, with George Mraz on bass and 
Elvin Jones or Lewis Nash on drums. Influenced by the 
playing and arrangements of Duke Ellington and Thelonious 
Monk. Flanagan's lyrical playing and harmonic sophistica- 
tion placed him. in die top echelon of jazz pianists. He was 
an especially tasteful interpreter of Billy Strayhorn, Thad 
Jones, and Tadd Dameron's music. Flanagan was a 
multiple jazz poll winner, and in 1992 was recipient 
of the prestigious Danish Jazzpar prize. 

40 NKA .1 



Born September 23, 1928 in Cincinnati, OH 

Although best known for his work in the Count Basie 
Orchestra (and as the composer of the Count Basie 
hit, "Shiny Stockings"), Frank Foster's saxophone 
playing owes more to the bebop of Charlie Parker and 
Sonny Stitt than the swing of Basie. 

Foster began playing clarinet at 11 years old before tak- 
ing up the alto saxophone and eventually the tenor. By the 
time he was a senior in high school, he was leading and 
writing the arrangements for a 12-piece band. Foster stud- 
ied at Wilberforce University in Ohio before heading to 
Detroit in 1949 with trumpeter Snooky Young for six weeks, 
becoming captivated by its burgeoning music scene. Drafted 
into the Army, Foster left Detroit and headed off to basic 
training near San Francisco, where he would jam in the 
evenings at Jimbo's Bop City. 

After being discharged in 1953, two life-changing events 
happened to Foster: he sat in with Charlie Parker at 
Birdland and he was asked to join Count Basie's band, 
where he stayed until 1964. Foster's fiery solos contrasted 
nicely with Frank Wess' ballad work, providing Basie with 
an interesting contrast. Foster, already an accomplished 
composer by this time, learned from Basie how to simplify 
arrangements to make the music swing. He soon was pro- 
viding compositions and arrangements for the band ("Blues 
Backstage," "Down for the Count," the entire Easin' It alburn 
just to name a few), with his most popular number being 
"Shiny Stockings." He also was an extremely successful 

freelance writer, creating a large body of work for jazz, 
including works contributed to albums by singers Sarah 
Vaughan and Frank Sinatra, and a commissioned work for 
the 1980 Winter Olympics, Lake Placid Suite, written for 
jazz orchestra. 

In the 1970s, Foster played with contemporary musi- 
cians such as Elvin Jones, George Coleman, and Joe Farrell 
and began expanding his compositions. He led his own 
band, the Loud Minority, until 
1986 when he assumed leader- 
ship of the Count Basie 

*$D DISCOgc, 

Orchestra from Thad 
Jones. While playing the 
favorites, Foster also 
began introducing orig- 
inal material into the 
playlist. Foster 
resigned as the musical 
director of the orchestra 
in 1995 and began 
recording albums again. 
In addition to performing, 
Foster has also served as a 
musical consultant in the New York 
City public schools and taught at Queens College and 
the Slate University of New York at Buffalo. 

Count Basie, Verve Jazz Masters, 
Verve, 1954-65 

No Count, Savoy, 1956 

Original Jazz Classics. 1965 

Shiny Stockings, Denon, 1977-78 

Leo Rising, 
Arabesque, 1996 

NEA Jazz Mastei-s 4 1 




Born October 21, 1917 in Cheraw, SC 
Died January 6, 1993 

Dizzy Gillespie's effect on jazz cannot be overstated: 
his trumpet playing influenced every player who 
came after him, his compositions have become part 
of the jazz canon, and his bands have included some of 
the most significant names in the business. He was also, 
along with Charlie Parker, one of the major leaders of the 
bebop movement 

Gillespie's father was an amateur bandleader who, 
although dead by the time Gillespie was ten, had given his 
son some of his earliest grounding in music. Gillespie 
began playing trumpet at 14 after briefly trying the trom- 
bone, and his first formal musical training came at the; 
Lauiinburg Institute in North Carolina. 

Gillespie's earliest professional jobs were with the 
I i.mkie Fairfax band, where Ik; reportedly picked up the 
nickname I )i//\ related to his outlandish antics. His earli- 

infruence was Roy Eldridge, who he later replaced in 
Teddj Hill's hand. From 1<).'!<)-4I. Gillespie was one of the 
prini ipal suluists in Cab Calloway's hand, until he was dis- 
■ notorious bandstand prank. It was while with 
• it In- met the Cuban trumpeter Mario Bauza, 
in d i greal interest in Afro-Cuban 
thru time he also befriended Charlie Parker. 

Jd !■ in to develop some ol the 

bile sitting in at Minion's 

tlani ed with a number of big 

I Btha" Mines. Ilines' hand < on 

espie would interact with in the 



The Complete RCA Victor Recordings\ 
1937-1949, Bluebird, 1937-49 

Dizzy's Diamonds. Verve, 1 954-64 

Birk's Works: Verve Big Band Sessions 
Verve, 1956-57 

Gillespiana/Camegie Hall Concert, 
Verve, 1960-61 

Max + Dizzy. Paris 1989, 
A&M, 1989 

development of bebop, such as 
singer Billy Ecksrine, who 
formed his own band featuring 
Gillespie on trumpet in 1944. 

1945 was a crucial year for 
both bebop and Gillespie. He 
recorded with Parker many of 
his small ensemble hits, such as 
"Salt Peanuts," and formed his own 
bebop big band. Despite economic woes, 
he was eventually able to keep this band together for 
four years. His trumpet playing was at a peak, with 
rapid-fire attacks of notes and an amazing harmonic range. 
A number of future greats performed with Gillespie's big 
band, including saxophonists Gene Amnions, Yusef Lateef. 
Paul Gonsalves, Jimmy Heath. James Moody, and John 
Coltrane. The rhythm section of John Lewis, Milt Jackson. 
Kenny Clarke, and Ray Brown became the original 
Modern Jazz Quartet. 

He took various bands on State Department tours around 
the world starting in 1956, the first time the U.S. govern- 
ment provided economic aid and recognition to jazz. Those 
excursions not only kept Gillespie working, they also stimu- 
lated his musical interests as he began incorporating differ- 
ent ethnic elements into his music, such as the Afro-Cuban 
rhythms he weaved into his big band arrangements. Ne\ ar 
losing his thirst for collaboration, Gillespie worked with a 
variety of jazz stars as well as leading his own small groups 
on into the 1980s. 




Born January 25, 1929 in Philadelphia, PA 

Benny Golson is as renowned for his distinctive 
compositions and arrangements as for his innovative 
tenor saxophone playing. Major cornerstones of his 
career have included not only notable additions to the jazz 
canon, but also included his work in film and television 
studios, and in education. 

Golson began on the piano, at age nine, moving to the 
saxophone at age 14. He earned a degree from Howard 
University, then joined Bull Moose Jackson's band in 1951. 
Arranging and composing became a serious pursuit for 
him at the early encouragement of composer- 



arranger Tadd Dameron, who he met 

in Jackson's band. Other early band 

affiliations included Lionel Hampton, 

Johnny Hodges, and Earl Bostic. 

He toured with the Dizzy Gillespie 

big band from 1956-58, then joined 

Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers. His 

robust playing added extra kick to 

the band, and his solo on Bobby 

Timmons' song "Moanin"' is a 

classic. With the Messengers, 

Golson 's writing skills blossomed as 

he contributed pieces for the band that 

have forever entered the jazz canon, 

including "Along Game Betty," "Blues March," 

"I Remember Clifford" (written upon the death of his Erieni 

Clifford Brown), "Killer Joe" (which later became a hit for 

Quincy Jones), and "An; You Real?" 

After leaving the Messengers, he and Art Fanner formed 
the hard bop quintet known as the Jazztet. The original 
incarnation of the Jazztet lasted from 1959-62. In 1963, he 
moved to California and began to concentrate on composing 
and arranging. He scored music for European and American 
television and films, and essentially discontinued touring 
until 1982, when he and Farmer revived the Jazztet briefly. 
Thereafter he played more frequently, working in all-star 
aggregations, and completing commissioned assignments, 
such as an original orchestral work for the 100th anniversary 
of the Juilliard School of Music in 2005. His soundtrack 
credits include M*A*S*H, Mission Impossible, Mod 



Benny Golson's New York Scene, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1957 

Up Jumped Benny, Arkadia Jazz, 1986 

Tenor Legacy, Arkadia Jazz, 1996 

One Day Forever, Arkadia, 1996-2000 

Terminal 1, Concord Jazz, 2004 

Squad, and Ironside. 

In 1987, Golson participated in a U.S. 
State Department tour of Southeast Asia, New 
Zealand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, and 
Singapore. As a tribute to Art Blakey, Golson 
organized the "Jazz Messengers — A Legacy to 
Art Blakey" tour of the U.S., Europe, and 
Japan from 1998 to 2000. 

As an educator he has Lectured, given 
clinics, and performed extended residencies at 
New York University, Stanford University. 
University of Pittsburgh, Cuyahoga Community 
College, Rutgers University, William Paterson College, 
and Herklee College of Music. Among his awards is a 1994 
Guggenheim Fellowship. Currently, be is putting the finish- 
ing touches on two hooks: a major college textbook and his 
autobiography, which will be published in late 2005 by 
Ihboh Music. Inc. 

NEA Jazz Masters 43 


Born February 27, 1923 in Los Angeles, CA 
Died April 25, 1990 

Dexter Gordon was one of the leading bebop tenor 
saxophonists, with his near-vibratoless sound and 
prodigious ability to improvise. He was a strong 
intluence on the tenor saxophonists who came after bebop, 
especially Sonny Rollins and John Coltrane. 

Gordon took up the clarinet at age 13, switching to the 
saxophone at 15. His first formal teacher was Lloyd 

a series of classic two-tenor duels, including their classic 
recording of "The Chase." Continuing to freelance through- 
out the 1950s, he began touring Europe as a soloist in the 
early 1960s to acclaim, eventually settling in Copenhagen 
in 1962. 

Gordon continued to play in Europe as a soloist, making 
a series of recordings for the Danish label 

Reese, who had other notable students, including Steeplechase. He added the soprano sax to his 

Charles Mi ngus and Buddy Collette, with <&$> ^&. arsenal in the earlv 1970s. During a trip back 

whom Cordon interacted in Reese's student 
band Cordon left school in 1940 and 
joined .i Local hand before taking a posi- 
tion with the Lionel Hampton band from 
1940-43, (lilting his first recordings with 
the hand in 1942. Hack home in Los 
Angeles. Cordon played with Lee Young 
(brother ol Lester) and [esse Price, and 
made .i subsequent record with Nat 
"kii ii the piano. 

in to garner attention when 
New York in 1944 to join the Billy 
bestra. He recorded with Eckstine and 

i din fbi the Savoy label. Through the 

QS, h^ played and recorded with the 
| MK h .is Charlie Parker. Dizzy 
Gillespie ron. Between 1947 and 1952, he 

ti doi Baxophonisl WardeL Graj lor 

Dexter Gordon on Dial: 
The Complete Sessions, Spotlite, 1947 

Doin' Alright, Blue Note, 1961 

Go!, Blue Note, 1962 

Something Different, Steeplechase, 1975 

Great Encounters, Columbia, 1978 

g a trip 
to the States in 1976, he took a gig at the 
Village Vanguard and die response to his 
plaving was overwhelming. He found 
willing partners in several musicians of 
a younger generation, including trum- 
peter Woody Shaw. The response 
prompted him to return permanently to 
the U.S., where he made a series of well- 
received records for the Columbia label. 
Included was a notable return to his two- 
tenor battle days, diis time with fellow 
expatriate Johnny Griffin. 
The culmination of the decade-long renewal of 
interest in Gordon was his starring role in the film 'Round 
Midnight, which garnered an Oscar nomination. Thereafter, 
until felled by ill health, he continued to tour with his own 
potent quartets and returned to his former record label. Blue 
Note, lor a briei Mini following his film success. 

44 NKA .1 







Born December 4, 1930 in Buffalo, NY 


Iazz guitarist Jim Hall's technique has been called subtle 
his sound mellow, and his compositions understated; 
yet his recording and playing history is anything but 
modest. He has recorded with artists ranging from 
Bill Evans to Itzhak Perlman and performed 
alongside most of the jazz greats of the 20th 
century. The first of the modern jazz gui- 
tarists to receive an NEA Jazz Masters 
award, his prowess on the instrument 
puts him in the company of Charlie 
Christian, Wes Montgomery, and Django 

After graduating from the Cleveland 
Institute of Music, Hall became an origi- 
nal member of the Chico Hamilton 
Quintet in 1955 and of the Jimmy Giuffre 3 
the following year — both small but musi- 
cally vital ensembles of the era. Hall contin- 
ued to hone his craft on Ella Fitzgerald's South 
American tour in 1960, a fruitful time in which his 
exposure to hossa nova greatly influenced his subsequent 
work. From there, he joined Sonny Rollins' quartet from 
1961-62, and appears on The Bridge, Rollins' first recording 
in three years after a self-imposed retirement The interplay 
between Rollins' fiery solos and Hall's classic guitar runs 
make this one of jazz's most essential recordings. 


Hall then co-led a quartet with Art Farmer, recorded a 
series of duets with noted saxophonist Paul Desmond, and 
performed as a session musician on numerous recordings. 
His extensive ensemble experience has produced a con- 
trol of rhythm and harmony so that Hall's playing, 
while grounded in scholarly technique and sci- 
ence, sounds both rich and free. 

He eventually formed his own trio in 
1965, which still performs and records 
today. Well-studied in classical compo- 
sition, Hall has produced many original 
pieces for various jazz orchestral ensem- 
bles. His composition for jazz quartet, 
"Quartet Plus Four," earned him the 
Jazzpar Prize in Denmark. His influence 
on jazz guitarists, including such disparate 
ones as Bill Frisell and Pat Metheny, is 
immense. Hall continues to explore new 
avenues of music, even appearing on saxophonist 
Greg Osby's 2000 recording. Invisible Hand, with leg- 
endary pianist Andrew Hill. He; also has worked in smaller 
settings as well, often in duets with jazz greats such as 
pianists Bill Evans and Red Mitchell, and bassists Ron 
Carter and Charlie Haden. In addition to numerous Grammy 
nominations, Ilall has been awarded the New York Jazz 
Critics Circle Award for Best Jazz Composer/Arranger. 

Jimmy Giuffre 3, Trav'lin' Light, 
Atlantic, 1958 

Sonny Rollins, The Bridge, RCA, 1962 

Ron Carter and Jim Hall, 
Live at Village West, Concord, 1982 

Something Special, Music Masters, 1 993 

Grand Slam: Live at the Regattabar, 

Cambridge, Massachusetts, 

Telarc, 2000 

NEA Jazz Masters 45 



Born September 21, 1921 in Los Angeles, CA 


Chico Hamilton is almost as well known for his band 
leadership and ability to discover talented newcom- 
ers as for his subtle, creative drumming. As a 
teenager growing up in Los Angeles, Hamilton started play 
ing regularly for the first time with a band that included 
classmates Charles Mingus, Dexter Gordon, and 

Illinois facquet. He made his recording debut 
with Slim Gaillard, and studied drumming 
u itli jazz great Jo Jones during his mili- 
tarj sen i( e from 1042-46. 

After working briefly with Jimmy 
Mundy, Count Basic and Lester Young. 
I [amilton joined Lena I tome's band in 
i')4a. staying with her on and off for 
si\ years, in< luding a tour ol Europe. 
I hiring this time, he also became an orig- 

member of the Legendary Gerry 
Mulligan Quartet, whi< h ini luded 
Mull, i Baker, and Boh Whitlock. 

ordingwith them for three years 
the Pai ifii [azz Libel. Hamilton go1 his 
In 1955, he formed the Chico Hamilton Quintet, utilizing 
ol instruments: < ello, flute, guitar, 
i the important West Coast bunds. 
< ii film debut in the movie The 
U .is highlighting In// on a 
■•it the 1958 Newport Jazz 
nd started In 1962 with Albeit 


Stinson on bass, Gabor Szabo on guitar, Charles Lloyd on 
tenor sax and flute, and George Bohanon on trombone, 
bringing a fresh, new sound to jazz once again. Over the 
vears, Hamilton's bands have had various personnel, but the 
quality of the musicianship has remained high. Some of 
the players who Hamilton nurtured in his bands 

Complete Pacific Jan Recordings of the 
Chico Hamilton Quintet, Mosaic, 1955-59 

Man From Two Worlds, Impulse!, 1962 

Dancing to a Different Drummer, 
Soul Note, 1993 

Foreststorn. Koch, 2000-01 

Thoughts of. ... Koch, 2002 

include Jim Hall, Eric Dolphy, Ron Carter, 
Arthur Blythe, Larry Coryell, and John 

During the 1960s, Hamilton formed a 
company to score feature films and com- 
mercials for television and radio. In 1987. 
Hamilton was on the originating faculty 
at Parsons New School of Jazz in New 
York. During the same year, he formed a 
new quartet called Euphoria, and began 
touring in Europe. The quartet met with 
great popularity, and in 1992. their album 
Arroyo placed in the Jazz Album of the Year 
category in the Douti Beat Reader's Poll. In 1995. a 
documentary of Hamilton's extraordinary life and career, 
Dancing to a Different Drummer, directed by Julian Benedict. 
was presented twice on the French-German Arts Network. 
ARI'E. In June 1999, Hamilton received a Beacons of Jazz 
award from the Mamies College of Music at the New School 
University in New York City, where he is presently teaching. 
1 le is working on his autobiography and will be releasing 
four new albums in 2006 in celebration of his 85th birthdav. 

46 NKA .1. 



Born April 20, 1908 in Louisville, KY 
Died September 30, 2002 

Featuring outstanding sideman and soloists, as well as 
his own swinging vibe playing, Lionel Hampton's 
bands during the 1940s and 1950s were among the 
most popular and most exciting in jazz. Hampton was 
raised in the Midwest, primarily in Kenosha, Wisconsin, 
where he received his first musical training. His career 
began behind the drums, taking his first music job in a 
newsboys band sponsored by the Chicago Defender. 

In 1928, Hampton moved west to California, landing 
first in the Paul Howard Orchestra, later working with band- 
leaders Eddie Barefield and Les Hite. In 1929 he took up 
the vibraphone with the Hite band, which at the time was 
led by Louis Armstrong, becoming a pioneering figure in the 
use of vibes in a jazz band. 

Hampton made his recorded debut on an Armstrong ver- 
sion of "Memories of You" in 1930. By 1934, Hampton had 
become leader of his own band, performing at Sebastian's 
Cotton Club in Los Angeles. Benny Goodman saw Hampton 
perform at one of his gigs and recruited him to augment his 
trio, with Teddy Wilson and Gene Krupa, for a 1936 record- 
ing date. Hampton remained in Goodman's band through 
1940, occasionally replacing Krupa on the drums. Hampton 
became well known with the Goodman band, and started 
his own big band, achieving his biggest recorded hit with 
"Flying Home" in May 1942, driven by Illinois Jacquet's 
unforgettable tenor saxophone solo. 

Hampton's popular big band boasted such potent musi- 
cians as Dexter Gordon, Clifford Brown, Fats Navarro, 

The Complete Lionel Hampton, 
Bluebird, 1937-39 

Hamp: The Legendary Decca Recordings, 
Decca, 1942-63 

Hamp and Geti, Verve, 1 956 

Reunion at Newport, 
Bluebird, 1967 

Made in Japan, Timeless, 1982 

Johnny Griffin, Charles Mingus 
Art Farmer, Clark Terry, Cat 
Anderson, Wes Montgomery, 
and singers Dinah 
Washington, Joe Williams, 
Betty Carter, and Aretha 
Franklin. He toured the 
globe and continued to 
nurture young talent, 
often providing some 
of the earliest band experi- 
ences to musicians who 
went on to become leaders 
in their own right. His band 
became the longest established 
orchestra in jazz history. 

Lionel Hampton received numerous awards of merit, 
including several honorary doctoral degrees, the National 
Medal of Arts, and the Kennedy Center Honors. His diligent 
work with the jazz festival at the University of Idaho in 
Moscow led to it being renamed the Lionel Hampton Jazz 
Festival in 1985. The university's music department shortly 
followed suit and became the; Lionel Hampton School of 
Music. Winner of numerous polls, Lionel Hampton had 
been an honored soloist into the 1990s, performing in 
numerous festivals as part of all-star assemblages. In 2001, 
he donated his vibraphone to tin; Smithsonian Institution. 

NEA Jazz Masters 47 


Born April 21, 1932 in Jeannette, PA 

Slide Hampton's distinguished career spans decades in 
the evolution of jazz. At the age of 12 he was already 
touring the Midwest with the Indianapolis-based 
Hampton Band, led by his fadier and comprising other 
members of his musical family. By 1952. at the age of 20, 
he was performing at Carnegie Hall with the Lionel 
Hampton Band. He then joined Maynard Ferguson's band, 
playing trombone and providing 
exciting charts on such popular 
tunes as "The Fugue," "Three 
Little Foxes," and "Slide's 

As his reputation 
grew, he soon began 
working with bands led 
by Art Blakey. Dizzy 
Gillespie, Barry Harris, 
Thad Jones. Mel Lewis, 
and Max Roach, again 
i ontributing both original 
( (impositions and arrange- 
ments. In 1062. he formed the 
Slide Hampton Octet, which 

Slide Hampton and His Horn of Plenty, 
Strand. 1959 

World of Trombon, 

201 Music, 1979 
Roots. CnssTjross, 1985 


Dedicated to Diz. Telarc, 1993 
Spirit of the Horn. MCG Jazz, 2003 

included stellar horn players Booker Little, Freddie 
Hubbard, and George Coleman. The band toured the U.S. 
and Europe and recorded on several labels. 

From 1964 to 1967, he served as music director for vari- 
ous orchestras and artists. Then, following a 1968 tour with 
Woody Herman, he elected to stay in Europe, performing 
with other expatriates such as Benny Bailey. Kenny Clarke. 
Kenny Drew, Art Farmer, and Dexter Gordon. Upon return- 
ing to the U.S. in 1977, he began a series of master classes at 
Harvard, the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, De 
Paul University in Chicago, and Indiana University. During 
this period he formed the illustrious World of Trombones: 
an ensemble of nine trombones and a rhythm section. 

In 1989, with Paquito D'Rivera. he was musical director 
of Dizzy's Diamond Jubilee, a year-long series of celebrations 
honoring Dizzy Gillespie's 75th birthday. Slide Hampton's 
countless collaborations with the most prominent musicians 
of jazz were acknowledged by the 1998 Grammy Award for 
Best Jazz Arrangement with a Vocalist. Most recently, he 
has served as musical advisor to the Carnegie Hall Jazz 
Band. A charismatic figure, master arranger, and formidable 
trombonist. Slide Hampton holds a place of distinction in 
the jazz tradition. 

48 NEA Jazz M.i. 



Born April 12, 1940 in Chicago, IL 

Herbie Hancock's talent as a pianist was evident 
when, at age 11, he performed Mozart's D Major 
Piano Concerto with the Chicago Symphony 
Orchestra. He began playing jazz in high school, initially 
influenced by Oscar Peterson and Bill Evans. Also at this 
time, a passion for electronic science also began to develop, 
so Hancock studied both electrical engineering and music 
composition at Grinnell College in Iowa. His love of elec- 
tronics led Hancock to be a pioneer in the use of electric 
piano, clavinet, and synthesizer in jazz. 

In 1961, trumpeter Donald Byrd asked the young pianist 
to join his group in New York, leading to Blue Note offering 
him a recording contract. His first album as leader, Takin' 
Off, which included the hit single, "Watermelon Man," 
demonstrated a gift for composition and improvisation. 
His talent impressed Miles Davis enough to ask 
Hancock to join his band in 1963. In the five 
years he worked with Davis, who became a 
mentor as well as an employer, Hancock 
established his standing as one of the 
greatest pianists of all time. Along with 
Ron Carter (bass) and Tony Williams 
(drums), Hancock altered the role of 
the rhythm section in jazz to include 
expanded solos and spontaneous 
changes in mood and tempo. He also 
composed a number ol pieces lor the 


The Complete Blue Note Sixties 
Sessions, Blue Note, 1962-69 

Head Hunters, Columbia, 1973 

1/S.OP, Columbia. 1977 

Village Life, Columbia, 1985 

Gershwin's World, Verve, 1998 

band as well as for his outstanding solo recordings with Blue 
Note. It was toward the end of his tenure with Davis that he 
began to use electric piano. 

After leaving the band in 1968, Hancock continued to 
explore the use of electronic instruments in his music. 
In 1973, he formed a quartet whose first recording, Head 
Hunters, launched him into jazz stardom and became a 
best-selling jazz album. In the late 1970s, Hancock revived 
the old Miles Davis band (Freddie Hubbard stood in for 
Davis) under the name V.S.O.P. and they toured extensively. 

Throughout his career, he has demonstrated stunning 
artistic versatility, and in 1983, "Rockit," a single that 
resulted from a collaborative effort with the rock band 
Material, became a hit on MTV. Hancock then switched 
gears completely, partnering with Gambian kora virtuoso 
Foday Musa Suso that culminated in two albums, 
Village Life and fax/, Africa. He also has written 
scores for several films, including Blow-Up in 
1966, Death Wish in 1974, and 'Round 
Midnight, for which he won an Academy 
Award in 1987. Hancock has won eight 
Grammy Awards in the past two decades, 
and continues to work as a producer and 
in both the electric and acoustic spheres 
of jazz. 

NEA Jazz Mastei-s 49 

41 ! 





Born December 15, 1929 in Detroit, 

Barn' Harris is part of an exceptional crew of Detroit- 
bred jazz musicians, including Tommy Flanagan and 
Donald Byrd, who rose through the extraordinary arts 
education program in the public school system during the 
1930s and 1940s. Harris' earliest musical mentor was a 
church piano-playing mother who exposed him to piano 
lessons at age four. He became seriously immersed in jazz 
in the mid-1940s and fell under the spell of Thelonious 
Monk. Charlie Parker, and Bud Powell. As a professional, 
be would become a key translator of Monk's music. 

Detroit was blessed with a high-energy jazz scene during 
tlic 1940s, and Harris was house pianist at one of the hottest 
spots, the Blue Bird Lounge. At the Blue Bird and 
later it the Rouge, he backed such traveling 
soloists .is Miles Davis. YVardell Gray. Max 
Roach. Sonnj Stitt, Lee Konitz, and Lester 
Young. Displaying an early interest in 
passing the torch through education, 
l!.nr\ began teat bing his bebop theories 
: a 1956, tutoring young talent 
foe Henderson, it is a tradition 
he has < arried on throughoul his life. 
At the urging ol Julian "Cannonball" 
II irris lefl Detroil in I960 
York. In addition to 
mil work in the 1960s 


Chasin' The Bird, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1962 

Barry Harris Plays Tadd Dameron, 
Classics, 1975 

For The Moment, 
Uptown, 1984 

Live at Maybeck Recital Hall, 
Vol. I & 2, Concord, 1990 

and 1970s with fellow Detroiter Yusef Lateef. Charles 
McPherson, and Coleman Hawkins. In addition to sideman 
work, Harris led various trios and duos at piano bars and 
restaurants around New York. He also began to get work as 
an arranger and composer, showing a particular adeptness 
for his treatment of strings. A consummate freelancer, he 
found work in a variety of diverse settings and continues to 
play, inaugurating the Lincoln Center's Penthouse piano 
series in 1997. 

By the early 1980s, Barn' Harris' acumen as a teacher 
and mentor to developing pianists had become legendary. 
He was able to expand these interests when he opened the 
Jazz Cultural Center in 1982 on Eighth Avenue in 
Manhattan. The Center served as workshop, 
educational facility, and performance space 
for Harris and his affiliated artists, but 
unfortunately only lasted until 1987. 
Harris soldiered on. though, continuing 
to teach and mentor young musicians. 
He also continues to present and pro- 
duce annual multimedia concert spec- 
taculars at places like Symphony Spat 8 
and the Manhattan Center in New York. 

Live in New York, 
Reservoir, 2002 

SO NEAJjizz. M;Lst<is 



Bom March 13, 1925 in Roxbury, MA 

Seemingly ageless, Roy Haynes has played the drums 
from the bebop days of the 1940s to the present day 
with the same restless energy. Haynes has remained 
fresh in his outlook and in his thirst for collaborating with 
younger artists and those who play in challenging styles, 
as is shown in his work with such disparate artists 
as Roland Kirk, Danilo Perez, and Pat Metheny. 
He also has been a favorite sideman for any 
number of artists because of his crisply 
distinctive drumming style. Thelonious 
Monk once described Haynes' drumming 
as "an eight ball right in the side pocket." 
Haynes became interested in music 
through his father, a church organist. In 
his earliest professional playing years in 
the mid-1 940s, he worked in Boston with 
pianist Sabby Lewis, Frankie Newton, and 
Pete Brown. In 1945, he joined the Luis 
Russell hand, remaining until 1947, where- 
upon he joined Lester Young's band. In the 
late 1940s to mid-1950s, he worked with such 
greats as Miles Davis, Charlie Parker, Bud Powell, and 
Kai Winding. Ho later played in Monk's band at the 
Five Spot Cafe before forming his own band in 1958. 
Some of his most noted work in the early 1960s 
came when he subbed for Llvin Jones in the John Coltrane 
Quartet, both on gigs and on records. His drumming style 
was a marked change for Coltrane from Elvin Jones' 
approach — lighter, less aggressive than (ones — and it gave 

We Three, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1958 

Out of the Afternoon, 
Impulse!, 1962 

TeVoul, Dreyfus, 1995 

The Roy Haynes Trio, 
Verve, 2000 

Fountain of Youth, 
Dreyfus Jazz, 2002 

the quartet a different sound. Among his other affiliations 
during the late 1950s to early 1960s were with George 
Shearing, Kenny Burrell, Lennie Tristano, and Stan Getz. 
In addition, his style of drumming was an ideal accompani- 
ment to singers, accenting the vocals without overpowering 
them, and he worked with Sarah Vaughan, and Lambert, 
Hendricks & Ross. 

He later joined vibist Gary Burton, who had 
been a member of Getz 's band. After Burton's 
band, which was one of the precursors 
of the jazz-rock movement, Haynes 
formed the Hip Ensemble, featuring 
such musicians as George Adams, and 
Hannibal Marvin Peterson. The band 
had a decidedly contemporary flavor, 
often employing various guitarists. He 
also has enjoyed an occasional playing 
relationship with Chick Corea, dating back 
to their Stan Getz days. He joined Corea 's 
rio Music band in 1981. 

While periodically leading his own hands, 
he has also worked with artists such as Billy Taylor, 
Hank Jones, and Ted Curson, and as an innovative; drummer 
in a variety of settings. His bands have included some of 
the more exceptional young musicians on the scene, ranging 
from his Hip Ensemble to bis various quartets. He continues 
to influence the next generation of drummers with his 

distinctive sound. 

NEA Jazz Masters 51 





Born October 25, 1926 in Philadelphia, PA 

The second of the illustrious Heath Brothers to receive 
an NEA Jazz Master Fellowship (bassist Percy 
received the award in 2002), Jimmy was the first 
Heath to choose music as a career path. Starting on alto sax- 
ophone (and acquiring the nickname "Little Bird" due to the 
influence Charlie "Yardbird" Parker had on his style), one of 
his first professional jobs came in 1945-46 in the Midwest 
territory band led by Nat Towles, out of Omaha, Nebraska. 
Returning to Philadelphia, he briefly led his own big band 
with a saxophone section that included John Coltrane and 
Benny Golson — also products of the city's jazz scene. Gigs 
followed with Howard McGhee in 1948 and with Dizzy 
Gillespie's big band from 1949-50. 

In the early 1950s, Heath switched to tenor sax and 
briefly occupied Coltrane's place in 
Miles Davis' band in 1959. In the 
1960s, he began his own 
recordings as a leader, and 
frequent l\ trained up 
with Milt (ackson and 

\rt Fanner, Bj 
time he bad boned his 
talent as •: i omposei 
and arranger, creating 


Really Big!. Riverside/OJC, 1960 
On the Trail. Riverside/OJC, 1964 
The Gap 5ea/e/:wfcblestone, 1972 
Little Man. Big Band. Verve, 1992 

such widely performed compositions as "Gingerbread Boy" 
and "C.T.A." By combining his versatile style of performing 
and his outstanding writing and arranging abilities, he has 
set a high standard of accomplishment in the jazz field. He 
has made more than 100 recordings and composed more 
than 100 original works. 

As an educator. Heath has taught at Jazzmobile, 
Housatonic Communitv College. Citv College of New York. 
and Queens College, where he retired from full-time teach- 
ing in 1998. He holds honorary degrees from Sojourner- 
Douglass College and die Juilliard School, and has a 
chair endowed in his name at Queens College. Currently, 
he is serving on die board of the Thelonious Monk 
Institute of Jazz. 

Since the mid-1970s, Jimmy has been teaming up with 
brothers Percy and Albert "Tootie" as the Headi Brothers, a 
band which has also at times included contributions from 
jimmy's son, die noted percussionist, composer, and 
rhvthm-and-blues producer, Mtume. In addition, he has 
performed with other jazz greats, such as Slide Hampton 

and Wynton Marsalis, and indulged in his continuing 

interest in the dynamics of arranging for big band. 

He remains active as an educator, saxophonist. 

and composer. 

Heath Brothers, 
Jazz Family. Concord, 


52 NEA Jazz Masters 




Bom April 30, 1923 in Wilmington, NC 
Died April 28, 2005 

Percy Heath was the backbone of the popular jazz 
group Modern Jazz Quartet, and a superb bassist so 
sought after that he appeared on more than 200 jazz 
albums. Heath was a member of one of the great families of 
jazz (along with the Joneses and MarsalisesJ, with brothers 
Jimmy (on saxophone] and Albert "Tootie" (on drums) also 
being stellar jazz musicians. 

Heath started on the violin in his school 
orchestra but began to seriously study 
music at the Granoff School of Music in 
Philadelphia after his service in the Air 
Force. In 1947, he joined his brother 
Jimmy in Howard McGhee's band, 
ending up in New York where he 
performed regularly with jazz greats 
such as Miles Davis, J.J. Johnson, 
Sonny Rollins, Fats Navarro, and 
Charlie Parker. Heath joined Dizzy 
Gillespie's sextet from 1950-52, where 
he met the other members of the soon-to- 
be Modern Jazz Quartet (MJQ): John Lewis, 
Mill Jackson, and Kenny Clarke. Heath stayed 
with MJQ from its beginning in 1952 for more than 40 

Modern Jazz Quartet, 

The Artistry of the Modern Jazz Quartet, 

Prestige, 1952-55 

Jimmy Heath, Really Big!, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1960 

Heath Brothers, Marchin'On!, Strata East, 1976 

Heath Brothers, Brotherly Love, 
Antilles, 1991 

Modern Jazz Quartet, 
Celebration, Atlantic, 1992 

years, off and on. Lewis' arrangements brought the bass 
into greater prominence, prompting Heath to greater heights 
with his performances. During his time with MJQ, Heath 
performed on film soundtracks and with symphony orches- 
tras and string quartets, always exhibiting style and poise in 
every setting. 

During the break from the MJQ in 1975-82, Heath 
worked with Sarah Vaughan and began performing 
with the Heath Brothers band, which included 
Jimmy and Tootie. His talents on bass were 
much in demand as the house bass player 
for both Prestige and Blue Note record 
labels, providing a confident, straight-ahead 
style of playing reminiscent of the great 
Ray Brown. 

Heath received many honors in his 
career, such as the Maria Fischer Award. 
!•' ranee's Cross of Officer of Arts and Letters, 
and an honorary doctoral degree from Berklee 
College in Boston, Massachusetts. In addition. 

I loath performed 
Nixon and Clinton. 

at the White; 


NEA Jazz Masters 53 



Born April 24, 1937 in Lima, OH 

Died June 30, 2001 

One of the more distinctive tenor saxophone voices to 
have emerged during the 1960s, Joe Henderson's rich 
tone and strong sense of rhythm influenced scores of 
tenor saxophonists who followed him. In concert, his 
aggressive playing was often tempered by a melodic touch 
on ballads. 

Growing up in Lima, Ohio, he first played the drums, 
switching to tenor saxophone at age 13. After high school 
he studied at Kentucky State College, then Wayne State in 
Detroit from 1956-60, as well as under the private tutelage of 
pianist Barry Harris. One of his first jazz jobs was alongside 
saxophonist Sonny Stitt. Uien he led his own band around 
Detroit in 1960. He entered the Army band that year, 
remaining until 1962. 

After Leaving the Army, Henderson eventually moved to 
New York, where he worked with organist Jack McDuff, then 
co-led a band with Kenny Dorham during 1962-63. His first 
recording as a leader in 1963, Page One, was one of the most 
popular releases for the Blue Note label, and led to one of 
his ri( hesl recording periods both as a leader and sideman. 
I le played with Horace Silver in 1964-66, and Andrew Hill 
in 1965, both Blue Note artists. His work on Lee Morgan's 
album The Sidewinder, especially on the hit title track, con- 
tains some oi his best solos of the period. During the late 
i'ii. lis. he w,is pari ol the ( ooperative band, the Jazz 
imunicators, with Freddie Hubbard and Louis Hayes. 

At the end of the decade he spent over a year with the 
Herbie Hancock Sextet (1969-70), and joined the pop band 
Blood, Sweat & Tears for a short time in 1971. Thereafter 
he worked mainly as a leader and freelance saxophonist. 
His bands employed a number 
of outstanding musicians 


^ DD1S00t X 

Page One, Blue Note, 1963 
Four!, Verve, 1968 


The State of th, 



•nor. Vol. 

and, following his Blue 
Note years, he made a 
series of rewarding 
discs for the 
Milestone label. 
In the 1990s, 
Henderson experi- 
enced a resurgence 
in popularity with a 
series of well- 
received albums on 
die Verve label. His 
recordings of the music of 
Billy Strayhorn, Miles Davis, 
and Antonio Carlos Jobim in inventive 
arrangements were inspired, and he showed a skill for 
big band arrangement with his 1996 release. 

Lush Life: The Music of Billy Strayhorn, 
Verve, 1991 

Big Band, Verve, 1992-96 

54 NEA Jazz Masters 


Sarah Vaughan, No Count Sarah, 
Mercury, 1958 

Eileen Farrell, / Got a Right to Sing the Blues, 
Columbia, 1960 

Original Cast Recording, Ain't Misbehavin', 
RCA, 1978 

American Composers Orchestra, Four Symphonic 
Works by Duke Ellington, Music Masters, 1 989 

Canadian Brass Quintet, Red Hot 

Jazz: The Dixieland Album, 

Philips, 1993 

When he was four, Luther 
Henderson moved to 
Harlem with his family 
and became neighbors with 
Duke Ellington. Ellington 
would become a major influ- 
ence on Henderson's life, 
beginning in the late 1940s 
and early 1950s when he 
adapted and orchestrated some 
of Ellington's larger works, such 
as "Harlem — A Tone Parallel" and 
"Three Black Kings," for perform- 
ance in a concerto grosso format by his 
orchestra and another symphony orches- 
tra. Henderson's classical training at the Juilliard School and 
music study at New York University led Ellington to dub 
Henderson "his classical arm." His talents included com- 
posing, arranging, conducting, and performing, and he was 
hired by Ellington in 1946 to orchestrate his Broadway 
musical, Beggar's Holiday. 

Henderson worked on more than 50 Broadway produc- 
tions in various capacities. For Ain't Misbehavin', he was 
the original pianist as well as orchestrator, arranger, and 
musical supervisor. For Lena Home: The Lady and Her 
Music, he was the musical consultant and arranged several 
selections. He orchestrated such musicals as the Tony 
Award-winning Raisin, I'lay On!, and jelly's Uisi Jam. As a 


Born March 14, 1919 in Kansas City, MO 
Died July 29, 2003 

dance arranger, Henderson's credits included Flower 
Drum Song, Do Re Mi, Funny Girl, and No, No 
Nanette. His skill in bringing a jazz sensibility to 
musical theater was much in demand. For Jelly's 
Last Jam, he rearranged Jelly Roll Morton's jazz 
compositions and musical fragments into a hit 
musical; Ain't Misbehavin' used the music of 
jazz great Fats Waller as a base. 

Henderson's talents extended to the arena of 
television, where he held positions as musical 
director, orchestrator, arranger, and pianist for 
the Columbia Pictures television special Ain 7 
Misbehavin ' for which he received an Emmy 
nomination. Albums to his credit included several with 
the Canadian Brass Quintet and Eileen Farrell's 
/ Got a Right to Sing the Blues, which was re-released in 
1992. For Columbia Records, the Luther Henderson 
Orchestra recorded six albums. In addition, Henderson 
contributed to various albums recorded by the Duke 
Ellington Orchestra, the Andre Kostelanetz Orchestra, 
the Royal Philharmonic, Mandy Patinkin, Polly Bergen, 
Anita Ellis, and others. Henderson's composition "Ten 
Good Years," with lyricist Martin Charnin, was recorded 
by Nancy Wilson on her Coconut Grove album. 

Henderson died of cancer after he had been named 
an NEA Jazz Master, but before he was able to receive the 
award at the ceremony. 

NEA Jazz Masters 55 


Born September 16, 1921 Newark, OH 


Ion Hendricks helped create the singing style known as 
vocalese, or crafting songs and lyrics out of the note 
sequence of famous jazz instrumental solos, as a member 
uf the great jazz vocal ensemble Lambert, Hendricks & 
Ross. A gifted lyricist, he has added words to classics by 
Count Basie. Horace Silver, Miles Davis, and Art Blakey, 
brilliantly mirroring the instrumental effects. 

He grew up largely in Toledo, Ohio, one of 17 children. 
His singing career began at age eight, singing at parties and 
dinners. Later he sang on a radio show on which he was 
occasionally accompanied by another Toledoan, the great 
pianist Art Tatum. Returning home from service in the 
Army, he studied at the University of Toledo and taught 
himself to play drums. In 1952, he relocated to New York 
and found his initial work as a songwriter, 
working for such artists as Louis 
Jordan and King Pleasure. One 
of his earliest recordings came 
on a version of the Woody 
Herman band feature, 
"Four Brothers." 

His collaboration with 
vocalist Dave Lambert 
began in 1957 when he re- 
recorded "Four Brothers," 
which Led to their associa- 
tion with singer Annie Ross 



Lambert, Hendricks & Ross, 
Sing a Song of Basie, Verve, 1 957 

Lambert, Hendricks & Ross, 
Everybody's Boppm', Columbia. 1959-61 

Love. MuS?1981-82 

Freddie Freeloader, 
Denon, 1989-90 

Wynton Marsalis, Blood on the 
Fields, Columbia, 1994 

on a collection of Count Basie songs. Sing a Song of Basie, 
using innovative multitracked arrangement of vocals, 
became a hit when released in 1958 and gave birth to 
Lambert, Hendricks & Ross as a full-time act. They subse- 
quently toured with the Basie band and were a top-selling 
act for nearly four years, until Ross left the band. Lambert 
and Hendricks continue for a while with new singer 
Yolande Bavan, eventually breaking up in 1964. Hendricks 
found work as a soloist, then moved to England in 1968. In 
the early 1970s he put together another trio, this time with 
wife Judith and daughter Michelle, an arrangement he has 
occasionally revisited over the years. 

Evolution of the Blues, an extended stage work 
Hendricks had first performed with Lambert and Ross at the 
Monterey Jazz Festival in 1960, went on a five-year run at 
the Broadway Theatre in San Francisco in tire 1970s. 
Thereafter he took a variety of university teaching positions 
in California, and continued to work with Judidi, Michelle, 
and youngest daughter Aria, with occasional male singers 
such as Bobbv McFerrin, Kevin Burke, and Miles Griffith. 
He has written for and played with the Manhattan Transfer, 
a jazz vocal group heavily influenced by Hendricks. More 
recently he was one of three singers in Wynton Marsalis* 
Pulitzer Prize-winning oratorio. Blood on the Fields. I [e has 
written lyrics to a number of jazz standards, including 
"Four," "Hi Fly," "Along Came Betty." "Desifinado," and 
"No More Blues." 

56 NEA Jazz Masters 










Bom June 10, 1925 in Boston, MA 

One of the major voices in jazz literature, Nat Hentoff 
has written about and championed jazz for more 
than half a century, produced recording sessions for 
some of the biggest names in jazz, and written liner notes for 
scores more. Through his work, he has helped to advance 
the appreciation and knowledge of jazz. It is fitting that he 
is the first to receive the NEA Jazz Masters Fellowship for 
Jazz Advocate. 

Hentoff began his education at Northeastern University 
in Boston, his hometown, and went on to pursue graduate 
studies at Harvard University. As a graduate student, he 
hosted a local radio show and became immersed in the 
Boston jazz scene. In 1953, after completing a Fulbright 
Fellowship at the Sorbonne in Paris, he spent four years as 
an associate editor at Down Beat magazine, where he laid 
the foundation for a truly remarkable career as a jazz jour- 
nalist. Hentoff was co-editor oijazz Review horn 1958 to 
1961, and worked for the Candid label as A&R director from 
1960 to 1961, producing recording sessions by jazz icons 
such as Charles Mingus, Cecil Taylor, and Abbey Lincoln. 

His books on music include Jazz Country (1965), Jazz: 
New Perspectives on the History of Jazz by Twelve of the 
World's Foremost Jazz Critics and Scholars (with Albert J. 
McCarthy, 1974), Boston Boy: Crowing Up with Jazz and 
Other Rebellious Passions (1 986), Listen to the Stories: Nat 
Hentoff on Jazz and Country Music (1995), and American 
Music Is (2004). His work has appeared in such venerable 
publications as The New York Times, The New Republic, 

Jazz Times, and The New Yorker, where he was a staff writer 
for more than 25 years. In addition to his status as a 
renowned jazz historian and critic, Hentoff also is an expert 
on First Amendment rights, criminal justice, and education 
and has written a number of books on these topics. 

In 1980, he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship 
in education as well as a Silver Gavel Award from the 
American Bar Association for his coverage of the law 
and criminal justice. Five years later, he was awarded 
an honorary degree from Northeastern University. The 
multidisciplinary body of work that Hentoff has produced 
represents an articulation of the interconnectedness of the 
ideals of constitutional rights and jazz music and is without 
a doubt a major contribution to 

the dialogue surrounding 
the uniquely American jazz 
tradition. Currently, Hentoff 
writes about music for the 
Wall Street Journal and 
has a weekly column 
in The Village Voice 
and in the United 
Media syndicate, which 
distributes the column to 
250 papers nationwide. 

c ^BIB Uoo 

4? % 

Jazz Country, HarperCollins, 1965 

The Jazz Life, Harper Collins 1975 

Jazz Is, Random House, 1 976 

Boston Boy: Growing Up With Jazz and Other 
Rebellious Passions, Random House, 1986 

The Nat Hentoff Reader, 
DaCapo Press, 2001 

NEA Jazz Master 57 


Born October 11, 1936 in Los Angeles, CA 
Died May 3, 2001 

Known among musicians and fans as "Smiling Billy," 
Billy Higgins was first introduced to the broader jazz 
public when he came to the East Coast with the 
Ornette Coleman Quartet in 1959 for their extended engage- 
ment at the Five Spot Cafe. Although he does not have 
many records under his own name, Higgins was often in 
great demand as a sideman, providing sensitive 
accompaniment in a variety of settings. 

Higgins started on the drums at age 12. 
By the time he was 19, he was working in 
rhythm and blues bands, including Amos 
Milburn and Bo Diddley. Other early 
affiliations included singers Brook 
Benton, Jimmy Witherspoon, and Sister 
Rosetta Tharpe. He also began working 
with jazz artists, such as Dexter Gordon. 
Don Cherry, James Clay, and Walter 
Benton. 1 le joined the Red Mitchell band 
in 1957, but soon left to join Ornette 
Coleman's new band, with whom he worked 
Steadily ill 1958 and 1959. In the early 1960s, he 
worked with Thelonious Monk, John Coltrane, and 
Sonny Rollins. By then he had become one of the most 

^0 0,3000^ 

Ornette Coleman, 

Change of the Century, 

Atlantic, 1959 

Soweto, Red, 1979 

Mr. Billy Higgins. Evidence, 1984 

3 M For Peace. Red, 1993 

Charles Lloyd, Hyperion with Higgins. 
ECM, 2001 

in-demand freelance drummers on the scene, particularly 
on many Blue Note sessions. 

His drumming was an important addition to many 
recordings, such as Andrew Hill's Point of Departure, 
Herbie Hancock's Takin ' Off, and Lee Morgan's The 

Sidewinder, the last two being especially popular jazz 
albums. He would intermittently' work with 

Coleman again in the 1960s arid 1970s as well. 
Outside of Coleman, a frequent musical col- 
laborator was Cedar Walton, an association 
that began in 1966 and continued into 
the 1990s, often in the Walton's Eastern 
Rebellion bands. In the 1990s his career 
was halted by kidney disease, leading to 
a subsequent kidney transplant. After 
resuming playing, he remained much in 
demand for record dates. During 1999- 
2001, he worked frequently with Charles 
Lloyd when not leading his own bands, 
recording some of his most inventive drum- 
ming while playing against Lloyd's saxophone. 

58 NEA Jazz Masters 



Born June 23, 1910 in Vicksburg, MS 
Died December 19, 2000 

Milt Hinton's career spanned the gamut of jazz gen- 
erations, working from the early swing days of the 
1930s with Cab Calloway through the end of the 
millennium with the new guard of jazz, such as Branford 
Marsalis and Christian McBride. His ability to make a con- 
tribution in any setting allowed for his vast array of work. 
As a soloist, Hinton, nicknamed "The Judge," was adept at 
the early bass tradition of slapping the strings. In addition 
to his love of music, Hinton was a perceptive and widely 
exhibited photographer. Much of tbe history of jazz can be 
found in his photographs, which were published in several 
magazines and in two extraordinary coffee-table books. 

Like many African American families in the early part of 
the 20th century, his family migrated north from Mississippi 
to Chicago, where he was raised. His mother was a church 
musician, playing organ, piano, and directing the choir. She 
bought him a violin for his thirteenth birthday, which he 
studied for four years from 1923-27. Later he picked up the 
bass horn and tuba while studying music at Wendell 
Phillips High School in Chicago. In 1928, he found his 
voice when he switched to string bass. One of his earliest 
professional affiliations was with violinist Eddie South, 
with whom he played intermittently between 1931-36. 
Other early affiliations included Zulty Singleton, Erskine 
Tate, Art 'latum, and Jabho Smith 

Hinton's early career experience was centered around 
the Cab Calloway Orchestra, with which he worked from 


Various Artists, 
The Modern Art of Jazz, Biograph, 1956 

The Judge at his Best, 
Chiaroscuro, 1973-95 

Back to Bass-ics, Progressive, 1984 

Branford Marsalis, Trio Jeepy, 
Columbia, 1988 

Laughing at Life, 
Columbia, 1995 

1936-51. After leaving 
Calloway, he worked with the 
big bands of Joe Bushkin, 
Jackie Gleason, Phil 
Moore, and Count Basie. 
He played with Louis 
Armstrong between 
1952-55, then became a 
staff musician for CBS, 
one of the first African 
American musicians wel- 
comed into the TV studios. 
From 1956 on, Hinton was a 
much in-demand studio musi- 
cian, adept at different styles of play- 
ing, from the pop of Paul Anka to the jazz of Teddy Wilson. 
He also was in-demand in live settings, performing with 
Jimmy McParlland, Benny Goodman, Ben Webster, Sammy 
Davis, Jr., Judy Garland, and Harry Belafonte, among others. 
In the 1960s, he became a staff musician at ABC, working 
on the Dick Cavett Show. In the last decades of bis life, 
Hinton continued to play and record, inspiring new genera- 
tions of jazz musicians and fans. 

He received numerous honorary doctoral degrees and 
taught jazz at several colleges and universities, including 
Hunter College, Baruoh College;, Skidmore Col lego, and 
Interlochen Music ( lamp. 

NEA Jazz Masters 59 


Bom May 1, 1934 in Washington, DC 
Died October 20, 2005 


Shirley Horn began leading her own group in the mid- 
1950s, and in 1960 recorded her first album, Embers 
and Ashes, which established her reputation as an 
exceptional and sensitive jazz vocalist. Born in 1934 in 
Washington, DC, she studied classical piano as a teenager at 
Howard University's Junior School of Music. 

Under the influence of artists such as Oscar Peterson 
and Ahmad Jamal, she then began a career as a jazz pianist 
and soon after discovered the great expressive power of her 
voice. When Miles Davis heard Embers and Ashes, he 
brought her to New York, where she began opening for him 
at the Village Vanguard. Soon she was performing in major 
venues throughout the United States and recording with 
Quincy Jones for the Mercury label. 

For some years she spent much of her time in Europe, 
then took a ten-year hiatus to raise her family in 
Washington. She continued to appear in and around the DC 
area, and in the 1980s she returned to the recording studio. 
The overwhelming critical success of her 1981 appearance 
at Holland's North Sea Jazz Festival reintroduced her to old 
bins, won her new followers, and revitalized her career, 
allowing her to take to the road with her trio and record four 
more alliums. 

^D DlSCOCft 


Embers and Ashes, Stereo-Craft, 1960 

Violets for Your Furs, Steeple Chase, 198 

You Won't Forgm/le, Verve, 1990 

I Remember Miles, Verve, 1998 

May the Music Never End, Verve. 2003 

Her association with the Verve 
label, which began in 1987, 
gave a new showcase to her 
inimitable style and 
cemented her reputation as 
a world-class jazz artist. 
Six of her more than 20 
albums have been nomi- 
nated for Grammy Awards, 
and she has collaborated 
with jazz artists including 
Hank Jones, Kenny Burrell, 
Wynton Marsalis, Roy 
Hargrove, Buck Hill, Branford 
Marsalis, and Toots Thielemans 

In 1991, she collaborated with Miles Davis on her criti- 
cally acclaimed album You Won't Forget Me. Her 1992 
recording Here's to Life was that year's top-selling jazz 
album and earned a Grammy Award for arranger Johnny 
Mandel. In 1998. Horn paid tribute to her mentor with the 
brilliant recording / Remember Miles, winning the Grammy 
Award for Best Jazz Vocal Performance. 

60 NEA Jazz Masters 



Characterized by a slower vibrato than his predeces- 
sors, Milt Jackson's ability to swing and to create 
vocal-like inflections made his an instantly recogniz- 
able sound on the vibes. Another jazz musician whose ear- 
liest experience was in the church, he sang gospel duets 
with his brother and played the guitar. At age 11, he began 
playing the piano, moving to the xylophone and the vibes in 
his early teens. After studying music at Michigan State 
University, his musical career actually began with a touring 
gospel ensemble in the early 1940s. Upon hearing him in 
Detroit, Dizzy Gillespie arranged for Jackson, known by the 
nickname "Bags," to come to New York in 1945 to join his 
band. After leaving Gillespie's pioneering bebop big band in 
1948, he went on to play with Howard McGhee, 
Thelonious Monk, Tadd Dameron, and Charlie 
Parker, applying the bebop sound to the vibes. 

He replaced Terry Gibbs in the Woody 
Herman band during 1949-50, returning to 
the Gillespie band from 1950-52. Thereafter 
he formed his own quartet, featuring John 
Lewis, Ray Brown, and Kenny Clarke. 
The Milt Jackson Quartet then became the 
Modern Jazz Quartet, with Percy Heath 

Born January 1, 1923 in Detroit, Ml 
Died October 9, 1999 

replacing Brown, and Connie Kay eventually replacing 
Clarke. The MJQ would become an enduring jazz institu- 
tion for more than 40 years, with Jackson's blues-drenched 
solos being a crucial ingredient in their sound. When the 
MJQ wasn't touring, Jackson occasionally led bands featur- 
ing Jimmy Heath and Ray Brown and worked on recording 
sessions that included Julian "Cannonball" Adderley and 
Ray Charles. 

He left the MJQ in 1974, leading his own groups or play- 
ing with all-star aggregations until 1981, when the MJQ 
reunited for a concert in Japan. Following that concert, the 
quartet made annual tours from 1982 through the early 
1990s. For most of the remainder of his career he worked 
with his own groups, which often included such 


C ^D DISCOg/j 



Modern Jazz Quartet, MJQ, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1954-56 

Plenty, Plenty Soul. Atlantic, 1957 

Bags Meets Trane, Atlantic, 1959 

Milt Jackson + Count Basie + The Big Band, 
Vol. 7 & 2, Original Jazz Classics, 1978 

musicians as Mickey Roker, Bob Cranshaw, 
and Mike LeDonne. 

The winner of numerous jazz polls, 
Jackson's vibe-playing dominated the 
field for much of his career, leading to 
his induction into the Percussion Hall 
of Fame and Down Haul I hill of 
Fame, among other honors. 

Sa Va Bella, 
Warner Brothers, 1996 

NEA Jazz Masters 61 


Born July 2. 1930 in Pittsburgh. PA 

One of the subtlest virtuosos of jazz piano, 
Ahmad Jamais uncanny use of space in his 
playing and leadership of his small 
ensembles have been hallmarks of his influential 
career. Among those he has influenced is most 
notably Miles Davis. Davis made numerous and 
prominent mentions of Jamal's influence on the 
trumpeter, particular in his use of space, allow- 
ing the music to "breathe," and his choice of 
compositions. Several tunes that were in Jamal's 
playlist, such as the standard "Autumn Leaves" and 
Jamal's own "New Rhumba," began appearing in the 
playlist of Davis' 1950s bands. Additionally, Jamal's tex- 
tured rhythms on piano influenced Davis' piano players as 
well, from Wynton Kelly in the 1950s to Herbie Hancock in 
the 1960s. 

His piano studies began at age three, and by age 11, he 
was making his professional debut with a sound strongly 
influenced by Art Tatum and Erroll Garner. Following 
graduation from Pittsburgh's Westinghouse High School, he 
joined the George Hudson band in 1947. In 1949, he joined 
swing violinist Joe Kennedy's group Four Strings as pianist. 


c <f$D DKCOGjtj 


At the Pershing/But Not for Me, 
Chess, 1958 

Free Flight, Impulse!, 1971 

Rossiter Road, Atlantic, 1986 

Big Byrd: The Essence, Part 2, 
Verve, 1994-95 

After Fa\r, 
Birdology/Dreyfus Jazz, 2004 

This led to formation of his trio 
Three Strings in 1950-52. which 
debuted at Chicago's Blue Note 
club, and later became the 
Ahmad Jamal Trio. His 1958 
album At the Pershing became 
a surprising smash hit. high- 
lighted by his interpretation of 
"Poinciana." With the popularity 
of the album and the advocacy of 
Davis, Jamal's trio was one of the 
most popular jazz acts in the late 
1950s and early 1960s. 
For the most part, Jamal has worked in 
piano-bass-drums trios, using the intricate relationship of 
the band to explore his sound, directing the trio through 
seemingly abrupt time and tempo shifts. His piano virtuosity 
has also been welcomed bv a number of orchestras and his 
abilities as a composer are considerable. His approach has 
been described as being chamber-jazz-like, and he has 
experimented with strings and electric instruments in his 

62 NEA Jazz Masters 



Born January 22, 1924 in Indianapolis, IN 
Died February 4, 2001 

Often referred to as the "Charlie Parker of the trom- 
bone" due to his uncanny musical dexterity and flu- 
ency, J.J. Johnson dominated his instrument for over 
40 years, and was known as a potent composer and arranger. 
He was a perennial jazz magazine poll winner for his peer- 
less trombone playing. 

Between ages nine and eleven, he studied piano with his 
family's church organist, picking up the trombone at age 14. 
His first professional experience came with the bands of 
Clarence Love and Snookum Russell. It was in the Russell 
band that he met jazz trumpeter Fats Navarro, an early influ- 
ence on the young trombonist. After leaving Russell, he 
spent three years with Benny Carter's band, then gigged 
with Count Basie in 1 945-46. He worked briefly with Dizzy 
Gillespie, and Woody Herman, then toured the Far East with 
Oscar Pettiford. The difficulty of making a living in the jazz 
field affected Johnson; from 1952-54 he occupied a day job 
as a blueprint reader. Then came one of his most significant 
early bands, a two-trombone group he co-led with Kai 
Winding — the Jay and Kai Quintet — from 1954-56; after a 
period of freelancing and bandleading, he re-joined Winding 
in 1958. The group was instrumental in demonstrating the 
power and possibilities of the trombone in modern jazz. 
In the late 1950s, he began to g;iin recognition as a corn- 

poser. Two of his extended works, niac 

"El Camino Real," and "Sketch 
for Trombone and Orchestra," 
were commissioned by the 


The Eminent Jay Jay Johnson, 
Vol. 1& 2, Blue Note, 1953-55 

Stan Getz & J.J. Johnson at the Opera House, 
Verve. 1957 

The Great Kai andJ.J., 
Impulse!, 1960 

Live at the Village Vanguard, 
EmArcy, 1988 

Tangence, Verve, 1994 

Monterey Jazz Festival. A 
commission from Dizzy 
Gillespie resulted in 
"Perceptions," a large- 
scale work for orchestra 
that was recorded for 
Verve Records. In addition 
to his work as a composer, 
he performed with groups led 
by Miles Davis, Clark Terry, 
and Sonny Stitt, then moved to 
California in 1970. There he immersed 
himself in lucrative television and film scoring. His scores 
can be heard on such television programs as Maybcrry RFD, 
That Girl, Mod Squad, Six Million Dollar Man, and Starsky 
and Hutch. 

In 1987, he returned to his hometown Indianapolis 
and began playing, louring, and recording again. His 
awards include an honorary doctoral degree from Indiana 
University and the Indiana Governor's Arts Award in 1989. 

NEA Jazz Masters 63 

ft «1*v 

?! - 


Born September 9, 1927 in Pontiac, Ml 
Died May 18, 2004 

The propulsive style of drummer Elvin Jones powered 
the John Coltrane Quartet during his six-year stint 
with the group and influenced countless percussion- 
ists that followed him over the past 40 years. As with fellow 
2003 NEA Jazz Master Jimmy Heath, and a number of other 
jazz greats, Elvin Jones was the product of a musical family. 
His brothers include pianist Hank Jones and cornetist Thad 
Jones. The youngest of 10 siblings, Jones began learning the 
drums during his middle school years, studying the styles of 
Chick Webb, Jo Jones, Buddy Rich, and the beboppers that 
followed them, including Kenny Clarke, Max Roach, and 
Art Blakey. 

After serving in the Army from 1946-49, he 
returned to Detroit, immersing himself in the fertile 
jazz scene there in the early 1950s, before heading 
to New York in 1955. After playing with Harry 
"Sweets" Edison. J.J. Johnson, and Sonny Rollins 
at bis famous Village Vanguard session, he joined 
the John Coltrane Quartet in 1960. His dynamic 
drumming pushed Coltrane's improvisations to 
new heights, and provided innovative accompani- 
ment to the rest of the rhythm section: pianist 
McCoy Tyner and bassists Jimmy Garrison and 
Reggie Workman. 

In 1965, Jones left the Coltrane group and formed his 
own band, a trio with Jimmy Garrison and reed player Joe 
Farrell, beginning a series of recordings for the Blue Note 
label. Since that time, Jones' trios and his latter day bands, 
known as the Jazz Machine, have welcomed numerous 
adventurous players. These have ranged from Steve 
Grossman, Sonny Fortune, and Roland Prince to such 
younger players as Delfeayo Marsalis. Nicholas Payton. 

David Sanchez, and John Coltrane's son Ravi. 
Jones frequently performed free for 
schools and other institutions, and 
at jazz clinics. Aside from music, 
he made his acting debut as 
Job Caine in the 1970 film 

John Coltrane, The Complete Africa/Brass 
Sessions, Impulse!, 1961 

Poly-Currents, Blue Note, 1969 

David Murray, Special Quartet, Columbia, 1990 

It Don't Mean A Thing, Enja, 1993 

Bill Frisell. With Dave Holland and Elvin 
Jones, Nonesuch, 2001 

Zachariah. He toured exten- 
sively with his group Jazz 
Machine and made later 
recordings with Cecil Taylor. 
Dewey Redman. Dave 
Holland, and Bill Frisell. 

64 NEA Jazz Masters 




Born July 31. 1918 in Vicksburg, MS 

Hank Jones, a member of the famous jazz family that 
includes brothers cometist Thad and drummer 
Elvin, has served as a pianist in a vast array of set- 
tings, always lending a distinctive, swinging sensibility to 
the sessions. Although born in Mississippi, Jones grew up 
in Pontiac, Michigan, listening to such performers as Earl 
Hines, Fats Waller, and Art Tatum. A performer by 
the time he was 13, Jones played with territory 
bands that toured Michigan and Ohio. In one 
such band he met saxophonist Lucky 
Thompson, who got him a job in the Hot 
Lips Page band in 1944, prompting Jones' 
move to New York. 

Once in New York, Jones became 
exposed to bebop, embracing the style 
in his playing and even recording with 
Charlie Parker. Meanwhile, he took jobs 
with such bandleaders as John Kirby, 
Coleman Hawkins, Andy Kirk. Billy 
Eckstine, and Howard McGhee. He toured 
with Norman Granz's Jazz at the Philharmonic 
from 1947-51. As a result, he became Ella 
Fitzgerald's pianist, touring with her from 1948-53. These 
experiences served to broaden his musical palette and 

A consummate freelancer, Jones found work with artists 
such as Benny Goodman. Artie Shaw, Milt Jackson, and 


Julian "Cannonball" Adderley. The versatility Jones 
acquired through such affiliations served him well when he 
joined the staff of CBS as a studio musician, remaining for 
17 years. Although his studio work found him working on 
productions like the Ed Sullivan Show, Jones continued his 
touring and recording experiences in a variety of settings. 
His broad range and ability to fit in different settings 
also landed him in Broadway stage bands, where 

The Jazz Trio of Hank Jones, 
Savoy, 1955 

Lazy Afternoon, 
Concord Jazz, 1989 

Upon Reflecm, Verve, 1993 

Charlie Haden/Hank Jones, Steal Away, 
Verve, 1994 

For My Father, Justin Time, 2004 

he served as pianist and conductor for such 
shows as Ain 't Misbehavin '. 

Jones was the first regular pianist in 
brother Thad's co-led orchestra with Mel 
Lewis, beginning in 1966. Throughout 
the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, Jones con- 
tinued to be much in demand for record 
dates and tours. Among his affiliations 
was the Great Jazz Trio, a cooperative 
unit with Ron Carter and Tony Williams, 
who were later supplanted by Buster 
Williams and Ben Riley. Jones has also expe- 
rienced his share of piano duos, with the likes 
of Tommy Flanagan — with whom he became 
acquainted when both were developing around the Detroit 
area — George Shearing, and John Lewis. As a leader and 
valued sideman, Hank Jones can bo found on thousands 
of recordings. 

NEA Jazz Masters 65 




Born July 10, 1911 in Chicago, IL 
Died September 3, 1985 

Io Jones' uncanny way around the drums, ability to truly 
swing a band without ever overpowering it, and slick, 
smiling sense of showmanship made him one of the 
most influential of the early swing band drummers. Jones 
made an art form of the use of brushes on the drum kit, with 
accents timely and thoroughly appropriate for whatever 
band with which he played. Jo Jones is credited 


with the transfer of the essential pulse of jazz 
music from the bass drum to the hi-hat cym- 
bal, influencing such modern drummers as 
Max Roach. His technique was to leave 
the hi-hat cymbals just slightly apart, 
which produced a sound different from 
the relative staccato approach of his 
predecessors. Never one to engage in 
extended solos, his delight was in driv- 
ing a band with his incomparable swing. 

Jones grew up in Alabama, touring 
u ith various shows and carnivals as a tap 
dancer and instrumentalisl while still in his 
teens, I lis first major jazz job came when he 
joined the territory hand known as Walter Page's Blue 
Devils in Oklahoma City in the late 1920s. Jones stayed in 
the Midwest for quite sonic time, working with trumpeter 
Lloyd Hunter ,md moving to Kansas City in 1933. 

.^•gD DISCOq 


Count Basie, The Original American 
Decca Recordings, MCA, 1937-39 

The Essential Jo Jones, 
Vanguard, 1955 

Jo Jones Trio, Fresh Sounds, 1 959 

Jo Jones Sextet, Fresh Sounds, 1 960 

The Main Man, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1976 

In 1934 came the affiliation with which his artistry is 
forever identified, drumming with the Count Basie band, 
with whom he worked on and off for over 15 years. Jones' 
drumming was the final ingredient to what became known 
as the "Ail-American Rhythm Section." Besides Jones, this 
included guitarist Freddie Green, bassist Walter Page. 

and Basie on piano. They provided the irresistible 
pulse that drove the Count Basie band of the 
day to be called the swinging-est band in the 
land. Jones served two years in the Army 
from 1944-46. then returned to die Basie 
band, where he remained a full-time 
member until 1948. 

Thereafter, though frequently 
reuniting with Basie on special occa- 
sions, Jones became a freelance drum- 
mer. He played on tours with Jazz at the 
Philharmonic, and recorded with many 
of the jazz greats, including Billie Holiday. 
Duke Ellington, Johnny Hodges. Teddy 
Wilson, Lester Young. Art Tatum. and Benin 
Goodman. Jones was constantly in demand for a 
variety of all-star swing sessions and made numerous 
recordings as a highly valued sideman. 

66 NEA Jazz Masters 


Born May 28, 1898 in Newport, KY 
Died December 11, 1992 


Andy Kirk, though virtually unknown nowadays out- 
side of jazz circles, led one of the hottest swing 
bands in the country during the 1930s, rivaling 
Basie's. His band, the Clouds of Joy, also introduced some 
of the biggest names in jazz, most notably Mary 
Lou Williams. 

Kirk grew up in Denver, Colorado, 
where he came under the musical tutelage 
of Paul Whiteman's father, Wilberforce 
Whiteman. His first job, as bass saxo- 
phonist and tuba player, came with the 
George Morrison Orchestra in 1918. In 
1925 he relocated to Dallas and joined 
Terence Holder's Dark Clouds of Joy, a 
band he eventually took over in 1929, 
changing the name to the Clouds of Joy 
(sometimes being known as the Twelve 
Clouds of Joy, depending on the number 
of musicians in the bandj. 

He moved the band to Kansas City, where they 
made their first recordings in 1929-39, including Mary Lou 
Williams' "Froggy Bottom," which has been covered count 
less times since. Kirk's band was highly popular, becom- 
ing — along with the Count Basie hand, the Benny Moteii 


Classics, 1929-31 

Classics, 1936-37 

Classics, 1937-38 

Kansas City Bounce, 
Black and Blue, 1939-40 

Classics, 1940-42 

Orchestra, and Jay McShann's band — one of the purveyors 
of the Kansas City swing sound. Particularly popular was 
their recording of "Until the Real Thing Comes Along" 
in 1936. 

Although the leader of the band, Kirk usually 
was not a soloist, utilizing the talent in his band 
for the spotlight instead. His genius lay in 
realizing how best to make use of his band 
members' skills. Realizing the awesome 
writing and arranging aptitude of Mary 
Lou Williams, for example, he made her 
the chief composer and arranger for the 
Clouds of Joy from 1929-42. Other 
notable band members who Kirk high- 
lighted as soloists included Shorty Baker, 
Don Byas, Kenny Kersey, Howard 
McGhee, Fats Navarro, and Dick Wilson. 
The band continued to tour and record until 
disbanding in 1948. 

Kirk led another hand in California in the early 
1950s, then went into other professions. In the 1970s he led 
pickup bands on occasion, though ho spent the remainder of 
his life working for his Jehovah's Witness church. 

NEA Jazz Mastei-s 67 


Born May 3, 1920 in La Grange, IL 
Died March 29, 2001 


Iohn Lewis' artistry flowered during his historic tenure 
as musical director of the longest continuing small 
ensemble in the annals of jazz, the Modern Jazz Quartet, 
vvith whom he was able to realize his unique vision of 
fusing blues, bebop, and classical music into an artful, 
elegant balance. 

Raised in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Lewis' mother was 
a primary musical influence. After high school, Lewis 
joined the Army in 1942, where he met drummer Kenny 
Clarke and trumpeter/bandleader Dizzy Gillespie. 

In 1946, Lewis and Clarke joined the rhythm section of 
Gillespie's pioneer big band, which included vibraphonist 
Milt Jackson and bassist Ray Brown. The Gillespie band 
provided a convenient canvas for Lewis to write composi- 
tions and craft arrangements, utilizing the talents of some of 
the finest young musicians in jazz. Lewis' first extended 
composition for Gillespie was his 1947 "Toccata for 
1 1 umpnt." which premiered at Carnegie Hall. Other early 
' ontributions to the Gillespie book included Lewis' arrange- 
ments of the tunes "Two Bass Hit" and "Emanon." 

Coinciding with his work with the Gillespie band, Lewis 

atinued bis music studies at the Manhattan School of 
Musil . eventuallj earning his master's degree in 1953. Lewis 
also worked with other j.izz greats in between tours with 
Gillespie's band, in< hiding serving as pianist and arranger for 
the Miles I).i\ is rei ording, Birth o) the Cool, in 1950. 

In 1951, the Gillespie band rhythm section of 1946 — 
Lewis. ( llarke, [at ksnn. and Brown — reunited in the ret onl- 
ine studio .is the Mill [ai kson Quartet, later becoming the 
Modem [azz Quartet By the time those recordings were 

68 NEA Jazz Masters 


Modern Jazz Quartet, Django, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1953-55 

Grand Encounter. Blue Note, 1956 

The Wonderful WorlcWf Jazz, Atlantic. 1£ 

Kansas City Breaks, DRG, 1982 

Private Concert, EmArcy, 1 990 

issued, Percy Heath had replaced 
Brown. In 1954, the Modern 
Jazz Quartet began touring 
and Connie Kay replaced 
Clarke on drums the follow- 
ing year. Lewis would use 
his time in the more than 
40 years with MJQ to hone 
his composing and arrang- 
ing skills, experimenting 
with form and sound, while 
collaborating with guests rang- 
ing in diversity from Sonny 
Rollins to the Beaux Arts String 
Quartet to singer Diahann Carroll to full 
orchestras. Perhaps his most widely interpreted composi- 
tion is "Django," which he wrote in honor of the legendary 
Gypsy guitarist Django Reinhardt. 

Throughout his career. John Lewis had written for a vast 
number of musical configurations in a dizzying array of 
styles, from solo piano to symphonies, ballets to film and 
television scores. Lewis was part of the first wave of what 
composer Gunther Schuller dubbed the Third Stream — an 
effort at forging a third stream through the fusing of the two 
primary streams: jazz and European classical music. 

As an educator, he served as director of faculty at the 
Lenox School of Jazz, where he first championed Ornette 
Coleman: on the trustee board of the Manhattan School of 
Music: and in faculty positions at Harvard University and 
( Sty College of New York. 



Strongly influenced by jazz icons Billie Holiday and 
Louis Armstrong, both of whom she met early in 
her career, Abbey Lincoln's distinctive vocal style, 
thought-provoking writing, and spirited personality have 
secured her a place among the jazz luminaries. 

Born in Chicago and raised in rural Michigan, Lincoln 
began performing while still in high school. In 1951, she 
moved to the West Coast, working under various names 
(Gaby Lee, Anna Marie, Gaby Wooldridge) before settling on 
Abbey Lincoln. She recorded her first album with jazz great 
Benny Carter in 1956 and appeared in the 1957 film, The 
Girl Can 't Help It. Lincoln then recorded a series of albums 
for the Riverside label with drummer 
Max Roach, who had introduced 





Max Roach, We Insist! Freedom 
Now Suite, Candid, 1960 

Straight AheaijXatviiti, 1961 

Abbey Sings Billieltol. 1&2, Enja, 1987 

The World Is Falling Down, Verve. 1 990 

It's Me. Verve, 2003 

her to the label's owner. 

Lincoln's collaborations 

with Roach (to whom she 

was married from 1 962- 

70) lasted more than a 

decade, and included 


Born August 6, 1930 in Chicago, IL 

the seminal recording, Freedom Now Suite in 1960. This 
was the beginning of a more social and political activist 
approach to her music. Over the years, she has worked with 
some of the biggest names in jazz, including Sonny Rollins, 
Eric Dolphy, Coleman Hawkins, Miles Davis, Jackie 
McLean, Clark Terry, and Stan Getz. 

In addition to her music, Lincoln also pursued acting, 
appearing in the films Nothing But A Man and For Love of 
Ivy and on television series, such as Mission: Impossible 
and the Flip Wilson Show. She also taught drama at the 
California State University. She did not record any albums 
as a leader from 1962-72, but made a grand return to jazz 
with her 1973 recording, People In Me. her first album of all 
original material. 

Lincoln returned to her influences in 1987, recording 
two albums in tribute to Billie? Holiday, and then a series of 
recordings for Verve throughout the 1990s that showcased 
her writing prowess. Her emotionally honest, mature style 
is still revered, and Lincoln continues to perform and tour 
with a new trio. 

NEA Jazz Mastei-s 69 



Born January 13, 1926 Kansas City, MO 
Died April 23, 1999 



Although a formidable trombone player, Melba Liston 
was primarily known for her arrangements, espe- 
cially working with Randy Weston, and composi- 
tions. Growing up mostly in Los Angeles, some of her first 
work came during the 1940s with two West Coast masters: 
bandleader Gerald Wilson and tenor saxophonist Dexter 
Gordon. In Gordon's small combos, she began to 
blossom as a trombone soloist, and Gordon 
wrote a song as a tribute to her, "Mischievous 
Lady." Despite her obvious talent as a 
soloist, Liston became an in-demand big 
band section player, which likely fueled 
her later work as an arranger. During 
the 1940s. Liston also worked with 
the Count Basie band and with 
Billie Holiday. 

Following a brief hiatus from music. 
she joined Dizzy Gillespie's bebop big 
band In 1950. and again for two of 
Gillespie's State Department tours in 1956 
and 1957. which included her arrangements of 
"Annie's Dance" and "Stella by Starlight" in per- 
formani es. She started her own all-woman quintet in 1958 
working in New York and Bermuda, before joining Quincv 
[ones' hand in 1959 to play the musical Free and Easy. 
She staved in Jones' louring hand as one of two woman 
members until 1961, 




Dizzy Gillespie, Dizzy In South 
America, Vol. I &2. CAP, 1956 

Quincy Jones, Q Live in Paris, 
Warner Brothers, 1960 

Bandy Weston, Tanjah, Verve, 1973 

Bandy Weston/Melba Liston, 
Volcano Blues, Verve, 1993 

Bandy Weston, Khepera, 
Verve, 1998 

In the 1950s, Liston began a partnership Uiat she would 
return to on and off for more than 40 years. From the 
seminal 1959 recording Little Niles through 1998's Khepera. 
Liston was the arranger on many of Randy Weston's albums. 
Her arrangements, with a powerful base of brass and percus- 
sion and expressive solo performances, helped shape and 
embellish Weston's compositions. 

Other affiliations during the 1960s included 
co-leading a band with trumpeter Clark Terry. 
and writing for the Duke Ellington orches- 
tra, singers Tony Bennett and Eddie Fisher, 
and the Buffalo Symphony Orchestra. 
During die 1970s, she worked with youth 
orchestras in Los Angeles, continuing to 
write for Basie, Ellington, and singer 
Abbey Lincoln. Liston also became a 
staff arranger for die Motown label. Later 
that decade she took up residence in 
Jamaica, where she taught at the University 
of the West Indies and was director of 
Popular Music Studies at the Jamaica Institute 
of Music. 
Slowed by a stroke in 1985, which effectively ended her 
playing career, she was able to resume work as a composer 
and arranger in the 1990s through the aid of computer 
technology. Liston's career helped pave the way for 
women in jazz in roles oilier than as vocalists. 

70 NEA Jazz Masters 



Born May 17, 1931 in New York, NY 

Known in the jazz community as "J ac ki e Mac," Jackie 
McLean has been a stalwart, enduring force in jazz 
since the early 1950s, and a distinguished educator 
since 1968. Long the possessor of one of the most recogniz- 
able alto saxophone sounds and styles, he has explored the 
cutting edge of jazz creativity. 

McLean grew up in a musical family, his father being a 
guitarist for bandleader Tiny Bradshaw and stepfather own- 
ing a record store. By age 15, he chose the alto saxophone 
as his instrument. Jackie's earliest studies came through the 
tutelage of Foots Thomas, Cecil Scott, Joe Napoleon, and 
Andy Brown in his native New York. Another of his infor- 
mal teachers was piano master Bud Powell. McLean's most 
significant early band affiliation came during the years 1948- 
49, when he joined a Harlem neighborhood band led by 
tenor saxophonist Sonny Rollins and including pianist 
Kenny Drew. McLean's stints with the Miles Davis band, 
between 1949-53, yielded his first recording sessions as a 
sideman and marked the beginning of what became known 
as hard bop, an advanced progression on bebop. 

During McLean's busiest period as a sideman in the 
1950s, he worked with pianist George Wellington, drummer 
Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers, and bassist Charles Mingus. 
McLean's first recording as a leader came in 1955, when he 
CUl a quintet date lor the Ad Lib label. I lis intense; playing 
has lit in well with both hard bop and the avant-garde, two 
schools ol jazz in which McLean has experimented. 

Throughout the 1960s, McLean continued to work with 
his own bands and occasional all-star aggregations, but also 

4, 5 and 6, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1956 

New Soil. Blue Note, 1959 

Let Freedom Ring, Blue Note, 1962 

The Jackie Mac Attack Live, 
Verve, 1991 

Nature Boy, 
Blue Note, 2000 

became more interested in social 

issues. In 1959-60 he acted in 

the off-Broadway play The 

Connection, a cautionary tale 

dealing with jazz and the 

perils of drug abuse, which 

evolved into a 1961 film. 

In 1967 he took his music 

into prisons, working as 

a music instructor and 

counselor. Then in 1968, he 

moved to Hartford, Connecticut 

to take a teaching position at 

Hartt College of Music of the 

University of Hartford. It was in Hartford 

that McLean and his wife Dollie founded the Artists 

Collective, a widely hailed combination community 

center/fine arts school, primarily aimed at troubled youth. 

The Artists Collective opened a beautiful new building in 

1999 following years of residence in a former schoolhouse 

in one of Hartford's most disadvantaged neighborhoods. 

At the University of I lartford, McLean established 
the school's African American Music Department and 
subsequent Jazz Studies degree program, which was 
renamed The Jackie McLean Institute of Jazz on November 
17, 2000. The program has instructed a number of excep- 
tional young jazz musicians, including saxophonist Antoine 
Roney, drummer Eric MacPherson, trombonist Steve Davis, 
and pianist Alan Palmer, 

NE A Jazz Masters 7 1 



Born March 20, 1918 in Slough, England 



Best known as the host of the weekly national radio 
program Piano Jazz, Marian McPartland has helped to 
popularize jazz with her intricate knowledge and 
prowess on the piano. She has made the program one of the 
most popular in the history of public radio. 

Born to a musical mother who played classical piano, 
she studied at the famed Guildhall School of Music 
in London. Her first professional activity was as 
part of a touring vaudeville act featuring four 
pianists. During World War II, she enter- 
tained the troops and while playing in 
Belgium met her late husband, cornetist 
Jimmy McPartland, whom she married 
in 1945. They relocated to the U.S. in 
1946, whereupon she performed in his 
band in Chicago. She formed her first 
active trio in 1950 for an engagement at 
the limbers in New York. Two years later, 
she began what would be an eight-year res- 
idency al the Hickory House in New York 
with her trio. 

In 1963, she worked with the Benny Goodman 
Sextet, and in 1965 she began her radio career, at WBAI in 


Jazz at the Hickory House, 
Jasmine, 1954 

Marian McPartland's Piano Jazz 
with Guest Bill Evans. Jan Alliance. 

Marian McPartland's Piano Jazz 
with Guest Jay McShann, Jazz Alliance, 1979 

Plays the Benny Carter Songbook, 
Concord, 1990 

Just Friends, Concord, 1 998 

New York. In 1970 she started her own record company. 
Halcyon Records, one of the first jazz women to do so. In 
1979 she began her weeklv program Piano Jazz, the longest 
running syndicated National Public Radio program. An 
intimate program involving just her and a guest — usually a 
pianist — the program has won numerous awards, including 
the Peabody Award. Many of the programs have 
been subsequently released on compact disc. 
As part of the segments, McPartland would 
interview the guest, drawing out colorful 
anecdotes and stories about their careers. 
The shows also included performances 
of McPartland and the guest together. 
Taken as a whole, the series presents a 
formidable history of jazz. 

Her plaving career has also included 
piano tours with such greats as Earl 
Hines. Teddy Wilson. Ellis Larkins. and 
Benny Carter. She has performed with 
symphony orchestras and at many of the 
major jazz festivals, and has received 
numerous awards, including a Down Beat 
Lifetime Achievement award in 1997. 


72 NEA Jazz Masters 



Born April 8. 1920 in New York, NY 

Died November 10, 1994 

Tender and warm with a ballad, Carmen McRae was 
one of the great singers of jazz, finding the depth of 
feeling in the lyrics of the songs she interpreted. 
An accomplished pianist who in her early career accompa- 
nied herself, she occasionally returned to the piano later in 
her career. 

McRae learned piano through private lessons 
and was discovered by Irene Wilson Kitchings, 
a musician and former wife of pianist Teddy 
Wilson. McRae sang with the Benny 
Carter, Count Basie, and Mercer Ellington 
big bands during the 1940s and made her 
recorded debut as Carmen Clarke while 
the wife of drummer Kenny Clarke. 
During the bebop revolution at Minton's 
Playhouse, McRae was an intermission 
pianist, which is likely where she first 
heard Tholonious Monk's music, which 
influenced her piano playing and musical 
sense. In the early 1950s, she worked with the 
Mai Mathews Quintet. She signed her first signif- 
icant recording contract with Uecca in 1954. 

Here to Stay, MCA/GRR 1955-59 

Carmen McRae Sings 

Great American Songwriters, 

MCA/GRR 1955-59 

Sings Lover Man 

& Other Billie Holiday Classics, 

Columbia, 1961 

Carmen Sings Monk, Novus, 1988 

Sarah — Dedicated to You, 
Novus, 1990 

Working as a soloist, she gained wide recognition and 
was often seen in the pantheon of jazz singers that included 
Ella Fitzgerald and Sarah Vaughan, to whom she idolized 
and later paid homage on a recording. Her greatest idol was 
Billie Holiday, whom she feted on record and in perform- 
ances on many occasions. Although she admired these 
singers, she never resorted to sheer mimicry and 
developed her own original style. 

She recorded notably alongside Louis 
Armstrong on Dave Brubeck's extended 
work The Real Ambassadors, a social 
commentary written with his wife Iola. 
She made several film and television 
appearances, and performed as an 
actress in the landmark television series 
Roots. In the late 1980s, she returned 
to her first love, recording a full album 
of Monk's music with lyrics by Jon 
Hendricks, Abbey Lincoln, Mike Ferro, 
Sally Swisher, and Bernie Hanighen. The 
album became one of her signature recordings. 

NEA Jazz Masters 73 



Born January 12, 1916 in Muskogee, OK 

For better or worse, Jay McShann is tied to the legend 
of Charlie Parker. Parker's first real professional 
work was with McShann 's Kansas City band, and 
McShann is credited with helping Parker to hone his 
talents. Arguably more important, McShann — along with 
Andy Kirk's Clouds of Joy. the Bennie Moten Orchestra 
and the great Count Basie bands — shaped and developed 
the Kansas City swing sound that was so popular in the 
1930s and 1940s. 

Known in jazz circles as "Hootie," McShann is for the 
most part a self-taught artist, though he did attend Tuskegee 
Institute. He developed a piano style that drew heavily on 
blues and boogie woogie. McShann's earliest professional 
job came with tenor saxophonist Don Byas in 1931. 
Following his days at Tuskegee, McShann 
played in bands in Oklahoma and Arkansas 
prior to joining a trio with bassist Oliver 
Todd and drummer Elmer Hopkins in 
late 1936 in Kansas City. 

in subsequent months, he worked 
with alto saxophonist Buster Smith 
.ind trumpeter Dee Stewart before 

forming a sextet in 1937. In late 1939. McShann put 
together his first big band. His recording career commenced 
in 1941 with the Decca label, records that often featured 
blues singer Walter Brown. McShann's first New York 
appearance, at the Savoy Ballroom, came in February 1942. 
His band during the height of his popularity included such 
notables as Parker, bassist Gene Ramey, drummer Gus 
Johnson, and saxophonists Paul Quinichette and Jimmy 
Forrest, all of whom McShann used brilliantly as soloists. 
Following service in the Army. McShann reformed his 
band, which played New York spots and traveled west to 
California. Towards the end of the 1940s, McShann's small 
band fronted blues singer Jimmy Witherspoon. 

In the early 1950s, McShann moved his home base back 
to Kansas City, where he continues to reside. In the 
tf&O DISCOGh 1970s and 1980s, McShann experienced a bit of a 


Blues from Kansas City, 
MCA, 1941-43 

1944-46, Classics, 1944-46 
Vine Street Boogie. Black Lion, 1974 

renaissance, with increased recording and per- 
forming opportunities, often with Kansas City 
violinist Claude "Fiddler" Williams, and he 
continues to perform throughout the 

A Tribute to Charlie Parker, 
Music Masters, 1989 

Chiaroscuro, 1997 

74 NEA Jazz Masters 



Born March 26, 1925 in Savannah, GA 

One of the surviving champions of Dizzy Gillespie's 
music, James Moody is an accomplished musician 
on the tenor and alto saxophones, as well as the 
flute, despite being born partially deaf. In addition to his 
instrumental prowess, Moody is an engaging entertainer, 
captivating audiences with his personal charm and wit. 
Although born in Savannah, he was raised in 



Newark, New Jersey. His interest in jazz was 
sparked by a trumpet-playing father who 
gigged in the Tiny Bradshaw band, and he 
took up the alto sax, a gift from his uncle, 
at the age of 16. His first musical training 
came in the Air Force, and after leaving 
the service in 1946 he joined the Dizzy 
Gillespie big band, staying until 1948. 
Gillespie became his musical mentor. In 
1949, he moved to Paris for three years, 
often playing with visiting American musi- 
cians, including the Tadd Dameron-Miles 
Davis band. 

In Sweden he recorded his famous improvi- 
sation on "I'm in the Mood For Love" in 1949. playing 
on an alto saxophone instead of his usual tenor. I lis solo 
was later set to lyrics by Eddie Jefferson and recorded by 
King Pleasure, known as "Moody's Mood for Love," becoming 
a surprise nil in 1952. Throughoul the rest of his career, 

Moody would be more known lor the vocal version oi the 
song based on his solo than for the instrumentaJ version 

C ^D DISCOq/j, 

itself, and obliged requests for the song by singing his 
famous solo. 

Through the 1950s and 1960s, he led his own bands, and 
worked alongside other saxophonists, notably Gene Ammons 
and Sonny Stitt, with whom he co-led a three-tenor sax band. 

In 1963 he returned to the Dizzy Gillespie small group, 
where he largely remained until 1971. In 1975, 



James Moody and His Swedish 
Crowns, Dragon, 1949 

Last Train from Overbrook, 
GRP/Chess. 1954-55 

Moody's Panj[e\atc, 1995 

Moody Plays Mancini, 
Warner Brothers, 1997 

Savoy Jazz, 2003 

he moved to Las Vegas and worked numerous 
hotel and casino shows with singers and 
comics, picking up the clarinet along the 
way In 1979, he left Las Vegas and 
moved back to New York to lead his 
own quintet. 

Then in 1989 he moved to San 
Diego, working as a consummate soloist 
and member of all-star touring units. In 
the 1990s, he teamed up again with his 
lifelong friend Dizzy Gillespie to tour 
Europe and the United States as a member 
of the l Inited Nations Orchestra. He continues 
to tour worldwide and experiment with his 
music, sometimes including synthesizers and strings 
on his recordings. He is sought-after on college and university 
campuses for master classes, workshops, and Lectures, and 
has received honorary doctoral degrees from the Florida 
Memorial College and the Berk lee College of Music, In 1997. 
he played an acting role in the Clint Hast wood lilni Midnight 
in the (kirdan of (iood and Evil. 

NEA Jazz Mastei-s 75 

Born October 18, 1919 in Chicago, IL 

Anita O'Day's unique sound and swinging rhythmic 
sense put her in the upper echelon of jazz singers, 
as skillful with ballads as with scatting and liberal 
interpretations of standard songs. Her career spans the late 
swing and bebop eras, inspiring many singers who followed 
her, such as June Christy, Chris Connor, and Helen 
Merrill. She began her performing career as 

tion until 1943. In 1944 she joined Stan Kenton's band. 
She then re-joined Krupa in 1945, remaining there until 
1946, when she began a solo career. In the mid-1950s she 
made a few notable albums for the Verve label, demonstrat- 
ing the power of her vocals. 

In 1958 her appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival, 
replete with characteristic big hat, caused a sensation. 

a ballroom dance contest winner in the <$& ^^ ^ e provided one of the highlights of the subse- 

rment film i 

1930s, which is when she adopted the 
stage name O'Day. At 19, she began 
singing professionally in clubs 
around Chicago. 

In 1941 she joined Gene 
Krupa's big band, recording a 
memorable duet with Roy Eldridge 
on "Let Me Off Uptown," one of the 
first interracial vocal duets on 
record. She also may have been the 
first feminist big band singer, refusing 
to appeal in the standard gown and 
gloves, instead opting for band jacket and 
short skirt. She stayed with the Krupa organiza 

The Complete Recordings, 1949-50, 
Baldwin Street Music, 1949-50 

Swings Cole Porter with Billy May, 
Verve, 1552-59 

Anita Sings the Winners, 
Verve, 1956-62 

Anita Sings the Most, Verve, 1 957 

Rules of the Road, Pablo, 1993 

quent film of the festival, Jazz on a Summer's 
Day. From that point on she worked mainly on 
the club circuit with her own groups. 

Always a hit in Japan, she made her first 
tour there in 1964, returning on several occa- 
sions. Frustrated with record label indiffer- 
ence to her artistry, she developed her own 
record labels. In the 1980s and 1990s, she 
continued to work the club and jazz festival 
circuits, including a concert at Carnegie Hall in 
1985 to celebrate her 50 years in jazz and notable 
performances at the Vine Street Bar & Grill in Los 
Angeles in 1992. 

76 NEA Jazz Masters 

^ ^iJ 





Born January 10, 1924 in New Land, NC 

Max Roach is one of the two leading drummers of 
the bebop era (along with Kenny Clarke) and has 
remained one of the leading musicians, com- 
posers, and bandleaders in jazz ever since the 1940s. His 
often biting political commentary and strong intellect, not to 
mention his rhythmic innovations, have kept him at the 
vanguard of jazz for more than 50 years. 

Roach grew up in a household where gospel music was 
quite prominent. His mother was a gospel singer and he 
began drumming in a gospel ensemble at age 10. Roach's 
formal study of music took him to the Manhattan School of 
Music. In 1942, he became house drummer at Monroe's 
Uptown House, enabling him to play and interact with some 
of the giants of the bebop era, such as Charlie Parker, Dizzy 
Gillespie, Thelonious Monk, and Bud Powell. Roach would 
later record with Parker, Gillespie, Powell, and bassist 
Charles Mingus at the historic Massey Hall concert in 1953. 
Throughout the 1940s, Roach continued to branch out in 
his playing, drumming with Benny Carter, Stan Getz, Allen 
Eager, and Miles Davis. In 1952, he and Mingus collabo- 
rated to create their own record label, Debut Records. 
In 1954, Roach began a short-lived but crucial band with 
incendiary trumpeter Clifford Brown. This historic: band, 
which ended abruptly with Brown's tragic death in 1956, 
also included saxophonists Harold Land and Sonny Rollins. 
In the late 1950s, Roach began adding political commen- 
tary to his recordings, starting with Deeds Not Words. I in I 
coming into sharper focus with We Insist! Freedom Now Suite 





Clifford Brown and Max Roach, 
At Basin Steet, EmArcy, 1956 

We Insist! Freedom Now Suite, 
Candid, 1960 

M'Boom, Columbia, 1979 

To The Max, Rhino, 1990-91 

Explorations to the Mth Degree, 
Slam, 1994 

in 1960, on which he collabo- 
rated with singer-lyricist 
Oscar Brown, Jr. From 
then on he has been an 
eloquent spokesman in 
the area of racial and 
political justice. 

Roach continued to 
experiment with his 
sound, eschewing the use 
of the piano or other chord- 
ing instruments in his bands 
for the most part from the late 
1960s on. His thirst for experimenta- 
tion has led to collaborations with seemingly disparate; 
artists, including duets with saxophonist Anthony Braxton 
and pianist Cecil Taylor, as well as partnerships with 
pianist Abdullah Ibrahim and saxophonist Archie; Shepp. 

As a drum soloist he; has few peers in terms of innova- 
tions, stemming from his deeply personal sound and 
approach. His proclivities in the area of multiethnic percus- 
sion have flowered with his intermittent percussion ensem- 
ble M'Boom, founded in 1970. A broad-based percussionist 
who was a pioneer in establishing a fixed pulse on the ride 
cymbal instead of the bass drum, Roach has also collabo- 
rated with voice, string, and brass ensembles, lectured on 
college i ampuses extensively, and composed music for 
dance, theater, film, and television. 

NEA Jazz Mastei*s 77 


Born September 7, 1930 in New York, NY 


With more than 50 years in jazz, Sonny Rollins' tow- 
ering achievements on the tenor saxophone are 
many, and he continues to be one of the most 
exciting and fiery players in concert. Inspired by the exam- 
ple of his brother's pursuit of music, Rollins began piano les- 
sons at age nine. At 14 he picked up the alto saxophone, 
and switched to the tenor two years later. Soon he was play- 
ing dances in a band of youngsters in his New York commu- 
nilv. which included Jackie McLean, Kenny Drew, and Art 
Taylor. Rollins' first recording was made alongside the bop 
singer Babs Gonzales in 1949. Later that year he played at 
sessions with J. }. Johnson and Bud Powell, recording his 
song "Audubon" with Johnson. 

In the 1950s, Rollins began by serving as a sideman on 
sessions with Miles Davis, Thelonious Monk, Art Farmer, 
and the Modern Jazz Quartet. In late 1955, while living in 
Chicago, he began one of his most fruitful band affiliations 
when he stood in for Harold Land in the superb Clifford 
Brown-Max Roach Quintet al (he Bee Hive club. He 
remained a regular member until Brown's tragic June 1956 
death from an auto accident. 

Rollins continued to record, mainly for Prestige, where 
his output was some of the finest music recorded in the 
mid-1950s on anj label. Among his recorded highlights 

during this period were Tenor Madness, which included an 
eni ounter with John Coltrane; Saxophone Colossus, a 
sparkling album that introduced his most noted composi- 
tion, "St. Thomas," which honored his parents' Virgin 
Islands roots; and Way Out West, which took seemingly 

mundane songs like "I'm an Old Cowhand" and spun them 
out with extraordinary improvisations. 

By 1959, Rollins had grown impatient with the vagaries 
of the jazz scene and took a hiatus. He would often practice 
his horn deep into the night on the upper reaches of the 
Williamsburg Bridge, which crosses the East River from 
Manhattan to Brooklyn. In 1961 he returned to the scene, 
refreshed and playing better than ever. He made a series of 
recordings for the RCA label with musicians such as Jim 
Hall, Don Cherry. Billy Higgins. and Herbie Hancock, and 
also began his long-term employment of bassist Bob 

In London in 1966, he composed and recorded a sound- 
track album for the film Alfie for the Impulse! label, which 
brought him some popularity beyond jazz 
audiences. By 1968 Rollins again 
required a break from the scene, 
returning in 1971. He has been 
playing and growing ever 


since, continuing his long 
affiliation with the Fantasy 
Family of labels (including 
Prestige and Milestone) and 
working almost exclusively 
on concert stages. Sonny 
Rollins' recordings have con- 
tinued to reflect his interest in 
Caribbean rhythms, particularly 
the calypso. 

Saxophone Colossus, 
Original Jazz Classics. 1956 

A Night at the Village Vanguard. 
Blue Note, 1957 

The Complete R&Wictor Recordings. 
RCA Victor, 1962-64 

Silver City. Milestone, 1972-95 

Without A Song: The 9/1 1 Concert. 
Milestone, 2001 

78 NEA Jazz Masters 




Bom June 23, 1923 in Cincinnati, OH 

George Russell is first and foremost a composer rather 
than an instrumentalist, and is one of the most 
important jazz theorists of the latter half of the 20th 
century. He first expressed himself musically on the drums 
in the drum and bugle corps. After high school, Russell 
attended Wilberforce University, where he found gigs 
playing drums at local clubs. Russell's study of 
composing and arranging increased while he 
was bedridden with a case of tuberculosis at 
19. It was during this time that he began 
formulating his unprecedented musical 

While his first arrangements were for 
the A.B Townsend Orchestra, a Cincinnati 
dance band, Russell's initial major band 
affiliation was as a drummer with Benny 
Carter. Later he found work arranging 
with the Earl Hinos band. His first major 
score was "Cubano Be, Cubano Bop," an 
Afro-Cuban piece written for the; Dizzy 
Gillespie big band. Russell followed that wilh 
charts for Lee Konitz ("Ezz-thetic" and "Odjenar") and 
Buddy DeFranco ("A Bird in Igor's Yard"). He continued 
his advanced composition study with Stefan VVolpe. I lis 
theory, 'The Lydicin Chromatic: Concept of Tonal Organization 
was eventually published in hook form in the mid-1950s. 
Russell's concept involves a composition system based on 
using the Lydian scale, rather than the major scale, as the 
basis for analysis and composition. 

Music theoreticians hailed this as a breakthrough, being 
perhaps the first major contribution by a jazz musician to 

the field of musical theory. Russell's continued refinement 
and study of this concept eventually led him to academia 
when he taught at the Lenox School of Jazz during 1958-59. 
In the meantime, his theories on modes influenced Miles 
Davis and Bill Evans (who studied with Russell), leading to 
the creation of Davis' masterpiece, Kind of Blue. In the 
early 1960s, Russell led several small groups, 
which included musicians such as Eric 
Dolphy and David Baker, and made some 
significant recordings before moving to 
Scandinavia. There he continued to 
refine his theories and work with 
Scandinavian musicians, among them 
Jan Carbarek and Terje Rypdal, before 
returning to the U.S. in 1969. That year 
he took a teaching position at New 
England Conservatory of Music at the 
invitation of then president Gunther 
Schuller. In the late 1970s, Russell formed 
big bands to play his music, creating his 
Living Time Orchestra in 1978. The Orchestra 
makes frequent tours of Europe, including residencies 
at the Perugia Jazz festival. 

In addition to teaching and lecturing at other 
conservatories and universities, Russell has been the 
recipient of numerous awards, honors, and grants, including 

an NEA Composition fellowship, a MacArthur award, two 
Guggenheim fellowships, and election to the Royal Swedish 
Academy. Russell published the revised and expanded 

edition of his Lydian Chromatil Concept in 2001. 

NEA Jazz Masters 79 

Jazz Workshop, RCA Victor, 1956 

New York, NY, Impulse!, 1958 

Ezz-Thetics, Original Jazz Classics, 1961 

The African Game, Blue Note, 1983 

The 80th Birthday Concert, 
Concept, 2003 








Bom May 23, 1910 in New York, NY 
Died December 30, 2004 



Self Portrait, Bluebird/RCA, 1936-54 

Begin theBeguine, Bluebird/RCA, 1938-41 

The Complete Gramercy Five Sessions, 
Bluebird/RCA, 1940-45 

Artie Shaw at the Hollywood Palladium, 
HEP, 1941 

The Last Recordings: Rare and 

Unreleased, Music Masters, 


Immensely popular and star- 
tlingly innovative, Artie Shaw 
rose to prominence in the 
1930s as a swing band leader, 
master clarinetist, and bound- 
ary-crossing artist, who infused 
jazz with the influences of 
modem European composers. 

Born in 1910, he left his 
native New Haven, Connecticut, 
at age 15 to tour as a jazz musician. 
Though based in Cleveland, where he 
wrote his first arrangements for bandleader 
Austin Wylie, he later made important road trips with Irving 
Aaronson's band. The band took him to Chicago, where he 
played in jam sessions and first heard recordings by 
Stravinsky and Debussy. Next, in 1929, the Aaronson band 
brought him to New York, where he played in Harlem jam 
sessions and came under the influence of Willie "The Lion" 
Smith. I lo decided to stay on and at age 21 became one of 
New York's most successful reed players for radio and 
re< ording sessions. 

I Ee in, nlc liis breakthrough in his first appearance as a 
I'lir at a 1936 swing concert at Broadway's Imperial 
Theater. To fill .i spot between headliners, be performed his 
chambei < omposition "Interlude in B Flat," scored for string 
quartet, three rhythm instruments, and clarinet, which ere- 



ated a sensation. He then added two trumpets, trom- 
bone, saxophone, and a singer, signed a recording 
contract, and led his first orchestra into New 
York's Lexington Hotel. During 1938. with a more 
conventional swing band line-up (which briefly 
included Billie Holiday as vocalist), he recorded 
Cole Porter's "Begin the Beguine," which pro- 
pelled him to die forefront of big band leaders. 
After die United States entered World War II. 
Artie Shaw enlisted in the Navy and was soon lead- 
ing a service band drroughout die Pacific war zone. 
Upon returning stateside, he organized a new band in 
1944, widi which he toured and made recordings drat 
included the classic "Little Jazz." featuring Roy Eldridge on 
trumpet. Over the next 10 years. Artie Shaw worked in 
Hollywood, toured extensively (including appearances at 
Carnegie Hall and a performance of Mozart's Clarinet 
Concerto with Leonard Bernstein and the New York 
Philharmonic), and continued to record, both with his big 
bands and with a small group named Gramercy Five. 

Although he retired from music in 1954. Artie Shaw 
continued to enjoy popularity through his recordings and 
also through a big band fronted by Dick Johnson bearing 
Artie Shaw's name. 'Hie library of the University of Arizona 
holds his collection of scores. 

80 NEA Jazz Mastere 



Born August 25, 1933 in Newark, NJ 

Equally renowned for his compositions as for his saxo- 
phone playing, Wayne Shorter has contributed many 
songs to the jazz canon while participating in some of 
the major changes in jazz music over the last 40 years, and 
has received six Grammy Awards for his recordings. 

Shorter's musical pursuits started on the clarinet, at age 
16, evolving to the tenor saxophone soon thereafter. Shorter 
majored in music education at New York University from 
1956-58, working for a short while with Horace Silver in 
1956. After serving in the Army, he joined Maynard 
Ferguson's band for a couple of months in 1959, followed by 
one of his most fruitful jobs: playing with Art Blakey's Jazz 
Messengers. He remained in the Messengers until 1964, 
establishing himself as both composer and saxophonist, and 
began making his own records, first for Vee Jay, then for the 
Blue Note label. His three releases for Blue Note in 1964, 
Night Dreamer, fuju, and Speak No Evil, are considered the 
quintessential Blue Note sound: sophisticated structures and 
rhythms, strong melodies, exceptional playing. 

He left Blakey in 1964 to assume another productive 
affiliation with the Miles Davis Quintet, where he remained 
until 1970. While with Davis, he further solidified his posi- 
tion as one of the most intriguing composers of his time, 
contributing tunes such as "Nefertili," "fall," "ESP," 
"Paraphernalia," and "Sanctuary." He also developed his 
sound, a mixture of technique and emotion, able lo find the 
appropriate mood in his playing to 111 the song. During the 

latter stages of his Davis tenure, he took up the soprano sax- 
ophone, which thereafter often became his principle horn. 

In 1971 he and pianist Joe Zawinul, who also had been 
part of Davis' recording sessions in the late-1960s to early- 
1970s, formed one of the pioneering jazz fusion bands, 
Weather Report. The band stayed together for 15 years 
through several different permutations, engaging electronics 
and numerous ethnic influences and furthering Shorter's repu- 
tation as a composer. The band scored a major hit, "Birdland," 
in 1977 on their bestselling record, Heavy Weather. 

After the breakup of Weather Report he made occasional 
recordings and tours, continuing to mine the influences he 
felt from other musical cultures and continuing to write 
intriguing music. He is a major influence 
on the generations of musicians 
who have entered the scene 
since the 1970s. In 2001, Ik; 
began touring and releasing 
recordings with a new 
quartet comprising Danilo 
Perez on piano, John 
Patitucci on bass, and 
Brian Blade on drums. 
Shorter, who originally 
studied as a visual artist, 
continues lo pursue the 
visual arts as well as milsii 

Speak No Evil, Blue Note, 1964 

Miles Davis, Miles Smiles, Columbia, 1966 

Weather Report, Live in Tokyo, 
Columbia, 1972 

Herbie Hancock/Wayne Shorter, h 1. 
Verve, 1997 

Alegria. Verve, 2003 

NEA Jazz Mastei-s 81 



Born September 2, 1928 in Norwalk, CT 



Horace Silver was the heart of the hard bop era, help- 
ing to form the influential Jazz Messengers and com 
posing many blues and gospel-flavored songs that 
have become part of the jazz canon, including "Lonely 
Woman," "Song For My Father," "Senor Blues," "The 
Preacher," "Nica's Dream," and "Peace." His 
piano playing is heavily rhythmic, driving his 
musical colleagues to greater heights in 
their solos. 

Silver was exposed to music at an 
early age. hearing Cape Verde Islands 
folk music from his father. Silver later 
used the island rhythms and flavor to 
great effect on his 1960s albums Song 
For My Father and Cape Verdean Blues. 
He took up the saxophone and piano in 
high school, and was influenced early on by 
th(! blues of Memphis Slim, various boogie 
woogie piano players, and the bebop pianists 
Bud Powell .md Thelonious Monk. After a 1950 
stint backing guest soloist Stan Getz on a gig in Hartford. 
I lonnei ii< ut, Silver was enlisted by Getz to join him on tour 
for the next year. Getz recorded three of Silver's earliest 
< (impositions. ■'Split Kick." "Potter's Luck." and "Penny." 

In L951, lie moved to New York and quickly found work 

with Coleman Hawkins, Bill Harris, Oscar Pettiford. Lester 
Young, and Art Blakey. In 1952, as a result of a Lou 
Donaldson record session, he began what became a 28-year 
relationship with the Blue Note label. Between 1953-55 he 
played in a band called the Jazz Messengers, co-led 
*$D DISCogc, by Blakey. The band was at the forefront of the 

hard bop movement that followed bebop. By 
1956, Silver formed his own band and 
Blakey maintained the Jazz Messengers 
name as his own. Both Silver's band and 
the Jazz Messengers turned out to be 
proving grounds for a number of excep- 
tional, aspiring musicians. Among 
those who passed through his band 
were Art Farmer. Donald Byrd. Joe 
Henderson. Blue Mitchell. Charles 
Tolliver. Stanley Turrentine. Woody Shaw, 
and Randy and Michael Brecker. Silver's 
terse, funky playing has influenced pianists as 
disparate as Herbie Hancock and Cecil Taylor. For 
several years in the 1980s, he recorded on his own Silveto 
label, writing lyrics to his compositions with a decidedly 
metaphysical bent. In the 1990s, he returned to the hard 
bop sound he helped create. 

Horace Silver and the Jazz Messengers, 
Blue Note, 1954 

Blowin' the Blues Away, Blue Note, 1 959 

Song For My Father, Blue Note, 1964 

Cape Verdean Blues, Blue Note, 1 965 

The Hardbop Grandpop, GBP, 1996 

82 NEA Jazz Masters 



Born December 8, 1928 in Norristown, PA 
Died February 8, 2005 

Jimmy Smith personified the jazz organ revolution. He 
raised the organ — specifically the legendary Hammond 
B3, over which he reigned during the 1950s and 1960s- 
irom a novelty instrument in jazz to primary status. 
Having first learned piano from his parents in his native 
Norristown, Pennsylvania, he was playing stride piano by 
14 and performing with his father by the early 1940s. He 
joined the Navy at age 15 and after discharge attended the 
Hamilton School of Music (1948) and Omstein's School of 
Music (1949-50), where he studied bass and piano. He 
then switched to the Hammond organ, woodshed- 

ding in a warehouse for a year. 

Inspired by the great horn players of the 
day — Don Byas, Arnett Cobb, Coleman 
Hawkins — as well as by pianists Art Tatum, 
Erroll Garner, and Bud Powell, he cut the 
tremolo off and began playing horn lines 
with his right hand. He also created a new 
organ registration to simulate Garner's 
sound, establishing the standard for jazz 
organists who would follow. 

Jimmy Smith's burgeoning reputation soon 
took him to New York, where he debuted al Cafe 
Bohemia. His fame grew with his influential Blue 



Note recordings (1956-63), including brilliant collaborations 
with Kenny Burrell, Lou Donaldson, Jackie McLean, Wes 
Montgomery, Lee Morgan, Ike Quebec, and Stanley 
Turrentine. His appearances at Birdland and the 1957 
Newport Jazz Festival solidified his international promi- 
nence as the first jazz organ star. 

He toured extensively through the 1960s and 1970s and 
continued to release hit albums, this time on Verve (1963- 
72), including several big band recordings with such stellar 
arrangers as Oliver Nelson and Lalo Schifrin. His 
reputation in the 1990s was enhanced by the 


A New Sound, A New Star: Jimmy Smith 
at the Organ, Vols. 1-2, Blue Note, 1956 

The Sermon!, Blue Note, 1958 

Root Down, Verve, 1972 

Fourmost, Milestone, 1990 

Dot Com Blues, Verve, 2000 

sampling of his Verve work by rap group 
the Beastie Boys on the song "Root 

He recorded for the Blue Note and 
Milestone labels in the late 1980s 
through the 1990s, and in 2001 
released his first new recording after 
a live-year layoff: Dot Com Blues, 
which featured guest appearances by 
Dr. John, Taj Mahal, Etta James, Keb' 
Mo', and B.B. King. 

NKA JaiK Mastei-s 83 

*t ' 




Born May 22, 1914 in Birmingham, AL 
Died May 30, 1993 

Sun Ra was one of the most unusual musicians in the 
history of jazz, moving from Fletcher Henderson swing 
to free jazz with ease, sometimes in the same song. 
Portraying himself as a product of outer space, he "traveled 
the spaceways" with a colorful troupe of musicians, using a 
multitude of percussion and unusual instrumentation, from 
tree drum to celeste. 

Sun Ra, who enjoyed cloaking his origins and develop- 
ment in mystery, is known to have studied piano early on 
with Lula Randolph in Washington, DC. His first noted pro- 
fessional job was during 1946-47 as pianist with the Fletcher 
Henderson Orchestra at the Club DeLisa on the South Side 
of Chicago. In addidon to playing piano in the 
band he also served as one of die staff 
arrangers. Finding his calling as an 
arranger, he put together a band 
to play his compositions. In 
the 1950s, he began issuing 
recordings of his unusual 
music on his Saturn label, 
becoming one of the first 
jazz musicians to record 
and sell his own albums. 
Sun Ra's band became a 
central part of the early avant- 
garde jazz movement in 
( ihicago, being one of the first 
jazz bands to employ electronic 

The Singles, Evidence, 1954-82 

Jazz in Silhouette. Evidence, 1958 

The Heliocentric Worlds of Sun Ra, 
Vol ; * ^ ESP. 1965 

Space is the Place. Evidence, 1972 

Purple Night. b&M. 1989 

instruments (as early as 1956), including electric piano, 
clavioline, celeste, and synthesizers. In 1960, he moved his 
band to New York, where he established a communal home 
for his musicians, known as The Sun Palace. In March 
1966, the band began one of its most significant residencies, 
playing every Monday night at Slug's nightclub on New 
York's Lower East Side. 

By the 1970s, the Sun Ra Arkestra and its various per- 
mutations began touring Europe extensively. His band had 
by then expanded to include singers, dancers, martial arts 
practitioners, film, and colorful, homemade costumes, 
becoming a true multimedia attraction. Their performances 
would often stretch on for hours, including hypnotic, chant- 
ing processionals through the audience. Sun Ra's global fol- 
lowing had become significant, though his recordings had 
become sporadic. His arrangements of his songs, however, 
were among the best in jazz. He made excellent use of 
his soloists, especially the great tenor saxophonist John 
Gilmore. alto saxophonist Marshall Allen, and baritone 
saxophonist Pat Patrick, all of whom were with the Arkestra 
on and off for decades. 

An outsider who linked die African American experi- 
ence with ancient Egyptian mythology and outer space. Sun 
Ra was years ahead of all other avant-garde musicians in his 
experimentation with sound and instruments, a pioneer in 
group improvisations and the use of electric, instruments in 
jazz. Since Sun Ra's death, the Arkestra has continued to 
perform under the direction of Allen. 

84 NEA Jazz Masters 


Bom July 24, 1921 in Greenville, NC 

Although well respected for his tasteful, non-intrusive 
accompaniment as a sideman, Billy Taylor is known 
for his championing of jazz music, especially 
through his various broadcasting and educational ventures. 

After growing up in Washington, DC and studying music 
at Virginia State College, where he earned a degree in Music 
in 1942, Taylor moved to New York. He spent the 1940s 
frequently playing the clubs on New York's famed 52nd 
Street, performing with greats such as Charlie Parker, Dizzy 
Gillespie, Ben Webster, Stuff Smith, Machito, Slam Stewart, 
and Don Redman. His adroit abilities enabled him to freely 
cross over from swing to the then-burgeoning modern jazz 
called bebop. 

In the 1950s, he served as the ideal sideman, finding 
work with Roy Eldridge, Oscar Pettiford, and Lee Konitz 
while employed as house pianist at Birdland in 1951. 
Beginning in 1952 he became a bandleader, 
primarily heading trios with bass and drums 

Taylor started in radio with a program 
in the 1960s on WLIB in New York. From 
1969-72 he was house bandleader for the 
David Frost television show, and in the 
1970s also served as host-director of 
the NPR syndicated Jazz Alive radio 
series. Since 1981, Taylor has profiled 
some of the biggest names in jazz as 
an interviewer and reporter for CBS 
television's Sunday Morning program. 



Original Jazz Classics, 1953-54 

My Fair Lady Loves Jazz, Impulse!, 1965 

White Nights and Jazz in Leningrad, 
Taylor-Made Music, 1988 

Its a Matter of Pride, GRP, 1993 

Live at the IAJE, New York, 
Soundpost, 2001 

As a jazz educator, Taylor's experience has been vast, 
starting with authoring a series of beginning piano primers. 
He was a founder of New York's successful Jazzmobile com- 
munity performance and school-without-walls, beginning in 
1965. He earned his doctorate in Music at the University of 
Massachusetts in 1975, with a dissertation on The History 
and Development of Jazz Piano: A New Perspective for 
Educators. Taylor has subsequently taught at Yale, 
Manhattan School of Music, Howard University, University 
of California, Fredonia State University, and C.W. Post 
College. His experience at the University of Massachusetts 
led to a lead faculty position at the university's annual sum- 
mer intensive. Jazz in July. 

As a composer he has written a number of commis- 
sioned works, his most well known composition being "I 
Wish I Knew How it Would Feel to be Free." In the 1990s, 
Billy Taylor became artistic director of the Jazz at the 
Kennedy Center program in his adopted home- 
town, Washington, DC. from which emanated 
his syndicated NPR radio series, Bill) 
Taylor's jazz at the Kennedy Center. I [e has 
also served Oil the Nh'A's National Council 
on the Arts. Taylor worked with the 
National Endowment for the Arts as chair- 
man of the advisory group for a research 

project thai studied the financial condition 

and needs of jazz artists in four cities: New 

York, Detroit, New Oilcans, and San 


NEA Jazz Masters 85 


Born March 15, 1929 in New York, NY 

Cecil Taylor is one of the most uncompromisingly 
gifted pianists in jazz history, utilizing a nearly over- 
whelming orchestral facility on the piano. While his 
work has elicited controversy almost from the start, Taylor's 
artistic vision has never swayed. 

At his mother's urging he began piano studies at age 
five. He later studied percussion, which undoubtedly influ- 
enced his highly percussive keyboard style. At age 23 he 
studied at the New England Conservatory, concentrating on 
piano and music theory. He immersed himself in 20th 
century classical composers, including Stravinsky, and 
found sustenance for his jazz proclivities in the work 
of Lennie Tristano and Dave Brubeck. Later Duke 
Ellington. Thelonious Monk, and Horace 
Silver began to influence his playing. By 
1956 he was working as a professional, 
taking a prolonged engagement at New 
York's Five Spot Cafe, recording his first 
album, Jazz Advance, and making his 
Newport Jazz Festival debut. 

Playing in the manner he did — an 
aggressive style of almost assaulting the 
piano, sometimes breaking keys and 
strings — presented challenges in terms of 
rinding stead) work. Taylor struggled to 
for most of the 1950s and 1960s, 
despite being recognized by Down Beat magazine 


r «&V> DISCOge, 

Jazz Advance, Blue Note, 1956 
3Phasis. New World, 1978 
ForOlim. Soul Note, 1986 
Alms/Tiegarten.mP, 1988 

The Willisau Concert, Intakt, 2000 

in its "New Star" poll category. He eventually found work 
overseas, touring Scandinavian countries during die winter 
of 1962-63 with his trio, including Jimmy Lyons on alto 
saxophone, and Sunny Murray on drums. His approach 
had evolved to incorporate clusters and a dense rhythmic 
sensibility, coupled with sheer physicality that often found 
him addressing the keyboard with open palms, elbows and 
forearms. His solo piano recordings are some of the most 
challenging and rewarding to listen to in all of jazz. 

Controversy has continued to follow him throughout 
his career. Fortunately, his work as a pianist and composer 
gained much-needed momentum in die 1970s and 

beyond, as touring and recording opportunities 
increased, largely overseas, though finding reg- 
ular work for his uncompromising style of 
music still remains a struggle. Throughout 
his career, he has worked with many 
important, like-minded musicians, 
including Archie Shepp. Albert Ayler. 
Steve Lacy, Sam Rivers. Max Roach, the 
Art Ensemble of Chicago, and a host of 
European and Scandinavian musicians. 
His influence on the avant-garde, espe- 
cially of the 1960s and 1970s, in terms of 
performance and composition is enormous. 


86 NEA Jazz Masters 




Born December 14, 1920 in St. Louis, MO 

Clark Terry is the consummate freelance musician, able 
to add a distinctive element to whatever band or jam 
session of which he is a part. His exuberant, swing- 
ing horn playing was an important contribution to two of 
the greatest big bands in jazz, Count Basie's and Duke 

of the first African American musicians employed in a tele- 
vision house band — he came to prominence through his 
popular "Mumbles" persona, his unique way of mumbling a 
scat vocal solo. He worked and recorded with artists such 
as J.J. Johnson, Oscar Peterson, and Ella Fitzgerald, 



Ellington's. In addition, his use of the flugelhom 
as an alternative to trumpet influenced Art 
Farmer and Miles Davis, among others. 

In high school, Terry took up the valve 
trombone, later playing the bugle with 
the Tom Powell Drum and Bugle Corps. 
Upon his discharge in 1945, he found 
work with Lionel Hampton's band. He 
rounded out the 1940s playing with 
bands led by Charlie Barnet, Eddie 
"Cleanhead" Vinson, Charlie Ventura, and 
George Hudson. From 1948-51, Terry was a 
member of Basie's big band and octet. 

Terry's reputation grew with Ellington's 
band, with whom he worked from 1951-59, often 
featured as a soloist on trumpet and Qugelhoin. He also led 
his own recording dates during this time. After working 
with Quincy Jones in 1959-60, he found steady work as a 
Freelance studio artist, eventualh becoming a stafl musii ian 
at NBC. As a member of I be Tonight Show orchestra — one 

(jtB D DISCOo^ 


Duke with a Difference, 
Original Jazz Classics, 1957 

In Orbit, Original Jazz Classics, 1958 

Mellow Moods, Prestige, 1961-62 

The Clark Terry Spacemen, Chiaroscuro, 1976 

One-on-One, Chesky Jazz, 2000 

then co-led a quintet with Bob Brookmeyer. 
Thereafter he led his own small and large 
bands, including his Big Bad Band, begin- 
ning in 1972. He also became part of 
Norman Granz's traveling all-stars, Jazz 
at the Philharmonic. 

As a jazz educator he was one of the 
earliest active practitioners to take time 
off from the road to enter the classroom, 
conducting numerous clinics and jazz 
camps. This work culminated in his own 
music school at Teikyo Westmar University 
in Le Mars, Iowa. A distinctive stylist on his 
horns, he is also a consummate entertainer, 
often alternating trumpet and flugelhom in a solo 
duel with himself in concerts. He continues to play in both 
the U.S. and Europe, recording and performing in a wide 
variety of settings, such as the One-on-One recording of 
duels with 14 different pianists. 

NEA Jazz Ma-stei-s 87 



Born December 11, 1938 in Philadelphia, PA 



McCoy Tyner's powerful, propulsive style of piano 
playing was an integral part of the John Coltrane 
Quartet in the early 1960s and influenced count- 
less musicians that followed him. His rich chord clusters 
continue to be copied by many young jazz pianists. 

Growing up in Philadelphia, Tyner's neighbors were 
jazz musicians Richie and Bud Powell, who were 
very influential to his piano playing. Studying 
music at the West Philadelphia Music 
School and later at the Granoff School of 
Music, Tyner began playing gigs in his 
teens, and first met Coltrane while per- 
forming at a local club called the Red 
Rooster at age 17. His first important 
professional gig was with the Benny 
Golson - Art Farmer band Jazztet in 
1959. with whom he made his 
recording debut. 

Soon he began working with Coltrane, a 
relationship that produced some of the most 
influential music in jazz. From 1960-65, Tvner 
played a major role in the success of the Coltrane 

irtel (which included Elvin Jones on drums and 
jimmy Garrison on bass), using rich-textured harmonies 
as rhythmic devices against Coltrane's "sheets of sound" 
saxophone playing. 




John Coltrane, My Favorite Things, 
Atlantic, 1960 

The Real McCoy. Blue Note, 1 967 

Sahara. Original Jazz Classics, 1972 

Remembering John, Enja, 1991 

Land of Giants Je\m. 2002 

After leaving the quartet, Tyner demonstrated his 
tremendous melodic and rhythmic flair for composition on 
such albums as The Real McCoy, which featured "Passion 
Dance," "Contemplation," and "Blues on the Corner," and 
Sahara, which featured "Ebony Queen" and the title track. 
Tyner has continued to experiment with his sound, push- 
ing rhythms and tonalities to the limit, his flutter- 
ing right hand creating a cascade of notes. In 
particular, he has explored the trio form, 
recording with a series of different bassists 
and drummers, such as Ron Carter. Art 
Davis, Stanley Clarke. Elvin Jones. Tony 
Williams, and Al Foster. In the 1980s, he 
recorded with a singer for the first time. 
Phylis Hyman. 

In Uie 1990s, he led a big band in new 
arrangements of previously recorded songs, 
used Latin American rhythms and forms, 
and revealed the romantic side of his playing 
with a surprising album of Burt Bacharach 
songs. While experimenting with his sound. 
Tyner has eschewed the use of electric pianos, preferring 
the warm sound of an acoustic piano, and earned four 
Grammy Awards for his recordings. A dynamic performer 
in live settings. Tyner has continued to tour steadily with 
his excellent, longtime trio: Avery Sharpe on bass and 
Aaron Scott on drums. 

88 NEA Jazz Masters 


The power, range, and flexibility of her voice made 
Sarah Vaughan, known as "Sassy" or "The Divine 
One," one of the great singers in jazz. With her rich, 
controlled tone and vibrato, she could create astounding 
performances on jazz standards, often adding bop-oriented 
phrasing. Along with Billie Holiday and Ella Fitzgerald, 
Vaughan helped popularize the art of jazz singing, influenc- 
ing generations of vocalists following her. 

Vaughan began singing at the Mt. Zion Baptist Church in 
her native Newark, and started extensive piano lessons at 
age seven. Winner of the amateur contest at the Apollo 
Theatre, Vaughan was hired by Earl Hines for his big band 
as a second pianist and singer on the recommendation of 
Billy Eckstine in 1943. She joined Eckstine's band in 
1944-45, and made the first recording under her own 
name in December 1944. 

After leaving Eckstine, Sarah worked briefly in the 
John Kirby band, and thereafter was primarily a vocal 
soloist. Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie often sang 
her praises, assisting her in gaining recognition, particu- 
larly in musicians' circles. They worked with her on a 
May 25, 1945 session as well, which was highlighted by 
her vocal version of Gillespie's "A Night in Tunisia," called 
"Interlude" on the album. Her first husband, trumpeter- 


Born March 27, 1924 in Newark, NJ 
Died April 3, 1990 

bandleader George Treadwell, helped re-make her "look" 
and she began to work and record more regularly, starting in 
1949 with Columbia Records. In the 1960s, Vaughan made 
records with bandleaders such as Count Basie. Benny 
Carter, Frank Foster, and Quincy Jones on the Mercury and 
Roulette labels among others. It was during this time that 
her level of international recognition began to grow as she 
toured widely, generally accompanied by a trio, and on 
occasion doing orchestra dates. 

These large ensemble dates 
ranged from the Boston Pops to 
the Cleveland Orchestra as her 
voice became recognized as 



1944-46, Classics. 1944-46 

In Hi-Fi, Columbia/Legacy, 1949-53 

The Complete Sarah Vaughan 
on Mercury, Vol /, Mercury, 1954-56 

Sarah Vaughan with Clifford Brown, 
Verve, 1955 

The Duke Ellington Songbook, 
Vol. 7, Pablo, 1979 

one of the most beautiful 
and versatile in all of jazz, 
blessed with a range that 
literally went from bari- 
tone to soprano. In the 
1970s and 1980s, her voice 
darkened, providing a 
deeper and all the more 
alluring tone. 

NEA Jazz Masters 89 



Born October 3, 1925 in Boston, MA 


Jazz impresario George Wein is renowned for his work in 
organizing and booking music festivals, and in particular 
for creating the Newport Jazz Festival, 
event that in the words of the late jazz 
critic Leonard Feather started the 
"festival era." 

A professional pianist from his 
early teens, George Wein went on 
to lead his own band in and 
around his native Boston, fre- 
quently accompanying visiting 
jazz musicians. 

In 1950, he opened his own 
club in Boston, formed the 
Storyville record label, and launched 
his career as a jazz entrepreneur. In 
1954, he was invited to organize the first 


Wein, Women & Song, Atlantic, 1955 

George Wein & the Newport All-Stars, 
Impulse!, 1962 

George Wein's Newport All-Stars, 
Atlantic, 1969 

European Tour, Concord Jazz, 1 987 

Swing That Music, Columbia, 1993 

Newport Jazz Festival. He subsequently played an important 
role in establishing numerous other international festivals, 
including the annual Grande Parade du Jazz in Nice, located 
in the south of France. In 1969. George Wein established 
Festival Productions. Inc., which has offices in six 
cities and produces hundreds of musical events 
internationally, each year. 

Still active in producing his festivals at age 
80, George Wein serves on the executive board 
of Jazz at Lincoln Center, and is an Honorary 
Trustee of Carnegie Hall. In addition to carrying 
on this work, he is an author, whose autobiog- 
raphy Myself Among Others was recognized by 
the Jazz Journalists Association as 2004 's best 
book about jazz, and continues to perform as a 
pianist with his group, the Newport All-Stars. 

90 NEA Jazz Masters 





L 1 


** -2 



1 Randy 



Born April 6, 1926 in Brooklyn, NY 

Randy Weston has spent most of his career com 
bining the rich music of the African conti- 
nent with the African American tradition 
of jazz, mixing rhythms and melodies into a 
hybrid musical stew. 

Weston received his earliest training from 
private teachers in a household that nurtured 
his budding musicianship. Growing up in 
Brooklyn, Weston was influenced by such 
peers as saxophonist Cecil Payne and trum- 
peter Ray Copeland as well as the steady influx 
of great jazz musicians who frequented Brooklyn 
clubs and jam sessions on a regular basis. Such 
musicians as Thelonious Monk and Duke Ellington 
would have a lasting influence on Weston's music, both in 
terms of his piano playing and composition. 

After a 1945 stint in the Army, Weston began playing 
piano with such rhythm and blues bands as Bull Moose 
Jackson and Eddie "Cleanhead" Vinson. At the Music Inn 
educational retreat in Lenox, Massachusetts in 1954, he took 
work as a cook during the summer, while playing the piano 
at night. The head of Riverside Records heard him and 
signed Weston to do a record of Cole Porter standards. 

Weston's recording sessions frequently included contri- 
butions from his Brooklyn neighborhood buddies Copeland, 
Payne, and bassist Ahmed Abdul-Malik. It was at this early 
juncture that he also began his long and fruitful musical 
partnership with trombonist-arranger Melba Liston (a listing 
of some of the albums on which they collaborated can be 



Uhuru Africa/Highlife, 
Roulette, 1960-63 

Blues to Africa, Arista/Freedom, 1974 

Portraits of Monk, Verve, 1989 

The Spirit of Our Ancestors, 
Verve, 1991 

Spirit! The Power of Music, 
Sunnyside, 2000 

found in the Liston Selected 

Discography), a relationship that 
would continue until her death in 
1999, forming some of Weston's 
best recordings. 

Weston's interest in the 
African continent was sparked at 
an early age, and he lectured and 
performed in Africa in the early 
1960s. He toured 14 African coun- 
tries with his ensemble in 1967 on a 
State Department tour, eventually set- 
tling in Rabat, Morocco. He later 
moved to Tangier, opening the African 
Rhvthms Club in 1969. It was in Morocco that 
Weston first forged unique collaborations with Berber and 
Gnawan musicians, infusing his jazz with African music 
and rhythms. 

Since returning to the U.S. in 1972, he has lived in 
Brooklyn, traveling extensively overseas with bands that 
generally include trombonist Benny Powell and longtime! 
musical director, saxophonist Talib Kibvve (aka T.K. Blue). 
In recent years, a number of Weston's U.S. concert appear- 
ances have been true events, including 1998 and 1999 
Brooklyn and Kennedy Center collaborations with the 
Master Musicians of Gnawa, and a triumphant 1998 recre- 
ation of his masterwork suite "I Ihuru Africa" in Brooklyn, 
Main ol Weston's compositions, such as "Hi Fly" and 

"Berkshire nines," have become jazz standards, 

INTEA Jazz Masters 91 



Born December 12, 1918 in Cordele, GA 
Died March 29, 1999 


J"oe Williams' versatile baritone voice made him one of 
the signature male vocalists in jazz annals, responsible 
for some of the Count Basie band's main hits in the 

Though born in Georgia, Williams was raised in that 
great haven of the blues, Chicago, Illinois. His first 
professional job came with clarinetist Jimmie 
Noone in 1937. In the 1940s, in addition to 
singing in Chicago area groups, he worked 
with tire big bands of Coleman Hawkins, 
Lionel Hampton, and Andy Kirk. Later 
he sang with two of Cafe Society's 
renowned pianists, Albert Amnions and 
Pete Johnson. From 1950-53, he worked 
mostly with the Red Saunders band. 
What came after would be a job he would 
cherish and return to frequently through- 
out his career: fronting the Coimt Basie 
band. Often referred to jokingly as "Count 
Basic's #1 son," he stepped right into the band 
upon the departure of Jimmy Rushing. Williams was 
1 1 m perfect replacement in that he did not just duplicate 


Rushing's vocal style, but offered a new range of opportuni- 
ties for Basie to use. Williams' sound was smoother, strong 
on ballads and blues, while Rushing was a more aggressive 
singer, best on the up-tempo numbers. 

Williams' hits with the Basie band included "Alright, 
Okay, You Win," "The Comeback," and what would 
c -£E£> DISCogg become one of his most requested tunes, "Every 

Day." Starting in the 1960s, he was a vocal 
soloist, fronting trios led by such pianists 
as Norman Simmons and Junior Mance. 
Simmons would later become his longest 
tenured musical director-pianist. He 
also toured with fellow Basie alumnus 
Harry "Sweets" Edison. He continued 
to expand his range, becoming a supe- 
rior crooner and exhibiting a real depth 
of feeling on ballads. 
Among his many awards and citations 
were a number of jazz poll commendations 
and honors. Late in life, he had a recurring 
role on the Cosby Show television program as the 
star's father-in-law. 

Every Day — The Best 
of the Verve Years, Verve, 1955-90 

Count Basie, Count Basie Swings/ 
Joe Williams Sings, Verve, 1 955-56 

Count Basie, Count on the Coast, 
Vol. 7 & 2, Phontastic. 1 958 

Me and the Blues, BCA, 1963 

Here's to Life, Telarc, 1993 

92 NEA Jazz Masters 




Born September 4, 1918 in Shelby, MS 

Gerald Wilson's use of multiple harmonies is a hall- 
mark of his big bands, earning him a reputation as a 
leading composer and arranger. His band was one of 
the greats in jazz, leaning heavily on the blues but integrat- 
ing other styles. His arrangements influenced many musi- 
cians that came after him, including multi-instrumentalist 
Eric Dolphy, who dedicated the song "G.W." to Wilson on 
his 1960 release Outward Bound. 

Wilson started out on the piano, learning from his 
mother, then taking formal lessons and classes in high 
school in Memphis, Tennessee. The family moved to Detroit 
in 1934, enabling him to study in the noted music program 
at Cass Tech High School. As a professional 
trumpeter, his first jobs were with the Plantation 
Club Orchestra. He took Sy Oliver's place 
in the Jimmie Lunceford band in 1939, 
remaining in the seat until 1942, when 
he moved to Los Angeles. 

In California, he gained work in the 
bands of Benny Carter, Les Hite, and 
Phil Moore. When the Navy sent him to 
its Great Lakes Naval Training Station in 
Chicago, lie found work in Willie Smith's 



1945-46, Classics, 1945-46 
Love You Madly, Discovery, 1982 
State Street Sweet, Mama, 1995 
Theme For Monterey, Mama, 1 998 

band. He put together his own band in late 1944, which 
included Melba Liston, and replaced the Duke Ellington 
band at the Apollo Theatre when they hit New York. 
Wilson's work as a composer-arranger enabled him to 
work for the Count Basie and Dizzy Gillespie bands. 
Wilson then accompanied Billie Holiday on her tour of 
the South in 1949. 

In the early 1960s, he again led his own big bands. 
His series of Pacific Jazz recordings established his unique 
harmonic voice, and Mexican culture — especially the bull- 
fight tradition — influenced his work. His appearance at the 
1963 Monterey Jazz Festival increased his popularity. 

He has contributed his skill as an arranger and 
composer to artists ranging from Duke Ellington, 
Stan Kenton, and Ella Fitzgerald to the Los 
Angeles Philharmonic to his guitarist-son 
Anthony. Additionally he has been a 
radio broadcaster at KBCA and a frequent 
jazz educator. Among his more noted 
commissions was one for the 40th 
anniversary of the Monterey Jazz 
Festival in 1998. 




New York, New Sound, 
Mack Avenue, 2003 

NEA Jazz Masters 93 




Born February 20, 1937 in Chillicothe, OH 


Nancy Wilson first found her voice singing 
in church choirs, but found her love 
of jazz in her father's record collec- 
tion. It included albums by Little Jimmy 
Scott, Nat "King" Cole, Billy Eckstine, 
Dinah Washington, and Ruth Brown; 
this generation of vocalists had a pro- 
found influence on Wilson's singing 
style. She began performing on the 
Columbus, Ohio club circuit while still 
in high school, and in 1956 she became 
a member of Rusty Bryant's Carolyn 
Club Band. 

She also sat in with various performers, 
such as Julian "Cannonball" Adderley, who sug- 
gested that she come to New York. When Wilson took his 
advice, her distinctive voice enchanted a representative 
from Capitol Records and she was signed in 1959. In the 
years that followed, Wilson recorded 37 original albums for 
the label. Her first hit, "Cuess Who I Saw Today." came in 
1961. One year Later, a collaborative album with Adderley 
solidified her standing in the jazz community and provided 
the foundation for her growing fame and career. During her 
years with ( lapitol, she was second in sales only to the 

Nancy Wilson and Cannonball 
Adderley, Capitol, 1962 

Yesterdays Love Songs — Today's Blues. 
Capitol 1963 

But Beautiful, Blue Note, 1969 

Ramsey Lewis & Nancy Wilson, 
Meant To Be. Narada, 2002 

B.S.V.P. (Rare Songs, Very Personal), 
MCG Jazz, 2004 

Beatles, surpassing Frank Sinatra, the Beach Boys, 
and even Nat King Cole. 

Wilson also has worked in television, 
where in 1968 she won an Emmy Award 
for her NBC series, The Nancy Wilson 
Show. She has performed on The Andy 
Williams Show and The Carol Burnett 
Show and has appeared in series such 
as Hawaii Five-O, The Cosby Show, 
Moesha, and The Parkers. 

Although she often has crossed over to 
pop and rhvthm-and-blues recordings, she 
still is best known for her jazz performances. 
In the 1980s, she returned to jazz with a series 
of performances with such jazz greats as Art 
Farmer, Benny Golson. and Hank Jones. And to start 
the new century, Wilson teamed with pianist Ramsey 
Lewis for a pair of highly regarded recordings. 

She has been the recipient of numerous awards and 
accolades, including honorary degrees from Berklee School 
of Music and Central State University in Ohio. Wilson can 
be heard on National Public Radio as the host of Jazz 
Profiles, a weekly documentary series. 

94 NEA Jazz Masters 



Born November 24, 1912 in Austin, TX 
Died July 31, 1986 

Teddy Wilson was one of the swing era's finest pianists, 
a follower of Earl Hines' distinctive "trumpet-style" 
piano playing. Wilson forged his own unique 
approach from Hines' influence, as well as from the styles of 
Art Tatum and Fats Waller. He was a truly orchestral pianist 
who engaged the complete range of his instrument, 
and he did it all in a slightly restrained, wholly dignified 
manner at the keyboard. 

Raised in Tuskegee, Alabama, Wilson studied 
piano at nearby Talladega College for a short 
time. Among his first professional experi- 
ences were Chicago stints in the bands of 
Jimmie Noone and Louis Armstrong. 
In 1933, he moved to New York to join 
Benny Carter's band known as the 
Chocolate Dandies, and made records with 
the Willie Bryant band during 1934-35. 
In 1936, he became a member of Benny 
Goodman's regular trio, which included 
drummer Gene Krupa, and remained until 
1939, participating on a number of Goodman's 
small group recordings. Wilson was the first African 
American musician to work with Goodman, one of the 
first to integrate a jazz band. Wilson later appeared as him- 
self in the cinematic: treatment of The Benny Goodman Story. 

c ^DDISCO G ^ 



1934-35, Classics, 1934-35 

Benny Goodman, The Complete Small 
Group Recordings, RCA, 1 935-39 

Masters of Jazz, Vol 11, Storyville, 1968- 

With Billie in Mind, Chiaroscuro, 1972 

Runnin' Wild, Black Lion, 1973 

During his time with Goodman, Wilson made some of 
his first recordings as a leader. These records featured such 
greats as Lester Young, Billie Holiday, Lena Home, and Ella 
Fitzgerald. Wilson's arrangements with Holiday in particu- 
lar constitutes some of the singer's finest work, mostly due 
to Wilson's ability to find the right sound to complement 
Holiday's voice and singing style. 

Following his Goodman days, he led his own 
big band for a short time, but most of his work 
came with his own small groups, particu- 
larly a sextet that played regularly at the 
famous Cafe Society in New York. In 
1946, he was a staff musician at CBS 
Radio, and also conducted his own 
music school. During the early 1950s, 
he taught at the (uilliard School, one 
of the first jazz musicians to do so. 
Wilson's relationship with Goodman 
was his most noted, and was an ongoing 
factor in his work. He was part of 
Goodman's storied Soviet tour in 1962. and 
continued to work occasional festival gigs with 
the enigmatic clarinetist. 

NEA Jazz Masters 95 

96 NEA Jazz Masters 



Roy Eldridge* 
Dizzy Gillespie* 


Count Base* 
Kenny Clarke* 
Sonny Rollins 


Ornette Coleman 
Miles Davis* 
Max Roach 


Gil Evans* 
Ella Fitzgerald* 
Jo Jones* 


Benny Carter* 
Dexter Gordon* 
Teddy Wilson* 


Cleo Brown* 
Melba Liston* 
Jay McShann 


Art Blakey* 
Lionel Hampton* 
Billy Taylor 


Barry Harris 
Hank Jones 
Sarah Vaughan* 


George Russell 
Cecil Taylor 
Gerald Wilson 

i i 


Danny Barker* 
Buck Clayton* 
Andy Kirk* 
Clark Terry 


Betty Carter* 
Dorothy Donegan* 
Sweets Edison* 


Jon Hendricks 
Milt Htnton* 
Joe Williams* 


Loute Bellson 
Ahmad Jamal 
Carmen McRae* 


Ray Brown* 
Roy Haynes 
Horace Silver 


Tommy Flanagan* 
Benny Golson 
J.J. Johnson* 


Billy Higgins* 
Milt Jackson* 
Anita O'Day 


Ron Carter 
James Moody 
Wayne Shorter 


Dave Brubeck 
Art Farmer* 
Joe Henderson* 


David Baker 
Donald Byrd 
Marian McPartland 


John Lewis* 
Jackie McLean 
Randy Weston 


Frank Foster 
Percy Heath* 
McCoy Tyner 


Jimmy Heath 
Elvin Jones* 
Abbey Lincoln 


Jim Hall 
Chico Hamilton 
Herbie Hancock 
Luther Henderson* 
Nat HENroFF 
Nancy Wilson 


Kenny Burrell 
Paquito D 'Rivera 
Slide Hampton 
Shirley Horn* 
Jimmy Smith* 
Artie Shaw* 
George Wein 


Ray Barretto 
Tony Bennett 
Bob Brookmeyer 
Chick Corea 

Buddy DkFkanco 
Freddie Hubbard 
foHN Lew 

NEA Jazz Masters 97 


This publication is published by: 
National Endowment for the Arts 
Office of Communications 
Felicia Knight. Director 
Don Ball. Publications Manager 

3rd Edition: 2006 

Designed by: 

Fletcher Design, Washington DC 

Cover Photo of NEA Jazz Masters 
Dizzy Gillespie and Ornette Coleman 
at the Jazz Gallery in New York City, 
December 5, I960 by Bob Parent 

Special Thanks: 

Ray Avery (and Cynthia Sesso of CTS1MAGES), Vance Jacobs, 
Dale Parent (on behalf of Bob Parent), Tom Pich, Lee Tanner, and 
Michael Wilderman for the use of their photographs, A.B. Spellman 
for his introduction, and Wayne Brown, Jan Stunkard, Gail Syphax, 
Stuart Klawans, Willard Jenkins, and the International Association 
for Jazz Education for their contributions to the text. 

The following reference texts were used in researching 
biographical information of the NEA Jazz Masters: 

All Music Guide to Jazz 

by Vladimir Bogdanov. Chris Woodstra, and Stephen Thomas 

Erlewine, Backbeat Books, 2002 

American Musicians II 

by Whitney Balliett, Oxford University Press, 1996 

Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz 
by Leonard Feather and Ira Gitler, 
Oxford University Press, 1999 

Four Lives in the Bebop Business 

by A.B. Spellman, Limelight Editions, 1994 

Jazz: The Rough Guide 

by Ian Carr, Digby Fairweather, and Brian Priestley, 

Rough Guides, 1995 

Penguin Guide to Jazz on CD, 4th Edition 

by Richard Cook and Brian Morton, Penguin. 1998 

Talking Jazz: An Oral History 

by Ben Sidran, Da Capo Press, 1995 


(202) 682-5496 

For individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. 

Iinli\ iduals who do not use conventional print mav contact 
the Arts Endowment's Office for AccessAbility to obtain this 
publication in an alternate format. Telephone: (202) 682-5532 

National Endowment for the Arts 
I LOO Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20506-0001 
(202) 682-5400 

Additional i opies oi this publication can be obtained free of charge 
on the NEA Web site: Additional information about 
the jazz artists noted in this publii ation can In; accessed at the 
International Assoi iation For |;i/.z Education Web site: 

(*) printed on m w led p 

98 NEA Jazz Masters 



*> 4 $) t> 

A Great Day f 

Some of the greatest jazz musicians the world has ever known- 
all NEA Jazz Masters — were brought together by the National 
Endowment for the Arts for a historic reunion luncheon in New 
York City on January 23, 2004. 

NEA Jazz Masters, left to right from back row: George Russell, Dave Brubeck; 
second row: David Baker, Percy Heath, Billy Taylor; third row: Nat Hentoff, 
Jim Hall, James Moody; fourth row: Jackie McLean, Chico Hamilton, 
Gerald Wilson, Jimmy Heath; fifth row: Ron Carter, Anita O'Day; sixth row: 
Randy Weston, Horace Silver; standing next to or in front of balustrade: 
Benny Golson, Hank Jones, Frank Foster (seated), Cecil Taylor, Roy Haynes, 
Clark Terry (seated) Louie Bellson, NEA Chairman Dana Gioia. 

A Great Nation Deserves Great Art. 

National Endowment for the Arts 

1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20506-0001