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Full text of "The Negro artisan. Report of a social study made under the direction of Atlanta University; together with the proceedings of the seventh Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on May 27th, 1902"

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no. 7 

MAIN 



UC BERKELEY LIBRAR 






ATLANTA UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS, No. 7 



THE 



NEGEO AETISAff 



A SOCIAL STUDY 



MADE UNDER THE DIRECTION OF ATLANTA UNIVERSITY 
BY THE SEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE 




ATLANTA TTNTVERSITY PRESS 

ATLANTA, GA. 
19O2 



HE whole country should be grateful to this institution 
for the painstaking and systematic manner with which 
it has developed from year to year a series of facts which are 
proving most vital and helpful to the interests of our nation." 

Booker T. Washington, speech at the Seventh Atlanta Conference. 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



REPORT OF A SOCIAL STUDY MADE UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

ATLANTA UNIVERSITY; TOGETHER WITH THE PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE SEVENTH CONFERENCE FOR THE STUDY OF 

THE NEGRO PROBLEMS, HELD AT ATLANTA 

UNIVERSITY, ON MAY 2?TH, 1902. 



EDITED BY 

W. E. BURGHARDT Du BOIS, 
Corresponding Secretary of the Conference. 



Atlanta University F*ress, 

ATLANTA, GA., 

19O2. 



U HPHE work with the Negro must affect also our work with the 
brown man and the yellow man. The object is not to train 
him only to become useful or innocuous, to be a helot of toil, to be 
a producer, but under and over all is the fact that the Negro, 
however unfit he may be now or for some time to come to exercise 
the political franchise, must be educated so that in time he may 
become worthy to be in full sense a citizen. We can not endure 
as a republic if we have classes among us not educated to assume 
the duties of citizenship. As moral human bsings we cannot 
afford to treat another human being as if he were, less than 
human." DR. FELIX ABLER. 

January 9, 1903. 



I speak of industrial education I do not mean to dis 
parage higher education, which will provide teachers. The 
important thing is to give the best education which it is possible 
for the recipient to use, which will bring out the best in the stu 
dent." W. H. BALDWIN, JR., 

President General Educational Board. 
January 9, 1903. 



5" 

i 

no. 7 

MA 



CONTENTS. 

101 

PAGE 

BIBLIOGRAPHY v-vii 

To THE READER viii 

INTRODUCTION. 

The Atlanta Conference 1 

Sociological W T ork of Atlanta University 2 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTH ATLANTA CONFERENCE . . 4 

THE NEGRO ARTISAN. By the Editor. 

1. Scope and Method of the Inquiry . 8 

History of the Negro Artisan. 

2. The Ante-bellum Artisan . .13 

3. Economics of Emancipation ........ 21 

The Training of Artisans. 

4. Occupations and Home-training 23 

5. The Rise of Industrial Training ....... 28 

6. The Industrial School . 33 

7. The Influence of the Slater Fund . . .... 39 

8. Curricula of Industrial Schools ....... 42 

9. The Differentiation of Industrial Schools 58 

10. Manual Training 59 

11. The Post-Graduate Trade School 62 

12. Cost of Industrial Training . . .... . . . 65 

13. Kesults of Industrial Training . . . . . . . 68 

14. Five Faults of Industrial Schools ....... 79 

15. Five Accomplishments of Industrial Schools .... 83 

16. The Higher Education and the Industries By Dr. J. G. Mer 

rill, President of Fisk University 83 

17. The Industrial Settlement at Kowaliga, Ala 84 

Local Conditions of Negro Artisans. 

18. General Statistics of Negro Artisans . . . . . . 87 

19. Local Conditions: A Study in Memphis, Tenn. By Henry 

N. Lee, of LeMoyne Institute 94 

20. Local Conditions: Texas By E. H. Holmes, of the Prairie 

View Normal School 98 

21. Local Conditions: A Negro Contractor of Atlanta, Ga. By 

Alexander Hamilton, Jr., of the firm of Hamilton <fe Son, 

Building Contractors . 102 

22. Local Conditions: Indianapolis, Ind. By W. T. B. Williams . 104 
Distribution of Negro Artisans. 

23. Alabama t 106 

24. California . . .108 



IV 

25. Colorado 

26. District of Columbia . 

27. Florida 

28. Georgia 

29. Atlanta, Ga . . 115 

30. Other Towns in Georgia . . ISO- 
SI. Illinois ... 124 
82. Indiana 125 

33. Indian Territory and Oklahoma . . 125 

34. Iowa and Kansas 126 

35. Kentucky .... . . 126 

36. Louisiana .127 

37. Maine and Massachusetts . 128 

38. Maryland 129 

39. Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin 130 

40. Mississippi 131 

41. Missouri 132. 

42. Other New England States (N. H., Vt., R. I., and Conn.) . 133 

43. New York and New Jersey 133 

44. North Carolina 135 

45. Ohio 138 

46. Oregon and the Northwest (Ore., Mont., Ida., N. D., S. I)., 

Neb., U., Wash., and Wy.) 189 

47. Pennsylvania and Delaware . 140 

48. South Carolina .141 

49. Tennessee and Arkansas 142 

50. Texas and the Southwest (Tex., Ariz., Nev., and N. Mex.) . 146 

51. Virginia and West Virginia ...... 147 

52. Summary of Local Conditions 150 

Trade Unions and Negro Labor. 

53. The Negro and Organized Labor .153 

54. Unions with a Considerable Negro Membership .... 158 

55. Unions with Few Negro Members ....... 164 

56. Unions with No Negro Members . . . . . 166 

57. Local Option in Choice of Members . 171 

58. Strikes Against Negro Workmen 173 

59. Summary of the Attitude of Organized Labor . . . . 176 

60. Views of Labor Leaders. By C. C. Houston, Secretary of 

the Georgia Federation of Labor, and others . . 176 
The Employers of Negro Labor. 

61. The Employer, the Artisan and the Eight of Suffrage . . 179 

62. The Employment of Skilled Negroes, 1901 180 

63. The Negro Inventor . 187 

64. Summary ...... 188 

INDEX .... 189 



A Bibliography of the Negro Artisan and the 
Industrial Training of Negroes. 



African Laborers, Importation of, DeBow s Review, 24:421. 

American Missionary, 46 vol., 1856-1902. 

America s Race Problems, N.Y., McClure, Phillips & Co., 1901, 8 o. pp. 187. 

Awakening of the Negro, Atlantic, 78:822. 

Benjamin C. Bacon, Statistics of the colored people of Philadelphia, taken 
by and published by order of the board of education of the Pennsylvania 
Society for the promotion of the abolition of slavery, 2d ed. Phila. 1859, 
8 o. pamphlet, 24 pp. 

Sam uelJ. Barrows, What the Southern Negro is Doing for Himself, Atlantic, 
67:805. 

John S. Bassett, Slavery and Servitude in the Colony of South Carolina, 
Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1896. 

John S. Bassett, Slavery in the State of North Carolina, Johns Hopkins 
Press, Baltimore, 1899^. 

Bibliography of Negro Education in Report IT. S. Bureau of Education, 
1893-94, pp. 1038-61. 

The Black North (Studies of Negroes in Northern Cities) ,N. Y. Times, 1901. 

Jeffrey R. Brackett, Notes on the progress of the colored people of Mary 
land since the war; a supplement to the "Negro in Maryland: a study of 
the institution of slavery." Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1890, 8 o. 
pp. 96. 

Jeffrey R. Brackett, The Negro in Maryland: a study of the institution of 
slavery. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1889, 8*0. 268 pp. 

A Brief Sketch of the schools for black people and their descendants, es 
tablished by the Society of Friends, etc., Phila. 1857, 8 o. pamph.32 pp. 

P. A. Bruce, Economic History of Virginia in the 17th century, 2 vol., 
New York. 

U. S. Bureau of Education, Annual Reports, 1870-1901. 

U. S. Census Bureau, Censuses of 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890, and 1900. 

Cincinnati Convention of Colored Freedmen of Ohio, Proceedings, Jan. 
14-19, 1852; Cincinnati, 1852, 8 o. 

Coleman Cotton Mill, Gunton s Magazine, Sept. 1902. 

Colored Help for Textile Mills, Manufacturers 1 Record, (Baltimore, Md.) 
Sept. 22, 1893. 

Condition of the Negro. What he is doing for himself and what is being- 
done for him. Testimony from both races, (a symposium), Independ. 
43 :477. 

J. Ij. M. Curry, Difficulties, complications and limitations connected with 
the education of the Negro. (Trustees of the John F. Slater Fund oc 
casional papers, No. 5), Baltimore, 1895, pp. 23, 8 o. 



.1. K. Hankin, Industrial Education for the African, Independ., April 2, 

1891, vol. 43, p. 3., Kduc. 5:63(5. 

E. Deloney, The South Demands More Negro Labor, l)e Bow, 25:491. 

W. K. B. DuBois, The Philadelphia Negro, 520 pp., Ginn & Co., 189(5. 

Education of Negroes, New World, 9:025. 

R. T. Ely, The Labor Movement in America, Crowell, 1890. 

T. Thomas Fortune, Black and White, New York, 1884, 6 o., pp. 311, Fords 

& Co. 

Freedmen and Free Labor at the South, Christian Examiner, 76:344. 
Freed men and Southern Labor Problems, N. Ecclesiastical Review, 3:257. 
Freedmei f s Bureau, Annual Reports of the Bureau for Refugees, Freed 
men, and Abandoned Lands, 1866-1872. 
Henry Gannett, Occupations of the Negroes, (Trustees of the John F. 

Slater Fund occasional papers, No. 6), Baltimore, 1895, 8 o. pp. 16. 
Hampton Negro Conference, Reports, 1897-1901. 
Attitus G. Haygood, Our Brother in Black: his Freedom and his Future; 

New York, 1881, 12 o. 
Richard Humphreys, Founder of institute for colored youth, Barnard s 

Am. Jour. Ed., 19:379. 

Index to acts and resolutions of Congress, and to proclamations and exec 
utive orders of the President, from 1861-1867, rerating to the refugees, 

freed men, etc., Washington. 

Industrial Capacity of Negroes, Edinburg Review, 45:383. 
Industrial Education of Negroes, Andover Review, 14:254. 
Industrial Question, Lippincott, 59:266. 
Industrial Training of Negroes, Our Day, 16:79,343. 
Edward Ingle, The Negro in the District of Columbia, Baltimore, Johns 

Hopkins Press, 1893, 8 o. pp. 110. 
Win. H. Johnson, Institute for colored youth, Philadelphia, 1857, Pa. Sch. 

Jour. 5:387. 

Win. Preston Johnson, Industrial Education of the Negroes, Educ. 5:636. 
U. S. Department of Labor, Bulletins: 

Negroes in Cities, No. 10. 

Negroes of Farmville, Va., No. 14. 

Negroes of the Black Belt, No. 22. 

Negroes of Sandy Spring, Md., No. 32. 

Negro Land-holder of Georgia, No. 35. 

The Negroes of Litwalton, Va.,No. 37. 

The Sugar Plantation Negro, No. 38. 

Labor and Capital: Investigation of Senate Committee (Blair committee) 
5 vol., Washington, 1885. 

E. Levasseur, The American Workman, translated by T. S. Adams, edited 
by T. Marburg, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1900, 517 pp. 

T. B. Macaulay, Social and Industrial Capacities of Negroes, critical and 
misc. essays, 6:361-404. 

G. E. McNeill, The Labor Movement, the Problem of Today; Boston and 

New York, 1887, 670 pp. 
S. C. Mitchell, Higher Education and the Negro, (in Report of U. S. Bureau 

of Education, 1895, pt. 2, p. 1360.) 
Mohonk Conference on the Negro Question. First conference held at 

Lake Mohonk, N. Y., June 4-6, 1890, Boston, 1890. 8 o. pp. 144. Second 

Conference held at Lake Mohonk, N. Y., June 3-5, 1891, Boston, 1891, 8 o. 

pp. 125. 



VI 1 

Negro as an Industrial Factor, Outlook, 62:31. 

Negro as an Industrial Factor, International Monthly, 2:672. 

Negro as a Mechanic, North American Eeview, 156:472. 

Negro as He Really Is, World s Work, 2:848. 

Negro Exodus. Report and Testimony of the Select Committee of the U. 
8. Senate, etc., 3 vol., Washington. 

Negro Exodus (1879) Atlantic, 44:222; Amer. Journal of Social Sci., 11 :1,22; 
International Review, 7:373, N. Y. Nation, 28:242,386; Methodist Quar 
terly, 39:722; Bankers Monthly, 33:933. 

Negro and Knights of Labor, Public Opinion, 2:1. 

Negroes of the South Under Free Labor, Scribners, 21:830. 

Negro in Southern Manufactures, Nation, 53:208. 

Negro Labor, Tradesman (Chattanooga, Tenn.) July 15, 1889. 

Negro Labor, Tradesman (Chattanooga, Tenn.) July 20, 1891. 

Negro Manual Training Experiment in Texas, Independ., 47:5552. 

Negro School at New Haven, Niles Register, 41:74, 85. 

The Negro Skilled Laborer in the South, Tradesman (Chattanooga, Tenn ) 
Oct. 15, 1902. 

Frederick Law Olmstead, A Journey in the Back Country, N. Y., 1856. 

Frederick Law Olmstead, A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States, N. 
Y., 1856. 

Frederick Law Olmstead, A Journey Through Texas, N. Y., 1857. 

Edward L. Pierce, The Freedmen at Port Royal, Atlantic. 12:291. 

T. V. Powderly, Thirty Years of Labor, 1889, 693 pp. 

Publications of Atlanta University, 7 numbers, Atlanta, 1896-1902. 

Report of the Industrial Commission on the Relations and Conditions of 
Capital and Labor, etc., 19 volumes, Washington, 1901. (Consult especial 
ly Volumes VII, VIII, XII, XIV and XVII.) 

Report of the Condition of the Colored People of Cincinnati, 1835. 

Albert Shaw, Negro Progress on the Tuskegee Plan, Rev. of Revs., 9:436. 

Social Condition of Negroes Before the War, Conservative Review, 3:211. 

Southern Workman, 31 volumes, 1871-1902. 

Henry Talbot, Manual Training, Art and the Negro, An Experiment. (Re 
printed from the Pub. Sch. Journal, 1894,) 16 o. pp. 34. 

Trade Schools for Negroes, American, 19:353. 

Of the Training of Black Men, Atlantic, 90:289. 

Trustees of the John F. Slater Fund, Occasional Papers, 10 numbers, Bal 
timore, 1891-1897. (Nos. 1-6, partly reprinted in Keport U. S. Bureau of 
Education, 1894-95, chapter 32.) 

Twenty-two Years Work of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural In 
stitute, etc., Hampton, 1891, 8 o. pp. 57. 

Booker T. Washington, Address delivered at the opening of Atlanta Ex 
position, Sept. 18, 1895, "Atlanta Constitution," Sept. 19, 1895. 

Booker T. Washington, Future of the American Negro, Boston, 1897. 

Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, N. Y., 1901. 

Carroll D. Wright, The Industrial Evolution of the United States, Cha- 
tauqua, 1897, 362 pp. 

R. R. Wright, The Negro as an Inventor, A. M. E. Ch. Review, 2:397. 

G. W. Williams, History of the Negro Race in America, 2 vol. in one, 
481-611 pp. Putnam s, 1882. 



TO THE READER. 



Tliis study is intended for the general reader, the student of so 
cial questions and the special student of the Negro problems. 

The general reader will find the most interesting material in sec 
tions 2, 3, 5, 11, 14, 15, 21, 29, 30, 52, 53, 59, 61, 63 and 64. The chief 
conclusions of the study may be found by a hurried reader in sec 
tions 14, 15, 52, 53, 59, and 63. 

The student of social questions will find food for thought in 
nearly all but the purely statistical parts ; he is recommended to 
sections 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 
28, 29, 30, 36, 38, 40, 44, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 51, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 
(>2, 63, and 64. 

The special student of the Negro problems will find that the whole 
study has been arranged primarily for his needs, and by aid of the 
table of contents, index, and bibliography his use of the results 
has been made as easy as possible. Errors will undoubtedly be 
found and in such case the editor would be very thankful for spe 
cific information. 



Introduction. 

THE ATLANTA CONFERENCE. 

FOR the past six years Atlanta University has conducted through its 
annual Negro Conferences a series of studies into certain aspects of the 
Negro problems. The results of these conferences put into pamphlet 
form and distributed at a nominal price have been widely quoted and used. 
Certainly the wisdom of President Horace Bumstead and Mr. George G. 
Bradford in establishing the conferences, and the co-operation of grad 
uates of Atlanta, Fisk, Howard, Lincoln, Hampton, Tuskegee, Meharry, 
and other institutions, has been amply vindicated and rewarded by the 
collection and publication of much valuable material relating to the health 
of Negroes, their social condition, their efforts at social reform, their bus 
iness enterprises, their institutions for higher training, and their common 
schools. 

Notwithstanding this success the further prosecution of these important 
studies is greatly hampered by the lack of funds. With meagre appro 
priations for expenses, lack of clerical help and necessary apparatus, the 
Conference cannot cope properly with the vast field of work before it. 

Studies of this kind do not naturally appeal to the general public, but 
rather to the interested few and to students. Nevertheless there ought to 
be growing in this land a g eneral conviction that a careful study of the 
condition and needs of the Negro population a study conducted with 
scientific calm and accuracy, and removed so far as possible from preju 
dice or partisan bias that such a study is necessary and worthy of liberal 
support. The twelfth census has, let us hope, set at rest silly predictions 
of the dying out of the Negro in any reasonably near future. The nine 
million Negroes here in the land, increasing steadily at the rate of over 
150,000 a year, are destined to be part and parcel of the Nation for many a 
day if not forever. We must no longer guess at their condition, we must 
know it. AVe must not experiment blindly and wildly, trusting to our pro 
verbial good luck, but like rational, civilized, philanthropic men, spend 
time and money in finding what can be done before we attempt to do it. 
Americans must learn that in social reform as well as in other rational 
endeavors, wish and prejudice must be sternly guided by knowledge, else 
it is bound to blunder, if not to fail. 

We appeal therefore to those who think it worth while to study this, the 
greatest group of social problems that has ever faced the Nation, for sub 
stantial aid and encouragement in the further prosecution of the work of 
the Atlanta Conference. 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



SOCIOLOGICAL WORK AT ATLANTA UNIVERSITY. 



The work of social study at Atlanta University falls under six heads: 

A. Sociological Laboratory. 

Thf work in the department of Economics and History aims not only at 
alien tal discipline but also at familiarizing students with the great eco 
nomic and social problems of the day. It is hoped that thus they may be 
able to apply broad and careful knowledge to the solution of the many 
intricate social questions affecting the Negro in the South. The depart 
ment aims, therefore, at training in good, intelligent citizenship; at a 
thorough comprehension of the chief problems of wealth, work and wages ; 
at a fair knowledge of the objects and methods of social reform; and with 
the more advanced students, at special research work in the great labora 
tory of social phenomena, which surrounds this institution. 

The more advanced courses of study now offered include : 
Modern European History (1 year). 
Economics (2 terms). 
Political Science (1 term). 
Sociology, with special reference to the Negro (1 year). 

Instruction is given by means of a special class room library with 
reference books and the leading text books, the arranging of charts 
and tabular work, the presentation at regular intervals of special reports 
and theses, and field work in and about the city of Atlanta for the obser 
vation of economic and social conditions. The aim is gradually to equip 
a library and laboratory of sociology which will be of the highest value 
for instruction and training. Contributions to the laboratory for general 
or specific objects are greatly needed. 

B. General Publications. 

Members of the Department of Sociology of this Institution have, from 
time to time, published the following studies and essays on various phases 
of the Negro problem : 

Suppression of the Slave Trade, 335 pp., Longmans, 1896. 

The Philadelphia Negro, 520 pp., Ginn & Co., 1899. 

The Negroes of Farmville, Va., 38 pp., Bulletin U. S. Department of 
Labor, January, 1898. 

Condition of the Negro in Various Cities, 112 pp., Bulletin U. S. Depart 
ment of Labor, May, 1897. 

The Negro in the Black Belt, 17 pp., Bulletin U. S. Department of Labor, 
May, 1899. 

The Study of the Negro Problems, 21 pp., Publications of the American 
Academy of Political and Social Science, No. 219. 

Strivings of the Negro People, Atlantic Monthly, August, 189(5. 

A Negro Schoolmaster in the New South, Atlantic Monthly, January, 1899. 

The Negro and Crime, Independent, May 18, 1896. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 3 

The Conservation of Races, 16 pp., Publications of the American Negro 
Academy, No. 2. 

The American Negro at Paris, Review of Reviews, November, 1900. 

Careers Open to College-bred Negroes, 14 pp., Nashville, 1899. 

The Suffrage Fight in Georgia, Independent, November 30, 1899. 

The Twelfth Census and the Negro Problems, Southern Workman, May, 
1900. 

The Evolution of Negro Leadership, (a review of Washington s "Up 
from Slavery,") Dial, July 16, 1901. 

The Storm and Stress in the Black World, (a review of Thomas 1 "Amer 
ican Negro,") Dial, April 16, 1901. 

The Savings of Black Georgia, Outlook, September 14, 1901. 

The Relation of the Negroes to the Whites in the South, Publications of 
American Academy of Social and Political Science, No. 311. (Reprinted 
in America s Race Problems, McClure, Phillips & Co., 1901.) 

The Negro Land-holder in Georgia, 130 pp., Bulletin of U. S. Depart 
ment of Labor, No. 35. 

The Negro as He Really Is, World s Work, June, 1901. 

The Freedmen s Bureau, Atlantic Monthly, March, 1801. 

The Spawn of Slavery, Missionary Review, October, 1901. 

The Religion of the American Negro, New World, December, 1900. 

Results of Ten Tuskegee Conferences, Harper s Weekly, June 22, 1901. 

The Burden of Negro Schooling, Independent, July 18, 1901. 

The Housing of the Negro, Southern Workman, July, September, October, 
November, December, 1901, and February, 1902. 

The Opening of the Library, Independent, April 3, 1902. 

Of the Training of Black Men, Atlantic Monthly, September, 1902. 

Hopeful Signs for the Negro, Advance, October 4, 1902. 

C. University Publications. 

The regular University publications are as follows: 

Annual Catalogue, 1870-1902. 

Bulletin of Atlanta University, 4 pp., monthly; 25 cents per year. 

No. 1. Mortality of Negroes, 51 pp., 1896, (out of print.) 

No. 2. Social and Physical Condition of Negroes, 86 pp., 1897; 50 cents. 

No. 3. Some Efforts of American Negroes for Social Betterment, 66 pp., 
1898; 50 cents. 

No. 4. The Negro in Business, 78 pp., 1899; 50 cents. 

No. 5. The College-Bred Negro, 115 pp., 1900, (out of print;) 2nd edition, 
abridged, 1902, 32 pp., 25 cents. 

No. 6. The Negro Common School, 120 pp., 1901 ; 25 cents. 

No. 7. The Negro Artisan, 1902; 25 cents. 

Select Bibliography of the American Negro, for general readers, second 
revised edition, 1901; 10 cents. 

Atlanta University Leaflets, 15 numbers; free. 

D. Bureau of Information. 

The Corresponding Secretary of the Atlanta Conference undertakes, 
upon request, to furnish correspondents with information upon any phases 



4 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

of the Negro problem, so far as he is able ; or he points out such sources as 
exist from which accurate data may be obtained. No charge is made for 
this work except for actual expenses incurred. During the past years the 
United States Government, professors in several Northern and Southern 
institutions, students of sociology, philanthropic societies and workers, 
and many private persons, have taken advantage of this bureau. A 
column of "Notes and Queries" is published monthly in the Bulletin. 

E. The Lecture Bureau. 

The department has for some time furnished lectures on various subjects 
connected with the history and condition of the American Negro, and upon 
other sociological and historical subjects. School duties do not admit of 
the acceptance of all invitations, but so far as possible we are glad to ex 
tend this part of the work. Expenses must in all cases be paid and usually 
a small honorarium in addition, although this latter is often contributed 
to any worthy cause. During the past few years lectures have been given 
before the 

Twentieth Century Club of Boston. 

The Unitarian Club of New York. 

The American Academy of Political and Social Science. 

The American Society for the Extension of University Teaching. 

The American Negro Academy. 

Hampton institute. 

Fisk University. 

Cooper Union, New York City, etc., etc. 

F. The Annual Meeting of the Conference. 

The results of each annual investigation are first reported in May of 
each year to a meeting of the Negro conference which assembles at the 
University. It is then discussed and afterward edited and printed the 
following fall. The attendance at these conferences is largely made up of 
local city Negroes, although Southern whites are always on the programme 
and visitors from abroad are usually present. An attempt is made here 
especially to encourage practical movements for social betterment, and 
many such enterprises have had their inception here. 

Proceedings of the Seventh Atlanta Conference. 

TUESDAY, May 27, at 10:00 a. m. 
SYMPOSIUM: "The Condition of Negro Artisans. 1 
Texas Mr. Elijah H. Holmes, of Prairie View State Normal School, 

Texas. 

Memphis, Tenn. Mr. H. N. Lee, of LeMoyne Institute, Tennessee. 
Atlanta, Ga. Mr. Alexander Hamilton, Jr., of the firm of Hamilton & 
Son, building contractors. 

At 8:80 p. m. 

Miss Lucy C. Laney, of Haines Institute, Ga., presiding. 
SUBJECT: "Boy and Girl Artisans in the Home." 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 

Music by Orphans from the Carrie Steele Orphanage. 

1. Music. 

2. Opening- Remarks, by the Chairman. 

3. Symposium of Five-minute Speeches. 

Mrs. M. A. Ford, of Morris Brown College. 
Miss E. O. Werden, of Spelman Seminary. 
Miss R. L. Wolfe, of the Atlanta Kindergarten. 
Mrs. J. R. Porter, President of the Woman s Club. 

4. Music. 

5. Symposium of Five-minute Speeches. 

Mrs. Isabella W. Parks, of South Atlanta. 

Mrs. S. S. Butler, of Atlanta. 

Mrs. Geo. W. White, of Atlanta. 

Miss Anna E. Hall, Deaconess, M. E. Church. 

6. Artisans in the Homes: Answers from 600 school children. 

By the Secretary. 

7. Music. 



At 8:00 p. m. 

SUBJECT: "The Negro Artisan." 
Opening Remarks President Horace Bumstead. 

The Industrial Settlement Mr. William E. Benson, of the Dixie In 
dustrial Company, Kowaliga, Ala. 

The Trades School Major R. R. Moton, of Hampton Institute, Va. 
The Higher Education and the Industries President J. G. Merrill, of 

Fisk University, Tenn. 

The Trades Union Movement Hon. C. C. Houston, Secretary of the 
State Federation of Labor and member of the Legislature of Geor 
gia. 
Closing Remarks Mr. Booker T. Washington, of Tuskegee Institute, 

Ala. 

Among other things Mr. Washington said: 

"For several years I have watched with keen interest and appreciation 
the work of these annual conferences, and the whole country should be 
grateful to this institution for the painstaking and systematic manner 
with which it has developed from year to year a series of facts which are 
proving most vital and helpful to the interests of our nation. The work 
that Dr. DuBois is doing will stand for years as a monument to his ability, 
wisdom and faithfulness. 

********** 

U I hope you will excuse me if, for a few moments, I seek to discuss the 
occupation of our people in a broader way than the narrower one suggested 
by the subject under discussion at this conference. I want to say as a 
foundation for my remarks that my belief is that the proper way to begin 
in the development of a race would be the same as with an individual. 
The proper place to begin to develop an individual is just where the indi 
vidual is. We can begin in no wiser way to develop any race than by 
beginning just where that race finds itself at the moment of beginning. 



6 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

"I think you will agree with me when I assert that by far the largest 
proportion of our people are engaged in some form of agriculture, are en 
gaged in the cultivation of the soil. Since the hulk of our people are to 
live out of the soil, are accustomed to agricultural life, it is my opinion 
that agriculture should be made the chief industry for our people, at least 
for a long period of years. The Negro should be encouraged to own and 
cultivate the soil; in a word, as a rule, should be encouraged to remain In 
the country districts. The Negro is at his best in most cases when in agri 
cultural life ; in too many cases he is at his worst in contact with city life. 
Of course, out of agriculture, the fundamental industry, will grow most, 
if not all, of the most skilled occupations with which, I understand, this 
conference is now specifically dealing. 

"In order that the Negro may be induced to remain in the country dis 
tricts, we should see to it that life is made not only bearable and safe but 
attractive and comfortable. We cannot expect our people to remain in 
the country when they can send their children to school but four months 
in a year, when by moving to a city they can keep their children in school 
eight or nine months. Nor can we expect them to remain in the country 
districts unless they are are assured of the same protection of life and 
property that is guaranteed to them in the cities. Nor can we expect them 
to remain upon the soil if we are to let them understand that by agricul 
ture is meant simply drudgery, ignorance and unskilled methods of labor. 
From the beginning of time agriculture has constituted the main founda 
tion upon which all races have grown strong and useful. 

"Our knowledge.must be harnessed to the things of real life. I want to 
see more of our educated young men and women take hold in a downright, 
earnest, practical manner of the fundamental, primary, wealth -producing 
occupations that constitute the prosperity of every people. I would much 
rather see a young colored man graduate from college and go out and start 
a truck garden, a dairy farm, or conduct a cotton plantation, and thus 
become a first-hand producer of wealth, rather than a parasite living upon 
the wealth originally produced by others, seeking uncertain and unsatis 
factory livelihood in temporary and questionable positions. I repeat, do 
not seek positions but create positions. All people who gained wealth and 
recognition have come up through the soil and have given attention to 
these fundamental wealth-producing industries. The young man who 
goes out into the forest, fells a tree and produces a wagon is the one who 
has added something to the wealth of the community in which he lives. 

"I emphasize the ownership and cultivation of the soil, because land is 
cheaper in the South than it will ever be again, and if we do not get hold 
of a portion of the soil and use it in laying a foundation for our civilization 
now, I fear we will not get hold of it in the future. In the country the 
Negro and his children are free, as a rule, from the temptations which 
drag so many down in the large cities. The Negro is there always free, 
too, from the severe competition which, in so many cases, discourages and 
overmasters him. 

"The fundamental industry of agriculture will enable us to lay the foun 
dation upon which will grow wealth, habits of thrift, economy, and will 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 7 

enable us in the end to give our children the best education and develop 
ment. 

********* % 

In the case of the Negro artisan we should be careful to follow the same 
course as in regard to agriculture. We should find out the kind of skilled 
labor in which the Negro is most likely to find employment ; the kind of 
skilled labor in greatest demand. After we find out the kind for which the 
Negro is best fitted, and the kind which offers the greatest encouragements, 
I should say emphasize in that direction. If the greatest demand is in the 
direction of wood work, emphasize wood work. If the greatest demand is 
in the direction of iron work, emphasize iron work. If in some form of 
leather, emphasize leather work. If in brickmasonry or plastering, em 
phasize these. 

"Many of the trades which were formerly in our hands have in too large 
a degree slipped from us, not that there was a special feeling against our 
working at these trades on the part of the native Southern white man, but 
because, I fear, we failed to fit ourselves to perform the service in the 
very best manner. We must not only have carpenters but architects; we 
must not only have persons who can do the work with the hand, but per 
sons at the ame time who can plan the work with the brain. 

"I have great faith in the value of all the industries to which I have 
referred, not only because of their economic value, but because of their 
mental and moral value. 

"Go into the North or South and ask to have pointed out to you the most 
prosperous and reliable colored man in that community, and in the 
majority of cases, I believe, you will have pointed out to you a Negro who 
has learned a trade ; and, in many cases, you will find that this trade was 
learned during the days of slavery. 

********** 

"Later on, I hope that this conference will find it in its way to take up 
the question of domestic service. This is one which we should no longer 
blink at, but should face squarely. We should do the proper thing re 
gardless of criticism, which will enable our people to hold on to all forms 
o* domestic service in the South. 

********** 

"If we are wise and patient, we can use all forms of service in a way,not 
only to lift ourselves up, but to bind us eternally in fellowship and good 
will to the Southern white man by whose side we must live for all time." 



After adopting the following resolutions the Conference adjourned : 
The Seventh Atlanta Conference, in considering the situation of Negro 
artisans, has come to the following conclusions: 

1. While the Negro artisans are still losing strength in many commu 
nities, they are beginning to gain in others, and it would seem as if the 
tide against them was turning and that concerted action and intelligent 
preparation would before long restore and increase the prestige of skilled 
Negro working men. 



g THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

2. To realize this hope it is necessary, first, to preserve what skill we 
hve,and,secondly,to enter new fields. From keeping- our present efficiency 
we are hindered by the lack of a proper apprentice system, and from en 
tering- new trades we are stopped by the opposition of organized labor in 
trades unions. The South lias never had a careful apprentice system, and 
it must build it. Skilled Negro workmen must never rest satisfied until 
they have imparted their skill to other and younger men, and parents 
must remember that an excellent career for a child may be found by ap 
prenticing him to a good carpenter or a first-class mason. 

3. In trades or places where Negro workmen are numerous and efficient, 
trades unions admit and defend them. Where they are few in number 
they are proscribed and barred by these same unions, no matter what 
their skill or individual desert. This is unjust and wrong. Negroes should 
sympathize with and aid the labor movement where it is fair and honest 
with all men, and should publish to the world all cases of proscription and 
injustice. 

1. We especially commend Trades Schools as a means of imparting 
skill to Negroes, and manual training as a means of general education. 
"We believe the movements in this line, especially in the last ten years, 
have been of inestimable benefit to the freedmen s sons. 

5. We believe that, in the future, industrial settlements of Negroes 
properly guided, financiered and controlled, offer peculiarly promising 
fields of enterprise for a philanthropy based on solid business principles. 

6. Finally, we insist that no permanent advance in industrial or other 
lines can be made without three great indirect helps: Public Schools, 
Agencies for Social Betterment, and Colleges for Higher Training: illit 
eracy must be wiped out, savings banks, libraries and rescue agencies es 
tablished, and, above all, black men of light and leading, College-bred 
men, must be trained to guide and lead the millions of this struggling 
race along paths of intelligent and helpful co-operation. 

L. M. HEKSHAW, } 

W. A. HUNT, < Committee on Resolutions. 

W. E. B. DuBois. ) 



The NCQTO Artisan. 



1. Scope and Method of the Inquiry. The present study is at once a con 
tinuation of the investigations of Atlanta University, in both economic 
and educational lines, and is a study of skilled work and the training of 
black boys for it. The peculiar difficulty of most social studies is the 
fact that the available information must usually come from interested 
persons. This has been felt in former Atlanta studies: Negroes had to 
be asked about their own social condition, business men about their busi 
ness and college-bred men about their work. To some extent, to be sure, 
this testimony has been corroborated by observation and the testimony of 
third parties, but the general fact remains that men and women with prej 
udices and mixed motives must give us the information used, not only in 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 9 

these but in all social inquiries. In this investigation there are, however, 
some peculiar advantages, owing chiefly to the fact that it has been pos 
sible to get concurrent testimony from three entirely distinct sources on 
practically the same points. The condition of a modern workingman is 
best known by himself, his fellow- workmen, and his employer. If to this 
is added the testimony of the community surrounding him, and a study of 
his social history and education, we have as complete a picture as one 
could expect. In this study, the following schedule of questions has been 
answered by about 1,300 Negro skilled laborers, living for the most part in 
the State of Georgia: 

1. Name 

2. Address 

3. Age: U. 20 20 to 30 30 to 40 40orover 

4. Sex: M F 

5. Conjugal condition: S M W Sep 

6. Trade 

( For himself Owns tools Hires others... 

Works ] 

( For wages Invests other capital Foreman 

Years engaged 

How learned 

Attended trade school How long Where 

7. Wages, per Time unoccupied per year 

8. Relation to whites: 

Wages of whites in same work 

AVorks with whites 

Works primarily for whites 

AVorks primarily for Negroes 

9. Trades Union: Belongs to what Union? 

Do whites belong? 

Can you join with whites? 

10. Education: Read Write Higher training 

11. Own real estate: Yes No 

12. Facts... 



Besides this, the following schedule was placed in the hands of corres 
pondents of this Conference mostly College-bred Negroes and profes 
sional men and they were asked to study their particular communities. 
Reports were thus received from 32 states, besides Ontario, Costa Rica 
and Porto Rica : 

THE ARTISAN. 



Aii Artisan is a skilled laborer a person who works with his hands but has attained a degree 
of skill and efficiency above that of an ordinary manual laborer as, for instance, carpenters, 
masons, engineers, blacksmiths, etc. Omit barbers, ordinary laborers in factories, who do no skilled 
work, etc. 

1. Name of Place State 

2. Are there many Negro skilled laborers here! 



10 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

3. What trades do they follow chiefly? 

4. What trades did they follow chiefly 20 years ago? 

5. Write here the names, addresses and trades of the leading Negro 

Artisans. 

6. Is the Negro gaining or losing in skilled work? 

7. If he is losing, is this due to his inefficiency or to the great growth of 

the South in industrial lines? 

8. What results can you see of the industrial school training? Are 

young men entering the trades? 

9. What are the chief obstacles which the Negro meets in entering the 

trades? 

10. Is there-any discrimination in wages? 

11. Can Negroes join the trades unions? Do they join? 

12. Write here a short history of Negro artisans in your community the 

number and condition before the war, noted cases since the 
war, etc. 

Every trades union affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, 
and all others that could be reached, were asked to answer the following 
questions. Ninety-seven answered ; eleven made no replies after repeated 
inquiries : 

1. Name of Union. 

2. May Negroes join this Union ? 

3. If not, how is their membership prevented ? 

4. If they may join, how many Negro members have you at present ? 

5. How many had you in 1890? 

6. How many Negro applicants have been refused admission to your 

knowledge ? 

7. Can local Unions refuse to admit a Negro if he is otherwise qualified ? 

8. Can local Unions refuse to recognize the travelling card of a Negro 

Union man? 

9. Do Negroes make good workmen ? 

10. What are the chief objections to admitting them to membership in 

your Union? 

11. Are these objections likely to be overcome in time ? 

12. General observations (add here any facts or opinions you may wish. 

They will be held as strictly confldental, if you so desire). 

The central labor bodies in every city and town of the Union were sent 
the following schedule of questions. Two hundred of these, representing 
30 states, answered : 

1. Name of Council or Assembly. 

2. Are there any Unions affiliated with you which are composed of 

Negro members ? 

3. If so, how many, and what is their membership ? 

4. Are there any Negro members in any of the local Unions ? 

5. If so, how many, and in which Unions ? 

6. Do any of the local Unions bar Negroes from membership ? 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 11 

7. Have Negro applicants ever been refused admission to any of the 

Unions ? 

8. Do local Unions ever refuse to recognize the travelling card of a Ne 

gro mechanic ? 

9. Do Negroes make good workmen in any of the trades? In which 

trades are they the best ? 

10. What are the chief objections usually raised against admitting them 

to Trades Unions ? 

11. Are these objections likely to disapper in time ? 

12. General observations (add here any facts or opinions you may wish. 

They will be held as strictly confldental, if you so desire.) 

To the state federations a letter was sent asking for whatever general 
information was available on the subject. Most of them answered these 
requests. 

To the industrial schools the following schedule was sent. Many of the 
schools were not able to answer definitely, and some returned no answer 
at all. The principal schools reported : 

1. Name of institution. 

2. Address. 

8. How many of your graduates or former students are earning a living 
entirely as artisans ? 

4. How many of the above mentioned are: 

Carpenters, Dressmakers, Tailors, 

Blacksmiths, Iron and steel workers, 

Brickmakers, Shoemakers, 

Masons, Painters, 

Engineers, Plasterers, 

Firemen, Coopers, 

5. Where are most of these artisans located at present ? 

6. How many of the rest of your graduates or former students are earn 

ing a living partially as artisans ? 

7. What trades and other work do they usually combine ? 

8. What difficulties do your graduates meet in obtaining work as 

artisans ? 

9. Do they usually join Trades Unions ? 

10. How many of them teach industries in schools ? 

11. Can you furnish us with a list of your graduates from industrial 

courses, with occupations and addresses ? 

In 1889 and 1891, the Chattanooga Tradesman made interesting and ex 
haustive studies of skilled Negro labor in the South. The Corresponding 
Secretary of the Conference invited the Editors of the Tradesman to co 
operate with Atlanta University in a third investigation, in 1902, each 
bearing half the expense. The Department of Sociology of the University 
prepared the following schedule, which was distributed by the Tradesman 
and answered by business establishments all over the Southern States: 



12 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

THE NEGRO SKILLED LABORER. 



An Inquiry conducted by THE TRADESMAN (Chattanooga, Tenn.,} in con 
junction with the Sociological Department of Atlanta University. 



1. Name of firm 

2. Address (street, city and state) 

3. Kind of business 

4. Total number of employees of all kinds 

5. Total number of Negro employees 

6. How many of the Negroes are skilled or semi-skilled workmen ? 

7. What kinds of skilled work do the Negroes do ? 

8. What wages do the Negroes receive ? 

9. How do they compare in efficiency with white workmen ? 

10. Are the Negro workmen improving in efficiency ? 

11. How much education have your Negro workmen received ? 

12. What effect has this education had ? 

13. Shall you continue to employ skilled Negro workmen ? 

The .Superintendents of Education in all the Southern States were con 
sulted as to manual training in the schools, and most of them answered 
the inquiries. 

Six hundred children in the public schools of Atlanta, Ga., were asked 
to write out answers to the following questions : 

1. What kinds of work do you do at home ? 

Do you sew? Do you sweep? 

Do you cook? Do you tend chickens? 

Do you wash? Do you work in the garden? 

Do you iron? Do you keep flowers? 

2. Have you got a hammer and saw at home ? 

Do you use them? 

Have you any other tools at home? 

3. Do you ever make little ornaments to hang on the walls, or to put 

anywhere in the house ? 

4. What do you like to do best ? 

5. What are you going; to do when you grow up ? 

6. How old are you ? 

7. What is your name ? 

8. Where do you live ? 

Finally such available information was collected as could be found in 
the United States census, the reports of the Bureau of Education, and 
other sources as indicated in the bibliography. On the whole the collected 
information on which this study is based is probably more complete than 
in the case of any of the previous studies. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 13 

2. The Ante-bellum Artisan. Before the civil war both slaves and free 
Negroes were artisans to some extent. It is difficult to-day, however, to 
determine just what proportion could do skilled work and how their work 
would compare with that of artisans of to-day. We are told that in Vir 
ginia*: 

"The county records of the seventeenth century reveal the presence of 
many Negro mechanics in the colony during that period, this being espec 
ially the case with carpenters and coopers. This was what might be ex 
pected. The slave was inferior in skill, but the ordinary mechanical needs 
of the plantation did not demand the highest aptitude. The fact that the 
African was a servant for life was an advantage covering many deficien 
cies; nevertheless, it is significant that large slaveholders like Colonel 
Byrd and Colonel Fitzhugh should have gone to the inconvenience and 
expense of importing English handicraftsmen who were skilled in the 
very trades in which it is certain that several of the Negroes belonging to 
these planters had been specially trained. It shows the low estimate in 
which the planters held the knowledge of their slaves regarding the higher 
branches of mechanical work." 

As examples of slave mechanics it is stated that among the slaves of the 
first Robert Beverly was a carpenter valued at 30, and that Ralph Worm- 
eley, of Middlesex county, owned a cooper and a carpenter each valued at 
35. Colonel William Byrd mentions the use of Negroes in iron mining 
in 1732. t In New Jersey slaves were employed as miners, iron-workers, 
saw-mill hands, house and ship-carpenters, wheelwrights, coopers, tan 
ners, shoemakers, millers and bakers, among other employments,** before 
the Revolutionary war. As early as 1708 there were enough slave me 
chanics in Pennsylvania to make the freemen feel their competition se 
verely. + In Massachusetts and other states we hear of an occasional ar 
tisan. 

During the early part of the 19th century the Negro artisans increased. 
In the District of Columbia many "were superior mechanics .... Ben 
jamin Banneker. the Negro Astronomer, assisting in surveying the Dis 
trict in 1791"tt Olmsted, in his journeys through the slave states, just be 
fore the civil war, found slave artisans in all the states :fft In Virginia they 
worked in tobacco factories, ran steamboats, made barrels, etc. On a 
South Carolina plantation he was told by the master that the Negro me 
chanics "exercised as much skill and ingenuity as the ordinary mechanics 
that he was used to employ in New England." In Charleston and some 
other places they were employed in cotton factories. In Alabama he saw 
a black carpenter a careful and accurate calculator and excellent work- 



*Bruce: Economic History of Virginia in the 17th century, ii. pp. 405-6. 
fVVri tings, edited by Bassett, pp. 345, o49, :360. 
**Cooley: Slavery in New Jersey. 
{Philadelphia Negro, p. 141 ff. 
tflngle: Negro in District of Columbia. 

Seaboard Slaves States, Journey Through Texas, and Journey in the Back Country. 



14 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

man; he was bought for $2,000. In Louisiana lie was told that master 
mechanics often bought up slave mechanics and acted as contractors. In 
Kentucky the slaves worked in factories for hemp-bagging, and in iron 
works on the Cumberland river,t and also in tobacco factories. In the 
newspapers advertisements for runaway mechanics were often seen, as, 
for instance a blacksmith in Texas, "very smart," a mason in Virginia, 
etc. In Mobile an advertisement read "good blacksmiths and horse-shoers 
for sale on reasonable terms." 

An ex-governor of Mississippi says:* 

"Prior to the war there were a large number of Negro mechanics in the 
Southern States; many of them were expert blacksmiths, wheelwrights, 
wagon-makers, brick-masons, carpenters, plasterers, painters and shoe 
makers. They became masters of their respective trades by reason of 
sufficiently long service under the control and direction of expert white 
mechanics. During the existence of slavery the contract for qualifying 
the Negro as a mechanic was made between his owner and the master 
workman." 

Such slaves were especially valuable and formed usually a privileged 
class, with a large degree of freedom. They were very often hired out by 
their masters and sometimes hired their own time although this latter 
practice was frowned upon as giving slaves too much freedom and nearly 
all states forbade it by law; although some, like Georgia, permitted the 
custom in certain cities. In all cases the slave mechanic was encouraged 
to do good work by extra wages which went into his own pocket. For in 
stance, in the semi-skilled work of the Tobacco-factories, the Virginia 
master received from $150-$200 annually for his slave and the employer 
fed him; but the slave, by extra work, could earn for himself $5 or 
more a month. So carpenters sometimes received as much as $2 a day for 
their masters, and then were given the chance to earn more for themselves. 
In Texas nine slaves, some of them carpenters, were leased at an 
average of $280.22 a year and probably earned something over this. If 
the mechanic was a good workman and honest the master was tempted to 
allow him to do as he pleased so long as he paid the master a certain 
yearly income. In this way there arose in nearly all Southern cities a 
class of Negro clients free in everything but name ; they owned property, 
reared families and often lived in comfort. In earlier times such mechan 
ics often bought themselves and families and became free, but as the laws 
began to bear hard on free Negroes they preferred to remain under the 
patronage and nominal ownership of their white masters. In other cases 
they migrated North and there worked out their freedom, sending back 
stipulated sums. Many if not most of the noted leaders of the Negro in 
earlier times belonged to this slave mechanic class, such as Vesey, Nat 
Turner, Richard Allen and Absalom Jones. They were exposed neither 



fNote tbe attempt to conduct the Baltimore Iron Works by slaves contributed by the shareholders, 
Cf. N. Y. Nation Sept. 1, 1891, p. 171. 

*Ex-Gov. Lowry in North American Review, 156 : 472. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 15 

to the corrupting privileges of the house servants nor to the blighting 
tyranny of field work and had large opportunity for self development. 

Usually the laws did not hinder the slaves from learning trades. On 
the other hand the laws against teaching slaves really hindered the 
mechanics from attaining very great efficiency save in rare cases they 
must work by rule of thumb usually. North Carolina allowed slaves to 
learn mathematical calculations, but not reading and writing; Georgia in 
1883 decreed that no one should permit a Negro "to transact business for 
him in writing." Gradually such laws became more severe: Mississippi in 
1880 debarred slaves from printing-offices and Georgia in 1845 declared that 
slaves and free Negroes could not take contracts for building and repair 
ing houses, as mechanics or masons. t Restrictions, however, were not 
always enforced, especially in the building trades, and the slave mechanic 
flourished. 

One obstacle he did encounter however from first to last and that was 
the opposition of white mechanics. In 1708 the white mechanics of Penn 
sylvania protested against the hiring out of Negro mechanics and were 
successful in getting acts passed to restrict the further importation of 
slaves ft but they were disallowed in England. In 1722 they protested 
again and the Legislative Assembly declared that the hiring of black me 
chanics was "dangerous and injurious to the republic and not to be sane 
tioned."i Especially in border states was opposition fierce. In Maryland 
the legislature was urged in 1837 to forbid free Negroes entirely from be 
ing artisans ; in 1840 a bill was reported to keep Negro labor out of tobacco 
ware-houses; in 1844 petitions came to the legislature urging the prohibi 
tion of free black carpenters and taxing free black mechanics ; and finally 
in 1860 white mechanics urged a law barring free blacks "from pursuing 
any mechanical branch of trade. " Mississippi mechanics told Olmsted 
that they resented the competition of slaves and that one refused the free 
services of three Negroes for six years as apprentices to his trade. In 
Wilmington, N. C., 1857, a number of persons destroyed the frame work 
of a new building erected by Negro carpenters and threatened to destroy all 
edifices erected by Negro carpenters or mechanics. A public meeting was 
called to denounce the act and offer a reward. The deed was charged upon 
an organized association of 150 white workingmen. There were similar 
disturbances in Virginia, and in South Carolina white mechanics about 
this time were severely condemned by the newspapers as "enemies to our 
peculiar institutions and formidable barriers to the success of our own 
native mechanics. "|| 

In Ohio about 1820 to 1830 and thereafter, the white Mechanics Societies 
combined against Negroes. One master mechanic, President of the Me- 



fStroud s Laws, p. 1U7. 

tfCf. the Philadelphia Negro. 

JCf. the Philadelphia Negro. 

gBrackett: Negro in Maryland, pp. 100, 210. 

l|Olmstcad: Seabord Slave States and Journey in the Back Country. 



16 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

chanical Association of Cincinnati, was publicly tried by the Society for 
assisting a young Negro to learn a train. Such was the feeling that no 
colored boy could find entrance as apprentice, and few workmen were al 
lowed to pursue their calling. One Negro cabinet-maker purchased his 
freedom in Kentucky and came to Cincinnati; for a long time he could 
get no work; one Englishman employed him but the white workmen 
struck. The black man was compelled to become a laborer until by saving 
he could take small contracts and hire black mechanics to help him.f In 
Philadelphia the series of fearful riots against Negroes was due in large 
part to the jealousy of white working men, and in Washington, D. C., 
New York and other cities, riots and disorder on the part of white me 
chanics, aimed against Negroes, occurred several times. 

There were, no doubt, many very efficient slave mechanics. One who 
learned his trade from a slaveft writes us an interesting and enthusiastic 
account of the work of these men : 

"During the days of slavery the Negro mechanic was a man of im 
portance. He was a most valuable slave to his master. He would always 
sell for from two to three times as much in the market as the unskilled 
slaveman. When a fine Negro mechanic was to be sold at public auction, 
or private sale, the wealthy slave owners would vie with eacli other for 
the prize and run tne bidding often up into high figures. 

"The slave owners early saw the aptitude of the Negro to learn handi 
craft, and fully appreciating what vast importance and value this would 
be to them (the masters) selected their brightest young slavemen and had 
them taught in the different kinds of trades. Hence on every large plan 
tation you could find the Negro carpenter, blacksmith, brick and stone 
mason. These trades comprehended and included much more in their 
scope in those days than they do now. Carpentry was in its glory then. 
What is done now by varied and complicated machinery was wrought 
then by hand. The invention of the planing machine is an event within 
the knowledge of many persons living to-day. Most of our wood work 
ing machinery has come into use long since the days of slavery. The 
same work done now with the machine, was done then by hand. The 
carpenter s chest of tools in slavery times was a very elaborate and ex 
pensive outfit. His kit not only included all the tools that the average 
carpenter carries now, but also the tools for performing all the work done 
by the various kinds of wood-working machines. There is little oppor 
tunity for the carpenter of to-day to acquire, or display, genius and skill 
in his trade as could the artisan of old. 

"One only needs to go down South and examine hundreds of old Southern 
mansions, and splendid old church edifices, still intact, to be convinced of 
the fact of the cleverness of the Negro artisan, who constructed nine- 
tenths of them, and many of them still provoke the admiration of all who 
see them, and are not to be despised by the men of our day. 



fCondition of People of Color. &c. 

ffMr. J. D. Smith, Stationary Engineer, Chicago, 111. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 17 

"There are few, if any, of the carpenters of to-day who, .if they had the 
hand tools, could get out the stuff and make one of those old style 
massive panel doors, who could work out by hand the mouldings, the 
stiles, the mullions, etc., and build one of those windows, which are to be 
found to-day in many of the churches and public buildings of the South ; 
all of which testify to the cleverness of the Negro s skill as artisan in the 
broadest sense of the term. For the carpenter in those days was also the 
cabinet maker, the wood turner, coffin maker, generally the pattern 
maker, and the maker of most things made of wood. The Negro black 
smith held almost absolute sway in his line, which included the many 
branches of forgery, and other trades which are now classified under dif 
ferent heads from that of the regular blacksmith. The blacksmith in the 
days of slavery was expected to make any and everything wrought of iron. 
He was to all intents and purposes the machine blacksmith, horse- 
shoer, carriage and wagon ironer and trimmer, gunsmith, wheel 
wright ; and often whittled out and ironed the hames, the plowstocks, and 
the single trees for the farmers, and did a hundred other things too nu 
merous to mention. They were experts at tempering edge tools, by what 
is generally known as the water process. But many of them had secret pro 
cesses of their own for tempering tools which they guarded with zealous 
care. 

"It was the good fortune of your humble servant to have served his time 
as an apprentice in a general blacksmithing shop, or shop of all work, 
presided over by an ex-slave genius known throughout the state as a 
master mechanic. In slavery times this man hired his own time pay 
ing his master a certain stipulated amount of money each year, and all he 
made over and above that amount was his own. 

"The Negro machinists were also becoming numerous before the down 
fall of slavery. The slave owners were generally the owners of all the 
factories, machine shops, flour-mills, saw-mills, gin houses and threshing 
machines. They owned all the railroads and the shops connected with 
them. In all of these the white laborer and mechanic had been supplant 
ed almost entirely by the slave mechanics at the time of the breaking out 
of the civil war. Many of the railroads in the South had their entire train 
crews, except the conductors, made up of the slaves including engineers 
and firemen. The Georgia Central had inaugrated just such a move 
ment, and had many Negro engineers on its locomotives and Negro ma 
chinists in its shops. So it will be seen at once that the liberation of the 
slaves was also the salvation of the poor white man of the South. It 
saved him from being completely ousted, as a laborer and a mechanic, by 
the masters, to make place for the slaves whom they were having trained 
for those positions. Yet, strange as it may seem to us now, the great mass 
of poor white men in the South who were directly and indirectly affected 
by the slave mechanic being literally forced out of the business, took up 
arms and fought against the abolition of slavery! 

"While the poor whites and the masters were fighting, these same black 
men were at home working to support those fighting for their slavery. 
The Negro mechanic could be found, during the conflict, in the machine 



18 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

shops, building engines and railroad cars; in the gun factories making 
arms of all kinds for the soldiers ; in the various shops building wagons, 
and making harness, bridles and saddles, for the armies of the South. 
Negro engineers handled the throttle in many cases to haul the soldiers 
to the front, whose success, in the struggle going on, meant continued 
slavery to themselves and their people. All of the flour mills, and most 
of every other kind of mill, of the South, was largely in charge of black 
men. 

"Much has been said of the new Negro for the new century, but with 
all his training he will have to take a long stride in mechanical skill be 
fore he reaches the point of practical efficiency where the old Negro of 
the old century left off. It was the good fortune of the writer once to fall 
into the hands of an uncle who was master of what would now be 
half a doxen distinct trades. He was generally known as a mill-wright, 
or mill builder. A mill-wright now, is only a man who merely sets up 
the machinery, and his work is now confined mostly to the hanging of 
shafting, pulleys and belting. In the days of slavery the mill-wright had 
to know how to construct everything about the mill, from foundation to 
roofs. This uncle could take his men with their cross cut saws and 
broad axes and go into the forests, hew the timbers with which to 
build the dams across the rivers and streams of water, to erect the mill 
house frames, get out all the necessary timber and lumber at the saw 
mill. Then he would, without a sign of a drawing on paper, lay out and 
cut every piece, every mortise and tenon, every brace and rafter with 
their proper angles, &c., with perfect precision before they put the whole 
together. I have seen my uncle go into the forest, fell a great tree, hew 
out of it an immense stick or shaft from four feet to five feet in diameter, 
and from twenty to thirty feet long, having as many as sixteen to twenty 
faces on its surface, or as they termed it, sixteen and twenty square. 
He would then take it to the mill seat and mortise it, make the arms, and 
all the intricate parts for a great "overshot" water wheel to drive the 
h uge mill machinery. This is a feat most difficult even for modern me 
chanics who have a thorough knowledge of mathematics and the laws of 
mechanics. 

"It is difficult for us to understand how those men with little or no knowl- 
e dge of mathematics, or mechanical rules, could take a crude stick of 
timber, shape it, and then go to work and cut out a huge screw and the 
Tap blocks for those old style cotton presses." 

To the above testimony we may append reports from various localities. 
From Alabama we have a report from an artisan at Tuskegee who was 14 
or 15 years old at the breaking out of the civil war. The Principal of the 
Academic Department writes: "He is one of the most remarkable men 
you ever saw. He is a fine tinner, shoemaker and harness maker, and un 
til the school grew so large held all these trades under his instruction. 
He is an all-round tinker and can do anything from the repairing of a 
watch to the mending of an umbrella." This man names 25 Negro 
carpenters, 11 blacksmiths, 3 painters, 2 wheelwrights, 3 tin 
smiths, 2 tanners, 5 masons, and 14 shoemakers in Tuskegee and the 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 19 

surrounding districts before the war. "Tuskegee was a small place" he 
writes "and you will wonder why such a number of mechanics were there. 
The answer is this: there were a large number of wealthy white people 
who lived in the county, owning large numbers of slaves, and there was 
thus a lot of work all through the country districts; so they were sent out 
to do the work." Of them in general he says: u The mechanics as a rule 
lived more comfortably than any other class of the Negroes. A number 
of them hired their time and made money; they wore good clothes and ate 
better food than the other classes of colored people. In other words they 
stood higher in the estimation of the white people than any of the others. 
A very small number of them were allowed to live by themselves in out 
of the way houses. All the master wanted of them was to stay on his 
place and pay over their wa.ges promptly. As a rule a white man contracted 
for the jobs and overlooked the work. These white men often did not 
know anything about the trade but had Negro foremen under them who 
really carried on the work." From Georgia there are two reports: in Al 
bany. "Before the civil war all of the artisans in this section of the state 
Were colored men. Their masters compelled some of their slaves to learn 
these trades so that they could do the necessary work around the planta 
tions." In Marshalville, on the other hand, "There were only two Negro 
artisans here before the war." From West Virginia comes a report: there 
were "but two skilled laborers" previous to the war in Bluefleld. In 
Chester, South Carolina, "Before the war there were practically no Negro 
artisans." Charleston reports: "We have no accurate data to work on, 
except experiences of ex-slaves, who seem to agree that though 
the anti-bellum artisan was very proficient, yet he could not be compared 
in point of intelligent service with the artisan of to-day." From Green 
ville we learn: "The Negro since the war has entered trades more largely 
and in more varied lines. He is now in trades not open to him before 
freedom." In Mississippi one town reports that "Before the war Negroes 
were not artisans from choice, but many large planters would train some 
of their slaves in carpentry or blacksmithing for plantation use. Then 
the Negro did not have to ask, Does this trade pay? Now he does." An 
other locality says: "Before the war the principal trades were carpentry 
and blacksmithing and were done by trained slaves." In Louisiana "Be 
fore and since the war Negroes have built some of the best structures" in 
New Orleans and Baton Rouge. Olmsted noted many Negro mechanics 
here. In Texas there were "few if any" Negro mechanics in Georgetown 
before the war, while in Dallas they did "most of the skilled labor." In 
Arkansas artisans were few. In Tennessee there were relatively more arti 
sans before the war than now in Nashville, fewer in Murfreesboro and 
McMinnville and about the same number in Maryville. In the District of 
Columbia there were many Negro artisans in ante-bellum times, as shown 
by the directories: 



20 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 
Negro Artisans in Washington, D. C.* 





1827 


1830 


1850 


1855 


1860 


Carpenters 


2 


2 


2 


1 


25 


Blacksmiths .... . 


2 


2 


2 


2 


11 


Brickmasons 


1 




2 


2 


20 


Tailors 


1 


1 








Shoemakers 


3 


3 


7 


1 


13 


Pasterers . ... 


1 


1 


3 




12 


Tanners 


1 


1 






2 


Pump-borers 




1 


, 






Caulkers 




1 






2 


IVIasons 




1 






1 


Coppersmiths 






1 






Bakers . . 








1 


2 


Coopers 








2 


1 


Cabinet-makers ... 










1 


Slaters 










1 


Machinists 










1 


"Wheelwrights 










2 


"Whitesmiths . 










1 


Painters 










4 


Bookbinders 










1 


Tinners... 










2 



It is not altogether clear from such incomplete reports as to just what 
the status or efficiency of the ante-bellum artisan was. It is clear that 
there were some very efficient workmen and a large number who knew 
something of the various trades. Still, we must remember that it would 
be easy to exaggerate the ability and importance of the mass of these 
workmen." 

"The South was lacking in manufactures, and used little machinery. Its 
demand for skilled labor was not large, but what demand existed was sup 
plied mainly by Negroes. Negro carpenters, plasterers, bricklayers, black 
smiths, wheelwrights, painters, harnessmakers, tanners, millers, weavers, 
barrel makers, basketmakers, shoemakers, chairmakers, coachmen, spin 
ners, seamstresses, housekeepers, gardeners, cooks, laundresses, embroid 
erers, maids of all work, were found in every community, and frequently 
on a single^plantation. Skilled labor was more profitable than unskilled, 
and"therefore every [slave was made as skillful as possible under a slave 
system. " t* I "" ? 

; Here we have, perhaps, the best key to the situation in the South before 
the war; there was little demand for skilled labor in the rather rude 
economy of thefaverage slave plantation and the Negro did the most 
of this. The slave artisan, however, was rather a jack-of-all-trades than 
a mechanic in the modern sense of the term he could build a barn, make 
a barrel, mend an (umbrella or shoe a horse. Exceptional slaves did the 
work exceptionally well, but the average workman was poor, careless and 



"Taken from the directories of these years and apt to be incomplete. Mr. L. M. Hershaw kindly 
did this work. 
fG. T. Winston in Annals of the American Academy, July, 1001, p. 111. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 21 

ill-trained, and could not have earned living wages under modern com 
petitive conditions. While then it is perfectly true to say that the slave 
was the artisan of the South before the war it is probably also true that 
the average of workmanship was low and suited only to rough plantation 
life. This does not, of course, gainsay, for a moment the fact that on some 
of the better plantations and in cities like Richmond, Savannah, Charles 
ton, and New Orleans, there were really first-class Negro workmen who 
did good work. 

3. Economics of Emancipation. Slaves and the lowest freemen were 
the ordinary artisans of Greece and Rome, save only a ; s the great artists 
now and then descended from above as sculptors and architects. In me 
diaeval times mechanics were largely bondsmen and serfs and were pur 
chased and imported just as black carpenters formed a part of the ex 
penses of a Texas emigrant in 1850. While exceptional mechanics in the 
middle ages acquired a degree of practical freedom just as the Negro me 
chanics of the South did, yet they were in earlier times serfs. Gradually 
in free communities there arose a class of free mechanics, but in the rural 
districts and in the households of the lords they still, for many genera 
tions, remained serfs. The rise and development of cities gave the freed 
artisan his chance; there, by defensive and offensive organization, he be 
came the leading factor in the economic and political development of the 
new city-states. His development was rapid, and about the 14th century 
a distinction between laborers and masters arose which has gradually 
grown and changed into our modern problem of labor and capital. 

A very interesting comparison between this development and the situa 
tion of the Southern freedmen might be drawn at some length. Even be 
fore the war a movement of slaves to the cities took place: first of house- 
servants with the masters families and then of slave artisans : if the slave 
was a good artisan he was worth more hired out in the city than on the 
country plantation. Moreover, the Negro greatly preferred to be in town 
he had more liberty, more associates, and more excitement. Probably 
in time there would have been evolved in the South a class of city serf- 
artisans and servants considerably removed from the mass of field-hands. 
It is significant that the Georgia law prohibiting slaves from hiring their 
time specifically excepted certain of the larger towns. 

After emancipation came suddenly, in the midst of war and social up 
heaval, the first real economic question was the self-protection of freed 
working men. There were three chief classes of them: the agricultural 
laborers chiefly in the country districts, the house-servants in town and 
country and the artisans who were rapidly migrating to town. The Freed- 
man s Bureau undertook the temporary guardianship of the first class, the 
second class easily passed from half-free service to half-servile freedom. 
The third class, the artisans, however, met peculiar conditions. They had 
always been used to working under the guardianship of a master and even 
though that guardianship in some cases was but nominal yet it was of the 
greatest value for protection. This soon became clear as the Negro freed 
artisan set up business for himself: if there was a creditor to be sued he 
could no longer bring suit in the name of an influential white master; if 



22 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

there was a contract to be had, there was no responsible white patron to 
answer for the good performance of the work. Nevertheless, these dif 
ferences were not strongly felt at first the friendly patronage of the 
former master was often voluntarily given the freedman and for some 
years following the war the Negro mechanic still held undisputed sway. 
Three occurrences, however, soon disturbed the situation: 

(a). The competition of white mechanics. 

(b). The efforts of the Negro for self-protection. 

(c). The new industrial development of the South. 

These changes were spread over a series of years and are not yet com 
plete, but they are the real explanation of certain facts which have hith 
erto been explained in false and inadequate ways. It has, for instance, 
been said repeatedly that the Negro mechanic carelessly threw away his 
monopoly of the Southern labor market and allowed the white mechanic 
to supplant him. This is only partially true. To be sure, the ex-slave 
was not alert, quick and ready to meet competition. His business hitherto 
had been to do work but not to get work, save in exceptional cases. The 
whole slave system of labor saved him from certain sorts of competition, 
and when he was suddenly called to face the competition of white me 
chanics he was at a loss. His especial weakness \vas the lack of a hiring 
contractor. His master or a white contractor had usually taken jobs and 
hired him. The white contractor still hired him but there w r as no one now 
to see that the contractor gave him fair wages. Indeed, as the white 
mechanics pressed forward the only refuge of the Negro mechanic was 
lower wages. There were a few Negro contractors here and there but they 
again could only hope to maintain themselves by markedly underbidding 
all competitors and attaining a certain standing in the community. 

What the Negro mechanic needed then was social protection the pro 
tection of law and order, perfectly fair judicial processes and that personal 
power \vhich is in the hands of all modern laboring classes in civilized 
lands, viz., the right of suffrage. It has often been said that the freedman 
throwing away his industrial opportunities after the war. gave his ener 
gies to politics and succeeded in alienating his friends and exasperating 
his enemies, and proving his inability to rule. It is doubtless true that 
the freedman laid too much stress on the efficacy of political power in 
making a straight road to real freedom. And undoubtedly, too, a bad 
class of politicians, white and black, took advantage of this and made the 
reconstruction Negro voter a hissing in the ears of the South. Notwith 
standing this the Negro was fundamentally right. If the whole class of 
mechanics here, as in the Middle Age, had been without the suffrage and 
half-free, the Negro would have had an equal chance with the white me 
chanic, and could have afforded to wait. But he saw himself coming 
more and more into competition with men who had the right to vote, the 
prestige of race and blood, the advantage of intimate relations with those 
acquainted with the market and the demand. The Negro saw clearly 
that his industrial rise depended, to an important degree, upon his political 
power and he therefore sought that power. In this seeking he failed pri 
marily because of his own poor training, the uncompromising enmity and 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 23 

apprehensions of his white neighbors and the selfishness and half-hearted 
measures of his emancipators. The result was that the black artisan en 
tered the race heavily handicapped the member of a proscribed class, 
with restricted rights and privileges, without political and social power. 
The result was of course that he was enabled to maintain himself only by 
accepting low wages and keeping at all hazards the good-will of the com 
munity. 

Even here however he could not wholly succeed. The industrial condi 
tions in the country were rapidly changing. Slowly but surely the new 
industrial South began to arise and with it came new demands on the 
mechanic. Now the Negro mechanic could not in the very nature of the 
case meet these demands ; he knew how to do a few things by rule of 
thumb he could build one of the rambling old-fashioned southern man 
sions, he could build a slave shanty; he could construct a rough sugar 
hogshead and resole a shoe ; in exceptional cases he could do even care 
ful and ingenious work in certain lines; but as a rule he knew little of the 
niceties of modern carpentry or iron-working, he knew practically noth 
ing of mills and machinery, very little about railroads in fact he was es 
pecially ignorant in those very lines of mechanical and industrial develop 
ment in which the South has taken the longest strides in the last thirty 
years. And if he was ignorant, who was to teach him? Certainly not 
his white fellow workmen, for they were his bitterest opponents because 
of strong race-prejudice and because of the fact that the Negro works for 
low wages. Apprenticeship to the older Negro mechanics was but partial 
ly successful for they could not teach what they had never learned. In 
fact it was only through the lever of low wages that the Negro secured 
any share in the new industries. By that means he was enabled to re 
place white laborers in many branches, but he thereby increased the en 
mity of trades-unions and labor-leaders. Such in brief was the compli 
cated effort of emancipation on the Negro artisan and one could not well 
imagine a situation more difficult to remedy. 

4. Occupations and Home-training. Manifestly it is necessary that any 
constituent group of a great nation should first of all earn a living; that 
is, they must have the ability and will to labor effectively and must re 
ceive enough for that labor to live decently and rear their children. Since 
emancipation the Negro has had greater success in earning a living as a 
free workingman than the nation had a right to expect. Nevertheless, the 
situation to-day is not satisfactory. If we compare the occupations of 
Negroes and native and foreign whites, we have : 



24 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

Occupations of American Negroes, 1890: 

1. Agriculture, Fishing and Mining, 1,757,403, or 57% 

2. Domestic and Personal Service, 963,080, or 31% M 

3. Manf. and Mechanical Industries, 172,970, or 6% m 

4. Trade and Transportation, 145,717, or 5% 

5. Professional service, 33,994, or 1% \ 

Occupations of Native Whites,* 1890: 

1. Agriculture, Fishing and Mining, 5,122,613, or 47% 

3. Manf. and Mechanical Industries, 2,067,135, or 19% 

4. Trade and Transportation, 1,722,462, or 16% m 

2. Domestic and Personal Service, 1,342,028, or 12% 

5. Professional Service, 640,785, or 6% m 

Occupations of Foreign Whites, 1890: 

3. Manf. and Mechanical Industries, 1,597,118, or 31% 
2. Domestic and Personal Service, 1,375,067, or 27% 
1. Agriculture, Fishing and Mining, 1,305,901, or 26% 

4. Trade and Transportation, 712,558, or 14% 

5. Professional Service, 114,113, or 2% i 

Dividing the Negro wage earners by sex we have : 

MALE FEMALE TOTAL 

Professions 1.2% 0.9 1.1 

Agriculture 63.4 44.0 57.2 

Trade and Transportation 6.8 0.2 4.7 

Manf. and Mechanical Industries 7.0 2.8 5.6 

Domestic and Personal Service.... 21.6 52.1 31.4 




100.0 100.0 100.0 

There is manifestly here a strikingly small proportion of this race en 
gaged in trade, transportation, manufactures and the mechanical indus 
tries about one-tenth, as compared with 45% of the foreign-born, and 
40% of all the native born.f If we take all the States of the Union we 
have the following figures for 1890: 



"Native whites, \vith native parents. 
fWith native and foreign parents. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



25 



NEGRO WAGE-EARNERS, 1890. 





All Occupations 


Trade and 
Transportation. 


Manufacturing 
and Mechanical 
Industries. 


Males. 


Females 


Males. 


Females 


Males. 


Females. 


The United States. 


2,101,233 


971,890 


143,350 


2,399 


146,12fi 


26,929 


1 Alabama 


192,322 


101,085 


9,147 


140 


9,917 


951 


2. Alaska 


3. Arizona. 


1,091 
86,861 
4,301 
2,765 
4,064 
9,334 
21,238 
46,302 
246,913 
83 
19,270 
14,648 
3,615 
13,889 
76,411 
159,180 
409 
63,166 
7,593 
5,065 
1,719 
198,531 
43,940 
971 
3,741 
130 
242 
16,143 
888 
23,272 
148,370 
146 
28,085 
958 
536 
37,534 
2,337 
186,714 
284 
121,016 
123,395 
298 
322 
169,343 
902 
11,478 
855 
563 


71 


13 
2,787 
457 
406 
634 
633 
4.776 
4^06 
16,397 
8 
1 994 




12 
3,403 
358 
402 
565 
816 
2,839 
4,501 
16,604 
2 
1,602 
1,669 
309 
1,315 
6,519 
8,455 
55 
4,458 
1,132 
549 
88 
5,686 
3,525 
45 
370 
5 
72 
1,864 
24 
2,288 
12,114 
4 
3,426 
42 
37 
4,630 
322 
9,842 
. 14 
10,404 
5,794 
14 
31 
18,864 
87 
927 
105 
20 


4 
275 
106 
56 
165 
51 
1,490 
746 
1,924 
1 
361 
175 
36 
124 
840 
2,774 
11 
1,074 
426 
137 
48 
803 
396 
13 
64 
2 
23 
263 
3 
1,005 
2,360 
1 
442 
2 
10 
1,077 
170 
2,341 
4 
1,141 
461 
2 
6 
4,483 
15 
41 
28 


4. Arkansas 


30,115 
1,041 
792 
1 964 


27 

1 

t 

2: 
195 
52 
372 


5 California 


6 Colorado.. 


7. Connecticut 


8. Delaware .. 


3,016 
18,770 
19,071 
122,352 
23 
4,713 
4,210 
730 
3,400 
31,255 
83,978 
145 
32,642 
3,435 
1,329 
383 
105,306 
16,715 
140 
959 
22 
107 
7,738 
]56 
13,664 
68,220 
23 
7,791 
125 
99 
15,704 
1,362 
102,836 
43 
44,701 
46,691 
51 
109 
71,752 
153 
2,623 
205 
75 


9. Dis. of Columbia 
10. Florida 


11. Georgia 


12 Idaho 


13 Illinois 


41 


14. Indiana 


1,426 
289 
1,148 
7,381 
6,045 
68 
7,538 
1,402 
448 
216 
5,671 
4,862 
45 
323 
17 
24 
2,111 
40 
4,231 
7,564 
10 
3,027 
28 
42 
5,213 
546 
6,860 
121 
10,954 
6,386 
14 
33 
15,655 
69 
2,080 
74 
31 


23 


15 Iowa 


16. Kansas 


20 
66 

129 

t 

144 
34 
6 
5 
74 
44 
1 
4 
1 


17. Kentucky 


18 Louisiana 


19 Maine 


20 Maryland 


21. Massachusetts... 


23. Minnesota 


24 Mississippi 


25. Missouri 


26 Montana 


27 Nebraska .... 


28 Nevada 


29. New Hampshire 
30. New Jersey 
31. New Mexico 
32 New York 


25 


54 
106 


33. North Carolina.. 
34. North Dakota... 
35 Ohio 


40 
1 
1 
104 
3 
188 
1 
125 
69 
1 


36 Oklahoma 


37. Oreg on 


38. Pennsylvania. ... 
39. Rhode Island 
40. South Carolina... 
41. South Dakota 
42 Tennessee 


43 Texas 


44 Utah 


45 Vermont 


46 Virginia 


253 


47. Washington 
48. West Virginia... 
49. Wisconsin 
50. Wyoming 


7 
1 
3 



26 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



There is but one way of remedying such a distribution of occupations T 
and that is by training children and youth into new callings. This is a diffi 
cult matter. The children get their ideals of life from home life primarily, 
and among a people largely servants and farmers they would not naturally 
turn to trades or merchandizing. Still, the city groups of Negroes are 
changing rapidly and eagerly grasping after new ideals. To test the trend 
of thinking among the growing children of a city group the Conference 
questioned 600 of the Negro school children of Atlanta in such way as to 
bring out the influence of home-training in preparing them for artisans. 
There were 226 boys and 374 girls. Their ages were : 
9 to 12 years 48 

12 to 15 " 349 

15 to 18 ". 203 

First they were asked what sort of work they were accustomed to do at 
home. They answered : 





BOYS. 


GIRLS. 


Sewt 


59 


350 


Cook 


64 


304 


Wash 


64 


323 


Iron 


51 


348 


Sweep . . . 


198 


365 








Tend Chickens 


134- 


159 








Work in Garden 


121) 


142 


KeeD Flowers... 


118 


282 



tSome did two or more of these sorts of work. 

On being asked as to the tools they had in the home they answered as- 
follows : 

430 have hammer and saw at home. 
121 have neither hammer nor saw. 
11 have hammer. 
1 has saw. 
37 gave no answer. 



322 use the hammer and saw. 
108 do not use them. 

420 have other tools besides the hammer and saw. 
135 have no other kinds of tools. 
45 gave no answer as to other kinds of tools. 



294 of the girls and 114 of the boys were accustomed to making little or 
naments or articles for the home; 82 of the girls and 110 of the boys never 
did this. When questioned as to what they liked to do best, and what 
they expected to be when grown up, they replied : 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



27 



What do you like to do best 1 
BOYS. 

To carpenter 37 

To do garden-work 27 

To u \vork". 25 

To tend chickens 24 

To sweep 16 

To do housework 13 

To play 11 

To go to school 10 

To drive 8 

To draw 5 

To make ornaments 5 

To cook 5 

To wash and iron 4 

To play music 3 

To sell goods 3 

To deliver goods 3 

To make money 1 

"Don t know"... .. 8 



GIKL.S. 

To sew 193 

To cook 76 

To wash and iron 29 

To keep house 22 

To tend flowers 18 

To sweep 9 

To play music 6 

To tend chickens 5 

To go to school 3 

To read 3 

To make lace 1 

To nurse 1 

To play 1 

To sing 1 

To "work"... 5 



What are you going to do when grown f 

BOYS. 

Artisans, 58. 

Carpenters 15 

Masons 9 

Blacksmiths 5 

Machinists .5 

Railway Employees 5 

Firemen 4 

Tailors 3 

Professional Men, 41. 

Physicians 20 

Teachers, 10 

Musicians and Music Teachers... 6 

Servants and Laborers, 18. 

Porters 10 

Butlers 2 

Ice-cream-makers 2 

Mercantile and Clerical Pursuits, 13. 

Merchants 3 

Canvassers 2 

Commercial Men 2 

Typewriters 2 

Miscellaneous. 

Farmer 1 

"Help my race" 1 

"Work" .., ...14 



Wheelwrights 3 

Carriage-makers 2 

Boiler-maker 1 

Butcher 1 

Shoemaker 1 

Harnessmaker 1 

A "trade" 3 

Lawyers 3 

Dentist 1 

Pharmacist 1 

Teamsters 2 

Waiter 1 

Cook 1 

Book-keepers 2 

Cotton-sampler 1 

Draughtsman 1 



Gentleman" 1 

President" 1 

Don t know" 41 



28 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

What are you going to do when grown 1 

GIRLS. 

Professional Pursuits, 168. 

Teachers 85 Physician 1 

Musicians and Music Teachers. ..65 Elocutionist 1 

Missionary 2 Singer 1 

Students 2 Writer 1 

Dressmakers and Seamstresses 109. 

Servants and Housework, 63. 

Cooks 27 Housekeepers 5 

Nurses 27 Laundresses 4 

These answers reveal much of the home life and ideals of city Negroes : 
first there is no doubt but what the boys and girls naturally like to "do" 
something with the hands, the larger number of the boys wishing to be 
artisans of some sort despite the fact that not one in fourteen of their 
parents follow such callings. Outside of this they are of course attracted 
by the successes they see the neat carriage of the black physician, the 
colored mail carrier, etc. At the same time it is clear they do not get at 
home much chance to exercise their mechanical ingenuity even the sim 
plest tools being unused in nearly half the homes. Here is the chance for 
kindergarten work and manual training. These children have actual 
contact with things less often than in the case of the average child. Much 
of the world about them is unknown in the concrete and consequently 
they have greater difficulty in grasping abstract ideas. 

5. The Rise of Industrial Training. These facts have long been recognized 
in the training of children. In the case of the Negroes there 
were a number of mixed incentives to action which have not yet 
clearly worked themselves out to-day. First there was the idea of work 
ing one s own way through school which many consider an excellent 
moral tonic; secondly there was the idea of educating children in the 
main according to the rank in life which they will in all probability oc 
cupy. This is a wide-spread theory of education and can be especially 
traced in the European schools. Thirdly there was the scheme of using 
student labor to reduce the expenses of maintaining the school; fourthly 
there was the idea of training girls for house-work ; fifthly there was the 
idea of having the youth learn trades for future self-support, and sixthly 
there was the idea of "learning by doing 1 of using things to enforce ideas 
and physical exercises to aid mental processes. All these distinct aspects 
of education have been loosely lumped together in popular speech as "In 
dustrial Education" with considerable resulting confusion of thought. 

Among the Northern free Negroes Industrial" training found early 
and earnest advocates. They meant by this some way of teaching black 
boys trades in order that they might earn a decent livelihood amid the 
economic proscription of the North. 

As Mr. John W. Cromwell has lately said,t it is remarkable that in 
nearly every one of the dozen or more Negro conventions from 1831 to 

tSouthern Workman, July, 1902. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 29 

1860 there was developed strong advocacy of trade schools for Negro 
youths. 

"In the convention of 1831, assembled at Philadelphia, it was decided to 
establish a college on the manual labor plan, as soon as twenty thousand 
dollars should be raised. Rev. Samuel E. Cornish, an educated colored 
Presbyterian clergyman, was appointed agent to secure funds. Within 
one year three thousand dollars had been secured for the purpose. Arthur 
Tappan, the philanthropist, bought several acres in the southern part of 
New Haven, Conn., and had completed arrangements for erecting thereon 
a building, fully equipped for the purpose, that would have done credit to 
the city, the state and the country. But the people of New Haven and of 
Connecticut were bitterly opposed to the location of such an institution in 
their midst. In a mass meeting of the citizens, the mayor, aldermen and 
councilmen leading, they declared this opposition in forcible and unmis 
takable language, even against the protest of so powerful a citizen as 
Roger S. Baldwin, who subsequently defended the Amis tad captives, and 
became governor of the state and United States Senator. More than this, 
the commonwealth subsequently passed a law prohibiting the establish 
ment of any institution of learning for the instruction of persons of color 
of other states. 

"Half a generation later, at the Colored National Convention of 1847, the 
demand for a colored college, led by so talented and able a controversialist 
as the late Alexander Crummell, noted even at that date for the same 
polished, incisive style and elegant diction which marked his later years, 
was offset by a firm and powerful constituency that successfully insisted 
on industrial training having the prior claim. 

"But it was at Rochester, N. Y., in 1853, at the most influential of all the 
conventions in the history of the Negro race, that their approval of indus 
trial education what most emphatically given. At a time when Uncle 
Tom s Cabin and the name of its authoress, Harriet Beecher Stowe, were 
on every tongue, she, at the urgent request of friends in Great Britain, 
was planning a trip to Europe. The convention, following the lead of 
Frederick Douglass, commissioned her by an overwhelming voice to so 
licit funds in their name for the establishment of an industrial and agri 
cultural institution. In England her reception was most enthusiastic, and 
her mission seems to have been favorably received. The enemies of the 
Negro in this country severely criticised her course, but after a defence by 
Frederick Douglas in his paper, The North Star, copied in The Inde 
pendent, then edited by Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, the attacks ceased. 
When Mrs. Stowe returned to America she had changed her mind respect 
ing the industrial education school, and the second attempt of the colored 
people to found in the North what has since succeeded so well in the South, 
came to naught. 

"In the Autographs for Freedom, published in 1854, Prof. Charles L. 
Reason, who writes the introductory article, says: 

"The free colored man at the North .... in one department of re 
formatory exertion .... feels that he has been neglected 

He has failed to see a corresponding earnestness, according to the influence 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

of abolitionists in the business world, in opening the avenues of industrial 
labor to the proscribed youth of the land. This work, therefore, is evi 
dently left for himself to do. And he has laid his powers to the task. The 
record of his conclusions was given at Rochester in July, and has become 
already a part of history. 

" Though shut out from the workshops of the country, he is determined 
to make self-provision so as to triumph over the spirit of caste that would 
keep him degraded. The utility of the industrial institution he would 
erect must, he believes, commend itself to abolitionists. 

" The usefulness, the self-respect and self-dependence the combination 
of intelligence and handicraft the accumulation of the materials of 
wealth, all referable to such an institution, present fair claims to the 
assistance of the entire American people. 

u Mr. Reason proves himself a prophet in forecasting conditions familiar 
to every observer. He adds: 

" Whenever emancipation shall take place, immediate though it be, the 
subjects of it, like many who now make up the so-called free population, 
will be in what geologists call a transition state. The prejudice now felt 
against them for bearing on their persons the brand of slaves, cannot die 
out immediately. Severe trials will be their portion. The curse of a 
tainted race must be expiated by almost miraculous proofs of ad 
vancement To fight the battle on the bare ground of abstract 

principles will fail to give us complete victory The last weak 

argument that the Negro can never contribute anything to advance the 
national character, must be nailed to the counter as base coin. .... 
Already he sees springing into growth from out his foster ivork-school, in 
telligent young laborers competent to enrich the world with necessary 
products industrious citizens, contributing their proportion to aid on the 
advancing civilization of the country; self-providing artisans vindicating 
their people from the never-ceasing charge of a fitness for servile posi 
tions. 

The Negroes who emigrated to Canada were more successful. In 1842 
they held a convention to decide on the expenditure of $1,500 collected for 
them in England by a Quaker. They finally decided to start "a manual 
labor school where children could be taught the elements of knowledge 
which are usually the occupations of a grammar school; and where the 
boys could be taught in addition the practise of some mechanic art, and 
the girls could be instructed in those domestic arts which are the proper 
occupation and ornament of their sex."f Father Henson, the Negro who 
was chiefly instrumental in founding the school stated that the object was 
tk to make it self-supporting by the employment of the students for certain 
portions of the time on the land." The school lasted some ten or fifteen 
years, but gradually decayed as the public schools were opened to Negro 
youth. 

In many of the colored schools opened in the Northern states some in 
dustrial training was included. The Philadelphia "Institute for Colored 



ISiebcrt: Underground Railroad, p. 2CO. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 31 

Youth" was founded by Richard Humphreys in 1887 for the education of 
Negroes u in school learning, in the various branches of the mechanic arts 
and trade, and in agriculture. 1 For a while a farm and trade school was 
maintained from this fund in Bristol county, Penna., but the school is now 
in Philadelphia and is being reorganized as a technical and trade school. 
When the civil war opened and the fall of slavery seemed imminent, 
some of the earliest suggestions for educating the blacks insisted on in 
dustrial training. The development, however, was slow and interesting. 
We may indicate the evolution of the Southern industrial school some 
what as follows : 

1. Janitor work and chores performed by students. 

2. Repair work and equipment by student labor. 
8. Teaching of ordinary housework to girls. 

4. Teaching of house-service for the training of servants. 

5. The school of work ; co-operative industry for gain, by use of student 
labor. 

6. Teaching of trades. 

7. The industrial settlement. 

8. The social settlement. 

9. Manual training. 

10. Technological education. 

A diagram will best illustrate the logical development of these succes 
sive ideas : 

1 



6 9 



10 

This diagram may be explained thus : at first nearly all the schools from 
necessity required their students to help in cleaning and arranging the 
school buildings and yards. Afterward this feature was kept as a part of 
the discipline and to this day in nearly all the boarding schools an hour 
or more of labor a day is required of each student regardless of his ability 
to pay for his schooling. From this situation (indicated by "1") two lines 
of training easily arose : first the boys by simple direction and oversight 
were enabled to make ordinary repairs about the school and even to make 
benches, tables and the like. This became a feature of many schools, both 
for its usefulness and discipline, (2) . On the other hand the New England 
school teachers who came South found the Negro girls startlingly ignorant 
of matters of household economy, which are among the first things a 



32 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

properly -bred girl knows. These girls could not sew, they could not 
sweep, they could not make a bed properly or cook digestible food. Les 
sons in simple housework for the girls early became a part of the curricu 
lum, (3) . This was practically the extent of industrial training in nearly all 
schools, except Hampton, until about 1880. The new industrial movement 
then began to awaken the South and many began to see clearly that unless 
the Negro made especial effort he could gain no important place. The idea 
of a "School of Work" therefore arose. It was to furnish education 
practically free to those willing to work for it; it was to "do" 
things i. e., become a center of productive industry, it was to be partially, 
if not wholly, self-supporting, and it was to teach trades, (5). Admirable 
as were some of the ideas underlying this scheme the whole thing simply 
would not work in practice : it was found that if you were to use time and 
material to teach trades thoroughly you could not at the same time keep 
the industries on a commercial basis and make them pay. Many schools 
started out to do this on a large scale and went into virtual bankruptcy. 
Moreover it was found also that it was possible to teach a boy a trade me 
chanically without giving .him the full educative benefit of the process, 
and vice versa, that there was a distinct educative value in teaching a boy 
to use his hands and eyes in carrying out certain physical processes, even 
though he did not actually learn a trade. It has happened, therefore, in 
the last decade that a noticeable change has come over the industrial 
schools. In the first place the idea of commercially remunerative indus 
try in a school is being pushed rapidly to the back-ground. There are still 
schools with shops and farms that bring an income, and schools that use 
student labor partially for the erection of buildings and the furnishing of 
equipment. It is coming to be seen, however, in the education of the 
Negro as clearly as it has been seen in the education of youths the world 
over that it is the boy and not the material product that is the true object 
of education, Consequently the object of the industrial school became to 
be the thorough training of boys regardless of the income derived from 
the process of training, and, indeed, regardless of the cost of the training 
as long as it was thoroughly well done. 

Even at this point, however, the difficulties were not surmounted. In 
the first place modern industry has taken great strides since the war 
and the teaching of trades is no longer a simple matter. Machinery and 
long processes of work have greatly changed the work of the carpenter, 
the iron-worker and the shoemaker. A really efficient workman must be 
to-day an intelligent man who has had good technical training in addition 
to thorough common school and perhaps even higher training. To meet 
this situation the industrial schools began a further development ; they 
established distinct Trade Schools for the thorough training of better class 
artisans and at the same time they sought to preserve for the purposes of 
general education such of the simpler processes of elementary trade learn 
ing as were best suited therefor. In this differentiation of the Trade 
School and manual training the best of the industrial schools simply fol 
lowed the plain trend of the present educational epoch. A prominent 
educator tells us that, in Sweden, "In the beginning the economic concep- 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 33 

tion was generally adopted and everywhere manual training was looked 
upon as a means of preparing the children of the common people to earn 
their living. But gradually it came to be recognized that manual train 
ing has a more elevated purpose and one indeed more useful in the deeper 
meaning of the term. It came to be considered as an educative process for 
the complete moral, physical and intellectual development of the child."* 

This conception of the plan of physical training in the educative pro 
cess is gradually making its way into all schools. It does not belong pe 
culiarly to "Industrial" schools, although it was, so to speak, discovered 
there. It is rather a part of all true education. As Mr. A. G. Boyden has 
so well pointed out,t the modern laboratory" methods are but part of this 
new educational movement: "The learner must handle the objects whose 
qualities he perceives through the senses." He must handle the objects 
whose colors he would know, place them together and form pleasing com 
binations and mix and apply colors with his own hands; he must handle 
bodies whose forms he would know, measure their dimensions, draw the 
forms and make them of clay, paper or wood. So too he must examine and 
analyze minerals, draw and examine plants, observe and dissect animals, 
apply mathematics to counters and measures and surfaces, perform actual 
experiments in physics and chemistry and take notes, mould land config 
urations and draw maps in geography ; prepare written exercises in gram 
mar, prepare outlines, charts and reports in history and civics. Finally 
the student must express frequently in writing what he thinks and studies. 

Manual training as an integral part of general culture has but just be 
gun to enter the Negro industrial schools. It was first established at At 
lanta University in 1883 by Mr. Clarence C. Tucker. Here General Arm 
strong saw the system and induced Mr. Tucker to enter into the service of 
Hampton, where industrial training had been given from the first,and there 
introduce the distinct system of manual training. Hampton has since de 
veloped and perfected it in connection with Kindergarten andSloyd work. 
In time from such manual training will probably develop higher techno 
logical and engineering schools, but this is the work of the future. On the 
other hand with the distinct Trade-school evolved also the idea of the In 
dustrial settlement. The co-operative commercial organization, which 
was found impracticable in a school, has been, in one community at least, 
Kowaliga developed into a business organization. The school here has 
been definitely differentiated from business as such and the community or 
ganized for work. A slightly different development occurred at Calhoun, 
where a settlement of Northern people undertook not simply a school but 
social and economic work to lift the community to a higher social plane. 

6. The Industrial School. There were in the United States in the scholastic 
year, 1899-1900, ninety-eight schools for Negroes which gave courses in in 
dustrial training. Their names and addresses are as follows :$ 



*M. Gluys, quoted ill Harris Psychology of Manual Training, 
fin Report of Conference on Manual Training, Boston, Mass. 
JWhere dates are given after the name of the school the statistics are for that year and not for 



M900. 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 










1899-1900. 









Students trained in industrial 






8 


branches. 






be 










































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Alabama. 






























Kowaliga Academic and In 
dustrial School 
Emerson Normal Institute. 


Kowaliga 205 
Mobile 100 


5 


3 

10 








2 





3 


5 








125 
60 


o 


2 


State Normal Institute 


Montgomery 


466 


12 


33 










25 






17 




2 .) 


28 


Agricultural and Mechani 
cal College 
Talladega College 
Stillman Institute 


Normal 
Talladega 
Tuscaloosa 


499 
195 
35 


22 
9 
35 


17 
43 






17 


1 


15 


25 


20 


25 
2 


76 

115 


,4 
2(5 


227 


Tuskegee Normal and In 






























dustrial School, 98 and 99 


Tuskegee 


1,180 


Mi) 


>7 


36 







i:{ 




i 2 


3 


13 


90 


51 






Arkansas. 






























Shorter University 
Arkadelphia Acad. 98 & 99. 
Arkansas Baptist Col. " . 
Philander Smith College. . . 


Argenta 
Arkadelphia 
Little Rock 
Little Rock 


16 
20 
56 
95 


3 

50 
















2 


7 

12 
13 


20 
50 
82 




20 
2 
82 




Branch Normal College 
Southland College 


Pine Bluff 
Southland 


109 
120 


40 


J2 
2 






2 
2 


5 


L5 


u 


1 




45 
60 


21 


40 


State College for Colored 
































Students 


Dover 


46 


12 


4 






2 




4 






3 


2t 


4 






District of Columbia. 






























Howard University 
Normal School, (col. ) 


Washington 
Washington. 


223 

38 




81 








15 








52 


75 








Florida. 






























Cookman Institute 


Jacksonville. . . 


23 


It 




















7 


7 




Edward Waters College Jacksonville 


22 




















22 






Fessenden Academy ^Martin 


130 5f 


2< 


















S( 


27 
z< 




Emerson Memorial Homei 




























and School |0cala 


76 






















71 


19 21 


Orange Park Normal and 


























i 


Manual Training School. . 
Florida State Normal and 


Orange Park 


7 


3 





















43 


43 




Industrial School 


.Tallahassee 


IOC 


3 


It 






( 


It 








5 


48 


48 






























i 




Georgia. 






























Jeruel Academy 


Athens 


8c 






















S( 






Knox Institute 


Athens. 






21 
















,- 


(). 






Atlanta University 


Atlanta 


23< 




35 










2< 






IJ 


1(57 


-,l 


M 


Morris Brown College 
Spelman Seminary 
Storrs School 


Atlanta 
Atlanta 
Atlanta 


82 
45C 
93 




i 


. 




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1 


1 
:?2 


1 

401 

.: 


U 

;-,( 


Orr 

63 


Haines Normal and Indus 






















1 "1 




trial Institute 


Augusta 


20* 






i 










81200115 





SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



35 





> 


1899-1900 






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Students trained in industrial 






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Georgia (Con.) 






























Georgia State Industrial 
































College, 98 and 99 


College 


140 


12 


8 


8 


810 




S 




s 




40 






Fort Valley High and In 
dustrial School 


Fort Valley 


75 


26 


30 


















50 


36 




Dorchester Acad 


Mclntosh 


209 




S") 


















121 


21 




Ballard Nor. School 


Macon 


272 
























10 


32 


Central City College 
Beach Institute 


Macon 


91 
41 


35 


26 


5 














11 


15 
35 


10 
1 


20 


Savannah 


Clark University 


3outh Atlanta. . 


310 




15 










6 




6 


7 


17f, 


48 




Allen Nor. & Indus. Sch. 


Thomasville 


78 






















78 


6 






Kentucky. 






























State Normal School for 
























IS 








Colored Persons 


Frankfort 


170 


72 


59 


















70 


70 




Chandler Nor. School . . 


Lexington 


111 






















Ml 








Louisiana. 




, 


























Gilbert Academy and In 
dus. College 


Baldwin 


141 


48 










11 


11 














Leland University 
Straight University 


S"ew Orleans .... 
STew Orleans .... 


16 
229 




72 
















_> ,) 


te 

L57 








Maryland. 






























St. Frances Academy .... 
Industrial Home for Col 


Baltimore 


27 






















13 
L05 


s 
40 


6 




ored Girls, 98 & 99 .... 


Melvale 


105 




























Princess Anne Academy. 


Princess Anne. . 


60 


31 


9 










3 




4 


11 


29 


29 


4 




Mississippi. 






























Mount Hermon Female 
































Seminary 
Southern Christian Inst. 


Clinton 
Edwards 


60 
43 


18 


14 






3 






5 




5 


80 
15 


60 
10 


2 


Miss. State Nor. School . . 
Rust University 


Holly Springs. . . 
Holly Springs. . . 


80 
124 


3 


30 






s 








11 




80 
56 


10 




Jackson College 
Tougaloo University .... 
Alcorn Agricultural and 
Mechanical College . . . 


Jackson 
Tougaloo 

Westside 


60 
221 

339 


22 
110 


75 

85 






* 




20 




32 




.is 


70 


12 
75- 




Missouri. 






























Lincoln Institute 
Geo. R. Smith College . . . 


Jefferson City. . . 
Sedalia 


125 
52 




36 










34 


6 




6 

12 


4! 
41 








New Jersey. 






























Manual Training and In 
dustrial School 


Bordentown . . . 


108 




28 


















41 


32 


9 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 







. 


1899-1900 






<u 


Students trained in industrial 






S 


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JH G 


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Address. 


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North Carolina. 

















Wash burn Seminary .... 


Beaufort 


118 




4 




7C 






Biddle University 


Charlotte 


107 




23 


Q C 


446 2C 






Scotia Seminary 


Concord 290 








29C 


29C 




Franklinton Christian 


















College 98 & 99 


Franklinton .... 


10 








1C 






Agr. and Mechanical Col. 
for the Colored Race . . 


Greensboro 


174 


14 


88 




38 6 64 


64 




High Point Normal and 


















Industrial School 


High Point 


60 




12 


8 3 


60 


15 




Lincoln Academy 


Kings Mountain 


155 




5 




110 


85 


13 


Barrette Collegiate and 


















Industrial School 


Pee Dee 


75 




5 


10 5 2 


5 5 20 


20 




Plymouth State Nor. Sch. 


Plymouth 


37 








37 






St. Augustine s School. . . 


Raleigh 


100 




6 


8831 


12 50 


50 


Shaw University 


Raleigh 


190 




70 




120 






Livingstone College 
Gregory Nor. Sch., 97 & 98 
RanKiii-RichardsInst. . 


Salisbury 
Wilmington .... 
Windsor 


9 
100 
16 




4 3 


9 9 
100 
16i 




The Slater Indus, and 




I 










State Nor. School 


Winston 


118 




22 




3 38 37 






Pennsylvania. 
















Inst. for Colored Youth . 


Philadelphia. . . . 


272 




24 


12 


1511 


87 


123 




South Carolina. 
















Schofield Normal and 


















Indus. School 


Aiken 


231 


18 


20 




10 10 173 


72 


10 


Browning Home School, 


















97and% 


Camden 


136 








100 


36 




Avery Nor. Institute .... 


Charleston 


75 








75 






Brainerd Institute 


Chester 


205 


57 


24 


f 


2 3 17 


40 


40 


Allen University 


Columbia 


84 








84 


20 




Benedict College 


Columbia 


213 


.K 


8 


9 


425109 


20 




Penn. Nor. and Indus. 


















School 


Frogmore 


179 




98 




12 91 






Brewer Nor. Sch. 98 & 99 


Greenwood 


147 








147 






Claflin University 


Orangeburg 


487 


27 


08 


175 42 10 5( 


350 8J195 


46 








Tennessee. 
















Warner Institute 


Jonesboro. . 


78 


76 


3 


2 1 


2 52 




, 


Knoxville College 
Lemoyne Nor. Inst 
Morristown Nor. Col .... 


Knoxville 
Memphis 
Morristown 


68 
462 
93 


9 


14 
45 




11 36 
19378 
93 


10 
30 

68 




Cen. Tenn. College 


Nashville 


70 




10 


4 


41 9 




12 


Roger Williams Univ. . . 


Nashville 


100 








2 98 







SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 










1899-1900 






1 


Students trained in industrial 








branches. 






J2 c 












x. 































o 




















II 


o 










^ 




^ 












Name of School. 


Address. 















"3 




c 














O ""Jg 


c 





























-Q ) 


03 

2 

c3 




be 
c 


tr 




I 

\. 




lis 

03 .- 








03 
> 

3 






2 I? 











C 


G 5 :^ 


:l 


c 


"^ L 


bic 


be 


1 






3 H? 


Cl 


LJ 


? 


S 


a P 


S 


2 

o 


B 

o 


- 


c 


| 


M 

<U 






O "-< 


1 5 


PQ 





*-^ "- * ~ ^, T* 


1 















1 






1 








Texas. 








! 
















Bishop College 
Wiley University 


Marshall 
Marshall 


327 
200 


24 


i 

1 2 




L5 


ir, 


5 


23 106| 14| 
20160 60 


Paul Quinn College 


Waco 


149; 32 


is! 












27 92 








1 




I 




















Virginia. 






















Ingleside Semi nary , 98-99 
Gloucester Agr. & Indus. 
College, 98 and 99... . 
Hampton Nor. & Agri 


Burkeville 
Cappahosic 


109 109 109 

97: 30 

i 
















109 
20 


109 
27 


20 


cultural Institute Hampton 949 4J3 29 1111 <; 


2(5 l:i :, K> 


412 




130 


St. Paul Normal and In 


| 1 








dustrial School, 98- 99. Lawrenceville. .. 230; 18! 10 4521 


15 10 S 72 


22 


72 


Manassas Indus. School, 


i 
















98 and 99 Manassas 


&5: 8 27! 








23 


I 


38 




Xorfolk Mission College. Norfolk 


406 






I 






29 280 


92 




Va. Nor. and Coll. Inst. .Petersburg 


183 














|183 


20 




Va. Union University. . .Richmond 


12 




j 




















W. Virginia. 














Storer College 


Harper s Ferry.. 


105 


3S| 












40 40 i 



The chief schools according to the number of students in industrial 
courses are : 
Tuskegee, Ala ....... ................. 1,180 Alcorn, Miss .............................. 339 



Bishop, Texas ........................... 327 

Clark, Ga .................................. 310 

Scotia, N. C .............................. 290 

Institute, Penna ......................... 272 

Ballard, Ga ................................ 272 



Hampton. Va .......................... 949 

A. & M. College, Normal, Ala,. 499 

Claflin, S. C ............................ 487 

State N mal, Montgomery, Ala 466 

Spelman, Ga. ........................... 450 

Norfolk, Va ............................. 406 Atlanta, Ga .............................. 233 

230 
209 



LeMoyne, Term ........................ 402 St. Paul, Va 

Straight, Va ............................. 229 Dorchester, Va 



Howard, D. C .......................... 223 Haines, Ga ....... ........................ 208 

Tougaloo. Miss ........................ 221 Kowaliga, Ala ............................. 205 

Wiley, Texas ................................... 200 

These gross numbers, however, are of little value on account of the 
varying value and thoroughness of the courses given. The easiest course 
is that of sewing for girls, and this one item swells the returns unduly for 



38 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

it is often given in a desultory way. We can best compare the schools, 
therefore, by asking how many students are enrolled in the classes in car 
pentry, bricklaying, plastering, painting, iron and sheet metal work, forg 
ing and machine shop work.* The following schools have 50 or more thus 
enrolled : 

Claflin, 8. C 345 Dorchester, Ga 85 

A. &M. College, Greensboro, N.C. 182 Lincoln, Mo 76 

Tuskegee, Ala 161 Straight, Va , 72 

Alcorn, Miss 137 Shaw, N. C 70 

A. & M. College, Normal, Ala.. ..117 Branch, Ark 64 

Ingleside, Va 109 State Normal, Ky 59 

Hampton, Va 101 State Normal, Montgomery, Ala... 58 

Penn, S. C 98 Atlanta, Ga 52 

Howard, I). C 96 Institute for Colored Youth, Pa.... 51 

Ton galoo, Miss 95 Manassas, Va 51 

Ga. State College 50 

Here again difference in the time spent and the thoroughness of the 
work and its relation to the other work of the institution make compari 
son difficult. On the whole, however, we may designate the following as 
the chief Negro industrial schools: 

Alabama: State Normal, Montgomery. 
A. and M. College, Normal. 
Tuskegee. 

Arkansas : Branch Normal. 
Florida: State Normal, Tallahassee. 
Georgia: Spelman. 

State Industrial College. 
Kentucky : State Formal. 
Louisiana: Straight. 
Mississippi: Alcorn. 

Tougaloo. 

Missouri: Lincoln Institute. 
North Carolina: Biddle. 
Scotia. 

A. and M. College, Greensboro. 
High Point. 
Shaw. 

Slater I. and State N. 

Pennsylvania: Institute for Colored Youth. 
South Carolina: Scofleld. 
Brainerd. 
Penn N. and I. 
Claflin. 

Colored N. I. A. and M.t 
Tennessee: LeMoyne. 
Texas: Prairie View. t 

Bishop. 
Virginia: Hampton. 

Va. N. and C. I., Petersburg. 
St. Paul. 



"Printing and farming are omitted because often a job office and a truck farm are connected with 
a school for commercial purposes and are rated as casual - industrial courses." 

fNot reported by Bureau of Education, 1809-1000. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 39 

Another criterion of the efficiency of Industrial Schools is the list of 
beneficiaries of the Slater fund, this fund being distributed especially 
among industrial schools after careful inspection of their work. In 1901-2 
the following schools were aided, and may be regarded, therefore, as the 
best Negro Industrial Schools from the point of view of the Slater trustees : 

Hampton, Va. Shaw, N. C. 

Spelman, Ga. Montgomery, Ala. 

Tuskegee, Ala. Tougaloo, Miss. 

Claflin, S. C. Straight, La. 
Bishop, Texas. 

7. The Influence of the Slater Fund. Perhaps the greatest single impulse 
toward the economic emancipation of the Negro has been the singularly 
wise administration of the gift of John F. Slater. Mr. Slater gave to a 
board of trustees in 1882, one million dollars for u the uplifting of the late 
ly emancipated population of the Southern States and their posterity, by 
conferring upon them the blessings of Christian education."* Mr. Slater 
knew and sympathized with the efforts of the American Missionary Asso 
ciation and other agencies in the work of uplifting the Negroes. He said: u lt 
is no small part of my satisfaction in taking this share in it, that I hereby 
associate myself with some of the noblest enterprises of charity and hu 
manity, and may hope to encourage the prayers and toils of faithful men 
and women who have labored and are still laboring in this cause."* Mr. 
Slater did not particularly mention industrial training, although he had 
thought of it,** but heleftthelargestdiscretion to the trustees "only indicat 
ing, as lines of operation adapted to the present condition of things, the 
training of teachers from among the people requiring to be taught, if, in 
the opinion of the corporation, by such limited selection the purposes of 
the trust can be best accomplished; and the encouragement of such insti 
tutions as are most effectually useful in promoting this training of teach 
ers."* The first plans adopted by the Slater fund Trustees looked toward 
"the encouragement and assistance of promising youth a certain number 
of whom shall be annually chosen by the authorities of well-managed in- 
.stitutions approved by this Board of Trustees," but it was provided that 
"so far as practicable the scholars receiving the benefit of this foundation 
shall be trained in some manual occupation, simultaneously with their 
mental and moral instruction." The plan thus begun took clearer shape 
in 1883 when the board Resolved that, for the present, this board confine 
its aid to such schools as are best fitted to prepare young colored men and 
women to become useful to their race; and that institutions which give 
instruction in trades and other manual occupations, that will enable col 
ored youths to make a living, and to become useful citizens, be carefully 
sought out and preferred in appropriations from this Fund." 

Dr. Haygood, the first general agent, in the fall of 1883 pointed out the 
especial recommendation of Mr. Slater as to the training of Negro teach 
ers and recommended that "this Board should confine its operations to 
those institutions that are found to be most capable of training suitable 
teachers." He added, however, that "only a small number of the higher 



-Letter of the Founder. --Proceedings, &c., 1891, p. 35. 



40 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

grade schools for colored youth have made any experiments in connecting 
handicraft training with instruction in books. 1 He added: "It is proper 
to say that some of the most experienced workers in this field are not con 
vinced of the wisdom of making industrial training an important feature 
in their plans and efforts. Many equally experienced, entertain no doubts 
on this subject. They believe that industrial training is not only desira 
ble as affording the means of making a more self-reliant and self-support 
ing population, but necessary as furnishing some of the conditions of the 
best intellectual and moral discipline of the colored people especially of 
those who are to be the teachers and guides of their people."* The gen 
eral agent made these recommendations of policy: 1st. Aid to students 
with exceptional gifts. 2nd. Aid for medical instruction, and 3rd, gen 
eral appropriations as before indicated. 

The first institutions aided were : 

Clark University, Atlanta, Ga $2,000 

Lewis High Scnool, Macon, Ga 200 

Tuskegee Normal School, Tuskegee, Ala 100 

Tougaloo University, Tougaloo, Miss 1,000 

LeMoyne Institute, Memphis, Tenn 500 

Claflin University, Orangeburg, S. C 2,000 

Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga 2,000 

Talladega College, Talladega, Ala 2,000 

Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C 2,000 

Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va 2,000 

Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary, Atlanta, Ga 2, (XX) 

Austin High School. Knoxville, Tenn 450 

This list of schools increased rapidly in the next few years as the various 
schools added or enlarged their industrial departments. In 1886-7, the list 
of aided schools was as follows : 

Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga. Moore St. Industrial School, Rich- 
Beaufort Normal School, Beaufort, inond, Va. 

S. C. Mt. Albion State Normal School, 
Benedict Institute, Columbia, S. C. Franklinton, N. C. 

Brainerd Institute, Chester, S. C. Mt. Herman Female Seminary, Clin- 
Central Tenn. College, Nashville, ton, Miss. 

Tenn. New Orleans Univ., New Orleans, La. 

Claflin Univ., Orangeburg, S. C. Paul Quinn College, Waco, Texas. 

Clark University, Atlanta, Ga. Paine Institute, Augusta, Ga. 

Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn. Philander Smith College, Little Rock, 
Gilbert Seminary, Baldwin, La. Ark. 

Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va. Roger Williams Univ., Nashville, 

Hartshorn Memorial Female Insti- Tenn. 

tute, Richmond, Va. Rust Univ., Holly Springs, Miss. 

Howard Univ., Washington, D. C. Scotia Seminary, Concord, N. C. 

Ky. Normal Univ., Louisville, Ky. Shaw Univ., Raleigh, N. C. 

Jackson College, Jackson, Miss. Slater Industrial School, Knoxville, 
Leonard Medical School, Raleigh, Tenn. 

N. C. Spelman Female Seminary, Atlanta, 
Leland Univ., New Orleans, La. Ga, 



Proceedings, &c., 1888. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 41 

LeMoyne Institute, Memphis, Term. State Normal School, Huntsville,Ala. 
Lends Normal Institute, Macon, Ga. State Normal School, Tuskegee, Ala. 
Lincoln Normal Univ., Marion, Ala. Straight Univ., New Orleans, La. 
Livingston College, Salisbury, N. C. Talladega College, Talladega, Ala. 
Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tillotson Institute, Austin, Texas. 
Term. Tougaloo University, Tougaloo, Miss. 

General Agent Haygood reported in 1890: 

"As to industrial training, so far as schools for Negroes are concerned, 
the discussion is now at an end. Men now consider only the question of 
method. Eight years ago industrial training was well under way at 
Hampton Institute ; it was feebly attempted at three or four schools ; not 
considered as possible at most of them ; in not a few utterly condemned. 
Industrial departments are now recognized necessities everywhere. It is 
more than worth while to add that the results of industrial training in the 
schools aided by the Slater Fund have had much to do with the awaken 
ing throughout the South to the need of tool-craft for the white youth of 
these states. 

"An important result of the Slater work in the South (and how impor 
tant and far-reaching it were hard to say) is this: The industrial training- 
introduced and fostered by the Slater fund has made the cause of Negro 
education more friends among Southern white men than all speeches and 
writings put together."* 

The final report of Dr. Haygood in 1891 is a fit summing up of the work 
of the Slater fund for the first decade. He says in part:t u ln his educa 
tional development the Negro is just now at the danger line of which he 
most of all is unconscious. So far his education has developed wants 
faster than his ability to earn means to satisfy them. In the most of them 
the result is discontent; with many, unhappiness; in some, a sort of des 
peration ; in not a few, dishonesty. On these points I have not the shadow 
of a doubt; this particular matter I have studied widely and minutely. 
A plow-boy earning from $100 to $150 a year board and lodging thrown 
in has enough to satisfy his normal wants ; this boy after six years at 
school, not only desires but needs from $300 to $500 a year to satisfy the 
wants that have been bred in him, while his earning capacity has not 
grown in proportion. This state of things grows out of a natural and 
universal law of humanity, and is peculiar to the American Negro be 
cause he is now, and by no fault or choice of his, in this crisis of develop 
ment. 

"The poorest people are not those who have little, but those who want 
more than they can readily earn. That many half-taught and unwisely- 
taught Negroes go to the bad and seek money by u short-cuts is not sur 
prising. In these matters the Negro s weakness illustrates his brother 
hood to his white neighbors. The prisons show enough half-educated 
white people to prove that merely learning the rudiments does not secure 
virtue. In all races it is true that with new knowledge new temptations 



" Proceedings, &c., 1890. 
fProceedings, &c., 1891, pp. 28, ff. 



42 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

come; strength to resist comes after if at all. In all this a man of sense 
finds no argument against the education of the Negro, buta demonstration 
of the need, for him, and for the white race, of more and better education. 

44 Better is not the same as more ; the imminent need for the Negro is to 
find out what education is now fittest for him. Nothing in these state 
ments means the exclusion of the Negro from the highest and widest 
studies of which some of them are capable; it does mean, as I see it, that 
the regulation college curriculum is not what most Negro students need. 

No truer words have ever been spoken on the Negro problem and few 
groups of men have seen their efforts to turn the current of public opinion 
so successful as have the trustees of the Slater Fund. Dr. Haygood was able 
to say as he laid down his trust : "Every school in connection with the Slater 
Fund recognizes the utility and necessity of industrial training; so does 
every important school for the Negro race whether aided by the fund or 
not. In many of these institutions industrial training is well established 
and successfully carried on ; in all of them enough is accomplished to do 
great good and encourage more effort. Everyone known to me earnestly 
desires to extend its work in this direction. At the beginning many 
doubted, some opposed, and not a few were indifferent. At this time no 
experienced teacher in Negro schools entertains so much as a doubt as to 
the desirableness and usefulness of this very important element of edu 
cation." 

With the advent of Dr. J. L. M. Curry as general agent, the Trustees of 
the Slater Fund have gradually adopted a policy of concentration of 
effort, giving something over one-half of their income of $60,000 to Hamp 
ton and Tuskegee, $10,000 to Spelman and Claflin and the rest to six other 
schools, including one medical school. 

It is clear that the great movement for the industrial education of Ne 
groes and the encouragement of Negro artisans is due primarily to the 
Trustees of the John F. Slater fund, and for this they deserve the thanks 
of the nation. 

8. Curricula of Industrial Schools. We can best judge the work of Indus 
trial Schools by asking: 1. What is the course of study? 2. How is it 
carried out? And how much time is given to it? Let us briefly ask this 
question of the chief schools, using the latest available catalogue for the 
answers. 

Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Va., (1901-2.) 

The Hampton Institute consists of five departments : 

1. Academic Department, (three year course.) 

2. Normal Department with Model School, (two years, post-graduate.) 

3. Agricultural Department. 

4. Department of Productive Industries and Domestic Work. 

5. Trades School. 

In the Academic Department the following instruction in manual train 
ing and industries is given: 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



43 





BOYS. 


GIRLS. 


OTHER ACADEMIC WORK. 


1ST YEAR. 


Bench work, 100 
hours. 


Sloyd, 2 hrs-3 
hrs per week. 
Sewing, 2 pe 
riods per week. 
Cooking, 2 pe 
riods per week. 


Agriculture, Physics, 
(Chemistry), Hygiene, Ge 
ography, Arithmetic, Eng 
lish, Reading and Litera 
ture, Bible Study, Music, 
Drawing, Penmanship and 
Gymnastics. 


2ND YEAR. 


Wood-turning, 
120 hours. 


Sewing, 2 pe 
riods per week. 
Cooking, 2 les 
sons a week, 4 
months. 


Agriculture, Geography, 
Arithmetic, English, Read 
ing and Literature, U. S. 
History, Bible Study, Mu 
sic, Drawing and Gymnas 
tics. 


3RD YEAR. 


Forging, 120 
hours, or work in 
Trade School. 


Dressmaking. 


(Partially elective 3 or 
4 courses to be chosen), 
Agriculture, Physics, 
Mathematics, English, 
Reading and Literature, 
Civics, History, Music, 
Drawing, and Gymnastics. 



In the Whittier Model School, cooking is given in the fourth and fifth 
grades, and sewing in certain lower grades. There is also in the first five 
grades a regular course of manual training including work with scissors 
and knife, simple bench tools, sloyd, repairing, etc. There is also a kin 
dergarten. 

The Department of Productive Industries consists of industries which 
u are conducted as business enterprises and are open to the students who 
have passed a year in the Trade School or Training Department." They 
afford the opportunity of learning how productive industries are man 
aged, of making a practical application of the principles learned in the 
Trade School, and incidentally of earning wages. They also furnish some 
opportunity for skilled labor to young men working for credit to enter the 
Day or Trade School." Finally there is a regular Trade School with courses 
in Carpentry, Painting, Wheelwrighting, Blacksmithing, Machinework, 
Tailoring, Bricklaying, Plastering, Shoemaking, Harnessmaking, Steam 
Engineering, and Tinsmithing. Every student in the trade school works 
9 hours a day and spends two hours in the night school. They must be at 
least 16 years of age to enter, and each course requires three years for 
completion. 

Hampton is especially noteworthy in the elaborate and careful attempt 
to correlate literary work and manual training: Agriculture is studied on 
the farm, physics and chemistry in laboratories, geography by field ex 
cursions, arithmetic with especial reference to shop work, etc. So impor 
tant is this experiment in the history of education that it is worth while 
quoting verbatim the principal s account of the work*: 



*3?.rd Annual Report, 1901 . 



44 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

"Our manual training department gives instruction to every student in the school. 
No boy graduates from Hampton without having worked in wood, iron and sheet 
metal, besides having taken a course in agriculture. No girl graduates from the school 
without having received instruction in wood work, enabling her to mend and make 
simple furniture, or without having been taught to cook and serve a meal, to make 
her own dresses and underclothing. She is also given a fair knowledge of plant and 
animal life. The course for boys consists of a year of joinery, then a half year each 
of wood turning and sheet metal work and in the Senior year a choice of \vork in one 
or more of the various tradas departments. 

In our Whittier school manual training begins with paper cutting and constructive 
work in wood, with clay modeling in the kindergarten. This is followed by sewing in 
Room 2 for both boys and girls, and the course ends in Room (5 with bench work for 
the boys and sewing and cooking for the girls. Our Normal Department is given 
practice in teaching manual training and already work similar to that in the Whit- 
tier School has been introduced into some of the public schools of the South. I should 
like to repeat what I have said before, and what is daily becoming more evident in the 
school life here, that this thorough systematic work in the training of the hand and 
the eye is doing much to develop truthfulness, patience, earnestness and a sense of re 
sponsibility in our young people. 

"The academic work is broader and stronger and in closer touch with life and with 
the other departments of the school. In our study of language we are teaching our 
students to do something, then to talk and write about it, and finally to read about it. 
In the regular course, no books are used for the first three months except for refer 
ence. In the laboratories the young people make experiments in order to learn about 
water, air, the soil and plants. These are followed by conversations and written exer 
cises upon what they have seen and done. The study of mathematics is of the same 
practical character. Each student keeps a cash book showing what the school owes 
him for work, what he owes the school for board, etc. Each month the student has an 
account rendered him by the treasurer s office. These two statements should agree ; 
if they do not, means are taken to discover on which side the error lies. Articles are 
manufactured by students, and the cost in material, time, etc., is computed. Survey 
ing operations are carried on. Bills and memoranda concerning transactions on the 
farm, in the work shops, in the commissary and kitchens, are sent in for the classes to 
put into proper shape. Figures are made to live. 

"In our geography department we are emphasizing physiography and industries. 
A study of current events is still the basis of a large part of our geography course. 
Some of the most valuable and interesting work is done in connection with the daily 
news items. 

"The cooking and sewing, agricultural and shop work are thus made to contribute 
to the understanding of geography and history. Our teaching of the natural sciences 
begins with direct observation of nature, the study of trees and animals, and the gath 
ering and classifying of specimens, Much emphasis is placed upon the teaching of 
practical physics and chemistry, without which our agriculture, mechanical work and 
geography would be most superficial." 

Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, Ala., (1901-2). 

Tuskegee offers a common school course of three years, and a grammar 
school course of four years. Each student in the day school attends school 
four days a week and works at some industry one day each week and alter 
nate Saturdays. Night school students work at industries in the day and 
study in the evening. There is a model school with a course in manual train 
ing, and a kindergarten. The industries offered the boys include Carpentry, 
Blacksmithing, Printing, Wheelwrighting, Harnessmaking, Carriage- 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 45 

trimming, Painting, Machinery, Engineering and Founding, Shoemaking, 
Brickmasonry and Plastering, Brickmaking, Sawmilling, Tinsmith ing 
Tailoring, Mechanical Drawing. Architectural Drawing, Electrical En 
gineering and Canning. The industries for girls are Sewing, Dressmaking, 
Millinery, Cooking, Laundering, Mattress-making, Basketry, Nurse-train 
ing. 

Spelman Seminary, Atlanta, Ga., (1901-2.) 

This is a school for girls and is a good example of the older type of in 
dustrial school. The catalogue says: 

"Our industrial department aims to fit the student for the practical duties of life by 
training the hands for skill in labor. It develops character by forming habits of reg 
ularity, punctuality, neatness, thoroughness, accuracy, and application. 

"DOMESTIC ARTS." 

"Our boarding students, through their share in the daily routine of life, receive 
practical instruction in the care of rooms, in washing dishes, table-work, cooking, and 
laundry work. Each pupil is expected to give one hour daily to house-work, some 
especial duty being assigned her. 

"A new course in cooking has been introduced, which covers three years. The fol 
lowing is the outline : First Year. The kitchen, its furnishing, care of utensils, the 
fire, dish-washing; study of food principles; processes of food cookery ; plain cooking. 
Second Year. The dining room, furnishing, care of china and silver, serving; review 
of food principles with more elaborate methods of cooking; canning, preserving, and 
pickling. Third Year. Home sanitation and economic ventilation, furnishing, clean 
ing; arranging bills of fare; packing lunches; cookery for invalids and children. 

"SEWING." 

"All classes in the grammar and intermediate departments are taught sewing. The 
course includes mending, darning, overhanding, stitching, hemming, basting, hem- 
turning, hem-stitching, button-hole making, and the cutting and making of under 
garments. 

"DRESS-MAKING." 

"The full course in dress-making covers three years. The use of a chart for drafting 
is taught, and cutting and fitting and finishing. Dress-making is elective. 

"PRINTING." 

"We teach compositor s work in our printing classes. Our printing office contains 
a small printing press and all necessary equipments for printing. It issues monthly 
an eight-page school paper, the Spelman Messenger ; it also prints our annual cata 
logue, besides the circulars, letter and bill heads, envelopes, programs and cards re 
quired for school use. This work insures instruction in a variety of typesetting- 
Printing is an elective." 
There is also a course in nurse-training. 

Claflin University, Orangeburg, S. C, (1901-02.) 
Claflin oilers the following courses : 
In each of the eight primary and grammar grades : 

Manual training, three weekly periods, 45 minutes each. 
In each of the four years of the College Preparatory and Normal 

Courses ; four times a week : 
Boys: Wood-carving, forging, freehand and mechanical drawing. 



4-6 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

Girls : Dress-making and domestic service. 

"In the third year of either of these courses each student must select 
a trade." This trade is pursued the third and fourth years. 
In the first two years of the college course: Architectural drawing. 
The course of Manual Training includes: 

Preliminary Sloyd. 

High Swedish Sloyd. 

Wood -carving. 

Forging. 

Freehand and mechanical drawing. 

Mechanical drawing. 

Architecture. 

The trades to be chosen from are : 

Carpentry, cabinet making and stair building. 

Iron-working. 

Brickmasonry and Plastering. 

Wheelwrighting. 

Painting. 

Printing. 

Tailoring. 

These trades are pursued two years in the regular course and an elective 
third year is offered for those who wish to perfect themselves and "enter 
the work as a life business." 

Shcnv University, Raleigh, N. C., (1898-99.) 

There is in this school four years of common school work, two years of 
preparatory work, a three years Normal course and four years College 
course. Manual training is a required study in every year except the last 
year of the Normal and the four years of the College course. The course 
is as follows : 

1st year Wood carpentry; freehand drawing. 
2nd year Forge work; mechanical drawing. 
3rd year Vise-work ; mechanical drawing. 
4th year Designing; architectural work. 
The catalogue says : 

"We do not teach trades, and make no pretensions to doing it, for we have no desire 
to inaugurate a trade school, but we do pretend to carry on industrial work along ed 
ucational lines, and this work will be extended more and more as fast as financial 
means are obtained. 

"We purpose to do all our work in these departments, not only along educational 
lines, but up to the standard of the best educational thought on the subject. 

"In the Manual Training Department we give a course in drawing and the use of 
tools. We follow Cross s system of freehand and Prang s system of mechanical draw 
ing, and the plan of manual training as laid down by Professor Kilborn, of the Man 
ual Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts. The course in drawing includes 
both geometrical and constructive. As the course becomes more extended and com 
plete, greater attention will be given to mechanical drawing. Students in manua 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 47 

training and carpentry are taught the use and care of a great variety of tools and the 
principles that underlie their use. 

"The Matron of Estey Seminary, who has had training in the best schools in the 
North, is following out a general system of housework and sewing that is of great ed 
ucational value. Instead of work being done at haphazard, it is systematized in such 
a way that it is carried on in accordance with certain principles." 

Tougaloo University, near Jackson, Miss., (1901-2.) 
"Industrial work in some form is combined with all these courses," viz; 
Kindergarten, Grammar School, Preparatory School and Teachers Training Course. 
"While it is true and understood that this work is valuable as a preparation for 
trades and an aid in obtaining a livelihood, the mental and physical development of 
students holds first place in the plan of instruction. Finished products are sought for 
as a mark of industry and skill, also for their commercial value. The regular course 
consists of four years work in the wood-working, blacksmithing and brick-laying de 
partments, in connection with which a thorough course in mechanical drawing is 
taught each year. For those who wish to thoroughly master carpentry, cabinet mak 
ing, blacksmithing or bricklaying after completing the regular course, a special course 
will be given. This end should be accomplished by the average student in about three 
years, as he has already had one year s work in each of the above-named branches." 

Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, O., (1901-2). 

The industries offered are: Carpentry, 3 years course; Sewing, 3 years 7 
course; Printing, 3 years course; Shoe-making, 2 years course; Agricult 
ure is about to be introduced, and also blacksmithing, brickmaking, and 
masonry. Usually about two hours a day is given to industries by stu 
dents in the Normal Course. 

Howard University, Washington, D. C., (1898-99.) 

"Students of the preparatory and normal departments practice in the methods of 
certain trades at specified hours." The trades are : carpentry, printing, tin-smithing, 
bookbinding ("to bind and rebind for the library") and sewing. 

Clark University, Atlanta, Ga., (1901-02). 

Pupils in the common-school grades must take three years of industrial 
training. A regular trade course is also provided as follows : 

1st year: Trade, 5 times a week, 14 hours a week in mathematics, biol 
ogy, history and English. 

2nd year: Trade, 5 times a week, 12 hours a week in drawing, mathe 
matics, history, physics and English. 

3rd year: Trade, 5 times a week, 11 hours a week in mathematics, chem 
istry and English. 

The trades offered are Agriculture, Iron-working, Printing, Shoemaking, 
and Wood-working. 

Rerea College, Berea, Ky., (1899-1900). 

This institution gives two-year courses in Farm economy and Home 
economy : 

FARM ECONOMY. 1ST YEAR. HOME ECONOMY. 

Farming, 5 hours, 1 term. Sewing, 5 hours, 1 term. 

Woodwork, 5 hours, 1 term. Cooking, 5 hours, 1 term. 

Gardening, 5 hours, 1 term. Gardening, 5 hours, 1 term. 

Other studies, 13 hours, 3 terms. Other studies, 13 hours, 3 terms. 



48 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

FABM ECONOMY. 2ND YEAR. HOME ECONOMY. 

Horticulture, 5 hours, 2 terms. Cooking, 5 hours, 1 term. 

Farm Management, 5 hours, 1 term. Household Economy ,5 hrs., 1 term. 

Animal Husbandry, ohours,! term. Dairying, 5 hours, 1 term. 

Forestry, 5 hours, 1 term. Other studies, 13 hours, 8 terms. 

Farm Crops, 8 hours, 1 term. 

Other studies, 28 hours, 1 term. 

Short apprenticeships in farming, carpentry, printing, sewing and house 
hold economy are given to a limited number of students. They devote 
one-half their time to school studies and one-half to the trade. 

Biddlc University, Charlotte, N. C., (1897-98). 

"Every student in the Preparatory and Normal School is required to take a trade in 
the School of Industries." Each student spends from one to two hours a day in the 
industrial department for four days each week during the three years course. Six 
trades are taught : Carpentry, Printing, Bricklaying, Plastering, Tailoring and Shoe- 
making. About 1-6 of the student s time is given to the trade. One hundred and 
thirty-eight were enrolled in the five trades. 

Walden University, (Central Tennessee College) Nashville, Tenn., (1899-1900). 

Elective courses are offered in printing, carpentry, blacksmithing, tin- 
work, and sewing. Students will he paid for their labor as soon as it is 
valuable. 

Alcorn A. and M. College, Westside, Miss., (1900-01). 

An industrial course, beginning with the grammar grades, and cover 
ing five years is so arranged "that each student can take a trade in some 
one of the industries. All students in this course must enter upon the 
learning of some trade under the same requirements as class-room work." 
The trades offered are: Shoemaking, Agriculture, Carpentry, Blacksmith- 
ing and Printing. 

Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama for Negroes, Normal, Ala., 

(1900-01). 

The trade courses offered are: Carpentry. Iron-working, Shoemaking, 
Broom-making, Chairbottoming, Nurse-training, Millinery, Cooking, 
Laundering, Printing, Machine-shop, and Agriculture. 

"All work, including building, repairing, blacksmithing, wheelwrighting, painting, 
broommaking, printing, shoemaking, mattress making, farming, cooking, dining room 
and general housework, is performed by the students. From four cents to fifteen 
cents per hour is allowed, according to the skill and faithfulness of the student. It 
can be easily seen that great advantages are offered by this institution to young men 
and women seeking an industrial and literary education 

"Further, the aim is to turn all labor, and all articles produced by labor, to advan 
tage and utility. Therefore, all of these industrial departments contribute in some 
way to the equipment of the Institution, and are, in most cases, a source of income to 
the student as well as a means of instruction." 

The shop wages are : 

"Work of the first-year class goes for lessons. 

"Work of the second-year class goes for lessons. 

"Work of the third-year class, one-half (%) net profit. 

"Post-graduates and skilled labor, one-half (%) price of the work. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 49 

"All students becoming skilled workmen will receive a per cent of the profits of all 
articles manufactured or repaired by them w r hile they are employed in the shops." 

The Calhoun Colored School, Lowndes Co., Ala., (1901-02). 
The report on manual training says: 

"Upwards of a dozen school buildings have been kept in repair. There have been 
also the odd jobs of carpentry, painting, plumbing, etc., which might be classed un 
der new work or improvements. Much of this work has been done by our larger boys 
of the day school, in classes, working one period of about an hour and three-quarters 
each week. 

"The smaller boys have received instruction again this year in sloyd whittling dur 
ing a corresponding period. 

"The night-school boys have been six in number. These work all day. The variety 
of jobs which they learn to do in the course of a term is even greater than that of the 
day scholars. There has been this year an added interest on the partof the- boys; and 
this, 1 believe, has been due to increasing ability to take hold of and do intelligently 
so many kinds of practical work, even if some sacrifice of the student to the work of 
the place was involved. 

"But while the present system has been in the past of benefit to our boys education 
ally and to the school economically, Calhoun has grown to that stage where it seems 
advisable to separate the instruction and training for the day students from the repair 
work. The yearly increasing demands for repairs to the school plant have grown to 
such proportions that it is quite impracticable to carry the repairing with classes from 
the Academic Department, in a way that will be profitable alike to the student and 
the school. 

"The bulk of the repair w r ork, however, can still be carried with proper superintend 
ence by night-school boys, needing such a chance to earn their way into day school; 
and this can still be so conducted that it will be of educational value to the student 
as well as a source of economy to the school." 

Tillotson College, Austin, Texas, (1899-1900). 

"Our course in AVood-working includes the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th grades. It 
gives the theory and use of all common \vood-w r orking tools and the elementary prin- 
ciples of wood-construction in carpentry and joinery. 

"It begins with the simplest tools and exercises, developing gradually to the most 
complex and difficult. 

"Working drawings are used constantly, so the student learns to understand and in 
terpret all kinds of scale drawings. 

"We give special attention to two things: 

"First. The effect of this work in training the eye and mind to habits of accurate, 
intelligent and truthful observation, and the hand to the skilful and precise manipu 
lation of tools. 

"Second. To give, as far as possible, a knowledge of the principles involved in the 
use of wood-construction. 

"Sewing, dress and garment-cutting and making are also taught." 

Sclwfield Normal and Industrial School, Aiken, S. C., (1899-1900). 

"It is growing more and more to be a necessity in the South, and all over the coun 
try, to teach youths how to use their hands as well as their heads. Hand training 
helps students to do better work in the school room. We teach how to do the best in 
all branches." 

There are in operation a Printing department, Harness department, 
Carpentry shop, a shop for Iron-working, Farming, Shoemaking, Sewing 



50 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

and Dressmaking, House.-keeping, Cooking and Laundry departments. 

Good boys with recommendation, capable of doing- general farm work, 
are allowed seven dollars and fifty cents ($7.50) a month with board, which 
goes toward paying expenses in the school boarding department when the 
engagement at the farm closes. No one is taken on the farm for less than 
four months and the time made cannot be sold to another; it must be 
taken out in board and schooling within one year or will be forfeited. 
Willing boys get one and a half months board and tuition for each month s 
work done on the farm. 

Normal and Manual Training School, Orange Park, Fla., (1901-1902). 

For Boys. The course for boys, beginning with the most elementary 
work, embraces nearly every process and joint brought into general use in 
wood construction, and also the filing and polishing of finished articles, 
after the most approved methods. 

Mechanical Drawing is taught in connection with shop work, with thor 
ough drill in reading and making drawings for construction purposes, fol 
lowed later by more general, complicated and finished work. 

The students also receive experience in useful employment, such as re 
pairing and caring for the school buildings, gardening, etc., and thus ac 
quire order and thoroughness in their labor. 

For Girls. The course in sewing and dressmaking will include talks 
upon dress materials, suggestions in making over garments, and in choice 
of colors. The sewing room is a large, well-lighted room, equipped with 
sewing machine, drafting table, etc. 

Prairie View State Normal School, Prairie View, Texas, (1898-1899). 

"The great object of the mechanical department is to foster a high appreciation of 
the value and dignity of intelligent labor. A boy who sees nothing in manual labor 
but dull, brute force, looks with contempt upon the labor and the laborer ; but, as soon 
as he acquires skill himself, the conditions are reversed, and hence-forth lie appre 
ciates the work and honors the workman. 

"The work of this department is divided into three divisions: wood work, iron 
work, and drawing. Bench work in wood consists of exercises with the different 
wood-working tools, so arranged in a graded series as to embrace the use of all the 
tools in their various applications." 

Virginia Union University, Richmond, Va., (1901-1902). 

The course of industrial training is not intended to cover the entire 
work done in a regularly organized trade-school. Some, however, of the 
same work is undertaken, bnt not for the purpose of giving the student a 
definite trade. The aim is io give him such a mechanical training as will 
be of service to him in his chosen life work, whatever that may be. 

"This general training will be of much greater value to the student than a course 
in which he would receive instruction and practice in a single trade. It will give him 
a good general knowledge of wood and iron materials used in building, and of the 
principles underlying the acquisition of all trades. It will give him right habits of 
work, and such training of the hand and eye as will enable him, with but little effort, 
and in a very short time, to master any trade to which he may choose to devote 
himself." 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 51 

The Industrial Training Course includes mechanical and free-hand 
drawing, designing, the use of tools in wood and iron work, and black- 
smithing, and printing, including typesetting and correcting proof. All 
students in the first year of the theological courses, and in the preparatory, 
academic, and ministers courses, are required to do this work. It is, 
however, optional in the case of college students and students in the sec 
ond and third year of the theological courses. 

The industrial building is furnished with power from the electric and 
heating plant. It is also provided with the latest improved machinery 
for every line of work in which instruction is given. Students are, there 
fore, given instruction and practice in the use of machinery, as well as in 
the use of hand- tools. 

Knox Institute and Industrial School, Athens, Ga., (1901-1902). 
The following compulsory courses are given : 

Primary Grades 1st, 2nd and 3rd : Clay modeling, 3 terms ; drawing, 3 

terms. 
Intermediate Grades th and 5th: Drawing, 3 terms; clay modeling, 2 

terms. 

Sewing, carpentry and wood-carv 
ing, 3 terms. 

Grammar Grades 6th and 7th : Sewing and carpentry, 3 terms. 

Wood-carving, 1 term. 
Handicraft, 2 terms. 

Handicraft" includes hat-making, mat-making, basket-making, pict 
ure-frame making, box-making, etc. 

Benedict College, Columbia, S. C., (1902). 

This institution offers to girls "thorough instruction in sewing, dressmaking and 
domestic work; and to young men thorough instruction in printing, and, so far as 
facilities allow, in carpentry, shoemaking, painting, horticulture and agriculture." 

"All students are required to work one and one-half hours per day in some indus 
trial work. Those who accept the reduced rates for ministers are required to work an 
additional half hour per day. The labor rendered is a part of the compensation and 
the charges are adjusted on that basis. The allowance for student labor is credited 
on the accounts. It is precisely the same, therefore, as if the college paid the student 
that amount in cash for his labor. 

"Moreover, all labor required is instructive. Work in the dormitories and corridors, 
in dining room and kitchen, teaches the girls how such work should be done. Besides 
the domestic work all the young women work daily in sewing or dressmaking under 
the instruction of competent teachers. 

The work on the campus, the keeping of the premises clean, the pruning of trees, 
the laying out of walks, the culture of flower plants, and the work in the field, not 
only teach industry, and show how such work should be done, but cultivate the eye 
and the hand, and lead to refinement and the appreciation of the clean, the true, and 
the beautiful." 

Rust University, Holly Springs, Miss., (1902). 

"During the English Course one-fourth of the time is given to Industrial Training, 
Every young man is required, unless specially excused by the President, to enter a 
class in either Carpentry, Shoemaking, Agriculture, or some industrial work; and 
every young woman of the English Course is required to enter a class either in Dress 
making, General Sewing, Domestic Science, Mexican Drawn Work or Basket Making." 



52 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

Mallard Xorntal School. Mat on,(ia,, (1896-1897). 

The girls have, during the course, nine years work in the Sewing School 
under the constant supervision of their teachers. 

In tlie Cooking Classes they are trained in the domestic arts of cooking 
and housekeeping. The boys of the higher grades are required to work 
five hours a week in the work shop, under the direction of a competent 
teacher. 

Paul Qiniiu College, Waco, Tex.. (1899-1900). 

"Feeling that the need of the race is a large skilled labor class, Paul Quinn College 
has made the Industrial department co-ordinate with the other departments. Special 
effort is being made to broaden the scope of the work already represented and to add 
other trade s. 

The Industrial Department is well organized and the grounds are well cultivated. 

"The fruitfulness of the garden greatly reduces the current expenses of the board 
ing department. We manage to have vegetables of our own raising the whole year. 

"Our system requires each student to work one hour each day. This gives needed 
exercise and training in useful employments." 

Southern University, New Orleans, La., (1898-1899). 

"A three years Manual Training course, five hours per week, is required of all pu 
pils who may have been assigned to this department for instruction. 

"This shorter course is provided for the benefit of those pupils who are sufficiently 
advanced in their mathematical studies to take up the scientific or more advanced 
mechanical course which follows. It consists chiefly of manual training in the wood 
and metal working industries, and is designed to be thorough enough in its scope to 
give such pupils who have completed it, an intelligent understanding of the principles 
that underlie such trades as: Carpentry, Mill-Wrighting, Joining, Cabinet Making, 
Turning, Scroll, Sawing, Tinsmithing, Blacksmith! ng, Etc. The mastering of any of 
the above trades depends upon the individual skill acquired in their constant pursuit 
in after life. 

"The mechanical or advanced course begins on the termination of the shorter 
course. It is most comprehensive in its scope, including such studies as Mechanical 
Drawing, Physics and Mechanics. Pattern making is taken up, and bench-work con 
tinued. The student is required to work from the measurements or drawings furnished 
or from his own designs. This course is pursued in conjunction with the Normal and 
regular Collegiate courses and extends over two years of instruction of 10 hours per 
week. The course at present confers no degree, but will be extended to the full length 
of the Collegiate course, as the future requirements of the university might suggest. 
The Mechanical course is elective, and is intended for students who wish to prepare 
themselves for some particular trade or line of industry." 

Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Colored Race, Greensboro, N. C., 

(1902-3). 

The department of mechanics offers a four years course. The trustees 
"have decided that the first two years work in this department shall be 
conducted as a trade school." The first and second year students, there 
fore, choose a single trade and work at it. After that time those who wish 
to graduate will receive instruction in other shops and in mathematics, 
science and drawing; the course is as follows: 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 
FIRST YEAR. 



53 



FALL 



WINTER 



Mathematics 5 

Carpentry 3 

Blaeksmithing 3 

Drawing 5 

Free Hand Drawing 4 

Tin Shop 8 

Shoe Making 3 



Mathematics 5 
Carpentry 3 
Blaeksmithing 3 
Drawing 5 

Free Hand Drawing 4 
Tin Work ]5 
Shoe Making 4 
Material of Constr tion 2 



SPRING 



Mathematics 5 
Carpentry 15 
Blaeksmithing 15 
Shoe & Harness Making 
;Technology 5 



SECOND YEAR. 



FALL 



WINTER 



Technology 5 
Machine Design 4 
Architecture 4 
Algebra 5 
Drawing 4 
Shop Work 15 
Physics 4 



Technology 5 
Machine Design 3 
Architecture 4 
Algebra 5 
Drawing 4 
Shop Work 15 
Physics 4 



SPRING 



Technology 5 
Machine Design 4 
Architecture 4 
Algebra 5 

Technical Drawing 4 
Shop Work 15 
Physics 4 



THIRD YEAR. 



FALL 



WINTER 



SPRING 



Plane Geometry 5 
Physics 4 
Technology 4 
Heading and Essays 4 
Laboratory Work 4 
Shop Work 4 



Solid Geometry 5 
Physics 4 
Technology 5 
Technical Reading 4 
Shop Work 15 
Laboratory Work 4 



Mathematics 5 
Geology (General and 

Economic) 
[Physics 5 
I Technology 5 
Shop Work 15 
Building Construction 4 



FOURTH YEAR. 



FALL 



WINTER 



Trigonometry 5 I Trigonometry 5 

Mechanism 5 Mechanism 4 

Plumbing and Heating 2 Lighting & V ntil ting 2 
Power Transmission 2 j Power Transmission 4 
Machine Design 4 ! Technology 5 

Architecture 4 Shop Work 



SPRING 



Surveying & Leveling 3 
Photography 

{Drawing 4 
Essay 2 
Model 6 



There is a similar course in agriculture. Students receive from 5c to 
12V an hour for work, credited .to their school expenses. All students 
can thus "earn something each month, while the most industrious and 
energetic student will regularly earn more than his expenses." 

Florida State Normal and Industrial School, Tallahassee, Fla., (1901-02). 
The industrial department offers instruction in sixteen industries, and 
all students are required to take one or more of them. The instruction 



54 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

runs through the whole six years of the course. Manual training- is the 
predominant feature in the first four years work, and trade training in the 
last two years 1 work. The chief industries are: Mechanical and archi 
tectural drawing, printing, carpentry, painting, blacksmithing, wheel- 
vrighting, tailoring, agriculture, sewing, cooking, millinery and dress 
making, laundering, etc. 

Colored Normal, Industrial, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Soutli Car 
olina, Orangeburg, (1896-97). 

The industrial department aims "to give training in such industrial arts as may be 
suitable to men and women and conducive to self-reliance and usefulness. This De 
partment teaches the following subjects: Sewing, Dress-making and Millinery, Cook 
ing and Domestic Economy, Carpentry and Woodwork, Bricklaying and Plastering, 
Architecture, Mechanical Drawing and Painting, Ironworkingand Machinery, House 
keeping. Farming, Upholstering and Cabinet-making, Saddlery, Harness-making and 
Shoe-making, Saw Milling and manufacture of hard and soft lumber, Type-writing, 
Printing and Tailoring. 

"Students will devote two hours each day to the Industries. A record of their work 
in this Department is kept along with that of daily recitations, and counted as other 
studies for graduation." 

Talladega College, Talladega, Ala., (1900-01). 

"Training in the Industries has always received attention at TALLADEGA COLLEGE. It 
is believed that such training strengthens the power of observation, cultivates accu 
racy and skill, secures the formation of habits of industry and usefulness, and exerts 
an influence in the development of mind and heart. It is therefore made a part of 
the regular instruction given by the College. Its advantages are not offered to per 
sons who do not wish to pursue the regular literary course, but desire simply to learn 
a trade. Young men are taught Wood-working, Drafting, Forging, Agriculture, and, 
to some extent, Printing; while the young women receive training in Sewing, Dress 
making, Cooking, Nursing and general housework." 

Scotia Seminary, Concord, N. C., (1900-01). 

In the industrial department of this school for girls the primary object "is domestic 
training. While the instruction given is such as to qualify the students to use their 
skill as a means of making a living, the end we keep most distinctively in view is to 
prepare them to be home makers." 

"In the sewing room, systematic, practical instruction is given in plain sewing, es 
pecial attention being paid to patching, darning, hemming, button holes, cutting and 
making various garments. Fancy work is excluded as being so fascinating as to inter 
fere with plain work, and requiring more time and money than our girls can afford. 

"Fine dressmaking has also been introduced. Those who desire may give extra time 
to this, and when proficient will receive a certificate from this department. 

"A text book on domestic economy has been introduced, and instruction in all per 
taining to the care of a house and right ways of living is given. Practice is secured 
in the care of the buildings and in the kitchen and laundry work of the seminary, all 
done by the girls under careful supervision. Special lessons are given in cooking; 
from this department also certificates will be given to those who have come up to our 
standard of proficiency. These courses in plain cooking and domestic economy and 
in plain sewing are required as parts of the Grammar School course, and failure on the 
part of any one to complete them will be marked on the certificate. 

"They are carefully graded on the neatness and thoroughness with which the domes 
tic work is done, that it may have equal honor with other studies, thus raising the 
care of the home above mere drudgery." 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



55 



LeMoync Normal Institute, Memphis, Tenn., (1901-2). 

In tliis school "manual training takes its place in the course of study on 
the same footing and is treated in every respect as of the same importance 
as any other branch of study." Through the ten years of the course the 
girls receive training in sewing for seven years, cooking two years, and 
nursing and hygiene, six months. The boys are trained in wood-working 
for three years. Both boys and girls are trained in printing in the Junior 
Normal year (the llth year of the course). 

Lincoln Institute, Jefferson City, Mo., (1902-1903). 

"The object is to afford young men an opportunity to receive instruction in the 
mechanic arts, and to become proficient in the useful trades. 

"To accomplish this industrial training is given as required work to young men of 
the Normal Course, while special courses are provided for those who desire to learn 
trades. 

"The course is arranged parallel with the Normal and College Preparatory Courses 
and will be pursued as follows: 

"Through the D Normal and Junior classes, woodwork; through the C Normal and 
Middle, blacksmi thing; through the B Normal and Senior Preparatory Classes, ma 
chine work." 

COURSE IN CARPENTRY. FIRST YEAR. FIRST TERM. 



Joinery Shop work. 



Turning Shop work. 
Mathematics Algebra. 



Turning and Joinery. 
Mathematics Algebra. 



Joinery. 



Turning. 
Mathematics Algebra. 



Turning and Joinery. 
Mathematics Algebra. 



Mathematics- 
EnglishGrammar and Rhetoric. 



-Algebra. 



SECOND TERM. 

Science Physiology. 
THIRD TERM. 



Mechanical Drawing Drawing. 
English Rhetoric. 



Mechanical Drawing. 
English Rhetoric. 



SECOND YEAR. FIRST TERM. 

Mathematics Algebra. 
English Grammar and Rhetoric. 



SECOND TERM. 

Science Physiology. 
THIRD TERM. 



Mechanical Drawing. 
English Rhetoric. 



Mechanical Drawing. 
English Rhetoric. 



THIRD YEAR. FIRST TERM. 



Mathematics Geometry. 

Strength of Materials and Drawing. 

Turning and Joining. 

SECOND TERM. 
Turning and Joining. 
Mathematics Trigonomet.iy. 
Mechanical Drawing Architecture. 



THIRD TERM. 



Turning and Joining. 

Mechanical Drawing Architecture. 



English English Literature. 
Science Chemistry. 



Science Chemistry. 
History General History. 



History General History. 
Science Chemistry. 



56 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

"Each student has one hour and thirty minutes shop practice each school day, which 
period may come early or late in the day, according to the class with which the stu 
dent may be connected in other departments. The shops are open and in operation 
from 9 a. m. until 12 m. and from 1 p. m. until 4 p. in., thus giving accommodation to 
four classes each day in each shop. 

"By special arrangements more time may be given to shop practice, provided this 
will not interfere with the program of the other departments. 

"The young women are taught dressmaking, plain sewing and fancy needle work, 
and receive special instruction in matters pertaining to health, dress and deportment. 
Instructions will also be given in scientific cooking and in laundry work, for the en 
suing year under a trained teacher." 

Atlanta Uniro sity, Atlanta, Ga., (1900-1901). 

Atlanta University is a High School and College the High School having two 
courses, the College Preparatory and Normal. 

"All the boys in the Preparatory course receive instruction at the Knowles Industrial 

Building two triple periods each week. 

One year is devoted to wood-working; one term to forging; one term to free hand 
drawing; and one year and one term to mechanical drawing, including machine de 
sign and strength of materials. 

First Year. In the Bench Room are thirty benches and vices: each bench being 
fitted with a case of w r ood-working tools squares, planes, chisels, gauges, saws, ham 
mer, mallet, bit and brace, draw-knife, dividers, screw-driver, oilstone, etc. All boys 
in the Preparatory course begin their industrial work here, and are instructed in the 
general principles of wood-working: marking, sawing, planing, boring, chamfering) 
mortising, tenoning, grooving, mitering, beveling, dovetailing. All students are ad 
vanced through a series of carefully graded exercises, which are fully shown by work 
ing drawings and models of the same. The exercises for the earlier part of the year 
are nearly all performed at the benches; later, the students do cabinet work and pat 
tern making, and construct useful and fancy articles as may be best adapted for their 
individual advancement. 

"Wood-turning is also introduced in the latter part of the year. The Lai lie Room is 
fitted with twelve wood-turning lathes: each has a set of chisels, gauges, face-plates i 
chucks and centers, suitable for a large variety of work. The course follows a series 
of graded working drawings, and at its completion useful and ornamental articles can 
be made. 

Second Year. The Forge Room is fitted with twelve forges and anvils and is tlior 
oughly supplied with small tools suitable for doing ordinary blacksmith work and 
small machine forging. Instruction is given in heating, drawing, bending, upsetting, 
welding, annealing, tempering, etc. In iron-working, students are taught the correct 
ways of boring, turning, drilling, tapping, and finishing iron and steel; the use and 
care of the machines, and machine tools: the care and management of engine and 
boiler. 

"The second term of this year is spent in free-hand drawing. The fundamental 
principles are taught by drawing from models, also the principles of shading, thus 
teaching the student to represent truly what he sees. 

"The last term of this year is devoted to mechanical drawing. The students gain a 
familiarity with the use of drawing instruments through a series of geometrical con 
structions, orthgraphic projections, sections, line shading, development of helical 
curves, lettering, and blue printing. 

Third Year. Mechanical drawing for the last year includes the working of problems 
in kinematics cams, gear teeth outlines, screws, shafts, cranks, pulleys, etc. General 
and detailed drawings and tracings of the same are made. In all possible cases the 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 57 

kind and strength of material and cost of manufacture are considered. The course 
closes by each student making an assemblage drawing, upon some approved subject, 
called a thesis drawing. 

FOH GIRLS. 

"Instruction is given to all girls in the Normal and Preparatory courses in sewing, 
dressmaking, cooking, and household management, 

First Year. Instruction is given in sewing, the stitches being learned on a sampler 
made of unbleached cotton cloth, with red and blue thread: including basting, stitch 
ing, backstitching, running, overcasting, hemming, oversewing, French seam, outline 
stitch, felling, gusset, napery stitch, combination stitch, tucking, binding, button 
hole, button, hemmed and whipped ruffle ; then holders, sheets, pillow cases and aprons 
are made. 

Second Year. Different kinds of darning and patching are taught, and various 
articles made, which the girls can buy at cost. Drafting, also, is taught during the 
year: also the cutting and making of undergarments. 

Third Year. The work in cooking extends throughout the year. The care and man 
agement of a lire, the structure of a stove, the washing of dishes and cleaning of 
boards and closets are given careful consideration. 

"The chemistry of cooking is illustrated by simple experiments and then given prac 
tical application in the cooking of eggs, meat, vegetables, cereals, batters, doughs, 
soups, etc. 

"Sewing is continued through the year and includes hemstitch and fancy stitch, and 
the cutting and making of a shirt waist and simple skirt. 

Fourth Year. An advanced course in practice cooking is given. The subjects con 
sidered theoretically are, the classification of food both chemically and physiologi 
cally, buying and care of food supplies, food economics, preparation of menus with 
reference to nutritive value and cost. Simple tests are given to prove whether food 
materials have been adulterated. AVeekly papers bearing on the lessons are required. 

"Instruction in the care and management of the house is given in lectures on sanita 
tion, plumbing and ventilation, and practice in the different lines of household work. 

"Dressmaking is taught during the year. Students are expected to buy a chart for 
cutting, also to buy inexpensive woolen dress goods, linings and trimmings for practi 
cal work. 

PRINTING OFFICE. 

"There is a large and well appointed Printing Office in the principal University build 
ing, in which instruction is given to optional classes, both of boys and girls, without 
extra charge. Type-setting, newspaper, book and job work are taught by an expe 
rienced superintendent, Two monthly papers are published: one by the Institution, 
THK BULLETIN OF ATLANTA UNIVERSITY; one by the students, THE SCROLL. Job print 
ing is done for the Institution and others by student labor." This report was set up in 
this office. 

Georgia State Industrial College, College. Ga., (1899-1900). 

"Attention Is given to stock raising and creamery. This department has been able in 
the past year to give employment to a number of young men for which they received 
extra pay. In this way several industrious young men made during the year more 
than all their expenses by extra work on the farm. 

"The work in this department does not in any way interfere with the prosecution of 
the regular literary studies. 

"Manual training is taught to the boys in the three Normal grade classes. 
"It is believed that the minds of the students are thus aroused and quickened for their 
literary studies and that each student is also given a reasonable degree of skill in the 
use of different kinds of tools. 



58 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

"Until the present year there has been no effort to give the student a trade. But in 
obedience to a growing demand for opportunities and facilities for trades, the Commis 
sion has organized trades in carpentry, blacksmithing, wheelwrighting, printing.shoe- 
making, tailoring, painting and dressmaking. They have placed competent instructors 
in charge of each shop. 

"The entire department is under the management of an efficient director, and it is be 
lieved that the Georgia State Industrial College is prepared to give valuable aid to one 
who wishes to follow any of the trades named herein. The public is respectfully invited 
to examine our classes and work. 

"Each student will be required to give eight hours a day to his trade. Xo one will re 
ceive any pay from any department, until he has reached the stage where he is of real 
assistance in the work of his trade. Students completing a course in any one of these 
trades will-be given a certificate of proficiency. 

"The courses of study in each department have been planned to cover three years." 

9. The Differentiation of Industrial Schools. If now we refer back to page 31 
and notice again the list and diagram we may attempt a rough classifica 
tion of these industrial schools. We must remember that this is but a 
tentative classification based, for the most part, on the meagre data of 
catalogues and liable to some mistakes. It would seem that the schools 
represent the various phases of development about as follows: 

1, 2. Janitor and Repair Work with incidental industrial training. 

Calhoun. 

Benedict. 

Paul Quinn. 

3, 4. House work. 
Spelman. 

Scotia. 

(And courses for girls in nearly all the other schools). 
5. A. Industries given as courses of study more or less compulsory; 
trades not usually finished the Unorganized Industrial School : 

Howard, Clark, Florida State, 

Wilberforce, Scofield, Walden. 

Biddle, Rust, 

B. Co-operative Industry for gain and trade instruction the School of 
Work. 

Tuskegee, A. & M. College, Normal, Ala. 

Tougaloo, 

Alcorn, 

6. Trade Schools. 

A. & M. College, Greensboro, N. C. 
Lincoln Institute, Mo. 

9. Manual Training Schools. 

Shaw, Knox, Atlanta University. 

Tillotson, Ballard. 

Orange Park, Southern, 

Prairie View, Talladega, 

Va. Union, LeMoyne, 

6, 9. Manual Training and Trade Schools. 
Hampton, 
Claflin. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 59 

The first group are manifestly in the transition stage, either on account 
of primitive surroundings, as is the case of Calhoun, or because they are 
just beginning to introduce industrial training. The work for girls in 
Housework is important and permanent work which will improve in 
method as time passes. There is, of course, lurking beneath this work 
much drudgery and servant work of little or no educational value and at 
the same time a severe drain on the strength and good temper of the girls- 
Courses in housework ought to be really educational and not simply ex 
pedients for hiring less kitchen help. 

The industrial schools under "5" are the ones which will, in the near 
future, show the greatest development, The history of those under "5 A" 
has been simple : they were ordinary schools of the older type. Under the 
impetus of the Slater Fund crusade they hired a carpenter or a shoemaker 
to instruct certain of their students and from this the work grew. The 
trouble with this sort of industrial school is the inevitable lack of harmony 
between the academic and industrial work. The studies of the two are 
not integrated they have no common centre or unified object and the 
school must either seek a higher development of its work, as is the case 
at Wilberforce and Biddle, or the academic work will entirely overshadow 
the industrial, as at most of the schools, or the industrial work will over 
shadow the academic, as is the case with most of the schools under U 5 B." 

Dr. Haygood was soon able to point out that the "School of Work" idea 
must be pursued with caution: U I am entirely convinced, 1 said he in his 
final report, "that we cannot make industrial training self-sustaining, 
without sinking, to a hurtful degree, the educative part of the work in the 
effort to secure profits. With this view I believe all experienced teach 
ers will agree. 1 To bring a vast number of raw country lads together, 
give them a chance to work at a trade and learn it, study a "little at the 
same time and partially support themselves while in school has in it much 
that is worthy and valuable. It is peculiarly the "Tuskegee Idea" and 
the one for which Mr. Booker T. Washington has labored faithfully and 
well. And yet the idea is a transitional one. The development of Tuskegee 
itself shows that it is moving toward a more definite and thorough organ 
ization. Two distinct ideas must more and more become clearly differen 
tiated in such a school: (a) the education of youth and (6) the teaching 
of trades. To some small extent, or for short periods of time, these objects 
may be combined, but in the long run, and in any permanent educational 
system, they must be clearly seen as differing, and to an extent, incapable 
of complete combination. The so-called industrial schools will, there 
fore, in the next decade in all probability divide into two distinct parts: 
a department of common and grammar school training with perhaps 
higher courses, in which manual training, as an educative process, will 
play a pronounced part; and a department of Trade instruction to which 
only youth of a certain age and advancement will be admitted and which 
will turn out thorough, practical artisans. Paying industries and the 
student wage-system will play a very subordinate part in such schools. 

10. Manual Training. Manual training, as it has come to be called, or 
the fashioning, handling, and studying of actual objects as a help to think- 



(JO THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

ing and learning to think is perhaps the longest forward step in human 
education which this generation has taken. We have not, to be sure, 
learned to our entire satisfaction just how to combine for the best results 
the spoken word, the written letter and the carved wood or forged iron. 
And yet, gradually we are working toward this ideal, as the introduction 
of the kindergarten and of sloyd, nature study and laboratory methods 
into the common school rooms, abundantly testify. In the case of the 
Negro little has as yet been done in the public schools of the South. 
Public officials in the various states testify as follows: 

Alabama. Superintendent of Education J. W. Abercrombie says: "In 
dustrial training has not been introduced in the public schools of Ala 
bama." 

Arkansas. State Superintendent Dayne says: "Industrial training has 
been introduced into two or three of the city schools." 

Delaware. The Secretary of the School Board writes that no industrial 
training at all has been introduced into the public schools. 

Florida. Superintendent W. N. Sheats says: "Industrial training has 
not been introduced into the public schools." 

Indian Territory. Superintendent John D. Benedict says: "Not much in 
dustrial training has been introduced, but we are gradually taking hold 
of that work now." 

Louisiana. Superintendent J. V. Calhoun writes: "No industrial train 
ing lias been introduced in the public schools." 

Maryland. Superintendent M. Bates Stephens writes that private man 
ual training schools are increasing but mentions no such work in the pub 
lic schools. There is probably some such work in the Colored High 
School in Baltimore. 

Mississippi. Superintendent H. L. Whitfielcl mentions no manual train 
ing work in the public schools. 

Missouri. Superintendent Carrington says that outside St. Louis and 
Kansas City where such work is done, there is no manual training in the 
public schools. 

North Carolina. Superintendent J. Y. Joyner writes : "As yet industrial 
training has not been introduced in the colored public schools to any ex 
tent I think one great need of the public schools for the col 
ored race is industrial and agricultural training. I shall be glad to have 
from you any suggestions as to how such training may be made practical 
for the lower public schools." 

Oklahoma. Superintendent Baxter reports no industrial training save in 
the Normal University. 

South Carolina. Superintendent J. J. McMahan writes: "Only a few 
town schools have introduced industrial features." 

Tennessee. Mr. Rutledge Smith informs us that "no industrial training 
has been introduced in the public schools for the colored." 

Texas. Superintendent A. Lefevre writes: "Industrial training in the 
colored public schools has had some beginning in a few localities, and the 
indications are that developments along this line may be expected in the 
near future." 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 61 

Virginia. Superintendent Southall writes: "No systematic industrial 
training- has been introduced into the colored public schools of the state. 
The introduction of industrial training is now receiving much attention 
at the hands of our school authorities, and we hope soon to make a start 
in all our public schools." 

West Virginia. Superintendent Miller reports no manual training save 
in the higher state institutions. 

No reports have been received from Kentucky and Georgia after repeated 
inquiries. It is known, however, in Georgia that manual training to some 
extent has been introduced in the colored public schools of Columbus and 
Athens. In the latter case the work is supported entirely by the colored 
teachers themselves. 

In the private schools and state institutions manual training is made a 
prominent feature at 

Hampton, Knox, 

Claflin, Ballard, 

Shaw, Southern, 

Tillotson, Talladega, 

Orange Park, LeMoyne, 

Prairie View, Va. N. <fc C. I., 

Va. Union, Atlanta University, 

and at some other schools. As had been said, Atlanta University was the 
pioneer in this work and from the beginning the work has had one distinct 
idea : the using of a course of training in wood-working and iron-forging 
solely for its educative effect on the pupil. There have been many diffi 
culties in carrying out this idea, chief among which is securing proper 
teachers and co-ordinating the work in the shop with that in the class 
room. Probably Hampton has had larger success in this integra 
tion than any other of these schools. The Hampton manual training idea, 
however, has in mind not simply the educative value of the work but its 
value in furnishing skilled recruits for the trade school. It consequently 
gives a preponderance to the manual training courses such as schools for 
higher training could not afford to allow r in justice to other work. 

A much needed outcome from manual training is the preparation of 
teachers to instruct in such courses. Such a course is given at Hampton 
for simple work in the public schools. At Atlanta University, and prob 
ably at other schools, elective work outside the regular course accom 
plishes somewhat the same end less systematically. 

So far as the public schools are concerned there is danger in the South 
that there will be introduced into the public schools some attempt at 
teaching paying "Industries" instead of manual training for its purely 
educative value. It would be a calamity if this were attempted. The 
public schools are designed primarily to awaken the child s mind and to 
teach him to read and write and the simpler uses of numbers. To this 
might cautiously be added a simple and carefully adapted course in sloyd, 
some lessons in plain sewing, and "busy" work in weaving, plaiting and 
modeling. This would cost little, is easily taught and above all easily 



62 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

co-ordinated and combined with the work in the three IVs. Simple "na 
ture studies 1 might also in these lower grades add diversion and instruc 
tion in the first elements of planting and plant life. Cooking as a study, 
in the Negro schools, would be more difficult to introduce and more costly. 
Probably a travelling cooking teacher in the homes of the parents them 
selves or at a mothers 1 meeting at the school house would accomplish the 
most good in the country. In the city schools experiments at teaching cook 
ing might be tried. At any rate any attempt to introduce "Industries" in 
the public schools in the sense of imparting marketable skill or teaching 
handicraft would. simply mean that reading, writing and arithmetic would 
get even less attention than they do now," that mental development would 
be lost sight of and the real mission of the public school system hope 
lessly blocked. It is sincerely to be desired that great care will be exer 
cised by the friends of the Negro in warding off experiments in the wrong 
direction and promoting in the public schools real manual training for the 
sake of its intellectual value. 

11. The Post- Graduate Trade School, (by Major R. R. Moton, Commandant 
of Cadets, Hampton Institute). 

There is more or less confusion in the average mind as to the difference 
between industrial, manual and trade school training, although there is 
no question as to the importance of each. There is, however, a clear dis 
tinction to be made in their objects, if not in their underlying principles. 
Manual training is, as I understand it, a sort of laboratory in which ab 
stract ideas are worked out by hand in a concrete, practical way. The 
shop work is given, not for its economic value, but purely for educational 
purposes. What is commonly called industrial training, on the other 
hand, is usually given for its economic value. It generally consists in 
teaching a man to work by rule and rote rather than by principle and 
method, its object being to make the work as profitable as possible and 
incidentally to teach the trade. This is not very different from the train 
ing the Negro got in slavery, under the old apprentice system. This is 
apt to mean a brainless training, producing, as a natural result, a generally 
brainless and unprofitable industry. The laborer is a machine and works 
as a machine. 

The value of the work done in any branch of industry must and will de 
pend largely upon the quality of brain that is put into it. It is not so 
much the number of men engaged in manual pursuits as the quality of 
men, that will dignify and make profitable the labor of the hands. It is 
not so much the number of men engaged in farming that will place agri 
culture among the most productive industries, as the quality of men en 
gaged in it. It is very difficult to make a first rate artisan or farmer 
without a cultivated mind as a basis. In all the pursuits of life, call 
them common, if you wish, there are underlying principles which must 
be mastered, if one is to get the best results from his labor. The inventive 
mind, the originative and planning mind, is the trained mind. The 
proper industrial scheme for the Negro, or any other people, is one that 
emphasizes the right sort of education of the head, as a necessary pre 
liminary, and uses his higher training as a subservient and tributary basis 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 63 

for his subsequent practical usefulness. To leave a thorough mental 
training- out of any system of industrial training for the Negro of to-day 
is to produce a dwarfed and unprofitable workman. Under such a system, 
steam and electricity become useless, the shoemaker sinks into a cobbler 
and every workman becomes a jack-of-all-trades. This may have ans 
wered the demands once, but it will not to-day. Train the workman and 
you elevate his labor. 

There are, scattered throughout the Southland, a number of industrial 
schools, many of which have done, and are still doing a magnificent work, 
and have sent out men who are accomplishing a great deal along indus 
trial lines as teachers and artisans. We do not depreciate what has been 
accomplished, but there are three distinct differences between the trade 
school and the industrial school: first, the difference in requirements for 
entrance, the trade school demanding a broader mental training, as a 
basis upon which its education shall be built ; second, the difference in 
method of instruction, the stress being placed on what the shop. produces 
in the boy, rather than upon what the boy produces in the shop; third, 
the difference in object, the aim being not merely to make mechanics and 
artisans who can build a house under supervision, but to turn out teachers 
of trades and captains of industry who can make the plans and execute 
them even in the most minute detail. 

As the theological, medical and law schools fit men, who are usually 
post-graduates, for their respective professions, so the trade school should 
fit men (post-graduates) for their professions. A man s training may be 
that of a carpenter, blacksmith, wheelwright, machinist, or even of a 
polytechnic character, but if lie comprehends the scientific principles 
underlying the trade, it should be dignified as a profession. In other 
words, the trade school should fit men for a higher grade of work than is 
done by the ordinary industrial school. Its standard and work should be 
so high as to attract the best and brightest youth of our land. Our best 
high schools and even colleges should be, in a sense, preparatory schools 
for professional trade school work. We can never reach the highest in 
dustrial ideal and elevate manual labor in the eyes of the Negro and the 
white man as well until a high intellectual and moral standard is de 
manded as an essential base upon which to erect a thorough, dignified 
and profitable industrialism. This will require no small amount of care 
ful, thoughtful and often tedious work on the part of educators, but the 
end will without question justify the means. 

It is not merely the comprehension of the three Us which is necessary 
in the Negro s development. The complexity of our modern industrial 
system makes it essential that he shall comprehend more than the rudi 
ments of reading, writing and arithmetic. All branches of study which 
will develop the intellect in the highest and most practical way should be 
included in his curriculum. The value of industrial education to the 
Negro and to the country in which he lives, will be largely in proportion 
to the training of the head which precedes it, or is acquired along with it. 
The skilfulness of his hand will depend largely upon the though tfuln ess 
of his brain. 



64 THE NEGRO AllTISAN 

While I do not believe that industrial education, or any other kind of 
education, is a panacea for all the ills of the Negro, I do believe that he 
especially needs to be thoroughly rooted and grounded in the underlying 
principles of concrete things. A man s education should be conditioned 
upon his capacity, social environment and the life which he is most likely 
to lead in the immediate future. The highest aim of education is the 
building of character, and any education which does not include the four 
cardinal factors in the building of character is false and misleading. 
Knowledge, skill, culture and virtue are essential elements in educational 
development. Knowledge suggests ideas and makes one original and in 
ventive. Skill executes these ideas. Culture enjoys the inventions and 
executions of a superior skill. Virtue preserves knowledge, skill and 
culture, and brings man to a closer understanding of his fellow-men and 
his Maker. 

The problem which presented itself to the industrial school two decades 
ago was simple in comparison with the problem of to-day. A farm and 
a laundry, and perhaps a sewing room, were enough to give a school its 
industrial character. Hampton, and Tuskegee as well, started very much 
in this way. But as those institutions grew, more varied industries be 
came necessary and one industry followed another in rapid succession. 
At Hampton many of the young men used the shops, not only as a means 
of earning sufficient money to put them through the academic course, 
but devoted themselves for three or four years to learning a trade, at the 
forge or bench, much after the apprentice system. While this was good 
as far as it went, and enabled many to go out and accomplish a great deal 
of good by example and precept, often building with their own hands 
their own houses and their schoolhouses, and teaching their people the 
right ideas of life and duty, it was found inadequate to meet the increas 
ing demands for men to fill positions in a higher realm of industrial ac 
tivity and for teachers in the industrial schools that were and are still 
springing up all over the South and West. It was this demand that 
brought Dr. Frissell, the principal of the Hampton Institute, in the spirit 
of its great founder, Gen. Armstrong, to the idea of a trade school and a 
school of scientific agriculture, where the trades and agriculture should 
be taught upon a thoroughly scientific and intellectual basis. 

W T e have in our trade school to-day men who have graduated from our 
own academic department or from other schools of equal or higher grace 
than Hampton who are learning trades with a view to becoming teacheis 
of trades, or contractors and leaders of industry in a larger and broader 
sense than the average Negro artisan comprehends. Only since the Ann- 
strong and Slater Memorial Trade School was opened six years ago, can 
Hampton lay claim to having been teaching trades. Before this, there 
were a number of men, Hampton students, who did work at trades, and 
some of them no doubt, as their subsequent work has clearly shown, did 
learn them, but Hampton can hardly claim to have taught them. 

The importance of this higher trade training cannot be gainsaid, nor is 
it likely, at present at least, to be over-estimated. Since Hampton began, 
six years ago, to teach trades in a thorough, systematic way, ninety Negro 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 65, 

boys have completed the course and left Hampton. Of these sixty, or 
eighty-one per cent., are either teaching or working at their trades. Four 
have died, five are studying in other institutions, nine are engaged in 
other occupations and twelve have not been heard from. Then, too, the 
demand for persons with this sort of training is still increasing. Hampton, 
alone, has had requests, within the last three months, for forty-eight of 
its trade school graduates to fill positions as instructors in mechanic arts. 

What Hampton, Tuskegee and other schools of the same character, are 
trying to do for trade education is a simple but conclusive illustration of 
what can and should be done along the line of what might be called 
higher trade education. Hampton does not by any means approximate 
its ideal in trade school work, for it is necessary now and probably will 
be for a long time to come to teach trades to a large number of under 
graduates, pupils who learn their trades while they are taking the acad 
emic course. But post-graduate work is without question the ideal to 
ward which trade school work should be tending. 

It is only through a clear understanding of the situation and a hearty 
co-operation on the part of the educators of the colored youth of our land, 
that we can get the best results from our various systems of education. 

12. Cost of Industrial Training. It is not easy to estimate the cost 
of industrial training in all schools since the expenditures for indus 
trial and academic teaching are not usually separated. The following 
table gives the total income (1899-1900) of all schools which give Negroes 
industrial training:* 



-Re-arranged from the Report of the U. S. Commissioner of* Education, 1899-1900. 



THE XKUKO ARTISAN 



INCOME OK INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS, 1899-1900. 





49 


ta -II 8 

, ^X 


Income, 1899-1900. 




c 






_ - 


T g) . ~~ \\ O **-* r 






SCHOOLS. 


5 S 


III III 


^ 


1 


02 


ii 

4 - > % 


"5 

-w 

^p 




! 


5 c 


PC 


O c8 


H 


M 


o 
CO 




Alabama. 






$ 


$ 


, 


1 $ 


$ 


I 


Kowaliga A. and I. 


















School 


205 


205 














Emerson N. Institute 


20l| 100 \ 18,000 






1,087 


2,452 


3,534 


State Normal School. 


928 466|i 40,000 




8,500 


2,000 


4,500 


15,000 


A. and M. College 499 


499 30,119 




4,000 


10,776 


14,776 


Talladega College 618 


195 134,000 


1,682 





1,500 


7,500 5,000 


15,682 


Stillman Institute 


45 


35 


8,000 







100 


784 3,116 


4,000 


Tuskegee N. and I. 
School 


1,180 


1 180 252 319 


97,231 


4,500 





1,921 98,390 


202,042 


Arkansas. 




II 


! 










Shorter University... 


86; 16 !l 5,00o 








1,472 


1,472 


Arkadelphia Acad 


92i 20 15,000 


223 





175 


519 


694 


Philander Smith Col. 


388! 95 32,000 






1,878 


2,450 


4,323 


Branch Nor. College. 


214 


109: 63,000 


3,500 


460 


6,860 


10,820 


Southland College.... 


127 


120! 25,000 


250 





1 ,600 


800, 250 


2,650 


Arkansas Bap. Col.... 


213 56 


25,000 






500 


4,500 


5,000 


Delaware. 


















State College for Col 




















ored Students 


51 


4f, 


27,000 


6,000 






6,000 


















Dist. of Columbia. 














Howard University.. 


768 223 700,000 


35,100 


08, 1 MX) 0,000 


49,100 


Florida. 


i 












Fessenden Academy. 


206i 130 5,000 1,000 


5(X 


200 


800 


2,500 


Emerson Memorial 














Home and School.. 


76 76 5,000 1,994 


C 


107 


573 


2,674 


Orange Park Normal 
















and M. T. School... 


79 79 








6403,000 




3,640 


State N. and I. Col... 


209 


100 


30,044 


6,50( 


,378! 10012,500 19,478 


Georgia. 


















Jeruel Academy 


221 80 


2,500 1,043 





475 


2,136 3,654 


Knox Institute... 


270 1 14 


8,001 


I! 


i 








Atlanta University.. 


268 233 


255,000 28,000 


( 


2,0001,575 


100 31,675 


Morris Brown College 


499: 83 75,000 





1,315! 


8,685 10,000 


Spelman Seminary... 599 450 : 180,000 22,414 




3,239 300 


6,608 32,561 


Haines N. and I. Inst. 


461 


> 208 


20,000 4,5(X) 





900 150 


4,450 10,000 


The Paine Institute.. 






43,738 






10,111 


10,111 


Ga. State I. College.. 


231 


140 


30,000 


15,000 


200 




15,200 


Ft. Valley H. and I. 




















School 


35( ) 75 


10,001 


M 


1,500 


900 975 13,000 


1 fi 37." 


Dorchester Academy 


408 209 


12,900 403 





709; 2,947 4,059 


Beach Institute . 


320! 41 


5,001 


Y 


o 


1,200 4,200 


r. .inn 


Clark University 


476 1 310 


250,000 1,7(X) 




2,600 9 ? ,400 13,700 


Allen N. and I. Sch.. 


210 78 




9,079 193 




677| 1,000 1,870 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 67 

INCOME OF INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS, 1899-1900. (Continued). 





4^ 


. no 


o 

o^l 


Income, 1899-1900. 




S 


1 """* 






rr 






. 


SCHOOLS. 


4^ W 

O ^ 

EH P 


| 1 


Jf;E 


5 


< 


c 
o 


02 
03 

i_i 


1 " 




c 


3 15 

n ( 


^ S 


5 


1 


a 

EH 


a 

i i 


1 1 1 

ao | 


Kentucky. 






$ 


I 


$ 


$ 


$ 


* 


$ 


State N. School foi 


















Colored Persons 
Chandler N. School... 


170 
220 


170 
111 


40,465 
17,904 


155 


3,000 



1,222 


1,255 
240 


3,625 
2,155 


7,880 
3,772 


Louisiana. 




















Gilbert Acad.& I. Col 
Leland University.. 
Straigh t University... 


248 141 
115 16 
539J 229 


60,000 
150,000 
100,000 


25,600 
300 






500 

1,600 


2,400 
6,000 
300 


500 
600 
2,000 


3,400 
32,200 
4,200? 


Maryland. 




















St. Frances Academy 


59 


27 
















I. Home for Col. Girls 


105 


105 
















Princess Anne Acad.. 


82 


60 17,000 





4,500 


900 






5,400 


Mississippi. 




















Mt.HermonF. Sem... 
Sou. Christian lust... 


60 

87 


60 
43 


25,000 
35,000 


1,000 
4,000 






400 
150 





1,000 
3,850 


2,400 

8,000 


State Normal School. 


257 80 


12,000 





2,250 


467 







2,717 


Rust University 


230 1 94 


125,000 


5,759 




1 474 




4 ^7^1 


n()0 1 


Jackson College 


102 


60 


35^000 


177 




^498 




^ 1 OJ. 

141 


,UH4 

OI CO 


Tougaloo University. 
Alcorn A. and M. Col. 


436 

339 


221 

339 


80,000 
130,000 




12,850 




6,815 


l-Tl OiVi 

15,000 15,000 
19,161 38,826 


Missouri. 




















Lincoln Institute .. . 


278 


125 


70 son 




15,295 






1 339 




Geo. R. Smith Col 


200 


52 50,000 


200 




1,800 


125 


21000 


5!925 


New Jersey. 




















M. T. and I. School... 


109 


109 








327 


308 


5,000 


5,635 


North Carolina. 




















Washburn Seminary. 


158 


118 


6,000 














Biddle University 


236 


107 150,000 














Scotia Seminary 


290 


290 65,000 


11,000 





618 


100 


5,000 


16,718 


Franklinton C. Col... 


158 


10 7,000 














A. and M. Col. for Col 


174 


174 66,600 




7,500 


350 




8,954 


16,804 


High PointN.&I.Sch 


276 


66 


130,000 




1,200 






2,000 


3,200 


Lincoln Academv 


235 


155 


55,000 




220 


252 







472 


Barrette C. & I. Sch.. 


111 


75 


5,000 




1,500 




250 


1,750 


Plymouth Sta.N.Sch. 


87 


37 


Oi ! 


1,875 






100 


1,975 


St. Augustine s Sch... 


323 


100 


50,000 


6,000 










6,000 


Shaw "University 


511 


190 


90,000 


12,873 





8,158 


154 


21,185 


Livingston College... 


266 


9 


125,000 


4,000 


50 


500 


200 


5,500 


10,250 


Gregory Normal Sch. 


228 


100 


15,000 


300 





1,100 




2,900 


4,300 


Rankiri-Eichards Ins 


80 


16 


11,000 


525 




250 




525 


1,300 


Slater I. & S. N. Sch. 


263 


118 


25,000 




3,257 


219 




5,553 


8,229 



68 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

OF INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS, 1899-19W. (Continued) 





"Jjj ;fl of 


^: Income, 1899-1900. 




-, on -r 


^ "^ 


- 










SCHOOLS. -~ v 3 


3.~ ;i 


< 


o 


I 


c ? 


~ 


^ E 3 -5 


^ 22 ; ts 


o> 


3 


5 


"5 "5 


"J"N 




ep e 


>C |i b 


1 


"B 

" 




O o 


r- 




W ^ 




GO 




h- 1 






I 

Pennsylvania. ^ 






$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


Inst. for Col. Youth... 


318 


272 
















South Carolina. 




















Schofleld N. & I. Sch 


303; 


231 


50,000 


1,000 


150 


1001,200 6,550 


9,000 


Browning Home Sch. isi 
Averv Normal Inst... , 345 


136 
75 


15,000 







2,500 


3,000 


5,500 


Brainerd Institute j 205 


205 


10,OW 












Allen University 343 


84 


35,000 








969 (>,000 


9,969 


Benedict College ; 488 


213 76, (MM) 




o (5,(M) 4,359 


10,359 


PennN. and I. Sch... 265 179| 3,000 


200 


270 


1,200 


1,670 


Brewer Normal Sch... 


245 


147 12,000 




01,000 






1,000 


Claflin University 


708 


487 


150, WO 


25,000 




4,000 




8,000 


37,000 


Tennessee. 




















AVarner Institute 


101 


78 


5,000 




345 


8 




2H) 5,633 


Knoxville College 


304 


68 


1W,OW 




2,900 


300 




14,0(X) 17.200 


LeMoyne Nor. Inst... 


718 


462 45,000 


4,500 


04,780 




4,500 13,780 


Morristown Nor. Col. 


277 


93 75,WO 


31,000 




761 




31 ,761 


Central Tenn. Col 


540 


70 19, 000 


7,5W 


625 


6,169 


500 


8,500 23,294 


Roger Williams Univ 


268 


1W 


200,000 


1,235 






1,823 


8,190? 11,248 


Texas. 




















Bishop College 


337 


327 


100.000 














"Wiley University 411 


200 HO. WO 


1,200 




5,6W 




l,680i 8.480 


Paul Quinn College... 


276 


149 


77,WO 


2,008 




4,410 




3,821 


10,239 


Virginia. 




















Ingleside Academy... 
Gloucester A. & I. Col 


109 
97 


109 
97 


25,OW 
20,000 


6W 
3,700 








3,000 


3. (500 
3,700 


Hampton N.&A.Inst 935) 


949 757, 000 254,333 








35,336 


136,668 


426,337 


St. PaulN. & I. Sch.. 


318 


230 60,000 




3,500 




8,500 


12,000 


Manassas Indus. Sch. 


65 


65 


16,000 


5,240 








5,500 


10,740 


Norfolk Mission Col. 


690 


406 


60,000 







1,700 




7,410 


9,110 


Va. Nor. and Col. Inst 


343 


183 157,OW 




15,000 


1,103 


672 


300 


17,747 


Va. Union University 


157 


12 


300,000 


52,278 




1,200 


4,OW 




57,478 


West Virginia. 




















Storer College 


142 


105 


50,000 




1,000 


387 


3,12 





4,510 





13. Results of Industrial Training. It is always difficult to judge a sys 
tem of human training, since in the nature of the case its results are 
spiritual rather than material and show themselves fully only after the 
lapse of time. Industrial training has changed the ideals of the freedmen, 
it has educated the hands and heads of his children and it has trained 
artisans. Of these we can only measure the last and that but imperfectly 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 69 

by asking, How many of the graduates of industrial schools are actually 
following their trades? 

Every school in the country which is especially designed to give 
industrial training to Negroes was sent the schedule of questions printed 
on page 11. Of the 98 thus questioned 44 answered, and partial data were 
obtained from the catalogues of 16 others, making returns from sixty 
schools in all. Of these sixty a number answered that they were unable 
to furnish exact data or had no graduates working as artisans: 

G. L. Smith College, Mo : "We have not as yet made provision for Industrial work." 

Mt. Herman Female Seminary, Miss : "I am sorry I cannot answer your questions, but 
I really have not kept track of my former pupils." 

Starr s School,Ga :"This is a grammar day school and has no industries except sewing." 

Shorter College, Ark : "We have the Sewing and Printing Departments in connection 
with our school, but they have been recently connected and consequently we have no 
graduates, as yet." 

St. Augustine s School, Raleigh, X. C : "We have classes in printing, in carpentry and 
in bricklaying. The classes have not been going long enough for us to have sent out 
more than a few boys, so that I am not able to give you any answer." 

Normal School No. 2, Washington, D. C : "We have no trades [taught] in our school." 

Roger Williams University, Nashville, Tenn : "This school has never been in any true 
sense an industrial school I have no list of our graduates w r ho are arti 
sans, though there are doubtless a good number who may be working in that way." 

Emerson Normal Institute, Mobile, Ala : "Almost none [of our graduates are working 
as artisans] so far as I know." 

Warner Institute, Jonesboro, Tenn : "We are teaching sewing only as industrial work 
at present." 

Gloucester Institute, Cappahoosic, Va : "While we give elementary lessons in sewing, 
cooking and agriculture, with application upon a school farm of 148 acres, we cannot 
be correctly classed as an industrial school." 

Straight University, New Orleans, La : "We have manual training in our school but 
do not teach trades." 

Benedict College, Columbia, S. C : "At present it is impossible to make a report that 
will be accurate at, all. Next year we hope to be able to give information in that line. , 

Leland University, New Orleans, La : "This is not a trade school. I never want to 
manage shops, machines, foundries, kilos, plants, industries ; I mean to use some of 
these on their educational side for various reasons, but book learning is our main aim. 
All of our graduates who are living as artisans learned that elsewhere." 

Mississippi State Normal School, Holly Springs, Miss : "None [of our former students 
or graduates are artisans.] Ours is a normal school for the education of teachers. 
The only art we teach is dress-cutting and fitting." 

Beach Institute, Savannah, Ga : "I have not found as yet records of addresses or occu 
pations of former graduates. * * * * We have no industrial course." 

Virginia Union University, Richmond, Va : "Our Industrial Department has been in 
existence only one year." 

Florida State Normal and Industrial School, Tallahassee, Fla : Industrial lines of in 
struction "are just being organized." 

Jackson College : This institution is being rebuilt and is "not at present an industrial 
school," but will be later. 

Spelman Seminary. "On looking up our statistics of graduates and what they are 
doing, we find that we have so little knowledge of those engaged in industrial pursuits 
that we do not fill out the report asked for by you." 

Scotia Seminary: "Our work being for girls only our industrial work is confined 
mainly to the domestic arts. Some who do not complete a literary course devote them- 



70 



THK NKGKO ARTISAN 



selves to dress-making, but the literary graduates generally accept positions as teach 
ers. The demand for industrial teachers far exceeds our ability to supply. Scotia 
girls, as a rule, do not get a chance for independent positions. They are in such de 
mand for the high office of home-maker that nearly all of them are at that not very 
long after they graduate." 

In addition to these 20 schools, probably all but a few of the 38 schools 
not heard from belong to the same category, i. e., they either teach sew 
ing, cooking, farming, or simple manual training, or if they teach a few 
trades partially they have no record of their graduates. In the case of 
girls schools like Spelman and Scotia it is not expected that they will 
send out artisans except possibly dress-makers, and teachers of manual 
training. 

Turning now to trade schools and those that lay considerable stress on 
Manual Training, we nave the following reports: 

Hampton Institute, Va. 

112 graduates or former students are working at their trades and 27 are 
teaching trades, making 139 in all. 227 have finished or practically finished 
their trades in the years 1885-1902. Of these 10 are dead, and 42 not heard 
from. Of the remaining 161 heard from, 139 are working at their trades or 
teaching them :* 

HAMPTON TRADE STUDENTS. 














0) 


j 




- 












T 


ZZ 


Cw 


CC 




~ 












~ 


ft 


5 


ft 


s 


-~ 












z 


-Sri 











- 










y 


_ 


Js 


o 


d) ^ 


<4-H 


r, 














/. 

c 


"^7! 


o 
o 


il l 


| 




i 

o> 








.pi 





? 


"S 


* U- 


fl 


- 







. 




OJ 

1 


-. 

1 


|| 


2! 


U 


o 




~z 

c 


1 








+3 


*3 


4-^ 


^ ^H 


^ - 


CJ 


J2 


- 








r- 




F ( 


^ 




CC 


DC 


/. 








^ 




03 




83 


U 


4J 












q; 


5 


^> 


W 


JD 


2 


BH 

3 


2 






Blacksmiths 


2 k> 


3 


25 


1 


26 


19 


R 








Bricklayers 


9 


n 


2 


2 


4 


J.J7 

1 


| | 








Carpe n t ers 


69 


1 


70 


4 


74 


50 


1" 


G 






Engineers 


I 9 


2 


14 


o 




JV7 
12 


1 - 
> 


o 






Harnessmakers 


q 


n 


9 


o 


9 


9 


1) 


o 






Machinists 




1 






Q 


a 


1 








Painters 




n 



7 


I 


i 






(1 






Printers. 




1 


10 




on 


10 


1 








iShoemakers 


13 


1 


14 


o 


14 


S 


-, 


] 






Tailors 


13 




16 




17 




15 


| 


1) 






Tinsmiths 


9 


n 


9 


o 


2 


9 


|) 


1) 






Wheelwrights 




> 


25 


3 


28 


14 


1 | 


1) 






Wood-working machinists 


9 


u 


2 


o 


2 


2, 


|| 


o 






Manual training teacher.. 


1 


n 


I 


o 




1 


o 


n 




1 























Total 19617 213 14 2271614210 



-We are indebted to the authorities of Hampton Institute, and especially to Miss M J. Sherman, for 
these tabular statements and other detailed information. 



SEVENTH ANNTAL CONFERENCE 



71 



LOCATION OF FORMER STUDENTS KNOWN TO BE FOLLOWING THEIR TRADES. 





Blacksmiths. 


Bricklayers. 


Carpenters. 


Engineers. 


Harnessmakers. 


Machinists. 


oi 

2 

- 


cc 

;_ 

J> 




Shoemakers. 


Tailors. 


/ 
~f. 


GO 

Ti. 




Wood-working machinists 


Manual training teacher. 


1 


\ irginia Working 
Teaching 
Alabama W 


II 
1 


2 
1 


6 


4 


2 


2 


4 


6 
1 
2 


5 

1 


18 


I 


2 
1 


3 




74 

12-86 


T 

Washington, D. C W 


1 




3 


2 


1 






1 


1 


1 




1 






6- 8 


T 
Georgia W 






1 
























0- 6 
2 


T 

Kentucky \V 


l 




























0- 2 
o 


T 

Louisiana W 




1 


1 
























1- 3 


T 
Maryland W 








1 








l 














0- 1 

Q 


T 

North Carolina W 


1 




1 
1 






1 








1 




1 






2- 5 

4 


T 
South Carolina and Tennessee W T 
T 
Texas W 


1 




1 
2 






1 




I 








1 






3- 7 

2- 2 
3 


T 
In the North W 


1 




3 




1 


1 








., 










0- 3 
13 


T 
In the West .... . W 
















1 














0-13 


T 

Tn the U. S. Navy .. . W T 












1 
















1 


1- 2 
1 


T 
Total working at trades W 


it; 


8 


26 


q 


3 


d 


4 


11 


8 


L8 


1 


4 


3 





0- 1 
112 


Total teaching trades T 


1 


1 


18 


o 


3 


1 


ii 


a 


2 


ii 


{) 


3 


ii 


1 


27 


Total heard from 


17 


4 


311 


9 


(5 


7 


4 


13 


10 


IS 


1 


7 




1 


139 



"-This list includes those Negro students with trades wholly or partially completed about whom we 
have had definite information within a year and a half. The present addresses and occupations 
of a still larger number, especially of those who did not finish their trades, cannot be found." 

No report is available as to dress-makers, nor as to graduates and stu 
dents who are earning a living partially as artisans. In tailoring and 
blacksmith ing the graduates have experienced no difficulty in obtaining 
work, and in other trades "no serious difficulty." They do not as a gen 
eral thing 1 join trades unions. 

Tiiskcgee Institute, Ala. 

"We have been keeping a record only of our academic graduates and those who have 
certificates from the industrial department. I send you under separate cover to-day 



72 



THE XE(JKO ARTISAN 



our catalog which contains our alumni record. The institution cannot be fairly judged 
only by those who are referred to in the catalog as there are many others who have 
been working regularly at their trades of whom no record is made." 

In the catalogue the occupations of graduates of the school are g 
as follows: 

Total graduates 423 



Harnessmakers 

Plasterers 

Shoemakers 

Wheelwrights... 

Machinists 

Blacksmiths 

Milliners 

Firemen... 



Painters 1 

Tinners 5 

Dairymen "2 

Butchers 1 

Tailors 11 

Brickmasons 8 

Carpenters 4 

Dressmakers 2 

Artisans .. . 48 

Teachers of Trades in Industrial Schools 28 

Students in Industrial Schools 2 

Persons who work at their trades when not employed at some other 
principal occupation : 

Carpenters 8 

Dressmakers and Seamstresses.. .16 

Blacksmiths 1 

Shoemakers 2 

Mattressmakers 1 

Total... 



Other occupations of graduates*: 

Cashier 1 

Book-keeper 1 

Teachers? 157 

Students 31 

Pharmacists 4 

Physicians 8 

Preachers 11 

School officials other than teach 
ers 9 

Other professions 6 

Newspaper work 2 

Civil Service .. 6 



Wheelwright 1 

Plasterers 1 

Painters 1 

Printers ,.. I 

Tailors 1 

...33 



Farmers 9 

Trained Nurses** 7 

Railway laborers 1 

Steward 1 

Laundress 1 

Miners H 

Drayman 1 

Merchants-^ (> 

Clerks 8 

IT. S. Army 4 

Housekeepers; 29 



"Including the :$ who work at their trades only a part of their time. They sire here counted un 
der their principal occupations. 

^ Including 3 who also keep house. 

flncluding 27 who practice trades in vacation, 10 who teach and keep house. 4 who teach and keep 
store, 9 who teach aiid farm, and 2 who teach and preach. 

ttNot counting 4 who teach and keep store. 

Ji. e., Housewives? 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 73 

Summarized we have : 

Artisans 48 

Teachers of trades 28 

Students of trades 2 78 

Casual artisans, (33, recounted below). 

Teachers, students and school officials 197 

Professional men 44 

Merchants, Clerks, &c 16 

Farmers 9 

Miscellaneous 40 

Dead, unknown and at home 39345 

Total graduates 423 

Claflin University, S. C. 

The following graduates and former students have been sent out with 
trades: 

Carpenters 16 Iron and steel workers 6 

Blacksmiths 6 Shoemakers 3 

Masons 22 Painters 6 

Engineers 2 Plasterers 20 

Dressmakers 11 Tailors 2 

Harnessmakers 1 Machinists , 2 

Teacher domestic science 1 

Total 98; 60 of these are following their trades. 12 or more graduates 
besides these earn a living partially as artisans, usually combining teach 
ing and farming with the trade. Fourteen of the graduates* are instruct 
ors in industries. 

These artisans are working principally in South Carolina. They are 
usually preferred by contractors and have had no difficulty in obtaining 
work. They do not usually join trades unions, as there are not many unions 
in the state. 

A. it- M. College, Normal, Ala. 

This institution has no record of its undergraduates. The following 
have graduated as artisans: 

Carpenters 15 Shoemakers. .". 6 

Blacksmiths 10 Painters 2 

Engineers 3 Tailors 3 

Dressmakers 25 Printers 10 

Iron and steel workers 10 Total 84 

The number of these who are following their trades at present is not 
known; some of these combine teaching with their trades, but the exact 
number is not stated. The chief difficulty encountered by these artisans is 
the "Trades Unions, which, in some localities, control labor and will not ad 
mit them to membership." In any case they seldom join the unions. Ten 
toach industries in schools. 



-Probably included in the above 60. The report is not explicit on this point. 



74 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

Bishop College, Texas. 

This institution sends a partial report. "The incompleteness of the re 
port is not due to lack of students at work as artisans, but to the lack of 
method in keeping track of them." 

Carpenters 3 Printers 

Blacksmiths..... 1 Total 

Brickmakers 1 

.-1. <(; M. College, Greensboro, N. C. 

This institution which graduated its first ciass in 1899 reports as follows: 

Carpenters 4 Earning a living partially as 

Machinists and architects 3 artisans 6 

Teaching trades in schools 2 

"One of our graduates a machinist with less than two years experience is em 
ployed in a Northern factory at $5 a day." 

Most of the other graduates are located in North Carolina. The six men 
tioned above usually combine teaching with their trade. They do not 
usually join trades unions and have no difficulty in getting work save 
u their own imperfections or lack of energy." 

Tougaloo University, Miss. 

While we have done much industrial work we have not had special graduation from 
industrial courses, but have co-ordinated the hand work with the other as part of an 
all-round education. Until comparatively recently the call for artisans has not been 
so strong in this state as in some others. It is predominantly an agricultural state." 

The artisans reported are : 

Carpenters 18 Dressmakers 4 

Blacksmiths 7 Iron and steel workers 2 

Masons 1 Painters 3 

Engineers 3 Total 38 

Three in addition teach industries in schools. They do not join trades 
unions and find work with but little difficulty. 

Schofield N. & I. School, S. C. 

This school returns "a partial list, but there are many more who have 
entered and are following trades." The following are known to be pur 
suing these trades: 

Blacksmiths 5 Painters 20 

Brickmakers 10 Harnessmakers 20 

Masons 15 Plumbers..... 5 

Tailors , 3 Printers 15 

Carpenters 30 

Total 123 

"Very many" others are following their trades, but there are no exact 
records; 6 are teaching industries in schools. 

These persons are located in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. Some 
are in the North. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 75 

Barrett C. & I. Institute, N. C. 

This institution has trained 157 artisans, chiefly blacksmiths, masons, 
dressmakers, plasterers and carpenters. Of these "about 10 or more" are 
earning their living entirely as artisans. Others are combining their trades 
with teaching. They do not join trades unions and meet little difficulty 
in getting work. 

Haines Institute, Ga. 

"Ours is simply a manual training school and makes no pretense at teaching trades. 
The following are earning a living at their trades, not having studied them elsewhere 
than here." 

Printers 2 Dressmakers arid Seamstresses... 6 

Tailors 2 

They are in Georgia, New Jersey and District of Columbia. 

Knoxville College, Tenn. 

This institution reports among its graduates: 

Blacksmiths 1 Dressmakers 2 

Masons 1 Iron and steel workers 4 

Civil Engineers 1 Total 9 

Eight are teaching industries in schools. Others, formerly students, are 
working as artisans, and "a large number" are gaining a living by com 
bining a trade with teaching or other pursuits. 

Institute for Colored Youth, Penna. 

This institution reports: 

Carpenters 8 Tailors 6 

Brickmasons 16 Printers 8 

Shoemakers 8 

Plasterers 4 Total 50 

Two teach industries in schools. 

Most of these artisans are at work in Philadelphia and vicinity. They 
do not join the trades unions. 

Fort Valley H. <C- /. School, Ga. 

This institution reports: 

Carpenters 5 Shoemakers 2 

Masons 1 Painters 1 

Dressmakers 4 Coopers 1 

Tailors 1 Total 15 

One is teaching industries. 

17 are earning a living partially as artisans. They are located in Geor 
gia, have no trouble in getting work, and do not join Trades Unions. "Our 
industrial departments have not been established long enough for us to 
make a very good showing in the industries yet." 

State Normal School, Montgomery, Ala. 

"This institution has graduated 320 in the past twenty-two years. Of this number 
twelve had died, sixty-four women are married and house keeping,185 are teachers, four 



76 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

merchants, one millwright, eight medical doctors, twenty-one farmers, one house plas 
terer, two carpenters, one each, dentist, blacksmith, house painter, two in Govei nment 
service, three bookkeepers, eight dressmakers, two teachers of music, seven students 
in higher schools." 

This makes 14 artisans in all. Three others teach trades. About 25% of 
the graduates and former students practice their trades casually. They 
often combine teaching or farming with the trade. They have no difficulty 
in finding work and are located mostly in Birmingham and Montgomery, 
Ala. They usually join trades unions. 

Ballard Normal School, Ala. 

One graduate of this school is an architect and builder at Norfolk, Va. ; 
another learned his trade after leaving and was instructor in tailoring at 
Tuskegee. Most of the graduates teach. 

Alcorn A. & M. College, Miss. 

The industrial departments here are of recent establishment and only 
two or three classes have been sent out. There are among these : 

Carpenters 3 Shoemakers H 

Blacksmiths 9 Painters 2 

Total 22 

Washburn Seminary, N. C. 
This school reports : 

Carpenters (combined with general labor) 4 

Teacher of industries 1 

Clark University, Ga. 

This school gives among its graduates, as published in its catalogue: 
Dressmakers 6 Teachers of industries 5 

A eery Institute, S. C. 
The catalogue of this school gives the following artisans: 

Shoemakers 1 Blacksmiths 2 

Carpenters 6 Plumbers 2 

Bricklayers 2 Tailors 2 

Barbers 6 Butcher 1 

Pattern-makers 1 Machinist 1 

Total 24 

Apparently none of these were trained at this school, but took up the 
trades after leaving. The principal was unable to give any accurate 
information. 

Rust University, Miss. 

This institution reports: 

Carpenters 7 Dressmakers 10 

Brickmakers 1 Shoemakers 5 

Masons 8 Painters 5 

Engineers 6 Plasterers 5 

Firemen 7 Coopers 2 

Tailors 2 Tocal 53 

Two teach industries in schools. They do not join trades unions. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 77 

Arkansas Baptist College, Ark. 

This institution lias trained in all 79 artisans, but does not report the 
number of these following their trades. They meet color prejudice in get 
ting work and their own u lack of superior preparation. 1 " is a disadvantage. 

The following institutions sent no reports, but on consulting their cata 
logues a list of artisans has been made out as there given: Benedict Col 
lege, S. C.; Lincoln Institute, Mo.; Wilberforce University, O. ; Biddle 
University, N. C.; Walden University. (Central Tenn. College), Tenn.; 
Tillotson College, Tex. ; Orange Park N. & I. School, Fla. ; State Normal 
School, Miss. ; Knox Institute, Ga. ; LeMoyne Institute, Tenn. 

Among the graduates of these schools are: 

Printers 2 Students of industries 2 

Carpenters 5 Mason 1 

Civil Engineer 1 Barbers 2 

Machinist. 1 Blacksmith 1 

Dressmakers, &c 3 Milliners 1 

Photographer 1 Tailor 1 

Teachers of industries 5 Total 19 

Two urgent requests for reports were sent to all other industrial schools 
but no replies were received. It may be taken for granted that most of 
them have very little real trade teaching and no records of the few grad 
uates who have acquired trades after leaving them. A few others have 
only manual training and the record of their graduates is interesting in 
this connection only as showing how far such training turns students 
ideals toward trade-learning. The most conspicuous of the larger institu 
tions with manual training and without trade departments are Shaw Uni 
versity,* N. C., and Atlanta University. The latter has among its grad 
uates and former students : 

1. Superintendent of Industries, Biddle University, N. C. 

2. Superintendent of Mechanical Department, Prairie View State Normal 

School, Texas. 

3. Instructor in Manual Training, Knox Institute, Ga. 

4. Instructor in Carpentry, Brick N. & A. School, N. C. 

5. Superintendent of Manual Training, Talladega College, Ala. 

6. Instructor in Manual Training, V. N. & C. I., Va. 

7. Instructor in Bench Work, LeMoyne Institute, Tenn. 

8. Instructor in Printing, 

9. Instructor in Carpentry, Kowaliga I. Acad., Ala. 

10. Instructor in Manual Training, Haines Inst., Ga. 

11. Teacher of Sewing, Fort Valley H. & I. School, Ga. 
12 . Teacher of Cooking, t( 

Three others are heads of industrial schools but ought rather to be 
counted as teachers than as artisans. Several former students are artisans 
but the exact number is unknown. 



-The report from Shaw University unfortunately arrived too late for insertion. 



78 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



Combining these reports we have: 

ACTUAL ARTISANS GRADUATED FROM INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS. 





1 








|| 




eR 




























PH 
































u 
































C 












. 














A 






^" 










/. 


J? 


Schools 


Hamp 


Tuske- 












d 




g 

j 










~ 


B 

0) 




ton. 


gee 




& 


d 


& j 






c 


>. 








- 


.1 










^ 


^* 


^ H 




^ 


o 


~ 








~ 


z 








d 


~. 


if 


ii 
iii 


3 

z 

- 


2 


I 


f 


d 


^ 




/ 





08 











E 
- 


r 


^-1 




:i 

- 





- 


i 


c 


<o 


S 


-Z 


| 











C 


~ 




o 


o 















_ 






10 


X 


w 


^j i CQ t^ 


02 


M 
^ 


^ 


<j <1 


r: 


5 


< 




# 

3 1 






03 










oc 




4A 

Sg 






a 

3 










I 




1 






S 


K 




Total liv g 


Total graduates work 


^ 




6Q 


bb 


--} 


fcJD 


~; : 
L- f 


si 


graduates. 


ing at trades. 


:i 








~ 













c 




bC 


.j 




fee 















C 


j 





B g 


-r 1 


~ 







a 




^. 








S 


_: 


- 






- 




3 







3 










. 



Blacksmiths 


26 


16 


i 


7 


> 


li 6 


i) 


20 


(; i 


7 


5 




i 


9 


.> 




2 




^Masons 


3 


3 


i 


13 


8 


! 22 




30 






1 


15 


L6 






2 









Carpenters 


(ks 


29 




15 


4 


1 16 


5 


15 


12 


3 


L8 


30 


8 


2 


3 


6 


*7 


L5 


3 


Engineers 


14 
9 


9 
3 


,, 


3 


1 




3 








3 


20 










6 






Harness-makers 


Machinists 


8 


6 


i 


.3 


1 


>> 




















1 




2 




Painters 


8 


4 




3 


1 


1 


6 


2 


15 


6 




3 


20 




1 


2 




5 


1 




Printers 


20 


11 


c 


19 




3 




LO 




25 


LO 




15 


8 










1 


1 


Shoemakers 


13 


8 


. 


6 


2 


11 3 


6 


10 










8 




8 


1 


5 


2 




Tailors 


17 


18 




9 


1 1 


3 2 


3 


2 








3 


i; 






2 


2 






Tinsmiths 


2 


1 




4 


5 
































\Vheelwrights 


28 


4 


t 


5 


1 




6 


L( 








2 














4 




Iron & steel workers.. 


Brickmakers 








6 




jj 




15 




1 




10 










1 






Dressmakers and 








































Milliners 








30 


6 


1 


li 


2: 


25 


12 




4 






8 






H 


22 


l 


Other artisans .. . . 


1 






11 


4 


2 


2( 




25 


L8 






5 


, 


5 




K 


1 i 


c 




Total graduates 


217 






134 








84 


157 


7 . 














1 * 




o 


I 


Total work g at trades 
Total teaching trades 
Total work g & teach g 




us 


r 




48 

S] 


46 
2814 

i eo 


L( 


10 
10 




i: 


> 
* > 

41 


123 
6 
129 


51 

r,2 


14 
3 

17 


22 
22 


24 
24 


63 
2 

:>:, 


(ks 

i: 
si 


12 

12 



There are reported 623 artisans at work, and 120 teaching them trades or 
teaching manual training. The proportion which those at work and teach 
ing bear to the total trade graduates is not easily ascertained. Some are 
working at trades who did not graduate: Hampton, for instance, reports 

*Of the Trade school only, not of other departments. 
fNot including those graduates before 1890. 
""Including all graduated. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 79 

4 bricklayers and wood-working machinists graduated and 7 working at 
these two trades. No report at all is made of other than trade school 
graduates. Tuskegee gives no record of her trade graduates before 1890, 
and Claflin s report of 60 at work is an estimate and not a detailed report. 
However, we may make the following table : 
Tuskegee : 

Total graduates, 423, or 100%. 
Of these 11% work at trades, 

and 6.5% teach trades. 

Total trade graduates, about 150*, or 100%. 
Of these 32% work at trades, 

and 19% teach trades. 
Hampton : 

Total trade graduates, 217, or 100%. 
Of these 51.5% work at trades, 

and 12% teach trades. 
Claflin: 

Total trade graduates, 98, or 100%. 
Of these about 47% work at trades, 

and about 14% teach trades. 

Possibly it would be fair to say that in the best industrial schools some 
thing less than a quarter of all the graduates, and about three-fifths of all 
the trade graduates, actually practice their trades or teach them. 

If to the 743 artisans working and teaching we add for the school at Nor 
mal, Ala., and the Arkansas Baptist College an estimated number of 60 
additional artisans, we have 803 artisans. The unreported artisans would 
bring this number up to at least 1,000, so that it would be a conservative 
statement to say that the hundred schools giving industrial training have 
in the last twenty years sent one thousand actual artisans into the world, 
beside a large number who combine their mechanical skill with other 
callings. 

14. Fice Faults of Industrial Schools. We may now summarize this study 
of the Industrial School by pointing out briefly certain faults and accom 
plishments. Twenty years or more ago it was evident that the great 
problem before the Negro was that of earning an income commensurate 
with his expanding wants. The Industrial School attempted to answer 
this problem by training farmers and artisans. How far has it accom 
plished this work ? 

The various adverse criticisms against the work of Industrial Schools 
may be catalogued as follows: 
(1.) Their work has cost too much. 

The total incomes of the industrial schools so far as reported on pages 66- 
(58 was $1,514,793. This includes all schools giving industrial training on 
any scale. Of this sum $628,379, or 41%, went to Hampton and Tuskegee. 
Perhaps in all about one million dollars went actually to industrial train- 



i. c.. i:M since 1MO and an estimated number of 1(> before that time who finished their trades. 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

ing and the rest to academic and normal work. One might estimate that 
in the last twenty years the industrial training of Negroes has cost some 
thing between five and ten millions of dollars. 

The total income including gifts and benefactions of the schools* aided 
by the Slater fund was in 1899-1900: 

Hampton $426,837 - 939 students. 

Spelman 32,561 599 

Tuskegee 202,042 1,180 

Claflin 37,000 708 

Shaw 21,185 511 

Montgomery 15,000 - 928 

Tougaloo 15,000 436 

It is clear that while manual training is not very costly, and instruction 
in sewing and cooking need not be expensive, that on the other hand the 
teaching of trades and the conduct of "schools of work" are very expen 
sive. It costs as much to run Tuskegee a year as it does to conduct the 
whole Southern work of the Freedmen s Aid and Southern Education 
Societyt, with their 43 schools, 413 instructors and 10,146 pupils. 

So, too, Hampton received in 1900 more than was spent on the whole 
Negro public school system of the state of Virginia. Such facts are no 
argument against industrial training, but they do raise the question if its 
cost today is not unnecessarily excessive. The largest items of expendi 
ture are for tools and machinery, materials, and furnishing work for stu 
dents. In the first item it is doubtful if there could be any saving : modern 
industrial appliances are growing more and more elaborate and costly, 
and if the student is to be properly trained according to the best methods, 
he must handle and learn the use of such machinery. There must be too 
in all trade teaching a large consumption of material from which no return 
can be expected. The old idea was that the industrial school could sell 
its products and partially, if not wholly, support itself, but this has proven 
fallacious. In the third item alone, the furnishing of work for students, 
there is the largest field for retrenchment. The theory in several schools 
is to charge no tuition and allow the student to work out his education by 
crediting him with wages for work in the shops. As a matter of fact every 
$100 thus earned by the student was proven in one school to have cost over 
$300. Consequently, as has been noted before, there is less emphasis put 
on this phase of industrial school life to-day than formerly. It is to be 
hoped that in the future the system will wholly disappear. It was un 
doubtedly some moral value to the student, but this is more than offset by 
the waste of time and energy in requiring a student to learn a difficult 
trade and earn a living at the same time. If he laarns the trade well the 
living "earned" will be simply disguised charity; and if he really earns a 
living he will scarcely master his trade in any reasonable time. An in 
dustrial school should be like other schools: the student or his parents 
should be required to pay his tuition, board and clothes, and scholarships 



*Except Straight and Bishop; no available data for these. 
tOhristian Edueator, May 1902. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 81 

should be granted the brightest and most deserving pupils who cannot do 
this. Others should work and earn the necessary sum before they come to 
school. In the school all time and energy should be given to learning the 
trade and mastering the accompanying studies. Any attempt to go further 
than this is a dangerous experiment which must be costly either in time, 
energy or money. 

(2.) Tin- lines of study have not l>een differentiated. 

Most graduates of industrial schools teach; this means that teacher- 
training should be an important part of the curriculum. In many schools, 
however, the attempt is made to train a teacherand an artisan at the same 
time. This would seem to be a mistake: teachers should be trained as 
teachers and given normal courses in manual training, while separate 
trade courses should train artisans. 

- l lf carpenters are needed it is well and good to train men as carpenters; 
if teachers are needed it is well and good to train men as teachers. But 
to train men as carpenters and then set them to teaching is wasteful and 
criminal ; and to train men as teachers and then refuse them living wages 
unless they become carpenters is rank nonsense."* 

(H.) There is vndae insistence on the "practical." 

Industrial schools must beware placing undue emphasis on the 
"practical" character of their work. All true learning of the head or 
hands is practical in the sense of being applicable to life. But the best 
learning is more than merely practical since it seeks to apply itself, not 
simply to present modes of living, but to a larger, broader life which lives 
to-day, perhaps, in theory only, but may come to realization to-morrow by 
the help of educated and good men. There still lurks in much that passes 
for industrial training to-day something that reminds us forcibly of 
Dotheboys Hall and Mr. Squeers: 

"We go upon the practical mode of teaching, Nickleby; the regular ed 
ucation system. C-L-K-A-N, clean, verb active, to make bright, to scour. 
\V-I-N, win, D-K-K, winder, a casement. When the boy knows this out 
of book, he goes and does it." 

The ideals of education, whether men are taught to teach or to plow, to 
weave or to write must not be allowed to sink to sordid utilitarianism. 
Education must keep broad ideals before it, and never forget that it is 
dealing with Souls and not with Dollars. 

Alon o> with this goes a certain indifference to the artistic side of indus 
try. Industrial art is a most important line of study and one peculiarly 
suited to the aesthetic Negro temperament. Yet Beauty as "its own ex 
cuse for being" has had little emphasis in most industrial schools. 

Of the same character is the unfortunate opposition of advocates of in 
dustrial education toward colleges. The colleges at first looked askance 
at the industrial schools until they began to prove their usefulness; and 
this was a natural attitude. On the other hand no one in the light of 
history can doubt the necessity of colleges in any system of education. 



* Atlanta University Publications No. : "The Ncjrro Common School," p. 117. 



82 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

No adequate system of industrial schools and common schools can he 
maintained without a proper number of Negro colleges of high grade and 
efficiency, and this fact all men ought frankly and openly to acknowledge. 

(4.) The changing industrial conditions arc often ignored. 

The journeyman artisan, the small shop and the house industry are be 
ing replaced by the large contractor, the factory system and power ma 
chines; the central fact in the world of labor is the rise and development 
of the Trade Union. The courses of study in many schools do not suffi 
ciently recognize these changes but prepare workmen for conditions of 
work that are passing. Especially are these artisans ignorant of the ex 
tent and meaning of the great labor movement. 

(5.) Few actual artisans are sent out. 

This criticism is less valid to-day than when it was first made,* and in 
another decade may disappear as industrial schools improve. Still it has 
some weight to-day. 

Roughly speaking it has cost above five million dollars to establish the 
industrial schools and send out a thousand workmen. What has hindered 
the one or two thousand other recipients of some considerable degree of 
industrial training from following their trades? It may be answered, 
three considerations: 

1. Poor trade instruction. 2. The demand for teachers. 3. The factory 
system and trade unions. Many schools undoubtedly give a. training in 
"trades" which is not really worthy of the name. "When, as is true in one 
case, only 6 in every 100 artisans trained are following their trades the in 
evitable conclusion is that the training is very poor. Even the better 
grade of industrial schools have come to teaching the main trades thor 
oughly only in the last few years and many other trades are still inade 
quately taught. 

When the graduate of an industrial institute leaves school he is tempted 
to go to school teaching. As long as the school does not distinctly separal e 
teacher-training and trade-training, and as long as the average teacher is 
of low efficiency, this temptation will remain and take many artisans from 
their callings. 

There are many callings, however, which Trade Schools, be they ever 
so efficient and careful, cannot fill with their graduates. This is due to 
two causes: first, the factory system with its minutely developed division 
of labor which renders it absolutely essential that the apprentice should 
learn his trade in the factory; secondly, the strong opposition of trade 
unions to Negro labor in all lines save those where the Negro already has 
a foot-hold. 

Of these five faults careful consideration would seem to indicate that while 
all have some weight the first three are most serious; and that careful or 
ganization and experiment will likely remove most of these faults in time. 



-Cf. R -port of the U. S. Commissioner of Education, ls<4-5, ]>. i:;<o. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 83 

15. Fire Accomplishments <>J Industrial Schools. Turning now to favorable 
criticism we may note that Industrial training has: 

( 1 . ) nationalized Negro Ideals. 

The first result of these schools, as of all schooling, has been spiritual 
rather than economic. It has made Negroes think ; turned their attention 
from mere aspiration to the concrete problem of earning a living and 
emphasized the truth that labor is honorable; and while this thinking has 
not yet shown itself to any great extent in increased avenues of employ 
ment and greater skill there is no doubt that future decades will show vast 
improvement. 

(2.) Begun tke co-ordination of hand and head work in education. 

We have not yet readied altogether satisfactory results in this new edu- 
cation but the Negro industrial school has given great and needed empha 
sis to the movement and has to some extent taught the whole nation. 

(> ) Ilea<:lt,ed oat into the Country Districts. 

The mission schools and the schools of the Freedmen s bureau were pri 
marily city and town schools and reached the select classes largely. The 
industrial schools have appealed especially to the neglected county dis 
tricts and to the kl field-hand" class. 

(4.) Improved Domestic Work in the Home. 

The first industrial work was with girls in sewing and cooking, and al 
ready the results of this training are seen in the first-class town homes. 

(5.) United Races and Sections on one Point. 

Progress is largely compromise. The attitude of the South toward the 
Negro is not what the best thought of the North or of the Negroes could 
wish. The attitude of the Negro toward the South -and of the North to 
ward the Negro is not what the dominant thought of the South wishes. It is, 
however, an omen of unusual importance that amid this difference of 
opinion and bitterness of spirit there is some common ground on which 
North and South, black and white, can meet, viz: common school, manual 
and trade training for black children. This does not mean that the race 
problem can be settled on this basis, but it does mean that its settle 
ment can be auspiciously begun. Negroes can and will demand some 
college and professional training in addition ; fair minded men can and will 
demand equal rights for all Americans despite color, and the Southern 
people can and will demand safeguards against ignorance and crime ; but 
all happily will agree on the importance of industrial training. And this 
is no little step from January 1, 1863. 

16. The Higher Education and the Industries, (by Dr. J. G. Merrill, Presi 
dent of Fisk University). The higher education is essential to the very 
existence of any education and it is only in lands where education is 
found that the industries thrive. The higher education may be likened 
to the head as part of the body; the life of the body terminates when it is 
removed from it; it may be likened to the key stone of the arch, a very 
small matter as far as material goes, but it makes efficient the aggregate 
mass in the structure that can bear untold weight. 



84 THE NKGIU) ARTISAN 

Thr mental quickening which the college graduate gives a rural village, 
the breadth of view which he helps a municipality to take, the larger con 
ceptions of business life due to the men of letters are every day verifica 
tions of the value to all of the training received by the few. It is such 
an atmosphere as this that quickens the mind of the inventor so that 
he may produce new instruments for human progress, the intellect of the 
architect on whose success depends the daily bread of the carpenter, and 
mason, and even the teamster and the hod-carrier; the ambition of the 
farmer who learns how to make two blades of grass where one has grown 
before, and is kept from being merely "the man with the hoe." 

Or look at the matter in another way. The large proportion of the child 
ren of -the artisan and the laborer are to obtain their training in the com 
mon school; this training will be of value to them in proportion to the 
worth of the teaching force in the school. A stream cannot rise higher 
than its fountain; a teacher with only a common school education is not 
equipped for such work ; a high school graduate or normal teacher is sought 
for. But who is to teach the industrial, the high, or the normal school? 
There must be a source higher than they to nut in requisition, and so on 
until we reach the superlative the highest educators, those whom God 
has endowed with the loftiest of gifts, who have had the privileges of post 
graduate training such as have made Germany and England and, of late, 
the United States, famous in the realms of knowledge. 

It remains to note the counter movement, the help received by the higher 
education from the industries. This has been well-nigh phenomenal. As 
the years have gone by wealth has increased ; the number of millionaires 
has multiplied; very many of them having amassed their fortunes by 
means of the industries. But better than this has been the earning power 
of the average man which has risen in the United States from ten cents 
per day in 18CX) for each man, woman, and child, to HO cents in 1850, over 
50 cents in 1890, and much higher than that in 1900, we are sure compila 
tions when made from the last census w r ill show. Now, because of this 
state of affairs higher education prospers, the normal schools and uni 
versities supported by the state and the princely benefactions given to 
endow colleges, universities and post graduate schools are a sign of the 
times, pointing to a future that is very bright when, in all our land, the 
opportunity to obtain a common school education will be afforded to all, 
an industrial training to the many, who by native gifts or inclination can 
earn a livelihood and bless the state by use of their physical powers, the 
higher education to those whose mental equipment is matched by tenacity 
of purpose and the high moral aims which alone can make of value any 
education. 

17. The Industrial Settlement at Kowaliga, Aid. The thesis of Dr. Merrill as de 
veloped in the preceding section is illustrated clearly in the case of Negro 
education. Industrial training in the South is peculiarly the child of the 
College and the University. Samuel Armstrong and Dr. Frissell were 
College-bred men, and the majority of their teachers also; Tuskegee 
ki is filled with College graduates, from the energetic wife of the principal 
down to the teacher of agriculture, including nearly half of the executive 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 85 

council and a majority of the heads of departments 1 * and so, too, in every 
one of the hundred industrial schools the College graduates are the lead 
ing spirits. Further than this one College graduate, William Benson, of 
Fisk and Howard, has, at Kowaliga, developed an industrial settlement of 
Negroes on a business basis which is the longest step toward the economic 
emancipation of the Negro yet taken. The u Dixie Industrial Company 11 
is the name of the enterprise and this is a description of its work : 

"We are sitting in the spacious chapel of a new school building. The 
walls and columns are decorated in bunting and flags, in three colors. Jn 
every direction which the eye may gaze is to be seen an air of cheerful 
ness, except the long line of dark, care-worn faces before us. It is the 
occasion of the county fair which is held annually on the premises of the 
new community school. On the grounds outside we have seen exhibits of 
live-stock and poultry; the recitation rooms are filled with specimens of 
corn, cotton, potatoes, fruit and other products grown in the region. On 
the floor above the women have arranged their handiwork of sewing, 
cooking, preserving, canning and quilting; and now we are to witness the 
awarding of prizes to successful competitors. 

"The farm group seems divided into four classes; those who rent land, 
live stock and implements, furnishing only their labor and dividing their 
products half and half; a smaller class who have been frugal enough to 
pay for live stock and implements and give a stipulated amount for the 
rent of a given number of acres; a still smaller class who own land of 
their own, and lastly, those who are buying land under a form of lease and 
option contract. An enterprising man, a College-bred Negro, secured a 
tract of one thousand acres of land, which he sub-divided into twenty-five 
farm lots of forty acres each. Neat and inexpensive cottages were built, 
being grouped as closely as possible, with the view of overcoming the dis 
advantages of sparsely settled rural life. These farms, including im 
provements, are sold at four hundred dollars each. The payments are 
arranged in annual installments covering a period of eight years not 
much exceeding what they have heretofore paid as rent. This group we 
notice from the reports just read, is more prosperous because they work 
under intelligent supervision. It is a part of their contract. They cannot 
take more land than they can handle thoroughly, and they make more 
with the same labor than under the old system with a big crop, half fer 
tilized, and half-cultivated. They must raise an abundance of food sup 
plies, take care of their live-stock and improve their farms. They work 
better and live better, because they have a personal interest in all they 
do. One man works at the saw mill, another at the oil mill and another 
at the brick yard. Every buyer, be he farmer or mill-hand, will be given 
a clear title to his home when he has completed his payments as specified. 

"Our community began with a single group, and now we develop an 
other. The establishment of minor industries supplements the farm life 
and add to the material prosperity of the community. Much of the 
viciousness of an isolated rural population is due to idleness. A few pay- 

*Atlantic Monthly, Sept., UMIL . ]. i>v>-">. 



86 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

ing industries utilize waste material and keep in the community thousands 
of dollars which must go out. But you say that we are too far from a, rail 
road, and the expense of finding a market for our products would be too 
great. Whatever opportunities might ultimately open to us in this direc 
tion, it is certain that our present welfare depends upon making the com 
munity self-sustaining and self-relying. We shall make our own market 
and supply our own demand. We cannot export; we will not import. 

"We are spending annually an aggregate of five thousand dollars for 
wagons, furniture and implements. A saw mill and general wood-work 
ing plant would utilize our timber, first in building homes and making as 
near as possible all the cheap furniture required in furnishing these 
homes. A small oil mill plant can be equipped at an outlay of ten thous 
and dollars. This does not represent the cost of last year s fertilizer, to 
say nothing of the thousands of bushels of cotton seed carted away to a 
foreign market. The oil mill man takes the lintings, the hulls and the oil, 
and sells back again the meal alone to the farmer at an advance of .$0.50 to 
$12.00 per ton more than he has given for the whole product. Our mill 
will save the community the cost of its fertilizer, and the hulls as a valua 
ble feed. These industries can be operated entirely independent of trusts, 
because we saw our own trees, and use the houses, make our own seed and 
use the fertilizer. 

"Now follows the development of other groups in fast succession. One 
finds it profitable to make a specialty of gardening, another dairying and 
another poultry raising. The aesthetic taste of the female population de 
mands better made dresses, and they like to have ribbons tied to their 
hats by a milliner. Our community life becomes a centre of industry, 
and then a centre of commerce to its own immediate region, selling its 
products and buying its necessities. This brings us to the point where we 
touch the life of our w r hite neighbor. The moment we rise to the plane 
where our business interests are mutual, we strike a common meeting- 
ground. The Negro teacher, ministerand professional business man finds 
his patronage almost exclusively among the people of his own race. The 
Negro business man is the only one who crosses the line, and it is here that 
his contact with the white man is closest and most congenial. 

"The first direct effort toward this new agricultural, industrial and do 
mestic activity was through the enlargement of the community school, 
and the perfection of a plan by which the community that enjoys its 
benefits, might more largely participate in its burdens. The people had 
little money, so one gives land, another material, and others labor. Thus 
the cabin school-house was torn down and in its place erected a fine 
structure, with the appointments of a modern institution. We are intro 
duced to several new teachers a nice set of young men and women, well 
trained for the work of leading those who live around them to a more in 
telligent life of Christian manhood and womanhood. 

u We have presented this sketch of settlement life, with the simple hope 
that it may suggest to your minds a practical scheme for preventing the 
Negro from drifting from the country to foreign fields, and a fair way to 
start him on the road to independence where he is. If you are skeptical 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE S? 

as to its feasibility, let us remember that the father of the young Collegian 
who directs this community, has demonstrated every feature of life and 
industry which we have advanced. He began a pioneer in the woods, and 
now we find him the owner of three thousand acres, with two hundred and 
fifty people cultivating his land. He operates a saw mill, a grist mill and 
cotton gins. He has a plantation store, horses and cattle. He has given 
his children a good education at the best schools afforded them in the 
South, and they in turn are helping others. We are surprised to find that 
he not only has the patronage, but indeed the friendship, of the best white 
men of the region. His problem is solved, and he has given us the hope 
of the ideal community, and his son is widening and developing it." 

IS. General Statistics of Negro Artisans. The occupations of American 
.Negroes in 1890 have been discussed in a general way on pages 28 to 26.* 
Let us now consider more specifically the distribution of Negro artisans 
in 1890, taking certain typical employments and giving the figures first 
for the United States and then for the Southern States in detail.** 

NEUBO AKTISANS IN THE UNITED STATES. CeilSUS of 1S90. 

Carpenters 22,318 Shoemakers 5,065 

Barbers 17,481) Mill and Factory operatives. ...5,050 

Saw-mill operatives 17,280 Painters 4,896 

Miners 15,809 Plasterers 4,006 

Tobacco factory employees. ...15, 004 Quarrymen 8,198 

Blacksmiths 10,762 Coopers 2,648 

Brick-makers 10,521 Butchers 2,510 

Masons 9,647 Wood-workers 1,375 

Engineers and Firemen 7,662 Tailors 1,280 

Dressmakers 7,479 Stone cutters 1,279 

Iron and Steel workers 5,790 Leather-curriers 1,099 

There were in the United States in 1S90 about 175,000 Negro skilled ar 
tisans in the main classes enumerated above. If we take the chief skilled 
workmen in the Southern States we have: 



*Cf. Gannett: Occupations of Negroes Publications of the Slater Fund Trustees. 
**Thc figures for 1900 are not yet available. The figures in the tables contain a negligible 
number of Chinese, Japanese, and civilized Indians." 



88 



THE XKCJKO ARTISAN 
SKILLED NEGRO LABORERS (BY STATES) 1890. 







b 



o x 

B-S 



8 



OS OS CC O JO54OO4-CD OSO54 i -IC--OS 1C O OS 

zr _ 

to- | 

CO OC (-* tC 4- 1C 1C X 1C Cn 

I OS OS C O -I OS OS OS OS X 1 > 



Alabama, 



ootc i 



( co 

fcCtCOi 



tc r- co 

C: ^- i; xxcc 

fcC -- OiXi 



OS ~S. 

w 



tc os -j ~i as en 4-* i - 1 i os co ^i os ic 4- 4- tc co 

li - li V- r. - 4- 4 C i- CO -I 1C QC -T O O 5C 

fcC 

tc tc x 4- en 4- os os 

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O en 05 O OS tc 35 tC COM 

tC OS to 4* ^ to en OS OS 

OS OS I 4- OS CO CC CO C OS OS 
iX -- -- x:CCOs:CCC^i 



Arkansas. 

- - 

! Delaware. 

District of Columbia. 
Florida. 
Georgia. 



en i- 4 en ictcx 4- * en 4-oso: 

^1 1C X ^I X 1C 4- I C X X CC 4- CC -S CC O i O 

rc o: os 1 os -^i o en os o os tc os tc cc -i 

ic ^i 



4- 

S S 



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1 CD OS i OSX T4^OOSO OS^I^IOC: 



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os tc ^ i LC tc ~J os cr 

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tC OS i tCOSO^ CO^J OSOl ICOSOiOSh- CC 



Kentuck. 



Louisiana. 



Maryland. 
Mississippi. 



o en co en --nc -t x cs oo 4- ^ x os os os x 

x en os ^i x 4- --j jjs x 4^ co 4-__os 4- _ rf. tc ^ 

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ostcon os -i ox to os id- tc cox ic cc x 



Missouri. 
North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 



fe fccotw c^4. i2^fexo^ ^SS 

OCn tCOS4- X t O-54-CSOt-I XICO5O: 



l_> tC i h- ~] 

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_Cn OSH- 1 CO J4-OSJDJC^ 4-O^-p< en X 

_ i- r ri 



Tennessee. 



Texas. 



Virginia. 
WestjVirginia. 



Totals. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 89 

The steam railway employees include many section hands and semi 
skilled workmen, and also the colored firemen. The carpenters are the 
largest body of skilled workingmen and it will be seen that 20,800 of the 
22,;*00 are in the South. Next come the blacksmiths and wheelwrights 
with 10,000, the masons and stone cutters with 9,000, the barbers with 9,000 
and the brickmakers, stationery engineers and firemen. The states differ 
considerably in the proportion of different kinds of workingmen: Steam 
railway employees and carpenters lead in Virginia, the Carolinas and the 
Gulf States; iron and steel workers outnumber all but the railway men in 
the mining state, Alabama, and the masons and stone cutters are numer 
ous in Tennessee. The city population of the District of Columbia has 
barbers and brickmakers as its chief Negro artisans. Among the women 
the skilled work is almost wholly confined to sewing and working in 
tobacco factories. 

We may further study the black artisan by noting his distribution in 
the large cities where most of the white artisans are located. For this 
purpose let us take 16 large cities with an aggregate Negro population of 
nearly ha.lt a million. There are many curious differences to be noted 
here. The great Northern cities, like New York, Chicago and Cincinnati, 
are conspicuous for scarcity of black artisans, having only barbers. 

The border State cities show the Negroes in some of the important skilled 
occupations, as in brickmaking in Baltimore, Wilmington and Philadel 
phia; and iron and steel-working in Louisville, Wilmington, Pittsburgand 
Richmond. Stationary engineers are prominent in St. Louis. In the 
more typical Southern cities, like Atlanta, Charleston, Memphis and 
Nashville, the carpenters, railway men and masons are most conspicuous, 
while New Orleans shows its peculiarities in a considerable number of 
carpenters, masons, railway men, shoemakers and. painters: 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 
SKILLED NEGRO LABORERS (BY CITIES) 1890. 




Atlanta, 

h-i 1C Cn > I CO r^ Q 

i i i 1C -7 4- 4^- 1C G > Cn 1C 4-> 1C X 4- Ci 
Ci O Ci en4-Cn CO X CO OO CO O O ~7 I CC tC en 



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CD -co Baltimore, 

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CD 



Charleston, 

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14- G CD li Ci X O 



"-; 15 w- ~ ? E - -- 1 ^ ^ - ^ 

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* 



1C 1C Ci 



Chicago, 

i-i CntCH^^-CO i tc 4^4^tC 111. 

CO O 4^CiCQ -^ OQ oo HJ i t ^-^cn 1 COCQ 

I Cincinnati, 
O. 



~ X CO 1C 

7 4- X 4- 4^ 1C OO X 



1C 00 CC O"< tC 



Kansas City, 
Mo. 



Louisville, 






O X tC 

GO 4^ 1C O 






Memphis, 
Tenn. 



^ 



-I ^ Hi 00 

C -^ *^ CO X-O-^i CO 



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Ci CO 1C X Ci 1C CO O CC 1C CO Cn 



Nashville, 
Tenn. 



ssl 



CO QC 



= ^^^ 



New Orleans, 
La. 



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O tC Ci 



1C CH 1C tC CI 1C O CS Hi CO -.1 Cn 1C 
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I Philadelphia, 
Pa. 



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4i^i 



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Pittsburjr, 
Pa. 

Richmond, 
Va. 



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St. Louis, 

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Mo. 

Wilmington, 
Del. 

New York, 

N. Y. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 91 

We may turn now to the few available figures which show the general 
condition of these artisans, as illiteracy, steadiness of employment, age 
and conjugal condition. 

In the Manufacturing and Mechanical industries throughout the United 
States there are 146,158 colored persons of whom 48.8% were illiterate in 
1890. Of the 148,371 in Trade and Transportation 43.4% were illiterate. 
The illiteracy of the artisans by selected trades for 1890 was as follows:* 

MALE. TOTAL. ILLITERATE. % ILLITERACY. 

Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights 11,156 5,916 58. 

Boot and Shoe Makers 4,982 1,868 87.5 

Butchers 2,508 1,023 40.7 

Carpenters 22,310 9,789 43.8 

Cotton Mill Operatives 820 369 45. 

Machinists 838 213 25.4 

Masons 9,645 3,732 38.6 

Miners and Quarrymen 18,986 9,466 49.8 

Printers 829 89 10.7 

Steam Railway Employees 47,316 26,321 55.6 

Tailors 913 139 15.2 

Textile Mill Operatives 3,260 1,673 51.3 

Tobacco and Cigar Factory Opera s. ..10,480 4,190 40. 

FEMALE. 

Dressmakers, M ners, Seamstresses. .19,753 4.228 21.4 

Tobacco and Cigar Factory Opera s... 4,524 2,596 57.3 

Tailoresses 367 83 22.6 

These figures throw interesting sidelights on the character of the work- 
ingmen. Blacksmith miners, steam railway section hands, those em 
ployed in rougher kinds of textile work and those in the tobacco factories 
are largely ignorant. On the other the machinists, printers, tailors and 
dressmakers are a younger and more intelligent set. 

Not all of these artisans are employed steadily. In two great divisions 
of industry we find the Negroes employed as follows: 



UNEMPLOYED DURING- THE YEAR. 



Manufacturing and Mechanical 
Industries 


1-3 MONTHS. 

18,955 
12.9% 


4-6 MOS. 
16,184 
11.7% 


7-12 MOS. 

2,831 

1.8% 


r l A rirlp and Tvinsnorfration 


11,321 


6,414 


1,437 




7.8% 


4.4% 


1. % 



Taking the number and percentages by separate callings we have: 



*0nly those ot Negro descent arc here given, makiug some slight discrepancies between these and 
other tables. 



92 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



A RT 1 SANS E M PLOY M EXT 1890. 



UNEMPLOYED. 





1 to 3 mos. 


4-6 mos 


7-12 mos. 


MALE. 
Blacksmiths & Wheelwrights... 
Boot and Shoe Makers. 


(544 
245 
118 

2,820 
80 
63 
1,381 
4,149 
60 
5,247 
70 
420 
1,718 

1,101 

759 

28 


443 
219 
92 
2,302 
87 
30 
1,487 
2,559 
30 
2,378 
52 
239 
2,541 

877 
1 ,433 
25 


145 
98 
25 
487 
12 
6 
283 
467 
11 
452 
17 
35 
250 

218 
126 
9 


Butchers 


Carpenters and Joiners 
Cotton Mill Operatives 
Machinists 


\I a/sons 


Miners and Quarrvmen 


Printers 


Steam Railroad Employees 
Tailors 


Textile Mill Operatives 


Tobacco & Cigar Fac. Operates.. 

FEMALE. 

Dressmakers, Milliners and S.... 
Tobacco & Cigar Fac. Operates.. 
Tailoresses 





PER CENT. UNEMPLOYED DURING THE YEAR. 





1 to 3 mos. 


4 to 6 mos. 


7 to 12 mos. 


Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights 


Per Cent. 
5 7 


Per Cent. 
3 9 


Per Cent. 
1 3 


Boot and Shoe Makers 


4 9 


4 4 


1 M 


Butchers . . 


4 7 


36 


1 


Carpenters and Joiners 


12 6 


10 4 


2 4 


Cotton Mill Operatives 


9 7 


11 I 


1 4 


Machinists 


7.5 




71 


Masons 


14 3 


15 4 


9 9 


Miners and Quarrvmen 


21 8 


13 4 


2 4 


Printers * 


7 2 


3 6 


1 3 


Steam Railroad Employees.... 


11 




9 


Tailors 


7 6 




1 8 


Textile Mill Operatives . . 


12 8 


7 3 


1 


Tobacco and Cigar Factory Operatives.. 

FEMALE. 

Dressmakers, Milliners, Seamstresses 
Tobacco and Cigar Factory Operatives.. 
Tailoresses ." 


16.3 

5. 
16.7 

7 6 


24.2 

4.4 
31.6 

6 8 


2.4 

1.1 

2.7 
"> 4 











Carpenters, masons, miners and tobacco hands show the largest irregu 
larities in employment. 

We may next consider the question of the ages of Negro employees: 

Manufacturing and Mechanical Trade and Trans- 
Ages. Industries. portation. 
10-14 3,438 3,858 
15-24 36,762 46,490 
25-34 35,165 41,908 
35-44 28,449 26,787 
5-54 22,319 14,817 
55-64 11,852 5,375 
65 and over. 6,499 2,436 
Age unknown. 1,669 1,700 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 
Considering the chief sorts of artisans we have: 

ARTISANS BY AGE PERIODS. 1890. 



AGE PERIODS. 
MALE. 


10-14! 15-24 
years years 


25-34 I 35-44 
years years 


45-54 
years 


55-64 
years 


KTotaL 


Blacksmiths, W wrights. 
Boot and Shoe makers.... 
Butchers .. 


54i 1,860 
22 606 

39 783 


1,799 2,156 
730: 1,141 
596 474 


2,569 
1,299 
829 


1,940 
715 
174 


1,173 11,051 
421 4,934 

87> 2 48^ 


Carpenters and Joiners... 
Cotton Mill Operatives... 
Machinists 


31 2,354 
47 248 
3 163 


4,147 5,103 
220 168 

25K 21 ? 


5,364 
94 
118 


3,281 
35 
53 


1,816 22,096 
9 811 
20 827 


Masons 


43 1 847 


2 999 2 076 


1 811 


999 


468 9 543 


Miners and Quarrymen... 
Printers 


360 6,757 
15 367 


6,121 3,114 
283 107 


1,595 
63 


540 
27 


187 18,674 
15 827 


Steam B roacl Employees 
Tailors 


337J 18,693 
9i 243 


16.164 7,399 
225 157 


3,184 
148 


778 

77 


182 46,737 
49 908 


Textile Mill Operatives... 
Tobacco and Cigar Fac 
tory Operatives 


144: 1,305 
1,231 4,140 


941 486 
2,314 1,448 


242 

813 


69 
331 


45 3,232 
138 10 415 


FEMALE. 

Dressmakers, Milliners 
and Seamstresses 


189 7,275 


5,794 3,486 


1.808 


751 


364 19,667 


Tobacco and Cigar Fac 
tory Operatives 


478 2,007 


990 581 


304 


96 


43 4,499 


Tailoresses 


4 141) 


86 68 


34 


17 


7 365 


Total 


3 006 48 ^92 


*> 917 28,171 


19,775 


9 883 


5 O k) 4 157 068 


Percentage... 


1.9 30.7 


27.3 17.9 


12.5 


6.2 


3.1 100. 



The average age of Negro artisans is not as high as one would expect; 
this is probably owing to the large number of young people in semi-skilled 
occupations, such as section hands, miners and tobacco operatives. The 
carpenters and blacksmiths, on the other hand, are mostly between 35 and 
55. Younger men are becoming masons, printers and tailors. 

Of the general conditions of family life among Negro artisans we can 
only judge by the statistics of conjugal condition; the conjugal condition 
of all Negroes engaged in manufacturing and mechanical industries was 
as follows in 1890: 

Single and unknown. Married. Widowed and Divorced. 

15-24 years 80.4 per cent. 19.1 per. ct. .4 per cent. 

25-34 years 27.1 " " 69.8 u " 2.9 ^ " 

35-44 years 12.2 " " 81.7 " " 6. " " 

45-54 years 7. u u _83.5_ "_"_ 9-2 " ^__ 

We add to these the figures for the selected classes of artisans before 
studied : 

MALE. 



Single and unknown. Married. Widowed and divorced. 

15-24 years 80.4 per cent. 19.1 per ct. .4 per cent. 

25-34 years 28.9 " " 68.3 " 2.6 " . 

35-44 years 15.9 " " 77.8 " " 6.1 " - 

45-54 years 7.1 " ^ 83.9 " " 

-Omitting those of unknown age. 



94: THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



FEMALE. 



Single and unknown. Married. Widowed and divorced. 

15-2-4 years ............ 7S.5 per cent. 17. 2 per ct. 4.1 per cent. 

25-34 years ............ 36.5 ll u 44.1 " " 19.2 tl " 

35-44 years ............ 19.(J u " 45.9 " " 34.3 - l " 

45-54 ears ............ 12.7 " 33 - 5 53 6 " " 



The artisans naturally marry earlier than the College-bred Negroes and 
exhibit no marked peculiarities save in the large number of widows forced 
to earn a living for themselves. 

19. Social Conditions: A study in Memphis, Tenn., (by Henry N. Lee, of Le- 
Moyne Institute.) In Memphis the chief Negro artisans are carpenters, 
blacksmiths, brickmasons, plasterers, painters, dressmakers, plumbers, 
tailors and shoemakers. There are also a few glaziers, paper hangers, 
electricians, stone cutters, engineers, milliners, sculptors and printers. 

This is a study of 123 Negro artisans made by a personal canvass in the 
spring of 1902. The carpenters are the most numerous group of artisans. 
Of the twenty studied ten are over forty years of age; of the fifteen paint 
ers, nine are over forty. This fact is true of the sixteen trades studied ex 
cept among the printers. Six of the sixteen trades have no workmen un 
der, thirty years of age. As there are few apprentices it is to be feared 
that the number of black artisans in Memphis is decreasing. 

Twelve of the 20 carpenters studied, own their homes; 6 of the 15 brick- 
masons, 4 of the 9 plumbers, 6 of the 15 painters, 4 of the 11 plasterers. 1 
of the 8 glaziers and 4 of the 7 dressmakers. These owners are all middle- 
aged people whose chance for future accumulation is small. There are 
three prosperous contractors among the carpenters, and 6 men who work 
for themselves. There are fl\ 7 e men who contract for painting and do some 
of the best work in the city; 7 of 10 blacksmiths have their own shops and 
employ at least one man. 

There are 4 brickmasons who work for themselves, but Mr. Hodges, 
who is one of the officers of the union, says that there is a great need for 
a reliable Negro contractor, who would be a leader for the Negro brick- 
masons ; while now the colored and white masons belong to the same union , 
yet there are many changes going on in the Memphis unions as we shall 
see later. 

6 of 11 plasterers contract for plastering. There are only three colored 
apprentices in this trade. This number is fixed by the union, which 
passed a law that each contractor could employ one apprentice. White 
contractors do not take colored apprentices any more. I learned that one 
apprentice is employed .by a white contractor, and he is retained because 
his apprenticeship is nearly completed. 

There is a great difference in the wages for colored and whites in all the 
trades except that of the plasterers and brickmasons. These belong to 
the same unions with the whites and have the same privileges, both in 
wages and work. 

The examination is so difficult that only tw r o colored plumbers have 
passed. Therefore most of the Negro plumbers are not recognized as com- 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 95 

petent because they have not passed the examination ; yet, I am told, that 
many of these men can do excellent work. 

The colored carpenters, except those who work for colored contractors r 
are forced to do the rough and drudgery work, while the finishing is left 
to the whites. This robs them of every chance to be or become first-class 
workmen. Yet, if one is first-class he receives only a little more than half 
wages as compared with the whites. 

The engineers and electricians are a little more than a name. They are 
not given the opportunity to show their ability nor to do that class of work 
which would be of very much use to them as skilled workmen. The 
wages are such that a young man would not be induced to brave the dis 
advantages to fit himself for the trades. 

There seems to be a difference of opinion as to whether the Negro is 
gaining or losing in skilled work. But we think that from the fact that 
there is such a great discrimination in wages which would possibly force 
the best mechanics to seek other employment more remunerative, and be 
cause of the low class of work which the Negro is forced to do in many of 
the trades, which robs him of any chance to do fine work and to become 
an all-round workman in his trade, and from the many limitations and 
Linjust laws passed by the labor unions, the Negro in our section is losing. 
This may not be seen very much now but will be one of our sad awaken 
ings. 

Those who think the Negro of Memphis is losing, credit it not so much 
to inefficiency, as to organized labor unions which direct, in many in 
stances, all their energy against the Negro. It is safe to say, said a lead 
ing Negro artisan, that 20 years ago the Negro followed largely all the 
trades and about five-eighths of all the laborers were Negroes. If the 
Negro had been inefficient in his labor then other labor would have been 
imported ; but this was not done. 

Yet it seems very clear that with the introduction of electricity and 
modern machinery and with these restrictions of labor unions, the Negro 
has had no chance to advance with the times along many industrial lines 
and increase his skill as was demanded by this new order of things. And 
sad to say it is growing worse instead of better. Until one who is the 
least pessimistic is almost ready to say the Negro will indeed before very 
long be "hewers of wood and drawers of water," or in other words be re 
duced to the lowest place among skilled workmen. The unions do not as 
a rule protect the Negro, not only in Memphis but elsewhere. At present 
there are only two trades in which both white and colored belong to the 
same union, the brick masons and plasterers. And the privileges of 
these are curtailed by what is known in Memphis as the Builders Ex 
change, to which Negroes do not belong. Recently this exchange passed 
a law that no contractor could sublet his work to a contractor who did not 
belong to the exchange. This law completely shuts out the Negro. A 
colored plasterer was refused a contract, although his bid was least, and 
the parties cited this law of the exchange as their reason for not letting 
the work to him. 



96 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

Not very long ago the union for horse shoers dissolved itself into two 
branches one for whites and one for colored. Shortly after this had been 
done the white union passed a law that no colored shoers should be em 
ployed in white shops. 

I bring- a very strong plea from Memphis for one or more competent 
Negro architects. The contractors desire a leader. They are not permit 
ted to go to a white architect s office, look over his plans and make their 
bids. So they think they are at a very great disadvantage. 

I also bring a very urgent plea for the combination and profitable in 
vestment of Negro capital that the Negro artisans may have permanent 
means of support. 

When we note that of 123 artisans reported from Memphis only six re 
ceived their training in Industrial schools. When we see from the cata 
logues the comparatively small number of those graduating from Indus 
trial Schools actually following their trades, we wonder what the cause is. 

The thinkers of Memphis believe that the causes for this state of affairs 
are these. (1). Young men do not receive sufficient encouragement and 
are not made to feel the importance of their sticking to their trades while 
at school. (2.) In most of the trade schools the training is antiquated and 
impracticable, thus the young men are handicapped and forced to the 
back ground in many of the trades when they meet the competition of 
those laborers who have received a more adequate and modern training. 
(3.) Many of the young men can not find employment at all, either be 
cause their training will not permit them to compete with other skilled 
laborers, or because they are prohibited from working in manufactories 
and machine shops which give employment to men of their trades. Or if 
they are employed it is at starvation wages and for drudgery work with 
no chance of advancement. 

We want many skilled laborers in every line of work, for no race can be 
prosperous and progressive without a large number of men who are pro 
ducing the necessities of life. But if we do not want this class either to 
leave their trades for other work, as many are doing, or lead lives of idle 
ness and, in many cases, lives of absolute worthlessness, as a race we 
must do something for the employment of our boys and girls. This fact is 
more and more clear each year. And every business enterprise established 
by a Negro giving employment to the Negro youth is a sacrifice for the 
salvation of our boys and girls and a step in the solution of these impor 
tant questions which confront us. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



97 



SELECTED NEGBO ABTISANS OP MEMPHIS, TEN N. 



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Remarks. 



98 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

20. Local Conditions : Texas (by E. H. Holmes of the Prairie View Nor 
mal school). 

We have always had among us some men who have been more or less 
skilful in the use of tools. During the days of slavery these men built 
the houses, made the plows, carriages, wagons, etc., and performed nearly 
all that class of labor. The constant doing brought to them experience 
and experience ripened into a degree of skill. Slavery was their trade 
school and experience their instructor. After the Civil war these work 
men followed the trades they had the field to themselves at first. 

In the course of time labor saving machines were introduced and new 
methods of doing things were adopted the old workman enters a new 
era h e finds himself face to face with new conditions his school did not 
give instruction in the use of machines and he is unable to keep step with 
the onward march. Some of them who did keep up have finished their 
work and gone to their reward. No one has taken the vacant places and 
to-day the ranks of Negro Artisans need sadly need recruiting. 

Texas offers great opportunities to skilled workmen in various trades. 
Her natural resources surpass those of any state in the Union. It is her 
proud boast that within her broad domain is to be found everything from 
a salt mine to an oil geyser. These resources are but partially developed 
some not at all. The Negro Artisan has had a share in this develop 
ment and will have a larger share in the future, provided he will fit him 
self for this larger share. I have had opportunity to observe conditions 
among artisans only in the cities, towns and country districts of southern 
Texas. 

Ours beingan agricultural state, blacksmiths are in greater demand than 
perhaps any other tradesman. You will find a Negro blacksmith in nearly 
every town and at every country cross-road. They are found managing 
shops on many of the large cotton and sugar plantations. One of the 
largest sugar farms in the South west, located at Sugarland, Texas, employs 
a Negro foreman of their blacksmith shop at a salary of $1,080 per year. 
In the towns the majority of them are doing business for themselves, a 
few own their own shops, are making a living and accumulating property. 
There are still others who work by the day in shops owned by whites. 
These receive wages according to their skill. White men having the same 
degree of skill would receive no more. There is such a shop at Brenham, 
Texas. Some weeks ago the owner of this shop stated that he worked a 
few colored men, that he would employ more if they could do superior work 
that there was no discrimination practiced in his shop and he also ex 
pressed the hope that our school would send out more students who could 
make drawings and work from drawings. It is difficult to tell the percent 
of Negro artisans in the towns for this reason: they do not register their 
occupations. Whatever is known must be learned by inquiry or from per 
sonal contact. Let us consider conditions at Houston, Texas. This is a 
city having a population of 60 thousand. One-third are Negroes. It is in 
every respect a liberal and representative city. There are seven black 
smiths there who own and run their shops. Two of these shops employ 
from three to five regular workmen. The proprietors make a good living 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 99 

and nearly all of them own their homes. The largest carriage and iron 
repair shop owned by a white man employs 5 Negro blacksmiths on his 
working force. Two of these manage their own fires. They are paid ac 
cording to skill sometimes discrimination is made on account of color. 
Two boiler and foundry shops employ Negro workmen. They receive the 
regular moulders 1 wages, $4.00 per day, and a few of them have been in the 
service of the firms for years. The Southern Pacific Railway System em 
ploys them in two of their shops. In these shops are some who manage 
their fires, one who operates a steam hammer, some who build and repair 
cars and a large number of helpers who rank several grades above com 
mon laborers. A few of these men have been steadily employed for 
twenty-five years, some longer. The wages range from 15 to 25 cents per 
hour, according to skill. It might be of interest to remark just here that 
one of the helpers long years ago was foreman of the shop. Time and 
improved machinery forced him down. So far as employment goes there 
is practically no discrimination against blacksmiths and I do not know of 
any blacksmith s union in the whole state. 

Carpenters are fewer in number than blacksmiths. In the small towns 
they are journeyman workers. As a class they do inferior work. Their wages 
range from $1.25 to $2.00 per day. White journeymen do the same poor 
quality of work but receive higher wages. Their pay ranges from $1.50 to 
$2.50 per day. The best carpenters drift to the cities because the people 
there appreciate and demand good work and live in better houses. Com 
petition is sharp and the labor unions are strong. In the city of Houston 
we have four men who contract for themselves. They do good work and 
find ready employment. They get contracts not exceeding $2,500. In the 
same city are several old contractors who have been forced to retire on 
account of close competition. Two white contractors work a force of 
Negro and a force of white carpenters separate of course. They pay 
according to skill, white and black alike. More discrimination is shown 
against carpenters than is shown against any other class of tradesmen. 
Negro carpenters have been urged to form unions which would affiliate 
with white unions, but have not thought best to do so. They know that 
they would be called upon to strike in concert with the other unions and 
they feel that in the end they would get the worst of it. As long as they 
find employment they prefer to work independent of the unions. 

Brickmasons are fewer than carpenters. This class of workers are in 
demand, wages are high and discrimination is reduced to a minimum. 
There are no brick contractors in Houston, and only one or two in the 
state. Bricklayers in the towns are journeymen and most of them do a 
good grade of work wages are from $3.00 to $4.00 per day. In the cities 
wages are a little better. I know of no plasterers. Sometimes they are 
called from New Orleans to do that sort of work. The finest plastering in 
our state Capitol was done by Negroes brought from Chicago. Nearly all 
the employees in the cotton seed oil mills and cotton compresses are Ne- 
<>Toes. They are not all common laborers. It requires skill to operate 
some of the machines and to get these mill products ready for market. 
Wages are $1.50 to $3.00 per day. In some of the trades we do not find the 



100 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

Negro at all, or if found they are so few that they do not count in trade 
competition. Houston has no shoemakers, no plumbers and harness- 
makers, and I know of but one tinner in the state. These are the condi 
tions as they now exist among; Texas artisans. I have observed that any 
man who knows how to dosomethingand knows how to do that something- 
well and is willing- to do something, will find ready employment. Oppor 
tunities are not wanting, but many times when these opportunities present 
themselves we are not able to grasp them because of lack of training. The 
world wants trained workmen, men whose trained minds will direct 
skilled hands masters of their craft. Not more than 3 per cent of our 
young men in Texas are entering the trades, and at the present death rate 
among- the old workmen, it will not be long before we shall be conspicuous 
for our absence from all the trades. On the other hand a very large per 
cent of young white men enter the trades. We have a great influx of 
emigrants from Europe. They come and work the farms. They are bet 
ter farmers than any one else they make a crop rain or no rain. The 
American needs rain to make his crop, and in a few years he finds that he 
cannot compete with the foreigner, his land is too poor. He abandons the 
farm and seeks refuge in the trades, or he moves to another county to be 
gin farming anew. There are some reasons why our young men avoid the 
trades. Let me mention a few of them. There is a class of young men 
who, after finishing some school course, do not believe in manual labor, 
skilled or unskilled. When the slaves were emancipated their first thought 
was to send their children to school like the white folk, to dress them like 
white children and to keep them from work like the white children. To 
do any sort of manual labor was to -their minds a badge of humility and 
a relic of slavery. The old master w r as a gentleman and he did not work, 
their sons must be like him and like his sons. This idea was taught the 
children, it has grown up in them and still remains in them. If a record 
could be made of all that these dear old parents suffered and endured, of 
how they toiled and what sacrifices they made, that their children should 
be ladies and gentlemen, who did not have to work, it would make a tale 
far more pitiable than "Uncle Tom s Cabin. 1 They passed from the 
slavery of the white man to the slavery of their own children. 

Another hindrance is that society looks down upon a man who works 
with his hands, no matter how much skill he may possess or how much 
that skill commands. This class distinction does not exist among us 
alone. It is hard to see how a man can be intelligent and at the same time be 
a mechanic. We cannot associate the two ideas. Fear of non-employment 
keeps another class from entering the trades. Those who oppose indus 
trial education never fail to present this argument and they have made an 
impression on some, which nothing but time and changed conditions will 
ever efface. Another class would enter the world of working men but for 
this fact: They are ambitious to excel in whatever line of work they may 
choose, but to become an intelligent artisan requires years long years of 
hard work and patient study on short pay. They cannot wait, results are 
too long coming. They forget that men begin at the bottom and that the 
man who succeeds must toil early and late with all his powers of body 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 101 

and mind, he must realize that if he masters his chosen work he must 
perform the necessary amount of drudgery required in all cases to prepare 
a suitable foundation upon which to build a successful career. Many of 
our young- men who do follow the trades are not living up to the full meas 
ure of their opportunities. In the first place the employer can not always 
depend upon them. They are just as likely not to come to work at the 
appointed time as they are to come. It matters not how busy the em 
ployer may be or how anxious he is to finish the job, our young workman 
feels that ha is under no obligation to see him through. He feels free to 
take a day off and go a-fishing or to enjoy himself in some other way. 
That s his idea of liberty. When the next Negro workman comes along 
and asks for a job, the contractor says, No, we don t want any more Ne 
groes. Then we say that that man is prejudiced. I used to think so, too, 
but I do not think so any more. I have hired some of them myself and I 
know that unreliability has kept more Negroes out of good jobs than in- 
competency ever did. Unsteadiness is another barrier to success. In the 
lumber district of Eastern Texas, there are numerous saw mills which 
run the year round. The owners employ Negro workmen for places re 
quiring skill, whenever they can be found. I have in mind one man who 
has been with a certain firm for 18 years. In fact, he has been with the 
company so long and has given such faithful service, the managers have 
forgotten that he is a Negro. He is now a competent sawyer and receives 
f 6.(M) per day. The sawyer s place at these mills is perhaps the best pay 
ing place of all, outside the management. The wages run from $4.50 to 
fB.OO, according to skill. The places are open to Negroes and occasionally 
they take them, but after working for 10 or 12 months they conclude that 
they have made enough and retire. The job is too steady. I do not mean 
these general statements to apply to all our workmen, but I do say that 
they will apply to the majority. Our artisan must be more competent 
faithful and reliable. It s the only way to hold on to that which we have. 
We must be progressive. We have clung to the old ways too long methods 
of half a century ago. If we do not make the best use of these trade ad 
vantages which are now ours, we not only shut ourselves out but weclose 
the door of opportunity in the faces of our boys who- expect to enter. I 
grant that there are obstacles. One finds them in every trade and every 
profession. They seem to be necessary evils. None are too great for our 
strength. Capacity will be allotted an appropriate place and that speedily. 
If all the paths are closed to us, we will find aAvay or make one. Faith 
fulness to duty, however small that duty may be, is simply irresistable. 
It is so in every walk of life. Greatness in every direction is an accumu 
lation of little faithfulnesses towering into sight of the world. All we 
need are those qualities which have made and are still making men of 
other races successful along these lines. We need men who have been 
trained men who are able to do things and know why they are done. In 
every line of work it is the man who knows most about the thing he is 
doing, other things being considered, who comes out ahead. 

President Roosevelt, speaking to the graduates of the New York trade 
school, said: tL Success will come to the man who is just a little bit better 



102 THE XKG1U) ARTISAN 

than the others. There are plenty of workmen who can do pretty well, 
but the man who can do his work right up to the handle is the man who is 
in demand. 1 Mental and manual training combined will in the long run 
open wide to us the avenues leading to usefulness and power in the mate 
rial world. 

"21. Local Conditions: A Negro Contractor of Atlanta, Ga., (by Alexander 
Hamilton, Jr., of the firm of Hamilton & Son, building contractors). It 
is a matter of great pride to me, and I think sometimes I am a little over 
boastful of the fact, that I learned the use of tools at Atlanta University ; 
and to this intelligent beginning I attribute my success as a carpenter and 
contractor. 

I was enabled when I left school to begin my trade as an advanced work 
man, and when I was a journeyman, and now when I have the occasion 
to use my tools, I ask no artisan in my line any odds. As I say I credit 
this to my early training here. I am now associated with my father in 
business as contractor and builder. We enjoy a good business; our 
patrons are among the best people in this city. I am proud to say that 
we have been able to maintain a reputation which gives us a preference 
often in the awarding of contracts. 

The opportunity for wage earning for the Negro artisan is good; he is 
always in demand. I can bear witness to this fact for I have been fre 
quently hampered in carrying out my work on account of being unable to 
secure extra hands, as all were busy. This demand does not exist for the 
reason that their services are obtained for a smaller wage for, as a rule, 
they get the prevailing scale of wages. They are in demand for the reason 
that in their class they are generally swifter workmen than those of the 
other race. Some contractors, white contractors I refer to, won t employ 
other than Negro workmen as they realize that they will earn them more 
money. Some of them employ Negroes from the foreman down, and but 
very few, to my knowledge, have their force entirely white. One firm em 
ploys both white and colored. 

Though wages here are small as compared with some other cities, the Ne 
gro artisans as a rule are making good use of their money. They have 
comfortable homes and are educating their children. I know of several 
who own their own homes, and of some who not only owiutheir homes but 
have other property, and still others who are buying homes. Some I know 
who have saved enough to lay down their tools and enter mercantile life. 
I know several who liave tried mercantile life but found there was more 
money for them as artisans, so they are back at their trades. One who 
has been with us 15 or 16 years, who is a preacher, occasionally lays down 
his tools and takes a charge somewhere, but he doesn t stay long before he 
is back looking for his old place. 

With all this, there is nevertheless, in many cases, a lack of an intelli 
gent conception of the work which the Negro artisan is to perform; he is 
ready, willing and able to execute that laid out for him as long as he has 
constant supervision, but sometimes when left to himself he is lacking in 
pride as to the execution of his work. Ofttimes this may be due to an over- 
xealousness to get so much accomplished. I have heard artisans, whose 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 103 

intelligence and honesty ought not to allow such a view of things, say, 
l On, that will do," when nothing should answer short of as near perfec 
tion as is possible, for I believe that a man can do a thing properly as 
easily and quickly as he can do it poorly, and I am sure the results are 
far more satisfactory. I have always found that if one has that view of 
it and performs a piece of work and satisfies himself as to the execution, 
he will find that his employer, however critical, will be satisfied. 

As to the capability of the Negro as an artisan one only needs to visit 
the many buildings in course of erection in our city and see Negroes em 
ployed at all trades. 

Of course I do not have much chance for personal observation, but I am 
informed of these few instances of which I cite. There is a "sky scraper" 
in course of erection in this city on which the Negro workmen have been 
in the majority since its beginning, from the putting up of the iron frame 
until now. There are at present on that particular building more than a 
score of plasterers at work, all of whom are Negroes. Now, this only ap 
plies to one building, the same conditions exist on many others. On an 
other job of considerable proportions, the contractor (who is white) dis 
charged all his white employees and substituted Negro artisans, and lam 
informed that the plastering, which will amount to some 30,000 yards, has 
been awarded to a Negro contractor. I am not in any sense crowing over 
the displacement of anybody, but simply cite these cases to show that 
there is a demand for the Negro artisan. Some argue that this demand 
prevails because the Negro is cheaper, but in the last case I cited, the men 
wh<> were put in the place of those deposed were paid the same wages. 

I must confess that I haven t had a great deal of experience as an artisan, 
pure and simple, though I worked at my trade as a carpenter several 
years when I was practically my own boss, and my greatest experience 
has been as a contractor. I have had some degree of success in that voca 
tion. I had the advantage, on entering that business, of a standing estab 
lished by my father through 20 years or more of endeavor. We enjoy the 
confidence and respect of all the people with whom we deal. We always 
try to merit this confidence and respect. We are invariably told when a 
prospective customer thinks our figures are a little high: "Hamilton, 
your figures are high, but I am told you do good work and will do what 
you say." On that reputation, as I said before, we have preference shown 
us very often in the awarding of work. A great many say that we are 
awarded a greater number of contracts than most contractors get. Of 
course we do not take any very large contracts, as we haven t the capital 
to handle them. We rarely take other than residence contracts, though 
we can show quite a number of stores, warehouses, mills, etc., built by us. 
The largest contract we had last year was a house which cost about 
$10,000. Our contract amounted to about $7,500, as the steam fitting, plumb 
ing and electrical work were under separate contracts. We are general 
contractors and usually contract for the house entire, but some architects 
let contracts under different heads, separately. 

Last year, which was a good year for work, we were awarded a little 
over 100 contracts. Of course we did not have competition on half of that 



104 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

number. Much of it was what we call job work. Of that number about 
55% of them were for amounts less than $100, 20% ranged from $100 to $500, 
15% from $500 to $1,000,10% from $1,000 to $7,500. In all we did nearly 
$35,000 worth of work. 

A large majority of the houses we build are from our own plans aiid 
specifications, as very often, unless a person wants an original or an 
elaborate design in a house, he doesn t care to employ an architect. And 
there is where my ambition lies, that is if a customer should want an 
original design I could be able to meet his requirements. I only attempt 
pencil floor plans and once in awhile a crude elevation plan; but my de 
sire is to take a course in architectural drawing, which desire there seems 
small hope of gratifying. 

I am a staunch friend of higher education and at the same time I am 
glad that so much stress is being laid upon manual training. There is a 
broad field for intelligent artisans. I only wish that more young men 
would apply themselves to a trade on leaving school. If so much can be 
accomplished by artisans who have not had the advantages of school 
training, how much more success could be achieved by those intelligently 
prepared for their vocations. 

22. Local Condition*: Indianapolis, Ind., (by W. T. B. Williams*.) All 
the figures I give below were obtained in June, 1900, from foremen and 
mechanics and from the offices of large manufacturing plants. Though 
they are meagre, yet I think they are thoroughly reliable. They come, 
too, from representative establishments and laborers. 

Indianapolis had, in 1900, a Negro population of 15,981 in a total popu 
lation of 169,164. 

The mass of Negro population has come to Indianapolis from the South 
during the last thirty years. The greater part are fairly recent comers. 
Many of the whites are also from the South. In fact, Indianopolis is in 
some respects very much of a Southern city. Being in the North, how 
ever, the relations existing between the whites and blacks relating to 
labor savor of both sections. 

By far the great majority of Negro laborers are unskilled. But repre 
sentatives of the ordinary trades are found in appreciable numbers. 

The following are the results of my investigations. They refer to the 
city only: 

BLACKSMITHS. 

Four shops run by Negroes. 

Boss Mechanics (> 

Journeymen 2 

General work 1 

Carriage work 1 

Special Horseshoer 1 

Total.., ...11 



"Submitted through the courtesy of Mr. A. F. Ililyer, of Washington, L>. C.. at whose suggestion the 
study was made. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 105 

The Blacksmiths Union is open to Negroes. J. K. Donnell, a Negro, is 
corresponding secretary of the union. He is also a member of Master 
Horseshoers Protective Association. 

FOUNDRIES. 

Moulders 3 

Moulders helpers 2 

Cupola tenders 5 

Furnace men melting iron 12 

Total 22 

I. found also 

Firemen 2 

Common laborers 125 

My conclusion after visiting a number of foundries is that there is no 
uniformity in their attitude toward Negro laborers. Most foundries em 
ploy no Negroes. Some employ a few. Most claim that no Negroes apply 
as skilled laborers. One admitted having received one application which 
was rejected only because there was no vacancy. Wherever Negroes were 
employed they were spoken of as efficient and satisfactory. 

Negro foundrymen do not belong to the unions. Employers, however, 
say no trouble comes from that. Whites and blacks in all cases are given 
work together. 

CARPENTERS. 

Boss Carpenters and Contractors 5 

Journeymen 20 

Total 25 

Besides the above there are men who make 
a living at carpentry, but who are not thor 
ough mechanics 30 

Carpenters Union admits Negroes, but the Negroes do not join. They 
say that while they may join the unions yet the boss carpenters will not 
look out for work for them and that white carpenters will not work with 
them, though they are union men. Negroes gain in times of strikes by 
not belonging. 

BRICKLAYERS. 

Boss Mechanics and Journeymen 14 

Bricklayers Union admits colored men but none join for the same 
reason given by the carpenters. 

PLASTERERS. 

Boss Plasterers 10 

Journeymen 20 

Total HO 

Galvanized iron and cornice workers 1 



106 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

WOOD WORKERS. 

Running planing machine 1 

Turners 2 

Total 3 

Very good feeling seemed to exist at the factory where the two turners 
worked. The foreman declared that the factory could not tolerate inter 
ference from unions and that men were advanced according to merit. 

CEMENT WORKERS. 

Making walks, cellars, sewers, etc 34 

No organization in city. 

HOD CARRIERS. 

Number in city 350 

u u union 200 

Union mainly composed of Negroes, but a few whites belong. 
This union is not affiliated with the National Association. 

PAPER HANGERS. 

Can not give exact figures, but not more than 6 

Indianapolis has a fine industrial training school with good courses in 
wood-work, i. e., making of joints, etc., and turning, and in iron forging 
and machine fitting, etc. An appreciable number of colored boys attend 
this school, but I was unable to learn of any one s having applied to any 
of the factories or foundries for work. Some mechanics felt that the 
school has not been in existence long enough to have exerted any marked 
influence upon the quantity or quality of skilled laborers in the market. 
From all I could learn Negro carpenters are decreasing in number. But 
in every other trade there is an increase. This is very marked though 
the gain in actual numbers is small in the factories and foundries. 

A probable cause of the increase of skilled laborers in this locality is 
the steady emigration northward of the Negro from the South. It is not 
due to any considerable number of younger men of the city entering the 
trades. This will probably be changed in a few years for the industrial 
training offered by the city in one of its high schools seems to appeal 
strongly to the colored youth who enter the high school. And though there 
is much prejudice against the Negro as a skilled laborer yet I think lie 
has a fighting chance in Indianapolis. 

23. Alabama. The state of Alabama had 678,489 Negroes in 1890 and 
827,307 in 1900. In 1890 there were reported the following skilled and semi 
skilled laborers: * 



-These figures include a negligible number of "Chinese, Japanese and civilized Indians." 

The figures given here and in succeeding sections are from the census of 1890, volume on popu 
lation, part J. Just how far these are accurate there is no means of knowing. In some cases I have 
had grave suspicions of their validity, in others they seem reasonable. At any rate they are only 
available figures and are given for what they are worth. The plan followed in these state reports 
was to select those occupations most largely represented in the state; in this way it often happens 
that those occupations given are not necessarily those in which Negroes are most largely engaged. 
This should be borne in mind. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 107 

MALES. 

Lumbermen 415 

Miners 3,687 

Quarrymen 369 

Engineers (civil, mechanical, etc.) 16 

Barbers 520 

Engineers and Firemen (stationary) 452 

Boatmen, pilots, etc , 223 

Steam railroad employees 4,591 

Telegraph and Telephone operators 3 

Apprentices 73 

Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights 891 

Shoemakers , 272 

Brick-makers 514 

Butchers 136 

Carpenters 1,703 

Charcoal and lime burners 499 

Textile mill operatives 281 

Iron and steel workers 1,749 

Machinists 54 

Marble and stone-cutters and masons 618 

Mechanics 64 

Millers 166 

Painters, etc 280 

Printers 40 

Saw and planing mill employees 1,163 

FEMALES. 

Telegraph and telephone operatives 1 

Textile mill operatives 22 

Dressmakers, milliners, etc 859 

Printers, etc 3 

Tailoresses 16 

A special report from Tuskegee says that a "consensus of best opinions 1 
agree that in that region the Negro artisan "is gaining for the past six or 
eight years." Up to that time and since the War he had been losing. His 
losses were due to neglect and reaction. To-day inefficiency and in 
creased competition still hamper him. "Competent colored laborers are 
too few for the demand." The sentiment among the colored people in re 
gard to entering the trades has "greatly changed in this and surrounding 
states" during recent years. Prejudice still is an obstacle before the young 
mechanic and yet the difference in wages is due largely to the fact that 
competent colored laborers are too few to supply the demand, hence can 
not command highest wages; and also to the further fact that colored 
laborers standard of living is lower and they are consequently willing to 
work for less. These Negro mechanics can and do join the labor unions, 
some 5,000 being members throughout the state, chiefly in the United 
Mine Workers. They have separate local organizations however. There 
are at Tuskegee, including the teachers at the Institute, the following 

artisans: 

Shoemakers 4 Blacksmiths 3 

Harnessmakers 2 Wheelwrights 2 

Rrini TTumoim 11 Pattern-maker 1 

TtagStofl 2 Seamstresses & Dressmakers 5 

Tailors 3 " Architects 3 



108 THE XEGRO ARTISAN 

Printers 4 Electrical Engineers 1 

Carpenters 14 Mechanical Engineers H 

Woodturners 1 Bakers 1 

Painters 3 Milliners 1 

Unfortunately no detailed report is available from the great industrial 
centers like Birmingham, Anniston, etc. 

24. California. There were in California 11,322 Negroes in 1890, and 
11,045 in 1900. The colored artisans reported in 1890 include both Negroes 
and Chinese : 

MALE. 

Lumbermen and Raftsmen 94 

Miners 4,871 

Engineers (civil, mechanical, etc.) 1 

Barbers and Hairdressers 817 

Engineers and Firemen (stationary) 82 

Boatmen, Caiialmen, Pilots and Sailors 78 

Steam Railroad Employees 2,044 

Apprentices 14 

Bakers 72 

Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights 05 

Boot and Shoemakers 1 ,269 

Butchers 220 

Carpenters and Joiners 141 

Iron and Steel Workers 24 

Machinists 89 

Marble and Stone Cutters and Masons , 48 

Painters 60 

Plumbers 4 

Printers 48 

Saw and Planing Mill Employees . 191 

Tailors 2,139 

Tobacco and Cigar Factory Operatives ... .2,880 



Cotton and Other Textile Mill Operatives 2 

Dressmakers, Milliners, Seamstresses, etc 289 

There are four colored carpenters in San Francisco in a Union of 2,500, 
and about 100 colored members among the teamsters , stablemens , long- 
shoremens , seamens and laborers unions. In Pueblo there are a few 
lathers, building laborers, plasterers and stationary engineers, and also 
barbers. In Stockton there are a few longshoremen and hod carriers; in 
Los Angeles there are a few cement workers, plasterers, lathers and paint 
ers. Fresno has a butcher and several mortar mixers. On the whole a 
Negro mechanic is a rare thing in California. 

25. Colorado. There were 0,215 Negroes in Colorado in 1890 and 8,570 in 
1900. There were reported in 1890 the following artisans, including a few 
Chinese, etc.: 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 109 

MALE. 

Lumbermen and Raftsmen 

^ners .".Y.Y.Y.Y "142 

Engineers (civil, mechanical, etc.) 9 

Barbers and Hairdressers 193 

Engineers and Firemen (stationary) 12 

Steam Railroad Employees 100 

Telegraph and Telephone Operators. . . 

Bakers 

Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights 19 

Boot and Shoemakers 

Brickrnakers, etc S" 

Butchers ...... o 

Carpenters and Joiners 27 

Iron and Steel Workers 4 

Machinists 

Marble and Stone Cutters and Masons 33 

Painters ^ 

Plasterers 49 

Plumbers ^ 

Printers 2 

Saw and Planing Mill Employees 2 

Tailors . . 

Tinners and Tinware Makers 3 

FEMALE. 

( .unfed ioners i 

Dressmakers, Milliners, Seamstresses, etc 51 

Printers i 

Nearly half the Negro population of the state is in Denver. Here a 
special report says that the artisans are chiefly in the building trades, al 
though there are not many. The leading artisans include 3 bricklayers, 
one of whom is a contractor, 7 plasterers, 4 carpenters, 1 ink-maker, 1 
machinist and 4 printers. u Master mechanics can enter the trades but 
there is no opening for apprentices."* 

2(5. District of Columbia. There were in 1890, 75,572 Negroes in the Dis 
trict of Columbia, and 86,702 in 1900. This is in many ways a remarkable 
population, nearly three -fourths being in domestic and personal service 
and the other fourth containing a considerable number of clerks and pro 
fessional people. The census of 1890 reported : 

MALE. 

Engineers, (civil, mechanical, etc) 10 

Barbers and Hairdressers 450 

Engineers and Firemen (stationary) 122 

Boatmen, Canalmen, Pilots, and Sailors 82 

Steam Railroad Employees . 89 

Street Railway Employees ... 23 

Apprentices 54 

Bakers ... 17 

Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights. . . ... 121 



-Report of Dr. I . K. Spratlin. 



110 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

MALE (continued). 

Boot and Shoemakers 234 

Brickmakers, etc -442 

Butchers 62 

Cabinet makers and Upholsterers. . 55 

Carpenters and Joiners 316 

Iron and Steel Workers 16 

Machinists 15 

Marble and Stone Cutters and Masons .188 

Painters 141 

Plasterers 152 

Plumbers and steam-fitters 76 

Printers 64 

Tailors 16 

Tinners and Tinware makers 36 

FEMALE. 

Barbers and Hairdressers 15 

Stenographers and Typewriters 4 

Telegraph and Telephone Operators . . 6 

Apprentices 13 

Confectioners 18 

Dressmakers, Milliners, Seamstresses, etc 1,411 

Printers 17 

The Union League Directory, compiled by Mr. Andrew F. Hilyor, re 
ported the leading Negro artisans as follows. This is not an exhaustive 
list, but gives the more prominent men in 1902: 

Bakers 4 Electricians 1 

Barber shops 142 Locksmiths ] 

Barbers 411 Painters, contractors 5 

Bicycle shops 9 Painters . 56 

Blacksmith shops 13 Paper hangers ] 

Blacksmiths 27 Photographers 3 

Shoemakers 74 Plumbers ] 

Bricklayers, contractors 4 Printers, shops 9 

Bricklayers 91 Printers 34 

Cabinet maker 1 Stove repairers 3 

Carpenters, contractors 4 Tailor shops 9 

Carpenters 29 Tailors 57 

Cement workers 1 Roofers ] 

Cigar manufacturers 1 Tinners 4 

Building contractors 17 Trussmakers ] 

Dressmaking shops 89 Typewriters, etc 5 

Dressmakers 140 Upholsterers 9 

Dyers and cleaners 11 Kalsominers, etc "... 46 

It is probable that, a list like this is more reliable as a guide to actual 
effective artisans than the census of 1890, where helpers and casual artisans 
and those claiming to be artisans are set down under the various trades. 
The directory referred to has a further study of these artisans by Mr. 
George W. Ellis, as follows: 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



111 



YEARS AT WORK. 



Trades. 


Under 1 
year. 


1-3 yrs. 


3-5 


5-10 10-20 


Over 20. 


Total. 


Barbers 
Blacksmiths and Wheel 


3 


31 


25 


27| 28 


17 


131 


wrights 
Shoemakers 


1 


1 
6 


3 
3 


111 15 


3 
19 


51 


Bricklayers 






3 


5 24 


11 


43 


Carpenters 






1 


2 7 


9 


19 


Dressmakers 


10 


4 


11 


23 14 


7 


69 


Dyers and Cleaners 


1 


2 


) 


2 3 


1 


10 


Painters 






1 


1 in 


15 


97 


Plasterers, Kalsominers,&c. 






4 


3i 9 


JO 

7 


23 


Printers 


i 


9 


2 


Q! 




ft 


Tailors 


1 


2 


3 


! 2 


1 


!tf 
9 



NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, CAPITAL AND RECEIPTS. 




Trades. | Employees. 


Capital. 


Annual Receipts. 


Barbers 
Blacksmiths and 
Shoemakers 
Bricklayers 
Carpenters. . . . 
Dressmakers. . . . 
Painters 
Printers 


Wheelwrights 


407 

74 
91 

2$) 
140 
56 
34 
57 
46 


$56,490 
4,575 
9,950 

2,850 
s,4 i:> 
2,015 
10,700 
9,325 
752 


$200,800 
11,800 
28,570 

15.750 
23,170 
22,800 
18,050 
25,900 
15,730 


> 


Tailors 




White-washers, etc 



In his report to the Hampton Conference in 1899 Mr. A. F. Hilyer said : 
u ln Washington there are over 500 skilled colored workmen not including 
barbers. There are about 100 bricklayers, 75 carpenters, 80 painters, 75 
plasterers, 100 stationary engineers, 100 of various other skilled occupa 
tions. There are also many skilled brickmakers. Only the engineers and 
barbers are organized. * * * * During the last ten years over 500 
houses have been built in Washington almost entirely by colored labor, 
some of them costing as high as fifteen thousand dollars. Many of them 
are fine specimens of the mechanic s art."* 

27. Florida. There were 166,180 Negroes in Florida in 1890, and 230,730 
in 1900. The census of 1890 reported the following Negro artisans : 



Miners, 

Engineers, (civil, mechanical) 
Barbers and hairdressers, 
Engineers and Firemen, (Sta.) 
Boatmen, canalmen, pilots, 

and sailors, 

Steam railroad employees, 
Telegraph and telephone 

operatives, 
Apprentices, 
Bakers, 

Blacksmiths & wheelwrights, 
Boot and shoemakers, 
Butchers, 



323 Carpenters and joiners, 988 

9 Cotton and other textile mill 

263 operatives, 183 

169 Machinists, 31 

Marble and stone cutters and 

570 masons, 211 

1,536 Millers, 62 
Painters, 165 

2 Printers, 26 

67 Saw and planing mill em- 

51 ployees, 858 

150 Tobacco and cigar factory 

95 operatives. 937 
91 



-Report of the 3rd Hampton Negro Conference, 1899, p. 20. 



112 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

FEMALE. 

Dressmakers, milliners, Starch makers, 22 

seamstresses, etc., 593 Tailoresses, 12 

Printers, Tobacco and cigar factory em- 

Saw and planing mill employees, 7 ployees, 97 

There were in the Florida labor unions in 1902 about 2,000 Negro cigar 
makers, 1,000 carpenters, 1,200 building laborers, 200 painters, 800 long 
shoremen, 200 bricklayers and 300 plasterers. In Jacksonville a promi 
nent Negro contractor and builder* reports that there are a u great many" 
Negro skilled laborers, and that the Negroes are represented in more trades 
than formerly. The 33 leading Negro artisans include 7 carpenters, 9 
masons,2 blacksmiths, 2 engineers,4 tailors and 8 tinners. The Negro is gain 
ing in skilled trades, and in the trades mentioned meets little opposition. 
Usually, too, there is no discrimination in wages, but this is not always 
true. These are the following Negro union men in Jacksonville : 

Bricklayers : 75 Painters 50 

Carpenters 250? 

In some of the unions there are a number of colored women. 

In Pensacola the skilled work is about evenly divided between black 
and white. Of the 169 leading Negro mechanics there are 95 carpenters, 
19 painters. 7 blacksmiths, 23 plasterers and bricklayers, 5 tailors, 8 cigar 
makers, 7 shoemakers, 2 tinners and 3 cabinet makers. There is "no per 
ceptible loss or gain here," the Negro mechanic "is measurably holding 
his own." Almost all the artisans "have come up as apprentices" and 
there are few from the industrial schools. As to general conditions Mr. 
M. M. Lewy reports: "Carpenters and bricklayers work side by side and 
receive the same union wages; some times, and quite usually, Negroes are 
the contractors on private and business buildings. Blacksmiths, stone 
cutters, tailors and shoemakers do a good business here without the sem 
blance of friction between the races. There are several noted cases of 
Negroes doing contract for large firms." In St. Augustine there is a 
colored painters union of 30 members and Negro members of the masons , 
plasterers and carpenters unions. In Tampa there are 20 colored carpen 
ters in the union, and a number of cigar makers. 

28. Georgia. There were 858,815 Negroes in Georgia in 1890 and 1,034,813 
in 1900. The census of 1890 reported the following Negro artisans : 

MALE. 

Lumbermen and raftsmen, 412 Cotton and other textile mill 
Miners, 402 operatives, 771 
Barbers and hairdressers, 899 Iron and steel workers, 270 
Engineers and firemen, (Sta.) 520 Machinists, 71 
Steam railroad employees, 7,440 Marble and stone cutters 101 
Telegraph and telephone Masons, 1,243 
operators, 5 Mechanics, 154 
Apprentices, 247 Millers, 160 
Blacksmiths & wheelwrights, 1,328 Painters, 676 
Boot and shoemakers, 632 Plasterers, 398 
Brickmakers, 977 Printers, 78 
Butchers, 299 Saw and planing mill em- 
Carpenters and joiners, 3,761 ployees, 2,471 
Coopers, 363 Wood workers, 198 



*Mr. S. II. Hart. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 113 



FEMALE. 



Stenographers and typewriters, 2 Dressmakers, milliners, seam- 

lelegraph and telephone stresses, etc., 1 632 

operators, 7 Printers, 

Cotton and other textile mill Tailoresses 22 

operatives, 139 

There are about 1,500 Negroes in the unions of Georgia, chiefly carpen 
ters, masons, stone-quarrymen, lathers and plasterers. At Greensboro 
the leading 13 colored artisans include 4 blacksmiths, 6 carpenters, 1 mason 
and 2 shoemakers. There is neither gain nor loss in number, and the 
artisan "might do better if his opportunities in early life had been more 
favorable. 1 Industrial schools u are cultivating a higher respect for man 
ual labor." The chief obstacle of the Negro is his own inefficiency. At 
Milledgeville the 10 leading artisans include 1 contractor, 2 masons, 2 sta 
tionary engineers, 2 tinsmiths, 1 blacksmith and 2 painters. The Negro 
artisan in this town "is gaining. All the painters and blacksmiths are 
colored and they are in the majority in all the trades." So far as indus 
trial schools are concerned the report says*: "I cannot yet see the result 
of industrial training which I would like to see. Many of our artisans are 
young men and some of them have attended industrial schools but pre 
ferred to complete their trades at home." As to obstacles the report con 
tinues: "In my opinion he has no obstacles in the South and especially in 
small towns and villages. The whole field is his. What he needs to do is 
to equip himself and occupy it." At Washington, there are about 35 Ne 
gro artisans, the 8 leading ones being 3 masons, 1 carpenter, 3 painters and 
1 kalsominer. As to numbers "there may be some falling off due to lack 
of work." There is little interest manifested in industrial training. "The 
Negroes at Washington do excellent work but there is not sufficient work 
to keep them all employed. Some are in Augusta, quite a number in 
Crawfordville, and some in South Carolina at work." At Marshallville 
there are a few artisans, chiefly carpenters, masons and blacksmiths, and 
they are gaining. l There were only two Negro artisans here before the 
civil war, now there are fourteen." At Albany, Ga., there are many 
skilled laborers; the 17 leading artisans include 6 carpenters, 3 black 
smiths, 1 carriage maker, 6 masons and 1 painter. "In this community 
the Negro seems to be losing in skilled work," chiefly because of "the 
great growth of the South in industrial lines; the poor white man is 
taking to the trades in large numbers." Moreover, "there are very few 
young- men here who have had the advantage of industrial school train 
ing. Some are now in these schools. Most of the younger men in the 
trades, however, entered under the apprenticeship system." Competition 
and color-discrimination are considerable obstacles for the Negro. "The 
discrimination is very marked in wages: white artisans receive from one- 
fourth to one-third more for the same kind of work." 

All of the above towns are small semi-rural communities. In the larger 
cities of Georgia Atlanta, Savannah, Macon and Augusta the Negro 
artisan is conspicuous. In Savannah there are 7 trades unions composed 



-From Mr. A. B. Cooper. 



114 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



entirely of Negroes: the bricklayers, carpenters, coopers, building 
laborers, lathers, painters and tinners. There are also colored members 
in some of the other unions. Both Macon and Augusta have large num 
bers of artisans. The condition of all of these may be judged from the 
special study of the Negro artisan in Atlanta given below. 

Some general information as to the three chief sections of Georgia has 
come to us by correspondence. Miss E. E. White says: 

"From a gentleman who has spent much time in South-western Georgia T learn 
that this section of the state being devoted to fruit, turpentine, and cotton does not 
require many artisans, and those who follow the carpenter and brick mason trades are 
unemployed for perhaps six months. In several places there is very little discrimi 
nation shown toward good workmen, although sometimes the wages of colored are 
less than those of the whites; in other places there is much prejudice toward colored 
workmen and most of their dealings must of necessity be with their ow r n race." 

In Northeastern Georgia the following wage scale for 42 artisans was re 
ported by the artisans themselves; they could all read and write and were 
from 30 to 40 years of age : 

OCCUPATION. NUMBER. WAGES. 





2 


$ 8.00 a week 




1 


1.50 a day 




1 


1.25 a day 


~Dvirlr oT->r] GttonP IVlttSOlIS 


4 


2 00 a day 




2 








450.00 a year 


Machinists 


2 


300.00 a year 


Harness-maker 


1 




Bridge builders 


1 


2.00 a dav 




4 




Tailors 


1 


2.50 and 2.75 a day 


Paper-hangers 


1 






2 


1.00 a dav 




4 


30.00 a month. 


Shoemakers 


7 






8 


2.50 a dav. 


Total 


42 











From eastern Georgia, Miss L. D. Davis reports: 

"The relations with the whites in most communities are friendly. Few communities 
have trades unions. In Athens Negroes can join some of the unions with whites: 
none are organized among themselves. Augusta has several Negro trades unions. The 
painters, brickmasons and carpenters are well organized, Negroes cannot join white 
unions in Augusta. 

"At first I had a little trouble to get the question of wages received answered. Ne 
groes do not receive the same wages as whites, there were some exceptions, but gen 
erally whites receive from 25c to 50c more than Negroes. (1.) Carpenters get from $1 
to $2.50 a day. (2). Brick masons and stone cutters get the same wages of whiles in 
the same trade, from $2.00 to $4.00 per day. (3). Plasterers get 33>c per hour. Barbers, 
tailors and blacksmiths conduct their own business, and did not as a general rule tell 
their profits. 

"Those reporting who own real estate, by trades, were : Barbers, 0; Blacksmiths, 6; 
Printers, 1 ; Shoemakers, ; Tailors, 1 ; Plumbers, 1 ; Plasterers, 3 ; Tinners, 4 ; Painters, 
4- Mechanics, 4; Telegraph linemen, 0; Brick masons, 15; Carpenters, 16." 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 115 

29. Atlanta, Ga. In the spring of 1902 a number of seniors from Atlanta 
University were given sections of the city to investigate as to the number 
and condition of Negro artisans. Extracts from these reports are append 
ed and form the best general picture obtainable of industrial conditions 
as seen by young observers. 

Mr. H. H. Pace says: 

"The first person from whom I obtained any real information was a brickmason who 
received me cordially and who was inclined to talk. He was at home then (the mid 
dle of the afternoon) and said that it was the season when he never did much. He 
was a Union man and said that colored brickmasons were well received by the white 
unions if they knew their business, although the initiation fee was larger for colored 
men and the sick and death benefits much smaller for them than for whites. I next 
saw a machinist who lived in a tumble down house in a rather poor locality. But he 
said he owned the house. I found a carpenter who was almost totally despondent. 
He couldn t get work, he said, and was sorry he ever came to Atlanta. I own a farm 
in Jackson county, he said, but quit farming and came here thinking to do better at 
my trade. But if things don t change soon I think I ll go back to it. 

The next thing of particular interest to me was a gang of men, white and black, at 
work upon ten or twelve three-room houses. The person in charge of the work was 
a colored man who gave his name and address as Tom Carl ton, Edgewood, Ga. He 
talked to me himself but refused to let me talk to his employees. He was willing to 
give me plenty of information about himself, still I was unable to persuade him to 
let me interview those at work. He said he could join the white union now, they 
were after him every day to do so. But he wouldn t, because once awhile back when 
he was working for wages he was refused admission. As soon, however, as he became 
his own boss they wanted him. 

"A tailor, who conducted a small shop at * * * * told me that he cleared one 
hundred and twenty dollars a month from his business. But from his confession that 
he owned no real estate, the appearance of his shop and its location I concluded that 
he did well to collect one hundred and twenty dollars altogether in six months. In 
comparison with this shop was another small tailoring establishment farther up the 
street which was neat and progressive. The proprietor told me he had been there 
only six months and averaged now, from his business, an income of about fifty dollars 
a month. He had another man at work and seemed to have enough work on hand to 
keep him employed for some time. 

"Of the whole number questioned except, of course, shoemakers and tailors who 
ran their own shops, all had worked at some time or did work sometimes with whites 
in the same work. The painters said that the white painters were not very friendly 
disposed toward them, and did not allow them to join their union under any circum 
stances. The plumbers were under somewhat the same ban. 

"Not one of the artisans in my territory had been to a trade school. Nearly every one 
had simply worked awhile under a first-class brickmason or carpenter, etc. 
Several had learned their trades during slavery and followed them ever since. One 
had learned his trade of blacksmith in the U. S. Army. None answered Yes to the 
question of any higher training. 

"The most interesting bit of information in regard to color discrimination was ob 
tained from a colored fireman on the Southern Railway. He said the Company re 
fused to sign a contract and wage scale with his union but did sign one with the 
white union. Moreover, he said, If I take a train from here to Greenville, S. C., I get 
for that trip $2.00, the white engineer gets $6.00. But if that same train had the same 
engineer and a white fireman, the engineer would get his $6.00 just the same but the 
fireman would get.j58.25. He gets 65 cts. more for doing the same work I do. At the 



11(5 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

end of the run we have to make out our time on a card, which, with the other neces 
sary wording has two spaces marked white and colored respectively. I cross out 
the colored and get $2.60; he crosses out the white and gets $3.25. That s all the 
difference there is between our work." 

Mr. Pace interviewed 67 artisans in all. Mr. J. F. Lemon studied 89 
artisans. Twelve per cent of them owned property, 6% owned several 
pieces of property ; 27% were married, 4% were illiterate, 25% had respect 
able homes and 10% were first-class workmen. He says : 

During my tour of research, I did not find many high-class artisans; most of the 
shoemakers, carpenters, and barbers, being hardly more than botchers. There w y ere, 
however, among the brickmasons, carriage-workers, painters, etc.. some good work 
men. Most of them are married and have families to support. 

"About one-fifth of the artisans lived in nice homes of their own, well furnished, 
and comfortable ; another third lived in fair homes of three or four rooms fairly well 
furnished, but the remaining half of the total number of artisans lived in homes too 
poor and ill-kept to warrant their being called artisans who might earn enough to de 
cently support a small family. 

"Most have children in the public schools. Many of the wives of male artisans are 
laundresses, helping to earn the needed running expenses, while a few wives are in 
good paying work, as school teachers, etc. 

Many of the men belong to secret orders, but I found only tw r o who belonged to any 
labor union, although they knew of the International to which Negroes are admitted. 

"Only three of my artisans attended trade schools, most of them having learned as 
helpers, apprentices or picked it up. 

"Almost all could read and write, but only about half a dozen had any higher train 
ing. I found several who had attended Atlanta University, Spelman, and other 
schools, none, however, being graduates. I found two enterprising and successful 
contractors, who do the best work, have plenty to do and own property themselves as 
a result of their success. 

"Many of the poorer artisans are old ex-slaves and some cannot read or write and 
they are no credit to their trades. The better class of artisans are the young who 
were born since slavery. 

"The different trades pay, per day, from an average of 75c for the seamstress to about 
$3.00 for brickmasons and carriage-workers, the others varying between these figures. 
The wages of whites in like trades are slightly better in most cases." 

Mr. A. C. Tolliver was u very much surprised at the poor condition of 
some of the artisans homes, particularly of men whom I know to be good 
workmen and engaged nearly the year round." 

"Very few, if any, of the artisans, as you will see from the statistics, learned their 
trade at a Trade School. I found one, a glazier, at Woodward Lumber Co., West End, 
who had attended Tuskegee Everything seemed to be learned by apprenticeship. 

"The plasterers all seemed to have served under the same man, who was a noted 
workman in his day. The molders whom I found worked at the Southern Terra Cotta 
Works. Of the 53 artisans I studied, 35 were illiterate. 

"The following table shows a comparison of the average wages of the white and 
colored artisans engaged in the same trade, per day. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



117 



Trade. 
Painter, 
Holder, 
Rock-mason, 
Carpenter, 
Blacksmith, 
Tile-layer, 
Electrician, 



Per day 

Average wages of colored. 

$1.80 

1.95 

2.40 

1.82 



Per day 

Average wages of white. 

$2.30 

2.05 

2.70 
2.07 

l.-S:V... . 2.25 

1.25 2.50 

3.50 5.00 

"The wages of the whites are computed as given by the colored men themselves; in 
a few instances 1 think the amount given is a little too large. It seems to be the 
opinion of every colored artisan that he gets from 25 to 75 percent less than his white 
brother for his work. 

"Very few artisans seem to own any real estate, and if they do, they will not always 
tell you of it for fear of the tax collector; of the 53 artisans of my district only 8 
owned any property. Those houses from outside and inside appearance were in very 
good condition. 

"The fellow who gave his trade as an electrician learned what he knew by corres 
pondence. I questioned him very closely. He can only put in electric bells, which he 
worked at all of last summer, but for a living and regular work, he cleaned cars in the 
Southern Railroad shops. Yet he makes extra money by putting in electric bells 
when the days are long." 



The number of Negro artisans by age, conjugal condition and trades 
was reported by the canvassers as follows: 



ATLANTA ARTISANS. 



CONJUGAL CONDITION AND A(1E. MALES. 



Conjugal Condition | Under 20 | 20-80 | 30-10 | 40 & over | Unknown | Total 



Sin<>ie 


17 


83 


32 1 19 




ir>] 


Married 




118 


223 263 


9 


613 


"Widowed 




8 


10 24 




42 


Separated 
Unknown 


3 


3 
4 


5 

5 7 


10 


8 
29 


Total 


20 


216 


270 i 318 


19 


843 



FEMALES. 



Conjugal Condi tion | Under 20 | 20-3.0 | 30-40 | 40 & over | Unknown | Total 



Sin cr le .... 


4 


7 


3 






14 


Married 


1 


s 3 


6 


6 


1 


27 


Widowed 

Separated 




2 
1 


1 


6 
1 




9 
2 


Unknown 




1 


1 




1 


8 


Total 


5 


24 


11 


13 


2 


55 



Those designated as "separated" are not divorced and not in all cases 
permanently separated, although usually so. About thirty per cent, of 
these artisans are under thirty, and about sixty per cent, are under forty 
years of age. 



118 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



We may now separate these 900 artisans according to the trades they 
follow. 

OCCUPATIONS OF ATLANTA ARTISANS. MALES. 



1 U.20 


20-80 | 


30-40 


40 & O. 


Unknown 


Total 


Painters . | 1 


10 


7 


13 


4 


35 


Plumbers 


3 


6 


8 


1 


18 


Barbers 1 


30 


33 


17 


1 


82 


Blacksmiths 1 


7 


16 


31 


2 


57 


Shoemakers 


14 


17 


52 


1 


86 


Carpenters 3 


25 


55 


92 


3 


178 


Masons. 1 


17 


27 


24 


4 


73 


Tailors . 3 


20 


12 


3 


1 


39 


Plasterers 2 


9 


16 


24 


1 


52 


Bakers 1 


9 


2 


1 




13 


Moulders 1 


1 


3 






5 


Lathers 1 


4 


2 


2 




9 


Machinists 1 


4 


5 


6 




16 


Candv-makers 1 


6 


4 






11 


Broom-makers 1 


1 








2 


Mattress-maker I 


] 


1 






3 


Dyers. .. 1 










3 


Firemen 


11 


15 


12 




38 


Printers 


2 


1 






3 


Telegraph linemen 


1 


1 






2 


Pain t-mak ers 


J^ 








1 


Tinners 


I 


1 


1 




3 


Electricians 


1 








1 


Glaziers .... 


2 


1 


1 




4 


Contractors & builders 
Tron workers . 




5 

1 


2 




7 
1 


Gun-makers 




1 






1 


Wheelwrights 




1 


2 




3 


Harness-makers 




1 


1 




2 


Miscellaneous 


86 


32 


26 


1 


95 


Total... 20 


216 


270 


318 


19 


843 



FEMALES. 



U. 20 | 20-30 | 30-40 | 40 & Q. | Unknown | Total 



Dressmaking 


3 


11 


7 


7 


1 


29 


Tailoring 


1 






1 


1 

L 


3 


Seamstresses 


1 


12 


3 


2 




18 


Pastry-cooks 






1 






1 


Milliners . 








1 




1 


Miscellaneous 




1 




2 




3 


Total 


5 


24 


11 


13 


2 


55 



The chief artisans are carpenters, shoemakers and barbers; after these 
come masons, blacksmiths and plasterers, tailors and painters. The fire 
men a.re both stationary and locomotive ; the plumbers are usually help 
ers and not many are masters of the trade. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 

The wages of artisans in the city are reported as follows: 

ATLANTA ARTISANS: WAGES PER MONTH. 



119 



I U. $15 | $15-24 | $25-29 | $30-39 | $40-49 

Painters I r> 9 

Plumbers 2 1 

Barbers 1 17 4 

Blacksmiths 7 l 

Shoemakers 1 18 7 

Masons 2 

Carpenters 4 

Tailors ! 3 

Plasterers 1 l 

Bakers 1 5 

Molders 

Lathers 1 

Machinists 2 2 

Candy-makers 2 2 

Broom-makers 1 

Mattress-makers 1 1 

Firemen 1 1 

Dressmakers and Seam 
stresses 7 1 

Miscellaneous 10 6 

Total 3 90 36 

Percentage 5% 13%! 5% 



7 

7 

16 

16 

5 

46 

3 

5 

1 



15 

5 

153 



27 

13 

19 

7 

76 
7 
7 

2 
6 
6 
2 

1 
8 

5 
21 
221 
31.5v. 



JJ50 & J3. 

T~ 

2 
12 
II 

5 

50 
42 
12 
32 



1 

8 

1 

11 
197 

28% 



Probably in the wages of $50 and more there was exaggeration due to 
the desire to appear prosperous. On the whole, however, the returns 
seern reliable and the earnings of the Negro artisan are seen to be small. 

There is no very satisfactory way of ascertaining the growth or decline 
in number of the Negro artisans in Atlanta. One method tried by the 
class in economics in Atlanta University was to count the number given 
in the directories for a series of years. The directories, however, are in 
accurate and especially careless in regard to Negroes. The following table, 
however, is of some interest: 

REPORTED NUMBER OF NEGRO ARTISANS IN ATLANTA. 



1885 | 1890 



I89o 



1902 



Carpenters ! 

Barbers 84 

Shoemakers 80 

Masons 77 

Blacksmiths 65 

Painters 30 

Tailors | 9 

Plasterers 17 

Firemen 15 

Bakers i 

Printers 4 

Machinists j 

Plumbers i 

Contractors and builders 4 

Other trades 39 

Total... 638 



245 

93 

103 

98 

95 

9 

29 

54 

21 

25 

10 

7 

4 

7 

60 
860 



199 

139 

127 

96 

59 

26 

20 

38 

50 

9 

4 

9 

10 

10 

93 

889 



181 

158 

113 

91 

50 
43 
30 

28 

58 

10 

3 

6 

7 

3 

67 
848 



120 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



The apparent slight decrease in number of Negro artisans is offset by 
two considerations: 1st. The increased competition of later years has 
had the effect of sifting out the poorer Negro artisans so that the survivors 
in 1902 are probably better artisans on the average than those of 15 or 20 
years earlier. 2nd. There is in South Atlanta a settlement of Negro 
artisans and home-owners centering about Clark University who are 
really a part of the city life. The number and wages of some of these 
artisans is reported as follows in 1902 : 

ARTISANS AND MONTHLY WAGES SOUTH ATLANTA. 



$20-29 



$30-39 



$40-49 



$50 & () 



Barber*^ 




5 


1 


1 


Blacksmiths 






2 




Candy makers . 






1 




Carpenters 




3 


1 


9 


Engineers . 




1 






Firemen 




1 


1 




Harness makers 








1 


Masons 




1 




5 


Plasterers 








7 


Plumbers 






1 


1 


Shoemakers 




2 


2 




Dressmakers 


1 


3 






Total... ..51 


2 


16 


9 


24 



The artisans of Atlanta proper reported that 301 of them are accustomed 
at times to work with whites at these trades ; 594 were not. 238 artisans 
work usually for white patrons ; 101 for Negroes, and 266 for both ; 210 of 
the artisans were illiterate, 631 could read and write; 53 had some higher 
training; 290 own real estate, 494 own none, and 111 gave no answer; 26 
had attended trade schools at Spelman Seminary, Tuskegee Institute, 
Clark University and Atlanta University. Only 85 artisans reported 
themselves as belonging to trade unions; however, there are some others 
who also belong. They reported as follows as to their work: 



Trades 


Works for 
himself 


Hires 1 
others 1 


Works for 
wages 


Works f r him 
self & f r wages 


Painters 


3 


3 


18 


1 


Barbers 


6 


11 


47 


1 


Blacksmiths 




9 


93 


1 


Shoemakers . 


36 


9 


20 




Carpenters 


33 


17 


88 


2 


Masons 


8 


6 


40 


4 


Tailors 


6 


8 


6 




Plasterers 


6 


8 


25 


2 


All others 


18 


15 


155 




Total... 


123 


86 


422 


11 



30. Other Towns in Georgia. Detailed reports covering over four hun 
dred artisans were received from other towns in Georgia. The ages of 
these artisans were as follows : 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



121 



Years of Age Male 

Under 20 5 

20-30 89 

80-40 ill 

40 arid over 159 

Unknown 87 

Total 401 

Their trades were as follows: 

MAI. 

Brickmasons 71 

Carpenters 8(5 

Painters 18 

Printers 5 

Tailors U 

Barbers 81 

Blacksmiths 82 

Shoemakers 81 

Engineers 8 

Plumbers 7 

Mechanics 14 

Wheelwrights 8 

Machinists 7 

Plasterers 18 

Bill posters 1 

Tinners 9 

Contractors 5 

Basket makers 1 

Bridge builders 1 

Harness makers... 2 



Female 

1 

1 

3 

2 

18 

20 



Total 
6 

90 

114 

161 

50 

421 



E 

Firemen 5 

Telegraph linemen 8 

Electric linemen 2 

Horse shoers 2 

Mortar mixers 1 

Florists 

Tie cutter 

Glazier 

Dyer...." 

Stationary firemen 

Cabinet maker 

Baker 

Wood worker 

Paper hanger 

Jeweler 

Musician 

Trained nurse 1 

Crockery worker 1 

Undesignated 25 

Total.... ...401 



FEMALE 

. 8 Printer 1 

..11 Undesignated 3 



Tailoress 

Seamstress 

Dressmaker 2 Total 20 

Of these 426 artisans. 6 had attended trade school. The wages received by 
122 men were as follows, per month, not counting unoccupied time: 



Under $20 $20-30 $30-40 $40-50 $50-60 $60 & O 



Masons and plasterers.. 
Shoemakers 
Blacksmiths & wheelwrights. 
Engineers and firemen 
Barbers .. 


2 

1 
1 


o 

5 

3 
3 


1 
2 
5 

2 
3 


6 
5 

1 


1 

1 


10 
4 
1 
1 
2 


Painters 




2 


2 


7 


1 


4 


Tinners 




2 


2 


1 




1 


Tailors 














Mechanics 




2 


7 


2 


1 




Miscellaneous 


1 


6 


7 


7 


4 




Total (males) 


5 


26 


31 


29 


8 


23 



251 of the men were accustomed once in a while to work along side of 
whites in pursuing their trade ; 59 never worked thus. 148 work primarily 
for whites, 35 for Negroes, 157 for both ; 69 belong to trade unions, 240 do 
not; 98 said they could join the same trade unions as the whites, 128 said 
they could not, 180 did not know; 274 could read and write; 44 had had 
some higher training; 240 owned real estate, 125 did not, 49 gave no 
answer. 



122 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

The following extracts from letters and reports give an idea of the con 
dition of these artisans: 

LaGrange Bridge Builder. "For 20 years I have worked for the La- 
Grange Bridge Co. Have done very well. Save but little. Live very 
well. Have H girls, all in school." 

Darien Tailor. "There is but one other tailor in this locality. Our 
town is not very large, hence we two workmen do the work of our town. 
Neither of us hire others." 

Augusta Tinsmith. "I started at the trade in 1853 as an apprentice, 
and served same five years. From that time I worked by the day. until 
1867 at $2 per day. Since that time I have been engaged in business of my 
own up until the present. I also have a son who learned the trade under 
my instruction, and is now in business with me. He is 33 years old. I 
have been successful in my business up to the present time. Since I have 
been in business I have turned out 72 good workmen that served under 
me at the trade." 

Bricklayer. "We, as Negroes, have to work mostly for what we can 
get, and the whites always gets the best of all." 

Augusta Brickmason. "I have saved with my labor in cash $800 and 
that with what I have in real estate all makes a total of $1,200." 

Gainesville Brickmason. "I have helped to build Vesta and 
Pacelot mills here, and also was a foreman over both colored and white 
in Spartanburg, S. C., on Enaree mill." 

St. Mary s Brickmason and Plasterer. "Mr. - - was among the 
mechanics that laid the foundations of Atlanta University, and worked 
there until the building was ready for use, working for $3.00 per day, and 
also for $3.50 on the Kimball House." 

Athens Carpenter. "No contracts from whites are given to colored 
carpenters in Athens, but colored and white carpenters work together." 

Augusta Carpenter. "I am not contracting this year. I am foreman 
for one of the leading contractors in this city. Prejudice is very strong 
between the white and colored mechanics here. Even the architects are 
against us. I get there just the same." 

Athens Carpenter. "Work almost entirely for non-union white con 
tractor, who employs and pays white and colored alike. There has arisen 
within the last three years a feeling on the part of white union carpenters 
against my present employer for using on equal terms and wages, white 
and colored mechanics." 

Carpenter. "I have been working at the trade for 40 years and can do 
any kind of finishing, and can get a reputation from any contractors who 
know me. I have worked both North and South." 

Augusta Painter. "The Negro painters are doing well." 

LaGrange Carpenter and Contractor. "I learned my trade under my 
father. I have been a contractor and bridge builder for 30 years. My 
contracts for 1901 amounted to $10,000." 

Augusta Plasterer. "Negro workmen have very little competition in 
this line of work, as this kind of work is too hard for whites." 

Eatonton "I am a painter at $1.50 per day. The white men get $2.00 
per day. I work 10 hours .per day, and keep pretty busy all the year. I 
began work in 1889." 

Buena Vista Turner and Glazier. "This boy is a fireman, glazier and 
turner. I have been knowing him some 12 or more years as a fireman. 
He has the certificates of his trade." 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 123 

Quitman Carpenter. "I am employed almost the entire year, mostly 
for whites. I work with white and colored. There is very little discrim 
ination shown toward good workmen." 

Thomasville Tinner. "We have several skilled workmen here, such 
as carpenters, blacksmiths, and shoemakers." 

Marietta Blacksmith. "In they ear 1890 1 went to work at the American 
Marble Co., as a yard hand, and in three weeks I was sent to the shop as 
a helper to make and dress marble tools and in three months I was given 
a forge. In the year 1894 I was made foreman and machinist. My first 
wages were 90c per day. Then my wages were $1.25 during the part of the 
year 1894. Afterward I went to Canton, Ga., to work for the Georgia 
Marble Finishing Works for .$1.50 and my expenses of travel paid. In the 
year 1895 I went into business of my own. In 1897 I was offered $2.00 per 
day by the McNeal Marble Company of Marietta, Ga. Now I am working 
for the Butler Brothers, of Marietta Ga., and others." 

Fort Valley "The town is being benefited no little by the different 
trades that are taught tht boys and girls at the Fort Valley High and In 
dustrial School. 1 

Athens Carpenter. "I fail to work about one-third of the year. I get 
$1.50 up to $2.00 per day. There is a white union here but the colored do 
not belong to it." 

Darien Contractor and Builder, now Post Master. "This is my third 
term as post master, but I continue with my trade. I have men working 
now. I pay them $1.00, $1.50 and $2.00 per day." 

College Mason and Plasterer. U I am instructor in Ga. State College. 
Have erected $20,000 brick dormitory with student labor. Under my su 
pervision students work for both white and colored around the College." 

Wrights ville Carpenter. "There is some discrimination as to color 
where the colored mechanic is not of high standard." 

Savannah Contractor. "When I first went out to learn the trade I re 
ceived 50c per week; as my trade advanced, wages advanced, and now I 
am foreman of my work." 

Augusta Bricklayer. "I am a bricklayer by trade. I have been work 
ing for the leading contractor of Augusta" for 20 years. I work regularly 
when it is so we can work." 

Eatonton Contractor of Brick, Tile and Plastering. "I own property 
and real estate. I am a competent and active contractor and have been 
engaged in it for 35 years. I have learned nearly 50 young men to be 
first-class workmen, together with my two sons." 

LaGrange Blacksmith and Machinist. "I worked in one shop two 
years, and where I am now I have been working 13 years, and I am the 
only colored man in the shop, and I stand equal to any man in the shop; 
if you need any references you can get them." 

Roberta Carpenter. "I have been engaged in this trade for about 14 
years and follow it about half of my time now. I farm and carry on my 
trade whenever called on to do a job of work." 

Valdosta Painter. "As to unions, we can have separate branches and 
co-operate with whites in cases of a strike or regulation of hours per day 
or wages, by a committee." 

St. Mary s Carpenter. "I have contracted for work and worked quite 
large gangs, both colored and whites, but have been working for - 
for 10 years at Cumberland Island, Ga." 

Augusta Plumbers. "There is no union among the colored laborers 
here at all. I wish there were. At the shop where I am employed, Mr. 
and myself are the only two that are reliable. We both work 



124 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

right along by the side of the white men. We do gas and steam fitting 
just the same^as the white men. But still we don t get the same wages 
for the work. Of course there are a great many others that will work, 
but they work only as helpers with white men." 

Marietta Plumber. "I have been a steady workman under others for 
nine years. I can do tin work of any kind; I can set bath tubs, toilets, 
rough a job on new houses; can n t up any kind of steam work in the line 
of plumbing; make steam quirls, can wipe a pretty good joint, and most 
any other work in common plumbing. I am sorry I cannot give you a 
more interesting sketch. A man must have a good head to run that trade 
for himself to make anything out of it. I have a home, and I like the 
farm and the country the best. I have no idle time through the year, for 
when I am out of the shop I am in the field." 

Marietta Plumber. U I have w r orked at the trade for ten years, and 
have found many discouragements. It is a known fact that the whites do 
everything they possibly can to prevent a Negro from getting into the 
plumber s trade, and after he gets in he can get no employment in a white 
shop. I have been doing business for myself as a plumbing and tinning 
contractor for 2} 2 years and have had as much work as I can do." 

31. Illinois. The state of Illinois had 57,028 Negroes in 1890 and 85,078 
in 1900. Over a third of these persons (30,150) live in the city of Chicago. 
The census of 1890 reported the following artisans : 

MALE. 

Miners, 5,56 Carpenters and joiners, ]2.S 

Barbers and hairdressers, 762 Coopers, 19 

Engineers and firemen, (stationary) 243 Harness, saddle and trunk makers, 9 

Boatmen,canalmen,pilots and sailors, 73 Iron and steel workers, 67 

Steam railroad employees, 243 Machinists, 27 

Street railway employees, 3 Marble and stone cutters & masons, 110 

Telegraph and telephone operators, 4 Painters, 79 

Apprentices, 22 Plumbers, 16 

Bakers, 17 Printers, 29 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights, 103 Saw and planing mill employees, 85 

Boot and shoe makers, 35 Tailors, 20 

Brick makers, potters, etc., 69 Tinners and tinware makers, 8 

Butchers, 32 Tobacco and cigar factory operatives, 54 

Cabinet makers and upholsterers, 15 Wood workers, 26 

FEMALE. 

Telegraph and telephone operators, 1 Dressmakers, milliners, seamstresses, 329 

Apprentices, 2 Printers, 5 

Cotton and other textile mill Tailoresses, 2 

operatives, 6 Tobacco and cigar factory operatives, 2 

The Negroes are found in the trades as follows in various towns : 
In Chicago there are carpenters, bricklayers, blacksmiths, stationary 
engineers, plasterers, butchers, coopers, etc. They are slowly gaining in 
the trades. The lack of leading contractors and the restrictions on ap 
prentices keep the Negroes out of the trades, as w r ell as their own lack of 
appreciation of the advantages of mechanical trades. In Springfield there 
are over 400 Negro miners and a number of hod-carriers, plasterers and 
barbers. In Centralia, Streator, Pontiac, Rock Island and Danville many 
Negro miners are reported ; at Alton there are hod-carriers and a few fire 
men and masons; at Peoria, barbers, building laborers and firemen; at 
Galesburg, building laborers. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 125 

31-. Indiana. There were 45,215 Negroes in Indiana in 1890, and 57,505 in 
1900. Over a fourth of these persons live in Indianapolis, which has 
already been spoken of in 22. The census of 1890 reported the follow 
ing Negro artisans: 

MALE. 

Miners and quarrymen, 185 Cotton & other textile mill opera- 

Barbers and hairdressers, 699 tives, 34 

Engineers and firemen (stationary) 154 Glass vvorkers 56 

Steam railroad employees, 128 Harness, saddle and trunk makers, 

Telegraph and telephone operators, 2 Iron and steel workers 162 

Apprentices, 24 Machinists, 15 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights, 81 Marble & stone cutters and masons, 92 

Boot and shoe makers, 31 Millers, 12 

Brickmakers, potters, etc., 130 Painters, 40 

Butchers, 12 Plasterers, 90 

Cabinet makers and upholsterers, 18 Printers 14 

Carpenters and joiners 133 Saw and planing mill men, 124 

Carriage and wagon makers, 9 Tailor^, 

Coopers, 11 Woodworkers, 39 

FEMALE. 

Stenographers and typewriters, ] Tailoresses, 

Cotton & other textile mill operatives, 6 Tobacco* cigar factory operatives 

Dressmakers, milliners, seamstresses, 161 Wood workers, 2 

Indiana has hut a small number of Negro artisans and the opposition of 
Trade Unions is strong. A report from Mount Vernon says there are 
several bricklayers, masons and engineers there and that the Negro is 
gaining in the trades. The chief obstacles are u prejudice among the 
masses and the hostility of organized white artisans." There is some dis 
crimination in wages and Negroes are barred out of the unions. Before 
the war there were no artisans in the place. Since then artisans have 
come from the South, the most conspicuous one from Alabama. u He is a 
very fine mechanic and engineer." 

33. Indian Territory and Oklahoma. These two territories had a Negro 
population of 21,609 in 1890, and 55,684 in 1900. Oklahoma* with 2,873 Ne 
groes in 1890 had the following artisans: 

MALE. 

Engineers, (civil, mechanical, etc), 1 Carpenters and joiners, 10 

Barbers and hairdressers, 18 Confectioners, 1 

Steam railroad employees, 1 Marble and stone cutters, 1 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights, 11 Masons, 6 

Boot and shoe makers, 2 Painters, 1 

Brick makers, 2 Plasterers, 4 

Butchers, 1 

FEMALE. 

Dressmakers, milliners, seamstresses, etc., 1 

A report from Ardmore, Indian Territory, says there are not many 
skilled Negro laborers there; the leading ones includes blacksmiths, 4 
carpenters, 2 printers, 2 shoe makers and a type-writer. The Negro me 
chanics are gaining, however, and young men are entering the trades. 
Only lack of skill hinders the black artisan. There are no trade unions 
and "white men have been let out of jobs for colored mechanics of greater 
ability. 1 ? 



*There was no report for Indian Territory. 
fRepoit of Mr. S. T. Wiggins. 



126 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



34. Iowa and Kansas. Kansas had 49,710 Negroes in 1890 and 52,003 in 
1900; Iowa had respectively 10,685 and 12,693. There were the following 
artisans reported in the two states in 1890: 



MALE. 

815 Lead and zinc workers, 
Machinists, 

Marble & stone cutters & masons, 
Millers, 
Painters, 
Plasterers, 
Printers, 
Tailors, 

Tinners and tinware makers, 
Apprentices, 
Brickmakers, etc., 
Saw & planing mill employees, 



637 

91 

287 

4 

2 

151 

27 

37 

157 

3 

10 
45 



108 
7 

234 

25 

43 

151 

27 

i 

14 

5 

13 

19 



Miners, 

Barbers and hairdressers, 

Engineers it firemen, (stationary) 

Steam railroad employees, 

Telegraph it telephone operators, 

Bakers, 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights, 

Boot and shoe makers, 

Butchers, 

Carpenters, joiners and coopers, 

Carriage and wagon makers, 

Harness, saddle & trunk makers, 

Iron and steel workers, 

FEMALE. 

Stenographers and typewriters, 1 Dressmakers,milliners,seamstresses, 141 

Cotton & other textile mill operatives, 9 Printers, 2 

In Atchison, Kansas, there are very few Negro artisans, and they are 
chiefly blacksmiths. Nevertheless, the Negro is gaining and numbers of 
young people are entering the industrial schools. In Kansas City there 
are a number of stationary firemen and beef-butchers. The trade unions 
are the chief obstacles. In Iowa there are a large number of Negro 
miners and many in the building trades. In Ottumwa there are hod-car 
riers, steel and metal workers, plasterers, carpenters, and miners in con 
siderable numbers. 



35. Kentucky. In 1890 there were 268,071 Negroes in Kentucky and 284,- 
706 in 1900. The census of 1890 reported the following artisans : 



MALE. 



Lumbermen, raftsmen, etc., 114 

Miners, 976 

Barbers and hairdressers, 657 

Engineers and firemen, 359 

Steam railroad employees, 2,492 

Apprentices, 36 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights, 592 

Boot and shoe makers, 143 

Brickmakers, potters, etc., 491 

Butchers, 80 
Cabinet makers and upholsterers, 29 

Carpenters and joiners, 886 

Coopers, 169 



Cotton & other textile mill operatives, 225 

Harness, saddle & trunk makers, 19 

Iron and steel workers, 240 

Machinists, 27 

Marble it stone cutters & masons, 586 

Millers, 77 

Painters, 181 

Printers, 23 

Saw and planing mill employees, 312 

Tailors, 19 

Tinners and tinware workers, 31 

Tobacco & cigar factory operatives, 857 

Wood workers, 51 



Apprentices, 
Boot and shoe makers, 
Cotton and other textile mill opera 
tives, 



FEMALE. 

7 Dressmakers,milliners, seamstresses, 576 

2 Printers, 1 

Tailoresses, 2 

29 Tobacco & cigar factory operatives, 162 

The chief artisans are miners, tobacco workers, hod-carriers, marine 
firemen, carpenters, railway men, etc. At Paducah there are many arti 
sans; the 22 leading ones include 9 carpenters, 3 bricklayers, 4 plasterers, 
3 painters and 3 blacksmiths. The black artisans are gaining here. In 
Lebanon there are carpenters, blacksmiths and masons, but they are losing 
ground on account of inefficiency. "Old artisans are dying out and no 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 127 

young men are taking their places." At Danville, Ky., the leading arti 
sans include carpenters, masons, painters and plasterers. They are gain 
ing as a result of industrial training and the entrance of young men into 
the trades. In Georgetown the leading artisans include 2 contracting 
carpenters, 4 contracting masons, 1 cabinet maker and 1 paper hanger. 
Young men are entering the trades and the Negro is gaining. In Louis 
ville there are perhaps 500 artisans of various kinds. They are not gain 
ing perceptibly. 

36. Louisiana. There were 559,193 Negroes in Louisiana in 1890, and 
650,804 in 1900. The census of 1890 reported the following artisans : 

MALE. 

Lumbermen and raftsmen, 484 Carpenters and joiners, 1 611 

Engineers (civil and mechanical) 37 Coopers, (305 

Barbers and hairdressers, 369 Cotton & other textile mill operatives, 263 

Engineers and firemen (stationary) 309 Iron and steel workers, 30 

Boatmen, canalmen, pilots, sailors, 660 Machinists, 24 

Steam railroad employees, 1 ,593 Marble and stone cutters and masons, 766 

Apprentices, 190 Painters, 280 

Bakers, 145 Printers, 39 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights, 699 Saw and planing mill employees, 948 

Boot and shoe makers, 438 Tailors, 70 

Butchers, 141 Tinners and tinware makers, 44 

Cabinet makers and upholsterers, 111 Tobacco & cigar factory employees, 539 

FEMALE. 

Apprentices, 6 Dressmakers, milliners, seamstresses, 656 

Bakers, 18 Tailoresses, 45 

Cotton & other textile mill operatives, 22 Tobacco & cigar factory operatives, 21 

In New Orleans there are large numbers of artisans in the building 
trades and in shoe making, cigar making, blacksmithing, coopering, etc. 
The impression seems to be that the Negro artisan here is either gaining 
or at least not losing. There are about 4,000 Negroes in the trade unions. 
The influx of white mechanics is increasing the competition, however, 
and "the brief life, so far, of the industrial school among the colored peo 
ple will not permit one to see any large results as yet. It is promising, 
however, and ought to be encouraged." There is no apparent discrimina 
tion in wages in this city and the trade unions are open to Negroes in most 
cases. One report says: u There is no way of telling the number of Negro 
artisans in this city. The directories do not distinguish them from others. 
Before and since the war they have built some of the best structures of 
our city. They work in various shops and in cigar factories, but have been 
lately crowded out of machine shops. The new stone library of Tulane 
University is now being erected by Negroes entirely."* 

Another report says: "The city of New Orleans comprises among its 
population Negro artisans who receive recognition in their respective 
trades, are widely employed and paid remunerative wages. Contractors 
of public buildings and private work appreciate the Negro workmen and 
a majority of the most imposing structures in the city were built by col 
ored men. The number of artisans has increased since the war, and their 



Report of Mr. F. B. Smith. 



128 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

condition is better. A large proportion of them are property-holders."* 
Baton Rouge is said to be "an exceptionally good community for Negro 
artisans 1 and they are gaining there. u The old slave time plasterers, 
masons and carpenters trained up an array of youngsters to fill their shoes 
and they are doing it most admirably."** Among the buildings erected en 
tirely by Negro mechanics are a $26,000 dormitory, a $25,000 public school 
building and a $10,000 bank building. 

There are many strong Negro trade unions in Louisiana, especially the 
Longshoremen s Benevolent Association, the Screwmen, the Cotton Yard 
men, the Teamsters and Loaders, the Excelsior Freight Handlers, the 
Round Freight Teamsters, etc. 

At Shreveport there are carpenters, hod-carriers and bricklayers organ 
ized in unions. On the whole the Negro artisans seem better organized 
and more aggressive in this state than in any other. The colored secretary 
of the Central Labor Union says: ;t By amalgamation of organizations 
and through International connections we expect to have the color line in 
work removed." 

37. Maine and Massachusetts, These two states have a comparatively 

small proportion of Negroes: Maine had 1,190 in 1890, and 1,319 in 1900; 

Massachusetts had 22,144 and 31,974. The report of artisans in 1890 for 
both states was: 

MALE. 

Lumbermen, etc., 83 Cotton & other textile mill operatives, 89 

Engineers (civil, mechanical, etc.) 12 Gold and silver workers, 2 

Barbers and hairdressers, 390 Iron and steel workers, 22 

Engineers & firemen (stationary) 53 Leather curriers, dressers,tanners,etc., 42 

Boatmen, canalmen, pilots, sailors, 156 Machinists, 46 

Steam railroad employees, 83 Marble and stone cutters, 12 

Street railway employees, 9 Masons (brick and stone) 93 

Apprentices, 15 Painters, 59 

Bakers, 11 Paper mill operatives, 16 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights, 34 Piano and organ makers, 5 

Boot and shoe makers, 159 Plumbers, 16 

Brick makers, potters, etc., 18 Printers, 30 

Butchers, 20 Rubber factory operatives, 11 

Cabinet makers and upholsterers, 27 Tailors, 66 

Carpenters and joiners, 103 Wood workers, 28 

FEMALE. 

Stenographers and typewriters, 3 Printers, 4 

Boot and shoe makers, 38 Rubber factory operatives, 2 

Cotton & other textile mill operatives, 64 Straw workers, 1 

Dressmakers,milliners,seamstresses, 271 Tailoresses, 31 

In Portland, Maine, there are five skilled workmen in the unions and 
they stand well. 

In Massachusetts the meat handlers, longshoremen, and building trades 
are represented and a great many are in the unions. In Boston the Ne 
groes are in the building trades, cigar makers , meat handlers , and a few in 
the machinists unions. In Springfield there are masons and mason tenders 
and barbers; but not many. They are good workmen. Brockton has a 
few electric linemen, stationary firemen, boot and shoe makers and laun 
dry workers. In the smaller towns there is here and there an artisan. 



Report of Mr. E. Bones. - Report of Mr. A. II. Cohvell. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



as. Maryland. There were 215,657 Negroes in Maryland in 1890, and 235,064 
in 1900. There were reported in 1890 the following artisans : 



MALE. 



Miners 189 

Barbers and hairdressers 480 

Engineers and firemen (sta.) 220 

Boatmen, canalmen, pilots and 

sailors 1,085 

Steam railroad employees 467 

Street railway employees 4 

Apprentices .*. 57 

Bakers 21 

Blacksmiths & wheelwrights 206 

Boot and shoe makers 155 

Brickmakers, potters, etc 1,143 

Butchers 180 

Carpenters and joiners 96 

Cotton and other textile mill 

operatives , 57 



Iron and steel workers 68 

Machinists 13 

Marble and stone cutters and 

masons 231 

Millers ." 76 

Painters 59 

Plumbers 13 

Printers 27 

Saw and planing mill em 
ployees 230 

Ship and boat builders 96 

Tailors 22 

Tinners and tinware makers...... 68 

Tobacco and cigar factory 
operatives . 18 



FEMALE. 

Apprentices 9 

Confectioners 3 

Cotton and other textile mill 

operatives 10 

Dressmakers, milliners, seam 



stresses, etc 990 

Hat and cap makers 1 

Meat, fish, and fruit packers, 

canners, etc 19 

Tailoresses... 



The Negro population of this state centres in Baltimore, where over a 
third of the colored people live. Here the Negroes have had an interest 
ing industrial history.* Before the war the Negroes made brick, shucked 
oysters, loaded ships and did the caulking; there were also carpenters and 
blacksmiths. Then came foreign competition and the war until gradually 
by skill and prejudice the Negroes were more and more forced out. There 
are still painters and building laborers, brickmakers and other artisans, 
but the trades unions have largely confined these to job-work. The hod- 
carriers are still strong and there was a strong union of caulkers in 1890. 
The brickmakers, too, are well organized and have white and black 
members. 

There have been in Baltimore some interesting experiments in industrial 
co-operation, the most noted of which was that of the Chesapeake Marine 
Railway. There was a brickmakers strike after the war which led to 
colored men organizing a brick yard which flourished awhile and died. A 
strike against colored caulkers and stevedores followed which 
forced most of them out of work ; as a result the Negroes raised $10,000, 
bought a ship yard and marine railway and several hundred caulkers 
went to work. The capital was soon raised to $30,000. The venture was 
successful until it was found that instead of having been purchased out 
right the yard had only been leased for 20 years and at the end of that 
time the yard passed into the hands of whites and left the Negroes with 
nothing but the two or three dividends that had been paid. 



-Cf Brackett: Notes on the Progress of the Colored People of Md.. etc., J. II. U. studies. 8th 
series, 1890. 



130 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



As an example of the situation of Negro artisans in the country district- 
in Maryland we may take the village of Sandy Spring* with about a thous 
and Negroes. There were here in 1900: 



2 barbers. 

6 blacksmiths. 

2 carpenters $1.25 a day. 

3 engineers $12-$24 a month. 
Five of these own their homes. 



1 miller. 

3 shoemakers. 

1 shingle maker. 

2 masons $2-$2.50 per day. 



39. Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin. Michigan had 15,228 Negroes in 
1890 and 15,816 in 1900; Minnesota had 3,683 and 4,959 in those years, and 
Wisconsin 2,444 and 2,542. The following artisans were reported in these 
states in 1890 : 



MALE 



Lumbermen and raftsmen 235 

Miners 4 

Barbers and hairdressers 731 

Engineers and firemen (sta.) 85 

Boatmen, canalmen, pilots and 

sailors 82 

Steam railroad employees 56 

Blacksmiths & wheelwrights 40 

Boot and shoe makers 18 

Butchers 19 

Cabinet makers & upholsterers... 7 

Carpenters and joiners 122 

Carriage and wagon makers 2 



Coopers 31) 

C ton & o er textile mill operat s 6 
Harness, saddle & trunk makers s 

Iron and steel workers 28 

Machinists 15 

Marble <fc stone cut rs & masons..lll 

Millers 

Painters 

Printers 

Saw & planing mill employees. ... 

Tailors .". 

Tobacco & cigar fact y operat s... 
Wood workers... 



3 

55 

1> 

82 
9 



FEMALE. 



Telegraph & telep ne operatives.. 2 
Cotton & other textile mill op 
eratives 7 

Dressmakers, milliners, seam 



stresses, etc 194 

Printers 1 

Tailoresses 3 

Wood workers... H 



In Michigan there are about 500 barbers, engineers, plumbers, brick 
layers and coal-miners in the unions. In Grand Rapids there are build 
ing trades laborers; in Detroit there are longshoremen, engineers and car 
penters. This is one of the few cities where there are several colored 
motormen and conductors on the street railways. They were forced in by 
political influence but have proven excellent workmen. In Sault Ste. 
Marie there are several good mechanics. "We have no toughs in the race 
here." There is an excellent Negro plumber at Flint, and several good 
mechanics in Ann Arbor. One in the latter city does considerable small 
contracting. In Kalarnazoo there are bricklayers and masons. 

In Minnesota there are few Negroes and fewer artisans ; there are a 
number of barbers in the twin cities, a few cigar makers, printers and 
carpenters. 



In Wisconsin there are few artisans except barbers here and there. 
Milwaukee there are a few cigar makers. 



In 



*f. U. 8. Bulletin of the Department of Labor, No. :52. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



40. Mississippi. There were 742,559 Negroes in Mississippi in 1W) and 
5)07,630 in 1900. The census of 1890 reported these artisans : 



MALE 



Lumbermen and raftsmen 192 

Barbers and hairdressers 326 

Engineers & firemen (sta.) 203 

Boatmen, canalmen, pilots 

and sailors 275 

Steam railroad employees 2,736 

Telegraph and telephone op 
erators 1 

Blacksmiths & wheelwrights... 665 

Boot and shoe makers 130 

Brick makers 355 

Butchers 128 

Carpenters and joiners ..1,476 



Charcoal, coke &lime burners. 94 
Cotton and other textile mill 

operatives TB 

Machinists 41 

Marble and stone cutters and 

masons 296 

Mechanics 85 

Millers 63 

Painters 153 

Printers 22 

Saw & planing mill employees. 1 ,387 

Tinners and tinware makers.... 16 

Wood workers 53 



FEMALE. 

Basket makers 26 Dressmakers, milliners, seam- 
Cotton and other textile mill stresses, etc 759 

employees 8 Printers 5 

A report from Westside says: "Our population is mostly rural, but the 
towns are growing constantly in number and importance; and, whereas 
heretofore few skilled artisans were needed in Mississippi the demand for 
them grows constantly. 

"As there are no trades unions in the state to interfere colored mechanics 
find work without difficulty. There appears to be few labor organizations 
in the state; there is one at Vicksburg. I presume it was instigated by 
white mechanics, who induced colored men to organize with them in order 
that they, the whites, might then more easily obtain work where they 
were thrown into competition with colored mechanics. They thus pro 
cured work through the aid of colored men. There is no trouble whatever 
on the part of colored men to obtain work in this state as carpenters, 
blacksmiths, brickmasoris,brickmakers, shoemakers, painters or plasterers. 

"There is a brickmasons union at Meridian, Miss. The colored masons 
are allowed to join it, there being only two such masons in the city. There 
is somewhat of a dearth of colored masons in the state. This fact being 
appreciated by the authorities of this institution arrangements are now 
being made to give instructions in brickmaking and brickmasonry." 

A report from Ebenezer mentions blacksmithing as the chief trade and 
thinks the status of artisans is about the same as in the past although 
they "may be gaining. 1 There is general lack of efficiency, but students 
from industrial schools are entering the trades. There is some coJor dis 
crimination in wages. In Woodville the leading 14 artisans include two 
builders and contractors, two carpenters, four blacksmiths, one smith and 
carpenter, three machinists, and two painters. They are competing with 
white labor and are gaining. The effect of industrial training is apparent ; 
but there is a lack of leading contractors with capital. In all lines but 
brickmasonry there is discrimination in wages. There are so few white 
masons that the differences do not extend to this trade. Gloster has a 
number of carpenters, blacksmiths, painters, engineers and bakers. The 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

writer of the reports "cannot say the Negro is losing as an artisan, but his 
trains are not satisfactory." There is a demand for better artisans, but 
there are no industrial schools near and young men are not entering the 
trades. There is very little discrimination in wages. "We have no or 
ganized unions but the colored men generally confer and have certain 
mutual understandings with each other. 1 The great drawback is lack of 
sufficient skill and education to follow plans and specifications and do 
the highest grades of work. Mound Bayou has a number of blacksmiths, 
engineers, surveyors, carpenters, printers and masons. The artisans are 
gaining fast here. "This is a distinctively Negro town and colony com 
prising 2,500-8,000 inhabitants, with 20,000-30,000 acres of rich land. We 
have three cotton gins, two of them with saw-mill attachments. There 
are three blacksmith shops and one printing press. These are handled 
exclusively by Negro labor and Negro managers. The settlement was es 
tablished about 1887 and the inhabitants are chiefly cotton -growers."* 

At Holly Springs many young men from the industrial schools are en 
tering the trades; there are several carpenters and masons. There is dis 
crimination in wages. At Grace the Negro artisans are gaining. The 
leading artisans include 3 carpenters, 1 engineer, 4 masons and a black 
smith. Young men are entering the trades. 

41. Missouri. There were 150,184 Negroes in this state in 1890 and 161,234 
in 1900. The census of 1890 reported these artisans : 

MALE 

Lumbermen, raftsmen, etc 157 Harness, saddle & trunk makers.. 8 

Miners 915 Iron and steel workers 177 

Barbers and hairdressers 909 Machinists 19 

Engineers and firemen (sta.) 321 Marble and stone cutters 50 

Steam railroad employees 703 Masons 231 

Street railway employees 7 Millers 35 

Apprentices 25 Painters 66 

Bakers 13 Plasterers 262 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights. ..206 Printers 32 

Boot and shoe makers 52 Saw & planing mill employees.. ..233 

Butchers 65 Tailors 9 

Cabinetmakers & upholsterers... 12 Tinners and tinware makers 11 

Carpenters and joiners 263 Tobacco and cigar factory 

Coopers 22 operatives ." 222 

FEMALE, 

Stenographers & typewriters.. 2 stresses, etc 1,835 

Telegraph & telephone opera- Printers 59 

tors 4 Tailoresses 294 

Cotton and other textile mill Tobacco and cigar factory 

operatives 106 operatives 199 

Dressmakers, milliners, seam- 
There are some three thousand Negroes in the labor unions of Missouri 
hod-carriers, teamsters and barbers, miners, and a few printers, carpen 
ters and masons. In St. Louis the Negro artisan is losing; "he does not 
keep pace with the times in efficiency and is besides crowded out of em 
ployment by the trade unions." As to industrial training "there has been 



Report of the mayor. Mr. A. P. Hood. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



a manual training department in the colored schools for more than ten 
years but I have not heard of any thus trained who have got positions 
thereby." In St. Joseph, on the other hand, there are 65 or 70 Negro 
artisans and they are gaining. The nine leading artisans include one 
paper hanger, one kalsominer, three carpenters, one painter, one mattress 
maker, one plasterer and one tailor. "Trade unions have to a great ex 
tend hindered the Negroes progress" and they are barred from nearly 
all the unions. At Kansas City Negroes are reported by a leading trade 
unionist to u have done good work at bricklaying, plastering, painting, 
carpentry and paper hanging." Only the hod-carriers, however, are in the 
unions. At Joplin there area few masons and stone cutters; at Com 
merce there are carpenters, blacksmiths and engineers, but the Negro is 
losing. The Chief obstacles are "trade unions, prejudice and the lack of 
capital among our people." 

42. Other New England States, (N. //., Vt., R. /., and Conn.) The states 
of New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island and Connecticut had alto 
gether 21,246 Negroes in 1890, and 25,806 in 1900. Over half these Negroes 
live in Connecticut. The census of 1890 reported the following artisans 
in these states : 

MALE 

Miners and quaiTvmen. 



miners anu quaiiyiiien < 

Barbers and hairdressers 159 

Engineers and firemen (sta) 86 

Boatmen, canalmen, pilots and 

sailors 30 

Steam railroad employees 31 

Apprentices 15 

Bakers 9 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights.. 38 

Boot and shoe makers 54 

Brass workers 39 

Butchers 31 

Cabinetmakers and upholsterers 18 

Carpenters and joiners 76 

Clock and watchmakers 2 

Cotton * other textile mill op 82 



Gold and silver workers 8 

Gunsmiths, locksmiths, bell 

hangers 9 

Hat and cap makers 12 

Iron and steel workers 44 

Machinists 21 

Marble and stone cutters and 

masons 142 

Metal workers 16 

Painters 59 

Plumbers 10 

Printers 16 

Rubber factory operatives 8 

Tailors 15 

Tool and cutlery makers 4 

Woodworkers... .. 15 



FEMALE 

Cotton and other textile mill Paper mill operatives 2 

operatives 38 Printers 1 

Dressmakers, milliners, seam- Tailoresses 9 

stresses, etc 281 

There are very few Negro artisans in these states except barbers; Rhode 

Island has a few printers, longshoremen and masons. New Hampshire 

has a few in the building trades. Connecticut seems to have very few if 

any artisans. 

43. New York and New Jersey. New York had 70,092 Negroes in 1890 and 
99,232 in 1900. New Jersey had 47,638 and 69,844 in these years. The 
census of 1890 reported these artisans in New York : 



134 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



MALE 



Barbers and hairdressers 672 

Engineers and firemen (sta.) 120 

Boatmen, canalinen, pilots and 

sailors 240 

Steam railroad employees 196 

Street railway employees 16 

Apprentices 20 

Bakers 22 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights 51 

Boot and shoe makers 39 

Brickmakers, potters, etc 894 

Butchers 40 

Cabinet makers & upholsterers.. 43 

Carpenters and joiners 156 

Coopers 17 



Cotton and other textile mill 

operatives 24 

Iron and steel workers 49 

Machinists 22 

Marble and stone cutters 21 

Masons 156 

Painters 176 

Plumbers 26 

Printers 41 

Saw and planing mill employees 23 

Tailors . 53 

Tinners and tinware makers 27 

Tobacco and cigar factory 

operatives 192 

Wood workers... .. 25 



FEMALE 



Stenographers and typewriters... 4 

Box makers (paper) 2 

Cotton and other textile mill 

operatives 11 

Dressmakers 674 

(Hove makers 4 

Milliners... 5 



Printers 7 

Seamstresses 215 

Sewing machine operators 11 

Shirt, collar and cuff makers 17 

Tailoresses 17 

Tobacco and cigar factory 
operatives ! s 



In New Jersey the following artisans were reported in 1890: 



MALE 



Miners 14 

Engineers (civil & mechanical).. 3 

Barbers and hairdressers 257 

Engineers and firemen (sta.). 61 

Boatmen, canalmen, pilots and 

sailors ; 89 

Steam railroad employees 102 

Apprentices 14 

Bakers 4 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights.. 20 

Boot and shoe makers 56 

Brick and tile makers 755 

Butchers 26 

Cabinetmakers & upholsterers... 29 

Carpenters and joiners 103 

Cotton and other textile mill 

operatives 17 



Glass workers lo 

Harness, saddle and trunk 

makers 5 

Hat and cap makers 8 

Iron and steel workers 61 

Leather curriers, dressers, etc... 19 

Machinists 6 

Marble and stone cutters and 

masons 102 

Painters 49 

Plumbers 15 

Potters 9 

Printers 14 

Tailors 7 

Tinners and tinware makers 8 

Tobacco and cigar factory 

operatives.. ..." 14 



FEMALE 



Apprentices 1 

Boot and shoe makers 1 

Box makers 1 

Cotton and other textile mill 

operatives 5 



Dressmakers, milliners, seam 
stresses, etc 238 

Printers 1 

Tailoresses 6 

Tobacco <fc cigar fact y operat es. 8 



The mass of the Negro population of New York is centered in New York 
City. Here the artisan has had a thorny path to travel. As late as 183(5 
a well-to-do Negro was refused a license as drayman and the riots of 1863 
had an economic as well as a political cause. The ensuing enmity between 
Irish and Negroes and the absorption of the Irish into the industries kept 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 135 

the Negroes out, In 1890 about 10% of the working Negroes were in skilled 
trades as follows :* 

Tobacco workers 187 Tailors 45 

Sailors 182 Engineers and firemen 84 

Barbers 166 Building trades 147 

Painters 132 Apprentices 10 

Machinists 12 Railroad employees 84 

Shoemakers 12 Printers * 29 

Blacksmiths 18 Cabinet makers 28 

Bakers 11 

Making something over a thousand in all besides some 700 dressmakers 
and seamstresses. Since 1890 "artisans have not perceptibly increased on 
account of the trade unions and the indifference of employers." 

In Albany and Troy there are two tailors, one electrician, 1 printer, 1 
carpenter, 1 blacksmith, 1 civil engineer,! mason. The Negro is not gain 
ing here. In Rochester there are two stationary engineers. At Bing- 
hampton there are a few barbers and building laborers. At Auburn there 
are a few horse shoers, stationary engineers, and building laborers. A few 
are in the building trades in Middletown, a machinist at Hornelsville, etc. 

in New Jersey there are a few more artisans but not many. From 
Newark we learn of a few artisans but"the trouble with the colored people 
here is that few of them have trades," and they "are backward about 
.netting their boys in as apprentices." Three engineers, three masons, 
three lathers and one carpenter are mentioned. Trenton reports a cooper, 
a paper hanger, a shoe maker and a cigar maker. 

44. North Carolina. There were 561,018 Negroes in North Carolina in 
1S90 and 624,469 in 1900. The census of 1890 reported these artisans: 

MALE 

Lumbermen and raftsmen 810 Carriage and wagon makers 49 

Miners 278 Coopers 304 

Barbers and hairdressers 482 Cotton and other textile mill op- 
Engineers and firemen (stationary). 432 eratives 564 

Boatmen, canalmen. pilots <fc sailors. 316 Iron and steel workers 88 

Steam railroad employees 3,534 Machinists 46 

Telegraph and telephone operators . . 3 Marble & stone cutters & masons . . . 827 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights 831 Mechanics 74 

Boot and shoe makers 384 Millers 158 

Brick makers, potters, etc 443 Painters 297 

Butchers 144 Printers 56 

Cabinet makers & upholsterers 53 Saw and planing mill employees 1,992 

Carpenters and joiners 1,789 Tobacco & cigar factory operatives. .2,779 

FEMALE. 

Cotton & other textile mill operatives 127 Tailoresses 8 

Dressmakers, milliners, seamstresses 705 Tobacco & cigar factory operatives. . 1,462 

Charlotte is a city of 18,091 inhabitants (1900) , 7,151 of whom are colored ; 
the suburbs covered by the city directory brings this total up to 25 or 30 
thousand. In 1890 the city had 5,134 Negroes. A special report from this 
city gives the following artisans? : 



*St-e the "Black North," a series of articles in the New York Times, 1901. 

iMadeby the kindness of Mr. II. A. Hunt, of Biddle University: the artisans were ascertained from 



the directories. 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



NEGRO ARTISANS IN CHARLOTTE, N. O. 



_ | 1885 | 1_902_ 

Bakers..................................................... 3 

Basket makers 1 

Boilermakers "2 

Bridge builders 1 

Blacksmiths , 21 15 

Brick makers 1 

Cabinetmakers 1 

Carriage builders 1 

Carpenters 33 36 

Collar makers 1 

Firemen 25 

Harness makers 4 2 

Lathers 1 

Machinists 1 

Masons (brick and stone) 20 37 

Mattress makers 1 

Molders 2 

Painters 6 33 

Plasterers 8 16 

Printers 9 

Shoemakers 17 16 

Tailors 1 7 

Tanners 6 2 

Tinners 3 3 

Upholsterers 1 

White washers 6 

Total... 129 214 



Although the artisans are more numerous than formerly still they are 
losing in relative importance. This is in a measure due to inefficiency, and 
the great growth of the South, u but more largely, perhaps, to prejudice 
the prejudice incident to competition as well as race prejudice. 7 Young 
men "are not entering the trades very largely as journeymen * * * 1 
find comparatively few young men following trades learned in school, ex 
cept in the art or trade of printing." The obstacles in learning trades are 
"the inability of colored men to have sufficient work to keep apprentices, 
and the unwillingness of whites to employ apprentices." The chief 
obstacle in working at the trade when learned is "prejudice." There is 
discrimination in wages, and some of the trade unions bar Negroes; other 
unions, like the bricklayers, have a considerable Negro membership. 
Directly after the war three Negroes were the leading bricklayers and 
plasterers, and were so acknowledged by all. To-day a Negro u is and has 
been for years the best bricklayer and contractor in town ; he is able to 
follow plans and conduct a contracting business in an intelligent and 
profitable manner. He has built some of the best buildings in and around 
Charlotte not small houses, but large ones, as, for instance: the City 
Hall, several churches, school buildings, etc." 

The leading Negro artisans of Raleigh include 1 tinner, 1 blacksmith, 3 
carpenters, 2 wood and iron workers and 5 masons. The black artisan is 
losing here, largely on account of indifference. Few young men enter in 
dustrial schools lt with a view to making industrial pursuits a life-work. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 137 

There are no Negroes in the Raleigh unions and it is doubtful if they 
could get in. In Salisbury the artisan is losing also, for the older artisans 
are not contractors and employ no apprentices. There are, nevertheless, 
several good artisans; the leading ones include three tailoring establish 
ments, 5 carpenters, 2 plasterers, 2 bricklayers, 2 shoe makers and a 
painter. As to young men, u my opinion is that the schools do not make 
good mechanics, i. e., practical mechanics. It is almost impossible to 
give a good mechanical and literary training in the time allotted by our 
manual training schools." Race prejudice and their own unreliability are 
the Negroes great obstacles. Often special efforts are put forth to attract 
and employ white mechanics in preference to Negroes. "In some places 
Negroes and whites work together as artisans. In other parts of the 
state whites refuse to work with Negroes."* 

The leading Negro artisans of Asheville are three plasterers, three 
brickmasons, two blacksmiths and a carpenter. The Negro is gaining 
here in the trades and a few young men are entering. The trade unions 
in most instances receive Negroes. At Goldsboro the Negro artisan "is 
holding his own ; he is not losing." The leading artisans include 4 masons, 
f) carpenters, 1 wheelwright, 2 blacksmiths and a painter. "Two young- 
men who attended industrial schools work at their trades; one at carpen 
try, the other at cabinet making; two other young men who have not been 
away from home to any schools have good trades as masons, and are reg 
ularly employed." There is very little discrimination in wages, chiefly 
due to the fact that there are no unions here. In Winston-Salem the 
unions have Negro members. 

In Hills boro the leading artisans are two carpenters, a painter, a plas 
terer and two masons. These artisans u hold their own as they are the 
best in the little town." A few young men are entering the trades but 
"not as many as I could desire." The Negro is his own greatest obstacle 
here as there is no discrimination in wages and no unions. "The Negro 
artisans here are less in number than before the war. The young men 
seem not to care for the trades of their fathers. What few artisans we 
have get all the work that is to be done. They take contracts, and work 
colored and white hands together without friction. On all skilled work 
in my town a Negro has, in nine cases out of ten, been the boss. Some 
young men think that the trades are hard work, so they take to school 
teaching, hotel work, barbering, etc."t 

One enterprise deserves especial mention : 

"The first experiment with Negro labor in a cotton factory was made about three 
years ago in the city of Charleston, S. C. The outcome was unsatisfactory and the 
factory soon closed down. However, this test was not made under favorable circum 
stances 

"A more decisive test of the fitness of Negro labor for cotton mills is now beins: 
made at theColeman cotton mill of North Carolina. The mill is owned and operated 
by Negroes. The site is in the Piedmont section of the state, one mile from the city 



:;: From President W. H. Goler of Livingstone College. 
f Report of Mr. L. P. Berry. 



138 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

of Concord. The capitalization of the mill is $100,000, of which $66,000 has been paid 
in. The subscribers to the stock are scattered throughout the state and number about 
350. The subscriptions vary from $25 to $1,000, and are payable in installments. 

"When the mill started up in July, 1901, all of the employees were inexperienced. 
Mr. A. G. Smith, of Massachusetts, the superintendent, and the only white person 
connected with the work, had to train each employee for his or her task. 

"The Coleman plant consists of 100 acres of land, one three-story brick building. 
80x120, two boilers of 100 horse-power each, and a complete modern outfit of looms, 
spindles and other machinery necessary for spinning and weaving. The weaving 
capacity is 40,000 yards per week. A dozen or more very substantial tenement cot 
tages have been erected and rented to the employees. 

"The writer has visited the mill and viewed the operatives at work, and was agreea 
bly surprised to find that only one of the operatives was inclined to go to sleep. The 
superintendent expressed himself as entirely satisfied with the progress of the work 
ers, and stated that he felt confident that the enterprise would prove a financial suc 
cess. Several of the operatives, he said, had been "caught napping," but, he added, 
that such occurrences were not uncommon even among white operatives in Massa 
chusetts. The operatives, so far, have been very prompt in coming to work, and have 
shown no disposition to drop out 

"This cotton mill venture will be watched with interest, and if it succeeds, no doubt 
other mills will be started up with Negro help. The operatives in the Coleman mill 
are paid about one-half as much as the same grade of workers would receive in Mas 
sachusetts. The capitalists of the South will have a rich harvest if they can suc 
cessfully operate with this cheap labor."* 

45. Ohio. There were 87,113 Negroes in this state in 1890, and 96,901 in 
1900. The census of 1890 gave the following artisans : 

MALE 

Miners 578 Coopers 69 

Quarrymen 42 Glass workers 18 

Barbers and hairdressers 1,372 Harness, saddle and trunk makers. . 8 

Engineers and firemen (stationary) . 295 Iron and steel workers 286 

Steam railroad employees 355 Machinists 51 

Telegraph and telephone operators. . 9 Marble and stone cutters & masons. 280 

Apprentices 28 Painters 207 

Bakers 29 Plasterers 285 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights 258 Printers 19 

Boot and shoe makers 97 Saw and planing mill employees ... 57 

Brick makers, potters, etc 152 Tailors 23 

Butchers 59 Tinners and tinware makers 15 

Cabinet makers & upholsterers 20 Tobacco and cigar factory opera- 

< Carpenters and joiners 277 tives 18 

Carriage and wagon makers 23 Wood workers 3S 

FEMALE. 

Stenographers and typewriters 3 Paper mill operatives 1 

Cotton & other textile mill operatives. 8 Printers 6 

Dressmakers, milliners, seamstresses . . 393 Tailoresses 7 

"In those callings which are classed as skilled very few workmen of the 
dark complexion are to be found. I mean such trades as printing, cigar 
making, molding, machinists , etc. ; while of course the number of Negro 
barbers is somewhat large. "t Cincinnati has by far the largest Negro 



-Professor Jerome Dowd, iu Gunton s Magazine, Sept. \W2. 
tReportof the Secretary of the State Federation of Labor. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 139 

population of the cities (14,482). Conditions here are such that Negroes 
are practically excluded from the unions save a few who got in in earlier 
years and who are usually so light in complexion as not to be easily rec 
ognized as of Negro descent. On this account Negro skilled laborers are 
decreasing in number, although there are many doing job work. There 
a iv some 300 Negro hod-carriers, 8 union men in the building trades and 
outside of organizations Negroes working at almost every trade. 1 

in Cleveland there are about 100 skilled artisans and they are not dis 
criminated against to any large extent. In Oberlin, there has long been 
an interesting colored colony. They have among their leading artisans an 
excellent mason, three painters, two building contractors, and a carpen 
ter. Compared with the past, however, the Negro is losing. "Our young 
men are not entering trades. Those who work at a trade have not an eye 
to become skilled." There is, too, considerable prejudice from the whites 
and the unions.* At Xenia, there are at least 40 Negro artisans. Among 
the leading ones are a marble cutter and letterer, two carriage makers, a 
stationary engineer, a boiler setter, two contracting plasterers, a carpen 
ter, a contracting mason, four blacksmiths (two of whom are expert horse 
shoers, and other "the best blacksmith in the city") two tile-setters and a 
cigar maker. The number of artisans is decreasing because the young 
men do not enter the trades. One of the carriage makers, Mr. Lewis 
Sydes, believes he is the first man in the United States to make the 
double felly in the carriage wheel. He has worked at the trade more than 
50 years. 1 ** 

In other localities there are a few artisans, as firemen in Mt. Vernon, 
engineers, bricklayers, and hod carriers in Youngs town, blast-furnace 
workers in Ironton, and longshoremen in Lorain. 

4(5. Oregon and the North West. ( Ore., Ida., Mont., N. D., S. D., Neb., U., Wash., 
nd Wy.) These states had in all 5,212 Negroes in 1890, and 5,982 in 1900. 
There are very few artisans in this region, only one Negro carpenter 
being mentioned in Salt Lake City. The census of 1890 enumerated the fol 
lowing colored artisans which includes Indians and Chinese how many 
of the last two is uncertain: 

MALE 

Lumbermen and raftsmen 61 Butchers 31 

Miners 2,417 Carpenters and joiners 83 

Engineers (civil and mechanical) . . . 3 Machinists 3 

Barbers and hairdressers 56-4 Marble & stone cutters and masons.. . . 67 

Boatmen canalmen, pilots, and Meat,fish, fruit packers and canners. . .518 

sailors . 82 Painters 18 

Engineers and firemen (stationary) . 23 Plasterers . 

Sceam railroad employees 1,183 Printers . . .17 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights 58 Saw and planing mill men 189 

Bakers H Ship and ooat builders 5 

Boot and shoe makers 19 Tailors ... 250 

Brickmakers and potters . . .135 Tinners and tinware makers . 

FEMALE 

Dressmakers, milliners, seamstresses, etc . . . 112 

-Report of Mr. Klias F. Jones. Report of Mr. J. M. Summers. 



140 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



47. Pennsylvania and Delaware. There were 107,576 Neg-roes in Pennsyl 
vania in 1890, and 156,845 in 1900. Delaware had 28,886 and 30,697 in these 
years. The census of 1890 reported the following- artisans in Pennsylvania 
for 1890: 

MALE 



Lumbermen, raftsmen, etc 64 

Miners 849 

Quarrymen 206 

Barbers and hairdressers 1,477 

Engineers and firemen (stationary). . 186 

Steam railroad employees 526 

Apprentices 64 

Bakers 35 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights 137 

Boot and shoe makers 133 

Brickmakers, potters, etc 627 

Butchers 53 

Cabinet makers and upholsterers ... 76 

Carpenters and joiners 152 

Cotton & other textile mill operat es . 77 
Glass workers . . . 19 



Iron and steel workers 795 

Leather curriers, dressers, finishers . . 6M 

Machinists 25) 

Marble and stone cutters 102 

Masons . . 211 

Millers 19 

Oil well employees 5 

Painters 57 

Plumbers 17 

Printers 75 

Saw tt planing mill employees. . . . 53 

Tailors 41 

Tinners and tinware makers 16 

Tobacco & cigar factory operatives. 75 

Woodworkers.. 51 



Stenographers and typewriters 

Apprentices 

Boot and shoe makers 

Cotton & other textile mill operatives. 



FEMALE. 

6 Dressmakers, milliners, seamstresses . . 993 

12 Printers 4 

4 Tailoresses 12 

9 Tobacco and cigar factory operatives. 5 



In Delaware there were in 1890, according- to the census : 



MALE 



Barbers and hairdressers 51 

Engineers and firemen (stationary). . . 27 
Boatmen, canalmen, pilots and sailors 55 

Steam railroad employees 88 

Telegraph and telephone operators. . . 1 

Apprentices... .3 

Bakers 1 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights 23 

Boot and shoe makers 23 

Brick makers 146 

Butchers 7 

Cabinet makers & upholsterers 4 

Carpenters and joiners 20 

Carriage and wagon makers 1 



Cotton & other textile mill operatives . 

Iron and steel workers 

Leather curriers, dressers, tanners . 

Machinists 

Marble and stone cutters and masons. 

Millers 

Painters 

Plumbers 

Printers 

Saw and planing mill employees... 

Ship and^boat builders ... 

Steam boiler makers 

Tinners and tinware makers 

Wood workers . . 



3 

37 
6 
6 

] 
1 

34 

2s 

1 

3 

14 



FEMALE. 

Apprentices 2 Dressmakers, milliners, seam- 
Cotton and other textile mill operat es 2 stresses, etc ... 

Over a third of the total Negro population of Pennsylvania resides in 
Philadelphia. A detailed history of the Negro artisan in this city has 
been published.* The chief trades represented are barbers, cigar makers, 
shoemakers, engineers, masons, printers, painters, upholsterers. There 
are probably some two thousand Negro artisans in all. Carlisle has a few 
masons. At Washington there are about 50 Negroes in the tin plate and 
glass factories. In western Pennsylvania there are numbers of Negro 
miners and iron and steel workers, but no detailed report lias come from 
this region. 



*The Philadelphia Xegro. Ginn & Co., 1896. Sec Chapters IX and XVI. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 141 

48. South Carolina. There were in this state 688,934 Negroes in 1890, and 
782,321 in 1900. The census of 1890 reported these artisans : 

MALE 

Lumbermen and raftsmen 164 Butchers 274 

Miners . 715 Carpenters and joiners ... 2 730 

hngmeers (civil, mechanical, etc. ) . . 26 Coopers 294 

Barbers and hairdressers 380 Cotton & other textile mill operat es 369 

Engineers and firemen (stationary). 344 Machinists 42 

Boatmen, canalmen, pilots, sailors . . 381 Marble and stone cutters 96 

Steam railroad employees 3,052 Masons 793 

Telegraph and telephone operators. . 8 Mechanics 58 

Apprentices 255 Millers ..." 108 

Bakers 123 Painters 482 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights 832 Printers 57 

Boot and shoe makers 353 Saw and planing mill employees! 452 

Brickmakers, potters, etc 286 Tailors 172 

FEMALE. 

Steam railroad employees ... 19 Cotton & other textile mill operat es 22 

Apprentices. . 48 Dressmakers,milliners, seamstresses. 2,193 

Bakers.. 7 Tailoresses 21 

Charleston with 31,522 Negroes has always had a large number of arti 
sans. Here, at the Vesta Cotton Mill, Negro labor was used in cotton 
manufacturing. The president of the mill said in 1900: "I cannot say the 
Negro is a success as a mill operative, lest I deceive somebody, or the 
statement eventually prove to be untrue. Nor am I willing to say he is a 
failure." The eventual giving up of the mill and its removal to Georgia 
was due to many reasons, of which the matter of securing competent 
help was only one and, it would seem, not altogether the decisive reason. 
It is thought that the Negro artisan is gaining in Charleston and that 
many young men are entering the trades. Race prejudice is still a hin 
drance and there are many lines of work into which a colored man cannot 
enter. There are 75 or 80 union masons and 12 to 25 non-union. There are 
several hundred carpenters, and many blacksmiths, painters, wheel 
wrights and plumbers. There is some discrimination in wages: masons 
receive $3 for a 9 hours day, and carpenters $1.75 to $2.50 for the same. In 
Columbia Negroes are employed in a hosiery mill and a report gives 386 
skilled workingmen in all in the city. The colored artisans are gaining.* 

At Anderson there are 15 carpenters, 10 masons, many blacksmiths, ma 
chinists, plumbers, 6 shoemakers, and 10 painters. The Negroes are slow 
ly gaining. At Aiken there are 35 carpenters, 4 contracting masons and 
25 journeymen under 30 years of age, 2 tailors, 4 blacksmiths, etc. The 
Negro is steadily gaining and forms the sole membership of the only 
local union the masons. The Negro is reported to be gaining in Green 
ville where there are 40 carpenters, 50 masons and plasterers, 15 black 
smiths, 15 shoemakers, and 14 painters, besides tinners, plumbers, harness 
makers and other artisans. There is some color prejudice but young men 
are entering the trades. " Quite a number of young men are entering the 
trades and are doing well" at Chester, where again the black artisan is 
<>-aining. The leading artisans include 5 masons, 4 painters, 2 tailors, 2 
carpenters, and 1 upholsterer. There are no unions here, and the whole 



Report of 3d Hampton Conference, p. 18. 



142 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

growth has been since the war, as there were practically no artisans here 
before.* 

49. Tennessee and Arkansas. There were 430,78 Negroes in Tennessee in 
1890, and 480,243 in 1900. The census of 1890 reported the following 
artisans : 

MALE. 

Lumbermen and raftsmen 150 Harness, saddle, trunk makers . . 13 

Miners 769 Iron and steel workers 982 

Quarry men 482 Machinists 0(> 

Barbers and hairdressers 871 Marble and stone cutters .269 

Engineers and firemen (stationary). 558 , Masons l,16o 

Steam railroad employees 4,039 Mechanics 4s 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights 1,032 Millers 130 

Boot and shoe makers 348 Painters 287 

Brick makers 849 Plasterers 324 

Butchers ." 132 Printers 43 

Carpenters and joiners 1,361 Saw & planing mill employees 1,040 

Coopers Ill Tinners and tinware makers 3M 

Cotton & other textile mill operatives. 201 Wood workers 14s 

FEMALE. 

Stenographers and typewriters 1 Dressmakers,milliners,steamstresses .915 

Telegraph & telephone operators 2 Printers 2 

Cotton and other textile mill Tailoresses :i 

operatives 48 Tobacco & cigar factory operatives . . 124 

In Arkansas there were 309,117 Negroes in 1890 and 366,856 in 1900. The 
census of 1890 reported the following artisans: 

MALE. 

Lumbermen and raftsmen. 94 Carriage and wagon makers 

Miners 7 Cotton & other textile mill operatives.. S3 

Engineers (civil, mechanical, etc.). . 2 Machinists 31 

Barbers and hairdressers 332 Marble & stone cutters and masons . . . 198 

Engineers and firemen (stationary). 165 Mechanics 59 

Steam railroad employees 1,013 Millers 26 

Telegraph and telephone operators . 1 Painters 85 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights 364 Plasterers 63 

Boot and shoe makers 68 Printers 17 

Brickmakers, etc 269 Saw & planing mill employees 1,114 

Butchers 64 Tailors 1 

Carpenters and joiners . . , . 581 Wood workers 28 

FEMALE. 

Telegraph and telephone operators ... 1 Dressmakers, milliners, seam- 
Cotton & other textile mill operatives. 5 stresses, etc 200 

Memphis has already been spoken of in 19,. " Jonesboro is a very small 
place and the Negro gets very little to do here." There are a few carpen 
ters and masons who are kept busy. Trade schools would help our boys 
to learn trades, otherwise almost all of them will be common laborers.? 
The leading colored artisans of Clarkesville include 2 masons, 2 carpen 
ters, 1 cabinet-maker, 1 engineer, 1 plumber, 2 printers, 1 blacksmith, and 
1 cooper. "The Negro is capable of doing any skilled work but has no op 
portunities to develop his skillfulness." For this and other reasons, "as a 
rule, the Negro does not learn his trade thoroughly, that is he does not be 
come a master workman." The demand for Negro workmen being thus 
curtailed there is little incentive for the young mon to learn trades. Ne- 



*Most of the .South Carolina reports were submitted by Mr. W. W. Cooke of Clafliu University, 
t Report of Mr. P. L. La( our. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 143 

g-roes "cannot get employment on many large contracts the whites prefer- 
to hire white artisans, unless they can employ colored workmen at great 
ly reduced wages."* Twenty years ago the Negroes of Jackson were 
chiefly railroad brakemen,firemen and common laborers; today the lead 
ing artisans include 7 engineers, 6 brickmasons, 5 plasterers, 5 brick- 
molders, 6 carpenters, 3 blacksmiths, 4 printers, 3 meat-cutters, 1 milli 
ner, 1 upholsterer, 1 painter, 1 candy-maker, and 2 cabinet-makers. While 
the Negro artisans have increased however they have not kept pace with 
the growth of the town, and this is due mainly "to discrimination in fa 
vor of white workmen and also to the fact that young men have not en 
tered the trades." The chief obstacles before Negroes are "Labor Unions: 
they do not receive Negroes as apprentices and when Negroes are em 
ployed as helpers they prevent them from receiving promotion according 
to merit. "t At Rogersville there are about 12 artisans t carpenters, 2 
blacksmiths, 1 paper-hanger and painter, 2 masons, 1 engineer, 1 tanner, 
etc. There are no unions and the black artisan is holdinghis own. There 
is little discrimination but the outlook is not encouraging because the 
young people do not enter and stick to the trades. "The leading mer 
chants of our town were erecting a bank building a short time since. They 
wanted the work completed in a certain time. They employed colored 
carpenters to assist. The white carpenters complained. They dismissed 

them all and employed all colored 

The colored engineer referred to above stands ahead of all in the town as 
a plumber and electrician. 

"The Negro has the ability to succeed along all industrial lines; what 
he needs is more faith in himself and in the opportunities before him."t 

In Columbia the Negro artisans seem "to be losing, somewhat," This 
is due in part to the great industrial advance of the South, in part to 
prejudice, and in part to the fact that "the young Negro is not patient 
will not stick long enough to become master of a trade." The leading- 
colored artisans of the city include 4 carpenters, 1 shoemaker, 2 black 
smiths, 1 wheelwright, 2 stone cutters, and 2 masons. 

The Negro is gaining as an artisan in Jefferson City, although there are 
few artisans there. The leading brick mason "stands high with the white 
citizens and gets more work than he can do. The very finest jobs are 
generally offered him in preference to the white masons. He has been 
working at his trade over twenty years and owns some good property. ^ 
In Nashville there are eight leading Negro contractors a painter, 4 
masons, 3 carpenters; there is also a prominent tailor and a leading black 
smith. "I think the whole number of skilled workmen as compared with 
the Negro population is less than before the war. Those mentioned above 
are contractors, own good homes, have other good renting property, and 



-Report of Mr. R. L. Yauey. 
t Report of Rev. Mr. A. R. Merry. 
JReport of Mr. W. H. Franklin. 
fj Report of Mr. <;. X. Bowen. 



144 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

are men of force and standing."* In Murfreesboro the Negro artisan "is 
gaining very fast," and u is in great demand." The leading artisans in 
clude 5 shoe makers, 2 masons, 4 blacksmiths, 2 engineers, 3 painters and 
a number of carpenters. "The young men are entering trades more now 
than ever" and industrial training is enabling them to take and execute 
contracts ; this latter ability was the deficiency of the older artisans. The 
general condition of Negro artisans "is much better than in the times be 
fore the war, because the demand is greater, and more diversified ; this 
sharpens the appetite for advancement and the artisan now uses his own 
head instead of working from dictation. "t In McMinnville, also, the 
Negro is "gaining, not by under-bidding, but by prompt attention to bus 
iness." The leading artisans are 7 masons, 4 blacksmiths, a plasterer and 
a carpenter. Young men are entering the trades but they are apprentices 
and do not come from industrial schools. There is no discrimination in 
wages, and there are no trade unions here. "There are more Negro arti 
sans here now than there have been at any time before in the history of 
the town. Those here are well situated, owning their own homes some 
of the nicest homes in town ; they are good and law abiding citizens and 
are well thought of by both races. This town is the county-seat of War 
ren county and has a population of about 2,000. Negro artisans build all 
the bridge-piers in this and adjoining counties. "i 

In Maryville the black artisans have suffered "some loss ; that is, we have 
fewer carpenters and blacksmiths now than 20 years ago." This is chiefly 
due to "the neglect of parents and guardians in not impressing the im 
portance of a knowledge of the industries upon the minds of sons and 
wards." On the other hand a small town like this does not demand many 
artisans; there are some ten masons, blacksmiths and carpenters. "Some 
few young men in a casual way and of necessity are entering the above 
named trades, but the outlook for wages is bad and our boys seem to prefer 
doing nothing for nothing."The difficulty with most of the local artisans 
is that they cannot intelligently plan their work and make specifications. 
"White men in the same trades use the influence of a white skin to take 
away trade." 

"The Negro artisans of Maryville -are chiefly those who learned their 
trades before the civil war. There are some younger men who were taught 
by their fathers or by the aforesaid ante-bellum men. There is no union 
or agreements as to hours of labor or price and every man is guided by 
his own judgment as to any particular piece of work. There were before 
the civil war about the same number of artisans as now mostly slaves. 
These men now own their own homes, with but two exceptions, and from 
their trades derive a living, though not much more. Intelligent, up-to- 
date artisans could have all they could do in this section if only they 
could go in and assume a contract, giving bond for faithful performance 



Report of J)r. J. A. Lester, 
t Report of F. G. Carney. 
JKeportof Mr. A. (. Maclin. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 145 

of obligations, &c. An industrial training school for Negroes is in course 
of foundation."* 

In Knoxville there are a good many skilled laborers; they "are gainii g 
in the variety of trades followed, but losing when one considers the in 
crease of population here since 1860." The leading artisans include: 

Carpenters . . 15 stone cutters. . . . . 2 

Blacksmiths 12 Printers .1 

Masons 10 Tailors .1 

Puddlers 9 Boiler makers. . . . 1 

Dressmakers 6 Millers .1 

Telegraph linemen 5 Carpet makers .... .1 

Shoemakers 5 Contractors .1 

Painters 5 Tinners .1 

Plumbers 5 Furniture repairers ... .1 

Plasterers 4 Tanners ... 1 

Jewelers 3 

There are also numbers of iron and steel workers. 

Young men are entering the trades, u or at least trying to do so," but are 
hindered partly by prejudice, partly by inherent vices resulting from 
the former bondage of the race," and particularly by trade unions which 
"in but few instances" admit Negroes. t In 1900 u iron workers are being 
paid more for labor in consequence of the increased demand for iron and 
the inducements offered to local workingmen at the Carnegie Works in 
Pittsburg. Quite alarge force from Knoxville went there in the early spring. 
A large iron furnace has been opened up at Bristol, Tenn., employing Ne 
gro laborers, and several smaller industries at Harriman, Tenn., employ 
ing Negro laborers exclusively, "t 

Chattanooga is a center of Negro artisans and they have had an inter 
esting industrial history. Unfortunately, however, it has been very diffi 
cult to get hold of detailed information or reports from there. The unions 
report a number of artisans in the building trades, and in the large estab 
lishments there are 382 skilled men reported, chiefly molders and foundry 
men, with some skilled saw-mill hands: 

Molders, 110 Saw mill men, 20 

Molders and foundry men, 52 Total, 382 

Stove makers, 200 

This is a great increase over anything in the past and has been brought 
about by a persistent battle with the trade unions in which, so far, the 
Negroes are victorious. 

Few detailed reports have been received from Arkansas. The state has 
considerable numbers of barbers, blacksmiths, brickmakers, carpenters, 
and masons, and many semi-skilled workmen on the railroads and in the 
lumber yards. 

In Little Rock there are very many Negro artisans and they are "gaining 
all the time here." The artisans are "not from trade schools but have 
been apprenticed as a rule." The leading artisans include 6 carpenters, 
2 masons and a blacksmith. There are, of course, many others. Their 



"Report of Mr. George R. Brabham, who is the founder of the proposed school. 

| Report of Mr. J. W. Manning. 

{Report of Mr. C. W. Cansler to Mr. A. F. Hilyer. 



146 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

greatest obstacle is "want of capital to overcome prejudice." They oan 
join some of the trade unions. "There were few artisans here until recent 
times, but now the number increases yearly."* 

50. Texas and the Southwest, ( Tex., Ariz., N. Mex., and Nee.) Texas had, in 
1890, 488,171 Negroes and 620,722 in 1900. The census of 1890 reported the 
following artisans: 

MALE. 

Lumbermen and raftsmen, 268 Carpenters and joiners, 917 

Miners, 197 Cotton and other textile mill ope- 

Engineers (civil, mechanical, etc.) 6 ratives, 330 

Barbers and hairdressers, 816 Harness, saddle, trunk makers, 7 

Engineers and firemen (stationary), 212 Machinists, 41 

Boatmen, canalmen, pilots, sailors, 45 Marble & stone cutters & masons, 298 

Steam railroad employees, 2,658 Millers, 34 

Telegraph and telephone operators, 4 Painters, 133 

Blacksmiths & wheelwrights, 537 Printers, 22 

Boot and shoe makers, 85 Saw & planing mill employees, 1,881 

Brick makers, 466 Tailors, 20 

Butchers, 174 Tinners and tinware makers, 19 

FEMALE. 

Telegraph and telephone operators, 4 Dressmakers, milliners, seam- 
Cotton & other textile mill operatives, 9 stresses, etc., 425 

Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada had in all 2,786 Negroes in 1890, and 
2,416 in 1900. There were reported the following artisans, including Ne 
groes, Chinese, and Indians: 

MALE. 

Lumbermen and raftsmen, 45 Butchers, 12 

Miners, 529 Cabinet makers & upholsterers, 9 

Barbers and hairdressers, 89 Carpenters and joiners, 17 

Steam railroad employees. 251 Cotton & other textile mill operatives, 6 

Telegraph & telephone operatives, 1 Marble and stone cutters & masons, 10 

Blacksmiths, 12 Printers, 4 

Brickmakers, 15 Saw and planing mill employees, 72 

Boot and shoe makers, 14 Tailors, 6 

FEMALE. 

Dressmakers, milliners, seamstresses, etc. 15 

Texas has already been treated to considerable length in Mr. Holmes 
report ( 20). There are not many artisans in Dallas and they are losing 
on account of inefficiency. The city directory gives 20 carpenters, 5 black 
smiths, 4 painters, 4 printers, 3 masons, 2 engravers, 2 plasterers, a roofer, 
a contractor and builder, a shoe maker, a tailor, a furniture maker and a 
machinist. Young men are not entering the trades. The artisans u do not 
contract for very large jobs; they work mostly for colored people and on 
small jobs for whites. During and before the war most of the skilled 
labor was done by colored artisans, "t In Navasota the number of skilled 
laborers is not large but "it is my opinion that the Negro is gaining con 
stantly Prejudice and trade unions are the barriers that 

usually obstruct his path as a mechanic. There are few instances in which 
colored men are permitted to join the trade unions at all. They are gen 
erally barred from this privilege entirely. Sometimes discrimination in 
wages occurs; colored men possessing skill equal to white men, and work- 



*Reportof Mr. W. Mclntosh. 
tReport of Mr. Charles Rice. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



147 



ing with them on the same building, have, in some cases, been paid smaller 
wages than the whites. 1 There are in this town 4 Negro blacksmiths, 5 
carpenters, 2 painters, a wheelwright, a mason and a jeweler. "These 
men are doing well in their trades and securing considerable paying work 
both from white and colored people."* 

In Georgetown also the Negroes are gaining and are at work as carpen 
ters, blacksmiths, masons and barbers. In Ennis they are "standing still." 
They are barred from the unions and discriminated against in wages. In 
Richmond the Negro is gaining in the trades but is barred by the unions. 
In Bryan he is losing because of lack of properly trained men. 



51. Virginia and West Virginia. Virginia had 635,438 Negroes in 1890, and 
660,722 in 1900. The census of 1890 gave the following Negro artisans: 

MALE. 

Lumbermen, raftsmen, etc., 1,091 

Miners, 1,700 

Quarrymen, 577 

Engineers (civil and mechanical), 16 

Barbers and hairdressers, 835 
Engineers and firemen (stationary), 521 

Boatmen, canalmen, pilots, sailors, 812 

Steam railroad employees, 7,648 

Telegraph & telephone operators, 7 

Apprentices, 186 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights, 1,554 

Boot and shoe makers, 849 

Brickmakers, potters, etc., 1,213 

Butchers, 23) 



Carpenters and joiners, 2,017 

Coopers, 403 
Cotton & other textile mill operatives, 462 

Iron and steel workers, 793 

Machinists, 61 

Marble and stone cutters, 168 

Masons, 745 

Millers, 212 

Painters, 206 

Plasterers, 524 

Printers, 44 

Saw & planing mill employees, 2,541 

Tinners and tinware makers, 39 
Tobacco & cigar factory operatives, 4,419 



Basket makers, 

Cotton and other textile mill 
operatives, 

Dressmakers, seamstresses, mil 
liners, etc., 



187 
1,412 



Printers, 
Tailoresses, 

Tobacco and cigar factory oper 
atives, 



Lumbermen, raftsmen, etc, 

Miners, 

Engineers (civil & mechanical), 

Barbers and hairdressers, 

Engineers and firemen (stationary), 

Boatmen, canalmen, pilots, sailors, 

Steam railroad employees, 

Telegraph and telephone operators, 

Apprentices, 

Blacksmiths and wheelwrights, 

Boot and shoe makers, 

Brick and tile makers, 

Butchers, 

Carpenters and joiners, 

Cotton and other textile mill opera 
tives, 



MALE. 

10 Charcoal, coke and lime burners, 

2,016 Coopers, 

3 Glass workers, 

220 Iron and steel workers, 

36 Leather curriers, dressers, tanners, 

22 Machinists, 

1,401 Marble and stone cutters, 

6 Masons, 

5 Millers, 

97 Painters, 

39 Printers, 



22 



Saw and planing mill employees, 
Tailors, 



2,572 



West Virginia had, in 1890, 32,690 Negroes, and in 1900, 43,499. The 
census of 1890 reported the following artisans : 



336 
20 

1 

13 
57 

2 
16 
60 

4 
20 

5 
21 

2 



51 Tobacco and cigar factory operatives, 

FEMALE. 

Dressmakers, milliners, seamstresses, 
1 Tailoresses, 



87 
2 



*Reportof Mr. R. P. Neal. 



148 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

Richmond is a great center for Negro skilled labor. The Third Hamp 
ton Conference reported.* The colored people of Richmond are employed 
principally in all branches of the tobacco business, with the exception of 
cigarette making, cigar making and cheroot rolling. About 8,000 men, 
women and children are employed in tha factories; of this number about 
2,000 might be classed as skilled laborers. Perhaps 2,000 more are em 
ployed in the iron works." The census of 1890 reported 1,345 tobacco 
workers, 293 skilled iron and steel workers, besides 139 blacksmiths, 123 
shoe makers, 150 carpenters and 165 plasterers. The Allen & Ginter 
branch of the American Tobacco Co. employ 18 tobacco packers and por 
ters at an average weekly wage of $6.53 and 208 stemmers and machine 
hands at $4.09. The T. C. Williams Company employ Negro labor almost 
exclusively; "our experience with this labor has been very satisfactory." 
The P. Whitlock branch of the American Tobacco Co. have these Negro 
employees: 

167 leaf tobacco strippers, $3.50-$4.00 per week. 
42 " " bookers, 5.00 

22 helpers, 5.00 

u We have been working Negroes in the above capacities for a number 
of years, having found them very efficient in this class of work." The 
Richmond Stemmery of the American Tobacco Co. employs 1,000 Negroes 
at an average of $4.50. u For the class of work for which we employ them 
there is no other help in the world so good." The Continental Tobacco 
Co. employs u at times from six to seven hundred Negro employees and 
we consider this class of labor quite satisfactory. t The Hampton conference 
thought the skilled Negro laborer losing in this city but a report of 1902 
says: "I think he is gaining on the whole, inasmuch as his skilled labor 
is of a higher order. They are to-day doing some of the high grade work 
in this city." As to efficiency the report says: "Colored workmen, as a 
rule, are not efficient here. The exclusion from labor organizations, the 
general unwillingness of white workmen to work with Negroes, and the 
consequent loss of hope of employment furnishes the explanation of slow 
progress." Industrial training "is doing something for the race, but the 
many skilled laborers of Richmond received their trades by the old method 
of apprenticeship. The fact is the industrial school is yet an experiment." 
Many young men are entering the trades. There is discrimination in 
wages "but this is the price Negroes pay if they get any employment at 
all from some employers." Nearly all the unions exclude Negroes, but 
they have unions of their own in the tobacco industry and among long 
shoremen. "During the last 20 years the number of shoe makers, black 
smiths, carpenters and plasterers have increased Many of 

these artisans have more work than they can do. "i The directory for 
1902 gives the following Negro artisans : 

Carpenters, 59 Printers, 9 

Blacksmiths, 55 Iron workers, 13 

Plasterers, 63 Upholsterers, 5 



*In July 1899; printed report, page 19. 

tFrom personal letters to Mr. A. F. Hilyer, 1900. 

{Report of Mr. J. R. L. Diggs. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 149 

Shoemakers, 84 Painters, 11 

Dressmakers, 24 Candy makers, 5 

Coopers, 25 Bakers, 9 

Millers, 1 Umbrella maker, 1 

Glazier, ! D yerSi 4 

M asons, 18 Plumbers, 

Engineers, 4 Regalia maker, 1 

Butchers, 14 Cabinetmakers, 2 

Pavers, 2 Broom makers, 5 

Photographers, 6 Contractors, 4 

Decorators, 2 Tinner, 1 

Cigar makers, 1 Wheelwright, 1 

Tailors, 9 Machinist, 1 

Carriage makers, 1 

There are manifest omissions in this list as in the case of iron workers, 
carpenters, etc but it illustrates the diversity of trades. 

At Danville the Negro artisan is said to be gaining in spite of the fact 
that u very few young men are entering the trades; the most of them want 
to be dudes. 1 There are 19 masons, 21 blacksmiths, 11 plasterers and 4 
painters. There is some discrimination in wages and most of the unions 
are closed to Negroes. 

Some interesting news came from Lynchburg in 1900: 

"The bricklayers especially are experiencing a decided improvement in their work. 
Several years ago colored bricklayers were excluded entirely from all work on the 
principal streets of the city, and their opportunities generally to follow their trade 
were very limited in this community. 

"A change has gradually taken place in the last year or two which has brought 
them well to the front. No colored mechanic was employed to lay pressed brick in 
this city several years ago. He was thought to be utterly incapable to do high grade 
work of that kind. But now colored bricklayers are seen constructing churches and 
business houses on the principal streets of the city, requiring the best skilled labor 
necessary to do such work. The first Presbyterian church (white) constructed in 
this city recently at a cost of $35,000 of pressed brick was started by white mechanics. 
After they had carried the walls up some distance, they struck for more wages. 
The contractor, who was w r hite, declined to make any advance. The white me" 
chanics quit. Colored mechanics were employed and they finished the brick work. 
It may be said that they built the church. It is one of the handsomest church 
structures in this city or section. 

"One of the largest as well as most difficult buildings ever constructed in this 
locality is the addition made to the cotton mill here within the last year. It was 
built by Negroes and the great difficulty of putting the machinery in place was all 
supervised by a colored mechanic with entire satisfaction to all concerned. 

"In asking this very efficient mechanic a few days ago about the outlook, he re 
marked the situation is growing brighter every day. It is simply a question of 
capacity and reliability. Said he to me, I am about to be offered the largest job I 
ever had to build one of the largest structures in the state. 

"The colored mechanics have been asked to join the white trades union with the 
distinct understanding that the white mechanics would not work with them. This 
request was declined with thanks. 

"The lesson of the year in this city is, that colored mechanics ought to fit them 
selves thoroughly to do the highest grade of work in their line, so that when white 
mechanics strike they may be able to take their places without causing the work to 
suffer in the least. "t 



tRei>ort of Mr. Geo. E. Stephens. 



150 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

111 Manchester the Negro mechanic appears to be losing. There are 
among the leading artisans 1 dyer, 7 shoemakers. 7 blacksmiths, 2 en 
gineers, 5 plasterers, 2 painters, a carpenter, a printer and a tinner. The 
unwillingness of young men to enter the trades and the opposition of 
trades unions are the chief hindrances. There is some discrimination in 
wages but not as much as in some places. "Frequently white and colored 
artisans work on the same job."* Newport News has about 100 skilled 
Negro workmen and the Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company are receiv 
ing Negro mechanics and apprentices. They are not admitted to the 
unions. Norfolk has u many competent and reliable colored mechanics. "t 

In West Virginia a report of 1900 says:i 

"There* are about 8,000 or 10,000 colored miners in the Flat-top coal fields and about 
the same number of white miners. 

"These colored miners are admitted on the same terms with white miners to the 
United Order of Mine Workers. About half of the firemen on the Pocahoiitas di 
vision are colored, half the trainmen, and 90% of the yard men. Tbere is a gang of 
20 colored men who do common labor about the round house. 

"None but the miners are admitted to the labor unions. While the otber colored 
men get the same as white men for like work in the divisions mentioned, they are 
debarred from the unions because they are colored, and are plainly told so." 

At Bluefleld the artisans are gaining; there are a number of railway 
firemen, masons and blacksmiths. Trade unions are a hindrance to Ne 
gro workmen and the lack of responsible contractors able to give bonds. 

"There were not more than 600 Negroes in this section previous to the war and but 
two skilled laborers. Immediately after the war both these left the section, leaving 
the section without any until 1883-85, when Negroes having various trades came, 
brought by the opening of the coal mines of this region, in which several thousand 
Negroes find employment to-day. In the building of this town Negroes were em - 
ployed equally with the whites and entrusted with the same kind of work, being 
made foremen on buildings or given the more finished parts of the work to do. I 
have been assured by their employers that they gave satisfaction. " 

At Parkersburg the black artisan is gaining but there are not many me 
chanics there. 

52. Summary of Local Conditions. The statistics given are far from com 
plete and of varying value ; the opinions reflect different personalities and 
different opportunities of knowing. On the whole, however, there is evi 
dent throughout the nation a period of change among colored artisans. 
For many years after the war the Negro became less and less important 
as an artisan than before the conflict. In some communities this retro 
gression still continues. It is due in part to loss of skill but primarily to 
the great industrial advancement of the South. In many communities 
this industrial revolution has awakened and inspired the black man ; he has 
entered into the competition, the young men are beginning to turn their at- 



*Report of Rev. D. Webster Davis. 
tReport of 3rd Hampton Conference, p. 19. 
JFrom Mr. Hamilton Hatter. 
\ Report of Mr. R. R. Sims. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



151 



tention toward trades and the economic emancipation of the Negro seems 
approaching in these particular communities. In the light of these two 
counter movements it is interesting to compare communities by tabulat 
ing the cases where the artisans are reported as gaining or losing. We 
must, of course, remember that such reports are based on opinions and 
that the personal equation must be largely allowed for:* 

NEGRO ARTISANS REPORTED TO BE "GAINING" IN NUMBER 
AND EFFICIENCY. 



State 


| Town 


| Total Pop. 


Xegro Pop. 


Remarks 


Ala. 


Anniston. 


9, (595 


3,6(59 






Birmingham. 


38,415 


1(5,575 






Montgomery. 


HO, 846 


17,229 


Absolutely if not relatively. 




Tuskegee. 


2,170 






Ark. 


Little Rock. 


3s,307 


14,694 


"All the time." 


I). ( . 


Washington. 


278,718 


86,702 




Fla. 


Jacksonville. 


28,429 


16,236 




Ga. 


Atlanta. 


89,872 


35,727 






Marsliallvillc. 


879 








Milledgeville. 


4,219 


2,663 






Washington. 


3,300 


2,163 




111. 


Chicago. 


1 ,698,575 


30,150 


"Slowly." 


I ml. 


Indianapolis. 


169,164 


15,931 






Mt. Vernon. 


5,132 


892 




I. T. 


Ardmore. 


5,681 


1,153 




Kan. 


Ate hi son. 


15,722 


2,508 




Ky. 


Danville. 


4,285 


1,913 






Georgetown. 


3,823 


1,677 


"I think." 




Paducah. 


19,446 


5,814 




La. 


Baton Rouge. 
Xew Orleans. 


1 1 ,269 
287,104 


6,59(5 
77,714 


"At least holding his own." 


Miss. 


Ebenezer. 
Gloster. 


170 
1,661 




"May be." 
"Not satisfactorily." 




Grace. 










Holly Springs. 


2,815 


1 ,559 






Mound Bayou. 


287 


287 


"Assuredly." 




Woodville. 


1,043 






Mo. 
Pa. 


;Jefferson City. 
(St. Joseph. 
Carlisle. 


9,664 
102,979 

9,626 


1,822 
(5,260 
1,148 


"Slightly." 




Pittsburg. 


321,616 


17,040 




S. C. 


Charleston. 


55,807 


31,522 






Columbia. 


21,108 


9,858 




Tenn. 


Chattanooga. 
Knoxville. 


1,980 
3,999 


2,248 


Absolutely not relatively. 




McMinnville. 


30,154 


13,122 






Murfreesboro. 


32,637 


7,359 


"Very fast." 


Tex. 


Georgetown. 


2,790 


608 






Houston. 
Xavasota. 


44,633 

3,857 


14,608 
2,105 


"Constantly." 




Richmond. 








Va, 


Danville. 


16,520 


6,515 






Xew port News. 
Richmond. 


19,635 
85,050 


6,798 
32,230 




W. Va. 


Bluefield. 


4,644 


754 






Parkersburg. 


11,703 


783 







-The popiilation given is for 1600. 



152 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



NEGRO ARTISANS REPORTED TO BE u LOSING" IN NUMBERS 
OR EFFICIENCY. 



Statt- 



Town 



| Total Pop. | Negro Pop. | 



Remarks 



Ga. 


Albany. 


4,606 


2,903 






Greensboro. 


1,511 






Ky. 
Miss. 


Lebanon Junction. 
Westside. 


599 




"Beginning to do better." 


Md. 


Baltimore. 


508,957 


72,258 




Mo. 


Commerce. 


588 








St. Louis. 


575,238 


35,516 




N. Y. 


Troy and Albany. 


154,802 


1,578 


? (contradicted). 


N. C. 


Charlotte. 


18,091 


7,151 


Relatively to growth. 




Raleigh. 


13,646 


5,721 






Salisbury. 


6,277 


2,408 


"On the whole." 


0. 


Oberlin. 


4,082 


641 






Xenia. 


8,696 


1,988 






Cincinnati. 


325,902 


14,482 




Tenn. 


Columbia. 


6,052 


2,716 


Somewhat. 


Jackson. 


14,511 


6,108 


Proportionately. 




Maryville. 








Memphis. 


102,320 


49,910 






Nashville. 


80,865 


30,044 


"I think." 


Tex. 


Bryan. 


3,589 


1,515 






Dallas. 


42,638 


9,035 




Va. (Manchester. 


9,715 3,338 





NEGRO ARTISANS REPORTED TO BE HOLDING THEIR OWN 
NEITHER GAINING NOR LOSING. 



AND 



State 


Town | Total Pop. 


Negro Pop. | Remarks 


Fla. 


Pensacola. 17,747 


s.f>m 






St. Augustine. 4,272 


1,735 






Tampa. 


15,839 


4,382 




Ga. 


Savannah. 


54,244 


28,090 




Ky. 


Augusta. 
Louisville. 


39,441 
204,731 


18,487 
39,139 


Relatively, not absolutely. 


Mass. 


Boston. 


560,892 


11,591 




N.Y. 


New York. 


3,437,202 


60,666 




N. C. Goldsboro. 


5,877 


2,520 




Pa. ; Philadelphia. 1,293,697 


62,613 




Tenn. IJonesboro. 854 








Rogersville. 1,386 






Tex. Ennis. ! 4,919 


1,057 


"Standing still." 



In the villages and smaller towns of the South where there has been 
some industrial awakening the Negro artisan has advanced ; in others he 
is standing still or losing his place in the trades; in the larger Southern 
cities he has in some cases gained, in others lost. Much of this loss, 
however, is apparent and relative rather than absolute: when, for instance, 
Augusta, Ga., was a small town the Negroes did all the skilled work ; now 
that it is a growing manufacturing centre the Negroes do only a part of 
the skilled work ; nevertheless there are probably more skilled Negro arti 
sans in Augusta today than formerly, and they are following more diversi 
fied trades. This view is further borne out by the fact that a count of the 
Negro artisan ten or twenty years since by the defective, but nevertheless 
valuable testimony of the directories, proves in most cases that there is a 
larger number of artisans now than formerly. Tbere is good ground for 
assuming that in many cities like St. Louis, Mo., Charlotte, N. C., Balti 
more, Md., and Nashville, Tenn., relative retrogression on the part of the 
Negro artisan compared with the growth of the community, is neverthe- 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 153 

less absolute advance in numbers and skill so far as the Negro is concerned. 
This is not true in all cases but it certainly is in many. In the great 
Northern centres of industry, on the other hand, the Negro had no foot 
hold in the past and is gaining none at present save in some western 
communities. His great hindrance here, as at the South, is lack of skill 
and general training, but outside of that it is manifest that the black me 
chanic is meeting strong resistance on the part of organized labor; that 
in both South and North the trade union opposes black labor wherever it 
can and admits it to fellowship only as a last resort. 

53. The Negro and Organized Labor. It would be interesting to know if 
Crispus Attacks, the Negro who fell as the first martyr in the Revolution, 
was a member of that roistering band of rope walk hands whose rash 
ness precipitated the Boston Massacre. If so, then the Negro s 
connection with organized labor, like his connection with all other 
movements in the history of the nation, dates back to early times. 
There appeared, too, in early times that same opposition to 
Negro workingmen with which we are so familiar today.* This oppo 
sition came chiefly from the border states where the free Negro me 
chanics came in contact with white mechanics. On the other hand in the 
actual organizations of workingmen which began in the North nothing is 
usually heard of the Negro problem except as the labor movement avow 
edly made common cause w r ith the abolition movement. The Evans 
brothers, who came from England as labor agitators about 1825, put among 
their twelve demands: U 10th. Abolition of chattel slavery and of wages 
slavery. 1 ! From 1840 to 1850 labor reformers were, in many cases, earnest 
abolitionists ; as one of them said in 1847 : 

"In my opinion the great question of labor, when it shall come up, will be found 
paramount to all others, and the operatives of New England, peasant of Ireland and 
laborers of South America will not be lost sight of in sympathy for the Southern 
slave.":;: 

"Indeed, the anti-slavery agitation and the organization of the mechanics of the 
United States kept pace with each other; both were revolutionary in their character 
and although the agitators differed in methods, the ends in view were the same, viz. 
the freedom of the man who worked." || 

Along with this movement went many labor disturbances which had 
economic causes, especially the series of riots in Philadelphia from 1829 
until after the war. when the Negroes suffered greatly at the hands of 
white workingmen. " The civil war with its attendant evils bore heavily 
on the laboring classes, and led to wide-spread agitation and various at 
tempts at organization. 

"In New York City, especially, the draft was felt to be unjust by laborers because the 
wealthy could buy exemption for $300. A feeling of disloyalty to union and bitter- 



*Cf. pp. 15, Ifi. 

fEly; labor movement, p. 4-2. 
I McNeil!: Labor movement, pp. Ill, 113. 
Powderly: Thirty years of labor, p. 51. 
gThe Philadelphia Negro, ch. IV. 



154 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

ness toward the Negro arose. A meeting was called in Tammany Hall and Greeley 
addressed them. Longshoremen and railroad employees struck at times and assault 
ed non-unionists. In New York Negroes took the places of longshoremen and were 
assaulted. 11 * 

The struggle culminated in the three days riot which became a sort of 
local war of extermination against Negroes. 

There had been before the war a number of trade unions the Caulkers 
of Boston (1724), the Ship-wrights of New York (1803), the Carpenters of 
New York (1806), the New York Typographical Society (1817), and others. 
There had also been attempts to unite trades and working-men in general 
organizations as the Workingmen s Convention (1880), in New York, the 
General Trades Union of New York City, (1833 or earlier), the National 
Trades Union (1835) and others. In all these movements the Negro had 
practically no part and was either tacitly or in plain words excluded from 
all participation. The trade unions next began to expand from local to 
national bodies. The journeymen printers met in 1850 and formed a na 
tional union in 1852; the iron molders united in 1859, the machinists the 
same year, and the iron workers the year before. During and soon after 
the war the railway unions began to form and the cigar makers and 
masons formed their organizations; nearly all of these excluded the Ne 
gro from membership. 

After the war attempts to unite all workingmenand to federate the trade 
unions were renewed and following the influence of the Emancipation 
Proclamation a more liberal tone was adopted toward black men. On 
Aug. 19, 1866, the National Labor Union said in its declaration : 

"In this hour of the dark distress of labor, \ve call upon all laborers of what ever 
nationality, creed or color, skilled or unskilled, trades unionist and those now out of 
union to join hands with us and each other to the end that poverty and all its at 
tendant evils shall be abolished forever."t 

On Aug. 19, 1867, the National Labor Congress met at Chicago, Illinois. 
There were present 200 delegates from the states of North Carolina, Ken 
tucky, Maryland and Missouri. The president, Z. C. Whatley, in his re 
port said among other things: 

"The emancipation of the slaves has placed us in a new position, and the question 
now arises, What labor position shall they now occupy ? They will begin to learn 
and to think for themselves, and they will soon resort to mechanical pursuits and 
thus come in contact with white labor. It is necessary that they should not under 
mine it, therefore the best thing that they can do is to form trades unions, and thus 
work in harmony with the whites. "J 

It was not, however, until the organization of the Knights of Labor that 
workinginen began effective co-operation. The Knights of Labor was 
founded in Philadelphia in 1869 and held its first national convention in 
1876. It was for a long time a secret organization, but it is said that from 
the first it recognized no distinctions of u race, creed or color. "|| 

-McNeill, p. 126. 
tMcNeill, p. 162. 
JMcXeill, p. im. 
ill owderly. p. 42tt. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 155 

Nevertheless admission must in all cases be subject to a vote of the 
local assembly where the candidate applied, and at first it required but 
three black balls to reject an applicant. This must have kept Northern 
Negroes out pretty effectively in most cases. On the other hand the 
shadow of black competition began to loom in the horizon. Most people 
expected it very soon and the Negro exodus of 1879 gave widespread alarm 
to labor leaders in the North. Evidence of labor movements in the South 
too gradually appeared and in 1880 the Negroes of New Orleans struck for 
a dollar a day but were suppressed by the militia. 

Such considerations led many trade unions, notably the iron and steel 
workers and the cigar makers, early in the eighties, to remove "white" 
from their membership restrictions and leave admittance open to Negroes 
at least in theory. The Knights of Labor also began proselyting in the 
South and by 1885 were able to report from Virginia: 

"The Negroes are with us heart and soul, and have organized seven assemblies in 
this city (Richmond) and one in Manchester with a large membership."* 

So, too, the Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners said about 1886 that 
they had Negro unions as far South as New Orleans and Galveston: 

"In the Southern States the colored men working at the trades have taken hold of 
the organization with avidity, and the result is the Brotherhood embraces 14 unions 
of colored carpenters in the South."t 

Even the anarchists of this time (1883) declared for u equal rights for all 
without distinction to sex or race."} By 1886, the year u of the great up 
rising of labor, 1 the labor leaders declared that u the color line had been 
broken, and black and white were found working together in the same 
cause. "|| That very year, however, at the Richmond meeting of the 
Knights of Labor, ominous clouds arose along the color line. District 
Assembly 49 of New York had brought along a Negro delegate, Mr. F. J. 
Ferrell, and he was the source of much trouble in the matter of hotels and 
theatres and in a question of introducing to the convention Governor 
Fit/hugh Lee. Mr. Powderly had to appeal to the chief of police for pro 
tection, the press of the nation was aroused and the Grand Master Work 
man issued a defense of his position in the Richmond Dispatch: 

"You stand face to face with a stern living reality a responsibility which cannot 
be avoided or shirked. The Negro question is as prominent today as it ever was. The 
first proposition that stares us in the face is this : The Negro is free ; he is here and 
he is here to stay. He is a citizen and must learn to manage his own affairs. His 
labor and that of the white man will be thrown upon the market side by side, and no 
human eye can detect a difference between the article mannfactured by the black me 
chanics and that manufactured by the white mechanics. Both claim an equal share 
of the protection afforded to American labor, and both mechanics must sink their 
differences or fall a prey to the slave labor now being imported to this country. * * * 

"Will it be explained to me whether the black man should continue to work for 
starvation wages? With so many able-bodied colored men in the South who do not 



*Ely, p. 83. 

fMcNeill, p. 171. 

{Manifesto o International Working People s Association, anarchists blacks : Powderly, p.693. 

UMcNeill, p.360. 



156 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

know enough to ask for living wages it is not hard to guess that while this race con 
tinues to increase in number and ignorance, prosperity will not even knock at the 
door, much less enter the home of the Southern laborer." ****** 

"In the field of labor and American citizenship we recognize no line of race, creed, 
politics or color."* 

This was high ground for a labor leader to take too high, in fact, for 
the constituency he led, since the history of the labor movement from 1886 
to 1902, so far as the Negro is concerned, has been a gradual receding from 
the righteous declarations of earlier years. 

The Knights of Labor, after a brilliant career, having probably at one 
time over half a million members, began to decline owing to internal dis- 
sentions and today have perhaps 50,000-100,000 members. t Coincident with 
the decline of the Knights of Labor came a larger and more successful 
movement the American Federation of Labor which has now nearly a 
million members. This organization was started in 1881 at a meeting of 
disaffected members of the Knights of Labor and others. From the be 
ginning this movement represented the particularistic trade union idea as 
against the all inclusive centralizing tendencies of the Knights. And al 
though the central administration has grown in power and influence in 
recent years, it is still primarily a federation of mutually independent 
and autonomous trade-unions, among which it strives to foster co-opera 
tion and mutual peace. The declared policy of such a body on the race 
question is of less importance than in the case of the Knights of Labor, 
since it is more in the nature of advice than law to the different unions. 
The attitude of the Federation has been summed up as follows: 

"It has always been regarded as one of the cardinal principles of the Federation 
that the working people must unite and organize, irrespective of creed, color, sex, 
nationality or politics. The Federation formerly refused to admit any union which, 
in its written constitution, excluded Negroes from membership. It was this that kept 
out the International Association of Machinists for several years, till it eliminated 
the word white from its qualifications for membership. J It was said at one time 
that the color line was the chief obstacle in an affiliation of the Brotherhood of Lo 
comotive Firemen with the Federation. The Federation seems, however, to have 
modified the strictness of the rule. The Railroad Telegraphers and Trackmen have 
both been welcomed and both restrict their membership to whites. 

"In a considerable degree the color line has been actually wiped out in the affiliated 
organizations. Great Unions controlled by Northern men have insisted in Southern 
cities on absolute social equality for their colored members. Many local unions re 
ceive whites and blacks on equal terms. Where the number of Negroes is large, how 
ever, national unions usually organize their white and their colored members into 
separate locals. In 1898 the Atlanta Federation of Trades declined to enter the peace 
jubilee parade because colored delegates were excluded. 

"The convention of 1897 adopted a resolution condemning a reported statement of 
Booker T. Washington that the trades unions were placing obstacles in the way of 



*A Richmond lady wrote inviting Mr. Powdcrly to replace her black coachman "as you are so 

much in sympathy with the Negro." 

Powderly, pp. 651-62. 

Public Opinion, II p. 1. 

tReport of Industrial Commission, Vol. XVII. p. XIX. 
JAs a matter of fact it practically excludes Negroes still. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 157 

the material advancement of the Negro, and reaffirming the declaration of the Fed 
eration that it welcomes to its ranks all labor without regard to creed, color, sex, race 
or nationality. One delegate from the South declared, however, that the white people 
of the South would not submit to the employment of the Negro in the mills, and that 
the federal labor union of which he was a member did not admit Negroes. President 
Gompers said that a union affiliated with the Federation had no right to debar the 
Negro from membership. 

"With increasing experience in the effort to organize the wage earners of the South r 
the leaders have become convinced that for local purposes separate organizations of 
the colored people must be permitted. President Gompers said in his report to the 
convention of 1900, that here and there a local had refused to accept membership on 
account of color. In such cases where there were enough colored workers in one 
calling, an effort had been made to form a separate colored union, and a trades coun 
cil composed of representatives of the colored and the white. This had generally 
been acquiesced in. In some parts of the South, however, a more serious difficulty 
had arisen. Central bodies chartered by the Federation had refused to receive dele 
gates from local unions of Negroes. The Federation had not been able to insist that 
they be received, because such insistence would have meant the disruption of the 
central bodies. President Gompers suggested that separate central bodies composed 
of Negroes be established where it might seem practicable and necessary. The con 
vention accordingly amended the constitution to permit the executive council to 
charter central labor unions, as well as local trade and federal unions, composed ex 
clusively of colored members."* 

The attitude of the American Federation of Labor may be summed up 
as having passed through the following stages: 

1. "The working people must unite and organize irrespective of creed, color, sex, 
nationality or politics." 

This was an early declaration but was not embodied in the constitution. 
It was reaffirmed in 1897, after opposition. Bodies confining member 
ship to whites were barred from affiliation. 

2. "Separate charters may be issued to Central Labor Unions, Local Unions or 
Federal Labor Unions composed exclusively of colored members." 

This was adopted by the convention of 1902 and recognizes the legality 
of excluding Negroes from local unions, city central labor bodies, &c. 

3. A National Union which excludes Negroes expressly by constitutional pro 
vision may affiliate ivith the A. F. L. 

No official announcement of this change of policy has been made, but 
the fact is well known in the case of the Railway Trackmen, Telegraphers, 
and others. 

4. A National Union already affiliated with the A. F. L. may amend its laics so 
as to exclude Negroes. 

This was done by the Stationary Engineers* at their Boston convention 
in 1902, and an (unsuccessful ?) attempt in the same line was made by the 
Holders at their convention the same year. The A. F. L. has taken no 
public action in these cases, i 



*RejX)r7of^Edgerton & Durand in Report of Industrial Commission, Vol. 17, pp. 36-7. 

+"The stationary Engineers are organized under the International Union of Steam Engineers," 

Frank Morrison Sec. A. F. L., Dec. 22, 1902. The Steam Engineers are affiliated with the A.F.L. 
iThP ibove statement has been submitted to the President of the American Federation of Labor for 
1 crittalsm U to the time of printing this page no reply has been received, it one is received 

later it will be printed as an appendix. 



158 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



This is a record of struggle to maintain high and just ideals and of retro 
gression ; the broader minded labor leaders, like Samuel Gompers, have had 
to contend with narrow prejudice and selfish greed; it is a struggle paral 
lel with that of the Negro for political and civil rights, and just as black Amer 
icans in the struggle upward have met temporary defeat in their aspira 
tions for civil and political rights so, too,they have met rebuff in their search 
for economic freedom. At the same time there are today probably a larger 
number of effective Negro members in the trade unions than ever before, 
there is evidence of renewed inspiration toward mechanical trades and a 
better comprehension of the labor movement. On the other hand the in 
dustrial upbuilding of the South has brought to the front a number of 
white mechanics, who from birth have regarded Negroes as inferiors and 
can with the greatest difficulty be brought to regard them as brothers in 
this battle for better conditions of labor. Such are the forces now arrayed 
in silent conflict. 

If we carefully examine the various trade unions now in existence, we 
may roughly divide them as follows: 

1. Those with a considerable Negro membership. 

2. Those with few Negro members. 

3. Those with no Negro members. 

The first two of these classes may be divided into those who receive Ne 
groes freely, those to whom Negroes never apply, and those who receive 
Negro workmen only after pressure. 



54. Unions with a Considerable Negro Membership.* 
follows : 



These unions are as 



Trade Unions 


Negro M 
m*T 


embership 
~~1900 


Total Membership 
1901 


Journeymen Barbers International Union 


200 


800 


8,672 


International Brick, Tile and Terra-Cotta 








Workers Alliance. 


50 


200 


1,500 


International Broom-makers Union. 






380 


United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners 




1,000 


20,000 


Carriage and Wagon Workers International 








Union. 


240 


500 


2,025 


Cigar-makers International Union. 






33,954 


Coopers International Union. 




200 


4,481 


International Brotherhood of Stationary 








Firemen. 





2,700 


3,600 


International Longshoremen s Association. 


1,500 


6,000 


20,000 


United Mine Workers of America. 




20,000 


224,000 


Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Pa 








per-hangers of America. 


33 


169 


28,000 


International Seamen s Union. 






8,161 


Tobacco Workers International Union. 


1,500 


1,000 


6,170 


Brotherhood of Operative Plasterers. 






7,000 


Bricklayers and Masons Union. 






39,000 



These unions represent the trades in which the Negro on emerging from 
slavery possessed the most skill, i. e., the building trades, work in tobacco, 
and work requiring muscle and endurance. Most of these unions deny any 



figures as to Negro membership are reported to us by the unions. The figures as to total 
membership are minimum estimates made by the A. F. L. and based on actual fees paid. See 
Report of Industrial Commission. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 159 

color-discrimination, although the secretary of the carpenters merely says, 
"None that I know of;" the carriage and wagon workers: u None that has 
been reported; 1 the coopers: "If any, it was many years ago;" and the 
painters secretary: "I do not know." The carpenters and coopers both 
admit that local unions could refuse to receive Negroes, and the carpen 
ters and plasterers are not certain that the travelling card of a Negro 
union man would be recognized by all local unions. 

The following note in the barbers official journal throws light on the 
situation in that craft : 

"At a previous convention of our International Union a resolution was passed, call 
ing upon our General Organizer to make a special effort to organize our colored crafts 
men in the South. To-day we have, at a fair estimate, about eight or nine hundred 
colored members. My experience with them, both as General Secretary-Treasurer and 
President of a local, has shown that when they become members they at once become 
earnest and faithful workers. I find, however, that during the past term an unusual 
amount of friction has taken place in the South and that some of our white mem 
bers, who still have the southern objection to a colored man, have sought to bring 
about class division. It is, of course, known to all of us, that the labor movement 
does not recognize class, creed, or color; that the black man with a white heart and 
a true trade union spirit is just as acceptable to us as a white member. Hundreds of 
letters have reached me asking if the colored man could not be kept out of the union. 
In every case I have answered that if he is a competent barber our laws say that he 
must be accepted. If below the so-called Mason and Dixon line where the color line 
is still drawn, they have the right to form them into separate unions, if above that 
line they can join any local. 

"A question of tlie color line, and one which must be acted on in some way by this 
convention, is the trouble now existing in Little Rock, Ark. Bro. Pinard was in that 
city in February of last year and organized a union of colored craftsmen. No white 
union could be formed as they would not attend a meeting. In October following, 
however, a white union was formed. From that time on there has been trouble. The 
whites want to control the situation and want our colored local to adopt their laws. 
The colored local, however, was organized first and refused. This has brought on a 
heated correspondence and when the photo of delegates was asked for, the delegate 
from the white union stated distinctly that his photo must not appear near any 
colored man, as lie was a white man and must not be placed near any burly Negro. 
In a number of places be refers to them as black demons. I know nothing definite 
as to their trouble, as it is a question of law and as such comes under the jurisdiction 
of the General President, but I felt that as No. 197 is a union in good standing in the 
International they were entitled to protection." 

The trouble is not confined to the South ; in Northern cities barbers are 
sometimes refused admittance into unions, and one secretary in Pennsyl 
vania writes: 

"We have to recognize them to hold our prices and short hours, but we find it very 
hard to get along with them." 

The Negro membership seems, however, to be increasing rapidly and 
members are reported in nearly every state. 

The secretary of the brick-makers writes: 

"We have had a number of strikes where the colored man was imported to take the 
place of any man, therefore, there is more or less prejudice against them but we hope 
that will be removed in time." 



160 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

They have but few of the large number of colored brick-makers. 
The secretary of the broom-makers writes: 

"I am informed that some organizations refuse membership to the Negro. 1 con 
sider it a serious mistake, as white labor cannot expect the Negro to refrain from 
taking their place unless we will assist him in bettering his condition." 

Nine-tenths of the black membership of the carpenters is in the South 
and mostly organized in separate unions from the whites. In the North 
there are very few in the unions; there are a few in the West. In great 
cities like Washington, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, New York 
and even Boston it is almost impossible for a Negro to be admitted to the 
unions, and there is no appeal from the decision. 

The cigar-makers is one of the few unions that allows its locals little 
discretion as to membership: 

"Our constitution makes it obligatory on the part of local unions to accept jour 
neymen cigar makers as members. Any journeyman cigar maker who has served 
three years at the trade can come in, and by paying his initiation fee in installments, 
if he wants to, he is regarded as having been initiated. It requires no vote ; the con 
stitution makes it mandatory." 

Colored cigar makers can be found in small numbers in nearly all 
Northern cities and in large numbers in the South. Florida alone re 
ports 2,000. 

The secretary of the coopers writes : 

"We have local branches composed entirely of colored coopers at Egan, Ga., Nor 
folk and Lynchburg, Va. At New Orleans, Hawkinsville, Ga., and other places they 
work together in the same local union." 

Practically no Negroes have been admitted to Northern unions Tren 
ton, N. J., alone reporting a single union Negro. -r? 

The stationary firemen in 1899 requested the St. Louis union to stop color 
discrimination and they have organized a number of Negro locals, espec 
ially in the mining regions. They assert that Negroes are received in all 
locals and this would seem to be so in most cases. 

Among the longshoremen, who may be classed as semi-skilled 
artisans, the Negro element is very strong. From the great lakes a secre 
tary reports : 

"We have many colored members in our association, and some of them are among 
our leading officials of our local branches. In one of our locals that I can call to 
mind there are over 300 members, of which five are colored; of these two hold the 
office of President and Secretary ; so you can see that nothing but good feeling pre 
vails among our members as regards the colored race, and when you consider that 
our people average fifty cents per hour when at work, you can readily imagine that 
our people are not half-starved and illiterate." 
From the gulf another writes : 

"In New Orleans we have been the means of unity of action among the longshore 
men generally of that port, both in regards to work, wages and meeting in hall to 
gether. I believe that we are the only craft in that city who have succeeded in 
wiping out the colored question. Our members meet jointly in the same hall and are 
the highest paid workmen in New Orleans." 
Still the color question arises here and there : 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 161 

"In 1899 a color line difficulty arose among the longshoremen of Newport News, Va. 
The local unions there of longshoremen were composed entirely of colored men. 
White men refused to join them. The colored men were finally persuaded to consent 
to the issue of a separate charter for the white men." 

The membership of Negroes is very large; Florida alone reports 800; 
Detroit, Mich., 60, and large numbers in Virginia, Louisiana and Texas. 

The United Mine Workers receive Negroes into the same unions with 
whites, both North and South ; Secretary Pearce testified before the Indus 
trial Commission : 

"As far as we are concerned as miners, the colored men are with us in the mines. 
They work side by side with us. They are members of our organization ; can receive 
as much consideration from the officials of the organization as any other members, 
no matter what color. We treat them that way. They are in the mines, many of them 
good men. There is only one particular objection, and that is they are used to a 
great extent in being taken from one place to another to break a strike, as we call it, 
in such cases as we have here now at Pana, where this trouble is going on, and that 
trouble they had at Virden, 111." 

In the Alabama mines, 50% of the miners are black, still the whites are 
said to 

"Recognize as a matter of necessity they were forced to recognize the identity of 
interest. I suppose among miners, the same as other white men in the South, there 
are the same class differences, but they have been forced down, so that they must raise 
the colored man up or they go down, and they have consequently mixed together in 
their organization. There are cases where^a colored man will be the officer of the. 
local union president of a local union." 

The state president of the Federation, however, reports considerable dis 
satisfaction on the part of the whites at the recognition of Negroes. Negro 
union miners are reportedinPennsylvania,WestVirginia,Alabama,Illinois r 
Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky and Missouri. There are also a few members of 
the Northern Mineral Mine Workers Progressive Union, a kindred organ 
ization operating in Michigan. 

The secretary of the painters union writes: 

"The only difficulty we find with Negroes is that there is a disposition on their part 
to work cheaper than the white man. This is due largely to want of education and 
the influence of men of their own race who are opposed to the Trades Union move 
ment. The Trades Union movement is the only movement that will ever settle the 
Negro question in America, and men who are interested in the advancement of the 
Negroes should thoroughly investigate the whole question of Trades Unionism, as it 
relates to the Negro and the working people in general." 

There would seem to be other difficulties, however, as there are almost 
no colored union painters in the North one or two being reported in 
Portland, Me., Cincinnati, O., and Trenton, N. J. They seem to be pretty 
effectually barred out of the Northern unions, and in the South they are 
formed usually, if not always, into separate unions. Florida reports a con 
siderable number, but there are not many reported elsewhere. 

The secretary of the seamen writes: 

"We are exerting every effort to get the Southern Negroes into the union at pres 
ent, and if we can once convince them that they will have an opportunity for employ 
ment equal to the white man I believe that we can succeed. We have nearly all the 



162 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

Portuguese Negroes in the union at present. And they get the same wages as the 
white men, and the same opportunity for employment. The Negro seaman is now be 
coming a menace to the white seaman since the ship owner is endeavoring to use him 
against the union to break down wages, and they take the pains to impress on their 
minds that if they join the union and demand the same wages as the white men they 
will not be given employment. The Negro seaman being somewhat more illiterate 
than his white brother believes this, rather than believe us. We may in time be able 
to convince them that this is not so, but at present it is an uphill fight. The most of 
the colored sailing out of New York are union men and we have increased their pay 
from $16 and $18 to $25 and $30. Our worst ports are Philadelphia, Baltimore and 
Norfolk." 

The following quotation from the testimony of the secretary of the 
tobacco workers is characteristic of the labor union attitude : 

"Probably one of our greatest obstacles will be the colored labor, for it is largely 
employed in the manufacture of tobacco in the South. It is pretty difficult to edu 
cate them to the necessity of organization for the protection of their interests. In 
the South I suppose 75% in the tobacco business are colored, although there are a 
number of white people it seems, going in from the country to work in the factories, 
as I have been told. A number of manufacturers told me they did employ and would 

employ one wherever they could, either male or female 

"There was one colored tobacco workers union organized in Winston but the white 
men resisted the organization and I do not think it succeeded. I do not think there 
is any colored organization in the state now."* 

Opposition on the part of Southern white workmen, and the eagerness 
of union organizers to replace Negro by white laborers explains the diffi 
culty of extending the union movement and the justifiably suspicious 
attitude of Negroes toward it. The tobacco workers constitution especially 
prohibits color distinctions, but separate locals are organized. The colored 
union men are chiefly in Kentucky, Virginia and the Carolinas. 

The plasterers have a good number of Negro members. In Memphis, 
Birmingham, Atlanta, Richmond, Danville, Savannah and New Orleans 
they are said to outnumber the whites, and in the South there are some "in 
most, if not in all, of our locals." They are scarce in the North, however, 
2 being reported in Pennsylvania, 1 in Massachusetts, and a score or more 
in Illinois. The Southern unions are often mixed. 

The masons and bricklayers also have a large Negro membership in the 
South and often in mixed unions. Considerable numbers are reported in 
Texas, Tennessee, Virginia, Louisiana and South Carolina; there are some 
200 in Florida, and at least that number in Georgia, and probably in Ala 
bama. In the North, however, it is very difficult for Negroes to enter the 
unions. The First General Vice-President of the National Building 
Trades Council testified before the Industrial Commission that "we do 
not permit" Negroes to join our organization in the city of Washington 
"we do not admit colored men to our organization." He said, however, 
that the national organization "does not prohibit colored men from be 
coming members"! and that there were members in some other cities. A 
Negro bricklayer and plasterer of St. Mary s, Ga., who has long worked 



*Report Industrial Commission, Vol. 7. pp. 405, 497; Vol. 17, p. 
i Report of Industrial Commission, Vol. 7, pp. ]6 2-8. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 163 

as foreman, and can read and write, has travelled over a large part of the 
country. Although he had his union travelling card he was refused work 
and recognition in Tampa, Fla., Norfolk, Va., Washington, D. C., Balti 
more, Md., and New York City. He was allowed to work in Boston and 
Chicago and most other Southern towns. In Cincinnati, a report says: 

"We have some colored bricklayers here but those that work on buildings with 
union men and who belong to the unions are men so fair in complexion as not to be 
noticed, among sun-burned and brick dust covered white men, as colored men. I 
have a distinct recollection of an experience I had with a black bricklayer who came 
to this city in 1893, from Chicago. He was a member of a union there and worked 
with white men in that city. He came to Cincinnati with a band of white brick 
layers who vouched for him. They were given, by the local union here, union cards 
and immediately got work. He, the black man, was kept dancing attendance on the 
master of the local union and delayed upon one pretext and other until he was driven 
from the city without being permitted to follow his trade because the local union did 
not give him his card. I was remodeling a building of ours and I gave him work as 
a plasterer. The union hod carrier, an Irishman, refused to carry mortar for him be 
cause he did not have a card from the local plasterers union as a plasterer. He was 
compelled to work as a scab to get money enough to get out of town."* 

The Knights of Labor claim 6,000 Negro members at present, and 8,000 
in 1890, a decrease of 25 per cent. This report came too late for insertion 
in the table. 

To sum up we may make the following list in the order of increasing 
hostility toward the Negro : 

Miners Welcome Negroes in nearly all casses. 

Longshoremen Welcome Negroes in nearly all cases. 

Cigar-makers Admit practically all applicants. 

Barbers Admit many, but restrain Negroes when possible. 

Seamen Admit many, but prefer whites. 

Firemen Admit many, but prefer whites. 

Tobacco Workers Admit many, but prefer whites. 

Carriage and Wagon Workers Admit some, but do not seek Negroes. 

Brick-makers 

Coopers 

Broom-makers 

Plasterers Admit freely in South and a few in North. 

Carpenters Admit many in South, almost none in North. 

Masons 

Painters Admit a few in South, almost none in North. 

The evidence on which the above is based cannot all be given here; it 
is, however, pretty conclusive: there are, for instance, numbers of compe 
tent Negro painters, carpenters and masons yet who has seen one at 
work in a Northern city? There are numbers of brick-makers, wheel 
wrights and coopers, but few have been brought into the unions and in the 
North few can get in. The seamen, firemen and tobacco workers have 
many Negroes, but Negroes fear to join them lest, by demanding union 
wages, their white fellow-workmen will hasten to supplant them. This 
has" 5 virtually been admitted by labor leaders and others. A South Caro 
lina employer says that among bricklayers of equal skill Negroes receive 
$1.75 and whites $2.50 a day and "the object of the white men in organizing 
the Negroes is to get them to demand the same wages that the whites de- 



*R jport of Mr. Guo. II. Jackson. 



164 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



mand." Messrs. Garrett and Houston, President and Secretary of the 
Georgia Federation, confirm this, as do many others, and the Secretary of 
the Southern Industrial Convention adds: u There is discrimination even 
in the union. The white members try to get employment for each other 
and to crowd out the colored members." The same thing occurs in the 
North ; now and then a Negro is admitted to a union but even then he 
stands less chance of getting work than a white man.* 



55. Unions with Few Negro Members: 
port a few Negro members : 



The following national unions re- 



Trade Unions | Negro Membership 


Total Membership! 


Journeymen Bakers and Confectioners In 
ternational Union 


"Several." 
"Very few." 

100 or more. 
A few. 
12. 

A few. 
4. 

"Several." 
A few 1 local. 
10. 
5. 
Very few. 

9 

100. 
"Practically none." 

2 locals. 
"Some." 

A few. 

? 
A few 1 local. 
10. 

10. 
A few. 

1. 
25-50? 
? 

5-10. 


6,271 
4,700 

8,037 
25,000 

2,500 
950 
1,779 
4,409 
15,000 
6,500 
7,500 

2,100 

10,962 
8,000 
3,066 
4,500 
2,400 

8,100 
9,000 

3,000 
38,991 

285 

14,500 
4,000 


International Brotherhood of Blacksmiths 
National Association of Blast Furnace 
Workers and Smelters of America 
Boot and Shoe Workers Union 
National Union of United Brewery Workers 
Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and 
Joiners % 


National Society of Coal Hoisting Engineers 
Amalgamated Society of Engineers . 


International Union of Steam Engineers. . . 
United Garment Workers of America 
C4ranite Cutters National Union 
United Hatters of America 
International Union of Horse Shoers of 
United States and Canada 


Hotel and Eestaurant Employees Interna 
tional Alliance and Bartenders Interna 
tional League of America 


Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel 
and Tin Workers 
Shirt, Waist and Laundry Workers Inter 
national Union. . . . 


Tube Workers International Union 
Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher 
Workmen of North America 
International Association of Allied Metal 
Mechanics 


American Federation of Musicians 
Jonrneymen Tailors Union of America. . . . 
National Alliance of Theatrical Stage Em 
ployees 
International Typographical Union 
Watch-case Engravers International Asso 
ciation 


Wood, Wire and Metal Lathers Interna 
tional Union 
Amalgamated Wood workers International 
Union of America. 


Amalgamated Association of Street Rail 
way Employees. 





* Possibly the hod-carriers ought to be mentioned under this division as semi-skilled laborers. They 
have a predominating Negro membership in all parts of the country, but have no national 
association. The local bodies are usually associated with the various city central labor bodies. 
The teamsters have a national body and many Negro members. 

fBased mainly on actual paid membership tax Cf. Report Industrial Commission: Vol. 17. 

JNot the same as the Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, but a smaller independent body allied 
with English unions as well as with the A. F. L. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 165 

The small Negro membership in these unions arises from two causes: 
the lack of Negro mechanics in these lines, and color discrimination. 
Probably the first is the more important in the case of boot and shoe 
makers, brewers, granite cutters, hatters, metal workers, watch-case en 
gravers and metal lathers. In these cases the real discrimination is in 
keeping Negroes from learning the trades. In the case of most of the 
other unions, however, especially blacksmiths, blast-furnace workers, en 
gineers, horse-shoers, hotel employees, iron and steel workers, musicians, 
street railway employees and printers, the chief cause of the small num 
ber of Negroes in the unions is color discrimination. Without doubt in- 
competency plays some part here, too, but it is doubtful if it is the lead 
ing cause. The granite cutters say that employers do not care to employ 
Negro apprentices, hence the few Negro journeymen." The steam en 
gineers say through their secretary : 

"The Trade Union movement is based upon the broadest lines and recognizes that 
every wage worker ought to be within its ranks. There is, of course, an unfortunate 
feature, one that will take time and education to remove, and that is the biased opin 
ion held in regard to the Negro. Our organization grants charters to Negroes when 
same is requested and there are a sufficient number of them to support a self-sustain 
ing local. We have some difficulty with the accepting of a card when presented by a 
Negro but headquarters has always taken action in the matter and endeavored to 
have the card recognized." 

The prejudiced element prevailed, however, at the last meeting in Boston, 
1902, of the Stationary Engineers (an organization formed under the Steam 
Engineers,) and it was voted to have the word "white" placed before the 
word "engineers" in one of the articles of their constitution. The motion 
was made by a Mr. Grant of New Orleans, and was the cause of a most 
passionate debate. The vote was carried by a large majority, but not un 
til there had been many strong speeches, the Southerners of course taking 
the affirmative and the Northerners opposing. Mr. Grant said that if the 
association granted "the Negro this social equality he did not deserve," 
it would lose all standing in the South, and that the Negro belonged in 
Africa. Mr. Optenberg of Wisconsin said if he voted to shut out the Ne 
gro he would be ashamed to look any Grand Army man in the face. Mr. 
Babbitt of Worcester said he knew colored engineers who deserved re 
spect and he would stand for the colored man. But when Mr. C. Eli 
Howarth of Fall River declared that there were men present whom he 
would rather discard than the Negro, he was hissed for a full minute, and 
the Southerners had their way. 

The secretary of the iron and steel workers thinks it is "only a question 
of time when it will be necessary to accord the Negro the same privileges 
as are extended to the white brethren." In the recent strike of steel em 
ployees against the Steel Trust the color line was broken for the first time 
and Negroes invited into the union. Few, if any, seem to have entered. 

The hotel employees and bartenders have spent $525 "in a futile effort 
to organize colored locals," no Negro being allowed in a white local. "The 
main objection from our membership against Negroes appears to come 
from locals in the southern part of the country." The printers usually 



166 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

exclude Negroes; there are a few individual exceptions here and there, 
but not many. The secretary of the Atlanta Federation of Trades when 
asked if the printers there barred Negroes said: U I cannot answer that; 
we have no colored typographical men in the South that I know of." 
There are from 50 to 100 black printers in Georgia alone. 

The metal lathers report a few members in Birmingham, Savannah, 
Asheville, Augusta, Memphis, Nashville and Jacksonville, but none in 
the North. Three colored shoemakers are reported. There was a local in 
New Orleans which barred Negroes but this is now defunct. The meat 
handlers have colored members in Kansas City and Boston. In the latter 
city they took part in the strike of the freight handlers of last summer. 
In one local a Negro has held office, and the last convention had several 
Negro delegates. The bookbinders say: u Some of our people refuse to 
recognize Negroes as mechanics," but there are no actual discriminating 
statutes. 

When asked how many Negro applicants had been refused admission to 
the unions, the Amalgamated carpenters, musicians, blacksmiths, street 
railway employees and brewers returned no answer; the engineers, granite 
cutters and glass workers were evasive, saying that they were without 
official data or did not know. Most of the others answered, u Noiie." 
Many acknowledged that local unions could refuse to recognize a travel 
ling card held by a Negro, although several said the action was "illegal." 

56. Unions with no Negro membership. The following unions report that 
they have no colored members : 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



167 



Total M mb rship* 



Brotherhood of Boilermakers and Iron Ship- 
International Brotherhood of Bookbinders 
International Association of Car Workers 
Chainmakers National Union of the U. S. A. 
Elastic Goring Weavers Amalgamated As 
sociation 

International Brotherhood of Electrical 

W T orkers v 

International Ladies Garment Workers 

Union 

American Flint Glass Workers Union. . . 
Glass Bottle Blowers Association. ......... 

Amalgamated Glass Workers International 

Association 

International Jewelry Workers Union of A. 

Amalgamated Lace Curtain Operatives 

United Brotherhood of Leather Workers on 

Horse Goods 

International Association of Machinists 

Metal Polishers, Buffers, Platers, Brass and 
Composition Metal Workers International I 

Union 

International Brotherhood of Oil and Gas 

AVell Workers 

United Brotherhood of Paper makers 

Pattern-makers League of North America . . . 
Piano and Organ Workers International 

Union of America 

United Associaiion of Journeymen Plumb 
ers, Gasfitters, Steamfitters, and Steamfit 
ters Helpers 

National Association of Operative Potters. . . 
International Printing Pressmen and Assist 
ants Union 

Order of Railway Telegraphers and Brother 
hood of Commercial Telegraphers 

Brotherhood of Railway Trackmen 

National Steel and Copper Plate Printers 

Union 

International Stereotypers and Electrotypers 

Union 

Stove Mounters, Steel Range Workers, and 
Pattern Fitters and Filers International 

Union of North America 

United Textile Workers of America 

Ceramic, Mozaic and Encaustic Tile Layers 

and Helpers International Union 

Trunk & Bag Workers International Union 
Upholsterers International Union of N. A. . 
The American Wire Weavers Protective As 
sociation 

International Wood-carvers Association.. 
Grand International Brotherhood of Loco 
motive Engineers 

Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen 

Brotherhood of Railway Car-men 

The Switchmen s Union of North America. . 

Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen 

Order of Railroad Conductors 

The Stone Cutters Association 

Special Order Clothing-makers Union 

D. A. 300, K. of L. (window glass workers). . . 
Custom Clothing Makers Union 



Not wanted." 
No record." 
None." 
None." 



Not allowed." 

"None in trade." 
"Never had any." 
"None in trade." 

"No applications." 
"None in trade." 
"Quest n undecided. 

"None." 

"Not admitted." 



None." 

None." 
None." 
None." 



"None." 
"None." 

"No record." 
Barred by constit t n 



known." 
Question not settled 



No legislation." 
No applications." 



None." 

Would not work 

with Negro." 
No applicants." 

Barred by constitut n 



Barred by constitut n 
Would not be ad tted 
Don t admit Negroes 

None." 

None." 

None." 



7,078 
3,730 

465 

250 

7,000 

2,000 

1,400 

27S 
1,000 



30,000 



670 
403 



8,000 
2,450 

9,745 

8,000 
4,500 



1,269 
3,435 

357 

234 

1,400 

226 



37,000 
39,000 

15,000 
15.000 
25,800 
10,000 



*Based mainly on actual paid membership tax. Cf. Report Industrial Commission, Vol. 17. 



168 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

These unions fall into three main groups: those who say that they ad 
mit Negroes but have no Negro members; these include the goring 
weavers, trunk workers, tile layers, leather workers, metal workers, 
plumbers, plate printers, car workers, paper workers, oil well workers, 
ladies garment workers, special order clothing workers, chair makers, 
upholsterers and piano workers. Their explanation is that no Negroes work 
at these trades and they consequently have no applications. This is true 
except in the case of plumbers and upholsterers. The plumbers have a 
semi-secret organization and there can be no doubt that they practically 
never admit a Negro, although one Negro member is reported in Flint, 
Mich. The organizer says that most Negroes are incompetent. 

"Such Negroes as have shown a greater ability than others have usually found their 
way into a small business and are patronized by the Negro residents of our Southern 
cities. There is no general law in our organization to exclude Negroes but as before 
stated none have ever joined and to the best of my knowledge but one has ever made 
application to us." 

A prominent official of the chain makers reports that they had 6 Negro 
members in 1901, but that they refused to strike which "naturally would 
cause hard feelings." The general secretary of the metal workers thinks 
"there would be no difficulty in initiating a colored metal worker into one 
of our local unions," but adds "I am speaking from a personal standpoint 
on this question. There is no doubt but what we have some members who 
are prejudiced against the Negro." 

The second class of unions is those which are undecided or non-com 
mittal on the Negro question. These are the various glass workers, the 
potters, stove-mounters, jewelry workers, wood carvers, textile workers, 
stereotypers and electrotypers, printing pressmen, metal polishers, steam 
fitters and lace curtain operatives. As no Negroes work at most of these 
trades the question of their admission has not been raised or decided. 
The textile workers are exceptions and have very clearly drawn the color 
line, North and South, although they do not acknowledge it. The Negroes 
working at the trade have never been allowed to join the union, and the 
attempt to introduce Negro mill labor in Atlanta a few years ago so 
strengthened the Textile Union in the South that "it is doubtful whether 
in the future a Southern cotton mill can employ any Negro labor unless 
it is ready to employ all Negro labor."* There appear to be one or two 
printing pressmen in Rhode Island and Illinois. 

The last class of unions includes those who openly bar the Negro. 
These are the great railway unions the engineers, firemen, telegraphers, 
car men, switchmen, train men, track men, and conductors; and the stone 
cutters, machinists, electrical workers, boiler makers, and wire weavers. 
The editor of the organ of the engineers attributes the exclusion of the 
Negro to the prejudices of Southern engineers, but thinks that most of 
their fellows agree with them. Mr. E. E. Clark, Grand Chief Conductor 
and member of the Coal Strike Arbitration Commission, writes: 



Outlook, Vol. 56, p. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 16 

"I think wherever any opposition to the colored race on the part of organized labor 
is manifesced, it can generally be traced to the fact that colored men are always wil 
ling to work for wages which white men cannot, and should not be asked, to work for." 

The Grand Master of the Trainmen says: 

"The Brotherhood has no plans for the organization of colored men employed in 
railway occupations. Some ideas have lately been proposed along these lines, but as 
yet they have not met with any general favor among our membership." 

Mr. John T. Wilson, president of the trackmen, was once addressing 
some Negroes in St. Louis on the advantages of unionism. They reminded 
him of the attitude of his union and he replied that 

"I was employed to execute laws, not to make them, and if they could see them 
selves as I saw them, they would not be surprised at my inability to annihilate race 
prejudices." 

And he added that 

"Concerted action on the part of practical and intelligent Negroes and white men 
of character who really desire to see the conditions of the down trodden masses im 
proved without regard to race, would eventually cause the white and Negro workmen 
to co-operate in industrial organization for their mutual advancement." 

The Negro locomotive firemen are still active competitors of the white, 
although forced to take lower wages and do menial work.* The Commis 
sioner of Labor of North Carolina testified before the industrial commis 
sion that 

"The truth of it is, a great many engineers like Negro firemen best. They had Ne 
groes at first and are now only working white men in ; the white men are taking the 

place of Negroes A great many of the old engineers prefer Negro 

firemen. They treat them differently make them wait on them. The white man 
does not do that." 

The Grand Secretary of the Boiler-makers says: 

"There is not one man in this order that would present the application of a Negro 
for membership. This without laws forbidding him. Hence we have none. Being 
a Southern man myself, having lived 30 years in New Oilcans, I know that no Negro 
has worked at boiler making since the war." 

The secretary of the wire weavers says: 

"Our laws, up to a few years ago, provided that only white males were eligible, but it 
at present makes no distinction, but at the same time I am satisfied that our men 
would not work with a Negro. We work partners and coming in such contact with 
one another no white man would take a Negro for a partner. And I am frank enough 
to say that I don t think any of the men would allow a Negro to start at the trade." 

The International Association of Machinists was organized in 1888: 

"Almost alone among national labor organizations, excepting the railroad brother 
hoods, it put a clause in its constitution excluding colored men. It desired to join 
the American Federation of Labor, but the Federation refused at that time to admit 
unions whose constitutions recognized distinctions of color 

"At the Federation convention of 1892 the president of the Association of Machinists 
appeared before a committee of the Federation, expressed satisfaction with the action 
of the executive council, and stated that the next convention of the Machinsts Asso 
ciation would eliminate the color line from its constitution. It was not until 1895 
that affiliation with the Federation was finally effected."! 



*0f. p. 115. 

tReport Industrial Commission, Vol. 17, p. 217. 



170 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

Notwithstanding this the secretary of the Washington lodge writes us 
in 1899 "the Negro is not admitted to the International Association of 
Machinists," while the secretary of the National Union refused to answer 
questions as to the eligibility of black men. A labor leader when asked 
by the Industrial Commission if he had ever worked with a Negro ma 
chinist, answered: 

"No, sir; I never worked in a shop with a Negro as a machinist." 

"Would you not?" "No, sir; I would not." 

The president of Turner Brass Works tells how the machinists in his 
establishment objected to a colored workman, but the Negro u was so good 
natured and did his work so well" that he was permitted to stay but not 
to join the union. 

"Right there is my objection, and right there is my reason for declining to treat 
locallyjwith unions, because the men out of the union should have as good a right to 
employment as the men in the union. We do not ask them if they are Methodists or 
Democrats, or^whether they are Masons or union men. We ask them, Can you do 
this work! "* 

There may possibly be one or two Negroes in the machinists union in 
Boston. 

The secretary of the electrical workers reports: 

"I will state that we have no Negroes in our organization. We received an appli 
cation irom Jacksonville, Fla., but it was thrown down by our locals. We are in 
favor of the colored men organizing, but we believe that they should have locals of 
their own, and not mixed with the whites." 

In the Jacksonville case it is said that the local was granted a charter; 
then it was learned that they were colored and the charter was revoked. 
There are one or two Negro members in Massachusetts and New Jersey. 

The reasons adduced for discrimination against Negroes vary: 

"Unfit for the business." Telegraphers. 

"Not the equals of white men." Boiler-makers. 

Color." Electricians, Locomotive Firemen. 

"Race prejudice among the rank and file of our members." Trainmen. 

When asked if these objections would disappear in time, the answers 
were : 

"No." Locomotive Firemen. 

"Eventually ; co-operation will come." Trainmen. 

"We hope so." Electricians. 

"Not until prejudice in the South disappears." Engineers. 

"Time makes and works its own changes." Boiler-makers. 

"Think not." Telegraphers. 

Finally the Railway Educational Association writes: 

"Usually the railroad service is open from the top to the bottom for promotion to 
those who enter it, but your race seems to be discriminated against and barred from 
promotion. I understand that you are working on the idea that education is the 
power that must advance your race, and finally break down opposition to the prog 
ress of its members. In this you are surely right, although the time for the realiza 
tion of your hopes may be more distant than you expect." 



"Report of Industrial Commission Vol. 8, p. 38. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 171 

There are a number of unions from whom repeated inquiries secured no 
information, as, for instance, the bridge workers, core makers, table knife 
grinders, iron molders, paving cutters, tin plate workers, marble workers, 
lithographers and sheet metal workers. The addresses of others were not 
found in time, as the powder workers, brick makers, spinners, box makers, 
marine engineers and firemen, and stogie makers. Most of these, how 
ever, have none or very few Negroes, except possibly the core makers and 
molders, in which trades many Negroes are employed. In the last Toronto 
meeting of the molders, 1902, its is said that: 

"A warm discussion was precipitated in the iron molders convention this morning 
by a delegate from the South touching the admission of Negroes to the Iron Molders 
Union. The delegate thought they should be excluded, but those from the Northern 
States, ably assisted by the Canadian members, championed the Negro. They thought 
there should be no difference made. They objected to the making of a race question."* 

Repeated letters to the secretary of the molders as to the result of this 
proposal and the general attitude of the molders, have elicited only this 
response : 

"You will have to kindly excuse me from giving such matters any more of my 
time as I am very busy with my office work !" 

57. Local option in the choice of members. The general attitude of the 
Federation of Labor, and even of the National Unions, has little more 
than a moral effect in the admission of Negroes to trade unions. The 
present constitution of the Knights of Labor admits members "at the 
option of each local assembly. "t The real power of admission in nearly 
all cases rests with the local assemblies, by whose vote any person may be 
refused, and in a large number of cases a small minority of any local may 
absolutely bar a person to whom they object. The object of this is to keep 
out persons of bad character or sometimes incompetent workmen. In 
practice, however, it gives the local or a few of its members a monopoly of 
the labor market and a chance to exercise, consciously or unconsciously, 
their prejudices against foreigners, or Irishmen, or Jews, or Negroes. 

The following unions require a majority vote for admission to the locals: 

Boot and Shoe Workers. Amalgamated Engineers. 

Amalgamated Carpenters. Metal Polishers. 

Bottle Blowers. Stove Mounters. 

Glass Workers. Bakers. 

Wood Workers. Barbers. 

Coopers. Steam Engineers. 

Stogie-makers. Coal Hoisting Engineers. 

The wood workers, coal hoisting engineers, and coopers, require an ex 
amining committee in addition. 
The following require a two-thirds vote for admission to the locals : 

Brotherhood of Carpenters. Sheet Metal Workers. 

Painters. Pattern-makers. 

Tile Layers. Tin Plate Workers. 

Flint Glass Workers. Broom-makers. 
Iron and Steel Workers. 



"Toronto Star, July 9, 1902. 

fReport Industrial Commission, Vol. 17, p. 18. 



172 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

Nearly all these require also the favorable report of an examining com 
mittee. Among the iron and steel workers and tin plate workers two black 
balls can make a second election necessary. 

These unions require more than a two-thirds vote for admission : 

Electrical Workers, two-thirds vote, plus one, and examination. 

Holders, " " " " " 

Core-makers, 

Boiler-makers, three black balls reject. 

Blacksmiths, " two require second election. 

Street Railway Employees, three-fourths vote. 

Leather Workers, (horse goods), three black balls reject. 

The Typographical Union and printing pressmen and many others leave 
all questions of admission to the local unions absolutely, except that an 
appeal lies to the National Union. In nearly all cases save that of the 
cigar-makers the adverse vote of a local practically bars the applicant. 
It is here, and not, usually, in the constitutions of the National bodies, 
that the color line is drawn ruthlessly in the North. 

The colloquy between the Industrial Commission and the First General 
Vice President of the Building Trades Council brought this out with 
startling clearness : 

Question. "It seems to be true here that the local organization has the power to 
draw the color line absolutely, without regard to the qualifications of the applicant. 
To what extent does that power generally go with local organizations? Is it abso 
lute? Could it extend to a Roman nose, gray eyes, wart on the chin, or must it rest 
upon some reason? What is the law about it? 

Answer Such a condition might be possible, but not at all probable. 

Q. You mean that all those things rest absolutely upon the will of the local organ 
ization? 

A. Why, yes ; they rest upon the will of the majority."* 

In like manner the methods regulating apprenticeship militate against 
Negroes in nearly all the trades. Many unions, like the hatters, trunk 
makers, printers, stone cutters, glass workers, and others, limit the num 
ber of apprentices according to the journeymen at work. Very often, as 
in the case of the hatters, the union prescribes the terms of apprentice 
ship and oversees the details. In the case of the coal hoisting engineers, 
elastic goring weavers, and some others, the consent of the local must be 
obtained before any particular apprentice is admitted. In other cases 
there are age limits, and there is very general demand among the unions 
for still more rigid regulation and the use of articles of indenture. Strong 
unions go so far as to refuse to recognize a workman who has not served 
his apprenticeship in a union shop or begun it between the ages of 17 and 
18. The tin plate union especially enjoins its members from teaching their 
trade to any unskilled workingmen about the mills. The black boy who 
gets a chance to learn a trade under such circumstances would indeed be 
a curiosity. 



^Report of Industrial Commission, Vol. VII, pp. 162, 163. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



173 



58. Strikes against Negro workmen. It is impossible to get accurate statis 
tics on the number of cases where white workmen have refused to work 
with black men. Usually such strikes, especially in the North, are con 
cealed under the refusal to work with non-union men.* Strikes for this 
cause have occurred in 2,751 establishments in this country in the last 20 
years, and nearly 70% of them have been successful. It is thus possible 
in some trades for three men absolutely to bar any Negro who wishes to 
pursue this calling. 

There are a number of cases where the object of getting rid of Negro 
workingmen has been openly avowed. These, by causes, are as follows :t 

STRIKES FROM JAN. 1, 1881, to DEO. 31, 1900. 





Total 


Succeeded 


Failed 


Against employing colored girls 


1 




1 


" men 


23 


5 


18 


" " and for increased wages .. 
" foreman. 


1 
1 


1 




" working with Xegroes 


7 


1 


6 


For discharge of Xegro employees 
" of foreman and vs. colored laborers doing 
journeymen s work 


16 
1 


5 


11 


Total 


50 


12 


38 



INDUSTRIES IN WHICH STRIKES AGAINST NEGRO LABOR 
HAVE OCCURRED. 

| No | Succeeded | Failed 



\gricultural Implements 


1 




1 


Brick 


1 
4 




1 
4 




1 




1 







3 


3 




3 


2 


1 




9 




2 




9, 


1 


1 




1 


1 






9 




2 


Aletils and. Metallic Goods 


3 




3 


Public Ways Construction 
Stone Quarrying and Cutting 
Transportation 


2 
I 

18 
1- 


1 
3 


2 

15 
1 




1 




1 


Total 


49 


11 


38 



*"From the data in my possession it is not possible to secure any information as to the Dumber of 
strikes against non-union men which were in reality against Negroes. "-Carroll 
Commissioner of Labor, Dec. 22, 1902. 

tFrom the Reports of the TJ. S. Bureau of Labor. A slight discrepancy in the totals will be noticed. 
This is unexplained. 



174 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



STRIKES BY YEARS. 



Year 


Cause 


Establish 
ments 


Succeeded 


Failed 


1SVJ 

1883 
1885 

1887 
1888 

1889 


Against employment of colored men 

For discharge of colored employees 
Against employment of colored men 
Against working with colored men 
For discharge or colored employees 
Against employment of colored men and for 
increased wages 
Against working with colored men 


2 
2 
1 

1 
1 
5 

1 
2 


1 
1 


2 

1 

1 
1 

5 

1 
2 




For discharge of colored employees 
Against working under colored foreman 


1 
1 


1 


1 


1890 


Against working with colored men 


1 






1891 
1892 
1894 


For discharge of colored employees 
Against employing colored men 


1 
1 
2 
12 


1 


1 
1 
1 
] 


1897 


For discharge of colored employees 


1 


1 


12 


1898 
1899 


Against employing colored men 
Against certain rules and for discharge of 
colored head-waiter 


1 
1 


1 


1 


1899 
1900 


For discharge of colored employees 
Against employment of colored girls 


4 
1 


1 


3 
1 




" " " " men 
Total 


5 
47 


3 
10 


9 

37 



Detailed information as to all of these strikes is unfortunately not 
available for the last ten years; for the first ten years 1,458 men were en 
gaged in such strikes, involving 21 establishments and entailing a pecu 
niary loss to employers and employed of $215,945. If the strikes of the 
last ten years were similar in character we may say that in the last 20 
years 3,000 white workingmen have fought against the employment of 
other workingmen for the sole reason that they were black at a cost of 
nearly half a million dollars. And that moreover this probably is only 
a small part of the strikes against colored men, since usually the 
strike is technically against u non-union labor." 

The greatest strike of which we have record before 1891 is that which took 
place in a steel works in Pittsburg in 1890. The Iron and Steel Workers 
Union ordered out 400 of the 500 employees because Negroes were employed . 
The strike lasted over eight months and failed. The wage loss was 
$15,000, toward which labor unions contributed $8,000. The employers lost 
$25,090 and eventually 300 new hands were hired in place of the strikers. 

Of the 25 strikes, 1894 (July 1) to 1900 (Dec. 31), the Department of Labor 
has kindly furnished details as to seven, and also details as to 15 strikes 
in which Negro workmen struck against color discrimination : 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



175 



Employers Loss. 


S^- r- 1 


1 1 - 


! 


OB 

>> Assistance. 




1 




ft 

g Wage Loss. 


Gl O iO <M 

lO C5 t ( 


CO 


1 1 


Succeeded ? 


02 02 02 

PH pH pH j2j 


CC C/v 

0) O O> 
^ ^ ^ ^ 


5 o 
5 K 


iDuration of strike 


T-H CO t- Tfl 


IO lO 94 r 


H 


days. 








&% Not closed. 


r^ O t 

1 1 


1 


H 


!* Closed. 


10 


rH rH ii 


rH 


No. of establish 








ments involved. 








Ordered by labor 


O O o> O 


O C 


: O 


organizations. 


fc fc &H 


fc fe ^ ^ 


r y-y 
4 FH 




O "O 








3 nj- TO 


02 CC g p 


OD 


o 

0> 

I 


$ g oJ S 

1 111 i i 

5 l| ?S 

l^ =| 

CM ,0 25 2,2 0) 

sa ~ -S& o 

r* fn O C .Q 

S ^o .2 


o> V 3 a 

e e 
> > S 

o o ^ ^. 

P. ft .SP i 

s a 

a) o> P p 

73 73 73 T: 

2 S g 2 

o ^o ^o c 

o o o "c 

W O C 


colored employee 




g X! 2 ^ -T3 ^j. 

>, ^o^ o^^ 


4H *-! ^< 4- 

C 


4 <*H 

) 


c8 

O 


O ^cc*- 1 ^o ^C" 

| s s| I| 1^ 

sit 2| :i 

OQ ST^M ccS oj S 

.S o^ .S S .S.S 

ci ^ p*^ c^ fcr Cu ^ 


cj 01 a 
60 fcfi bC t 

r-. M h i 

o3 ^ * a 

02 CC 02 C 

3 S -3 T 


discharge 






O O O C 


> r 




<1 H <1 < 


fe fe fe & 


-i fe 




T~ 8 g 


ai K - 

C is * 




fl 

o 


o -2P ^2 
S e. * 


3 ^"i -a ft 


25 


^ 


02 ^ 02 


O vy *v o ^ 


cS 


e8 


O ^ r^ "*"* 


^ flg **"* ^ 


g[ 


PH 
O 

8 


cc" 0*0 ^ ^ 

S ^-g -g S 
8 S^ | 


I ii-i i 


" a; 
T 
S 0^ 

e c 
T ^2 




H ^ S 


Q O S 02 


P3^ 






c8 S 


^ P 





fe ^ 


eg -"^ 


& ^* 


1 


1^ 11 4 i^- 


^ c8 ^ fe H ^ 


1 S| 


3 


1 4 i s 

1 ^ 


1 2 1 
1 8 1 

<1 CQ S 


1 I 
fi 



176 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

59. Summary q/ the Attitude of Organized Labor. Putting- the strength of 
organized labor in the United States at the conservative estimate of 
1,200,000, we may say: 

Unions with 500,000 members, include 40,000 Negroes. 
" 200,000 " " 1,000 

" 500,000 " No Negroes. 

The rule of admission of Negroes to unions throughout the country is 
the sheer necessity of guarding work and wages. In those trades where 
large numbers of Negroes are skilled they find easy admittance in the parts 
of the country where their competition is felt. In all other trades they are 
barred from the unions, save in exceptional cases, either by open or silent 
color discrimination. There are exceptions to this rule. There are cases 
where the whites have shown a real feeling of brotherhood ; there are 
cases where the blacks, through incompetence and carelessness, have for 
feited their right to the advantages of organization. But on the whole a 
careful, unprejudiced survey of the facts leads one to believe that the 
above statement is approximately true all over the land. 

It is fair, on such a vital point, however, to let the white labor leaders 
speak for themselves and the opinions of a few are here appended. 

60. Views of Labor Leaders (By C. C. Houston, Secretary of the Geor 
gia Federation of Labor, Samuel Gompers, President of the American 
Federation of Labor, and others) . 

"A labor union is primarily a business institution and very little sentimentalism 
enters into its make-up. It is for the collective bargaining, conciliation and arbitra 
tion of labor. It is to the working man what the Chamber of Commerce is to the 
business man. It differs from a commercial trust in that it is not a close corporation, 
but its influences for good are world-wide, and its membership is restricted only to 
those qualified to perform the work of any special calling in a workmanlike manner. 
It gives greater liberty and independence of action to the workman and insures not 
only a higher standard of wages but a higher standard of living. 

"Dr. George E. McNeill, author of a volume entitled The Labor Movement, says : 
There is no such thing as liberty of contract between a single wage-worker and an 
employer. It first becomes possible through the efforts of trade unions. The union 
is to the laborer what a republican form of government is to the citizen it gives him 
freedom. Unions have first made labor problems a matter of interest to the people 
generally, and have increased respect for labor. They have brought back self-respect 
and have a strong educational influence. Drunkenness and other bad habits are 
frowned upon by labor unions. 

"Were it not for the labor unions the working people of this and other civilized 
countries would be in little better condition than were the chattel slaves of this sec 
tion before the civil war, and this is the only power that can resist the great and 
growing combination of capital. There are in the United States today over 2,000,000 
skilled working men and women enrolled in the ranks of the various labor organiza 
tions. The system comprises local, state and national unions. Each local union is a 
self-governing body, and is to the national body what a single state is to the United 
States. Each local union has complete trade autonomy, and regulates its own inter 
nal affairs. These local unions range in membership from seven to over six thousand, 
the last beirfg "Big Six" typographical union of New York City, the largest local labor 
organization in the world. 

"The older trade unions, which have practically complete control of their trade 
membership, such as the printers, stone cutters, tailors, engineers, conductors and 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 177 

cigar makers, have comparatively few strikes and it is only the newer organizations 
that are usually forced to resort to strikes to gain recognition of demands for wage 
scales and regulation of hours. In the case of "the older trade unions they have local 
and sometimes national agreements with associations of employers as to wages and 
hours of labor. Through the efforts of trade unions few skilled workmen now work 
over ten hours, while in a great majority of instances eight and nine hours constitute 
a day s labor at a greater wage scale than formerly prevailed for ten and eleven 
hours. 

"In this general trade union movement the Negro artisan has been a beneficiary in 
proportion to his membership. It is only during the past ten years that the colored 
workingman has become in any great measure a factor in organized labor affairs, for 
there are very few unions among unskilled laborers. 

"With the possible exception of the railway orders, none of the trade unions of 
this country, North or South, exclude the Negro, and his connection with the labor 
movement is becoming more apparent every year, and he is fast finding out that it is 
to his individual and collective interest to become affiliated with the organization of 
his craft. In this the white artisan is lending encouragement and assisting the Ne 
gro, giving him a seat, with voice and vote, in the labor councils, local, state and na 
tional. The feeling that formerly prevailed among the Negro skilled artisans that the 
white laborer s sympathy for him was for a selfish purpose is being rapidly dispelled 
by the mutually beneficial results of organization." C. C. Houston. 

The President of the American Federation of Labor writes: 

"It has been and is now our endeavor to organize the colored workers whenever and 
wherever possible. We recognize the necessity of this if it is hoped to secure the 
best possible conditions for the workers of every class in our country." Later, on 
reading 53, he replied : "I should say that your statement is neither fair nor accurate. 
After careful perusal of the summing up of the attitude of the A. F. of L. toward 
colored workmen, I should say that you are inclined, not only to be pessimistic upon 
the subject, but you are even unwilling to give credit where credit is due." Samuel 
Gompers.* 

The following opinions are from various states: 

VIRGINIA. "One of the greatest drawbacks to the labor movement in the South is 
the ignorant prejudice against the Negro on the part of the whites in trades unions." 

MASSACHUSETTS. "I always considered a Negro as good as a white man, in any labor 
union, provided they live up to the obligations." 

KANSAS. "Unions do not bar Negroes by their laws but do not solicit them. If they 
would apply they would be rejected." 

IOAVA. "There are only a few Negroes here but they are not discriminated against 
according to my knowledge except in the Federation where a Negro can not act as a 
delegate legally." 

FLORIDA. "The Negroes in this city have no need to complain, as the white men 
work, smoke, eat and drink together with them, meet in Central Union and hold office 
together. I organized and installed the Central Union, as General Secretary, and I 
am a Negro, and have held the same for two elections and was elected by the whites^ 
who are in majority. I have presided over the same body, but do not visit their 

*On pp. 157 and Ifio, it is stated that the Stationary Engineers who met in Boston and passed a law 
excluding Negroes from membership were connected with the Union of Steam Engineers and 
affiliated with the A. F. L. Mr. Gompers does not deny this and Secretary Morrison writes as 
though this were true, (cf. p. 157 note). Nevertheless, it is possible that this body of Stationary 
Engineers is not connected with the A. F. L., but is a separate organization. Prolonged cor 
respondence has not been able to settle this point. 



178 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

daughters and have no wish. The white painters do in a way draw a line, but not 
openly; the boiler makers also, but none others." 

ILLINOIS. "We have but one Negro in this town and don t need him." 

IOWA. "The Negro in the world is fast learning to overcome superstition, race prej 
udice, etc He is 90% a better citizen than the semi-civilized 

pack of humanity that is being imported into this country by capitalists from Asia 
Minor and Syria." 

MASSACHUSETTS. "I have met Negroes in the printing trade who were rapid com 
positors and good union men." 

ILLINOIS. "There is only one union here but what the Negro stands on a level with 
whites, and they would take them in when they apply ; but the Negro knows better 
than to apply." 

INDIANA. "It is my opinion that if a Negro proves himself a mechanic and a man, 
and holds up trades rules, he has a right to work and make an honest living, the same 
as any one else; but don t understand by this that I am in favor of this class of people 
in general, for I am not." 

PENNSYLVANIA. "The working people do not believe in distinctions of races at all." 

WASHINGTON. "I want to say under this head that the Negroes as a race are bigoted 
and should not, in my opinion, be allowed to associate with whites on an equal basis. 
Although they do not follow my line of business, I have had enough experience with 
them to convince me that any time they are treated as equals by whites they go too 
far and apparently consider themselves entitled to more consideration than a native 
born white American citizen." 

PENNSYLVANIA. "I have known cases here where colored men were refused admit 
tance to a trades union, the reason being that there are so many of them who are un 
reliable ; which is due to a great extent to their want of education, and this but points 
more forcibly to the need of the 8 hour day for the colored workman, and their organ 
ization into some body which will awaken them to the greater possibilities of eleva 
tion, both material and intellectual, offered them by trades unionism." 

OHIO. "I am of the opinion that the Negro in common labor pursuits is far ahead 
of the whites, and many in trade occupations. One Negro friend of mine holds a very 
responsible position with this union has been presiding officer since its organization 
three years ago, and the organization has about 200 members, white and black." 

INDIANA. "We have had no test here in regard to admitting Negroes to our local 
unions. How they would be received is hard to tell at present. 

TEXAS. "Color discrimination must disappear, if the trade union movement suc 
ceeds." 

TEXAS. The Negro question is the one draw back to the success of the labor move 
ment today, especially is this true in the South. The Negro has always been the 
stumbling block in the way of success in many cases; this, however, is not the fault of 
the Negro, but until the white men realize that it is with the organization and assist 
ance of the Negro, that they can and must win, the labor movement will not be as suc 
cessful as we hope for. I believe that if the Negro was organized thoroughly, then the 
solution of the labor problem would be found. They are laborers, in a larger percent 
age, than their white brothers; they are the ones used to whip the white men into 
line when striking for their rights or demanding recognition from their employers, 
whereas, if they were organized, no inducement could be made to cause them to 
falter in their duty to mankind." 

MICHIGAN. "In my opinion it is only a question of time the evolution which will 
bring with it the higher civilization when a colored man will be recognized and en 
titled to all the rights and privileges now enjoyed by the whites, and by such enjoy 
ment proving the claim that it is civilization and education that makes the man." 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 179 

61. The Employer, the Artisan, and the Right of Suffrage. A few quotations 
throw an interesting side light on the suffrage question in the South and 
its relation to the Negro. The last Southern Industrial Convention at 
Chattanooga said : 

"We recommend that every possible means shall be used to educate the public senti 
ment of the South to regard the Negro as a factor in the upbuilding of the South, and 
that as such we should use all possible means to make him as efficient as possible, and 
pledge him the fullest guaranty of earning a living in every honest field of honest 
endeavor, and protection in his God-given right of self-support." 

A prominent Southern man said before the Industrial Commission: 

"I believe that in the Negro labor of the South lies the panacea for the wrongs fre 
quently committed by organized labor.and a reserve force from which can be supplied 
any needed number of workers when the time shall come when they shall be needed." 

Most workingmen in the South laugh at such threats because they are 
certain the Negro cannot become a formidable competitor in skilled labor. 
A writer in the Holder s Journal makes considerable fun of the exagger 
ated predictionsas to the Negro molder and writes him down as a "dismal 
failure." Another writer, however, takes him to task and asserts that the 
writer 

"Will not woo us into a sense of fancied security and induce us to look upon the Negro 
problem in our trade as one that will solve itself by the Negro s demonstrating his 
incapacity and being ignominiously dismissed from the foundry. 

"That is very flattering to our vanity, but it is contrary to facts. I believe I am 
well within the mark when I say that in the last twenty years Negro molders have 
increased 500 per cent., and that excluding the Negro pipe molders, whom I do not 
class as skillful mechanics, I know of two foundries, at least, where the molding is 
done entirely by Negroes three if we include the Ross-Mehan annex in Chattanooga. 
There is the one at the foot of Lookout Mountain, and another in Rome, Ga. A few 
years ago a mere handful of Negroes worked at molding in Chattanooga, today there 
are over two hundred ; and I am convinced that the question of what shall be done 
with the Negro molder is one which, in the very near future, will demand more of 
our attention if we would maintain for ourselves fair wages and conditions in the 
South."* 

On the other hand a white speaker in the 10th Barbers Convention said: 

"Is the disfranchisement of the Negro the first step toward making history repeat 
itself ? I for one will not believe it, as I have too much confidence in American man 
hood to think that they will allow it Those of you who live in the South may feel, 
you may even say it is right, and then I will say to you, If it is right to deny the right 
of franchise to any American citizen, though his color or nationality be what it may, 
then it may be your turn tomorrow, because those who seek to disfranchise the Negro 
today will seek to extend their power by disfranchising you tomorrow. Our protec 
tion for tomorrow calls on us to protest in favor of the disfranchised Negro of today." 

Here, then, are the four great forces: the Northern laborer, the South 
ern laborer, the Negro and the employer. The Southern laborer and the 
employer have united to disfranchise the Negro and make color a caste; 
the Northern laborer is striving to make the whites unite with the Negroes 
and maintain wages; the employer threatens that if they do raise labor 
troubles he will employ Negroes. The Northern laborer sees here the 



*CL Chattanooga Tradesman, Nov. 1, 1901. 



180 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



danger of a disfranchised, degraded and yet skilled competitor, and raises 
the note of warning. Is not this a drama worth the watching? 

62. The Employment of Skilled Negroes in the South. The Chattanooga 
Tradesman made, in 1889 and 1891, inquiries into the status of Negro labor 
in the South. The employers questioned in 1889, employed 7,000 Negroes 
of whom possibly 2,000 were skilled or semi-skilled. "The general tenor 
of the replies indicated perfect satisfaction with Negro labor." In 1891 
replies were received from the employers of 7,395 Negroes of whom 978 
were skilled and many semi-skilled and the editor concluded that "the 
Negro, as a free laborer, as a medium skilled and common worker, is by no 
means a failure; that he is really a remarkable success."* 

In 1901, a third joint investigation into Negro skilled labor was made by 
the Tradesman and the Sociological Department of Atlanta University.** 
It was not an exhaustive inquiry and there is no way of knowing what 
proportion of the employers of skilled Negro laborers were reached. In 
1891, twelve per cent, of the Negroes employed by those written to were 
skilled or semi-skilled; in 1901, twenty per cent.; 344 firms answered in 
1901, employing 35,481 men, of whom 16,145 were Negroes, and 2,652 of these 
were skilled or semi-skilled workmen. Negroes were employed at given 
occupations a.s follows in the various establishments: 

KINDS OF EMPLOYMENT FOLLOWED BY NEGROES, BY ESTABLISHMENTS.! 



Shipping clerk, 

Saw sharpening, 5 
Pan shoving, 

Farmers, 2 

Engineers, 23 

Sawyers. 20 
Wood workers, 

Pressmen, 29 

Meal cooks, 40 

Linters, 17 

Handlers Cotton Seed Products, 1 

Handlers of Machines, 26 

Firemen, 45 

Huller men, 4 

Grinders, 3 

Cake millers, 5 

Ginners, 14 

Pipe fitters, 2 

Mill wrighters, 1 

Pump men, 4 

General oil mill men, 5 
Stockers, 

Truckers, 1 
Sackers, 

Ice plant men, 1 

Cake formers, 3 

Oilers, 4 

Machine repairers, 1 

Strippers, 2 

Foremen, 4 

Blacksmiths, 14 

Blocksmen, 5 



Plasterers, 

Edgers, 

Setters in planing mill, 

Trimmers, 

Teamsters, 

Graders, 

Lumber inspectors, 

Cupola tenders, 

Stove mounters, 

Molders, 

Log cutters. 

Watchmen, 

Planers, 

Raftsmen, 

R. R. engineers, 

Wood turners, 

Boiler makers, 

Furnace men, 

Core makers, 

Electric linemen, 

Painters, 

Stone cutters, 

Inspectors of castings, 

Drillers, 

General saw mill workers. 

Barrel makers, 

Stave makers, 

Plow polishers, 

Stove tenders, 

Pattern makers, 

Iron pourers, 

Riveters and drillers, 



1 

14 
9 
2 
1 
4 
2 
6 
1 

14 
1 
1 
5 
1 
2 
2 
2 
3 
5 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



*Yet Hoffman in his "Race Traits and Tendencies" twists these same figures into proof of the Ne 
gro s economic retrogression. >: *See schedule on p. 12. 

tTiiis table means, e. g., that 23 establishments employed Negroes as engineers and not that there 
were necessarily only 23 engineers. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



181 



(Kinds of Employment Followed by Negroes, by Establishments Continued.) 

Carpenters, 11 Sash door makers, 1 

Panics, 2 Hanging sash doors, 1 

6 Shingle packing, 1 

5 Section foreman on R. R., 1 



Mechanics, 

Brick makers and setters, 

Brick layers, 



The reports according- to kinds of business and number of skilled labor 
ers employed are as follows: 

REPORTS ACCORDING TO BUSINESS AND STATE. 





Tennessee. 


08 

"So 

:_ 

o 

- 


Florida. 


Alabama. 


Mississippi. 


Louisiana. 


Texas. 


Arkansas. 


North Carolina. 


South Carolina. 


Virginia; 


West Virginia. 


Kentucky. 


Unknown. 


1 

- 


Founders and Machinists 


9 

4 
: 
1 
\ 
4 
2 

2 

t 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

2 
1 

1 
1 


j 

8 

t 

1 
1 

1 


_ 
1 


3 
L2 

14 
7 
1 
6 

1 

f 

1 
I 

4 
1 

1 


{ 

H 

t 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 


s 
s 

1 

.> 

1 

1 


2( 

- 

( 

1 
1 


f 
i 
8 

1 

1 
I 

1 

1 


3 

< 
2 

; 

i 

L 
1 

6 
1 


li 


V 

1 
1 

8 
8 

1 

2 
2 

1 

1 
3 

1 


1 
1 


1 

2 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 




4*; 

W 
88 

4:-! 
9 
17 
7 
8 
L2 
.-. 
i 
4 
r, 
3 
2 
1 
1 
18 
4 
5 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
3 
3 
3 

1 

1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 


Cotton Seed Products 


Saw and Planing- Mills 


Lumber 


"VVa^on Manufacture 


Iron Works ... .... 


Plow Manufacture 


Stave Manufacture 


Brick Manufacture 


1 

1 


Stove Manufacture 


Su ar Manufacture 


Shingle Manufacture 


Wood Working 


Contractors and Builders 


Hardwood \Vork 


Manufacture of Pumps & Porch Col iis 
Manufacture of Handles 


Sash Doors Blinds etc 


Furniture Manufacture . 


Ginning and Delinting ... 


Steel and Galvanized Sheets 


Farming and Merchandise 


Refrigerator and Gin Manufacture 
Soil Pipe and Fitting s 




Manufacture of Coffins and Caskets 
"Wood Textile Mill Supplies 


Si)oke Manufacture 






Manufacture of Sad Irons and Hollow- 


Brick and Lumber Builders Supplies. 

Tinilpp "Works 




Dishes, Fruit Packing and Veneering.. 
House Finishing and Manufacturing... 
Furnace Manufacturing and Erecting.. 
Mill Building 


Manufacture of Farm Implements 
Saw Manufacturing 



182 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



NUMBER OF SKILLED LABORERS EMPLOYED, (NOT INCLUDING ABOUT 
400 SEMI-SKILLED). 





Tennessee. 


Georgia. 


Florida. 


Alabama. 


Mississippi 


Louisiana 


Texas. 


Arkansas. 


N.Carolina. 


S. Carolina. 


Virginia. 


W.Virginia 


Kentucky. 


Unknown. 


i 
g 


Founders and Machinists.. 
Cotton Seed Products 


157 
75 

26 

45 
225 

91 

1 
1 

12 
613 


34 
38 

14 
1 
21 

108 


8 
8 


1 
46 
33 
11 
20 
75 

7 
4 

13 
210 


57 

20 
6 

17 

7 

1 

10 

118 


63 
33 

5 
10 

2 

1 

114 


3 

234 

18 

1 
1 

257 


37 
56 

70 

14 

8 
5 

190 


5 
49 
50 
21 
4 

8 

7 
3 

1 

148 


5 
39 

13 
57 


8 
10 

30 
1 

3 

151 

175 

378 




2 
f> 


2 

7 

1 
10 


195 
645 
185 
183 

rss 

130 
226 
*5 
168 
1 
10 
14 
3 
3 
15 

1 
2- 
11 

8 

13 

7 
151 

13 

10 

175 
1 

2213 


Saw and Planing Mills 
Lumber 


Wagon Manufacture 
Iron Works 


Plow Manufacture 


S tave Man uf ac ture 


Brick Manufacture 


Stove Manufacture 


Sugar Manufacture 


Shingle Manufacture 


Wood Working 


Contractors and Builders.. 
Hardwood Work 


Manufacture of Pumps and 
Porch Columns . 


Manufacture of Handles... 
Sash, Doors, Blinds, etc 
Furniture Manufacture 
Ginning and Delinting 


Steel & Galvanized Sheets. 
Farming & Merchandise. ... 
Refrigerator Manufacture ; 
Gin Manufacture ... 


Soil Pipe & Fittings 


Fruit Packing 


Manf . of Coffins & Caskets. 
Wood Textile Mill Supplies 
Spoke Manufacture 


Box Manufacture 


Ship Building ... 


Manufacture of Sad Irons 
and Hollowware 


Brick & Lumber Builders 1 


Boiler W^orks 


Tin Manufacture . 


Dishes, Fruit Packing and 
Veneering 


House Finishing & Manf g 
Furnace Manf. & Erecting. 
Mill Building 


Manf. of Farm Implements 
Saw Manufacturing 


Total 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



183 



It is difficult to get a statement of the wages paid in tabular form. The 
following table gives the maximum wages per day paid skilled Negro 
laborers in various industries: 

MAXIMUM WAGES, PER DAY, PAID ANY SKILLED NEGRO LABORER, 
ACCORDING TO ESTABLISHMENTS AND KINDS OF BUSINESS. 





T^ 

S_i 

-, 

L 


i- 
^ 

^ 


c 
-r 


^ 

I 

5 

a- 


* 

z 


g 

Vr 


4 

^ 


Njfl 

-> 

i 
-^ 


kC* 

i- 
^ 


i 

-f. 


^ 

S 

^ 


= 

71 


^ 

71 


s 

71 

* 


71 
1 - 

5i 


r 

> 
- 

* 
5 

^; 


i 

1 
& 


Contractors and Builders 


\ 
i 

i 

2 
\ 


:: 
2 

1 

1 

"2 
1 

1 

1 

17 
& 


2 

B 
1 

1 

1 

3 

1 

1 

1 
3 
2< 


1 

2 
3 

1 
2 

1 
1 

1 
L< 

24 


1 
1 

2 


1 
1 

2 


i 

2 


2 

1 
2 

1 

5 

1 

8 

2< 


I 


i 

i 


4 

3 

1 

3 

i 
2 

1 

1 

1 
2 

IT 
37 


1 
1 

1 

1 




- 

1 

7 

1 

1 

1 
2 

2 

1 

J 

L>3 


i 

,j 


2 

2 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
13 


2 

19 
2 
26 
6 
2 
3 
1 
9 
2 
7 
22 
2 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
3 
2 
2 
1 
69 
191 


Founders and Machinists .... 


Stove Manufacturing 


Lumber Manufacturing 


AVa^on Manuf acturin 


Woodworking 


Ginning and Delinting . 


Boiler Works . 


Iron Works . 


Stave JVanufacturin* 


Brick Alanuf acturin**" 


Saw r and Planing Mills .. . . ... 


Plo\v Manufacturing 


Gin & Refrigerator Manufacturing 


Furniture AIanufactiirin o> 


Sash Doors Blinds etc 


Mfg. W 7 ood Pumps & Porch Columns... 
Hardwood "Works 


House Finishing and Manufacturing.... 
Steel ind Galvanized Sheets 


Brick and Lumber Builders Supplies... 
Spoke Manuf acturin " 


Box Manufacturing 


Suirar Manufacturing 


Ship Building . 




Total 



Condensing we have this table of maximum wages 



Under $1 
$1 -$1.49 
1.50- 1.99 
2.00- 2.99 
3.00 or more 



8 establishments. 
49 
52 
69 
13 



Total 191 

The answers to the various questions were as follows: 



184 



A. 



THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



How do Negroes compare in efficiency with white workmen f 





03 


^ 


i 




fl 


,2^. 


i i ^ 




(V feC 


. . ^ 


OH** < 




S.5 


S 1 -* 


Qf* 


Answers. 


-C *-" 


!*J2 






-- tj 

Q 02 

cS C 


o5O2 

8 1 


O> B 

2| 




%< 


<D <u 


li 


"Far inferior." 


17 


96 


38 


"Not as good." .. 




1 35 


55 


"Poor average, some as good " 


23 




57 


"Better" for "this work" or "at same wages" or "than 








available whites " . . 


42 


Qg9 


H9 


"As good " . ... . . 


43 


456 


145 


"Better " 


19 


665 


80 


No answer . 


4 


79 




Cannot say 


3 


34 




"Cannot compare, employ no whites." 


9 


49 


7 



Some of the comments were : 

"No good, but the white help is mighty poor, too." 

"Not reliable lack judgment." 

"Haven t as good hands for skilled work." 

"Would give perfect satisfaction if they were steady. 

"Prompt, willing and steady, but lack judgment." 

"Not as quick to learn, but stick closer to work." 

More easily controlled." 

"As good or better." 

"Perfect satisfaction." 



B. Are Negro Work 
Answers. 


men Improving in Efficiency 
Establishments Answering 


? 

Negroes Employed. 
Skilled | Semi-Skilled. 


"Yes." 
"To some extent." 
"Cannot tell." 


64 
47 
13 

46 
26 


1 ,261 
415 
137 
252 

198 


114 
136 
10 
101 
119 


"No." 
Unanswered 



C. How much edacation have your Negro workmen received ? 



Answers 


Establishments Ans. 1 Negroe 
| Skilled 


s Employed. 
Semi-Skilled. 


"None." 


16 
68 
33 
27 
16 
2 
1 
33 


173 
1,125 
302 
204 
115 
10 
1 
283 


14 
99 
141 
68 
45 
4 

109 


"Very little." 


"Majority can read and write.". . . 
"All can read and write." 
"Common school training.". 


"Good education." 
"All they can stand." 


Unanswered 



Taking those who report that their workman can read and write, or 
have received more training than this, we find that they answer as follows 
to this question : 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



D. What effect has this education had f 



Answers. 


Establishments 


Employing Negroes. 

Skilled | Semi-Skilled 


Bad effect." 


16 


73 


66 


"No effect." 


9 


134 


22 


"A little learning is a dangerous thing." 
"Little effect." 


4 
4 


30 


57 
13 


"Cannot say." 


5 


41 




"Helps some, hinders others." 


5 


31 




"Would help if industrial." 


1 


40 




Good effect." 


28 


257 


89 



Some comments follow: 

"Think they feel more responsibility than the ignorant ones want more and are 
more willing to work to get what they want." 

"Somewhat improved by it." 

"The education has had a good effect on them and I had rather employ these Ne- 
groes with education than if they had no education." 

"Educating a Xegro makes him worthless as a laborer. He gets saucy and thinks 
he is as good as a white man. Uneducated Negroes give no trouble. Educating a 
Negro makes him mean and indolent. You find more criminals in educated Negroes 
than in uneducated." 

"Makes them better citizens by giving them means to employ their minds. The 
bad Negro, as a rule, is the most ignorant." 

"There is some more indolence and disposition to loaf among Negroes who have a 
smattering of education, although there are exceptions. We would much prefer to 
have a man who can at least read, write and figure a little^than one entirely ignorant, 
provided he is a steady worker." 

"Enables them to undertake more. It is questionable whether education tends to 
modify or decrease their humility towards white men, probably it does. They are 
still, on the whole, inferior to the white man." 

"Can t say, except in our opinion it follows as a matter of course that the more a 
man learns, the more he is worth." 

"Has done but little good, owing to lack of sense to start with." 

"We believe educating the Negro is having the effect of taking them from the farms, 
going to the towns and cities hunting public works at better pay. This is but natural 
and we believe in the end will prove beneficial." 

"We can t but feel that education improves them, our experience, though, has been 
that those who have some knowledge of books are profligate. This may be due to 
bad selection on our part." 

"What kind ? We guess you mean training. A Negro can not be educated. We 
only want a Negro with educated hands and bodies. Some darkies can learn to read 
and write a little and just then they are ready and ripe for the penitentiary or for 
Hades." 

"From our observation the result is not good from an industrial standpoint. Our 
opinion being that the trouble is that the little education they have received has been 
literary instead of industrial." 

"It has detracted from his usefulness in positions where he is the most useful, such 
as hard manual labor, without fitting him to take a better position in the ranks of 
skilled labor." 

"We have but few positions where education of itself would be of much value. 
Coupled with other good qualities it would have value. Our colored people are gen 
erally self-respecting and we believe better because of their steady employment, but 
they seem to lack in thrift, frugality and in saving their wages." 



186 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

"We believe that education would have a good effect if with it there was some 
systemized effort to make them property owners, and to build up a healthy interest 
in their particular community. This does not seem to be the trend of affairs, and 
until present conditions change, as they will, perhaps sooner than any of us think 
now, we do not look for much radical improvement." 

"We have heard a good deal about education spoiling the colored man as a laborer; 
our experience here, however, convinces us that the better he is educated the better 
he is able to compete with the white man in giving close attention to the business 
that employers require of him, thereby giving better satisfaction and better work. It 
is true in many cases that an education seems to spoil the colored man, but we think 
he would be spoiled anyway, just the same as among white men many times, the 
highly educated seem to feel themselves above doing manual labor." 

E. Shall you continue to employ skilled Negro labor ? 
Yes. 140 establishments. 1,950 skilled. 293 semi-skilled. 



No. 16 

Prefer white labor. 5 

Shall employ semi-skilled. 3 

Only as laborers. 1 

Can t say. 1 
As they drop out we shall 
fill their places with whites. 1 

Unanswered. 29 



30 " 44 

29 " 25 

28 
5 



1 " 1 

207 " 79 



Some general comments on Negro workmen follow: 

"Yes, they understand my way of having work done and are willing workers when 
treated right. I never allow them imposed upon by any one and have no strikes; 
they are the best judges of human nature on earth." 

"The most satisfactory sawyer, shop man (blacksmithing and wood working), green 
yard fireman, train track fireman, logging engine fireman, log-trippers, cant hook 
man, night watchman, edger man, trimmer man, or teamsters, and men grading lum 
ber in saw mill, are all Negroes." 

"Best laborers we can get. We believe the Negro the best laborer in the South." 

"Are more tractable, steadier and can be depended upon in their particular places. 
In an emergency whites have better judgment. On the whole we prefer Negroes 
where it is possible to use them." 

"The work they do is well done and for furnace work equally as efficient as that of 
white men and indeed I prefer them." 

"Some are just as good as any or most white men, while a greater number are just 
as poor as the white trash." 

"After living in the South for twenty years and employing from one to twenty Ne 
groes all the time will say from any standard there are no skilled workmen with black 
skins, and I have employed the best to be found in Montgomery, as carpenters, brick 
layers, engineers, firemen and machine operators." 

"We find that many of cur most thrifty and intelligent Negroes are drifting North 
and securing employment in the large industries about Pittsburg, and many of them 
making good records for efficiency." 

"We have just this day begun the employment of Negro molders for our stove 
foundry. We have been employing white molders for the past fifteen years but as 
nearly all the foundries in this city are employing Negro molders and seem well sat 
isfied with the result, we decided to do so also. We believe we will make a success of 
the venture, but will not be able to answer your questions until we have had them 
at work for awhile." 

"We consider them a necessity in our business because while labor is not obtaina 
ble. Considering the condition of their ancestry and the conditions in which they 
themselves live I think they are doing very well indeed. Future generations will 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 



187 



doubtless see the race in a better condition and more intelligent, making better 
citizens." 

"In this line they are much superior to white labor. White men would not stand 
the heat and grease. We don t want white labor. They are too prone to strike. Give 
them the earth and they would strike for the moon. White men could be more effi 
cient than Negroes, but they wont. 11 

"Do the same work and obey better, more profit, less trouble." 

"Some of them display excellent judgment, while others are stupid. They don t 
expect as much as white men, and do, if anything, more faithful work than the 
white labor." 

"The younger class are more given to loafing and light work. When given places 
as foremen, or semi-responsible, they are usually very exacting." 

"A Negro is a Negro with us and is made to keep his place." 

The white workmen do not like to work side by side with the Negro workmen. 
However, they treat them politely, and there is the kindliest feeling between whites 
and blacks here." 

63. The Negro Inventor. It was a Massachusetts lawyer who said in re 
sponse to an inquiry from the United States Patent office: U I never knew 
a Negro to invent anything but lies." Nevertheless, the Patent Office 
was able in 1900 to report a partial list of 357 patents issued to Negro in 
ventors. They were issued as follows: 

Before 1875 21 

1875-80 15 

1880-85 31 

1885-90 73 

The inventions may be classified as follows: 



1890-95 
1895-1901 
Year unknown 
Total 



90 

126 

1 

357 



Domestic appliances, 101 
Transportation, 19 
Agricultural implements. 15 
Horse and vehicle appliances, 32 
Telegraph, telephone, and electri 
cal apparatus, 27 
Medical and surgical apparatus 

and appliances, 4 
Boot, shoes, and shoe working 

apparatus, 12 

Railroad appliances, 60 

Machinery & mechanical devices, 35 



Building apparatus, 

Games, 

Textile and paper-making apparatus, 

Mercantile appliances, 

Photography, 

Fire escapes and fire extinguishers, 

Musical instruments, 

Books and printing and writing 

devices, 
Miscellaneous, 

Total, 



357 



The inventors according to number of inventions are: 





Inventor. 


Inventions. 








27 








22 








16 








10 








8 






1 


7 






3 


5 






4 


4 






14 


3 






28 


2 






138 


1 






193 


357 





The most prolific inventors are Mr. Granville T. Words, of New York, 
with 27 electrical devices, many of which are in use all over the country, and 
one of which is the well-known transmitter used by the Bell Telephone Co. ; 



188 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

and Mr. Elijah McCoy, of Detroit, with 22 inventions (and another in col 
laboration) who is the pioneer in the matter of machinery lubricators, and 
whose inventions are used on nearly every railroad in the country. With 
such a record the mechanical genius of the Negro can hardly be doubted. 

64. Summary. We have studied in considerable detail the history of 
the Negro artisan, the industrial schools, the condition of Negro mechanics 
throughout the country, the attitude of organized labor toward the Negro, 
the opinions of employers, and Negro inventions. On the whole the sur 
vey has been encouraging, although there is much to deplore and criticise. 
Our conclusions may be summed up as follows : 

1. Slavery trained artisans, but they were for the most part careless and 
inefficient. Only in exceptional cases were they first-class mechanics. 

2. Industrial schools are needed. They are costly and, as yet, not well 
organized or very efficient, but they have given the Negro an ideal of 
manual toil and helped to a better understanding between whites and 
Negroes in the South. Eventually they may be expected to send out 
effective artisans, as they have already begun to do. 

3. There are a large number of Negro mechanics all over the land, but 
especially in the South. Some of these are progressive, efficient work 
men. More are careless, slovenly and ill-trained. There are signs of 
lethargy among these artisans and work is slipping from them in some 
places; in others they are awakening and seizing the opportunities of the 
new industrial south. 

4. The labor unions, with 1,200,000 members, have less than 40,000 Ne 
groes, mostly in a few unions, and largely semi-skilled laborers like 
miners. Some labor leaders have striven against color prejudice, but it 
exists and keeps the mass of Negroes out of many trades. This leads to 
complicated problems, both industrial, political and social. 

5. Employers on the whole are satisfied with Negro skilled labor and 
many of them favor education as tending to increase the efficiency of 
Negroes. Others think it will spoil the docility and tractableness of Ne 
gro labor. The employment of Negro skilled labor is slowly increasing. 

6. The Negro evinces considerable mechanical ingenuity. 

On the whole this study of a phase of the vast economic development 
of the Negro race in America but emphasizes the primal and emphatic 
need of intelligence. The situation is critical and developing swiftly. 
Deftly guided with the larger wisdom of men and deeper benevolence of 
great hearts, an outcome of good to all cannot be doubted. Muddled by 
half trained men and guided by selfish and sordid interests and all the 
evils of industrial history may easily be repeated in the South. " Wisdom" 
then "-is the principal thing; therefore, get ivisdom, and ivith all thy getting, get 
understanding.^ 



FINIS. 



INDEX. 



.cLbolitionists and labor unions, 153. 

Ages of artisans, 92, 93, 94, 117, 118, 121. 

Agriculture, Negro in, 6. 

Ambitions of Negro children, 27, 28. 

American Federation of Labor, 10, 156, 157, 177. 

American Missionary Association, 39. 

Anniston, 108 

Answers of public school children, 26-28. 

Ante-bellum artisans, 13-21. 

Anti-slavery and labor movement, 153. 

Apprenticeship, 172. 

Armstrong, Gen. S. C., 33,64, 84. 

Armstrong and Slater Memorial Trade School, 64. 

Artisans before the war, 13-21 ; Artisans, kinds of, 13, 18, 87, 94, 106, 150. 

Artisans from industrial schools, 78, 79. 

Artisans, white, 15, 16, 17, 22, 24, 153-178; Negro, see Negro Artisans. 

Atlanta Conference, 1, 4. 

Atlanta, Ga., 113, 114, 115-120. 

Atlanta artisans: Conjugal condition, 117; Age, 117; Occupations, 118; 

Number, 114. 

Atlanta University, 1, 33, 34, 37, 40, 56, 57, 58, 61, 66, 119. 
Attucks, Crispus, 153. 
Augusta, 113. 

iJaltimore, 129. 
Banneker, Benjamin, 13. 
Benson, AV. E., 5. 
Birmingham, 108. 
Byrd, Col. William, 13. 



C, 



hange of industrial conditions, 82. 
Charleston, S. C., 13, 141. 
Charlotte, N. C., 136. 
Chattanooga, Tenn., 145. 
Chattanooga Tradesman, 11, 180. 
Children in public schools, 12, 26-28. 
Cincinnati, O., 16, 138, 163. 
City artisans, 21. 
City central labor bodies, 10. 
Clark, Mr. E. E., 168. 
Coleman cotton mill, 137, 138. . 
College-bred Negroes, 85. 

Color^di scrimination in trades, 8, 15, 16, 22, 23, 29, 30, 94-96, 104-106, 107, 112, 
113, 114, 115, 122-24, 125, 128, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 141, 143, 147, 
149, 150, 153-178. 

Conjugal condition of artisans, 93, 94. 

Co-operative land purchase, 85. 

Co-ordination of hand and head work, 83. 

Cost of industrial training, 65-68, 79, 80. 

Country districts, reaching of, 83. 

Courses of study in Industrial schools, 42-58. 

Cromwell, Mr. J. W., 28. 

Crummell, Rev. Alexander, 29. 

Curricula of industrial schools, 42-58. 

Curry, Dr. J. L. M., 42. 



190 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 



JJavis, MissL. D., 114. 
Discrimination, see Color discrimination. 
Distribution of industrial schools, 34-37. 
Distribution of Negro Artisans, 87-150. 
Dixie Industrial Company, 85. 
Domestic service, 7. 
Douglass, Frederick, 29. 
Draft riot in New York, 153, 154. 



E, 



education of Negroes, 184, 185, 186. 
Education, effects of, 185, 186. 
Ellis, Mr. Geo. W., 110. 
Emancipation, 21. 

Employers of Negro skilled laborers, 180, 181, 182, 186. 
Evans Brothers, 153. 



F< 



errell, Mr. F. J., 155. 
Field hand class, 83. 
Fitzhugh, Colonel, 13. 
Freedmen s Bureau, 21. 
Frissell, Mr. H. B., 64, 84. 



ompers, Mr. Samuel, 158, 176, 177. 



O 

Hamilton, Jr., Mr. Alexander, 4, 102. 

Hampton Conference, 111. 

Hampton Institute, 32, 33, 37, 42-44, 61, 64, 65, 68, 80. 

Haygood, Mr. A. G., 39, 41, 42, 59. 

Henson, Father, 30. 

Higher Education and Industries, 83. 

Hilyer, Mr. A. F., 104n. 110, 111. 

Hiring of slave mechanics, 14. 

Holmes, Mr. E. H., 4, 98. 

Home training, 23, 26. 

Houston, Mr. C. C., 5, 176, 177. 

Houston, Texas, 98. 

Humphreys, Mr. Richard, 31. 

J.deals of Negro children, 27, 28. 

Illiteracy of Negro artisans, 91, 97. 

Income of industrial schools, 66-68, 80. 

Indianapolis, Ind., 104. 

Industrial art, 81. 

Industrial Commission, 179. 

Industrial Schools: Artisans sent out by, 68-79; Cost of, 65-68; Curricula 
of, 42-58; Early efforts toward, 28-31; Evolution of , 31-33 ; Kinds of, 
58-62; List of Chief, 34-39, 66-68; Schedule sent to, 11; "School of 
Work," 32; Slater Fund and, 39-42; Success of, 68-83; Trade Schools, 
32, 62, 65. 

Industrial settlements, 8. . 

Industries taught in industrial schools, 42-58. 

Institute for colored youth, Philadelphia, 30, 31, 68. 

Inventors, Negro, 187, 188. 



K 



.inds of Artisans, see Negro Artisans. 
Knights of Labor, 154, 155, 156, 163. 
Knoxville, Tenn., 145. 
Kowaliga, industrial settlement at, 84-87. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE 191 

JUabor, cost of student, 80. 

Labor leaders opinions, 177. 

Labor leaders, views of, 176, 177. 

Labor movement. 153; see Trade Unions. 

Lee, Mr. H. N., 4, 94. 

Lemon, Mr. J. G., 116. 

Local option in choice of members of Trade unions, 171, 172. 

Lynchburg, Va., 149. 

JM_anual training, 32, 33, 59-62. 

Manual training in public schools, 60, 61, 106, 132, 133. 

McCoy, Mr. Elijah, 188. 

Membership of Negroes in labor unions, 158-171. 

Memphis, Artisans in, 94-97. 

Merrill, Dr. J. G., 5, 83-84. 

Mobile, Ala., 14. 

Holders, Negro, 179. 

Moton, Mr. R. R., 5, 62. 

Mound Bayou, Miss., 132. ^ 

J3l ational Labor Congress, 154. 

Negro Artisans: Ambitions of school children to be, 27; Ante-bellum, 13; 
By ages, 93; By cities, 90; By conjugal condition, 93, 94; By illiteracy, 
91; By states, 18, 19, 106-153; By trades, 13-18, 87-94, 104-150; Distribu 
tion of , 106-153 ; General statistics of, 87-94; In Atlanta, Ga., 115-120; 
In Charlotte, N. C., 135, 136; In Indianapolis, 104-106; In Memphis, 94- 
97; In the North, 104, 106-176 passim] In Reconstruction, 21; In select 
ed establishments, 180-187; In Texas, 98-102, 146, 147; In Washington, 
D. C., 19, 20, 109-111; Local conditions of, 87-153; Sent out from In 
dustrial schools, 68-79; Strikes against, 173-176; Training of, see In 
dustrial Schools. 

Negroes compared with white workmen, 184. 

Negro contractors, 22, 102-104. 

Negro conventions, 28. 

Negro engineers, 17. 

Negro in cotton mills, 137, 138, 141. 

Negro inventors, 187, 188. 

Negro suffrage, 22. 

New Haven, Conn., proposed industrial school, 29. 

New Orleans, 127, 128. 

Uccupations of Negroes, 24. 
Occupations of Negroes, by states, 25. 
Occupations of whites, 24. 
Organized labor, see Trades Unions. 

Pace, Mr. H. H., 115. 
Patents issued to Negroes, 187. 

PopulattorTby states, 106, 108, 109, 111, 112, 124-133, 135, 138-142, 146, 147 150. 

Powderly, Mr. T. V.. 155. 

Proceedings of Seventh Atlanta Conference, 4. 

il/ailway unions, 167, 168. 

Reason, Mr. C. L., 29. 

Real estate owned by Negroes, 97, 102, 114, 117, 120. 

Reports from artisans, personal, 122-124. 



192 THE NEGRO ARTISAN 

Resolutions of Conference, 7, 8. 
Richmond meeting:, K. of L., 155. 
Richmond, Va., 148, 149. 
Riots vs. Negro working-men, 153. 

fean Francisco, 108. 

Savannah, 113. 

Schedules of questions, 9-12. 

Separate Negro central labor bodies, 157. 

Skilled laborers, Negro, see Negro Artisans. 

Slater Fund, 39, 42, 59. 

Slaves as artisans, 13-21. 

Sociological work at Atlanta University, 2-4. 

Southern Industrial Convention, 179. 

State Federations of Labor, 11. 

States of the United States, Artisans in, see Index. 

St. Louis, 132. 

Stowe, Mrs. H. B., and the Negro industrial school, 29. 

Strike of iron and steel workers, 174. 

Strikes vs. Negroes, 129, 173, 175. 

Student labor, 80. 

Students in industrial courses, 34-37. 

Suffrage, right of, 179. 

Summaries, 69, 79, 150, 176, 188. 

Superintendents of education, 12. 



T< 



obacco factories, 13, 14. 

Tolliver, Mr. A. C., 116. 

Tools in homes, 26. 

Trade graduates, see Industrial Schools. 

Trade Schools, see Industrial Schools. 

Tradesman, The, Chattanooga, 11, 180. 

Trade Unions: Resolutions on, 8; Schedule of questions sent to, 10, 11; 
Opposition to Negroes, 15, 16, 30, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 129, 136, 137, 139, 
143, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150; Graduates of trade schools and, 71, 73, 74, 
75, 76; Attitude of, toward Negroes, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 102, 105; Member 
ship of Negroes, in states, 107, 108, 111. 112, 113, 114, 115, 122, 123, 124, 
126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135, 136, 137, 139, 141, 148; Membership 
of Negroes in Unions, 153-177; Methods of discrimination in, 153-177; 
Apprenticeship and, 172; Choice of members by, 171, 172; History of, 
153-158; Lists of various, 158, 164, 167. 

Turner Brass Works, 170. 

Tuskegee Institute, 37, 40, 42, 44, 58, 59, 65, 66, 80, 84, 107. 

U nemployed Negro artisans, 91, 92. 
V esta cotton mill, 141. 

Wages, 95, 97, 99, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 119, 120, 122, 123, 125, 147, 148, 163, 183. 
Washington, Mr. B. T., 5, 59, 156. 
Washington, D. C., artisans and mechanics in, 20. 

White mechanics 1 opposition to Negro, see Trade unions, and Color dis 
crimination. 
White, Miss E. E., 114. 
Williams, Mr. W. T. B., 104. 
Wilmington, N. C., 15. 
Woods, Mr. G. T., 187. 



The proper study of -m unkind is man. 



STUDIES OF NEGRO PROBLEMS. 



Atlanta University Publications, 



No. 1 Mortality among Negroes in Cities; 51 pp., 1896, (out 
of print). 

No. 2 Social and Physical Conditions of Negroes in Cities; 
86 pp., 1897, 50 cents. 

No. 3 Some Efforts of Negroes for Social Betterment; 66 
pp., 1898, 50 cents. 

No. 4 The Negro in Business; 78 pp., 1899, 50 cents. 
No. 5 The College-bred Negro; 1 15 pp., 1900, (out of print). 

-The College-bred Negro; 32 pp., (2nd ed., abridged), 
25 cents. 

No. 6 The Negro Common School; 120 pp., 1901, 25 cents. 

No. 7 The Negro Artisan; 1902, 50 cents. 

No. 8 The Negro Church. (To be published in 1903.) 



We study the problem that others tnay discuss it. 



".IN America all schooling should lead primarily to the ele- 
T vation and development of the individual and only sec 
ondarily to a greater material prosperity." 
Report of 

J. B. JOHNSON, University of Wisconsin, 

C. M. WOODWARD, Washington University, 

H. T. EDDY, Cornell University, 

G. T. SWAIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 

E. MARBURG, University of Pennsylvania, 

Committee on American Industrial Training, 
Appointed by the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, 1900. 



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WAY 1 1 1993 


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DEC 1 1 1988 


ALTO DISC CIRC MAR 


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JUN 1 y 2004 



UNIVERSITY OF C 
FORM NO. DD6, 60m, 1/83 BERKELEY^A 94720 



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GENERAL LIBRARY - U.C. BERKE