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Full text of "Negro churches and Sunday schools, Orange County, North Carolina : a field study"

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NEGRO CHURCHES AND SUNDAY SCHOOLS 
ORANGE COUNTY, If OBSH CAROLINA. 

A FIELD STUDY BY 
WALTER PATTEN , CHAPEL HILL, 
UNIVERSITY OF NOETH CAROLINA. 
191R-1016, 









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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hil 



http://www.archive.org/details/negrochurchessunOOpatt 



Tabl* of Contents. 

Page. 

LOCATION AKD TOPOGRAPHY. ORANGE iOUNTY 2 

SIZE AND POPULATION 3_j 

BHARA8TER OF NEGRO FOFULATION 4-6 

FARV LIFE TN ORANGE «OUNTY 6-7 

Farm Ownership 6 

Farn Health 5 

Farm Production 7 

PteoS aalsing 7 

V/OOD AND CROSS TIE INDUSTRY 7-8 

GENERAL BCCJ/L 80NDITT0NS 6 

Illiteracy 8 

School Agr and Attendance 9-12 

Jl*^ro Kcti'b 12-13 

NEGRO §HUR»KES OF OHAHGE 90UNTY 18-1° 

Buildings and Grounds 13-17 

Map of Orange, 14 

The Church 17 

Services 17-19 

Cost oC Services 12 

Members Received 1? 

SUNDAY SSHOOLS 20-21 

InIITRA5.CIHUP.CH ORGANIZATIONS 22 

Young "eerie' sSocieties 22 

Missionary Societies 2? 

INTER iHUReH ORGANIZATIONS 22-24 

Union Meeting 22-23 

District Organization 23-24 

MINISTERS 24-26 

Paid fat Praaching Z A .-Zr, 

Colored Prsachars 'Lb 

WORK s^eOMPLISHED 27 

Colored Churches 27 

White Churoh^s 27 

PROBLEMS 23-33 

Reports 28 

Church Buildings 28 

Gondition of Build ings 23-29 

•hurch Furnishings °2 

Sunday School 29 

Cooperation 30 

Institute of khite Preachers for Colored Workers 30-31 



1. 

ThftLocation of Ore***© &©wnty, North Carolina. 




Outline nan o^ North Carolina, showing the location of Orange County. 
Loca rtoKf, 

Tho location and tonography of Orange County fo&a an important factors 
in determining the character of the negro life within its borders. -5+ ]_iea 
Bidway between the coastal plain and the Blue Ridge elevation in the west- 
ern part of the 3tate. It is ^ui-tre- near the center of the Piedmont section, 
and is characterized by 4r*«- rolling hills. Because of its Picturesque hills, 
its central location and its abundance of good water-it was chosen ae the 
seat of the University of the State. Its eastern boundary is within ei^ht 
■niles of the city of Durham, and within twenty**"five miles of the state cap- 
ital. 

pgg TOPOGRAPHY. <s 

-Pfi it.? )■ n-noTf».T>hTC*he land is rolling and in many places /hilly, with 

an abundance of rock. Mot like A the Connecticut farmers, who , in clearing 
their land piled the rocks into massive lonsg walls, the Orange County haps 
permitted the recks to remain in the fields to be rolled over and over 
year afteer year in the process of cultivation. Tn some cases they have 

b°en riled in lar.n;e mounds in the mid- 
dle of the p ieids. Numerous running 
streams course their way around the 
hills and through the valleys, supply- 
ing an abundance o^ water p or the stofek 
and in some places furnishing rower to 
A i~Arc * m.ii. run f- small saw or grist mil IS. Several 



• t- 



Outline map of North Carolina, showing the location o^ n rarii?e County. 

Leeatien. 

The location and topography of Orange Cunty are imrort- 
ant /"actors in ietormining the character of negro life within its 

era. The county lies midway between the coastal plain and the 
Blue Ridge elevation in tha western part of the state. It is near 
the centre of the piedmont seotion,and is chamcterizod by rol- 
ling hills wooded by cedar, pine and oak trees. Because of its pic- 
turesque hills, its central location, and its abundance of good water, 

it was chosen as too seat of the University of tho State. Its east- 
e 

era boundary i i of the city of Durham, and with- 

in twenty-five mil s of ^aleiajh the stato capital. 

..: HRAPHY. 
The land 1e rolling and in many places hilly with an abun- 
dance of rook. Unlike the Connecticut farmers, who in clearing their 
land piled the rocks 'ri long massive walls, the Orange County °ar- 
mers have permitted the rocks to 
remain in the fields to be rol- 
led over and over year after year 
in the process of cult ivotion. In 
some cases they have been piled 

in large rounds in the middle of 

A water mill. Cedar trove Tp. 



of the fields. Numerous running streams course their way around 

the Mils and through the valleys, sunplylng an abundance of wa- 
ter 
ter for the ntock and in some places furnishing power to run a 

small saw or grist mills. Several dilapidated water mills may be 

oc 1 :: in the p^utaern part of the county. Tn the upr>er section of the 

county come streams are also still used for milling purposes. 

THE SIZE. 

The area of Orange County is about 390 square miles: or 
235,^67 acres. Of the one hundred counties in the state, it rank3 
sixty -fifth in size. Of this aria 
only 31J? or ~o,080 acres are under 
cultination.The remaining 69^ is 
woodland. In the state W- of the 
land is cultivated. 

A large nart of this un- 
developed land will remain in this 

(• Negro Home . Ohapel Hill,Tp, 
condition For years to come nwinu 

to the quality of the soil, the difficulty of clearing, removing 
the rocks, and putting it into a condition for profitable culti- 
vation. The young men of today 
seek the grapes that are easy to 
r>ick,b.\t the more courageous will 
swing the axe,ar>nly the torch and 
tran^orm wooded hills into tor- 
raced cornfields. 

inter ' s Hone. 
Chanel Hill, So. 

THE POPULATION. 

The copulation of the county in 1310 was l',964. This is 

h density -f 38.6 people per square mile. The whit^ T 'OPulation is 



4 
more than double that of the negro ;the former numbering 10, ''3R; 
the latter, 49C6. The^e are 2937 faralies and »805 dwellings. The 
population is fairly "'ell distribu- 
ted throughout, the county .Chapel Hill 
tov.-nship, however, i s the most Populous, 
having 4159 people. The character of 
the farming is not conducive to a 

large negro population. There is not 

A Valuable v/orker. 
auch ienand for negro labor on the Chapel Hill. 

farms own9d by the white people. There are no large Plantations 
and no ■'^■-• r ± + problem of farm tenancy as in rr.any eastern counties 
of the state. 

CHAF/'CT^P 03 ' IGRC POPULATION. 
The character of the negro population is more self-reliant 
and independent than in sor.e o f the eastern counties '.vhere the 
tena.ncy system pre va il r. There is net the r>roblom of extreme pov- 
erty nor of gross i--nnrance.i.'cr is the o the "roblem of a massed 
negro population. Those Orango County negroes may be characterized 

as ■•-. home-owning and a home-loving 
people. They are alrr.ose devoid of 
Lhat roaming, shifting spirit that 
Prevails in the life of tho race 
elsewhere. IJilleboro and Chapel "ill 

aro the principle centers of the 
Collecting T ,auniry in 
Chapel Hill, Monday Korning. colored recplo.The latter beina; 

the sent of the State University offers quite a variety of .vo|?k 

for tho negroes. The women and older girls readily find employment 

in tho homes of the white residents of the town, as cooks, housemaids, 

nurses, laundresses nni s:enorel houseworkerB. The men and older boys 



6 

are in domand us porters, tfr.itors, delivery clerks, collectors of 

laundry, clothee pressors, janitors, lawn workers,, gardeners and 
draymen. This contact 'vith the white people has developed among 
the negroes a vary respectable citizenship. Yhe negro iB a born 
imitator and an apt put)! 1 of his employer. 

Hillsbcro teinrr the county scit and the principal + rading 
center for the upper rart of the county, likewise offers special 
advantages tc + !v negro. Here again ie found a tyre of negro cit- 
izenship similar tc that found in and around Chapel Hill. 

"" IS OP FARM LIFE ID ORANGE COUNTY IK 1910. 

Farm Ownership. 

Orange County . "orth "arollna . 
white . fleq;rq. White. Neygjo. 
Farm Ownership 70^' 30JS" ~67^ 33% 

Farm Mortgages 13$ 21$ Vlf 26$ 



Negro Vvoaan u loughmng. "egro Parmer and Home. 

Cheeks ownship. Chapel Hill Tp. 

Farm health. 

Tbo total :ar;. wealth of Orange County in 1010 was J.3,203, 
748. This is e per capita farm .vealth of 'M> .The total taxable 
wealth of the county in 1914 waa $6, 017, 599. In the period 190S-* 
1913, the increase kb BC^.The increase in white taxable wealth 
.vas 72$, but in the negro taxable property 136^. * 

t! *>SJ-ati8tics from the office cf Rural Econonlcs, University of 



7 

Farm Production. 
Tho average erop yielding n ower per acre in Orange County 
is *13. 13, while in tho state the average for 1314 wan $20.18. 
Cotton and tobacco form 44^ of the total crop wealth nroduced in 
the census year. The cotton crop of 1914 was 14o;? hales. The tobacco 
production in 1*10 was 1,77", 103 rounds. The county did not raise 
sufficient. fo"d and feed supplies in the cennuo year;the bill f or 
Imported foods stuffs was ^407,000. * 

Stock Raising. 
Stock raiding has been greatly encouraged in reoent years 
until the county raises mors boof than is necessary for home con- 
sumption. Professor H.H.WIlllans of Chapel Hxll has been instrumen- 
tal in developing better breeds of all kind3 of stock. Likewise, 
the University thr^ush its Rural Economics Benartment is empha- 
sizing the value of home production of 3tock of nil kinds and all 
farm feeds. This encouragement will result in increased stock *" arm- 
ing and food raising to the 'financial advantage of the people. 
■ jp$ 0RO-f'*-TT'; TN!Vj:^RY. 

writer inquired of an aged negro farmer what his money 
crop was. He responded, "Wood" . Thin is quite truB of many farmers 
near Char>?l Hill. The town ot't'oro a limited market for good soa'-on- 



Croca-tieR at Carrboro. >'ef:ro r '"rmer with Wood for Sale. 
Chapel Kill '"p. Chapel Hill. 

e'd wood. The rrice varies. Dur ing the summer and the early fall 



e 

both ^ine and oak wood in eight rest lengths can be bought for 
$2.50 per cord. But the winter ^rice from *3.0^ to *3.'C per cord. 
Usually the custom is for the farmer to cut his wood during the 
winter months and sei '• it the following fail, but many ^or finan- 
cial reasons arc forced to offef ftrean wood for sale. 

The eross-tie industry during the last few years has been 
a source of much revenue' for the farmers. Tt gives employment dur- 
ins; the winter months. The ties sell for 40 to 50 cents each de- 
livered at the railroad. The standing timber of the countv is 
small and reakos a low grade of lumber. Thi s is tr.ie of both the 
oak and the pine timber. For this reason so many of the small oaks 
are cut into cross-tics. The farmers of Chapel Hill township have 
beenespecially active in this TOrk. 

The past year marks the beginning of a wholesale cutting 
of the cedar in the lower part of the county. The operators of 
small saw mills receive *30.per thoudand log run "for one inch 
cedar i^oirds. As boards of any size are bought the far^ei's can 
sell rery small cedar sticks. Thi s results in the cutting of small 
trees nc an six inches across the stump, with a small revenue 

•for the farmer. He gets sixteen cents out of a cedar tree that has 
been growing twenty years or more, ""he largest cedars many years 
old ' '" * yield him more than a dollafi delivered at the mill. 
This cedar is used in the manufacture of lead Pencils >*nd cedar 
chests. 

G iNERAL SOCIAL CONDITIONS. 
Illiteracy 1910. 

Of the wh te population of Orange County ten years off ago 
and over 8.2$ are illiterate. The state average for both races is 
12.3j£.The United States average is 7>f- . 



Humbor 
6 to 14 years 



School Ago and Attendance. 

Attend school. n Q r cent, ^tate averad 



White. 3397 

^e.^ro. 1PP5 
Total. "4680 



2334 
782 



5086 



68.7 
59.. -5 



75.7 
64. 



Negro Public School 
Oarrboro and Cnanol Till. 



'7hite Public School 
Chapel Hill. 



The percent of school attendance fcr Grange Covin ty is 66. S. One 
prevailing characteristic of f-e country negro school in orange 
is irs location about a quarter cf b Tile from the highway in 
some wcodad section. " 1 -'" is due tc the urv/illftpgneee of the 
white land owners along the highways to sell their land for negro 
school pupposes believing that it would reduce the value of the 
surrounding property. O 1 * course there are some ne^ro schools on 
the highways but they are the except ions . Such buildings as they 
have are very unfit for school purposes. 

To reduce the illiteracy among the y ung men and women 
and the ;:,rown up people, the night and moonlight schools have be- 
come quite effective. The residents of Chapel Kill and the students 
of the University have willingly given of their time and talent 
to make this form of education profitable to those who lacked 



18. 

and night ; - 

St. P*Ul, A. U.K., Chapel Rill, Rav.W.H.Oartar, pastor. 

Dicker son's Ohapal,A.U.K. , T -'illsroro,Rev.W'.K. A.»'lison,rastor. 

Rock Hill, Col. M.B.,Chap«l Hill, Rev. L.H. Hackney, pastor. 

"!..Hrit»;'it,C0I,.lt.B.,;iilT3boro,Rtv.W.H.Loni5,ps8tor. 

The Baptist ehurehas hava union meetings on the fifth 

Sundays, no rerulnr pre&chinj; that day. 

-■huroh has praaehing thraa Sundays a month; — 

Cotton's Chapel, C.'i.E. ,Chapel Hilll, Rev. L.S.U.s,ssey, pastor. 

"''our shurohes hav» prea.chin* two Sundays a month; — 

' t. Sforia i,Col. M.B. ,Ch*»»ka ^oTnshi^.P^v . J. H.Duns ton, post or. 

Flat Rock,* ." .E. . T - TJ! !">sr-v~c. T: > y. J. T.Tate, pastor. 

Academy r, rt! , > , «t»ri^. Oh. ,Hillsboro,No raster. 

r f 1 and Presbyterian Oh. ,Efland,JIo raster. 

Eightean country chmrchas have preaching one Sunday ■ 

month; — 

'twsUr'a Chapel, 0. V. K. , Chapel Hill Tp. ,Rev.S.C.Wils©», paster. 

Smith 1 a Gharri , A.L'.E. , Bingham '"v. , Rev. T.J. Tata, pastor. 

at.Zion,A . U.K. ,Cadar Orove Tp. , Rev.w. K.A.Wilson, pastor. 

Fayn-j's Chapel, A. ,E., Little r n"ver Tp. .Rev.H.O.Nunn, pastor. 

Hunt«r ' s Chapel. A. w. '.■, . , Cr.«aks ' p p. ,Rev . J.i\r..Chalr.i&re,pastos. 

White Cross, \ . It. E. , Cii^aks Tp. , Rev. J. P. 3. Chalmers, ;iastor. 

Jlaine' s Chapel , A . U .E. , Sheeks Tp. ,Bev.J. PS. Chalmers, pastor. 

Elarvey's Chapel, A. U.E. ,Hillsboro n, p. ,Rev. J. r . C Chalmers, pas tor 

liekory ^rove,C.l/.B.,Chapsl Hill Tp.,Rev.E.' .Hopkins, pastor. 

rail's Break, C.M.B. , Bingham Tp . ,R©v. .7. JJ. Caldwell, paster. 

Ut . Sinai , C . M . E. , lhapel Hi3 1 T r> . , Ra V . J .H.DunSt-n, pastor. 

Bethaaida,O.W.B. .Binrhan Tn. ,Rev. m . J.Edwards , raster. 

Piney Grove, C. U. B. ,Eno 'n, ,Rev. T.J. Edwards, pastor. 

Ut. jilead,C. " . 3. ,Eno "*o. ,Rav.S. . ; .Hi8hinond,pa.stor . 



13. 

E.thanrHili,c.v.P.,: im8horo Tp., R .v.K.M.Br.d.h*w,p M tor. 

L.a'a Ohapel,O.U.B., Cedar Irov. Tp., 

Orange Cross Hoads.C.v.B. Ch»eVs Tn t?.„ T a a * ^ 

,<-. i.o.,v/n»«jta £p.,Rev.J..<..Ssnford,r.R*tor. 

Co*t of 8ervleea. 

fh. amount for pr.a.hiag during the year was |3868.40 

for 7^o servie»s i r l*i "7 ,.-.. ..t, 

' ' ' Irae th# average paid for aaoh service. 

The cost for rerairs, improvements 
and aorraut expenses for the year- 
was {1653. 18, an average of $61.33 
per- eon* t gat ion. 

tfembera Raaaived. 
:: iring the y-ar 1914-18, 
113 aflults have beer baptlaed ma 
reaeived into the •hureh;-- 

Oolorad U.E. Ohureh, 6 
Afriean U.K. Chursh, 4-6 
Colored Ifisa.Baptiat, 61 

Total TT^ — 
SUNDAY SOHl OLS. 

nty-one Sunday School, *are reported from th* twanty- 
s.v.n shur.b organizations. 8 irl.« are in H . SBioil „ mrj , 1Jindap . 

Five country schools suspended during the .old weather. 

--o total enrollment of officer., teachers, and pupils id 1007, 

; -■' ° : thq dKuroh raomberehip.The average attendee was 573 

ial undaj School enrollment. She enrollment of 

those over 21 years of age is 253. 

Isnominationa we have the following enrollments- 
Colored tfethodist Episcopal 55 



L 



19-. 




^ »A. B- Co/. CO 

M0.CoI.Ca. 

ftiS^ttri.v. Col. .. 



»«-** J , n ? "' 

!>_, A/V- 3>. Col . C 



Hi II 



j)«.eAtf/w nn-6.ci.Ch. e#;H. 

A-/M. £ ch. Jt. <'►"/ ». ■ 
Cotto7i'sC> 1 d/ie/ CM-e.C/,. 



' Ktr&o 






C_ O c/ 71 I 



Or inCjC 



fij G- <% V- O 



^ ov 1 K Carol, na 



Tire TOetlradist gpiscupal (Klmvch, South, 

(£l,ap«I Hill, North Carolina. 



14. 

African ilethodist Episcopal 460 
Colored Missionary BaptAst 564 
Color od Presbyterian 28 

BUHDAY SC'IOOL OGHVEOTIOH. 

In promoting the Sunday ?chool work of the church, probnMy 

the African tfethodist Episcopal Church is taking the lead. The min- 
utes of the Sunday School Conven- 
tion of the Durham District held 
^n the St. Paul K.W.F. Church, 
Chapel Fill, July l^-lR, 1915, .show 
that committees were appointed to 
report upon the *'o<V10'ving subjects;- 
LOW "inance^.On Kiiucp.tional 

Sard Collections ; i. On Apportionment of Connectional Pays Voney; 

4. OH District Concert ;5. On Woman's Hone and foreign Missionary 

■-■■ir- .' n low to improve our Sun- 
day School ork;7.9n Memorials : 8. Or. <'or"3-> 

Moral ConuiLion of our ^eople ; ■ 3 .3n 

<hat Influence has " Round*- the-7able 

Conversation" on Children; 10. On 

Saving Children to the Uhurch;ll. 

On Conijtiona of our "^ublic Schools: 

12. On Resolutions; 13. OH New ncrk. The following special pp.rara had 

boen prepar 1 foi bhis Sonventionj- 

"LooV forward", "j^p -"eorffia fcraen. 

"The Sunday School, Its Crigen and Its Duties", Miss Katie Farmer. 

"The Importance of Fduoation", Ulse Nannie Williams. 

"Disobedience Destroys and Deeradep" ,Hiss V'abel Hardin. 

" fhv Parents Should /t + end ''undny School" , Wins Cassia Swan. 



15. 

The Followin ': is one of the reports submitted to this Con- 
vent i on; - 

"On Ways and UeanB of Interesting Parents In Sunday School 

1 ". . 

"To the Presiding Elder and Delegates of the Durham District: 
We, the Committee on Ways and Weans of Interesting Barents In 
Sunday School Work beg to make our 
rorort. 

"Ms is a ouestjon over which 
the S.ai'iay ocnool workers of one 
world have puszeled over ard the 
fact, tnat tnis discussion has 
such a place in bodies of this kind 
is ail evidence of its imoor tance. 

Un^orturato] v In many churches 
parents have the imrression that the 
Sunday School is for the children 
alone, therefore elder "Olsons have 
no iblnce there. 

In the first nlace to start with each 'undaj School should 
be well rerrulatod, that is first, properly organised by having the 
necessary lepartments-cradle roll, primary, intermediate, adult and 

home departments over which should 
^e placed efficient and active 
superintendents, then the school 
should be 'Traded so that "?s near 
as possible persons of the same 
age and gre/ie are rleced together, 
'ou will find that the enrollment 
of a child ui"'on the cradle roll 
will act as an incentive to cause 
^o^sons who are neither members 
of rhe church and Sunday School 
to become interested in both. Af- 
ter a well regulated .-imday School 
corr.es your well regulated adult class, with first of all a live 
teacher, who has a personal magnetism. is resourceful, and ever en the 
alert. Your ciast; should have its president, secretary and treasurer 
and various committees, such as Lookout, Social and Sick committees, 
irsons -ho will take pride and intorst and be active. 
Again the class should have a weekly meeting and not be confined 
alone to t Lering.Foep in touch with your members by 

notinj it md folio" ing them us with committees who make 
inqul ■' ; . ! intc '" cause i »w the when md why a 1 »ont and such in- 
terost wi 1 1 bring home tc the parent that you have a personal in- 
terest in the individual and they ■•ill in turn Bha i jonal in- 
terest in the fip^p."^!! something for different ones o^ cur clp.se 
to do as naar nn-i as much as nossiblerfor after »'' 1 it is the busy 
man helping to bear fb o burdens who <*izes the situation properly. 

Tn conclusion have a competent teacher aver or. the alert 
competent in personality, ability and resourcefulness. 
Humbly submitted, 

Viirs Ruth 0' Daniel, 
\. ! ins Alice "oust, 
Rev . W. T .Cornish, 
I . H . Huchanan . " 



16. 

ohh.«:r crgaizations. 

young people's societies. 

,T,v ie Church and the ^unday School are the main organizations, 
yet within them there are important young people's societies, ouch 
as organized Sunday School classes, African Christian Dndeavor league, 
Young People's Society, Literary Society, Juvinj le Vissicnary So- 
ciety. Those exi.it usually 1^ the town ohos. 

kisaioNARy seeis'eiBs. 

Msarly all the church Organizations have soae form of is- 
Bionary Society. In the Baptist 
churches there is usually a 301- 
fTf.I "iiissionary Society", while 
in the Methodist Churches there 
are usually twe So [sties, "The 
Woman's Hone and Foreign Uis- 
•' sioary Fccioty'' and "TheLadies 1 

Aid Society" , which usually cares for furnishing the oarsonage. 
UHI ■ < \K'. INi . 

kiat "-' • ""tint churches, there is the Union Meeting which 

convenes on the fifth Sundays of 
the months. These meetings are 
well organized and acII attended 
by the preachers. The accompanying 
shows the- Baptist preachers at- 
tending a Union iieeting at the 
Rock Hill Baptist Church of Chapel. 
The session began Friday and co ntinued through Sunday. This fre- 
quent •■.-'. ' -' n : together of tho preachers to confer in a brotherly 
»ay about the methods of work, to discuss the problems that come 



17. 
to them, and to give thorn a chance to become woll acquainted with 
each other 1b a decided value to the Baptist preachorn and to 
the churches as a whole. The membership of those Union tf9etings 

le not determined by county 
lines. The New T ?ope 'iisBionary 
Baptist Association is the or- 
',<-•• ization to which the Baptist 
churches of Orange County be- 
long. The "ollowlng Article, ta- 
ken from the Cons"i tutlon of 

this Association reveal^ its character ;- 

' : 1« This Association shall be known as the New ! !or"= Mission- 
ary Bantiet Association. 

"'. The nsoeiation shall meet annually, to be composed of 
qrdained ministers belonging to Bald Association; any member be- 
longing to the Association who, by presenting letters from their 
respective churches certifying to their appointment, shall be en- 
title;! tc 8 oats. 

3. The number of delegates from 
each church shall not excoed two. 

4. The letters from the churches 
shall state the number baptized and 
the whole number of members. 

6. In its decision-s and acts, 
the church must reco r,nize Christ, as 
the only law-giver In Zion;and 
every individual church is an inde- 
pendent body, with ?X3Cutive (but 
not Legistlative) powers. 

8. The Association shall have the 
power to withdraw from any church 

that knowingly and wilfully departs from the orthodox principles 
of religion as taught by the Eible arid held by regul&E Baptists 
as the true teaching thereof. 

9. dhe officers of the Association shall be a Moderator and 
Clerk, to be elected bj the suffrages of the members present. 

11. Baptist churches, upon application fcr admission into 
this Ai f )cii " " on, shall bo received and thoir delegate seated i i- 
satisfactory evidence be given that they are truly of our faith 
and order. 

14. Wo minister shall be ordained without first being qual- 
ified to road the Scriptures with an understanding and have a gift 
for the ministry. This section shall not be changed except by a 
two-thirds vote of the members present. 

17. '"his Association shall noet annually on Wednesday after - 
the feii-eti I. ■ unday in October and adjourn on of the same 
week. " 



18. 
THE MINISTERS. 

In Orange County there are sixteen colored ministers at 
work. They live on the average 7 £ miles from the churches they 
serve. ,p his in the moan of those who live next door to the church 
and thB one who liven fanthest away, which is 35 miles. '"lie system 
in the ha- irches encoura^ea the minister to own his own 
home or farm. The accompanying Pic- 
tures show some of the preachers 
and their homes. In the .jeunodist 
syst3:i th - shurchos own the par- 
sonagos,so the preachers arc not 
encouragoa to own a home. The i- 

tinerant Ls against home owning, but it, has some Btrong 
features in its favor both in behalf of the churches and the 

preachers themselves. 

Jhe average amount that. 
each church paid for preaching 
for the year 1814-15 waafti48.78. 
?ha average salary paid the A . 
U.K. preachers in "rant;-:- County 
■•.■as $406.10. The average salary 
of the Colorec ii tionary Baptist preachers working in Orange 
County and Home having churches outride the county was 5-417. 

Sfhe salary of aJl the colored preachers is supplemented "np 
by none,/ they earn at other work. School teaching 3s 8 ^avorite 
work with them. For this they tret on the average 825. rer Eonth. 
One preacher runs a saw-mill ; another is a chef and gen- 
eral caretaker of a home : another floee rr irdeninp: and ligb i k; 



19. 

another conducts a school of his own, which is a Mossing to his 

community ; several have farms. 3o by varied work the preachers matpa 

a living, and by economy cave tc buy a home of their own. 

Some of the preachers are trained in the higher schools 

of learning, but others have 

not passed bryond the grammar 

school work. 

SfOHIE ACCOMPLISHED FOR 1914-15. 

''"he work that was accom- 

pllshed by the enure! of 0- 

range for the year 1^14-lfl as 

far as can ne neasurs'; igures van about as followBj — 

P^oachiriiT; sei-vioes held, 720 

.' borage 
UBJnborp received, t ll r . per member. 

Collected for Missions, #251.23 .15 

Collected for Building * Fxp.-vrir.er-. , 1553. l'-> .88 

Collected for Preaching 2fc6F.40 2.05 

•rand Total **?72.PP. *S . 06 

Of course there was mucn work 
done that is not ahovni in fi- 
gures. In fact figure.? indicate 
only a small r>art of a nrsach- 
er's work. She life of the iToach- 
er emon/:, the reople is after 
all probably ennaJ in importance ;.o his sermons in counting for 
the establ i aliment of fi is yingdoa. 



83 
IHTRA-CMtlROH oagAniZAEIDHS. 
Young Boonle's Societies. 
The (Jhurch and the Sunday School are the two main organ- 
izations of the average congregation, yet there are other import- 
ant societies. For the young reople thero are organized elapses in 
the Sunday School, African Ohristian Endeavor Leagues, Young ^eonie' 
Literary Societies, Juvenile Missionary Societies, and Clubs 'or 
the nurpose of raising money for church inn->rovementB.The'*e socle- 
tier* exist usually in the town Churches. 

••i enionnry Societies. 
Hearl; every Church has some form c^ "iBSlonafy Society. In 
the Baptist Churches there *Bei genera] HisBionary Society to 4e 
all form^ of misirwry work. In the Methodist Churches there ai~e 
two missionary societies usually, The Woman's Homo and Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society, and The Ladies Aid Society. The distinctive work 
of thislatter organization is to maintain and furnish the pareon- 
ago . IHTJCRftOHURCH OH 5/ r I Z A 1 1 CMS . 

Union Meeting. 
Among the Raptist Ohurchee there is an Tnter-Ohurch organ- 
ization known as a Union. The Union Meeting is held on fi^th 



Sundays. These meetings are well organized and well attended by the 
preachers. The above pictures show Baptist preachers attending such 
a meeting at the Rock Hill Paptiet Church , Chapel Hill, Relv.L.H. Hack- 
ney, pastor. The session began Friday and continued through "unday. 



The Methodist Ohurchso of the county haws raenbership in 
the Durham District Conference which meets annually. This corree 
sponds to the Baptist district organization ,The New Hope Baptist 
Association. In the Union Meeting tthach assembles four times a 
year the Baptist preaohefrs have a decided advantage over the >'eth- 
oiint preachers to become acquainted, and to discuss plans and 
meth"ds of work. 

THE MINISTERS. 

There ere sixteen colored ministers who sorve Grange County 
Churches. Twelve of them live within the county. On the average 
tho ministers serving in the county live seven and a half miles 
from their Churches. Thin is the rasah of those who live next door 
in the towns and the one tho lives farthest away, which is thirty- 
five miles. The nystea in the Paptist Churches encourages the 



Rev . }- .K. Hopkins, Family and Home, C&rrboro, Chapel K111,Tp. 

minis tar t<bo own his home or farm. The shove pictures show a Baptist 
minister and his home. In the Methodist system the Churches own the 
parsonages, ana the preachers are not sncouraged to own hom69.The 
itenerant system is against home owning, but it has sorse strong 
features in its favor both in behalf of the Churches and *he 
preachers themselves. 

Cost of ^reaching. 
The average amount each colored "hurch paid f or preaching 



^5 
for' the year l»14-]5 -»as £l4f.78. The average salary mid the 
Afrjroan ''ethodist Episcopal preachers in Orange County was 
$406. 10. The average salary of the Colored Missionary Prptist 
preachers working in Orange County and "one having Churches out- 
side the county ^9 $417. 

It vill bo interesting to note that the average payment 
in 1514 for preaching by the white Churches of the county was 
$243. The country Churches pain ^159, while the town Shurches 
averaged $502. The average salary of the white preachers in 
Orange County for 1914 .ms $712.55. They served also 25 Churches 
outside the county, and had 4100. contributed as m^s^ion money 
in the support of the Churches in Chapel Hill. 

The salary of all the colored preachers is supplemented 
by -noney earned at other work. School teaching is a favorite oc- 
cupation with them.^or this they 
receive about °*25 per month. 
One preaoher runa a saw- 
alll; another is a chef and general 
caretaker of a home ; another does 
gardening and light work? another 
conduota a school of hia own, which 
is of narked value to his commu- 
nity jeeveral have farms. >o by 
varied work the preachers make a living, and by economy save to 
buy homes of their own. 

Some of the preachers are trained in the higher schools of 
learning, but others hev*> not passed beyond the gramaar school work. 



h ave_ 

orgaJia and^rudely mads benches and reading-do ska. The town churches 
usually have organs, but also have iiorae made benches, which are most 
uncomfortable for the congregation. 

The Sunaday School seems to be a mired wheel in most of 
Lhasa churches, although in some it is helping pull the load. As a 
whole, the Sunday School is not aggressive, is attended by but a very 
few people over 21 years of a^e.But the Sunday School Conference 
held by the A.M.E. Church promises to be a power to create Interest 
and to stimulate effective c unday School methods. These Conferences 
could be made n^rs effective if they should be mors of an institute 
where Sunday School methods were discussed by leaders of Sunday School 
work, rather than such subjects as were for the most part noted in 
an earlier part of this paper. There is a lack of appliances with 
which to io effective work. Teachers that can hol-i the attention of 
the ^eople and can properly impart the Bible truths are needed. The 
Pundk.y Schools already organized are static rather than dynamic; they 
need life, and that life must come from the minister. He is the key 
man in all church work, and from him must radiate inspiration and 
power of organization. 

Of course the preacher cannot do the work alone. He needs the 
heir and cooperation of leaders in his constituency. Unless there 
are tbese leaders, the oreacher may be ever so capable anrt yet the 
work of the church will lag, under the present system of having 
one minister for several churches and of having preaching services 
once a month in each church. Churches fofc the colored, nor for the n 
white, as far as that is concerned, can possibly hope to make ad- 
vancement or even hold their 07.11 without nort pastoral attentions 
than tMs.In order to make a living, these colored preachers of 
necessity must devote a larger part of his- v/osk to other occupa- 



- 



[ 

1 
I 

' ! 

: 



'727 



WORK ACCOMPLISHED 1914-15. 

Colored Churches. 

Tho trork thst was accompli shed by the negro Churches <->f 

Orange County for the year 1314-15 as far as can be determined 

by figures .vas about as follows: 

Preaching services held 720 

rembers received 113 Average amt. 

per member. 
Oollect.od for missions *251.29 .13 

Collected for Building & Expenses 1 V 6S5.19 .98 

Collected for Preaohing 3,868.40 5 . 05 

Grand Total \5,772.88 *3.Q6 

It will he interesting to compare these figures with cor- 
responding figures for the white Churches of the county. There 
are 47 white and 27 negro Churches. 
.Mte Churches. 

Preaching services held 1236 

"embers received 47° Average amt. 

rer member. 
Collected for Missions £*,«76. .91 

Collected for Building & Expenses 5,557. 1.04 

Collected for ^reaching 10, '31. 2 . 05 

Grand Total. * ;h,364. ft 4.00 

Of course there was much more 

work done by the Churches than these 

figures indicate. In fact figures 

tell only a mall part of the story. 

The life of the Treacher among his 

people is after all probably equal 

in i'^ortance to is "ermons in 
Fa- ily and Home of 

Rev T.J. Edwards. counting for the establishment of 



Chapel Hill Tp. 



His Kingdom. 



28 
THE PROBLEMS . 

Reports. 

The most difficult problem th"> writerhaa faced in this 
study was to get full reports of the Churches. In many items cov- 
ered by the reports the data secured was very meager and cannot 
be used in any general way. But the principal items of "lembership, 
additions, finance, were nuite fully reported. When reports were 
lacking the needed data was secured from the minutes of the annual 
reports of the Churches. But these annual reports are deficient 
in florae important respects. The financial aspect of the work has 
the largest nlace.The Sunday School work is neglected in the 
Baptist reports, while in the Methodist minutes a charge of one 
or noroChurchos is reported as a whole. The individual Church is 
not reported unless it is a station charge. 
Church Buildings. 

There are enough coljred church buildings in Orange County 
to seat the whole colored population at any one service. The 
buildings for the usual service have room and to spare. The dis- 
tribution of the churches is such that no colored family has to 
go more than ei^ht -"ilea to preac'' ng, except those living in the 
uppor part o" Little Hivor township. In this townshij* only one 
very poor church was reported, namely, Payne ' s Chapel. The uoper 
part of the township is accessible to a church just over the line 
in Durham County. The churches are fairly '/ell distributed through- 
out the roit of the county. 

Condition of Buildings. 

The colored church buildings of tho county do not apDeal 
to any one ".ith an aesthetic sense. Improvements are needed badly 
on tho oxtorior and the interior. ^he town churches have a more 



r>9 



>t tractive than those of the country. In tho towns there exists 



■i church rivalry usually which expresses itoolf inkeafcing the 
gjauraj™ end; grounds ■■■In fair condition, but even here much nogleot 
'lie Bhojfni.The congregations an a whole has but little interest 

i l 1 

-.' ing Ihe church 1 , building Dlaces to ba loved and respected, 
e is no)t a matter of poverty so much as one of negligence and 
hdifference. 

Church Furnishings. 
The town churches usually have organs but the country 
oj&urches do not. The, seats are generally home made and quite un- 
comfortable. Some of the town buildings have carrot on the isles 
ffd on the rostrum floor, but this would be a luxury for the 




churches of the country. 

Sunday Schools. 
The Sunday School seems to be a mired wheel in most of 
the Churches, although at some points it 3s helping pull the load. 
Generally it is not &ggressine,and is not supported by many of 
the Church members over 21 years o^ age. The African \'ethodist 
Episcopal Church through its Sunday School Conference is stim- 
ulating some interest in the Sunday School work r>nd methods. 
Thes-' Conferences could be made still more practical by using 
institute methods where the school at work is the central idea. 
Tho school are quite devoid of nny sort of arrl iances to aid the 
teachers in presenting the Bible stories. Probably the most 
crying need is that for efficient teachers. The Sunday School 
already r^anized ajfj atatlo rather than dynamio;they need life, 
and that life must ifcomo from the Church leader, the minister. He 
is the key nan in all Church work, and fr^m him must radiate in- 
spiration and Dower of organization. 



30 

Cooperation. 

Of course the preacher cannot do the work ''lone. He no*»da 

the heln and cooperation of the leaders of his membership. Unless 

the>o are these leaders who live in the community of the Church, 

tho preacher mny be ever so capable and yet the work of th e Church 

will lag under the system of an absentee leader, and once a month 

services. Churches for tne colored people, and for the white, as far 

as that is conoern-jd, cannot possibly hope to make advancement 

;pr even hold their own without more pastoral attention than that 

"given during a once a month service. In order to make a living 

rehe colored preachers of necessity must devote much of th*ir to 

other occupations. ^reaching becomes a side line to Peaabiatejr. 

J 
farming, or some other work. 

Cooperation of White Preachers. 
A cooperation -of colored leaders and colored preachers has 
done much in ''he advancement of the negCo race. But this is not 
enough. If the colored Church is tte be effective in moulding the 
ideals and morals of the colored race the preachers must find 
in their white colaborers a spirit of sympathy and coor>oration. 
There is very little interest on the part of the white ninister 
or laity for religioiie and educational work amon.T the negroes. 
They are left largely to work ~ut their own salvation. If they dc I 
it all right, if not, it is all the same. But what p staicidal policy.' 
I'any of us say we have an interest but our actions do not show it. 
The writer himself during the **irst four years o* his ministry 
was in touch with several colored Churches but did not put him- 
self out to or each to them, or in any direct way coooerate with 
the colored preachors in their work, cnce in awMle « man is 



31 
found who does hava r^al interest in the negro situation. That 
-rrn realizes that no race can advance very far itself with a 
de^r weight of ignarance and superatition upon ifc.Even »"rora a 
selfish standpoint, the white man, and especially the white preacher 
who i^ interested in the development of his owra people should 
became interested in the advancement of the color -d people about 
him. Segregation laws have no connection with Christianity. They 
may serve as a blind to cover the responsibility of the white 
loader. 

Institutes for Colored Church '.Yorkers. 

The greatest problem, probably, in the negro Church question 
is the state of advancement of the ministers themselves. TLe 
average colored preacher in not a trained worker, although a 
ready nnd willing, and courteous minister. He has no had the ad- 
v"nta_53S of a high Bchool education. Tbe few that have had ad- 
vantages show a remarkable ability to meet the needs of their 
congregations. Why could not this deficiency ^e met bynthw white 
ministers of Orange County through Institutes for colored ph rch 
workers on problems of Church and Sunday School ^ork? Why should 
we not bring to them whatever advantages we have srainei through 
our tpaining? V/e talk of Mission work in Africa, in Korea, in 
Mexico, in India. 'Ve become enthusiaotAo about it '"bile, beheld, 
a race is at our very doors looking for the light and for them 
the lia;ht of ur lives does not shine. 

The negro i3 ready to be taught. Teaching would rob him of 
no spirit of initiative or independence. But it would arouse him 
to 'h« "act that the white people had an interest in him beyond 
that of usin^ his services; an interest that touches his welfare 
here and now. With such a consciousness a ne"/ zeal to make good 



32 

and to bo a go^d citizen would possesn the raoe. 

It is .veil to go to the heart of Africa and there establish 
in the color-d race the ideals and standards of our Lord , but ife ia 
squally as good for us to take a hand in bringing theBe r>*mo 
Standards and ideal* to the colored people of Orange County. If 
Jfha colored peonle are to come into their spiritual inheritance, 
they must have the cooperation of th»ir white friends and neigh- 
bors. 



i