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Junius B. Wood. 

The Negro in Chicago, 







35. 8960773 


Published \>y 
The Chicago Daily News 


Distributed free in Chicago and to educational in- 
stitutions, business organizations and publications. 

To individuals outside of Chicago, a charge of 10 
cents will be made to cover postage and mailing. 

Address, The Daily News, 15 North 5th avenue, 



How He and His Race Kindred Came to Dwell 

in Great Numbers in a Northern City; 

How He Lives and Works; His 

Successes and Failures ; 

His Political Outlook. 



(Of The Chicago Daily News Staff.) 

Reprinted from The Chicago Daily News, 
issues of Dec. 11 to 27, 1916. 



How the Colored Man Came to Chicago 5 


Jobs Which Are Plentiful for Colored Workers 7 


The South and the Trade Unions of the North 9 


The Negro in Business and Investment . . . . . . 11 


Many Are in Professional and Political Life 13 


Musicians, Artists, Writers, and the Stray Genius . . . . 15 


Apartments for Colored Families; Two Great Institutions . . 17 


Churches and Charitable Institutions 19 


Public Schools and Opportunities in Civil Service . . . . 21 


Real Estate Values and Bad Housing Conditions .... 23 


Politics Puts Disorderly Dives Among Homes 25 


Gambling_Controlled by a Powerful Political Syndicate . . . 27 


Mayors, Congressmen and State Senators Elected by Colored Voters 29 


Planning for the Future and Better Conditions .... 30 

, HIST, 



How the Colored Man Came to Chicago 

Jean Baptiste Point de Saible tramped 
to the shore of Lake Michigan and l>uilt 
a home 137 years ago. His was the first 
house in the present 198 square miles of 
skyscrapers and miscellaneous structures 
known as Chicago. The rough house in 
the wilds along the lake may have the 
credit for being the foundation of the 
city. Point de Saible remained here sev- 
enteen years, traded with the Indians, 
trapped for skins, fought and drank whis- 
ky. Then in 1796 he sold his horns to 
a Frenchman and went away to what is 
now Peoria. He was the first settler arid 
property owner in Chicago. 

Point de Saible was a free colored man 
from Santo Domingo. To-day the city 
which that colored man founded is one 
of opportunity and freedom unexcelled 
for the man, woman or child of the Negro 
race. From all parts of America, espe- 
cially from the southland, their eyes tuin 
toward Chicago. Many of them come 
north. The influx has run into the thou- 
sands in the last few months. 

Colored Population Gaining* 

The colored portion of Chicago's popu- 
lation is growing more rapidly in propor- 
tion to its numbers than any other. Pnme 
persons see in it a danger to the future 
of the city. It is admittedly a very com- 
plex problem. The colored population is 
pushing out farther every day. It thas 
broken out of the city blocks which a 
few years ago were called its own, until 
to-day it covers hundreds of blocks of 
residence and business territory. It pre- 
sents a situation which cannot be ig- 

Little has been known of this big ele- 
ment in the city's life. Even thoee who 
have given it study and time cannot 
agree on such an elementary fact as the 
number of colored persons in the city. 
Estimates run from 40,000 to 175,000. 
Definite information on the local activi- 
ties of the race has been lacking. Now 
a reporter for The Daily News has made 
an effort to present the facts about some 
of these activities, in order to describe 
truthfully a condition vital to Chicago. 

Colored men and women are represent- 
ed in almost every line of activity in 
Chicago. In no other city of the country 
do they fill such responsible positions in 

political, industrial and professional 
fields. That is why leaders of the race 
declare that Chicago is the city which 
holds out the most promising future for 
their people. 

In the Industrial Field. 

In the industrial field tho colored popu- 
lation has invaded the labor market with 
a rush. Men and women of the race are 
being employed by thousands in business 
plants where a few years ago a colored 
person would not be admitted even as a 
visitor. To organized labor the growing 
problem of colored help is a disquieting 
augury of future storms. Chicago is one 
of the few cities in the United States 
where the 'colored man is not admitted 
to the trade unions, even though he may 
have a union card from some other city. 
Out of the union he is eligible as a strike 
breaker .and once he has shoved his foot 
ever the "employes' entrance" the colored 
man often remains, even after the strike 
ie settled. 

In Chicago are hundreds of stores, res- 
taurants, saloons, barber shops, haber- 
dasheries, tailor shops, beauty parlors, 
real estate offices and similar lines of 
business run by colored men and women, 
In commercial activity they have lagged 
in the north compared with the south. 
They trade at stores run by other races. 
Some stores make special inducements 
to them. Others try to discourage their 

Race Politically Exploited. 

Politically the Negro race is being ex- 
ploited in Chicago by designing men. A 
few colored men receive political prefer- 
ment and jobs are plentiful of certain 
classes and kinds in return for assistance 
in this exploitation. Thus some individuals 
get a chance to make money through 
methods by which the race as a whole is 
held back and discredited. Into districts 
where homes of colored families predom- 
inate come through political favor the 
disorderly saloons, the all night cabarets, 
the shady hotels and disorderly houses, 
grambling clubs and other influences of 
destrucion. The colored boy or girl who 
is taught in the public schools by day 
sees at night the lights of the neighbor- 
ing vicious resort. 

Vice in Colored District*. 

This is the menace to Chicago, accord- 
ing to sociological students. In the last 
few months it has been so noticeable that 
it might seem a definite administration 
policy. Vice resorts which have been 
driven from other sections of the city, 
new ones opened on pretentious lines, old 
ones which have been closed by the po- 
lice, flourish in the colored districts, un- 
molested by police or city authorities, 
defying laws of municipality and state. 
If the entrance into a one time exclusive 
residence district of colored household- 
ers is to be the first step in its decay 
into a vice district the situation is grave. 
This is what has come about in much of 
the territory north of 35th street and 
west of South Wabash avenue. City au- 
thorities are prone to ignore the right 
of their colored constituents to respecta- 
ble home surroundings. Reputable col- 
ored citizens, who could afford to do so, 
have moved from this part of the city, 
leaving a district of high lights and deep 
shadows which is equaled in few cities. 

Included in Chicago's population are 
about 75,000 colored persons. Other thou- 
sands live in Evanston; Gary, Ind.; Blue 
Island, and various suburbs. The Negro 
yearbook, published at Tuskegee, Ala., 
places the Chicago negro population at 
44,103. Some who are particularly per- 
turbed by the activities of the colored 
citizen place the number at 175,000. The 
board of education census for 1914, the 
last in which colored people were enu- 
merated separately, fixed the number at 
54,557. Allowing for the normal increase 
of 5 per cent, and considering the recent 
large immigration from the south, the 
present figure should be near 75,000, or 
about 3 per cent of tho total population 
of the city. 

Colored People in 2d Ward. 

Nearly half the city's colored popula- 
tion lives in the 2d ward. The number is 
close to 30,000 in that ward. The colored 
voters control it politically, though the 
whites outnumber them. However, all 
the former are citizens, so that of the 
ward's qualified voters 78 per cent are 
colored. The 1st ward, with 7,000, the 
30th with almost as many, then the 3d, 
31st, 14th and 6th in order, have heavy 

colored voting strength. Many precincts 
in the 2d ward do not have a dozen vot- 
ers who are not colored. 

Chicago's colored population follows 
certain fairly distinct street lines. Start- 
ing at West 22d and South Dearborn 
streets, the largest section runs south, 
broadening toward the east and following 
the railroad tracks between Federal 
and South LaSalle streets on the 
west. At 24th street it has taken in 
South State street; at 26th street it has 
crossed Wabash avenue; at 31st street it 
runs far east, tapering back gradually be- 
tween 35th and 39th streets to its former 
narrow four blocks. This continues be- 
yond 63d street, always pushing farther 

Chicago's largest colored population 
lives between 29th and 35th streets. Many 
real estate men hold that it will be only 
a few years before the colored people 
spread over all that big section as far 
east as the lake. 

Colony in Englewood Also. 

In Englewood there is a considerable 
colony of colored people between West 
59th, West 63d, South Ada and South Hal- 
sted streets, and south from there as far 
as West 75th street, between South Ra- 
cine avenue and South Morgan street. 
South of East 63d street and west of Cot- 
tage Grove avenue is a territory where 
they can buy property, but cannot rent 
from white owners. Many have bought in 
that high class district. Around East 55th 
street and Lake Park avenue is a saloon 
element, while more of the quiet resi- 
dence class have homes around Evans 
avenue and East 48th street, Berkeley 
avenue and East 44th street, Ellis ave- 
nue and East 52d street and in South 
Michigan avenue, south of 58th street. In 
what is known as Millerdale, between 
East 93d and 95th streets, for four blocks 
east of South State street are several 
hundred more families. 

On the west side the colored residents 
pretty generally occupy a territory in- 
cluded between Clarkson court, Ada and 
Harrison streets and Grand avenue. Few- 
er are on the north side than in any 
other part of the city Most of them are 
west of Wells street and south of North 


Jobs Which Are Plentiful for Colored Workers 

How generous Chicago is in work for 
the colored man is shown by figures com- 
piled in a canvass of several hundred 
homes made by The Daily News. Three 
blocks cutting across South State. South 
Dearborn, Federal and South LaSalle 
streets were covered They were blocks 
which, in addition to homes, included 
churches, stores, saloons and other less 
savory places to which attention will be 
given later. The census showed 1,406 col- 
ored men, women and children in the 
three blocks and not more than twenty- 
five white persons. They were working 
people, not of the well-to-do class. 

Some Dislike Steady Work. 

Many of the colored people from the 

south are unaccustomed to steady work 

iwith only one day's rest in every seven. 

| This is one of the complaints made by 

/ employers who have found their work un- 

^ satisfactory. A man was at the Wabash 

I avenue department of the Y. M. C. A., 

/ complaining he had lost his job. A. L. 

(^ Jackson, the secretary, asked him if he 

had worked every day each week. 

"Goodness, no," the man replied. "I 
just had to have some days of the week 
off for pleasure." 

"Conditions in the north will change 
that spirit," said Mr. Jackson in telling 
of the incident. "The man who comes 
here will want to keep pace with his 
brothers in the north in living and rec- 
reation and will find it necessary to work 
every day in order to keep up. His man- 
ner of living, the pleasures he affords 
himself and many other things will be 
added to a changed condition of life, so 
that loafing will no longer be considered 
a pleasure." 

Jackson is a Harvard graduate. He 
went through Andover, made the Harvard 
track team and when he graduated in 1914 
was the class orator. 

., "In the south they do not consider the 
^individual in discussing the problem of 
the Negro race," he said. 

Big Percentage at Work. 

The percentage of adults who were 
working was the surprising feature of 
The Daily News canvass. Of those out 
of work, some were sick, others laying 
off for a few days and still others too 
lazy or disinclined to w 
reasons. The summarized figures, 
eluding children were: 


Working 799 

Idle 72 

Totals 871 

Per cent working 91.8 

Of these 246 are housewives. 

Families Left In the South. 

Another significant feature of the house 
to house canvass was the number of men 

shown to have come here in the last six 
months. Many of these had left wives 
and children in the south, and declared 
their eagerness to bring them to Chicago. 
They were saving enough to pay the cost 
of moving their families north as soon as 
mild weather comes again next year. 

In one house there were four men who 
were keeping bachelor quarters. Each 
earned from $18 to $27 a week. One was 
a stationary engineer. He had saved 
$153. He intended buying some property 
and by next spring hoped to have enough 
to start payments and bring his wife and 
two children to Chicago. Two others 
also were saving to bring their families. 

In one block along South State street, 
out of 307 men 178. or 58 per cent, had 
come to Chicago in the last six months. 
Away from the lodging house district the 
percentage was lower. 

Such conditions indicate that Chicago's 
colored population will continue to grow 

Once colored help is used, it is seldoiL 
discharged. The waiters in a well knowii 
"fill 'em quick" chain of lunchrooms in 
Chicago once struck on the promise of 
being taken into a union. In the end 
they found themselves out of the union 
and their Jobs. both. That is about the 
only strike on record. After barring 
them for many years that company a few 
weeks ago started re-employing them as 
short order cooks. 

Doesn't Send Money Abroad. 

"The employers who have used colored 
workers keep them." said an aged col- 
ored merchant. "The colored man has 
a pride in his work, in his job and in the 
concern he works for. His living ex- 
penses are always greater than his in- 
come. He does not send one-fourth of 
all he earns to some country in Europe. 
His ideas are American, and he is not 
against the law and always scheming to 
strike or riot or wreck the plant of his 

Classes of work in which numerous col- 
ored men or women are employed in Chi- 
cago are: 



Pullman porters. 



PS too 





Asphalt layers. 


Postal clerks. 



i, ex- 

Stationary engineers. 

Section hands. 














Saloon porters. 





Theater ushers. 

Messenger boys. 






Weekly Wages Higher Here. 

The average weekly wage of the col- 
ored worker in the United States is $8.63, 

according to Dr. Charles E. Bentley, one For Pullman and Stockyard*. 

of the two Chicago directors of the Na- TQ Pullman comp any, which for years 

tlonal Association for the Advancement was tne , t sm | lc y ^ mployer of y col . 

of Colored People. Miss Jane Addams is ored workers in the couat ry ( now is being 

the other director. Chicago is attractive Qard presged by the sto ckyards concerns 

because the wages are much higher here. The Pullman * ompany ^ &B abou t 7(50 o 

The canvass made by The Daily News porters, of whom about 5,000 live in Chi- 

showed some of the weekly wages to be cago. Recently it has added colored men 

as follows' an(i women as car cleaners. Another 

Delivery or door boys, $8. 7 ' 500 are 7 aiters in Restaurants, dining 

Asphalt layers, $18 to $27.90. cars or cafes > or Porters in saloons. The 

Building wreckers, $28. stockyards plants already employ more 

Waiters, saloon porters, hodearrlers. etc., $10 than 5,000 colored workers, Swift & Co. 

to K 12 - alone having 2,000, and are adding to the 

Cooks and janitors, $14. number daily. 

| U ore a m n ^n r 6%o% 8. and tIP8 ' , A ^* f 't Paving companies employ hun- 

Barbers and bartenders. $18. dreds of colored men. They will be out 

Tunnel workers, $31.20. of work when extreme cold weather sets 

Track elevation, $19.20. in, and the colored labor market will face 

Girl theatrical maids and ushers, $6. its first crisis in Chicago. 


The South and the Trade Unions of the North 

One of the largest of Chicago's hotels 
had trouble with its chambermaids a 
couple of weeks ago. They quit in a 
body. That night a telephone message 
came to one of the colored churches on 
the south side from the hotel manage- 
ment saying that 300 colored girls <were 
wanted for chambermaids. There was a 
scurrying around and mucii more tele- 
phoning, for 300 unemployed girls who 
can do bedroom work of the kind required 
by a hotel of international reputation are 
hard to find in these days of plentiful 
work. But they were found and the next 
morning colored maids were on every 
floor in the big hotel. 

The European war and the consequent 
shortage of labor in the United States 
have given the colored man his indus- 
trial opportunity. Previous to the war 
'his greatest opening came through the 
hostile attitude of the labor unions, 
strange as it may seem. Now there is 
work in plenty for all and few are idle, 
whether skilled workmen or ordinary la- 

Churches Employment Agencies. 

Nearly every colored church has an 
employment agency which is one of its 
mast active auxiliaries. The Young Men's 
Christian association at 3763 South Wa- 
bash avenue has an employment branch 
which fills more positioas than any other 
agency among the colored people. The 
Young Women's Christian association at 
3424 Rhodes avenue and the Phyllis 
Wheatley home at 3256 Rhodes avenue do 
similar work for women and girls. The 
Frederick Douglass center, 3032 South 
Wabash avenue, and the Wendell Phillips 
settlement, 2009 Walnut street, the two 
social centers among the rave, find this 
one of their most valuable activities. The 
Negro Fellowship league, 3005 South 
State street, an organization of Mrs. Ida 
B. Wells Barnett, is supported to a 
large extent by its employment agency. 

Labor agents from the Stockyards Pack- 
ing houses and other big concerns patrol 
South State street every day, accosting 
every idle man they see and asking him 
if he 'cares for work. 

Cause of Southern Migration. 

Demand for cheap labor caused the col- 
ored man to be brought from Africa. Now 
that he is the master of his own des- 
tinies the same force is bringing him 
north. Shortage of crops, the boll weevil 
anl lack of work in the south were add- 
ed incentives causing him to leave that 
section of the country. The colored man 
wants to come north, where he can vote, 
send his children to school and have im- 
proved opportunities. Nearly all of those 
who come north are said to be industri- 

"I can send my children to school here 
and can get that my family is safe," said 
a colored man who had been a steamboat 
captain in Florida. "In the south I did 
not know when trouble might start in the 
town where I lived and in the excite- 
ment some of my family be murdered." 

Arrivals of Varying: Types. 

Of an entirely different type was a 
southern field hand who had been in Chi- 
cago four days, got himself a revolver 
and went out and brutally murdered an 
aged white man returning from work. 

A good proportion of the colored men 
who are brought into court are these re- 
cent immigrants from the south. Invari- 
ably they explain to the court that they 
were given free railroad tickets to come 
north and that after working a few weeks 
in return they became tired and started 
loafing. Courts have threatened to com- 
pel the agencies which brought such riff- 
raff north to transport them back to the 

The south has protested strenuously 
against the exodus. In Florida there is 
a penalty of $1,000 fine for any person 
convicted of employing a colored man to 
go out of the state. In Georgia the fine 
is $500. One labor agent for a big Chi- 
cago corporation escaped being locked up 
only by beating the local police in a race 
to an outgoing train. 

In Macon, Ga., the police forcibly dis- 
persed 1,000 Negroes, who were at the 
railroad station to get a train for Chica- 
go and the next day the police asked for 
rifles to keep the colored men at home. 
In the rural parts of the state a form of 
peonism has been introduced by which a 
colored man must sign a year's contract 
before he can get work and becomes a 
fugitive if he leaves before the end of 
the year. Through the length and breadth 
of the south newspapers are demanding 
that northern labor agents be "run out of 
town" and that the Negroes be kept at 
home. They assert that the colored man 
cannot stand the northern winters. 
Whether Admiral Peary discovered the 
north pole or not, a colored man was 
with him at the point farthest north, so 
the race can endure cold if it wants to. 

It is now almost as difficult for a col- 
ored man to leave some parts of the 
s^u'th as it was in the day of the "un- 
derground railroad" of sixty years ago. 
In many of the small towns he must ex- 
plain where he is going before he can buy 
a railroad ticket. If he admits that he is 
coming to Chicago he does not get the 
ticket. He must travel by easy stages, 
buying tickets for short distance, until 
Tennessee or Kentucky is reached and 
he can slip across the Ohio river. Rail- 
roads gave excursions to the north until 
they feared southern state legislatures 

would retaliate. The big employers of 
labor chartered their own trains. An 
empty trains would be backed into a town 
and word passed around that anybody 
wanting to go north could get aboard. 
After it had lingered at enough towns to 
fill the train it made no more stops. 
Most of the passengers never went back. 
One stockyards plant brought several 
hundred butchers from its southern plant 
for the summer rush and sent them home 
again. Other concerns offered free return 
trips until December if the men had not 
overcome their homesickness by that 

The importation of laborers from the 
south is continuing. On one day 195 men 
arrived from Louisiana in one party to 
work for a stockyards concern. Even 
living quarters were waiting for them in 
houses which had been rented by their 
employers. Ocular evidence of the foot- 
hold colored labor has at the stockyards 
is shown at the Indiana avenue station 
of the South Side Elevated railroad when 
the trains come from "the yards" at 
the close of the day's work. 

Usually Not In the Unions. 

Colored workers first got into the stock- 
yards through a strike. They were not 
members of the union and when the 
unions went out the colored man went in. 
Though the American Federation of La- 
bor has gone on record for admitting the 
colored man to the unions, many of the 
national organizations will not admit 
him and each local organization adopts a 
policy of its own. In Chicago the colored 
man with union card from another city 
is permitted to work on union jobs, but 
he can seldom get into a local union. 

"Union leaders look on the colored 
man as cheap labor," explained a man in 
touch with the situation. "Chicago is one 
of the few cities where he is either kept 
out or frozen out of the unions. If he 
has a union card from some other city he 
is permitted to work as long as there is 
plenty of work but his card will not be 
transferred to the local union. It is not 
the colored man who does not believe in 
organization, but the union which forces 
him to be on the other side." 



The Negro in Business and Investment 

Jesse Binga has a bank at 3633 South 
State street. It is the only bank in Chi- 
cago headed by a colored man, of which 
all the employes and most of the patrons 
are colored persons. It Is one of the 
few successful financial institutions of 
that order In the country. 

Although not the wealthiest colored 
man In Chicago, Binga probably is the 
most extensive real estate operator of 
that race. Comparatively few years ago, 
so few that it still lingers In the memory 
of others of his race, he drove a wagon 
peddling coal oil and gasoline. He in- 
vested his money in realty. He married 
a sister of the late "Mushmouth" John- 
son, a well known gambler and saloon- 
keeper. The sister inherited more than 
$200,000 of the estate. 

Johnson's last gambling place was at 
464 State street. Every 1 cent piece that 
came into his gambling houses was 
thrown into a box and used to purchase 
toys for the children of the neighbor- 
hood. His foster sister Cecilia later 
caused a sensation shortly before she 
graduated from the University of Chi- 
cago, when her family connections were 
discovered. She now is the wife of Dr. 
Theodore R. Mozee, 5131 South Wabash 

"None Like Me," Say* Binga. 

"I'm an Irishman. You won't find any 
other colored people like me," says Mr. 
Binga. Most of the colored business men 
in Chicago have started with nothing, 
for the race is young as a free people in 
the nation and still younger in the north. 
Few of them, aside from professional 
men, have got beyond the stage of "small 

Real estate appeals as an investment 
to the thrifty Negro. The individual hold- 
ings of some of them run into surpris- 
ing figures. Possibly the largest single 
owner of Chicago realty among colored 
men is George H. Jackson, 3416 Vernon 
avenue, who became wealthy by corner- 
ing coal in Cincinnati and came to Chi- 
cago after marrying a daughter of one 
of the wealthiest colored men in Ohio. 
He is past 60 and an ex-member of the 
Ohio legislature. 

When telling of Chicago real estate 
there is always the old story of "once it 
all could have been bought for a song." 
On the northeast corner of South State 
and 36th streets Is a piece which actu- 
ally was bought for a song or two. It 
represents an investment of $60,000. Jo- 
seph J. Jordan is the owner. When he 
was a boy his father had a pool hall. He 
took to the violin and became an enter- 
tainer. Many who saw the night lights in 
Chicago remember his cabaret. Then he 
wrote "Lovey Joe" and some other songs 
and went to London. There he sang him- 
self into the heart of an East Indian 

maiden and a dowry of $150,000. They live 
at 3406 South Park avenue and the songs 
are buying real estate. 

Hundreds of other colored men are 
owners of property varying from humble 
homes to one or more apartment build- 
ings. Some of the latter are rented ex- 
clusively to white tenants. 

731 Negro II u mines* 1 1 oilmen Here. 

In other lines of business colored men 
nd women have been active. Black's 
Blue Book for 1917, which is published 
by Ford S. Black (a postal clerk for 
eight hours of each night) as a "di- 
rectory of Chicago's active colored people 
and guide to their activities," enumerated 
731 business houses in sixty-one differ- 
ent lines. Not all of them are on the 
south side. A restaurant and delicates- 
sen is in Broadway at Lawrence avenue. 
Many are run by women. They even have 
their "lady barbers." Factories, stores 
and offices are run by colored men. Each 
employs from one to forty persons. 

There are two colored licensed building 
contractors and a number of carpenters, 
plaster bosses, bricklayers, decorators 
and others in building trades. Olivet Bap- 
tist church, one of the largest in the 
city; St. Monica's Roman Catholic church, 
Fort Dearborn hospital, the Crescent ho- 
tel, the Ford hotel and a number of 
apartment and store buildings were 
erected by colored contractors, artisans 
and laborers. 

The largest manufacturing establish- 
ment makes face powder and toilet prep- 
arations. Anthony Overton, its presi- 
dent, is head of the Chicago branch of 
the National Business league. 

The classification is as follows: 

Advertising agencies 
"Movie" theater ... 
Art stores 

. 1 

Hair dressing parlors 70 
Hardware 2 

Hotels .... 5 

Automobile liveries 



Ice cream parlors.... 4 
Insurance agencies . . 10 


Barber shops 


Laundries .... . 3 

Billiard halls 


Mercantile agencies . . 1 
Millinery stores 10 

Musical instruments. . 2 
Music stores (sheet) . . 3 

Blacksmith shops . . . 
Hook stores 

. 4 


China painting 

. 4 



Cleaning and Press- 
Ing 8 

Photographers 5 

Piano tuning . . 1 



Plumbers 3 



Printers 7 



Public halls 8 

Court reporters 

. 3 



Publishers 7 

Real estate 19 
Regalia and uniforms. 1 
Restaurants 63 
Saloons 23 

Drug stores 
Dry goods stores... 

. 1 
. 6 

Shirtmakers . .. 1 

Employment agencies 51 Shoe polish factories 5 
Express and storage. 801 Shoeshining stands ..12 
Feather factory 1 Sign painters 5 

Fisfa markets 4 


Tailors 33 

Florists 4 Toilet articles 

Furniture stores 7 Undertakers 16 

Groceries and delica- 
tessens 33 

Total 731 


In the south the colored business man 


to a large extent enjoys a monopoly of 
the trade of his own race. In Chicago he 
faces desperate competition. Few stores 
attempt to discourage colored patronage. 
Race clannishness, nomadic Instincts for 
bargain hunting, business temperament, 
ability of proprietors and many other 
factors enter into the situation. 

Dr. George C. Hall, 3408 South Park 
avenue, probably knows his people from 
the highest to the lowest as well as any 
man in the country. 

"When a Negro business man starts 
complaining that his people will not trade 
with him you can be sure that the fault 
is with him," said Dr. Hall. "That the 
colored people like to trade with their 
own is shown by the fact that the stores 
in South State street, most of which have 
white owners, employ colored clerks to 
attract colored trade. Too many men at- 
tempt to run a business which they do 
not understand, and when they fail blame 
it on their customers." 

Some Merchants Shortsighted. 

"Some colored merchants can't see far 
enough ahead, and instead of figuring that 
a customer will come back they try to 
get the best of him," said a Jewish mer- 
chant of years of experience In the dis- 

trict. "Once the colored man or woman 
thinks he is being overcharged his trade 
Is lost." 

Long years of faithful service have ad- 
vanced certain colored men to office po- 
sitions of prominence which do not 
require them to come In contact 
with their own people. One is an elec- 
trical engineer for the Commonwealth 
Edison company, another is general time- 
keeper in the downtown offices of one of 
the big packing companies, another is 
traffic manager for a Cleveland steel com- 
pany with offices in Chicago's "loop." A 
big tin company has a colored man as 
secretary of the corporation in charge of 
its downtown offices; a machinery com- 
pany has a colored man for buyer; an- 
other of the race is solicitor for one of 
the big banks. Many represent Insurance 
companies, real estate firms, undertaking 
establishments and such among a colored 

One colored woman, a widow, over- 
came the handicap of both sex and 
color before she married and retired. She 
is Mrs. W. B. Claxton, 19 East 28th street, 
who until a few months ago (then Miss 
Mable P. Blue) was office manager for 
me Percheron Society of America at the 
Union stockyards. 




Many Are in Professional and Political Life 

From the lofty legislative kail to the 
garish, law defying cabaret is a long 
Jump. Yet in these and in many places 
between the colored men find field for 
activity in Chicago. Some are college 
graduates. Others by natural talent have 
graduated from the noisy saloon or the 
sedate Pullman sleeper. In almost every 
profession they are to be found. Many 
are in the front ranks. They are push- 
ing forward in increasing numbers each 
year. Lawyers, physicians, surgeons, 
dentists, musicians, clergymen, writers, 
teachers, are among them. Many cater 
principally to white clients. 

Miss Ida Platt, 5237 Ellis avenue, one 
of the first women to be admitted to the 
Illinois bar, is the only woman lawyer 
of the race in the state if not in the en- 
tire country. Mrs. E. H. Morris is at- 
tending law college preparatory to tak- 
ing the bar examination. Many colored 
women have entered the professions, 
making a creditable showing in competi- 
tion with white rivals. 

Colored Race In Professions. 

A careful canvass shows the numerical 
strength of the leading professions to be: 

fetors 53 

Artists 15 

Authors , 18 

Clergymen 74 

Dentists .' '/, 32 

Lawyers 48 

Musicians (made up of 4 bands, 4 Jubilee 
troupes, 5 orchestras, 28 pianists, 30 vocal- 
ists) 71 

Professional nurses 47 

Physicians ' " $6 

School teachers 41 

Total 483 

Naming of the most prominent of those 
who have risen from the environment of 
menial tasks which occupy most of the 
race indicates the possibilities for the 

Edward H. Morris, 3757 Vernon avenue, 
lawyer and twice a member of the Illi- 
nois legislature, is probably the best 
known professional man of his race. He 
is one of the wealthy men of Chicago and 
the wealthiest colored man in the north- 
west. Among his own people his chief 
activity is as grand master of their Grand 
United Order of Odd Fellows, their larg- 
est fraternal organization. He bought the 
Niblack summer home near Benton Har- 
bor, Mich. 

Lawyer Thomas a Pioneer. 
More than forty years ago J. W. E. 
Thomas appeared at the old Harrison 
street police station to defend his race- 
He was the first colored lawyer in Cki- 
cago, the only colored member of the re- 
publican county central committee, served 
three terms in the legislature, where he 
put through a bill of rights, and before 
he died accumulated a fortune as lawyer 
and bondsman. Many have come since his 

Most of the lawyers have acquired 
prominence through activities in politics, 
where the handicap of color was less se- 
vere. lAmong them, together with the po- 
sitions which they have held are: 

Franklin A. Denison, 451 East 42d street, 
and S. A. T. Watkins, 3332 Calumet ave- 
nue, former assistants to the corporation 

S. Laing Williams, 4203 St. Lawrence 
avenue, former assistant district attor- 

Louis B. Anderson, 2821 Wabash avenue, 
and Edward H. Wright, 2963 Wabash ave- 
nue, assistants to the corporation counsel. 

Ferdinand L. Barnett, 3234 Rhodes ave- 
nue, former assistant state's attorney. 

Edward E. Wilson, 3815 Vernon avenue, 
assistant state's attorney. 

Jerry Brumfield, 6209 Loomis street, as- 
sistant city attorney. 

Denison is colonel and Anderson a cap- 
tain in the &th Illinois. 

One Moving Picture Censor. 

The Rev. A. J. Carey, pastor of the 
Institutional Methodist church, is an- 
other appointee in the corporation coun- 
sel's office. He was on the board of 
moving picture censors. That place Is 
now held by Alonzo J. Bowling, 5363 Dear- 
born street, who won It by civil service. 

Assistant Corporation Counsel Wright 
thinks the highest honor he ever re- 
ceived was that of president pro tern of 
the county board and head of the county 
government for six weeks. He was a 
member of that board for four years. 
John Jones, at that time one of the city's 
leading tailors and an owner of downtown 
business property, was the first colored 
man elected in 1872; next came Theodore 
Jones In 1894, then Wright, later Frank 
Leland and Oscar De Priest. The last 
named is the 2d ward alderman, the first 
of the race to hold that office in Chi- 
cago. All are dead except De Priest and 

In the early '80s Joseph W. Moon was 
twice elected clerk of the south town. 
Henry J. Mitchell and Attorney William 
Martin also held the office. 

State Legislature Has Had Twelve. 

Twelve colored men including the pres- 
ent two, who have been members of the 
Illinois legislature are: 

*J. W. E. Thomas, 1876-8, 1882-6. 

George P. Ecton, 1886-90. 

Attorney Edward H. Morris, 1890-2, 1902-4. 

James E. Bish, 1892-4. 

*MaJ. John C. Buckner. 1894-6. 

Attorney William L. Martin, 1898-1900. 

*Attorney John G. Jones, 1900-2. 

Edward D. Green, 1904-6, 1910-2. 

Dr. Alexander Lane, 1906-10. 

Shederlck B. Turner, 1914-16. 

MaJ. R. R. JacKson, 1912-18. 

Renjamln H. Lucas, 1916-18. 


Caring for the ills of humanity has ap- 
pealed strongly to the colored men and 


women and more have secured educations 
for that purpose than lor any other. Dr. 
Daniel H. Williams, 446 East 42d street, 
at St. Luke's hospital; Dr. Allen A. Wes- 
ley, 3149 Prairie avenue, and Dr. George 
C. Hall, 3408 South Park avenue, at Prov- 
ident hospital, are surgeons with few 
equals. Dr. U. Grant Dailey, 4317 For- 
restville avenue, graduate of Northwest- 
ern and ex-president of the colored Na- 
tional Medical association, is a younger 
surgeon. Under President Cleveland, Dr. 
Williams was superintendent of the 
Freedman's hospital in Washington. 

An Expert In Tuberculosis. 

Dr. A. Wilberforce Williams, 3408 Ver- 
non avenue, is one of the foremost phy- 
sicians in the country in the study and 
treatment of tuberculosis. Dr. Spencer 
C. Dickerson, 3601 State street, specialist 
in eye, ear, nose and throat, is an assist- 
ant professor at Rush and wears a "C" 
whioh he won as a member of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago track team. 

Dr. Charles E. Bentley, 529 East 41st 
street, is one of the leading dentists of 
the city, has done much for the science 
of dentistry and at various times has been 
an officer of local societies. In all these 
professions are many others doing cred- 
itable work, though they have not yet at- 
tained the prominence of the men men- 

Two women nurses showed their caliber 
in this year's city civil service exam- 
inations for school tuberculosis nurses 
when they passed first among fifty-Severn 
competitors. Miss Lulu G. Warlick, 16 
West 36th street, was first with a mark- 
ing of 97.86 per cent, and Mrs. Luemiza 
Cooper, 3717 State street, next with 96.5. 
Miss Warlick waived her rights and is 
night superintendent at Provident hospi- 

C. S. Duke a Harvard Man. 

In another quasi-political position is 
Charles S. Duke. 4636 West Erie street, 
civil engineer with the city harbor com- 
mission. He is a Harvard graduate and 
a first lieutenant in the 8th Illinois in- 

At least two University of Chicago col- 
ored graduates have achieved distinction. 
Ernest Just, after finishing at Dartmouth, 
received his Ph. D. degree in biology and 
allied subjects from Chicago in the fall 
of 1916 and now is a professor ni Howard 
university at Washington, D. C. Monroe 
M. Work, the statistician at Tuskegee for 
the Negro Yearbook, ie also a graduate 
of the local university. 

"On the day Just graduated with his 
high honors the newspapers did not men- 
tion it," said Dr. Bentley. "One reason 
why so many fail to realize what the 
negro is doing is made clear." 



Musicians, Artists, Writers, and the Stray Genius 

In one of the most notorious of the 
South State street cabaret saloons which 
cater to late carousers of all colors and 
both sexes a dark skinned colored man 
with protruding lips and a shock of white 
hair over his forehead plays the piano 
through the night. Occasionally he 
glances at a sheet of music. Most of the 
time his eyes are roving around the room 
while his long legs are doubled under the 
chair and his lean body is twisted into 
an impossible position so he can hold an 
ear toward the keyboard as if the piano 
were talking to him alone. 

Few of the hundreds of early morning 
"slummers" who come there would recog- 
nize the name of Tony Jackson. Even 
fewer of the thousands who have seen 
the name know that he is a piano pounder 
in a notorious cabaret. Tony Jackson 
wrote "Pretty Baby," a song feature of 
the "Follies," considered by many the 
popular song hit of the year. He received 
$45 for it. Its sales netted thousands. He 
has another one, "Some Sweet Day," 
waiting to be published. Tony Jackson 
is a natural genius. He is not the most 
finished musician, the best skilled in 
technique nor the most prolific writer. 
He is a remarkable figure of the moment. 

Music Note* in Shorthand. 

Clarence M. Jones, 11 East 38th street, 
is a writer of popular songs who has both 
the natural ear and the technical train- 
ing. He plays the piano in a theater at 
night and by day writes music for one 
company and makes player-piano rolls 
for another. He can take down by short- 
hand a whistled or hummed melody and 
play it from the notes as a stenographer 
would write a letter. He can run through 
the score of an opera once and after that 
play it by ear. He can call any note as 
it is sounded on a musical instrument. 
"One Wonderful Night," "Just Because 
You Won My Heart" and "La Danza Ap- 
passionata" are among his compositions. 
Now he is working on a song "that will 
live," as he says. 

Dave Peyton, leader of the orchestra 
at another theater, is also a musical 
genius in arranging, though no composi- 
tions bear his name. 

"Chemise Chihuahua," "I Ain't Got No- 
body" and several others of jangling ideas 
and harmonies were written by Spencer 
W. Williams, 3334 Prairie avenue, whose 
regular occupation is porter on a sleep- 
ing car. 

Even better known are "Walkin" the 
Dog," "All Night Long,' 1 "Some of These 
Days" and other productions of Shelton 
Brooks, a Chicago boy, who now is on the 
vaudeville circuit. 

"Brazilian Dreams" was another hit of 
this year's Follies. It was the work of 
Will H. Dixon, 5440 Dearborn street. 

One Snngr by Schumann-Heinle. 

"If I Forget," whose sale runs into the 
tens of thousands, goes into the realm of 
music worth while. It was made popu- 
lar by Mme. Schumann-Heink. Alfred 
Anderson wrote the lyrics and DeKoven 
Thompson the music. After many vain 
efforts to get an audience one of the col- 
ored men slipped the manuscript into the 
famous singer's hands as she was taking 
a train to leave Chicago. It and "Dear 
Lord, Remember Me," are Thompson's 
best musical efforts. Anderson is clerk 
in charge at Provident hospital, editorial 
writer for the Defender, and a prolific 
composer. He wrote "Rag-ma-la," one 
of the first "rags"; "My Twilight Dream 
of You," which was sung by Jessie Bart- 
lett Davis; the book for the opera "Cap- 
tain Rufus"; a three-reeler, "For the 
Honor of the Eighth," and much more. 

Fenton Johnson, 3026 Vernon avenue, 
editor of the Champion, is a writer of 
poems which have attracted wide atten- 
tion. Most of them are in a volume, "A 
Little Dreaming." W. H. A. Moore is an- 
other colored poet of note. 

The late Paul Laurence Dunbar of Day- 
ton, 0., the greatest poet of the race, did 
some of his best work in Chicago. Rich- 
ard B. Harrison, 3327 Calumet avenue, is 
one of the many dramatic readers of his 

Others in Musical Circles. 

Mme. Anita Patti Brown. 3827 Wabash 
avenue; Mme. Florence Cole Talbert, 3617 
Forest avenue; Mme. E. Azalla Hackley, 
3019 Calumet avenue; Mrs. Willa Sloan, 
6523 St. Lawrence avenue; Miss Maud J. 
Roberts, 3231 Vernon avenue; Mme. M. 
Galloway Byron, 3300 Rhodes avenue; 
Mrs. Martha Broadus Anderson, 6450 
Champlain avenue; Mrs. Julia B. Ander- 
son, 2831 Wabash avenue; Mrs. Mary Odd- 
rick, 4434 Langiey avenue; Mrs. Annie 
Hackley. 3452 Forest avenue. Mme. Marie 
Burton-Hyram, 3828 Dearborn street; 
T. Theodore Taylor, 3558 Rhodes avenue; 
Pauline Garner, 5229 Wabash avenue; 
Harrison Emanuel, 6352 Rhodes avenue, 
are a few of those in Chicago musical 
circles. Mme. Byron is abroad. Others 
are touring thie country. Mme. Talbert 
won the diamond medal at the Chicago 
Musical college In 1916. Mrs. Hackley 
and Mrs. Oddrick won medals in previous 
years' contests. Mrs. Julia Anderson was 
the first colored graduate of the Chicago 
Musical college and won the harmony 

The old Pekin theater, 2700 South State 
street, run by the late Bob Mott and 
Harrison Stewart, gave the start to most 
of the theatrical performers of the race 
on the stage to-day. 

Church choirs and jubilee troupes 
abound. That of the Bethel church is un- 
der James A. Mundy, who organized the 


chorus of 600 voices which sang at the 
celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of 
negro freedom. "Ethiopia," composed by 
Frank O. Raines, was the popular draw- 
ing card. Pedro T. Tinsley, 6448 Drexel 
avenue, is an old time choral leader, 
whose "Harmony" is a textbook. 

William M. Farrow. 6117 South Racine 
avenue; B. E. Fountaine. 3462 Vernon 
avenue, painters; F. Langston Mitchell, 
3800 Rhodes avenue; Proctor Chisholm, 
3502 Vernon avenue, and Fon Holly, car- 
toonists, are the race's contributors to 

Negro Writers on Negro Problem. 

Many have turned their hand to writ- 
ing. Prof. Richard T. Greener, former 
consul to Vladivostock, and the first col- 
ored man to graduate from Harvard, and 
Attorney George W. Ellis, F. R. G. S., 
3262 Vernon avenue, have dealt exten- 
sively with the negro problem. Maj. John 
Roy Lynch, 4352 Forrestville avenue, re- 
tired army paymaster, three times con- 
gressman from Mississippi, and ex-assist- 
ant auditor of the treasury, is another. 
W. H. Ferris, 3359 Wabash avenue, a Yale 
man, is the author of a most pretentious 
work on the race. 

The Defender, published by R. S. Ab- 
bott, at 3159 South State street, is said 
to have the largest circulation of papers 
of its kind in the United States. Eleven 
years ago Editor Abbott founded it on a 
capital of 25 cents, a lead pencil and 
scratchpad, backed by a degree from 
Hampton college and practical experience 

as a printer. Frank A. Young \e man- 
aging editor and Gary B. Lewis, who 
was given a start by Col. Watterson in 
Louisville, is city editor. 

The Broad Ax, edited by Julius F. Tay- 
lor, 6418 Champlain avenue, and the Illi- 
nois Idea, by S. B. Turner, former mem- 
ber of the legislature, are the other two 
local weeklies. Among monthly maga- 
zines there are the Champion, the Half- 
Century, the Pullman Porter, the Frater- 
nal Advocate and the Stroller. 

E. R. Robinson, 3236 Calumet avenue, 
inventor of a street car wheel and a 
joltless auto wheel, claims hundreds of 
thousands of dollars' damages from the 
street car companies for infringements 
on his patent. John T. Baker has in- 
vented a friction heater, an army kitchen 
and refrigerator and several other de- 
vices. J. P. Norwood, 3759 Wabash ave- 
nue, has a bread wrapping machine and a 
rotary toothbrush. 

Earl Gordon. 4632 Winthrop avenue, 
may not be a genius, but surely is a 
curiosity. He is a private chauffeur and 
has a diamond set medal for driving 100,- 
000 miles without an accident. He did it 
in seven years. 

Last but not least among the men of 
talent Is Andrew ("Rube") Foster, 3242 
Vernon avenue, manager of the American 
Giants, a formidable figure in "semipro" 
baseball and the highest paid colored 
manager in the world. The team is owned 
by John Schorling, 429 West 79th street, 
a white saloonkeeper. 



Apartments for Colored Families; Two Great Institutions 

Plans have been completed for one of 
the finest and most modern apartment 
houses in the city, to be ready for occu- 
pancy in the summer of 1917, exclusively 
by colored tenants. Julius Rosenwald, 
who has given $500.000 for Y. M. C. A. 
buildings and rural schools for colored 
people, is back of the project financially. 
It is in a way an experiment, but those 
who enthusiastically prophesy its success 
declare that it will be the forerunner of 
others of the same type in different parts 
of the city. 

The northeast corner of Vernon avenue 
and East 32d street, adjoining the Rhodes 
avenue hospital, has been secured for the 
site. Plans for the building drawn by 
Zimmerman, Saxe & Zimmerman are now 
in the hands of Whiteside & Wentworth, 
who will handle the property. It is to be 
of the English basement type with three 
floors of apartments, making it a four 
etory structure. It will contain sixty 
apartments, each having two and three 
rooms and a bath. The building will 
have its own refrigerating system con- 
necting with each apartment. It also 
will have an incinerator system connect- 
ing with each apartment, steam heat, hot 
and cold water, basement laundries and 
janitor service. The outside will be fin- 
ished In dark red brick. Along Vernon 
avenue will be a fifteen foot width of 
lawn and terrace. On the 32d street side 
will be a garden court and fountain on 
which many of the apartmerts will face. 

Rents from 918 Up to $38. 

Rents will be from $18 to $38 a month. 
The Investment is expected to be slightly 
more than $125,000 and a return of at 
least 5 per cent on the investment is ex- 
pected. Each floor will be the same in 
arrangement. The number of apart- 
ments of each class and the rental re- 
turn for the building is planned to be: 

$18 ... 
19 ... 
22 ... 
32 ... 
83 . 

... 3. 
... . 
.. 9. 

.. 297 

$34 .... 
36 . 

.. 3... 

.. 108 







On this basis the building will bring 
In an annual gross return of $18,000. The 
5 per cent desired on the investment 
would be $6,250. 

The thirty-six small flats are each to 
have a 12 by 14 foot living room, with an 
in-a-door bed and closet, an 8 by 14 
kitchen and a separate bathroom. 

The twenty-four larger flats are to 
have chambers 13 by 15 feet with an in-a- 
door bed and closet, living rooms 12 by 
14 with an in-a-door bed, 8 by 9 porches 
from one room and a balcony from the 
other, and the same sized kitchens and 
bathrooms as the other flats. 

Innovation in Building? Line. 

Considerable investigating was done 
before this innovation in the building line 
was decided on. Dr. George C. Hall, 
chairman of the executive committee of 
the Wabash Avenue Y. M. C. A., and A. L. 
Jackson, secretary, made a trip to Cin- 
cinnati, where J. C. Schmidlapp has in- 
vested $500,000 in model buildings for col- 
ored tenants. Some of the Schmidlapp 
buildings are extremely plain and apart- 
ments rent for $1 a week a room. 

This new apartment house is expected 
to play a great part in the social eco- 
nomic and moral life of the people. On 
account of the effect which it will have 
on the future it may be classed as an 
institution. Two Chicago institutions al- 
ready stand out prominently among thooe 
in which colored men are the guiding 
spirits. They are the Provident hospital 
at 16 West 36th street and the Wabash 
Avenue department of the Y. M. C. A. 
at 3763 South Wabash avenue. The hos- 
pital has passed its twenty-fifth year. 
The Y. M. C. A. is comparatively new. 

Provident Hospital Is Notable. 

Provident hospital gives a greater op- 
portunity to the colored physician than 
any other institution in the country. 
Freedman's hospital in Washington is 
larger and Douglas hospital in Philadel- 
phia is almost as large, but they are 
supported respectively by government 
and state aid, so that Provident hospital 
is in a class by itself. With the Nathan 
M. Freer $30,000 home for nurses, the 
plant represents an investment of $125,- 
000 and is free from debt. It has an an- 
nual expenditure of $28,000 and the outlay 
Is made without a breath of scandal. 

Of its patients at present 60 per cent 
are colored and 40 per cent are white. 
The ratio varies. One-third of the suf- 
ferers are charity patients. The phy- 
sicians' staff and dispensary force are 
made up of both white and colored 
people. The nurses, except the superin- 
tendent, Miss Astrid Hofseth, are all 
colored. The last anuual report shows 
a daily average of thirty-four patients for 
the hospital, a total of 987 for the year, 
or 17,689 since the institution was found- 
ed. The dispensary shows 3,017 persons 
for the year and a total of 88,827. 

The nativity of those in the hospital in 
1915 was: Afro-American, 712; Irish, 45; 
American, 38; German, 34; Polish, 22; 
Jewish, 10; Lithuanian, 7; English and 
Italian, 4 each; Bohemian, Danish, Greek, 
Scotch and Swedish, 3 each; French and 
Hungarian, 2 each; Austrian, Bulgarian, 
Finlandic, Jamaican, Norwegian and Rus- 
sian, 1 each. 

George H. Webster, who died late in 
1916, was president of the hospital for 
twenty years. The late Lloyd S. Wheel- 
er, a colored man who later was man- 


ager at Tuskegee, was Its first president. 
Philip D. Armour. Marshall Field and 
George M. Pullman, all deceased, and 
H. H. Kohlsaat were the donors who 
made the institute possible. Dr. Charles 
B. Bentley is its secretary, James S. Mad- 
den is treasurer and Attorney Robert Mc- 
Murdy is chairman of the finance commit- 

V. M. C. A. Has 1,329 Members. 

The Y. M. C. A. has a physical plant 
costing $185,000. It has 1,329 members, 
150 living in its dormitories and 125 
attending its automobile school. It has 
secured jobs for 500 persons this year. 
It sent Dr. G. C. Booth, a university of 
Michigan graduate, .to the Mexican bor- 

der as Y. M. C. A. secretary with the 
8th Illinois regiment. Members of the 
Wabash avenue department can stop at 
the $1,350,000 hotel at 822 South Wabash 
avenue. Several have done so, but most 
of the strangers who come from out of 
the city and are referred to the hotel on 
account of overcrowded dormitories pre- 
fer to remain among their own race. It 
is one of the most potent factors for 
good in a section of the community 
abounding in destructive agencies. 

''The negro youth needs everything that 
the white boy needs and more," said Sec- 
retary Jackson. "We are doing a great 
work for the young man by helping him 
and for the race in general by showing 
that it has individuals who arj sincere, 
reliable and actuated by high motives." 



Churches and Charitable Institutions 

Churches probably wield more power 
among the colored people than among any 
other single class in the United States. 
Religion is an intimate part of life to 
most colored persons. The churches are 
an influence for good citizenship and an 
educational factor second only to the 
public schools. They have clergymen 
powerful as exhorters, and surrounded by 
thousands of devout followers. 

A canvass of all the churches made by 
The Daily News shows that they claim 
42.5 per cent of the city's colored popula- 
tion as church members. Attending church 
is taken up with enthusiasm and religious 
services are made a pleasure. Few 
other churches in the city have as large 
congregations as several of the leading 
colored churches. From this high stand- 
ard the congregations diminish in size 
and influence down to the private ven- 
tures where a "brother" or "sister" with 
a can of paint and a brush has converted 
a vacant store into a mission. Sometimes 
a "mission" is started and runs a strong 
lunged exhortation, followed by a collec- 
tion or a rummage sale to make it worth 

Activities of the Churches. 

The big churches are financially pros- 
perous. They have employment agencies, 
day nurseries literary societies, drill 
teams and classes of various kinds. They 
do more or less charity work among their 
own people. Some of them, Walters A. M. 
E. Zion, at West 38th and South Dearborn 
streets, and the Institutional. 3825 South 
Dearborn street, among others, are open 
twenty-four hours a day to give shelter 
and help to all who call. 

In civic life outside their own doors 
the churches apparently do not have the 
influence to which they are entitled. Two 
of them protested in vain against dif- 
ferent saloons a few doors distant, whith- 
er boys and girls were turning their 
steps. The Rev. A. J. Carey, one of the 
leading pastors, has received political 
preferment and others have been smiled 
on by the powers that be. But with 
their thousands of devoted followers, the 
colored clergyman, as a rule, has not due 
prominence among those working outside 
his church to better conditions among 
his people. Recently several clergymen 
passed resolutions indorsing the city ad- 
ministration regardless of the wide open 
haunts of vice thrown in among their 

"Too many of our clergymen do not 
have the courage of their convictions and 
will not lead a determined fight against 
evil influences and institutions which en- 
croach on their neighborhoods, usually 
conducted by white men," said a colored 
man who has been active in many of the 
efforts to keep saloons away from the 
churches and out of the residence dis- 

tricts. "A campaign contribution to the 
cnurch from this or that politician has 
In some instances silenced criticism." 

Denominations In the City. 

Denominationally and according to 
numbers, the Chicago colored churches 
are divided as follows: 

Denomination Churches. MemBeri. 

Baptist 36 12.230 

African Methodist Episcopal 14 10,390 

Colored Methodist Episcopal 2 850 

Methodist Episcopal 4 1,750 

African Methodist Episcopal Zion.. 2 1,050 

Presbyterian 2 1.500 

Christian 2 900 

Congregational 2 1,100 

Episcopal 1 1,000 

Roman Catholic 1 650 

Miscellaneous 3 450 


.60 31.870 

Some of the Largest Churches. 

Membership in the various churches 
varies from tens and twenties to 3,500 at 
the largest. Olivet Baptist, West 27th and 
South Dearborn streets, of which the 
Rev. Dr. L. K. Williams is pastor, is 
the largest church of the Baptist de- 
nomination in the west. The African 
Methodist Episcopal church has a num- 
ber of large congregations. Bethel, 2979 
South Dearborn street, the Rev. Dr. W. 
D. Cook, pastor, has 3,000 members; 
Quinn chapel, the oldest colored church 
in the city, 2401 South Wabash avenue, 
the Rev. J. C. Anderson, pastor, has 
2,000; Institutional, 3825 South Dearborn 
street, the Rev. A. J. Carey, pastor, has 
1,500. St. Mark's Methodist Episcopal 
church. 5001 South Wabash avenue, the 
Rev. J. W. Robinson, pastor; St. Thomas' 
Episcopal church, East 38th street and 
South Wabash avenue, the Rev. J. H. 
Simons, pastor, and Salem Baptist 
church, West 30th and South LaSalle 
streets, the Rev. J. E. Heywood, pastor, 
each touch the 1,000 mark. 

The Rev. J. T. Jenifer, 3430 Vernon 
avenue, now historian of the A. M. E. 
church, built the present Quinn chapel. 
It was the first colored church and the 
fourth Protestant one in the city when 
started by the late Rev. A. F. Hall. An- 
other preacher of force was the late Rev. 
Elijah J. Fisher, a colored veteran who 
had lost his left leg and held a doctor's 
degree from the University of Chicago. 
Until his death recently he was for twelve 
years the powerful leader of Olivet. 

According to the Rev. R. E. Wilson, 
4830 Langley avenue, superintendent of 
the Chicago district of the A. M. E. 
church, the orders of deaconesses and 
stewardesses of the Institutional church 
do an immense amount of extension work 
among the people. The Chicago Choral 
Study club makes its headquarters at this 


The Rev. J. P. Thomas, an old-time 
preacher, has one of the largest follow- 
ings In the city at the Ebenezer Baptist 
church. Last winter he doled out soup 
and meals to more than 3,000 hungry in 
his church. The Rev. Dr. Moses H. Jack- 
son of the Grace Presbyterian is another 
powerful leader whose scarred back 
shows the marks of slavery days. He has 
been in Chicago twenty-nine years. The 
church has the largest Sunday school and 
lyceum in the city. 

Many Settlements and Home*. 

Closely pressing the churches in gen- 
eral good done, even though far less 
prosperous and less powerful, are the 
settlements and homes, in most instances 
founded and supported by a few self- 
sacrificing individuals. 

The Frederick Douglass center, 3032 
South Wabash avenue, was organized in 
1904. by Mrs. Celia Parker Woolley, its 
head resident, and her husband, Dr. Wool- 
ley. All its residents are white, though 
most of the trustees are colored. It has 
day and night classes and clubs. Mrs. 
Woolley has given freely of her time 
working as a pioneer for a better under- 
standing between the races. 

Other worthy settlements and institu- 
tions are: 

Wendell Phillips settlement, 2009 Wal- 
nut street. 

Miss Cloter Scott settlement, 4706 South 
Wabash avenue. 

Negro Fellowship league, 3005 South 
State street. 

Louise Training School for Colored 
Boys, 6130 South Ada street. 

Home for Aged and Infirm Colored Peo- 
ple, 510 West Garfleld boulevard. 

Y. W. C. A., colored branch, 3424 Rhodes 

Phyllis Wheatley home, 3256 Rhodes 

Old Soldiers' Widows' Rest, 3258 Forest 

Amanda Smith Industrial School for 
Girls, 307 West 147th street, Harvey. 

The Amanda Smith school was estab- 
lished as an orphanage by the evangelist 
of that name eighteen years ago. It now 
is directed by a board of which E. C. 
Wentworth is president and treasurer 
and Mrs. Charles Henrotin is vice-presi- 
dent. Most of the other officers and di- 
rectors also are white. Forty girls are 
in the school, many of them sent by the 
County courts, for which $15 a month is 
paid. Miss Ruth E. Wilkins is superintend- 
ent. The institution depends on private 
contributions to extend its work. 

The Louise Training school does a sim- 
ilar work among boys from the Juvenile 
court. It was started by Mrs. Elizabeth 

McDonald, for many years a probation of- 
ficer, who is ite superintendent. Between 
forty-four and sixty boys are cared for. 

The Home for the Aged by a deter- 
mined fight for twenty-five years of its 
existence now is, through the efforts of a 
new board of directors, in the best finan- 
cial condition of its career. It is sup- 
ported by voluntary contributions, prac- 
tically all from colored people, and has 
an annual expense of $2,500. Sixteen aged 
persons are in the institution. Frank S. 
Hamilton, 2831 Wabaeh avenue, a dining 
car conductor, is its president, and Dr. 
Charles L. Lewis. 3801 South State street, 
is its secretary. The Amateur Minstrel 
club cleared $1,000 for it at one of the 
largest benefits ever given. 

In the world of clubs, fraternal and 
military organizations, the colored people 
are active. The Appomattox club, which 
owns its own property at 3441 South Wa- 
bash avenue, is run on a pretentious 
scale, providing social life and recreation 
for Its members, and aiming to lead in 
civic advancement for its people. The 
Easter Lily club is said to be the largest 
single organization of colored women in 
the country. There is a state and a city 
federation of women's clubs, containing 
some sixty-five organizations. 

Fraternal Societies Popular. 

It is safe to say that nearly every col- 
ored man of means belongs to one or more 
fraternal organizations. Their uniformed 
ranks are a pride and joy. Fraternal or- 
ganizations gratify a love for pomp, pag- 
eantry and mystery, but their activity for 
good extends only indirectly beyond their 
own circles of membership. 

The greatest public organization is the 
8th infantry regiment, I. N. G., which, 
overcoming obstacles within and luke- 
warm .support without, has grown into a 
strong military unit, with an armory of 
its own at 3517 Forest avenue. It was the 
only colored military regiment to be 
called to the border in the recent mobili- 
zation. Its col'onel, Franklin A. Denison, 
is a leading colored lawyer of Chicago, 
Its lieutenant-colonel, James H. Johnson, 
is division auditor for the Pullman com- 
pany, and the major its first battalion, R. 
R. Jackson, is a state legislator, propri- 
etor of a printing establishment and prob- 
ably the most popular colored man in 

The inception of the 8tb regiment came 
in the Hannibal zouaves which were or- 
ganized in 1869. Robert E. Moore, 3265 
Vernon avenue, their captain, still has 
the old colors and standards. As the 
boys grew older they became the Han- 
nibal guards and later two companies of 
the old 16th battalion. 



Public Schools and Opportunities in Civil Service 

Since the first colored children in Chi- 
cago trudged with their books to the 
old Third avenue school even the name 
of the street has been changed the at- 
tendance of colored children has grown 
steadily until more than 4,500 are in the 
public schools to-day. Many years ago 
the Third Avenue school, taught by a 
Mrs. Dewey, was the only one which they 
attended. Attendance at other schools 
required physical hardihood on the part 
of the colored pupils. Conditions have 
changed since then and they now attend 
the public educational institutions most 
convenient to their homes. 

In certain schools the attendance of 
colored pupils is large on account of the 
location of the residence areas of col- 
ored families. A canvass of twelve of 
the schools showed an attendance of 4,276 
colored pupils. Several hundred more are 
scattered among other schools. Of the 
high schools, the Wendell Phillips, at 
3825 Prairie avenue, has the largest at- 
tendance of colored pupils. This is on 
account of its situation and not because 
of any sentimental preference for a 
school named after the noted abolitionist. 
Out of its 1,670 pupils 352, or about 21 
per cent, are colored. 

In the elementary schools the propor- 
tion varies from 90 per cent for one 
school down to less than 1 per cent for 
others. One school has 936 pupils, of 
whom 711 are colored. 

Colored Attendance at School. 

Though these figures seem large, col- 
ored pupils number only 1.3 per cent 
of the city's school attendance of 350,000. 
In the city's population, 3 per cent is 
colored. The ratio should be the same 
between adults and pupils if the colored 
children were attending school in proper 
numbers. Making the comparison from 
another angle, out of the city's total 
population about one in every seven is 
attending a public school. The ratio 
would be lower if private schools were 
added. Out of the city's colored popu- 
lation only one in every fourteen is at- 
tending school. 

Truancy Same as the "Whites. 

"Our records show that among colored 
children of the compulsory school age, 
the percentage of truancy is not any 
larger than among the white race," said 
W. Lester Bodine, superintendent of com- 
pulsory education. "Their scholarship 
records compare favorably, they are 
equally eager to learn and in some in- 
stances have taken honors in their class- 
es. However, the future of the colored 
child is a big question. Many of them 
must work for a living and start in after 
they reach the age of 14 years. In the 
south there are practically no compulsory 

school laws for colored children and many 
families migrating here wait until their 
children are 14 years old. Comparatively 
few colored pupils are in the night 

Opportunities for education are strong 
factors in attracting the more indus- 
trious colored families from the southern 
states to the north. Schooling is the 
same for all, regardless of race or color. 
The law requires that the child attend 

In striking contrast are the opportuni- 
ties in the south, according to figures 
compiled at Tuskegee institute. They 
show how many days the colored schools 
are open in a year, the number of days 
possible for each colored child if all at- 
tended, the percentage of children at- 
tending, the average days of attendance 
for each one and the years it would take 
to complete an elementary course. 

Figures from Southern States. 

The figures are: 


Days to 

Days Per Pet. at- foi corn- 
State open, child, tending, child, plete. 
South Carolina 67 26 68.4 44 33 

Louisiana 86 23 40.1 58 25 

Alabama 104 27 41.8 66 22 

Nor. Carolina.. 115 50 75.0 72 20 

Florida 98 43 64.8 72 20 

Georgia 123 48 65.4 74 19 

Virginia 121 47 56.0 76 19 

Texas 124 47 58.8 80 18 

Maryland 163 57 66.4 91 16 

Other states which the Negro year-book 
lists as having separate appropriations 
for colored schools are Arkansas, Dela- 
ware, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, 
Oklahoma. Tennessee, West Virginia and 
the District of Columbia. In several of 
these the expenditure for colored pupils 
accords with the proportion which they 
make of the population. In South Caro- 
lina they are 55.2 per cent of the popu- 
lation and they get 13 per cent of the 
school money, which is the other extreme. 

Race Troubles Rare. 

Race troubles among pupils in Chica- 
go's public schools have been rare in 
recent years. In classroom, work, athletic 
games and such other school activities as 
are under the direction of the board of 
education all are on equal footing. A 
frequent contention is that colored pupils 
and white pupils would progress faster if 
they had separate classes and different 
methods of teaching. This view is dis- 

'In scholarship, ability to learn and 
application and classroom work the 
colored pupils average up with the white 
pupils," said >a principal who has had ex- 
perience with thousands of both races in 
the last ten years. "One handicap which 
may be more common among colored 
than among the white pupils is that the 


home environment is not always as help- 
ful as it might be, for the parents from 
economic or other reasons have not had 
any such opportunities to learn as have 
the children. Among the children in 
school there is no trouble. When trouble 
does come it usually starts in the homes." 

Work for Colored Graduates. 

"What work can I get if I go through 
school?" is the regular question of the 
truant colored boy, according to H. W. 
Hammond, juvenile court probation officer 
and graduate of New York university. 

Hundreds of colored men and women 
are holding clerical positions which they 
could not have obtained if it had not been 
for public school educations. Some are 
with private concerns and othera are on 
public pay rolls. The most noticeable of 
the latter are: 

Government employes ...265 

City policemen . . 65 

City firemen 12 

Adult probation officer 1 

Juvenile probation officers 5 

Total 348 

Mrs. Everlin Cason. 4524 St. Lawrence 
avenue; Mary E. Clark, 3812 South Wa- 
bash avenue; Mrs. Alice Simpson, 3215 
Prairie avenue, and Mrs. Mattie I. Thorn- 
ton, 4323 Forrestville avenue, are post- 
office clerks. Miss Susan Boaz, 219 North 
Campbell avenue; Miss Minnie Jones and 
Mrs. A. M. Smith, 3256 Vernon avenue, 
and Mrs. Jessie Thomas, 3319 Forest 
avenue, are Juvenile probation officers 
and Mrs. Bessie Gilmer, S123 South Dear- 
born street, is the adult probation offi- 

Joseph C. Wickliffe, 5329 South Wabash 
avenue, and William F. Childs, 6353 Eber- 
hart avenue, are lieutenants in the fire 
and police departments respectively. 



Real Estate Values and Bad Housing Conditions 

Desire of well to do colored families to 
get better homes and better surroundings 
has been one of the chief causes of com- 
plaint against the race in Chicago. The 
entrance of colored residents Into a high 
class white neighborhood usually evokes 
protests and sometimes violence. In some 
instances the invader is of the shiftless 
class which peels potatoes on the front 
porch, Jars the rear horizon with wash- 
ings and rubbish and generally cheapens 
the neighborhood. Back of them usually 
is some real estate speculator who hopes 
to profit by affecting property values, and 
so the protest is justified regardless of 
the color of the new tenants. In most in- 
stances, however, the first colored family 
to enter a white neighborhood is actuated 
to a certain extent by a desire to get 
away from evil influences and conditions 
around its former home. 

Rents and property values fall In a 
neighborhood if it deteriorates after 
colored residents have come into it. The 
first comers of the race, however, pay 
higher rents or higher prices for property 
than the white tenants then in posses- 
sion are paying. In other neighborhoods 
where the property is not allowed to run 
down after It is occupied by colored ten- 
ants and owners and there are several 
such neighborhoods in Chicago the val- 
ues hold up. 

Error in Colored Districts. 

"Chicago's colored population is grow- 
ing with great rapidity and its welfare 
cannot be Ignored," said a prominent real 
estate dealer. "A civic policy which holds 
that anything is good enough and noth- 
ing Is too bad to be permitted In a col- 
ored residence or business district is now 
in force. The better class of colored per- 
sons will move away from such districts, 
leaving an element which discredits the 
race and creating a plague spot endan- 
gering the physical and moral health of 
the entire city." 

"Bad housing conditions are the great- 
est cause for demoralization among col- 
ored people." said Dr. George C. Hall, 
who has given nntch attention to that 
phase of the problem of his race. "In 
order to get in a decent building a couple 
perhaps are compelled to take an eight 
room flat; in order to keep the flat they 
sublet sevpn rooms and eat and sleep in 
the kitchen. Even worse consequences 
might be described. Mr. Rosenwald's 
smaller flats are designed to relieve this 

One colored real estate man a few days 
ago sold a piece of proprty on Calumet 
avenue, on which the building alone had 
cost $12,000, to another colored man for 
$4,900. Recently he sold a string of houses 
for varying prices, the lowest cash pay- 
ment being $1,000. Railroad men, civil 
service employes and professional men 

were the purchasers and he said that none 
defaulted on the payments. He holds for 
$10,000 another piece of property with A 
house which originally cost $40,000. 
Are Keen to Own Property. 

"Colored persons are keen to own prop- 
erty," said Willis V. Jefferson, a real 
estate man. "A couple in moderate cir- 
cumstances will buy a place much too 
large for their family, then they will rent 
some rooms, the wife will take care of 
the house, the husband will work and in 
a short time it will be paid for. They are 
pretty crowded, however, while the pay- 
ments are going on. As a rule colored 
owners of property keep up their build- 
ings. Many other owners of property with 
colored tenants let the buildings decay." 

Running south between South State 
street and the railroad elevated tracks 
west of the street is a strip of varying 
width which shows how a district can de- 
teriorate. Not so very long ago it was in- 
habited by hard working, thrifty colored 
families, churches were built there and 
they still remain. But most of the families 
which once gave it special standing have 
gone, and it is now an object lesson. 
Classification of Building*. 

A survey of every house In three blocks 
running across the district was made by 
The Daily News. The different buildings 
in the district were classified with the 
number in each class as follows: 

No. | No. 

41 Frame. 2 stories. ... 96 

221 Frame, 3 stories 19 


Total 193 

Brick. 1 story. . 
Brick, 2 stories. 
Brick. 3 stories. 
Brick, 4 stories. 2 
Frame, 1 story . . 16 

The condition of the buildings varied 
between the extreme case of one which 
bad been condemned and naJied shut iy 
the city health department two years 
ago, to some in a fair state of cleanliness 
and repair. Under four classifications the 
buildings were divided as follows: 

Street Good. Fair. Poor. Bad.Total. 

S. State, west side 7 18 6 6 37 

S. Dearborn, east side.. 4 6 13 1 24 
S. Dearborn, west side. 12 6 9 3 30 

Federal, east side 7 14 6 5 32 

Federal, west side 5 12 11 1 29 

S. LaSalle, east side... 274 3 16 
Cross streets 4 13 3 6 25 


.41 76 52 24 193 

Insanitary Homes Found. 

Many of the buildings did not hare 
lights In the hallways. One did not have 
any back porches, and the dark hallways 
were full of clotheslines and freshly 
washed clothes. Few had bathrooms, and 
in many there was no plumbing or els-e 
the water was shut off on account of non- 
payment of rent. Rickety stairways with- 
out handrails, gaping rents in the plaster, 
leaky roofs, wet basements, indiscrim- 
inate refuse and dirt and other violations 
of health and building regulations of the 
city abounded. 


In this district were 1,406 colored per- plying with the city ordinances," said Ed 

sons and not more than twenty-five white Felix, 3002 South Dearborn street, who 

persons. Only one piece of property, how- has been in business in the district for 

ever, was owned by a colored man. The more than thirty years. "As they run 

roadways are all paved and are cleaner down the class of tenants deteriorates, 

than some of the back yards. The pav- until finally come those who won't pay 

ing of the streets was forced several years rent. It is too expensive to evict them by 

ago despite the opposition of the white court proceedings and the owner shuts off 

property owners. the water. Then somebody steals the 

plumbing and the property is picked to 

"Many owners ma&e absolutely no re- pieces. But all the time somebody is Hv- 

pairs on their buildings, not even com- ing In It." 



Politics Puts Disorderly Dives Among Homes 

On the southeast corner of South State 
and 35th streets, in the center of the 
colored residence and business district, 
is the Panama saloon, owned by Isadors 
Levin. It is declared to be the most 
brazen, decency-defying saloon in the 
district possibly in the entire city. It 
might be called two saloons. The books 
of the city collector, however, show that 
only one license has been taken out. 

On the corner is a bar. Back of that on 
the East 35th street side is a cabaret 
room. Upstairs is another big cabaret 
room, reached by an inside stairway 
from the rear room on the ground floor. 
Drinks are served on both floors. The 
second floor has a service bar of its own. 
However, even if the waiters carried 
their dripping trays from the saloon bar 
on the first floor two licenses would be 
required under section 1527 of the code, 
one for each floor. Respectable cafes 
downtown laid out on the same plan ara 
required to pay for two licenses. Levin 
is in a district where "ever/thing goes." 

Panama's Sons* Indecent. 

The first floor cabaret has an orchss- 
tra. four girl singers and one man sing- 
er, usually in varying degrees of intoxi- 
cation. It can seat 150. The second 
floor has a grand piano, the same number 
of noise makers, more tables and a dan- 
cing space. The girls' songs are not 
merely suggestive. They are unmistak- 
ably indecent. As singers the girls ire 
not much. Personal charms apparently 
are better recommendations than singing 

The sixty employes of the place are 
colored. It has both white and colored 
ptatrons. Some of the latter are well 
dressed and well behaved; others are 
noisy, in mackinaws and sweaters. Amon^ 
the white patrons most conspicuous are 
the "shimmers," largely of the class who 
kiss on the corner while waiting foi 
street cars and whose terms of endear- 
ment would be considered cause for Jus- 
tifiable murder in the far west. Equally 
numerous but less noisy are the white 
men who strike up acquaintance with 
colored girls living in neighboring "buf- 
fet" flats. There are also white women 
who associate with colored men. The 
waiters do a profitable brokerage busi- 
ness in arranging meetings. This saloon 
is one of the best sources of supply for 
cases in the Morals court, according to 
Judge Fisher. 

Proprietor a White Man. 

Levin, who profits by this establish- 
ment, is a white man. He lives at 3614 
Indiana avenue. The Wacker & Birk 
Brewing and Malting company, whose of- 
ficers, also white, talk publicly about 
"clean saloons," is less openly back of 
the dive. On Levin's bond to secure a 

license, filed in the city clerk's office, 
that brewery, signed by C. Kenke and H. 
Horn, is the surety. The two names da 
not appear in the city directory. 

The license of the Panama was re- 
voked March 6 and restored March 16. 
1916. It was again revoked July 11 and re- 
stored Aug. 10. It is rumored that Levin 
made his peace with the police and the 
city hall and that it cost him $1,000 on 
each occasion. Aid. Oscar De Priest ar- 
gued that sixty colored men and girls 
were employed in the place and that it 
should be reopened to help give employ- 
ment to people of his race. Levin's 
white attorney was a law partner of 
Mayor Thompson's principal advisers. 
Levin also forced tbings by threatening 
to do some talking on his own account. 
A Levin from a west side dive was one 
of the witnesses against former Inspec- 
tor McCann and the police did not want 
any repetition of such testimony. Levin's 
place now is running full blast. 

"Teenan" Jones and His Ill-sort. 

A few doors north, at 3445 South State 
street, is the Elite No. 2. run by Henry 
("Teenan") Jones. It is smaller than 
Levin's Panama, but similar to it in 
backroom patronage. "Teenan" is the 
colored ruler of that underworld district. 
His dealings with the police in past years 
and his profits make a story in them- 
selves. The saloon is only one of his 
moneymaking ventures. It is declared 
that the police would no more think of 
making his saloon obey the law than 
they would of closing one of tis gambling 
houses. When other saloons close at 1 
a. m., a line of automobiles stretches 
along the street and the sidewalk is 
blocked with the late night rounders 
waiting to slip through the doors of 
"Teenan's" place when a coveted seat 
is vacated. 

Other resorts in the district are worse; 
some are better. These are typical of 
the roistering saloons, a kind which 
would not be tolerated in any other part 
of the city since the old 22d street levee 
was broken up. Few of them are run by 
colored proprietors. White proprietors 
have brought them into the district and 
many of them art) patronized largely by 
crowds from other parts of the city. The 
resorts are forced on the colored people. 
Those colored families in good circum- 
stances and desiring respectable sur- 
roundings move away, only to find dis- 
orderly saloons trailing after them. 

License In Spite of Protest. 

At 301 East 37th street, on the south- 
east corner of Forest avenue, is the sa- 
loon of Sol Joy Collanger, 4100 Calumet 
avenue. With this exception the district is 
a quiet, respectable residence quarter. 
When it was known that this property 


was to be used for saloon purposes a 
petition of pretest was signed by 300 
representative colored men and present- 
ed to Mayor Harrison. The mayor did 
not grant the license until after he was 
defeated at the primaries two years ago. 
Adam Ortseifen, friend of the mayor's 
and an influential citizen, is the official 
head of the British corporation which 
owns the brewery which supplies the sa- 
loon with beer and is on its bond. 

At night this saloon is an animated 
place. Reputable colored families object 
to it chiefly on account of the numbers 
of disorderly white women who meet col- 
ored men in its diminutive back room. 
In the barroom an automatic piano 
thumps through the night until closing 
hours. On the mirrors are pasted chro- 
mos of "September Morn" and other 
poses of nude women. 

"Buffet" flats and disorderly hotels are 
adjuncts of the bad saloons. They make 
a better harvest for the police than the 
saloons. The borderland of a colored 
residential district is the haven for dis- 
orderly resorts. Protests of colored fam- 
ilies against the painted women in their 
neighborhood, the midnight honking of 
automobiles, the loud profanity and vul- 
garity are usually ignored by the police. 

In one block between South State and 
South Dearborn streets which was can- 
vassed by The Daily News, five places 
were found openly admitted to be disor- 

derly houses. Some were in flat build- 
ings, the other tenants of which appar- 
ently were respectable, some raising fam- 
ilies of children. 

llow Resort Got a Location. 

Many white owners of real estate who 
speak in horrified whispers of vice dan- 
gers view such dangers with complacency 
when these are thrust among colored 
families. Two years ago a woman of the 
underworld and her gambler husband de- 
cided to open a "high class" resort on 
the south side. She got a location as a 
neighbor of reputable colored people by 
purchasing the home of a former alder- 
man and leader in a church, the one 
of which the Rev. John P. Brushingham, 
secretary of Mayor Thompson's morals 
commission, is pastor. The woman was 
one of the most notorious of the demi- 
monde. An oil painting of her as she 
was before her husband in a fit of jeal- 
ousy bit off part of her nose for years 
had hung in a saloon of international 

These are some of the influences which 
the colored population is forced to com- 
bat in its fight for decency and good cit- 
izenship. A few secure political prefer- 
ment and others profit by catering to the 
city's vices, while the rank and file are 
hedged around by demoralizing influences 
and the race is discredited unjustly. 



Gambling Controlled by a Powerful Political Syndicate 

The rattle of the dice, the click of the 
poker chip and the gentle falling of the 
cards is seldom stilled in what is known 
as the heart of Chicago's "colored dis- 
trict." Gambling is a popular recreation 
among a certain element. Protests of the 
better element of colored people appar- 
ently fall on deaf ears. Gambling nouses 
and clubs are as easy to locate and run 
almost as openly as grocery stores. Their 
sanction and protection by politicians and 
police is on a "business" basis. If a 
person has made the "proper" arrange- 
ments he can run without molestation 
but if he has overlooked that important 
detail he may safely bet that he will be 
raided the first night. The arrangements 
are said by those who ought to know to 
be largely financial. 

Whether gambling is a more dangerous 
cause of demoralization of a community 
than are disorderly saloons, buffet flats 
and dissolute women is an often discussed 
question. Gambling is a man's game, <s 
more open and the connection between 
it, the police and politics easier to trace. 
In order to gamble the police must oe 
either evaded, which is difficult, or male 
blind by a peculiar remedy for Iteh'ng 
palms or by orders from political powers 
that be. However, it usually 1s the sam^ 
police and the same politicians who are 
protecting both Hass^s of vice. 

Need "Syndicate" Approval. 

Colored men are in active control of the 
gambling situation in the big part of 
their district in the 2d ward. Back of 
t?iem are white police officials at one end 
of the line and white politicians who 
keep them in power at the other end of 
the line. When 2d ward, and even some 
adjacent ward, gambling is discussed by 
gamblers on the inside, certain colored 
men always are mentioned. They are 
called "the syndicate" and their approval 
is said to be necessary if the police are 
to let anybody run in the ward. 

Henry ("Teenan") Jones, owner if the 
Elite saloon No. 2, the Star movit thea- 
ter, gambling houses, several road shows 
and entertainment propositions, made a 
fortune as intermediary between the col- 
ored sporting world and the police. He 
was close to former Inspector Nicholas 

"Bill" Lewis, old time and well to do 
gambler, who 'for years has run a big 
protected game for high players, both 
white and colored, has been a noted char- 
acter in the underworld since he shot the 
late "Pony" Moore and a woman at 3d 
avenue and Taylor street many years ago 
in the wide open days of the old levee. 

David L. Knighten, employe of the elec- 
tion commissioners' office and husband of 
Dr. Anna B. Knighten, better known as 
"Dr. Schultz," 3430 Calumet avenue, is 
influential in the district. Knighten IB a 
democrat in politics, but has been well 

known on the colored levee since the days 
when "Black Mag" was in her prime. 
Explain DePrlest' Activity. 

Oscar DePriest, real estate dealer and 
alderman from the 2d ward, is the highest 
in political office among Chicago colored 
men and always has been aggressive for 
the rights of his people. Some answer 
the common talk of his familiarity with 
gambling and other resorts by declaring 
it a part of his duty as alderman to see 
that the colored people get a part in ev- 
erything going. 

It is reported that under the so called 
"syndicate" control the first month of 
operation showed a profit of $1,800. After 
that the profit is said to have risen to 
$5,700 a month, according to one close 
to the money, which is now the average 
sum divided monthly. Colored men who 
have wished to discuss opening gambling 
houses with the political powers in the 
ward are said to have been referred to 
"Teenan," the real "boss" of the colored 
sporting world. The terms insisted on 
are said to have been practically the 
same in all cases 40 or 50 per cent of 
the gross profits and the syndicate to put 
a man inside to see that there was no 
Holding out on the percentage. Present 
orders from the syndicate to their houses 
are to "lay low" until the new chief of 
police is named. 

"Bill" Lewis' place, upstairs at 14 East 
35th. street, is the headquarters for the 
syndicate. The men who run the hand- 
books by day, or bank the thirty or forty 
games by night, bring their cash there 
after the play is over and come there to 
get their "bank rolls," the syndicate's 
share deducted in the interim, before they 
start the next day. Occasionally the 
money is kept in "Teenan's" safe. Lewis' 
nlaop Is considered the flparlngr house. 
Expose by The Dally New*. 

Until The Daily News printed a list of 
a dozen of the biggest gambling houses In 
the district, Lewis' place ran with the 
curtains up and the games and players 
could be seen from the platform or ttie 
elevated station. Out of deference to the 
feelings of the police of the Stanton ave- 
nue station the curtains were pulled down 
after that. The game did not stop. 
"Bill" Lewis' familiar figure, stubby 
gray mustache, pearl gray fuzzy fedora 
pulled down over his eyes, collar turned 
up and hands in his overcoat pockwts 
stands in the East 35th street doorway 
every night. Occasionally a doorman re- 
lieves him. White and black patrons, 
singly, in pair, in groups, are coming and 
going, loudly discussing their winnings ">r 
losings. Its character as a gambling 
house is plain even without "Bill's" w*ll 
known figure, which is as illuminating to 
insiders as an electric sign in front f 
a theater. 

When complaints come to the police 
against any of the syndicate games gam- 


biers say the proorjetors are notified. If 
the "knock" is too strong a raid is made, 
after sufficient warning. The ordinary 
patrolman or detective would no more 
raid Lewis' place than he would his cap- 
tain's clothes locker at the police station. 
Games which do not belong to the syndi- 
cate are classed as "outlaws" and raided 
before they get fairly started. 

Across the street from Lewis' clearing 
house, on the second floor at 11 Bast 36th 
street, an entrance on the alley, "Mex- 
ican Frank" Gordon once ran. He had 
poker and craps, the same as at the 
clearing house, only the play was cheap- 
er. He was raided continuously until he 
was put out of business. "Chatty" Pink- 
stone followed under the name of the 
Chauffeurs' club, also refusing to pay the 
syndicate. The police waited for him to 
get a bank roll together and then 
"sloughed" him. He opened on the sec- 
ond floor at 3523 South State street and 
was put out of business in the same way. 
Some of the Gambling? Resorts. 

Some of the principal gambling places 
in the district are: 

3016 South State street, second floor, 
Dunbar club, a mockery on the name of 
the late Paul Laurence Dunbar, the bril- 
liant young colored poet who brought so 
much honor to his race. It is one of the 
biggest of the syndicate games. Bud 
Woods is in charge. Craps and stud 
poker get the best play. 

3121 South State street, dice and poker 
game, run by Hugh Hoskins and Kid 
Brown, getting the best of the play from 
31st street. 

3212 South State street, second floor, 
run by "Red Dick" Wilson and Charley 
Kunz. This is the brilliantly lighted 
place which used Masonic Shrine banners 
for curtains in its front windows. 

3433 South State street, second floor, 
Hobnob club of "Yellow Bill 1 ' Bass, a po- 
litical supporter of Aid. DePriest. Runs 
so openly that the rattle of the chips can 
be heard on the street. 

3512 South State street, second floor, 
rear, run by "Sport" McFariand. His 
IB a syndicate game, but he once was 

Gathering in the Victims. 

Many of the gambling houses have run- 
ners out whose work is as systematic as 
that of insurance solicitors. They gath- 
er in the strangers in the city, men with 
their week's pay in their pockets, sleep- 
ing car porters who have got off their 
runs on the railroads, or anybody who 
will be grist for the gambling mill. 

In a different class are the quasiprivate 
gambling clubs. The newest one is up- 
stairs on the northeast corner of Forest 
avenue and East 35th street, in which 
Bernard W. Fitts is the moving spirit. 
To enter It a person must be a member 
or the guest of a member, as in some 
of the more pretentious clubs where 
gambling is a prominent feature. "Bill" 
Thomas who ran the Kentucky club is 
its manager. 

Walter Speedy refused to go into the 
syndicate and his place, the Ranier club, 
3010 South State street, second floor, was 
raided. That was not a permanent dam- 
per on his insubordination, and Speedy 
now is in the bridewell on a pandering 
charge. "Big Dave" McGowan, "Bob" 
Ridley and a number of others whose 
faces have shown at gambling houses in 
the past are reputable citizens now. The 
syndicate keeps them so. 

Colored Gamhlera of Note. 

Chicago has had many notorious colored 
gamblers, Mortimer and Hunter, "Mush- 
mouth" Johnson, John Jennings, nearly 
seven feet tall, draped in a sealskin coat; 
"Yellow" Reynolds,"the Cleveland sport," 
and others of a later day. Jennings died 
in Dunning, after being a roustaoout in 
the rough dives of Gary, Ind. Reynolds, 
who always would bet $120 to $100 that a 
crap shooter would not pass, went broke. 
His last spectacular play was to pull a 
diamond set gold tooth from his jaw 
against a $50 bet. 

Those were the days when gambling 
was one of the few lines of prosperous 
activity open to colored men. Politically 
some would like to keep it so even at 
the expense of holding back the race as 
a whole from progress. 



Mayors, Congressmen and State Senators Elected by Colored Voters 

From the plague spots of the districts 
of Chicago in which colored people dwell, 
where disorderly saloons, "buffet" flats, 
gambling houses and other symptoms of 
commercialized vice are tolerated by the 
police, the chain of politics stretches 
upward. It 'has many links. It reaches 
to the marble columns of the national 
capitol at Washington. It touches many 
legislative halls and high offices before it 
ends in the nation's greatest legislative 
body. Men high in the nation, state and 
city owe their political life to the vote 
of colored citizens. These same men 
are politically responsible for conditions 
as they exist among their constituents. If 
the colored citizen does not get his share 
of opportunities and advantages which 
the city and state offer and has more 
than his share of the vice and demorali- 
zation thrust upon him by white politi- 
cians, his political leaders are the per- 
sons to whom he must appeal. 

Congressman and Senator. 

Martin B. Madden, congressman from 
the 1st Illinois district, and George F. 
Harding, state senator at Springfield from 
the 1st senatorial district, are the two 
men who, in the last analysis, control a 
very large proportion of the colored vote 
of Chicago. That vote is a factor in 
a lesser way in other sections of the 
city and in this district it elects other 
officials. No other politicians have the 
same control as these two. The balance 
of power wielded by the colored vote, 
swung by Senator Harding, gave Mayor 
Thompson his nomination and his sub- 
sequent election. Samuel A. Ettelson, cor- 
poration counsel and state senator from 
the 3d district, also depends on the col- 
ored vote. The 1st and 3d districts have 
a colored representative each, the one 
from the 1st having been selected by 
Harding. The race's vote which is abso- 
lute in the 2d ward where Harding con- 
trols, has picked Hugh Norris, white, and 
Oscar De Priest colored, lor aldermen. 
De Priest now lines with the Madden-Et- 
telson element. 

Congressman Madden was the first to 
capitalize the colored vote. Senator Hard- 
Ing, then alderman, followed and devel- 
oped it on more systematic lines. He is 
the political czar with an inexhaustible 
campaign barrel and no disgruntled sub- 
chief has ever successfully opposed him. 
Congressman Madden watches his politi- 
cal fences with care. Senator Harding is 
one of the largest real estate owners in 
the city. Charges have come from the 
offices of the Committee of Fifteen that 
some of Senator Harding's buildings are 
used for "buffet" flats, disorderly saloons 
and similar purposes. Senator Harding 
has answered that when the character of 
undesirable tenants was discovered they 
were evicted and that with such a large 

rent list it is impossible for him to pre- 
vent some such tenants from slipping in 
before their business is known. 

Harding and Police Job*. 

Congressman Madden and Senator 
Harding have much to say as to who 
shall do the police work in their terri- 
tory, especially under the present admin- 
istration. Harding says 'he leaves such 
local affairs to the two aldermen. Aid. 
Norris says he does not act as a gobe- 
tween for his constituents and the police 
and that with the latter he does not have 
enough influence to close a gambling 
house, having tried once and failed. Aid. 
De Priest is left as the active boss on th e 
Job over the police, but Senator Harding 
has the final word. It is apparently up 
to Harding and De Priest to say whether 
the colored voters who elect them shall 
live amid respectable surroundings or 
whether their district shall become the 
dumping ground for the vice of the city. 

"I was told that a political meeting to 
oppose me was held at the Dunbar club," 
said Aid. Norris, relating his amazing 
police experience with the notorious 
gambling house at 3016 South State street. 
"I complained against the club to the 
police station and a couple of days later 
the captain told me he had investigated 
and could not find any gambling. One of 
the men who played there kept me In- 
formed and I insisted on some action 
being taken. One afternoon the police 
raided the place when two colored base- 
ball teams were playing and had drawn 
such crowds to see them that there was 
not a colored 'sport* with money east of 
Wentworth avenue. The club was open 
that night as usual. I got after the cap- 
tain again and he stationed officers at the 
front and rear entrances. My gambler 
friend told me two policemen were there 
and the game had been moved next door 
with the players stepping over the police- 
men's toes as they came and went. The 
police didn't want to and wouldn't close 
the club, so I quit." 

This Is a typical Illustration of how the 
police act against a lawbreaklng estab- 
lishment that is protected by the "sys- 
tem," even though they antagonize an 
alderman. A general tendency is shown 
to neglect the district by police, health, 
building department or other officials. The 
residents do not get such public conven- 
iences as citizens residing elsewhere en- 
joy, and so they push out into other parts 
of the city in search of them. 

"My opinion, based on observation In 
this court, is that crime conditions among 
the colored people are being deliberately 
fostered by the present city administra- 
tion," said Judge Harry M. Fisher of the 
Morals court. "Disorderly cabarets, 
thieves and depraved women are allowed 
in the section of the city where colored 


people live. They have an expression, 
'The law is around to-night,' as a warn- 
ing to behave, so seldom Is the law en- 
forced. The race is being exploited for 
the sake of men in politics who are a 
disgrace to their own race. Young, unat- 
tached men or women, strangers and un- 
sophisticated, are brought into this dis- 
trict from the south, and their first taste 
of freedom is downward." 

Pool hall night schools in the rudi- 
ments of crime, insanitary and dangerous 
homes, surroundings of vice and deprav- 
ity abound, in contrast to the necessities 
of good citizenship which are lacking. 

Colored Race and the Law. 

Colored persons involved with the law 
are greatly in excess of the proportion of 
other races, according to the annual re- 
port for 1915 of the Chicago police de- 
partment. The figures, summarized, were: 

Total Colored 
(All races. )Per9tms. Pet. 

Population 2,500,000 75,000 3.0 

Arrests 121,704 9,960 8.2 

Percentage arrested 4.9 18.8 

Convicted 46,987 6,861 10.4 

Per cent prisoners convict- 
ed 38.6 48.8 

The great excess in the percentage of 
convictions is explained by colored law- 
yers on the theory that the colored pris- 
oner is looked on with less favor than a 
white one. 

In the Juvenile court the figures were: 
Delinquents. Dependents. TotaL 
*oys. Girls. Boys. Girls. 

Amer'ns (white) 356 99 241 223 919 
Amer'ns (col'd). 168 66 64 84 818 

All nativities.. 2,192 594 1.116 1.194 6,096 

In the Morals court the percentage of 
colored prisoners is even higher. Reform 
authorities say that the percentage of 
crime is increased greatly by the dis- 
orderly surroundings in which so many of 
the colored people are forced to live. 


Planning for the Future and Better Conditions 

Those farsighted persons who look to 
the future of the colored population of 
Chicago are awake to the situation. De- 
voted men and women, both white and 
colored, have given freely of their time 
and money to help direct the leas 
fortunate ones in the right direction and 
surround them with proper influences. 
Reputable members of the Negro race, 
these who have real influence in the com- 
munity, are grappling as best they can 
with the task of uplifting a people who 
are discriminated against in civic oppo- 
tunities and overloaded with city evils. 
White citizens also realize that the rapid 
influx of colored people from the south 
has made the problem one that cannot 
be disregarded and one that involves the 
future of the entire city. 

Among the colored people are many or- 
ganizations. Nearly all of them profess 
a purpose looking toward race betterment 
or religious growth, but a great many 
overlook this purpose in the more imme- 
diate satisfaction of literary and social 
meetings. The churches all have their 
individual organizations, which do an im- 
mense amount of work. In the last few 
years the Y. M. C. A. and similar organ- 
izations have got fairly started on prac- 
tical work among the people. 

To Co-Orillnate 4OO Organizations. 

Organization of a Chicago branch of the 
National League on Urban Conditions 
Among Negroes, one of the strongest and 
most practical of their organizations, is 
under way. L. Hollingsworth Wood of 
New York is the national president. Miss 

Sophronisba P. Breckenridge and Dr. 
George C. Hall are the Chicago members 
of the directorate. Eugene Kinckle Jones, 
one of the league's national secretaries, 
held a meeting with the local leaders, 
and T. Arnold Hill, one of the national 
organizers, was left in charge. The league 
plans to make a survay of housing and 
living conditions, moral surroundings, 
avenues of work and other phases of life 
among colored residents. It will co- 
ordinate the work of about 400 present 
colored organizations. 

A similar survey was made by a local 
class in civics in the fall of 1913. Fifty 
blocks between 26th, South LaSalle and 
36th streets and South Wabash avenue 
were covered. In them were found 118 
destructive and sixteen constructive agen- 
cies. In the ten blocks along South State 
street were eighty-two destructives and 
sixteen constructive agencies. Of the 
sixteen ten were for Negroes, four for 
whites and two were schools for both 
races. The league proposes to expend 
$1,000 in making its survey. It has done 
similar work with excellent results in 
other cities. 

The National Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Colored People already has 
a local organization. Miss Jane Addams 
and Dr. Charles E. Bentley are national 

The Federated Colored organizations 
also have launched the Rotary Settlement 
movement for the avowed purpose of "de- 
stroying much of the fertile soil for 
viciousness and corruption." 


Tvro Different Plans of Work. 

Those working for the uplifting of their 
race in Chicago as elsewhere may be di- 
vided roughly into two schools one 
working on the plans followed by the late 
Booker T. Washington and the other fol- 
lowing the theories advanced by W. E. 
Burghardt DuBois of New York. Though 
their ideas may differ on details, both 
groups are striving sincerely for the ad- 
vancement of their people. 

Thinking colored persons are keenly 
awake to the dangers pressing in on 
th^m because of the unbridled license 
which city authorities permit in wards 
like the 2d. 

"Increased demands made upon our in- 
dustries have brought among us thousands 
of colored men, who, while speaking the 
same language as we do, are in many 
cases little more accustomed to the free- 
dom of this city, the habits and customs 
of our people than is the newly arrived 
peasant from Europe," said the Rev. Dr. 
William A. Blackwell, pastor of Walters 
African Methodist Episcopal Zion church. 
"These people must be amalgamated and 
assimilated. They must be saved from 
the evil influences which surround them 
and started in the right life." 

Free and Kiisy Conditions. 

"The system seems to be to have free 
and easy conditions along South State 
and 35th streets," said Morris Lewis, 3633 
Forest avenue, secretary to the Peck es- 
tate and an officer of the Douglas Im- 
provement association. "About all we 
can get action on is a dirty alley. As 
to driving out 'buffet' flats and similar 
dives, the only hope we have is that the 
Committee of Fifteen will give some at- 
tention to our district and force the city 
officials to do something." 

"It makes those who look forward to a 
future for the colored race blush when 
they see the conditions in State street by 
day and night," said Dr. Bentley. 

"The colored young man or girl has a 
lack of good, wholesome moral opportuni- 
ties," explained Edward H. Wright, an 
assistant corporation counsel. 

"The delinquent colored boy or girl 
who is taken to the Juvenile court is 
turned out again on probation to learn 
more and keep going until either sent to 
the penitentiary or hanged," said Dr. 
Hall. "If Chicago lacks the vision to see 

ahead it will reap the harvest of foster- 
Ing a kindergarten on the streets where 
gamins learn crime and know that once 
on probatiou they are immune from ar- 
rest. There was a time when in every 
saloon, gambling joint, disorderly house 
or other vicious or degrading place a 
colored man or woman was employed. 
The employment was that of catering to 
the vices. Now the colored people have 
learned that they can advance only 
through respectable employments, re- 
spectable associations. The colored peo- 
yle must awake themselves up, ibuy prop- 
eity, raise children and build homes for 
the future. The one-time feeling of dis- 
trust and jealousy Is passing away and 
they must unite for their future develop- 

"The city has the right to expect certain 
standards of living among colored people, 
and it has no right to force gambling 
houses and disorderly dives among them," 
said the Rev. Myron E. Adams, former 
pastor of the First Baptist church, and 
still actively Interested in the welfare 
of the south side. "They should have 
wholesome recreational advantages. They 
must co-operate instead of discrediting 
each other. Their religious leaders should 
emphasize the practical elements of hu- 
manity as well as the emotional ones of 
religion. Thrift, honesty, punctuality and 
civic obligations must be appreciated." 

Need of Improvement Shown. 

This is the concluding article in the 
series which The Daily News has pre- 
pared, the first thorough study of the 
colored population of Chicago. The arti- 
cles have shown the extent of this pop- 
ulation, how it is distributed through the 
city and the rapidity with which it has 
increased in recent months. The oppor- 
tunities for the colored boy or girl have 
been pointed out, and many colored men 
and women who by their efforts and tal- 
ents have become valued members of the 
community and nation have been men- 
tioned by name. The articles also have 
described the injurious physical conditions 
forced on the so called "colored districts" 
either from motives of politics or of av- 
arice, conditions which tend to retard the 
progress of the race. These conditions 
must be changed in the interest of the 
healthy, steady advancement of the race 
as a whole. 




The London Chronicle of December 
4, 1914, said: "The Chicago Daily News, 
which is by far the best evening news- 
paper in the world, has over thirty cor- 
respondents in Europe reporting on the 

war.' 3 

The London Chronicle of June 19, 
1915, said: "The Chicago Daily News, 
which has published more special war 
news than any other paper in Amer- 
ica * * * ." 

An old Chicago newspaper man, 
speaking to a friend the other day, 
said: "Tom, I see all the principal 
newspapers of the country, and do you 
know that the best news of the war is 
put together right here in Chicago in 
our Daily News?" 

Are you reading the best war news 
in America in the best news-paper in 
Chicago ?