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Full text of "Negro year book : a review of events affecting negro life, 1952"

1952 
NEGRO YEAR BOOK 

l 

A Review of Events Affecting Negro Life 






Jessie Parkhurst Guzman 

DIRECTOR, DEPARTMENT OF RECORDS AND RESEARCH 
TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE 

Editor 



Lewis W. Jones 

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE, RURAL LIFE COUNCIL 
TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE 

Associate Editor 



Woodrow Hall 

Chief Editorial Assistant 



New York 
WM. H. WISE & CO., ING. 



t. 

5 



Copyright, 1952 
Tuskegee Institute 



10521 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



' ' ' , I * ' f K - 

-'- . _T:f.,{> Jfff J 



Preface 



THE NEGRO YEAR BOOK dates back to 1912, when the late Booker T. 
Washington, founder and first principal of Tuskegee Institute, gave 
$1,000 to publish the first edition as a service to the public. This sum 
was the residue of a fund donated for the purpose of collecting and 
circulating information favorable to the Negro. It was expected that 
there would be only one edition; however, the NEGRO YEAR BOOK met 
a wide and continued demand. This volume is the eleventh edition to be 
issued over a forty-year period. The late Monroe N. Work, founder 
and director of the Tuskegee Institute Department of Records and 
Research from 1908 through 1938, was editor of the first nine editions. 

For the forty years of its publication, the NEGRO YEAR BOOK has 
been extensively used as a reference by agencies, educational institu- 
tions, and individuals who desired readily accessible historical and 
sociological information on the Negro. It is specially adapted for use 
in schools, libraries, and other agencies where basic and current infor- 
mation assembled in convenient form in one volume is desired. 

The 1952 edition of the NEGRO YEAR BOOK brings together facts 
about various aspects of Negro life and about the participation of 
Negroes in American life. Also reported are facts about economic, 
social, political, and educational progress of Negroes in other parts of 
the world. Where necessary, information covers the period 1947 to 1951, 
and earlier. Other information covers only 1951. It will be noted that 
in some tables large figures are rounded off. 

The chapters of the NEGRO YEAR BOOK have been prepared by con- 
tributors who are authorities in their fields. Users of this volume will 
find it well organized for ready reference. A new feature is the use of 
pictures to highlight newsworthy events, mainly for the year 1951. 



111 



Contributors 



BRISCOE, SHERMAN, M.A. Information Specialist, United States Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Contributed the chapter on Agri- 
culture. 

BROWN, JOHN S., JR., Ph.B., M.A. Free-lance writer, historian; Negro 
Actors Guild of America, Inc., New York City. Contributed the chapter 
on. The Theatre, Motion Pictures, the Dance, Radio, Television. 

BROWN, DR. ROSCOE C. Health Education Consultant; Chief, Special Pro- 
grams Branch, Public Health Service, Federal Security Agency, Wash- 
ington, D.C. Contributed the chapter on Health and Medical Facilities. 

DAVIS, ARTHUR P., Ph.D. Professor of English, Howard University, Wash- 
ington, D.C. Contributed the chapter on Negro American Literature. 

DAWSON, CHARLES C. Free-lance painter and illustrator; Philadelphia, Pa. 
Contributed the original chapter on Art. 

GOMILLION, CHARLES G., A.B. Dean of Students, Tuskegee Institute, 
Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. Contributed the chapter on Civil Rights. 

HOUCHINS, JOSEPH R., Ph.D. Specialist, Negro Statistics, Bureau of the 
Census, Washington, D.C. Consultant; made valuable suggestions on 
the complete outline for this volume and on source materials, supplied 

statistical data available through the Bureau of the Census. 

\ 

HOUSING AND HOME FINANCE AGENCY, Washington, D.C. Contributed the 
chapter on Housing. 

LOGAN, RAYFORD W., Ph.D. Professor of History and Head of the Depart- 
ment of History, Howard University; Director, Association for the Study 
of Negro Life and History, Washington, D.C. Contributed the chapter 
on Trust and Non-Self -Governing Territories. 

MITCHELL, GEORGE S., Ph.D. Executive Director, Southern Regional Coun- 
cil, Atlanta, Ga. Contributed the chapter on Race Relations in the 
Southern States. 

MOON, HENRY LEE Director of Public Relations, National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored People, New York City. Contributed 
article on Politics and Government. 

PRIDE, ARMISTEAD S., Ph.D. Dean, School of Journalism, Lincoln Uni- 
versity, Jefferson City, Mo. Contributed the chapter on The Negro Press. 

RAULLERSON, CALVIN H., ]VLP.A. Associate Editor, Who's Who in the 
United Nations, New York City. Contributed the chapter on The 
United Nations and Human Rights. 

SPRAGUE, MORTEZA D., M.A. Librarian, Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee Insti- 
tute, Alabama. Contributed the chapter on Sports. 



CONTRIBUTORS 

SUTHERN, ORRIN CLAYTON, II, A.B. Professor of Music, Lincoln University, 
Lincoln University, Pa. Revised the chapter previously contributed on 
Music. 

VALIEN, PRESTON, Ph.D. Chairman, Department of Social Sciences, Fisk 
University, Nashville, Tenn. Contributed the chapter on Population. 

WASHINGTON, FORRESTER B., M.A. LL.D. Director, the Atlanta University 
School of Social Work, Atlanta, Ga. Contributed the chapter on Social 
Welfare. 

WRIGHT, R. R., JR., Ph.D. Bishop, the African Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Little Rock, Ark. Contributed the chapter on The Church and Religious 
Work. 

Other contributions by the Editorial Staff. 



Contents 



1. POPULATION 1 

Definition of Negro, 1 
Population Growth, 1 

Number and Rate of Increase, 1 

Regions, Divisions, and States, 2 

Urban and Rural, 2 

Standard Metropolitan Areas by Color, 2 

Cities of 50,000 or More by Color, 4 
Population Analysis, 11 

Migration, 11 

Ratio of Males to Females, 11 

Age Composition, 12 

Occupation and Industry, 12 

Marital Status, 15 

Population of Voting Age, 16 

Illegitimacy, 16 

2. SPORTS 18 

Baseball, 18 

Players on Major League Teams, 18 
Football, 22 

College Players and Teams, 22 

Professional Football, 24 

Outstanding Individual Performers, 25 
Boxing, 25 

Golden Gloves, 27 
Basketball, 27 

College Basketball, 27 

Professional Basketball, 28 
Track and Field, 28 

Men, 28 

Women, 30 

Summary Track and Field Championships, 30 
Tennis, 30 
Other Sports, 31 

3. THE NEGRO PRESS 32 

Circulation, 32 

Circulation of Newspapers, 32 

vii 



viii CONTENTS 

3. THE NEGRO PRESS (ContJ 

Circulation of Magazines, 35 
National Newspaper Publishers Association, 35 
Negro Press Media to Negro Market, 37 
Press Clubs, 39 
Race Tags and the News, 40 
Negroes Employed by General Publications, 42 
White Workers on Negro Papers, 44 
Foreign Correspondents, 45 
Congressional Press Galleries, 46 
Awards and Prizes, 48 

4. MUSIC 52 

Concert Artists, 52 

Educators, Artists, Arrangers, Composers, 58 

Negroes in Opera, 64 

The Negro and Popular Music, 64 

5. ART 66 

The African Heritage, 66 
Influence of Alain L. Locke, 68 
American Negro Artists, 68 

Early Artists, 68 

1850 to 1880, 68 

1880 to 1910, 70 

Contemporary Artists 1910 to 1925, 72 

A New Era 1925 to 1951, 75 
Art in Negro Colleges, 78 

6. NEGRO AMERICAN LITERATURE 79 

Limitation of Scope, 79 
General Trends, 79 
Fiction, 80 
Poetry, 82 

Autobiography and Biography, 82 
Miscellaneous Works, 85 
Summary, 87 

7. THE THEATRE, MOTION PICTURES, THE 
DANCE, RADIO, TELEVISION . . . . . , , . 89 

The Theatre, 89 
Motion Pictures, 91 
The Dance, 93 
Radio and Television, 93 



CONTENTS ix 

7. THE THEATRE, MOTION PICTURES, THE 
DANCE, RADIO, TELEVISION (Cont.) 

Radio, 93 

Television, 93 

Programs on Which Negroes Appeared, 94 

8. SCIENCE 96 

Negroes Listed in American Men of Science, 96 
The Natural Sciences in Colleges and Universities, 98 

The Carver Foundation, 99 
Negro Natural Scientists in Industry, 99 
Negro Scientific Organizations, 1QO 

Integration in Scientific Organizations, 100 

9. AGRICULTURE 101 

Employment, 101 

Farm Operators, 101 

Farm Ownership, 103 

Farm Tenancy, 104 
Agricultural Agencies and the Negro Farmer, 104 

The Extension Service, 104 

Extension Service Supervisors, 108 

Agricultural Research, 109 

Farm Credit Administration, 110 

Farmers Home Administration, 110 

Insured Mortgage Loans, 110 

Other Agencies, 110 
Vocational Agriculture, 111 

New Farmers of America, 111 

Negro 4-H Club Activities, 112 
Reports on Individual Farmers, 113 

10. EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR 114 

The Labor Force, 114 
Employment, 114 

By Age and Sex, 114 

By Industry, 115 

By Occupations, 115 

Unemployment, 115 
Postwar Trends in Employment, 115 

Employment of Women, 116 

New York City Study, 118 

San Francisco Area, 118 

New Occupations, 119 



CONTENTS 

10. EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR (Cont.) 

Integration in Industries, 120 

Social Security Act, 120 
Fair Employment Practices, 120 

Executive Order 9908, 120 

Fair Employment Legislation, 120 
Organized Labor, 121 

Union Policies in the San Francisco Area, 122 

CIO Expulsion of Unions, 123 

New Labor Group, 123 

Negro Labor Leaders, 124 

National Urban League, 124 



11. INCOME AND BUSINESS 125 

Income Statistics, 125 
Insurance, 130 

The National Negro Insurance Association, 130 

Membership List, National Negro Insurance Association 
1951-52, 131 

Underwriters' Associations 1951-52, 134 
Banks, 135 
Savings and Loan Associations, 136 

FHLB System Members, 136 

The American Savings and Loan League, 136 
Credit Unions, 137 

Credit Unions Serving Negroes 1951, 137 
Certified Public Accountants, 140 

Some Negro Certified Public Accountants, 140 
Some Outstanding Businesses and Businessmen, 141 
Integration or Segregation in Business, 144 

National Negro Business League, 144 

Negro Business Associations 1951, 145 

12. THE ARMED FORCES 146 

Elimination of Segregation, 146 

Secretary of Defense Johnson's Directive, 147 
The Army, 147 

The Gillem Report, 147 

The Fahy Committee Report, 148 

Implementation of Policy, 148 

The Korean War, 148 

24th Infantry Regiment, 149 

Lt. H. E. Sutton, 149 

The Winstead Amendment, 150 



CONTENTS xi 



12. THE ARMED FORCES (Cont.) 

ROTC, 150 

WAGS, 150 

Nurses, 150 

The National Guard, 150 

Negroes at West Point, 151 

The Air Force, 151 

Capt. C. A. Hill, Jr., 151 

The Navy, 152 

Number of Negroes in the Navy, 152 
The Fahy Committee Report, 152 
Negroes at the Naval Academy, 153 
The Naval ROTC Program, 153 
Nurses in the Navy, 154 

The Marine Corps, 154 

The Merchant Marine, 154 

Decorations and Citations, 155 



13. HEALTH AND MEDICAL FACILITIES 158 

Vital Statistics, 158 

Birth and Death Rate Trends, 158 
Negroes in Allied Medical Professions, 163 

Physicians, 163 

Pharmacists, 165 

Dentists, 165 

Nurses, 165 
Hospitals, 166 

Partial List of Negro Hospitals with Fifty Beds or More, 167 
Public Health, 168 

National Negro Health Movement, 168 

14. HOUSING 170 

Problems in Housing Minorities, 170 
Housing Situation among Negroes, 171 
Federal Housing Aids, 174 

HHFA: Racial Relations Services, 174 

Programs of HHFA, 176 

Relocating Families Displaced by Slum Clearance, 180 
Federal Policies and Provisions, 182 

The PHA, 182 

Negro Members of Local Housing Authorities, 183 

The FHA, 185 

Changing Attitude of Private Enterprise, 186 
Some Housing Projects for Negroes, 186 



CONTENTS 

15. SOCIAL WELFARE 188 

Social Security Legislation, 188 

Unemployment Insurance, 188 

Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, 188 

Public Assistance, 188 

Maternal and Child Health; Child Welfare Services, 189 
Welfare of Children, 189 

Child Labor, 189 

Juvenile Delinquency, 190 

White House Conference on Children and Youth, 190 
Public Health, 190 
Social Work among Negroes, 191 

Professional Workers, 191 

YWCA, Negro Branches, 192 

YMCA, Negro Branches, 193 

National Urban League, 195 

Local Urban Leagues, 196 

Housing, 198 

Negro Social Workers, 198 

16. EDUCATION 201 

Elementary and Secondary Education, 201 

Separate Schools Maintained, 201 

Instructional Staff, 204 

Educational Attainment, 204 

Jeanes Teachers, 208 

School Lunch Program, 208 

High Schools, 208 

Integration and Public Schools, 216 
Higher Education, 217 

Enrollment, 218 

Degrees Conferred, 218 

Faculty, 219 

Finances and Physical Property, 220 

Negro Colleges in the U.S., 221 

The SACSC and Negro Institutions, 228 

Interracial Honor Societies, 230 
Regional Education, 230 

Out-of-State Scholarships, 230 

Regional Education Summary, 231 

President's Commission on Higher Education, 235 
Integration in Education, 237 

The New York Times Survey, 237 

White Institutions in South Admitting Negroes, 238 

Negro Teachers in White Institutions, 242 



CONTENTS 

16. EDUCATION (Cont.) 
Agencies and Foundations, 248 

17. THE CHURCH AND RELIGIOUS WORK .... 253 

Statistics on Negro Churches, 253 

Denominations Belonging to the "Negro Church," 254 
Denominations Having White and Negro Membership, 259 
Negroes Connected with Auxiliary Church Organizations, 263 

Negro Chaplains, 266 

The Christian Church and Integration, 267 

18. CRIME AND VIOLENCE 269 

Arrests, 269 
Prison Sentences, 271 
Execution for Capital Offenses, 271 
Crimes by Negroes against Negroes, 271 
Crimes by Negroes against Whites, 272 
Crimes by Whites against Negroes, 273 
Police Brutality and Killing of Negro Prisoners, 274 
Negro Policemen, 275 
Lynching, 275 

Difficulty of Definition, 275 
Detailed Record of Lynchings, 276 
Lynchings Prevented, 278 
Punishment of Lynchers, 279 

19. CIVIL RIGHTS 280 

President's Committee on Civil Rights, 280 

The Report, 280 

Messages of President Truman, 280 

Reaction to Report and Recommendations, 281 
Civil Rights Legislation, 282 

Proposed Legislation, 282 

Enacted Laws, 282 

Decisions Involving Rights of Negro Citizens, 283 
Organizations and Civil Rights, 290 

Program of the NAACP, 290 

Civil Rights Congress, 291 

Civil Liberties Unions, 291 

Other Civic and Religious Groups, 291 

Role of Negro Lawyers, 292 

20. POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT ... * v : '-293 
The Negro and Voting, 293 



20. POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT (ContJ 

The Negro's Right to Vote a Settled Issue, 293 

The Negro "Bloc" Vote, 293 
Legislation Affecting Negroes, 294 

The Civil Rights Lobby, 296 
The Negro Voter in the 1948 Election, 297 

Why Negroes Voted for Truman, 298 

The Democratic Platform, 298 

The Republican Platform, 300 

The Progressives' Platform, 301 

The Dixiecrats' Platform, 301 

The Socialist Platform, 301 
The Negro Vote in 1950 Elections, 301 

Senator Taft and the Negro Vote, 301 

The Left- Wing Vote, 302 
The Elections of 1951, 303 
Un-American Activities, 304 
The Southern Front, 304 

The Negro the Issue in Southern Politics, 305 

The Poll Tax, 305 

Registration Laws, 306 

Qualified Negro Voters in the South, 307 

Negro Candidates for Office in the South, 307 

Effect of Negro Vote on Southern Politics, 308 
Office Holding, 308 

21. RACE RELATIONS IN THE SOUTHERN STATES . 312 

Public Life, 312 

Suffrage, 312 

Office-Seeking, 314 

Non-Elective Positions, 314 

Professional Associations, 315 
Public Services, 315 

Recreation, 316 

Housing, 316 

Health, 317 

Welfare, 318 
Safety of Person, 318 

Police Brutality, 319 

Police Training, 320 

Negro Policemen, 320 

Discrimination in Legal Penalties, 321 

Ku Klux Klan, 321 
Race in the News, 322 
Religion, 324 
Organized Labor, 326 



CONTENTS xv 

22. THE UNITED NATIONS AND HUMAN RIGHTS . 329 

An International Forum, 329 

The Declaration of Human Rights, 329 

The Commission on Human Rights, 330 

The Human Rights Committee, 331 

Sub-Commissions on Minorities, 332 
Negroes in the UN, 333 
Discrimination Complaints and the UN, 336 

The NAACP Appeal, 336 

23. TRUST AND NON-SELF-GOVERNING 
TERRITORIES .338 

Non-Self-Governing Territories, 338 

Political Developments, 338 
UN and Non-Self-Governing Territories, 346 

Education and Literacy, 346 

Policy and Programs, 348 

Economic Development, Labor, Social Welfare, 349 
Trust Territories, 351 

Mandate and Trusteeship Systems, 351 

Political Developments, 353 

Education, 356 

Industry, Labor, Social Welfare, 357 
Conclusion, 358 

24. AWARDS, HONORS AND OTHER 
DISTINCTIONS 359 

Persons in Who's Who in America 1950-51, 359 

Doctors of Philosophy 1947-51, 360 

Persons elected to Phi Beta Kappa 1947-51, 362 

General Awards, Honors and Distinctions 1950-51, 362 

Special Educational Honors 1950-51, 370 

Special Medical Honors 1950-51, 371 

Provident Medical Associates Fellowships, 372 

U.S. Government Awards 1950-51, 373 

Negroes Studying under Exchange Program, 373 

Other U.S. Government Awards, 374 

Some Heroic Deeds and Exploits 1950, 374 

25. NATIONAL NEGRO ORGANIZATIONS 375 

Educational Organizations, 375 
Organizations for General Advancement, 375 
Organizations for Economic Advancement, 376 
Organizations for Professional Advancement, 376 



xvi CONTENTS 

25. NATIONAL NEGRO ORGANIZATIONS (Cont.) 

Secret Fraternal Orders, 377 
Organizations in the Interest of Women, 377 
College Fraternities, 377 
College Sororities, 377 

26. DEATHS: 1947-1951 378 

1947, 378 

1948, 379 

1949, 380 

1950, 381 

1951, 383 

27. BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS BY OR RELATING 

TO NEGROES, 1947-1951 384 

References Relating to the U.S., 384 
Agriculture, 384 
The Armed Forces, 384 
Art, 384 

Autobiography, 384 
Biography, 385 
Business, 386 
Children's Literature, 387 
Civil Rights, 387 
Civil War, 388 
Drama, 388 
Education, 389 
Fiction, 390 
Folklore, 394 
Health, 395 

History and Travel, 395 
Housing, 396 

Labor and Employment, 396 
Literature, 397 
Music, 397 
Poetry, 398 

Politics and Suffrage, 399 
Race Problem, 400 
Race Relations, 402 
Reconstruction, 403 
Religion and the Church, 403 
Slavery, 404 
Social Conditions, 405 
Sports, 406 



CONTENTS xvii 

27. BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS BY OR RELATING 
TO NEGROES, 1947-1951 (Cont.) 

Books and Pamphlets Relating to Africa, 406 

Art, 406 

Economic Conditions, 406 

Fiction, 407 

Government, 407 

Liberia, 407 

Nigeria, 408 

Race Problem, 408 

Social Conditions, 408 

South Africa, 409 

West Africa, 409 
Books and Pamphlets Relating to the West Indies, 410 

Art, 410 

Economic Conditions, 410 

Fiction, 410 

Government and Politics, 411 

History, 411 

Poetry, 411 

Social Conditions, 411 

INDEX . . 413 



ustrations 

Following Page 72 

PLATE 

I. Mai Whitfield receives first-place medal from Mrs. Matthew 

Ridgway at Good-Will Track Meet in Tokyo 
Jesse Owens 
Willie Mays, 1951 "Rookie of the Year" 

II. Althea Gibson prepares for her appearance at Wimbledon 
Mary McNabb led Tuskegee Institute to the 1951 National 
A.A.U. Women's Track championship 

III. "Jersey Joe" Walcott became World's Heavyweight Cham- 

pion in 1951 

Jimmy Carter, Lightweight Champion, knocks challenger Art 
Aragon to the canvas 

IV. President Truman welcomes members of the 1948 Olympic 

Track and Field Team at the White House: Emma Reed, 
Theresa Manuel, Audrey Patterson, Nell Jackson, Alice 
Coachman, Nell Walker 

"Sugar" Ray Robinson signs for the return match with Randy 
Turpin, 1951 

V. 1951 University of Pennsylvania football players receive 
watches from Coach Munger: George Bosseler, Bob Evans, 
Ed Bell, Harry Warren 

Junius Kellogg receives commendation scroll from N.Y. City 
Police Commissioner Murphy for exposing bribery and 
racketeering in college basketball 

VI. Gwendolyn Brooks, winner of the 1950 Pulitzer Prize for 

Poetry 

Fred Thomas, winner of second place in the Metropolitan 
Opera auditions, is congratulated by Rudolph Bing, gen- 
eral manager of the Metropolitan Opera 

VII. Hattie McDaniel, veteran screen and radio actress 

Lillian Randolph, radio actress, with Willard Waterman of 
"The Great Gildersleeve" program 

VIII. Ethel Waters, one of 25 American Women of Achievement 
selected by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in 1951 

IX. Ethel Waters sings with two members of the cast of the hit 

play, "Member of the Wedding" 
Mabel Fairbanks, ice skater and dancer 

xviii 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



X. WERD, Atlanta, Ga., is the only radio station in the United 

States completely owned and operated by Negroes 
Pearl Primus, interpretative dancer 

XI. Janet Collins, premiere danseuse with the Metropolitan Opera 

Company 

Maidie Norman as the distraught mother in the motion pic- 
ture, "The Well" 

XII. Dorothy Dandridge, popular night-club entertainer 
The city room of the Pittsburgh Courier 

XIII. The new Carver Foundation Laboratories building at Tuske- 

gee Institute 

Dr. Percy 1% Julian receives the award of Chicago lawyers' 
Decalogue Society 

XIV. Mechanization of agriculture in the South 

Mrs. Lea Etta Lusk, home demonstration agent and award 
winner, shows 4-H girl Mary Lee how to grade eggs 

XV. Raymond Brown, Alabama farmer, with county agent F. L. 

Jackson and state extension leader W. B. Hill 
Otis O'Neal, Georgia county agent, receives the USDA Su- 
perior Service award from Secretary of Agriculture Charles 
F. Brannan 

XVI. Alabama 4-H Club boys show beef animals they raised, at 

Fat Stock Show, Montgomery 

Negroes now represent their fellow workers in labor-manage- 
ment affairs in many industries 

Following page 200 

XVII. Dr. Raymond M. Williams, a veteran inspector in the meat 
packing industry in Chicago 

XVIII. Edward P. Boyd, assistant sales manager of the Pepsi-Cola 

Co., with other members of the staff 
Dr. Frank G. Davis, economic adviser to Liberia under the 

Point IV program 
Mrs. Mary Tobias Dean, manager of Macy's handkerchief 

department, New York City 

XIX. C. C. Spaulding, well-known financier and president of the 

North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Co. 
Lemuel A. Bowman, owner-operator of the Parkway Hotel, 

Nashville, Tenn. 
Mrs. Mary T. Washington, a CPA, has her own firm of public 

accountants in Chicago 



ILLUSTKATlOJNb 



PLATE 

XX. Miss Dorothy Williams is a chemist in the Bureau of Human 
Nutrition and Home Economics, U.S. Department of 
Agriculture 
Lemuel E. Graves, appointed Deputy Chief of the News and 

Writing Section, EGA headquarters, Paris, France 
XXI. Midshipman J. L. Brown, Hattiesburg, Miss., first Negro 
naval aviator, is sworn in aboard U.S.S. Leyte in 1949 

XXII. Thurgood Marshall, chief NAACP legal counsel, with Colonel 
Darwin Martin, investigates courts-martial of Negro 
soldiers in Korea and Japan 
Lt. Laurene Martin, U.S. Army nurse in Tokyo 
Captain Rosalie Wiggins, U.S. Army nurse in Tokyo 

XXIII. Mrs. Daisy B. Brown, widow of Eisign Brown, with Presi- 

dent Truman and Lt. (jg) Hudner, at the presentation of 
Congressional Medal of Honor to Lt. Hudner 

XXIV. Dr. John W. Chenault, Dr. Midian 0. Bousfield, and Mr. 

Basil O'Connor visit polio patients at Tuskegee Institute's 
John A. Andrew Hospital 
Dr. T. K. Lawless, well-known skin specialist 

XXV. A low cost, experimental farm home under Tuskegee Insti- 
tute's HHFA farm-construction research project 
Ernest E. Neal, co-director of Tuskegee Institute's HHFA 
project, and George Williams, project construction super- 
intendent, watch progress on a farm building 

XXVI. American Red Cross workers headed for Korea, the Misses 
Shirley M. Walton, Gynell White, and Jessie S. Abbott, are 
bid farewell by assistant ARC director Jesse 0. Thomas 

XXVII. Girl Scouts Tommy Anderson, Gloria Williams, and Joy Rice 
present cookies to Mrs. Truman at Blair House 

XXVIII. Boy Scouts Harry Harper, Jake Mathis, Jack Stempel, and 
David Meadow returning from World Scout Jamboree 

XXIX. Dr. F. D. Patterson and Thomas Morgan with John D. Rocke- 
feller, Jr., on occasion of his presenting $5,000,000 to the 
United Negro College Fund 

XXX. Washington High School, Shreveport, La., built at a cost of 
$1.5 million, was occupied for the 1950-51 school term 

XXXI. Inadequate schools for Negroes are still too numerous 

Mrs. Ethel Butler adopts the first German "brown babies" to 
reach Chicago 

XXXII. Bishops W. J. Walls, AMEZ Church, S. L. Greene, AME 
Church, and B. W. Doyle, CME Church, at the occasion of 
signing the National Council of Churches charter 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



xxi 



XXXII. Bishop R. R. Wright, Jr., R. R. Wright III, Phillip Wright, 
and R. R. Wright IV examine White House photograph of 
Major R. R. Wright, Sr. 

Following page 328 

XXXIII. Harvey Clark, Jr., and his family, escorted by police into the 
Cicero apartment building where their apartment was soon 
wrecked by a mob 

The Harvey Clark family receives a check from NAACP vice- 
president Willard S. Townsend, in presence of Chicago 
NAACP president Nelson M. Willis and John Rogers 

Waiting to cast ballots in Atlanta, Ga. 
A line of voters in Columbia, S.C. 



XXXIV 

XXXV 

XXXVI 



Negro leaders meet with President Truman to discuss civil 
rights: Bishop William Y. Bell, Mrs. Mary McLeod 
Bethune, J. Robert Booker, Dowdal Davis, Lester B. 
Granger, Elmer Henderson, Dr. Charles S. Johnson, Dr. 
Benjamin E. Mays, A. Philip Randolph, Dr. Channing H. 
Tobias, Willard S. Townsend, Walter White 

XXXVII. New York City Mayor Impellitteri congratulates new Deputy 
Police Commissioner William L. Rowe, in presence of 
Police Commissioner Monaghan, Mrs. Josephine Rowe, 
Mrs. Rowe, and Joe Louis 

XXXVIII. Mayor Impellitteri with municipal appointees Frederick 
Weaver, Attorney Ruth W. Whaley, and John King 

XXXIX. Prominent political figures: Mrs. Edith Sampson, Dr. 
Channing Tobias, Judge Harold Stevens, Congressman 
Adam C. Powell, Recorder of Deeds Marshall Shepard 

XL. Dr. Ernest B. Kalibala, regional adviser on Africa, UN Tech- 
nical Assistance Administration 

Dr. William H. Dean, economist, UN Trusteeship Division 
Ambrose B. Lewis, agricultural engineer, assigned to Liberia 

under the Point IV program 

Sandy J. McCorvey, agricultural extension specialist, as- 
signed to Liberia under Point IV 

XLI. Z. Alexander Looby, elected to the Nashville City Council 

Dr. W. P. DeVane, member of the Fayetteville, N.C., City 

Council 
William L. Dawson, U.S. Congressman from Illinois, who 

successfully fought for integration in the Armed Forces 
Mrs. Elizabeth Drewry, elected the first regular Negro 

woman delegate to the West Virginia State Legislature 



XX11 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



XLII. Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia and his Empress visit the 
first class to attend the modern university in Addis Ababa 
Liberian miners receive weekly wages 
A chief in the Cameroons reads a petition to a UN mission 

XLIII. Dr. Rayford W. Logan, director of the Ass'n. for the Study of 

Negro Life and History, served as NAACP representative 

to the 1951 UN Assembly 
Mrs. Mabel K. Staupers, winner of the 36th Spingarn Medal, 

for leading integration of Negro nurses into the American 

Nurses Association 
Thurgood Marshall, chief NAACP counsel and winner of a 

1951 Russwurm award of the NNPA 
Julius A. Thomas, of the National Urban League, winner of a 

1951 Russwurm award 

XLV. An American missionary nurse trains student nurses at Cape 
A UN mission to Trust Territories in West Africa visits the 
secondary school in the Cameroons 

XLV. An American missionary nurse trains students nurses at Cape 

Mount Hospital, Liberia 
Liberians learning to read and write 

XL VI. Dr. Ralph J. Bunche is congratulated by Governor Gunnar 
Jahn at the presentation of the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize to 
Dr. Bunche in Oslo, Norway 

XLVII. Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune with Dr. Dorothy B. Ferebee, 
her successor as president of the National Council of Negro 
women 

J. Finley Wilson, Grand Exalted Ruler, welcomes Guy 
Gabrielson to the 52nd convention of the Independent and 
Benevolent Order of Elks of the World 

XLVIII. Marian Anderson presents the Diamond Cross of Malta to 
Dr. Ralph Bunche at the Christmas Cotillion of the Phila- 
delphia Cotillion Society 



NEGRO YEAR BOOK 



T 

Population 



DEFINITION OF NEGRO 1 

There are at least three distinct methods 
of defining the Negro in the United 
States: (1) legal definition, (2) social 
definition, and (3) the Census definition. 
The legal definition of "Negro" varies 
widely and may be embodied in general 
statutes, legislation regulating social con- 
tacts in specified situations, or in court 
interpretations. The legal definition may 
vary within a state, one definition being 
used to regulate school attendance and 
another to regulate intermarriage. That 
this does not result in more confusion 
than it does is due largely to the fact that 
social relationships are regulated by the 
social definition, without reference to the 
legal definition. 

The social definition of "Negro" may 
be expressed as: "Everyone having a 
known trace of Negro blood in his veins," 
no matter how far back it was acquired. 
Thus, the social definition is dependent 
upon community knowledge of racial an- 
cestry, with or without physical racial 
visibility. 

The U. S. Census employs a color classi- 
fication of white and nonwhite for pur- 
poses of enumeration, with the nonwhite 
category sub-divided into Negroes, In- 
dians (American), Chinese, Japanese, 
Filipinos, Hindus, and "other" nonwhite 
races. The Census relies heavily upon visi- 
bility and community definition in order 
to determine who shall be enumerated as 
a Negro. In case of mixed ancestry, per- 
sons of Negro and white ancestry are 
enumerated as Negroes ; persons of Negro 
and Indian, Chinese, or Japanese mixed 
ancestry are classified as Negroes, except 



where regarded as .Indian, Chinese, or 
Japanese by the community. The great 
majority of the nonwhite population, thus 
defined, consists of Negroes, except in the 
Pacific states, where there are many Chi- 
nese and Japanese, and in Oklahoma and 
certain Mountain states, where many of 
the nonwhites are Indians. Since the Cen- 
sus is the principal source of data regard- 
ing the Negro population, the definition 
used therein is the one under which prac- 
tically all the information in this section 
was collected. In citing 1950 figures, or in 
comparing 1940 and 1950 figures, "non- 
white" will be used interchangeably with 
"Negro" where separate data for Negroes 
are not yet available. In the 1950 Census, 
there were 15,482,000 nonwhites, of whom 
14,894,000 or 96.2% were Negroes. 

POPULATION GROWTH 

Number and Rate of Increase 

In the 60 years between 1890 and 1950, 
the Negro population has doubled, in- 
creasing from 7,488,676 to approximately 

TABLE 1 

NUMBER AND RATE OF INCREASE OF NEGRO 
POPULATION, 1890-1950 



Census Year Number 



Per Cent of Per Cent 
Total Pop. Increase 



1890 


7,488,676 


11.9 


13.8 


1900 


8,333,940 


11.6 


18.0 


1910 


9,827,763 


10.7 


11.2 


1920 


10,463,131 


9.9 


6.5 


1930 


11,891,143 


9.7 


13.6 


1940 


12,865,518 


9.8 


8.2 


1950 


14,894,000 


9.8 


15.1 



Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 

14,894,000. While there has been an ab- 
solute increase in Negro population in 



1 This section was prepared in collaboration with Carrell Peterson, Instructor and Research Associate in Sociology, 
Fisk University. 



POPULATION 



every decade, the proportion which Ne- 
groes form of the total population has 
declined from 11.9% in 1890 to approxi- 
mately 9.8% in 1950. Yet, in spite of this 
declining proportion of Negroes, the per- 
centage increase of Negroes during the 
1940-50 decade was almost twice that of 
the 1930-40 decade (15.1% against 
8.2%), and was greater than the per- 
centage increase of the total population, 
which was 14.5%. This was the largest 
percentage increase of Negroes since the 
1890-1900 decade, when the Negro popu- 
lation increased 18%. See Table 1. 

Regions, Divisions, and States 

During the 1940-50 decade, there was a 
definite shift of Negro population away 
from the South to the industrial areas of 
the North and West. The white popula- 
tion in 13 Southern states 1 increased be- 
tween 1940 and 1950 by approximately 
16%, while the nonwhite population in- 
creased by only one-half of 1%. On the 
other hand, in eight major industrial 
states outside the South 2 the white popu- 
lation increased approximately 14% 
while the nonwhite population increased 
by almost 55%. Seven Southern states 
(Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas, Geor- 
gia, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Texas) had 
actual declines in nonwhite population, 
while none declined in white population. 
In 1940, the southern Negro population 
was about 33% of the total southern pop- 
ulation, while the corresponding per- 
centage for 1950 was 30%. 

The number of nonwhites in the North 
and West increased about 50% between 
1940 and 1950. In 1950, one-third of the 
nonwhite population of the United States 
was living in either the North or the West. 
Growth of the nonwhite population was 
particularly marked in the West. Between 
1940 and 1950, the nonwhite population 
increased 74.3% in the West. Whereas in 
1900 almost 90% of the Negro population 
lived in the South, in 1940 this was true 



of only 77% of the Negro population. In 
1950, only slightly more than two-thirds 
of the Negro population lived in the 
South. See Table 2. 

Urban and Rural 

Negroes are increasingly becoming city- 
dwellers. Since 1900, the percentage of 
Negro urban dwellers has increased stead- 
ily in every decade in every region except 
the West, where the percentage of Ne- 
groes who were urban decreased between 
1910 and 1920. Between 1900 and 1940, 
the percentage of Negoes who were urban 
dwellers increased from about 16 to 36% 
in the South, 54 to 84% in the West, and 
62 to 90% in the North. In 1950, approxi- 
mately 93% of northern Negroes, 47% of 
southern Negroes, and 92% of Negroes in 
the West were urban dwellers. Approxi- 
mately 61% of the total Negro population 
was urban in 1950. Part of this increase 
may be due to changes in the Census 
definition of "urban" and "rural," but 
there has undoubtedly been a significant 
increase in the proportion of Negro urban 
dwellers. 

Standard Metropolitan Areas by 
Color' 

The total population of standard metro- 
politan areas in the United States on April 1, 
1950, 84,500,680, represented an increase of 
15,224,199, or 22.0%, over the 69,276,481 in- 
habitants of these areas in 1940, according to 
figures from the Seventeenth Decennial Cen- 
sus released (Dec. 16, 1951) by Roy V. Peel, 
Director, Bureau of the Census, Department 
of Commerce. The white population of these 
168 standard metropolitan areas increased at 
a slightly lower rate (20.0%) than the total 
population. For the nonwhite population, 
however, the rate of increase during the 
decade was 44.3%. The number of nonwhite 
persons in standard metropolitan areas, 
8,250,814, represented about 9.8% of all per- 
sons in these areas in 1950 as compared with 
8.3% in 1940. 

Between 1940 and 1950, the nonwhite popu- 
lation more than doubled in 30 standard met- 
ropolitan areas in the Northeast, North Cen- 
tral states, and the West. The high rates of 



1 Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ky., La., Miss., Okla., Tenn., N.C., S.C., Va., Tex. 

2 Calif., 111., Mich., Mo., N.J., N.Y., Ohio, Pa. 

3 1950 Census of Population. Preliminary Reports, Series PC-14, No. 1. Dec. 16, 1951. 



POPULATION GROWTH 



TABLE 2 
WHITE AND NONWHITE POPULATION, BY REGIONS, DIVISIONS AND STATES, 1940 AND 1950 



Region, Division 


White 


Nonwhite 


and State 


1940 


1950 


1940 


1950 


North 


73,206,738 


79,671,283 


2,913,371 


4,267,196 


New England 


8,329,146 


9,175,652 


108,144 


138,287 


Maine , 


844,543 


910,847 


2,683 


2,927 


New Hampshire 


490,989 


532,275 


535 


967 


Vermont 


358,806 


377,188 


425 


559 


Massachusetts 


4,257,596 


4,626,000 


59,125 


64,000 


Rhode Island 


701,805 


777,015 


11,541 


14,881 


Connecticut 


1,675,407 


1,952,327 


33,835 


54,953 


Middle Atlantic 


26,237,622 


28,303,000 


1,301,865 


1,860,000 


New York 


. . . 12,879,546 


13,902,000 


599,596 


928,000 


New Jersey 


3,931,087 


4,557,000 


229,078 


278,000 


Pennsylvania 


9,426,989 


9,844,000 


473,191 


654,000 


East North Central 


. ... 15,528,451 


28,632,130 


1,097,891 


1,767,669 


Ohio 


6,566,531 


7,476,000 


341,081 


470,000 


Indiana 


3,305,323 


3,758,439 


122,473 


175,785 


Illinois 


7,504,202 


8,085,000 


393,039 


628,000 


Michigan 


5,039,643 


5,920,000 


216,463 


452,000 


Wisconsin 


3,112,752 


3,392,691 


24,835 


41,884 


West North Central 


... 13,111,519 


13,560,501 


405,471 


501,240 


Minnesota 


2,768,982 


2,953,678 


23,318 


28,805 


Iowa 


2,520,691 


2,599,566 


17,577 


21,507 


Missouri 


3,539,187 


3,640,000 


245,477 


315,000 


North Dakota 


631,464 


608,448 


10,471 


11,188 


South Dakota 


619,075 


628,504 


23,886 


24,236 


Nebraska 


1,297,624 


1,301,344 


18,210 


24,166 


Kansas 


1,734,496 


1,828,961 


66,532 


76,338 


South 


. . . 31,658,578 


36,877,791 


10,007,323 


10,249,103 


East South Central 


7,993,755 


8,700,109 


2,784,470 


2,707,072 


Kentucky 


2,631,425 


2,741,930 


214,202 


202,876 


Tennessee 


2,406,906 


2,760,250 


508,935 


531,468 


Alabama 


1,849,097 


2,079,500 


983,864 


982,243 


Mississippi 


1,106,327 


1,118,429 


1,077,469 


990,485 


South Atlantic 


13,095,227 


16,042,071 


4,727,924 


5,140,264 


Delaware 


230,528 


273,878 


35,977 


44,207 


Maryland 


1,518,481 


1,954,987 


302,763 


388,014 


Dist. of Col 


474,326 


518,147 


188,765 


284,031 


Virginia 


2,015,583 


2,581,642 


662,190 


737,038 


West Virginia 


1,784,102 


1,890,284 


117,872 


115,268 


North Carolina 


2,567,635 


2,983,110 


1,003,988 


1,078,819 


South Carolina 


1,084,308 


1,293,403 


815,496 


823,624 


Georgia 


2,038,278 


2,380,573 


1,085,445 


1,064,005 


Florida 


1,381,986 


2,166,047 


515,428 


605,258 


West South Central 


. . . 10,569,596 


12,135,611 


2,494,929 


2,401,767 


Arkansas 


1,466,084 


1,481,508 


483,303 


428,003 


Louisiana 


1,511,739 


1,796,548 


852,141 


886,968 


Oklahoma 


2,104,228 


2,032,555 


232,206 


200,796 


Texas 


5,487,545 


6,825,000 


927,279 


886,000 


West 


. . . 13,349,554 


18,606,256 


533,711 


955,046 


Mountain 


3,978,913 


4,845,633 


171,090 


229,365 


Montana 


540,468 


572,038 


18,988 


18,986 


Idaho 


519,292 


581,395 


5,581 


7,242 


Wyoming 


246,597 


284,009 


4,145 


6,520 


Colorado 


1,106,502 


1,296,653 


16,794 


28,436 


New Mexico 


492,312 


630,211 


39,506 


50,976 


Arizona 


426,792 


654,511 


72,469 


95,076 


Utah 


542,920 


676,909 


7,390 


11,953 


Nevada 


104,030 


149,907 


6,217 


10,176 


Pacific 


9,370,641 


13,760,623 


362,621 


725,681 


Washington 


1,698,147 


2,316,495 


38,044 


62,468 


Oregon 


1,075,731 


1,497,128 


13,953 


24,213 


California 


6,596,763 


9,947,000 


310,624 


639,000 


TOTAL 


. . . 118,214,870 


135,155,330 


13,454,405 


15,471,345 



Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 



POPULATION 



increase in many of these areas involved, of 
course, only a relatively small number of 
nonwhites. Nevertheless, the nonwhite popu- 
lation of standard metropolitan areas in the 
North (that is, the Northeast and the North 
Central States combined), and the West in- 
creased by almost 2 million during the 
decade. 

In all regions except the South, the per- 
centage increase in the nonwhite population 
of standard metropolitan areas exceeded the 
percentage increase in the white population. 
This excess was greatest in the standard met- 
ropolitan areas of the West, where the per- 
centage increase for nonwhites was 127.6% 
as compared with 48.9% for the white popu- 
lation. In the North, the nonwhite population 
of these areas increased by 58.2% and the 
white population by 11.1%. In the standard 
metropolitan areas of the South, however, 
the rate of increase of the white population 
exceeded that for the nonwhite population, 
38.5 and 23.6%, respectively. These figures 
reflect the very substantial movements of the 
nonwhite population out of rural areas and 
out of the South during the decade. Table 3, 
which follows, shows the extent of this migra- 



tion from southern states to the North and 
West. 

Cities of 50,000 or More by Color 

The figures for cities of 50,000 or more, 
[Table 4] indicate greater variation in nu- 
merical and percentage increases for both the 
whites and nonwhites in the pattern of growth 
comparable figures for standard metropolitan 
areas. . . . Population growth has been rapid 
in both large cities and in their standard 
metropolitan areas since 1940. An increased 
proportion of persons living in these areas, 
except in the' South, are nonwhites. 

There was a marked difference between 
whites and nonwhites in the pattern of growth 
within standard metropolitan areas during 
the decade. The white population of the 
central cities in these areas increased from 
39,217,502 in 1940 to 43,179,174 in 1950, an 
increase of 3,961,672, or 10.1%, whereas the 
increase outside of these cities was 35.9%. 
For the nonwhite population, in contrast, the 
increase within central cities (from 4,329,636 
to 6,429,417, or 48.5%) exceeded the rate of 
growth in the remainder of the standard 
metropolitan areas (31.3% ). 1 



TABLE 3 

POPULATION BY COLOR FOR STANDARD METROPOLITAN AREAS, 1950 AND 1940 
(Minus sign denotes decrease. Per cent not shown where base is less than 100) 







White 


Nonwhite 


Standard Metropolitan Area 


1950 


1940 % Change 


1950 


1940 % Change 


TOTAL 


76,249,866 


63,559,944 


20.0 


8,250,814 


5,716,537 


44.3 


Akron, Ohio 


383,503 


325,467 


17.8 


26,529 


13,938 


90.3 


Albany-Schenectady-Troy, N. Y. . 


505,409 


460,668 


9.7 


9,081 


4,975 


82.5 


Albuquerque, N. Mex 


141,512 


66,881 


111.6 


4,161 


2,510 


65.8 


Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, Pa . 


435,198 


394,612 


10.3 


2,626 


2,061 


27.4 


Altoona, Pa 


138,364 


139,181 


-0.6 


1,150 


1,177 


-2.3 


Amarillo, Texas 


83,465 


58,655 


42.3 


3,675 


2,795 


31.5 


Asheville, N.C 


109,126 


92,598 


17.8 


15,277 


16,157 


-5.4 


Atlanta, Ga 


505,983 


374,706 


35.0 


165,814 


143,394 


15.6 


Atlantic City, NJ 


110,785 


104,057 


6.5 


21,614 


20,009 


8.0 


Augusta, Ga 


105,900 


77,489 


36.7 


56,113 


54,290 


3.4 


Austin, Texas 


138,329 


91,458 


51.2 


22,651 


19,595 


15.6 


Baltimore, Md 


. 1,070,712 


888,524 


20.5 


266,661 


194,776 


36.9 


Baton Rouge, La 


105,890 


54,774 


93.3 


52,346 


33,641 


55.6 


Bay City, Mich 


88,081 


74,734 


17.9 


380 


247 


53.8 


Beaumont-Port Arthur, Texas . . . 


150,858 


111,452 


35.4 


44,225 


33,877 


30.5 


Binghamton, N.Y 


183,799 


164,942 


11.4 


899 


807 


11.4 


Birmingham, Ala 


350,223 


280,756 


24.7 


208,705 


179,174 


16.5 


Boston, Mass. 


. 2,314,256 


2,140,294 


8.1 


55,730 


37,327 


49.3 


Bridgeport, Conn 


250,051 


208,076 


20.2 


8,086 


4,493 


80.0 


Brockton, Mass 


128,322 


118,388 


8.4 


1,106 


922 


20.0 


Buffalo, N.Y 


. 1,041,437 


934,606 


11.4 


47,793 


23,881 


100.1 


Canton, Ohio 


270,522 


227,665 


18.8 


12,672 


7,222 


75.5 


Cedar Rapids, Iowa 


103,454 


88,459 


17.0 


820 


683 


20.1 



Source: 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, Series PC-14, No. 1, Dec. 16, 1951. 



1 "Except in New England, a standard metropolitan area is a county or group of contiguous counties which contains 
at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more. In addition to the county, or counties, containing such a city, or cities, 
contiguous counties are included in a standard metropolitan area if according to certain criteria they are essentially 
metropolitan in character and socially and economically integrated with the central city. In New England, standard 
metropolitan areas have been defined on a town rather than a county basis." 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary 
Reports, PC-H, No. 1, Dec. 16, 1951. 



POPULATION GROWTH 



TABLE 3 (Continued) 







White 


Nonwhite 


Standard Metropolitan Area 


1950 


1940 % Change 


1950 


1940 


% Change 


Charleston, S.C : . . . 


96,502 


61,487 


56.9 


68,354 


59,618 


14.7 


Charleston, W.Va 


294,944 


250,756 


17.6 


27,128 


25,491 


6.4 


Charlotte, N.C 


147,079 


108,507 


35.5 


49,973 


43,319 


15.4 


Chattanooga, Tenn 


201,570 


169,634 


18.8 


44,883 


41,868 


7.2 


Chicago, 111 


4,890,018 


4,490,662 


8.9 


605,346 


334,865 


80.8 


Cincinnati, Ohio 


808,746 


718,024 


12.6 


95,656 


69,020 


38.6 


Cleveland, Ohio 


1,311,391 


1,179,041 


11.2 


154,120 


88,229 


74.7 


Columbia, S.C 


92,071 


62,472 


47.4 


50,494 


42,371 


19.2 


Columbus, Ga 


116,849 


76,262 


53.2 


53,692 


50,145 


7.1 


Columbus, Ohio 


451,209 


349,619 


29.1 


52,201 


39,093 


33.5 


Corpus Christi, Texas 


157,399 


87,248 


80.4 


8,072 


5,413 


49.1 


Dallas, Texas 


531,447 


336,851 


57.8 


83,352 


61,713 


35.1 


Davenport (lowa)-Rock Island- 














Moline (111.) 


230,590 


195,583 


17.9 


3,666 


2,488 


47.3 


Dayton, Ohio 


. 414,377 


305,843 


35.5 


42,956 


25,500 


68.5 


Decatur, 111 


95,335 


82,547 


15.5 


3,518 


2,146 


63.9 


Denver, Colo 


543,642 


398,259 


36.5 


20,190 


9,509 


112.3 


Des Moines, Iowa 


217,476 


189,149 


15.0 


8,534 


6,686 


27.6 


Detroit, Mich 


2,654,272 


2,204,551 


20.4 


361,925 


172,778 


109.5 


Duluth (Minn.)-Superior (Wis.) . . 


251,186 


252,816 


-0.7 


1,591 


1,220 


30.4 


Durham, N.C 


67,812 


51,708 


31.1 


33,827 


28,536 


18.5 


El Paso, Texas 


190,274 


128,074 


48.6 


4,694 


2,993 


56.8 


Erie, Pa 


215,761 


179,412 


20.3 


3,627 


1,477 


145.6 


Evansville, Ind 


151,220 


123,216 


22.7 


9,202 


7,567 


21.6 


Fall River, Mass 


136,945 


134,573 


1.8 


353 


. 564 


-37.4 


Flint, Mich 


256,686 


221,118 


16.1 


14,277 


6,826 


109.2 


Fort Wayne, Ind 


178,354 


152,511 


16.9 


5,368 


2,573 


108.6 


Fort Worth, Texas 


321,056 


196,966 


63.0 


40,197 


28,555 


40.8 


Fresno, Cal 


257,350 


169,154 


52.1 


19,165 


9,411 


103.6 


Gadsden, Ala 


80,350 


62,016 


29.6 


13,542 


10,564 


28.2 


Galveston, Texas 


89,244 


63,378 


40.8 


23,822 


17,795 


33.9 


Grand Rapids, Mich 


281,066 


243,436 


15.5 


7,226 


2,902 


149.0 


Green Bay, Wis 


97,332 


82,261 


18.3 


982 


848 


15.8 


Greensboro-High Point, N.C 


153,735 


121,751 


26.3 


37,322 


32,165 


- 16.0 


Greenville, S.C 


136,631 


106,142 


28.7 


31,521 


30,438 


3.6 


Hamilton-Middletown, Ohio 


139,623 


114,243 


22.2 


7,580 


6,006 


26.2 


Harrisburg, Pa 


275,839 


239,876 


15.0 


16,402 


12,340 


32.9 


Hartford, Conn 


343,665 


287,507 


19.5 


14,416 


8,106 


77.8 


Houston, Texas 


656,249 


424,819 


54.5 


150,452 


104,142 


44.5 


Huntington (W.Va.)-Ashland 














(Ky.) 


238,594 


218,405 


9.2 


7,201 


7,263 


-0.9 


Indianapolis, Ind 


486,503 


408,890 


19.0 


65,274 


52,036 


25.4 


Jackson, Mich 


102,854 


90,193 


14.0 


5,071 


2,915 


74.0 


Jackson, Miss 


78,247 


51,826 


51.0 


63,917 


55,447 


15.3 


Jacksonville, Fla 


222,189 


141,571 


56.9 


81,840 


68,572 


19.3 


Johnstown, Pa 


288,106 


295,872 


-2.6 


3,248 


2,544 


27.7 


Kalamazoo, Mich 


123,913 


98,809 


25.4 


2,794 


1,276 


19.0 


Kansas City, Mo 


726,323 


618,941 


17.3 


88,034 


67,702 


30.0 


Kenosha, Wis 


74,954 


63,297 


18.4 


284 


208 


36.5 


Knoxville, Tenn 


310,926 


225,273 


38.0 


26,179 


20,815 


25.8 


Lancaster, Pa 


231,868 


209,893 


10.5 


2,849 


2,611 


9.1 


Lansing, Mich 


169,506 


128,847 


31.6 


3,435 


1,769 


94.2 


Laredo, Texas 


56,027 


45,746 


22.5 


114 


170 


-32.9 


Lawrence, Mass 


125,555 


124,557 


0.8 


380 


292 


30.1 


Lexington, Ky 


83,276 


62,192 


33.9 


17,470 


16,707 


4.6 


Lima, Ohio 


83,780 


71,372 


17.4 


4,403 


1,931 


128.0 


Lincoln, Nebr 


118,079 


99,600 


18.6 


1,663 


985 


68.8 


Little Rock-North Little Rock, 














Ark 


149,368 


112,877 


32.3 


47,317 


43,208 


9.5 


Lorain-Elyria, Ohio 


141,160 


108,826 


29.7 


7,002 


3,564 


96.5 


Los Angeles, Cal 


4,091,606 


2,788,364 


46.7 


276,305 


128,039 


115.8 


Louisville, Ky 


510,491 


397,120 


28.5 


66,409 


54,353 


22.2 


Lowell, Mass 


133,604 


130,769 


2.2 


. . 324 


230 


40.9 


Lubbock, Texas 


93,111 


48,707 


91.2 


7,937 


3,075 


158.1 


Macon, Ga 


86,790 


52,223 


66.2 


48,253 


42,863 


12.6 


Madison, Wis 


168,298 


130,189 


29.3 


1,059 


471 


124.8 


Manchester, N.H 


88,214 


81,881 


7.7 


156 


51 




Memphis, Tenn 


302,208 


202,955 


48.9 


.180,185 


155,295 


16.0 



POPULATION 



TABLE 3 (Continued) 







White 


Nonwhite 


Standard Metropolitan Area 


1950 


1940 % Change 


1950 


1940 % Change 


Miami, Fla 


429,688 


217,909 


97.2 


65,396 


49,830 


31.2 


Milwaukee, Wis 


847,805 


757,267 


12.0 


23,242 


9,618 


141.7 


Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn 


1,101,208 


931,070 


18.3 


15,301 


9,867 


55.1 


Mobile, Ala 


153,078 


90,296 


69.5 


78,027 


51,678 


51.0 


Montgomery, Ala 


78,339 


57,082 


37.2 


60,626 


57,338 


5.7 


Muncie, Ind 


85,752 


71,907 


19.3 


4,500 


3,056 


47.3 


Nashville, Tenn 


257,286 


200,454 


28.4 


64,472 


56,813 


13.5 


New Bedford, Mass 


134,019 


129,608 


3.4 


3,450 


4,827 


-28.5 


New Britain-Bristol, Conn 


145,434 


125,999 


15.4 


1,549 


710 


118.2 


New Haven, Conn 


253,690 


233,675 


8.6 


10,932 


7,075 


54.5 


New Orleans, La 


484,839 


392,463 


23.5 


200,566 


159,781 


25.5 


New York-Northeastern N. J 


11,866,482 


10,991,985 


8.0 


1,045,512 


668,854 


56.3 


Norfolk-Portsmouth, Va 


323,367 


171,571 


88.5 


122,833 


87,356 


40.6 


Ogden, Utah 


81,281 


55,942 


45.3 


2,038 


772 


164.0 


Oklahoma City, Okla 


297,349 


220,875 


34.6 


28,003 


23,284 


20.3 


Omaha, Nebr 


348,480 


312,309 


11.6 


17,915 


12,844 


39.5 


Orlando, Fla 


92,184 


53,132 


73.5 


22,766 


16,942 


34.4 


Peoria, 111 


244,005 


208,546 


17.0 


6,507 


3,190 


104.0 


Philadelphia, Pa 


3,186,404 


2,862,794 


11.3 


484,644 


336,843 


43.9 


Phoenix, Ariz 


310,586 


173,661 


78.8 


21,184 


12,532 


69.0 


Pittsburgh, Pa 


2,075,972 


1,969,667 


5.4 


137,264 


112,889 


21.6 


Pittsfield, Mass 


65,817 


60,426 


8.9 


750 


570 


31.6 


Portland, Maine 


119,477 


106,171 


12.5 


465 


395 


17.7 


Portland, Ore 


688,880 


493,810 


39.5 


15,949 


7,465 


113.7 


Providence, R.I 


725,718 


667,753 


8.7 


11,485 


9,013 


27.4 


Pueblo, Colo 


88,276 


67,305 


31.2 


1,912 


1,565 


22.2 


Racine, Wis 


107,705 


93,534 


15.2 


1,880 


513 


266.5 


Raleigh, N.C 


96,409 


72,712 


32.6 


40,041 


36,832 


8.7 


Reading, Pa 


252,336 


239,560 


5.3 


3,404 


2,324 


46.5 


Richmond, Va 


240,835 


188,436 


27.8 


87,215 


74,555 


17.0 


Roanoke, Va , 


115,308 


96,033 


20.1 


18,099 


16,151 


12.1 


Rochester, N.Y 


479,385 


434,452 


10.3 


8,247 


3,778 


118.3 


Rockford, 111 


148,412 


119,715 


24.0 


3,973 


1,463 


171.6 


Sacramento, Cal 


258,899 


156,793 


65.1 


18,241 


13,540 


34.7 


Saginaw, Mich 


144,332 


126,855 


13.8 


9.183 


3,613 


154.2 


St. Joseph, Mo 


93,644 


90,992 


2.9 


3,182 


3,075 


3.5 


St. Louis, Mo 


1,464,826 


1,280,640 


14.4 


216,455 


151,448 


42.9 


Salt Lake City, Utah 


271,024 


209,813 


29.2 


3,871 


1,810 


113.9 


San Angelo, Texas 


55,898 


37,174 


50.4 


3,031 


2,128 


42.4 


San Antonio, Texas 


466,909 


316,320 


47.6 


33,551 


21,856 


53.5 


San Bernadino, Cal 


273,001 


158,033 


72.7 


8,641 


3,075 


181.0 


San Diego, Cal 


532,958 


279,628 


90.6 


23,850 


9,720 


145.4 


San Francisco-Oakland, Cal 


2,030,225 


1,397,073 


45.3 


210,542 


64,731 


225.3 


San Jose, Cal 


280,433 


168,921 


66.0 


10,114 


6,028 


67.8 


Savannah, Ga 


92,934 


65,027 


42.9 


58,547 


52,943 


10.6 


Scranton, Pa 


256,578 


300,380 


-14.6 


818 


863 


-5.2 


Seattle, Wash 


702,477 


486,970 


44.3 


30,515 


18,010 


69.4 


Shreveport, La 


110,041 


86,363 


27.4 


66,506 


63,840 


4.2 


Sioux City, Iowa 


.102,715 


102,618 


0.1 


1,202 


1,009 


19.1 


Sioux Falls, S.Dak 


70,484 


57,463 


22.7 


426 


234 


82.1 


South Bend, Ind 


196,227 


158,042 


24.2 


8,831 


3,781 


133.6 


Spokane, Wash 


218,504 


163,368 


33.7 


3,057 


1,284 


138.1 


Springfield, 111 


126,954 


114,274 


11.1 


4,530 


3,638 


24.5 


Springfield, Mo 


102,620 


88,325 


16.2 


2,203 


2,216 


-0.6 


Springfield, Ohio 


101,604 


86,938 


16.9 


10,057 


8,709 


15.5 


Springfield-Holyoke, Mass 


399,794 


361,047 


10.7 


7.461 


3.633 


105.4 


Stamford-Norwalk, Conn , . 


188,333 


154,981 


21.5 


7,690 


5,293 


45.3 


Stockton, Cal 


181,100 


121,294 


49.3 


19,650 


12,913 


52.2 


Syracuse, N.Y . 


335,445 


291,780 


15.0 


6,274 


3,328 


88.5 


Tacoma, Wash 


267,378 


178,307 


50.0 


8,498 


3,774 


125.2 


Tampa-St. Petersburg, Fla. ..... 


352,116 


224,200 


57.1 


57,027 


47,800 


19.3 


Terra-Haute, Ind 


100,718 


95,651 


5.3 


4,442 


4,058 


*.5 


Toledo, Ohio 


368,660 


329,180 


12.0 


26,891 


15,153 


77.5 


Topeka, Kans 


97,656 


84,488 


15.6 


7,762 


6,759 


14.8 


Trenton, N.J 


209,154 


183,379 


14.1 


20,627 


13,939 


48.0 


Tulsa, Okla 


228,690 


173,752 


31.6 


22,996 


19,611 


17.3 


Utica-Rome, N.Y 


281,667 


262,092 


7.5 


2,595 


1,071 


142.3 



POPULATION GROWTH 



TABLE 3 (Continued) 







White 


Nonwhite 


Standard Metropolitan Area 


1950 


1940 % 


Change 


1950 


1940 % Change 


Waco, Texas 


107,813 
1,122,206 
150,814 
97,741 

342,355 
212,144 
92,144 
391,268 
236,298 
104,693 
274,401 
198,842 
493,319 


82,381 
737,158 
136,543 
78,406 

351,459 
137,355 
69,118 
440,554 
196,269 
85,310 
251,102 
175,043 
449,857 


30.9 
52.2 
10.5 
24.7 

-2.6 
54.4 
33.3 
-11.2 
20.4 
22.7 
9.3 
13.6 
9.7 


22,381 
341,883 
3,842 
2,707 

11,737 
10,146 
6,349 
973 
32,089 
41,442 
1,935 
3,895 
35,179 


19,517 
230,827 
2,236 
1,540 

12,673 
5,956 
4,486 
964 
25,567 
41,165 
1,650 
2,979 
23,748 


14.7 
48.1 
71.8 
75.8 

-7.4 
70.3 
41.5 
0.9 
25.5 
0.7 
17.3 
30.7 
48.1 


Washington, D.C. 


Waterbury, Conn 


Waterloo, Iowa 


Wheeling (W.Va.)-Steubenville 
(Ohio) 


Wichita, Kans. ... 


Wichita Falls, Texas 


Wilkes-Barre-Hazleton, Pa. . . . 


Wilmington, Del 


Winston-Salem, N.C 


Worcester, Mass 


York, Pa 


Youngstown, Ohio 





TABLE 4 

POPULATION BY COLOR FOR CITIES OF 50,000 OR MORE, 1950 AND 1940 
(Minus sign denotes decrease. Per cent not shown where base is less than 100) 







White 






Nonwhite 




City 


1950 


1940 


% Change 


1950 


1940 


% Change 


TOTAL 


, ... 46,573,330 


42,193,297 


10.4 


6,669,110 


4,470,666 


49.2 


Akron, Ohio 


250,727 


232,482 


7.8 


23,878 


12,309 


94.0 


Alameda, Cal 


58,104 


35,125 


65.4 


6,326 


1,131 


459.3 


Albany, N.Y. 


129,114 


127,564 


1.2 


5,881 


3,013 


95.2 


Albuquerque, N.Mex 


94,849 


34,571 


174.4 


1,966 


878 


123.9 


Alexandria, Va 


54,121 


28,219 


91.8 


7,666 


5,304 


44.5 


Alhambra, Cal 


51,129 


38,737 


32.0 


230 


198 


16.2 


Allentown, Pa 


106,264 


96,524 


10.1 


492 


380 


29.5 


Altoona, Pa 


76,479 


79,472 


-3.8 


698 


742 


-5.9 


Amarillo, Texas 


70,591 


48,900 


44.4 


3,655 


2,786 


31.2 


Asheville, N.C 


40,536 


37,873 


7.0 


12,464 


13,437 


-7.2 


Atlanta, Ga 


209,898 


197,686 


6.2 


121,416 


104,602 


16.1 


Atlantic City, NJ 


44,795 


48,347 


-7.3 


16,862 


15,747 


7.1 


Augusta, Ga 


41,990 


38,691 


8.5 


29,518 


27,228 


8.4 


Aurora, 111 


49,394 


46,168 


7.0 


1,182 


1,002 


18.0 


Austin, Texas 


114,652 


73,025 


57.0 


17,807 


14,905 


19.5 


Baltimore, Md 


723,655 


692,705 


4.5 


226,053 


166,395 


35.9 


Baton Rouge, La 


90,447 


23,092 


291.7 


35,182 


11,627 


202.6 


Bay City, Mich 


52,175 


47,784 


9.2 


348 


172 


102.3 


Bayonne, NJ 


75,312 


77,419 


-2.7 


1,891 


1,779 


6.3 


Beaumont, Texas 


66,389 


40,105 


65.5 


27,625 


18,956 


45.7 


Berkeley, Cal 


96,268 


80,267 


19.9 


17,537 


5,280 


232.1 


Berwyn, 111 


51,255 


48,440 


5.8 


25 


11 




Bethlehem, Pa 


65,600 


57,841 


13.4 


740 


649 


14.0 


Binghamton, N.Y 


79,842 


77,559 


2.9 


832 


750 


10.9 


Birmingham, Ala 


195,895 


158,622 


23.5 


130,142 


108,961 


19.4 


Boston, Mass 


758,700 


745,466 


1.8 


42,744 


25,350 


68.6 


Bridgeport, Conn 


151,853 


143,314 


6.0 


6,856 


3,807 


80.1 


Brockton, Mass 


62,223 


61,795 


0.7 


637 


548 


16.2 


Buffalo, N.Y 


542,432 


557,618 


-2.7 


37,700 


18,283 


106.2 


Burbank, Cal 


78,436 


34,198 


129.4 


141 


139 


1.4 


Cambridge, Mass 


115,068 


105,855 


8.7 


5,672 


5,024 


12.9 


Camden, NJ 
Canton, Ohio 


106,972 
109,756 


104,995 
104,319 


1.9 
5.2 


17,583 
7,156 


12,541 
4,082 


40.2 
75.3 


Cedar Rapids, Iowa 


71,512 


61,452 


16.4 


784 


668 


17.4 


Charleston, S.C 


39,287 


39,488 


-0.5 


30,887 


31,787 


-2.8 


Charleston, W.Va 


66,377 


60,887 


9.0 


7,124 


7,027 


1.4 



Source: 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, Series PC-14, No. 1, Dec. 16, 1951. 



POPULATION 



TABLE 4 (Continued) 







White 


Nonwhite 


City 


1950 


1940 


% Change 


1950 


1940 


% Change 


Charlotte, N.C 


96,531 


69,475 


38.9 


37,511 


31,424 


19.4 


Chattanooga, Tenn 


91,720 


91,742 




39,321 


36,421 


8.0 


Chester, Pa 


52,174 


49,102 


6.3 


13,865 


10,183 


36.2 


Chicago, 111 


. 3,111,525 


3,114,564 


-0.1 


509,437 


282,244 


80.5 


Cicero, 111 


67,489 


64,698 


4.3 


55 


14 




Cincinnati, Ohio 


425,313 


399,853 


6.4 


78,685 


55,757 


41.1 


Cleveland, Ohio 


765,261 


793,417 


-3.5 


149,547 


84,919 


76.1 


Cleveland Heights, Ohio 


58,649 


54,458 


7.7 


492 


534 


-7.9 


Clifton, N.J 


64,338 


48,713 


32.1 


173 


114 


51.8 


Columbia, S.C 


55,671 


40,191 


38.5 


31,243 


22,205 


40.7 


Columbus, Ga 


54,767 


35,804 


53.0 


24,844 


17,476 


42.2 


Columbus, Ohio 


328,770 


270,183 


21.7 


47,131 


35,904 


31.3 


Corpus Christi, Texas 


101,123 


52,742 


91.7 


7,164 


4,559 


57.1 


Covington, Ky 


60,860 


58,858 


3.4 


3,592 


3,160 


13.7 


Cranston, R.I 


54,835 


46,812 


17.1 


225 


273 


-17.6 


Dallas, Texas 


377,199 


244,246 


54.4 


57,263 


50,488 


13.4 


Davenport, Iowa 


73,430 


65,235 


12.6 


1,119 


804 


39.2 


Dayton, Ohio , 


209,599 


190,414 


10.1 


34,273 


20,304 


68.8 


Dearborn, Mich , 


94,897 


63,495 


49.5 


97 


89 




Decatur, 111 , 


62,804 


57,205 


9.8 


3,465 


2,100 


65.0 


Denver, Colo 


397,534 


313,810 


26.7 


18,252 


8,602 


112.2 


Des Moines, Iowa 


169,747 


153,426 


10.6 


8,218 


6,393 


28.5 


Detroit, Mich 


. 1,545,847 


1,472,662 


5.0 


303,721 


150,790 


101.4 


Duluth, Minn 


103,925 


100,659 


3.2 


586 


406 


44.3 


Durham, N.C 


45,190 


36,840 


22.7 


26,121 


23,355 


11.8 


East Chicago, Ind 


44,015 


48,503 


-9.3 


10,248 


6,134 


67.1 


East Orange, N.J , 


70,219 


62,973 


11.5 


9,121 


5,972 


52.7 


East St. Louis, 111 


54,725 


58,781 


-6.9 


27,570 


16,828 


63.8 


Elizabeth, N.J 


105,350 


104,910 


0.4 


7,467 


5,002 


49.3 


El Paso, Texas 


127,033 


94,323 


34.7 


3,452 


2,487 


38.8 


Erie, Pa 


127,366 


115,565 


10.2 


3,437 


1,390 


147.3 


Evanston, 111 , 


66,507 


59,298 


12.2 


7,134 


6,091 


17.1 


Evansville, Ind 


120,121 


90,194 


33.2 


8,515 


6,868 


24.0 


Fall River, Mass 


111,641 


114,909 


-2.8 


322 


519 


-38.0 


Flint, Mich 


149,100 


144,858 


2.9 


14,043 


6,685 


110.1 


Fort Wayne, 


128,313 


115,877 


10.7 


5,294 


2,533 


109.0 


Fort Worth, Texas 


241,352 


152,345 


58.4 


37,426 


25,317 


47.8 


Fresno, Cal 


84,561 


57,014 


48.3 


7,108 


3,671 


93.6 


Gadsden, Ala , 


44,895 


29,415 


52.6 


10,830 


7,560 


43.3 


Galveston, Texas 


48,840 


45,353 


7.7 


17,728 


15,509 


14.3 


Gary, Ind 


94,585 


91,246 


3.7 


39,326 


20,473 


92.1 


Glendale, Cal 


95,426 


81,992 


16.4 


276 


590 


-53.2 


Grand Rapids, Mich 


169,578 


161,567 


5.0 


6,937 


2,725 


154.6 


Green Bay, Wis 


52,550 


46,094 


14.0 


185 


141 


31.2 


Greensboro, N.C 


55,248 


42,968 


28.6 


19,141 


16,351 


17.1 


Greenville, S.C. . 


42,063 


20,750 


102.7 


16,098 


13,984 


15.1 


Hamilton, Ohio 


55,044 


48,530 


13.4 


2,907 


2,062 


41.0 


Hammond, Ind 


86,416 


69,524 


24.3 


1,178 


660 


78.5 


Harrisburg, Pa 


79,389 


76,609 


3.6 


10,155 


7,284 


39.4 


Hartford, Conn 


164,607 


159,119 


3.4 


12,790 


7,148 


78.9 


Hoboken, N.J 


50,165 


49,819 


0.7 


511 


296 


72.6 


Holyoke, Mass 


54,316 


53,646 


1.2 


345 


104 


231.7 


Houston, Texas 


470,503 


297,959 


57.9 


125,660 


86,555 


45.2 


Huntington, W.Va 


81,900 


74,322 


10.2 


4,453 


4,514 


-1.4 


Indianapolis, Ind 


363,082 


335,755 


8.1 


64,091 


51,217 


25.1 


Irvington, N.J 
Jackson, Mich 


59,073 
48,327 


55,237 
48,131 


6.9 
0.4 


128 
2,761 


91 
1,525 


's'i.o 


Jackson, Miss , 


58,080 


37,851 


53.4 


40,191 


24,256 


65.7 


Jacksonville, Fla , 


131,988 


111,247 


18.6 


72,529 


61,818 


17.3 


Jersey City, N.J 


278,051 


287,598 


-3.3 


20,966 


13,575 


54.4 


Johnstown, Pa 


61,014 


65,093 


-6.3 


2,218 


. 1,575 


40.8 


Joliet, 111 


49,636 


41,048 


20.9 


1,965 


1,317 


49.2 


Kalamazoo, Mich 


55,182 


52,961 


4.2 


2,522 


1,136 


122.0 


Kansas City, Kans 


102,843 


100,390 


2.4 


26,710 


21,068 


26.8 


Kansas City, Mo , 


400,599 


357,346 


12.1 


56,023 


41,832 


33.9 


Kenosha, Wis 


54,113 


48,569 


11.4 


255 


196 


30.1 


Knoxville, Tenn 


105,547 


95,474 


10.6 


19,222 


16,106 


19.3 


Lakewood, Ohio 


67,963 


69,041 


-1.6 


108 


119 


-9.2 



POPULATION GROWTH 



TABLE 4 (Continued) 








White 


Nonwhite 


g City 


1950 


1940 


% Change 


1950 


1940 


% Change 


Lancaster, Pa 


61,951 


59,834 


3.5 


1,823 


1,511 


20.6 


Lansing, Mich 


89,083 


77,087 


15.6 


3,046 


1,666 


82.8 


Laredo, Texas 


51,801 


39,147 


32.3 


109 


127 


-14.2 


Lawrence, Mass 


80,275 


84,173 


-4.6 


261 


150 


74.0 


Lexington, Ky 


41,850 


36,372 


15.1 


13,684 


12,932 


5.8 


Lima, Ohio 


46,964 


43,139 


8.9 


3,282 


1,572 


108.8 


Lincoln, Nebr 


97,495 


81,163 


20.1 


1,389 


821 


69.2 


Little Rock, Ark , 


78,654 


65,914 


19.3 


23,559 


22,125 


6.5 


Long Beach, Cal , 


244,180 


162,582 


50.2 


6,587 


1,689 


290.0 


Lorain, Ohio , 


48,669 


42,974 


13.3 


2,533 


1,151 


120.1 


Los Angeles, Cal , 


, . 1,758,773 


1,406,430 


25.1 


211,585 


97,847 


116.2 


Louisville, Ky , 


311,357 


271,867 


14.5 


57,772 


47,210 


22.4 


Lowell, Mass 


97,040 


101,252 


-4.2 


209 


137 


52.6 


Lubbock, Texas 


65,489 


29,619 


121.1 


6,258 


2,234 


180.1 


Lynn, Mass 


98,724 


97,314 


1.4 


1,014 


809 


25.3 


Macon, Ga 


40,704 


32,253 


26.2 


29,548 


25,612 


15.4 


Madison, Wis 


95,123 


67,04? 


41.9 


933 


400 


133.3 


Maiden, Mass , 


59,231 


57,51 ! 


3.0 


573 


496 


15.5 


Manchester, N.H 


82,580 


77,635 


6.4 


152 


50 




McKeesport, Pa 


48,818 


53,155 


-8.2 


2,684 


2,200 


22.0 


Medford, Mass 


65,290 


62,420 


4.6 


823 


663 


24.1 


Memphis, Tenn , 


248,713 


171,406 


45.1 


147,287 


121,536 


21.2 


Miami, Fla 


208,700 


135,192 


54.4 


40,576 


36,980 


9.7 


Milwaukee, Wis 


614,650 


578,177 


6.3 


22,742 


9,295 


144.7 


Minneapolis, Minn 


513,250 


487,099 


5.4 


8,468 


5,271 


60.7 


Mobile, Ala 


83,095 


49,606 


67.5 


45,914 


29,114 


47.7 


Montgomery, Ala 


63,965 


43,547 


46.9 


42,560 


34,537 


23.2 


Mt. Vernon, N.Y 


63,970 


62,189 


2.9 


7,929 


5,173 


53.3 


Muncie, Ind , 


54,039 


46,714 


15.7 


4,440 


3,006 


47.7 


Nashville, Tenn 


119,581 


120,072 


-0.4 


54,726 


47,330 


15.6 


Newark, N.J 


363,150 


383,534 


-5.3 


75,626 


46,226 


63.6 


New Bedford, Mass 


106,024 


105,927 


0.1 


3,165 


4,414 


-28.3 


New Britain, Conn 


72,686 


68,350 


6.3 


1,040 


335 


210.4 


New Haven, Conn 


154,618 


154,262 


0.2 


9,825 


6,343 


54.9 


New Orleans, La , 


387,763 


344,775 


12.5 


182,682 


149,762 


22.0 


New Rochelle, N.Y 


52,224 


52,107 


0.2 


7,501 


6,301 


19.0 


Newton, Mass 


81,435 


69,161 


17.7 


559 


712 


-21.5 


New York City, N.Y 


,. 7,116,428 


6,977,501 


2.0 


775,529 


477,494 


62.4 


Bronx borough 


. 1,351,662 


1,370,319 


-1.4 


99,615 


24,392 


308.4 


Brooklyn borough 


. 2,525,107 


2,587,951 


-2.4 


213,068 


110,334 


93.1 


Queens borpugh 


, . 1,497,126 


1,270,731 


17.8 


53,723 


26,903 


99.7 


Manhattan borough . . . 


.. 1,556,599 


1,577,625 


-1.3 


403,502 


312,299 


29.2 


Richmond borough . . . . 


185,934 


170,875 


8.8 


5,621 


3,566 


57.6 


Niagara Falls, N.Y 


87,174 


76,940 


13.3 


3,698 


1,089 


239.6 


Norfolk, Va 


150,057 


98,248 


52.7 


63,456 


46,084 


37.7 


Oakland, Cal 


328,797 


287,936 


14.2 


55,778 


14,227 


292.1 


Oak Park, 111 


63,382 


65,875 


-3.8 


147 


140 


5.0 


Ogden, Utah 


55,509 


43,056 


28.9 


1,603 


632 


153.6 


Oklahoma City, Okla , 


220,838 


184,715 


19.6 


22,666 


19,709 


15.0 


Omaha, Nebr 


234,235 


211,640 


10.7 


16,882 


12,204 


38.3 


Orlando, Fla 


38,980 


26,265 


48.4 


13,387 


10,471 


27.8 


Pasadena, Cal 


94,799 


76,737 


23.5 


9,778 


5,127 


90.7 


Passaic, N.J 


54,691 


59,365 


1 -7.9 


3,011 


2,029 


48.4 


Paterson, N.J , 


130,927 


135,300 


-3.2 


8,409 


4,356 


93.0 


Pawtucket, R.I 


81,073 


75,482 


7.4 


363 


315 


15.2 


Peoria, 111 


105,941 


102,202 


3.7 


5,915 


2,885 


105.0 


Philadelphia, Pa 


. 1,692,637 


1,678,577 


0.8 


378,968 


252,757 


49.9 


Phoenix, Ariz 


100,197 


60,373 


66.0 


6,621 


5,041 


31.3 


Pittsburgh, Pa 


593,823 


609,236 


-2.5 


82,983 


62,423 


32.9 


Pittsfield, Mass 


52,672 


49,209 


7.0 


676 


475 


42.3 


Pontiac, Mich 


66,704 


63,788 


4.6 


6,977 


2,838 


145.8 


Port Arthur, Texas 


43,579 


37,068 


17.6 


13,951 


9,072 


53.8 


Portland, Maine 


77,246 


73,269 


5.4 


388 


374 


3.7 


Portland, Ore 


360,388 


299,707 


20.2 


13,240 


5,687 


132.8 


Portsmouth, Va 


49,322 


31,268 


57.7 


30,717 


19,477 


57.7 


Providence, R.I 


239,993 


246,904 


-2.8 


8,681 


6,600 


31.5 


Pueblo, Colo 


62,090 


50,659 


22.6 


1,595 


1,503 


6.1 


Quincy, Mass , 


83,762 


75,765 


10.6 


73 


45 





10 



POPULATION 



TABLE 4 (Continued) 







White 


Nonwhites 


City 


1950 


1940 


% Change 


1950 


1940 


% Change 


Racine, Wis 


69,682 


66,741 


4.4 


1,511 


454 


232.8 


Raleigh, N.C 


47,735 


31,061 


53.7 


17,944 


15,836 


13.3 


Reading, Pa 


106,384 


108,646 


-2.1 


2,936 


1,922 


52.8 


Richmond, Cal 


85,329 


23,234 


267.3 


14,216 


408 


3384.3 


Richmond, Va 


157,223 


131,706 


19.4 


73,087 


61,336 


19.2 


Roanoke, Va 


77,334 


56,472 


36.9 


14,587 


12,815 


13.8 


Rochester, N.Y 


324,643 


321,554 


1.0 


7,845 


3,421 


129.3 


Rockford, 111 


90,359 


83,426 


8.3 


2,568 


1,211 


112.1 


Sacramento, Cal 


126,889 


99,808 


27.1 


10,683 


6,150 


73.7 


Saginaw, Mich 


84,247 


79,384 


6.1 


8,671 


3,410 


154.3 


St. Joseph, Mo 
St. Louis, Mo 


75,441 
702,348 


72,669 
706,794 


3.8 
-0.6 


3,147 
154,448 


3,042 
109,254 


3.5 

41.4 


St. Paul, Minn 


305,112 


283,399 


7.7 


6,237 


4,337 


43.8 


St. Petersburg, Fla 


82,725 


48,794 


69.5 


14,013 


12,018 


16.6 


Salt Lake City, Utah 


179,019 


148,699 


20.4 


3,102 


1,235 


151.2 


San Angelo, Texas 


49,096 


24,041 


104'.2 


2,997 


1,761 


70.2 


San Antonio, Texas 


378,897 


234,022 


61.9 


29,545 


19,832 


49.0 


San Bernardino, Cal 


60,931 


42,683 


42.8 


2,127 


963 


120.9 


San Diego, Cal 


316,023 


196,946 


60.5 


18,364 


6,395 


187.2 


San Francisco, Cal 


693,888 


602,701 


15.1 


81,469 


31,835 


155.9 


San Jose, Cal 


93,231 


67,406 


38.3 


2,049 


1,051 


95.0 


Santa Monica, Cal 


67,955 


51,691 


31.5 


3,640 


1,809 


101.2 


Savannah, Ga 


71,288 


52,700 


35.3 


48,350 


43,296 


11.7 


Schenectady, N.Y 


90,309 


86,837 


4.0 


1,476 


712 


107.3 


Scranton, Pa 


124,820 


139,647 


-10.6 


716 


757 


-5.4 


Seattle, Wash 


440,424 


354,101 


24.4 


27,167 


14,201 


91.3 


Shreveport, La 


84,958 


62,146 


36.7 


42,248 


36,021 


17.3 


Sioux City, Iowa 


82,793 


81,360 


1.8 


1,198 


1,004 


19.3 


Sioux Falls, S.D 


52,278 


40,605 


28.7 


418 


227 


84.1 


Somerville, Mass 


101,957 


101,887 


0.1 


394 


290 


35.9 


South Bend, Ind 


107,684 


97,662 


10.3 


8,227 


3,606 


128.1 


South Gate, Cal 


51,074 


26,926 


89.7 


42 


19 




Spokane, Wash 


159,022 


120,897 


31.5 


2,699 


' 1,104 


144.5 


Springfield, 111 


77,317 


72,122 


7.2 


4,311 


3,381 


27.5 


Springfield, Mass 


156,128 


146,361 


6.7 


6,271 


3,193 


96.4 


Springfield, Mo 


64,839 


59,432 


9.1 


1,892 


1,806 


4.8 


Springfield, Ohio 


68,762 


62,352 


10.3 


9,746 


8,310 


17.3 


Stamford, Conn 


70,314 


45,642 


54.1 


3,979 


2,296 


73.3 


Stockton, Cal 


63,549 


49,632 


28.0 


7,304 


5,082 


43.7 


Syracuse, N.Y 


215,525 


203,640 


5.8 


5,058 


2,327 


117.4 


Tacoma, Wash 


139,246 


107,611 


29.4 


4,427 


1,797 


146.4 


Tampa, Fla 


97,284 


85,043 


14.4 


27,397 


23,348 


17.3 


Terre Haute, Ind 


60,656 


59,292 


2.3 


3,558 


3,401 


4.6 


Toledo, Ohio 


278,266 


267,589 


4.0 


25,350 


14,760 


71.7 


Topeka, Kans 


72,248 


62,096 


16.3 


6,543 


5,737 


14.0 


Trenton, N.J 


113,477 


115,357 


-1.6 


14,532 


9,340 


55.6 


Troy, N.Y 


71,333 


69,678 


2.4 


978 


626 


56.2 


Tulsa, Okla 


164,405 


126,352 


30.1 


18,335 


15,805 


16.0 


Union City, N.J 


55,466 


56,124 


-1.2 


71 


49 




Utica, N.Y 


99,861 


99,989 


-0.1 


1,670 


529 


215.7 


Waco, Texas 


70,094 


44,944 


56.0 


14,612 


11,038 


32.4 


Washington, D.C. 


518,147 


474,326 


9.2 


284,031 


188,765 


50.5 


Waterbury, Conn 


100,816 


97,259 


3.7 


3,661 


2,055 


78.2 


Waterloo, Iowa 


62,545 


50,237 


24.5 


2,653 


1,506 


76.2 


Wheeling, W.Va 


56,883 


59,186 


-3.9 


2,008 


1,913 


5.0 


Wichita, Kans 


159,910 


109,186 


46.5 


8,369 


5,780 


44.8 


Wichita Falls, Texas 


62,074 


41,078 


51.1 


5,968 


4,034 


47.9 


Wilkes-Barre, Pa 


76,064 


85,393 


-10.9 


762 


843 


-9.6 


Wilmington, Del 


93,079 


98,175 


-5.2 


17,277 


14,329 


20.6 


Winston-Salem, N.C 


51,051 


43,789 


16.6 


36,760 


36,026 


2.0 


Woonsocket, R.I 


50,037 


49,220 


1.7 


174 


83 


109.6 


Worcester, Mass 


201,767 


192,263 


4.9 


1,719 


1,431 


20.1 


Yonkers, N.Y 


147,728 


138,441 


6.7 


5,070 


4,157 


22.0 


York, Pa 


56,799 


54,280 


4.6 


3,154 


2,432 


29.7 


Youngstown, Ohio 


146,783 


153,056 


-4.1 


21,547 


14,664 


46.9 



POPULATION ANALYSIS 



11 



Migration 

In the southern region, the net gain in 
Negro population between 1940 and 1950 
did not equal the natural increase that 
would be expected, a result of mi- 
gration. 

Between 1940 and 1947, Negro and 
white groups differed sharply in the dis- 
tance of their migration, Negroes gener- 
ally moving longer distances than whites. 
Migration rates for whites and nonwhites 
were very similar during this period, but 
about twice as many migrants among non- 
whites, moved to other states as moved 
within a state, while more white migrants 
moved within a state than moved to other 
states. Nor was the preponderance of 
migrants to noncontiguous states as great 
among whites as among nonwhites. 

Between 1935 and 1940, the nonwhite 
migration rate was only 0.70 of the rate 
for whites. Between 1940 and 1947, the 
corresponding ratio was 1.05. In the 
South, however, the nonwhite population 
was less mobile than its white counter- 
part. During the year April 1948 to April 
1949, the entire nonwhite population was 
slightly less mobile than the white popu- 
lation. With respect to distance of migra- 
tion, only 40% of nonwhite migrants 
moved between states, as compared with 
53% of white migrants. This suggests a 
return to the 1935-40 pattern of migration 
for nonwhites. See Table 5. 



Ratio of Males to Females 

The sex ratio (number of males per 
100 females) has implications for mar- 
riage rates as well as for the reproduc- 
tive, social, and economic functions of a 
society. Males have been outnumbered by 
females in the Negro population for about 
100 years. The number of Negro males 
per 100 females decreased from 97.0 in 
1930 to 95.0 in 1940. Between 1930 and 
1940, the increase in the number of Negro 
females was nearly 150,000 more then the 
increase in the number of Negro males. 
Population estimates for the periods 1940- 
42 and 1946-48 show that the ratio of 
Negro males per 100 females was ap- 
proximately 96.2 for both periods. The 
1950 sex ratio among the Negro popula- 
tion was 97.6. This was only slightly less 
than the sex ratio for the total popula- 
tion, which was 98.1. The 1950 sex ratio 
for the total population, however, repre- 
sented a 0.7 decline from 1940, while the 
1950 sex ratio for the Negro population 
represented a 2.6 increase over 1940. 
When the sex ratio is considered by re- 
gions, Negro males outnumbered Negro 
females in the North-Central and Western 
regions. The number of Negro males per 
100 females in 1950 was 90.8 in the 
Northeast, 100.4 in the North-Central re- 
gion, 97.9 in the South, and 104.6 in the 
West. 

Negro males in the age groups under 5 
years, 5-9, 60-64, and 70-74 years outnum- 
bered Negro females in their respective 



TABLE 5 
PER CENT DISTRIBUTION BY MIGRATION STATUS AND TYPE OF MIGRATION OF POPULATION 

BORN ON OR BEFORE BEGINNING OF MIGRATION PERIOD, BY COLOR 
(Civilian Population, April 1949 and 1947; Total Population, April 1940) 



Migration- Status 
and 
Type of Migration 


April 1948 
to 
April 1949 


April 1940 
to 
April 1947 


April 1935 
to 
April 1940 


White 


Nonwhite 


White 


Nonwhite 


White 


Nonwhite 


Nonmigrants 


93.8 


95.1 
4.7 
2.8 
1.9 
0.1 


78.9 
20.7 
11.0 
9.7 
0.4 


77.4 
21.8 
7.7 
14.1 
0.8 


86.2 
13.5 
7.9 
5.6 
0.3 


90.4 
9.5 
5.6 
3.9 
0.1 


Migrants . . 


5.9 


Within a state 


2.8 


Between states 


3.1 


Abroad 


0.4 







Source: Current Population Reports: Population Characteristics, "Internal Migration in the United 
States: April, 1948 to April, 1949," Series P-20, No. 28, Table 1. 



12 



POPULATION 



How Negro Population Is Spreading Over U.S. 



UP 

412% 




age groups in 1950. In line with the trend 
for the total population, Negro females 
outnumbered males in the urban popula- 
tion, but were in the minority in the rural 
population. 

Age Composition 

The median age of the nonwhite popu- 
lation increased from 25.2 years in 1940 
to 25.5 years in 1950, while the corre- 
sponding medians for the total population 
were 29.0 and 30.1 years, respectively. In 
both 1940 and 1950, approximately 57.6% 
of the nonwhite population was over 21 
years of age. The median age of nonwhite 
males decreased 0.3 of a year during the 
1940-50 decade (from 25.4 to 25.1 years), 
but the median age of nonwhite females 
increased during that same period 0.7 of 
a year (from 25.1 to 25.8 years). Rela- 
tively more nonwhite females were over 
21 in 1950 than in 1940, while the reverse 
was true among nonwhite males. 

The 15-19 age group was the only one 
among nonwhites to show a percentage 
decrease between 1940 and 1950. Percent- 
age increases among nonwhites ranged 
from a 3% increase in the 30-34 age 
group to a 48.9% increase in the youngest 
age group, under 5 years. There were also 



1951, U.S. News Publishing Corp. 

relatively large increases in persons over 
60. See Table 6. The Negro birth rate 
increased from 21.6 per 1000 persons in 
1940 to 29.5 per 1000 persons in 1948. 



Occupation and Industry 

Traditionally concentrated in agricul- 
ture and domestic and personal service, it 
is apparent that the Negro occupational 
distribution is slowly approaching that of 
whites when classes of workers are com- 
pared. Table 7 shows the class of all 
workers and nonwhite workers in 1950 
and 1940. It is worth noting that in the 
South the proportion of nonwhite work- 
ers employed by governmental agencies 
showed a sharp increase between 1940 
and 1950; self-employed nonwhite work- 
ers showed an even sharper decrease. 

Table 8 shows the classifications into 
major occupation groups of all workers 
and nonwhite workers for the last two 
Census years. The number of nonwhite 
clerical workers tripled during these 10 
years, and the sales workers, craftsmen, 
and operatives groups each doubled in 
size. The proportion of nonwhite private 
household workers fell from 21% in 1940 
to 15% in 1950. 



POPULATION ANALYSIS 



13 



TABLE 6 
AGE COMPOSITION OF NONWHITE POPULATION FOR U.S., 1950 AND 1940 













Per Cent 


Age Groups 


1950 




1940 




Change 


Number Per Gent 


Number Per Gent 


1940 to 1950 


Both sexes 


. .. 15,482,000 


100.0 


13,454,405 


100.0 


15.1 


Under 5 years 


1,953,000 


12.6 


1,312,019 


9.8 


48.9 


5 to 9 years 


1,564,000 


10.1 


1,355,671 


10.1 


15.4 


10 to 14 years 


1,503,000 


9.7 


1,393,240 


10.4 


7.9 


15 to 19 years 


1,300,000 


8.4 


1,369,476 


10.2 


-5.1 


20 to 24 years 


1,298,000 


8.4 


1,247,686 


9.3 


4.0 


25 to 29 years 


. .. 1,295,000 


8.4 


1,192,368 


8.9 


8.6 


30 to 34 years 


1,067,000 


6.9 


1,035,910 


7.7 


3.0 


35 to 39 years 


. .. 1,186,000 


7.7 


1,028,717 


7.6 


15.3 


40 to 44 years 


1,015,000 


6.6 


851,760 


6.3 


19.2 


45 to 49 years 


817,000 


5.3 


722,469 


5.4 


13.1 


50 to 54 years 


706,000 


4.6 


576,539 


4.3 


22.5 


55 to 59 years 


534,000 


3.4 


417,020 


3.1 


28.1 


60 to 64 years 


368,000 


2.4 


311,647 


2.3 


18.1 


65 to 69 years 


435,000 


2.8 


307,611 


2.3 


41.4 


70 to 74 years 


229,000 


1.5 


168,987 


1.2 


35.5 


75 years and over 


215,000 


1.4 


163,285 


1.2 


31.7 


Median age: years 


25.5 





25.2 








21 years and over. ... 


8,923,000 


57.6 


7,753,093 


57.6 


15.1 


Male 


. . . 7,672,000 


100.0 


6,613,044 


100.0 


16.0 


Under 5 years 


983,000 


12.8 


653,338 


9.9 


50.5 


5 to 9 years 


851,000 


11.1 


674,286 


10.2 


26.2 


10 to 14 years 


748,000 


9.7 


693,322 


10.5 


7.9 


15 to 19 years 


628,000 


8.2 


664,233 


10.0 


-5.5 


20 to 24 years 


617,000 


8.0 


578,750 


8.8 


6.6 


25 to 29 years 


621,000 


8.1 


558,649 


8.4 


11.2 


30 to 34 years 


515,000 


6.7 


496,996 


7.5 


3.6 


35 to 39 years 


575,000 


7.5 


491,291 


7.4 


17.0 


40 to 44 years 


499,000 


6.5 


423,945 


6.4 


17.7 


45 to 49 years 


389,000 


5.1 


366,656 


5.5 


6.1 


50 to 54 years 


350,000 


4.6 


301,033 


4.6 


16.3 


55 to 59 years 


264,000 


3.4 


221,318 


3.3 


19.3 


60 to 64 years 


199,000 


2.6 


165,363 


2.5 


20.3 


65 to 69 years 


209,000 


2.7 


159,151 


2.4 


31.3 


70 to 74 years 


122,000 


1.6 


87,684 


1.3 


39.1 


75 years and over 


101,000 


1.3 


77,029 


1.2 


31.1 


Median age: years 


25.1 





25.4 








21 years and over . . . . , 


4,355,000 


56.8 


3,807,250 


57.6 


14.4 


Female 


7,810,000 


100.0 


6,841,361 


100.0 


14.2 


Under 5 years 


970,000 


12.4 


658,681 


9.6 


47.3 


5 to 9 years 


713,000 


9.1 


681,385 


10.0 


4.6 


10 to 14 years 


755,000 


9.7 


699,918 


10.2 


7.9 


15 to 19 years 


672,000 


8.6 


705,243 


10.3 


4.7 


20 to 24 years 


681,000 


8.7 


668,936 


9.8 


1.8 


25 to 29 years 


674,000 


8.6 


633,719 


9.3 


6.4 


30 to 34 years 


552,000 


7.1 


538,914 


7.9 


2.4 


35 to 39 years 


611,000 


7.8 


537,426 


7.9 


13.7 


40 to 44 years 


516,000 


6.8 


427,815 


6.3 


20.6 


45 to 49 years 


428,000 


5.5 


355,813 


5.2 


20.3 


50 to 54 years 


356,000 


4.6 


275,506 


4.0 


29.2 


55 to 59 years 


269,000 


3.4 


195,702 


2.9 


37.5 


60 to 64 years 


168,000 


2.2 


146,284 


2.1 


14.8 


65 to 69 years 


225,000 


2.9 


148,460 


2.2 


51.6 


70 to 74 years 


106,000 


1.4 


81,303 


1.2 


30.4 


75 years and over 


114,000 


1.5 


86,256 


1.3 


32.2 


Median age: years 


25.8 





25.1 








21 years and over .... 


4,568,000 


58.5 


3,945,843 


57.7 


15.8 



Source: Taken from 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, "General Characteristics of 
the Population of the United States: April 1, 1950, Series PC-7, No. 1, Table 1. 



14 



POPULATION 



TABLE 7 

PER CENT DISTRIBUTION BY CLASS OF WORKER OF EMPLOYED PERSONS FOR U.S. AND 

SOUTH, 1950 AND 1940 
(Figures for 1940 revised) 



Year and Class of 
Worker 


1950 


1940 


United States 


South 


United States 


South 


Total 


Nonwhite 


Total 


Nonwhite 


Total 


Nonwhite 


Total 


Nonwhite 


Private wage and 
salary workers .... 


70.7 
10.0 
17.1 
2.2 


73.9 
9.0 

12.8 
4.2 


64.6 
10.5 
21.0 
3.9 


68.9 
8.1 
16.9 
6.2 


67.1 
7.9 
21.7 
3.2 


J72.4 

20.8 
6.8 


58.4 

7.7 
27.9 
6.0 


64.1 
3.8 
23.7 
8.4 


Government workers . . . 
Self-employed workers . . 
Unpaid family workers . 



Source: Adapted from 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, "Employment and Income 
in the United States, by Regions: 1950," Series PC-7, No. 2, Table 5. 



TABLE 8 

PER CENT DISTRIBUTION BY MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUP OF EMPLOYED PERSONS FOR U.S. 

AND SOUTH, 1950 AND 1940 



Year and Major 
Occupation Group 


1950 


1940 


United States 


South 


United States 


South 


Total 


Nonwhite 


Total 


Nonwhite 


Total 


Nonwhite 


Total 


Nonwhite 


Professional, technical, and 
kindred workers . . . 


8.9 
8.0 

9.0 
12.1 
6.7 

13.7 

19.8 
2.6 

7.4 
2.8 


3.6 
9.5 

1.5 
3.6 
1.5 

5.3 

18.7 
15.2 

14.3 
6.4 


7.4 
12.7 

8.5 
9.7 
6.2 

11.6 

18.0 

3.7 

6.6 
4.3 

6.6 
1.5 


3.6 
13.9 

1.2 
1.6 

1.2 

4.5 

16.1 
14.7 

11.4 
9.0 

15.9 

1.1 


7.9 
11.5 

8.3 
9.8 
6.5 

11.4 

18.2 
4.6 

7.2 
4.3 
2.6 

6.9 
0.8 


2.7 
15.0 

1.4 
1.1 
0.8 

3.0 

10.4 
21.3 

11.6 
11.0 
6.6 

14.4 
0.6 


6.3 
18.9 

6.8 
6.5 
5.0 

8.3 

14.9 
6.7 

5.8 
7.1 
5.5 

7.5 
0.7 


2.5 
18.6 

0.8 
0.6 
0.5 

2.5 

8.9 
20.8 

8.5 
13.1 

8.3 

14.3 
0.6 


Farmers and farm managers . 
Managers, officials, and 
proprietors, except farm . . 
Clerical and kindred workers. 
Sales workers 


Craftsmen, foremen and 
kindred workers 


Operatives and kindred 
workers 


Private household workers. . 
Service workers, except 
private household 


Farm laborers, except un- 
paid and foremen 


Farm laborers, unpaid 


Laborers, except farm and 
mine 


6.0 
1.4 


15.4 
1.1 


Occupation not reported .... 



Source: Adapted from 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, "Employment and Income 
in the United States, by Regions, 1950," Series PC-7, No. 2, Table 6. 



With respect to the number of Negroes 
in the labor force, the proportion has de- 
creased from 65.7% (of total Negro popu- 
lation) in 1920, to 55.2% in 1950. The 
proportion of Negroes 14 years old and 
over in the civilian labor force in 1950 
was 54.5% as compared with 52.5% for 
whites. Approximately 4.6% of the Ne- 
groes and 2.6% of the whites were un- 
employed. For the South, a slightly 
greater proportion of Negroes than of 
whites in the labor force were currently 
unemployed. 



Between 1940 and 1950, there were 
several changes in the distribution of 
Negroes by major industrial groups. There 
were marked decreases in the proportion 
of Negroes in agriculture and the service 
industries and a marked increase in the 
number of Negroes in the manufacturing 
industry. The largest percentage of Ne- 
groes, however, was still in the service 
industries, while the largest percentage of 
white industrial workers was in manu- 
facturing and allied skills as shown in 
Table 9. 



POPULATION ANALYSIS 



15 



TABLE 9 
PER CENT DISTRIBUTION BY MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUP OF EMPLOYED PERSONS FOR U.S. AND 

SOUTH, 1950 AND 1940 
(Statistics /or 1940 revised) 



Year and Major 
Industry Group 


1950 


1940 


Unit< 


:d States 




South 


United States 


South 


Total 


Nonwhite 


Total 


Nonwhite 


Total 


Nonwhite Total 


Nonwhite 


Agriculture 


12.8 
1.7 
6.2 
25.3 
13.2 
11.8 
0.3 

7.6 
18.6 
21.6 
4.7 
1.5 


20.1 
0.7 
5.3 
17.9 
10.1 
7.6 
0.3 

6.0 
12.7 
32.4 
3.6 
1.2 


20.6 
2.8 
6.8 
18.4 
7.1 
11.1 
0.2 

6.8 
17.5 
20.4 
5.2 
1.5 


29.2 
1.0 
5.4 
14.4 
8.2 
6.1 
0.1 

4.9 
11.3 
29.9 
2.8 
1.1 


18.7 
2.0 
4.6 
23.6 
11.4 
11.8 
0.4 

6.9 
16.8 
22.5 
3.4 
1.5 


33.1 
1.2 
3.1 
11.4 
6.7 
4.5 
0.2 

4.4 
8.3 
35.6 
1.7 
1.3 


31.8 
2.8 
4.5 
16.0 
6.1 
9.8 
0.1 

5.5 
13.7 
20.9 
3.5 
1.3 


40.4 
1.3 
3.0 
10.1 
C) 
P) 

M 

3.7 
6.7 
32.2 
1.4 
1.2 




Construction 


Manufacturing 


Durable goods 


Nondurable goods . 


Not specified 


Transportation, communi- 
cation and other public 
utilities 


Wholesale and retail trade . . 
Service industries 


All other industries 


Industry not reported 





Source: 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, 
United States, by Regions: 1950," Series PC-7, No. 2, Table 8. 
1 Not available. 



: 'Employment and Income in the 



Marital Status 

Between 1940 and 1950, there was a 
16.9% increase in the number of married 
couples. 1 For the total U.S. population, 
the corresponding percentage change was 
23.9. There were 2,815,000 nonwhite mar- 
ried couples in 1950 as compared with 
2,408,691 in 1940. 

For both 1940 and 1930 data, nonwhites 
tended to marry at younger ages than 
whites, and relatively fewer nonwhites 
stayed single during the childbearing 
period. At nearly every age, however, a 
greater proportion of nonwhites were 
widowed than were whites. Table 11 shows 
marital status for 1940, with totals for 
1930. 

In 1947, the proportion of nonwhite 
married couples who were living together 
was smaller than the corresponding white 
proportion, and relatively more nonwhite 
persons had had their marriages broken 
by widowhood or separation. There was a 
difference of approximately 10% in the 
percentage of white and nonwhite women 
(62 and 52%, respectively) 14 years old 
and over who were married and living 
with their husbands. The nonwhite popu- 
lation had an especially large proportion 



of persons who were married but living 
apart from their spouses. Approximately 
2.6% of white women 14 years and over 
were in this category in 1947 as compared 
with 8.3% of nonwhite women 14 years 
and over. The proportion of divorced per- 
sons did not differ significantly for whites 
and nonwhites. Table 10 shows marital 
status in 1947. 

Among nonwhite females, the percent- 
age of divorced persons decreased from 
2.1 in 1930 to 1.7 in 1940, but increased 
to 2.4 in 1947. The same pattern is evident 
among nonwhite males, the percentage of 
divorced nonwhite males being 1.4, 1.0, 
and 1.7 in 1930, 1940, and 1947, respec- 
tively. Among nonwhite males, the great- 
est proportion of divorced persons, 3.1%, 
was in the 35-44 age group, while the 
greatest proportion of divorced persons 
among nonwhite females, 4.0%, was in 
the 25-34 age group. 

There was very little relationship be- 
tween urban-rural residence and marital 
status among nonwhites in 1947. 

Between 1940 and 1950, there was a 
29.9% increase in the number of non- 
white males 14 years old and over who 
were widowed and divorced (from 299,- 



1 A married couple is defined as a husband and wife living together. 



16 



POPULATION 



TABLE 10 
PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OF MARITAL STATUS OF PERSONS 14 YEARS AND OVER, FOR U.S. 

CIVILIAN POPULATION, APRIL 1947 
(Per cent not shown where less than 0.1) 



Ever Married 


Sex, Color and Age 


Single 


Tot. 
Ever 
Mar. 




Married 




Wid. 


Div. 


Tot. 
Mar. 


Spouse 
Present 


Spouse 
Absent 


Male 
White 


28.2 
27.8 


71.8 
72.2 
19.2 
78.5 
89.0 
90.9 
92.1 

67.7 
21.0 
74.1 
90.6 
91.1 
92.2 

78.0 
78.0 
37.1 
86.5 
90.8 
92.0 
90.6 

77.5 
40.5 
86.5 
93.3 
94.7 
95.8 


66.2 
66.7 
18.5 
76.4 
86.1 
84.0 
66.9 

61.5 
20.4 
70.6 
83.8 
81.0 
69.6 

64.2 
64.7 
35.7 
82.7 
84.0 
73.0 
35.4 

60.2 
37.4 
77.9 
78.6 
64.3 
25.2 


63.8 
64.7 
17.7 
74.6 
84.3 
81.1 
64.0 

55.5 
18.6 
62.5 
76.5 
73.4 
63.8 

61.0 
62.0 
33.5 
79.4 
81.4 
70.2 
33.6 

51.9 
30.9 
66.1 
68.4 
57.6 
22.4 


2.4 
2.0 
0.8 
1.8 
1.8 
2.9 
3.0 

5.9 
1.8 
8.0 
7.3 
7.6 
5.8 

3.2 
2.6 
2.2 
3.3 
2.7 
2.8 
1.8 

8.3 
6.5 
11.8 
10.1 
6.7 
2.8 


4.1 

4.0 

0.3 
0.9 
4.9 
24.0 

4.5 
0.6 
1.0 
3.7 
8.0 
21.7 

11.6 
11.3 
0.4 
1.2 
3.7 
16.8 
54.1 

14.8 
1.3 
4.5 
12.3 
28.7 
69.0 


1.6 
1.5 
0.6 
1.7 
2.0 
1.9 
1.2 

1.7 

2.6 
3.1 
2.1 
0.8 

2.1 
2.0 
1.0 
2.6 
3.0 
2.2 
1.0 

2.4 
1.9 
4.0 
2.5 
1.6 
1.7 


14 to 24 years 


80.8 


25 to 34 years 


21.5 


35 to 44 years 


11.0 


45 to 64 years 


9.1 


65 years and over 


7.9 


Nonwhite 


32.3 


14 to 24 years 


79.0 


25 to 34 years 


25 9 


35 to 44 years 


9.4 


45 to 64 years 


8.9 


65 years and over 


7.8 


Femalt 
White 


22.0 
22.0 


14 to 24 years 


62.9 


25 to 34 years 


13.5 




9 2 


45 to 64 years 


8.0 


65 years and over . 


. . 9.4 


Nonwhite 


22.5 


14 to 24 years 


59.5 


25 to 34 years 


13.5 


35 to 44 years 


6.7 


45 to 64 years 


5.3 


65 years and over 


4.2 







Source: Current Population Reports, Population Characteristics, "Characteristics 
Married, Widowed, and Divorced Persons in 1947," Series P-20, No. 10, Table 2. 



of Single, 



443 in 1940 to 389,000 in 1950), and a 
10.9% increase for nonwhite females in 
the same category (from 842,059 in 1940 
to 934,000 in 1950). The corresponding 
percentage increase figures for white 
males and white females were 8.6 and 23.1 
respectively. 

Population of Voting Age 

In 1940, Negroes made up 8.8% of the 
total population of voting age and 9.2% 
of the citizens of voting age. Between 1930 
and 1940, the total number of Negroes 
of voting age increased 13.7% (from 
6,531,939 to 7,427,938), although the pro- 
portion of Negroes in the total population 
of voting age declined 0.1%. According 
to age distribution of Negroes in 1950, 
57.6% of the Negro population is old 
enough to vote, while 64.3% of the total 



population is over 21. These figures repre- 
sent a slight increase in the proportion 
of the total population of voting age be- 
tween 1940 and 1950, but the proportion 
of the Negro population of voting age re- 
mained stable during this period. 

Illegitimacy 

Changing methods of registering births 
have, in recent years, made reliable sta- 
tistics on illegitimacy difficult to obtain. 

In 1949, it was estimated that from 10 
to 20% of Negro children born in urban 
areas were born out of wedlock, with 
even higher rates generally prevailing in 
rural areas. At that time, the illegitimacy 
rate among the Negro population was esti- 
mated to be from 5 to 10 times as high 
as that to be found among the white 
population. 



POPULATION ANALYSIS 



17 



TABLE 11 

PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OF MARITAL STATUS OF POPULATION 15 YEARS OLD AND OVER, 
FOR U.S., 1940 (WITH TOTALS FOR 1930) 



Age, Color and Census 


Males 15 


Years ( 


Did and 


Over 


Females 


1 5 Years 


Old anc 


lOver 


Year 


Sin. 


Mar. 


Wid. 


Div. 


Sin. 


Mar. 


Wid. 


Div. 


1940 


















White 


33.2 


61.3 


4.2 


1.3 


26.0 


61.2 


11.1 


1.7 


1519 years 


98.4 


1.5 


_ 


- 


89.1 


10.7 


0.1 


0.1 


20-24 years 


73.5 


26.1 


0.1 


0.3 


48.4 


50.3 


0.4 


0.9 


25-29 years 


36.7 


62.1 


0.3 


0.9 


23.2 


74.1 


0.9 


1.7 


30-34 years 


20.7 


77.3 


0.6 


1.4 


15.0 


80.7 


1.9 


2.4 


35-39 years 


15.1 


82.0 


1.1 


1.8 


11.5 


82.2 


3.6 


2.8 


4044 years 


12.5 


83.6 


1.9 


2.0 


9.8 


81.5 


6.1 


2.7 


45-49 years 


11.2 


83.9 


2.9 


2.0 


8.9 


79.3 


9.4 


2.4 


50-54 years 


11.1 


82.2 


4.7 


2.0 


9.0 


74.3 


14.6 


2.1 


55-59 years 


10.9 


80.1 


7.0 


1.9 


9.0 


68.0 


21.3 


1.8 


60-64 years 


10.7 


76.8 


10.7 


1.8 


9.6 


58.7 


30.3 


1.4 


65-69 years 


10.6 


72.0 


15.8 


1.6 


9.8 


47.4 


41.8 


1.0 


70-74 years 


10.2 


65.1 


23.4 


1.3 


9.9 


34.9 


54.5 


0.7 


7579 years 


9.6 


56.1 


33.2 


1.1 


9.5 


23.2 


66.8 


0.4 


80-84 years 


8.8 


45.7 


44.8 


0.8 


9.5 


13.6 


76.7 


0.3 


85 years and over 


8.1 


32.4 


58.9 


0.6 


8.5 


6.6 


84.7 


0.2 


Nonwhite 


33.5 


60.0 


5.5 


1.0 


23.9 


58.5 


15.8 


1.7 


1 5-1 9 years 


96.8 


3.1 


_ 


_ 


81.0 


18.3 


0.4 


0.3 


20-24 years 


60.4 


38.7 


0.5 


0.4 


37.2 


59.6 


2.0 


1.2 


25-29 years 


30.5 


67.6 


1.1 


0.8 


19.4 


74.3 


4.2 


2.1 


30-34 years 


21.3 


75.6 


1.9 


1.2 


12.6 


77.0 


7.7 


2.7 


35-39 years 


16.9 


78.7 


2.9 


1.5 


8.8 


76.0 


12.5 


2.7 


4044 years 


13.9 


79.6 


4.8 


1.7 


6.8 


72.1 


18.6 


2.5 


45-49 years , 


11.3 


80.3 


6.6 


1.7 


5.5 


68.3 


24.0 


2.2 


50-54 years , 


10.1 


78.8 


9.5 


1.6 


4.9 


61.9 


31.5 


1.7 


55-59 years , 


9.0 


77.3 


12.2 


1.4 


4.4 


56.3 


37.9 


1.4 


60-64 years 


8.2 


74.1 


16.4 


1.3 


4.6 


47.5 


46.8 


1.1 


65-69 years 


7.1 


70.4 


21.4 


1.1 


4.2 


36.2 


58.8 


0.8 


70-74 years 


6.8 


63.1 


29.2 


0.9 


4.1 


25.5 


70.0 


0.5 


75-79 years 


7.1 


56.2 


35.8 


0.9 


4.1 


18.6 


76.9 


0.4 


80-84 years 


7.1 


47.7 


44.6 


0.6 


4.0 


11.5 


84.2 


0.3 


85 years and over , 


6.4 


38.7 


54.4 


0.5 


3.5 


7.2 


89.1 


0.2 


7930 


















White 


. . 34.2 


60.1 


4.5 


1.1 


26.7 


61.4 


10.5 


1.2 


Nonwhite 


33.1 


59.0 


6.2 


1.4 


23.2 


58.8 


15.7 


2.1 



Source: Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, "Population of the United States by 
Marital Status and Age: 1940," Series P-19, No. 2, Table 1. 



2 

Sports 



NEGRO ATHLETES, both amateur and pro- 
fessional, enjoyed many splendid achieve- 
ments and triumphs during the year 1951. 
Indeed, their achievements were so numer- 
ous and so outstanding that one may 
fairly say that a new highwater mark 
was reached. More Negro athletes than 
ever before attained stardom, and, at the 
same time, the trend toward integrated 
participation in sports accelerated con- 
siderably. There were more Negroes play- 
ing in the major and minor baseball 
leagues, and playing on more teams, than 
in 1950; more Negro basketball players 
than ever before starred on white college 
teams; there were significant gains in 
tennis, a definite step forward in bowling, 
notable advances in college and profes- 
sional football, continuing achievements 
in track and boxing, and scattered gains 
elsewhere. Without a doubt, 1951 was the 
"big year" of the Negro athlete. 

BASEBALL 

Players on Major League Teams 

In organized baseball the increasing 
stature of the Negro athlete has perhaps 
been dramatized more spectacularly than 
anywhere else. The sport, which until 
1946 was rigidly barred to Negroes, has 
become the setting for some of his great- 
est exploits. Six of the 16 major league 
baseball teams employed a total of 18 
Negro players 11 as regular and seven 
as utility players (as compared with nine 
players on four teams in 1950). 

National League 

Brooklyn Dodgers : Jackie Robinson, Roy 
Campanella, Don Newcombe, Dan Bank- 
head (part of season) 

New York Giants : Monte Irvin, Willie 
Mays, Raphael Noble, Henry Thompson. 

Boston Braves : Luis Marques, Sam Jethroe. 



American League 

Cleveland Indians : Larry Doby, Luke 
Easter, Harry Simpson, Sam Jones (part 
of season) 

Chicago White Sox : Orestes Minoso, Sam- 
uel Hairston, Bob Boyd (latter two for 
part of season) 

St. Louis Browns : Satchel Paige 

All of these players made significant 
contributions to their teams and most of 
them were star players. It is clearly signi- 
ficant of the important roles they played 
that five of these six teams were first divi- 
sion teams and serious pennant contend- 
ers, and that one of them, the New York 
Giants, won the National League Cham- 
pionship. On exactly half of these teams, 
the clean-up batter was a Negro: Irvin on 
the first-place (National League) New 
York Giants, Robinson on the second- 
place (National League) Brooklyn Dodg- 
ers, and Easter on the second-place 
(American League) Cleveland Indians. 
With respect to developing integration, it 
was equally significant that a few teams 
carried Negro utility players. Apparently 
it is no longer necessary for a Negro to 
be a super-star a Jackie Robinson or a 
Roy Campanella to make the team; if 
he is as good as other players he may 
hope to make the squad and be carried 
as a substitute (utility) player. To cap 
the season, the Giants played an all-Negro 
outfield in the World Series, the first time 
this has ever happened in either series 
or regular season play. 

Individual exploits by these players 
were too numerous to describe in detail. 
Jackie Robinson scaled new heights of 
achievement with his brilliant clutch 
fielding and clutch hitting, especially dur- 
ing the last two weeks of what turned 
out to be the most thrilling finale in Na- 
tional League history. He led the League 



18 



BASEBALL 



19 



in batting during the first third of the 
season, finished third in batting with .338 
(the third straight year in which he has 
finished among the first five), and, in 
defying a series of injuries, earned from 
his manager, Chuck Dressen, the soubri- 
quet "Old Blood and Guts." In addition 
he set a new National League fielding 
mark for second baseman of .992 (seven 
errors in 832 chances) and another record 
for participation in double plays (137). 
At the end of five full seasons of play, 
Robinson has a lifetime major league 
batting average of .320, preceded among 
currently active players only by the great 
stars Stan Musial and Ted Williams. It 
is now generally agreed that he is one of 
the greatest second basemen in history. 
He was chosen to lead the 1951 University 
of California at Los Angeles Homecoming 
Parade, the first athlete so chosen. 

Roy Campanella, in his fourth season, 
was fourth in League batting with a .325 
average and second in runs batted in, and 
became the first catcher of all time to hit 
20 or more home runs in three succes- 
sive seasons. He was voted the National 
League's Most Valuable Player of the 
Year by the Baseball Writers' Association 
of America, the second Negro to win this 
award (Jackie Robinson received it in 
1949). He, too, is now ranked with the 
game's immortals and, in the opinion of 
the most outstanding experts, enjoyed the 
finest single year any catcher has ever 
known. 

The splendid showing of the New York 
Giants in the last phase of the 1950 sea- 
son led many experts to pick them for the 
1951 championship if Monte Irvin de- 
livered. He did, and the Giants won their 
first flag since 1937. He was their clean- 
up batter, led the League in runs batted 
in (121), and led his team in batting 
(.321). The comments of his manager, 
Leo Durocher, reflect Irvin's great team 
value: "I must admit that the one guy 
who picked us up all the time was Monte 
Irvin. Through the stretch, he's the guy 
who would start us off, would get us the 
big hit and come through in the clutch." 
(New York IF or Id-Telegram, Sept. 29.) 



He received the third largest number of 
votes in the National League Most Valu- 
able Player poll. He starred in the World 
Series, as was expected of him. He stole 
home in the opening game, the first time 
this has occurred in 30 years. He led both 
teams in hitting (.458) and, with 11 hits, 
came within one hit of tying the record 
for most hits in a World Series. 

Two other Negroes, both first-year play- 
ers in the major leagues, performed sen- 
sationally. Willy Mays, a brilliant center- 
fielder and a good hitter, helped spark the 
Giants towards the pennant. One of the 
most colorful players of recent years, his 
circus catches and base-running feats 
earned him the Sporting News Rookie of 
the Year Award and the Baseball Writers' 
Association of America Rookie of the 
Year Award. No other National League 
rookie was even close in either poll. A 
brilliant future is expected for him in the 
major leagues. 

The 26-year-old Cuban Negro, Orestes 
Minoso, enjoyed an even more successful 
season as a rookie member of the Chicago 
White Sox. He led the American League 
in stolen bases (31), was second in bat- 
ting (.326), and led the League in triples 
(14) ; he was also second in doubles and 
runs scored. In addition, he played six 
different positions during the season, thus 
proving himself the game's most versatile 
player. He immediately became the dar- 
ling of White Sox fans, whose chant "Go, 
Minnie, Go" rose up whenever he got on 
base. He won the Sporting News Rookie 
of the Year Award and was voted fourth 
in the Baseball Writers' Association of 
America poll for the Most Valuable 
Player of the Year, receiving more votes 
than any other rookie. He was nosed out 
by two votes (13-11) in the Association 
vote for Rookie of the Year, an action 
that caused many a lifted eyebrow, for 
the winner, Gil MacDougald, although a 
splendid player, had nothing like Min- 
oso's brilliant record. For example, Joe 
Williams, sports editor-in-chief of the 
New York World-Telegram, said flatly 
(Nov. 10 issue), "I would have voted for 
Orestes Minoso over Gil MacDougald as 



20 



SPORTS 



the AL's Rookie of the Year." And Frank 
Lane, President of the Chicago White 
Sox, has demanded that this award be 
dropped or a re-study of the voting cri- 
teria made. 

Don Newcombe became the first Negro 
pitcher to win 20 games, although he has 
yet to realize his enormous potential. His 
excellent record of 20 wins against nine 
losses, third best pitching average in the 
League, still fell considerably short of 
what his fellow-players in the National 
League believe him capable of. However, 
his great pitching during the last week 
of the season, during which he pitched 
four games in eight days, including 15 
scoreless innings on two successive days, 
took off some of the edge of the disap- 
pointment experienced by his many fans. 
He was tied for the lead in strike-outs 
(164). 

Sam Jethroe enjoyed another good sea- 
son, especially towards the end, when he 
was playing under a new manager who 
was able to restore a great deal of his 
self-confidence. Jethroe again led the Na- 
tional League in stolen bases (35), and 
was terrific at the plate during this up- 
surge, hitting .227 until July 14 and .327 
thereafter. 

Luke Easter (27 home runs) and Larry 
Doby (a .289 average and 20 home runs) 
had good seasons but fell far short of 
what had been expected of them. Henry 



Thompson, after a brilliant season in 
1950, was the year's biggest disappoint- 
ment. Ageless Satchel Paige was able to 
pitch winning ball for the poorest team 
in the major leagues, both as starter and 
in relief. 

Negroes have been in the major leagues 
for five years and have appeared in four 
World Series. In each of these four, a 
Negro has led in Series hitting: 1947 
(Jackie Robinson, .297) ; 1948 (Larry 
Doby, .318); 1949 (Robinson, .306); 
1951 (Monte Irvin, .458). 

In the minor leagues so many Negroes 
won jobs that it is no longer possible to 
keep up with them all. Here, as in the 
major leagues, they performed well and 
many of them were outstanding. Two of 
them Hector Rodriquez and Junior Gil- 
liam were voted first and second in the 
International League Rookie of the Year 
Award. Rodriquez hit .302, batted in 95 
runs, was fifth in League batting, and led 
the League in. stolen bases (26). Gilliam 
led the League in scoring (117 runs). 
They were also elected to the League's 
all-star team by the International League 
Baseball Writers' Association. Charles 
Harmon starred for Buffalo in the Inter- 
national League. George Crowe was 
named Player of the Year in another 
Class AAA league, the American Asso- 
ciation, receiving 20 out of the 27 votes. 
His team, the Milwaukee Brewers, won 



RECORDS OF MAJOR LEAGUE PLAYERS 



Robinson 


G 

, ... 153 


AB 

548 


R 

106 


H 

185 


2B 
33 


3B 

7 


HR 

19 


RBI 

88 


SB 

25 


Pet. 

.338 


Minoso , 


146 


530 


112 


173 


34 


14 


10 


76 


31 


.326 


Campanella . . . 


. 143 


505 


90 


164 


33 


1 


33 


108 


1 


.325 


Irvin . 


. ... 151 


558 


94 


174 


19 


11 


24 


121 


12 


.312 


Doby 


134 


447 


84 


132 


27 


5 


20 


69 


4 


.295 


Jethroe 


148 


572 


101 


160 


29 


10 


18 


65 


35 


.290 


Klays 


121 


464 


59 


127 


22 


5 


20 


68 


7 


.274 


Easter 


128 


486 


65 


131 


12 


5 


27 


103 





.270 


Thompson 


87 


264 


37 


62 


8 


4 


8 


33 


1 


.235 


Noble 


55 


141 


16 


33 


6 





5 


26 





.234 


Simpson ... 


122 


332 


51 


76 


7 





7 


24 


6 


.229 


Boyd . . 


12 


18 


3 


3 





1 





4 





.167 



Newcombe . ; : ; ; 40 

Paige 23 



Pitchers 
IP W L 

272 20 9 
62 3 4 



Pet. 
.690 
.429 



H 

235 
67 



SO ERA 

164 3.28 
48 4.79 



BASEBALL 



21 



the League championship and the Little 
World Series. Crowe, who is given an 
excellent chance of winning the first-base 
position on the Boston Braves next year, 
was second in League batting with a .339 
average and led the League in number of 
hits (189), total bases on hits (316), 
doubles (41), and, most important of all, 
runs batted in (119). In the same League, 
Buzz Clarkson (Milwaukee) hit .343, but 
was not eligible for the batting cham- 
pionship because he did not bat 400 times. 
Jim Pendleton (St. Paul) led the League 
in runs scored and batted .301. Ray Dan- 
dridge (Minneapolis) batted an excellent 
.324. Don Black (St. Paul) won four and 
lost three, and had the best earned-run 
average (2.25) in the League. Dave Barn- 
hill (Minneapolis) won six and lost four. 

In the third Class AAA league, the 
Pacific Coast League, Sad Sam Jones set 
a new strike-out record (246) and had a 
16-13 record with the sixth-place San 
Diego Padres, pitched the most complete 
games (21) and the most innings (267), 
and had a very impressive earned-run 
average of 2.76. Bob Boyd was second in 
League batting with a .338 average. Jones 
and Boyd were regarded as having excel- 
lent chances of winning berths on the 
Cleveland Indians and Chicago White 
Sox, respectively. Other Negro players in 
the League were Roy Welmaker, Raul 
Lopez, Lorenzo Piper, Gene Baker, Frank 
Austin, Granville Gladstone, William 
Powell, Bob Thurman, and Artie Wilson. 

Negroes were scattered throughout the 
lower echelons of the minor leagues, from 
Class AA through Class D. Many of them 
were the property of major league clubs, 
including some clubs which have not yet 
tried Negroes out on the major league 
level. The New York Yankees, the Phila- 
delphia Athletics, and the Chicago Cubs 
are known to have Negroes on their farm 
clubs. Particularly encouraging is the 
employment of Negroes by southern 
minor league teams. For example, the 
Danville (Va.) team of the Carolina 
League hired Percy Miller and Berkeley 
Smith last mid-summer; and Granite 
Falls of the Class D Western League (in 



North Carolina) signed five Negro play- 
ers. It is freely predicted in Texas that 
within the next four or five years Negroes 
will be playing for the famous Class AA 
Texas League. An Associated Press re- 
lease dated Dec. 5 stated, "It is appar- 
ently a certainty that Negro baseball 
players will be on next season's roster of 
South Atlantic clubs." The Florida Inter- 
national League (Class B) took on its 
first Negro in December, George Handy 
of Memphis, who had played during the 
1951 season for the Ste.-Hyacinthe of the 
Canadian Provincial League. Considered 
"a fine second base prospect," he was 
signed by the Miami Beach team. 

This would seem to answer the ques- 
tion: Where are the future Negro stars 
coming from? With the weakening of 
the Negro leagues and the inevitable dis- 
appearance of the current crop of Negro 
stars, this has loomed as a serious prob- 
lem to those interested in the progress of 
Negroes in organized baseball. The real 
integration of Negroes on all levels seems 
to constitute the answer, and integration 
seems to be on the way. In this connec- 
tion, one other achievement is worthy of 
mention. Grover Jones, 17, catcher on the 
White Plains, New York, Post No. 135 
team, was voted "player of the year" in 
the 25th American Legion Junior Base- 
ball Championship. The first Negro to be 
so honored, he was team captain, hit .408 
in the sectional and regional champion- 
ships, and led the tournament with 20 
hits and 20 runs batted in. He led his 
team to second place, and was the first 
member of a non-championship team to 
be chosen "player of the year." 

The story of "Negro" baseball was one 
of continuing difficulties and dwindling 
popular support. The Negro American 
League dropped two of its teams to 
become an eight-team organization, with 
an Eastern and Western Division. This 
League played in Indianapolis, Chicago, 
Birmingham, Philadelphia, Kansas City, 
Memphis, New Orleans, and Baltimore. 
Indianapolis won the Eastern Division 
Championship, and Chicago, the Western 
Division. The future of this League is 



22 



SPORTS 



obscure, for it seems to lack adequate 
basic financing as well as adequate ap- 
peal. Many persons interested in the 
Negro in baseball hope that it will be- 
come a part of organized baseball and 
serve as an important "feeder" to the 
major leagues. 

The East defeated the West, 3-1, in the 
nineteenth annual East-West Negro Ail- 
Star Game before 21,312 in Chicago. 

FOOTBALL 

College Players and Teams 

In regard to college football, 1951 
was important for two reasons: Negroes 
played on more teams than ever before, 
and more Negro players starred and made 
All-America selections than ever before 
in one season. The Negro player in the 
East and Mid-West has been "old hat" 
for a number of years. In the East there 
were far fewer than usual. Only Ed Bell 
and Bob Evans of the University of Penn- 
sylvania and Avatus Stone of Syracuse 
were outstanding on major teams. Bell 
and Evans earned distinctions aplenty. 
Bell was undoubtedly one of the finest 
defensive ends in the country, and made 
the first team on two All-America selec- 
tions and the second or third team on 
several others. Evans was elected captain 
of the 1952 team, an unusual distinction, 
for no Negroes had played for a Penn- 
sylvania football team until the year 
1950. Stone, the only Negro offensive 
quarterback on a major football team, 
led the East in punting (ave. 40.2 yards). 

Most stellar Negro players of 1951 
were in the Mid-West, and most of them 
played in the Western Intercollegiate 
Conference, the Big Ten, where, accord- 
ing to most students of the game, the 
finest football in the country is played. 
The University of Iowa had seven Ne- 
groes on its squad. Among others partic- 
ularly outstanding were Don Stevens of 
Illinois, Bob Robertson of Indiana, Ed 
Withers of Wisconsin, Don Commack of 
Iowa, Lowell Perry and Tom Johnson of 
Michigan. The latter two made several 
All-America teams, and Lowell Perry was 



chosen Associated Press Linesman of the 
Week of Oct. 22 after scoring three touch- 
downs against Minnesota. Don Stevens 
and Claude Taliaferro (brother of George, 
the All -American) were members of the 
backfield of the undefeated University of 
Illinois team, which won the Big Ten 
Championship and played Stanford in 
the Rose Bowl on Jan. 1, 1952. 

By a rather odd arrangement, Michigan 
State's football team, which was unde- 
feated and was one of the two leading 
claimants for national championship hon- 
ors, is not officially a member of the Big 
Ten and will not be until 1953, though 
other teams of this institution are. The 
outstanding player on this team was the 
great Don Coleman, a tackle weighing 
only 180 pounds. He made every All- 
America selection of the year and was 
perhaps best described by the New York 
sportswriter who wrote, "He has the 
heart of a tiger and the power of a tank." 
Coleman is undoubtedly the finest Negro 
linesman of recent years. Leroy Bolden 
and Jim Ellis were two of the outstanding 
backs in Michigan State's excellent back- 
field. Bolden made the United Press All- 
Freshman team (the first such team ever 
chosen). 

Other brilliant Negro players in the 
Mid-West were Veryl Switzer (Kansas 
State) ; Al Sanders and Billy Bailey 
(Miami of Ohio) ; Denny Davis, 240-lb. 
tackle and the first Negro to play for 
Xavier; Jerry Palmer, co-captain of the 
Toledo team; and Burrell Shields of John 
Carroll. 

One of the greatest halfbacks of our 
time was the much-touted Johnny Bright 
of Drake University, who made a new 
national record for yards gained by a col- 
lege player (5,903). In a year notable 
for rough playing, he became the center 
of a cause celebre. In the game against 
Oklahoma A.&M., at Stillwater, he was 
injured, apparently deliberately, by 
A.&M. tackle Wilbanks Smith. He was 
struck twice early in the game, although 
he was neither carrying the ball nor 
running interference, and his jaw was 
broken. In fact, as pictures in Life (Nov. 



FOOTBALL 



23 



5) and Time (Nov. 5) clearly show, 
he was completely out of the plays being 
run off. Drake asked for an investigation 
by the Missouri Valley Conference, of 
which both schools were members. Upon 
the failure of the conference to investi- 
gate, Drake dropped its membership. A 
day later Bradley also withdrew, citing 
the Bright incident as one of its reasons 
for withdrawal. 

In spite of Bright's holding the national 
record for yards gained, he failed to 
achieve as much All-America recognition 
as he probably deserved, largely because 
Drake University is not one of the major 
football powers. However, professional 
football teams have been seriously in- 
terested in him for three years, and, if 
his jaw heals sufficiently, he will un- 
doubtedly be a top choice. He received the 
Iowa Amateur Athletic Union award as 
that State's "athlete of the year." 

On the West Coast, Bill Anderson and 
Dave Mann starred for Oregon State, Al 
Carmichael for the University of South- 
ern California, Ike Johnson for U.C.L.A., 
and Luther Keyes and Ollie Matson for 
San Francisco. These constitute a part 
of the most numerous crop of Negro 
stars in West Coast history. The greatest 
of them, and one of the greatest backs 
of modern times, was Ollie Matson, re- 
garded by his coach, Joe Kuharich, as 
"the finest football package in 25 years." 
Matson is exceptionally fast (he is con- 
sidered a great track prospect for the 
1952 Olympics) and powerful, and proved 
to be virtually unstoppable. Unusual for 
this day of two-platoon football, he 
played offensively and defensively, aver- 
aging 56 minutes a game, He led San 
Francisco to its first undefeated year, 
came within one touchdown (21) of ty- 
ing the national record, was the nation's 
leading ground-gainer (1,566 yards), 
set a new national record in yards gained 
by rushing in three years (3,166), led 
the nation in scoring (126 points), and 
made practically every All-America se- 
lection. He was chosen one of the two 
Associated Press Backs of the Week of 
Oct. 29, and received the Glenn (Pop) 



Warner award as the most valuable 
senior on the Pacific Coast. 

Matson and Bright played on the West 
team and Coleman on the East team in 
the annual East-West game. 

Duke Slater (now a municipal judge 
in Chicago) was one of the 32 gridiron 
immortals selected for the Football Hall 
of Fame, which was opened in November 
1951 at Rutgers University. 

Negro college football saw several of 
its long-dominant powers either dethroned 
or their supremacy seriously challenged. 
One national weekly headlined the situa- 
tion, at the end of the season, "State of 
Confusion Reigns on National Grid 
Front." Morgan State College lost four 
games, more than it usually loses in four 
years. Southern University, to which un- 
defeated seasons have not been unusual 
lately, was not one of the first 10 teams. 
There were no undefeated teams among 
the Negro colleges. Morris Brown won 
the Southern Inter-collegiate A.A. Cham- 
pionship; Prairie View, the Southwestern 
Athletic Conference championship. The 
Colored Intercollegiate A.A. Champion- 
ship, was won by West Virginia State 
College; the Midwestern A.A. champion- 
ship by Central State College. 

Among the outstanding players were: 
backs Alvin Hepburn and Oscar Nor- 
man (Florida A.&M.), Ray Dillon (P. 
V.), William Jackson (N.C.A.&T.), Ray- 
mond Thornton (B. Cookman), Henry 
Mosely (M. Brown), and Willie Smith 
(W. Va.) ; ends Ernie Warlick (N. C.) 
and Lorinzer Clark (Central S.) ; tackles 
James Caldwell (Tenn.), Theodore 
Benson (M. Brown), and Robert Hunter 
(Tuskegee) ; guards Willie Bloxton 
(Xavier) and Alphonso Varner (Fla.) ; 
center James Straughter (Southern). 
The leading teams were: 

Won Lost Tied 

Morris Brown 9 1 

Florida A.&M 7 1 1 

Tennessee State 8 2 

Prairie View 7 1 

Central State 610 

N. C. A. & T 6 1 1 

N. C. College 6 2 1 

West Virginia State 6 2 1 

Xavier 7 1 

Lincoln (Mo.) 7 2 



24 



SPORTS 



Results of games of traditional rivalry 
were: 

Lincoln (Pa.) 13 Howard 

Tuskegee 26 Alabama State 13 

Hampton 20 Virginia Union 13 

Tennessee State 13 Kentucky State 6 

West Virginia State defeated Morgan 
State, 20-13, in the annual "National 
Classic"; Florida A.&M. defeated North 
Carolina College, 67-6, in the Orange 
Blossom Classic; and Virginia State de- 
feated North Carolina A.&T. College, 
13-9, in the Capital Classic. 

1951 Honors Received 
In College Football 

Associated Press All- America 
First offensive team : 

Don Coleman (Mich. State) 
First defensive team : 

Ollie Matson (San Fran.) 
Second defensive team : 

Ed Bell (Penna.), Veryl Switzer (Kans. 

State) 
Look's All-America (picked by Grantland Rice 

and Football Writers' Ass. of America) 
Offensive platoon : 

Don Coleman (Mich. State) 
Defensive platoon : 

Ollie Matson (San Fran.) 
Collier's All-America 
First team : 

Don Coleman (Mich. State) 
Specialists : 

Offensive backs : Ollie Matson (San 

Fran. ) 

Pass receivers: Lowell Perry (Mich.) 

Punters : Dave Mann (Ore. State) 
United Press All-America 
First team : 

Don Coleman (Mich. State) 
Second team : 

Johnny Bright (Drake), Ollie Matson 

(San Fran.) 
Third team : 

Lowell Perry (Mich.) 
International News Service All-America 
Offensive team : 

Ollie Matson (San Fran.), Don Coleman 

(Mich. State) 
Defensive team : 

Ed Bell (Penna.) 
United Press Sectional All-Star Elevens 

Tom Johnson and Lowell Perry (Mich.) on 
first All-Big Ten 

Ed Bell (Penna.) on second All-Eastern 
Bob Evans (Penna.) on third All-Eastern 
Associated Press All-Ivy Team 
First team : Ed Bell (Penna.) 
Associated Press All-Mid-West 

Offensive team : Lowell Perry and Tom 
Johnson (Mich.) 
United Press All-Pacific 

First team : Ollie Matson (San Fran.) 
Second team: Burl Toler (San Fran.) 
Third team : Dave Mann (Ore. State) 



United Press All-Mid-West 

First team : Lowell Perry (Mich.), Don 
Coleman (Mich. State) 
Second team : Tom Johnson (Mich.) 
Third team: Johnny Bright (Drake) 

Associated Press All-Missouri Valley Team 

First team: Johnny Bright (Drake) 
Weekly Gridiron Record All- America 
Offensive team : 

Don Coleman (Mich. State) 
Defensive team : 

Ed Bell (Penna.), Ollie Matson (San 
Fran.) Ed Withers (Wise.), Tom John- 
son (Mich.) 

Collier's Regional All-Star Teams 

East 

First team: Ed Bell (Penna.) 

Honor. Mention: Bob Evans (Penna.) 

Mid-West 

First team: Don Coleman (Mich. State), 
Lowell Perry (Mich.) 

Honor. Mention: Tom Johnson (Mich.), 
LeRoy Bolden (Mich. State), Johnny 
Bright (Drake), Don Stevens (111.) 

Far West 

First team : Ollie Matson (San Fran.) 
Honor. Mention : Dave Mann (Ore. State) 

Professional Football 

Negroes continued to play outstanding 
roles in professional football. Six of the 
12 teams in the National League em- 
ployed Negro players : Los Angeles Rams 
(5), San Francisco '49ers (2), Green 
Bay Packers (1), Cleveland Browns (5), 
New York Giants (2), and New York 
Yanks (3). The Green Bay Packers were 
using a Negro player for the first time; 
on the other hand, the Detroit Lions had 
none this year. On the great Cleveland 
team, Horace Gillom's superb punting 
(he was League champion in this field), 
Bill Willis' aggressive line play, and Len 
Ford's great defensive end play were 
indispensible to the team's continuing 
success. Marion Motley, nearing the end 
of an extraordinary career, ran little but 
was of great value in protecting the 
League's best passer, Otto Graham (a 
white player). A young Negro, Emerson 
Cole, was groomed to replace Motley. 
George Taliaferro of the Yanks (the 
team with the poorest 1951 League rec- 
ord) again lived up to his All-America 
reputation gained at Indiana; he ran, 
passed, kicked, and defended, and proved 
to be one of the two or three best of all- 
around backs in the game. Buddy Young 
and Sherman Howard also starred as 



BOXING 



25 



ballcarriers for the Yanks. Deacon Dan 
Towler (Rams) was the League's out- 
standing fullback. Tank Younger starred 
on defense and offense for the same team. 
One of the most amazing players in the 
League was Emlen Tunnell of the Giants. 
A member of that team's famed "umbrella 
defense," Tunnell was so successful in 
pass interception and so sensational in 
pass-interception runbacks and punt re- 
turns that many persons wondered why 
he was not used as an offensive back. 
Stout Steve Owen, the astute Giant coach, 
pointed out in reply that Tunnell, on de- 
fense, had outgained most of the 
League's offensive players. Tunnell, in- 
cidentally, is a highly succesful exponent 
of the present-day approach; he keeps 
elaborate and extensive "books" on the 
habits of opposing players and gives 
considerable thought to the play of the 
game. 

Other Negro stars were Woodley Lewis, 
Bob Boyd, and Harry Thompson of the 
Rams and Bob Mann of the Green Bay 
Packers. The first three, plus Towler and 
Younger, contributed much to the Rams's 
winning the world professional cham- 
pionship. 

In the Canadian Football League, Ber- 
nie Custis was voted the "most valuable 
back." Ulysses Curtis, Bill Bass, and 
Herbert Trawick made the Eastern Ail- 
Star team. Tom Casey and Robbie Miles 
made the Western All-Star team. 

Outstanding Individual Performers 

New York Daily News Fifteenth Annual All- 
Professional Team 

First offensive team : 

Dan Towler (Los Angeles Rams) 

First defensive team : 

Len Ford and Bill Willis (Cleveland 
Browns), Emlen Tunnell (N. Y. Giants) 

United Press All-Professional Team 

First offensive team : 

Dan Towler (Los Angeles Rams) 

First defensive team : 

Len Ford and Bill Willis (Cleveland 
Browns), Emlen Tunnell (N. Y. Giants) 

Associated Press All-Pro-Team 
First defensive team : 

Bill Willis, Len Ford, Paul Younger, 
Emlen Tunnell 

Ground gaining : 

Dan Towler, 2nd (6.8 yds per carry) 



Punting : 

Horace Gillom, 1st (45.5 yds per kick) 
Punt returns : 

Buddy Young, 1st (19.3 yds per return) 
Pass interceptions : 

Emlen Tunnel, 3rd (9) 
Pass receiving : 

Bob Mann, 4th (50) 



BOXING 

In no sport has the Negro been so out- 
standing as in prize-fighting. This was 
as true in 1951 as at any time in the 
past. At the end of the year Negroes 
held five of the eight major titles, as 
follows : 

Jersey Joe Walcott, Heavyweight 

Division 
Sugar Ray Robinson, Middleweight 

Division 

Kid Gavilan, Welterweight Division 
Jimmy Carter, Lightweight Division 
Sandy Saddler, Featherweight Di- 

vison 

Nearly all the important bouts of the 
year involved at least one Negro fighter, 
and four of the most important ones saw 
Negro challengers fighting Negro cham- 
pions. Jersey Joe Walcott upset favored 
Ezzard Charles for the Heavyweight 
title; little-known Jimmy Carter defeated 
Ike Williams for the Lightweight Cham- 
pionship; and Randy Turpin, a British 
Negro, scored one of the greatest upsets 
in modern times by defeating Ray Robin- 
son in London in July, but he lost the 
return bout in New York in September. 
This was only the second defeat in Robin- 
son's long career (amateur and profes- 
sional) and the first to a man of his own 
weight. In February, Robinson had won 
the Middleweight title from Jake La- 
Motta in a hair-raising 13 rounds. Pre- 
viously he had won the world's Light- 
weight Championship, and he owned the 
Welterweight title when he fought La- 
Motta. 

Perhaps the most distinctive event of 
the year was Joe Louis' knockout loss 
to young and aggressive Rocky Marci- 
ano. The aging and balding Brown 
Bomber was slightly ahead on points ac- 



26 



SPORTS 



cording to all of the outstanding sports 
writers witnessing the fight (although the 
judges and referee had him behind) until 
the eighth round, when Marciano knocked 
him out. It was the third loss in his long 
and honorable professional career, and 
nearly every newspaper in the country 
carried, the morning after, the headline, 
"End of an Era in Boxing." However, 
before leaving for an exhibition in Japan, 
where he was tumultuously received, 
Louis would not say unequivocally that 
he was through with fighting, and he con- 
tinued to state his belief that he could 
beat either Ezzard Charles or Jersey Joe 
Walcott. 

Ray Robinson, who has established him- 
self as one of the greatest fighters of all 
time, was nearing the end of a triumphant 
tour of Europe, during which he had 
defeated all the available and willing 
fighters of his weight, when he was de- 
feated for the world Welterweight crown 
soundly and unexpectedly by the British 
fighter Randy Turpin. It was believed 
that not being in prime condition and 
taking Turpin too lightly were respon- 
sible. There was an immediate clamor 
for a return bout. In the second bout 
between the two, which was held in New 
York, Robinson regained his title in the 
first million-dollar fight between boxers 
who were not in the heavyweight division. 

This was one of the most extraordinary 
fights in history. No other bout ever 
attracted more international interest. On 
the continent, Robinson proved to be im- 
mensely popular and was feted by artists, 
politicians, and writers as well as by 
boxing fans. The French are particularly 
fond of him, for he won his Welterweight 
title from Jake LaMotta, who had earlier 
won it from their idol, Marcel Cerdan. 
There were also political implications in 
the fight. The British rejoiced not only in 
a Briton's winning a world championship, 
but, in their restivenes over increasing 
American influence in world affairs, also 
in the defeat of America's outstanding 
fighter by one of their own. English pub- 
lications reported a momentary upsurge, 
in public-opinion polls, of support for 



the Labor Party, which was just about to 
contest a national election with the Con- 
servative Party; this fluctuation was at- 
tributed to Turpin's victory. 

Robinson, who had received the Ed- 
ward J. Neil Award for having done the 
most for boxing in 1950, received the 
1951 Benny Leonard Good Sportsmanship 
Trophy and Ring Magazine's Fighter of 
the Year Award. 

Everyone conceded that the Light- 
weight champion, Ike Williams, like Ray 
Robinson and Joe Louis, was nearing the 
end of the trail. Williams has been one 
of the good, though not great, Negro 
fighters of our time. His bout with the 
young Negro Jimmy Carter in May was 
regarded more as a near "farewell ap- 
pearance" for an aging champion than 
a fight in which the title might change 
hands. Carter won and immediately be- 
came a question mark, for it was not 
clear whether Carter was good or Wil- 
liams simply washed up. In his only title 
defense of the year, against the flashy 
and extremely popular Art "Golden Boy" 
Aragon of California, Carter established 
himself as a good but rather colorless 
fighter. Apparently he has the equipment 
but lacks the "killer" instinct. 

Ezzard Charles's defense of his Heavy- 
weight title against old Jersey Joe Wal- 
cott. who has fought in more champion- 
ship bouts than any other fighter but had 
always lost, was considered little more 
than a money-making, tune-up match. 
Walcott proved again that perserverance 
pays and, to the surprise of everyone, 
possibly including himself, won the title 
handily. This threw the Heavyweight 
situation into confusion, for Louis had 
hoped to fight Charles again for the 
Championship. Walcott received the 1951 
Edward J. Neil Memorial Plaque (the 
most coveted award in boxing), for hav- 
ing done the most for boxing during the 
year. 

In the Heavyweight class, Clarence 
Henry emerged as a serious title possi- 
bility and successor to Louis, Charles, 
and Walcott. In October, Kid Gavilan 
was held to an upset draw by Johnny 



BASKETBALL 



27 



Bratton, from whom he had won the 
Welterweight title in May. 

Sandy Saddler retained the world's 
Featherweight title in the third of three 
savage and brutal matches with Willie 
Pep. Saddler won on a TKO when Pep 
failed to come out for the tenth round. 

Gil Turner, 21-year-old welterweight, 
with 22 knockouts in 27 victories, was 
named 1951 's Rookie Boxer of the Year 
by the Eastern Boxing Writers' Associa- 
tion. 

Golden Gloves 

For nearly 20 years, young Negroes 
have featured in the various Golden Glove 
tournaments held in this country and in 
Europe. This year they continued to win 
national and international successes. 
Bobby Jackson was captain of the Chi- 
cago Golden Gloves team, which won its 
fourteenth international match with a 
European team. There were six Negroes 
on the squad of eight; five (Nate Brooks, 
Willard Henry, Bobby Jackson, Ken 
Davis, and Bobby Bickle) won their 
matches, the Chicago team winning 6-2. 

The Washington, D.C., Golden Gloves 
team lost to the same European team, 5-3. 
Two of its three triumphs were won by 
Melton Ferguson and Willie Davis. 

Three Negroes were winners on the 
first amateur boxing team ever to defeat 
a British team on home soil. They were 
James Hackney, Rudolph Gwinn, and 
Randolph Sandy. 



BASKETBALL 

College Basketball 

Negro participation in collegiate bas- 
ketball has for many years lagged behind 
that in football. This is still true, though 
the achievements of a few Negroes during 
the past four or five years indicated a 
fast-developing change. The playing of 
Cliff Barksdale, first Negro to make the 
U.S. Olympic Basketball Team (1948), 
at U.C.L.A., of Chuck Cooper at Du- 
quesne in the 1948-50 seasons, and of Ed 
Warner at the City College of New York 



in the 1949-50 season was outstanding, 
and all three made All-America. Warner, 
in 1950, led City College of New York to 
the first double victory in history in the 
National Invitation Tournament and the 
National Collegiate A.A. Championship, 
and was voted "the most valuable player" 
of the former. During the first part of the 
1950-51 season Warner's play continued 
strong, though somewhat less so than 
expected. 

One of the outstanding stars of the 
season was Bill Garret of Indiana, the 
first Negro in recent years to star in the 
Big Ten. He was one of the finest players 
in the Conference, and was voted to the 
All-Big Ten and All-America teams. 

The greatest player of the year in 
fact, of the last few years was Sherman 
White of Long Island University. He was 
a superb shot, play-maker, and rebound 
specialist. Clearly the best in the country, 
he was slated to make every important 
All-America selection. 

Unfortunately, he, along with four 
other celebrated Negro players, became 
involved in amateur sports' most notori- 
ous scandal. Along with many other noted 
players, he was charged with and con- 
fessed to the crime of accepting bribes to 
"dump," that is, to throw games and 
control scores. White, Warner, Leroy 
Smith, Robert MacDonald, and Floyd 
Layne were the five Negroes involved 
(many other famous players were in- 
volved too). White received a one-year 
term, Warner a six-month term, and 
Smith and Layne six-month suspended 
sentences. It is interesting to note that, 
while large-scale bribing and "dumping" 
had been going on for several years, it 
was a Negro player, Junius Kellogg, first 
Negro to play for Manhattan University, 
whose report to his coach that he was 
offered $1,000 to "throw" a game against 
DePaul University broke the situation 
out into the open. At the beginning of 
the 1951-52 season, Kellogg was one of 
the leading stars of Eastern basketball. 
Other extremely promising players were 
Solly Walker, a sophomore, the first 
Negro to play for St. John's, one of the 



28 



SPORTS 



consistently strong teams in basketball; 
Hardy Williams, the first Negro to play 
for Pennsylvania State College and the 
captain of the team for 1951-52; Walter 
Dukes, six-foot-eleven-inch captain of the 
Seton Hall team; the first two Negroes 
ever to play as regulars for a Notre Dame 
varsity, Joe Bertrand and Entee Shine, 
members of the starting five; and Johnny 
Moore, sensational freshman ("another 
Don Barksdale") on the University of 
California at Los Angeles team. 

Professional Basketball 

In 1950-51 two Negroes broke into or- 
ganized professional basketball for the 
first time; they were Chuck Cooper, for- 
merly an All-American at Duquesne, who 
played for the Boston Celtics, and 
Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton, former 
star center of the Harlem Globetrotters, 
who played for the New York Knicker- 
bockers. Both players enjoyed good years. 
Cooper played a sound all-around game. 
Clifton was only a fair shot but was out- 
standing on defense, especially on re- 
bounds. He contributed considerably to 
the Knicks' successful season, in which 
they won their division championship and 
carried the Syracuse Nationals to a full 
seven-game play-off for the National 
Basketball Association Championship. 

At the beginning of the 1951-52 season, 
two more Negroes were in the National 
Basketball Association: Don Barksdale 
and Dave Minor, both playing for the 
Baltimore Bullets. The Bullets had made 
unusual efforts to bring Barksdale from 
the West Coast, and he is reportedly the 
highest-paid player in the Association. 
Both Barksdale and Minor were playing 
outstandingly at the season's outset, as 
was Cooper for Boston. The surprise 
sensation was Clifton, who, in addition to 
playing his usual brilliant defensive game, 
proved to be a great shotmaker as well. 
One Philadelphia sportswriter described 
him as "almost a team in himself." 

The most famous team in professional 
basketball and the most widely known 
athletic team of any kind in the world 
is the fabulous, all-Negro Harlem Globe- 



trotters. Operating on practically a year- 
round basis, they played throughout this 
country, in Canada, Europe, and South 
America, always drawing record-breaking 
crowds. They played before the largest 
crowd in basketball history (50,041) in 
Rio de Janerio on May 5. In Berlin, in 
August, the team broke its own record 
by playing the Boston Whirlwinds before 
75.000. An all-star team, its most famous 
players are Goose Tatum, the game's 
best ball-handler, and Marquez Haynes, 
the game's greatest dribbler. The Globe- 
trotters' 1950-51 record was 334 victories 
and six losses. 

At the end of the college basketball 
season, the Globetrotters made their sec- 
ond annual tour of the country with an 
all-star college team. The Trotters won, 
14 games to 4. 

TRACK AND FIELD 

Men 

There were many Negro champions in 
track and field in 1951. At the National 
Collegiate A.A. meet in Seattle in June, 
George Rhoden of Morgan State won the 
440-yard (0:46.5) and 220-yard (0:20.7) 
titles, Arthur Bragg of Morgan State the 
100-yard dash (0:9.6), George Brown of 
U.C.L.A. the broad jump (24' 5%"), and 
Meredith Gourdine of Cornell was second 
in the 220-yard low hurdles and placed in 
the broad jump. Morgan State College 
won third place in team honors with 38 
points, just behind Cornell's 40 points for 
second place. 

At the Diamond Jubilee IC4A (Inter- 
collegiate Amateur Athletic Association 
of America) meet, Andy Stanfield of 
Seton Hall won the 220-yard dash (0:20.6 
for a world record around a turn), the 
100-yard dash (0:9.7) for the third year 
in succession, and was second in the 
broad jump (25' 9"). Meredith Gourdine 
of Cornell won the broad jump (25' 9%") 
and the 220-yard low hurdles (0:23.7). 

At the National A.A.U. Track and 
Field Meet in Berkeley, Cal., in June, 
Rhoden won the 400-meter race (0:46 for 
the second straight year), with Herbert 



TRACK AND FIELD 



29 



McKenley second ; Jim Golliday of North- 
western the 100-meter (0:10.3), with 
Bragg second; Jim Ford of Drake the 
200-meter (0:20.8) ; Mai Whitfield, 1948 
Olympic winner of the 800-meter race 
(1:52.9), with Roscoe Brown of the New 
York Pioneer Club second; and George 
Brown (running for the Los Angeles 
A.C.) the broad jump (24' 8y 2 "), with 
Jesse Thomas of Michigan State third. 
Rhoden and Golliday tied meet records. 

Roscoe Brown, Golliday, and Rhoden 
were appointed to the American team that 
competed in Europe; and Whitfield, 
George Brown, and Thomas were ap- 
pointed to the 12-man team that toured 
all of Japan. Mai Whitfield also ran 
for this country in the Pan-American 
Olympic Games in Buenos Aires, Feb. 25- 
March 8. 

At the annual A.A.U. Relays, held at 
Morgan State for the second straight 
year, Morgan won the 400-meter relays. 
Herbert McKenley anchored the Grand 
Street Boys' Association to victory in the 
1,600-meter relays, with Morgan second. 
Morgan won four firsts in the Fifth An- 
nual South Atlantic A.A.U. meet: Lester 
Scott won the 70-yard hurdles, Arthur 
Bragg the 70-yard dash, George Rhoden 
the 600-yard race (1:10.4 for a new meet 
record), and Morgan State the mile relay. 
Rhoden was voted the individual star of 
the meet. Jimmy Bruce of Howard won 
the Collegiate 1,000-yard race (2:17.8 for 
a meet record) , and Leon Kess, a Morgan 
alumnus, won the Chesapeake 1,000. 

In the Purdue Relays, Clifton Ander- 
son of Indiana won the shot put (51' 
8%" ) , and Jesse Thomas won the 60-yard 
high hurdles and was second in the 60- 
yard low hurdles. 

In the Fifth Annual Seton Hall Relays, 
Morgan State won the mile relay for the 
third straight year, and Andy Stanfield, 
a top 1952 Olympic prospect, won the 
broad jump (23' 7V 2 "). 

In the famous Penn Relays, Stanfield 
won the 100-yard race (0:9.8) and the 
broad jump (25' 4"), Clifton Anderson 
the shot put (54' I 1 /*/'), Armstrong High 
of Washington, D.C., one of the 16 high 



school mile relays in the fastest time of 
the 154 teams competing in these 16 
events, and Cardozo High of Washington, 
D.C., retained its title in the 400-meter 
relay race. Other Negroes who distin- 
guished themselves in the Penn Relays 
were Larry Ellis, who led New York 
University to the half-mile college-sprint 
relay title, Bob Carthy, captain of Man- 
hattan's 1951-52 track team and anchor 
man on the winning 440-yard relay team, 
and Meredith Gourdine, who ran on Cor- 
nell's winning 480-yard shuttle-hurdle 
relay team and mile relay team. Morgan 
State, winner in 1950, ran second in the 
quarter-mile relay race. 

In the Coliseum Relays in Los Angeles, 
Morgan State won the mile relay, Rhoden 
the 440-yard race, Stanfield the 100-yard 
and 200-yard low hurdles, and George 
Brown the broad jump. Bob Carty anch- 
ored the Manhattan team to wins in the 
440- and 880-yard relays. Arthur Bragg 
won the New Zealand 220-yard title in 
the Canterbury Centennial games, held in 
January, and was second in the 100-meter 
dash. John Carroll, former Tuskegee star 
now running for the Baltimore Olympics, 
won the fifth Annual Penn A.C. five-mile 
cross-country race (31:38) in December. 

Kentucky State won the Midwestern 
A.A. Annual Track and Field Meet with 
88 points (Central College second with 
47) ; and Tuskegee Institute won the an- 
nual Tuskegee Relays, the oldest of the 
relays sponsored by Negro colleges. 

George Rhoden's mark of 0:45.8 in the 
400-meter (Aug. 22, 1950, Sweden) was 
recognized as a new world record in 
April by the International A.A. Federa- 
tion, which also recognized Mai Whit- 
field's 1:49.2 for the half-mile as tying 
Sidney Wooder son's record (the second 
oldest track record in the books). 

Ralph Metcalfe, one of the great sprint 
stars of the 1930's, was one of the 14 
athletes named to Wisconsin's Hall of 
Fame. Phil Thigpen, former middle-dis- 
tance star for New York University and 
former national indoor 1,000-yard cham- 
pion and IC4A half-mile title holder, was 
awarded the first John Marshall College 



30 



SPORTS 



Scholarship to the Seton University Law 
School. 

Women 

The Tuskegee Institute Girls' Track 
Team won the National A.A.U. meet. 
Newest star on this team, which has failed 
to win this meet only once since 1937, is 
Mary McNabb, a freshman who, in the 
A.A.U. meet held in Waterbury, Conn., 
in August, made an amazing showing. 
She won three junior and two senior 
championships, broke one American rec- 
ord, and tied another. She won the 50- 
meter, 100-meter, and 200-meter junior 
races, and the 50-meter and 100-meter 
senior races. She set a new American 
record of 0:24.3 for the 200 and tied the 
American mark of 0:64 in the 50-yard 
dash. She is regarded as a top Olympic 
prospect. 

In. the same meet Catherine Hardy of 
Fort Valley State (Ga.) was second in 
the 50-meter and 100-meter dashes; Jean 
Patton of Tennessee State won the senior 
200-meter dash (0:25.4); and Evelyn 
Lawler of Tuskegee was second in the 
hurdles. 

Evelyn Lawler and Nell Jackson, both 
of Tuskegee, were two of the three Ne- 
groes on the American team that com- 
peted in the Pan-American Olympic 
Games in Buenos Aires. 

Track and Field News in its world 
ranking for 1951 listed the following: 

Summary 
Track and Field Championships 

National Collegiate A. A. Champions 
100-yard dash : 

Art Bragg (Morgan) 
220-yard dash : 

George Rhoden (Morgan) 
440-yard run : 

George Rhoden 
Broad jump : v 

George Brown (U.C.L.A.) 

Intercollegiate A.A.A. Outdoor Champions 
100-yard dash: 

Andy Stanfield (Seton Hall) 
220-yard dash : 

Andy Stanfield 
220-yard low hurdles : 

Meredith Gourdine (Cornell) 
Broad jump : 

Meredith Gourdine 



Men's National Senior Outdoor Champions 
100-meter dash : 

Jim Golliday (Northwestern) 
200-meter dash : 

Jim Ford (Drake) 
400-meter run : 

George Rhoden (Morgan) 
800-meter run : 

Mai Whitfield (Grand Street Boys) 
Broad jump : 

George Brown (Circle A.C., Los Angeles) 

Men's National Senior Indoor Champions 
60-yard dash : 

Edward Conwell (Pioneer Club) 
1000-yard run : 

Roscoe Browne (Pioneer Club) 
60-yard high hurdles : 

Harrison Dillard (Cleveland) 
Broad jump : 

Andy Stanfield (Seton Hall) 
Team : 

Pioneer Club 

Women's National Outdoor Champions 
50-meter dash : 

Mary MacNabb (Tuskegee) 
100-meter dash : 

Mary McNabb 
200-meter dash : 

Jean Patton (Tennessee State) 
400-meter relay : 

Tuskegee Institute 
200-meter shuttle hurdle relay : 

Tuskegee Institute 
Team: 

Tuskegee Institute 



TENNIS 

The story of Negro progress in tennis 
in 1951 was almost wholly the story of 
the progress of young Althea Gibson. 
In 1950 she broke precedent by becoming 
the first Negro to play at Forest Hills, by 
the end of the year she had established 
herself as one of the nation's leading 
players. 

Miss Gibson broke two more prece- 
dents in 1951 : she played in Florida and 
at Wimbledon. In March she won the 
Good Neighbor Tennis Championship 
women's singles, defeating Betty Rosen- 
quest (ranked No. 8 nationally) 6-4, 6-2, 
in the finals; won the mixed doubles 
with Tony Vincent; and was runner-up, 
with Susan Herr, in the women's doubles. 
She was the first Negro to play in a 
"white" tournament in Florida. 

In England she played in four tourna- 
ments. She went to the semi-finals in the 
women's singles in the Northern Tourney, 
held in Manchester, and was runner-up, 



OTHER SPORTS 



31 



with Naresh Kumar of India, in the mixed 
doubles. She lost again in the semi-finals 
of the Kent Championships to Betty 
Rosenquest. In the London Champion- 
ships she lost in the quarter-finals. In the 
historic Wimbledon tournament, where 
she was the cynosure, she played well but 
lost in the quarter-finals to compatriot 
Beverly Baker (ranked No. 6). 

On the continent, after Wimbledon, 
she won the women's singles in the Dort- 
mund (Germany) International Tennis 
Championships, defeating Hannah Koze- 
luh, former Czechoslovakian champion, 
in the finals 6-3, 6-2. At Forest Hills, in 
the national tournament, she was defeated 
in the second round by 16-year old 
Maureen Connolly, who went on to win 
the women's title. 

Miss Gibson has developed the most 
powerful game played by a woman today 
and ranks No. 11 nationally. However, 
her game is relatively weak in control 
and she has lacked big tournament ex- 
perience. It is believed she will continue 
to improve. Her ambition is to make the 
American Wightman Cup team, which 
annually plays the British team for the 
two-nation championship. 

In the American Tennis Association 
Tournament, held in August at Central 
College (Ohio), George Stewart won both 
the men's singles and the national inter- 
collegiate title, defeating Ronald Charity 
of North Carolina College in the finals of 



the later. Stewart, who is enrolled at 
South Carolina State College, played 
Normal Appel (white) in the first inter- 
racial finals in A.T.A. history. The Peters 
Sisters of Tuskegee again won the wo- 
men's doubles. Althea Gibson, of course, 
won the women's singles. 

OTHER SPORTS 

Many Negroes achieved distinction in 
other sports. Among them were Len 
Burgess and Carl Barnes, members of 
the New York University fencing team; 
John Davis, holder of the national and 
international heavyweight weight-lifting 
titles; 16-year old Hosea Richardson, the 
first Negro to attain real prominence as a 
jockey for many a year; and Art Dor- 
rington, on the Washington Lions of the 
Eastern Hockey League and first Negro 
to play in organized hockey in the U.S. 
For the second straight year Howard 
Wheeler participated in the National 
Open Golf Championships, but failed to 
qualify as one of the 50 finalists (his 
score, 75-78-153). 

Among the most encouraging incidents 
was the participation by Negroes for the 
first time in a National Bowling Associa- 
tion tournament (Baltimore, April). 
There is every indication that this "peo- 
ple's" sport will soon function as demo- 
cratically as the other major American 
sports. 



The Negro Press 



CIRCULATION ARIZONA arc. 

Phoenix 

. T Sun (wkly) 2,000 

Since the beginning of 1947, 27 Negro 
newspapers have been established in the 

United States. Seven were born in 1947, California Eagle (wkly) 20,000 

six in 1948, four in 1949, seven in 1950, ri . te ,fL V" 1 , 6 ^ kly) / Lu< 

. . Tf.r'i TU J if. . Neighborhood News (wkly) 

three m 1951. 1 hey appeared in 16 states Sentinel (wkly) 25,000 

and the District of Columbia, one in each J ribune %W :; 10 ' 000 

, .-., . , T. ,. i i Spotlight (Th. & Sun.) 30,000 

location except Ohio and Missouri, which Star Review (Th.). 12 500 

had three each, and Alabama, Georgia, Oakland 

TII. . FT! f, vr j c i_ California Voice (wkly) 10.500 

Illinois, lexas, California, and bouth Herald (wkly) 

Carolina, which had tWO each. San Bernardino 

In 1951, a total of 187 Negro news- San f e o nty Bulletin (wkly) 

papers were functioning in 35 states and Comet (wkly) 10,000 

tVlP District ni rnlnmhia with a rnmViinprl San Francisco 

iCt 01 ^Olumma, Wltn a combined Sun-Reporter (wkly) 24,480 

circulation of 2,444,593, and there were Labor Herald (s-mo.) 85,567 

43 Negro magazines, with a combined Tota/ 228 047 

circulation of 1,299,637. COLORADO 

Denver 

Colorado Statesman (wkly) 2,700 

Circulation of Newspapers 1 _ St *f ( wkl y) 1 500 

Pueblo 

Western Ideal (wkly) 1,100 

ALABAMA Circ. 

Birmingham Total 5,300 

Baptist Leader (wkly) 3,500 DIST RICT OF COLUMBIA 

Review (wkly) 18,893 Washington 

World (s-wkly) 10,500 ^tSmerican (s-wkly) (Tue.) 15,120 

Mirror (wkly) ......... .. ... 21,106 Afro-American (s-wkly) (Fri.) 19 281 

Alabama Weekly Review (wkly) 28,438 c ital Times (Uly) . 13 500 

M b, lle ,. , . . . Gaily News (Fri.). 10,000 

Advocate (wkly) Nite Life fFri ) 5 000 

Gulf Informer (wkly) 12,643 

Montgomery T t , 62 o 01 

Alabama Tribune (wkly) 1 ,500 J M ^' VU1 

Tuscaloosa FLORIDA 

Alabama Citizen (wkly) 8,000 J a cf onville 

Tuskegee2 Florida Tattler (wkly) 10,508 

Herald (wkly) 2,740 Progressive News (wkly) 8,650 

_____ Florida Star (wkly) 5,000 

Total 107,320 Mj 31 .... 

Call, The (wkly) 

ARKANSAS Tropical Dispatch (wkly) 

Little Rock Florida Times 5,500 

Arkansas Survey-Journal (wkly) 12,550 Pensacola 

Arkansas World (wkly) 13,560 Colored Citizen (wkly) 1,100 

Baptist Vanguard Courier (wkly) 5,342 

State Press (wkly) 17,656 Tampa 

Arkansas Flashlight (wkly) 1,500 Bulletin (wkly) 780 

Pine Bluff Courier (Sat.) 1,500 

Negro Spokesman (wkly) 7,000 Florida Sentinel (Tues.) 9,400 



Total 52,266 



Total 47,780 



1 Circulation figures from N. Jf. Ayer & Son's Directory Newspapers and Periodicals (1950) and Editor and 
Publisher International Yearbook (1951). 

2 Owned by whites and edited by Negroes. 

32 



CIRCULATION 



33 



GEORGIA Circ. 

Albany 

Enterprise (wkly) 2,242 

Southwest Georgian (Sat.) 1,500 

Atlanta 

World (dly) 29,500 

Augusta Review 4,000 

Columbus 

World (Sun.) 2,800 

Macon 

World 2,500 

Rome 

Enterprise (ftntly) >. 

Savannah 

Tribune (wkly) 3,992 

Herald . . 



Total 46,534 

ILLINOIS 

Chicago 

Defender (wkly) 155,074 

World (wkly) 32,000 

Globe (wkly) 35,000 

East St. Louis 

Crusader, The (wkly) 

Robbing 

Herald (wkly) 3,800 

Views and Voices of Chicago and 

Suburbs 

Springfield 

Illinois Chronicle (wkly) 1,200 

Illinois Conservator (s-mo.) 3,500 

Total 230,574 
INDIANA 
Evansville 

Consolidated News (bi-wkly) 7,000 

Gary 

American (wkly) 5,500 

Lake County Observer (wkly) 8,000 

Indianapolis 

Recorder (wkly) 11,635 

Total 32,135 

IOWA 

Des Moines 

Iowa Bystander (wkly) 1 ,863 

Iowa Observer (wkly) ; 1,100 

Total 2,863 
KANSAS 
Hutchinson 

Blade (Fri.) 635 

Kansas City 

Peoples Elevator (wkly) 

Plaindealer (wkly) 15,000 

Wyandotte Echo (wkly) 1,000 

Wichita 

Negro Star (wkly) 1,000 

Total 17,635 

KENTUCKY 

Louisville 

American Baptist, (wkly) 1,500 

Defender (wkly) 1 5,226 

Kentucky Reporter (wkly) 1 ,000 

Leader (wkly) 15,296 

Total 33,022 

LOUISIANA 

New Orleans 

Central Christian Advocate (wkly) 23,000 

Informer and Sentinel (wkly) 3,890 



LOUISIANA (Cont.) Circ. 

New Orleans 

Louisiana Weekly (wkly) 12,678 

Sun (wkly) 1,000 

Shreveport 

Sun (wkly) 10,680 

Total 51,248 
MARYLAND 
Baltimore 

Afro-American (wkly) 60,742 

(Tues. local issue) 31,511 

(Sat. local issue) 32,352 

Total 124,605 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Boston 

Chronicle (wkly) 5,000 

Guardian (wkly) 10,000 

Times (wkly) 12,000 

Total 27,000 

MICHIGAN 

Detroit 

Michigan Chronical (wkly) 21,619 

Telegram (wkly) 1,1*00 

Tribune (wkly) 18,500 

Inkster 

Voice (wkly) 1,600 

Total 42,719 

MINNESOTA 

Minneapolis 

Spokesman (wkly) 4,318 

Twin City Observer (wkly) 5,127 

St. Paul 

Recorder (wkly) 3,958 

Total 13,403 
MISSISSIPPI 
Greenville 

Delta Leader (Sun.) 3,000 

Jackson 

Advocate (wkly) 5,500 

Mississippi Enterprise (wkly) 10,000 

Meridian 

Echo (s-mo.) 7,500 

Mound Bayou 

News-Digest (s-mo.) 4,728 

New Albany 

Community Citizen (s-mo.) 1,925 

Total 32,653 

MISSOURI 

Kansas City 

Call (wkly) 38,892 

St. Louis 

American (wkly) 18,374 

Argus (wkly) 25,650 

News (wkly) 3,000 

Total 85,916 

NEBRASKA 

Lincoln 

Voice (wkly) 843 

Omaha 

Guide (wkly) 15,965 

Star (wkly) 25,575 

Total 42,383 
NEW JERSEY 
Newark 

New Jersey Afro-American (wkly) 14,609 



34 



THE NEGRO PRESS 



NEW JERSEY (Con/.) Circ. 

Newark 

New Jersey Herald News (wkly) 28,371 

New Jersey Record (wkly) 

Patterson 

North Jersey Independent (wkly) 26,498 

Total 69,478 

NEW YORK 

Buffalo 

Criterion, The (wkly) 2,500 

Empire Star (wkly) 8,115 

New York 

Age (wkly) 32,750 

Amsterdam News (wkly) 59,849 

Westchester County Press (wkly) 6,000 

Rochester 

Star (wkly) 2,825 

Voice (bi-wkly) 3,267 

Syracuse 

Progressive Herald (wkly) 5,500 

Total 120,806 
NORTH CAROLINA 
Asheville 

Southern News (wkly) 2,700 

Charlotte 

Post (wkly) 5,000 

Star of Zion (wkly) 8,000 

Eagle 15,000 

Durham 

Carolina Times (wkly) 10,385 

Henderson 

Mountain News (wkly) 2,000 

Raleigh 

Carolinian, The (wkly) 1 5,000 

Wilmington 

Journal (wkly) 10,000 

Total 68,085 

OHIO 

Cincinnati 

Independent (wkly) 7,500 

Union (wkly) 12,000 

Cleveland 

Call and Post (wkly) v . . . . 23,530 

Guide (wkly) 

Herald (wkly) ; 12,000 

Columbus 

Ohio State News (wkly) 7,380 

Sentinel (wkly) 6,232 

Dayton 

Ohio Express (dly) .' 7,500 

Citizen (wkly) 5,000 

Hamilton 

Butler County American (wkly) 1,600 

Youngstown 

Buckeye Review, The (wkly) 2,100 

Toledo 

Script (wkly) 25,000 

Total 109,842 

OKLAHOMA 

Muskogee 

Oklahoma Independent (wkly) 2,000 

Oklahoma City 

Black Dispatch (wkly) 23,888 

Okmulgee 

Observer (wkly) 1,800 

Tulsa 

Appeal (wkly) 3,320 

Oklahoma Eagle (wkly) 5,000 

Total 36,008 



OREGON Circ. 

Portland 

Northwest Clarion (wkly) . ; 15,000 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Philadelphia 

Afro-American (wkly) 18,496 

Christian Review (wkly) 6,000 

Independent (wkly) 24,213 

Tribune (s-wkly) 20,916 

Pittsburgh 

Courier (wkly) 268,447 

Triangle Advocate (wkly) 2,000 

Total 340,072 
RHODE ISLAND 
Providence 

Chronicle (wkly) 1,541 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston 

New Citizen (wkly) 2,000 

Columbia 

Lighthouse and Informer (wkly) 6,400 

Palmetto Leader (wkly) 4,680 

Greenville 

American (wkly) 2,000 

Sumter 

Samaritan Herald and Voice 1,000 

of Job (wkly) 



Total 16,080 



TENNESSEE 
Chattanooga 

Observer (wkly) , 

Jackson 

Christian Index, The (wkly) , 

Knoxville 

Flashlight Herald (wkly) 

Monitor (wkly) 

Memphis 

World (s-wkly) (Tues.) 

(Fri.) 

Nashville 

Globe and Independent (wkly) 

National Baptist Union Review (wkly) . 

Recorder (wkly) . 



4,000 
6,000 

6,500 
5,700 

16,000 
21,000 

26,000 

53,460 

8,000 



Total 146,660 



TEXAS 
Dallas 

Express (wkly) 

Fort Worth 

Defender and Baptist Herald (wkly) .... 

Lake Como News (wkly) 

Mind (wkly) 

Houston 

Defender (wkly) 

Houston Informer (wkly) 

Informer and Texas Freeman, The(wkly) 

Negro Labor News (wkly) 

Marshall 

Traveler (wkly) 

San Antonio 

Register (wkly) 

Waco 

Messenger (wkly) 

Total 71,111 

VIRGINIA 
Charlottesville 

Tribune (wkly) 3,000 

Norfolk 

Journal and Guide (wkly) 63,428 



8,728 

3,860 
2,000 
2,000 

3,361 

7,803 

26,109 

2,000 

1,500 
9,750 
4,000 



NATIONAL NEWSPAPER PUBLISHERS 



35 



VIRGINIA (Cont.) 
Richmond 

Afro-American (wkly) 
Roanoke 

Tribune (wkly) 



Circ. 

11,303 

15,000 



Circ. 



Total 



WASHINGTON 
Seattle 

Northwest Enterprise (wkly) 

WEST VIRGINIA 
Bluefield 

Independent Observer (wkly) 

WISCONSIN 
Milwaukee 

Globe (wkly) 

Wisconsin Enterprise-Blade (wkly) 



92,731 
10,500 

2,400 



975 
55,000 



Total 55,975 



Circulation of Magazines 1 



NEW YORK 
New York 

Crisis (mo.) 40,000 

Interracial Review (mo.) 10,000 

Journal of the National Medical Associa- 
tion (bi-mo.) 4,032 

Our World (mo.) 166,031 

Voice of Missions (mo.) 2,300 

NORTH CAROLINA 
Charlotte 

Quarterly Review of Higher Education 

Among Negroes (quar.) 2,000 

PENNSYLVANIA 
Philadelphia 

Bronze Woman (mo.) 5,700 

Kappa Alpha Psi Journal (mo.) 4,000 

TENNESSEE 
Memphis 

Sphinx Magazine (quar.) 14,000 

Whole Truth, The (mo.) 2,000 

Nashville 

American Negro Mind (mo.) 3,000 

Broadcaster, The (quar.) 2,791 

Message Magazine (mo.) 5,000 

ALABAMA Circ. Modern Farmer, The (mo.) 32,^00 

Tuskegee National Baptist Voice (bi-mo.) 5,000 

Service (mo.) 5,000 Review, The (quar.) 3,000 

CALIFORNIA West'n Christian Recorder (s-mo.) 2,000 

Berkeley Union City 

Ivy Leaf (quar.) 5,000 Cumberland Flag, The (mo.) 500 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA I EX , A , S . 

Washington Port Worth 

Journal of Negro Education, (quar.).... 4,500 World's Messenger (mo.) 6,000 

Journal of Negro History (quar.) 1 ,450 Ne S ro Aclnevements (mo.) 4,000 

Negro History Bulletin (mo.) 9,000 VIRGINIA 

Pulse (mo.) 25,000 Manassas 

i^urMsr-TA Bulletin of the National Dental Assn. 

GEORGIA (quar.)... 1,650 

Atlanta D . K j 

Colored Morticians Bulletin, The (mo.) 1,500 ^^ke Fraternal Bulletin (mo.) .... 1,400 

Foundation, The (quar.) 1,000 

Georgia Baptist, The (s-mo.) 2,500 WEST VIRGINIA 

Macon Charleston 

Sunday School Worker (bi-mo.). ..?... Color (mo.) 100,483 

ILLINOIS 

Ch E C bo g ny ( mo.) 379,000 NATIONAL NEWSPAPER 

Negro Digest (mo.) 100,000 PUBLISHERS ASSOCIATION 

Negro Traveler 72,000 

Tan Confessions 200,000 _, ,. T ,., r ui u A 

p eoria The Negro Newspaper Publishers Asso- 

Bronze Citizen (mo.) 1,000 ciation, which recently substituted "Na- 

KENTUCKY tional" for "Negro" in its name, ended its 

LO Kenmcky Negro Education Assn. Journal eleventh year of existence in 1951 with 

(bi-mo.) ,1,400 the announcement of a venture designed 

MARYLAND to raise the income of individual member 

Ba Ced Harvest, The (mo.) 46,000 P a P 6rS and tO & VG the organization a 

MICHIGAN greater unity. The venture, to be headed 

Detroit by Dowdal H. Davis, general manager of 

Postal Alliance, The (mo.) 10,000 the Kansas City Call and former NNPA 

MISSISSIPPI president, is a national survey of con- 
Bay St. Louis , i ^1 r i -ii- 
St. Augustine's Messenger (mo.) 9,400 sumer preferences in the $15-billion an- 

Mound Bayou nua l Negro market. Surveys of Negro- 

Taborian Star (mo.) 6,000 , , t 

Yazoo City consumer brand preferences were con- 
Central Voice, The (mo.) 2,500 ducted earlier by individual publications 



1 Circulation figures have been derived in the main from N. W. Ayer & Son's Directory Newspapers and 
Periodicals (1950). 



36 



THE NEGRO PRESS 



the Pittsburgh Courier, Afro-American, 
Louisville Defender, Ebony magazine 
and by one newspaper representatives 
agency, the Interstate United News- 
papers, Inc. Results of the findings have 
been printed for distribution mainly to 
potential advertisers. The Davis survey 
marks the first such inquiry by an organi- 
zation of Negro publishers. 

At the beginning of 1947, the NNPA 
organized within itself three societies de- 
voted to editorial, advertising, and circu- 
lation interests. Every year these societies 
meet concurrently with the parent or- 
ganization. 

In an effort to strengthen the news 
service for Negro newspapers and to meet 
objections to the costs of its existing 
service, the NNPA, in its eighth annual 
session in Detroit in June 1947, voted 
transference of its news-service opera- 
tions to a group of its members to be 
incorporated. P. Bernard Young, Jr., 
editor-in-chief, Journal and Guide, served 
as the first chairman of the new agency, 
which kept the initials NNPA, signifying 
National Negro Press Association. News- 
papers subscribing the necessary capital 
stock were: The Call, Journal and Guide, 
Kansas City Plaindealer, Ohio State 
News, Afro-American, Louisville De- 
fender, Atlanta Daily World, Cleveland 
Call and Post, Houston Informer. Chicago 
Defender, and Detroit Tribune. 

Thomas W. Young, business manager 
for the Journal and Guide r succeeded 
Frank L. Stanley, editor-publisher of the 
Louisville Defender, as president of the 
publishers' organization. Young, a jour- 
nalism and law graduate of Ohio State 
University, was the first professionally 
trained member to serve as the leader of 
NNPA. Convention resolutions deplored 
the end of National Housing Expediter's 
race-relations service, approved the pro- 
gram of the American Heritage Founda- 
tion, encouraged Negro business, urged 
the Senate Sub-Committee on Appropria- 
tions to restore cuts in the Farmers Home 
Administration Funds for 1948, supported 
the Taft-Hartley labor legislation, and 
pledged unrelenting vigilance in the 



Negro's effort to gain first-class citizen- 
ship. Nnamdi Azikiwe, West African 
newspaper publisher, who addressed the 
convention, was made an honorary mem- 
ber. 

After the NNPA news service had been 
in operation for a period of 25 weeks, 
servicing 20 newspapers with a combined 
circulation of more than 1,000,000 copies 
weekly, the new incorporated set-up was 
announced a definite success. There were 
prospects that foreign publications would 
soon subscribe to the service. Louis 
Lautier headed the news staff of six 
workers. 

At its eleventh annual convention in 
1950 in Houston, Texas, the publishers 
group, which now consisted of 48 papers, 
or approximately 80% of Negro news- 
paper circulation, created four new re- 
gional directors for the purpose of pro- 
moting closer relations among the news- 
papers in each division. Dowdal H. Davis, 
general manager, Kansas City Call, was 
re-elected to his second term as president. 

The 1951 NNPA meeting at New York 
City witnessed the shift in name from 
Negro Newspaper Publishers Association 
to National Newspaper Publishers Asso- 
ciation. Declared the Louisville Defender 
editorially. June 30: "The change in the 
name of the NNPA will enable the more 
democratic thinking publishers to elimi- 
nate some of the glaring inconsistencies 
in their papers and will permit them to 
go ahead with the fight for full integra- 
tion and the full participation of Negroes 
in the American way of life." 

Retiring president Dowdal Davis said 
at the opening luncheon session: "There 
will be a Negro market just as long 
as the word 'restricted' appears or is 
implied in advertising and various con- 
tracts [and] just as long as there is an 
insensitivity on the part of the majority 
in its appraisal of the minorities." He 
said that there is a Negro press because 
of these things, and because mass media 
do not adequately picture the "depriva- 
tion of civil rights, discrimination in em- 
ployment, exposure to personal indignity, 
housing problems or class legislation." 



NEGRO PRESS AND NEGRO MARKET 



37 



David Wasko, of Donahue and Com- 
pany, president of the Media Men's Asso- 
ciation, offered "constructive criticism" 
which might get the publishers more na- 
tional advertising. He mentioned some of 
the shortcomings of the Negro papers: 
insufficient information about the market ; 
failure of the advertising to appear in the 
paper after the copy and order have been 
sent; delay in billing and sending proofs 
of publication, and inattention to corre- 
spondence. The 1951 convention elected 
Louis Martin, Michigan Chronicle pub- 
lisher, its new president. 

Dateline, the first official publication of 
NNPA, made its bow as a quarterly in 
January 1949 under the direction of 
Ernest E. Johnson, New York City public- 
relations representative for NNPA. It 
appeared in four pages of S^'xll" stock 
with three columns to a page. This pub- 
lication was succeeded in February 1951 
by the NNPA Bulletin, a 16- to 24-page 
pocket-size bi-monthly magazine pre- 
pared and printed at Lincoln University 
of Missouri under the guidance of its 
School of Journalism. 

National Negro Newspaper Week, 
sponsored by NNPA annually since 1939, 
shifted its date in 1951 from the last week 
in February to the middle of March, to 
fall during the week of the anniversary 
of the birth of the first Negro newspaper, 
Freedom's Journal, which is March 16. 

During the winter meeting of NNPA 
in Chicago in January 1950, the delegates 
passed a resolution asking for an investi- 
gation by the Department of Justice of 
the threats to freedom of the press in- 
volved in the indictments of two South 
Carolina newspapermen for "criminal 
libel" in reporting a statement of a Negro 
denying an attack on a white girl. John 
H. McCray, editor, Lighthouse and In- 
former, Columbia, and Darling Booth, AP 
writer, were indicted because they re- 
ported the denial-of-attack statement of 
Willie Colbert, who has since been elec- 
trocuted for the alleged crime. In their 
complaint the publishers said that prose- 
cution of the newsmen, under South Caro- 
lina law, was a violation of their civil 



rights. A four-man committee was named 
to represent the Association before the 
Department of Justice: John H. Seng- 
stacke, publisher, Chicago Defender; C. 
A. Scott, publisher, Atlanta Daily World; 
Thomas W. Young, business manager, 
Journal and Guide, and D. Arnett 
Murphy, vice-president, Afro-American 
newspapers. NNPA offered McCray finan- 
cial and legal assistance for his court 
appearance. 

Late in June 1950, at his trial, McCray 
pleaded guilty and was fined $5,000 with 
a suspended one-year jail term and a 
three-year probation by Circuit Judge 
Steve C. Griffin. The sentence required 
that the editor publish both his plea and 
sentence in his paper within a reasonable 
length of time. 

Early in May 1949, Thomas W. Young, 
business manager, Journal and Guide, 
NNPA president, and Dowdal H. Davis, 
general manager, Kansas City Call, 
NNPA vice-president, on invitation, ap- 
peared at the annual meeting of the 
American Newspaper Publishers Associa- 
tion in New York City. In his address 
before the assemblage, Young said that 
the chief aims of the Negro press are to 
maintain a united front "to protest and 
expose every condition inconsistent with 
the democratic concepts we all treasure" 
and to give coverage to that news of the 
Negro population which is ignored or 
distorted by the white papers. He stated 
that the Negro press serves to inspire the 
race to greater accomplishment by pub- 
lishing news of outstanding achievements 
of Negroes in all fields and ranks of life 
and strives for greater cooperation and 
unity between white and Negro news- 
papers and between the ANPA and 
NNPA. 

NEGRO PRESS MEDIA TO 
NEGRO MARKET 

"The Negro Market: 15,000,000 strong, 
its people have an aggregate income of 
$14 billion and the will to buy." These 
lines, below a group picture of Chicago 
Negroes, appeared on the cover of the 



38 



THE NEGRO PRESS 



July 29, 1951, issue of Tide magazine, 
which gave over 13 pages to a discussion 
plus media ads of the Negro market. 
"Always under-estimated," declared the 
headline, "it is rich, ripe and ready 
today." The piece opened and closed on 
a hot current issue: the "Amos 'n' Andy" 
TV show, which has raised the displeas- 
ure of the NAACP but which Blatz Beer, 
sponsor, defends. Tide told about the 
Negro population, the Negro's recent mi- 
gratory record, his flare for learning, and 
his employment. 

The brand-name advertisers have 
learned of this lucrative Negro market, 
said Tide, and have angled "ad" copy to 
Negro newspapers and magazines. These 
include Lever Brothers Company, Quaker 
Oats Company, Radio Corporation of 
America, Best Foods, Inc., Carnation 
Company, H. J. Heinz Company, Stand- 
ard Brands, Inc., Pillsbury Mills, Armour 
and Company, Pet Milk, Rinso, La Palina 
cigars, Jelke Margarine, Beech Nut gum, 
Hadacol, Unicorn Press, Phillips Soups, 
Park & Tilford, Lucky Strike cigarettes, 
Lifebuoy, El Producto, Pal Blades, Sin- 
clair Oil, Coca-Cola, Remington Rand, 
Elgin watches, Zenith radio, Hunt's 
Foods, to mention only a few. 

This memo from Elinor Zeigler, Tide 
editor, accompanied the report: 

I think a major point of the story could 
well be the striking change that has taken 
place in advertisers' and agencies' attitudes 
toward Negro media since our last story 
(March 15, 1947). People then tended to 
talk as though we were researching a pretty 
obscure topic about which they knew little, 
and they seemed to have only a rather dutiful, 
somewhat grudging, interest. 

Now that is sharply changed, not in all, but 
in an impressive number of cases. Important 
executives this time showed great interest, 
asked me what we had found out about the 
market, went far out of their way to stress 
their personal appreciation of the importance 
of the subject and in more cases than I can 
ever remember they took pains to compli- 
ment the media on the progress they had 
made. . . . They seem to feel that the buyers 
and sellers are learning to deal with each 
other without prejudice and that the sooner 
everybody on both sides achieves a fair, ob- 
jective viewpoint, the sooner an important, 
neglected potential in advertising can be 
developed. 



In an article in a January 1950 issue of 
Advertising Age, Marrine Christopher 
stated that "expenditures by national ad- 
vertisers in Negro media may reach 
$2,500,000, a gain of a half-million dol- 
lars. . . ." "No matter what their economic 
status," he wrote, "Negroes have made 
it a part of their behavior pattern always 
to buy the best and most expensive items 
they can afford." 

Working for more than ten years for 
the various Negro newspapers in an effort 
to promote the Negro market in the eyes 
of national advertisers have been two 
publishers' representatives groups, both 
headquartered in New York City Inter- 
state United Newspapers, Inc., William 
G. Black, sales manager, and the Associ- 
ated Publishers, Inc., Joseph B. LaCour, 
general manager. Both organizations have 
been active in collecting details about 
their special market, publishing and dis- 
playing their findings, and making con- 
tact with potential space-buyer agencies 
for block newspaper accounts. Interstate 
services more than 100 papers while API 
limits itself to 27 publications, most of 
which are members of the Audit Bureau 
of Circulations and total more than a 
million in combined circulation. 

During the two-day meeting of the 
American Marketing Association at the 
Hotel Waldorf-Astoria in New York City 
in December 1949, API set up an exhibit 
designed to explain to the country's lead- 
ing manufacturers the 11 -figure buying 
power of the Negro people. The exhibit 
set forth data on the Negro population, 
their living places, their earnings, and 
their buying preferences. 

The API message was prepared by 
Harry Evans, API sales manager, and 
Major Homer Roberts, director of the 
firm's Chicago office. It was built around 
a large portrait of an attractive colored 
girl on horseback with horse and rider 
leaping over a hurdle in perfect coordina- 
tion. The picture was an actual news shot 
which had been published in colored 
newspapers. A caption labeled "Concen- 
tration" emphasized that concentration of 
the colored press on its compact market 



PRESS CLUBS 



39 



offered advertisers an excellent oppor- 
tunity to overcome sales hurdles in their 
business operations. An electronic tape 
recorder, featuring the voices of Evans 
and one of his sales assistants, told the 
story of the lucrative colored market. 

Potentialities of the market covered by 
the col&red press and pointed up by the 
tape recorder for the information and 
education of AMA representatives were: 
1) that it reaches more than 14 million 
people whose annual income increased 
greatly over the past 20 years, 2) that 
the income was estimated at billions of 
dollars, 3) that each week 68% of urban 
colored families read Negro newspapers, 
which alone print an authentic review of 
the important events in their daily lives. 
The API's message to the AMA said 
further: "Reaching the colored market 
requires no foreign language and no spe- 
cial packaging or labelling. Concentra- 
tion on the areas where colored people 
live and spend their money through 
media which reach them best, and exert 
the greatest influence on their spending 
is the most simple way to reach such a 
market." 

Perhaps the most enterprising publica- 
tion in the Negro group in the way of 
increasing advertising volume is Ebony 
magazine, an ABC-audited monthly which 
regularly tests its national market, pub- 
lishes the results, and visibly profits by 
the effort. During the past two years its 
page size and advertising volume have 
doubled. In December 1950, the maga- 
zine's publisher announced that the 
monthly average of 353,095 buyers had 
been surveyed early in 1950 by a market 
research organization, Daniel Starch and 
Staff. Here are some of the findings : Four 
out of every ten Ebony buyers own cars; 
one out of five has a television set; three 
out of ten own their own homes ; nine out 
of ten carry life insurance; one out of 
five has a piano; four out of ten go to 
movies weekly; and more than one out 
of every four has gone to college. Data 
like this, made by an impartial researcher, 
has acquainted advertisers with the Ne- 
gro's buying power. 



PRESS CLUBS 

Organization of Negro journalists on a 
national scale has been the case for many 
years, but the coming-together of these 
journalists on a local scale is a matter 
of somewhat recent development. Unfor- 
tunately, general associations of a na- 
tional and local variety are not open to 
Negro membership, and colored newsmen 
have had to cultivate their own profes- 
sional group activity. A recent case in 
point is that of the St. Louis Advertising 
Club, which voted 157 to 135 in Septem- 
ber 1950 to keep its constitutional pro- 
vision that "any male white person of 
good moral character, a citizen of the 
United States, 20 or more years of age, 
interested in advertising, shall be eligible 
to membership." The American News- 
paper Guild, alone among national or- 
ganizations, has accorded the Negro full- 
fledged membership. 

Among the oldest of the existing Negro 
organizations is the Capital Press Club at 
Washington, D.C., a body founded by 
Alfred E. Smith nine years ago. This 
group meets at luncheon once a week, 
usually with a prominent personage as 
guest speaker, and observes its anni- 
versary regularly with a week-end of 
discussions and entertainment. 

In 1948, the New York Press Club was 
organized "to raise professional stand- 
ards through the promotion of lectures, 
seminars, conferences and research pro- 
jects." In June 1951, the New York 
organization conducted an all-day news- 
paper workshop with panel discussions 
on such subjects as "The Role of the 
Community and Class Newspaper" and 
"The Responsibility of the Newspaper or 
Magazine to the Advertiser and the Com- 
munity." 

A similar activity, carried on not by a 
press club but by a college, was the first 
annual Seminar in Journalism for Florida 
newspapermen held at the Florida A. & 
M. College at Tallahassee, July 18-19, 
1947. M. R. Kyler, director of public 
relations at the college, stated that the 
purpose of the seminar was to bring 



40 



THE NEGRO PRESS 



members of the working press together 
to discuss problems facing newspapers 
and to work out plans for an annual 
seminar that would serve to raise the 
standards of journalism. One talk, by 
Joseph V. Baker, Philadelphia publicist, 
dealt with the subject; "Can the Negro 
Press be an Instrument of Public Service 
and at the Same Time Operate as a 
Business?" "Editorial and Advertising 
Problems Facing Negro Weeklies" was 
the subject for a panel discussion. An 
outgrowth of the 1947 meeting was the 
formation of the Florida Newspaper Insti- 
tute to sponsor future workshops at the 
college. Officers of the Institute were: 
Daniel A. Francis, Miami Tropical Dis- 
patch, president; Leroy Washington, 
Jacksonville Progressive News, vice- 
president; Garth Reeves, Miami Times, 
treasurer; Calvin E. Adams, chairman of 
the executive committee. 

North Carolina College at Durham de- 
signed a 1951 summer Press Institute for 
the discussion of newspaper problems on 
both the school and professional level. 

In July 1950, the Los Angeles Press 
Club came into being, and a year later 
one was organized in St. Louis called the 
Mound City Press Club. The Durham 
Press Club, started four years ago for 
newspapermen from the state of North 
Carolina, gave "Page One Awards" to 
outstanding Negroes at its third annual 
program in 1950. Other clubs have been 
formed in Detroit, Chicago, and New 
Orleans. 

RACE TAGS AND 

THE NEWS 

Since 1947, the nation has witnessed a 
remarkable loosening of the strings that 
have kept tight the discriminatory prac- 
tices among general newspapers and 
magazines. 

Early in 1947, the Times-Dispatch and 
the News-Leader, dailies at Richmond, 
Va., abandoned the practice of identifying 
Negroes by race and directed their staffs 
to use race names only when they are 
integral parts of a story and necessary 



for news purposes. A number of papers 
followed this practice. The Washington 
Evening Star modified the practice to the 
extent that if the person written about is 
colored, he is designated "Negro" in the 
lead if the news is good and in the last 
paragraph if the news is bad. In the late 
winter of 1951, Maxwell Droke, editor of 
Quote, a bi-weekly publication devoted to 
quotations and brief humorous stories, 
stated in his reply to the complaint of a 
reader that his publication would no 
longer use the term "darky." 

To show the absurdity of unnecessary 
racial identification in news stories, the 
People's Daily World, left-wing labor 
paper at San Francisco, Cal., designated 
the race of all persons mentioned in news 
stories in its Aug. 1, 1947 issue, and came 
up with such headlines as these: "Cau- 
casian Confesses Killing His Bride," 
"Police Hold Caucasian Sailor." In a 
front-page editorial, the World stated: 
"We offer this one-day experiment, for 
whatever it is worth, as a contribution to 
eliminate national prejudices and oppres- 
sion in minority groups, and to the dis- 
couragement of such newspaper practices 
as reinforce bigotry and inflame preju- 
dice." 

During the Nov. 11, 1949, meeting in 
Chicago of the Associated Press Manag- 
ing Editors Association, with 250 dele- 
gates in attendance, Ben Reese, editor of 
the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, inquired 
what the AP policy was in the designation 
of Negroes in the news. Alan Gould, AP 
management official, explained that the 
identification of "Negro" is used if it is 
pertinent to the news. He explained that 
it would slow up the news process if it 
were a fixed rule that the identification be 
included in all stories. He stated that the 
AP intended to continue to handle such 
identification "on the basis of common 
sense." 

Meanwhile, in Alabama, the Mobile 
Press-Register* refused to honor a request 
of local Negroes to print the title "Mrs." 
or "Miss" before the names of Negro 
women in its stories and paid obituary no- 
tices. The group sought also to have the 



RACE TAGS AND THE NEWS 



41 



newspaper modify its policy in reporting 
news about Negroes. 

Early in 1949, a Baltimore journalist, 
Mrs. Elizabeth T. Meijer, wrote The 
Ladies Home Journal to ascertain why 
that widely circulated publication per- 
sisted in using a small 'n' for Negro. A 
reply from the Journal "editors" stated: 
"When this procedure became Journal 
policy, we checked with a number of 
prominent Negro leaders. There was dis- 
agreement among them, but the majority 
preferred the small 'n', for they felt that 
the capital drew immediate attention to 
the color." These "prominent leaders" 
were never identified. 

In an article, "Should Race Tags Be 
Dropped in the United States Press," in 
the June 1949 Negro Digest, Roland E. 
Wolseley, professor of journalism at Syra- 
cuse University, took exception to the de- 
cision announced Jan. 15 by the editors 
of The Saturday Review of Literature to 
drop the mention of race altogether from 
its pages. Wrote Wolseley: "If the Satur- 
day Review is going to forego mention of 
race, by the same reasoning it should 
forget the fact that Evelyn Waugh and 
Vera Britain are British authors, that 
Andre Gide and Jean Paul Sartre are 
French writers, and that Ernest Heming- 
way and William Faulkner are American 
novelists." He suggested: "Mention race 
wherever it is pertinent. It is not impor- 
tant to note that a street car conductor 
who was injured in an accident is a 
Negro. It is important to note it if the 
conductor saved a passenger's life in the 
accident. It is not important to note it 
if the conductor's wife bore a child under 
ordinary conditions or if the conductor 
dies of old age. It is important to note it 
if the conductor stole the company's 
money or if he becomes a policeman and 
is the first Negro on the force." 

In his reporting text, The Modern Re- 
porter's Handbook, John Paul Jones re- 
viewed the arguments against race iden- 
tification and offered a set of guides for 
the novice. 

Early in June 1950, the Mississippi 
Press Association in its eighty-fourth an- 



nual session discussed the matter of racial 
news at a general session and heard a 
panel discussion of it by Ira Harkey, 
Pascagoula Chronicle-Star, and James 
D. Arrington, Collins News-Commercial. 
Harkey reported that his paper had 
abandoned the South-wide policy of iden- 
tifying by race the subjects in news stor- 
ies. Arrington disagreed slightly with 
Harkey's program. He believed that "we 
are trying to raise the ideals of the Negro 
but that identification is necessary in a 
news story. It has new values," he said. 
"The Negro likes to know if another 
Negro has done something be it good or 
bad. But don't play up the story only if 
the subject is in trouble. If he accom- 
plished something, that's news, too." . 

In his opening message to the general 
session, J. Oliver Emmerich, McComb 
Enterprise-Journal, urged the newsmen to 
"work to recognize the Negro and his 
achievements. It will do much toward 
working out our race relations problems." 

A critical examination of a northern 
newspaper's racial practices mid-way in 
1950 produced "John Smith, Negro," an 
eight-page study of the use of the term 
"Negro" in the Chicago Tribune. The 
Race Relations Committee of the City 
Club of Chicago engineered the study, 
which extended over a period of seven 
months. The pamphlet stated that all 
other dailies in Chicago had abandoned 
the policy of race-labelling in the news. 

The publication defined "race label- 
ling" as the persistent repetition of a 
racial designation, particularly in the 
"John Smith, Negro" form, when it has 
no indicated relevancy. The Tribune's 
practice is illustrated in clippings from 
a test period in January 1950. The pam- 
phlet listed four objections to the Trib- 
une practice: 1) "in a paper that em- 
phasizes crimes of violence as the Tribune 
does there are inevitably many news 
stories connecting Negroes with such 
crimes. The inference is drawn by read- 
ers that Negroes have an inherent bio- 
logical tendency toward crime"; 2) "like 
third degree, race labelling is selectively 
used against the poor and the friendless" ; 



42 



THE NEGRO PRESS 



3) ". . . even the items which are not as- 
sociated with crime tend to set Negroes 
apart as second-class citizens"; and 4) 
". . . selection of the Negro group for this 
treatment is arbitrary." The report urged 
public protest of the Tribune policy. 

When the United States Supreme Court 
in April 1951 reversed the conviction of 
two Negroes sentenced to death for rap- 
ing a 17-year-old Groveland, Fla. house- 
wife, Justice Robert Jackson wrote in his 
concurring opinion : "even if Negroes had 
not been excluded, a fair trial would 
have been impossible because of the in- 
flammatory newspaper stories. 'The trial 
was but a legal gesture to register a ver- 
dict already dictated by the press.' While 
the defendants were awaiting trial, one 
local newspaper published a cartoon pic- 
turing vacant electric chairs, captioned: 
'No compromise Supreme Penalty.' " 

Early in June 1951, the Illinois Appel- 
late Court rendered a decision unusual 
in a race-labelling case. It held that the 
identification of a white person as a 
Negro is not libelous. The Court, concur- 
ring with an earlier Supreme Court rul- 
ing, dismissed a million-dollar libel suit 
against the Chicago Tribune. Isaiah 
Mitchell III, of Chicago, alleged the 
Tribune degraded him by calling him a 
Negro in a news story when he is not a 
Negro. The court said Mitchell failed "to 
state a cause of action in libel. The refer- 
ence to plaintiff was not libelous per se 
. . . and the complaint otherwise is insuffi- 
cient to make the alleged article libelous 
where no special damages are properly 
alleged." The case was the first of its kind 
submitted in the northern states, J. B. 
Marthineau, Tribune lawyer, said. Mar- 
thineau declared southern courts have 
held such misidentification libelous. 

NEGROES EMPLOYED BY 
GENERAL PUBLICATIONS 

Cities and communities that had not be- 
fore or at least not in the recent past 
hired Negro newsmen began doing so 
during the past five years. Most of the 



individuals chosen to join all-white staffs 
were university-trained journalists, often 
equipped with advanced degrees. 

More than a dozen Negroes were serv- 
ing full-time on general publications 
when this period opened. They were: 
Theodore R. Poston, reporter, New York 
Evening Post; Larry Douglas, feature 
writer, Long Island Daily Press; E. 
Simms Campbell, cartoonist, Esquire 
magazine; Wendell Smith, sports re- 
porter, Chicago Her aid- American; Wil- 
liam Hunter Maxwell, Sr., feature writer, 
Newark Star-Ledger; George Moore, re- 
porter, Cleveland Press; Milton Smith, 
copy editor, Brooklyn Daily Eagle; Ed- 
gar T. Rouzeau, reporter, New York Her- 
ald-Tribune; George Streator, reporter, 
New York Times; Earl Brown, reporter, 
Life magazine; Hiram Jackson, staff ar- 
tist, Illinois State Journal and Register; 
Gerald Stewart, layout artist, Fort Wayne 
News-Sentinel; James Burr, reporter, 
Chicago Herald-American; John Hudson 
Jones, reporter, Daily Worker (New York 
City) ; John Pittman, associate editor, 
Daily Worker; Abner W. Berry, editorial- 
board member and editor, Harlem edi- 
tion, Daily Worker; Benjamin Davis, edi- 
torial-board member, Daily Worker; Roy 
L. Gillespie, reporter, Cleveland Plain- 
Dealer. 

Serving in part-time capacities were 
James H. L. Peck, for Argosy magazine; 
Joseph Baker, feature writer, Philadel- 
phia Inquirer; Theophilus Lewis, drama 
editor, America magazine, and Randolph 
Chenault, district circulation manager, 
Newark Star-Ledger. 

Almost as many Negroes worked on the 
mechanical side, among them, William 
C. Thomas, compositor, Logan Banner 
(W. Va.) ; Edward A. Lewis, photo- 
graphic technician, New York Daily 
News; Leslie Parks, make-up man, New 
York World-Telegram & Sun; Christo- 
pher Poussaint, Jr., typographer, Morn- 
ing Telegraph, New York City; G. Tom 
Ireland, pressman, Sedalia Democrat- 
Capital (Mo.) ; Norman Webster, lino- 
typist, Galesburg Mail (111.) ; the late 
Julian Thomas, linotypist, New York 



NEGROES ON GENERAL PUBLICATIONS 



43 



Times; Emerson Maxwell, linotypist, and 
Bernice Maxwell, librarian, Newark Star- 
Ledger. Without doubt, numbers of other 
Negro linotypists and backshop workers 
were working in 1947. 

General publications are extremely re- 
luctant to hire Negroes for advertising 
work. A lone instance, that of Regiland 
Jackson, advertising solicitor for the 
Newport News Daily Press (Va.), has 
been found by the editors. James Watson, 
street circulation manager for the Cin- 
cinnati Post, which he has served for 45 
years, probably has like company else- 
where. 

Since 1947, the following Negroes have 
been named to publication staffs: Luther 
P. Jackson, reporter, Newark Evening 
News; Carl T. Rowan, rim man, copy 
desk, Minneapolis Tribune; John H. 
Hicks, reporter, St. Louis Post-Dispatch; 
William A. Brower, reporter, Toledo 
Blade; Arch Parsons, reporter, New York 
Herald-Tribune; Gordon Parks, photog- 
rapher, Life magazine; Orrin Evans, 
reporter, Chester Times (Pa.) ; Lester 
Brownlee, reporter, Chicago Daily News; 
Marvel Cooke, reporter, New York Daily 
Compass; Hampton McKinney, police re- 
porter, Cleveland News; George Brown, 
reporter, Denver Post. 

In the South several Negro journalists 
were added to the staffs of daily and 
weekly organs: LeRoy Davis and A. A. 
Morrisey as reporters for the Winston- 
Salem Journal and Twin-City Sentinel, 
Robert Churchill as reporter for the 
Nashville Banner, and Cleveland Williams 
as reporter-advertising solicitor for the 
Bastrop Clarion (La.). 

Added to publications in non-news 
capacities have been: Bertram Wallace, 
linotypist, New York Daily News; Jodie 
Lue, stereotypist, Mexico Ledger (Mo.) ; 
Bernice Vance, secretarial aid to Market 
Research Division, Toledo Blade, which 
added also Evelyn Gordon, business office 
clerk, George H. Thomas and Bedford 
Traynum, proof boys in the dispatch de- 
partment; Robert Taylor, research staff 
member, Minneapolis Tribune; William 
Jones, circulation manager, and Eugene 



Redding, clerk, Photo Dealer, a trade 
magazine. 

Not to be overlooked are a group of 
part-time workers who serve general pub- 
lications. Walter White writes a weekly 
column for several dailies, including the 
New York World-Telegram & Sun, Chi- 
cago Daily News, Detroit Free Press. 
Roscoe Simmons, recently deceased, vet- 
eran journalist, wrote the "Untold Story," 
for the Chicago Sunday Tribune, a fea- 
ture which was used by the Washington 
Times-Herald during the past year. Hor- 
ace Cayton's weekly book-reviewing stint 
disappeared from the Tribune after the 
Chicago welfare worker walked out of a 
Robert McCormick - sponsored banquet 
where Negro guests had been grouped 
together. James A. Atkins, former college 
instructor and government worker, started 
a weekly series of articles early in 1951 
for the Denver Post. Following a tour 
through the South in 1949, Roi Ottley 
sold a series of articles on his observa- 
tions that received prominent display in 
several daily newspapers, including the 
St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 

The South has long had an unrecorded 
number of Negro writers who provide re- 
ports on happenings among the Negro 
population for columns and sometimes 
whole pages of news in daily organs. The 
appointment of one such person in 
Florida late in 1948 was reported in this 
wise: "Charles C. North has been named 
correspondent for the Miami Daily News, 
and on Sunday of each week his column, 
summarizing the affairs of the week per- 
taining to Negroes, appears." The ap- 
pointment of North routed the long- 
established practices of spelling Negro 
with a small letter and omitting such pre- 
fixes as 'Mr.' and 'Mrs.' when referring to 
Negroes. Unlike other white Florida 
dailies which employ Negro correspond- 
ents, the News publishes North's column 
in all its editions, thereby making it pos- 
sible for its white readers to acquaint 
themselves with many of the achievements 
of Negroes. "The Miami Herald, owned 
by northern capitalists, . . . some months 
ago [began] spelling Negro with a cap- 



44 



THE NEGRO PRESS 



ital letter, but it also adopted the policy 
of spelling white with a capital letter." 1 

Recently Paul A. Schrader, managing 
editor of the Toledo Blade, wrote the 
writer: "It has been the policy of the 
Toledo Blade to employ Negroes in vari- 
ous phases of operations for many years. 
For instance, Theodore Spurlock has 
filled many positions in more than 30 
years of service and at present is attached 
to the Circulation Department. Also in 
the Circulation Department we have a 
number of youngsters of the Negro race 
employed as house-to-house newspaper 
carriers." 

Of William Brower, 1948 reporter 
addition, Schrader wrote that he "was the 
first Negro employed by the Blade in an 
editorial capacity. ... It should be dis- 
tinctly understood that Mr. Brower is a 
general assignment reporter on our staff 
and is not assigned specifically to the 
news of his race as is the practice on some 
papers employing Negroes . . . generally 
Mr. Brower takes his assignments as they 
come off the City Desk and has drawn 
some of our top flight stories. For in- 
stance, he was one of two reporters to 
cover the prolonged and technical anti- 
trust suit filed against the Glass Company 
in the Federal District Court. Presently, 
he is covering the Federal Building beat. 
Occasionally, he sits in on the rewrite 
desk. It should interest you to know that 
Mr. Brower has been cordially received as 
a representative of the Blade in all circles 
and on all types of stories." 

The spring and summer of 1951 wit- 
nessed page-one treatment of two series 
of articles on Negro subjects by Negro 
staff members in Minneapolis and Denver. 
Following a 6,000-mile tour of the South 
early in the year, Carl T. Rowan wrote 
"How Far From Slavery," a series of 
articles that ran daily in the Minneapolis 
Tribune from Feb. 26 through March 17. 
The articles, soon to be published in book 
form by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., drew these 
words from Editor & Publisher, trade 
magazine: "A Negro reporter's series of 
articles on racial conditions in the South 

1 Chicago Defender, July 10, 1948. 



has proved one of the hottest locally 
written to hit Minneapolis Tribune pages 
in recent years ... a significant, readable 
glimpse into the American race problem 
as only a Negro sees it." 

From Sept. 24 through Oct. 1, 1951, the 
Denver Post ran, mainly on the front 
page, George Brown's articles on the 
treatment of the Negro in the Colorado 
capital city. Brown's photograph accom- 
panied the series, as did Rowan's in the 
Minneapolis series. 

At the eighteenth annual convention of 
the American Newspaper Guild in Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., in July 1951, delegates passed 
resolutions directing their local units to 
step up their efforts to fight discrimina- 
tion in the hiring of Negro newspapermen 
by daily papers. "The most general type 
of discrimination," stated one resolution, 
"is the virtual barring of Negroes from 
white-collar departments editorial and 
commercial of daily newspapers, despite 
an occasional single Negro reporter on a 
large daily." The ANG anti-discrimina- 
tion program calls for a survey of Guild 
locals to determine the number of Negro 
employees working in white newspaper 
offices, their job classifications, their 
salaries, and the extent of newspaper 
experience each Negro employee has had. 

WHITE WORKERS ON 
NEGRO PAPERS 

The flow of white talent onto Negro 
organs continued at a token pace. Ben 
Burns held on as a top executive editor 
for the Johnson publications (Ebony, 
Negro Digest, Tan Confessions, Jet) in 
Chicago, and V. P. Bourne-Vanneck re- 
mained owner of one of the nation's oldest 
Negro weeklies, the New York Age. Earl 
Conrad disappeared from the full-time 
payroll of the New York office of the 
Chicago Defender. Ray Sprigle, a white 
Pulitzer-Prize winning reporter for the 
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, "passed" as a 
Negro in the South in 1948 and came up 
with a series of articles, "I Was a Negro 
in the South for 30 Days," that appeared 



FOREIGN CORRESPONDENTS 



45 



not only in his own but also in a number 
of other papers. 

"I Worked for a Negro Newspaper," a 
Crisis piece in the January 1950 number, 
relates the life of a white man from the 
time he applied for a job with a Negro 
weekly until he left for other work. Scott 
Saunders, former trade-paper editor now 
on the staff of the Musical Courier, told 
his Crisis readers that "not until I passed 
through the door and into the building 
did I realize that the employment agency 
had sent me to a Negro newspaper. I felt 
no emotion other than mild surprise. 
People scurried between desks in the 
usual hustle and clamor that typifies the 
newspaper office." The advertising man- 
ager of the New York Amsterdam News 
offered Saunders the job of production 
manager. He accepted it. 

"How would I fit into the Negro 
world?" was a question that bothered 
Saunders. "Working in daily contact with 
Negroes pointed up ever so clearly that 
given a chance," declared the new pro- 
duction manager, "they can easily dis- 
prove the accepted notions that they are 
as a whole, slothful, lazy, unintelligent, 
and lacking initiative. . . . When I left to 
take my present magazine position, there 
was genuine regret on both sides. I had 
found those I worked with to be stimulat- 
ing, interesting and extremely likeable." 

Not many white journalists have fol- 
lowed in Saunders' footsteps, but a few 
who have done so have also chosen the 
Amsterdam News. This New York City 
weekly made national late news in 1950 
when it hired two more white journalists. 
Time magazine reported the event in this 
way: "In New York's Harlem, the world's 
biggest Negro community, the weekly Am- 
sterdam Neivs speaks with a loud voice. 
But when the Negro-owned-and-staffed 
News hiked its price from 10 cents to 15 
cents in 1946, its voice began to quaver 
as circulation skipped from a peak of 
110,000 to around 65,000. In an effort to 
get the frog out of its throat, the News 
made a drastic change: for the first time 
in its 40-year history, it hired a white man 
as its managing editor. The News boss: 



New York-born Stanley Ross, 36, one 
time Latin American stringer for AP and 
the New York Times, occasional platform 
lecturer. He also had an unsuccessful 
career as a 'doctor' to ailing newspapers 
from Lake Charles, Louisiana to Wilm- 
ington, Delaware before he saw the Am- 
sterdam News ad in Editor & Publisher 
and got the job." Along with Ross the 
Amsterdam News hired a new head of the 
circulation department in the person of 
Robert L. Ellner, former assistant circu- 
lation manager of the New York Evening 
Post. 

In this connection it should be noted 
that two white journalists one a veteran 
publisher, the other a photographer- 
photoengraver joined the teaching staff 
of the Lincoln University School of 
Journalism in recent years. Lee Smeeton 
Cole, 25-year owner-publisher of Indiana 
weeklies and former journalism instruc- 
tor at the University of Kansas, has 
become a permanent staff member at 
Lincoln, handling advertising and man- 
agement courses. John V. Eastwood, 
Kansas City, Mo., commercial engraver, 
serves in a part-time capacity on the 
Lincoln faculty as instructor in photog- 
raphy and photoengraving. 

FOREIGN CORRESPONDENTS 

Many observers believe that for a long 
time to come there will be a Negro angle 
to the news. Perhaps as long as there is 
a group of people classified as Negro. 
That angle is the life blood of Negro 
newspapers. If there is a train wreck in 
Utah, these papers identify the porters, 
waiters, and passengers who fall within 
the purview of their clientele. Names of 
whites don't figure in the report unless 
they appear as individuals involved other 
than as casualties in the accident. If there 
is a baseball game in Chicago and Ne- 
groes participate on either team, that gets 
space in the Negro organ. If the Negro 
players are not in action, there is no 
mention of the game. Similarly, if a group 
of 4-H Club youngsters from Ohio visits 
Washington, D.C., the accounts tell who 



46 



THE NEGRO PRESS 



the colored lads are, how they fared, what 
discrimination, if any, they encountered, 
and the pictures show the colored 4-H'ers. 
That makes news most often front-page 
news in the Negro newspaper. 

The Negro inevitably reads about the 
war, but that war Becomes the more real 
and the source of more pride to him 
when he knows that the American Negro 
is contributing his share. Occasionally, a 
few lines, such as the capture of Yechon 
by Negro elements of the 25th Infantry 
Division, July 21, 1950, creep into the 
daily news dispatches, but there are no 
names there and there is no story of in- 
dividual heroism. That coverage becomes 
the obligation of the colored press of the 
country. To bring that report to the 
American Negro readers, there were 36 
Negro war correspondents operating dur- 
ing World War II on all fronts. 

Soon after the fighting started in Korea 
in June 1950, the Negro press had its war 
correspondents on the way to cover the 
conflict. Two men were assigned this task, 
Albert L. Hinton, managing editor, 
Journal and Guide, Norfolk, Va., who 
represented the NNPA group of papers, 
and James L. Hicks, Afro-American staff 
member, who represented the Afro-Amer- 
ican chain. Hinton and Hicks traveled 
6,000 miles together as far as Tokyo, 
where they took separate planes to the 
Korean front. However, Hinton never 
reached his destination, for his plane, a 
C-47 transport, plunged into the sea on 
the 110-mile jaunt from Tokyo to south- 
ern Korea. 

Hicks went on to fulfill his assignment 
and was later joined by Frank Whisonant, 
representing the Pittsburgh Courier, and 
L. Alex Wilson, for the Chicago Defender. 
Replacing Hicks later were, in turn, 
Milton Smith and Ralph Mathews, both 
of the Afro-American staff. 

In the spring of 1948, eight Negro 
newspaper editors and publishers took a 
three-week jaunt through Germany and 
Austria as guests of the U.S. Department 
of the Army. 

Individual Negro newspapers continue 
to send their staff members abroad on 



various assignments. To Oslo, Norway, to 
cover the awarding of the Nobel Peace 
Prize to Dr. Ralph J. Bunche late in 1950 
went Mr. Schuyler, for the Pittsburgh 
Courier, and Arnold DeMille, New York 
writer for the Chicago Defender. On hand 
for the inauguration of Haiti's new presi- 
dent, Paul F. Magliore, were Venice T. 
Spraggs, Chicago Defender Washington 
bureau correspondent; Roy Garvin, gen- 
eral manager, Washington Afro-Amer- 
ican; I. J. K. Wells, who represented the 
Pittsburgh Courier and Color magazine, 
of which he is publisher, and Claude 
Barnett, director, Associated Negro Press. 
From time to time journalists from 
West Africa, Central America, and the 
Carribean countries have come to the 
United States on various missions. Among 
these have been Roland T. Dempster, 
editor, the Liberian Age, Monrovia, Li- 
beria; Henry B. Cole, editor of several 
West African organs, and Nnamdi Azi- 
kiwe, editor and publisher, the West 
African Pilot, Lagos, Nigeria, B.W.A. 

CONGRESSIONAL PRESS 
GALLERIES 

Early in 1947, through efforts of the 
Negro Newspaper Publishers Association 
and of individual newspaper correspon- 
dents stationed in Washington, D.C., the 
first Negroes were accredited to the Con- 
gressional Press Galleries and to the 
State Department. The Negro press had 
had representation at the White House 
press conferences since Feb. 8, 1944, 
when Harry S. McAlpin was accredited 
for the NNPA. 

After agitation for admission to the 
Press Galleries, from which Negro news- 
men had been barred since 1871, Louis 
Lautier, NNPA bureau chief in Washing- 
ton, applied to the Standing Committee 
of Newspaper Correspondents in 1946 for 
a card of admission. By a four-to-one vote 
Lautier's application was rejected on the 
grounds that "the Negro Newspaper Pub- 
lishers Association, which he represents, 
is composed of papers published less fre- 
quently than daily," thus rendering him 



CONGRESSIONAL PRESS GALLERIES 



47 



ineligible "for admission under the rules 
adopted by Congress and administered 
by the Standing Committee of Corre- 
spondents." 

Lautier declared that he did represent 
a daily, the Atlanta Daily World, itself an 
NNPA member, along with the publisher 
association, and appealed the decision to 
the Senate Rules Committee, which, after 
hearings, on March 18, 1947, overrode 
the Standing Committee's vote and or-, 
dered the committee to give Lautier a 
card of admission. Lautier was then 
formally accredited to both the Senate 
and House Press Galleries. Shortly before 
Lautier's admission, Percival L. Prattis, 
Pittsburgh Courier executive editor, had 
been unanimously certified for admission 
to the Periodical Gallery of the House 
and Senate as a representative for Our 
World magazine, of which he is part 
owner. 

Prior to Prattis' accreditation, James 
L. Hicks, assistant chief of NNPA Wash- 
ington news service, on March 5, became 
the lone Negro correspondent accredited 
to the State Department as a member of 
the State Department Correspondents' 
Association, consisting of 130 Washington 
correspondents for major press services 
of the world. 

Following the Senate Rules Committee 
vote ordering Lautier's admission to the 
Press Galleries, the Standing Committee 
issued a denial that its action was based 
on color prejudice and recommended an 
addition to Press Gallery rules which 
would permit admission of correspond- 
ents representing weekly-newspaper press 
associations. The proposal called for 
certification of not more than two Wash- 
ington correspondents for news associa- 
tions which regularly service news of 
national affairs to a substantial number 
of weekly newspapers entiled to second- 
class mailing privileges, sold regularly 
for profit, and paying the association for 
the service provided. Speaker Joseph 
Martin approved the change for the 
House Gallery and the Senate Rules Com- 
mittee did likewise. Thereupon, Mrs. 
Alice A. Dunnigan, representing the As- 



sociated Negro Press, was admitted to the 
Press Galleries by the Standing Commit- 
tee and became the first Negro woman 
so accredited. Mrs. Dunnigan joined 
Hicks as a member of the State Depart- 
ment Correspondents' Association. 

Until early in 1951, the count of Ne- 
groes accredited to the Press Galleries of 
Congress stood at three: Louis Lautier 
for NNPA, P. L. Prattis for Our World, 
and Mrs. Dunnigan for ANP. In January 
1951, the first Negro representative of a 
white daily newspaper was admitted. This 
was Roscoe Conklin Simmons, a colum- 
nist for the Chicago Tribune and the 
Washington Times-Herald. Simmons, how- 
ever, died four months later. 

In his volume, Writing for the Business 
Press (1950), Arthur Wimer relates the 
early struggle of Negro papers for ad- 
mission to White House news conferences 
to a similar effort on the part of business 
paper correspondents and cites a state of 
mind that is satisfied as long as there is 
not more than one Negro covering White 
House press activities. Wimer writers: 

Business paper correspondents, as such, 
were admitted to White House news confer- 
ences from 1930 to 1944, when they were 
jettisoned to help win the Negro vote for 
Franklin D. Roosevelt. Until 1944 no Negro 
had ever been admitted regularly to the 
White House news conferences. It has long 
been the practice to permit the White House 
correspondents to determine the admissibility 
of reporters to the White House, just as the 
Standing Committee of Correspondents ac- 
credits correspondents to the House and 
Senate press galleries. This relieves the White 
House and members of Congress of a task 
which sometimes becomes embarrassing and 
permits the buck to be passed to the press. 

For some time representative Negro report- 
ers have been knocking at the White House 
door, but the color line continued to be 
drawn by the news correspondents, despite 
some clamor by a minority of whites for 
recognition of their colored brethren. In 1944, 
Negro publishers, religious and other leaders 
descended upon the White House and put 
pressure on Mr. Roosevelt, some of it through 
Mrs. R., for admission of Negro reporters. 
Something had to be done, and it was. The 
trade paper correspondents were told that 
Presidential Secretary Stephen T. Early had 
told the White House boys that if they per- 
sisted in their refusal to clear Negroes, the 
White House itself would have to act. 



48 



THE NEGRO PRESS 



The boys didn't react well to this, so a 
'compromise' was decided upon. This was to 
change the rule of admissibility to White 
House news conferences to permit association 
and daily paper correspondents to come in. 
Since there was only one Negro daily in the 
United States, this meant that only one col- 
ored man could come to the news conferences 
and white supremacy would continue su- 
preme. The reporters of the important Negro 
weeklies thus were effectively barred, and so 
were the business paper correspondents. 

Wimer failed to learn that the "one 
colored man" who "could come to the 
news conferences" doubled as a Wash- 
ington correspondent for a pool of Negro 
weeklies, including all of the "important 
Negro weeklies." After the doors of the 
White House press gatherings were 
opened to Negro personnel, the Negro 
Newspaper Publishers Association gave 
birth to its own National Negro Press 
Association, which became an independ- 
ent organization two years later. 

AWARDS AND PRIZES 

Lacking membership in national, state, 
and regional organizations, Negro pub- 
lications workers have been denied that 
incentive to excellent performance that 
comes with competition for journalistic 
awards. In 1946, the void was in a meas- 
ure filled by the introduction of the 
Wendell Willkie Awards for Journalism 
consisting of a total of $750 annually 
contributed by Mrs. Agnes Meyer, wife 
of the publisher of the Washington Post, 
Prizes for the second year of the con- 
test were awarded during National Negro 
Newspaper Week at a Washington ban- 
quet, Feb. 28, 1947, as follows: Best 
Example of Public Service Journal and 
Guide, Norfolk, Va., $250; Honorable 
Mention Louisville Defender, and 
Louisiana Weekly, New Orleans, La.; 
Best Example of Objective Reporting 
Ralph Mathews, national bureau of the 
Afro-American newspapers, Washington, 
B.C., $250; Honorable Mention Louis 
Lautier, chief of the Washington bureau, 
NNPA, and Enoc P. Walters, Chicago 
Defender ; Best Example of Writing other 
than News Reporting William 0. 



Walker, Cleveland Call and Post, $250; 
Honorable Mention Lewis W. Jones, 
Houston Informer, and Robert H. Durr, 
editor, Birmingham Weekly Review. A 
special certificate of merit was awarded 
to the Chicago Defender on this occasion 
and to radio Station WBBM (CBS) of 
Chicago for their collaboration in pre- 
senting a weekly radio program, "Democ- 
racy U.S.A." 

In early February 1948, the board of 
directors of the Willkie Awards organiza- 
tion decided not to make any awards that 
year but to turn the matter of selecting 
winners over to one of the universities of 
the land with a view to operating the 
competition annually somewhat along the 
lines of the Pulitzer awards. The com- 
mittee assigned the task of making the 
arrangements for the change-over con- 
sisted of Mrs. Agnes Meyer; Dr. Douglas 
Southall Freeman, editor, Richmond 
News Leader (Va.) ; Mark Ethridge, 
editor, Louisville Courier- Journal, and 
Marquis Childs, Washington columnist. In 
April of 1948, the committee announced 
that the Nieman Fellows of Harvard Uni- 
versity would conduct the judging of the 
Willkie Awards contest for a trial period 
of three years. Entries for 1948 were to be 
submitted to Louis M. Lyons, chairman, 
Council of Nieman Fellows. 

The Nieman Fellows announced their 
first selections in May 1949. The winners 
were: Best Public Service the Journal 
and Guide, Norfolk, Va., "for the quality 
of its overall performance, based on a 
variety of entries submitted . . . and 
particularly for the high calibre of its 
editorial page." Objective Reporting 
Louis R. Lautier, Washington correspon- 
dent for NNPA and the Atlanta Daily 
World, "for distinguished correspondence 
affording member newspapers of the 
NNPA clear, comprehensive, and objec- 
tive coverage of events significant to their 
readers." Writing other than News 
Simeon Booker, Jr., reporter, the Cleve- 
land Call and Post, "for a searching 
series of feature articles exposing dis- 
criminatory conditions in Cleveland's 
public schools." The awards were $250 in 



AWARDS AND PRIZES 



49 



cash to each winner and a plaque to the 
Journal and Guide. 

The judges were Louis Lyons, judging 
committee chairman, and four Nieman 
Fellows Allan Earth, editorial writer on 
the Washington Post; Grady E. Clay, Jr., 
reporter on the Louisville Courier-Jour- 
nal; David B. Drieman, science writer on 
the Minneapolis Star ; and E. H. Holland, 
Jr., editorial writer on the Birmingham 
News. 

Time magazine took note of the 1949 
awards in its March 14 issue in a lengthy 
piece on the Young family, which pub- 
lishes the Norfolk, Va., weekly: "The 
Guide won its third straight Wendell 
Willkie award for public service in 
Negro journalism. Said Louis M. Lyons, 
curator of Harvard's Nieman Fellowships 
and chairman of the judges: 'For the 
most part, the Negro press has a long way 
to go to reach the highest standards. The 
Guide is a first-class paper, by any stand- 
ard.' " 

In 1950, only two awards were made in 
the Willkie contest: Best Example of 
Objective Reporting Richard E. Harris, 
reporter Cleveland Call and Post, for 
creative reporting of group relations and 
programs dealing with juvenile delin- 
quency among Negroes in Cleveland ; and 
Best Example of Writing other than 
News Reporting L. Alex Wilson, feature 
writer, Chicago Defender, for two series 
of articles, "What Causes Crime?" and 
"The Making of a Killer." Each winner 
received $250. No award was given to a 
newspaper for public service because 
only a few papers entered this phase of 
the competition. The Journal and Guide 
was disqualified because of a new rule 
barring any paper from winning the 
award in successive years. 

The Wilkie Awards were discontinued 
soon afterwards for apparent lack of 
interest in the contest. Mrs. Meyer an- 
nounced the end of the annual competi- 
tion, which had reached a total of $3,500 
granted to Negro newspapers during the 
five years. 

Mixed feelings marked the end. Said 
George S. Schuyler in his Pittsburgh 



Courier column, June 17: "No floods of 
tears will greet the news. The first awards 
in March 1946 were disgraceful examples 
of journalistic mediocrity. Following loud 
whoops of indignation from many of the 
Negro newspaper brethren, the committee 
was reorganized as a corporation and 
three Negroes were selected as officers." 
The subsequent awards, according to 
Schuyler, "were no more discerning or 
fair than the previous ones, and indeed 
bordered on the ridiculous." Schuyler 
blamed the machinery of selection for 
the failure of the Willkie contest the 
voluntary submission of entries by indi- 
viduals and publications. He recom- 
mended a committee of trained Negro 
journalists, not connected with any pub- 
lications, to handle the judging, and 
complimentary yearly subscriptions to 
all the papers for the judging staff. 

Dateline, a new quarterly organ of 
NNPA, stated editorially in its June 1950 
issue: 

What degree of responsibility the NNPA is 
willing to assume for the unhappy end to 
which the competition has come is not cer- 
tain. But being the only organized group in 
the area of so-called Negro journalism, and 
having what appears to be a logical interest 
in its further improvement, it would seem 
that a greater concern might have been shown 
to avert this present calamity. The editorial 
concluded that competition with prizes as a 
bait is needed for some improvement in 
Negro organs and expressed the hope that 
"somebody or some group will come to feel 
that there are few alternatives if the quality 
of the product we call the Negro Press is to 
rise ... as it needs to." 

NPA itself came to the rescue with its 
announcement late in 1950 of its first 
newspaper contest with an April 1951 
deadline for submission of materials. The 
judges were Theodore R. Poston, re- 
porter, the New York Evening Post; J. 
Saunders Redding, English instructor, 
Hampton Institute, and Dr. Armistead S. 
Pride, dean, School of Journalism, Lin- 
coln University. The winners of awards 
were announced in June: Typography 
Louisiana Weekly, first, Cleveland Call 
and Post, second, and Kansas City Call, 
third ; Public Service Louisiana Weekly, 
first, Louisville Defender, second, and 



50 



THE NEGRO PRESS 



Houston Informer, third; Promoting the 
Negro Press Louisville Defender, first, 
and Pittsburgh Courier, second. The 
NNPA announced that an additional cate- 
gory, "best example of objective report- 
ing," to be known as the Albert L. Hinton 
Memorial Medal in honor of the Journal 
and Guide managing editor and war cor- 
respondent lost in the Korean War, would 
be added to the 1952 competition. 

In July 1951, a national committee of 
15 Negro journalists announced the for- 
mation of the Albert L. Hinton Memorial 
Fund. The Fund, with Ernest L. Johnson, 
New York City publicist, serving as its 
chairman, has three aims : "To perpetuate 
the memory of a good reporter, to create 
a symbol that all members of the craft 
might recognize . . . that they share a 
common interest and serve a common 
cause; to provide the working press . . . 
with a vehicle in which they may take 
personal pride by being the backbone for 
this brief and intensive appeal." The job 
of the national committee is to solicit 
funds and to determine the best way to 
use them in accordance with the Fund's 
purpose. 

Another impetus to sterling perform- 
ance in newspaper work has been the 
annual competition for Nieman Fellow- 
ships at Harvard University, started in 
1937. Two Negroes have received fellow- 
ships. Fletcher P. Martin, city editor, the 
Louisville Defender, finished his year at 
Harvard in 1947 and wrote during the 
year: "The Nieman year is wonderful. I 
have had time to do a lot of research. Last 
semester I took a course called 'Group 
Prejudice and Conflict,' which should 
prove valuable. Also I have taken much 
history history of the reconstruction 
period especially. Seven courses last 
semester, six courses the current one. The 
reading is stupendous." Martin returned 
to his Louisville post at the conclusion 
of the year in Cambridge. 

Second to win the Harvard fellowship 
was Simeon S. Brooker, Jr., for six years 
a reporter on the Cleveland Call and Post, 
who joined 11 other journalists in Sep- 
tember 1950 for a year of study at Cam- 



bridge. Of his selection Booker stated: 
". . . Irving A. Billiard, editor of the 
editorial page, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 
served as a member of the committee 
which selected me as a Nieman Fellow. 
I think he is due a lot of credit. During 
my appearance before the selection com- 
mittee, Mr. Billiard was very fair and 
friendly." 

Individual publications like the Chi- 
cago Defender, Ebony magazine, and the 
Afro-American, made annual merit and 
achievement awards to individuals and 
organizations for their part in improving 
human, community, and international re- 
lations. 

One of the Cleveland (Ohio) News- 
paper Guild Awards for 1947 went to the 
Cleveland Call and Post reporter Simeon 
Booker, Jr. for showing initiative and 
enterprise in a series of articles exposing 
housing conditions in Negro tenement 
houses in Cleveland: 

In March 1950, Theodore R. Poston, 
reporter for the New York Evening Post, 
was named, along with Herbert Block, 
Washington Post cartoonist, joint winner 
of the C.I.O. Newspaper Guild's ninth 
annual Heywood Broun Award. Each re- 
ceived $500 cash and a citation by the 
Guild for outstanding journalistic 
achievement in 1949 "in the spirit of 
Heywood Broun," who was a president 
of the Guild. This was the first year the 
prize was split. Poston, the first Negro 
to win the prize, won on the basis of his 
coverage of a Tavares, Fla., case in which 
two Negroes were sentenced to die and a 
third was sentenced to a life on charges 
of raping a white woman. 

A month later the same Florida series 
of articles in the Post won Poston an 
additional $200 among awards by the 
Irving Geist Foundation for contributions 
to interracial and inter faith understand- 
ing. First prize of $500 went to Mrs. 
Eleanor Roosevelt for "exemplifying the 
American democratic spirit and temper 
at their best" in her newspaper column. 
The second-place prize of $400 was split 
between Poston and Oliver Pilar, also of 
the Post staff, who gained the honor for 



AWARDS AND PRIZES 



51 



his coverage of the Peekskill, N. Y., riots 
surrounding the appearance of Paul 
Robeson during the summer of 1949. 

The Broun Award backfired on Poston 
when editor Mabel Norris Reese, of the 
Mount Dora Topic (Fla.), filed a protest 
with A.N.G. with testimony from public 
officials that Poston had not been chased 
along the highway as he had declared in 
his Post series and a statement by Peyton 
Ford, assistant to the Attorney-General 
of Florida, denying that the Poston 
articles were sanctioned by that office. 
In a letter to Editor & Publisher early 
in May 1950, Poston said his articles on 
the Tavares case were published in Sep- 
tember 1949 and copies were sent to the 
court and law enforcement officers. "It is 
fantastic," he commented, "to believe that 
the state highway patrolmen would have 
remained silent for more than seven 
months if they really knew that such a 
case was 'impossible' because of their 
precautions on September 3, 1949. And it 
is equally fantastic," he continued, "to 
think that State's Attorney Jess W. 
Hunter, only learned of the precautions 
seven months later and had to gather 
sworn testimony from such officials in 
April, 1950 to disprove published charges 
made in September, 1949." 

After the American Press Institute at 
Columbia University had been in opera- 
tion for a few years, Negro newsmen 



started attending the three-to-six-weeks 
courses offered to a selected number of 
newspaper workers. First to go, in 1946, 
was Cliff Mackay, managing editor, Afro- 
American newspapers. Three attended in 
1947. Two were from the Afro-American 
organization: Ralph W. Mathews, na- 
tional bureau chief at Washington, D.C., 
and William I. Gibson, editor, in October. 
Frank H. Gray, managing editor, Louis- 
ville Defender, attended the Institute 
seminar for Sunday and feature editors 
in November. 

In 1945, the Chicago Defender estab- 
lished at the Lincoln University School 
of Journalism an annual award of $400 
known as the Robert S. Abbott Memorial 
Scholarship in Journalism. The scholar- 
ship is awarded each year to a promising 
student who has completed two years of 
college work and has aptitude for the 
field of journalism. The scholarship, 
which was increased in 1951 to $500 a 
year by John H. Sengstacke, Defender 
publisher, has been awarded to six in- 
dividuals, each of whom is now working 
on newspapers here and abroad. 

For recipients of Page One Awards 
given by the Durham Press Club, N.C., 
and those receiving the John Russwurm 
Citation Award, given by the Negro 
Newspaper Publishers Association, see 
Chapter 24, AWARDS, HONORS AND OTHER 
DISTINCTIONS. 



4 
Music 



THE STORY of the Negro in music at the 
end of the first half of the twentieth 
century is largely that of the Negro in 
song and chorus. 1 The disparity in num- 
bers between singers and instrumental- 
ists, composers, conductors, music theor- 
ists, historians, and musicologists is great 
indeed. Happily this situation is improv- 
ing. 

Any survey of what the Negro has ac- 
complished must bring to interpreter and 
layman alike realization that in most 
phases of music the Negro has made a 
decided contribution. There is no area in 
the vast field of musical endeavor which 
cannot boast of some musician of color 
who has excelled, and this area extends 
from the territory reserved for the music- 
ally great in concert life to the more 
crowded realms of popular music. There 
is only one place in which the great 
artists among American Negroes may not 
perform and that is the famed Metro- 
politan Opera. While it is true that one 
of the greatest stars of the concert world, 
Marian Anderson, has sung at the Metro- 
politan Opera House, neither Miss Ander- 
son nor any other of the great contem- 
porary voices has been heard there in an 
operatic production. 

There are encouraging signs of chang- 
ing policy at the Metropolitan Opera 
Company. While the Negro soloist still 
waits to appear there in regular operatic 
roles, a dancer, ballerina Janet Collins, 
has been signed as a premiere danseuse; 
and a number of well known Negro 
singers participated in the 1951-52 open- 
ing performance of Aida. Too much praise 
cannot be extended the New York City 
Opera Company for using available 



Negro singers continuously and with 
more than a little success. While radio 
and television use a few talented Negroes, 
they have yet to offer Negro artists in 
general steady and gainful employment. 
In spite of drawbacks, however, new op- 
portunities are beginning to present 
themselves. 

CONCERT ARTISTS 

Under this section will be found musi- 
cians who devote all their time and talent 
to concert work and whose musical 
careers revolve around appearances on 
the concert stage. 2 

Anderson, Marian: contralto. Born 
1908. Philadelphia, Pa., and attended 
public schools there. Married July 24, 
1943, to Orpheus H. Fisher. Her musical 
education consisted of private study at 
Philadelphia, New York, the Chicago 
College of Music, and abroad. In Europe 
she was the pupil of Giuseppe Boghetti 
and others. As a child, she sang in the 
Union Baptist Church choir. A fund 
raised through a church concert enabled 
her to take singing lessons under an 
Italian instructor. Her singing career 
began in 1924. In competition with 300 
others, she won first prize at the New 
York Lewisohn Stadium in 1925. In 1938, 
Howard University conferred on her the 
honorary degree, Mus. D. ; the same de- 
gree was conferred by Temple University 
in 1941 and by Smith College in 1944. 
She is in great demand on both the radio 
and the concert stage. 

In 1943, Miss Anderson was invited by 
the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion to appear in Constitution Hall, the 



1 See previous editions of this book for additional historical musical data. 

2 Some additional names will be found in previous editions of this book. 



52 



CONCERT ARTISTS 



53 



same concert theatre which four years 
previously had been denied to her. That 
original action resulted in the resignation 
of Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt from the or- 
ganization and also precipitated the 
momentous Easter Sunday open-air con- 
cert in front of the Lincoln Memorial, 
which was attended by 75,000 persons. 
The singer donated proceeds from her 
first Constitution Hall recital to the 
United China Relief Fund. 

She is the first Negro singer in history 
to appear in recital in the Metropolitan 
Opera House, New York City. She has won 
many honors and awards, among them: 
Citizens Award of Brith Sholem Fra- 
ternity; the Order of African Redemption 
of the Republic of Liberia; Spingarn 
Award, 1939; Merit Award of the New 
York Youth Committee for conspicuous 
service to youth; Bok Award, Philadel- 
phia 1940 ($10,000) and a medallion 
for outstanding citizenship and meritori- 
ous achievement; the money was used to 
establish the Marian Anderson Scholar- 
ships, given each year to young musicians 
of outstanding promise; the Government 
of Finland decoration, Probenignitate 
humana, 1940. She was selected by the 
readers of the Louisville Times as one of 
the ten leading women of the United 
States. Her 1950 European tour included 
Paris, London, Belgium, Italy, Switzer- 
land, and Germany. In that year she also 
gave concerts in South America and 
Haiti. 

Brice, Carol: contralto. Born in North 
Carolina; reared at Palmer Memorial 
Institute, Sedalia, N.C. Received training 
at Juilliard School of Music. Winner of 
Naumburg Award, 1944. Debut in Town 
Hall, March 1945. At the request of con- 
ductor Fritz Reiner, she recorded De 
Falla's El Amor Brujo and Mahler's 
Eines Fahrenden Gesellen. Koussevitsky 
presented her to a Boston audience in 
1946, and she was guest soloist for the 
annual spring concert of the Yale Uni- 
versity Glee Club the same year. 

For three consecutive years she was 
soloist with the Pittsburgh Symphony 
Orchestra under Fritz Reiner and has 



been soloist with the New York Phil- 
harmonic Orchestra, the Kansas City 
Philharmonic, the Boston Symphony, and 
other great orchestras. She has had her 
own radio program, "Carol Brice, Con- 
tralto," originating in New York City. 
She toured South America and gave con- 
certs in Panama during 1950. 

Brown, Anne Wiggins: soprano. Born 
Baltimore, Md. Education: Institute of 
Musical Art, Juilliard Opera School, 
Morgan College, Columbia University. 
Pupil of Licia Dunham, of the Institute. 
Married to Norlof Schelderup, a Nor- 
wegian. She created the role of Bess in 
Porgy and Bess ; sang the leading role in 
Ravel's L'Heure Espagnole at Juilliard 
Opera School, 1939. Soloist with New 
York Philharmonic Orchestra at the 
Lewisohn Stadium 1936, 1937, 1939, 
1940; Hollywood Bowl, 1937; St. Louis 
Municipal Opera, 1938. Radio: Guest 
soloist on "General Motors Hour," 
"Magic Key," and Rudy Vallee program. 
Gave full European season of recitals 
1946-47. She has recently appeared as 
Mme. Flora in The Medium and as Lucy 
in The Telephone, both by the American 
composer, Menotti. 

Davis, Ellabelle: soprano. Born New 
Rochelle, N.Y. After a spectacular con- 
cert tour was offered the title role of 
Aida at the Opera Nacionale, Mexico 
City, for the summer of 1946. Sang with 
the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra 
under Savitzky. Sang premier perform- 
ance of Lukas Foss's The Song of Songs 
in Boston during 1947-48 season. Since 
1948 she has toured Europe, Cuba, Cen- 
tral and South America, and the Carib- 
bean Islands. Critics acclaim her voice 
one of the finest. 

De Paur, Leonard: conductor. The De 
Paur Infantry Chorus made its Carnegie 
Hall debut Dec. 7, 1947, upon leaving 
the service. It was instantly acclaimed one 
of the finest choral units of the day and 
since then has sung over 600 concerts. It 
is the most heavily booked attraction of 
Columbia Artists Management, Inc., and 
has toured both North and South 
America. 



54 



MUSIC 



Dicker son, Nathaniel: tenor. In 1950 
was given a year's contract with National 
Concert and Artists Corporation (concert 
agency) and a $250 gift certificate for the 
most outstanding recital in either Car- 
negie Hall or Carnegie Recital Hall dur- 
ing 1949-50. This annual award was 
established in 1949 to give practical help 
to young musicians, the winner being 
selected by a careful appraisal of all 
reviews. 

Dixon, (Charles) Dean: conductor. 
Born January 10, 1915, New York City. 
Education: Juilliard School of Music; 
further study at Columbia University. 
Has conducted the League of Music 
Lovers Chamber Orchestra at Town Hall 
recital, NBC Symphony Orchestra, New 
York Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra 
at Lewisohn Stadium, N.Y.C., National 
Youth Administration Orchestra. In 1939 
conducted the music for John Henry, by 
Roark Bradford and Jacques Wolfe, 
starring Paul Robeson, and was musical 
director of the Shoestring Opera Com- 
pany. Also choral conductor, including 
American Peoples Chorus, Long Island 
University Chorus, Dean Dixon Chorus. 
During the war was member of the Music 
War Council, which judged current war 
songs. Conducts music - appreciation 
courses for children and adults. Conduc- 
tor of American Youth (Interracial) 
Orchestra, which made successful debut 
at Carnegie Hall, Dec. 16, 1945, and gave 
first performance of Ulysses Kay's Dance 
Calinda, Jan. 10, 1946. Lectures exten- 
sively. Has published articles in The 
Musical Courier, Music World Almanac, 
and The Music Educators Journal. On 
May 21, 1950, directed a program of 
symphonic music by Negro composers 
from five countries in Town Hall, N.Y.C. 

Dunbar, Rudolph: clarinetist. Born 
1910, British Guiana. Education: Insti- 
tute of Musical Art, N.Y.C. ; Paris; Leip- 
zig. Has conducted Liverpool Symphony 
Orchestra; National Symphony Orchestra 
in Royal Albert Hall, London, presenting 
Willian Grant Still's, Plain Chant JOT 
America; previously presented Still's 
Afro-American Symphony to British con- 



cert-goers. Is first Negro to conduct Lon- 
don Philharmonic Orchestra and first 
since Samuel Coleridge-Taylor to conduct 
British Symphony Orchestra. Guest con- 
ductor, Hollywood Bowl, 1946. Has pub- 
lished a text book on clarinet playing. 
Makes his home in London. 

Duncan, Todd: baritone. Born 1904, 
Danville, Ky. Education: Butler College; 
M.A., Columbia University. Pupil of 
Frank Bibb and others. Has made concert 
tours in United States, Canada, England, 
South America, Australia. Created the 
role of Porgy in Porgy and Bess; sang in 
Sun Never Sets in Drury Lane Theatre, 
London, and appeared in the operatic 
roles Tanio and Escamillo at the New 
York City Center. Has sung with the New 
York Philharmonic Orchestra. One of the 
crowning events of the 1945-46 season 
was Duncan's rendition of the baritone 
part in the Beethoven Ninth Symphony, 
with the New York Philharmonic Orches- 
tra. Took the leading role as the Rev. 
Stephen Kumalo in the Anderson-Weill 
musical play, Lost in the Stars, musical 
version of Cry the Beloved Country, for 
the duration of its lengthy run on Broad- 
way. Received D. Litt. from Valparaiso 
University, June 1950. His accompanist 
is William Duncan Allen. 

Evanti, Lillian: soprano. Born Wash- 
ington, D.C. Made debut in opera at Nice, 
France. Has appeared in opera and con- 
cert in the United States, Europe, South 
America, Cuba. Sang role of Violetta in 
the Watergate performance of the Na- 
tional Negro Opera Company's La Tra- 
viata. 

Everett, Charles: tenor. Native of New 
York City. Sings widely in the United 
States. Has had successful appearances at 
Town Hall, Carnegie Hall, and at Colum- 
bia University, N.Y.C. 

George, Zelma Watson: soprano. Cre- 
ated role of Mme. Flora in Menotti's The 
Medium for the Karamu House (Cleve- 
land) production, December 1949. Re- 
peated her success in the first TV produc- 
tion in Cleveland, August 1950. After over 
100 performances in Cleveland, the pro- 
duction was moved to The Arena, New 



CONCERT ARTISTS 



55 



York City, where it enjoyed tremendous 
success. Awarded the Gold Merit Award 
by the National Association of Negro 
Musicians, 1950. 

Hayes, Roland: tenor. Born June 3, 
1887, Curryville, Ga. Education: Fisk 
University; extension course, Harvard 
University. Pupil of W. Arthur Calhoun; 
Jennie A. Robinson, Fisk University; 
Arthur J. Hubbard, Boston, eight and 
one-half years. Also studied in Europe, 
1930, under Miss Ira Aldridge, Victor 
Beigel, Sir George Henschel, Dr. Theo. 
Lierhammer. Mus. D., Fisk University, 
1932; Ohio Wesleyan University, Dela- 
ware, Ohio, 1939. Conducted own concert 
tour of United States, 1916-20; went to 
Europe, 1921 to study and conduct con- 
cert tours. Command performances be- 
fore George V of England, April 1921, 
and before Queen Mother Maria Christina 
of Spain, 1925. Soloist with orchestras in 
Berlin, Cologne, Paris, Amsterdam, 
Vienna. Has toured United States singing 
with Boston, Philadelphia, Detroit, and 
New York Symphony Orchestras. Has 
won wide recognition for interpretation 
of classics and of traditional Negro 
melodies. 

Hinderas, Natalie: pianist. Graduate of 
Oberlin Conservatory of Music at 18. 
Student of the late Olga Samaroff ; Rosen- 
wald Fellow; Samaroff Scholarship win- 
ner; Whitney Fellow. Soloist with the 
Lorain, Ohio, Symphony Orchestra; per- 
formed several times with Cleveland 
Women's Symphony. 

Jackson, Rhea: soprano. Graduate of 
High School of Music and Art, N.Y.C., 
and Hunter College; student of Jacques 
Stickgold. Has toured the United States 
and made successful Town Hall debut. 
One of first colored singers to become 
part of Metropolitan Opera Chorus for 
1951 opening performance of Aida. 

Johnson, Hall: choral conductor, ar- 
ranger, composer. Born March 12, 1888, 
Athens, Ga. Education: Knox Institute, 
Athens, Ga.; Atlanta University; Allen 
University, Columbia, S.C. ; University of 
Pennsylvania, musical course, 1910; 
Hahn School of Music, Philadelphia; In- 



stitute of Musical Art, N.Y.C., 1923; 
studied theory of music, violin, piano, 
and other instruments; specialized in 
composition; has made many transcrip- 
tions of Negro spirituals. Organized Hall 
Johnson Choir, December 1925, which has 
toured United States and furnished back- 
ground music for many musical comedies 
and plays. His choir represented the 
United States at the Berlin Arts Festival, 
1951. Composed Coophered, an operetta 
portraying Negro life in the Southland, 
and has arranged many spirituals in 
novel form for vocal performance. His 
chorus has also appeared at Lewisohn 
Stadium concerts and on the Columbia 
Broadcasting System. 

Lafayette, Leonora: soprano. Born 
Baton Rouge, La. Graduate of Fisk Uni- 
versity; Marian Anderson award winner; 
Whitney Foundation Fellow. During 1951 
she sang extensively in Basel, Switzer- 
land. Chief roles are in Madame Butterfly 
and Aida. 

Lee, Everett: conductor, violinist. Na- 
tive of Cleveland, Ohio. Student at Cleve- 
land Institute of Music and soloist with 
orchestra under Beryl Rubinstein. 
Studied violin with Joseph Fuchs. After 
discharge from Army Air Force, became 
first violinist and assistant conductor, for 
Carmen Jones. Has served on the Colum- 
bia Opera Workshop faculty, and as 
concert master, then conductor, for the 
show, On the Town. Has played with 
Leopold Stokowski's New York City Sym- 
phony. Received a personal scholarship 
from Koussevitsky for work in conducting 
at the Opera Workshop at Tanglewood 
in the Berkshires. Has his own interracial 
orchestra. 

Maynor, Dorothy: soprano. Born Sept. 
3, 1910, Norfolk, Va. Education: B.S., 
Hampton Institute, 1933. Received first 
vocal lessons from R. Nathaniel Dett. 
Toured Europe as member of Hampton 
Institute Choir; studied voice with West- 
minster Choir, Princeton, N.J. ; later 
under Wilfred Klamroth, John Alan 
Haughton, and others. In 1939 made in- 
formal debut at Berkshire Festival after 
which Serge Koussevitsky proclaimed her 



56 



MUSIC 



"one of the finest singers I have ever 
heard." After New York debut, critics 
placed her among leading concert singers 
of the day. Has appeared with New York 
Philharmonic, Boston, Philadelphia, Chi- 
cago, Cleveland, San Francisco, and Los 
Angeles symphony orchestras. In 1940 
was winner of Town Hall Endowment 
Series Award for outstanding perform- 
ance and chosen by Library of Congress 
to open its festival commemorating 150th 
anniversary of the Emancipation Procla- 
mation; in 1941, Hampton Institute gave 
her its annual Alumni Award as its out- 
standing alumnus for 1940; in 1944 was 
soloist at Washington Cathedral in cele- 
bration of 50th anniversary of World 
Y.W.C.A. ; in 1945 received Mus. D. from 
Bennett College. Has toured Europe and 
the West Indies and sung series of con- 
certs with Honolulu Symphony Orchestra. 
Was presented by National Symphony 
Orchestra in 1950. 

Moten, Etta: soprano. Integrated as 
guest star in Grant Park Concert's Cole 
Porter High Program, Chicago, 111., Aug. 
18-19, 1951, with three white artists. Also 
featured were Albert Yarborough and 
John Burdette, tenors, who sang with the 
chorus accompanying the four stars. This 
was the first time in the 17-year history 
of these concerts that Negroes were used 
in the choral group. 

McFarlin, Pruith: tenor. Native of 
Florida. Education: Southern University, 
Baton Rouge, La. ; studied with La Forge 
and at Rochester School of Music. Taught 
at Piney Woods, Miss. Sings regularly on 
Columbia Broadcasting System and has 
appeared widely in concert in the United 
States. 

McMechen, June: soprano. Native of 
Missouri. Graduate of Howard Univers- 
ity; student of Todd Duncan. Repre- 
sented Howard University on a Fred 
Allen radio program as its "most talented 
undergraduate." Further study at Juil- 
liard and Columbia University, receiving 
Master's degree in music education. Has 
toured extensively and had tremendous 
success at Lewisohn Stadium appearances 
in Gershwin concerts. 



Pankey, Aubrey: baritone. Reared in 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Was boy soprano soloist 
with Holy Cross Choir. Education: Stu- 
died at Hampton Institute with R. 
Nathaniel Dett; Oberlin Conservatory of 
Music; Hubbard Studios; Boston College 
of Music; Neue Wiener Konzervatorium. 
Private teachers were Thiedor Lierham- 
mer in Vienna, Oscar Daniel and Charles 
Panzera in Paris, John Alan Haughton in 
New York. In 1930, made tour of prin- 
cipal cities of Europe and Africa as well 
as United States and South American 
countries. Was sent on good-will tour of 
South America just before World War II 
and was so successful he was asked to 
make a second tour. 

Parker, Louise: contralto. Graduate of 
Curtis Institute in Philadelphia. Has won 
two Marian Anderson awards and en- 
joyed successful debut in New York City, 
November 1947. 

Phillips, Helen: soprano. Successful 
debut at Town Hall, March 1948. Guest 
artist for National Association of Negro 
Musicians, Baltimore, 1950. Soloist for 
eight concerts of Goldman Band, summer 
1950 (the first time in 10 years a vocalist 
had appeared with the band). 

Rahn, Muriel: soprano. Born in Boston, 
reared in New York City and at Tuskegee 
Institute. Education: Tuskegee Institute, 
Atlanta University, Conservatory of the 
University of Nebraska. Has taught at 
several schools and colleges. Member of 
opera group of National Orchestral Asso- 
ciation of New York; has alternated con- 
cert and stage careers. Sang leading role 
in Billy Rose's Carmen Jones, alternating 
with Muriel Smith. Has toured United 
States extensively. Sang in Eva Jessye's 
Choir, Lew Leslie's Blackbirds, Connie's 
Hot Chocolates, in Paris at "Chez La 
DuBarry." Other achievements are: suc- 
cessful concert in Carnegie Chamber 
Music Hall; role in National Orchestral 
Association presentation of Mozart's 
Abduction from the Seraglio; featured 
role in the Lunt-Fontaine show, The 
Pirate; ovation at Grant Park, where 
15,000 people heard her sing with Grant 
Park Orchestra, Aug. 12, 1943, under 



CONCERT ARTISTS 



57 



Leo Bolognini. For the February 1950 
Columbia Opera Workshop production 
she sang the leading female role opposite 
Lawrence Tibbett in The Barrier, a 
musical drama by Meyerowitz and Lang- 
ston Hughes, which was repeated in abor- 
tive runs in Washington and New York. 

Richardson, Mayme: soprano. Born 
Saginaw, Mich. Education: Detroit Con- 
servatory of Music. Made debut at Stein- 
way Hall, N.Y.C. Studied opera under 
Pompolio Maltestase, coached by Julius 
Ronkeski. Sang title role of Aida under 
Fritz Mahler, August 1945. 

Robbs, Mary: soprano. Made concert 
debut as soloist with Chattanooga Sym- 
phony Orchestra, Chattanooga, Tenn., 
April 4, 1951 ; believed to be first time in 
the South that a Negro has been a fea- 
tured performed with a white orchestra 
in a major public concert. 

Robeson, Paul: baritone. Born April 9, 
1898, Princeton, N.J. A.B., Rutgers Col- 
lege, 1919; M.A., Rutgers University, 
1932; LL.B., Columbia University, 1923; 
honorary degree, L.H.D., Hamilton Col- 
lege, 1940, Morehouse College, 1943, 
Howard University, 1945. Phi Beta 
Kappa, Rutgers. Toured United States 
and Europe as stage and concert artist. 
Is equally at home in music of the old 
masters, songs of popular composers, and 
spirituals of the Negro. 

Scott, Hazel: pianist. Plays programs 
divided equally between classics and 
popular music. Her Carnegie Hall con- 
certs are tremendously popular. Is the 
only Negro woman performer doing a 
solo show on TV (Station WABD). Dur- 
ing 1950-51 season toured British Isles, 
Scandinavia, Israel. 

Smith, Muriel: contralto. Sang one of 
lead roles in Carmen Jones. Played role 
of Ella Hammer in the Broadway opera 
The Cradle Will Rock, by Blitzstein, 
Mansfield Theatre, January 1948. 

Spearman, Rawn: tenor. Native of 
Tallahassee, Fla. Graduate of Florida 
A.&M. College. After serving in Army, 
joined Fisk Jubilee Singers. Recipient of 
Marian Anderson award, fourth annual 
award of American Theatre Wing, 1951 



Whitney Award. Town Hall debut, May 
13, 1951. 

Thigpen, Helen: soprano. Born in 
Washington, D.C. Studied at Howard 
University, with teachers in New York, 
with Eva Gauthier. Participant in 1950 
Festival of American Contemporary 
Music at Columbia University, sponsored 
by Alice M. Ditson Fund and in 1951 
American Music Festival, singing songs 
by composer Howard Swanson on both 
occasions. Widely known and well re- 
ceived as recitalist. 

Thomas, Fred: baritone. Second-place 
tie in 1951 "Metropolitan Auditions of 
the Air"; received $1,000 scholarship. 
Has sung in Broadway shows, including 
Show Boat and Call Me Mister. Winner 
of 1951 National Association of Negro 
Musicians Award. Debut in Town Hall, 
March 18, 1950. 

Towles, Lois: pianist. Born in Texar- 
kana, Ark. Attended Wiley College, Uni- 
versity of Iowa, Juilliard School of 
Music; studied under Robert Casadesus 
at Fontainebleau, France. Assistant pro- 
fessor in music at Fisk University. Her 
1951 American concerts were followed 
by a European tour. Has been singled out 
by Arthur Rubinstein as a gifted inter- 
preter and was given fellowship in Master 
Coaching at his Hollywood studio. 

Walker, George: pianist. Born in Wash- 
ington, D.C. Education: Oberlin Conserv- 
atory of Music; scholarship at Curtis 
School of Music, Philadelphia, in piano 
under Serkin, in composition under Sca- 
lero; studied with Piatigorsky, Primrose, 
Menotti. Debut recital in Town Hall. 
Soloist with Ormandy and Philadelphia 
Symphony Orchestra and with American 
Youth Orchestra under Dean Dixon. 

War field William: baritone. Studied 
at Eastman School of Music. Served in 
Army. Made sensational debut in Town 
Hall, March 19, 1950. Toured Australia, 
giving concerts in six cities with Goosens, 
Klemperer, and Galliera conducting. Ap- 
peared in moving picture, Show Boat; on 
Broadway in Call Me Mister and Regina. 
Turned down role in Venice production 
of The Rake's Progress for film, Huckle- 



58 



MUSIC 



berry Finn. Received scroll from "Negro 
in Arts" for outstanding contributions in 
music and theatre, Town Hall, Jan. 28, 
1951. 

Williams, Camilla: soprano. Born in 
Danville, Va. Graduated from Virginia 
State College. Taught in public schools 
of Danville, Va. Twice winner of Marian 
Anderson award of $1,000; also won 
Philadelphia Orchestra Youth Concert 
audition. Signed with RCA Victor as ex- 
clusive Victor recording artist. Operatic 
debut in title role of Madame Butterfly 
with New York City Opera Company, 
May 15, 1946, and has been on its regular 
roster since 1947. Is in demand as con- 
cert singer. (See also NEGROES IN OPERA, 
below. ) 

Winters, Lawrence: baritone. Graduate 
of Howard University. Regular member 
of New York City Opera Company. Has 
given joint recitals with Ellabelle Davis. 
Has toured Europe and South America. 
(See also NEGROES IN OPERA, below.) 

EDUCATORS, ARTISTS, 
ARRANGERS, COMPOSERS 

A large number of competent Negro 
musicians, virtuosi, and composers are 
most noticeably active in the field of 
education. This section contains that 
group. After each individual's name his 
specialty is indicated. Included here also 
are persons whose whole time is devoted 
to composition. 3 

Allen, William Duncan: pianist-accom- 
pianist. Born Dec. 15, 1908, Portland, 
Oreg. Education: Mus. <B., Oberlin Con- 
servatory of Music, 1928; Mus. M., 1936. 
Further study in London with Egon 
Petri, 1936; in Zackopane, Poland, 1937 
and 1939. Instructor in piano at Howard 
University, 1929-35; Fisk University, 
1936-43. Since 1936 has been accompanist 
to Todd Duncan. Has given many recitals 
in United States and abroad. 

Anderson, Walter: composer, organist. 
Born May 12, 1915, Zanesville, Ohio. 
Education: Studied organ, piano theory 
with William Bailey, Capital University, 



Columbus, Ohio; Mus. B., Oberlin Con- 
servatory of Music. In 1938 became an 
Associate, American Guild of Organists. 
Member of Pi Kappa Lambda. During 
1937-38 accompanied Catherine Van 
Buren, soprano. From 1939 to 1942 in- 
structor in music, Kentucky State College. 
In 1941 won Bartol Scholarship for study 
at the Berkshires. In 1942 associated with 
Karamu House, Cleveland, Ohio. Head of 
Music Department, Antioch College, Yel- 
low Springs, Ohio. Has composed cantata 
based on President Roosevelt's D-Day 
prayer. 

Blanton, Carol: pianist. Native of Den- 
mark, S.C. Education: Spelman College. 
Studied piano under Kemper Harreld, 
Morehouse College, Atlanta, Ga., and at 
Institute of Musical Art; also under Ep- 
stein for three years; did summer work 
with Gorodnitzki and Hazel Harrison. Re- 
ceived Mus. M. from Institute of Musical 
Art on a General Education Board Fel- 
lowship; repeated, under Friedberg. On 
faculty of Dillard University, 1936-46. 
Became member of faculty of Hampton 
Institute, 1946. 

Bonds, Margaret: pianist, composer. 
Reared in Chicago, 111. Mus. B. from 
Northwestern University. Guest soloist at 
Chicago World's Fair. Member of a 
duo-piano team playing concerts through- 
out United States. Appeared as first 
Negro pianist with the 75 piece Scranton 
Philharmonic Orchestra, Dr. Frieder 
Weissman conducting Jan. 31, 1950. 

Brown, J. Harold: composer, choral 
conductor. Native of Florida. Education: 
Florida Normal and Industrial School, 
St. Augustine, B.A. in Music, Fisk Uni- 
versity, 1923. In 1926 attended Kansas 
City Conservatory. Received M.A. in com- 
position from Indiana University, 1931. 
Director of Music, Attucks High School 
and Florida A.&M. College, Tallahassee, 
Fla., to 1946. Director of Music, Southern 
University. Winner of Wanamaker Mu- 
sical Composition Contest, 1927, 1928, 
1930, 1931 ; of Harmon Award, 1929. In 
1926 won $200 scholarship from National 
Association of Negro Musicians. 



* Some additional names will be found in previous editions of this book. 



EDUCATORS, ARRANGERS, COMPOSERS 



59 



Charlton, Melville: organist, composer. 
Born Aug. 26, 1880, N.Y.C. Education: 
Studied piano under Virginia Hunt Scott, 
later under E. B. Kinney, a pupil of 
Antonin Dvorak; organ and composition 
under Charles Heinroth at National Con- 
servatory of Music of America; musical 
history under Henry T. Finck; work at 
College of the City of New York. Mus. D. 
from Howard University, 1924. Organist 
and Musical Director, Temple of Coven- 
ant, 1914-24; Temple Eman-El, Union 
Theological Seminary, 1911 to present. 
Became Associate of American Guild of 
Organists, 1915. Written compositions for 
piano and organ include Poems Erotique. 

Charlton, Rudolph von: pianist. Born 
in Norfolk, Va. Education: Hampton In- 
stitute with R. Nathaniel Dett; Juilliard 
School of Music ; New England Conserva- 
tory; Mus. M. from University of Michi- 
gan. Studied with Percy Grainger, Dett, 
John Orth, Alton Jones, Matthay, and 
Joseph Brinkman. Member of faculty of 
Florida A.&M. College, Tallahassee, Fla., 
until 1942. Director of Music, Prairie 
View University, Prairie View, Texas. 

Clark, Edgar Rogie: composer, singer. 
Education: Clark College, Atlanta, Ga.; 
DePaul University, Chicago, 111. ; Chicago 
Musical College; M.A., Columbia Uni- 
versity. Studied with Charles Hackett of 
Juilliard School of Music. Member of 
ASCAP. Published Anthology, Negro Art 
Songs, first volume of its kind. 

Coston, Jean: pianist. Graduate of 
Oberlin Conservatory; student, Juilliard 
School of Music, Chicago Musical Col- 
lege; student of Friedberg, Rudolph 
Ganz. Soloist with New Orleans Sym- 
phony under Massimo Freccia. Taught at 
Howard and Dillard Universities. 

Dawson, William Levi: composer, con- 
ductor. Born Sept. 23, 1897, Anniston, 
Ala. Education: Tuskegee Institute; 
Washburn Institute, Topeka, Kans. ; Mus. 
B., Homer Institute of Fine Arts, Kansas 
City, Ohio; Mus. M., American Con- 
servatory of Music, Chicago. Was director 
of Music in the public schools of Topeka, 
Kansas, and Kansas City, Mo.; for three 
years first trombonist with Chicago Civic 



Orchestra. Conducted a band at Century 
of Progress Fair, Chicago, 1933. Since 
1931 has been Director of Music, Tuske- 
gee Institute, and Director of Tuskegee 
Institute Choir (which has appeared at 
International Music Hall, New York 
City; at Hall of Fame, New York 
City, on unveiling of bust of Booker T. 
Washington, May 23, 1946; at Constitu- 
tion Hall, Washington, D.C., in benefit 
concert for United Negro College Fund; 
in concerts in the East and South; and 
is also frequently heard on nation-wide 
radio broadcasts). His compositions in- 
clude: Negro Folk Symphony No. 1, 1931, 
Scherzo, 1930, for orchestra; Out in the 
Fields, Ain'-a-That Good News, (a cap- 
pella) ; Break, Break, Break (with or- 
chestra) for chorus; Trio in A, (violin, 
cello, piano) ; Sonata in A, (violin and 
piano) ; chamber music. 

DeBoise, Tour gee: pianist. Education: 
Fisk University; Oberlin College; Juil- 
liard School of Music; L'Ecole Normale 
de Musique, Paris. Became head of De- 
partment of Music, Talladega College, 
1919. Has received favorable mention as 
performer by Musical America, The 
Etude, La Monde Musicale, and other 
periodicals. Known as a Chopin inter- 
preter. Is Dean of Department of Music, 
Southern University, Baton Rouge, La. 

DeRamus, Anne: pianist. Mus. M., 
Northwestern University; Rosenwald Fel- 
low; student of Robert Casadesus and 
Nadia Boulanger; Grace Moore Scholar- 
ship at Fontainebleau, France; Geneva, 
Switzerland, Award. Debut at Times Hall, 
March 3, 1948. 

Diton, Carl: composer. Born Oct. 30, 
1886, Philadelphia, Pa. Protege of Azalia 
Hackley. Education: Studied at Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania and at Munich. 
Taught at Paine College, 1911-14; Wiley 
College, 1914-15; Talladega College, 
1915-18. Opened own studio in Philadel- 
phia and later in New York City. Won 
Harmon Award, 1929. In 1930 studied 
voice in Graduate Department of Juilliard 
School of Music. Songs published by 
Schirmer. At present conducts studio in 
New York City. 



60 



MUSIC 



Francois, Clarens: pianist, composer, 
Education: Mus. B., Northwestern Uni- 
versity; graduate study at University of 
Southern California at Los Angeles. Has 
taught at Palmer Memorial Institute, 
Sedalia, N.C.; in public schools, Dayton, 
Ohio. Served as bandmaster for U.S. 
Navy at Chapel Hill, N.C., during World 
War II. 

Fuller, 0. Anderson, Jr.: composer, 
pianist. Born Sept. 20, 1904, Bishop Col- 
lege, Marshall, Texas. Education: Bishop 
College; New England Conservatory of 
Music; University of Iowa, where he re- 
ceived M.A. and Ph. D. Has been Director 
of Music at A.&T. College, Greensboro, 
N.C.; Prairie View, Texas. Is Dean of 
Music, Lincoln University, Jefferson City, 
Mo. Under his direction, the Division of 
Music became member of Association of 
Schools of Music. 

Gamble, Anne: pianist. Graduated cum 
laude from Fisk University; studied at 
Oberlin Conservatory, and under Ray Lev 
in New York City. Taught at Tuskegee 
Institute, was Associate Professor of 
Music at Talladega College. 

Gatlin, F. Nathaniel: clarinetist. Born 
at Gary, Ind. Education: Oberlin Con- 
servatory of Music; Northwestern Uni- 
versity, M.A. ; studied under George 
Wain and DeCaprio. Played for Enesco, 
Kryl, Kinder, Stokowski. Has taught at 
Bennett College, Greensboro, N.C. Head 
of Band Department, Lincoln University, 
Jefferson City, Mo., 1946. 

Hall, Frederick D.: composer, con- 
ductor, arranger. Born Dec. 14, 1896, 
Atlanta, Ga. Education: Morehouse Col- 
lege; Chicago Musical College, Mus. B. ; 
Columbia University; M.A. Fellowship, 
Royal Anthropological Institute; Licen- 
tiate, Royal Academy of Music; Rosen- 
wald Fellow; General Education Board 
Fellow; Research Grant from Phelps 
Stokes Fund. Formerly Director of Music, 
Clark College, Atlanta, Ga., and Dillard 
University, New Orleans, La. Director of 
Music, Alabama State Teachers' College, 
Montgomery, Ala. 

Harreld, Kemper: violinist. Born Jan. 
31, 1885, Muncie, Ind. Education: Chi- 



cago Musical College; Sherwood Music 
School; Frederickson Violin School, Chi- 
cago; Sterns Conservatory, Berlin, 1914. 
Serves on faculty of Morehouse College 
and of Spelman College, Atlanta, Ga. 
Conducted Atlanta University chorus on 
coast-to-coast broadcast, spring, 1946. 

Harris, Charles /.: pianist. Education: 
Chicago College of Music; New England 
Conservatory of Music; Boston Univer- 
sity. Formerly accompanist for Roland 
Hayes; author of a book describing ex- 
periences as such. Holds position on 
faculty of State A.&M. College, Orange- 
burg, S.C. 

Harrison, Hazel: pianist. Born in La- 
Porte, Ind. Studied with Victor Heinz in 
Berlin; then with Ferruccio Busoni. 
Played with Berlin Philharmonic Orches- 
tra. Studied with Percy Grainger after 
another year in Europe. Taught at Tus- 
kegee Institute. Is member of faculty of 
Howard University, Washington, D.C. 

James, Willis Laurence: composer, 
violinist, singer, conductor. Born in 
Montgomery, Ala. Has held positions at 
Leland College, Baker, La.; Alabama 
State Teachers College, Montgomery; 
Fort Valley State College, Fort Valley, 
Ga.; Spelman College, Atlanta, Ga. His 
compositions for voice and chorus have 
been performed by the NBC and CBS 
networks; on the Firestone Hour, Bell 
Telephone Hour, and Contented Hour. Is 
an authority on Negro Folk Music. 

Jones, Louis Vaughn: violinist. Born in 
Cleveland, Ohio. Education: Studied with 
Joseph Balas; at New England Conserva- 
tory with Felix Winternitz; post-graduate 
work at University of Michigan. Has 
given numerous concerts in United States 
and Europe. Further study with Solloway 
in Budapest and Darrieux in Paris. Since 
1930 has been head of Violin Department, 
Howard University. 

Kay, Ulysses: composer. The Quiet 
One, first performance by New York 
Little Symphony Orchestra, -November 
1948. Suite for Orchestra, performed by 
New York Philharmonic Music Ensemble. 
During 1950-51 received a Fulbright Fel- 
lowship for creative work in Italy, in 



EDUCATORS, ARRANGERS, COMPOSERS 



61 



residence at American Academy, Rome. 
Commissioned 1950-51 by Quincy (111.) 
Society of Fine Arts to compose work for 
baritone voice and chamber orchestra. 
First performances 1951: (1) Sinfonia 
in E, for orchestra, May 2, by Dr. Howard 
Hanson and Eastman-Rochester Sym- 
phony Orchestra in Eastman Schools' 
twenty-first Festival of American Music, 
Rochester, N.Y.; (2) Song of Ahab, 
cantata for baritone voice and chamber 
orchestra after Moby Dick, May 17, by 
J. Leslie Pierce, baritone, with members 
of the Quincy Chamber Music Ensemble, 
George Irwin, conductor, Quincy, 111.; 
(3) Short Suite, for concert band, May 8, 
by Baylor Golden Wave Band, Donald I. 
Moore, director, Waco, Texas. Publica- 
tions: Two volumes for organ, by H. W. 
Gray Company, N.Y.C. 

Kerry, Thomas: composer, pianist. As- 
sociate Professor of Music, Howard Uni- 
versity. With Sylvia Olden-Lee forms 
popular team of duo-pianists. 

Lawson, Warner: pianist, choral direc- 
tor. Born in Hartford, Conn. Education: 
Early music study with parents; B.A., 
Fisk University and Yale University; 
M.A., Harvard University; piano study 
with Artur Schnabel in Germany. Has 
served on faculty of A.&T. College, 
Greensboro, N.C., and at Fisk University. 
In 1942 was called to Howard University 
as Dean of School of Music. 1943-44, ad- 
visor to Lilla Belle Pitts, then President 
of Music Educators National Conference, 
in St. Louis. Under Dean Lawson the 
Howard University School of Music be- 
came member of Association of Schools 
of Music, the first Negro group so 
elected. 

Margetson, Edward H.: composer, or- 
ganist. Born Dec. 31, 1891, St. Kitts, 
B.W.I. Education: Columbia University. 
Associate of American Guild of Organ- 
ists. Specialty is Caribbean Sea songs. 
Organist and choirmaster of Church of 
the Crucifixion, N.Y.C. Among his com- 
positions are: Rondo Caprice, for full 
orchestra; Echoes of the Caribbean; 
Ballade Valse Serenade, for cello; pieces 
for violin, piano, organ, chorus. 



Mayo, T. Curtis: organist. Born in 
Washington, D.C. Education: Oberlin 
Conservatory of Music, Mus. M. Associate 
of American Guild of Organists. Taught 
at LeMoyne College, Memphis, Tenn.; 
St. Augustine's College, Raleigh, N.C. 
Recently won fellowship in American 
Guild of Organists. 

Miller, James: pianist, arranger. Born 
Aug. 30, 1907, Pittsburgh, Pa. Education: 
Carnegie Institute of Technology, Mus. 
M.; first Negro music teacher in public 
schools of Pittsburgh. Has given recitals 
in United States and published arrange- 
ments for spirituals. Organist, Bethesda 
Church, Pittsburgh. Member of Superin- 
tendent's Advisory Committee for Inter- 
cultural Education in public schools of 
Pittsburgh. 

Nicker son, Camille: composer and 
singer of Creole songs. Born in New Or- 
leans, La. Education: Mus. B., Oberlin 
Conservatory of Music ; studied at Colum- 
bia University and Institute of Musical 
Art. Instructor at Howard University. 
Author of Five Creole Songs, published 
by Boston Music Company. In 1944 gave 
recital of Creole and Negro songs at New 
York Times Hall, accompanying herself 
on piano and guitar (the Creole songs 
were sung in the Louisiana French patois, 
after being explained in English). Past- 
president of National Association of 
Negro Musicians. 

Olden-Lee, Sylvia: pianist-accompanist, 
coach. Education: Studied at Howard 
University with Allen and Cohen; at 
Oberlin University with Frank Shaw. 
Studied with Wittgenstein. Taught at 
Talladega College and Dillard University. 
Joint recitals with Carol Brice, Paul 
Robeson ; duo-piano concerts with Thomas 
Kerr of Howard University. Married 
Everett Lee, whom she accompanies. 

Perry, Julia: composer. Native of Ak- 
ron, Ohio. Student at Akron University. 
Through John Knight Scholarship was 
able to attend Westminster Choir School. 
In 1948 won first place in vocal contest; 
tied for first place in composition at 
Columbus convention of the National 
Association of Negro Musicians. Further 



62 



MUSIC 



study at Juilliard School of Music and 
the Berkshires. Has M.A. in composition 
from Westminster Choir College. 

Price, Florence B.: composer, pianist, 
born 1888, Little Rock, Ark. Education: 
Chicago Teacher's College; University of 
Chicago; Chicago Musical College; New 
England Conservatory of Music; Amer- 
ican Conservatory of Music. Winner of 
Wanamaker prize for symphony and 
piano compositions. Member of ASCAP, 
Chicago Club of Women Organists, Chi- 
cago Music Association, National Asso- 
ciation of Negro Musicians, National 
Association for American Composers and 
Conductors. 

Savage, Roena: instructor in voice, De- 
partment of Music, Lincoln University, 
Jefferson City, Mo. Under management of 
Dixie Bureau-Southern Town Hall Asso- 
ciation, 1950-51. Her repertoire includes 
songs from German, French, Italian, 
English, Spanish schools as well as 
spirituals. Made her New York debut in 
1948 and was acclaimed for "an unusu- 
ally beautiful voice, even throughout its 
entire range." 

Schuyler, Philippa Duke: composer, 
pianist. Born Aug. 2, 1931, N.Y.C. Having 
won eighth consecutive prize in New York 
Philharmonic Society's notebook contest 
for young people, at age of 11 was barred 
from further participation (first time in 
history of the contest a child was barred 
because of brilliance). In annual tourna- 
ment for piano students held by National 
Guild of Piano Teachers, Philippa was 
awarded, for eighth consecutive time, 
the highest honors, a gold star, for her 
repertoire of 21 pieces, and the mark of 
"superior." She first played for the Guild 
when four years old, and had at that time 
composed a dozen scales, 10 pieces, and 
knew by memory many compositions. Just 
before her fourth birthday she played 
Schumann and Mozart on two large radio 
hook-ups. Has appeared at Lewisohn Sta- 
dium with New York Philharmonic Or- 
chestra in dual role of composer-pianist. 
The orchestra played one of her compo- 
sitions and then accompanied her in the 
Saint-Saens Concerto in G Minor. A child 



prodigy, Miss Schuyler is developing into 
a first class musician, and has made suc- 
cessful appearances in United States and 
West Indies. 

Still, William Grant: composer. Born 
May 11, 1895, Woodville, Miss. Educa- 
tion: Wilberforce University; Oberlin 
Conservatory of Music; New England 
Conservatory. Honorary degrees: Mus. 
M., Wilberforce University; Mus. D., 
Howard University, 1936. Played violin, 
cello, oboe in orchestra, Columbus, Ohio, 
1915. Has arranged for well known or- 
chestras and arranged and directed for 
"Deep River Hour," Station WOR; com- 
poser of theme song for New York 
World's Fair. Conducted own composi- 
tions as guest conductor, Los Angeles 
Philharmonic Orchestra, 1936. Received 
second Harmon Award for year's greatest 
contribution to American Negro culture; 
Guggenheim Fellowship, 1934; Rosen- 
wald Fellowship, 1939. 

Compositions include: for full orches- 
tra, Darker America; Afro-American 
Symphony; Symphony in G Minor; Dis- 
mal Swamp. For orchestra, chorus, nar- 
rator, and contralto, And They Lynched 
Him on a Tree. For small orchestra, 
Scherzo; Summerland; Blues; From the 
Black Belt; Rising Tide. For piano solo, 
Three Visions; Quit Dot Fool'nish; A 
Deserted Plantation; Seven Traceries. 
For voice and piano, Winter's Approach; 
Breath of a Rose; Twelve Negro Spiritu- 
als; Rising Tide. For chorus, Three 
Negro Spirituals. For orchestra and bari- 
tone soloist, Plain-Chant for America. 
For ballet, La Guiablesse; Sahdji; Lenox 
Avenue. Ballet, Miss Sally's Party. 
Operas, Troubled Island; A Bayou 
Legend; A Southern Interlude. On May 
12, 1949, Troubled Island, based on 
Langston Hughes' book, had its premiere 
at the New York City Center Opera 
House. 

Suthern, Orrin Clayton, II: organist- 
conductor. Born Oct. 11, 1912, Renovo, 
Pa. Education: Western Reserve Univer- 
sity; Cleveland Institute of Music; 
Northwestern University; Columbia Uni- 
versity; student of Edwin Arthur Kraft 



EDUCATORS, ARRANGERS, COMPOSERS 



63 



and of Carl Weinrich, both Fellows of 
American Guild of Organists; history 
under Lang, Columbia University. Has 
given concerts in all parts of United 
States. Taught at Tuskegee Institute, 
1934-39; head of Department of Music, 
Florida A.&M. College, Tallahassee, Fla., 
1940-42; head of Department of Music, 
Bennett College, 1942-45; head of De- 
partment of Music, Dillard University, 
1945-50. Director and Associate Professor 
of Music, Lincoln University, Lincoln 
University, Pa. 

Suthern first began to attract attention 
as the youthful organist of St. Andrew's 
Episcopal Church in Cleveland, Ohio, 
where his father was rector. When a stu- 
dent at Western Reserve University he 
won a contest under the auspices of the 
Northern Ohio Chapter of the American 
Guild of Organists for which he was 
awarded a certificate and a recital at the 
Youngstown, Ohio convention of the 
Guild. No Negro organist had ever been 
so honored. Through his affiliation with 
Western Reserve University many other 
musical honors were extended to him. 
Arthur Quimby, then Curator of Music at 
the Cleveland Museum of Art, invited 
him to play four Sunday evening recitals 
on the great museum organ. Later the 
mighty instrument at Severance Hall, 
home of the Cleveland Orchestra, was to 
respond to his touch. When the family 
moved to Chicago in 1933, his father 
became rector of St. Thomas' Episcopal 
Church, then a mission, and Suthern took 
over the duties of organist and master of 
the choristers. After playing a number 
of small engagements, Suthern's big 
opportunity came when an invitation to 
play the mammoth Skinner organ in 
Rockefeller Chapel was extended him by 
the University of Chicago officials. As a 
result of this engagement, succeeding 
years brought annual invitations to play 
at the Chapel. 

During the 1945-46 season, two new 
firsts were added to the Suthern record. 
In December, he was soloist with the New 
Orleans Symphony Orchestra, the first 
time a Negro instrumentalist had played 



with a white southern orchestra; on Feb. 
17, he was the first Negro organist to 
perform over a CBS network. 

Swanson, Howard: composer. The 
American Music Festival, February 1951, 
featured his songs, Second Prelude and 
The Valley. As a participant in Sixth 
Annual Festival of Contemporary Amer- 
ican Music at Columbia University, spon- 
sored by Alice M. Ditson Fund, his songs, 
Junk Man, Four Preludes, The Valley, 
Night Song, were sung by HelenThigpen, 
soprano. His Suites for Cello and Piano 
were played by Bernard Greenhouse, 
February 1951. First Negro to win annual 
(1951 ) award of New York Music Critics' 
Circle for orchestra music, for his com- 
position, Short Symphony. 

Thomas, Carlotta: organist, composer. 
Born in New York City. Protegee of 
Harry Burleigh. Education: Languages 
and music, Columbia University; piano, 
Chatauqua and summer school under 
Arnet Hutcherson; also studied under 
many private teachers. First Negro wo- 
man to pass academic examination to 
become Associate of American Guild of 
Organists. Composer of numerous pub- 
lished choruses and a recitalist of dis- 
tinction. 

White, Clarence Cameron: composer, 
violinist. Born Aug. 10, 1880, Clarkville, 
Tenn. Education: Howard University, 
1894-95; Oberlin Conservatory of Music, 
1896-01. Studied in London under Samuel 
Coleridge-Taylor, 1908-11; in Paris under 
Raoul Lapana, on Rosenwald Fellowship, 
1930-33. Student at Juilliard School of 
Music, 1940. Played in String Players 
Club under the direction of Coleridge- 
Taylor. M.A. (Honorary), Atlanta Uni- 
versity, 1928; Mus. D., Wilberforce Uni- 
versity, 1933. Teacher in the public 
schools, Washington, D.C., 1902-05; pri- 
vate studio, Boston, 1912-23; Director of 
Music, West Virginia State College, 1924- 
30, Hampton Institute, 1932-35; Music 
Specialist, National Recreation Associa- 
tion, N.Y.C., 1937-41. Awarded Harmon 
Foundation Award, 1928; Rosenwald 
Fellow Award, 1930; David Bispham 
Award for Opera, 1933. Among his com- 



64 



MUSIC 



positions are Quango (opera in 4 acts), 
1932; numerous pieces for violin and 
pianoforte, organ, voice, and violin tech- 
nique; many Negro spirituals, including 
Bandanna Sketches, From the Cotton 
Fields, Cabin Memories. 

Winkfield, Clyde: pianist. Born June 9, 
1918. Education: Chicago Musical Col- 
lege; University of Chicago. Pupil of 
Treshansky. Winner of Civic Achieve- 
ment Award of City of Chicago. Rosen- 
wald Fellow, 1941. Soloist with Detroit 
Civic Orchestra, Pennsylvania Orchestra, 
American Concert Orchestra. National 
Youth Symphony Orchestra. 

Work, John W .: composer. Education: 
Fisk University; Yale University, Mus. 
B.; Columbia University, M.A. ; Institute 
of Musical Art. Published compositions 
for voice (solos, motets, adaptations from 
Negro folksongs) ; piano solo, Sassafras; 
Appalachia (suite of three pieces) ; 
Scuppernong, (suite of three pieces) ; 
numerous other works. Articles pub- 
lished: "The School Chorus", Neiv Edu- 
cational Magazine; "Sweet Chariot Goes 
to Church," Eptvorth Highroad; "Modern 
Music and its Implications to the Lay 
Listener," The Dillard Arts Quarterly; 
"Plantation Meistersingers," The Musical 
Quarterly, January 1940; "A Significant 
New Musical Form," Motiv. October 
1946; "Changing Patterns in Negro 
Folksongs," Journal of American Folk- 
lore, October 1949. Published in 1940, 
American Folk Songs. His festival chorus, 
The Singers, won first prize in competi- 
tion held by Fellowship of American 
Composers when performed May 9, 1946, 
by Michigan State Chorus and Detroit 
Symphony. Commissioned to write orches- 
tra suite for Saratoga Music Festival. 

NEGROES IN OPERA 

The data that follow give the operatic 
appearances of Negroes, 1948 to 1951. 1 

Robert McFerrin, baritone 

1949 March 31, Troubled Island, Still 



Muriel Rahn, soprano 

1950 February, The Barrier, Meyerowitz, 

Columbia University 
Muriel Smith, contralto 

1948 January, The Cradle Will Rock, 

Blitzstein, Mansfield Theatre 
Dec. 12, Carmen Jones, Town Hall 
William Warfield, baritone 
1949 Nov. 1, 



Camilla Williams, soprano 

1948 March 26, Madame Butterfly, Puccini 

Oct. 10, Madame Butterfly, Puccini 
Oct. 28, Aida, Verdi 

1949 April 9, Madame Butterfly, Puccini 

April 21, Madame Butterfly, Puccini 
Oct. 1, Madame Butterfly, Puccini 
Nov. 6, Madame Butterfly, Puccini 
Nov. 12, La Bohcme, Charpentier 

1950 Sept. 22, Madame Butterfly, Puccini 
Camilla Williams and Lawrence Winters 

1948 Nov. 5, Aida, Verdi 
Nov. 26, Aida, Verdi 

1949 March 24, Aida, Verdi 
April 3, Aida, Verdi 

1950 April 16, Madame Butterfly, Puccini 

1951 April 1, Madame Butterfly, Puccini 

April 6, Aida, Verdi 
Lawrence Winters, baritone 

1948 Oct. 28, Aida, Verdi 

Oct. 31, Pagliacci, Puccini 
Nov. 21, Pagliacci, Puccini 

1949 April 10, Troubled Island, Still 
Oct. 2, Aida, Verdi 

Oct. 16, Pagliacci, Puccini 

Oct. 19. Tales of Hoffman, Offenbach 

Oct. 20, Aida, Verdi 

Nov. 1, Love for Three Oranges, 

Prokofieff 
Nov. 10, Carmen, Bizet 

1950 March 24, Love for Three Oranges, 

Prokofieff 

April 2, Pagliacci, Puccini 
April 6, Turandot, Puccini 
April 22, Pagliacci, Puccini 
April 23, Tales of Hoffman, Offen- 

bach 

April 31, Turandot, Puccini 
Oct. 19, Aida, Verdi 
Nov. 10, Aida, Verdi 
Nov. 13, Die Meistersinger, Wagner 
1951 rMarch 14, Die Meistersinger, Wagner 
March 17, Love for Three Oranges, 

Prokofieff 

March 25, Pagliacci, Puccini 
Oct. 4, The Dybbuk, Tamkin 



THE NEGRO AND 
POPULAR MUSIC 

In the field of popular music, Negro 
musicians hold a prominent place as 
composers, arrangers, band leaders, and 
soloists, both vocal and instrumental. 2 An 
article in Down Beat, Jan. 1, 1943, states 



1 AH appearances were with the New York City Opera Company, N.Y.C., except Miss Rahn's. For appearances of 
Negroes in operatic roles 1872-1946, see Negro Year Book 1947. 

2 For detailed sketches of some popular musicians, see Negro Year Book 1947. 



POPULAR MUSIC 



65 



that colored musicians excel on all solo 
instruments. 

Among familiar and noted popular 
artists who have been on the scene for 
many years are Duke Ellington (Edward 
Kennedy) ; William C. Handy, of the 
famous "St. Louis Blues," who is now in 
the music publishing business ; and Eubie 
Blake, composer, who has "written a life- 
time of melodies." 

Among the younger group currently on 
the scene are Valaida Snow, international 
singing star; Maxine Sullivan, song- 
stress; Mary Lou Williams, pianist, ar- 
ranger, and composer; Sarah Vaughan, 
vocalist; and Nat "King" Cole, and many 
others. 

A popular singer of folk songs is Josh 
White, who toured Europe in 1951. Popu- 



lar gospel singers are Sister Rosetta 
Tharpe, and Mahalia Jackson, who was 
recognized in 1951 by a French musical 
organization for the recording of folk 
music. 

Among band leaders and other leaders 
who have made names for themselves are: 
Louis Armstrong, Count Basic, Tiny 
Bradshaw, Cab Galloway, Billy Eckstine, 
Ella Fitzgerald, Lionel Hampton, Erskine 
Hawkins, Benny Carter, Teddy Wilson, 
Erroll Garner, Pearl Bailey, Lena Home, 
Roy Eldridge, Billy Daniels, Louis 
Jordan. 

Winners in the 1951 Down Beat band 
poll were Duke Ellington, Miles Davis, 
Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Oscar 
Peterson, Sarah Vaughn, and the Mills 
Brothers. 



5 
Art 



THE AFRICAN HERITAGE 

Contrary to popular impression, the Ne- 
gro has contributed largely to the de- 
velopment of the fine arts. 1 

"Negro," the accepted term for desig- 
nating the darker, so-called black, races, 
is very ambiguously and arbitrarily used 
today to sustain certain mythical stereo- 
types, mainly by the English-speaking 
peoples and particularly by those of the 
United States. A Spanish and Portuguese 
word merely meaning "black," the earli- 
est occasion of its present usage, accord- 
ing to the Oxford English Dictionary, 
was in 1555. Anciently it was unknown. 
All Africa was anciently known by the 
Greeks as Ethiopia, meaning "land of the 
burnt faces." It has been said that Em- 
peror Haile Selassie considers himself the 
spiritual ruler of all Africa for this rea- 
son. Ethiopia is the oldest nation on earth 
and was the mother of some of the great 
civilizations. 

At the dawn of history, the most highly 
developed civilizations were in ancient 
Ethiopia and Egypt, whose inhabitants 
had a common origin. In these civiliza- 
tions the fundamentals of architecture 
were developed and, concurrently, the 
arts of painting and sculpture. The earli- 
est great architectural development is 
found in the Nile Valley, and its extra- 
ordinary ruins still remain as visible 
testimony. "In every part of the valley 
we find remnants of an age of building 
the like of which cannot be paralleled 
in the richest parts of Greece. Here it was 
that great building was practiced at an 
age when all of the rest of the world was 



in midnight darkness." 2 These are the 
works of the people known today as 
Negro and Negroid. 

In the rest of Africa contemporary 
with the ancient Negro and Negroid 
civilizations of East Africa, there were 
outstanding, though more primitive, 
civilizations. It is claimed that the famous 
ruins of Zimbabwe in Rhodesia mark the 
site of long-lost Ophir, a previously un- 
identified region famous in the Old 
Testament for its fine gold. 

During the past 45 years, West Africa 
has given us works of art that have made 
it a vast influence on modern art and the 
industrial arts of the world. We now know 
more than ever about the arts of West 
Africa through the famous Blondiau Col- 
lection, which was brought to the United 
States about 1925. Dr. Albert C. Barnes 
of the Barnes Foundation, Merion, Pa., 
writing in Opportunity, May 1926, on 
Negro Art Past and Present, says: 

A score or more years ago most of those 
persons who watched the beginning of a new 
era in art were profoundly astonished to read 
that its source of inspiration was the work of 
a race for centuries despised and condemned 
to a servile status. The greatest of all sculp- 
tures, that most purely classic in conception 
and execution, the Egyptian, was itself 
African. 

Paul Guillaume, proprietor and editor 
of the magazine, Les Arts, Paris, in the 
same issue of Opportunity says: "These 
statues, first studied by anthropologists 
and antiquarians, have in the short space 
of twenty years played a role no less im- 
portant for this age than was the role of 
classic art in inspiring the Renaissance." 

The influence of African art extends 
immeasurably throughout the industrial 



1 Sources include: Porter, James A., "Progress of the Negro in Art During the Past Fifty Years," Pittsburgh 
Courier, July 29, 1950. For awards and other distinctions in art, see Chapter 24, AWARDS, HONORS AND OTHER 
DISTINCTIONS. 

8 Ridpath, J. C., With the World's People, Vol. 9. Washington, D. C. : Clark Ridpath, 1916. 



66 



THE AFRICAN HERITAGE 



67 



arts. This was strongly affirmed by 
Stewart Culin, curator of the Brooklyn 
Museum: 

The art of the Negro is distinguished from 
the art of all other existing art of more or 
less pre-literate races as being a living art of 
a living people. While the American Indian 
and the inhabitants of the South Pacific have 
declined in contact with the European civili- 
zation, and their art extinguished, the Negro 
exists with his artistic powers and percep- 
tions unimpaired, capable of progressing 
along lines of his own traditions and of cre- 
ating for himself and in his own way. The 
vitality of his art is evidenced by the influence 
it has exerted upon the contemporary art of 
the West, known and fully recognized by 
many painters and sculptors and by their 
critics and followers. Less known and under- 
stood is the effect it has had upon the in- 
dustrial arts, upon pattern making, upon so- 
called decorative art. Mostly occupied with 
the textile patterns, I have seen their adop- 
tion by the French and American textile in- 
dustries following the display of raffia em- 
broideries at the Brooklyn Museum in 1923. 1 

According to Dr. Culin, some of the 
results of this adoption formed the most 
conspicuous of all exotic influences at the 
Paris Exposition of 1925. He gives the 
Negro's textiles the most enduring place 
in their influence upon the art of the 
world. 

We realize from the arts of the Negro 
that the beautiful was a way of life in 
African civilizations and that the Amer- 
ican Negro has a very old artistic back- 
ground. During the long years of slavery 
in the New World, the American Negro 
was separated from many of his gifts 
to which he is now abundantly returning. 

From Central and West Africa came 
the gift of iron and smelting. Franz Boas 
states: "It seems not unlikely that the 
people who made the marvelous discovery 
of reducing iron ores by smelting were 
the African Negroes. Neither ancient 
Europe, nor ancient Western Asia, nor 
ancient China knew iron." Torday, writ- 
ing in the Journal of the Royal Anthropo- 
logical Institute, says: "We are indebted 
to the Negro for the very keystone of our 
modern civilization ... we owe him the 
discovery of iron." This was a contribu- 
tion of West Africa, the section from 

1 Opportunity, May 1927. 



which most of the slaves who were 
brought to the Americas came. Thus we 
know that many of the slaves brought to 
the Americas were from cultures skilled 
for centuries in the use of iron. So it is 
understandable how and why the Negro's 
first outstanding aesthetic contribution to 
New World culture was the fashioning of 
iron in many artistic ways. Old balconies, 
grilles, and doorways of New Orleans 
and surrounding Gulf areas, of Savannah, 
Georgia, of Charleston and Beaufort, 
South Carolina, and of other parts of the 
South Atlantic area are eloquent tributes 
to the skilled craftsmanship of slaves, 
heritages of their ancient cultures and 
civilizations. They worked at the anvil 
without direction from the white group. 
These gracious balconies, intricate grilles, 
and charmingly designed lunettes wrought 
by slave labor have won their place in 
the world of dealers and connoisseurs as 
works of master craftsmen. 

Notwithstanding the more than justifi- 
able claim of the Negro to the indigenous 
cultures of the African continent and the 
world renown of the vast works in the 
Nile Valley of Ethiopia and Egypt, recog- 
nized Negro writers on Negro art have 
failed to take the East African phase into 
proper consideration. Indeed, white 
American writers generally have given 
more thought to the fact that ancient 
Ethiopia and Egypt were Negro than have 
Negro writers. Outstanding among them 
has been Dr. Albert C. Barnes of the 
Barnes Foundation, Merion, Pa. However, 
two distinguished Negro historians and 
scholars have ably and authentically 
documented the ancient Negro connec- 
tions of the great nations of East Africa, 
as well as the equally ancient, though 
more primitive, nations of the West and 
South. These scholars are Dr. W. E. B. 
DuBois, in his Black Folk Then and Now 
and his more recent The World and 
Africa, and Joel A. Rogers, in his works 
in general but particularly in the three 
volumes entitled Sex and Race and a 
pamphlet, World's Greatest Men and 
Women of African Descent. It is the 



68 



ART 



existing remnants and ruins of the fine 
arts that have made our knowledge of 
ancient history possible, and the story of 
the Negro's contributions to the fine arts 
generally is inseparably interwoven with 
that history, as well as with modern 
history. 

INFLUENCE OF 
ALAIN L. LOCKE 

There are only two Negro writers of con- 
sequence in the field of Negro art, Alain 
L. Locke, Professor of Philosophy at 
Howard University, and James A. Porter, 
Assistant Professor of Art at the same 
university, whose Modern Negro Art 
covers its subject more thoroughly than 
any other work so far. 

Dr. Alain L. Locke is one of the recog- 
nized authorities on the Negro in art. It 
is reasonable to state that he has been a 
greater inspirational influence upon the 
development of Negro artists and in cre- 
ating appreciation for the Negro's art 
than any other person or group during 
the past 30 years. He has been appropri- 
ately called "the father of the Negro 
Renaissance." The appearance of the 
Harlem edition of Survey Graphic in 
March 1925 and The New Negro later in 
the same year had the effect of an atomic 
bomb on the public in general and Negro 
youth in particular. Prior to 1925, the 
known Negro professionals and students 
in the art schools of the country could 
almost have been counted on the fingers. 
Because of Locke's influence, ambitious 
aspirants in the field of art were greatly 
stimulated in their efforts. From 1925 to 
1951, in the short span of 26 years, more 
Negro artists and craftsmen have devel- 
oped and achieved outstanding recogni- 
tion in American life than in all the 
previous years of American history. Those 
who pioneered played their part, but it 
remained for Locke to dramatize and 
accelerate the movement, building high 
on the earlier foundations. Other groups, 
individuals, and organizations followed 
and aided in movement. 



AMERICAN NEGRO ARTISTS 

Early Artists 

In spite of the handicaps of slavery, 
Negroes have followed along with Amer- 
ican art developments from the begin- 
ning. They managed to achieve their own 
commensurate results in every phase of 
the arts practiced. James A. Porter's 
Modern Negro Art sustains this conclu- 
sion, and undoubtedly as interest and 
available funds increase, making possible 
more extensive research, much more evi- 
dence will be discovered. The foremost 
of the known artists of the earliest 
period, according to Locke's The Negro 
in Art was: 

Joshua Johnston: painter, 1770-1830. 
From a legendary figure known as "the 
painter slave of General Strieker," Dr. 
J. Hall Pleasants of the Maryland His- 
torical Society has reconstructed Joshua 
Johnston, undoubtedly the first authenti- 
cated Negro artist in America. He was a 
portraitist, and was probably manumit- 
ted. He is listed in the Baltimore direc- 
tories between 1769 and 1824 as a free- 
holder of colour and a portrait painter. 
According to Porter, "the source of his 
instruction or training is not yet estab- 
lished," but to use Dr. Pleasant's own 
words: "There appears in his paintings a 
striking generic resemblance to the work 
of three members of the Peale family. 
These three artists were Charles Wilson 
Peale, Charles Peale Polk and Rem- 
brandt Peale." 

In this period there were others who 
attained some proficiency of fair note. 
Porter gives the foremost mention of 
those known to Robert Douglass, portrait 
and ornamental painter, 1809-87; Pat- 
rick Reason, portrait painter and en- 
graver, born about 1817; and William 
Simpson, portrait painter, who died about 
1872. 

1850 to 1880 

During this period there were several 
Negro artists who distinguished them- 
selves favorably in comparison with other 



AMERICAN NEGRO ARTISTS 



69 



contemporary talents. The first and fore- 
most up to 1870 was: 

Robert S. Duncanson: painter, 1821- 
1871. Born in Cincinnati, Ohio. He at- 
tained distinction in Cincinnati and 
abroad as a painter. One of his paintings, 
"The Trial of Shakespeare," was recently 
presented to the Douglass Center in 
Toledo. "Blue Hole" is owned by the 
Cincinnati Art Museum. Another of his 
works, purchased by Queen Victoria, is 
said to hang in Windsor Castle. His tal- 
ents, especially shown in "The Trial of 
Shakespeare," attracted the attention of 
prominent artists in Cincinnati in 1840, 
and he was sent to Scotland to study by 
the Freedmen's Aid Society. He returned 
in 1843 to become a respected member 
of the Cincinnati group of artists. He is 
mentioned in a history of Cincinnati 
written by Charles Gist in 1851 as being 
a noted artist, a painter of fruit, fancy 
and historical paintings, and landscapes. 
He executed numerous portrait and mural 
commissions for prominent families of the 
city. The portrait of "William Carey" at 
the Ohio Military Institute, of "Nicholas 
Longworth" at the Ohio Mechanics' In- 
stitute, and mural panels for the hall and 
reception room of the Taft family resi- 
dence are of this period. His only known 
painting of a Negro subject, a portrait of 
Bishop Payne and his family (1848), is 
now in the possession of Wilberforce 
University. Duncanson returned to Eng- 
land and achieved considerable fame 
exhibiting in Glasgow, Edinburgh, and 
London. 

Other artists to achieve some note 
about the same time were Edward Stid- 
ham, portrait painter, and William Dor- 
sey, landscape painter, both of Phila- 
delphia. 

From 1865 to 1880, the two most out- 
standing Negro artists in American his- 
tory, who reached their peak at the time 
of the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition 
in 1876, were Edward M. Bannister and 
Edmonia Lewis. 

Edward M. Bannister: painter, 1828- 
1901. Born in Nova Scotia, Canada. He 
received private instruction in painting 



from Dr. Runner of Boston, and attained 
considerable recognition there in 1854. 
In 1870, he moved to Providence, R.I., 
residing there until his death. He was 
challenged to a professional career by a 
statement in the New York Herald in 
1867 to the effect that "the Negro seems 
to have an appreciation of art, while 
manifestly unable to produce it." The 
Providence Art Club was organized in his 
studio in 1880. This became the nucleus 
of the Rhode Island School of Design. 
Bannister's most noted painting "Under 
the Oaks" was exhibited in the group 
representing the Massachusetts artists at 
the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition 
in 1876. It was awarded a Gold Medal 
and was bought for $1,500 by James 
Duffe of New York. Bannister is repre- 
sented in the Providence Club, the Rhode 
Island School of Design, Howard Univer- 
sity Art Gallery, and the John Hope 
Collection, Atlanta, Ga. 

Edmonia Lewis, painter, 1845-1890. 
Born near Albany, N.Y. Of mixed Negro 
and Indian parentage, Edmonia Lewis 
was adopted from an orphanage and edu- 
cated at Oberlin, Ohio, 1859-63, by aboli- 
tionists. As far as is known, she was the 
pioneer Negro sculptor. She showed 
artistic talent at an early age and was 
trained in the studio of Edmund Brackett 
of Boston. Her first exhibited works were 
"Medallion Head of John Brown" and 
"Bust of Robert Gould Shaw," shown at 
Soldiers Aid Fair, Boston, in 1864. She 
was sent by her patrons, the Story family, 
to Rome, Italy, where she became pro- 
ficient in the fashionable neoclassical 
style of the day. Here she produced many 
figures, portraits, and symbolic groups 
directly in marble. On her return to the 
United States, she executed, mostly in 
plaster, a number of portrait commis- 
sions. Among these were "Wendell 
Phillips," "Charles Sumner," "Harriet 
Hosmer," "Charlotte Cushman," and 
"Henry Wadsworth Longfellow," which 
was done for the Harvard College Li- 
brary. Her symbolic groups, usually 
under life size, show a competent mastery 
of technique. Best known among these 



70 



ART 



works are "Hagar" (1866), "Hiawatha" 
(1865), "The Marriage of Hiawatha," 
"The Departure of Hiawatha" (1867), 
"Madonna and Child" (collection of the 
Marquis of Bute), "Forever Free," eman- 
cipation group (1867), and the Harriet 
Hunt Mausoleum, Mt. Auburn Cemetery, 
Massachusetts. She exhibited in Rome in 
1871, at the Philadelphia Centennial in 
1876, and at Farwell Hall Exhibit, Chi- 
cago, 1870. 

1880 to 1910 

For the next twenty years no known 
artists of consequence were produced. 
Yet the works of those of the approxi- 
mately five preceding generations set a 
background for Henry Ossawa Tanner, 
who became the greatest of all, even to 
the present time. He became one of the 
outstanding artists of the world and per- 
haps the greatest painter of scriptural 
subjects of this age. 

Henry Ossawa Tanner: painter, 1859- 
1937. Born in Pittsburgh, Pa. He was the 
son of Bishop Benjamin T. Tanner of 
the African Methodist Episcopal Church. 
He lived in Paris from 1891 to his death 
there on May 25, 1937. He studied at the 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 
1884-88, and came particularly under the 
influence of Thomas Eakins. After gradu- 
ation, he taught art, part-time, at Clark 
University, Atlanta, Ga. Through the aid 
of Bishop J. C. Hartzell of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, who had been at- 
tracted to his works, he was enabled to 
go to Paris. He studied at the Academic 
Julian and under Jean Paul Laurens and 
Benjamin Constant. "The Music Lesson" 
brought his first Salon Honorable Men- 
tion in 1896. In 1897, his original, re- 
ligious and mystical attitude broke 
through his early realism. "The Raising 
of Lazarus" was awarded the Salon Gold 
Medal and was purchased by the French 
government for the Luxembourg Gal- 
leries. Tanner instantly became an inter- 
national figure. "The Annunciation" ex- 
hibited in 1898 at the Pennsylvania 
Academy was purchased for the Wilstach 
Collection. "Judas" was purchased for 



the Carnegie Institute in 1899, and 
"Nicodemus" (Walter Lippincott Prize) 
for the Pennsylvania Academy in 1899. 
Among subsequent awards were: Silver 
Medal, Paris Exposition, 1900; Silver 
Medal, Pan-American Exposition, 1901; 
Silver Medal, St. Louis Exposition, 1904; 
Medal of Second Class, Paris Salon, 
1906; Harris Prize, Art Institute of Chi- 
cago, 1906; Gold Medal, San Francisco 
Exposition, 1915; Clark Prize, Grand 
Central Galleries, New York, 1930. Tan- 
ner was elected an associate of the Na- 
tional Academy in 1909 and a member 
in 1927. He was also made a Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor.' He is represented 
in some of the foremost public and pri- 
vate galleries here and abroad. 

The stirring achievements of Tanner 
were of inestimable value as sources of 
inspiration to a large number of indi- 
viduals. Though beginning in small num- 
bers, they were destined to grow exceed- 
ingly during the next 25 years. The first 
important artist to appear achieved and 
held an outstanding place in the field of 
sculpture for nearly 40 years. This artist 
was: 

Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller: sculptress, 
b. 1877. Born in Philadelphia, Pa. She 
studied at the School of Industrial Art 
and the Pennsylvania Academy, was a 
pupil of Charles Grafly, and of Rodin in 
Paris, and attended the Academic Cola- 
rossi. She exhibited at the Paris Salon of 
1903 and 1904 a group entitled "The 
Wretched," which is considered her 
masterpiece. She executed symbolic 
groups on the Negro for the Jamestown 
Tercentenary, 1907; Harmon Exhibits, 

1930, 1933; and frequent later showings 
at the Boston Art Club and the Guild of 
Arts and Crafts. Her work is represented 
in the Cleveland Museum, in the Schom- 
burg Collection, Countee Cullen Branch, 
New York Public Library, and at the 
Y.M.C.A., Atlanta, Ga. 

Contemporary with Mrs. Fuller and 
also a sculptress was: 

May Howard Jackson: sculptress, 1877- 

1931. Born in Philadelphia. She studied 
at J. Liberty Tadd's Art School, Phila- 



AMERICAN NEGRO ARTISTS 



71 



delphia, and the Pennsylvania Academy. 
She maintained a private studio in Wash- 
ington, D.C., from 1902 to her death, 
specializing until 1912 on portrait busts. 
About 1914 she began to be intrigued by 
the Negro theme. Exhibits: Corcoran Art 
Gallery, 1915; National Academy of De- 
sign, 1916; Harmon Exhibits, 1927, 1928 
(Bronze Medal in sculpture) ; New York 
Emancipation Exposition, 1913. Her 
memorial bust of Paul Laurence Dunbar 
is at Dunbar High School, Washington, 
D.C. 

John Henry Adams, Jr., a teacher at 
Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Ga., in 
the early 1900's is also exceedingly 
worthy of mention. It is not known where 
he received his training, but the rare 
quality of his drawings in pen and ink 
portrait studies and illustrations docu- 
ment him as being one of the most gifted 
users of this medium the race has pro- 
duced. Practically all writers on the 
Negro in art except James A. Porter have 
overlooked him. His works appeared 
mainly in the Voice of the Negro, a 
periodical published in Atlanta from 
1904 to 1906, and later in The Crisis. 

George Washington Carver, painter, 
18647-1943. All the world knows George 
Washington Carver as a great agricul- 
tural chemist, but not many are aware 
that he also produced paintings of recog- 
nized merit. A career as an artist seems to 
have been his intent more than 55 years 
ago in the Simpson College School of 
Art, Indianola, Iowa. He continued to 
paint, and in later years used his own 
pigments made from the clays of Ala- 
bama. There was a Carver Collection of 
Art, consisting of paintings he had exe- 
cuted, located in the George Washington 
Carver Museum at Tuskegee Institute 
until a fire in 1947. In this collection 
were four paintings which had been 
selected for exhibition at the World's 
Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893. 



One of these, "Yucca Angustifolia and 
Cactus," was awarded an Honorable 
Mention. There was also from a later 
period a beautiful small painting of a 
cluster of peaches. 1 

An interesting and generally over- 
looked fact is the appearance about this 
period of the first known Negro male 
sculptor: 

Isaac Hathaway: sculptor and ceramist, 
b. 1871. Born in Lexington, Ky. He 
studied at the Art Department of the New 
England Conservatory of Music; the Cin- 
cinnati Museum Art Academy; the Cer- 
amics Department, Pittsburg Normal 
College, Pittsburg, Kansas; and the 
Chandler Normal College. He maintained 
a studio in Washington, D.C., during 
1910. His works are principally portrait 
busts, the best known of which are of 
Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washing- 
ton, and Paul Laurence Dunbar. His more 
recent works include designs for the 
Booker T. Washington memorial coin and 
for the coin to memorialize both Booker 
T. Washington and George Washington 
Carver, minted by the U.S.Governmcnt. 
He is one of the outstanding ceramists in 
the country and is head of the Depart- 
ment of Ceramics, Alabama State Teach- 
ers College, Montgomery. 

The next well-known painter to follow 
Tanner also achieved outstanding success. 
He was: 

William A. Harper, painter, 1873-1910. 
Born near Cayuga, Canada, Dec. 27, 
1873; died in Mexico City, March 27, 
1910. He studied at the Art Institute of 
Chicago, taught drawing in the public 
schools of Houston, Texas, and studied 
in Paris on a fellowship from 1903-05. 
He painted landscapes extensively in 
Brittany, Provence, and southern England 
and then again studied in Europe, 1907- 
08. He was closely associated with Tanner 
as an informal pupil. He returned to 
Chicago and lived as a free-lance painter. 



1 In addition to housing the relics of Dr. Carver's activities, the George Washington Carver Museum also houses 
n exhibit of Negro art and culture and Tuskegeeana. Most of the paintings by Dr. Carver were destroyed in the fire 
of Nov. 24, 1947, which almost gutted the interior of the building. The "Yucca Angustifolia and Cactus" was badly 
damaged, though not completely destroyed. The "peaches" were blackened by smoke and acid. However, these two 
are still exhibited. Restored during 1948-51, most of the original exhibits are displayed, with the exception of the 
paintings as indicated. 



72 



ART 



His premature death was a major loss to 
Negro art, for critics judged him of great 
promise, and many thought him more 
creatively original than Tanner. He was 
considered one of the leading landscape 
painters in the West. It is reasonably 
certain that longer life would have lifted 
him to national and perhaps international 
fame. Exhibits: Art Institute of Chicago, 
1905; Fortnightly Club (1st Prize), 
1908; Municipal Art League, Chicago, 
1905, 1908; Art Institute of Chicago, 
1910. Member of Society of Western 
Artists and Associated Chicago Artists. 
Works hang in Provident Hospital, Chi- 
cago; Art Institute of Chicago; Wabash 
Avenue Y.M.C.A., Chicago; Museum of 
Negro Art and Culture, Tuskegee Insti- 
tute, Ala. 

Contemporary Artists, 
1910 to 1925 

An artist who so closely followed 
Harper that he could almost be consid- 
ered as his contemporary was: 

William Edouard Scott: painter, b. 
1884. Born in Indianapolis, Ind. He 
studied at the Art Institute of Chicago 
and was considered one of its very bril- 
liant students. He also studied privately 
in Paris with Tanner and at the Julian 
and Colarossi Academies. He won the 
Magnus Brand Prize in the school of the 
Art Institute of Chicago twice and was 
awarded a Special Harmon Gold Medal 
in Fine Arts, 1927, and a Julius Rosen- 
wald Fellowship to study Negro types in 
Haiti in 1931. He also won the Jesse 
Binga Popularity Prize and the Eames 
McVeagh Prize, Chicago Art League, 
1929. He painted murals for several pub- 
lic buildings in Indiana, Illinois, and 
West Virginia. "La Pauvre Voisin," ex- 
hibited in the Paris Salon, 1912, was 
purchased by the Argentine Republic. 
Twelve of his paintings were purchased 
by the Haitian government at his one- 
man show in Port-au-Prince, 1931. Ex- 
hibits: 1928, 1931, 1933; Harmon Ex- 
hibits to Johannesburg and Pretoria, 
Africa; one-man traveling show, 1935; 
Harmon College Art Association Travel- 



ing Exhibition, 1934-35; Findlay Gal- 
leries, Chicago, 1935; American Negro 
Exposition, 1940. 

During the period 1907 to 1912, there 
were only five known Negro art students 
in New York: Charles C. Dawson at the 
Art Students League; William Ernest 
Braxton at the Adelphi Academy in 
Brooklyn; Winifred Russell at the Na- 
tional Academy; Clinton DeVillis and a 
late arrival, Richard Lonsdale Brown, a 
promising landscapist from West Vir- 
ginia, who studied independently after 
being refused admittance to the Art Stu- 
dents League because of race, in spite of 
the fact that Dawson was already a stu- 
dent there. 

The situation was not much better in 
Chicago, though for many years the 
liberal Chicago Art Institute, with its 
memories of Harper and Scott, was in- 
strumental in inspiring other Negro stu- 
dents, among whom was: 

William McKnight Farrow: painter, 
etcher, b. 1885. Born in Dayton, Ohio. 
Educated at the Art Institute of Chicago, 
he is one of the earliest Negro etchers. 
He was awarded the Eames McVeagh 
Prize, for etching, and the Peterson Prize, 
Chicago Art League, 1929. Exhibits: 
Chicago Art League, since 1928; Harmon 
Exhibits, 1928, 1930, 1931, 1935. He has 
been an instructor at Carl Schurz Evening 
High School and Technical Museum 
Staff, Art Institute of Chicago, from 1908 
to the present. 

Charles C. Daivson: painter, illustrator, 
designer, engraver, b. 1889. Born in 
Brunswick, Ga., June 12, 1889. He studied 
at Tuskegee Institute, Ala., and at the 
Art Students League of New York. 1907- 
12 (Honorable Mention Annual School 
Exhibition, 1911). Dawson reversed the 
usual order of student movement, leaving 
the Art Students League and New York 
for Chicago late in 1912, where he at- 
tended the Art Institute of Chicago from 
1912 to 1917, graduating with special 
honors. He was with the American Ex- 
peditionary Forces, World War I, as 1st 
Lieutenant of Infantry, later being pro- 
moted to Captain of Infantry. Staff artist, 




Mai Whitfield, world's most traveled track star, receives a first-place medal from 
Mrs. Matthew Ridgway at the recent Good-Will Track Meet in Tokyo, Japan. 

European Photo 



Jesse Owens (left), former Olympic star, is an inspiration to the 1952 team. Willie 
Mays, now in the U.S. Army, won the 1951 "Rookie of the Year" award while play- 
ing center field for the New York Giants. Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. and N.Y. 

Giants Photos 




PLATE I 




Tennis star Althea Gibson (left) is 
shown preparing for her appear- 
ance in England's famed Wimble- 
don championships. In the Northern 
Tournament at Manchester, she 
reached the singles semi-finals and, 
with Naresh Kumar of India, the 
mixed doubles finals. Afro-Ameri- 
can Photo 



Mary McNabb, a freshman, led Tus- 
kegee Institute to the 1951 National 
A.A.U. Women's Track champion- 
ship by winning all sixteen running 
events she entered. Reese Photo 




PLATE II 



"Jersey Joe" Walcott (right), in 
his fifth attempt, became World's 
Heavyweight Champion by knock- 
ing out Ezzard Charles in the seventh 
round on July 18, 1951, at Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. International News Photo 



Jimmy Carter, who defeated Ike 
Williams for the Lightweight Cham- 
pionship in 1951, knocks challenger 
Art Aragon to the canvas with a 
hard left during their recent title 
bout. Wide World Photo 





PLATE III 




President Truman welcomes members of the 1948 Olympic Track and Field Team 
at the White House. Left to right: Emma Reed, Tennessee A&I ; Theresa Manuel, 
Tuskegee; Audrey Patterson, Tennessee A&I; Nell Jackson, Tuskegee; Alice 
Coachman, Tuskegee and Albany State College (an Olympic high jump champion) ; 

Nell Walker, Tuskegee. 



"Sugar" Ray Robinson signs for the return match which regained his middleweight 
title from Britain's Randy Turpin at New York's Polo Grounds in September 1951, 
as New York boxing commissioners Dr. C. B. Powell (seated) and Leon Swears 

look on. Acme Photo 




PLATE IV 




Following a successful 1951 season, University of Pennsylvania football players 

receive watches from Coach George Munger. Left to right: George Bosseler; Bob 

Evans, 1952 team captain; Ed Bell, 1951 All-American end; Harry Warren, 1951 

team captain. Philadelphia Inquirer Photo 



Junius Kellogg, Manhattan College basketball star, receives a commendation scroll 

from N.Y. City Police Commissioner Murphy for exposing bribery and racketeering 

in college basketball. N.Y. Times Photo 




PLATE V 




Gwendolyn Brooks' volume of verse, 

Annie Allen, won her the 1950 

Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. 



Fred Thomas, baritone, is congratu- 
lated (below) by Rudolph Bing 
(right), general manager, Metro- 
politan Opera, for taking second 
place in the Metropolitan Opera 
Auditions. Maria Leone, soprano, 
won first place. TV. Y. Times Photo 




PLATE VI 



Hattie McDaniel, veteran screen 
and radio actress and radio's origi- 
nal Beulah, has retired because of 
illness. A fro- American Photo 



Lillian Randolph, Birdie of "The 
Great Gildersleeve" program, now 
plays the radio role vacated by Miss 
McDaniel. With her is Willard Wa- 
terman, who plays Gildersleeve. 
Afro-American Photo 





PLATE VII 




PLATE VIII 




Ethel Waters (above) sings 
with two youthful members of 
the cast of "Member of the 
Wedding," the hit Broadway 
play. (Chicago Tribune 
Photo) During 1951, Miss 
Waters published her highly 
successful autobiography, His 
Eye is on the Sparrow, and 
became the star of the tele- 
vision "Beulah" show. In the 
picture to the left, by Life 
magazine photographer Yale 
Joel, Miss Waters (rear row, 
center) was among 25 Ameri- 
can Women of Achievement 
selected by the U.S. Chamber 
of Commerce in 1951. Time, 
Inc. 



The unusual ballet and jungle 
dance interpretations of ice 
skater Mabel Fairbanks have 
attracted the attention of Hol- 
lywood. Pittsburgh Courier 
Photo 




PLATE IX 





WERD, Atlanta, Georgia, is 
the only radio station in the 
United States that is com- 
pletely owned and operated 
by Negroes. Liggett & Myers 
Tobacco Co. 



Pearl Primus, interpretative 
dancer, expresses exotic rhy- 
thms (left) gathered on her 
trips to Africa. Consolidated 
Concerts Corp. 



PLATE X 




Janet Collins (above), first 
Negro to be regularly em- 
ployed by the Metropolitan 
Opera Co., appeared last sea- 
son as the premiere danseuse 
in "Aida." Wide World Photo 



Her performance as the dis- 
traught mother of a lost child, 
in the motion picture, "The 
Well," brought Maidie Nor- 
man (right) much acclaim by 
critics throughout the nation. 
Afro-American Photo 




PLATE XI 




Achieving great popularity with her stylized singing during her 1951 European 
tour, beautiful Dorothy Dandridge has become one of the nation's leading night- 
club entertainers. Time, Inc. 

From this city room of the Pittsburgh Courier conies the news which makes it the 
largest Negro newspaper in the country, with a circulation over 300,000. Liggett 

& Myers Tobacco Co. 




PLATE XII 




mm 



The Carver Foundation Laboratories occupied this new building at Tuskegee 

Institute in 1951. 



Dr. Percy L. Julian (left), distinguished chemist and research director of the 
Glidden Company, receives the annual award of Chicago lawyers' Decalogue 

Society. //. S. Roden Photo 




PLATE XIII 





Mechanization in the South 
has put many Negroes to oper- 
ating agricultural tractors and 
power machinery (above). 
USDA Photo 



Mrs. Lea Etta Lusk (at left), 
Washington County, Texas, 
first Negro home demonstra- 
tion agent to receive a USDA 
Superior Service award, 
shows a 4-H girl, Mary Lee, 
how to grade eggs. USDA 
Photo 



PLATE XIV 




Raymond Brown (center left) 
has successfully switched 
from cotton to cattle in Ala- 
bama's Black Belt. County 
agent F. L. Jackson (far left) 
and state extension leader W. 
B. Hill (center right) survey 
his progress. USDA Photo 



For promoting diversified 
farming in the South, Otis 
O'Neal (right), a Georgia 
county agent, receives the 
USDA Superior Service 
award from Secretary of Ag- 
riculture Charles F. Brannan. 
USDA Photo 




PLATE XV 




Alabama 4-H Club boys show beef animals they raised, at the Fat Stock Show in 

Montgomery. USDA Photo 



In labor-management affairs, Negroes now represent their fellow workers in meet- 
ings -with company executives of many industries. Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. 




PLATE XVI 



AMERICAN NEGRO ARTISTS 



73 



Chicago Engravers, 1919-22; free-lance 
painter, illustrator, designer, 1922-35; 
Public Works of Art Project (Class "A") 
1935; Art Consultant to the State Office 
NYA of Illinois and Co-Administrator of 
NYA Works Program for Chicago, 1936- 
40; free-lance painter, 1941 to present. 
Since 1922 he has produced most of the 
advertising illustrations for the majority 
of the leading Negro businesses as well 
as national advertising for a white clien- 
tele. Works: Murals and Exhibits of the 
National Urban League at A Century of 
Progress Exposition, Chicago, 1933, 
1934; illustrated literature of the De 
Saible Exhibit, A Century of Progress 
Exposition; Official Poster, Pageant of 
Negro Music, A Century Progress Expo- 
sition, 1934; basic interior designs of the 
American Negro Exposition, as a whole, 
Chicago, 1940, including plans and 
themes for the historical dioramas of the 
Court of Honor, 1944-46; Curator, re- 
storation of series of (20) historical 
dioramas on the Negro historical back- 
ground from the American Negro Exposi- 
tion, 1940, presented to Tuskegee Institute 
by the State of Illinois; installation and 
development of the new Museum of Negro 
Art and Culture for Tuskegee Institute. 
Awarded the Eames McVeagh Prize 
(First Prize) for best portrait; Jesse 
Binga Popularity Prize for "Quadroon 
Madonna." Chicago Art League, 1928; 
Charles S. Peterson Prize (First Prize) 
for th best portrait, Chicago Art League, 
1929; Honorable Mention, Harmon 
Award 1929, for distinguished achieve- 
ment in the fine arts. Exhibits: Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago 1917, 1919, 1927; Negro 
in Art Week Exposition, 1927, and Chair- 
man of its Fine Arts Committee; Harmon 
Traveling Exhibit, 1929; Harmon Exposi- 
tion to Johannesburg and Pretoria, 
Africa, 1930; Studio Gallery, Chicago, 
1931; Findlay Galleries, Chicago, 1933; 
Texas Centennial (National Urban 
League Mural), 1936; American Negro 
Exposition, 1940. Works: "Quadroon 
Madonna," and "Brother," and "Sister," 
Roosevelt High School, Gary, Ind. ; "Evo- 
lution of Negro Music," Risley High 



School, Brunswick, Ga. ; series of Negro 
historical dioramas, Tuskegee Institute. 
On Nov. 26, 1946, two murals by Dawson 
depicting the work and career of Dr. 
George Washington Carver were hung 
permanently in the lobby of the Carver 
Theatre in Waycross, Ga. Dawson also 
supervised the restoration of the George 
Washington Carver Museum and its ex- 
hibits, and was its Curator until May 31, 
1951. 

During this period the Art Institute of 
Chicago produced another brilliant stu- 
dent: 

Archibald J. Motley, Jr.: painter, b. 
1891. Born in New Orleans, La. He 
studied at the Art Institute of Chicago. 
Honors: Frank G. Logan Medal, 1925; 
J. N. Eisendrath Prize, Art Institute of 
Chicago, 1925; Harmon Gold Award, 
1928; Guggenheim Fellowship, 1929, for 
study in Europe; Illinois Federal Art 
Project, Mural and Easel Divisions, 1935- 
39. Exhibits: Harmon Exhibits, 1929, 
1931; Guggenheim Fellows Exhibits, 
1931, 1933; Art Institute of Chicago, A 
Century of Progress Fine Arts Exhibit, 
1933, 1934; Toledo Museum, 1934; Texas 
Centennial, 1936 ; Howard University Art 
Gallery, 1937, 1938; Baltimore Museum, 
1939; American Negro Exposition, 1940. 
Works: Wood River, Illinois Post Office 
(Treasury Art Project) ; Evansville, Illi- 
nois State Hospital; Chicago Public 
Library; Ryerson School. One-man show, 
New Galleries, New York, 1928. He is a 
painter of portraits, in which he demon- 
strates considerable mastery of drawing 
and figure composition. Works entirely 
with Negro types treated in the composi- 
tions in semi-grotesque style. 

During this period the South produced 
Boston-trained : 

Edward A. Harleston: portrait and 
figure painter, 1882-1931. Born in 
Charleston, S.C., he died there May 5, 
1931. One of the pioneers in Negro por- 
traiture, he was educated at Atlanta Uni- 
versity and Boston Museum School of 
Art, 1906-12. Exhibits: Negro in Art 
Week Exposition, Art Institute of Chi- 
cago, 1927; Harmon Show, 1931 (Locke 



74 



ART 



Portrait Prize) ; Texas Centennial, 1936; 
Howard University, 1935, 1937. Works 
hang in many private collections and in 
Howard University Collection. 

Philadelphia produced the only Negro 
woman to become distinguished in Amer- 
ican history as a painter up to this 
period: 

Laura Wheeler Waring: painter and 
illustrator, b. 1887. Born in Hartford, 
Conn. She studied at the Pennsylvania 
Academy of Fine Arts, 1918-24; awarded 
the Cresson Traveling Scholarship and 
studied at Grand Chaumiere, Paris, 1924, 
1925. Works: Portraits, race types, and 
illustrations. Instructor in Art, Cheyney 
State Teachers College, Cheyney, Pa., 
since 1926. Exhibits: Harmon Exhibit, 
1927 (Gold Award), 1928, 1930, 1931; 
Art Institute of Chicago, 1933; Pennsyl- 
vania Academy 1925-38; Howard Univer- 
sity Gallery, 1937-39; American Negro 
Exposition, 1940. 

A distinguished product of the East 
and the Far West who is foremost in the 
fields of sculpture and ceramics is: 

Sargent Johnson: sculptor, ceramist, b. 
1888. Born in Boston, Mass. He studied 
art for five years at the California School 
of Fine Arts, San Francisco, Calif. Re- 
ceived the San Francisco Art Association 
Medals for Sculpture 1925, 1931, 1935. 
Exhibits: San Francisco Art Association, 
1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931; 
San Diego Gallery, 1930; Art Institute, 
Chicago, 1930; Harmon Exhibits, 1928 
(Otto H. Kahn Prize), 1929 (Bronze 
Award), 1930, 1931, 1933 (Robert C. 
Ogden Prize) ; Howard University Gal- 
lery, 1937, 1939; Baltimore Museum, 
1939; American Negro Exposition, Chi- 
cago (3rd Sculpture Award). Works: 
"Sammy," Mrs. E. R.Alexander Collection, 
New York; "Chester;" Adolph Loewi and 
Alan Bement, New York; "Esther," San 
Diego Fine Arts Gallery. He designed 
murals for Aquatic Park, Golden Gate 
Exposition, 1939-40, San Francisco. He 
is heavily influenced by African forms in 
sculpture. 

Elizabeth Prophet: sculptress, b. 1890. 
A native of Providence, R.I., and edu- 



cated at the Rhode Island School of 
Design, this artist uses wood as her me- 
dium of expression. Her subjects have 
all been Negroes. Her "Congolaise" is per- 
manently exhibited in the Whitney Mu- 
seum of American Art and her "Head of a 
"Negro" has been reproduced many times 
in periodicals and catalogues. Exhibits: 
Paris Salon and American art shows. 

The Mid-west brought forth two other 
brilliant artists who are making outstand- 
ing contributions: 

Hale Woodruff: painter and engraver, 
b. 1900. Born in Cairo, 111. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Nashville, 
Tenn., and at John Herron Art Institute, 
Indianapolis, Ind., (Graduate). He spent 
four years on the staff of the Indianapolis 
Y.M.C.A. and painted prolifically at the 
same time. He was encouraged by a 
Bronze Award of the Harmon contest of 
1926 to further study and went to Paris 
in 1927, studying at Academic Scan- 
dinave, Academic Moderne, and with 
Tanner, 1927-30. He also sketched in 
Normandy and Cagnes sur Mer. He ex- 
hibited in the Pacquereau Gallery, Paris, 
1930. In 1931 he was invited to become 
art instructor at Atlanta University and 
there developed an important group of 
younger artists, and in 1936 was invited 
to become instructor in art at New York 
University. In 1938 he was commissioned 
to do the Amistad Murals for the Savery 
Library, Talladega College. Exhibits: 
John Herron Art Institute, 1923, 1924, 
1926; Chicago Art Institute (Negro in 
Art Week Exposition), 1927; Harmon 
Exhibits, 1928, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1935; 
Downtown Gallery, New York, 1929, 
1931; Valentine Gallery, 1931; Ferragil 
Gallery, 1931; Texas Centennial, 1936; 
High Museum, Atlanta, 1935; American 
Negro Exposition, 1940. 

Aaron Douglass: painter and illustra- 
tor, b. 1899. Born in Topeka, Kans. He 
was educated at the University of Kansas 
(A.B. in Fine Arts, 1923) ; and taught in 
Lincoln High School, Kansas City, Mo., 
1923-25. He studied under Winold Reiss, 
New York City, 1925-27; Barnes Founda- 
tion Fellowship, 1928-29; Rosenwald 



AMERICAN NEGRO ARTISTS 



75 



Grant for study in Paris, 1931 ; Academic 
Scandinave and under Despiau, Waro- 
quier, and Othon Frieze; Rosenwald 
Travel Grant touring the South and 
Haiti, 1938. He has been instructor in 
Art, Fisk University, since 1937. Exhibits: 
Harmon Exhibits, 1928, 1935; College 
Art, 1935; Texas Centennial, 1936; How- 
ard University Gallery, 1937; Baltimore 
Museum, 1939. One-man shows: Caz- 
Delbos Gallery, New York, 1933; A.C.A. 
Gallery, New York, 1938; St. Louis Mu- 
seum of Art, 1948. His murals, usually 
allegorical scenes of the historical life or 
cultural background of the Negro, are 
found in the Fisk University Library, at 
Bennett College, and in the Countee Cul- 
len Branch, New York Public Library. 

To this small group of ten artists, from 
William Edouard Scott to Aaron Doug- 
lass, should be added Henry B. Jones and 
Allan R. Freelon. 

Henry B. Jones: painter, b. 1889. Born 
in Philadelphia, Pa. Educated in the 
Philadelphia public schools and in the 
School of Pedagogy, Philadelphia, Jones 
studied art for four years at the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of Fine Arts and was a 
student of Anschutz and Breckenridge. 
Exhibits: Harmon Exhibits, 1929, 1930, 
1931, 1933; 135th Street Branch, New 
York Public Library, 1933; Print Club, 
Philadelphia, 1932, 1934, 1935; Warwick 
Galleries, 1930, 1931, 1933, 1934; Reed 
Galleries, 1934; A.C.A. Gallery, Phila- 
delphia, 1938. 

Allan R. Freelon: painter, b. 1895. 
Born in Philadelphia, Pa. He was edu- 
cated at the Pennsylvania Academy of 
Fine Arts and at the University of Penn- 
sylvania. Pupil in etching of Eral Horter. 
Assistant Director of Art, Philadelphia' 
public schools. Exhibits: Harmon Ex- 
hibits, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931; Newton 
Galleries, New York, 1935; College Art, 
1935; Texas Centennial, 1936; Howard 
University, 1937, 1939; Lincoln Univer- 
sity, 1937; Regional Show, Whitney 
Museum, 1934; American Negro Exposi- 
tion, 1940. 

These represent nearly all the Negro 
students known to have been seriously 



studying art during the period 1907 to 
1920. Their achievements have been a 
great source of inspiration to large num- 
bers of younger artists. The influence of 
these artists along with that exerted by 
The Crisis and Opportunity, by Alain L. 
Locke, by the Harmon Awards and 
Shows, and by the United States Treasury 
Federal Art Projects of the 1930's paved 
the way for the remarkable group of 
young Negro artists since 1925. 

A New Era, 1925 to 1951 

It is impossible to include all the artists 
which go to make up this younger group. 
Only a few outstanding ones can be 
mentioned in detail. The honor of being 
not only the most distinguished Negro 
artist since Tanner but among the leading 
artists of America, as indicated by the 
acclaim of the country's leading critics, 
the quality and quantity of honors, prizes 
and commissions awarded him, goes to: 

Richmond Barthe: sculptor, painter, b. 
1901. Born in Bay St. Louis, Miss. He 
was educated in the public schools of 
New Orleans, and at the Art Institute of 
Chicago, 1924-28. He studied painting 
and experimented with sculpture in 1926 
and 1927. In 1927, Charles C. Dawson 
was serving as Chairman of the Fine Arts 
Committee of the Negro in Art Week, 
sponsored by the Chicago Woman's Club, 
and his attention was drawn to Barthe's 
experiments by William M. Farrow, a 
member of the Committee. Dawson imme- 
diately recommended acceptance of all 
pieces. They were exhibited. This was the 
beginning of Barthe's career as a sculp- 
tor. His first commission came from a 
recommendation by Dawson and con- 
sisted of two busts, one of Henry 0. 
Tanner and one of Toussaint L'Ouverture, 
for the Lake County Children's Home of 
Gary, Indiana. These works and the re- 
sulting contacts and publicity lead to his 
first one-man show at the Women's City 
Club, Chicago, and to the Rosenwald 
Fellowship Awards for study in New 
York, 1927, 1928. He also studied at the 
Art Students League, New York, 1931. 
He received the Eames McVeagh Prize 



76 



ART 



for Sculpture, Chicago Art League, 1928; 
Guggenheim Fellowship, 1940. Exhibits: 
Women's City Club, Chicago, 1927; Chi- 
cago Woman's Club (Negro in Art 
Week), 1927; Harmon Exhibits, 1929, 
1931, 1933; A Century of Progress Fine 
Arts Exhibition (Official), Chicago Art 
Institute, 1933, 1934; Whitney Museum, 
1933, 1935, 1939; Howard University 
Gallery, 1934; Pennsylvania Academy of 
Fine Arts, 1940; Artists for Victory Ex- 
hibit at the Metropolitan Museum, New 
York ($500 prize for sculpture), 1942; 
fourth Annual Exposition of Audubon 
Artists (Gold Medal of Honor), 1945. 
One-man shows: Caz-Delbos Gallery, 
New York, 1933; Delphic Studios, New 
York, 1935; Arden Gallery, New York, 
1938; World's Fair, New York, 1939. He 
executed large bas-reliefs on themes from 
Green Pastures for Harlem River Houses, 
Federal Art Project, New York, 1937-38. 
Works: Whitney Museum, "Blackberry 
Woman," "Harmonica Player," "African 
Dancer"; Oberlin College Museum; Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin Museum; busts of 
Paul Laurence Dunbar and Booker T. 
Washington, Armstrong High School, 
Richmond, Va. Barthe is known for his 
portrayal of race types and rhythm 
groups. A highlight of his career was the 
commission in 1946 to make the bust of 
Booker T. Washington for the Hall of 
Fame on the campus of New York Uni- 
versity; he is the only Negro artist so 
commissioned. It is also of interest to 
note that he is the only Negro artist listed 
in Who's Who in America, 1946-1947. In 
1947, Barthe was one of 15 sculptors 
chosen from all over the country to im- 
prove the sculpture in Catholic churches 
and to set up and create new and more 
acceptable designs. He was selected to 
do the designs of Christ. 

In 1949, Barthe received a commission 
from the Haitian government to do sculp- 
tures of Dessalines and Toussaint 
L'Ouverture which carried a fee of 
$40,000. He was recently elected to the 
National Academy of Arts and Letters. 

All great periods of development in the 
fine arts have been made possible largely 



by great patrons the state, the nobility, 
the Church. The great patron of this age 
is business. It is using, for the enhance- 
ment of advertising and incidentally for 
mass dissemination of culture, the very 
best of fine arts production. The most 
successful of those who have the good 
fortune and the vision to meet the de- 
mands is: 

E. Simms Campbell: illustrator, b. 
1906. Born in St. Louis, Mo. He was 
educated at the Art Institute of Chicago. 
He is an illustrator for the magazines, 
The New Yorker and Esquire, and also 
does advertising illustrations for some of 
the leading nationally advertised prod- 
ucts, among which are Barbasol Shaving 
Cream and Hart Schaffner and Marx 
quality clothing for men and women. He 
works in the various black and white 
mediums and in water color. His cartoons 
and illustrations for Esquire made him 
phenomenally successful and placed him 
high in the ranks of the best in these 
fields. Campbell was Pulitzer Prize win- 
ner on the St. Louis Post Dispatch in 

1928. His works have also appeared in 
The New York Journal, The New York 
American, The Mirror, Judge, The Satur- 
day Evening Post and The London Spec- 
tator. Exhibits: Minneapolis Artists Ex- 
hibits, 1924, 1925; Harmon Exhibits, 

1929, 1935; American Negro Exposition, 
1940 (Honorable Mention). 

In the very front rank of so-called 
primitive artists, classified as "the most 
important Negro artist of the era" by the 
Encyclopedia Britannica Collection of 
Contemporary American Painting, 1946, 
is: 

Horace Pippin: primitive painter, 1888- 
1946. Born in W. Chester, Pa. He was self- 
taught, and painted steadily from 1920 to 
1946. Exhibits: One-man shows, Chester 
County Art Association, 1937; Carlen 
Galleries, Philadelphia, 1940, 1941; Big- 
nou Gallery, 1940; American Negro 
Exhibition, 1940; Arts Club, Chicago, 
1941; San Francisco Museum, 1942. 
Paintings found in the following collec- 
tions: Albright Gallery, Barnes Founda- 
tion, Pennsylvania Academy, Philadel- 



AMERICAN NEGRO ARTISTS 



77 



phia Museum, Phillips Memorial Gallery, 
Whitney Museum, Rhode Island School 
of Design, Wichita Art Museum. Before 
his death he won a coveted Carnegie Ex- 
hibition Annual prize. 

Judged as one of the leading Negro 
artists and the leading Negro woman 
painter of the present is: 

Lois Mailou Jones: painter, b. 1906. 
Born in Boston, Mass. She was educated 
in the Boston public schools; at the Bos- 
ton Museum School of Fine Arts, 1923- 
27; Designers Art School; Massachusetts 
Normal Art School; and Beaux Arts and 
Academic Julian, Paris, 1937-38. She has 
been Instructor in Design at Howard 
University since 1929. Exhibits: Harmon 
Exhibits, 1930, 1931, 1933; Water Color 
Exhibition, Philadelphia Academy, 1933- 
34; National Gallery of Art, 1934; How- 
ard University Gallery, 1933, 1937; Salon 
des Artistes Francais, 1938; Baltimore 
Museum, 1939; American Negro Exposi- 
tion (Honorable Mention), 1940; Robert 
Vose Gallery, Boston, 1938; Robert Bliss 
Award, annual exhibition of the Wash- 
ington, D.C., Society of Fine Arts, 1941. 

Next to Horace Pippin in the field of 
painting, the public and leading critics 
have acclaimed: 

Jacob Lawrence: painter, of New York 
City, b. 1917. Born in Aalantic City, 
NJ. He was educated in the Philadelphia 
public schools and studied under Charles 
Alston and Henry Bannarn, 1934-38, at 
the Harlem Art Center and the American 
Artist School, 1937-38. Exhibits: One-man 
shows at Downtown Gallery, New York, 
1941, 1942; Museum of Modern Art, 
1944. In 1938, he was awarded the second 
prize of the Federal Art Project, in 1941- 
43 a Rosenwald Fellowship, and in 1943, 
Purchase Prize, Artists for Victory 



Exhibit, Metropolitan Museum, N.Y. Has 
executed brilliantly original series in tem- 
pera panels on Negro historical themes: 
"The Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture" 
(41 panels), 1937; "The Life of Freder- 
ick Douglass" (40 panels), 1938; "The 
Life of Harriet Tubman" (40 panels), 
1939; "The Negro Migration Northward 
in World War" (60 panels), published in 



Fortune in 1942. He is represented in the 
Albright Art Gallery, Howard University 
Art Gallery, Museum of Modern Art, 
Metropolitan Museum, N.Y., Whitney 
Museum, Phillips Memorial Gallery, 
Portland Museum, Providence Museum, 
Worcester Museum, Virginia Museum. 
James A. Porter writes of him in the 
Pittsburgh Courier, July 29, 1950: "Jacob 
Lawrence, now generally regarded as the 
most outstanding American Negro artist, 
was in 1942 rated by the famous Mexican 
painter, Orozco, as one of the few creative 
American artists." 

James A. Porter: painter, historian, b. 
1905. Born in Washington, D.C. He was 
educated in public schools and at Howard 
University, where he was graduated, cum 
laude, in 1927. Later study included work 
at Columbia University, The Art League 
of New York, L'Instit d'Art et D'Archeo- 
logie, Paris, and New York University. 
In 1936, he received an M.A. in the his- 
tory of art. Author of numerous articles, 
his book, Modern Negro Art, was pub- 
lished by the Dryden Press in 1943. His 
paintings have been seen in more than 
forty groups and one-man exhibitions; 
his illustrations in several books and 
pamphlets, among them W. D. Hambly's 
Talking Animals. His knowledge of the 
historical background of Negro artists 
and the art of the Negro causes him to 
be in constant demand as a lecturer. 

Others who have achieved distinction in 
this era are : James L. Wells, Washington, 
D.C., b. 1902; Dox Thrash, Philadelphia, 
b. 1893; Albert A. Smith, 1895-1940; 
William H. Johnson, New York City, b. 
1902; Malvin Gray Johnson, New York 
City, 1896-1934; Palmer Hayden, New 
York City, b. 1893; Fred Flemister, At- 
lanta, Ga., b. 1916; Allan Rohan Crite, 
Boston, b. 1910; Gwendolyn Bennett, 
New York City, b. 1902; Charles H. 
Alston, New York City, b. 1907 ; Eldzier 
Conor, Chicago, b. 1915, won Guggen- 
heim Fellowship to paint in the West 
Indies, in 1950 was one of 19 artists whom 
Life magazine presented in a selection 
from the country's best artists under 36: 
Charles White, Chicago and New York 



78 



ART 



City, b. 1918; Rex Goreleigh, Chicago, b. 
1902; Vertis Hayes, Memphis, Tenn., b.' 
1911; Zell Ingraham, Cleveland, Ohio; 
WUmer Jennings, William E. Smith, 
Charles Bailee, and Georgette Seabrooks, 
New York City; and Robert Blackburn, 
first Negro artist to receive a Guggenheim 
Fellowship. These are mostly painters, 
some also skilled in other graphic arts. 

Other names that loom large in the 
illustrating and cartooning field besides 
E. Simms Campbell are Elmer Stoner, 
New York City, "Ollie" Harrington and 
Francis (Nick) Cardozo of Washington, 
D.C., and Charles Sebree of Chicago. 

Other sculptors include Augusta Sav- 
age, New York City, b. 1900, who is ex- 
tremely gifted and did a sculpture for 
the New York World's Fair; William 
Artis, New York City, b. 1914, sculptor 
and ceramist, who is very promising; 
Elizabeth Catlett White, New York City, 
b. 1915; Clarence Lawson, Chicago, b. 
1919; Selma Burke, New York City, win- 
ner of a Rosenwald Fellowship, who has 
had several one-man shows; Henry Ban- 

1 Porter, James A., op. cit. 



narn, Minneapolis, Minn., b. 1910; Joseph 
Kersey, Chicago, b. 1918; Leslie G. Boll- 
ing, Richmond, Va., b. 1898. 

ART IN NEGRO COLLEGES 

In the 1930's, Howard, Fisk, Wilberforce, 
and Atlanta Universities were among the 
first institutions to increase their facilities 
in art. "At Howard, the first art gallery 
completely under supervision of a trained 
Negro staff was established in 1930," 1 
with Professor James V. Herring as direc- 
tor. Since 1942, Atlanta University has 
held an annual competition in painting, 
sculpture, and the graphic arts exclu- 
sively for Negro artists. This brings out 
some of the best available talent and 
provides a permanent collection of art at 
that university. Fisk University was pre- 
sented, through gift, with a part of the 
paintings collected by the late Alfred 
Stieglitz, and these form a fine nucleus 
for an art center. Lincoln University, 
Jefferson City, Mo., has developed re- 
gional leadership in art. 



' ': il 6 | || 

Negro American Literature 1951 



MARKING as it does the halfway point in 
the century, the past year brought forth 
a number of evaluations of the Negro 
writer and his achievements during the 
first 50 years of this era. A reader of these 
appraisals is struck by the note of opti- 
mism and confidence which runs through 
practically all of them. Whatever else 
they may say, the authors of these half- 
century evaluations seem convinced that 
the Negro writer, having passed all ap- 
prentice and journeyman stages, now 
definitely approaches his majority as a 
full-fledged American man of letters. If 
we accept the view of these critics, we 
must consider the books examined in this 
article simply as part of that stream of 
American literary development, regret- 
ting as we do so, that the pattern of 
segregated living still makes a special 
treatment of these works advisable and 
worthwhile. 

Limitation of Scope 

The present review will cover the out- 
standing works by Negro American au- 
thors for the period Aug. 1, 1950, to Aug. 
1, 1951. This resume will deal only with 
the printed books published during the 
period, not articles or pamphlets. It is 
necessary to stress the time limits of this 
review; otherwise many persons may 
wonder why certain outstanding books of 
1950 have not been included. Such works 
as Demby's Beetlecreek, Hughes' Simple 
Speaks His Mind, Redding's Stranger 
and Alone, and Foner's edition of the 
Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass 
are all 1950 publications, but as they 
appeared before August 1, they will not 
be considered here. 

This appraisal will be restricted pri- 
marily to the following main fields: 
fiction, poetry, autobiography, and biog- 



raphy. For convenience, we have labeled 
another section "Miscellaneous writings." 
Obviously a catchall, this grouping makes 
no attempt at completeness ; it will simply 
try to give a representative sampling of 
the outstanding works produced during 
the past year in fields other than those 
mentioned above. 

GENERAL TRENDS 

The most encouraging trend in current 
Negro American literature has been its 
tendency to slough off racial provincial- 
ism, which has characterized it for so 
long. There are, of course, reasons for 
this change. For one thing the Negro, in 
some respects, is a freer man than he has 
been at any time since the days of Recon- 
struction. He has seen barriers which he 
felt were permanently fixed fall; this 
experience has given him new hope and 
confidence. For the first time, perhaps, in 
his history, the Negro believes that inte- 
gration is a realizable ideal. Although he 
doesn't expect immediate miracles he 
knows that, in spite of all humiliating 
evidences to the contrary, the old order, 
the old way of life is doomed. And this 
belief is naturally reflected in the Negro 
American's literature. 

As a result, the present day writer has 
learned to view the Negro problem in its 
broader aspects. And what is more im- 
portant, he has learned that his problem 
is just one of many themes for creative 
art. It is this lesson which has done most 
for the Negro writer, because it has trans- 
formed him from a special pleader into 
an objective artist. 

In an effort to avoid the race problem 
and to find new subject matter, several 
current writers have abandoned the Negro 
theme entirely, placing the background 



79 



80 



NEGRO AMERICAN LITERATURE 



of their works and all their principal 
characters in the white world. There is 
some risk in this conscious avoidance of 
race on the part of the Negro writer. It 
could lose for him a certain intensity, a 
certain deeper-than-surface knowledge of 
his material. But of the two evils an 
unswerving allegiance to the Negro theme 
as opposed to conscious avoidance the 
latter is probably the lesser. Taken by 
and large, the tendency to discard the 
racial tag, though a mixed blessing, is 
essentially healthy; it is symptomatic of 
the Negro literary artist's general broad- 
ening and ripening. 

Coupled with this new attitude towards 
his material, the Negro writer has ac- 
quired a new interest in the technique of 
his craft and a new mastery of its form. 
This concern with style is one of the most 
heartening signs of the Negro writer's 
maturity. 

Another evidence of maturity is the 
growing importance of criticism. At the 
present time there is a small but highly 
articulate group of critics among us, and 
their influence is slowly but definitely be- 
ginning to bear fruit. The midcentury 
issue of Phylon (Vol. 11, No. 4, 1950) 
one that was devoted to an evaluation of 
Negro literature during the '30's and '40's 
was made up almost entirely of articles 
by these critics. In all likelihood, the issue 
will become a landmark of some signifi- 
cance, because these scholars, looking at 
the Negro writer with refreshing objec- 
tivity, have not only pointed out his weak- 
nesses, but have just as definitely encour- 
aged, motivated, and charted his future 
course as a mature American writer. 

FICTION 

During the 1940-50 decade, the Negro 
writer did his best work in the field of 
the novel. Unfortunately for this review, 
the fiction published in the period under 
Consideration tends to fall slightly below 
the standard set in the 40's. Of the five 
important works examined here, two are 
first novels with many of the shortcomings 
which often characterize initial efforts. 



The others, two by Yerby and one by 
Smith, are decidedly inferior to their 
earlier works. 

It is fascinating to note that the novels 
written by Yerby were published during 
a 12-month period. That both of them 
rode high on the best seller list proves 
not only his craftsmanship, but also his 
ability to gauge the taste of the American 
public. 

In Floodtide (1950), Yerby surrounds 
his story with the colorful Natchez of 
1850, weaving in Cuban insurrections and 
pre-Civil War secession hysteria in Mis- 
sissippi. The plot is a witch's brew of 
high adventure, sensational violence, tor- 
rid love-making, romantic sadism, and 
abolitionist sentiment. Taking a super- 
attractive hero and heroine, and a super- 
evil "other" woman, Yerby heaps thrill 
upon thrill to tell an entertaining but 
utterly unbelievable story. 

In A Woman Called Fancy (1951), the 
author chose his native region Augusta, 
Georgia as a backdrop for his story. The 
plot concerns the rise of a beautiful but 
too perfect hillbilly girl from share- 
cropper status to her marriage into one 
of the aristocratic but decadent Augusta 
families. As the action takes place in the 
80's, Yerby touches lightly on Reconstruc- 
tion politics. He has a carpet-bagger's 
daughter, a tragic mulatto, a decayed 
southern family, a new mill, a crooked 
southern politician, and the inevitable 
conflict between rising poor whites and 
decaying artistocrats in short, he uses 
all the ingredients for a highly readable 
version of this stock type of novel. 

In both works, Yerby makes an inter- 
esting concession to race. Although he 
adopts the southern viewpoint for his 
novels, he makes one or more of his prin- 
cipal characters unusually liberal on the 
race issue. Knowing that too much propa- 
ganda will spoil his story, Yerby plots a 
fascinating middle course between blatant 
pro-Negro sentiment on the one hand and 
all-out anti-Negro sentiment on the other. 
He is actually doing a subtle but definite 
job of indoctrination and is probably 
reaching hosts of readers who normally 



FICTION 



81 



would never see a so-called Negro book. 

In his first work, The Last of the Con- 
querors, William Gardner Smith wrote a 
most convincing story of Negro GIs in 
Germany. Because of the promise in this 
first attempt, critics looked forward to 
the second work of this talented young 
writer. But Anger at Innocence (1950), 1 
an unrealistic story of slum life in Phila- 
delphia, has neither the strong message 
nor the appealing characters of his first 
novel. Smith tries to show the corrosive 
action of slum living on sensitive souls, but 
his characters fail to achieve reality. The 
book, incidentally, has no Negro racial 
tag. Instead of using a Negro, Smith tries 
to delineate the sufferings and frustration 
of a Mexican in the white world of Amer- 
ica. One feels that he would have drawn 
a much truer picture if the character had 
been colored. In this, particular case, 
avoidance of his own race probably lost 
for the author that deeper-than-surface 
knowledge so necessary in effective 
writing. 

Owen Dodson's Boy at the Window 
(1951) is a first novel which deals with 
the life of a sensitive Negro lad seeking 
affection and security in a world sud- 
denly upset by his mother's death. In the 
first part of the work, Dodson describes 
with great understanding the religious 
gropings of the lad. He also gives a con- 
vincing picture of life in an average urban 
Negro home. This type of household is 
not frequently drawn in novels dealing 
with Negroes ; the Bigger Thomas type of 
home life is far more popular. The novel 
contains two superby effective episodes: 
the description of the mother's funeral 
with all the pageantry and mumbo-jumbo 
put on by the fraternal orders; and the 
hilarious delineation of a righteously in- 
dignant colored lady getting the white 
folks "told" on a Pennsylvania train. As 
a whole, the book seems to lack a certain 
fullness, a certain completeness. The 
reader at least, the old-fashioned reader 
is left slightly puzzled. 

Taffy (1950), a first novel by Philip B. 
Kaye (pseud.), is an uneven work con- 
taining some highly effective writing and 



much that is amateurish and faulty. The 
book has many glaring technical weak- 
nesses, of which the worst is perhaps a 
tendency to use the flashback too often 
and too awkwardly. It also contains, as 
do all the works in this hard-boiled Big- 
ger Thomas-Nick Romano tradition, too 
much gratuitous and pointless sex and 
violence. The title-character (who is not 
the main character) is never fully de- 
veloped; as a result, his actions are occa- 
sionally forced and unconvincing. But in 
spite of these all-too-obvious shortcom- 
ings, the book holds the reader. The au- 
thor intimately knows the life of Harlem 
and of Negro Brooklyn, and his analysis 
and delineation of both are often pene- 
trating and powerful. Though he has not 
yet mastered his craft, the author of Taffy 
could be great. 

In recent years, the Negro fiction writer 
has tended to neglect the short story be- 
cause of the difficulty of getting his work 
published, particularly if he stresses a 
racial theme. With the passing of Oppor- 
tunity and the full-sized Crisis, we have 
no Negro periodical with space enough 
to "encourage" short-story writing. White 
magazines, of course, will take an occa- 
sional "Negro story," but they are usually 
very definite about the type of story 
wanted. All this means that the only popu- 
lar medium now left to the beginning and 
to the average Negro short-story writer is 
the magazine sections of our large week- 
lies. Needless to say, this medium is by 
no means adequate. 

The A fro- American has been featuring 
"race" stories for a long time and has 
probably published more of them than 
any other paper. During the past year, 
Nick Aaron Ford and H. L. Faggett, pro- 
fessors at Morgan State College, selected 
from the Afro files The Best Short Stories 
by Afro-American Writers (1925-50). 
According to their preface, the editors 
had two purposes in mind: first, to an- 
thologize a people's literature whose ap- 
peal would lie midway between T. S. 
Eliot on the sophisticated level and the 
comic book on the popular level; and, 
second, to give a non-sterotyped picture 



82 



NEGRO AMERICAN LITERATURE 



of Negro character. Both objectives are 
reasonable enough, but unfortunately 
most of the stories selected are not good 
on any level. Not all are bad by any 
means, but the major portion are of the 
race-praising, race-asserting, race-pro- 
testing type, "dated" in theme and tech- 
nique. The idea of anthologizing news- 
paper short stories is an excellent one, 
and it could serve a very fine purpose. 
It could easily spur the great Negro week- 
lies not only to feature more stories but 
to improve this kind of writing by de- 
manding a higher level of performance 
from their contributors. 

POETRY 

Writing in a recent issue of Phylon 
(Vol. 11, No. 4), Margaret Walker points 
out that the "younger" Negro poet dur- 
ing the 40's tended to look beyond the 
narrow limits of his usual social protest 
and to acquire a "global" rather than a 
racial or national point of view. Along 
with this "global perspective," which 
Miss Walker considers an important new 
note in our poetry, there has come a new 
interest in craftsmanship and a new atti- 
tude towards form. Poets of the late 40's 
are inclined to stress technique rather 
than subject matter; and while they are 
moving towards "intellectual themes of 
psychological and philosophical implica- 
tions bordering on obscurantism," their 
poems are "never primitive, simple, and 
commonplace." Outstanding among this 
group are Myron O'Higgins, Robert Hay- 
den, Bruce McWright, Carl Holman, and 
the 1949 Pulitzer Prize winner, Gwen- 
dolyn Brooks. 

Unfortunately for us, none of these 
poets has published a volume of verse 
during the period to which this article 
is limited. And just as unfortunate, there 
has been no publication by any one of 
that "slightly older" group of Negro 
poets, which includes Frank Marshall 
Davis, Melvin B. Tolson, Owen Dodson, 
and Margaret Walker. The only major 
Negro poet to publish during the past 
year has been Langston Hughes. 



In Montage of a Dream Deferred 
(1951), Hughes has recaptured some of 
the magic of phrase and tone which char- 
acterized Weary Blues, his first publica- 
tion. Decidedly superior to Shakespeare 
in Harlem (1942), a work on the same 
theme, the new volume is a sensitive and 
fascinating series of poems. The theme 
of the present work is Harlem's frustra- 
tion, driven home again and again by 
the fugue-like structure of the poem. Al- 
ways an experimenter, Langston Hughes 
on this occasion has made use of a "jam 
session" technique. According to this 
scheme, we are to consider the whole book 
of ninety-odd pieces as really one long 
poem, marked by the conflicting changes, 
broken rhythms, and sudden interjections 
characteristic of a jam session. Mr. 
Hughes knows Harlem as few others know 
it, and he gives a picture of that tragic 
city which in sympathy, depth, and under- 
standing has rarely been equalled. 

Among the minor poets, there are 
works by Virginia Simmons Nyabongo, 
William Henry Huff, leda Mai Toney, 
Homer Preston Johnson, John Robert 
Jackson, and Robert Milum Baker. Mrs. 
Nyabongo's work, Les palmier s (1951), is 
written in French and consists of twenty 
poems giving her impressions of Haiti. 
A professor of modern languages at Ten- 
nessee Agricultural and Industrial State 
College, Mrs. Nyabongo is also the author 
of White Caps (1942), a volume of verse. 

Although it may seem cavalier to do so, 
one may easily cover the other volumes 
of minor poems with a general comment. 
Miss Toney's The Young Scholar and 
Other Poems (1951), William Henry 
Huff's From Deep Within (1951), and 
Messrs. Johnson's, Jackson's and Baker's 
Twilight Dreams (1950) are immature 
verse on highly conventional themes. 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY AND 
BIOGRAPHY 

The field of autobiography has always 
been popular with the Negro writer, and 
he has done much of his best work in it. 
The past year has been an unusually good 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY AND BIOGRAPHY 



83 



one for this type of writing. During the 
period there appeared autobiographies of 
two great Negro actresses and enter- 
tainers, the life stories of two clergymen, 
the spiritual autobiography of a sensitive 
and intelligent convert to the Catholic 
faith, and the powerful delineation of a 
Scottsboro boy's 18 years in Alabama 
prisons. The only unpleasant feature in 
this picture is that the three most popular 
and significant works of this group were 
the result of collaboration or "ghosted" 
autobiographies. Negro celebrities, even 
those who are perfectly capable of writ- 
ing their own books, have a regrettable 
tendency to employ "ghosts." 

His Eye is on the Sparrow (1951), 
written by actress Ethel Waters, with 
Charles Samuels, is the most sensational 
autobiography of the period and the most 
popular since Black Boy. And yet, it is a 
work which', has antagonized hosts of 
Negro readers because of its flagrant anti- 
upper class, anti-educated, and anti-light 
colored sentiments. Miss Waters has used 
almost every cliche, every stereotype, and 
every generalization about the Negro 
which the average American white likes 
to find in works dealing with the colored 
group. And these cliches, stereotypes, 
and generalizations are so persistently 
paraded that one gets the impression the 
book was written primarily with a white 
public in mind. This autobiography, how- 
ever, is by no means without merit. The 
success story which it tells the story of 
the rugged climb of Ethel Waters from 
the slums of Philadelphia to international 
fame is, to say the least, highly exciting. 
The work is also valuable in that it gives 
us a new insight into the workings of the 
provincial Negro circuits and of the lives 
of early Negro entertainers. It is in this 
segment of the book that Miss Waters 
makes a most important contribution to 
the history of the Negro in the theatre. 
That the work became a best seller is 
proof of its power to entertain. The aver- 
age Negro reader, however, tends to look 
upon it as another great Waters presen- 
tation, superbly staged, excellent "the- 
atre," but not autobiographic reality. 



Although both writers are in the same 
profession, it would be hard to find two 
books as different in outlook as those by 
Miss Waters and Miss Home. In Person: 
Lena Home, as Told to Helen Arstein and 
Carlton Moss (1951) is a highly forth- 
right and militant work. Besides telling 
the charming story of her personal and 
theatrical life, Lena Home's autobiog- 
raphy lashes out time and time again at 
the prejudice and injustice to be found 
in the American theatrical world from 
Broadway to Hollywood. As a light-col- 
ored Negro actress, Miss Home has had 
two hurdles to leap rather than one; and 
her uncompromising insistence on being 
herself, her refusal to be stereotyped, has 
been therapeutic for the American stage. 
It is exhilarating to find a crusading work 
of this sort coming from a first lady of 
the theatre. With but few exceptions, the 
Negro performer has either been on the 
wrong side or taken no side at all in the 
perennial fight waged by the NAACP 
and other organizations against Negro 
stereotypes in the theatre, on the air, 
and in the movies. Lena Home leaves us 
in no doubt concerning her position. She 
has devoted almost as much space to the 
fight against injustice and prejudice as 
she has to her own spectacular success in 
the theatre. As a matter of fact, Miss 
Home, in her enthusiasm, has allowed the 
polemic to encroach dangerously on the 
purely autobiogaphical element in her 
book, but this kind of unselfishness and 
militancy is most heartening. In Person: 
Lena Home will never have the popularity 
of His Eye is on the Sparrow, not even 
among Negroes, but in several respects 
it is a far more honest and revealing 
work. 

Scottsboro Boy (1950), by Hey wood 
Patterson and Earl Conrad, is the most 
devastating attack on southern injustice 
to be found in recent literature. It is not 
only an indictment of the Alabama penal 
system but of the whole regional pattern. 
Making use of Patterson's speech rhythms 
and, supposedly, Patterson's ideas, Con- 
rad describes in all its starkness and 
brutality the utter degradation of prison 



84 



NEGRO AMERICAN LITERATURE 



life in Alabama. Spelling it out in sicken- 
ing detail, he shows how the depravity, 
the sadism, and the bestiality inherent in 
prejudice and segregation become ac- 
centuated in prison life, demoralizing 
alike both black prisoners and white 
guards and officials. Although one may 
object to, or even suspect, certain social 
views given to Patterson by Conrad, he 
will still be moved by the bare recital 
of facts. Brilliantly written, the work is 
far more effective "Scottsboro propa- 
ganda" than any put out by the various 
groups during the heyday of that famous 
controversy. 

Road Without Turning (1950), an 
autobiography by James H. Robinson, the 
pastor of the Church of the Master in 
New York City, though not a sensational 
work, has a very good story to tell. A 
sensitive and intelligent boy, young Rob- 
inson forced his way up from the slums 
of Knoxville and Cleveland, and through 
hard work and sheer brass got himself 
an education. The book gives the details 
of this climb, but it also tells much more. 
It paints several unforgettable pictures of 
Negro urban living and of college life 
at Lincoln University and Union Theo- 
logical Seminary. Above all else, it is a 
forthright and passionate attack on the 
injustice and hypocrisy of America's race 
attitude. A modern social-minded min- 
ister in every sense of that phrase, Rob- 
inson is a realist who knows that people 
need more than mere theology and pious 
cliches for their daily religious bread. He 
is a realist in yet another way. Though 
he founded the interracial church of 
which he is now pastor, he is not guilty 
of that spurious "good will" which so 
often characterizes the writings of inter- 
racially-minded persons. The autobiog- 
raphy is written in a plain, not-too-pleas- 
ing style, but it has something to say. 

Helen Caldwell Day's Color Ebony 
(1951) is the intriguing life story of a 
twenty-three-old Negro nurse who found 
a solution for her religious problems in 
the Catholic Church. The work is largely 
a spiritual autobiography, but Mrs. Day 
manages to keep a nice balance between 



the discussion of her religious convic- 
tions and the telling of her life story. Al- 
though a deeply religious person, Mrs. 
Day is also a keen observer of all aspects 
of daily life, and her strictures on jim 
crowism and prejudice, whether in her 
native Mississippi or in New York, 
whether in the sanatorium to which she 
was sent or in the Catholic Church itself, 
are forthright and uncompromising. A 
well-written little work, Color Ebony is a 
type rarely produced by Negro writers 
a book stressing the spiritual conflicts of 
the autobiographer. A similar work, 
Elizabeth Adams' Dark Symphony, ap- 
peared in 1942. One notes that both of 
these young ladies found in Catholicism 
not only an answer to their personal re- 
ligious problems but a motivation for 
literary expression. 

In one sense, Amos H. Carnegie's Faith 
Moves Mountains (1950) is also a spir- 
itual autobiography, but it is not as con- 
vincing as Mrs. Day's work. The Rev- 
erend Mr. Carnegie has lived a most in- 
teresting life, but he lacks the ability to 
record it to best advantage. His main 
difficulty is a tendency to overlook all 
autobiographical details except religious 
ones. For example, he spent one full year 
at Virginia Union University, and all that 
he records of this experience is that he 
"converted" his roommate. The author has 
labeled this work "Volume I." Presum- 
ably other volumes are to follow. Since 
he has lived so fully, one hopes that Mr. 
Carnegie in subsequent installments will 
give a picture of his whole life, not just 
those episodes connected with moral and 
religious uplift. 

The only major biography in this sec- 
tion, William Stanley Braithwaite's The 
Bewitched Parsonage (1950), retells the 
story of the Brontes. Believing that the 
novels of this gifted group "are as im- 
portant biographically as they are his- 
torically," he has devoted a considerable 
portion of his book to an analysis of these 
works. Neither a critical nor a "modern" 
biography, the study attempts, as the 
author has expressed it, "to take a straight 
course," avoiding the subtleties and the 



MISCELLANEOUS WORKS 



85 



controversies which have been injected 
into the Bronte story. Mr. Braithwaite's 
over-all aim has been simply to write an 
entertaining narrative of this tragic York- 
shire family. Because the lives of the 
Brontes, especially those of Emily and 
Branwell, are so definitely "controver- 
sial," it is regrettable that Braithwaite 
should have chosen to ignore this aspect 
in his biography. 

MISCELLANEOUS WORKS 

One of the greatest literary "finds" in 
recent years was the discovery in 1938 of 
the Johnson Papers, the diary and mis- 
cellaneous manuscripts of a free Negro 
in pre-Civil War Mississippi. Edited by 
William Ransom Hogan and Edwin 
Adams Davis, these papers were published 
in 1951 by the Louisiana State University 
Press under the title: William Johnson's 
Natchez (The Ante-Bellum Diary of a 
Free Negro). A prosperous barber in old 
Natchez, Johnson, though not formally 
educated, was a highly intelligent person 
and a keen observer of his fellow man. 
In the collection which he left there are 
over 2,000 manuscript pages of diary 
covering the years from 1835 to 1851, 
several hundred pages of legal and finan- 
cial documents, a few score letters, six- 
teen volumes of account books, four 
bound volumes of rare newspapers, four 
hundred pieces of Nineteenth Century 
music, and miscellaneous family papers. 
A good business man who rented property 
and lent money to his white fellow citi- 
zens, including a former governor of 
Mississippi, Johnson owned two planta- 
tions and, at one time, 15 slaves. At his 
death, he left an estate of over $25,000. 
Johnson knew everybody in Natchez 
worth knowing, and his diary gives in- 
valuable detailed information about the 
actual life both on the Hill and under- 
the-Hill in that city. As to be expected, 
his work clears away some of the glamor 
which the romanticizing fiction writers 
have bestowed on that fabulous city. It 
also gives a new and valuable first- 
hand account of the lives and attitudes 



of free Negroes in the Deep South, infor- 
mation which many fiction writers could 
well use. Measured by any standards, 
Johnson's diary is one of the important 
books of the year. 

Joel Chandler Harris Folklorist 
(1950), by Stella Brewer Brookes, is, as 
one critic puts it, the first "comprehen- 
sive statement of the relationship between 
Harris' sources and the Uncle Remus 
tales as the American people have come 
to know and love them." The work is in 
two parts. Part I deals with the writing 
and publication of the Uncle Remus 
stories and paints a delightful portrait 
of Harris, the man and the folklorist. 
Part II analyzes by types the famous 
tales. Appealingly written and yet scholar- 
ly, the work is a significant contribution 
in the field of American folklore. It is 
highly appropriate that a Negro and a 
fellow Atlantan Dr. Brookes is Professor 
of English at Clark should publish a 
study showing the importance of the 
black man's folklore to the work of Joel 
Chandler Harris. 

During the past decade, Arna Bon- 
temps has become the best known and, in 
all probability, the most prolific writer 
of children's books among Negroes. His 
impressive list in this field includes, 
among others, Golden Slippers (1941), 
We Have Tomorrow (1945), and, with 
Jack Conroy, The Fast Sooner Hound 
(1942). In the past year he has added 
two more works to the list. 5am Patch 
(1951), written in collaboration with 
Jack Conroy and illustrated by Paul 
Brown, is the delightful tall tale of young 
Sam Patch, that "high, wide and hand- 
some jumper" who defeated Hurricane 
Hank, the Kaskaskia Snapping Turtle, 
and alienated the affections of Chuckle- 
head, Hank's trained bear. The second 
work, Chariot in the Sky (1951), illus- 
trated by Cyrus Leroy Baldridge, is a 
full-length book which retells for younger 
readers the wonderful story of the Fisk 
Jubilee Singers. Making use of Caleb 
Williams, an appealing fictional char- 
acter, Bontemps weaves around him the 
whole historical background of the found- 



86 



NEGRO AMERICAN LITERATURE 



ing of Fisk University and the heart- 
warming adventures of the famous 
singers. Presenting wholesome characters 
and a relatively new theme in children's 
literature, this work is another milestone 
in the journey away from the L'il Han- 
nibal and Black Sambo tradition in ju- 
venile fiction. 

Ellen Tarry's The Runaway Elephant 
(1950), with pictures by Oliver Harring- 
ton, continues the adventures of Hezekiah 
Horton, a very young and very likable 
Harlem citizen. In this little work, Heze- 
kiah is instrumental in capturing Modoc, 
the escaped bull elephant who has been 
terrorizing the community. Earlier chil- 
dren's books by Ellen Tarry are Hezekiah 
Horton (1942) and, with Marie Hall Ets, 
My Dog Rinty (1946). 

The periodical appearance of new an- 
thologies of Negro literature, all of them 
under the imprint of highly reputable 
publishing houses, shows the continuing 
interest in Negro writing. During the 40's, 
three significant anthologies came out: 
The Negro Caravan (1942), edited by 
Sterling A. Brown, Arthur P. Davis, and 
Ulysses Lee; Anthology of American 
Negro Literature (1944), edited by Syl- 
vestre C. Watkins ; and The Poetry of the 
Negro (1949), edited by Langston 
Hughes and Arna Bontemps. In 1950, 
Harman Dreer brought out American 
Literature by Negro Authors, an anthol- 
ogy designed "to present representative 
authors ... in order to show how Negro 
writers have treated each type of Amer- 
ican literature." The work is divided into 
nine sections folklore, poetry, letters, 
biography and autobiography, essays, ad- 
dresses, short stories, novels, and plays 
with an introduction to each. It contains 
many of the classic Negro authors and 
a number of practically unknown writers. 
By cutting out certain difficult passages 
in his selections and by avoiding certain 
themes, Mr. Dreer has made the anthol- 
ogy a text suitable for high school study. 
Two works of a religious nature con- 
cern us here. The first, Say Amen, 
Brother! is, as its sub-title informs us, an 
account of "old-time Negro preaching; a 



study in American frustration," written 
by William Harrison Pipes. Dr. Pipes has 
printed the texts of eight typical Sunday 
sermons preached by the Negro ministers 
in Macon County, Georgia. Macon County 
was chosen for the experiment because 
the preaching there is still the old-time 
variety. The sermons were taken down on 
recording machines and transcribed for 
the present work. Pipes analyzes their 
content, style, and delivery. He points out 
that this type of preaching is a direct 
result of Negro frustration and is funda- 
mentally escapist in nature. Aside from 
its religious and sociological value, this 
study will be a boon for the folklorist. 
There are very few old-time Negro ser- 
mons in print, and Dr. Pipes has rendered 
a real service in making this valuable 
material available. 

The second work, Howard Thurman's 
book of devotions, Deep is the Hunger 
(1951), is a type quite rare in Negro 
American literature. It is a volume of 
"meditations for apostles of sensitivity," 
which Dr. Thurman first issued as a series 
of weekly bulletins for the members of 
his famous San Francisco church. Though 
written at times in a moving and poetic 
style, these meditations are surprisingly 
down to earth in their realistic applica- 
tion of the fundamentals of religion to 
modern living. 

Prepared for Louis Adamic's "People 
of America" series, They Came in Chains: 
Americans from Africa (1950), is, like 
most of Jay Saunders Redding's works, 
a brilliantly written book. Taking the 
dry bones of historical fact, Redding has 
clothed them with flesh and blood. He 
makes the history of the Negro in Amer- 
ica read like an exciting novel. Historians 
have found minor errors in the work, 
they have noted its lack of adequate 
documentation, and they have objected 
strongly to several of the book's many 
sweeping generalizations. But even the 
historians have been impressed with Red- 
ding's vivid and dramatic presentation of 
the material, and they readily admit that 
a work of this kind will have a stronger 
appeal for the ordinary reader than a 



SUMMARY 



87 



more scholarly and conventional study. 
This is to say that Redding's version of 
the Negro story suits admirably the pur- 
pose for which it was intended. 

Helen G. Edmonds' The Negro and 
Fusion Politics in North Carolina, 1894- 
1901 (1951) is a new and provocative 
study of the most highly chaotic period 
in North Carolina politics. Dr. Edmonds 
investigates the basis of Fusion during 
the period in question and examines the 
Negro's place in the movement. Her work 
shows that the charge of "Negro domina- 
tion," which was so often given as a 
reason for the southern Democrat's un- 
democratic actions, had no basis in fact. 
She concludes that the hatred of Fusion 
plus the coalition of the Democrats and 
the industrialists, rather than Negro dom- 
ination, brought about the disfranchise- 
ment of the black man and made North 
Carolina a one-party state. Her chapters 
on the White Supremacy Campaign of 
1898 and on the Wilmington Riot are of 
special interest to the layman as well as 
to the historian. 

The Negro in American Business 
(1950) , by Robert H. Kinzer and Edward 
Sagarin, is a study of "the conflict be- 
tween separatism and integration" in the 
Negro's approach to his business acti- 
vities. Should the Negro stress the build- 
ing up of a racial business, or should he 
emphasize the merging of his interests 
with those of the white world? Are there 
advantages on both sides? If so, what 
are they? These are the questions which 
the two authors of this work try to answer. 
After pointing out that the present day 
Negro business man is compelled to fol- 
low both paths, they insist that his "major 
emphasis must be on integration." 

Pauli Murray's States' Laws on Race 
and Color (1951) is a timely and most 
fascinating handbook of America's demo- 
cratic shortcomings. The women of the 
Methodist Church, finding that there was 
no single volume which gave information 
on the laws concerning race and color in 
America, commissioned Pauli Murray to 
compile and edit such a work. Giving the 
actual texts of the various racial and 



color laws, the book is a valuable guide 
for lawyer, scholar, and layman alike. In 
the appendix there are excerpts from 
pertinent international documents such as 
the Charter of UNESCO and the Uni- 
versal Declaration of Human Rights. The 
Negro reader of Miss Murray's compila- 
tion will be surprised not only at his own 
unenviable status in so many states but 
also at the many companions in misery 
he has among Indian, Mexican, Chinese, 
Japanese, and other "alien" groups. To 
see all these insulting laws presented in 
one volume should be a therapeutic and 
chastening experience for any American. 
After a lapse of six years, the seventh 
edition of Who's Who in Colored America 
(1950) was published under new editor- 
ship and in a new format. Its principal 
editor is G. James Fleming. Christian E. 
Burckel is co-editor. The seventh edition 
in almost every respect is an improve- 
ment on its predecessors. A new feature 
in this edition is the inclusion of two 
tables showing the geographical and vo- 
cational distribution of the persons in- 
cluded. Containing, with its recently 
published supplement, over 3,000 biog- 
raphies and over 800 photographs, the 
work is a much needed reference tool 
that takes its place alongside similar 
"segmental" biographical dictionaries. 

SUMMARY 

The 1950 to 1951 period covered by this 
article, taken as a whole, has been a 
fruitful one for the Negro American 
writer. He has produced three best 
sellers, two novels and one autobiog- 
raphy; he has made significant scholarly 
contributions in literature and in history; 
and most important of all, he has broad- 
ened considerably the range of his inter- 
ests and improved generally in the tech- 
niques of his profession. 

In an appraisal of this kind, it is just 
as important to point out the shortcom- 
ings as it is to praise the advances. There 
are, for example, several areas which the 
Negro writer, year after year, seems to 
overlook, among them biography and 



88 



NEGRO AMERICAN LITERATURE 



drama, including radio and television 
dramatic productions. And for some un- 
known reason, there are few, if any, 
Negro authors to be found in two of the 
most popular and lucrative fields of minor 
contemporary writing, the detective story 
and science-fiction. Most tragic of all, the 
Negro rarely attempts humor of any kind, 
poetic, dramatic, or fictional. 

It is easy to understand why the Negro 
writer has done relatively little as a play- 
wright. To state it simply, he has never 
had the opportunity to experience ade- 
quately the kind of apprenticeship in the 
theatre and on the networks which suc- 
cessful dramatic writing seems to require. 
It is also easy to understand, though not 
to accept, his reason for avoiding humor. 
Subjected to caricatures and stereotypes 
in American fiction for so many genera- 
tions, he hesitates to write humorously for 



fear that he will inadvertently add to the 
ridicule already heaped upon colored 
Americans. One can appreciate the pecul- 
iar problem in each of these cases. But 
is there a similar problem in the field of 
biography and in the other areas which 
the Negro writer seems to avoid? 

Perhaps the real answer to this ques- 
tion is to be found in the surprisingly 
small number of professional writers 
among us. When the number becomes pro- 
portionate to the Negro population, these 
barren areas will tend to disappear. Dur- 
ing the first half of the present century, 
the Negro author made remarkable prog- 
ress in improving the quality of his work. 
There is every reason to believe that he 
will develop in the second half a group of 
professional men of letters large and 
versatile enough to cover all areas of 
American writing. 



7 - 

The Theatre, Motion Pictures, 
the Dance, Radio, Television 



SINCE WORLD WAR II, the legitimate the- 
atre and motion pictures have presented 
a number of productions centered about 
the race problem and have with more or 
less effect exploited the drama in this 
theme. The reception of the following by 
audiences and critics attests the popu- 
larity of this subject: Our Lan', Lost in 
the Stars, Set My People Free, Forward 
the Heart, The Well, Intruder in the Dust, 
Lost Boundaries, No Way Out, The Jackie 
Robinson Story, Home of the Brave, 
Lights Out, Show Boat, Native Son, 
Pinky, and The Breaking Point. 

The shift in audience appeal has been 
reflected in the failure of revivals of old 
favorites like All God's Chillun Got 
Wings and Green Pastures to get favor- 
able reception. The former closed after 
16 performances and the latter lasted 
only a few weeks as against 640 original 
performances. In the meantime, another 
phase in the development of the Negro on 
the stage is evident. Television has 
achieved wide popularity as a medium of 
entertainment. The Negro, because of his 
color, shows to better advantage on the 
TV screen than whites. By 1950, the 
Negro had been accepted in this medium 
and the number of acts starring Negro 
performers was growing. 

THE THEATRE 

South Pacific, a musical by Richard 
Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein adapted 
from James Michener's Tales of the South 
Pacific, provided the role of Bloody Mary 
for Juanita Hall. Miss Hall's songs "Bali 
Ha'i" and "Happy Talk" were show stop- 
pers. Fred Norman, well-known arranger, 



and Langston Hughes, lyricist, listen as 
she sings "Love Can't Hurt You." Others 
in the cast: Earl Sydnor, Alonzo Bazon, 
Frank Wilson, Ossie Davis, and William 
Veasey. 

The two plots in the play are concerned 
with the folly of race prejudice. During 
World War II a Navy nurse from Arkan- 
sas (Mary Martin) falls in love with a 
French planter (Ezio Pinza) but dis- 
covers that he has fathered two Tonkinese 
children. This gives the nurse a serious 
bout with her conscience, but the play 
has a happy ending. In the subplot, a 
young Marine lieutenant from America 
falls in love with a beautiful Tonkinese 
girl but is killed. The English presenta- 
tion of South Pacific at London's Drury 
Lane Theatre featured Muriel Smith as 
Bloody Mary. 

Street Scene, a musical adaptation of 
Elmer Rice's famous play, with music by 
Kurt Weill and lyrics by Langston 
Hughes, opened Jan. 9, 1947, and ran for 
148 performances. Creighton Thompson 
as a Negro janitor and Juanita Hall as 
his wife had roles in the play, and Mr. 
Thompson had a solo, " I got a Marble 
and a Star." There was also a colored 
school girl who sang "Wrapped in a 
Ribbon" with a mixed group of children. 

Call Me Mister closed on Jan. 10, 1948, 
after a two-year run of 734 performances. 
Lawrence Winters, an ex-army lieutenant, 
and Bruce Howard were in the cast. 
Winters sang "Face on a Dime" and "Red 
Ball Express." He was later replaced by 
James Young. 

Kiss Me Kate opened on Dec. 30, 1948, 
with Annabella Hill, a maid with a bari- 
tone voice, and dancers Fred Davis, Eddie 



89 



90 



THEATRE, MOTION PICTURES, TELEVISION 



Sledge, and Lorenzo Fuller. This smash 
hit was by Cole Porter and Bella and 
Samuel Spewack. 

The Member of the Wedding opened at 
the Empire Theatre Jan. 5, 1950. The 
persons in the play lead a commonplace 
life but as free individuals. Brooks Atkin- 
son says, "As a play, it is elusive and 
intangible." It concerns three lonely 
people, a motherless 12-year-old girl, a 
kind-hearted cook, and a small boy. Ethel 
Waters plays the family servant and 
her hymn, "His Eye is on the Sparrow," 
is used at the end of the second act and 
at the final curtain. Her skillful artistry 
helped wonderfully in winning the Don- 
aldson Award for outstanding achieve- 
ment in the theatre during the season and 
also won the 1950 Sojourner Truth 
Award for "symbolizing the great strength 
of Negro women" made by the National 
Association of Negro Business and Pro- 
fessional Women's Club, Inc. 

Arms and the Girl was produced by the 
Theatre Guild at the 46th Street Theatre 
in 1950. Pearl Bailey was the co-star. 
New York critics said her outstanding 
performance assured the play's success. 
She sang two songs in her husky voice, 
using her expressive hands to accent her 
emotions. The audience went wild and 
stopped the show with their applause. 
She has won the title of the foremost 
comedienne of this era. She plays a fugi- 
tive slave girl, who becomes the personal 
servant of the star, Nanette Fabray. Her 
song, "There Must be Something Better 
than Love," became a hit. 

Seventeen, which opened at the Broad- 
hurst Theatre, June 21, 1951, is a musical 
comedy based on the Booth Tarkington 
story of the same name. It is concerned 
with teenagers and love. In the musical 
are Alonzo Bazon as Mr. Genesis (he has 
also played in Strange Fruit, Two Blind 
Mice, Long Way Home, The Wisteria 
Trees, and the Green Pastures revival), 
and Maurice Ellis as Genesis (he sang in 
Brown Buddies, played Pooh Bah in The 
Hot Mikado, was with Ethel Waters in 
Cabin in the Sky, with the Lunts in The 
Pirate, with Helen Hayes in The Wisteria 



Trees, was in the Porgy and Bess revival 
and played Julian in Jeb.) 

Anna Lucasta was revived during the 
1947-48 season with the following cast: 
Wesleen Foster, Rosetta Le Noire, Laura 
Bowman, Roy Allen, Warren Coleman, 
Frank Wilson, Rolf Coleman, Slim 
Thompson, Claire Jay, Maxwell Glan- 
ville, Isabelle Cooley, Lance Taylor, 
Sidney Poitier, and Duke Williams. 

Lost in the Stars closed July 1, 1950, 
after 273 performances. This musical 
play, based on the book Cry the Beloved 
Country, by Alan Paton, is set in South 
Africa and' relates the tragedy of Ab- 
salom, son of the Rev. Stephen Kumalo, 
pastor of a South African church. Ab- 
salom, in Johannesburg to earn money for 
his education, falls in with evil compan- 
ions. In an attempted robbery he shoots 
the city's leading white advocate of Negro 
equality. He confesses and is hanged. His 
father plans to leave the community but 
is persuaded to stay by the slain man's 
father. The music is by Kurt Weill and 
the lyrics and dialogue are by Maxwell 
Anderson. The light-hearted singing of 
"Big Mole" by Herbert Coleman was out- 
standing. In the cast were Todd Duncan 
playing the Rev. Stephen Kumalo, Geor- 
gette Harvey as Mrs. M'Kize, William 
Greaves, Gloria Smith, Sheila Guyse, La 
Verne French, and Van Prince. 

There were a number of plays with 
Negroes in their casts whose runs were 
short, among them The Cradle Will Rock 
(1947), How Long Till Summer (1949), 
Our Lan' (1947 and 1948), Forward the 
Heart (1949), and Set My People Free 
(1948). The Cradle Will Rock, dealing 
with labor-management conflict, had only 
Muriel Smith's singing to relieve its soap- 
box monotony. Forward the Heart had a 
challenging theme in the idea that color 
is only skin deep, with the love of a blind 
white veteran for his mother's Negro maid, 
played by Julie Evans, but it never reached 
the level of true and uplifting tragedy 
that it should have reached. 

Hassan (1951), a play by James Elroy 
Fleeker, gave Hilda Simms a role as 
Pervaneh, a slave girl. 



MOTION PICTURES 



91 



MOTION PICTURES 

Lost Boundaries (1949). This picture is 
based on the life story of the Johnston 
family of Keene, New Hampshire. Dr. 
Johnston, a practicing physician, is re- 
garded as white. He is socially and 
financially successful and his children 
are unaware of their Negro blood. But 
unfortunately the father's application for 
a naval commission is rejected because of 
his Negro blood. Regardless of the con- 
sequences, he and his wife decide to tell 
the children of their heritage. The effects 
are well-nigh disastrous. Howard, the son, 
goes to Harlem to learn how the people 
there live, gets into trouble, and is given 
help and sympathy by a Negro police 
lieutenant. This picture digs deep into 
the problem of "passing." The conflict 
generates emotions that touch the audi- 
ence to the quick. The direction is most 
dignified. Bill Greaves, Canada Lee, Bea- 
trice Pearson, and Susan Douglas act 
realistically in a mixed cast. 

Home of the Brave (1949). The star, 
James Edwards, a Negro GI, is torn by 
discrimination and hatred. The climax is 
reached when he and four white GI's are 
trapped on a Pacific atoll. He quarrels 
with his friend, Finch, who is killed in 
battle, and the resulting shock leaves 
Edwards paralyzed. The doctor's skill 
cures him. The film is based on a play 
about anti-Semitism. It is tense and dra- 
matic. Edwards is remembered for his 
fine acting as the lead in the play, Deep 
are the Roots. 

Battleground (1949). This film is no- 
table for the achievement of two Negroes, 
Willie L. Duckworth, the soldier who 
created the chant first called after him 
and later rechristened "Sound Off," and 
his partner Colonel Bernard Lentz. They 
made the chant into a song and it was 
recorded in a dozen languages. It is 
said they are reaping large financial re- 
wards from this army marching song. 
Master Sergeant Samuel Jagers, 94th 
Engineer Battalion, was placed in charge 
of the snappy drills in the movie. His 



success with "Sound Off" won him a place 
in some of the MGM movie scenes. 

Pinky (1949). The basic theme of this 
20th Century Fox picture is pride in what 
one is and does. Pinky's fair skin admits 
her to a nursing career and social oppor- 
tunities in the North. But she runs away 
from marriage with a white doctor. Back 
home she rebels against the situation of 
her grandmother, who made great sacri- 
fices for her granddaughter's education. 
But she reaps the reward of a mansion 
for her care of Ethel Barrymore, her 
grandmother's employer. With the help 
of a Negro doctor, she converts the man- 
sion into a nursing home. She again de- 
clines the offer of marriage to the white 
doctor. She says, "You can't live without 
pride." In the cast are Ethel Waters, the 
grandmother, Fred O'Neal, a smooth in- 
dividual, Kenny Washington as Dr. Can- 
ady, and Nina Mae McKinney as Rozelia. 

The Jackie Robinson Story (1948). 
This is a movie about the first Negro to 
play in the major leagues in recent times. 
Jackie calls it "just a success story on 
the screen, nothing more." It is more a 
movie with a Negro here in the lead. It 
depicts his struggles against jim crowism 
in this great American sport, especially 
against the Dodgers' protest at his trans- 
fer to the Brooklyn team. Branch Rickey, 
the manager, assails their sportsmanship. 
When his teammates protest decisions 
against him, Robinson knows he has been 
accepted. This improves his playing. Fans 
begin to cheer him. The climax is his 
patriotic speech on loyalty before the 
House Committee on Un-American Acti- 
vities. 1 In the cast are Ruby Dee, as 
Robinson's wife, Joel Fluellen as his 
brother, and Louise Beavers as his 
mother. 

The Quiet One (1949). This film, pro- 
duced independently by Meyer-Burstyn 
Pictures, is remarkable because its lead 
is played by a young Harlem boy, Donald 
Thompson, and it had the cooperation of 
Harlem and the Wiltwyk School for De- 
linquents. It strikes at the core of the 
delinquency problem. Donald's keen in- 



1 This is a dramatization of his actual appearance before this committee on July 18, 1949. 



92 



THEATRE, MOTION PICTURES, TELEVISION 



sight into the problems of the character 
and his skillful portrayal are praise- 
worthy. In the cast are Estelle Evans, the 
mother, and Sadie Stockton, the grand- 
mother, both from the American Negro 
Theatre, and the boys and staff of 
Wiltwyk. 

Show Boat (1951). In this revival there 
are some changes in the racial attitude of 
this musical. The stage presentation in 
1927 and the movie in 1929 contained two 
despised terms in the song, "01' Man 
River," which have been dropped, and 
Francis Williams wears no bandana. 
William Warfield sings "01' Man River." 
One naturally compares him with former 
singers Jules Bledsoe, Paul Robeson, and 
Kenneth Spencer. Hammerstein thinks 
Warfield delivers the song with more 
understanding than anyone else, making 
apparent slight and pleasing nuances 
with his rich and powerful voice. He has 
signed for the musical film version of 
Huckleberry Finn. He sang in Call Me 
Mister and Set My People Free. 

No Way Out (1950). This movie con- 
cerns a doctor who is the first Negro 
interne in a white hospital. A patient he 
treats in the prison ward dies. The pa- 
tient's brother, in the same ward, charges 
murder, and a race riot threatens. Dr. 
Brooks, the Negro, however, insists on an 
autopsy, which proves death was due to a 
brain tumor. The brother calls this a 
frame-up, escapes, and tries to kill the 
doctor. His life is saved by Linda Darnell, 
who dies in his stead. Sidney Poitier is 
Dr. Brooks, Mildred Joanne Smith, his 
wife, and Fred O'Neal, the rich Dr. Clark. 
Other artists include Dots Johnson, 
Maude Simmons, Ruby Dee, and Ossie 
Davis. The film is termed a "daring, 
powerful, and stirring indictment of 
Negro prejudice." 

Bright Victory (1951). The setting is 
in a hospital for the blind. A Negro GI 
is brought in. The others, not seeing his 
skin color, accept him and he makes 
friends with a white GI by giving him 
faith in the future. Then the white soldier 
discovers the truth about his friend and 
prejudice sets in. But his father wisely 



observes: "The whole world's changing 
and you more than we because you've 
helped to change it." James Edwards is 
the Negro soldier. 

Native Son (1951). Richard Wright, 
the author of the original book, plays 
Bigger Thomas, Gloria Madison is his 
girl friend and Willa Pearl Curtiss, his 
mother. The movie is based on the stage 
play of the same name, described in the 
Negro Year Book 1947. It is an indict- 
ment of jim crowism and is realistically 
done. 

The Breaking Point (1951). In this 
film Juano Hernandez is cast as a white 
man's friend. The relationship between 
them is equal for the first time. Hernan- 
dez has played in Strange Fruit, Intruder 
in the Dust, Show Boat, Blackbirds, and 
others. 

The Well (1951). This picture is rem- 
iniscent of the little girl who fell in the 
shaft at San Marino, Calif. Human be- 
havior is depicted under a similar tense 
and emotional circumstance. The Well 
follows two lines of development. First, 
the drama of the community as a white 
man falls under suspicion after the dis- 
appearance of a Negro girl. This presents 
the growth of insane rashness that leads 
to the brink of a race-riot. The second 
line develops from clues that the girl has 
fallen into a well. Now the emotions are 
strained by the united efforts to save a 
human life, without thought of race pre- 
judice. Even the accused lends his su- 
perior mining skill. This is well done. The 
entire town is swept to the scene to watch 
or help in the rescue with feverish excite- 
ment. Doubtless the onlookers mumble 
prayers that the child's life may be saved. 
All this is to the accompaniment of mas- 
sive machinery heavily pulsing out their 
hope, with the soothing effects of occa- 
sional music. The climax is suspenseful 
and soul-stirring. In the cast are Maidie 
Norman, playing the mother, Ernest 
Anderson, the father, Christine Larson, 
the child, Bill Walker, the doctor, Alfred 
Grant, the Negro leader, and Benjamin 
Hamilton, the grandfather. All did out- 
standing work. 



RADIO AND TELEVISION 



93 



Intruder in the Dust (1949). A Negro 
is accused of murdering a white man. 
There is race hate and talk of lynching. 
The real culprit is discovered by the act 
of a white youngster whose life the Negro 
once saved. The play was filmed in Ox- 
ford, Miss., and 150 Negroes and many 
whites were used. Juano Hernandez 
played the accused with great dignity. 

Tarzan's Perils (1951). Dorothy Dan- 
dridge plays the lead as Melmendi, the 
beautiful queen of a peaceful African 
tribe. She has played bit parts in many 
movies. 

Lydia Bailey (1951) . This film presents 
Ken Renard in the role of Toussaint 
L'Ouverture. Juanita Moore is Maria and 
William Marshall is King Dick. 

To Live Together, a documentary 
movie produced by B'nai B'rith in 1951, 
depicts an interracial camp for Chicago 
children. 

THE DANCE 

Janet Collins, who had made a reputa- 
tion for herself as a musical comedy 
dancer, was engaged in 1951 as premiere 
danseuse by the Metropolitan Opera Com- 
pany, and became the first regular Negro 
member of the Metropolitan Company 
in New York City. 

Eugene Robinson, a native of Detroit, 
made a hit in 1951 as a dancer at the 
Edderkobbel Theatre in Norway. 

Pearl Primus, who was featured as a 
dancer in the revival of Show Boat, was 
invited in 1951 to give a command per- 
formance for the British Royal Family 
in London. 

Josephine Baker, the master artist, 
spent most of 1951 on an American tour 
which brought her unstinting acclaim. 
Her artistic and expensive gowns as well 
as her effective stock of songs and dances 
captivated audiences wherever she ap- 
peared. 

Katherine Dunham and her dancing 
troupe continued to enjoy great popu- 
larity. In 1951, the Dunham dancers had 
a European tour which took them to all 
the major cities. 



RADIO AND TELEVISION 

Radio 

There has been a noticeable lessening 
of the importance of the Negro on radio 
since 1947, due largely to the development 
of television. Some Negro actors are active 
on both radio and television. 

WERD, the only Negro-owned radio 
station, was opened Oct. 3, 1949, by J. B. 
Blayton, Jr., in Atlanta, Ga. A listener 
survey showed a 40% white audience. 

Stations WMFS, Chattanooga, Tenn., 
and WEDR, Birmingham, Ala., are en- 
tirely staffed by Negroes. Ed Reynolds 
and John Thompson have provided pro- 
grams for Negroes over WEDR since 
August 1949. 

Among the numerous Negro disc 
jockeys with spots on radio in practically 
all of our major cities, are two women 
who have achieved considerable popu- 
larity. They are Jessie Morris, whose 
"Swing Ship" program is heard from 
WEPG, Atlantic City, N.J., and Mary 
Dee, from WHOD, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Among other popular disc jockeys are 
Ralph Cooper, WOV, New York; "Doc" 
Wheeler, WWRL, New York; Leroy 
White, Detroit; John Hardy, WBOK, 
New Orleans; Sonny Thompson, WIRK, 
West Palm Beach, Fla.; "Daddy '0 Day- 
lie," WAIT, Chicago; Bill Sampson, 
KWKW, Los Angeles; Phil "Trash" 
Gordon, WWRL, New York; Randy 
Dixon, WDAS, Philadelphia. 

Old favorites on featured programs 
continued to enjoy their popularity. Eddie 
(Rochester) Anderson still brings laughs 
on the Jack Benny program. The pro- 
longed illness of beloved Hattie McDan- 
iels brought Lillian Randolph to the 
"Beulah Show" in the title role. Miss 
Randolph also continued to play the role 
of Birdie on the "Great Gildersleeve" 
comedy program. Louis Armstrong and 
Nat "King" Cole have their own spon- 
sored network shows. 

Television 

Variety, May 3, 1950, carried an article 
entitled, "Negro Talent Coming Into Own 



94 



THEATRE, MOTION PICTURES, TELEVISION 



On TV, Without Use of Stereotypes." The 
"Amos 'N Andy" show, which features 
Alvin Childress, Spencer Williams, Tim 
Moore, and Ernestine Wade, all experi- 
enced Negro artists, was mentioned in the 
article. The National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People, however, 
protested the stereotyping alleged to be 
present in this show, causing confusion in 
the TV studios. Should they disregard the 
rising storm, strengthened by the addi- 
tional opposition of Phi Beta Sigma, one 
of the leading college fraternities? 

These protests occured at a time when 
it was rumored the studios were about 
ready to go forward in the employment of 
Negro artists in a large way. In this 
emergency, a Coordinating Council was 
organized in New York in July 1951 by 
the Negro Actors Guild in response to 
public request. 

Since the Guild is a welfare organiza- 
tion, the Council became a separate en- 
tity. It aims at promoting better under- 
standing in the selection of script mate- 
rial for Negro parts, without caricatures 
and stereotypes, and at acquainting pro- 
ducers and sponsors with the wealth of 
available Negro talent. The Council will 
adopt a positive approach to the solution 
of differences, looking to mutually bene- 
ficial results. It is interracial and includes 
representatives from the amusement 
world and the press as well as individuals 
and representatives of outside organiza- 
tions. Its officers are Lester A. Walton, 
former minister to Liberia, chairman. 
Dick Campbell, Rosetta Le Noire, Pauline 
Myers, Alberta Pryme, Leroy Butler, and 
A. Edward Walters. Other Guild mem- 
bers active in forming the Council in- 
clude Noble Sissle, Fred O'Neal, Rosa- 
mond Johnson, William C. Handy, Etta 
Moten, Marchand McReynolds, Edith 
Wilson, and George Wiltshire. 

The Council has a tentative promise to 
increase the number of Negro musicians 
to 10%. One committee consists of 
Eugene Fraulie and Fred O'Neal, Walter 
White of the NAACP, Julius A. Thomas 
of the National Urban League, Allen 
Morrison of Ebony, and Lester Walton. 



Similar committees are working with 
Equity, the Producers and Dramatists 
Guild, and the unions. 

Programs on Which Negroes 
Appeared 

Hazel Scott has a sponsored 15-minute 
show on WABD, New York, on which she 
plays, sings, and talks. On the technical 
side, George Olden heads the New York 
art staff at CBS and Robert Pettus is TV 
engineer at WEWS, Cleveland. Al Benson 
is emcee on a one-hour variety show on 
WBKB, Chicago. Nellie Lutcher ap- 
peared with the Nat "King" Cole series 
and "Steve Allen Show." "Chuck Rich- 
ards Social Club" on WAAM, Baltimore, 
has a gag-song act. Pearl Bailey was on 
Dumon't "Cavalcade of Stars." Evelyn 
Davis has been on radio and TV. Maxine 
Sullivan appeared on Faye Emerson's 
CBS show "Wonderful Town." Lorenzo 
Fuller premiered his own show on 
WABD-TV. 

Neil Scott was narrator and singer on 
the Joe Tonti NBC-TV show. "Sugar 
Chile" Robinson appeared as an eleven- 
year-old piano wizard on Milton Berle's 
TV show. Leigh Shipper played in "The 
Private Eye," and in three "Beulah" 
shows with Ethel Waters and Dooley 
Wilson. Canada Lee starred in the Chev- 
rolet Tele-Theatre in a fight story with a 
white cast. Joe Adams is the first Negro 
to be a staff member on a TV station and 
the first to be employed by radio stations 
in eight western states; he is now emcee 
band leader on KTTV's "Joe Presents." 
Lena Home was emcee on NBC's "Your 
Show of Shows," and a guest star on Ed 
Sullivan's show. She proved an effective 
TV performer. She is set to star on NBC's 
"Saturday Night Revue" with Cab Gallo- 
way. Sarah Vaughan has been on Perry 
Como's popular CBS-TV show, "Chester- 
field Supper Club," and has contracts for 
three additional guest appearances. Cab 
Galloway and Jack Carter appeared in 
"Minnie the Moocher." Cab Galloway 
also appeared on Ed Eullivan's show and 
others. Josh White and his nine-year-old 
son appeared on Arthur Godfrey's TV 



RADIO AND TELEVISION 



95 



show. Hadda Brooks is featured in "The 
Hadda Brooks Show," sponsored by 
Kaiser-Frazer on KGO-TV, San Fran- 
cisco, a program of nostalgic melodies 
and friendly chatter. 

Evelyn Bradshaw was on the Arthur 
Godfrey Talent Show. Amando Randolph 
has appeared on Dumont TV, and also 
has his own show, "The Laytons." Butter- 
fly McQueen is Oriole in "Beulah" on 
TV. She opened at Carnegie Hall, for 12 
weeks, a series of one-woman shows with 
pantomimes and sketches. The Mariners 
are a vocal quartet with two whites and 
two Negroes on Arthur Godfrey's show. 
George Kirby is on the "Amos 'N Andy" 
show. Edith Wilson has been Aunt Je- 
mima on the Quaker Oats program since 
1948; she has also been on the "Gary 



Moore Show," "Gabby Hayes Show," 
"Call of the Yukon," "Breakfast Club," 
and "The Answer Man." Bill Cook is 
emcee on the popular "Stairway to Star- 
dom" on WATV, New Jersey. Bob How- 
ard is one of the veteran Negro TV per- 
formers, with a parade of one-minute spot 
announcements on WCBS daily over the 
past two years. Sugar Ray Robinson, the 
middleweight champion, was unusual in a 
vaudeville act on Ed Sullivan's "Toast of 
the Town," CBS-TV. 

Barbara Watson was formerly with 
radio station WNYC, New York, and was 
recently on "Meet Your Cover Girl," 
CBS-TV, and interviewed by Lorenzo 
Fuller on WLIB, New York, and by Ruth 
Ellington James on the same station on 
"Beauty and Fashion." 



8 

Science 



NEGROES in the natural science fields 
have made strides previously denied them 
in the past decade by limited teaching fa- 
cilities and limited opportunities for in- 
dustrial employment. 1 Fortunately, teach- 
ers of natural science subjects in Negro 
colleges with limited facilities have pro- 
vided sound fundamental instruction and 
encouraged students to graduate study 
and to do researcryThe first Negro to be 
elected to Phi Beta Kappa and the first 
to earn the Ph.D. degree took his degree 
in physics. Edward Bouchet was awarded 
this degree at Yale in 1876, just ten 
years after the first Ph.D. in physics had 
been awarded by any American school. 
In 1889, Alfred 0. Coffin became the first 
Negro to earn the Ph.D. in biology when 
his degree was awarded by Illinois Wes- 
leyan. It was not until 1916 that St. Elmo 
Brady, at the University of Illinois, be- 
came the first Negro to earn a Ph.D. 
degree in chemistry. No Negro held the 
Ph.D. in mathematics until 1925 when 
Elbert Cox received his degree at Cornell 
University. These pioneers in academic 
competence were followed much later by 
Negro pioneers in industrial plants such 
as Elmer S. Imes, Doctor Percy Julian, 
and Lloyd Hall. Now an increasing num- 
ber of trained Negro natural scientists 
are finding employment for their skills in 
American industrial plants. 

Around the period of the second World 
War, the Negro scientist in industry 
ceased to be an outstanding rarity, and 
trained Negroes could consider industrial 
jobs as an area of normal employment. 
In this very recent period, also, research 
competence and research facilities in 
Negro institutions began receiving the 
recognition that brought grants and con- 



tracts for research for industry and gov- 
ernment agencies. At the same time there 
was integration of Negro scientists into 
professional societies and organizations, 
placing them in the mainstream of de- 
velopments in the sciences concerned. 

NEGROES LISTED IN 

"AMERICAN MEN OF 

SCIENCE" 

Included in the directory, American Men 
of Science, eighth edition, the names of 
Negro scientists who have contributed to 
the advancement of pure science or who 
are found in the membership lists of cer- 
tain national societies are as follows : 2 

Alexander, Dr. Lloyd E. Embryology Ken- 
tucky St. Col. 

Anderson, Dr. Russell L. Agriculture Flor- 
ida A.&M. Col. 

Anderson, Dr. Thomas N., Jr. Organic 
Chemistry Florida A.&M. Col. 

Atkins, Dr. Cyril F. Chemistry Morgan St. 
Col., Md. 

Baker, Dr. Thomas N., Jr. Organic Chem- 
istry Virginia St. Col. 

Banks, Dr. Floyd R., Jr. Physics Morgan 
St. Col., Md. 

Barker, Dr. Prince P. Neurology Vet. Ad- 
min. Facility, Tuskegee Inst, Ala. 

Barnes, Dr. Robert P. Chemistry Howard 
Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Bate, Dr. Langston F. Chemistry Miner 
Teachers Col., Washington, D. C. 

Beck, James T. Chemistry Lane Col., Tenn. 

Belton, Dr. William E. Chemistry Tuske- 
gee Inst., Ala. 

Bembry, Dr. Thomas H. Organic Chemistry 
Col. of City of N. Y. 

Blackwell, Dr. David H. Mathematics, Sta- 
tistics Howard Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Blanchet, Dr. Waldo W. E. General Sci- 
enceFort Valley St. Col., Ga. 

Booker, Dr. Walter M. Pharmacology How- 
ard Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Branson, Dr. Herman R. Bio-physics How- 
ard Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Bright, Dr. William M. Biology Louisville 
Municipal Col., Ky. 

Brown, Dr. Russell W. Bacteriology Tuske- 
gee Inst., Ala. 



1 For sketches of outstanding individual scientists, see Negro Year Book 1947. 

8 From available lists permitting identification as Negro. Omission of some scientists is certain to have occurred* 



96 



NEGROES IN "MEN OF SCIENCE" 



97 



Buggs, Dr. Charles W. Bio-chemistry, Bac- 
teriology, Zoology Dillard Univ., La. 

Callis, Dr. Henry A. Clinical Medicine 
Washington, D. C. 

Galloway, Dr. Nathaniel O. Medicine Univ. 
of Illinois 

Cason, Dr. Louis F. Organic Chemistry 
Tuskegee Inst., Ala. 

Chambers, Dr. Vivian M. Biology Alabama 
A.&M. Col. 

Claytor, Dr. William W. S. Mathematics 
Howard Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Cobb, Dr. William M. Anatomy, Physical 
Anthropology Howard Univ., Washington, 
D. C. 

Cooper, Dr. Stewart R. Chemistry Howard 
Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Coruthers, Dr. John M. Agriculture Prairie 
View A.&M. Col., Tex. 

Cox, Dr. Elbert F. Mathematics Howard 
Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Crooks, Dr. Kenneth B. M. Biology, Para- 
sitology Happy Grove Col., Hectors River, 
Jamaica, BWI 

Crouch, Dr. Hubert B. Zoology Tennessee 
A.&I. Univ. 

Cuff, Dr. John R. Medicine Meharry Medi- 
cal Col., Tenn. 

Dailey, Dr. Ulysses G. Surgery Chicago, 

Davis, Dr. Toye G. Parasitology Lincoln 
Univ., Mo. 

Derbigny, Dr. Irving A. Chemistry Tuske- 
gee Inst., Ala. 

Diuguid, Dr. Lincoln I. Organic Chemistry 
Du-Good Chemical Lab., St. Louis, Mo. 

Dooley, Dr. Thomas P. Genetics Prairie 
View A.&M. Col., Tex. 

Dowdy, Dr. William W. Biology Lincoln 
Univ., Mo. 

Eagleson, Dr. Halson V. Physics Howard 
Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Ferguson, Dr. Edward, Jr. Biology Mary- 
land St. Col. 

Ferguson, Dr. Lloyd N. Chemistry Howard 
Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Fields, Dr. Victor H. Chemistry Hampton 
Inst., Va. 

Finley, Dr. Harold E. Protozoology How- 
ard Univ., Washington, TX C. 

Fort, Dr. Marron W. Chemical Engineering 
A. & G. J. Caldwell, Inc., Boston, Mass. 

Franks, Dr. Cleveland J. Chemistry Mor- 
gan St. Col., Md. 

Gibson, Dr. Walker W. Biology Texas 
Southern Univ. 

Green, Prof. James H. Analytical Chemistry 
State N.I.A.&M. Col., S. C. 

Griffith, Dr. Booker T. Biology Georgia St. 
Col. 

Hall, Lloyd A. Chemistry Griffith's Labs., 
Chicago, 111. 

Hansborough, Dr. Louis A. Embryology 
Howard Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Harvey, Prof. Burwell T., Jr. Chemistry 
Morehouse Col., Ga. 

Hawkins, Dr. Walter L. Organic Chemistry 
Bell Telephone Labs., Washington, D. C. 

Henderson, Dr. James H. M. Plant Physi- 
ology Tuskegee Inst., Ala. 

Henry, Dr. Warren E. Physical Chemistry 
U.S. Naval Research Lab., Washington, 



Hill, Dr. Carl McC. Organic Chemistry 
Tennessee A.&I. Univ. 

Hill, Dr. Henry A. Dewey & Almy Chemical 
Co., Cambridge, Mass. 

Hinton, Dr. William A. Pathology, Bacteri- 
ology St. Dept. of Health, Boston, Mass. 

Howard, Dr. Roscoe C. Biology Virginia 
St. Col. 

Huggins, Dr. Kimuel A. Organic Chemistry 
Atlanta Univ., Ga. 

Hunter, Dr. George W. Chemistry Mary- 
land St. Col. 

Hunter, Dr. John McN. Physics Virginia 
St. Col. 

Inge, Dr. Frederick D. Plant Physiology 
Hampton Inst., Va. 

Jason, Dr. Robert S. Pathology Howard 
Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Jeffries, Prof. Louis F. Chemistry Virginia 
Union Univ. 

Johnson, Dr. Joseph L. Physiology, Medicine 
Howard Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Jones, Prof. William W. Mathematics Ken- 
tucky St. Col. 

Julian, Dr. Percy L. Organic Chemistry 
The Glidden Co., Chicago, 111. 

Kennedy, Dr. Wadaran L. Dairy Husbandry 
A.&T. Col., N. C. 

King, Dr. John W. Biology Morgan St. 
Col., Md. 

Kittrell, Dr. Flemmie P. Nutrition Howard 
Univ., Washington, D. C.. 

Knox, Dr. Lawrence H. Chemistry Hickrill 
Chemical Research Foundation, Katonah, 
N.Y. 

Knox, Dr. William J., Jr. Physical Chem- 
istry Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. 

Lawless, Dr. Theodore K. Medicine Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Lawson, Dr. James R. Physics Tennessee 
A.&I. Univ. 

Lee, Dr. James W. Protozoology Southern 
Univ., La. 

Lewis, Dr. Julian H. Pathology Chicago, 
111. 

Lloyd, Dr. Ruth S. Anatomy Howard 
Univ., Washington, D. C. 

LuValle, Dr. James E. Physical Chemistry 
Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Maloney, Dr. Arnold H. Pharmacology 
Howard Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Mason, Dr. Clarence T. Chemistry Tuske- 
gee Inst., Ala. 

Massie, Dr. Samuel P. Chemistry Langston 
Univ., Okla. 

Maxwell, Dr. Ucecil S. Biochemistry Lin- 
coln Univ., Mo. 

McBay, Dr. Henry C. Chemistry More- 
house Col., Ga. 

McDaniel, Dr. Reuben R. Mathematics 
Virginia St. Col. 

McKinney, Dr. Roscoe L. Anatomy How- 
ard Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Moore, Prof. Paul J. Organic Chemistry 
W. Virginia St. Col. 

Moore, Dr. Ruth E. Bacteriology Howard 
Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Morris, Dr. Kelso B. Chemistry Howard 
Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Murray, Dr. Peter M. Gynecology N. Y., 
N. Y. 

Nabrit, Dr. Samuel M. Physiology Atlanta 
Univ., Ga. 



98 



SCIENCE 



O'Banion, Dr. Elmer E. Chemistry Prairie 
View A.&M. Col., Tex. 

O'Hara, Prof. Leon P. Physiology, Physi- 
ological Chemistry Talladega Col., Ala. 

Perry, Dr. Rufus P. Organic Chemistry 
Langston Univ., Okla. 

Pierce, Dr. Joseph A. Mathematics Texas 
Southern Univ. 

Pitts, Raymond J. Mathematics Fort Val- 
ley St. Col., Ga. 

Poindexter, Dr. Hildrus A. Bacteriology, 
Parasitology U.S. Public Health Mission, 
Monrovia, Liberia 

Posey, Dr. Leroy R., Jr. Physics Southern 
Univ., La. 

Quinland, Dr. William S. Pathology Vet. 
Admin. Hosp., Tuskegee, Ala. 

Raines, Dr. Morris A. Botany Howard 
Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Reddick, Dr. Mary L. Biology Morehouse 
Col., Ga. 

Rhaney, Dr. Mahlon C. Biology Florida 
A.&M. Col. 

Robinson, Dr. Lawrence B. Physics How- 
ard Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Robinson, Dr. William H. Mathematics, 
Physics N. Carolina Col. 

Rolfe, Dr. Daniel T. Physiology Meharry 
Medical Col., Tenn. - 

Romm, Dr. Harry J. Biology-southern 
Univ., La. 

Smith, Dr. Barnett F. Parasitology Spel- 
man Col., Ga. 

Spaulding, Dr. George H. Chemistry Mor- 
gan St. Col., Md. 

Spaulding, Dr. Major F. Agronomy Ten- 
nessee A.&I. St. Univ. 

Stephens, Dr. Clarence F. Mathematics 
Morgan St. Col., Md. 

Talbot, Dr. Walter R. Mathematics Lin- 
coln Univ., Mo. 

Taylor, Dr. Moddie D. Chemistry Lincoln 
Univ., Mo. 

Thornton, Dr. Robert A. Physics Brandeis 
Univ., Mass. 

Towns, Dr. Charles H. Physics, Physical 
Chemistry Virginia St. Col. 



lys^ca 
iflflt 



Towns, Dr. Myron B. Chemistry Lit 
Univ., Pa. 

Tulane, Dr. Victor J. Chemistry Howard 
Univ., Washington, D. C. 

Turner, Dr. Thomas W. Botany Hampton 
Inst, Va. 

Van Dyke, Dr. Henry L. Chemistry Ala- 
bama St. Teachers Col. 

Wall, Dr. Arthur A. Chemistry Virginia 
Union Univ. 

Wall, Dr. Limas D. Parasitology Virginia 
Union Univ. 

Wallace, Dr. William J. L. Physical Chem- 
istry W. Virginia St. Col. 

Ware, Prof. Ethan E. Zoology Florida 
A.&M. Col. 

West, Dr. Harold D. Biochemistry Meharry 
Medical Col., Tenn. 

Wheeler, Dr. Albert H. Public Health 
Univ. of Michigan Hosp. 

White, Dr. Booker T. Biochemistry A.&T. 
Col., N. C. 

Wilkerson, Dr. Vernon A. Biochemistry 
Howard Univ., Washington, D. C. 



Wilkins, Dr. J. Ernest, Jr. Mathematics 
American Optical Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Williams, Dr. Joseph L. Mercy Douglass 
Hosp., Philadelphia, Pa. ' 

Wilson, Dr. Henry S. Inorganic Chemistry 
Louisville Municipal Col., Ky. 1 

Young, Dr. Moses W. Neuroanatomy How- 
ard Univ., Washington, D. C. 



THE NATURAL SCIENCES 

IN COLLEGES AND 

UNIVERSITIES 

Limited personnel and laboratory equip- 
ment at Negro colleges have required that 
scientists working there concentrate on 
teaching. For a long time, such research 
as Negro scientists did was done in the 
laboratories of the private schools. How- 
ard, Tuskegee, Atlanta, and Fisk came to 
be recognized as the centers at which re- 
search in the natural sciences was carried 
on. The laboratories of these institutions, 
together with those of Dillard, continue to 
be the most productive centers, but several 
of the state colleges have inaugurated 
programs under competent scientists that 
promise to enrich greatly the research 
production at Negro institutions. 

Departments of chemistry have gener- 
ally become the most fully developed 
branch of the natural sciences in Negro 
institutions. The Howard University De- 
partment of Chemistry is, however, the 
only one at a Negro institution to be rated 
by the American Chemical Society. The 
Carver Foundation of Tuskegee Institute 
is the only organization at a Negro insti- 
tution devoting itself specifically to re- 
search in the natural sciences with em- 
phasis on research in chemistry. The 
major research being done in the natural 
sciences at Fisk is also in the field of 
chemistry. 

The upsurge in research at Negro insti- 
tutions has been made possible by the 
flow of funds to these schools in the form 
of grants and contracts. No full listing of 
these grants and contracts is possible, but 
a random selection will indicate the na- 
ture of the grants made. Scientists at the 



1 Closed 1951. 



NEGRO SCIENTISTS IN INDUSTRY 



99 



following schools have received research 
grants from the agencies indicated: 
Prairie View A.&M. College U.S, Public 
Health Service; Howard University Na- 
tional Institutes of Health; A.&T. Col- 
lege, N. C.; Southern University, La., 
Tennessee A.&I. University Research 
and Marketing Administration; Tuskegee 
Institute and Fisk University Office of 
Naval Research. 

The Carver Foundation 

The George Washington Carver Foun- 
dation, which had its beginning through 
gifts from and the bequest of Dr. Carver's 
personal savings, moved into new quar- 
ters during 1951. These modern labora- 
tories make possible greater service by 
the Foundation, which already has estab- 
lished a reputation with government agen- 
cies and industry. Among its research 
contracts with industry are those with the 
Parker Pen Company, Swift and Com- 
pany, Abbott Laboratories, the Upjohn 
Company, the Visking Corporation, Con- 
tinental Can Company, and International 
Minerals and Chemical Corporation. A 
full-time research staff, together with fel- 
lows and graduate students, carry on a 
variety of projects. 

NEGRO NATURAL 

SCIENTISTS IN 

INDUSTRY 1 

The most encouraging single development 
in recent years has been the gradual integra- 
tion of top-flight Negro scientists and techni- 
cians into . . . industrial concerns. ... In chem- 
istry, Lloyd A. Hall, a consulting chemist, 
has been for many years, the Director of Re- 
search at the Griffith Laboratories in Chicago. 
He is one of the few Negroes who did not 
have to spend long years during his most 
creative period teaching in second-rate insti- 
tutions, which for the most part, have been 
totally ill-equipped for carrying-on productive 
research. He struck out from the beginning 
in the field of industrial chemistry and rose 
rapidly to the position of Director of his 
laboratories. He holds over eighty patents 
related to the preparation and curing of salts 
and spices and food products. His advice is 



sought by all of the major agencies of the 
country concerned with the problems of 
maintaining our food supplies pure and pal- 
atable. He has won many honors and opened 
a new field. 

William G. Holly, Chemical Superintendent 
of the Gypsy Paint and Varnish Company of 
New York, formulated a complete series of 
interior paints using titanium as the basic 
pigment, thereby creating a new method for 
the entire field. James Parsons, Jr., a metal- 
lurgist, winner of the Harmon Award in 
Science as long ago as 1927, has for many 
years been in charge of research and pro- 
duction for the Duriron Company of Dayton, 
Ohio. He, like several others of our dis- 
tinguished industrial scientists, holds many 
patents in a highly competitive field and has 
opened new avenues for our men. Associated 
with him is Earl T. Ryder, one-time Chief 
Engineer of the Champion Company of 
Springfield. In our striving for recognition in 
purely cultural and academic fields we have 
overlooked some of these able disciples of 
the scientific method. William G. Haynes, 
Assistant Chief Chemist, Union Pacific Rail- 
road, is responsible for the preparation of the 
liquid used to preserve railroad ties and for 
the creation of laboratory apparatus and test- 
ing methods for the company. Harry J. 
Greene, Jr., chemical engineer, has pioneered 
in another violently competitive research field 
and has recently been put in charge of the 
Research Department of Plastics with the 
Stromberg-Carlson Radio Corporation of 
Rochester, N. Y. Edward L. Harris, who 
holds a doctor's degree in chemical engineer- 
ing from the University of Pittsburgh, has 
established himself as one of the country's 
leading authorities in the field of rocket and 
jet fuels and has recently been made head of 
the laboratory to study such fuels at Wright- 
Patterson Air Field. Jobs of this character 
represent a totally new trend for our men and 
a totally new challenge, for only the finest of 
brains can expect to survive in the world-wide 
battle for supremacy in the area of super- 
sonic speeds. 

Walter L. Hawkins, another top-flight in- 
dustrial chemist, had his basic training and 
received his degree as a result of his con- 
tributions in the field of chemistry of wood 
pulp and related studies which are of great 
significance to the paper industry. At present 
he is a member of the Research Staff of the 
Bell Telephone Company in New York City. 
Marion Fort, also a recipient of a Ph.D. in 
chemical engineering, going straight into in- 
dustrial chemistry, has become Chief Chemist 
and Plant Superintendent of the A. and G. 
J. Caldwell Co. in Massachusetts. Leroy Flor- 
ant, another mechanical engineer represent- 



1 Drew, Charles Richard, "Negro Scholars in Scientific Research," Journal of Negro History, Vol. 35, No. 
j. 141-144, April 1950. 



100 



SCIENCE 



ing another area of advancement for our sci- 
entists, after working as a research assistant 
with the Manhattan Project, is at present 
acting as the Chief Engineer with the Rocket 
Test Laboratory at Ohio State University. Dr. 
James LuValle and Dr. William Knox, former 
top-flight academic chemists, have formed a 
part of the brilliant research staff at the 
Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester. Dr. 
Lloyd M. Cook is a research chemist with the 
Visking Corporation in Chicago, Illinois, 
while H. A. Hill holds a similar position with 
the Dewey and Almay Chemical Company of 
Roxbury, Mass. R. Percy Barnes, Phi Beta 
Kappa from Amherst and Ph.D. from Har- 
vard in Chemistry, has established a definite 
school of thought in his continuous studies on 
Alpha and Beta Diketones in the Department 
of Chemistry at Howard University. For over 
ten years, he and a series of students have 
continued to create new substances and add 
new processes in synthesizing chemicals. His 
publications are now past the thirty mark, 
and in the basic fields of research, many of 
which have industrial implications which are 
surpassed in quantity only by his former col- 
league, Percy Julian. 

The story of [Doctor] Percy L. Julian is 
probably the most brilliant recent example of 
accomplishments in this field. Dynamic, bril- 
liant organic chemist, he represents, perhaps, 
our first contributor to fundamental knowl- 
edge in pure chemistry in this country. His 
successful synthesis of the drug, Physostig- 
mine, in 1935, was the result of the finest 
kind of research in pure Chemistry. His basic 
work on the carbon atom was of fundamental 
importance, and now as Director of Research 
at the Glidden Company of Chicago, his 
mastery of the chemistry of the soya bean has 
led to the preparation of such widely differ- 
entiated substances as a male sex hormone 
and a weatherproof covering for a battle- 
ship. Recently he has produced a small quan- 
tity of a substance very closely allied to the 
recently highly publicized Substance E, 
which has given promising results in the 
alleviation of the suffering of persons with 
arthritis. 

To these scientists in industry listed by 
Dr. Drew the following may be added: 
Weltman D. Bailey, analytical chemist at 
Sunflower ordinance works; Paul Imes, 
Tennessee Valley Authority laboratories; 
Dr. J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr., American Opti- 
cal Company, Buffalo, N. Y. There are 
also private laboratories maintained for 
the purpose of consultation service. Rep- 
resentative of these is the Du-Good Chem- 



ical Laboratory in St. Louis, Mo., oper- 
ated by Dr. Lincoln I. Diuguid. 

NEGRO SCIENTIFIC 
ORGANIZATIONS 

There are three organizations of Negroes 
in the natural science fields which serve 
to stimulate and encourage Negroes to 
work in these fields. They are: The Na- 
tional Technical Association, The Na- 
tional Institute of Science, and Beta 
Kappa Chi Scientific Fraternity. 

Integration in Scientific 
Organizations 

The Negro natural scientist partici- 
pates in local and regional meetings of 
his professional organizations with full 
acceptance, even if there are embarrass- 
ments as to housing and eating inflicted 
by southern customs not condoned by the 
scientists themselves. Negro natural scien- 
tists have membership in and participate 
in the meetings of the regional sections of 
the Society of American Biologists, Amer- 
ican Botanical Society, American Chemi- 
cal Society, and the Southern Association 
of Science and Industry. 

Scientific facilities maintained by the 
Federal government in the South at 
TVA's Wilson Dam and by the Atomic 
Energy Commission at Oak Ridge, Tenn., 
are open to Negro scientists. The follow- 
ing is a partial list of Negroes who have 
spent periods at the Oak Ridge labora- 
tories as participants in the Oak Ridge In- 
stitute of Nuclear Studies in the Isotopes 
Techniques course, classes 9 through 23, 
1949-51 r 1 B. T. White, North Carolina 
A.&T. Coll.; E. E. O'Bannion, Prairie 
View A.&M. Coll.; D. C. Gandy, Tenn. 
A.&I. Coll.; (Mrs.) M. R. Myles, Tenn. 
A.&I. Coll. (presently at Fort Valley) ; J. 
H. M. Henderson, Carver Foundation, 
Tuskegee Inst. ; J. A. Rucker, Tenn. A.&I. 
Coll.; M. C. Otey, National Cancer Inst., 
National Inst. of Health (formerly gradu- 
ate student of chemistry, Howard Univ.) ; 
E. D. Riley, Benedict Coll. 



1 In order of taking the course. 



Agriculture 



EMPLOYMENT 

The decline in the number of people em- 
ployed in agriculture continued in 1950, 
according to preliminary census reports. 
In 1950, there were 1,200,000 fewer peo- 
ple employed in agriculture than were so 
employed in 1940. Of this decrease in 
numbers, 400,000 or one-third, were non- 
white. Of the total decline in agricultural 
employment, two-thirds occurred in the 
South. Of the South's loss, 47% was non- 
white. 

The shift away from agriculture was even 
more marked for nonwhite workers than for 
all employed persons. In 1940, one out of 
every three employed nonwhite workers was 
in agriculture. By 1950, however, only one out 
of every five was so employed. In the South, 
where the nonwhite farm workers are largely 
concentrated, the number of nonwhites em- 
ployed in agriculture declined by 400,000 to a 
1950 level of l^OO.OOO. 1 

Despite the estimated production of 
17,291,000 bales of cotton, third largest 
cotton crop on record, in 1951 employ- 
ment in cotton production declined. 2 In 
the South during the latter part of August 
1951, 132,000 fewer persons were em- 
ployed on farms than a year previous. 



This reduction consisted of 121,000 family 
workers and 11,000 hired hands. 

When the broad general categories of 
agricultural occupations are considered, 
there is little change to be seen except for 
slightly higher proportions of farmers and 
farm managers for both total population 
and nonwhite population in the United 
States as a whole and in the South. Table 
2 shows distribution by broad occupa- 
tional classes. 

Farm Operators 

The breakdown of "farmers" according 
to farm tenure for 1950 has not yet been 
released by the Census Bureau. However, 
the trend since 1930 shown in the Agri- 
cultural Census of 1945 is anticipated to 
have continued and perhaps to have been 
accelerated. See Table 3. 

Between 1930 and 1945, the number of 
farm operators in the South decreased 
from 3,223,000 to 2,881,000 or 10.6%. In 
the same period, nonwhite operators de- 
creased from 881,000 to 665,000 or 24.5%. 
In 1930, nonwhite operators were 27.3% 
of all operators and in 1945 they were 
23.1% of all operators. Thus it is seen 
that nonwhite farm operators decreased 



TABLE 1 
AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT 1940 AND 1950 



Year 


United States 


South 


Total 


Nonwhite 


Total 


Nonwhite 


Number 


Per Cent 
of all 
Employed 


Number 


Per Cent 
of all 
Employed 


Number 


Per Cent 
of all 
Employed 


Number 


Per Cent 
ofali 
Employed 


1940 
1950 


8,372,222 
7,138,000 


18.7 
12.8 


1,541,807 
1,078,000 


33.1 
20.1 


4,342,096 
3,408,000 


31.8 
20.6 


1,449,023 
1,013,000 


40.4 
29.2 



Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Employment and Income in the United States, By Regions: 1950, 
1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, Series PC-7, No. 2, Table 8. 

1 U.S. Bureau of the Census, Employment and Income in the United States, By Regions: 1950. 1950 Census of 
Population, Preliminary Reports, Series PC-7. No. 2, p. 3. 

2 U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Release No. 2253-51. 



101 



102 



AGRICULTURE 



both numerically and in terms of their 
proportion of all operators. 

Nonwhite farm-owners increased from 
182,000 in 1930 to 189,000 in 1945 or 
3.8%. Despite this numerical increase, 
they were a smaller proportion of all 
owners in 1945 than they were in 1930. 
In 1930, nonwhite owners were 12.8% of 
all owners as contrasted to 11.1% in 1945. 

The decrease in farm tenants between 
1930 and 1945 was 625,504, of which 
329,722 were nonwhite. The proportion of 
nonwhites to all tenants increased slight- 
ly, but in the sharecropper category non- 
whites were 60.5% of the total in 1945 as 
contrasted to 50.5% in 1930. 

When tenure of nonwhite operators is 
considered in terms of the proportion of 
operators in each tenure category, the 
ratio of owners to tenants is observed to 
have increased between 1930 and 1945. In 
1930, 20.6% of nonwhite farm operators 
were owners and in 1945, 28.4% were 
owners. The corresponding decrease in 
the proportion of tenants to all operators 
was from 79.3% to 71.5%. Table 4 shows 
this ratio. 

Dr. Arthur F. Raper of the Bureau of 
Agricultural Economics has pointed out 
that between 1930 and 1945, Negroes 
were 35.8% of the loss in farm tenant 



TABLE 3 

PROPORTION OF NONWHITE FARM OPERATORS 

TO ALL OPERATORS ACCORDING TO TENURE 

IN SOUTH, 1930 TO 1945 



Nonwhite 



Tenure 



Total 



Number 



7930 



%of 
Total 



All 3,223,816 881,687 27.3 

All owners 1,415,675 182,019 12.8 

Part owners 224,992 41,523 18.2 

All tenants 1,790,783 698,839 39.0 

Croppers 776,278 392,897 50.5 

1935 

All.. . 3,421,923 815,747 23.8 

All owners 1,574,666 186,065 11.8 

Part owners 234,720 35,952 15.3 

All tenants 1,831,475 629,301 34.3 

Croppers 716,256 368,408 51.4 

1940 

All.., . 3,007,170 680,266 22.6 

All owners 1,544,297 173,263 11.2 

Part owners 216,607 31,361 14.3 

All tenants 1,449,293 506,630 35.0 

Croppers 541,291 299,118 55.3 

7945 

All.. . 2,881,135 665,413 23.1 

All owners 1,702,663 189,232 11.1 

Part owners 193,607 28,252 14.4 

All tenants 1,165,279 475,739 40.8 

Croppers 446,556 270,296 60.5 



Source: 17. S. Census of Agriculture, 1945. 



TABLE 2 
OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF AGRICULTURALLY EMPLOYED, 1940 AND 1950 



Year and Class 



United States 



Total 



Nonwhite 



Number Per Cent Number Per Cent 



South 



Total 



Nonwhite 



Number Per Cent Number Per Cent 



1940 

All 

Farmers and farm 

mangaers 

Paid farm laborers . 
Unpaid family 

workers 

Not reported 



8,372,000 100.0 1,541,000 100.0 



4,342,000 100.0 1,449,000 100.0 



5,143,614 
1,924,890 

1,165,120 
138,376 



61.4 
23.0 



13.9 
1.7 



700,602 
514,602 

308,722 
17,676 



45.5 
33.4 



20.0 
1.1 



2,583,937 
965,464 

746,440 
46,159 



59.5 
22.2 



17.2 
1.1 



666,929 
470,546 

298,312 
13,213 



46.0 
32.5 



20.6 
0.9 



1950 

All 

Farmers and farm 

managers 

Paid farm laborers . 
Unpaid family 

workers 

Not reported 



7,138,000 100.0 1,078,000 100.0 



3,408,000 100.0 1,013,000 100.0 



4,453,000 
1,562,000 

941,000 
182,000 



62.4 
21.9 

13.2 
2.5 



507,000 
345,000 

211,000 
15,000 



47.0 
32.0 

19.6 
1.4 



2,090,000 
709,000 

547,000 
62,000 



61.3 
20.8 



16.1 
1.8 



482,000 
312,000 



47.6 
30.8 



204,000 20.1 
15,000 1.5 



io- : U ' S ' Bureau of the Census, Employment and Income in the United States, by Regions: 1950, 
1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, Series PC-7, No. 2, Table 6. 



EMPLOYMENT 



103 



operators and 4.1% of the gain in farm 
owner-operators. 1 

Farm Ownership 

An increase in the ratio of farm owners 
to farm tenants may be regarded as an 
index to increasing stability of farm op- 
erators. When nonwhites are considered 
by themselves, there seems to be a sub- 
stantial increase in the proportion of farm 
owners. When considered in relation to 
the over-all trend in farm ownership, it is 
seen that the increase in nonwhite own- 
ership has not kept pace with the in- 
crease in white ownership. Using the 
decade 1935 to 1945 for purposes of com- 
parison, we see the following change in 
the South. White owners increased 8.9% 
from 1,388,601 to 1,513,431. The land in 
farms of white owner-operators increased 
19.4% from 200,000,000 to 238,000,000 
acres. The average number of acres per 
white owner-operated farm increased from 
143.7 to 157.4. The value of land and 
buildings on white owner-operated farms 
increased from $4,774,000,000 to $8,360,- 
000,000, or 75.1%. 

Nonwhite owner-operators increased 
1.7%, from 186,065 to 189,232. The land 
in farms of nonwhite operators increased 
8.0%, from 10,533,000 to 11,380,000 acres. 
The average number of acres per non- 
white owner-operated farm increased from 
56.6 to 60.1. The value of land and build- 
ings on nonwhite owner-operated farms 
increased from $207,932,000 to $374,- 
732,000, or 80.2%. 

The percentage of ownership by non- 
white farmers in the nation reached its 



highest level in 1945, when close to 30% 
owned their farms. The number of non- 
white farmers in the nation who operated 
between 1,000 and 5,000 acres rose from 
473 in 1930 to 1,434 by 1945. These fig- 
ures should not cloud the fact that Ne- 
groes are becoming proportionately less 
important in agriculture. 

Between 1940 and 194||^ie number of 
nonwhite owners in the Sduth increased 
from 173,263 to 189,232. But a look at 
these farms will show that many of them 
are hardly larger than home sites. As a 
matter of fact, over 25,000 of these are 
less than 10 acres, and about 40,000 more 
are under 30 acres. The over-all average 
size of farms owned by nonwhites in the 
South is only 60 acres, compared with 157 
for white owners. This can be seen by re- 
ferring to Table 6. 

These figures seem to indicate that non- 
white farmers are on the fringe of secur- 
ity from the standpoint of ownership. 
Many of their farms are too small and 
uneconomic for the development of farm- 
ing programs which will return a good 
living and maintain the soil at high pro- 
duction level. In an unmechanized cotton 
economy with a few sideline crops, these 
farms have been reasonably adequate. 
With hand and mule-drawn implements, a 
family can work only 30 or 40 acres of 
cotton. However, with the shift to mecha- 
nization tractors, flame-cultivators, me- 
chanical cotton pickers a family will be 
able to and have to handle many more 
acres to make a living by growing cotton 
in competition with synthetic fibers, such 
as nylon and rayon. 



TABLE 4 

PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM OPERATORS ACCORDING TO TENURE AND COLOR 
IN SOUTH, 1930 TO 1945 





1 


930 


1 


935 


1 


940 


1 


945 




White 


Nonwhite 


White 


Nonwhite 


White 


Nonwhite 


White 


Nonwhite 


Owners 


. . 52.7 


20 6 


53 3 


22 8 


58 9 


25.5 


68.3 


28.4 


Managers . . . 
All tenants . . 
Croppers .... 


0.7 
. . 46.6 
. . 16.4 


0.1 

79.3 
44 6 


0.6 
46.1 
13 3 


77.1 
45 2 


0.6 

40.5 
10 4 


0.1 

74.5 
44.0 


0.6 
31.1 
8.0 


0.1 
71.5 
40.6 





















Source: U.S. Census of Agriculture, 1945. 



1 The Changing Status of the Negro in Southern Agriculture, Rural Life Information Series, Bulletin No. 3, Tuske- 
gee Institute, 1950. 



104 



AGRICULTURE 



From the long view, a good many of the 
farms now owned by nonwhite farmers 
are too small for cotton production. More- 
over, a large number of the hill and black- 
belt farms are not suited to cotton pro- 
duction. They are better for grasses and 
small grain the basis of a livestock 
economy. But livestock farms require even 
more acreage. Already some farmers are 
seeking to enlarge their holdings as the 
family-farm concept begins to be under- 
stood. A considerable number of the loans 
now being made by the Farmers Home 
Administration are for enlargement and 
development. An increased number of 
similar loans are also being made by the 
Federal Land Bank. 

Farm Tenancy 

Tenancy in the South is being sharply 
reduced. The number of tenant farmers in 
1945 stood at the lowest level since 1900. 
As recently as 1935, tenants accounted 
for more than half of all farmers in the 
South. But 10 years later, tenants com- 
posed only 40.5% of the farmers in the 
southern region. The level of tenancy 
among non whites had dropped from 77% 
in 1935 to 71.5% 10 years later. The nu- 
merical decline of 153,000 is somewhat 
more impressive than the percentage 
would seem to indicate. 

Among the tenants who left the farm, 
sharecroppers, or those who were least 
secure on the land, made up the bulk. 
They accounted for more than 100,000 of 
the total reduction of nonwhite tenants. 

One of the goals of American agricul- 
ture is the elimination of sharecropping, 



which at best is only a stop-gap or tem- 
porary arrangement. The 1945 agricul- 
tural census reported 446,556 sharecrop- 
pers in the South. Of these, '270,296, or 
more than 60%, were nonwhites. It is ex- 
pected that the 1950 census report will 
show a further decline in both white and 
nonwhite tenants and croppers. Between 
1930 and 1945 the percentage of non- 
white farmers that were sharecroppers 
decreased from 16.4 to 8.0, as shown in 
Tables 5, 6, and 7. 

AGRICULTURAL AGENCIES 
AND THE NEGRO FARMER 

The American farmer is the beneficiary 
of many services provided by government 
agencies. Success in agriculture depends 
in a measure on availability and utiliza- 
tion of these services. 

The Extension Service 

The oldest of these agencies is the U.S. 
Extension Service of the Department of 
Agriculture, whose work is education in 
farm and home improvement. While for 
the most part separate figures as to race 
are not kept, a presentation of total par- 
ticipation of southern farmers in the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture services gives 
some indication of the extent to which 
these services are available to Negro 
farmers. 

Among 7,000,000 families influenced by 
the U. S. Extension service during 1951 
were 425,000 Negro families, reached by 
about 775 Negro county extension agents 
in 17 states, mostly in the South. 1 About 



TABLE 5 
NUMBER OF NONWHITE FARMERS BY TENURE FOR U.S., 1900 TO 1945 



Tenure 



1945 



1940 



1935 



1930 



1925' 



1920 



1910 



1900 



All nonwhite .... 
Operators f 
"Owners 


689,215 
205,917 


719,071 
201,098 


855,555 
211 394 


916,070 
202 720 


831,455 
194 540 


949,889 
233 222 


920,883 
241 221 


767,764 
206 517 


Managers 
All Tenants 
Croppers (So.) . 


622 
482,676 
270,296 


717 
517,256 
299,118 


1,190 
642,971 
368,408 


3,122 
710,228 
392,897 


667 
636,248 
344,322 


2,226 
714,441 
333,713 


1,544 
678,118 
373,551 


1,824 
559,423 
284,760 



Source: U.S. Census of Agriculture, 1945. 

* Figures for 1925 are for South only. U.S. figures not available. 

f Nonwhite includes Negroes, Indians, Chinese, and Japanese. Negroes are about 95% of all nonwhite 
farmers in U.S. and 98% of those in the South. 



1 Report of Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics, 1950, USDA Extension Service. 



AGRICULTURAL AGENCIES 



105 



TABLE 6 

NUMBER OF FARMS, LAND IN FARMS, VALUE OF LAND AND BUILDINGS, BY COLOR 
AND TENURE FOR U.S. AND BY REGIONS, 1935 AND 1945 



Region or 
States Color 
and Tenure 


Number of Farms 


Land in Farms, Acres 


Average 
Acres pe r 
Farm 
1945 


Value of Land and Buildings 


1945 


1935 


1945 
(000) 


1935 
(000) 


1945 
(000) 


1935 
(000) 


United States . . . 
Owners .... 
Tenants 1 . . . 
Whites 


5,859,169 
3,961,863 
1,858,421 
5,169,954 
3,755,946 
1,375,745 
689,215 
205,917 
482,676 

2,470,049 
1,836,117 
616,706 
13,529 
8,754 
4,704 

484,183 
406,398 
69,499 
10,273 
7,331 
2,233 

2,215,722 
1,513,431 
689,540 
665,413 
189,232 
475,739 


6,812,350 
3,899,091 
2,865,155 
5,956,795 
3,687,697 
2,222,184 
855,555 
211,394 
642,971 

2,802,801 
1,891,538 
890,566 
16,667 
9,166 
7,433 

547,818 
407,558 
129,444 
23,141 
16,163 
6,237 

2,606,176 
1,388,601 
1,202,174 
815,747 
186,065 
629,301 


1,141,615 

783,609 
251,634 
1,100,858 
767,477 
231,605 
40,756 
16,132 
20,028 

445,670 
312,218 
123,972 
2,044 
1,483 
458 

308,163 
217,117 
27,563 
7,942 
3,268 
423 

347,025 
238,140 
80,069 
30,769 
11,380 
19,146 


1,054,515 
657,609 
336,802 
1,015,710 
664,209 
311,109 
38,804 
12,839 
25,692 

440,383 
277,852 
153,406 
1,568 
1,054 
488 

234,706 
166,841 
41,639 
1,649 
1,250 
331 

340,619 
199,515 
116,063 
35,586 
10,533 
24,872 


194.8 
197.8 
135.4 
212.9 
204.3 
168.3 
59.1 
78.3 
41.5 

180.4 
170.0 
201.1 
151.1 
169.4 
97.4 

636.5 
534.2 
396.6 
773.1 
412.1 
189.8 

156.6 
157.4 
116.1 
46.2 
60.1 
40.2 


$46,388,925 
31,135,665 
12,898,697 
45,112,676 
30,680,053 
12,106,870 
1,276,249 
455,612 
791,826 

25,352,173 
16,460,700 
8,171,446 
49,240 
29,561 
17,376 

7,747,731 
5,859,393 
1,064,672 
95,246 
51,317 
29,635 

12,017,072 
8,359,959 
2,870,751 
1,131,761 
374,732 
744,814 


$32,858,844 
20,339,784 
10,952,747 
31,930,394 
20,075,488 
10,307,948 
928,449 
264,295 
644,798 

18,988,831 
11,840,979 
6,602,542 
35,836 
19,621 
15,200 

4,993,107 
3,460,070 
1,034,686 
104,210 
36,740 
55,497 

7,948,456 
4,774,438 
2,670,719 
788,402 
207,932 
574,100 


Owners .... 
Tenants. . . . 
Nonwhites 2 . 


Owners .... 
Tenants. . . . 
North 
Whites 


Owners .... 
Tenants. . . . 
Nonwhites. . . 
Owners .... 
Tenants. . . . 
West 
Whites 


Owners .... 
Tenants. . . . 
Nonwhites . . . 
Owners .... 
Tenants. . . . 
South 
Whites 


Owners .... 
Tenants. . . . 
Nonwhites. . . 
Owners .... 
Tenants. . . . 



Source: U.S. Census of Agriculture, 1945. 

1 Sharecroppers are included with the other tenants. 

2 Nonwhite includes Negroes, Indians, Chinese, and Japanese. Approximately 95% of all nonwhite 
farmers are Negroes; in the South, the percentage of Negroes increases to about 98. 



TABLE 7 

NONWHITE FARM OPERATORS IN SOUTH BY STATES, TENURE, LAND IN FARMS, 
VALUE OF LAND AND BUILDINGS, 1935 AND 1945 

Number of Farms Land in Farms (Acres) Value of Land and Buildings 



States and Tenure 


1945 


1935 


1945 


1935 


1945 


1935 


Alabama 
Owners 


18 382 


15 709 


1 242 653 


1 053 710 


29 663 961 


15 906 940 


Managers 


25 


21 


22 739 


14 644 


600 256 


527 720 


Tenants 


48 823 


75 542 


2 202 477 


2 835 305 


52 667 677 


46 871 826 


Arkansas 
Owners 


11,469 


11,343 


681,639 


669 746 


24 902 008 


13 022 749 


Managers 


12 


17 


8 540 


7 152 


681 663 


241 470 


Tenants 


39,794 


59,940 


1,038,200 


1,553 845 


59 294 679 


48 950 176 


Delaware 
Owners . . 


464 


398 


18,386 


13249 


1 275 050 


535 800 


Managers 


10 


13 


1,033 


1,598 


155 500 


180 900 


Tenants 


217 


416 


16,200 


35 729 


695 275 


1 039 095 


Florida 
Owners 


6,467 


6,792 


322,579 


266,064 


10,049 657 


5 737 952 


Managers 


46 


50 


17,422 


5 367 


1 621 790 


521 000 


Tenants 


3,922 


5,922 


171,224 


217,154 


4,757,504 


3,981,667 



106 



AGRICULTURE 



TABLE 7 (Continued) 



Number of Farms 



Land in Farms (Acres) Values of Land and Building 



States and Tenure 1945 



1935 



1945 



1935 



1945 



1935 



Georgia 
Owners 


12,352 


10,571 


1,024,363 


838,573 


23,971,643 


11,485,134 


Managers . . . 


44 


32 


20,150 


11,384 


619,411 


407,390 


Tenants 


58,015 


62,682 


3,613,715 


4,483,224 


85,345,074 


62,338,026 


Kentucky 
Owners 


3,080 


4,052 


141,557 


142,598 


7,255,613 


4,633,744 


Managers ...... 


3 


11 


1,355 


6,186 


38,000 


423,160 


Tenants 


2,876 


4,187 


83,024 


128,894 


6,254,714 


4,642,064 


Louisiana 
Owners 


11,826 


10,839 


593,439 


543,827 


24,298,941 


11,639,632 


Managers 


27 


20 


14,611 


5,464 


680,030 


312,850 


Tenants 


37,278 


59,456 


1,096,966 


1,655,860 


50,909,855 


49,752,080 


Maryland 
Owners 


2,429 


2,720 


88,464 


92,536 


6,800,376 


3,909,574 


Managers 


41 


42 


8,480 


8,134 


978,100 


453,300 


Tenants . . . . 


1,748 


2,132 


155,809 


194,556 


8,475,388 


6,052,571 


Mississippi 
Owners 


25,346 


21,288 


1,919,701 


1,592,580 


49,865,488 


21,898,399 


Managers 


59 


25 


45,524 


6,288 


2,045,366 


283,700 


Tenants 


. 116,908 


147,693 


3,258,273 


3,946,584 


142,661,831 


104,049,359 


Missouri 
Owners 


1,230 


1,149 


76,175 


73,570 


3,451,341 


1,777,392 


Managers 


5 


7 


826 


1,600 


145,400 


73,800 


Tenants 


2,762 


4,102 


100,687 


150,156 


7,829,029 


5,324,709 


North Carolina 
Owners . . . . 


19,841 


20,373 


965,026 


947,567 


48,146,776 


26,301,365 


Managers, 


18 


15 


8,077 


4,684 


379,540 


250,650 


Tenants 


54,414 


48,985 


2,336,558 


2,217,217 


140,649,011 


72,094,578 


Oklahoma 
Owners 


6,543 


6,762 


684,900 


644,775 


16,267,019 


13,070,586 


Managers 


18 


16 


17,402 


12,886 


337,650 


324,300 


Tenants 


4,643 


11,046 


419,083 


744,220 


9,206,019 


13,668,642 


South Carolina 
Owners 


17,936 


18,394 


877,335 


795,077 


30,591,428 


14,827,788 


Managers 


18 


19 


12,335 


11 145 


531,110 


207,575 


Tenants 


51,155 


58,124 


1,928,960 


2,683,030 


78,835,240 


54,792,933 


Tennessee 
Owners 


7,380 


7,843 


387,046 


381,190 


16 504 364 


8 839,297 


Managers 


12 


8 


6 674 


1 216 


356 569 


86 000 


Tenants 


20,137 


26,545 


726,907 


899,212 


35,391 887 


25,644,082 


Texas 
Owners 


22,024 


20,800 


1,300 768 


1 378 141 


40 619 153 


28 190 598 


Managers 


48 


44 


34,784 


68 754 


1 349 010 


1 155,180 


Tenants 


23,878 


50,941 


1,374,006 


2 374 856 


44 841 530 


60 718 726 


Virginia 
Owners 


23,109 


27,662 


1 111 823 


1 129 181 


43 419 672 


27 319 244 


Managers 


45 


37 


19,572 


13 574 


1 416 700 


587 200 


Tenants 


11,801 


15,512 


719,646 


895 494 


24 535 710 


19 285 780 


West Virginia 
Owners 


556 


511 


21 288 


19 309 


1 097 635 


561 195 


Managers 


14 


7 


3 192 


1 901 


389 800 


376 600 


Tenants 


. ; 130 


175 


5 629 


7 020 


293 190 


201 525 
















TOTALS*. . . 


. 669,410 


820,990 


30,947,222 


35,811,609 


1,143,187,633 


795,578,323 



* These totals are slightly higher than those shown in Table 1 because of the inclusion of Missouri. 

Source: U.S. Census of Agriculture, 1945. 

Note: Negro fanners compose approximately 98% of all nonwhite farmers in the South. See Table 1 for 
U.S. totals. The 3 nonwhite fanhers in the District of Columbia are included in totals. These operate 116 
acres, valued at $48,000, including buildings; in 1935, there were 12 nonwhite farmers in D.C. operating 
140 acres, valued at $100,300. 



half of these agents were agricultural 
agents and another half were home dem- 
onstration agents. They specialized in 
working with Negro farmers, homemak- 
ers, and boys and girls. Nearly 325,000 of 



the families aided were farm families and 
about 100,000 were nonfarm families liv- 
ing in the country or in villages and cities. 
These were only the families aided 
through the work of the Negro extension 



AGRICULTURAL AGENCIES 



107 



agents; thousands of other Negro fami- 
lies were also helped, both in these 17 
states and in other parts of the nation, 
by other extension workers. 

Work among Negroes by the Extension 
Service is divided into two regions, each 



of which is served by a field agent. These 
field agents are T. M. Campbell at Tuske- 
gee Institute, Ala., and John W. Mitchell 
at Hampton Institute, Va. An indication 
of services provided Negroes in the South 
is found in the personnel employed. Table 



TABLE 8 
NUMBER OF EXTENSION WORKERS IN SOUTH BY STATES AND RACE, JUNE 1951 



States 


County Agent Work 


Home Demonstration Work 


4-H Club 


Supervisors 1 


Agents 2 


Supervisors 


Agents 2 


Leaders 


Negro White 


Negro 


White 


Negro 


White 


Negro 


White 


Negro 


White 


Alabama 


3 6 
2 4 
1 
1 3 
2 6 
1 7 
1 6 
1 1 
2 4 
6 
4 6 
1 4 
2 3 
2 6 
4 15 
2 6 
1 2 


36 
24 

10 
44 
3 
19 
7 
43 

54 
13 
31 
13 
56 
30 
2 


182 
126 
5 
97 
224 
172 
134 
41 
172 
202 
238 
145 
97 
190 
352 
152 
58 


2 
2 

1 
1 

1 

2 

3 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 
1 


5 
5 
1 

4 
7 
7 
5 
2 
7 
6 
8 
6 
5 
5 
17 
7 
3 


36 
28 
1 
11 
32 
6 
21 
5 
61 
4 
53 
14 
28 
12 
46 
31 
8 


127 
94 
3 
63 
149 
108 
107 
36 
110 
109 
177 
111 
78 
126 
233 
109 
38 


2 
1 


2 

1 

2 

2 



1 

4 


2 
2 
5 
4 
5 
12 
4 
4 
5 
7 
7 
4 
5 
4 
4 
5 
43 


Arkansas 


Delaware . . . 


Florida 


Georgia 


Kentucky 


Louisiana 


Maryland 


Mississippi 


Missouri .... . . . . 


North Carolina 3 
Oklahoma 


South Carolina . . . 


Tennessee 


Texas 


Virginia 


West Virginia 




Totals . . 


29 86 


385 


2587 


21 


100 


397 


1742 


15 


122 



Source: USDA Extension Service Report on Number of Extension Workers, June 30, 1951. 

1 The 41 white directors and assistant directors are not included. 

2 Assistant agents are included. 

3 North Carolina has four Negro subject matter specialists, not included in totals. 



TABLE 9 

AVERAGE ANNUAL SALARIES OF EXTENSION WORKERS IN SOUTH BY 
STATES AND RACE, OCTOBER 1950 



States 


County 
Agent 
Negro 


County 
Agent 

White 


Asst. 
Agents 
White 


Home 
Agents 
Negro 


Home 

Agents 
White 


Asst. 
Agents 
White 


Alabama 


$2,752 


$5 Oil 


$3 683 


$2 288 


53 560 


$3 009 


Arkansas 


4,713 


4,259 


3,050 


2,563 


3602 


2,687 


Delaware 








3 300 


3 500 




Florida 


2 604 


4,368 


3 669 


2 604 


3 533 


3 087 


Georgia 


2,298 


3,508 


2,950 


2,049 


2 821 


2 446 


Kentucky 


2 860 


4,254 


3,262 


2 808 


3 605 


2 950 


Louisiana . . . 


2 980 


4,879 


3 455 


2 668 


3 973 


2 722 


Maryland 


3,214 


5,197 


3,422 


2,973 


3825 


3 100 


Mississippi . . 


2,782 


4,333 


3,366 


2,327 


3,557 


2,758 


Missouri 








2,477 


3,059 




North Carolina 


3,732 


5,202 


3,841 


3,221 


3,910 


3,071 


Oklahoma 


2,943 


4,436 


3,466 


2,547 


3,737 


2,967 


South Carolina 


2,791 


4,297 


3,263 


2,323 


3,067 


2,445 


Tennessee 


2,745 


4,046 


3,403 


2,510 


3,300 


2,935 


Texas 


. . 3,079 


4,481 


3,427 


2,684 


3,842 


3 312 


Virginia 


3,152 


4,401 


3,100 


2,951 


3,784 


2,744 


West Virginia 




(no report) 






(no report) 



















Source: USDA Extension Service Report on Average Annual Salaries, No. 1033 (10-50). 
Note: White County and Home Agents have assistants; Negro Agents do not. 



108 



AGRICULTURE 



8 shows the numbers of agents employed 
by states in which there is a distinction 
made in service according to race. 

Extension Service policy is suggested in 
the value placed on the services of Negro 
agents as expressed in salaries paid them. 
The salary differential is such that in no 
state does the average salary of the Negro 
agents equal that of the assistant white 
agents, to say nothing of the considerable 
disparity between the salary of Negro 
agents and white agents, as shown in 
Table 9. 



All allotments of monies for extension 
work in the states are shown in Table 10. 
The sum of $3,099,225.17 was expended 
for the county extension program among 
Negroes during the year 1950-51, as com- 
pared with $2,218,209.40 during 1947-48. 

Extension Service Supervisors 
(Farm and Home Work) 

Alabama 

State Leader: W. B. Hill, Tuskegee Inst. ; 
District Agents: Grady W. Taylor, Cor- 
nelius A. Williams, Clemmie Martin, Ruth 
Rivers ; 4-H Agents : Thomas R. Agnew, 
Ethel M. Harris; Editor, Joseph Bradford. 



TABLE 10 

ALLOTMENTS FOR COUNTY EXTENSION WORK (INCLUDING SUPERVISION) AND 
SPECIALISTS FROM ALL SOURCES FOR FISCAL YEAR 1950-51 



States 


County Extension Work 


Home Demonstration Work 


White and Negro Negro 


White and Negro 


Negro 


Alabama . . 


S 1 260 962 07 $ 148,060.00 


$ 755,802.70 $ 
608,897.18 
22,820.71 
381,737.41 
642,635.00 
515,340.00 
602,862.51 
218,693.71 
745,082.56 
587,106.26 
1,085,805.62 
607,525.38 
437,332.10 
661,657.09 
1,282,065.02 
653,113.95 
200,713.71 


120,340.03 
110,898.18 
2,340.71 
39,330.00 
66,880.00 
21,530.00 
96,820.53 
27,023.00 
177,495.00 
10,210.00 
222,126.00 
42,437.84 
92,091.00 
45,400.00 
160,662.23 
116,277.00 
26,557.00 


Arkansas , 


776,780.00 98,790.00 


Delaware . ... 




Florida 


566,394.39 38,230.00 


Georgia 


1,151,950.20 115,820.00 


Kentucky 


919,515.04 14,982.00 


Louisiana 


1,000,432.72 90,386.22 


Maryland 


283,822.00 35,713.50 


Mississippi 


1,058,158.47 159,302.00 


Missouri. . 


1,004 188.34 


North Carolina 


1,947,508.00 337,149.00 


Oklahoma . . . . 


778 110.22 51 703.88 


South Carolina 


685,439.67 121,500.00 


Tennessee 


881 996.18 56,326 36 


Texas 


2,123,824.66 221,177.40 


Virginia 


1,038,523.41 133 565.00 


West Virginia 


357,586.67 15,850.00 


TOTALS 


. . . $15,835,192.04 $1,638,555.36 


$10,009,190.91 $1 


,378,418.52 






States 


Club Work 


Specialists 


White and Negro Negro 


White and Negro 


Negro 


Alabama 


$ 24 580 00 $ 8 560 00 


$ 302,200.00 
242,168.30 
69,755.00 
195,110.00 
320,924.40 
267,149.17 
313,466.00 
448,551.50 
394,432.59 
289,714.12 
568,447.20 
379,164.08 
346,110.00 
399,490.00 
428,002.53 
462,493.84 
180,370.00 


$ 4,120.00 
22,816.00 


Arkansas 


16,980.00 4000.00 


Delaware 


2340929 215929 


Florida 


65 434 00 


Georgia 


. . . . 45 518.00 4 203 00 


Kentucky 


78 520 00 


Louisiana 


36 890 00 4 700 00 


Maryland 


88 013 00 


Mississippi 


52,960.00 10 800 00 


Missouri 


47,177.50 


North Carolina 


70 709 00 10 500 00 


Oklahoma 


44 540 00 ' 


South Carolina 


18,150.00 


Tennessee 


39 460 70 


Texas 


31 678 30 


Virginia 


39 798 00 


West Virginia 


239 031 33 10 393 00 


TOTALS 




596284912 $5531529 


$5,607,548.73 


$26,936.00 







Source: Division of Business Administration, Extension Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 10-5-51. 



AGRICULTURAL AGENCIES 



109 



Arkansas 

Districts Agents: T. R. Betton, H. C. Ray, 
Fannie Boon, Ella P. Neely, 610^ W. 9th 
St., Little Rock; 4-H Agent: L. L. Phil- 
lips. 

Delaware 

Camille W. Jacobs, Laurel. 

Florida 

District Agents: J. A. Gresham, Floyd 
Britt, Florida A.M. Coll., Tallahassee. 

Georgia 

State Leader: P. H. Stone, Savannah State 
Coll., Savannah ; Assistants : A. S. Bacon, 
Camilla Weems ; 4-H Agents : Alexander 
Hurse, Augustus Hill. 

Kentucky 

Field Agent: John H. Finch, 179 Dewesse 
St., Lexington. 

Louisiana 

Assistant State Agents: R. J. Courtney, 
Amelia Lewis, Southern Univ., Baton 
Rouge; 4-H Agent: Gloria B. Brown. 

Maryland 

District Agent: Martin G. Bailey, P. O. 

. Box 5320, Seat Pleasant. 

Mississippi 

State Leader: M. M. Hubert, 1308 Lynch 
St., Jackson; Assistants: W. E. Ammons; 
District Agents: Hallie L. Gray, Daisy M. 
Lewis ; 4-H Agents : G. C. Cypress, Alberta 
Dishmon. 

Missouri 

Ella Stackhouse, Courthersville. 

North Carolina 

State Leader: R. E. Jones, A.&T. Coll., 
Greensboro ; Assistant : J. W. Jefferies ; 
District Agents: M. R. Zackery, J. A. 
Spaulding, Dazelle F. Low, Ruby C. Caria- 
way, Wilhelmina R. Laws ; 4-H Agents : 
W. C. Cooper, Idell Jones. 

Oklahoma 

District Agents: Paul O. Brooks, Helen 
M. Hewlett, Langston Univ., Langston. 

South Carolina 

State Supervisors: E. N. Williams, Marian 
B. Paul, South Carolina State Coll., Orange- 
burg; Assistants: Waymon Johnson, Willie 
M. Price. 

Tennessee 

Assistant State Agents: W. H. Williamson, 
Bessie L. Walton, 409 Gay Street, Nash- 
ville. 

Texas 

State Leader: W. C. David, Prairie View 
A.&M. College, Prairie View ; Adm. Assist- 
ant : M. V. Brown ; District Agents : John 
E. Mayo, H. S. Estelle, J. V. Smith ; Su- 
pervisor : Pauline R. Brown ; District 
Agents: Myrtle E. Garrett, Ezelle M. 
Gregory. 

Virginia 

State Agent : Ross W. Newsome, Va. State 
Coll., Petersburgh ; District Agents : S. E. 
Marshall, Blanche Harrison. 

West Virginia 

State Leader: L. A. Toney, W. Va. State 
Coll., Institute; District Agent: Tanner J. 
Livisay. 



Agricultural Research 

For a long time Negro agricultural col- 
leges, especially the 17 land-grant insti- 



tutions, have felt the need for an effective 
agricultural research program both for 
improvement of teaching and to supply 
answers to knotty farm problems. Be- 
tween 1888 and 1946, Congress passed a 
half-dozen acts relating to Agricultural 
Experiment stations, but only through the 
Agricultural Research and Marketing Act 
of 1946, have the Negro land-grant col- 
leges been successful in their efforts to 
share these funds. 

Two land-grant colleges Virginia State 
College at Petersburg, and Prairie View 
A.&M. College, Texas have succeeded in 
securing funds and establishing sub-ex- 
periment stations. The Virginia State 
College sub-station was established in 
1938 with an appropriation of $600. Its 
appropriation was $4,000 in 1951. Twelve 
projects were reported in process. The 
sub-station at Prairie View A.&M. Col- 
lege was set up in 1946. Its 1951 appro- 
priation was $14,000. 

Negro institutions which have received 
grants for research under the Agricul- 
tural Research and Marketing Act of 
1946 are: 

(1) The Agricultural and Technical 
College, Greensboro, N. C.: a three-year 
project undertaken by the agricultural 
chemistry department to isolate the bit- 
terweed substance, ascertain its physical 
and chemical properties, and devise a 
rapid test for detecting its presence in 
milk. 

(2) Southern University, Baton Rouge, 
La.: a project to analyze the marketing 
methods of farmers selling specialized 
farm commodities, including strawberries 
and sweet potatoes in selected areas of 
Louisiana. 

(3) Tennessee A.&I. State University, 
Nashville, Tenn.: a project to study hu- 
man nutritional requirements by popula- 
tion groups as indicated by nutritional 
status in relation to food intake. 

(4) Tuskegee Institute, Ala.: a project 
to determine amino acids content in food. 

Farm Credit Administration 

No figures according to race were se- 
cured to provide a statistical measure of 



110 



AGRICULTURE 



the service of this agency set up to fur- 
nish credit to farmers on reasonable inter- 
est and payment terms. Two types of 
services provided are long-term loans 
through the National Farm Loan Associa- 
tion and short-term loans through the Pro- 
duction Credit Association. 

The services of these associations are 
available to all farmers in the continental 
United States without regard to race. 
Some production-credit associations have 
more Negro members than white. Many 
production-credit associations in sections 
of the country where the Negro farm pop- 
ulation is large have from 25 to 50% 
Negro membership, which is proportion- 
ately small. A parallel situation is to be 
found in the long-term Land Bank Loans. 

Loans to farmers' cooperatives are also 
made by the banks for cooperatives of the 
Farm Credit Administration. These loans 
are made to those engaged in processing 
and marketing agricultural products and 
providing farm business services. Negro 
farmers' cooperatives operate in various 
states in the South. In many instances, 
Negro farmers are members of farmers' 
cooperatives where the membership is 
mostly white. 

The following are cooperative gins : 
Mound Bayou Gin Association, Mound 
Bayou, Miss.; Black Fish Cooperative 
Gin, Heth, Ark.; Grand Cooperative Gin, 
Marion, Ark.; Peoples Cooperative Gin, 
Marianna, Ark.; and the Wycamp Coop- 
erative Gin, West Helena, Ark. The fol- 
lowing are some miscellaneous all-Negro 
cooperatives: The Washington Parish Col- 
ored Farmers Marketing Association, 
Franklinton, La.; St. Helena Consumers 
Cooperative, Frogmore, S. C. ; Farmers 
Cooperative Market, Chester, S. C.; and 
the Charleston Vegetable Cooperative, 
Charleston, S. C. 

Farmers Home Administration 

In the southern states about 27% of 
the 30,200 farm families who received 
new operating loans from this agency 
during 1951 were Negroes. Likewise, 24% 
of the 1962 farmers who received loans 
during that year to purchase or develop 



family-type farms through the agency's 
farm-ownership program were colored 
farmers. 

Records also show that Negroes make 
up about 17% of the 3,000 farm owners 
in the South who have been aided during 
the past year in the farm-housing pro- 
gram providing long-term credit for con- 
struction or repair of houses and other 
farm buildings. 

Farm families have received individual 
guidance from Farmers Home Adminis- 
tration local supervisors in making and 
carrying out farm and home plans, ad- 
justing operations to shifting agricultural 
conditions, learning up-to-date methods, 
improving soil and livestock, and pro- 
ducing and conserving food both for home 
needs and for the market. 

Insured Mortgage Loans 

Since 1947, the Farmers Home Admin- 
istration has made insured mortgage loans 
for purchasing, enlarging, or improving 
of farms and rural homes, thus encourag- 
ing private lenders to make funds avail- 
able. There are now nearly 700 such lend- 
ers, including several Negro business in- 
stitutions. The Pilgrim Health and Life 
Insurance Company of Augusta, Ga., has 
advanced $180,000 for loans in Georgia 
and South Carolina; and the North Caro- 
lina Mutual Life Insurance Company of 
Durham has advanced $113,000 for loans 
in North and South Carolina. Other Ne- 
gro firms that have set aside funds for 
insured mortgage loans are: The Supreme 
Liberty Life Insurance Company of Chi- 
cago; the Afro-American Life Insurance 
Company of Jacksonville, Fla. ; the Court 
of Calanthes of Texas; and a Mississippi 
burial association. 

Other Agencies 

Extremely valuable services are being 
rendered to Negro farmers by the Soil 
Conservation Service and the Production 
and Marketing Administration. However, 
no statistics are available on the numbers 
of Negro farmers being served by these 
organizations. 



VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE 



111 



VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE 



cation, Federal Security Agency, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 1 

The New Farmers of America became a 
national organization in 1935. Since that 
time it has grown from 500 to 34,228 
members and is recognized as the largest 
Negro farm boy organization in the world. 
The NFA has become an important factor 
in helping Negro farm boys to better pre- 
pare themselves for loyal American citi- 
zenship and life on the farm. Annual na- 
tional NFA dues are lOtf per member, 
which is used largely for conducting the 
Annual National NFA Convention, at- 
tended by approximately 1200 NFA dele- 
gates from 17 states. 



VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE HEAD 
TEACHERS-TRAINERS, 1951 



Vocational education in agriculture was 
made possible by the U. S. Congress 
though the National Vocational Educa- 
tion Acts, requiring the educational pro- 
gram to be of less than college grade 
and designed to increase proficiency in 
farming for those who have entered or are 
preparing to enter upon the work of the 
farm or farm home. 

Instruction is provided in local public 
high schools for three recognized groups: 
(1) classes for in-school youth, (2) 
classes for out-of-school young farmers, 
and (3) classes for adult farmers. The 
in-school youth needs instruction in order 
to lay a foundation for his farming ca- 
reer. The out-of-school young farmer 
needs systematic instruction dealing with 

, . ,. , - r i . Alabama .A. Flovd 

the immediate problem of becoming es- Tuskegee Inst. 

tablished in farming, while the adult Arkansas L. R. Gaines 

farmer needs an educational service that Dd^JSr? '*. . W. R. Wynder 

will keep him abreast of the latest devel- Del. State Coil:, Denver 

opments and improved farm practices that Fl ^\'^ c oll L ' A- Marwha11 

affect his farming operations. Tallahassee 

In 1951, vocational agricultural depart- Georgia ... Alva Tabor 

i i r /->r.n TVT T i Fort Valley State Coll.. 

ments were provided for 988 INegro high Fort Valley 

schools in the 17 states that maintain sep- Kentucky P. j. Manly 

, i r XT TU i. 1 Ky. State Coll.. Frankfort 

arate schools for Negroes. These schools Lou / siana Matthew J. Clark 

employed 990 Negro teachers of voca- Southern Univ., Baton 

tional agriculture and reached more than Mar ^ e Dr . c . c . Marion 

35,000 Negro farm boys. Each of the 17 Md. State Coll., Princess 

states conducts an annual five-day state x ,. A? ne . 

. . . , Mississippi A. D. Fobbs 

conference tor improving instruction tor Alcorn A.&M. Coll., 

the teachers of agriculture. Alcorn 

Missouri Dr. J. N. Freeman 

Lincoln Univ., Jefferson 

New Farmers of America Cit v 

... N.Carolina S.B.Simmons 

The New farmers of America is the na- A.&T. Coll., Greensboro 

tional organization of Negro farm boys Oklahoma D.C.Jones 

, . , , Langston Univ., 

who are students of vocational agriculture Langston 

in public secondary schools. Membership * Carolina W. F. Hickson 

in the NFA for 1951 totaled 34,228 in Oran^burg 

983 local high schools in the 17 States Tennessee Walter Flowers 

where the NFA is organized. ^Univ^Nash^Ue 

Departments of vocational agriculture Texas Dr. E. M. Norris 

serve as headquarters for the local NFA Pr *pS*fe Vtet 

chapters and the State Departments of Virginia.' J.R.Thomas 

Education are designated headquarters Va j State Coll., 

r ., XT f A TU Petersburg 

tor the state Nr A associations. 1 he na- yv. Virginia W. T. Johnson 

tional headquarters is in the Agricultural W. Va. State Coll., 

Education Service of the Office of Edu- Institute 



112 



AGRICULTURE 



A national system of awards for out- 
standing achievement in farming is made 
possible by the Future Farmers of Amer- 
ica Foundation, which receives its funds 
by grants from business and industrial 
firms. In 1951, the NFA had $9,196.68 
available for farming awards to worthy 
Negro farm boys. 



TABLE 11 
ACTIVE NFA MEMBERS BY STATES 



State 


NFA 
Chapters 1 


Active 

Membership 


Alabama 
Arkansas 


55 
53 


2,375 
1,250 


Delaware 


4 


120 


Florida 


40 


2,075 


Georgia 
Kentucky 
Louisiana 


86 
11 
64 


3,340 
365 
2,503 


Maryland 
Mississippi 
Missouri 


15 
112 
4 


997 
2,550 
206 


North Carolina 
Oklahoma 


112 
28 


5,518 
954 


South Carolina 


124 


2,160 


Tennessee 


38 


1,525 


Texas 
Virginia 
West Virginia 


175 
56 
6 


5,575 
2,393 
322 



TOTALS 



983 



34,228 



1 Five Departments of Vocational Agriculture in 
the Negro schools do not have NFA chapters. 



In 1951, the national organization re- 
ported 12,890 former NFA members es- 
tablished in farming as follows: 509 ten- 
ants, 2,716 in farm partnerships, 5,079 
as farm owners. Other outstanding accom- 
plishments of the New Farmers of Amer- 
ica were as follows: 16,440 members re- 
paired farm machinery; 1,186 members 
belonged to sire circles for dairy cattle; 
5,308 members belonged to sire circles for 
swine; 5,412 members belonged to pig 
chains ; 14,414 culled their poultry flocks ; 
8,541 terraced or contoured land; 14,081 
participated in agricultural fairs; 1,86*9 
members purchased government bonds 
and stamps. 

In the vocational agricultural class- 
rooms, members of the New Farmers of 
America study agriculture and partici- 
pate in the latest scientific methods of 
farming. The classroom training is taken 



directly to the farm homes, where each 
boy conducts a "supervised farming pro- 
gram" dealing with livestock, poultry, and 
crops under the direction of the teacher 
of vocational agriculture, who is an agri- 
cultural college graduate employed on a 
12-month basis. 

In order to train competent leaders and 
teachers of vocational agriculture, all the 
Negro land-grant colleges maintain a col- 
lege of agriculture staffed with compe- 
tent instructors for both technical and 
professional courses in agriculture. These 
colleges also maintain teacher training 
departments that employ a total of 37 
highly qualified teacher trainers who have 
responsibility for the pre-employment and 
"in service" training of teachers of voca- 
tional agriculture. Twenty-two of these 
teacher trainers supervise the 988 depart- 
ments of vocational agriculture located 
through 17 states. These departments rep- 
resent over 35,000 students of vocational 
agriculture in the secondary schools. 

Negro 4-H Club Activities 

More than 75% of the 326,000 Negro 
4-H Club boys and girls satisfactorily 
completed their project work in agricul- 
ture and homemaking methods. Not only 
did they learn improved methods of farm- 
ing and homemaking, but they added to 
their families' food supply with the crops 
they grew, the animals and poultry they 
kept, and the fruits, vegetables, and meats 
they preserved. They raised 128,000 acres 
of corn, legumes, potatoes, cotton, to- 
bacco, vegetables, and fruits, of which 
more than 25,000 acres were in home 
gardens. They raised or kept 83,000 dairy 
cattle, beef cattle, swine, rabbits, and 
other animals. They raised or kept 
1,630,000 chickens, turkeys, and other 
birds, in accordance with extension rec- 
ommendations. They canned more than 
2,000,000 quarts of food and froze 40,000 
quarts and 40,000 pounds. 

Members of 4-H Clubs helped to make 
their homes more pleasant and more con- 
venient by improving 37,000 rooms and 
making nearly 210,000 articles. Between 
30,000 and 40,000 improved the appear- 



INDIVIDUAL FARMERS 



113 



ance of their homes by landscaping, 
planting flowers, or establishing lawns. 

The 63,000 girls who completed their 
clothing projects made 270,000 dresses, 
aprons, coats, and other garments and re- 
modeled 120,000 garments for themselves 
and families. 

Of four annual regional camps, the 
first was held in 1948 at Southern Uni- 
versity, Baton Rouge, La.; the second in 
1949 at Tennessee A. & I. State College, 
Nashville, Tenn.; the third in 1950 at 
Virginia State College, Petersburg, Va.; 
and the fourth in 1951 at Arkansas A. 
M. & N. College, Pine Bluff, Ark. About 
120 clubbers attended each encampment. 

REPORTS ON INDIVIDUAL 
FARMERS 

Individual Negro farmers in the South 
are making outstanding progress in ex- 
panding their livestock, dairy, and poul- 
try production as a means of diversifying 
their farming operations. 

Elley C. Fore of Marion, S. C., is 
rapidly shifting from cotton and tobacco 
to beef-cattle breeding on his 400-acre 
farm. Starting with five registered Here- 
ford heifers and a bull, today he has 54 
head of registered foundation stock. In 
Chester County, S. C., some Negro ten- 
ants are getting a toehold in dairying 
by sharecropping milk production. 

In Alabama, Carroll Jones and Ray- 
mond Brown have really gone in for 
large-scale cattle production. Mr. Jones 
of Epes maintains a herd of 400 brood 
cows. Mr. Brown of Eutaw, who is also 
in the timber business, has 200 brood 
cows. 

Andrew H. Bowers of Marianna, Fla., 
who started out with $1.75 and a cow, is 
now milking 23 cows and grossing nearly 
$500 a month from milk besides his in- 
come from peanuts, cotton, timber, and 
hogs. 

In Tennessee, William Collins of Clark- 
ville started as a sharecropper in 1928. 
Today, he owns 521 acres and a herd of 
97 Jersey milk cows. In addition, he raises 
tobacco, wheat, and hogs. 



Myrt Coney of Magnolia, Miss., was 
a cotton farmer until a few years ago 
when he switched to livestock and poultry. 
He has one of the largest broiler houses 
in southern Mississippi, handling about 
3,000 birds at a time. 

In Texas, cotton, cattle, and water- 
melons are the crops. HilliardL. Muse 
has lifted himself out of sharecropping 
with this combination. He is having a 
bad year now when he doesn't gross 
$15,000. 

Louisiana farmers who live near New 
Orleans and other population centers are 
making good with vegetables. Samuel 
Freeman, of St. Helena Parish, markets 
$10,000 worth of vegetables annually in 
New Orleans from his 14-acre truck patch. 

But some farmers are sticking to cotton 
and making a success of it. Edward Scott 
of Greenwood, Miss., produces nearly 
1,000 bales of cotton a year on his 1,168 
acre farm. He and his five sons, using 
10 tractors, do much of the work them- 
selves. Scott came to Mississippi from 
Demopolis, Ala., as a sharecropper. 

Not far from the Scotts lives Isaac 
Daniel, at Mound Bayou. Fifteen years 
ago, he didn't own a foot of land. Today 
he owns 700 acres and raises cotton and 
rice. He is reported to be the first Negro 
farmer in Mississippi to go in for rice 
farming. Conservatively, his gross income 
approximates $150,000 annually. 

In Arkansas, Alex Brown of Tucker 
is one of the biggest cotton farmers in 
Jefferson County. He started out with six 
acres and an $800 mortgage. Now he owns 
300 acres and rents 500 more. 

All over the South one can find Negro 
farmers who are remarkably successful. 
But for every one who is succeeding, 
there are five others who are ground down 
in poverty. Credit and know-how are the 
principal needs, but there just isn't 
enough of either to go around. 

With a continued reduction in tenancy 
and with further expansion of owner- 
ship and diversified farming methods, the 
outlook seems bright for those who can 
survive mechanization and forge their way 
into the new era of southern agriculture. 



10 



Employment and Labor 



THE STRUGGLE of the Negro in America 
for unhampered economic opportunity 
has been as important, if not as dramatic, 
as the fight for civil rights. Evidence of 
the Negro's economic status is found in 
the extent to which Negroes are employed, 
in what industries and occupations they 
are employed, and opportunities for ad- 
vancement open to them. 

Preliminary reports from the 1950 
Census supply statistics on "white" and 
"nonwhite" employment but do not give 
figures on Negroes separately. However, 
96% of those reported in the nonwhite 
category are Negroes. Where current in- 
formation does not provide reports on 
Negroes and that on the nonwhite popu- 
lation is available, the latter is given here. 

THE LABOR FORCE 1 

In 1950, a slightly larger percentage of 
the nonwhite population than of the white 
population was reported as being in the 
labor force those employed or seeking 
employment. Of the population 14 years 
old and over, there were proportionately 
fewer nonwhite men in the labor force 
than white men. To the contrary, and in 
keeping with the traditional pattern, a 



considerably larger proportion of non- 
white women than of white women were 
in the labor force. 

EMPLOYMENT 

Fifty per cent of both the total popu- 
lation and the nonwhite population 14 
years old and over were employed in 
1950. For the total population this repre- 
sented, 94% of the labor force and for 
the nonwhite population, 90%. 

By Age and Sex 

The proportion (67%) of nonwhite 
males 14 years old and over employed 
was smaller than the proportion (73%) 
of all males employed. Of nonwhite males, 
90% of those in the labor force were 
employed while of all males in the labor 
force 93% were employed. The 34% of 
nonwhite females 14 years and over who 
were employed was a substantially greater 
proportion than the 27% of all females 
employed. Of those women in the labor 
force, 91% of the nonwhite women and 
89% of all women were employed. 

Considered in terms of age groups, a 
greater proportion of younger (14-24 
years old) nonwhite persons and a greater 



TABLE 1 
LABOR FORCE IN U.S. BY SEX AND COLOR, 1950 



Total 


Nonwhite 


Per Cent 
of 
Total 


Sex 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Gent 


Total 1 4 years old and over . . . 
Total Labor Force. . . . 


111,915,000 
59,592,000 
54,923,000 
43,268,000 
56,991,000 
16,323,000 


100 
53 
100 
79 
100 
29 


10,733,000 
5,925,000 
5,250,000 
3,882,000 
5,483,000 
2,043,000 


100 
55 
100 
74 
100 
37 


10 
10 
10 
9 
10 
13 


Men 1 4 years old and over .... 
Men in Labor Force .... 


Women 1 4 years old and over . 
Women in Labor Force 



Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, Series PC-7, No. 2. 



1 From tabulations by the Women's Bureau, U.S. Dept. of Labor from the 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary 
Reports, Series PC-7, No. 2. 



114 



POSTWAR TRENDS 



115 



proportion of nonwhites 65 years old and 
over were employed in 1950. Between the 
ages 14 and 24, the proportion of non- 
white males employed was greater than 
their proportion of the population. In no 
other age group, excepting ages 35 to 44, 
was the proportion of nonwhite males 
equal to their population proportion. Be- 
tween the ages of 25 and 34, nonwhite 
women showed a higher proportion of em- 
ployed both in terms of their own group 
and in terms of the proportion of the 
total population 14 years old and over. 

By Industry 

There continued to be a concentration 
of nonwhite employment in agriculture 
and in the service industries, where they 
were 15 and 14% respectively of total 
employment. As in the past, the propor- 
tion of Negro women to all women em- 
ployed in agriculture was high. The 65% 
of employed nonwhite women in the 
service industries was 20% of all women 
employed in these industries. Four indus- 
try groups Agriculture, Manufacturing, 
Trade, and Service employed 96% of 
nonwhite women and 76% of nonwhite 
men. 

By Occupations 

Service work and laborers' jobs were 
the occupations of one-fifth of all em- 
ployed persons in the United States in 
1950; 54% of all nonwhite workers fol- 
lowed these occupations. Only 2% of 
employed persons in the United States 



were employed as private household work- 
ers, but 15% of nonwhite workers were 
thus employed, comprising 56% of all 
workers so engaged. In other service occu- 
pations, in which 7% of all workers were 
employed, nonwhites made up 19% of 
the total. Six per cent of all workers were 
occupied as laborers other than agricul- 
tural and mine laborers, but nonwhite 
laborers were one-fourth of all laborers, 
or two and one-half times their proportion 
in all occupations taken together. 

Employment of nonwhite workers in 
professional, managerial, and official oc- 
cupations remained limited. In 1950, 4% 
of employed nonwhites were in profes- 
sional occupations and 2% were in mana- 
gerial and official occupations. In clerical, 
sales, crafts, and kindred occupations, 
5% or less of all nonwhite employed were 
occupied. The proportion they made of 
all workers in these occupations was com- 
parably small. 

Unemployment 

Nonwhite males, 9.4% of the labor 
force, were 15% of unemployed males. 
Nonwhite females, 12.5% of the females 
in the labor force, were 22% of unem- 
ployed females. 

POSTWAR TRENDS IN 
EMPLOYMENT 

Concern about the employment of Ne- 
groes following the end of World War II 
was reflected in studies made in several 



TABLE 2 
EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF POPULATION IN U.S. BY SEX AND COLOR, 1950 



White 


Nonwhite 


Employment Status and Sex 


Total \ 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total Labor Force 


59,592,000\ 
55,843,000 1 
2,892,000 

43,268,000 
40,317,000 
2,129,000 

16,323,000 
15,526,000 
763,000 


53,667,000 
50,488,000 
2,400,000 

39,386,000 
36,829,000 
1,806,000 

14,280,000 
13,659,000 
593,000 


90.1 
90.4 
83.0 

91.0 

91.3 
84.8 

87.5 
88.0 

77.7 


5,925,000 
5,355,000 
492,000 

3,882,000 
3,488,000 
323,000 

2,043,000 
1,867,000 
170,000 


9.9 
9.6 
17.0 

9.0 
8.7 
15.2 

12.5 
12.0 
22.3 


Total Employed 


Total Unemployed 


Male 
Labor Force 


Employed .... 


Unemployed 


Female 
Labor Force 


Employed 


Unemployed 





Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, Series PC-7, No. 2. 



116 



EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR 



parts of the United States prior to the 
Census enumeration of 1950: 

Reconversion of industry to peacetime ac- 
tivities brought no major downgrading in the 
occupational composition of the Negro work- 
ers. This is especially significant in view of 
the concentration of wartime advances of Ne- 
groes in those occupations, industries, and 
areas in which the post-war adjustment was 



most severe. Essentially, the maintenance of 
high labor demand during the transition 
period enabled these workers to hold on to 
many of their wartime gains. 1 

Employment of Women 

According to the Department of Labor, 
450,000 more Negro women were in the 
labor force in 1947 than there had been 



TABLE 3 

MAJOR INDUSTRY GROUPS OF EMPLOYED PERSONS IN U.S. BY SEX AND COLOR, 1950 
(Persons 14 years and over) 





Tot 


al 




Nonwhite 1 




Main Industry Group and Sex 










Per Cent 




Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


of 












Total 


Total 


. 55,843,000 


. 100 


5,355,000 


100 


10 


Agriculture 


7,138,000 


13 


1,078,000 


20 


15 


Mining 


971,000 


2 


40,000 


1 


4 


Construction 


3,480,000 


6 


285,000 


5 


8 


Manufacturing 


. 14,110,000 


25 


959,000 


18 


7 


Durable goods 


7,361,000 




539,000 




7 


Non durable goods 


6,566,000 




406,000 




6 


Not specified manufacturing 


183,000 




15,000 




8 


Transportation, communication, 












and other public utilities 


4,252,000 


8 


322,000 


6 


8 


Wholesale and retail trade 


. 10,392,000 


19 


679,000 


13 


7 


Service industries 


. 12,037,000 


21 


1,735,000 


32 


14 


All other industries 


2,605,000 


5 


193,000 


4 


7 


Industry not reported 


859,000 


1 


64,000 


1 


7 


Total Men 


. 40,317,000 


100 


3,488,000 


100 


9 


Agriculture 


6,516,000 


16 


878,000 


25 


13 


Mining 


949,000 


2 


40,000 


1 


4 


Construction 


3,375,000 


9 


279,000 


8 


8 


Manufacturing 


. 10,5-66,000 


26 


779,000 


22 


7 


Durable goods 


. 6,236,000 




497,000 




8 


Nondurable goods 


4,193,000 




271,000 




6 


Not specified manufacturing 
Transportation, communication, 


137,000 




11,000 




8 


and other public utilities 
Wholesale and retail trade 
Service industries 
All other industries 
Industry not reported 


3,554,000 
6,933,000 
5,922,000 
2,004,000 
498,000 


9 
17 
15 
5 
1 


297,000 
487,000 
525,000 
160,000 
44,000 


9 
14 
15 
5 

1 


8 
7 
9 
8 
9 


Total Women 


. 15,526,000 


100 


1,867,000 


100 


12 


Agriculture 


622,000 


4 


200,000 


11 


32 


Mining 


21,000 


(2) 








Construction 
Manufacturing 
Durable goods .... 
Nondurable goods 
Not specified manufacturing . 
Transportation, communication, 


105,000 
3,545,000 
1,125,000 
2,373,000 
46,000 


1 

23 


6,000 
180,000 
42,000 
135,000 
4,000 


10 


6 
5 
4 
6 
9 


and other public utilities 
Wholesale and retail trade 
Service industries . . 
All other industries 
Industry not reported 


698,000 
3,459,000 
6,114,000 
602,000 
361,000 


5 
22 
39 
4 
2 


25,000 
192,000 
1,210,000 
33,000 
21,000 


1 

10 

65 
2 
1 


4 
5 
20 
5 
6 



Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, Series PC-7, No. 2. 
PQ 1 ulation OWn f lab r 0fCe f r Negroes not availabl e; Negro population forms 96% of nonwhite 
z Per cent not shown where less than 1%. 
1 Wolfbin, Seymour L., "Postwar Trend in Negro Employment," Monthly Labor Review, p. 665, December 1947. 



POSTWAR TRENDS 



117 



seven years earlier. This was an increase 
from 1,800,000 to 2,250,000. The propor- 
tion of gainfully employed Negro women 
in farm work declined from 21 to 7% 
of the total Negro females in the labor 
force. In 1940 about 70% of Negro 
women gainfully employed were in domes- 



tic service; in 1947 the proportion was 
less than 50%. The proportion of the 
female Negro labor force in semiskilled 
jobs (for the most part employed as oper- 
atives in industry) more than doubled, 
while the proportion in clerical and sales 
capacities nearly tripled. 1 



TABLE 4 

MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUP OF EMPLOYED PERSONS IN U.S. BY SEX AND COLOR, 1950 
(Persons 14 years and over) 



Total 



Nonwhite 1 



Major Occupation Group and Sex 



Per Cent 

Number Per Cent Number Per Cent of 

Total 



Total 


55,843,000 


100 


5,355,000 


100 


10 


Professional, technical, kindred workers. . . 


4,944,000 


9 


192,000 


4 


4 


Farmers and farm managers 


4,453,000 


8 


507,000 


9 


11 


Managers, officials, proprietors (exc. farm) . 


5,010,000 


9 


80,000 


2 


2 


Clerical and kindred workers 


6,776,000 


12 


192,000 


4 


3 


Sales workers 


3,740,000 


7 


78,000 


2 


2 


Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers 


7,632,000 


14 


283,000 


5 


4 


Operatives and kindred workers 


11,054,000 


20 


1,000,000 


19 


9 


Private household workers 


1,457,000 


2 


812,000 


15 


56 


Service workers (exc. private household) . . 


4,145,000 


7 


768,000 


14 


19 


Farm laborers (exc. unpaid and foremen) . 


1,562,000 


3 


345,000 


6 


22 


Farm laborers, unpaid family workers 


941,000 


2 


211,000 


4 


22 


Laborers (exc. farm and mine) 


3,348,000 


6 


827,000 


15 


25 


Occupation not reported 


780,000 


1 


60,000 


1 


8 


Total Men 


40,317,000 


100 


3,488,000 


100 


9 


Professional, technical, kindred workers . . . 


2,994,000 


7 


77,000 


2 


3 


Farmers and farm managers 


4,327,000 


11 


470,000 


13 


11 


Managers, officials, proprietors (exc. farm) . 


4,346,000 


11 


70,000 


2 


2 


Clerical and kindred workers 


2,625,000 


6 


119,000 


3 


5 


Sales workers 


2,502,000 


6 


54,000 


2 


2 


Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers 


7,380,000 ' 


18 


264,000 


8 


4 


Operatives and kindred workers 


8,076,000 


20 


727,000 


21 


9 


Private household workers 


74,000 


(2) 


27,000 


1 


36 


Service workers (exc. private household) . . 


2,258,000 


6 


436,000 


12 


19 


Farm laborers (exc. unpaid, and foremen) . 


1,420,000 


4 


271,000 


8 


19 


Farm laborers, unpaid family workers 


610,000 


2 


121,000 


4 


20 


Laborers (exc. farm and mine) 


3,233,000 


8 


806,000 


23 


25 


Occupation not reported 


473,000 


1 


47,000 


1 


10 


Total Women 


15,526,000 


100 


1,867,000 


100 


12 


Professional, technical, kindred workers . . . 


1,950,000 


12 


115,000 


6 


6 


Farmers and farm managers 


126,000 


1 


37,000 


2 


29 


Managers, officials, proprietors (exc. farm) . 


664,000 


4 


10,000 


1 


2 


Clerical and kindred workers 


4,151,000 


27 


74,000 


4 


2 


Sales workers 


1,238,000 


8 


24,000 


1 


2 


Craftsmen, foremen, kindred workers 


252,000 


2 


19,000 


1 


8 


Operatives and kindred workers 


2,978,000 


19 


273,000 


14 


9 


Private household workers 


1,383,000 


9 


785,000 


42 


57 


Service workers (exc. private household) . . 


1,887,000 


12 


332,000 


18 


18 


Farm laborers (exc. unpaid and foremen) . 


142,000 


1 


75,000 


4 


53 


Farm laborers, unpaid family workers 


331,000 


2 


90,000 


5 


27 


Laborers (exc. farm and mine) 


116,000 


1 


21,000 


1 


18 


Occupation not reported . i 


307,000 


2 


13,000 


1 


4 



Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports, Series PC-7, No. 2. 

1 Breakdown of labor force for Negroes not available; Negro population makes up 96% of nonwhite 
population. 

2 Per cent not shown where less than 1%. 

1 Weaver, Robert C., "Negro Labor Since 1939," Journal of Negro History, p. 34, January 1950. 



118 



EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR 



It should be noted that in the Census 
enumeration of 1950 the proportion of 
nonwhite women engaged in farm work 
increased from 7 to 11%. The proportion 
of nonwhite women in domestic service 
was 42%. 

New York City Study 

A survey made in 1947 revealed that 
Negroes had held on to gains made in 
New York City during the war period. 
Service occupations, in which 40 out of 
each 100 employed Negro men were en- 
gaged in March 1940, claimed only 23 
of each 100 in April 1947. Simultaneously, 
the proportion of all Negro men workers 
employed in the crafts rose by 25%; in 
the semiskilled occupations the increase 
was 50%, representing the entry of thou- 
sands of Negro workers into industrial 
plants. The ratio of clerk and salesman 
positions increased by over 27%, and that 
of proprietors, managers, and officials by 
40%. 

Among Negro women, the shifts in 
kinds of work were even more striking. 
In 1940, out of each 100 employed, 75 
were in service occupations ; in 1947, such 
work engaged only 49. During this period, 
the proportion of Negro women workers 
employed in retail stores and in various 
clerical occupations quadrupled. The Ur- 
ban League reported that more than 500 
Negro telephone operators were in the 
employ of the area telephone company 
alone. In the semiskilled occupations, par- 
ticularly in laundries and manufacturing 
establishments, Negro women operatives 
increased from 16 to 31% of all employed 
Negro women. 1 

San Francisco Area 2 

What happened to Negroes on the 
Pacific coast was of special interest be- 
cause of tremendous increase in the num- 
ber of Negroes in that area through migra- 
tion for wartime employment. 

Between 1940 and 1944, the Negro 
population more than tripled in the San 



Francisco Bay area and nearly doubled 
in Los Angeles. Similar increases oc- 
curred in the Pacific Northwest. West- 
ward migration continued after the war 
ended an,d the cities on the Pacific coast 
now have, for the first time, a sizable 
Negro population. This development is 
similar to that in northern cities after 
World War I. Of national interest is the 
departure from the traditional South-to- 
North route of Negro migration, and con- 
sequent redistribution of Negro popula- 
tion within the United States. 

The migrants came predominantly from 
the Southwest ; more than half came from 
Texas and Louisiana, and a fourth from 
Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Mississippi. 
Less than a seventh were from states 
outside the South. 

Common labor and service jobs occu- 
pied more than half the employed Negro 
workers in 1948 but only a sixth of the 
general employed population of the Bay 
area in 1947. Another fourth of the Negro 
workers were employed in industrial 
jobs, chiefly as operatives. 

In 1940, two-thirds of the employed 
Negro workers in San Francisco and Oak- 
land were engaged in service occupations, 
in contrast with less than a third of the 
workers in the 1948 sample. Correspond- 
ingly large increases occurred in the 
proportions employed as laborers, indus- 
trial workers, and clerical workers. 

Only one worker in 20 was a domestic 
servant in 1948, compared with nearly one 
in every four employed Negroes in 1940. 
The increase in the proportion of Negro 
workers in clerical occupations is also 
notable in view of the virtual closure of 
this field to Negroes before the war. 
However, the Negro gain in the clerical 
field does not appear to have been made 
in the general labor market. Of the 
workers surveyed who held clerical jobs 
in 1948, nearly three-fourths were em- 
ployed in government agencies, including 
the Post Office. Those in private employ- 
ment were mainly in "back room" jobs, 



1 "Negroes in New York City: Occupational Distribution, 1946-47" Monthly Labor Review, p. 57, January 1949. 

2 "Post War Status of Negro Workers in the San Francisco Area," Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 70, No. 6, pp. 612- 
616, June 1950. 



POSTWAR TRENDS 



119 



such as stock and shipping clerks, with 
few in Negro businesses. 

Negro women were primarily affected 
by the shift away from domestic service. 
In 1940, nearly two-thirds of all employed 
Negro women in San Francisco and Oak- 
land were domestic servants; this pro- 
portion in the 1948 survey shrank to a 
fifth. More than a fourth of the employed 
Negro women were laborers and indus- 
trial workers in 1948, as compared with 
less than 5% in those categories in 1940. 
The proportion of Negro women in cler- 
ical occupations also increased substan- 
tially between 1940 and 1948. In com- 
parison with the total population of em- 
ployed women, Negro working women in 
1948 were still employed predominantly 
in the "lower" occupations. Only a fifth 
of the employed Negro women in 1948 
were engaged in clerical, proprietary- 
managerial, or professional jobs, although 
these occupations included nearly three- 
fourths of the total employed women in 
the San Francisco-Oakland metropolitan 
district in 1947. 

With respect to distribution among in- 
dustries, about a fourth of the Negro 
workers surveyed in 1948 were employed 
in government establishments, another 
fourth in the service industries, chiefly 
personal services, and a fifth in manu- 
facturing. As compared with the general 
employed population of the metropolitan 
district, the Negro workers were strik- 
ingly under-represented in wholesale and 
retail trade. 

Contrary to a widespread impression, 
the migrants were not primarily engaged 
in farming before coming to California. 
Less than a seventh reported their pre- 
war occupation as in agriculture. More 
than a fourth were manufacturing work- 
ers and about a fifth were employed in 
service industries. During wartime, they 
shifted from service, trade, and agricul- 
ture to manufacturing and government 
employment. After the war, employment 
in manufacturing was drastically reduced, 
but the proportion of Negro workers in 
government employment increased still 
further. Relative increases occurred also 



in construction, transport, and communi- 
cation, and in the service category. Negro 
workers apparently did not participate 
in the postwar expansion of wholesale 
and retail trade. 

Some 15% of the men and more than 
40% of the women in the labor force 
were unemployed at the survey date, 
compared with about 6% of the Cali- 
fornia labor force, according to estimates 
of the State Department of Employment 
and Division of Labor Statistics. Thus, 
the unemployment rate found among 
Negro male workers was more than twice, 
and among Negro women workers, six 
times as great, as the state-wide rate. 
Subsequent to the survey, unemployment 
has increased at least as much among 
Negroes as in the general force. Hence, 
a general unemployment rate in Cali- 
fornia of 8 to 10% during the winter 
months of 1949-50 points to serious un- 
employment among Negroes there. 

New Occupations 

The early releases of statistics from the 
1950 Census enumeration and the studies 
made following World War II show the 
broad trends in employment in occupa- 
tions and industries. Another indication 
of new trends is the jobs individual Ne- 
groes are reported as occupying. 

Negroes have been employed sparingly 
in sales and promotion of products by 
American industry. Some recent employ- 
ers of Negroes in these particular fields 
are Camel Cigarettes, Pepsi-Cola, Schen- 
ley, Seagram's, and National Distillers. 
Mrs. Mary Tobias Dean was promoted to 
be a department manager at the R. H. 
Macy Company in New York in January 
1951. The F. R. Lazarus Company in 
Columbus, Ohio, hired its first Negro sales 
clerk. Carson Pirie Scott and Marshall 
Field stores in Chicago also hired Negroes 
in clerical jobs. Major C. Udell Turner 
was employed by the Remington-Rand 
Business Machines Corporation as man- 
ager of special markets. George H. Fow- 
ler was employed by the New York State 
Board of Mediation as a mediator of labor 
disputes. 



120 



EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR 



Integration in Industries . . 

The Chicago Defender, in a series of 
articles on industrial plants which have 
a hiring policy favorable to Negroes, 
cited the following: American Maize 
Products Company, Hammond, Ind., 30% 
of whose employees are Negro ; the RCA- 
Vic^pr Division of the Radio Corporation 
of America, where Negroes are engaged 
in virtually every phase of productive 
activity; the Marion, Ind. plant of RCA- 
Victor, which received an Urban League 
citation for its employment policies ; Spie- 
gel's, a Chicago mail order company, 
where Negroes comprise 10% of the em- 
ployees in all types of employment; the 
International Harvester Company in the 
Chicago area in which 18.9% of the em- 
ployees are Negroes; the Krey Packing 
Company, St. Louis, and the Inland Steel 
Container Company, Jersey City, N. J., in 
which 65% of the employees are Negroes. 
The Rossford Ordnance Depot, near To- 
ledo, Ohio, had Negroes as 40% of its 
employees in March 1951. 

This report by the Chicago Defender 
does not represent a survey by any means. 
It indicates random but specific instances 
in which the integration of Negro workers 
has progressed. 

Social Security Act 

Amendments to the Social Security Act, 
effective Jan. 1, 1951, extended social 
security benefits to domestic service work- 
ers and to farm workers. Negroes consti- 
tute a high proportion of those employed 
in these occupations. 

FAIR EMPLOYMENT 

PRACTICES 
Executive Order 9908 

President Truman's order forbidding 
discrimination in Federal employment has 
had results. Following the issuing of this 
order, in Birmingham, Ala., three Negro 
mail clerks were appointed, the first in 
that city since 1916. Seventeen Negro 
veterans of World War II began training 
as apprentices in the plate printing de- 
partment at the Treasury Department's 



Bureau of Engraving in January 1951. 
This was the first time Negroes had been 
employed there as either apprentices or as 
journeymen. The Executive Order has not 
been fully enforced in the South, but field 
offices of some agencies have begun hiring 
Negroes. Again, on Dec. 3, 1951, Presi- 
dent Truman set up a Federal committee 
to help outlaw discrimination against 
Negroes and other minorities in hiring 
by Government contractors. The commit- 
tee's job will be to investigate and study 
employment practices of firms holding 
Government contracts and report any bias 
found to the heads of the particular con- 
tracting agency. 

Fair Employment Legislation 

Legislation to prohibit discrimination 
in employment on the grounds of race, 
creed, color, or national origin is quite 
new. No such laws existed prior to 1941, 
but since then nine states have enacted 
such laws, of varying breadth. By 1949, 
such legislation was introduced in 17 
other states but failed to be enacted into 
law. 

The states in which fair employment 
legislation has been enacted are Connec- 
ticut, Indiana, Massachusetts, New Mex- 
ico, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, 
Rhode Island, Washington. 

The states in which fair employment 
legislation concerned with public or state 
employees has been passed are California, 
Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, Mich- 
igan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New York, 
Oregon. 

Effect on Employers: A survey of large 
employers in FEPC states, reported in 
1950 by Business Week, revealed that 
"employers agree that FEPC laws haven't 
caused near the fuss that opponents pre- 
dicted. Disgruntled jobseekers haven't 
swamped commissions with complaints. 
Personal friction hasn't been at all seri- 
ous . . . even those who opposed a FEPC 
aren't actively hostile now." Rarely was 
it necessary to take cases to court. New 
York's commission, which handles the 
largest volume of business, averages less 
than one court case a year; Connecticut's 



ORGANIZED LABOR 



121 



commission took only one case to court 
during the 1948-49 reporting period. New 
Jersey in 1948 received 749 complaints 
of which 40% were closed amicably, 40% 
were dismissed for lack of evidence, and 
20% were dropped when the complainant 
withdrew. In a survey made by this com- 
mission, 79 employers indicated that there 
were no new difficulties or problems in 
business policy, that there was no inter- 
ference with their "basic right to select 
the most competent workers," and that 
the law was being fairly and effectively 
administered. The commission further re- 
ported there were no complaints of FEPC- 
bred racial tension nor of anyone's refus- 
ing or vacating a job because of minority- 
group employment. 

Effect on Organized Labor: The most 
effective action against official discrimina- 
tion by labor unions has been that of New 
York State's Commission Against Dis- 
crimination. 

In 1947, the Commission launched an 
investigation of all discriminatory labor 
organizations in the state, calling upon 
them to do away with discrimination. By 
1949, SCAD was able to announce that 
several unions had removed discrimina- 
tory provisions from their by-laws, in some 
cases independently of Commission ac- 
tion. Another group of organizations did 
not change their by-laws but suspended 
the operation of discriminatory provisions 
in New York State. Since SCAD informed 
other Fair Employment Practice agencies 
of this action, these suspensions are pre- 
sumably operative in all FEP areas. 

The following are the unions which 
have relaxed official discrimination since 
1945: 

1) Unions which have eliminated racial 
restrictions (exclusion or auxiliary status) 
from their by-laws: 

AFL affiliates: Air Line Dispatchers 
Association; Brotherhood of Blacksmiths, 
Drop Forgers and Helpers; International 
Association of Machinists; Brotherhood 
of Maintenance of Way Employees; 
Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship 
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees ; Sheet Metal Worker's 



International Association ; Switchmen's 
Union of North America. 

Independent Unions: Railroad Yard- 
masters of North America. 

2) Unions which have made discrimina- 
tory provisions inoperative in FEP states 
and cities: 

AFL affiliates: National Association of 
Letter Carriers ; Order of Railroad Teleg- 
raphers ; Brotherhood of Railway Carmen 
of America; Railway Mail Association; 
Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship- 
builders, Welders, and Helpers. 

Independent Unions: Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Engineers; Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen; 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen; Or- 
der of Railway Conductors of America; 
American Train Dispatchers Association. 

Since FEP areas presently include a 
population of approximately 40 million, 
or almost one-third of the national popu- 
lation, a serious blow has been struck at 
official discrimination among those unions 
previously excluding Negroes or confining 
them to a subordinate status. 

The railway unions still comprise the 
hard core of resistance to minority work- 
ers. None of the Big Four operating 
brotherhoods have eliminated the color 
clauses from their by-laws. The suspen- 
sion of discriminatory provisions by these 
and other unions in FEP areas has not 
automatically opened the door to non- 
white workers. In the railroad industry, 
long layoff lists still effectively bar Negro 
workers from most occupations even when 
railway management is willing to hire 
them. 

ORGANIZED LABOR 

In the postwar period, the position of 
Negro workers in organized labor was 
strengthened as a result of employment 
in war industries and fair-employment 
laws enacted in states with highly indus- 
trialized areas. Integration of Negroes in 
unions continued to be affected by the 
traditions of the major groups of organ- 
ized labor. The CIO policy and tradition 
are all in favor of full integration, while 



122 



EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR 



the AFL charters, ritual, and traditional 
proscriptions against full integration give 
ground slowly. The Railroad Brother- 
hoods continue to be the largest body of 
organized workers whose policies and pro- 
grams are calculated to prevent Negro 
inclusion, to say nothing of integration. 

Union Policies in the 
San Francisco Area 

The study made by Fred Stipp is the 
best basis for appraisal of union policy 
and practice in the San Francisco Bay 
area in the absence of reliable reports 
from the unions themselves. 1 This area 
is important because of the shift of mi- 
gration to this region. 

A total of 163 AFL locals were ques- 
tioned. They reported 195,951 members, 
of whom 18,953 were Negroes, a 9.6 per- 
centage. Laborers, culinary workers, 
molders, building service employees, and 
carpenters accounted for 55% of Negro 
workers reported by all 163 AFL locals. 
Fifty-five locals, representing 50,000 AFL 
trade-unionists, reported no Negro mem- 
bers. The largest locals in the all-white 
group are: the Seafarers, Plumbers and 
Steamfitters Local 38; Machinists Local 
68; Masters, Mates, and Pilots Local 90; 
Butchers Local 115; and Musicians Local 
6. There were 45 locals, on the other 
hand, reporting 100 or more Negro mem- 
bers. 

Thirty-three AFL unions were able to 
furnish figures for prewar, peak-war and 
postwar Negro membership, reporting 
890 Negroes in the prewar period (860 
as laborers and building service em- 
ployees), 29,314 in the peak-war period, 
and 7,670 in postwar May 1948. The 
significant figure is not the swollen peak- 
war total but the postwar figure. Thou- 
sands of war workers naturally lost their 
jobs when the war ended, white as well as 
Negro. Boilermakers Local 6, as a single 
example, dropped 31,000 white workers 
in the postwar era. Thus the important 
emphasis for our study of these 33 locals 
out of the 163 questioned is the contrast 

1 Stipp, Fred "The Treatment of Negro-American Work 
Social Forces, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 330-332, March 1950. 



between the 890 Negro unionists in the 
prewar days and the 7,670 Negroes still 
in the 33 unions nearly three years after 
V-J Day. Many of the AFL leaders indi- 
cated that the same contrast would hold 
in their unions, but the actual figures 
were not available. The increase may or 
may not have been as high as the 850% 
in the 33 unions, but from the reports of 
the other 75 AFL locals with Negro 
membership, it is a striking increase over 
the prewar ratio. 

Important legal and psychological 
gains have also come to Negro AFL mem- 
bers in the Bay area, not the least of 
these being the mixed unions which have 
replaced "Jim Crow" auxiliaries among 
the Boilermakers. A 7-0 decision against 
the segregated auxiliary when supported 
by the closed shop was rendered by the 
California Supreme Court. Boilermakers 
39 and Welders and Burners 681 on the 
Oakland side and Boilermakers 6 and 
Welders and Burners 1330 on the San 
Francisco side now practice mixed mem- 
bership, meeting in the same union hall. 
The universal transfer card is yet to come, 
but the James-Marinship case is a land- 
mark for the Negro workers. 

The Hotel and Restaurant Workers, 
Commercial Telegraphers, Blacksmiths, 
Railway Clerks, and Railway Carmen 
unions have removed the color bar from 
their membership requirements in their 
respective constitutions. Most Machinists' 
locals in the Bay area admit Negroes de- 
spite the* exclusion clause in the lodge 
ritual. The Carpenters, with a poor na- 
tional record on color concord and almost 
no Negro carpenters in Bay area affiliates 
prior to the war, had 2.000 Negro mem- 
bers among a 15,000 total membership 
in May 1948. Such gains are more than 
legal and numerical; they are psycho- 
logical as well. The Negro's morale im- 
proves with each of these hard-won steps 
on the long road to equality. 

In the important job category of trans- 
portation, the Negro is still, for the most 
part, "on the outside looking in." The 

ers by the AFL and CIO in the San Francisco Bay Area," 



ORGANIZED LABOR 



123 



teamster affiliates are almost exclusively 
white and, in labor terminology, "tight 
outfits, difficult to crack." AFL water 
transport is 100% white in the Bay area. 
While some gains have been made in 
streetcar and railroad transport, the 
Negro's chief place in transportation is 
in such non-transporting affiliates as the 
Warehousemen and the Cannery Workers. 

In the professional and technical classi- 
fications, the Negro has his smallest op- 
portunity. While he holds as high as 
11.2% of union membership in the build- 
ing trades, 12.8% in food, clothing, and 
laundry locals, and 20.2% in the service 
groups, he holds only 3% of the cards in 
professional and technical unions. He 
faces here the twin handicaps of lack 
of training and racial discrimination. 

Despite these less encouraging aspects 
of the picture, field investigation has 
found the Negro worker marking up sub- 
stantial numerical and psychological 
gains in the AFL locals of the San Fran- 
cisco Bay area from the prewar years to 
the post-war, at least until May, 1948. 

The CIO has organized the Negro from 
the very inception of the "one big union." 
In the Bay area 26 major CIO unions 
were questioned, with 42 locals reporting 
55,205 members, among them 7557 Ne- 
groes. They hold 2,500 of 7,000 member- 
ship cards in the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards. They hold 2,200 of Longshore 
Local 6's 15,000 cards. The remaining 
2,857 Negro CIO members are scattered 
among 24 major CIO unions with a mem- 
bership of 38,205. Five CIO locals of the 
42 reporting have no Negroes and nine 
more have 10 or less. The 7,557 Negro 
members of the Bay area CIO affiliates 
make up 13.6% of 55,205 CIO unionists, 
a percentage comparing favorably to the 
AFL's 9.6%. 

Five CIO unions representing 18,600 
members reported 6 Negro members prior 
to the war and 3,127 after the war. Most 
unions had no prewar figures, some, in- 
deed, coming into being after the war 
was over; but all have been affected by 
the movement of thousands of Negroes 

1 Raushenbush, Winifred, Jobs Without Creed or Color, pp 



into the Bay area. In cases where Negro 
membership has been proportionately low 
in CIO units, the leadership has volun- 
teered dissatisfaction, often pointing to 
discriminatory management as the con- 
trolling factor in hiring. The AFL leaders 
gave ample support to this CIO indict- 
ment of management. 

FEPC records on the West Coast and 
in the National Office suggest that the 
labor leadership is probably correct. Mr. 
Harry Kingman, FEPC Administrator on 
the West Coast during the war, estimated 
that 10% of the FEPC cases handled 
involved labor unions and 70% involved 
management. Miss Winifred Raushenbush 
gave figures at the national level of 6.5% 
for unions and 70% for management in 
her Jobs Without Creed or Color. 1 

CIO Expulsion of Unions 

In 1949 and 1950, the CIO expelled 11 
unions, chiefly for left-wing opposition 
in the form of Communist activity or fail- 
ure to renounce Communist leadership. 
Several of these had large Negro member- 
ships in 1945. The principal ones are 
shown below: 

The United Electrical, Radio and Machine 

Workers : 40,000 

The United Farm Equipment Workers : 3,000 
Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers : 20,000 
Food, Tobacco and Agricultural Workers : 

6,000 

International Fur and Leather Workers Un- 
ion : 8,000-10,000 

International Longshoremen's and Warehouse- 
men's Union : 13,000 

New Labor Group 

Expelled union groups in the New York 
City area formed a new labor body in 
1951. The new organization, the Distribu- 
tive, Processing and Office Workers of 
America, was created when, at a conven- 
tion in October, the CIO United Office and 
Professional Workers ; the Food, Tobacco 
and Agricultural Workers; and the Dis- 
tributive Workers merged. An appeal to 
minority groups was made in a statement 
by Arthur Osmon, who was elected presi- 
dent of the new union: "There's no room 
for racial or religious prejudices among 
us. Negroes, Jews, Puerto Ricans, Ital- 

15-17. 



124 



EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR 



ians all sorts of minority groups enjoy 
equal rights and opportunity." 

Negro Labor Leaders 

Veteran labor leader A. Philip Ran- 
dolph, president of the Brotherhood of 
Sleeping Car Porters, and Boyd Wilson, 
of the United Steel Workers, CIO, were 
among the 24 American delegates to the 
Second World Congress of the Interna- 
tional Confederation of Free Trade 
Unions. 

Mr. Randolph spoke for American 
labor leaders on the Point IV program 
of the United States, which is designed 
to give economic aid to undeveloped areas 
of the world. 

At the 1950 National Convention of the 
American Federation of Labor in Hous- 
ton, Texas, Mr. Randolph protested jim- 
crow entertainment of delegates. 

Willard S. Townsend, president of the 
CIO United Transport Service Employees, 
has maintained the prestige of his mem- 
bers and has secured for the "Red Caps" 
in his organization fixed salaries and re- 
tirement and insurance benefits. 

Ferdinand Smith, secretary-treasurer 
of the CIO National Maritime Union for 
many years, was deported to Jamaica in 
1951. 

Other Negro labor leaders to attract 
public attention since World War II were 



not national officers of unions but leaders 
of powerful local unions. 

Sam Parks became president of the 
Wilson Company local of the CIO Pack- 
inghouse Workers in Chicago. 

Hillard Ellis became president of the 
Amalgamated Local 453 of the CIO 
United Auto Workers, which has a pre- 
dominantly white membership. 

James B. Marshall became president of 
Local 68 of the Building Service Em- 
ployees Union in Newark, N. J. 

Ajay Martin become international vice- 
president of the CIO United Farm Equip- 
ment Workers. 

Louise Anderson became president of 
Local 3808, United Steel Workers of 
America. 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE 

Intensifying its program for fuller em- 
ployment of Negroes, the National Urban 
league stressed working with private 
industry, organized labor, and govern- 
ment agencies to secure employment for 
greater numbers of Negroes and to have 
them employed in a wider variety of occu- 
pations. For 1949 the League reported 
that it had succeeded in placing 261 
Negroes in industries where they had not 
been previously employed. To facilitate 
its program the Urban League has spon- 
sored Vocational Opportunity Week. 



11 

Income and Business 



IN 1949, Emmer Martin Lancaster, special 
adviser on Negro Affairs to the .Secretary 
of Commerce, made a survey of nine 
cities for the U. S. Department of Com- 
merce to ascertain the conditions of busi- 
ness and employment among Negroes in 
certain metropolitan areas. His itinerary 
included Detroit, New York, Cleveland, 
Chicago, Atlanta, Birmingham, Baton 
Rouge, Houston, and St. Louis. 

Negro groups participating in the sur- 
vey felt that while World War II in- 
creased the opportunities of Negroes to 
acquire additional wealth, their earning 
power was below that of other groups. It 
was also noted that "employment for the 
Negro is marginal in character and the 
small retailer whose principal market 
source is the Negro laborer, is likewise a 
a marginal businessman unable to ac- 
cumulate reserves to meet the emergency 
of an economic recession." 1 

In addition to the fact that Negro busi- 
nesses must depend largely on the Negro 
worker, Negroes do not confine their pur- 
chasing to Negro businesses alone, but 
shop in the market at large. This disper- 
sion of funds, while beneficial to the indi- 
vidual consumer, is an additional liability 
to the Negro businessman. 

INCOME STATISTICS 

In 1950, the annual purchasing power 
of the Negro populace reached an all- 
time high of approximately $15,000,000,- 
000. In the Southeast in the same year, 
it was estimated to be $3,500,000,000 a 
year. In this region it barely reached the 
$1,000,000,000 mark in 1939. The 250% 
increase since before World War II is all 



the more remarkable in view of the 7% 
drop in the Negro population in the 
Southeastern states. 2 

Despite this increase in buying power, 
the Negro is identified with most of the 
economic problems faced by the poorest 
people in America. His low income is 
apparent in whatever comparison is made 
between whites and nonwhites, whether 
in urban or rural areas, as indicated by 
comparative figures. In 1939, the last full 
year before the World War II defense 
boom, the median wage or salary income 
of nonwhite primary families and indi- 
viduals, $489, was about 37% that of 
whites, which was $1,325. In 1949, the 
figures were about $1,533 and $3,138, re- 
spectively, the nonwhite wages or salaries 
being 49% that of whites. See Table 1. 

Median Income by Color and Sex, 
1939 and 1949: Between 1939 and 1949 

(Continued on page 128) 

TABLE 1 

MEDIAN WAGE OR SALARY INCOME OF 

PRIMARY FAMILIES AND INDIVIDUALS WITH 

WAGE OR SALARY INCOME FOR U.S. 

1949 AND 1939 1 



Color 


Total 


Without 
Nonwage 
Income 




1949 1939 


1949 1939 


White families 
and individuals 
Nonwhite families 
and individuals 


$3,138 $1,325 
1,533 489 


$3,501 $1,409 
1,772 531 



1 "Primary family" refers to head of household 
and all other persons in household related to head 
by blood, marriage, or adoption. If there is no per- 
son in household related to the head, then the head 
himself constitutes a primary individual not in a 
family. A household can contain only one primary 
family or individual. "Primary families and indi- 
viduals" is used with same meaning as "families" 
in the 1940 Census. 

Source: Cuirent Population Report, Consumer 
Series P-60, No. 7, p. 28, Feb. 18, 1951. 



1 Lancaster, Emmer Martin, The Negro in Business 7950 Review and Forecast, U.S. Dept. of Commerce. 

2 Sources : Heyman, Joseph R., Southeastern Business Consultant, Birmingham News (Ala.) , March 26, 1950 ; 
Joseph V. Baker in The Inquirer, Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 23, 1951. 



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128 



INCOME AND BUSINESS 



the wages or salary of the average em- 
ployee more than doubled, increasing 
from about $800 to $2,000. The median 
for white males increased from $1,112 to 
$2,735 and that for nonwhite males in- 
creased from $460 to $1,367. In the case 
of females, the median for whites in- 
creased from $676 to $1,615 and that for 
nonwhites from $246 to $654. See Table 3. 

TABLE 3 

MEDIAN WAGE OR SALARY INCOME OF 

PERSONS 14 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER 

FOR U.S. 1949 AND 1939 



Both Sexes 



Male 



Female 



Color 1949 1939 1949 1939 1949 1939 

White $2,350 $956 $2,735 $1,112 $1,615 $676 

Nonwhite 1,064 364 1,367 460 654 246 

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current 
Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 7, Feb. 18, 
1951. 



Median Income by Regions, 1949: The 
average (median) income in 1949 of the 



49,580,000 families and unrelated indi- 
viduals in the United States was $2,599. 
Approximately 16% of the total received 
incomes of $5,000 or more, whereas 39% 
had incomes under $2,000. 

With the exception of the South, the 
median income received by families and 
unrelated individuals in 1949 varied little 
from one region to another. That for the 
Northeast, West, and North Central Re- 
gions, about $2,900, was approximately 
50% greater than the median for the 
South, which was $1,940. The relatively 
low median cash income for the South 
is attributable in part to the fact that 
this region contains a greater proportion 
of farm residents who typically receive 
a part of their income in the form of 
goods produced and consumed on the 
farm rather than in cash. In addition, 
the South contains about three-fifths of 
the nation's nonwhite families and unre- 
lated individuals, whose median income 
was only about one-half that received by 



TABLE 4 

DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILIES AND UNRELATED INDIVIDUALS BY TOTAL MONEY INCOME, 
BY COLOR, FOR U.S., URBAN AND RURAL, 1949 



Total Money 
Income 


Families and Unrelated 
Individuals 


Families 


Unrelated Individuals 


Total 


White 


Non- 
white 


Total 


White 


Non- 
white 


Total 


White 


Non- 
white 


United States 
Per Cent 

Under $500 . . 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


9.9 


8.9 
8.1 
7.4 
7.5 
10.1 
10.0 
10.5 
8.2 
6.2 
4.9 
7.1 
4.2 
4.5 
2.4 
$2,905 

$3,235 
$2,564 
$1,624 


20.3 
19.0 
14.6 
13.0 
11.5 
7.5 
4.8 
2.8 
1.8 
1.3 
1.8 
0.9 
0.4 
0.2 
$1,364 

$1,661 

$982 
$635 


5.9 
6.2 
7.3 
7.6 
10.2 
10.4 
11.2 
8.8 
6.7 
5.3 
7.8 
4.8 
5.0 
2.6 
$3,107 

$3,486 
$2,763 
$1,587 


5.1 
5.3 
6.6 
7.1 
10.0 
10.5 
11.7 
9.3 
7.1 
5.6 
8.3 
5.1 
5.4 
2.8 
$3,232 

$3,619 
$2,851 
$1,757 


14.9 
16.0 
15.1 
13.5 
12.9 
9.2 
5.6 
3.7 
2.6 
1.9 
2.5 
1.3 
0.5 
0.3 
$1,650 

$2,084 
$1,240 
$691 


27.2 
21.6 
11.5 
9.8 
10.2 
7.0 
4.5 
2.9 
1.9 
1.1 
1.2 
0.3 
0.4 
0.3 
$1,050 

$1,278 
$573 
$500 


26.2 
20.8 
11.2 
9.4 
10.5 
7.7 
4.8 
3.3 
2.2 
1.3 
1.4 
0.4 
0.4 
0.4 
$1,134 

$1,399 
$641 
$559 


33.2 
26.2 
13.5 
11.9 
8.1 
3.4 
2.9 
0.8 

$819 
$904 
(') 
0) 


$500 to $999 


9.1 


$1,000 to $1,499. . . 
$1,500 to $1,999. . . 


8.1 
8.0 


$2,000 to $2,499 . . . 


10.2 


$2,500 to $2,999. . . 


9.8 


$3,000 to $3,499 . . . 
$3,500 to $3,999. . . 


10.0 

7.7 


$4,000 to $4,499 . 


5.8 


$4,500 to $4,999 . . . 
$5,000 to $5,999 . . . 
$6,000 to $6,999 


4.5 
6.6 
3.9 


$7,000 to $9,999 . . . 
$10,000 and over... 
Median income .... 


4.2 
2.2 
. . $2,739 


Urban 
Median income .... 
Rural Nonfarm 
Median income . . . 


. . $3,068 
. . $2,462 


Rural Farm 
Median income .... 


. $1 462 







Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 7. 

1 Median not shown where there were fewer than 100 cases in the sample reporting on income. 



INCOME STATISTICS 



129 



all families and individuals. In 1949, the 
median income of nonwhite southern fami- 
lies and unrelated individuals was $995. 
See Table 2. 

Income By Color, Urban and Rural, 
1949: There is evidence that the economic 
position of nonwhites relative to whites 
was more favorable in urban than in rural 
areas. One of the reasons for the differ- 
ential rate of migration of white and non- 
white households from farm to nonfarm 
areas may be the relative difference in 
the attractiveness of higher city incomes 
to each group. Table 4 shows that the 
median income of nonwhite families and 
individuals residing on farms was only 
$635 as compared with $1,661 for those 
living in urban areas. For white families 
and individuals the relative difference be- 
tween the median incomes of farm and 
urban residents, $1,624 and $3,235 re- 
spectively, was not so great. 

The ratio of the income of white fam- 
ilies to that of nonwhite families is higher 
in farm areas than in urban areas. There 
is some evidence that the greater advan- 
tage of white families in farm areas is 
maintained with a relatively smaller num- 
ber of workers per family. See Table 4. 

Families with More Than One Earner, 
by Color and Residence, 1949: In each 
residence group about half of the non- 
white families had more than one earner, 
whereas the proportion of multi-earner 
families among whites varied from about 
one-third in rural areas to about two- 
fifths in urban areas. Despite the fact that 



TABLE 5 

FAMILIES WITH MORE THAN ONE EARNER 
BY COLOR AND RESIDENCE FOR U.S., 1949 



Residence 


Per cent 
White 


Per cent 
Nonwhite 


Urban 
Rural Nonfarm 
Rural Farm 


41.0 
35.6 
33.4 


52.3 
53.6 
55.9 



Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current 
Population Reports, Consumer Income Series 60, 
No. 7. 



proportionately more of the nonwhite than 
of the white population was engaged in 
paid work, the average income of non- 
white farm families was about half that 
of white farm families. It is possible that 
many of the nonwhite workers had paid 
employment for only short periods during 
the year. More important is the concen- 
tration of nonwhites in farm areas in 
low-paying jobs. See Table 5. 

Income by Sex and Color, Urban and 
Rural, 1949: In the case of both male and 
female income recipients, the median 
money income of whites was about twice 
that of nonwhites. See Table 6. 

Income in Metropolitan Areas, by 
Color, 1949: In eight standard metropoli- 
tan areas in 1949, the low level of the 
median income of the nonwhite popula- 
tion may be noted when compared with 
whites. In only one area, that of Wash- 
ington, D.C., was the median income of 
nonwhite families and individuals as 
much as 60% that of the white median 
income. In other areas it was less than 
50%, and in Atlanta, Ga., it was 42%. 



TABLE 6 

DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS 14 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER BY TOTAL MONEY INCOME, 
BY SEX AND COLOR, FOR U.S., URBAN AND RURAL, 1949 







Male 






Female 










Non- 






Non- 


Total Money Income Group 


Total 


White 


white 


Total 


White 


white 


United States 














Median income for persons with income 


$2,346 


52,471 


$1,196 


$ 960 


$1,070 


$495 


Urban 














Median income for persons with income 


2,684 


2,906 


1,575 


1,167 


1,288 


688 


Rural Nonfarm 














Median income for persons with income 


2,190 


2,250 


803 


681 


749 


348 


Rural Farm 














Median income for persons with income 


1,054 


1,194 


488 


392 


433 


290 



Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 7. 



130 



INCOME AND BUSINESS 



From the viewpoint of consumer goods, 
the purchasing of necessary services, and 
the maintenance of certain standards of 
living, this difference in income is of 
the utmost significance. See Table 7. 

INSURANCE 

The first Negro insurance company, the 
African Insurance Company, started in 
1810 in Philadelphia with $5,000 capital. 
Since then, insurance companies have 
progressed steadily. 

"One of the chief factors in a consider- 
ation of life insurance practices so far as 
Negroes are concerned has been the rela- 
tively high mortality rate, as compared 
with the white population." 1 However, 
with the raising of living standards among 
Negroes has come better health, sani- 
tation, and education. These in turn have 
produced a greater life expectancy. 

Some of the hindrances to greater ex- 
pansion of Negro insurance companies 
seem to be: (1) lack of capital, (2) lack 
of confidence of Negroes in the com- 
panies, (3) lack of trained personnel. 

In spite of these factors, insurance is 
the Negroes' largest business. While white 
companies have to a great extent equal- 
ized their premiums and sought Negro 
patronage, Negro companies are better 
able to attract Negro patronage because 
they, more than any other Negro business, 
are in a position to employ Negroes in 
large numbers in white-collar jobs and to 



render substantial services to Negro com- 
munities with the money obtained. 

The writers mentioned above conclude: 
"The Negro insurance companies repre- 
sented historically the outstanding busi- 
ness efforts to obtain independence from 
the white economy. They are important 
not only as sources of employment but 
as a constant pressure on the white com- 
panies to adopt non-discriminatory poli- 
cies, and finally as a means of placing 
Negro spokesmen in positions in indus- 
try in which their voices will be heard." 

The National Negro 
Insurance Association 

This association was part of the Na- 
tional Negro Business League until 
1920. It became a separate organization 
on Aug. 19, 1921, with Charles Clinton 
Spaulding elected as president. A per- 
manent association was formed in October 
of the same year by 60 representatives of 
13 companies. On Sept. 1, 1950, a na- 
tional office was set up at 433 Drexel 
Boulevard, Chicago, with Murray J. 
Marvin, Jr., as Executive Director, to 
direct public relations. 

"The insurance industry has become 
increasingly concerned over the campaign 
by whjte companies to invade the Negro 
insurance market for new business. 
Already four of the larger white com- 
panies have employed Negro personnel 
and one company has a regional staff 
headed by a competent Negro manager." a 



TABLE 7 

MEDIAN INCOME BY COLOR OF FAMILIES AND INDIVIDUALS IN SELECTED STANDARD 
METROPOLITAN AREAS, 1949 



Area 


White 


Nonwhite 


Amount White 
Greater than 
Nonwhite 


Per cent 
Nonwhite 
of White 


Atlanta, Ga 


$3 208 


$1 343 


$1 865 


42 


Birmingham, Ala 


3 285 


1 552 


1 733 


47 2 


Memphis, Tenn 


3 085 


1 348 


1 737 


440 


Nashville, Tenn 


2,811 


1 214 


l'597 


43.1 


New Orleans, La 


2 968 


1 423 


1 545 


48 


Norfolkr Portsmouth, Va 


2,842 


1 230 


1 612 


43 2 


Richmond, Va 


3 466 


1 495 


1 971 


43 1 


Washington, B.C. . 


3 592 


2 152 


1 440 


60 













Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Preliminary Reports, Series PC-5, 1950. 



1 Kinzer, Robert, and Sagarin, Edward, The Negro in American Business, New York: Greenberg, 1950. 

2 Source: Lancaster, Emmer Martin, op. cit. 



INSURANCE 



131 



The NNIA conducts annually a "Na- 
tional Negro Insurance Week" and "Na- 
tional Collection Month," in which local 
member companies stress the importance 
of insurance in the life of the individual. 
Other work of the Association includes 
health education, an Impairment Bureau, 
which is a central listing of insurance 
applicants not accepted as risks by the 
companies, and the publication of The 
Pilot, a quarterly, giving news, informa- 
tion, and trends in the insurance field. 
During 1950, these special efforts helped 
to increase the total insurance in force of 
200 companies well beyond the billion 
dollar mark. More than 5,000,000 policies 
have been issued by Negro companies. 1 

The staff strength of 60 member com- 
panies of NNIA in 1950 was: field em- 
ployees, 7,534; home office employees, 
1,703. 

A record of 53 life insurance companies 
operated by Negroes under the super- 
vision of insurance departments, not in- 
cluding burial associations or fraternal 
orders, for the year ending Dec. 31, 1949, 
is shown in Table 9. 

TABLE 8 

FINANCIAL STRENGTH OF SIXTY MEMBER 
COMPANIES, NNIA, 1950 



Capital and Surplus Funds .... 

Insurance in Force 

Assets 

Premium Income 

Total Income 

Benefit Payments to Policy- 
holders 

Staff Payroll 

Medical Examinations and In- 
spection Fees 

Bonds 

Mortgage Loans 



$ 30,193,158.56 

1,287,216,075.10 

137,708,766.07 

54,409,366.62 

60,684,609.45 

13,742,016.88 
16,518,714.00 

275,000.00 
75,463,734.00 
27,491,928.00 



Source: Murray J. Marvin, Jr., Executive Di- 
rector, NNIA. 

Membership List 

National Negro Insurance Association 
1951-52 

Afro-American Life Ins. Co., 101-105 E. 
Union St., Jacksonville 1, Fla. ; James H. 
Lewis, Pres. ; Ralph B. Stewart, Sr., Secy. 

American Woodmen, The Supreme Camp, 
2100 Downing St., Denver 5, Colo.; Law- 
rence H. Lightner, Supreme Commander ; 
Harold Jacobs, Secy-Treas. 

i Hid. 



Atlanta Life Ins. Co., 148 Auburn Ave., N.E., 

Atlanta, Ga. ; N. B. Herndon, Pres. ; E. M. 

Martin, Secy. 
Beneficial Life Ins. Soc. of the U. S., 401 E. 

Warren Ave., Detroit 1, Mich. ; Seward S. 

Boyd, Pres. ; T. S. Howell, Secy. 
Benevolent Service Ins. Co., Inc., 401 E. 

Union St., Minden 4, La.; H. D. Wilson, 

Pres. ; G. L. Smith, Secy- Agency Dir. 
Booker T. Washington Ins. Co., 505^ N. 17th 

St., or P.O. Box 2621, Birmingham 2, Ala.; 

A. G. Gaston, Pres. ; L. R. Hall, Secy. 
Bradford's Funeral Service, Inc., 1525 N. 7th 

Ave. or P.O. Box 2015, Birmingham 2, 
Ala.; E. A. Bradford, Pres.; Mary E. 
Williams, Secy. 

Central Life Ins. Co. of Florida, 1416 North 
Blvd. or P.O. Box 3286, Tampa 7, Fla.; 
Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune, Pres. ; Allen 
Jones, Secy. 

Domestic Life & Accident Ins. Co., 601 W. 
Walnut St., Louisville 3, Ky. ; W. L. San- 
ders, Pres. ; R. D. Terry, Secy. 

Douglas Life Ins. Co., 2203 Dryades St., New 
Orleans 13, La. ; Joseph M. Bartholomew, 
Pres. ; Mrs. H. G. Bartholomew, Secy. 

Dunbar Life Ins. Co., 7609 Euclid Ave., 
Cleveland 3, Ohio; M. C. Clarke, Pres.- 
Agency Dir. ; J. C. Wiggins, Secy. 

Excelsior Life Ins. Co., 2600 Flora St., Dallas 
4, Tex. ; A. Prestwood, Pres. ; C. E. Jones, 
Secy. 

Federal Life Ins. Co., 717 Florida Ave., N.W., 
Washington 2, D.C. ; Dr. George W. White, 
Pres.-Medical Dir. ; C. B. Gilpin, Secy. 

Fireside Mutual Ins. Co., 1183 E. Long St., 
Columbus 3, Ohio ; T. K. Gibson, Sr., Pres. ; 
R. Black, Secy. 

Friendship Mutual Ins. Co., 617 E. Warren 
Ave., Detroit 1, Mich. ; Burton A. Fuller, 
Pres. ; Mrs. Bertha Ida Gordy, Secy. 

Gertrude Geddis Willis Industrial Life & 
Burial Ins. Co., Inc., 2120-2128 Jackson 
Ave., New Orleans 13, La.; Mrs. Gertrude 
G. Willis, Pres.; Floyd A. Talbert, Secy- 
Gen. Mgr. 

Golden State Mutual Life Ins. Co., 1999 W. 
Adams Blvd., Los Angeles 18, Calif.; Nor- 
man O. Houston, Pres. ; Edgar J. Johnson, 
Secy-Treas. 

Good Citizens Life Ins. Co., 1809 Dryades St., 
New Orleans 13, La.; James A. Holtry, 
Pres. ; Clifton H. Denson, Secy. 

Great Lakes Mutual Life Ins. Co., 82 E. Han- 
cock Ave., Detroit 1, Mich.; Charles H. 
Mahoney, Pres. ; Louis C. Blount, Secy. 

Guaranty Life Ins. Co., 460 W. Broad St., 
Savannah, Ga. ; Walter S. Scott, Pres. ; 

B. C. Ford, Secy. 

Jackson Mutual Life Ins. Co., 4636 South 
Parkway, Chicago 15, 111.; Leonard J. Liv- 
ingston, Pres. ; Olive H. Crosthwait, Secy. 

Keystone Life Ins. Co., 1503 St. Bernard 
Ave., New Orleans 16, La. ; A. V. German, 
Pres.-Agency Dir. ; Rudolph Moses, Secy. 

Lighthouse Life Ins. Co., 1209 Pierre Ave., 
Shreveport, La. ; Bishop F. L. Lewis, Pres. ; 
Rev. J. C. Anderson, Secy. 

Lincoln Industrial Ins. Co., 1801 Ave. C, 
Ensley Station, Birmingham, Ala. ; L. W. 
Stallworth, Sr., Pres.; L. W. Stallworth, 
Jr., Secy. 

(Continued on page 134) 



132 



INCOME AND BUSINESS 







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INSURANCE 



133 



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134 



INCOME AND BUSINESS 



Louisiana Life Ins. Co., 2107 Dryades St., 
New Orleans 13, La.; Dr. Rivers Frederick, 
Pres. ; M. B. Vining, Secy. 

Mammoth Life & Accident Ins. Co., 606-608 
W. Walnut St., Louisville 3, Ky. ; Robert 
Holloman, Pres.; Mrs. Hilda H. Price, 
Secy. 

Metropolitan Funeral System Assn., 675 Mack 
Ave., Detroit 1, Mich. ; Charles C. Diggs, 
Jr., Pres. ; Carter Jones, Secy. 

Metropolitan Mutual Assurance Co. of Chica- 
go, 4455 South Parkway, Chicago 15, 111.; 
Robert A. Cole, Pres. ; H. G. Hall, Secy. 

Monarch Life Ins. Co., 2715 Daneel St., New 
Orleans 13, La.; Dave A. Dennis, Pres.; 
Avery C. Alexander, Secy. 

National Service Industrial Life Ins. Co., 
1716 N. Claiborne Ave., New Orleans 16, 
La. ; Duplain Rhodes, Jr., Pres. ; Donald 
E. Ramseur, Secy. 

North Carolina Mutual Life Ins. Co., 114 Par- 
rish St. or P.O. Box 201 Durham, N. C. ; 
C. C. Spaulding, Pres. ; W. J. Kennedy, Jr., 
Secy. 

Peoples Ins. Co., Inc., 550 St. Michael St., 
Mobile 10, Ala.; L. A. Hall, Sr., Pres.; 
L. A. Hall, Jr., Secy. 

People's Life Ins. Co. of La., 901-907 N. 
Claiborne Ave., New Orleans 16, La. ; H. 
J. Christophe, Pres. ; B. Johnson, Secy. 

Pilgrim Health & Life Ins. Co., 1143 Gwin- 
nett St. or P.O. Box 904, Augusta, Ga.; 
Dr. S. W. 'Walker, Pres. ; A. M. Carter, 
Secy. 

Protective Industrial Ins. Co. of Ala., Inc., 
237 Graymont Ave., N., or P.O. Box 528, 
Birmingham 4, Ala.; V. L. Harris, Pres.; 
Mrs. M. H. Davis, Secy. 

Provident Home Industrial Mutual Life Ins. 
Co., 731 S. Broad St., Philadelphia 47, 
Pa. ; Joseph A. Faison, Pres. ; Lucinda B. 
Mackrey, Secy. 

The Richmond Beneficial Ins. Co., 700 N. 
Second St., Richmond 19, Va. ; J. Edward 
Harris, Pres. ; C. Bernard Gilpin, Secy. 

The Right Worthy Grand Council, Indepen- 
dent Order of St. Luke, 902-04 St. James 
St., Richmond 20, Va. ; Miss Gertrude C. 
Sharpe, R. W. G. Chief ; Mrs. Hattie N. F. 
Walker, R. W. G. Secy. 

Safety Industrial Life Ins. & Sick Benefit 
Assn., Inc., 1128 Claiborne Ave., New Or- 
leans 16, La. ; Robert Vaucresson Pres. 
N. H. Burleigh, Secy. 

The Security Life Ins. Co., P.O. Box 1549, 
Jackson 112, Miss.; Dr. L. T. Burbridge, 
Pres.; W. H. Williams, Secy-Agency Dir. 

Southern Aid Life Ins. Co., Inc., 214 E 
Clay St., Richmond, 19, Va. ; James T. 
Carter, Pres. ; W. A. Jordan, Secy. 

Southern Life Ins. Co., 1841 Pennsylvania 
Ave., Baltimore 17, Md.; Willard W. Allen, 
Pres. ; W. Emerson Brown, Secy. 

Standard Industrial Life Ins. Co., 1530 N. 
Claiborne Ave., New Orleans 16, La. ; W 
G. Carradine, Pres.; Mrs. W. Sazon Dor- 
sey, Secy-Treas. 

St. John Berchman's Industrial Life Ins. Co., 
1125 N. Claiborne Ave., New Orleans 16 
La.; Dr. J. O. Sheffield, Pres.-Medical 
Dir. ; Mrs. Bonita L. Nelson, Secy. 

Superior Life Ins. Soc. of Mich., 319 E. Kirby 
Ave., Detroit 2, Mich.; John W. Roxbor- 
ough, Pres. ; Cohen W. White, Secy 



Supreme Industrial Life Ins. Co., 1433 N. 
Claiborne Ave., New Orleans 15, La.; Dr. 
Raleigh C. Coker, Pres.-Medical Dir. ; Gus- 
tave C. Chapilta, Jr., Secy. 

Supreme Liberty Life Ins. Co., 3501 South 
Parkway, Chicago 15, 111.; T. K. Gibson, 
Sr., Pres. ; W. Ellis Stewart, Secy. 

Union Mutual Life, Health & Accident Ins. 
Co., N.E. Corner 20th & Master Sts., Phila- 
delphia 21, Pa.; M. T. Somerville, Pres.; 
J. Robert Saxon, Secy. 

Union Protective Assurance Co., 368 Beale 
Ave., Memphis 3, Tenn. ; Lewis H. Twigg, 
Pres. ; E. R. Kirk, Secy-Treas. 

Unity Burial Ass., 506 St. Michael St., Mo- 
bile 10, Ala.; A. L. Herman, Pres.; D. L. 
Moore, Secy. 

Unity Mutual Life Ins. Co., 4719-4721 S. 
Indiana Ave., -Chicago 15, 111.; A. W. Wil- 
liams, Pres. ; Mrs. L. E. James, Secy. 

Universal Life Ins. Co., 480 Linden Ave., 
Memphis 1, Tenn.; Dr. J. E. Walker, 
Pres. ; A. Maceo Walker, Secy. 

Victory Industrial Life Ins. Co., 2019 Lou- 
isiana Ave., New Orleans 15, La. ; Dr. J. 
E. Simms, Pres.-Medical Dir. ; Mrs. Essie 
Simms, Secy. 

Victory Mutual Life Ins. Co., 5601 S. State 
St., Chicago 21, 111. ; Dr. P. M. H. Savory, 
Pres. ; Bishop R. A. Valentine, Secy. 

Virginia Mutual Benefit Life Ins. Co., 214 E. 
Clay St., Richmond 19, Va. ; Booker T. 
Bradshaw, Pres. ; Clarence L. Townes, Sr., 
Secy-Agency Dir. 

Watchtower Life Ins. Co., P.O. Box 2097 
Houston 1, Tex.; Charles A. Shaw, Exec. 
V-Pres. ; L. B. Bickham, Secy. 

Winston Mutual Life Ins. Co., 1100 E. llth 
St., Winston-Salem 4, N. C.; G. W. Hill, 
Pres. ; E. E. Hill, Secy. 

Wright Mutual Ins. Co., 4808 Beaubien St., 
Detroit 1, Mich.; D. O. Wright, Pres.; R. 
O. Bradby, Jr., Secy. 



Underwriters' Associations 
1951-52 

Akron Ins. Council, 39J^ N. Howard St., 
Akron 8, Ohio ; Carlton Conley, Pres. ; 
Mrs. Veronica Myricks, Secy. 

Chicago Negro Ins. Ass., 4636 South Park- 
way, Chicago 15, 111.; V. L. Burnett, Pres.; 
Mrs. Olive H. Crosthwait, Secy. 

Ins. Mgr.'s Ass. of D.C., 1736 Vermont Ave., 
N.W., Washington 9, D.C. ; William M. 
Goines, Pres.; Mrs. Erma W. Shamwell, 
Secy. 

The Ins. Mgrs.' Council of Cleveland, 2321 
E. 55th St., Cleveland 4, Ohio; Fred S. 
Moore, Pres. ; Charles H. Porter, Secy. 

Lexington Negro Underwriters' Ass., P.O. 
Box 397, Lexington, Ky.; Mrs. V. B. Gar- 
ner, Pres. ; Miss R. M. Martin, Secy. 

Maryland Mgrs.' Ass., 706 N. Gay St., Balti- 
more 2, Md. ; Theodore Kess, Pres.; John 
L. Berry, Secy. 

New Orleans Mgrs.' Council, 1765 N. Tonti 
St., New Orleans 19, La.; Eugene Lee, 
Pres., Norey J. Smith, Jr., Secy. 

Newport News Negro Underwriters Ass., 
P.O. Box 562, Newport News, Va. ; A. D. 
Manning, Pres.; Mrs. Roberta Langford, 
Secy. 



BANKS 



135 



South Carolina Negro Ins. Ass., P.O. Box 

778, Columbia, S.C.; J. C. Shavers, Pres.; 

St. Clair Robinson, Secy. 
Underwriters' Ass. of Md., 1430 Pennsylvania 

Ave., Baltimore 17, Md. ; A. M. Jones, 

Pres. Inez Lonesome, Secy. 
West Side Underwriters Ass., 1705 Banker 

Place, Dayton 4, Ohio ; Robert Patterson, 

Pres.; A. E. Baity, Secy. 

BANKS 

According to J. H. Wheeler, president of 
the National Bankers Association, 14 
banks owned and operated by Negroes 
had combined resources of approximately 
$35,000,000 in 1950. At the end of that 
year they were serving approximately 
110,000 depositors. 

At their 1950 meeting, the National 
Bankers Association stressed the prob- 
lems of rising operating costs. Special 
consideration was given to the limited 
sources of finance available for Negroes 
in business and the assistance which 
might be forthcoming from Negro bank- 
ing institutions. 



Perhaps more than any other factor in im- 
peding the success of Negro banking attempts 
was the scarcity of prosperous business enter- 
prises in other fields of industry upon which 
to base a Negro bank. Thus, the American 
Negro was caught ... in a vicious circle. On 
the one hand, he needed banks to help estab- 
lish successful businesses, and on the other he 
lacked the successful businesses upon which 
to base a banking industry. 1 

That these banks are becoming strong 
enough to assist other businesses is sig- 
nificant from the point of view of the 
development of businesses by Negroes. 

The financial institutions in Table 10 
point the way to what is being done in 
maintaining sound banking practices. 
They also assist Negroes in their business 
life, as well as in their personal life, and 
encourage thrift as a means of obtaining 
security. 

The Bankers Fire Insurance Company: 
At its annual meeting in March 1951, at 
Durham, N.C., the report of the Bankers 
Fire Insurance Company for 1950, its 
thirtieth year of existence, showed a total 



TABLE 10 
NEGRO BANKS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1951 



Name and Location 



Executive Officers 



The Carver Savings Bank L. B. Toomer, Pres. 

Savannah, Ga. L. D. Perry, Cashier 

Citizens Savings Bank & Trust Co Henry A. Boyd, Pres. 

Nashville, Tenn. M. G. Ferguson, Exec. V-Pres. 

Miss H. L. Jordan, Cashier 

Citizens & Southern Bank & Trust Co E. C. Wright, Pres. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Mrs. Harriett W. Lemon, Treas. 

Citizens Trust Co L. D. Milton, Pres. 

Atlanta, Ga. J. B. Blayton, Cashier 

Consolidated Bank & Trust Co F. C. Burke, Pres. 

Richmond, Va. W. S. Banks, Sec-Treas. 

Crown Savings Bank . . . Leroy F. Ridley, Pres. 

Newport News, Va. 

Danville Savings Bank & Trust Co I. W. Taylor, Pres. 

Danville, Va. M. C. Martin, Exec. V-Pres., Cashier 

Douglass State Bank H. W. Ewing, Pres. 

Kansas City, Kans. E. C. Ewing, Cashier 

Farmers State Bank Forest Anderson, Pres. 

Boley, Okla. M. W. Lee, Cashier 

Fraternal Bank & Trust Co William McDonald, Pres. 

Fort Worth, Tex. I. P. Anderson, Exec. V-Pres., Cashier 

Industrial Bank of Washington Jessie H. Mitchell, Pres. 

Washington, D.C. Mervin O. Parker, Cashier 

Mechanics & Farmers Bank C. C. Spaulding, Pres. 

Durham, N.C. f. H. Wheeler, Exec. V-Pres., Cashier 

Tri-State Bank of Memphis Dr. J. E. Walker, Pres. 

Memphis, Tenn. 

Victory Savings Bank E. A. Adams, Pres. 

Columbia, S.C. E. W. Vance, Cashier 

Source: The Modem Fanner, Aug. 15, 1951. 



1 Kinzei and Sagarin, op. cit. 



136 



INCOME AND BUSINESS 



of $304,173.35 as assets, against $17,- 
353.55 as liabilities. Of significance is the 
fact that to cover the liabilities, the com- 
pany owned "quick" assets amounting to 
$203,681.74, or a ratio of $11 in assets 
to every $1 in liabilities. During the year, 
a total of $170,085.99 from premium 
writing and $78,984.19 in paid loss claims 
were reported. The company, in the 
meanwhile, announced its twentieth distri- 
bution of dividends, bring the dividend 
payments to $112,822. 1 

SAVINGS AND LOAN 
ASSOCIATIONS 2 

As of Dec. 31, 1949, Negro savings and 
loan associations in the United States, 
operating in 12 states, were worth $16,- 
404,918. They grew 45.27% over the 1948 
total. First mortgage loans totaling $14,- 
015,905 constituted 85.42% of all assets 
and exceeded the previous year's record 
by a gain of 41.56%. The greatest in- 
crease in all their operations was regis- 
tered in volume of cash and government 
obligations, which aggregated $1,774,321, 
an excess of 120.8% beyond last year. 

Liabilities and Share Capital: The 
growing volume of savings capital and 
shareholders accounts, which amounted 
to $13,088,262, was a significant feature 
of the operations for 1949. This capital 
sum exceeded the past year's total by 
$4,607,742, or 54.37%, and directly in- 
fluenced the decline of 13.52% in the 
Federal Home Loan Bank System. Com- 
bined reserves and undivided profits of 
$1,146,181 advanced 34.45% during the 
year. 

Statement of Operations: The gross 
operating income of 24 reporting asso- 
ciations for the year 1949 was $838,902; 
gross operating expenses, $334,927; and 
net income, after interest and other 
charges, $477,288. Of the net income, 
dividend distributions amounted to $311,- 
397; reserves and undivided profits to 
$165,891. 



Although the dollar volume of net in- 
come increased during the year, the per- 
centage ratio of net income to gross in- 
come dropped approximately 6%. This 
decline is directly traceable to the con- 
stant rise in operating expenses 39.88% 
for 1949, as against 33.93% for 1948. 

FHLB System Members 

During 1949, three new associations 
were admitted to membership in the 
Federal Home Loan Bank System: the 
Carver Federal Savings and Loan Asso- 
ciation of New York, the Trans-Bay Fed- 
eral Savings and Loan Association of San 
Francisco, and the Watts Savings and 
Loan Association of Los Angeles. Fifteen 
associations are members of the FHLB 
System, five institutions have been Feder- 
ally chartered by the FHLB Board, and 
13 associations are members of the Fed- 
eral Savings and Loan Insurance Cor- 
poration, a government agency which in- 
sures savers' funds up to $10,000. 

The 1949 record of FHLB System mem- 
bers, as compared with non-member asso- 
ciations, is one of the most outstanding 
accomplishments of the savings and loan 
industry. Although they comprise only 
60% of the 25 associations, they represent 
93.5% of the total asset volume, 97% of 
combined cash and government obliga- 
tions, 93% of first mortgage loans, ap- 
proximately 94% of savings capital, and 
88.6% of total reserves and undivided 
profits. 

This progress record is attributable to 
the lending facilities and supervisory as- 
sistance of the Bank System, as well as 
the confidence which the Negro saver has 
developed in the integrity of Negro asso- 
ciation officials and the protective regula- 
tions of Federal thrift and home finance 
agencies. 

The American Savings 
and Loan League 

This organization was formed Nov. 12- 
13, 1948, to explore the possibilities of 



1 Source : The Pittsburgh Courier, March 24, 1951. 

2 Source: Savings and Loan Associations Owned and O&TOted by Negroes, Fourth Report, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 
Washington, D.C., January 1951. 



CREDIT UNIONS 



137 



new construction and to formulate plans 
for adequate mortgage financing of dwell- 
ings and housing projects for Negro occu- 
pancy, due to the acute housing situation 
among Negroes. Thirteen associations are 
members of the League, which includes 
among its objectives the formation of new 
associations operated by Negroes and the 
expansion of its program of service to all 
minority groups. 

CREDIT UNIONS 

In September 1951, at least 102 credit 
unions chartered under state and Federal 
laws were operated by Negroes in 26 
states. North Carolina had 30 of these 
organizations, Louisiana followed with 19, 
Texas had 5, Missouri 5, and Virginia, 
Oklahoma, New York, and Kansas 4 each. 
There were 3 in Alabama, California, and 
Ohio, 2 each in West Virginia, Michigan, 
and Maryland, and 1 each in Arkansas, 
Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, 
Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, 



New Jersey, Pennsylvania, South Caro- 
lina, and Tennessee. 

By types, these credit unions are not 
confined to any particular group. They 
exist among teachers, churches, schools 
and colleges, farmers, insurance com- 
panies, the NAACP, and other community 
organizations. 

Credit Unions Serving Negroes, 1951 ' 

Alabama 

Mobile County Teachers Fed. C. U., Mobile 
Montgomery District Fed. C. U., Mont- 
gomery 

Tuskegee Institute Fed. C. U., Tuskegee 
Institute 

MWKD Fed. U., Grand Council of Free- 
masons, Little Rock 
California 

Acme Household C. U., Berkeley 
First A.M.E. Church Fed. C. U., Los An- 
geles 

Sacramento NAACP C. U., Sacramento 
Florida 

Railway Express Colored Employees C. U., 

Jacksonville 
Georgia 

Bibb Professional Teachers C. U., Macon 
Illinois 

Carver Center C. U., Galesburg 



TABLE 11 
TOTAL ASSETS 24 SAVINGS AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS 



Associations 



Total 

Assets 



Atlanta Mutual Building, Loan & Savings Ass., Atlanta, Ga $1,064,924 

The Berean Savings & Loan Ass., Philadelphia, Pa 1,209,597 

Berkley Citizens Mutual Building & Loan Ass., Inc., Norfolk, Va 355,899 

Broadway Federal Savings & Loan Ass., Los Angeles, Calif. 3,123,534 

Calvary Building & Loan Ass., Philadelphia, Pa 94,607 

Carver Federal Savings & Loan Ass., New York, N.Y 829,219 

Community Building-Loan Ass., Norfolk, Va 20,747 

Columbia Savings & Loan Ass., Milwaukee, Wis 793,443 

East End Investment & Loan Ass., Cincinnati, Ohio 172,250 

Eighth Ward Settlement Building & Loan Ass., Philadelphia, Pa 62,752 

Home Federal Savings & Loan Ass., Detroit, Mich 384,932 

Homeseekers Savings & Loan Ass., Kansas City, Mo 22,637 

Illinois Federal Savings & Loan Ass., Chicago, 111 2,264,765 

Imperial Building & Loan Ass., Inc., Martinsville, Va ' 37,863 

Industrial Savings & Loan Ass., Cincinnati, Ohio 254,820 

Liberty Savings & Loan Ass., Los Angeles, Calif. 1,810,524 

Magic City Building & Loan Ass., Inc., Roanoke, Va 160,674 

Morgan Park Savings & Loan Ass., Chicago, 111 57,806 

Mutual Building & Loan Ass., Durham, N.C 1,351,859 

251,376 

725,920 

253,594 

277,439 

641,174 

182,563 



New Age Building & Loan Ass., St. Louis, Mo 

Peoples Building & Loan Ass., Hampton, Va 

Trans-Bay Federal Savings & Loan Ass., San Francisco, Calif. 

Tuskegee Savings & Loan Ass., Tuskegee Institute, Ala 

Watts Savings & Loan Ass., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Zoar Community Building & Loan Ass., Philadelphia, Pa 



TOTAL 516,404,918 

Source: Savings and Loan Associations Operated by Negroes, Fourth Report, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 
January 1951. 



1 Source: Credit Union National Association, Inc., Thomas W. Doig, Managing Director. 



138 



INCOME AND BUSINESS 



Kansas 

Barton County Branch NAACP C. U., 

Great Bend 

First C. U., Parsons Branch NAACP, Par- 
sons 

NAACP C. U., Wichita 
Topeka Branch C. U., Topeka 
Kentucky 

15th St. Memorial C. U., Louisville 
Louisiana 

Bossier Chamber of Commerce Fed. C. U., 

Benton 

Calliope Project C. U., New Orleans 
East Baton Rouge Teachers Fed. C. U., 

Baton Rouge 

Grambling Fed. C. U., Grambling 
LaFitte C. U., New Orleans 
Local 101 Industrial Insurance Agents C. 

U., New Orleans 

Louisiana Industrial Life Insurance Em- 
ployees, C. U., New Orleans 
Magnolia Project C. U., New Orleans 
Nakatosk Fed. C. U., Natchitoches 
Our Mother of Mercy Fed. C. U., Rayne 
People C. U., New Orleans 
St. Catherine's Arnoudville Fed. C. U., Ar- 

noudville 

St. James Fed. C. U., Alexandria 
St. Thomas Parish Fed. C. U., Davant 
Supreme Insurance Co. Employees C. U., 

New Orleans 
Terrebonne Parents & Teachers C. U., 

Houma 

Twin City Teachers Fed. C. U., Monroe 
Washington Parish Teachers & Parents 

Fed. C. U., Franklinton 
West Baton Rouge Parish Parents & Teach- 
ers Fed. C. U., Port Allen 
Maryland 

Ambrosia Fed. C. U., Baltimore 
Laurel Community Fed. C. U., Laurel 
Massachusetts 

Mystic Valley Fed. C. U., Boston 
Michigan 

Ebenezer A.M.E. Church C. U., Detroit 
Memorial Fed. C. U., Benton Harbor 
Minnesota 

Associated Negro C. U., Minneapolis 
Mississippi 

Picayune Fed. C. U., Picayune 
Missouri 

Elleardsville C. U., St. Louis 

Lincoln Univ., Fed. C. U., Jefferson City 

St. Louis Area A C. U., St. Louis 

Negro Employees C. U., Kansas City 

Southeast, Mo. Negro Professional C. U., 

Caruthersville 
New Jersey 

St. James A.M.E. C. U., Newark 
New York 

Abyssinia Baptist Church Fed. C. U., New 

York 

Bethel A.M.E. Fed. C. U., Buffalo 
Caldwell Fed. C. U., Bronx 
Carver Fed. C. U., White Plains 
North Carolina 

Asheville Buncombe C. U., Asheville 
Atlantic C. U., Rocky Mount 
Bright Leaf C. U., Ayden 
Brown Memorial C. U., Winton 
Cabarrus County C. U., Concord 
Camden C. U., Belcross 
Carver Creek C. U., Councils 
Caswell C. U., Yanceyville 



North Carolina (cent.) 

Cherrytown C. U., Charlotte 
Chicod C. U., Grimesland 
Compact C. U., Kings Mountain 
Cumberland County Negro Teachers C. U., 
Fayetteville 

Dan River C. U., Leaksville 
Douglas High School Farm C. U., Lawn- 
dale 

Edgecombe Farmers Coop. C. U., Tarboro 
Farmers & Veterans C. U., Fuquay Springs 
Granville C. U., Oxford 
Hertford County Guide C. U., Como 
Joint County C. U., Powellsville 
Lincoln Academy Community C. U., Kings 

Mountain 

Pasquotank C. U., Elizabeth City 
Perquimas C. U., Hertford 
Roanoke Chowan C. U., Rich Square 
Roanoke C. U., Welden 
Roper C. U., Roper 
School Workers Fed. C. U., Charlotte 
Square Deal C. U., Scranton 
Warren County C. U., Warrenton 
Wilson County C. U., Wilson 
Zebulon C. U., Zebulon 
Ohio 

Cleveland Tuskegee Alumni C. U., Cleve- 
land 

NAACP C. U., Youngstown 
State College Fed. C. U., Wilberforce 
Oklahoma 

Creek Farmers Fed. C. U., Bristow 

Okla. Negro Teachers C. U., Oklahoma 

City 

Seminole County C. U., Wewoka 
Tulsa Negro Teachers C. U., Tulsa 
, Pennsylvania 

Lincoln Park Residents Fed. C. U., Pitts- 
burgh 
South Carolina 

Richland Teachers Council Fed. C. U., 

Columbia 
Tennessee 

Foote Homes Fed. C. U., Memphis 
Texas 

Baptist People Fed. C. U., Victoria 
Dallas Negro Teachers C. U., Dallas 
Galveston Negro Chamber of Commerce C. 

U., Galveston 

McDonald College C. U., Fort Worth 
Texas State Univ. Fed. C. U., Houston 
Virginia 

A.F.L. Local 209 Richmond Fed. C. U., 

Richmond 

A.F.L. 216 Richmond Fed. C. U., Richmond 
Norfolk Teachers Ass. Fed. C. U., Norfolk 
Salem Community Fed. C. U., Salem 
West Virginia 

Lakin Fed. C. U., Lakin 
The Weirton Progressive Fed. C. U., Weir- 
ton 

Federal Credit Unions, 1942 and 1950: 
In 1942, 83% of all Federal credit unions 
chartered were operating; for Negroes, 
80%. All Federal credit unions canceled 
and inoperative during the same year 
amounted to 17%; for Negroes, 14%. 
For all Federal credit unions, the per- 
centage of actual to potential member- 



CREDIT UNIONS 



139 



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Potential 
Artnal . . 


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Total Assets 


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Source: Bureau of Federal 
1 Includes military loans. 



140 



INCOME AND BUSINESS 



ship was 35%; for Negroes, 30%. Cur- 
rent loans for all of these unions were 
84%; Negro Federal credit union loans 
were 80%. All loans delinquent for two 
months or more amounted to 16%; for 
Negro credit unions, this delinquency was 
20%. All Federal credit unions and 
Federal credit unions among Negroes had 
the same percentage of charge-offs to 
amounts loaned, 0.08% in 1942. 

In 1950, the picture is somewhat dif- 
ferent. For that year, 71% of all Federal 
credit unions chartered were operating; 
while for the Negro credit unions, 80% 
were operating. All Federal credit unions 
canceled and inoperative during the same 
year were 29%; for Negroes, 20%. For 
all Federal credit unions, the percentage 
of actual to potential membership was 
39%; for Negroes, 24%. Current loans 
for all Federal credit unions amounted to 
94% ; Negro Federal credit unions loans 
were 86%. All Federal credit unions had 
only 6% of their loans delinquent two 
months or more in 1950; for the same 
period, 14% of the loans of Negro Fed- 
eral credit unions were delinquent. The 
percentage of charge-offs to amounts 
loaned for all Federal credit unions was 
14%; for Negroes, 12%. 

CERTIFIED PUBLIC 
ACCOUNTANTS 1 

Accountancy is increasingly becoming an 
important business among Negroe^. Sev- 
eral have opened individual offices. A 
prominent example is Mrs. Mary Wash- 
ington of Chicago, licensed during 1939, 
and sole owner of her business. She 
supervises a staff of seven, and her firm 
handles general accounting, installation 
of accounting systems, and financial re- 
porting. 

Others who have formed companies 
include: Lucas and Tucker of New York 
City; J. B. Blayton and Company, Audi- 
tors and Actuaries, Atlanta, Ga.; G. S. 
Marchman and Company, Chicago, 111.; 
and Richard A. Austin Company, Detroit, 
Mich. In the teaching field are: Mrs. 

1 Souice : Questionnaire and Negro Press. 



Larzette Hale of Clark University; Lin- 
coln J. Harrison of Central State College, 
Wilberforce, Ohio; and Carey B. Lewis, 
Jr., at Southern University, Baton Rouge, 
La. Jesse H. Turner is with the Tri-State 
Bank of Memphis, Tenn. 

The first Negro Certified Public Ac- 
countant to win the Ph.D. degree in 
accounting is William H. Campfield, son 
of Mrs. I. K. Campfield and the late 
Charles G. Campfield, Tuskegee Institute, 
Ala. This degree was conferred by the 
University of Illinois in 1951. Twenty- 
six names are recorded on the list that 
follows. 

Some Negro Certified Pubic Accountants 

California : 

Bratton, Bertrand B., 2514^ Central Ave., 

Los Angeles 
Campfield, Dr. William H., 725-25th Ave., 

San Francisco 
District of Columbia, Washington : 

Cromwell, John W. 
Georgia, Atlanta : 

Blayton, J. B., Sr., 239 Auburn Ave., N. E. 
Hale, Mrs. Larzette. 239 Auburn Ave., 

N. E. 
Illinois, Chicago : 

Beckett, Charles A., 4655 So. Michigan 

Ave. 

Jones, Theodore A., 3507 So. Parkway 
Lewis, Gary B., Jr., 4926 Washington Park 

Court 

Little, Isaac Y., 2700 So. Wabash Ave. 
Marchman, G. Stevens, 4649 So. Parkway 
Pittman, Hiram L., 2700 So. Wabash Ave. 
Washington, Mrs. Mary T., 2700 So. Wa- 
bash Ave. 

Wilson, Arthur J., 765 E. Oakwood Blvd. 
Kentucky, Louisville : 

Christian, J. W. 
Michigan, Detroit : 

Austin, Richard A., Richard A. Austin 
Company of Certified Public Account- 
ants 

Monjoy, Milton, Richard A. Austin Com- 
pany of Certified Public Accountants 
Washington, George 
New York, N. Y. : 

Drayton, Parnell, 166 W. 125th St. 
Lucas, Wilmer F., 209 W. 125th St. 
Rawlins, Louis, 209 W. 135th St. 
Tucker, Alfred, 209 W. 135th St. 
Ohio: 

Brown, Dallas, c/o Majestic Hotel, Cleve- 
land 

Harrison, Lincoln Jay,, Central State Col- 
lege, Wilberforce 
Whiting, Elmer J., Jr., 8414 Cedar Ave., 

Cleveland 
Tennessee : 

Campbell, B. ., Nashville 

Turner, Jesse H., c/o Tri-State Bank of 
Memphis, Memphis 



OUTSTANDING BUSINESSES 



141 



SOME OUTSTANDING 

BUSINESSES AND 

BUSINESSMEN 1 

In general the Negro in business operates 
small service establishments which cater 
to basic needs grocery stores, barber 
shops, cleaning, pressing, and tailoring 
establishments, drug stores, auto service 
stations, beauty shops, and the like. 

The Bureau of the Census reports on 
business for 1948 do not provide any data 
on business establishments owned and 
operated by Negroes, because the ques- 
tion on race of proprietor asked in 1939 
and earlier was not asked in the last 
survey. However, there are numerous 
cases of outstanding and prosperous 
businesses owned and operated by Ne- 
groes all over the United States in addi- 
tion to those in which Negroes have 
traditionally been successful. 

Contracting: The Means Brothers, Inc., 
of Gary, Ind., have developed within the 
past few years several model home pro- 
jects. During their building career they 
have built more than 700 small homes, 
ranging from 4 to 12 rooms, and about 
100 commercial buildings, such as flats, 
stores, warehouses and churches. In 
January 1950, they held a week-long 
daily inspection of two homes of the 
F. D. Patterson Village. The president, 
Andrew A. Means, a Tuskegee Institute 
graduate, is nationally known for his 
contributions to better housing and for 
his active participation in the wide-scale 
effort to develop Negro business through- 
out the country. His firm has also devel- 
oped the Means Model Community, the 
Booker T. Washington Terrace, and the 
Gary Land Subdivision Project, all of the 
city of Gary. This firm regularly employs 
112 men, including plumbers and elec- 
tricians, who draw a weekly payroll of 
from $7,800 to $18,000. 

Walter "Chief" Aiken of Atlanta, Ga., 
a Hampton graduate, is a recognized 
builder of small homes. Not only has he 



built more than 3,000 homes between 
1945 and 1950, he has also made them 
obtainable to the most needy by financing 
purchases himself under a plan whereby 
only a small down payment is required. 
This is possible because he combines pre- 
fabricated and custom construction. As a 
matter of business principle he earns 
only a small per-unit profit. Hiring white 
and colored workers strictly on an ability 
basis, his construction firm is a living 
example of the workability of fair em- 
ployment practices in the South. In addi- 
tion to small homes, his specialty, he has 
built some of the finest homes in Atlanta. 

Samuel Plato is leading the way in 
solving the acute housing shortage in 
Louisville, Ky. During 1950, Mr. Plato 
built 36 two-bedroom houses selling 
under $8,000. He built a number of four- 
room houses in 1951 and now plans to 
erect 12 more with prices starting at 
$7,500. 

Paul Williams, celebrated architect 
and builder of homes for small income 
families, has designed many fine Cali- 
fornia homes as well as public buildings. 
In 1951, he was selected to design the 
$84,000 shrine to the memory of the late 
singer, Al Jolson. 

Engineering: Archie A. Alexander of 
Iowa is a builder of bridges and other 
engineering projects. Upon entering the 
University of Iowa he was told that a 
Negro could not hope to succeed as an 
engineer. After 14 years, his alma mater 
called him back to construct a $1,000,000 
heating plant and to lecture to students 
in the Engineering College. His company, 
known as Alexander and Repass, is re- 
ported to have completed 300 building 
projects, valued at nearly $20,000,000, in 
34 years. Among their construction pro- 
jects are the Tidal Basin Bridge, Wash- 
ington, D.C., and the $3,500,000 District 
of Columbia speedway. 

Arts and Craft Shop: Afro-Arts Bazaar, 
Inc., 124 E. 60 St., N.Y., N.Y., opened on 
March 1, 1949. Three enterprising Negro 



1 Sources: Chicago Defender, Jan. 14, 1950, Oct. 21, 1950; Ebony, November 1948, August 1949, October 1950, April 
1951; Black Dispatch, Aug. 8, 1951; Afro-American, Feb. 17, 1951; Tyler College Chain Bulletin, August 1946; 
and interview with H. M. Morgan. 



142 



INCOME AND BUSINESS 



women, Miss Etta Moton (Mrs. Claude 
Barnett), singer; Mrs. Estelle Massey 
Osborne, social-minded nurse; and Mrs. 
Ida Cullen, widow of the poet, Countee 
Cullen, formed a partnership on a capital 
investment of less than $3,000. The idea 
for the shop came from their desire to 
"focus attention on the arts and crafts 
and especially the contributions of the 
darker peoples of the world." Imported 
articles from Africa, Haiti, and Cuba are 
their specialty. They also deal in unusual 
American art objects. In 1950 this busi- 
ness had a $20,000 stock and was well 
rated by Dun and Bradstreet. 

Beauty Culture: The beauty culture 
business has long been a lucrative one for 
Negroes, one in which large numbers 
have been able to secure employment. 
Since Madame C. J. Walker founded her 
system of beauty culture and Mrs. Annie 
M. Malone developed the Poro system 
some 50 years ago, others have success- 
fully followed in their footsteps. In 1951, 
one of the most modern of the beauty 
culture businesses owned by Negroes was 
the Rose Meta House of Beauty, Inc., 
N.Y., N.Y. It began in 1944, when two 
young women, one an experienced beauty 
shop operator and the other trained in 
biology and physical education, joined 
their resources and worked out their 
ideas of combining body care with a 
specially blended line of cosmetics. They 
began in a run-down old mansion with a 
capital of $10,000. By 1948 they had ex- 
perimented with cosmetics suitable for 
the pigmentation of colored people and 
were distributing their products in 42 
cities of the United States and in Liberia, 
Jamaica, Cuba, and other foreign coun- 
tries. By 1950, they had further expanded 
their domestic and foreign trade, had 
opened three shops in New York and 
were employing at least 300 people. 

Through demonstrations in Paris in the 
same year, Rose Morgan acquainted 
French women and beauty operators with 
a new method of pressing and waving 
hair. She also toured Nice, Algiers, Casa- 
blanca, Switzerland, and Dakar, West 
Africa. The Rose Meta Company's name 



is copyrighted in many foreign countries. 

Shirt Manufacturer: The Washington 
Shirt Manufacturing Company of Chi- 
cago, according to the Chicago Defender, 
Oct. 21, 1950, is the only Negro shirt- 
manufacturing company in America. It 
has produced and sold almost 4,000,000 
men's shirts during the past few years. 
Starting business in 1930, George J. 
Washington shocked his friends by leav- 
ing the security of a post-office job to 
pursue a childhood dream. In 1950 he 
was reported to have grossed $750,000. 
His payroll for 30 regular employees, 
who work in two shifts, is above $85,000 
a year. His shirts, trademarked "Dunbar 
Shirts," are sold not only in such stores 
as Marshall Field, Chicago, but also in 
first class men's stores everywhere. 

This factory received orders from the 
government during World War II and 
made almost 1,000,000 shirts for the 
Army, as well as undershirts, shorts, and 
ties. In 1948, the factory was renovated 
and new machines costing more than 
$20,000 installed. 

Barbering: A unique business is the 
Tyler Barber College, authorized and 
recognized by State Boards of Barber 
Examiners, State approval agencies, and 
the Veterans Administration. Organized 
in 1933 with its home office in Tyler, 
Texas, this chain of barber colleges, ac- 
cording to H. M. Morgan, founder-presi- 
dent, had eight units in September 1950, 
located in Tyler, Houston, and Dallas, 
Texas; Jackson, Miss.; Little Rock, Ark.; 
and New York City. This chain now has 
more than 15,000 graduates, who practice 
in every state. As the first school of its 
kind in America for Negroes, it aims to 
help them "regain the barbering business 
through training and intelligence," as 
Mr. Morgan states. 

Inventor-Manufacturer: William Ches- 
ter Ruth is a successful inventor who has 
gone into business. Formerly a farmer, 
this Gap, Pa., businessman is said to have 
begun registering his patents nearly 20 
years ago and to do a current annual 
business of more than $50,000 by manu- 
facturing and selling his own inventions, 



OUTSTANDING BUSINESSES 



143 



among which is a bombsight. In 1932, he 
designed and perfected three new pieces 
of farm machinery, which promptly en- 
abled him to convert his blacksmith shop 
into a manufacturing business. His first 
product was a baler-feeder, then came a 
cinder and manure spreader, and finally 
an automatic tie for a hay-baler. Ruth's 
machine shop has equipment valued at 
over $65,000. His son is his business 
partner, and he employs a mixed crew of 
workmen. 

Realtor: An unusual business for a 
woman is that of Mrs. Geneva K. Valen- 
tine of Washington, D.C., whose 40 sales- 
men are said to have handled $1,250,000 
worth of realty business in 1946. She is 
the only Negro woman member of the 
National Association of Real Estate 
Boards. 

Ice Cream Manufacturer: Kit Baldwin, 
who owns the Baldwin Ice Cream Com- 
pany on Chicago's Southside, is one of 
the few ice-cream manufacturers among 
Negroes. Starting as a day-time salesman 
while working at night in the Post Office, 
Baldwin took over a shaky plant in 1939 
and built it into a successful business. 
He has about 125 outlets and has won 
the confidence of his patrons to the extent 
that his product is one of the top South- 
side sellers. 

Diversified Businesses: New Orleans, 
La., like many other large southern cities, 
has numerous Negro-owned businesses. 
In 1949, there were 3,100 in that city alone. 
Fortune cited some of the most successful. 1 
There is, for example, contractor Joe Bar- 
tholomew, reputed to be worth $500.000. 
In addition to his contracting business, 
specializing in drainage, foundation, and 
landscape work, he is a real-estate dealer 
and head of an insurance company. He 
also manufactures a high-quality ice 
cream. He employs accountants and sec- 
retaries to maintain his businesses other 
than contracting. In 1934, Bartholomew 
repaired Tulane Avenue in his home city, 
a $250,000 job. He handled all the stone 
at the famous Charity Hospital, and dur- 
ing World War II did "large-scale" work 

1 Fortune, November 1949, pp. 112-116. 



for Higgins, Inc., shipyards. He has 
drained, landscaped, and laid sewage 
pipe for some of the largest public and 
private housing projects in the city and 
has provided foundations for factories 
and office buildings, including the Johns- 
Manville plant. His preparation of the 
grounds for the Parkview Gardens, a new 
housing unit, was a $300,000 job. Bartho- 
lomew's ice-cream business is housed in a 
$75,000 plant and uses two refrigerated 
trucks. 

Adam Haydel, who began as an. auto 
wrecker, is also said to operate a six- 
figure business. He is now a contractor, 
a real-estate dealer, an insurance man, a 
drugstore owner, a night club operator, 
and an undertaking establishment oper- 
ator. The forty-two-year old Haydel 
moved from his father's 1,300 acre plan- 
tation in southern Louisiana during the 
1931 slump, went to New Orleans, and 
became a plasterer by day and an auto 
mechanic by night. In 1935 he went into 
business for himself. Today, after seven- 
teen years, he is one of the best known and 
most influential Negro businessmen in the 
city. 

In 1942, George McDemmond of New 
Orleans began his potato-chip business 
with two sacks of potatoes, eight gallons 
of cooking oil, a slicing machine, and $40 
worth of wax bags, all of which he pur- 
chased for $78. In 1949 he owned a 
$50,000 plant. He does between $150,000 
and $200,000 worth of business a year in 
potato chips, pork skins, and peanut- 
butter wafers, calling his products "Com- 
munity Essentials." About 15% of his 
sales are to white retail outlets. Through 
brokers he sells to New York distributors 
and reaches markets as far off as South 
America. He is one of the largest Negro 
manufacturers and distributors of food 
in America. 

In their diversity of activities these 
men cut across racial lines with "luxuries 
and necessities that rank high in quality 
by any standards." They have created new 
opportunities for Negro businessmen by 
their endeavors. 



144 



INCOME AND BUSINESS 



INTEGRATION OR 
SEGREGATION IN BUSINESS 

Robert* H. Kinzer and Edward Sagarin 
in The Negro in American Business 
(1950) pose the ideological dilemma fac- 
ing the Negro in business as it faces him 
in every phase of his life, that of making 
a choice between the temporary advan- 
tages of separation and "fuller economic 
opportunities offered by the difficult road 
of integration." 

The Negro is at the present time at a cross- 
road. The expansion of vocational and busi- 
ness education has brought forth a generation 
among whom are large numbers of Negroes ex- 
cellently equipped for the business world and 
who, finding the roads seemingly blocked, turn 
toward a segregated economy. At the same 
time, the entire social trend in this country, 
from a long-range viewpoint, indicates that the 
forward-looking Negro has greater opportuni- 
ties in business than ever before, not as a 
Negro businessman specifically, but as an 
American businessman. 

Fundamentally, the dilemma thus resolves 
itself into one of outlook. If the Negro is at a 
crossroad, he finds paths leading in two direc- 
tions. Standing at that point, a choice seems to 
be mandatory. Shall he think and work in 
terms of a separate economy, exploiting its 
possibilities, utilizing its advantages, prolong- 
ing its life? Or, shall the other pathway be 
taken, with the orientation toward integration, 
the overcoming of obstacles, the breakdown of 
separatist tendencies? 

These writers make this conclusion: 

The two roads can be taken simultaneously 
and, despite temporary conflicts that may arise 
from time to time, they will actually aid each 
other. In fact, it would be impossible at this 
time to suggest that either pathway be aban- 
doned, because there would be entailed an 
obvious sacrifice that Negro people can ill 
afford to make. 

This joint development of the separate and 
the integrated philosophies of business is not 
only desirable, but is inevitable. It is, in fact, 
forced upon the Negro by outer circumstances, 
by the current political and economic status 
in the United States, just as the previous 
economic roads which he took at other stages 
of his history were imposed from without. 

It is not the Negro in business that is faced 
with an ideological dilemma, so much as it is 
American business that is faced with this 
dilemma. 

Elmer W. Henderson, director, Ameri- 
can Council on Human Rights, in his ar- 
ticle, "Why Have Negro Enterprises in an 



Integrated Society?", appearing in the 
Spring 1951 issue of The Pilot, organ of 
the National Negro Insurance Associa- 
tion, is in agreement with this point of 
view. He feels that 

. . . there has developed a confusion in the 
minds of most of us about the relationship of 
Negro-owned enterprises to the general fight 
against segregation and ultimately to the goal 
of an integrated society. Some have gone so 
far as to say Negro business as such can have 
no place at all when we finally achieve the 
abolition of segregation. This is not sound 
thinking. 

Negro owned and operated enterprises are 
any and all businesses under the proprietor- 
ship and management of colored Americans. 
They may or may not limit their services or 
market to Negroes although this has been a 
predominating characteristic. . . . 

Our economy is based on individual or 
corporate enterprises and will no doubt re- 
main so for a long time. If all segregation were 
abolished the day after tomorrow, Negroes 
would still have the problem of making a liv- 
ing; either by going into business for them- 
selves or by selling their labor for hire. . . . The 
job of making a living and creating wealth 
must go hand in hand with the fight against 
segregation and discrimination. 

Negro business is not the same as Jim-Crow 
business. What tends to equate the two is that 
Negro enterprises usually employ only Ne- 
groes and usually cater only to Negro trade. 
There develops too often a psychology of 
lower standards and a market of trade limited 
by the segregated environs and the habits of 
life that may exist there. We see many signs of 
a movement away from Jim-Crow business but 
it is still too prevalent. On the other hand, 
Negro-owned and operated enterprises should 
be unlimited in scope and the standards put on 
as competitive a basis as financing permits. 

The pattern that most American business 
enterprises have followed has been in the be- 
ginning to cater to a small specialized or 
geographically restricted clientele but as they' 
grow larger and more secure to remove all 
bounds to the limits of the market. 

The basic ingredient of success in any type 
of business is having something to sell that is 
a little better or a little cheaper than that of 
the other fellow. There is every reason to be- 
lieve that white customers will react in the 
same way as Negro customers. My plea is that 
the Negro business man throw off the remains 
of the ghetto psychology . . . and look upon 
our entire national population as a potential 
market for his goods and services. 

National Negro Business League 

The National Negro Business League 
was organized in Boston, Mass., in 1900. 



INTEGRATION OR SEGREGATION 



145 



It represents the vision of Booker T. 
Washington that ultimately the Negro 
should be integrated into the affairs of 
the state, the nation, and the world. 

He realized that business and the build- 
ing of it was basic to the rise of the race. 
He further knew that the Negro was not 
in a position to provide the financing to 
carry forward the needed program, so 
he turned to his friend, Julius Rosen- 
wald, and to the Standard Oil Company 
to provide the funds with which to in- 
augurate the League. Its first headquar- 
ters was at Tuskegee Institute, and there, 
at the shrine of its founder, the League 
celebrated its Golden Anniversary in 
1950. In 1951, the League established 
permanent headquarters at 1228 U St., 
Washington 9, B.C. 

Presidents of the National Negro Busi- 
ness League have been: Booker T. Wash- 
ington, 1900-15; J. C. Napier, 1915-19; 
Robert R. Moton, 1919-30; C. C. Spauld- 
ing, 1930-38; Dr. J. E. Walker, 1938-44; 



Roscoe Dungee, 1944-46; A. J. Gaston, 
1946-48; Horace Sudduth, 1948-current. 1 

Negro Business 
Associations, 1951 

Emmer Martin Lancaster, adviser on 
Negro Affairs, U.S. Department of Com- 
merce, Washington, D.C., has compiled a 
list of approximately 200 Negro business 
associations, located in 21 states and 
more than 100 cities throughout the 
United States. Fourteen of the associa- 
tions are national in scope, together hav- 
ing 111 affiliates throughout the nation. 
Prepared at the request of prominent 
business executives and delegates attend- 
ing the Annual Conference of the Negro 
in Business, sponsored by the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce, the data, for the most 
part, was obtained from ranking officials 
of the listed associations. Organizations 
known as Negro Chambers of Commerce 
and Negro business Leagues are included 
in these associations. 



1 Source: Horace Sudduth, president, National Negro Business League, in Convention Journal and Directory, 
National Negro Business League and National Housewives League of America. 51st Anniversary, 1951. 



72 
The Armed Forces 



ELIMINATION OF 
SEGREGATION 

Reporting on Negroes in the armed forces 
of the United States has become difficult 
since the end of World War II with the 
inauguration of a Federal policy requir- 
ing the elimination of segregation. This 
integration policy and its implementation 
in the past five years is a major reform. 

Records of the Selective Service System 
show that 1,074,083 Negroes were in- 
ducted into the armed forces between 
Nov. 1, 1940, and Aug. 1, 1946, or 10.7% 
of the total number of men of all races 
inducted during that period. The total 
number of Negroes to enlist or be in- 
ducted in this period was 1,154,720 or 
7.7% of the total. 1 

All branches of the armed forces of the 
United States were still segregated when 
World War II ended with the signing of 
the articles of surrender by Japan on 
Sept. 2, 1945. The Army had held to its 
traditional policy of segregation accord- 
ing to race. And at the end of 1945 
slightly over 5% of the Negroes in the 
Navy were in general ratings and almost 
95% in the messman's branch. The Air 
Force maintained segregated units. 

Experiments with integrated units had 
been tried by the Army in the latter pe- 
riod of the war. The Navy had revised its 
policy to eliminate segregation in train- 
ing. However, a uniform policy did not 
go into effect until Executive Order 9981 
was issued by President Harry S. Tru- 
man on July 26, 1948. 

EXECUTIVE ORDER 9981 

Whereas it is essential that there be main- 
tained in the. armed services of the United 



States the highest standards of democracy, 
with equality of treatment and opportunity for 
all those who serve in our country's defense: 

Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority 
vested in me as President of the United States, 
by the Constitution and the statutes of the 
United States, and as Commander-in-Chief of 
the armed services, it is hereby ordered as 
follows : 

1. It is hereby declared to be the policy of 
the President that there shall be equality of 
treatment and opportunity for all persons in 
the armed services without regard to race, 
color, religion or national origin. This policy 
shall be put into effect as rapidly as possible, 
having due regard to the time required to 
effectuate any necessary changes without im- 
pairing efficiency or morale. 

2. There shall be created in the National 
Military Establishment an advisory committee 
to be known as the President's Committee on 
Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the 
Armed Services, which shall be composed of 
seven members to be designated by the Presi- 
dent. 

3. The Committee is authorized on behalf 
of the President to examine into the rules, 
procedures and practices of the armed ser- 
vices in order to determine in what respect 
such rules, procedures and practices may be 
altered or improved with a view to carrying 
out the policy of this order. The Committee 
shall confer and advise with the Secretary of 
Defense, the Secretary of the Army, the Secre- 
tary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Air 
P'orce, and shall make such recommendations 
to the President and to said Secretaries as in 
the judgment of the Committee will effectuate 
the policy herof . 

4. All executive departments and agencies 
of the Federal Government are authorized and 
directed to cooperate with the Committee in 
its work, and to furnish the Committee such 
information or the services of such persons as 
the Committee may require in the performance 
of its duties. 

5. When requested by the Committee to do 
so, persons in the armed services or in any of 
the executive departments and agencies of the 
Federal Government shall testify before the 
Committee and shall make available for the 
use of the Committee such documents and 



1 Johnson, Campbell C., "The Negro and Selective Service," The Negro History Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 1, p. 7, 
October 1951. 



146 



THE ARMY 



147 



other information as the Committee may 
require. 

6. The Committee shall continue to exist 
until such time as the President shall ter- 
minate its existence by Executive Order. 
Harry S. Truman 

The President appointed the following 
to be members of the Committee : Charles 
Fahy, Chairman; Alphonsus J. Donahue; 
Lester B. Granger; Charles Luckman; 
Dwight R. G. Palmer; John H. Seng- 
stacke; William E. Stevenson. 

Secretary of Defense 
Johnson's Directive 

While the President's Committee was 
sitting on April 6, 1949, Secretary of De- 
fense Louis Johnson issued the following 
directive: 

1. a. It is the policy of the National Military 
Establishment that there shall be equality of 
treatment and opportunity for all persons in 
the armed services without regard to race, 
color, religion or national origin. 

b. To assist in achieving uniform applica- 
tion of this policy, the following supplemental 
policies are announced: 

(1) To meet the requirements of the ser- 
vices for qualified individuals, all personnel 
will be considered on the basis of individual 
merit and ability and must qualify accord- 
ing to the prescribed standards for enlist- 
ment, attendance at schools, promotion, as- 
signment to specific duties, etc. 

(2) All individuals, regardless of race, will 
be accorded equal opportunity for appoint- 
ment, advancement, professional improve- 
ment, promotion and retention in their re,- 
spective components of the National Mili- 
tary Establishment. 

(3) Some units may continue to be manned 
with Negro personnel ; however, all Negroes 
will not necessarily be assigned to Negro 
units. Qualified Negro personnel shall be 
assigned to fill any type of position vacancy 
in organizations or overhead installations 
without regard to race. 

2. Each department is directed to examine 
its present practices and determine what for- 
ward steps can and should be made in the light 
of this policy and in view of Executive Order 
9981, dated July 26, 1948 which directs that 
this policy shall be put into effect as rapidly 
as possible with due regard to the time re- 
quired to effectuate any necessary changes 
without impairing efficiency or morale. 

3. Following the completion of this study, 
each department shall state, in writing, its 
own detailed implementation of the general 
policy stated herein and such supplemental 



policies as may be determined by each service 
to meet its own specific needs. These state- 
ments shall be submitted to the chairman of 
the Personnel Policy Board, Office of the Sec- 
retary of Defense not later than May 1, 1949. 

THE ARMY 

By far the greater number of Negroes 
in the armed forces have served in the 
Army. The new policy was slowest to get 
underway and to be implemented in this 
branch of the service. 

The Gillem Report 

In October 1945, the Army convened a 
special board of general officers and 
charged it with submitting recommenda- 
tions to the Secretary of War and the 
Chief of Staff. This body became popu- 
larly known as the "Gillem" Board after 
its chairman, Lt. Gen. Alvin C. Gillem. 
The Gillem Board sat for three and one- 
half months and on Feb. 26, 1946, re- 
leased its report. From this report, Army 
policy was defined and published in Util- 
ization of Negro Manpower in the Post- 
War Army Policy, War Department Cir- 
cular, No. 124, April 1946. 

Adopted recommendations of the Board 
included : 

1. Inclusion of Negroes in the Army in the 
same ratio as in the civilian population. 

2. Assignment of Negroes to both combat 
and service units. 

3. Assignment of Negroes to separate out- 
fits to range in size from companies to regi- 
ments, some of which units to be grouped 
together with white units into composite or- 
ganizations. 

4. Establishment of uniform procedures in 
processing all enlisted men to insure proper 
classification and assignment of individuals. 

5. Gradual, complete replacement of white 
officers assigned to Negro units with qualified 
Negro officers. 

6. Acceptance of officers into the Regular 
Army without regard to race and continuation 
of "the present policy of according all officers, 
regardless of race, equal opportunities for ap- 
pointment, advancement, professional im- 
provement, promotion and retention in all 
components of the Army." 

7. Continuation of present policies barring 
segregation in the use of recreational facilities 
at Army posts. 

8. Stationing of Negro units in localities 
and communities where attitudes are most fa- 



148 



THE ARMED FORCES 



vorable and in such numbers as will not con- 
stitute an undue burden to the local civilian 
facilities. 

The Board had decided that segrega- 
tion must be maintained; and therefore, 
if the Negro soldier were to be used ac- 
cording to his individual capacity, Negro 
units must be created which would con- 
form in general to white units. 

The Fahy Committee Report 

When the Fahy Committee issued its 
report 1 in 1950, it announced basic 
changes that had occurred in Army policy 
since it had begun its work. The Commit- 
tee reported the following policy changes: 

In August 1949, the Army had 490 active 
occupational specialties. In 198 of these spe- 
cialties, there were no authorizations at all for 
Negroes. All Army jobs are now open to 
Negroes. (Policy change adopted Sept. 30, 
1949) . 

All Army school courses are open to Negroes 
without restriction or quota. (Policy change 
adopted Sept. 30, 1949). For the first time 
Negroes no longer are limited in assignment 
to Negro and overhead (housekeeping) units, 
but are to be assigned according to their quali- 
fications to any unit, including formerly white 
units. (Policy change adopted Jan. 16, 1950). 

The 10% limitation on Negro strength in 
the Army has been abolished, and there no 
longer are Negro quotas for enlistment. (Pol- 
icy change adopted March 21, 1950). 

On the sixteenth of January 1950, the 
Army issued Special Regulations No. 600- 
629-1, Personal Utilization of Negro Man- 
power in the Army, superseding Circular 
124, which had embodied the recommen- 
dations of the Gillem Board. The policy 
of the Army was now one of full integra- 
tion without prejudice or segregation. 

Implementation of Policy 

Far into 1951 the Negro press re- 
proached the Army for its failure to carry 
out the policy of integration. Congress- 
man Jacob K. Javits (Rep., N.Y.) turned 
the spotlight on this failure and called 
the attention of the Defense Department 
to specific instances. 

Reporters for Negro weekly papers 
visited camps and installations and pub- 
licized what they found, giving praise or 



censure where they saw or did not see 
integration in process. In its Sunday edi- 
tion, May 20, 1951, the Atlanta Daily 
World reported seven Army camps where 
there was no segregation: Fort Jackson, 
S.C., Camp Breckinridge, Ky., Fort Riley, 
Kans., Fort Leonard Wood, Mo., Fort 
Ord, Calif., Camp Chaffee, Ark., and 
Camp Roberts, Calif. 

Segregation of units in the Far East 
continued throughout the period of com- 
mand of Gen. Douglas MacArthur, who, 
after his recall to the United States, dis- 
claimed responsibility for this and blamed 
military authorities in Washington. His 
successor, Gen. Matthew Ridgway, was 
instructed to give Executive Order 9981 
his full support. 

The Korean War 

Upon the outbreak of war in Korea, 
organized reserves and National Guard 
units were mobilized, and before the end 
of the year many Negro units were on 
active duty. News releases in September 
1950 reported that the following Negro 
units had joined the fighting: 

3rd Battalion 15th Infantry Regiment, Third 
Airborne Division Attached to the 82nd Air- 
borne Division : 

3rd Battalion 505th Airborne Infantry 

80th AAA Automatic Weapons Battalion 

589th Quartermaster Field Service Company 

98th Field Artillery Battalion 

665th Transportation Truck Company 

2nd Ranger Company 

159th Field Artillery Battalion 

The following participated in the In- 
chon Invasion in October 1950: 

805th Quartermaster Service Company 

573rd Engineer Pontoon Bridge Company 

559th and 560th Ambulance Companies 

96th Field Artillery Battalion 

73rd Combat Engineers 

65th Ordnance Ammunition Company 

549th Quartermaster Laundry Company 

881st Engineers 

539th Truck Company 

55th Engineer Treadway Bridge Company 

It is notable that none of these units is 
larger than a battalion and many are 
companies. Integration had proceeded to 
the point that no separate Negro units of 
larger size could be identified except the 
24th Infantry Regiment. 



1 Freedom to Serve. Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services: A Report of the President's 
Committee. U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1950. 



THE ARMY 



149 



24th Infantry Regiment 

The 24th Infantry Regiment figured 
prominently in the news reports, receiv- 
ing both censure and praise. At the time 
of its deactivation in October, 1951, the 
"24th" was the last of four Negro units 
authorized by Congress in 1866. The other 
three, the 25th Infantry and the 9th and 
10th Cavalry units, had already gone. 
The 24th Regiment was organized at Fort 
McKevitt, Texas, in 1869, and achieved 
fame in the battle of San Juan Hill dur- 
ing the Spanish-American War. It was 
the first Negro unit to get into the war in 
the Pacific in 1942, and in 1946 joined 
the occupation forces in Japan. The ra- 
cially mixed unit to replace the 24th was 
redesignated the 14th Infantry Regiment. 
The Department of the Army announced 
that because its history as an all-colored 
regiment is so firmly fixed in the public 
mind, a new designation was more ap- 
propriate for a racially mixed unit. The 
colors of the 24th Infantry Regiment, 
with Block House insignia, adopted fol- 
lowing the Spanish-American War, were 
retired. 

Winning more combat decorations in 
the Korean fighting than were won by all 
Negro units in World War II, the 24th 
was especially praised for the capture of 
Yechon and for action at Seoul, but was 
censured for retreating at Taejon. Some 
of its members were court-martialed. The 
case of Lt. Leon A. Gilbert received wide 
public attention. He was convicted of 
violating the 75th Article of War mis- 
behavior in front of the enemy and given 
the death penalty. The intervention of the 
NAACP through its Special Counsel, 
Thurgood Marshall, who was dispatched 
to Japan to investigate the case, resulted 
in commutation of Gilbert's sentence by 
President Truman. His punishment was 
cut to 20 years' imprisonment on Nov. 
27, 1951. Mr. Marshall's investigation of 
the Gilbert case and others brought to 
light some unusually harsh sentences for 
Negro soldiers as contrasted with those 
given to whites. The following summary 
indicates the extent of this disparity in 
military justice. 



TABLE 1 

SUMMARY OF COURTS MARTIAL IN KOREA 
ALLEGED VIOLATIONS OF 
75TH ARTICLE OF WAR 

Number by Race 



Disposition 


Negro 


White 


Accused 


60 


8 


Charges Withdrawn 


23 


2 


Charge reduced to AWOL 


1 





Acquitted 


4 


4 


Sentenced 


32 


2 


Death 


1 





Life 


15 





50 years 


1 





25 years 


2 





20 years 


3 





15 years 


1 





10 years 


7 





5 years 


2 


1 


3 years 





1 



The 24th Infantry, with its long fight- 
ing record, was not without heroes. Pfc. 
William Thompson, a 24th Infantry sol- 
dier, was posthumously awarded the Con- 
gressional Medal of Honor, becoming the 
first Negro so honored since the Spanish- 
American War. In neither World War I 
nor II did a Negro win this honor. 

Lt. H. E. Button 

Another of the individual heroes of the 
Korean War is the Third Division's Lt. 
Harry E. Sutton of the Bronx, N.Y., who, 
with his infantry platoon, stood off North 
Korean attacks and saved UN soldiers on 
the Hungnam Beachhead. Assigned to a 
long, three-humped ridge, only Lt. Sut- 
ton and his platoon of heroic Negro 
doughboys stood between the Communists 
and the Sea of Japan, into which the 
enemy were trying to drive UN forces. If 
this platoon had yielded, the end would 
have been written then and there to the 
saga of the Allied evacuation from North 
Korea. From early dawn of Monday, 
Dec. 18, 1950, until the afternoon of Tues- 
day, the 19th, Lt. Sutton led his men to 
attack and counter-attack. Before the day 
was ended a new name had been added 
to the long list made famous by gallant 
stands "Sutton's Ridge." Some of the 
Reds managed to get into Sutton's lines 
but he and his men killed them off as fast 
as they came. After-battle examination 



THE ARMED FORCES 



showed one GI dead beneath the bodies 
of two of the enemy. He had killed them 
both. When the enemy finally gave up 
their attacks, every man in the platoon 
was down to his last clip of .30-calibre 
ammunition for his M-l rifle. 1 

The Winstead Amendment 

The elimination of segregation in the 
armed forces continued, but on April 12, 
1951, certain southerners in Congress 
sought to turn the clock back by inserting 
a segregation clause, known as the Win- 
stead Amendment, in a new draft bill. 
Congressman William L. Dawson of Illi- 
nois led the fight against this clause in a 
stirring plea which moved even some of 
the southern Democrats to applaud. The 
amendment was defeated, 178 to 126. 

ROTC 

Reserve Officers Training Corps courses 
are offered at 15 Negro institutions. The 
schools having ROTC units are : 

TABLE 2 



State 



Institution 



Alabama Tuskegee Inst. (Infantry & Air) 

District of 

Columbia Howard Univ. (Infantry & Air) 
Florida Flda. A.&M. Coll. (Artillery) 

Louisiana Southern Univ. (Transportation) 

Maryland Morgan State Coll. (Infantry) 

Missouri Lincoln Univ. (Engineer) 

No. Carolina A.&T. Coll. (Infantry & Air) 
Ohio Central State Coll. (Infantry) 

Wilberforce Univ. (Infantry) 
So. Carolina S. C. State Coll. (Infantry) 
Tennessee Tenn. State Univ. (Air) 

Texas Prairie View A.&M. Coll. 

(Infantry) 
Virginia Hampton Inst. (Artillery) 

Va. State Coll. (Quartermaster) 
W. Virginia W. Va. State Coll. (Artillery) 



Source: Supplementary Data on Racial Integra- 
tion in the Armed Forces, Jan. 21, 1952, supplied 
by Tames C. Evans, Civilian Assistant, U.S. Dept. 
of Defense. 

WACS 2 

Integration has also been operating in 
the Women's Army Corps to the extent 
that separate data on the number of Negro 

1 The Pittsburgh Courier, Jan. 30, 1950. 

2 Sources: Afro-American, Feb. 25, 1951, Oct. 27, 1951; The Eagle (Tulsa, Oklahoma), Aug. 2, 1951; Kansas 
City CM, Sept. 14, 1951. 



WAGS in the Army are not readily avail- 
able. Negro women are serving in many 
areas, including Europe and Japan, as 
well as in many U.S. camps. 

The all-colored unit which had been 
stationed in Europe for 16 months, the 
781st WAG Detachment, was broken up 
in 1951 and its personnel assigned to 
other units in Paris, Frankfurt, Munich, 
and Heidelberg. In Japan, some are inte- 
grated as members of the Yokohama 
WAG Detachment, 806th Army Unit. 

In July 1951, Mrs. Daisy C. Hicks, a 
writer, found 112 colored women trainees 
at Fort Lee making adequate adjustment 
to integrated Army life. Reports concern- 
ing individual WAGS and their duties in 
the Army are constantly appearing in the 
Negro press. 

Nurses 

Information appearing in newspapers 
gives some idea of the activities of Negro 
nurses in the Army. Major Delia H. 
Raney, Chief Nurse at the Percy Jones 
Army Hospital, Battle Creek, Mich., was 
the first Negro nurse to see active duty in 
World War II and the first to attain her 
rank. Lt. Juanita Long is located near 
the Pusan prisoner of war camp, where 
she conducts classes for Korean nurses. 

Four Negro nurses are on the staff at 
the Tokyo General Hospital: Capt. Rosa- 
lie H. Wiggins; Lts. L. Martin, Alice H. 
Dolphy, and Olga Beaman. 

The National Guard 

In January 1950, Governor G. Mennen 
Williams ordered the abolition of racial 
segregation in the Michigan National 
Guards. Several other states have brought 
their policies in line with that of the 
Federal government by eliminating racial 
segregation in National Guard units. 
California, Connecticut, Illinois, Massa- 
chusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey and Wis- 
consin have abolished segregation. New 
York and Pennsylvania have passed laws 
not specifically forbidding segregation. 



THE AIR FORCE 



151 



TABLE 3 
NEGRO GRADUATES FROM THE U.S. MILITARY ACADEMY 



Name 


Appointed 
From 


Date 

Admitted 


Date 

Graduated 


Henry O. Flipper 


Georgia 


ljuly 1873 


15 June 1877 








(Died 3 May 1940) 


John H. Alexander 


Ohio 


ljuly 1883 


12 June 1887 
(Died 26 Mar. 1894) 


Charles Young 


Ohio 


15 June 1884 


31 Aug. 1889 








(Died 8 Jan. 1922) 


Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. 


Illinois 


ljuly 1932 


12 June 1936 


James D. Fowler 


Illinois 


ljuly 1937 


11 June 1941 


Clarence M. Davenport 


Michigan 


ljuly 1939 


19 Jan. 1943 


Robert B. Tresville, Jr. 


Illinois 


ljuly 1939 


19 Jan. 1943 








(Declared dead in 








Italy 23 June 1945) 


Henry M. Francis 


Illinois 


ljuly 1941 


6 June 1944 


Ernest J. Davis, Jr. 


Illinois 


20 July 1942 


5 June 1945 


Mark E. Rivers, Jr. 


New York 


15 July 1942 


5 June 1945 


Andrew A. McCoy, Jr. 


Pennsylvania 


ljuly 1943 


4 June 1946 


Charles L. Smith 


Missouri 


ljuly 1944 


7 June 1949 


Edward B. Howard 


Illinois 


2 July 1945 


7 June 1949 


David K. Carlisle 


California 


ljuly 1946 


6 June 1950 


Robert W. Green 


California 


10 July 1946 


6 June 1950 


Norman J. Brown 


Pennsylvania 


ljuly 1947 


5 June 1951 


Roscoe Robinson, Jr. 


Missouri 


ljuly 1947 


5 June 1951 


Douglas F. Wainer 


New York 


ljuly 1947 


5 June 1951 


William B. Woodson 


Illinois 


ljuly 1947 


5 June 1951 


James R. Young, Jr. 


Army 


ljuly 1947 


5 June 1951 



Source: R. P. Eaton, Col., AGC, Adjutant General, U.S. Military Academy, Jan. 14, 1952. 



Negroes at West Point 

Henry 0. Flipper of Georgia was the 
first Negro to be graduated from the U.S. 
Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., 
the highest-ranking Federal academy for 
the training of Army officers. His gradu- 
ation took place in 1877. Founded in 1802, 
the academy admitted its first Negro, 
James W. Smith of South Carolina, in 
1870. Graduates from the U.S. Military 
Academy are shown in Table 3. 

THE AIR FORCE 

On Jan. 31, 1950, there were 25,702 
Negroes in the Air Force 25,351 en- 
listed men and 351 officers. The percent- 
age of Negro enlisted men was 7.2%. 
The percentage of Negro officers was 
0.6%. 

A breakdown by unit assignment: 

Negroes still in predominantly 

Negro units 6,773 

Negroes in mixed units 11,611 

Negroes in pipe line (training, 

waiting assignments, etc.) 7,318 

In October 1950, Col. Campbell C. 
Johnson reported that the Air Force be- 



gan to implement its new racial program 
on June 1, 1949. Eight months later, he 
went on, 45% were in mixed units and 
another 28% in basic training, technical 
and flying schools preliminary to being 
assigned to integrated units. Only 26% 
remained in predominantly Negro units 
and a number of these units were Army 
units assigned to the Air Force, not af- 
fected by the new Air Force policy of 
integration. 1 The 351 Negro officers in the 
Air Force were completely integrated. 

The number of Negro nurses in the Air 
Force is not readily available but, from 
press reports, Capts. Ruth Faulkner John- 
son and Lillian Stone, and Lt. Constance 
Jenkins are in Japan. Thelma Sidberry, 
a psychiatric nurse, went to Casablanca 
in 1951. Serving her ninth year in the Air 
Force is Capt. Elizabeth Tucker Dozier. 

Capt. C. A. Hill, Jr. 

Outside of the 24th Infantry Regiment 
(see above), charges filed against an Air 
Force Reserve officer also received wide 
publicity. Captain Charles A. Hill, Jr., 
about 29 years old and a decorated com- 



1 The Pittsburgh Courier, Oct. 28, 1950. 



152 



THE ARMED FORCES 



bat veteran of World War II, on Jan. 29, 
1951, was ordered either to resign or to 
face a board of inquiry on a disloyalty 
charge. This charge was brought against 
Hill because it was alleged his father 
had been active in subversive organiza- 
tions and his sister was said to be sympa- 
thetic toward the Communist Party. Later 
he was personally cleared of disloyalty, 
with an apology from Thomas K. Finletter, 
Secretary of the Air Force. 

THE NAVY 

Documentation of the development of 
the policy of integration of Negroes in 
the Navy has been provided in a volume 
that approaches being an authorized Navy 
account. 1 In July 1944, the Navy aban- 
doned its segregated advanced training 
schools for Negroes at Camp Robert 
Smalls and Hampton Institute, declaring 
that it did not "consider practical the 
establishment of separate facilities and 
quotas for Negroes who qualify for ad- 
vanced training." Boot training remained 
segregated, however, until July 1945, 
when the separate training camp at Great 
Lakes was abolished and Negro trainees 
were assigned to the same companies, 
barracks, and messes as whites. 

In December 1945, the Secretary of the 
Navy issued a directive to all ships and 
stations Alnav 423-45 stating that ". . . 
in the administration of Naval personnel 
no differentiation shall be made because 
of race or color. This applies to author- 
ized personnel of all the Armed Forces 
of this country aboard Navy ships or at 
Navy stations and activities." 

And finally on Feb. 27, 1946, the Navy 
took the inevitable step of opening up 
general service assignments without any 
restriction. In Circular Letter 48-46, the 
Navy ordered: 

Effective immediately all restrictions gov- 
erning types of assignments for which Negro 
naval personnel are eligible are hereby lifted. 
Henceforth they shall be eligible for all types 



of assignments in all ratings in all activities 
and all ships of the naval service. . . . 

In the utilization of housing, messing and 
other facilities no special or unusual provi- 
sions will be made for the accommodations of 
Negroes. 2 

Number of Negroes in the Navy 8 

By September 1945, there were over 
165,000 Negro enlisted men, 52 commis- 
sioned officers, 70 WAVES, and four com- 
missioned nurses in the U.S. Navy. In 
1951, there were approximately 19,000 
Negroes in the Navy. Of these, approxi- 
mately 11,000 are in the steward's branch 
and 8,000 in General Service. 

There were 29 Negro officers currently 
on active duty in the Navy: 3 line officers 
and 2 nurses (regular Navy) ; 11 line of- 
ficers, 4 doctors, 3 dentists, 2 aviation 
officers, 2 engineers, and 2 chaplains 
(Reservists). 

There were no WAVES officers. 

There were 3 Marine Corps officers and 
6 men in NROTC colleges. 



TOTAL NEGRO STRENGTH 



Tear 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 
1951 



Strength 
21,897 
21,730 
17,940 
18,111 
14,782 
20,000 



Per Cent 
5.07 
4.82 
4.91 
4.7 
3.7 



PERCENTAGE OF NEGRO PERSONNEL IN 
GENERAL SERVICE SINCE WORLD WAR II 



Tear 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1950 



Per Cent 
17.0 
20.0 
36.0 
42.6 



NEGRO ENLISTED PERSONNEL, U.S. NAVY 



Year 
1947 
1948 
1950 



Strength 
21,730 
17,940 
13,904 



The Fahy Committee Report 

The report of the Fahy Committee had 
this to say of the Navy: 

All jobs and ratings in the naval general 
service now are open to all enlisted men with- 



lenceforth they shall be eligible for all types service now are open to all enlisted men with- 

1 Nelson, Lt. Dennis D., The Integration of the Negro in the V.S. Navy. New York: Farrar. Straus, and Young, 1951. 
8 Freedom to Serve, p. 20. 

Nelson Dennis D., "Recent Trends in Naval Racial Policies," The Negro History Bulletin Vol 15. No. 1, p. 9, 
Jctober 1951. 



THE NAVY 



153 



out regard to race or color. Negroes are cur- 
rently serving in every job classification in 
general service. 

All courses in Navy technical schools are 
open to qualified personnel without regard to 
race or color and without racial quotas. Ne- 
groes are attending the most advanced tech- 
nical schools and are serving in their ratings 
both in fleet and at shore installations. 

Negroes in general service are completely 
integrated with whites in basic training, tech- 
nical schools, on the job, in messes and sleep- 
ing quarters, ashore and afloat. Chief, first-, 
second-, and third class stewards now have 
the rate of Chief, first-, second-, and third- 
class petty officers. (Policy change adopted 
June 7, 1949.) 

Stewards who qualify for general ratings 
now can transfer to general service. 

Negroes at the Naval Academy 

Lt. Wesley A. Brown is the only Negro yet 
to complete his training at the Naval Academy 
at Annapolis, Maryland, having graduated 
June 3, 1949. Previous to Brown's graduation, 
five Negroes attended the Academy, three be- 
ing appointed in the Reconstruction period 
following the Civil War. Two of these men 
resigned and the third was dismissed. After 
1875, no Negroes were in attendance at the 
Academy for sixty-one years until 1936, when 
James Leo Johnson entered, to be followed in 
1937 by George Trivers. Trivers resigned for 
reasons of health, Johnson for deficiencies in 
English and deportment. 1 . , 

Five Negro midshipmen as of November 
5, 1951, were enrolled at the Naval Acad- 
emy. 

The Naval ROTC Program 

Since 1947, the Navy has teamed with 
the National Urban League and its na- 



tionwide Vocational Opportunity Cam- 
paign in an effort to present to Negroes 
the Navy's racial policy and career oppor- 
tunities. In 1950-51, the Navy provided 
officers who accompanied League repre- 
sentatives in three general areas the 
Eastern Seaboard, the mid-South and the 
West Coast. This cooperative adventure 
is a two-way street. The Navy presents 
its program in the presence of an organi- 
zation which has earned the confidence 
of the Negro people, and the Urban 
League, on its side, works vigorously to 
obtain and prepare qualified youth for the 
Navy, particularly for the NROTC and 
Holloway program. 

The qualifying aptitude tests for the Navy 
College Training Program (NROTC) are 
given annually in 550 cities and communities, 
and are conducted under the supervision of 
the Educational Testing Center at Princeton 
University. This agency is under contract with 
the Navy Department for the conduct of the 
test and the grading of the examinations. The 
testing center contracts with local civilian 
authorities for the sites of the examining cen- 
ters and for the testing personnel. A few 
southern communities have managed to con- 
duct the tests on an integrated basis. As might 
be expected, the majority of southern com- 
munities 'of necessity' conduct the tests on a 
semi- or completely segregated basis. The 
Negro public and the Negro Press have long 
held the Navy responsible for conducting or 
sanctioning of segregated examinations for its 
officer training program. Negro leaders, edu- 
cators, parents, the press and even the candi- 
dates themselves expressed serious doubts of 
the Navy's sincerity in integration in view of 



TABLE 4 
NEGROES AT U.S. NAVAL ACADEMY 



Name 


Appointed From 


Date Admitted 


John Henry Conyers 


South Carolina 


Sept. 1872 


Alonzo G. McCIellan 


South Carolina 


Sept. 1873 


Henry E. Baker 


Mississippi 


Sept. 1874 


James L. Johnson 


Washington, D.C. 


June 1936 


George J. Trivers 


Chicago, 111. 


June 1937 


Wesley A. Brown 


New York City 


June 1945 




Currently Enrolled 




Lawrence C. Chambers 


Washington, D. C. 


Class of 1952 


Reeves R. Taylor 


Providence, R. I. 


Class of 1953 


John D. Raiford 


East St. Louis, 111. 


Class of 1954 


Lucius P. Gregg, Jr. 


Chicago, 111. 


Class of 1955 


Charles A. Nelson 


Washington, D. C. 


Class of 1955 



Source: R. T. S. Keith, Capt. U.S.N. 
1951. 



Secretary Academic Board, U.S. Naval Academy, letter, Nov. 5, 



1 Nelson, Lt. Dennis D., The Integration oj the Negro in the U.S. Navy, p. 141. 



154 



THE ARMED FORCES 



these separate and segregated 'Navy spon- 
sored' procurement procedures. 

The Navy had no other alternative than to 
take immediate and positive steps to eliminate 
the stigma attached to its national testing 
procedures for the NROTC program. The 
Navy met this responsibility head-on when it 
was convinced that it had been placed in an 
untenable position and that the complaints 
were justifiable. 

The results of this initial effort were en- 
couraging and heart-warming, and a new con- 
fidence and interest in the Navy came into 
being. Negro organizations, the Negro press 
and the Negro public in general became ac- 
tively interested in encouraging qualified 
Negro students to avail themselves of the 
opportunities provided them. 

Georgia Tech immediately opened its doors 
to all candidates at its examining center and 
in many communities the examinations were 
held on an integrated basis rather than see 
them removed to federal territory. 

It is sociologically significant that South- 
erners of the peacetime Navy are willing and 
capable of attempting an integrated training 
program in the South in spite of existing local 
racial tensions, and attitudes which often lead 
to adverse criticism against the functioning of 
mixed groups on equal planes in any program. 
It is also significant that the general civilian 
populace has been willing to do its part in 
support of a federal agency that has openly 
manifested a definite and positive stand in 
racial matters as it relates to the assimilation 
of Negroes throughout its organization. This 
has been particularly significant in such areas 
as Norfolk, Virginia and Pensacola, Florida. 
True, the proportion of Negroes participating 
in the Reserve program is comparatively 
small. The units, however, are highly selective, 
and there has been no attempt by Naval 
authorities to limit the number of Negroes in 
the program or to restrict the types of training 
they can receive. 

Outstanding among southern communities 
conducting Naval Reserve training are the 
units at the Naval Gun Factory (PRNC) 
Washington, B.C., at Nashville, Tennessee, 
and the unit for reserve air training at Nor- 
folk, Virginia. Integration of Negro and white 
personnel- -officers and men has been the 
result of the Navy's policy and of the inge- 
nuity of the officers of the units to conduct the 
program. In Nashville, a southern community 
not particularly noted for liberality in prac- 
tical race relations, the Navy's Reserve Train- 
ing Program has been instituted and con- 
ducted in spite of existing patterns of segre- 
gation. The commanding officer let it be 
known to his command that he would tolerate 
no interference or the injection of any racial 



differences in the work of the unit, and that 
he fully intended to continue the program on 
an integrated basis that all dissenters and 
malcontents would be summarily eliminated 
from the training unit. 1 

Nurses in the Navy 

On March 8, 1945, the first Negro nurse 
was sworn into the Navy Nurse Corps 
in New York City. She was Miss Phyllis 
Mae Dailey, a graduate of and nurse in the 
Lincoln Hospital School in the same city. 
Three others were commissioned later. 
As of Jan. 1, 1951, there were two Negro 
Navy nurses on active duty. One was sta- 
tioned in a Navy dispensary in Wash- 
ington, a second at the St. Albans Naval 
Hospital, N.Y. The Navy stated recently 
that all Negro nurses who can qualify 
physically and professionally will be given 
the same consideration as all other appli- 
cants. 

THE MARINE CORPS 

The Marine Corps, as part of the Navy, 
is subject to Navy policy and has abol- 
ished its segregated Negro training units. 
(Policy change adopted June 7, 1949.) 
Marine Corps training is now integrated, 
although some Negro marines are still 
assigned to separate units after basic 
training. In this respect the effectuation 
of Navy policy in the Marine Corps is yet 
to be completed. 

In September 1945, there were 16,944 
enlisted men in the Marine Corps; in 
1951, there were approximately 1,650. 
Annie N. Graham, now with the records 
branch of the Marines in Washington, 
D.C., is the first Negro woman marine. 
She was trained at Paris Island, S.C. 2 

THE MERCHANT MARINE 

Negroes served in the Merchant Marine as 
seamen (employed, of course, by the ship 
owners) , as commissioned officers and as crew 
members of naval personnel aboard merchant 
ships. 

The policy of the Maritime Service was 
generally one of nondiscrimination. Men were 
usually hired according to their individual 



1 Nelson, Lt. Dennis D., op. cit., pp. 114, 118-119, 121-122. 
3 The Crisis, Feb. 1950. 



DECORATIONS AND CITATIONS 



155 



ability and usefulness, and when aboard ship 
messed and berthed together indiscriminately ; 
however, there were numerous instances of 
discrimination in hiring of Negro seamen by 
certain shipowners. 

Prospective seamen were trained together at 
the Merchant Marine Training Centers, and 
usually no distinction was made on the basis 
of race or color as to the type of work to 
which a man was assigned. As the war pro- 
gressed, however, instances of discrimination 
against Negro seamen increased. The National 
Maritime Llnion, the largest union of mer- 
chant seamen, and one of the most liberal 
unions in regard to racial policies, was fre- 
quently called upon to remedy incidents of 
segregation and discrimination. 

By 1946 it was estimated that at least 24,000 
Negroes were or had been employed in the 
Merchant Marine during World War II. Dur- 
ing the war, Negroes worked in every capacity 
aboard ship . . . 

No accurate list of the number of Negro 
officers in the Merchant Marine is available. 
And possession of a license does not neces- 
sarily mean that the man served as an officer. 
Four Negroes were full captains of Liberty 
ships during the war. Many others have been 
ship officers of lower status, serving as the 
captains did over racially mixed crews. 

There were four Liberty ships named for 
Negro merchant seamen lost in active service 
in the Merchant Marine. Fourteen Liberty 
ships were named for noted and outstanding 
Negroes, and four Victory ships were named 
for Negro colleges. 1 

There has been one Negro who graduated 
from the United States Merchant Marine 
Academy cadet corps: Joseph B. Williams, of 
Annapolis, Maryland. He went on active duty 
with the Navy, the second Negro to be made 
an officer in the Naval Civil Engineer Corps 
(CEC). One Negro was enrolled in the 
USMCC, Junius L. More, of LaMott, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Many Negro seamen were graduated at Fort 
Trumbull and Alameda Officers' Schools. 
There have been Negroes in practically every 
class; no distinction was made. Nor was there 
segregation or discrimination in employment 
or in the living quarters and facilities aboard 
merchant ships during the closing years of the 
war. 3 

DECORATIONS AND 
CITATIONS 

Complete statistics on awards to Negroes 
since World War II are not available. 



This is due to the integration program in 
the armed forces, which prevents keeping 
records on a racial basis. Some Negro 
award winners, selected at random, are 
listed. 

Medal of Honor (Congressional 
Medal of Honor) 

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at 
the risk of life above and beyond the call of 
duty and without detriment to the mission 
(combat and noncombat). 

8 William Thompson, Pfc, N.Y.C., first Negro 
since the Spanish-American War to win this 
award. 

4 Thomas J. Hudner, Jr., Lt. (jg), Navy flyer, 
who crash-landed his plane Dec. 4, 1950, be- 
hind enemy lines in Korea in an unsuccessful 
attempt to rescue Ens. Jesse L. Brown, USN, 
Hattiesburg, Miss., first Negro Navy flyer 
and first naval officer of his race to be killed 
in any U.S. war. 

Distinguished Service Cross 

For extraordinary heroism in connection 
with military operations against an armed 
enemy (combat only). 8 

Vernon J. Baker, First Lt., Cheyenne, Wyo. 

8 William M. Benefield, Jr., Pittsburgh, Kans. 

Edward Carter, Staff Sgt., Los Angeles, Calif. 

8 Edward O. Cleaborn, Pvt., Memphis, Tenn. 

8 John Cook, Maj., Columbus, Ga. 

Arthur C. Dudley, Sgt. First Class, Warring- 
ton, Fla. 

Levy V. Hollis, Second Lt., Houston, Tex. 

8 Levi Jackson, Jr., Corp., Cayce, S.C. 

8 Chester J. Lenin, Second Lt., Independence, 
Kans. 

8 Willie L. Moore, Sgt. First Class, Dispu- 
tanta, Va. 

Curtis D. Pugh, Master Sgt., Columbus, Ga. 

Charles L. Thomas, Capt., Detroit, Mich. 

Jack Thomas, Pfc, Albany, Cal. 

William D. Ware, Second Lt., Winchester, Tex. 

8 George Watson, Pvt., Birmingham, Ala. 

Ellison C. Wynn, Second Lt., Greensboro, N.C. 

Distinguished Service Medal 

For exceptionally meritorious service to the 
Government in a duty of great responsibility 
(combat and noncombat). 

Campbell C. Johnson, Executive Asst. to Di- 
rector of Selective Service, Washington, D.C. 

Silver Star 

For gallantry in action not warranting award 
of a Medal of Honor or Distinguished Ser- 
vice Cross (combat only). 

Gerald N. Alexander, Second Lt., Bartlesville, 
Okla. 

Floyd Allen, Corp., New Orleans, La. 

Warren E. Allen, First Lt., Fayetteville, N.C. 

James R. Bellamy, Master Sgt., Andrews, S.C. 

Gorham L. Black, Capt., Chicago 111. 

8 Thomas Broadwater, Pfc, Philadelphia, Pa. 



1 See Negro Year Book 1947, p. 375. 

2 Nelson, Lt. Dennis D., op. cit., pp. 95, 140-141. 

3 Awarded posthumously. 
White. 

8 The 24th Infantry Regiment (Eagles) received the highest number of Distinguished Service Crosses ever 
awarded a colored infantry regiment in U.S. military history. 



156 



THE ARMED FORCES 



William Brown, Sgt., Philadelphia, Pa. 

William L. Bryant, Master Sgt., San Francisco, 
Calif. 

1 Rothwell W. Burke, Capt., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Walter Chandler, Capt., Columbia, S.C. 

Raymond I. Coleman, Master Sgt., Washington, 
D.C. 

Oliver W. Dillard, Capt., Margaret, Ala. 

Charles Ellis, Gary, Ind. 

Spencer Forside, Master Sgt., St. Louis, Mo. 

Charles J. Fuller, Pfc, Memphis, Tenn. 

1 James O. Gardner, Maj., Bprdentown, N.J. 

Leon A. Green, Corp., Moriah, N.Y. 

Edward Greer, First Lt., Welch, W.Va. 

Wilbur O. Hairston, Pfc, Roanoke, Va. 

James R. Harris, Corp., Oakland, Calif. 

1 Raphael Harris, Sgt., Detroit, Mich. 

Reginald Howell, Sgt., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Kenneth Ingram, Second Lt., Oklahoma City, 
Okla. 

Clarence H. Jackson, Lt., Pittsburg, Tex. 

Howard S. Jackson, Sgt., Newport, R.I. 

William J. Jackson, Maj., N.Y.C. 

John W. James, Capt., Baltimore, Md. 

Howard Jaunes, Corp., Chicago, 111. 

John M. Jerkins, Second Lt., Meadowview, Va. 

Edgar Johnson, Pfc, Detroit, Mich. 

Leroy Johnson, Jr., Corp., Fostoria, Ohio 

Charles Jones, Pfc, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Henry Jones, Master Sgt., Birmingham, Ala. 
John H. Jones, Sgt. First Class, Baltimore, Md. 

Robert K. Jones, Master Sgt., Boston, Mass. 
1 Patrick H. Kelley, First Lt., Tacoma, Wash. 
1 Rudolph F. Knotts, Pfc, Baltimore, Md. 
Wyman L. Lee, Corp., Amityville, L.I., N.Y. 
Jett W. Lewis, Warrant Officer (jg), San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 

Willie J. Lott, Sgt., Meridian, Miss. 
Edward McDavid, Sgt. First Class, St. Paul, 

Minn. 
Henry L. Musgrove, Sgt. First Class, Berkeley, 

Calif. 

Willie C. Pender, Jr., Corp., Atlanta, Ga. 
Leon H. Porter, Master Sgt., Bethel, Kans. 
William M. Roberts Corp., Norfolk, Va. 
David Robinson, Master Sgt., N.C. 
Alono O. C. Sarget, First Lt., Houston, Tex. 
Donald L. Scott, First Lt., Fort Smith, Ark. 
1 John A. Sears, Second Lt, Ind. 
(Arthur E. Sikes, Corp., Millner, Ga. 
Joseph Simmons, Sgt. First Class, S.C. 
Edward B. Skiffington, Maj., Longmeader, 

Mass. 
Nicholas Smith, Sgt. First Class, Baltimore 

Md. 
Willard B. Smith, Sgt. First Class, St. Louis 

Mo. 

Stanley P. Swartz, Capt., Indianapolis, Ind. 
Leslie C. Terry, Maj., Colorado Springs, Colo. 
Alfred F. Tittle, Lt., Westport, N.J. 
Clifton F. Vincent, First Lt, Houston, Tex. 
Reginald Washington, Corp., N.Y. 
Ernest M. Williams, First Lt, Marysville 

Calif. 

George W. Williams, Chaplain, Sumter, S.C. 
William S. Winters, Sgt., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
1 Roy Wyatt, Corp., Atwater, Calif. 

Legion of Merit 

For exceptionally meritorious conduct in 
performance of outstanding services. Award- 



ed in degrees of Chief Commander, Com- 
mander, Officer, and Legionnaire to armed 
forces personnel of friendly foreign nations 
and without degrees to U.S. and Philippine 
armed forces (combat and noncombat). 

John A. DeVeaux, Lt. Col. (Chaplain) 

Wilmer F. Lucas, Col., N.Y.C. 

Harold W. Thatcher, Lt Col., Fort Huachuca, 
Ariz. 

Distinguished Flying Cross 

For heroism or extraordinary achievement 
while participating in an aerial flight (com- 
bat and noncombat) . 

Charles A. Bowers, Capt., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

1 Jesse Leroy Brown, Ens., Hattiesburg, Miss. 

Edward P. Drummond, Jr., First Lt., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Charles E. McGee, Maj., Chicago, 111. 

Soldier's Medal 

For heroism not involving actual conflict 
with an enemy (noncombat only) . _ 
Claude J. Brown, Capt, U.S. Air Force 
Burnett J. Hale, Corp., U.S. Air Force, Bremer- 
ton, Wash. 

George Kallis, Capt., U.S. Air Force 
Julian W. O'Banion, Sgt., Dallas, Tex. 

Air Medal 

For meritorious acheivement while partici- 
pating in an aerial flight (combat and non- 
combat) . 

1 Jesse L. Brown, Ens., Hattiesburg, Miss. 

James H. Harvey, First Lt., Mountaintop, Pa. 

Daniel James, Capt, Pensacola, Fla. 

Unit Citations 

Two combat awards were authorized for 
units during World War II : the Army and 
Air Force Distinguished Unit Badge and the 
Navy Presidential Unit Citation. 

Distinguished Unit Badge 

U.S. 24th Division 

Foreign Decorations 

Croix de Guerre (French) 

A cross of bronze suspended by a green rib- 
bon with red stripes, awarded to officers or 
soldiers for gallant action in war. 

1 Alfonzo W. Davis, Capt., W.Va. 

Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., Col., Washington, D.C. 

Julius H. Dean, Technical Sgt., Detroit, Mich. 

Edward C. Gleed, Maj., Lawrence, Kans. 

Melvin P. Jackson, Capt., Miss. 

1 Edwin B. Lawrence, Capt., Cleveland, Ohio 

Lee Rayford, Maj., Washington, D.C. 

John Robinson, Jr., Staff Sgt., Harbeson, Del. 

Frank N. Titus, Master Sgt, Orrville, Ala. 

1 Andrew Turner, Maj., Washington, D.C. 

Croix de Guerre (Belgian) 

Richard H. Grinder, Col., Professor of Military 
Science and Tactics, Hampton Institute, Va. 

Medaille de Saint Mihiel (French) 

Robert Lee Campbell, Capt., retired Army of- 
ficer and first Professor of Military Science 
and Tactics, A. and T. College, Greensboro, 
N.C., for his part in the capture of 13,300 
Germans in the St. Mihiel sector during 
World War I. 



J Awarded posthumously. 



DECORATIONS AND CITATIONS 



157 



Ordre de Leopold avec Palme (Belgian) 
Richard H. Grinder, Col., Professor of Military 

Science and Tactics, Hampton Institute, Va. 
Presidential Unit Citation of the Republic of 

Korea 
U.S. 24th Division 

Selective Service Medal 

For faithful and loyal service, with a certifi- 
cate of merit for patriotic services in ad- 
herence to duty and in aiding in the impartial 
enforcement of the Selective Service Act. 



Scovel Richardson, Dean of Lincoln University 
School of Law, Mo. 

War Department General Staff 
Identification Badge 

For having served over a year as a detailed 
member of the General Staff Corps assigned 
to the General Staff of the U.S. Department 
of War. 

Steve G. Davis, Maj., Chicago, 111., first Negro 
officer in history of U.S. Army to earn the 
coveted badge. 



13 



VITAL STATISTICS 

The interpretation of vital statistics is 
well stated in this population census 
statement: 

The developments of statistics are causing 
history to be rewritten. Till recently, the his- 
torian studied nations in the aggregate and 
gave us only the story of princes, dynasties, 
sieges and battles. Of the people themselves 
the great social body, with life, growth, forces, 
elements, and laws of its own he told us 
nothing. Now statistical inquiry leads him into 
hovels, homes, workshops, mines, fields, pris- 
ons, hospitals, and other places where human 
nature displays its weakness and its strength. 
In these explorations he discovers the seeds of 
national growth and decay, and thus becomes 
the prophet of his generation. 

The public health scientist observes in 
matters pertaining to the control of com- 
municable disease that "no health officer 
can control disease in his community un- 
less he knows when, where, and under 
what conditions cases are occurring." 

The following tables and comments pro- 
vide comparable data by race, not only 
for factual information but also for in- 
centive to analysis of the figures and pro- 
jection of their meanings into measures 
and methods for correction and protec- 
tion. 

Birth and Death Rate Trends 

The crude birth rate of the Negro and 
other colored races (the number of births 
per 1,000 of the population) in the United 
States, like that for the total population, 
continues the trend upward since the year 
1930. Table 1 shows figures for the white 
and nonwhite races. In 1920, the birth 
rate for Negroes and other colored was 
27.0; in 1930, 21.6; in 1943, 24.1; in 
1949 (latest figures available) 30.3. The 
comparable white rates were 23.5, 18.6, 
21.2, and 23.2. 



Crude death rates by race per 1,000 of 
the population, also are shown in Table 1. 

TABLE 1 

RATES OF BIRTH AND DEATH AND MATERNAL 

AND INFANT DEATHS AND STILLBIRTH 

RATIOS, BY RACE 1 



Subject 


1949 


1943 


1930 


1920 


Births 










Total 


24.0 


21.5 


18.9 


23.7 


Negro & Other 


30.3 


24.1 


21.6 


27.0 


White 


23.2 


21.2 


18.6 


23.5 


Deaths 










Total 


9.7 


10.9 


11.3 


13.0 


Negro & Other 


11.1 


12.8 


16.3 


17.7 


White 


9.5 


10.7 


10.8 


12.6 


Maternal deaths 










Total 


0.9 


2.5 


6.7 


8.0 


Negro. ...'.... 


2.4 


5.1 


11.7 


12.8 


Other 


1.8 


4.5 








White 


0.7 


2.1 


6.1 


7.6 


Infant deaths 










Total 


31.3 


40.4 


64.6 


85.8 


Negro 


46.8 


61.5 


99.5 


135.6 


Other 


58.1 


84.6 


108.4 


89.6 


White 


28.9 


37.5 


60.1 


82.1 


Stillbirths 










Total 


22.9 


26.7 


39.2 





Negro ........ 





47.3 


82.5 





Other 





22.8 


24.6 





White 





24.2 


34.0 






1 Rates are for death registration states. Birth and 
death rates per 1,000 estimated population; mater- 
nal death and infant death rates, and stillbirth 
ratios per 1,000 live births. Birth rates are based on 
total population including armed forces overseas. 
Death rates for 1943 are based on total population 
excluding armed forces overseas. 



TABLE 1A 

CRUDE AND AGE- AD JUSTED MORTALITY 
FROM ALL CAUSES 1 



Death Rate Per 1,000 



Year 



Crude 



Adjusted 



Nonwhite White 


Nonwhite White 


1919-1921 
1929-1931 
1939-1941 
1948 


17.0 
16.2 
13.5 
11.3 


12.0 
10.9 
10.3 
9.7 


19.8 
20.0 
15.9 
12.8 


13.1 
11.8 
10.0 
8.6 



Source: National Office of Vital Statistics, U.S. 
Public Health Service. 

1 Rates are for death registration states. 



158 



VITAL STATISTICS 



159 



The decrease in all categories in signi- 
ficant evidence of the effectiveness of 
health education and health and welfare 
services. The general death rate for the 
Negro and other colored shows a definite 



trend from 17.7 in 1920 to 11.1 in 1949. 
The white death rate decreased from 12.6 
in 1920 to 9.5 in 1949. 

Maternal and infant deaths show a re- 
markable decline in rates for all races. 



TABLE 2 
RATES OF NEGRO AND WHITE MORTALITY FROM ALL CAUSES IN SEPARATE STATES, 1948 



State 



Population, 1950 1 



White 



Nonwhite 



Death Rate per 
1000, 1948 2 

White Nonwhite 



United States 135,215,000 15,482,000 

New England 

Maine 910,847 2,927 

New Hampshire 532,275 967 

Vermont 377,188 559 

Massachusetts 4,625,000 64,000 

Rhode Island 777,015 14,881 

Connecticut 1,952,327 54,953 

Middle Atlantic 

New York 13,902,000 928,000 

New Jersey 4,557,000 278,000 

Pennsylvania 9,844,000 654,000 

East North Central 

Ohio ... 7,476,000 470,000 

Indiana 3,758,439 175,785 

Illinois 8,085,000 628,000 

Michigan . 5,920,000 452,000 

Wisconsin 3,392,691 41,884 

West North Central 

Minnesota 2,953,678 28,805 

Iowa. 2,599,566 21,507 

Missouri 3,640,000 315,000 

North Dakota 608,448 11,188 

South Dakota 628,504 24,236 

Nebraska... 1,301,344 24,166 

Kansas 1,828,961 76,338 

South Atlantic 

Delaware... 273,878 44,207 

Mainland. 1,954,987 388,014 

District of Columbia 518,147 284,031 

Virginia. 2,581,642 737,038 

West Virginia... 1,890,284 115,268 

North Carolina.. 2,983,110 1,078,819 

South Carolina 1,293,403 823,624 

Georgia. 2,380,573 1,064,005 

Florida '. 2,166,047 605,258 

East South Central 

Kentucky 2,741,930 202,876 

Tennessee. 2,760,250 531,468 

Alabama... 2,079,500 982,243 

Mississippi 1,188,429 990,485 

West South Central 

Arkansas 1,481,508 428,003 

Louisiana 1,796,548 886,968 

Oklahoma... 2,032,555 200,796 

Texas. 6,825,000 886,000 

Mountain 

Montana... 572,038 18,986 

Idaho.., 581,395 7,242 

Wyoming 284,009 6,520 

Colorado.. 1,296,653 28,436 

New Mexico 630,211 50,976 

Arizona. 654,511 95,976 

Utah 676,909 11,953 

Nevada 149,907 10,176 

Pacific 

Washington.. 2,316,495 62,468 

Oregon 1,497,128 24,213 

California.' 9,947,000 639,000 



9.4 

10.9 
11.6 
10.9 
11.2 
10.3 
9.7 

10.7 
9.8 
10.3 

10.0 
9.9 

10.4 
8.9 
9.5 

9.2 
9.9 
10.6 
8.3 
8.8 
9.5 
9.6 

10.2 
9.1 

10.1 
7.8 
8.5 
6.7 
7.1 
7.3 
8.3 

9.0 
8.0 
7.5 
7.9 

7.3 
7.6 
8.2 
7.8 

9.8 
8.3 
8.1 
9.5 
7.9 
8.6 
7.3 
10.0 

9.3 
9.2 
9.4 



11.2 

10.2 

5.2 

5.4 

15.1 

12.3 

9.9 

10.4 
12.9 
11.3 

12.5 

12.8 

11.8 

8.5 

9.3 

12.4 
12.4 
13.7 
10.6 
10.7 
11.7 
12.1 

14.0 
12.1 
10.4 
12.1 
12.6 
9.5 
10.7 
11.5 
11.4 

16.8 
12.4 
11.3 
11.0 

10.3 
11.3 
11.9 
12.2 

16.0 
12.6 
14.1 
10.1 
11.8 
10.1 
10.4 
12.6 

9.9 

11.5 
8.0 



1 Population figures from 1950 Census of Population, Preliminary Reports: Total U.S. and District of 
Columbia, Series PC-7, No. 1; States, including District of Columbia, Series PC-12, Nos. 1-49. 

2 Crude rates. Source for 1948 deaths: National Office of Vital Statistics, U.S. Public Heatlh Service. 
Rates based on 1950 enumerated populations and 1948 deaths. 



160 



HEALTH AND MEDICAL FACILITIES 



Maternal mortality for Negroes has de- 
creased from 12.8 in 1920 to 2.4 in 1949; 
among whites, from 7.6 in 1920 to 0.7 
in 1949. Infant mortality for Negroes has 
decreased from 135.6 in 1920 to 46.8 in 
1949; among whites, from 82.1 in 1920 
to 28.9 in 1949. Stillbirth rates in the 
table are not complete, but a general de- 
cline for the total population is shown. 
Mortality by Separate States: Table 2 
shows population and death rates for the 
United States and separate states, accord- 
ing to region and by race. It will be noted 
that, with few exceptions, the higher 
death rates for nonwhites, mostly Negroes, 
are in states where there is the greatest 
concentration of Negro population. Mor- 
tality among Negroes in some states with 



small Negro populations may be influ- 
enced by other factors, such as living and 
working conditions in urban centers. 

Mortality from Selected Causes: Table 
3 shows crude death rates for a large 
number of specific causes per 100,000 
of the population, by race, for the period 
1919-48. 

Most diseases show varying degrees of 
decline for the period 1939-41 to 1948, 
but rates for heart disease, cancer, dia- 
betes, puerperal causes (total), and diar- 
rhea, enteritis, and ulceration of intes- 
tines have increased in both races. Ex- 
ceptions noted are a decline in rates for 
cancer of the breast among both whites 
and nonwhites, and for cancer of female 
genital organs among whites, and in rates 



TABLE 3 

MORTALITY TRENDS FOR SPECIFIC CAUSES, BY RACE, 1919-1948 
(Crude Death Rates per 100,000 Population x ) 



Nonwhite 


White 


Cause of Death 


1919-21 


1929-31 


1939-41 


1948 


1919-21 


1929-31 


1939-41 


1948 


Diphtheria 


8.7 


5.6 


1.9 


.75 


16.7 


5.4 


1.1 


.35 


Scarlet fever 


.82 


.70 


.26 


.03 


4.57 


2.25 


.53 


.05 


Whooping cough 


17.7 


11.2 


6.7 


2.55 


8.2 


4.3 


2.0 


.55 


Tuberculosis (all forms) . . 


250.9* 


191.7 


126.4 


78.7 


92.1 


58.1 


36.5 


24.3 


Cancer and other malig- 


















nant tumors 


48.9 


56.9 


76.2 


98.4 


87.7 


101.9 


124.0 


139.1 


Cancer of digestive or- 


















gans and peritoneum . . . 


20.0* 


22.8 


30.4 


40.5 


47.5 


51.8 


57.7 


60.4 


Cancer of the breast 


9.9* 


10.6 


13.6 


8.0 


16.1 


19.3 


24.0 


13.6 


Cancer of female genital 


















organs 


30.8* 


33.8 


37.8 


38.3 


24.5 


27.5 


31.2 


30.8 


Pneumonia (all forms) 


160.7 


140.1 


91.4 


66.4 


107.7 


79.1 


49.7 


35.4 


Diseases of the heart 


160.7 


217.6 


239.2 


263.3 


157.7 


212.4 


290.8 


330.1 


Intracranial lesions of vas- 


















cular origin 


86.7 


104.9 


109.7 


108.9 


91.5 


87.1 


86.8 


87.4 


Nephritis (all forms) 


110.5 


133.5 


120.3 


84.4 


84.3 


85.0 


75.0 


49.3 


Syphilis (all forms) 


40.9 


51.6 


52.3 


27.1 


14.9 


11.6 


9.9 


5.7 


Diabetes mellitus 


7.5 


12.7 


17.3 


18.3 


16.7 


20.2 


26.8 


27.3 


Pellagra 


18.2 


28.9 


6.3 


.95 


1.3 


2.4 


1.1 


.40 


Malaria 


22.4 


13.8 


5.6 


.50 


1.9 


1.6 


.60 


.10 


Puerperal causes (total) . . . 


12.0 


11.6 


7.4 


17.4 


7.0 


6.1 


3.1 


4.2 


Premature birth 


24.3 


19.5 


17.6 


43.0 


18.4 


16.3 


13.2 


24.8 


Injury at birth 


2.2 


3.1 


3.6 





3.9 


5.0 


4.5 





Congenital malformations . 


3.1 


2.3 


2.3 


10.9 


6.5 


5.8 


5.0 


13.4 


Diarrhea, enteritis, ulcer- 


















ation of intestines 


18.3 


10.6 


6.4 


10.4 


14.4 


6.8 


3.4 


5.5 


Hernia and intestinal ob- 


















struction 


12.1 


12.7 


11.3 


8.4 


10.3 


10.1 


8.7 


6.7 


Ulcer of the stomach and 


















duodenum 


4.1 


6.0 


6.2 


4.4 


4.0 


6.2 


6.8 


6.1 


Suicide 


4.1 


5.0 


4.3 


4.1 


12.0 


16.6 


14.9 


12.1 


Motor vehicle accidents . . 


5.2 


22.0 


25.3 


20.9 


10.8 


26.9 


27.1 


22.3 


Other accidents 


70.2 


62.4 


51.0 


50.3 


59.0 


52.3 


45.9 


44.4 


Homicide 





40.0 


34.2 f 


30.6 





5.6 


3.2 f 


3.0 



Source: National Office of Vital Statistics, U.S. Public Health Service. 

1 Average of rates for males and females. 

For 1920-21, except for digestive organs (1921). 

t For 1939. 



VITAL STATISTICS 



161 



for intracranial lesions of vascular origin, 
which are slightly down for nonwhites 
and up for whites. 

Table 4 shows crude mortality rates 
per 100,000 of the population for 10 se- 
lected causes arranged by race and rank, 
for the year 1948. It will be noted that 
categories for all races are the same, ex- 
cept that homicide and syphilis for whites, 
and motor vehicle accidents and diabetes 
for nonwhites, are not in the first 10 
causes of death. 

Tuberculosis: The trend for tubercu- 
losis is shown in Table 5. This table pre- 
sents a graphic picture of the effective 



treatment and control of this disease in 
the period 1910-48. However, the death 
rate for the nonwhite population is still 
approximately two and one-half times 
that of the white population. 

Life Expectancy: Table 6 shows the 
expectation of life at birth and at age 40 
in the United States, according to color 
and sex, for selected periods from 1900 to 
1944. With slight fluctuation in some 
periods, the over-all gain at birth for 
white males is 17.7 years and for white 
females 20.4 years; for nonwhite males 
26.0 years and for nonwhite females 27.9 
years. 



TABLE 4 

MORTALITY FROM TEN SELECTED CAUSES, BY RACE AND RANK, 1948 1 
(Crude rate per 100,000 population) 



Nonwhite 


White 


Rank 


Cause of Death 


Rate 


Rank 


Cause of Death 


Rate 


1 


Diseases of the heart 


263.3 


1 


Diseases of the heart 


330.1 


2 


Intracranial lesions of 




2 


Cancer and other malig- 






vascular origin 


108.9 




nant tumors 


139.1 


3 


Cancer and other malignant 




3 


Intracranial lesions of 






tumors 


98.4 




vascular origin 


87.4 


4 


Nephritis (all forms) 


84.4 


4 


Nephritis (all forms) 


49.3 


5 


Tuberculosis (all forms) 


78.7 


5 


Accidents (except 












motor vehicle) 


44.4 


6 


Pneumonia 


66.4 


6 


Pneumonia (all forms) 


35.4 


7 


Accidents (except motor 




7 


Diabetes mellitus 


27.3 




vehicles) 


50.3 








8 


Premature birth 


43.0 


8 


Premature birth 


24.8 


9 


Homicide 


30.6 


9 


Tuberculosis (all 












forms) 


24.3 


10 


Syphilis (all forms) 


27.1 


10 


Motor vehicle 












accidents 


22.3 



Source: National Office of Vital Statistics, U.S. Public Health Service. 
1 See Table 3 for changes 1919 to 1939-41. 

TABLE 5 
DEATH RATES FOR TUBERCULOSIS (ALL FORMS) BY RACE AND SEX, 1910-1948 1 



Year 


Total 




White 






Nonwhite 




Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


1948 


30.0 


24.3 


33.3 


15.4 


78.7 


92.1 


65.4 


1944 


41.3 


33.7 


45.0 


23.3 


106.2 


122.7 


91.3 


1943 


42.6 


34.3 


44.4 


24.7 


112.9 


126.4 


100.0 


1942 


43.1 


34.4 


43.3 


25.6 


118.4 


131.4 


106.0 


1941 


44.5 


35.4 


43.3 


27.4 


124.2 


134.3 


114.5 


1940 


45.8 


36.5 


44.7 


28.2 


127.6 


138.7 


116.9 


1935 


55.1 


44.9 


51.7 


37.8 


145.1 


155.4 


135.0 


1930 


71.1 


57.7 


63.4 


51.9 


192.0 


194.3 


189.8 


1925 


84.8 


71.6 


75.8 


67.2 


221.3 


215.8 


226.7 


1920 


113.1 


99.5 


104.1 


94.8 


262.4 


255.4 


269.6 


1915 


140.1 


128.5 


144.0 


112.2 


401.1 


420.2 


380.5 


1910 


153.8 


145.9 


158.2 


132.8 


445.5 


479.3 


406.8 



Source: Division of Chronic Disease and Tuberculosis and National Office of Vital Statistics, U.S. Public 
Health Service. 

1 Rates for death registration states. 



162 



HEALTH AND MEDICAL FACILITIES 



Average remaining lifetime in years at 
specified ages, by race and sex, in the 
United States for the years 1949 and 1948 
is shown in Table 7. 

There is a significant difference in the 
life span for whites and nonwhites. Life 
expectancy at birth among white males 



in 1949 exceeded that for non white males 
by 7.3 years. Among white females the 
excess was 8.6 years over nonwhite fe- 
males. 

These tables are unmistakable evidence 
of what a progressive nation can do to 
improve and extend the lives of its people. 



TABLE 6 

LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH AND AT AGE 40 IN U.S., ACCORDING TO COLOR AND SEX, 
SELECTED PERIODS, 1900 TO 1944 





Birth 


Age 40 


Year or Period 


White 


Nonwhite 1 


White 


Nonwhite 1 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females Males 


Females 


19442 


63.55 


68.95 


58.30 


58.99 


30.39 


33.97 


26.26 


28.92 


19432 


63.16 


68.27 


54.65 


57.97 


29.97 


33.47 


25.83 


28.11 


19422 


63.65 


68.61 


54.28 


58.00 


30.27 


33.86 


25.92 


28.51 


1939-19412 


62.81 


67.29 


52.26 


55.56 


30.03 


33.25 


25.06 


27.19 


1930-19392 


60.62 


64.52 


50.06 


52.62 


29.57 


32.24 


24.65 


26.11 


1929-19312 


59.12 


62.67 


47.55 


49.51 


29.22 


31.52 


23.36 


24.30 


1920-19293 


57.85 


60.62 


46.90 


47.95 


29.35 


30.97 


24.55 


24.67 


1919-1921* 


56.34 


58.53 


47.14 


46.92 


29.86 


30.94 


26.53 


25.60 


1909-1911* 


50.23 


53.62 


34.05 


37.43 


27.43 


29.26 


21.57 


23.34 


1901-1910^ 


49.32 


52.54 


32.57 


35.65 


27.55 


29.28 


22.23 


23.81 


1 900-1 902* 


48.23 


51.08 


32.54 


35.04 


27.74 


29.17 


23.12 


24.37 



Gain: 1900-02 to 
19495 



17.7 



20.4 



26.0 



27.9 



3.16 



6.13 



4.08 



6.03 



Note: Life table fsor 1944, 1943, and 1942 prepared in Statitsical Bureau of Metropolitan Life In- 
surance Company; for 1944 on basis of unpublished data furnished by U.S. Bureau of the Census. 
1 Data for periods from 1900-31 and 1939-41 relate to Negroes only. 
3 Continental U.S. 
3 Registration States of 1920. 
* Original Death Registration States. 
8 See Table 7. 

TABLE 7 

LIFE EXPECTANCY: AVERAGE REMAINING LIFETIME (IN YEARS) AT SPECIFIED AGES BY 
RACE AND SEX, U. S., 1949 AND 1948 



Age 


Total 
Popu- 
lation 


1949 


Total 
Popu- 
lation 


1948 


White 


Nonwhite 


White 


Nonwhite 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 





67.6 


65.9 


71.5 


58.6 


62.9 


67.2 


65.5 


71.0 


58.1 


62.5 


1 


68.8 


67.1 


72.3 


60.8 


64.7 


68.4 


66.8 


71.9 


60.2 


64.2 


5 


65.2 


63.5 


68.7 


57.5 


61.3 


64.9 


63.2 


68.3 


56.9 


60.8 


10 


60.4 


58.7 


63.9 


52.8 


56.5 


60.1 


58.4 


63.5 


52.1 


56.1 


15 


55.6 


53.9 


59.0 


48.0 


51.7 


55.2 


53.6 


58.6 


47.4 


51.3 


20 


50.9 


49.3 


54.2 


43.5 


47.1 


50.6 


49.0 


53.8 


42.9 


46.8 


25 


46.3 


44.7 


49.4 


39.3 


42.8 


46.0 


44.4 


49.0 


38.7 


42.5 


30 


41.7 


40.0 


44.6 


35.1 


38.5 


41.3 


39.8 


44.3 


34.6 


38.3 


35 


37.1 


35.4 


39.9 


31.0 


34.3 


36.8 


35.2 


39.6 


30.5 


34.2 


40 


32.6 


30.9 


35.3 


27.2 


30.4 


32.3 


30.7 


35.0 


26.8 


30.3 


45 


28.3 


26.7 


30.8 


23.6 


26.8 


28.0 


26.5 


30.5 


23.3 


26.7 


50 


24.2 


22.6 


26.4 


20.5 


23.5 


24.0 


22.4 


26.2 


20.1 


23.4 


55 


20.4 


18.9 


22.3 


17.7 


20.4 


20.2 


18.8 


22.0 


17.5 


20.5 


60 


16.8 


15.5 


18.3 


15.3 


17.7 


16.6 


15.4 


18.1 


15.2 


17.8 


65 


13.5 


12.4 


14.6 


13.1 


15.5 


13.4 


12.4 


14.4 


13.1 


15.7 


70 


10.7 


9.8 


11.3 


11.8 


14.4 


10.6 


9.8 


11.2 


11.5 


14.5 


75 


8.2 


7.5 


8.5 


10.5 


13.2 


8.1 


7.5 


8.3 


10.3 


13.2 


80 


6.0 


5.5 


5.9 


9.4 


12.2 


5.9 


5.4 


5.8 


9.2 


11.9 


85 


4.0 


3.7 


3.7 


8.1 


10.9 


3.9 


3.6 


3.7 


7.6 


10.3 



Source: National Office of Vital Statistics, U.S. Public Health Service. 



NEGROES IN MEDICAL PROFESSIONS 



163 



In them, too, are indications of unmet 
needs among the nonwhite population, 
which, as fulfilled, will accelerate the 
trend to a uniform rate for all. 

Data concerning life expectancy pub- 
lished August 1951 in the Statistical 
Bulletin of the Metropolitan Life Insur- 
ance Company, show that in 1950 the 
expectation of life at birth for the indus- 
trial policy-holders of this company 
reached an all-time high of 68.3 years, an 
increase of fully half a year over the 
figure for 1949. The gain has amounted to 
5% years since 1940 and to 21% years 
since 1911-12, when life expectancy at 
birth in the wage-earning population was 
46.6 years. The Bulletin stated: 

Each color and sex group in this insurance 
experience has shared in the improvement in 
longevity in the past decade, but not in equal 
measure. Among both the white and the col- 
ored, females have a more favorable record 
than males. Among white persons at age 20, 
for example, the increase in average remain- 
ing life-time between 1940 and 1950 was 3.7 
years for females and 2.8 years for males. For 
the colored, among whom the corresponding 
gains were even greater, the increases were 
5.4 years for females and 5.0 years for males. 
This greater gain for the colored than for the 
white has narrowed somewhat the disparity 
between the two groups. Nevertheless, the 
whites still have a marked advantage over the 
colored in expectation of life. 

NEGROES IN ALLIED 
MEDICAL PROFESSIONS 

Most of the private medical, dental, and 
nursing care of Negroes in the United 
States is rendered by members of the 
Negro race. This practice within the race 
has not been by choice, though race con- 
sciousness and increased confidence in 
Negro doctors have increasingly con- 
tributed to the selection of a Negro 
doctor by the Negro patient. The major 
factor has been racial attitudes and cus- 
toms in some parts of the nation which 
restrict residence and activities of both 
lay and professional members of the 
Negro group. For the Negro doctor, the 



choice has been one of professional and 
economic survival. 

There is a great need for more and 
better training facilities to provide more 
doctors and nurses and a more equable 
distribution of them to meet the demands 
for adequate health and medical services 
in many communities, urban and rural. 
The greatest concentration of doctors of 
both races is in large cities, which offer 
the best facilities for practice and the 
most satisfying living conditions for the 
doctor and his family. 

Physicians 1 

Table 8 shows the total number of all 
physicians and of Negro physicians, by 
region and state, with ratio of physicians 
to units of the population. 

The total of all physicians in the 
United States, not including those in 
government services, in 1950 was 193,205, 
with a ratio of 780 persons per physician. 
The estimated number of Negro physi- 
cians for the year 1948, (latest detailed 
data available), was 3,753, with a ratio 
of 3,681 Negro persons per Negro physi- 
cian. This 1948 ratio is approximately 
correct for the year 1950, since there 
have been only enough Negro medical 
graduates to compensate for the loss of 
Negro physicians and for the propor- 
tionate increase in Negro population. 
Hence, there are nearly five times as 
many Negro persons per Negro physician 
as there are total persons, white and 
nonwhite per physician in the total num- 
ber of physicians in the United States. 

The largest deficiency is manifest in 
those areas where comparable educa- 
tional, economic, and cultural conditions 
are unfavorable for all persons but par- 
ticularly for the Negro. For example, the 
number of persons per physician in the 
total population of the Southern states 
was 1,146 in the year 1948. In other re- 
gions the number was much less, varying 
from 520 in the Middle Atlantic states to 
867 in the East North Central states. 



1 Sources : American Medical Directory, 1950 ; The Journal of Negro Education, Yearbook Number 18, Summer 
1949, "The Health Status and Health Education of Negroes in the United States." Communication from Michael J. 
Bent, Dean, School of Medicine, Meharry Medical College, "Distribution of Negro Medical Students in the United 
States." 



164 



HEALTH AND MEDICAL FACILITIES 



TABLE 8 

TOTAL POPULATION-PHYSICIAN RATIOS; NEGRO POPULATION RATIOS FOR NEGRO PHYSICIANS 
AND NEGRO DENTISTS; AND NUMBER OF NEGRO PHYSICIANS AND NEGRO DENTISTS IN U.S. 

FOR SELECTED YEARS 

Total Number Total Number Total Number Total Number Total Number 
Region and State Persons Per Negro Persons Per Negro Negro Persons Per Negro 

Physician 1 Negro Physician 1 Physicians 1 Negro Dentist 2 Dentists 2 



South 1,146 

Virginia ,262 

North Carolina ,556 

South Carolina ,706 

Georgia ,158 

Florida ,035 

Kentucky ,224 

Tennessee ,078 

Alabama ,036 

Mississippi ,525 

Arkansas 1,104 

Louisiana 743 

Oklahoma 984 

Texas 1,046 

Border States and 

District of 

Columbia 691 

Delaware 876 

Maryland 719 

West Virginia 1,035 

District of 

Columbia 370 

New England 658 

Maine 878 

New Hampshire. ... 751 

Vermont 831 

Massachusetts 598 

Rhode Island 680 

Connecticut 685 

Middle Atlantic 520 

New York 496 

New Jersey 366 

Pennsylvania 697 

East North Central . . . 867 

Ohio 907 

Indiana 946 

Illinois 711 

Michigan 1,032 

Wisconsin 943 

West North Central. . . 850 

Minnesota 730 

Iowa 967 

Missouri 718 

North Dakota 1,236 

South Dakota 1,396 

Nebraska 876 

Kansas 1,093 

Mountain 734 

Montana 786 

Idaho 706 

Wyoming 1,233 

Colorado 619 

New Mexico 1,300 

Arizona 664 

Utah...; 658 

Nevada.:. 728 

Pacific 624 

Washington 1,032 

Oregon 1,016 

California 538 

United States. . . 780 



6,203 

4,453 

5,739 

12,561 

7,384 

4,403 

2,323 

2,352 

8,519 

18,132 

10,830 

10,052 

1,701 

7,828 



1,808 
3,341 
3,496 
1,827 

1,029 

1,668 

548 

1,496 
1,870 
1,910 

2,564 
2,723 
2,386 
2,487 

1,709 
2,222 
1,852 
1,615 
1,339 
1,203 

1,265 
3,920 
1,838 
1,111 



934 

2,024 

3,283 



2,136 
5,139 
3,320 



1,374 
3,316 
3,252 
1,319 



1,572 

168 

178 

68 

147 

145 

91 

233 

116 

57 

44 

92 

100 

133 



425 
12 

102 
65 

246 
68 



41 

6 

20 

533 
222 
109 
202 

707 
172 

76 
263 
185 

11 

294 

3 

10 

231 



15 
35 

13 



141 
3 
1 

137 



15,859 

10,499 

16,632 

20,354 

21,699 

13,185 

7,380 

6,875 

25,876 

37,054 

17,873 

23,592 

8,887 

11,412 



5,142 

7,175 

10,411 

4,529 

2,881 
2,051 



1,846 
3,675 
2,062 

3,837 
3,995 
4,053 
3,742 

4,005 
4,297 
3,810 
3,459 
6,114 
2,026 

4,875 
1,986 
4,174 
5,200 



2,834 
5,922 



5,202 



3,044 
4,672 
7,497 



3,629 
3,712 

3..S52 



584 
63 
59 
40 
50 
39 
29 
74 
38 
29 
27 
36 
19 
81 



125 
5 

29 
26 

65 



30 
3 

16 

330 

143 

56 

131 

267 
79 
32 

112 

38 

6 

72 
5 
4 

47 



35 



3,681 



3,753 



8,745 



1,471 



Sources: Journal of Negro Education, Yearbook Number 18, Summer 1949, "The Health Status and 
Health Education of Negroes in the United States." The Journal of the American Dental Association. 
June 1, 1947, "Distribution of Negro Dentists in the United States." 

1 Year 1948, latest figures available for comparison. 

2 Year 1940, population Census figures and number of Negro dentists in 1940 are used for comparison. 
1950 figures are not available; estimate of population ratios for 1950 is about the same as 1940 figures. 



NEGROES IN MEDICAL PROFESSIONS 



165 



Among Negroes, in 1948; the ratio in the 
Southern states was 6,203 Negro persons 
per Negro physician; in other regions, 
the number ranged from 1,265 in the 
West North Central states to 3,283 in the 
Mountain states. It is apparent that the 
differences are both regional and racial. 
The total number of medical graduates 
from all approved medical schools in the 
United States, July 1, 1950, to June 30, 
1951, was 6,135. The number of Negro 
medical graduates in 1950-51 was 143, 
assuming that all enrolled senior Negro 
medical students graduated. There is en- 
couragement in the slight but significant 
increase in the total enrollment of Negro 
medical students from 653 in 44 of the 
72 approved medical schools in 1949-50 
to 661 in 45 of these schools in 1950-51 
(not including Temple University, which 
had 9 Negro students in 1949-50 but for 
which 1950-51 figures are not available). 
Whereas 518 of the 661 Negro medical 
students were in Howard University Col- 
lege of Medicine 'and Meharry Medical 
College School of Medicine, the other 143 
were enrolled in 43 mixed institutions, 
admitting white and colored students. In 
1938-39, there were only 45 Negro med- 
ical students enrolled in mixed schools. 

Pharmacists 

Data for pharmacists, recognized as an 
important member of the medical service 
team, are not available. There is a large 
number of Negro pharmacists, many of 
whom are proprietors of modern drug 
stores. Some operate pharmacies limited 
to prescription service only. 

Dentists 1 

Conditions similar to those affecting 
Negro physicians are presented in statis- 
tics of professional dental training and 
available dental services for Negroes. The 
total of all dentists in the United States 
in 1950 was 84,301 (not including den- 
tists in government services), with a ratio 
of 1,777 persons of the total population 



per dentist. Table 8 shows the number 
of Negro dentists and the Negro popula- 
tion to Negro dentist ratios for the year 
1940. The ratio in 1940 was 8,745 persons 
per Negro dentist. The U.S. ratio of popu- 
lation to dentists was 1,865. 

In 1945, a total of 1,533 Negro dentists 
was reported, a gain of 4.2% over the 
year 1940. However, this slight increase 
was approximately proportionate to the 
increase in the Negro population for the 
same period. The estimated number of 
Negro dentists in 1950 was 1,650, with a 
ratio of 9,383 Negro persons per Negro 
dentist. The number of Negro persons 
per Negro dentist is more than five times 
the number of persons in the total popu- 
lation (white and nonwhite) per dentist 
in the total number of dentists in the 
United States. There is approximately the 
same ratio between Negro dentists and 
Negro persons, and Negro physicians and 
Negro persons. Also it is noted that the 
Negro population ratio in the Southern 
states is greater for Negro dentists than 
it is for Negro physicians. And, as for all 
dentists, white and Negro, the greatest 
concentration is in the larger cities, which 
offer more attractive conditions for prac- 
tice and better community life. 

The trend toward a larger number of 
students enrolling in dental schools is 
encouraging in view of the need of many 
more dentists to meet the demands for 
adequate dental care. The Negro has 
shared this increase to some extent in 
recent years through admission of Negro 
students to dental schools which formerly 
did not admit them. More than three- 
fourths of all Negro dental students are 
enrolled in Howard University and 
Meharry Medical College Schools of 
Dentistry, which have trained and gradu- 
ated most of the Negro dentists in the 
United States. 

Nurses" 

Recent data on Negro nurses as a sepa- 
rate group in the total number of profes- 



* Sources : American Dental Directory, 1950 (American Dental Association) . The Journal of Negro Education, 
arbook Number 18, Summer 1949, "The Health Status and Health Education of Negroes in the United States." 
"Source: "1950 Facts about Nursing" (A Statistical Summary). 



166 



HEALTH AND MEDICAL FACILITIES 



sional nurses are not available except in 
a few categories. 

The National Association of Colored 
Graduate Nurses, professional organiza- 
tion of Negro nurses, was discontinued 
with the integration of Negro nurses in 
the American Nurses Association of the 
United States and state affiliates, includ- 
ing most of the southern states. 

A statistical summary of professional 
nurses for January 1, 1950, reports a 
total of 506,050 in the year 1949. The 
estimated number of Negro nurses was 
9,000. The number of Negro students in 
nursing schools was 3,076. During 1949, 
a total of 1,383 Negro students were ad- 
mitted to schools of nursing and 507 
were graduated. The number of schools 
admitting Negro students increased from 
76 in 1946 to 207 in 1950. 

HOSPITALS 1 

Passage of the Hospital Survey and Con- 
struction Act in August 1946 by the U.S. 
Congress, which was implemented by 
Federal-state appropriations, has given 
great impetus to the provision of needed 
hospital beds. The plans of the state hos- 
pital commissions must conform to regu- 
lations issued by the Surgeon-General of 
the U.S. Public Health Service and the 
Federal Hospital Council. A Negro hos- 
pital administrator is a technical member 
of the Council. 

This hospital program has materially 
changed the outlook for adequate hos- 
pital facilities for the nation's population, 
including the Negro, on an equable basis. 
To be eligible for Federal aid under the 
act, a hospital must either accept Negro 
patients or give assurance that separate 
hospital facilities will be available for 
Negroes in the area. Moreover, these 
separate facilities must be equal to the 
proportion of . the Negro group in the 
total population of the area. For example, 
suppose a community with a population 



of 50% white and 50% colored has 100 
hospital beds, 30 of which are for Ne- 
groes and 70 for whites. If the state survey 
indicates that the community needs 100 
additional beds, the state plan must pro- 
vide 70 beds for Negroes and not over 30 
beds for whites. 

The chapter on "Hospital Services for 
Negroes" in the report of the Commission 
on Hospital Care in the United States 
(The Commonwealth Fund, 1947) con- 
tains the following recommendations: 

1. That adequate and competent hospital 
care should be available without restriction to 
all people regardless of race, creed, color, or 
economic status. 

2. That facilities for the care of Negro pa- 
tients should be provided in hospitals that 
serve white patients rather than in separate 
hospitals. In those communities in which 
segregation is required by law, as good hos- 
pital service should be maintained for Negro 
patients as is provided for white patients. 

Figures for all hospital beds in the 
United States as of Jan. 1, 1951 (number 
of existing beds, net additional beds, and 
total beds needed), by geographical re- 
gion, are recorded, but the number of 
beds allocated specifically for Negroes is 
not available. Many conditions influence 
Negro bed capacity in hospitals, north 
and south. Even in states where segrega- 
tion is legally required, data are not 
constant because of regulatory policies 
and, primarily now, because of hospital 
facilities progressively becoming avail- 
able under the Hospital Survey and Con- 
struction Act. In the North, too, policy 
and custom often determine the occu- 
pancy of beds by Negroes. 

Many surveys of Negro hospitals have 
been made, but the figures produced vary 
to such extent that they are not depend- 
able. For example, one survey of 124 
Negro hospitals in 23 states in 1944 2 
recorded less than 10,000 beds. A later 
listing of beds in Negro hospitals in 1947 * 
reported 20,336 beds in 105 hospitals. 
Partial returns from a preliminary survey 
of Negro hospital beds by the Office of 



1 Source: "What the Hospital Act Means to Negroes," National Negro Health News, Public Health Service, Vol. 15, 
No. 2, April-June 1947. 

2 Source: "Health Hospitals, and the Negro," Modern Hospital, August 1945; "Communication on Hospitals for 
Negroes," American Medical Association, Jan. 6, 1947. 

3 American Medical Association, Jan. 6, 1947. 



HOSPITALS 



167 



Negro Health Work, Public Health Ser- 
vice, 1948-49, show the following results: 
Now in use beds, 33,390; bassinets, 
1,000. Under construction beds, 1,515; 
bassinets, 185. Planned beds, 8,781; 
bassinets, 839. These figures do not in- 
clude a large number of beds occupied 
by Negroes in mental and tuberculosis 
hospitals. The range in numbers of beds 
in hospitals listed was from a few beds in 
some individual proprietary hospitals or 
clinics to hundreds in some corporate 
and community hospitals and thousands 
in some state and municipal hospitals. 

TABLE 9 

PARTIAL LIST OF NEGRO HOSPITALS 
APPROVED FOR FEDERAL CONSTRUCTION 
FUNDS UNDER HlLL-BURTON PROGRAM 



Hospital 


Estimated 
Total 
Cost 


Approved 
Federal 
Share 


Blessed Martin de Porres 
Hosp., Mobile, Ala 
Florida A.&M. College 
Hosp., Tallahassee, Fla. 
Americus Sumter Colored 
Hosp., Americus, Ga. . . 
Grady Memorial Hosp., 
Negro Unit, Atlanta, Ga. 
Provident Hosp. Training 
School, Chicago, 111 
Community Hosp., 
Evanston, 111 


$ 611,425 

1,923,119 
199,400 
. 1,717,984 
527,000 
940,000 


$ 195,475 
641,039 
109,670 
1,030,790 
204,476 
364,720 


Red Cross Hosp., 
Louisville, Ky 


650,964 


423,476 


Lincoln Hosp., 
Durham, N.C 


758,000 


333,520 


St. Agnes Hosp., 
Raleigh, N.C. . 


86,356 


36,924 


Good Samaritan Waverly 
Hosp., Columbia, S.C. . 


219,249 


129,102 



Source: Hospital Facilities Division Report, Oct. 
31, 1951, Federal Security Agency, Public Health 
Service. 

Note: The designation "Negro hospital" is not 
the policy or the practice of the Federal Security 
Agency and Public Health Service. However, Negro 
hospitals are eligible for Federal construction funds 
if these hospitals meet the requirements for ap- 
proval. 

Most of these smaller hospitals do not 
meet the standards prescribed for ap- 
proval, but many of the larger and better 
hospitals do meet all requirements. 

Three major factors will determine the 
completion of the projected hospital pro- 



gram for the nation: Appropriated 
monies, availability of building materials, 
hospital equipment, and supplies, and the 
time necessary for the construction and 
occupancy of hospitals. But there is as- 
surance that within a reasonably short 
period there will be a hospital bed for 
every need. 

A very important factor in the hospital 
situation is the lack of opportuniites for 
Negro professional persons on the med- 
ical, surgical, and supervisory staffs of 
hospitals, even in hospitals in the South 
which maintain separate facilities for 
Negroes. There have been some gains, 
north and south, but a more liberal policy 
and practice are necessary to provide 
these opportunities on the basis of merit 
not restricted by consideration of race. 

Partial List of Negro Hospitals 
With Fifty Beds or More 1 

Brewster Hospital 

Jacksonville, Fla. 
Burrell Memorial Hospital 

Roanoke, Va. 
Charity Hospital 

Savannah, Ga. 
Collins Chapel Connectional Hospital 

Memphis, Tenn. 
Community Hospital 

Wilmington, N.C. 
Douglass Hospital 

Kansas City, Kans. 
Edith K. Thomas Memorial Hospital 

Detroit, Midi. 
Fairview Sanitarium 

Detroit, Mich. 
Flint-Goodridge Hospital of Dillard University 

New Orleans, La. 
Florida A. & M. College Hospital 

Tallahassee, Fla. 
Freedmen's Hospital 

Washington, D.C. 

George W. Hubbard Hospital of Meharry Med- 
ical College 

Nashville, Tenn. 
Georgia Infirmary 

Savannah, Ga. 
Good Samaritan Hospital 

Selma, Ala. 
Good Samaritan Hospital 

Charlotte, N.C. 
Good Samaritan-Waverly Hospital 

Columbia, S.C. 
The Good Shepherd Hospital 

New Bern, N.C. 
Homer G. Phillips Hospital 

St. Louis, Mo. 



1 Taken from a list of 132 hospitals of record. The larger number of Negro hospitals have less than 50 beds. 
Most of the larger and some of the smaller Negro hospitals are members of the National Conference of Hospital 
Administrators. These hospitals do not incude those which admit and serve Negro patients in the same buidings anil 
not in separate Negro units. In some hospitals Negro patients are restricted tc certain areas wings, floors, or wards. 
Some hospitals having a majority of Negro patients and staff members are called interracial hospitals. 



168 



HEALTH AND MEDICAL FACILITIES 



Houston Negro Hospital 

Houston, Texas 
John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital 

Tuskegee Institute, Ala. 
Kansas City General Hospital No. 2 

Kansas City, Mo. 
Kate Bitting Reynolds Memorial Hospital 

Winston-Salem, N.C. 
L. Richardson Memorial Hospital 

Greensboro, N.C. 
Lincoln Hospital 

Durham, N.C. 
Mary Lawson Sanatorium 

Palatka, Fla. 
Mercy-Douglass Hospital 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Norfolk Community Hospital 

Norfolk, Va. 
Parkside Hospjtal 

Detroit, Mich. 
Peoples' Hospital 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Prairie View State College Hospital 

Prairie View, Texas 
Provident Hospital and Free Dispensary 

Baltimore, Md. 

Provident Hospital and Training School for 
Nurses 

Chicago, 111. 
Red Cross Hospital 

Louisville, Ky. 
St. Agnes Hospital 

Raleigh, N.C. 
St. Mary's Infirmary 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Searcy Hospital 

Mount Vernon, Ala. 
Tampa Negro Hospital 

Tampa, Fla. 
Trinity Hospital 

Detroit, Mich. 
Veterans' Administration Hospital 

Tuskegee, Ala. 
Wayne Diagnostic Hospital 

Detroit, Mich. 
Wheatley- Provident Hospital 

Kansas City, Mo. 
Whittaker Memorial Hospital 

Newport News, Va. 
William A. Harris Memorial Hospital 

Atlanta, Ga. 

PUBLIC HEALTH 

Although the Negro people have been 
beneficiaries of many procedures and 
practices of public health, they have not 
shares the available facilities or oppor- 
tunities in a measure comparable to their 
needs. 

In recent years more facilities have 
been provided Negroes both in separate 
and in integrated services; and some 
qualified Negro individuals have been 
trained in public health and placed in 
useful and responsible positions. Al- 
though very limited in number, there are 



Negro doctors, nurses, and technical and 
clerical personnel in official health de- 
partments and health centers, voluntary 
health agencies, school health systems, 
and other organizations which employ 
health workers. The largest number of 
Negroes employed in public health acti- 
vities are nurses. Doctors are relatively 
few, and most of their service is in 
clinics. Schools employ a considerable 
number of Negro physicians, dentists, 
dental hygienists, and nurses. The num- 
ber of Negro health educators is growing. 
In recent years fellowships available 
from various sources for training in 
health education were available in part 
to qualified Negro applicants. No funds 
have been available from voluntary 
sources in the past few years, but state de- 
partments of health may use Federal-state 
funds for the training of qualified persons 
who will be employed by that state's health 
department upon completion of training. 

National Negro Health 
Movement 

One of the most active and productive 
agencies for the improvement of the 
health of the Negro was the National 
Negro Health Movement, the year-round 
extension and development of National 
Negro Health Week, founded in 1915 by 
Booker T. Washington. At that time, Dr. 
Washington inspired public and private 
agencies to join forces in an effort to 
improve the health of the Negro people 
through education in healthful living. 
Information was disseminated through 
churches, schools, civic groups, and 
health agencies. One week in April, cov- 
ering Dr. Washington's birthday, was 
set aside for intensive effort. National 
Negro Health Week became a rallying 
point for sponsoring and participating 
groups and agencies and for program 
evaluation. 

In 1930, the Annual Health Week Con- 
ference passed a resolution establishing 
the program on a year-round basis and 
changing the name to the National Negro 
Health Movement. Health Week, how- 
ever, continued to be observed. An execu- 



PUBLIC HEALTH 



169 



tive committee, composed of a representa- 
tive from each of the sponsoring agencies 
(Tuskegee Institute, Howard University, 
the National Medical Association, and 
the National Negro Insurance Associa- 
tion), was formed to plan the program 
and activities. From 1932 to 1950, the 
Public Health Service supported the 
National Negro Health Movement, sup- 
plying staff, facilities, and materials for 
nation-wide activities recommended by 
the executive committee. 

The program of the Movement had 10 
major objectives: 

1. Consultation with state health officers to 
learn at first-hand the public health problems 
relating to the colored population. 

2. Contact with states and local Negro or- 
ganizations to secure their aid in promotion of 
the health the Negro and their support of 
measures sponsored by state and local health 
authorities. 

3. Stimulation of the training and employ- 
ment of Negro public health personnel by 
state and local health departments and other 
agencies. 

4. Consistent efforts to elevate the stand- 
ards of training for Negro personnel and to 
induce persons with good educational back- 
ground and aptitude to fit themselves for pub- 
lice health work. 

5. Special efforts to emphasize health work 
in Negro schools and to encourage the em- 
ployment of trained personnel for health work 
in the schools. 

6. Maintenance of a comprehensive register 
of speakers qualified to give talks on public 
health subjects. 

7. Establishment in the central office of the 
National Negro Health Movement of a list of 
qualified Negro health workers. 

8. The development of a depository of 
health information relating to the colored 
population, to include an abstracting and 
reference section. 

9. Analysis of Census data and vital sta- 
tistics to determine the distribution of popula- 



tion and the nature and extent of health 
problems. 

10. Promotion of National Negro Health 
Week as a period for emphasis on the general 
health status of the Negro population and the 
program for health improvement. 

The Office of Negro Health Work of 
the Public Health Service was an out- 
growth of the program. It was discon- 
tinued in 1950 in keeping with the policy 
and practice of integration prescribed by 
the Administrator of the Federal Security 
Agency and directed by the Surgeon- 
General of the Public Health Service. It 
was succeeded by the Special Programs 
Branch, whose duties are concerned with 
all minority groups and intercultural 
relations during the transition from 
separate health activities by race to uni- 
form, comprehensive health programs for 
all people without racial distinction. 

Dr. Roscoe C. Brown and other per- 
sonnel of the Division of Public Health 
Education, Public Health Service, will 
continue to give consultative services to 
Negro groups in their communities. The 
Special Programs Branch will continue 
to serve as a clearing-house of informa- 
tion on state and community health pro- 
grams, health education materials, and 
programs available for Negro groups. 

The National Negro Health News, 
published since 1933 as the medium for 
program promotion and recording of 
data on the health of the Negro, was 
discontinued with the April-June 1950 
issue. Data of the kind formerly pub- 
lished in this periodical will be issued 
in publications which cover larger areas 
of the organization and activities of the 
Public Health Service. 



74 
Housing 



PROBLEMS IN HOUSING 
MINORITIES 

Negroes and certain other minorities 
experience distinct difficulties in obtain- 
ing decent housing beyond those of other 
groups. Though the walls are expanding, 
Negroes are still, for the most part, 
hemmed in by ghettos and do not have 
fair access to the total housing supply. 
Many problems remain to be resolved 
before minorities can fully exercise their 
right to live and rear their families in a 
decent home and suitable living environ- 
ment according to choice and ability to 
pay. This right derives from Section 1 of 
the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which pro- 
vides: "All citizens of the United States 
shall have the same right, in every State 
and Territory, as is enjoyed by white 
citizens thereof to inherit, purchase, 
lease, sell, hold, and convey real and 
personal property." 

Land restrictions, negative community 
attitudes, and the traditional practices of 
real estate operators, home-loan lenders, 
home builders, and homeowners all serve 
to limit the supply of housing available 
to racial minorities, to induce dispropor- 
tionate overcrowding, and to lower the 
quality and increase the price of housing 
available to them. The following is a 
summary of the consequences: 

1) The complexity of racially restrictive 
residential processes serves to constrict within 
"racial ghettos" an ever-expanding popula- 
tion. The consequences are overcrowding, de- 
terioration, and blight, which become asso- 
ciated with race instead of with underlying 
social and economic factors. 

2) A veritable mountain of evidence de- 
scribes these "ghettos" as constituting a drain 
upon the economic, political, social, and gpir- 
itual resources of the entire community. The 
high incidence of communicable disease, juve- 



nile delinquency, and crime clearly associated 
with these areas affects all families in the city 
and is reflected in inordinate costs to the 
taxpayer for the maintenance of social insti- 
tutions to combat these effects, and the prop- 
erty deterioration in these neighborhoods af- 
fects the tax structure of the entire city. 

3) The artificially discriminating housing 
market created by enforced residential re- 
strictions by race is subject to exploitation by 
many dealers in property, affecting values 
throughout the city. 

4) Residential stratification by race gener- 
ates group racial attitudes and antagonisms 
by preventing normal contact and appraisal of 
individuals on merit, in turn preventing 
mutual respect and understanding. Racial 
tensions are traceable all along the margins of 
the "ghetto" and resulting conflicts have their 
repercussions throughout the community. 

5) Residential restrictions by race serve to 
conditions school systems, the use of other 
community services, employment, transporta- 
tion, etc., and to maintain an easily exploitable 
market for inferior consumer goods and rela- 
tively high prices. Associated problems re- 
verberate in every home in the community. 

6) The existence and crystallization of 
"racial islands" and the costly maintenance of 
buffer areas thwart sound city planning and 
healthy community development, including 
sound and economic housing and redevelop- 
ment programs. Since there are practically no 
other places open to families displaced from 
urban areas designated for redevelopment, 
city improvements of benefit to everyone are 
inordinately delayed and often precluded. 

7. Narrow vested interests are created 
within as well as without the "ghetto." The 
"ghetto" businessmen, politicians, ministers, 
property owners, and others gain a stake in 
keeping the "ghetto" intact. Many real estate 
operators, controllers of "underworld" enter- 
prises, politicians, and others living outside 
the "ghetto" find its preservation highly profit- 
able to them. Homeowners, general business, 
city administrations, and the moral leadership 
of the total community are the sufferers. 

8. Private builders or developers can find 
virtually no building sites outside the "ghetto" 
upon which they can, without opposition, con- 
struct decent homes open to minority-group 
families; thus, this untapped and profitable 
market goes begging. 



170 



HOUSING SITUATION AMONG NEGROES 



171 



9. Neighborhoods stratified by race, re- 
ligion, or income create a species of neighbor- 
hood "isolationism," induce political racism, 
weaken national unity at the community level, 
and stultify our nation, leading advocate of 
the democratic way of life. 

Minorities are currently represented 
in virtually all income sectors of the 
population and, of necessity, feel the 
full impact of every aspect of the national 
housing problem. Although still heavily 
concentrated in large proportions among 
the lower-income families eligible for 
subsidized public housing and among the 
dwellers of slum and blighted areas 
marked for clearance and redevelopment, 
an ever-increasing number of Negroes 
and other minorities are to be found in 
the vast middle-income group whose 
housing requirements constitute the 
broadest and most stable private-enter- 
prise market for new as well as existing 
standard housing. 

During and since World War II, thou- 
sands of new dwellings have been made 
available to racial minorities through the 
activities of private builders, lenders, 
and real estate operators, among which 
Negro representatives themselves have 
contributed in considerable measure. 
Much of this progress has been due to 
the active, continuing efforts of the 
HHFA, through the Office of the Admin- 
istrator and the FHA. 

More and more in communities both 
north and south representatives of Ne- 
groes and other minorities are found 
among those encouraging local responsi- 
bility for adequate solution to local hous- 
ing problems consistent with the view- 
points and best interests of all significant 
elements of the total community. 

HOUSING SITUATION 
AMONG NEGROES 

The second complete census of housing 
in the nation's history was taken April, 
1950 as part of 'the regular decennial 
census. Since final tabulations will not be 
available until late 1952, the Census 



Bureau has released preliminary data 
tabulated from a sample, which indicates 
within calculable limits what the final 
summaries will show. 1 The increases in 
urbanization, interregional shifts, and 
money earnings of the nonwhite popula- 
tion from 1940 to 1950 have affected the 
housing situation as described below: 

Home Ownership: The number of non- 
farm dwelling units occupied by non- 
whites increased by 31% between 1940 
and 1950, approximately the same as for 
all such units. While the proportion of 
ownership for white groups remains 
higher than for nonwhites, the rate of 
increase has been greater among non- 
whites. Between 1940 and 1950, the pro- 
portion of urban white ownership in- 
creased from 39% to 52%, or one-third, 
compared to urban nonwhites from 20% 
to 33%, or two-thirds. 

Home Value: Home values for non- 
white owner-occupants were generally 
far lower than for whites and nonwhites 
combined. In urban areas the medium 
value of all one-dwelling unit structures 
was $8,400 but it was only $3,700 for 
nonwhite owners. Some 65% of nonwhite 
owners of one-dwelling unit structures in 
urban areas estimated that their homes 
would sell for less than $5,000 while 90% 
of such owners in rural nonfarm areas 
estimated that their homes would sell for 
less than the same amount. Further, one- 
fourth of nonwhite homeowners in urban 
areas and three-fifths of such owners in 
rural areas estimated that their dwellings 
would sell for less than $2,000. 

Rent: The medium gross rent (in- 
cludes cost of water, electricity, gas, and 
other fuel, excludes any charges for use 
of furniture) for renter-occupied non- 
farm dwelling units in 1950 was $42, 
55% higher than in 1940, when it was 
$27. For nonwhite renters it nearly 
doubled, increasing from $14 to $27. In 
urban areas the median gross rent for 
whites was $44 and for nonwhites $31. 
Whereas nearly two-thirds of nonwhite 

(Continued on page 174) 



1 1950 Census of Housing, Preliminary Reports, "Housing Characteristics of the United States"; April 1, 1950. 
Series HC-5, No. 1. 



172 



HOUSING 



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B 4) 
(S *J 

15 - 



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B id 

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o 

3 

a 

** 

J 



HOUSING SITUATION AMONG NEGROES 



173 



O 



o 
o 

a 








is 



* E 



V 

e o 

00 
(0 V 

V 

- 




8.S 

B VS 




B N 

Is 



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to"' 
4* 




- 
S id 

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174 



HOUSING 



renters paid less than $20 a month in 
1940, less than a third fell in that cate- 
gory in 1950. However, nearly 70% of 
nonwhite renters living in rural nonfarm 
dwellings still paid less than $20 per 
month in 1950. Approximately two-thirds 
of the nonwhite renters in urban areas 
paid less than $40 in 1950. 

Overcrowding: There was a small de- 
crease in overcrowding in occupied non- 
farm dwelling units from 1940 to 1950. 
The percentage of all occupied units with 
1.51 or more persons per room was 5.5; 
for nonwhite occupied units it was 18.2; 
in 1940, the percentages were 7.1 and 
18.4 respectively. The only increase in 
percentage during the ten-year period 
was for the nonwhite renter-occupied 
group: 1940, 20.2%; 1950, 22.8%. A 
comparison of the 1950 percentages of 
overcrowding in all owner- and renter- 
occupied units with those occupied by 
nonwhites reveals a significantly large 
difference: All owner-occupied units, 
3.1%; nonwhite owner-occupied, 9.6%. 
All renter-occupied units, 8.3%; non- 
white renter-occupied, 22.8%. 

Condition; Plumbing Facilities: In 
1950, homes for nonwhite families con- 
tinued to show a greater need for im- 
provement than those for white families. 
Thus, including only nonfarm units, 27% 
of homes of nonwhite families were di- 
lapidated as compared to 7% for all 
families, both nonwhite and white; and 
24% of homes of nonwhite families were 
urban units not dilapidated but lacking 
running water, private toilet, or bath, as 
compared to 10% for white and nonwhite 
combined. An installed bathtub or shower 
was not available to 40% of nonwhite 
families in urban places or to 94% of 
nonwhite families in rural nonfarm areas, 
compared respectively to 11 and 44% for 
white and nonwhite combined. Over 30% 
of nonwhite urban units lacked the use 
of a flush toilet as compared with 8% 
for both groups. Finally, only 50% of 
nonwhite families in urban places had 
access to both hot and cold running 
water inside the structure as compared 
with 85% for both white and nonwhite; 



and for rural nonfarm areas, nearly 
three-fourths of nonwhite families had 
no piped running water at all, as com- 
pared to about one-fourth of nonwhite 
and white families. 

FEDERAL HOUSING AIDS 

All Federal aids to the planning, develop- 
ment, financing, marketing, occupancy 
or management or housing as well as the 
clearance and redevelopment of slum 
areas should be viewed in terms of the 
national housing objective set forth in 
the Declaration of National Housing 
Policy in the Housing Act of 1949, which 
states: "the general welfare and security 
of the Nation, the health and living 
standards of its people, require . . . the 
realization as soon as feasible of the goal 
of a decent home and a suitable living 
environment for every American fam- 
ily. . . ." This represents the first time 
the American people, acting through 
Congress, have enacted into law a na- 
tional housing objective and policy; its 
importance as the key to understanding 
Federal aids as applied to housing and 
home finance cannot be overstressed. 

The Housing Act of 1950 expanded 
and supplemented existing Federal hous- 
ing legislation to make current programs 
more useful and to provide additional 
types of aid for particular housing prob- 
lems. Since its passage, national defense 
considerations have made limitations 
necessary, though the general direction 
of the programs has not changed. 

HHF A: Racial 
Relations Services 

The Housing and Home Finance 
Agency is a permanent Federal agency 
established to carry out the principal 
housing and home financing functions of 
the Federal government. This Agency 
consists of the Office of the Administra- 
tor, three operation administrations the 
Home Loan Bank Board, the Federal 
Housing Administration, and the Public 
Housing Administration and a National 
Housing Council. 



FEDERAL HOUSING AIDS 



175 



Office of the Administrator: A Race 
Relations Service in Government housing 
agencies, with a staff headed by Frank 
S. Home, Assistant to the Administrator 
of HHFA, Raymond M. Foley, is respon- 
sible for advising on racial implications 
and considerations in the development 
and execution of Agency policies and 
programs and for maintaining liaison 
with minority and other interested group 
leadership and organizations. This Ser- 
vice provides assistance to the Agency 
in implementing the Federal nondis- 
crimination policy in employment and in 
mobilizing private and public planning, 
financing, and construction resources at 
local, state, and national levels to over- 
come the added housing difficulties faced 
by minorities in competing for standard 
housing. 

Techniques and methods of the Service 
include defining the problems accurately 
and objectively, devising practical meas- 
ures to meet these problems, reviewing 
and evaluating Agency operations, co- 
ordinating racial relations services 
throughout the Agency, formulating and 
adapting relevant policies and proced- 
ures, and forestalling the rise of racial 
problems whenever possible or resolving 
such problems if they do arise. 

In addition to Dr. Home, the profes- 
sional staff of the Racial Relations Ser- 
vice is composed of a Deputy Assistant, 
Dr. B. T. McGraw, and two Racial Rela- 
tions Advisers, Corienne R. Morrow and 
T. Edward Davis. 

Division of Slum Clearance and Urban 
Redevelopment: This part of the Office of 
the Administrator also has racial rela- 
tions specialists to provide specific ser- 
vices applicable to the program. Within 
this structure, a Special Assistant, George 
B. Nesbitt, is on the staff of the Division's 
Director, Nathaniel S. Keith, and Racial 
Relations-Relocation Specialists are des- 
ignated to serve the chiefs of area offices. 
Two such specialists, Anne M. Roberts 
and J. Lawrence Duncan, have been as- 
signed and two others are pending. 

The Special Assistant to the Director 
is primarily concerned with basic policies 



and procedures and provides services to 
the Director's staff. As a member of the 
Program Review Committee, he partici- 
pates in the formulation of final recom- 
mendations concerning specific local 
applications for loans and grants before 
submission for the Director's approval. 
This Special Assistant also coordinates 
the racial relations services within the 
Division and maintains liaison with or- 
ganizations particularly concerned with 
the minority-group implicatons of slum 
clearance and urban redevelopment. 

A complementary service is performed 
by the Racial Relations-Relocation spe- 
cialists in the area offices, constituting 
the operating units of the program in 
direct contact with the localities and re- 
sponsible for primarly review of applica- 
tions and related documents. These 
specialists function as integral parts of 
operating units. Their function in reloca- 
tion is not limited to racial minorities. 

Public Housing Administration: In the 
Public Housing Administration, racial 
relations services are provided by the 
Racial Relations Branch, established as 
part of the Executive Staff of the Com- 
missioner, John T. Egan, with Warren R. 
Cochrane as Director. In addition, Racial 
Relations sections are established in each 
of the PHA field offices. 

The Racial Relations Branch provides 
staff assistance on matters pertaining to 
racial minority groups with respect to all 
programs administered by PHA. Its 
major functions include the formulation 
of policy and procedure for minority- 
group participation in the program, re- 
view of performance and relevant docu- 
ments, functional coordination of field- 
office racial relations operations, analysis 
of racial relations factors in public hous- 
ing, and liaison with national organiza- 
tions concerned with racial aspects of 
the program. 

Within each field office, at the heart of 
the operating program, Racial Relations 
Officers perform a similar function for 
the staff of the directors and their oper- 
ating personnel. These officers are par- 
ticularly concerned with the specific 



176 



HOUSING 



application of policies and procedures to 
local housing programs. They make the 
primary racial-relations review of all 
applications and documents used in ex- 
tension of PHA aids to localities. 

In addition to the Director of the 
Racial Relations Branch, the staff is com- 
prised of Charles C. Beckett, Assistant 
Director; Ethel G. Greene and J. Arthur 
Weiseger, Racial Relations Assistants; 
Lucia Pitts, Administrative Assistant. 

As of December 1951, field Racial 
Relations Officers were assigned as fol- 
lows: Hubert M. Jackson, Atlanta, Ga.; 
Reuben E. Clay, Richmond, Va.; William 
H. S. Dabney, Boston, Mass. ; William E. 
Hill and N. P. Dotson, Chicago, 111.; 
George W. Washington, Fort Worth, 
Texas; Edward Rutledge, New York 
City; Clarence R. Johnson and Robert B. 
Pitts, San Francisco, Calif. 

Federal Housing Administration: In 
the central office of the Federal Housing 
Administration, a Minority Group Hous- 
ing Advisor, Roland M. Sawyer, acts as 
consultant to Commissioner Franklin D. 
Richards and his Washington staff and to 
the various state and district Directors 
in the field. 

Racial relations advisers, on the staffs 
of each of the five zone Commissioners 
and stationed in a key city of each zone, 
execute a racial relations service directly 
concerned with the operations of the 
140-odd FHA field offices and with build- 
ers, lenders, sponsors, and others whose 
activities are essential to increasing the 
supply of housing available to minority 
groups. As of December 1951, these ad- 
visers are assigned as follows: Zone I, 
Madison S. Jones, New York City; Zone 
II, Albert L. Thompson, Atlanta, Ga.; 
Zone III, DeHart Hubbard, Cleveland, 
Ohio; Zone IV, A. Maceo Smith, Dallas, 
Texas; and Zone V, Floyd C. Covington, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Programs of HHFA 

Directly administered under the Office 
of the Administrator are several pro- 



grams dealing with various phases of 
housing and finance. Among these, how- 
ever, only the programs most active cur- 
rently and involving certain special 
emphasis upon racial-minority considera- 
tions are described. 

Housing Research: The Division of 
Housing Research, like other units of the 
Administration, includes consideration of 
racial minorities throughout its function. 
Racial minorities, like other elements of 
the population, will benefit from general 
research activities of this Division. Of 
special interest is the following descrip- 
tion of a "Planning Survey of Interracial 
Housing," being conducted by the Psy- 
chological Research Center of New York 
University, under contract with the 
HHFA Research Division: 

Objectives: To summarize and evaluate the 
problems of interracial housing so that syste- 
matic plans can be made for research on the 
more urgent topics in the order of their im- 
portance, and to furnish a method of approach 
or guide for community leadership in dealing 
with the problems and possibilities in ad- 
vancing interracial housing. 

Method and Scope: Surveys are being made 
of six localities with experience in interracial 
housing. Special attention is being given to 
the socio-economic and political background 
of each area, its ethnic composition, types of 
public housing and experience with inter- 
racial occupancy, problems confronted, cor- 
rective steps taken, and their outcome. 

Significance: Results will be of use to city 
planners and housing officials, and the hous- 
ing industry generally; also to sociologists 
and research organizations interested in car- 
rying on further research in the field of racial 
relations. The survey will also provide infor- 
mation on interracial housing experience to 
help eliminate excessive costs through dupli- 
cating facilities, and to meet urgent defense 
manpower requirements through adequate 
housing in suitable locations for minority 
workers in defense plants. 1 

In addition, a study in housing tech- 
nology is under contract to Tuskegee In- 
stitute, Ala. It is hoped that this research 
project, "Guide for Cooperative Self -Help 
Dwelling Construction," will make a gen- 
eral contribution to the problem of lower- 
ing housing costs, as outlined below: 



1 Housing Research, Capsule Descriptions of Projects Started under Contract in 1950, HHFA, Office of Admin- 
istrator, Division of Housing Research, Washington, D.C., May 1951, p. 20. 



FEDERAL HOUSING AIDS 



177 



Objectives: To develop techniques for low- 
cash-cost dwelling construction, suitable for 
cooperative, self-help labor, and to prepare a 
manual or guide for their use. 

Scope of Research: The research involves 
actual construction of at least ten dwellings 
by ten or more families working together to 
supply the labor. The families are being in- 
structed in cooperative self-help home con- 
struction, and plans are being developed for 
their dwellings. Methods are being worked 
out to organize the labor the families can 
provide, and integrate it with necessary build- 
ing trades assistance. Controls are being de- 
veloped to insure production of sound, durable 
homes. A complete record of all operations 
will be used to prepare a manual for guiding 
other self-help groups. 

Significance: The substantial cash outlays 
required prohibit many families from building 
homes. This project is designed to provide a 
manual to help groups of families, working 
together, \o overcome this handicap by sup- 
plying as much labor as possible themselves. 
For emergency use, self-help techniques may 
prove helpful in overcoming labor shortages, 
especially in rehabilitation of areas disrupted 
by war. 1 

Defense Housing and Community Faci- 
lities: The Office of the Administrator is 
responsible for the program authorized 
by the Defense Housing and Community 
Facilities and Services Act of 1951. Fol- 
lowing is a statement of policy issued 
Nov. 15, 1951, by HHFA Administrator 
Raymond M. Foley, with respect to pro- 
grams assisted or provided by the HHFA 
under this legislation: 

General: The purpose of the Defense Hous- 
ing and Community Facilities and Services 
Act of 1951 is to assure that the needs of all 
in-migrant defense workers, including mili- 
tary personnel, for housing and for community 
facilities and services will be met. To carry 
out that purpose, the powers, functions, and 
duties under that Act which are to be admin- 
istered within the Housing and Home Finance 
Agency shall be administered in such manner 
as will assure that the defense housing Act 
shall, to the maximum extent feasible under 
the limitations contained in said Act and the 
funds appropriated or made available there- 
under, be programmed and provided to meet 
the needs of eligible in-migrant defense work- 
ers, including military personnel, of all races, 
colors, creeds, and national origins. 

Programming of Defense Housing: To as- 
sure that privately-financed defense housing 
will be provided to meet the needs of in- 



migrant defense workers of minority groups, 
estimates of the defense housing requirements 
submitted by Regional Representatives with 
respect to localities declared or proposed to 
be declared as critical defense housing areas 
pursuant to the Defense Housing and Com- 
munity Facilities and Services Act of 1951 
shall include data on the estimated number of 
defense workers of minority groups expected 
in total estimated number of in-migrant de- 
fense workers, the availability of existing 
housing to such defense workers and the need 
for additional housing available to such de- 
fense workers taking into full account pos- 
sible shifts in the local labor market and in- 
creased utilization of minority group labor. 

Privately-Financed Defense Housing: Data 
as to the housing required to meet the needs 
of in-migrant defense workers of minority 
groups shall be made available by the HHFA 
to the appropriate FHA field office when the 
number of permanent privately-financed 
dwelling units programmed for in-migrant de- 
fense workers, and the authorization for such 
office to accept applications for special credit 
assistance for such housing is publicly an- 
nounced. In processing applications for such 
special credit assistance, approvals shall be 
granted by such FHA field office in such man- 
ner as will assure, prior to the issuance of 
approvals for the total program, that the 
amount of housing required to meet the needs 
of the estimated number of in-migrant defense 
workers of minority groups will be provided 
and will be available to such workers . . . 

Defense Housing Provided Directly by 
HHFA : Defense housing provided directly by 
the Housing and Home Finance Administra- 
tor pursuant to title III of the Defense Hous- 
ing and Community Facilities and Services 
Act shall be developed so that it can be 
readily made available for occupancy by any 
eligible defense worker. Occupancy of any 
such defense housing shall not be denied to 
any eligible defense worker on the basis of 
race, color, creed, or national origin. 

Community Facilities: The determination 
of defense community facilities to be assisted, 
or to be provided directly, by thesHousing and 
Home Finance Administrator pursuant to title 
III of Defense Housing and Community Facil- 
ities and Services Act of 1951 and Executive 
Order No. 10296 shall be on the basis of need, 
and, in determining need, no discrimination 
shall be made on account of race, color, creed, 
or national origin. In the provision or opera- 
tion and maintenance of any such community 
facilities, there shall be equality of treatment 
of persons of all races, colors, creeds, and 
national origins. 

Division of Slum Clearance and Urban 
Redevelopment: The Housing Act of 



1 Op. cit., p. 61. 



(Continued on page 180) 



178 



HOUSING 








FEDERAL HOUSING AIDS 



179 







180 



HOUSING 



1949 authorizes the HHFA, through this 
Division, to make loans and capital 
grants to assist local communities in the 
clearance of slum and deteriorated areas 
for rebuilding, primarily by private enter- 
prise. Title I of the "slum clearance and 
urban redevelopment" title, as it is often 
called, provides a new program of Fed- 
eral aid, not to be confused with the 
older, established public low-rent pro- 
gram. 

While a public low-rent housing 
agency often clears an area of rundown 
housing and always provides new low- 
rent housing in the cleared area, an area 
cleared under the new Title I may be 
reused to build housing which will serve 
any one or more of the various income 
levels and also for commercial, industrial, 
or public uses, separately or in any com- 
bination of these. 

Congress has provided that a local 
public agency, acting under Title I, must 
provide assurance that dwellings for the 
permanent rehousing of the families to 
be displaced "are or are being provided." 
Such dwellings also must be "decent, 
safe and sanitary," in reasonably con- 
venient locations, sell or rent for prices 
which the displaced families can afford, 
and be actually "available to such dis- 
placed families." Moreover, to encourage 
housing production, Title I loans are 
available in connection with predomin- 
antly open or partially developed land 
so-called "dead" land and open land, 
provided that such land is to be rede- 
veloped for residential use and in con- 
junction with a slum-clearance program 
in the locality. 

Experienced persons anticipate con- 
siderable risk for racial minorities in- 
herent in city-wide planning and urban 
redevelopment. In 1948, even before the 
passage of the Housing Act of 1949, 
Robert C. Weaver, a member of the offi- 
cial Slum Clearance Advisory Committee 
and a nationally recognized authority on 
the subject, made the following statement 
in his book, The Negro Ghetto: 



City planning and urban redevelopment 
carry a triple threat to minorities and good 
housing. They can be used, and there is a 
tendency to use them, as a guide for displac- 
ing minorities from desirable areas. Or they 
may become the instrument for breaking up 
established racially democratic neighbor- 
hoods. Finally, and equally dangerous, is their 
use to reduce even further the already inade- 
quate supply of living space available to 
minorities. 

In addition to these dangers, it is 
obvious that ill-developed plans for the 
relocation of displaced families and 
planned "containment" of Negro families 
in areas already occupied by them like- 
wise are major risks of especial concern 
to minorities. 

It is too early in the development of 
this new program to indicate conclusively 
the degree to which such risks are ma- 
turing. The fact, however, that a great 
many of the localities participating in the 
Title I program are embarking on initial 
slum-clearance activity in "near down- 
town' areas of heavily congested, racial 
minority residence augurs the potential 
extent of such problems. 

In Minnesota, New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, state legis- 
lation has been enacted which prohibits 
racial discrimination in housing built in 
urban redevelopment areas. Local gov- 
ernmental bodies have passed resolutions 
of similar purport in Los Angeles and 
San Francisco, Calif., and Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

The general approach of the Federal 
Agency to meeting these issues is re- 
flected in the following statement: 

Relocating Families Displaced 
by Slum Clearance* 

The clearance of slum areas for public 
housing projects for low-income families and 
for slum clearance and urban redevelopment 
projects for new private and public uses usu- 
ally involves serious and difficult problems in 
the rehousing and relocation of families who 
may be displaced by such operations. In many 
cities, these problems are particularly press- 
ing in the clearance of slum areas occupied 
by families of minority races, many of whom 



1 A statement by Raymond M. Foley, Administrator, HHFA, made with the concurrence of Franklin D. Richards, 
Commissioner of FHA, John T. Egan, Commissioner of PHA. and Nathaniel S. Keith, Director of the Division of 
Slum Clearance and Urban Redevelopment. 



FEDERAL HOUSING AIDS 



181 



have incomes exceeding the eligibility require- 
ments for low-rent public housing. 

The solution of these problems is indis- 
pensable if progress in accordance with the 
objectives of the Declaration of National 
Housing Policy contained in the Housing Act 
of 1949 is to be achieved and if the legislative 
requirements and intent of the specific pro- 
grams authorized in that act are to be 
observed. 

To solve these problems in a community a 
concerted approach is required by the City 
and its appropriate public bodies, including 
local civic groups and individuals, acting with 
the cooperation of all the constitutent agencies 
and divisions of the Housing and Home Fi- 
nance Agency. The objective of this approach 
should be to assure not only that the families 
to be displaced are rehoused in accordance 
with statutory requirements and objectives 
without undue hardship, but also that the re- 
housing does not in itself produce overcrowd- 
ing and new areas of blight contrary to the 
intent of the Act. The achievement of this 
objective will usually require expansion of 
housing facilities and living space, particu- 
larly where racial minorities are to be dis- 
placed. 

The communities themselves primarily have 
the task of developing and carrying out a 
feasible method for adequate relocation of 
families displaced from slums they want to 
clear, and approvals of local public housing 
and slum clearance projects for Federal aid 
are predicted on the communities' assumption 
of this responsibility. 

The resources of the Housing and Home 
Finance Agency and its constituent agencies 
are available to assist communities in meet- 
ing their relocation problems. Where local 
problems are particularly critical, the HHFA 
will be prepared to undertake special steps in 
a concerted effort to assist in their solution. 

To make Federal aids available on a co- 
ordinated basis, the HHFA has developed a 
national method for the use of various types 
of assistance, to be carried out through the 
following special steps. 

The Federal Housing Administration will 
actively undertake to encourage and assist 
private builders in a practical program of de- 
veloping both sale and rental housing avail- 
able to middle-income families suited to the 
needs of displaced families, and will assist 
and encourage the development of vacant land 
areas for housing available to minority groups 
to the maximum extent possible, consistent 
with the market for such housing. 

The Public Housing Administration will 
consider as part of its approval of low-rent 
projects built on slum sites the adequacy of 
rehousing provisions for any displaced fami- 
lies, particularly where minority groups are 
involved, and the consideration given by the 
local program to the use of vacant sites to 



minimize hardship in rehousing displaced 
families and to help assure an adequate supply 
of standard housing for them. Such review will 
include the relation between displacement 
from public housing construction on slum sites 
and that resulting from Title I clearance of 
slum areas and the measures taken to give 
effect to the statutory preferences for occu- 
pancy of public housing accorded to eligible 
families displaced from slum areas cleared for 
either public housing or for redevelopment 
under Title I. The PHA will consider each 
stage of demolition on a slum site separately, 
with appropriate provision for deferring demo- 
lition if relocation activity would produce ex- 
cessive hardship on the families involved. Con- 
tracts for any additional slum sites for public 
housing will not be approved until the progress 
being made in the existing relocation problem 
resulting from redevelopment or public hous- 
ing, and in increasing the general housing 
supply for displaced families in the locality, 
particularly minority groups, indicates that 
the families to be displaced can be rehoused 
without undue hardship. 

The Division of Slum Clearance and Urban 
Redevolpment will not approve a loan and 
grant application for the redevelopment of 
slum areas unless relocation plans indicate the 
ability of the community to provide decent, 
safe, and sanitary housing within the means of 
families to be displaced. Ordinarily such plans 
must include evidence of an expanding hous- 
ing supply in the locality and particularly 
compensating expansion of living areas for 
racial minorities when such families are to be 
displaced. Scheduling of demolition will be in 
accordance with the locality's ability to carry 
out relocation adequately. The Division will 
also take into consideration, and in appropri- 
ate cases will require measures established 
locally to provide effective enforcement of local 
housing ordinances, especially in so-called 
"transition" areas where families may be re- 
located, to protect them against illegal con- 
versions of dwelling units, overcrowding, or 
other measures, which would tend to create 
substandard housing conditions in such areas. 

Although the several authorities exercised 
in these various steps represent administra- 
tively separate operations, their coordinated 
use recognizes that substantial displacement 
of families, from whatever cause, becomes a 
common problem in the community, and that 
the provision of an adequate supply of housing 
for such families, particularly minority groups 
requires the concerted effort of all types of 
Federal assistance. 

The coordinate use of these authorities is 
explicitly called for in the policy set forth in 
the Housing Act of 1949, which says in part : 
"The Housing and Home Finance Agency and 
its constituent agencies, and any other depart- 
ments or agencies of the Federal Government 
having powers, functions, or duties with re- 



182 



HOUSING 



spect to housing, shall exercise their powers, 
functions, or duties under this or any other 
law, consistently with the national housing 
policy declared by this Act and in such man- 
ner as will facilitate sustained progress in 
attaining the national housing objective 
hereby established, and in such manner as 
will encourage and assist . . . the production 
of housing of sound standards of design, con- 
struction, livability, and size for adequate 
family life . . . (and) the development of well- 
planned, integrated, residential neighborhoods 
and the development and redevelopment of 
communities. . . ." 

This application of the coordinated method, 
developed under the sanction of the operating 
heads of the constitutents and the HHFA Ad- 
ministrator's coordinating responsibility, was 
instituted initially with the approval of four 
low-rent public housing projects and notice of 
approval to be given for a capital grant con- 
tract on an urban redevelopment project in 
Chicago, announced on November 5, 1951. 
The method and underlying policies, however, 
are generally applicable in connection with 
Federal approvals and extension of Federal 
assistance in all communities faced with dis- 
placement and relocation problems in con- 
nection with Federally-aided low-rent public 
housing projects or slum clearance and urban 
redevelopment projects. 

FEDERAL POLICIES AND 
PROVISIONS 

Among the Federal legislative provi- 
sions and policies with which racial 
minorities should be thoroughly familiar 
are the following: 

Public Law 171 81st Congress. Section 
105(c). Contracts for financial aid shall be 
made only with a duly authorized local public 
agency and shall require that . . . There be a 
feasible method for the temporary relocation 
of families displaced from the project area, 
and that there are or are being provided, in 
the project area or in other areas not generally 
less desirable in regard to public utilities and 
public and commercial facilities and at rents 
or prices within the financial means of the 
families displaced from the project area, de- 
cent, safe, and sanitary dwellings equal in 
number to the number of and available to such 
displaced families and reasonably accessible 
to their places of employment 

A Guide to Slum Clearance and Urban Re- 
development (Revised April 1950) Office of 
the Administrator, HHFA, p. 24. Every con- 
tract for financial assistance . . . will require 
that the local public agency (a) shall cause 
to be removed or abrogated any covenant or 
other provision in any agreement, lease, con- 
veyance or other instrument restricting, upon 
the basis of race, creed or color, the sale, lease 



or occupancy of any land which it acquires as 
part of a project; and (b) shall adopt ef- 
fective measures to assure that no covenant, 
agreement, lease, conveyance or other instru- 
ment may be validly executd by the local pub- 
lic agency, the redevelopers or his successors 
in interest, restricting the sale, lease or occu- 
pancy of any real estate in the project areas 
upon the basis of race, creed or color. 

Regulation X, Board of Governors of the 
Federal Reserve System, Section 5(e), Exemp- 
tions and Exceptions Casualties. The prohi- 
bitions of subsections (a) and (b) of Section 
4 of this regulation shall not apply to any 
extension of real estate construction credit as 
to which the Registrant accepts in good faith 
a signed statement of the Borrower certifying 
that the proceeds thereof are to be used . . . 
solely to finance the purchase or construction 
of a residence, multi-unit residence or non- 
residential structure to be used in substitution 
for a similar structure of which the borrower 
has been deprived through or by reason of 
eminent domain or condemnation proceedings. 
(Italics supplied.) 

ThePHA 

Low-Rent Housing Program: Under 
the low-rent housing laws and state- 
enabling legislation, local communities 
may set up housing authorities to handle 
their public housing programs. These 
authorities are responsible for all phases 
of the program, including initiating 
plans, selecting sites, employing archi- 
tects, building contractors and other 
labor, and providing for financing, con- 
struction, operation, and management. 
The actions of the housing authority 
must, however, conform with certain 
PHA policies and standards, which take 
into account the requirement for partici- 
pation of racial minorities in the pro- 
grams. PHA's general racial policy stipu- 
lates that: 

1) Programs for the development of low- 
rent housing, in order to be eligible for PHA 
assistance, must reflect equitable provision for 
eligible families of all races determined on the 
approximate volume and urgency of their 
respective needs for such housing. 

2) While the selection of tenants and the 
assigning of dwelling units are primarily mat- 
ters for local determination, urgency of need 
and the preferences prescribed in the Housing 
Act of 1949 are the basic statutory standards 
for the selection of tenants. 

Another policy is specifically con- 
cerned with the participation of racial 
minority groups in programs of commu- 



FEDERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS 



183 



Negro Members of Local Housing Authorities 1 



State 

Alabama 
Arizona 
California 
Connecticut 



District of Columbia 

Florida 

Illinois 



Indiana 
Kentucky 
Maryland 
Michigan 



Missouri 
New Jersey 

New York 



North Carolina 
Ohio 



Pennsylvania 



Tennessee 
Virginia 



West Virginia 
Wisconsin 



City 
Ozark 
Phoenix 
Los Angeles 
Hartford 

New Haven 
Washington 
Daytona Beach 
Chicago 

Joliet 

Springfield 

Gary 

Muncie 

Louisville 

Maysville 

Baltimore 

Cumberland 

Detroit 

Ecorse 

Hamtramck 

Inkster 

Pontiac 

River Rouge 

Saginaw 
Ypsilanti 

Kansas City 
St. Louis 

Asbury Park 

Camden 

Morristown 

Newark 

Orange 

Albany 

Hempstead 

Mount Vernon 

New Rochelle 

New York 

Peekskill 

Tarrytown 

Yonkers 

Durham 

Greensboro 

Winston-Salem 

Canton 

Cincinnati 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Hamilton 

Steubenville 

Toledo 


Youngstown 
Harrisburg . 
Philadelphia 

Pittsburgh 

Pottstown 

Nashville 

Hopewell 

Newport News 

Richmond 

Roanoke 

Charleston 

Milwaukee 



Name 

D. A. Smith 
Wade H. Hammond 
George A. Beavers, Jr. 
Frank T. Simpson 

Mrs. Rosalind L. Putman 

Atty. George W. Crawford 

Col. Campbell C. Johnson 

Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune 

Mr. Marion L. Smith 

John Yancey 

John O. Holmes 

Major Robert A. Byrd 

Rev. Leon Davis 

Dr. J. Sylvester Smith 

Atty. Everett J. Harris 

W. H. Humphrey 

Dr. William LeRoy Berry 

Earle L. Bracey 

George Isabelle 

Mrs. Dona Williams 

Mrs. Marie Strickland 

Gustavus G. Taylor 

Everett G. Spurlock 

William M. Duncan 

Namon Smith 

Dr. A. A, Claytor 

Amos S. Washington 

Dr. Lawrence C. Perry 

Thomas A. Webster 

Rev. James M. Bracy 

James P. Troupe 

Dr. Ernest A. Robinson 

Dr. Howard E. Primas 

Percy H. Steele, Jr. 

Rev. William P. Hayes 

Dr. Walter E. Longshore, Jr. 

Edward F. Kennell 

Mrs. Alverta Gray Schultz 

Dr. William S. Randolph 

Rev. Huston Crutchfield 

Frank R. Crosswaith 

George T. Jackson 

Mrs. George C. Sandy 

Rev. James Clinton Hoggard 

J. J. Henderson 

Dr. G. H. Evans 

J. Alston Atkins 

Atty. Clay E. Hunter 

Dr. Ray Eugene Clarke 

Atty. Charles W. White 

Rev. Charles F. Jenkins 

Dr. Henry A. Long 

Elmer White 

Dr. R. F. Pulley 

McClinton Nunn 

Clarence L. Robinson 

C. Sylvester Jackson 

John B. Deans 

Donald Carl Jefferson 
Richard F. Jones 
Rev. Marshall W. Lee 
Dr. I. L. Moore 
Dr. C. A. Robbins 
Leroy F. Ridley 
Dr. Henry Jared McGuinn 
Atty. Jacob I. Reid 

E. L. James, Jr. 
E. L. Powell 

" Rev. Cecil A. Fisher 



Position 
Member 
Member 
Commissioner 
Treasurer 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 

Secretary-Treasurer 
Member 
Commissioner 
Treasurer 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Commissioner 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 

Director-Secretary 
Chairman 
Director-Secretary 
Vice-President 
Member 

Secretary-Director 
Vice-President 
Member 
Member 
Commissioner 
Treasurer 
Vice-Chairman 
Secretary 
Commissioner 
Vice-Chairman 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Vice-Chairman 
Member 
Chairman 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 

Executi ve-Di rector 
Member 
Member 
Asst. Secretary and 

Asst. Treasurer 
Vice-Chairman 
Vice-Chairman 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Commissioner 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Member 
Vice-Chairman 



1 Prepared by Racial Relations Branch, PHA, June 1950; Supplement March 22, 1951. 



184 



HOUSING 



nities with small racial-minority popu- 
lation, and outlines certain steps to be 
taken to ensure that, in such communi- 
ties, this segment of the population is 
not overlooked. Still another policy, spe- 
cifically mentioning Negroes, is con- 
cerned with the relocation of occupants 
of sites selected for public housing and 
outlines definite steps to be taken by 
local housing authorities to ensure that 
as little hardship as possible is suffered 
by these occupants. 

Racial Representation Local Housing 
Authorities: In 1940, 21 communities in 
various sections of the country had ap- 
pointed Negroes to their local housing 
authorities. As of 1951, approximately 
70 Negroes are members of local housing 
authorities in more than 60 communities 
of 20 states and the District of Columbia. 
Many of these hold important positions 
within the authorities, such as chairman, 
executive director, treasurer, or secretary. 
Chicago had a Negro chairman for sev- 
eral years; Pontiac, Mich.; Cleveland, 
Ohio; and Hopewell, Va., have Negro 
chairmen now. River Rouge, Mich., and 
Toledo, Ohio, have Negroes as executive 
directors. 

Negro Occupancy of Public Housing 
Developments: By 1940, the first exclu- 
sive public housing agency, the U. S. 
Housing Authority, had approved the 
development of 134,056 low-rent dwelling 
units in 362 projects in 162 different com- 
munities. Of these, Negroes occupied 44,- 
754 units (about one-third of the total) 
in 116 communities of 25 states and the 
District of Columbia. As of June 30, 
1951, all the programs of PHA encom- 
passed 472,039 occupied dwelling units 
throughout the country. Of these 113,016, 
or 23.9%, were occupied by Negroes. 
The United States Housing Act program 
(low-rent) accounted for 184,654 dwell- 
ing units, and of these Negroes occupied 
68,415, or 37.1%. Veterans Re-Use, Pub- 
lic War Housing (constructed under the 
Lanham Act during World War II), 
Homes Conversion, Subsistence Home- 
steads, and Greenbelt Towns accounted 
for the balance of the total units, with 



Negro participation ranging from 0.1% 
in the latter to 16.4% in Public War 
Housing. 

Integration in Public Housing Occu- 
pancy: In the North, East, and West, 
there is a steady trend toward racially 
integrated public housing. Evidence of 
this "is reflected in the passage of state 
legislation outlawing discremination and 
segregation in housing in Connecticut, 
Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, 
New York, and Wisconsin. Ordinances 
or resolutions to the same effect have 
been passed in Boston, Mass.; Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, and Toledo, Ohio; Hartford, 
Conn.; Newark, N. J.; New York City; 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Pontiac, Mich.; Provi- 
dence, R. I.; San Francisco and Los 
Angeles, Calif.; St. Paul, Minn.; Pasco, 
Wash.; and Omaha, Nebr. As of June 30, 
1951, Negroes in 15 cities, Hawaii, and 
Puerto Rico occupied units in approxi- 
mately 100 projects that were integrated 
from the beginning. About 80 other cities 
which had segregated programs have 
now either changed to integration or are 
progressing toward it by changing old 
programs or promising non-segregation 
in new programs under the 1949 Housing 
Act. Over 50 cities which have had no 
public housing projects but plan pro- 
grams under the 1949 Act have indicated 
that their projects will be integrated. 

Employment of Negroes: Implement- 
ing the Executive Order prohibiting ra- 
cial discrimination in Government em- 
ployment, the PHA has issued orders to 
all its personnel outlining its nondis- 
criminatory policy. As of March 31, 1951, 
of a total of 5.397 PHA employees in 
the Central and field offices, 810 were 
nonwhite and ranged in classification 
from the lowest CPC-1 to the next-to-the- 
highest GS-14. Of these nonwhites, 157 
were in Central Office and 653 in the 
field. A great number of Negroes are 
among those employed in management, 
clerical, and maintenance fields at com- 
pleted projects. It is not possible to 
estimate the number of clerical and 
maintenance workers, but as of Septem- 
ber 1951 approximately 250 Negroes 



FEDERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS 



185 



were employed in management capacities 
on projects in 27 states. 

N ondiscrimination in Employment of 
Construction Workers: The policies of 
PHA require that there be no discrimi- 
nation in employment of labor in the con- 
struction of public housing projects. To 
implement this policy, a general non- 
discrimination clause and, where neces- 
sary, stipulated percentages (based on 
Census and other data concerning the 
availability of Negro labor) are inserted 
in all construction contracts. Attainment 
of these percentages is accepted by the 
PHA as prima facie evidence that Negro 
labor has not been discriminated against. 
This, however, does not affect the right 
of individuals to submit a case seeking 
to establish an act of discrimination gen- 
erally or within the framework of local 
fair-employment laws. Building construc- 
tion employment under public housing 
programs since 1934 has resulted in the 
payment of $65,814,280 to Negro work- 
ers as of June 31, 1951. This is 11.9% 
of the total payrolls of construction 
workers. Negro skilled workers received 
a total of $13,179,394, or 3.4% of the 
total paid all skilled workers. 

The FHA 

Minority Group Housing: The Federal 
Housing Administration is responsible 
for encouraging construction of housing 
in every way consistent with the provi- 
sions of the National Housing Act and 
is especially concerned with the urgent 
need for improved housing conditions for 
minority groups. 

Negroes particularly have had access 
to a disproportionately limited part of 
the housing supply, and the amount of 
new housing available to them is entirely 
inadequate. 

An increasing amount of sale and 
rental housing open to occupancy by 
minority groups has been built in various ' 
parts of the country with FHA-insured 
financing. In general, this housing has 
proved to be a sound investment and 
gives evidence of a substantial market 
among Negroes and other racial minori- 



ties for the purchase, rental, and main- 
tenance of standard housing. 

With particular reference to the hous- 
ing market among minority groups, a 
marked improvement is notable in the 
basic problems of site selection and 
financing. 

New areas have been opened. FHA 
offices and racial relations advisors have 
facilitated housing for racial minorities 
by assistance in locating and laying out 
acceptable sites, although many avail- 
able sites are undeveloped and often 
objections have been raised against de- 
velopment of a particular subdivision 
open to racial minorities. 

Availability to minority groups of 
financing for housing has also improved. 
An increasing number of lenders are 
going into this field and favorable experi- 
ence has given them growing confidence. 
In 1949, approximately 13,000 housing 
units using FHA insurance were made 
available for minority groups, and in 
1950 this number was over 20,000 units. 

Following are some FHA policies and 
regulations bearing on racial considera- 
tions: 

Letter from Commissioner, FHA, to Direc- 
tors and Chief Underwriters of all Field Of- 
fices, Feb. 18, 1949. No application for mort- 
gage insurance shall be rejected solely on the 
grounds that the subject property or the type 
of occupancy might affect the market attitude 
toward other properties in the immediate 
neighborhood. . . . 

. . . mortgage insurance shall not be pre- 
cluded (1) because of a different type of 
occupancy regardless of whether or not it is in 
violation of a restrictive covenant, (2) nor 
shall such insurance be precluded on the 
ground that the introduction of a different 
occupancy type may affect the values of other 
properties in the area. 

Amendments to Underwriting Manual, 
FHA, Dec. 16, 1949. Section 242. Under- 
writing considerations shall recognize the 
right to equality of opportunity to receive the 
benefits of the mortgage insurance system in 
obtaining adequate housing accommodations 
irrespective of race, color, creed or national 
origin. Underwriting considerations and con- 
clusions are never based on discriminatory 
attitudes or prejudice. 

Section 303. Requirements and standards 
applying to real estate pertain to character- 
istics of the property and neighborhood in 
which the real estate is located, and are tech- 



186 



HOUSING 



nical in character. They do not pertain to the 
user groups, because homogeneity or hetero- 
geneity of neighborhoods as to race, creed, 
color, or nationality is not a consideration in 
establishing eligibility. 

Amendments to Administrative Rules, FHA, 
Dec. 16, 1949. A mortgagor must certify that 
until the mortgage has been paid in full, or the 
contract of insurance otherwise terminated, 
he will not file for record any restriction upon 
the sale or occupancy of the mortgaged prop- 
erty on the basis of race, color, or creed or 
execute any agreement, lease, or conveyance 
affecting the mortgaged property which im- 
poses any such restriction upon its sale or 
occupancy. 

CHANGING ATTITUDE OF 
PRIVATE ENTERPRISE 

The following quotations from nongov- 
ernment organizations are indicative of 
changing attitudes toward the housing of 
racial minorities: 

National Association of Real Estate Boards 
News Service (Release for June 14, 1949). 
The National Association of Real Estate 
Boards, representing the organized real estate 
industry, announced that it is recommending 
to local real estate boards throughout the na- 
tion that they undertake to provide better 
housing for Negro families. . . . Reluctance of 
financial institutions to purchase mortgages 
on Negro property must be gradually over- 
come. Such facts as we now have in hand 
indicate that the Negro is a good economic 
risk Responsible builders should be en- 
couraged to undertake the construction of 
Negro housing, both in areas now available 
and in the form of new neighborhood projects. 
. . . Management of Negro rental properties 
should be of a kind and character which is on 
a parity with that given to other types of 
property. We believe that it will be found 
that Negroes will respond if given opportunity 
to avail themselves of facilities and services 
of modern character. 

The Mortgage Banker (December 1949, 
p. 9). It is the policy of the Mortgage Bankers 
Association of America to make loans avail- 
able to all people without distinction as to 
race, color or creed, within the limitations of 
sound lending practices. 

NAHB Correlator, March 1950 (Memoran- 
dum to members of National Association of 
Home Builders from Frank Cortright, Presi- 
dent) . Housing for minority groups and lower 
income families comprise a vast new market 

for home builders In order to encourage 

more construction of sale and rental housing 



for the lower income groups . . . regardless of 
race, color or creed ... we are now advocating 
a new insuring device to be used exclusively 
for financing minimum housing projects in 
Federally subsidized slum-cleared land. This 
is our NEW frontier in housing construction 
. . . Supplying homes ... for rent and for sale 
... for minority groups and families farther 
and farther down the income scale ... is a 
challenge to the ingenuity and capacity of our 
industry. 



SOME HOUSING PROJECTS 
FOR NEGROES 1 

During and since World War II, the 
housing situation of the Negro, though 
still acute, has greatly improved. Gov- 
ernment agencies and private enterprise 
have been responsible for this social 
change. Although such building is pro- 
portionately far below the volume of new 
construction for white families, the hous- 
ing boom opened up homes for colored 
families that were previously unavailable. 
A sampling of recent construction illus- 
trates this improvement. 

In 1950, the FHA approved projects 
for Negroes in Atlanta, Ga., to cost sev- 
eral million dollars, namely, a $2,500,000 
project comprising 452 units on South 
Pryor Road known as High Point Apart- 
ments, a separate project of 213 modern 
elevator-type apartments costing $1,053,- 
000 known as Waluhaje Apartments, and 
80 garden-type apartments in the Simp- 
son Heights area costing $490,000 and 
called West Lake Apartments. 

In Miami, Fla., in the same year, a 
Negro physician, Dr. W. B. Sawyer, took 
the lead in providing housing for his 
people. With FHA assistance and financ- 
ing, his 80-unit development, known as 
Alberta Heights, occupies almost three 
acres of land. Planned for efficiency as 
well as beauty, it is equipped with Vene- 
tian blinds, gas refrigerators, stoves, and 
automatic hot water heaters. The thought 
and planning that went into construction 
details make this development a sub- 
stantial assistance in relieving one of 



1 Editorial Note: Not part of data furnished by contributor. Sources: The Atlanta Constitution, March 15, 1950; 
The Atlanta Daily World, /an. 12, 1950, Nov. 6, 1951 ; The Evening Star, June 16, 1951. 



HOUSING PROJECTS FOR NEGROES 



187 



Miami's most serious and pressing social 
problems. 

In Memphis, Tenn., Castalia Heights, 
the largest privately built low-cost hous- 
ing development for Negroes in the nation, 
was built at a cost of more than $2,000,- 
000. Dedicated in July 1951, it is com- 
posed of 426 rental units on a 35-acre 
site, facing seven streets. All roads are 
paved and have curbs and gutters. Of 
its 426 units, 30 have one bedroom and 
rent for $33.50; the others have two bed- 
rooms and rent for $41 a month. 

Since May 22, 1946, the date when 
FHA's postwar apartment program was 



launched, the District of Columbia FHA 
office has committed itself to insure 
mortgages for a total of 2,723 colored 
units in both garden and elevator apart- 
ments. As of June 16, 1951, all these 
were either completed or underway ex- 
cept one 549-unit development, to be 
known as Parkland Manor, located on 
Alabama Avenue, S. E., near Camp Sims. 
In addition to the above, private build- 
ers have provided a considerable number 
of apartments and houses without FHA 
aid, and several remodeling projects have 
been made available for Negro occu- 
pancy. 



75 

Social Welfare 



PROVISIONS for the security of the indi- 
vidual in the United States have been 
steadily enlarged to minimize want and 
disadvantage. Social welfare programs 
have been developed through the coopera- 
tion of Federal, state, and local govern- 
ments. Predicated on the constitutional 
responsibility of government for the gen- 
eral welfare, the Social Security Act of 
1935, last amended by the 81st Congress 
in 1950, is the basic law on which the 
national social welfare program operates. 
Supplemented by housing, health, and 
wage programs provided for in legisla- 
tion, much of the population of the coun- 
try shares these benefits. Recent reports 
of the several administrative agencies do 
not include statistical summaries on par- 
ticipation according to race, making it 
necessary to draw implications of pro- 
grams for Negroes rather than stating 
exact figures. 

SOCIAL SECURITY 
LEGISLATION 

Provisions of the latest Social Security 
legislation, Public Law 734, include old- 
age and survivors' insurance, public 
assistance to needy individuals who are 
permanently and totally disabled, un- 
employment insurance, and maternal and 
child welfare services. Significantly, 10,- 
000,000 additional workers were brought 
under Social Security by the new law, 
including agricultural workers and do- 
mestic servants, two employment cate- 
gories in which there are many Negroes. 1 

Unemployment Insurance 

Each state has its own unemployment 
insurance law, generally providing an 



employment service which refers involun- 
tary unemployed to new jobs and pays 
the unemployed worker benefits until 
re-employed. The Federal government 
participates by grants for administering 
state systems dependent upon set stand- 
ards. Funds are provided by a payroll 
tax on employee and employer. 

Old-Age and Survivors 
Insurance 2 

The 1950 law liberalized provisions 
for retirement pay and payments to 
survivors. The approximately 10,000,000 
additional persons covered include non- 
farm self-employed, except doctors, law- 
yers, engineers, and other specified 
professional groups. Also covered are 
regularly employed domestic workers, 
farm workers, and employees of the 
Federal government who are not under 
other retirement systems. Voluntary par- 
ticipation is permitted in the law to em- 
ployees of nonprofit organizations and 
those employees of state and local gov- 
ernments who are not under retirement 
systems. 

The amounts paid to retired workers 
and to widows and orphans were sub- 
stantially increased by the new law. 
Benefit payments also go to dependent 
husbands and dependent widows and to 
children of insured women in certain 
circumstances. These groups had not 
been covered previously. Such changes 
in the Social Security law have great 
value for the majority of Negro workers 
found in the low income brackets. 

Public Assistance 

The new law provides important 
changes for several categories of needy 



1 See chapter on EMPLOYMENT. 

* Cohen, Wilbur J., and Myers, Robert J., "Social Security Act Amendments of 1950: A Summary and Legislative 
History," Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13, No. 10, p. 3, October 1950. 



188 



WELFARE OF CHILDREN 



189 



people not covered by the insurance pro- 
visions of the law or whose benefits are 
inadequate for their needs. These are 
the aged, blind, totally disabled, and 
children who are without parental sup- 
port under certain conditions. 

Maternal and Child Health; 
Child Welfare Services 

The law authorizes increased Federal 
grants for these services, to be matched by 
state funds. The Children's Bureau grants 
funds to state welfare agencies to bring 
crippled children to diagnostic clinics 
and give them care and treatment. These 
provisions expand work already in pro- 
cess. 1 In 1949, special projects for cere- 
bral-palsied children were in operation 
in Alabama, Kentucky, Maryland, Min- 
nesota, Mississippi, Montana, New Jer 
sey, Hawaii, California, and New York. 
Twenty-five states or territories, aided 
by Federal funds, established special 
programs for children with rheumatic 
fever, polio, hearing defects, cleft palates, 
and dental troubles. Mildred M. Arnold 
pointed out that: 1 

The 81st Congress took another long and 
important step in further recognizing the 
responsibility of the Federal Government for 
the public welfare when it increased the au- 
thorization for grants-in-aid to the states for 
child-welfare services from $3,500,000 to 
$10,000,000. The basis of allotment of these 
funds was changed to a flat grant to each 
state of $40,000 instead of $20,000, with the 
remainder allotted on the basis of the rural 
child population of the state to the rural 
child population of the United States, rather 
than on the basis of the rural population, as 
heretofore. 2 

All but three states provide profes- 
sional training of child-welfare workers 
through the use of Federal funds. The 
1951 budget amounted to approximately 
$765,000, adequate to train 550 workers. 
In June 1950, 42% of the counties of 
the United States were being served by 
full-time child-welfare workers employed 
by individual states. 8 



WELFARE OF CHILDREN 

Child Labor 1 

Federal child-labor laws applied only 
to industries shipping commodities in 
interstate commerce prior to Jan. 25, 
1950, when amendments to the Fair 
Labor Standards Act went into effect. 
Of great importance to Negro children 
in the rural South is the revision of the 
law on employment of children in agri- 
culture. "The revised agricultural cov- 
erage, which applies where the crop 
production is for interstate commerce, 
means that the law is applicable during 
school hours in all states and for all 
children under sixteen except when 
working for their own parents on their 
home farms." 5 

The National Child Labor Committee 
reported in November 1950 that a total 
of 20 states had laws forbidding the em- 
ployment of children under 16 during 
school hours. However, only six of these, 
including Maryland and Virginia, in- 
cluded agricultural and domestic service 
in the proscribed occupations. In 45 
states the enforcement of the child-labor 
laws is vested in labor departments or 
industrial commissions. Only Mississippi 
and the District of Columbia have no 
labor department of any kind. Enforce- 
ment of the Federal law comes under the 
responsibility of the U.S. Department of 
Labor. 

During the 1949 cotton picking season, 
150 children in eight Alabama counties 
were found picking cotton in violation 
of the child-labor provisions of the Fair 
Labor Standards Act. On 33 of the 50 
farms where investigations were made, 
the children employed were white. Negro 
children only were working on 15 farms, 
and children of both races on two. Fur- 
ther spot investigations found children 
employed contrary to the law in other 
parts of the country. Enforcement of 



1 The Child, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 86-87, December 1949. 

2 Arnold, Mildred M., "State Public Welfare Agencies Develop Their Services for Children," The Child, p. 174, 
July 1951. 

3 Ibid., p. 177. 

4 Markoff, Sol : "Child Labor Laws; Passed and Bypassed," The Child, Vol. 14, No. 9, pp. 136-140, March 1950. 
6 Tobin, Maurice J., "Child Labor and the Law," National Parent-Teacher, April 1950. 



190 



SOCIAL WELFARE 



child-labor laws continues lax due either 
to indifference or to lack of personnel. 

Juvenile Delinquency 1 

The numbers of all children coming 
before courts handling juvenile delin- 
quency cases during 1938-48 increased 
during the war years to a peak in 1945, 
and has decreased since. The pattern for 
the Negro child is not downward but 
remains high. 

Detailed studies of Negro children 
whose problems make them a community 
concern reveal that in addition to the 
inadequate situations usually found in 
the family and community life of juve- 
nile delinquents, the Negro child's con- 
dition is complicated further by his 
minority status. This may mean anything 
from inadequate and inferior care to a 
complete absence of social services for 
his family's problems. 

White House Conference on 
Children and Youth 

The fifth decennial White House Con- 
ference on Children and Youth convened 
in Washington in December 1950. The 
conference was distinctive in the repre- 
sentative character of its personnel, 
which included Negro authorities in vari- 
ous fields as discussants and consultants, 
Negro membership on all state delega- 
tions, 2 and Negroes among" the youth rep- 
resentatives. One result of the Conference 
was a prospectus for a 10-year program 
for work with America's children and 
youth. A strong stand against discrimi- 
nation was taken by the Conference, and 
opposition to segregation was registered 
by representatives but did not get in- 
cluded in the recommendations adopted. 
Emphasis was placed, however, on all 
children's sharing in recommended pro- 
grams. 



PUBLIC HEALTH 4 

The crippled-children program is a boon 
to Negro and other low-income groups, 
who otherwise could not secure for their 
children the expensive treatments avail- 
able through private agencies. 

Another important development in 
public health facilities has been the 
hospital and health-center construction 
program 4 under the Hill-Burton Act of 
1946. The first state to complete its sur- 
vey and have a state plan for hospital 
and health-center construction approved 
was Mississippi, in July 1947. The great 
need of such health facilities in the South 
is revealed in the fact that 71% of the 
projects there have been for new hospi- 
tals as contrasted to the New England 
and Middle Atlantic states, where almost 
all the projects are for replacement of 
existing facilities or additions to them. 
It is significant that the majority of pro- 
jects are in small towns and small cities. 
Only 12% have been constructed in 
places of more than 10,000 population. 

This development of public facilities 
is of importance to Negroes for two rea- 
sons: (1) People in many rural areas 
and small towns have had to travel con- 
siderable distances to secure hospital 
services, and (2) many private hospitals 
in the South make no provisions for the 
treatment and care of Negroes, whereas 
facilities built with public funds can 
scarcely avoid accepting the responsi- 
bility of providing for them. Federal 
funds are being used, however, not only 
for public facilities but for nonprofit 
facilities as well. For the country as a 
whole, 43.6% of the projects have been 
nonprofit and 56.4% public; for the 
South, more than 70% of the projects 
have been public. 

State programs of disease control have 
encouraged detection and treatment of 
syphilis, tuberculosis, diabetes, and can- 

* Diggs, Mary Huff, "Some Problems and Needs of Negro Children As Revealed by Comparative Delinquency and 
Crime Statistics," The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 290-297, Summer 1950. 

Governor Talmadge of Georgia refused to name Negroes to the official state delegation, creating an unpleasant 
situation which was adjusted by the naming of Negro delegates from Georgia directly by Oscar Ewing, Federal 
Security Administrator, General Chairman of the Conference. 

See chapter on HEALTH AND MEDICAL FACILITIES. 

Cronin, John W., Reed, Louis. S., and Hollingsworth, Helen, "Hospital Construction Under the Hill-Burton 
Program, Public Health Reports, Vol. 65, No. 20, pp. 743-753, June 9, 1950. 



SOCIAL WORK AMONG NEGROES 



191 



cer through voluntary or mandatory ex- 
amination. Publicly maintained treatment 
centers for venereal diseases and an 
aggressive educational program have con- 
tributed to the decline in the incidence 
of venereal diseases among Negroes. 

SOCIAL WORK AMONG 
NEGROES 

Administration of the public social wel- 
fare programs described above as well 
as of the older voluntary programs repre- 
sented by the Young Men's Christian 
Association, the Young Women's Chris- 
tian Association, the Red Cross, Travelers 
Aid, social settlements, youth programs, 
and day nurseries, depend upon interested 
and trained personnel. 

Such organizations as the YMCA, YWCA, 
churches, private clubs or community clubs 
have in most communities afforded the only 
opportunities for Negro youth to participate 
in an organized recreational program. These 
agencies are to be commended highly for their 
efforts and accomplishments. The difficulty 
rises from the fact that these agencies are able 
at best to serve only a small number of the 
total population in any given community. The 
small budget, limited space, and inadequate 
facilities, along with the small number of full- 
time workers, are factors contributing to this 
difficulty. 1 

Much of the recreational and charac- 
ter-building activity for children and 
youth carried on in Negro communities 
is supported by the church or provided 
by voluntary agencies affiliated with 
local community chests. These have tra- 
ditionally been urban activities depend- 
ing to a large measure upon voluntary 
financial support and volunteer workers. 
A recent development is the inauguration 
of community social work among rural 
people. The programs are almost entirely 
church-related activities. The Methodist 
Church's Bureau of Town and Country 
Work, The Congregational - Christian 
Church's American Missionary Associa- 
tion, the Catholic Church, the Church 
of the Brethren, the Quakers, the Town 
and Country Church of the Evangelical 



and Reformed Church, the National 
Town-Country Institute of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church all have some social 
welfare services for Negroes in rural com- 
munities. This worthy work suffers from 
the same limitations as the work of volun- 
tary agencies in cities small budgets, 
poor facilities, and the limited numbers 
that could be properly served. 

Professional Workers 

The chief problems attacked today by 
social work agencies among Negroes are: 
limited job opportunities; sub-standard 
housing; lack of wholesome recreation 
for adults, "teen-agers," and young chil- 
dren; physical ill health, especially 
among mothers of the low-income group; 
mental ill health, frequently growing out 
of discrimination, segregation, and in- 
hibited aggression; juvenile delinquency; 
unwed mothers; and "slums," the patho- 
logical breeding grounds created by the 
ghetto life forced on Negroes in many 
sections of the country. 

To carry out this program, there are 
approximately 700 agencies devoted 
solely to a Negro clientele, and an un- 
known number of agencies that do not 
confine their services to any one race. 
The number of social-work organizations 
devoting their services exclusively to 
Negro clients is decreasing because of 
the tendency toward integration in the 
North. The largest category of the all- 
Negro agencies is comprised of the 26 
Negro branches of the YMCA, next are 
119 social settlements, and third are the 
87 branches of the YWCA. Orphanages 
for Negro children should probably come 
after the YMCA figure, but it is im- 
possible to determine even the approxi- 
mate number because not one Negro 
orphanage is connected with a national 
organization and only a few are included 
in local community chests or social plan- 
ning councils. The 58 branches of the 
National Urban League constitute the 
fourth largest group serving an all-Negro 
or nearly all-Negro clientele. 



1 Clift, Virgil A., "Recreational and Leisure-Time Problems and Needs of Negro Children and Youth," Journal of 
Negro Education, Vol. 19, No. 3, p. 337, Summer 1950. 



192 



SOCIAL WELFARE 



For a number of years most YMCA 
and YWCA branches in so-called Negro 
districts have refused to accept racial 
designations such as "Negro branch" or 
"Negro Y," even when their clientele is 
entirely Negro. (Many of them, estab- 
lished to serve Negroes only, are now 
serving members of other races in vary- 
ing degrees.) This understandable atti- 
tude makes it difficult to give accurate 
figures for YMCA branches serving an 
all-Negro membership. 

The trend to integration, noted in the 
YMCA, is probably even greater in the 
YWCA. More Negroes act as paid leaders 
of YWCA activities in which the bulk of 
the membership is white than is true in 
the YMCA. A young Negro woman on 
the paid staff of the Minneapolis YWCA 
is the secretary for a city-wide teen-age 
program including over 3,000 girls, 
among whom there are not a dozen 
Negroes. 

YWCA, Negro Branches 

Alabama 

Eighth Ave. Branch 

500 8th Ave., N., Birmingham 4 
Juliette Derricotte Branch 

552 St. Frances St., Mobile 13 
Arkansas 

Margie Harrison Branch 

715 North H St., Fort Smith 
Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

924 Gaines St., Little Rock 
California 
Watts Center 

1709^ E. 103rd St., Los Angeles 2 
Woodlawn Branch 

4260 Woodlawn Ave., Los Angeles 11 
Southeast Branch 

1012 C St., San Diego 1 
Colorado 

Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

2460 Welton St., Denver 5 
Delaware 

Walnut St. Branch 

10th & Walnut Sts., Wilmington 30 
Florida 

Second Ave. Branch 

715 2nd Ave., Daytona Beach 
A. L. Lewis Branch 

1215 Lee St., Jacksonvile 4 
Murrell Branch 

340 N.W. 13th St., Miami 36 
Sojourner Truth Branch 

420 North C St., Pensacola 
Lauffer Branch 

317 10th St., S., St. Petersburg 
Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

1008 Kay St., Tampa 2 
4th & Sapodilla Sts. Branch 

West Palm Beach 



Georgia 

Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

599 Tatnall St., Atlanta 

Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

1237 Gwinnett St., Augusta 
Lucy Laney Branch 

831 Forsylth St., Macon 
Illinois 

South Parkway Center 

4559 S. Parkway, Chicago 15 
Indiana 

Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

653 N. West St., Indianapolis 2 
Phyllis Wheatley Branch 
1301 E. 1st St., Muncie 
Kansas 

Yates Branch 

644 Quinador Blvd., Kansas City 2 
Mary B. Talbert Branch 

818 N. Water St., Wichita 5 
Kentucky 

Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

402 N. Upper St., Lexington 43 
Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

_528 S. 6th St., Louisville 2 
Louisiana 

Mary McLeod Bethune Branch 

815 Cass^n St., Alexandria 
130 S. Clairborne St. Branch 

New Orleans 16 
Milan St. Branch 

1637 Milan St., Shreveport 30 
Maryland 

Madison Ave. Branch 

1912 Madison Ave., Baltimore 17 
Michigan 

Lucy Thurman Branch 

569 E. Elizabeth St., Detroit 1 
Mississippi 

Bettie C. Marino Branch 

501 N. Parish St., Jackson 19 
611 S. Maple St. Branch 

Laurel 
Missouri 

Paseo Branch 

1903 Paseo Blvd., Kansas City 8 
Blue Triangle Branch 

110 S. 13th St., St. Joseph 13 
Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

2709 Locust St., St. Louis 3 
Nebraska 

North Side Branch 

2306 N. 22nd St., Omaha 10 
New Jersey 

285 Berry St. Branch 

Hackensack 

Sojourner Truth Branch 
52 Jones St., Newark 3 
Oakwood Branch 

66 Oakwood Ave., Orange 
E. Fifth St. Branch 

300 E. 5th St., Plainfield 
New York 

Harlem Branch 

179 W. 137th St., New York 30 
North Carolina 

Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

356-60 College St., Asheville 
Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

411 S. Brevard St., Charlotte 2 
Harriet Tubman Branch 

312 E. Umstead St., Durham 
Susie B. Dudley Branch 

327 N. Dudley St., Greensboro 



SOCIAL WORK AMONG NEGROES 



193 



North Carolina (cont.) 
Mary Bethune Branch 

605 y 2 E. Washington St., High Point 
Sojourner Truth Branch 

310 E. Davie St., Raleigh 
Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

519 S. 8th St., Wilmington 
Chestnut St. Branch 

619 Chestnut St., Winston-Salem 4 
Ohio 

West End Branch 

702 W. 8th St., Cincinnati 3 
Blue Triangle Branch 

690 E. Long St., Columbus IS 
West Side Branch 

236 S. Summit St., Dayton 7 
Belmont Branch 

248 Belmont Ave., Youngstown 2 
Oklahoma 

Stiles St. Center 

300 N. Stiles St., Oklahoma City 4 
North Tulsa Branch 

621 E. Oklahoma Place, Tulsa 6 
Pennsylvania 

Germantown Branch 

6128 Germantown Ave., Germantown 44 
Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

800 Cowden St., Harrisburg 
Elm St. Branch 

140 Elm St., New Castle 
Southwest-Belmont Branch 

1605 Catharine St., Philadelphia 46 
Centre Ave. Branch 

2044 Centre Ave., Pittsburgh 19 
Lincoln St. Branch 

c/o W. Maiden St., Washington 
South Carolina 

Coming St. Branch 

106 Coming St., Charleston 10 
Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

1429 Park Ave., Columbia 6 
106 N. Calhoun Branch 

Greenville 
Tennessee 

Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

924 E. 8th St., Chattanooga 3 
702 Temperance St. Branch 

Knoxville 15 
Vance Ave. Branch 

541 Vance Ave., Memphis 5 
Blue Triangle Branch 

436 5th Ave., N., Nashville 3 
Texas 

East Austin Branch 

1401 E. 12th St., Austin 22 
Frances Morris Branch 

653 College St., Beaumont 
Maria Morgan Branch 

3525 State St., Dallas 4 
Crump St. Branch 

1916 Crump St., Fort Worth 3 
Mary Patrick Branch 

2823 K St., Galveston 
Blue Triangle Branch 

1419 Live Oak St., Houston 3 
Pine St. Branch 

328 N. Pine St., San Antonio 2 
Blue Triangle Branch 

301 Cherry St., Waco 
Virginia 

Mary McLeod Bethune Branch 

404-406 N. Alfred St., Alexandria 
214 N. Ridge St. Branch 
Danville 



Virginia (cont.) 

Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

600 Monroe St., Lynchburg 
Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

2702 Orcutt, Newport News 
Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

729 Washington Ave., Norfolk 4 
Phyllis Wheatley Branch 

515 N. 7th St., Richmond 19 
Lula Williams Memorial Branch 

394 2nd St., N.E., Roanoke 12 
Washington 

East Side Branch 

102 21st Ave., N., Seattle 2 
West Virginia 
Ben St. Center 

449 Ben St., Clarksburg 
Blue Triangle Branch 

108 12th St., Wheeling 

YMCA, Negro Branches 

Alabama 

Acipco Branch 

2930 16th St., N., or P.O. Box 2603, Bir- 
mingham 4 
Stockham Branch 

4000 N. 10th Ave., or P.O. Box 2592, Bir- 
mingham 2 
Community Branch 

406 Masonic Temple, 17th & 4th Ave., Bir- 
mingham 3 
Dearborn Branch 

306 N. Dearborn St., Mobile 16 
19 N. McDonough St. Branch 

Montgomery 
Arkansas 

George W. Carver Branch 

1100 W. 9th St., Little Rock 4 
California 

Carver Branch 

300 Hayes St., Bakersfield 
S. Berkeley Center Branch 

290 California St., Berkeley 
28th St. Branch 

1006 E. 28th St., Los Angeles 11 
Northwest Branch 

3265 Market St., Oakland 8 
Central Branch 

1115 Eighth Ave., San Diego 
Colorado 

Glenarm Branch 

2800 Glenarm Place, Denver 5 
Connecticut 
Central Branch 

651 State St., Bridgeport 3 
Delaware 

Walnut St. Christian Association 

10th & Walnut Sts., Wilmington 30 
District of Columbia 

Veterans Memorial Branch 

Box 6065, Fairlington Sta., Arlington, Va. 
Twelfth St. Branch 

1816 Twelfth St., N.W., Washington 9 
Florida 

Northwest Branch 

1408 NW. 14th Terrace, or P.O. Box 

1200, Fort Lauderdale 
Davis St. Branch 

1203 Davis St., Jacksonville 
George W. Carver Branch 

340 13th St., N.W., Miami 36 
Melrose Park Branch 

1801 Melrose Ave., S., St. Petersburg 7 



194 



SOCIAL WELFARE 



Georgia 

Butler St. Branch 

22 Butler St., NE., Atlanta 3 
Ninth St. Branch 

917 Ninth St., Augusta 
Ninth St. Branch 

521 Ninth St., Columbus 
W. Broad St. Branch 

714 W. Broad St., Savannah (Suspended) 
Illinois 

Maxwell St. Branch 

1012 Maxwell St., Chicago 8 
Wabash Ave. Department 

3763 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago 15 
Washington Park Branch 

5000 Indiana Ave., Chicago 15 
Emerson St. Department 

1014 Emerson St., Evanston (Suspended) 
Southside Branch 

Joliet 
S. Genesse St. Branch 

724 S. Genesse St., Waukegan 
Indiana 

Senate Ave. Branch 

450 N. Senate Ave., Indianapolis 
Madison St. Branch 

900 S. Madison St., Muncie 
Iowa 

Crocker St. Branch 

1333 Keosauqua Way, Des Moines 14 
Kansas 

George Carver Branch 

112 Kansas Ave., Topeka 
Hutcherson Branch 

1221 Cleveland St., Wichita 6 
Kentucky 

544 Georgetown St. Branch 

Lexington 43 
Chestnut St. Branch 

920 W. Chestnut St., Louisville 
Louisiana 

Baranco-Clark Memorial Branch 

850 Terrace St., Baton Rouge 
Franklin St. Branch 

301 Franklin St., Lake Charles 
Dryades St. Branch 

2220 Dryades St., New Orleans 13 
George W. Carver Branch 

105 \y 2 Texas Ave., Shreveport 6 
Maryland 

Turner Station Branch 

411-A N. Pitsburgh Ave., Baltimore 2 
Druid Hill Ave. Branch 

1619 Druid Hill Ave., Baltimore 17 
North St. Branch 

Hagerstown 
Michigan 

St. Antoine Branch 

635 E. Elizabeth St., Detroit 1 
Mississippi 

10th Ave. Branch 

Columbus 
Parish St. Branch 

806 N. Parish St., Jackson 45 
Jackson St. Branch 

923 Walnut St., Vicksburg 
Rowan Memorial Branch 

608 Nelson St., Washington County 

(Greenville) 
Missouri 

Paseo Department 

1824 Paseo Blvd., Kansas City 8 
Messanie St. Branch 

1622 Messanie St., St. Joseph 28 



Missouri (cont.) 
Pine St. Branch 

2846 Pine St., St. Louis 3 
Webster Groves Branch 

17 E. Lockwood Ave., Webster Groves 19, 

St. Louis 
Nebraska 

Near North Side Branch 

2213 Lake St., Omaha 10 
New Jersey 

Arctic Ave. Branch 

1711 Arctic Ave., Atlantic City 87 
South Camden Branch 

1300 S. 6th St., Camden 14 
Community Branch 

Second and Clay Sts., Hackensack 
Central Branch 

654 Bergen Ave., Jersey City 4 
Washington St. Branch 

39 Washington St., Montclair 40 
Court St. Branch 

153 Court St., Newark 3 
Oakwood Branch 

84 Oakwood Ave., Orange 32 
Moorland Branch 

644 W. 4th St., Plainfield 
Princeton Branch 

120 John St., Princeton 
West Side Branch 

144 W. Bergen Place, Red Bank 
Lincoln Branch 

393 Broad St., Summit 
Carver Branch 

40 Fowler St., Trenton 8 
New York 

Carlton Ave. Branch 

405 Carlton Ave., Brooklyn 5 
Michigan Ave. Branch 

585 Michigan Ave., Buffalo 3 
West Side Branch 

249 S. 7th Ave., Mount Vernon 
Harlem Branch 

180 W. 135th St., New York 31 
West Side Branch 

100 Gibbs St., Rochester 1 
Fisher Ave. Branch 

65 Fisher Ave., White Plains 
North Carolina 
Market St. Branch 

39 S. Market St., Asheville 
Henry McCrorey Branch 

300 S. Caldwell St., Charlotte 
E. White Oak Branch 

1618 llth St., Greensboro 
Hayes-Taylor Memorial Branch 

1101 E. Market St., Greensboro 2 
Carl-Chavis Branch 

722 E. Washington St., High Point 
Henry St. Branch 

Leaksville 
Bloodworth St. Branch 

600 S. Bloodworth St., Raleigh 
Patterson Ave. Branch 

410 N. Church St., Winston-Salem 3 
Ohio 

Glendale Branch 

80 W. Center St., Akron 8 
Ninth St. Branch 

636 W. Ninth St., Cincinnati 3 
Lockland Branch 

310 N. Wayne Ave., Cincinnati 15 
Walnut Hills Branch 

2840 Melrose Ave., Walnut Hills, Cincin- 
nati 16 



SOCIAL WORK AMONG NEGROES 



195 



Ohio (cont.) 

Cedar Ave. Branch 

7615 Cedar Ave., Cleveland 3 
Glenville Branch 

10211-13 St. Clair Ave., Cleveland 8 
Spring St. Branch 

202 E. Spring St., Columbus 15 
Fifth St. Branch 

907 W. 5th St., Dayton 7 
Center St. Branch 

521 S. Center St., Springfield 
Indiana Ave. Branch 

609 Indiana Ave., Toledo 2 
West Federal St. Branch 

962 W. Federal St., Youngstown 10 
Oklahoma 

Muskogee 

208^ N. Second St. Branch 
Community Branch 

300 N. Stiles St., Oklahoma City 4 
W. L. Hutcherson Branch 

331 N. Greenwood St., Tulsa 3 
Pennsylvania 
West Branch 

7th & Flower Sts., Chester 
W. Rittenhouse St. Branch 

132 W. Rittenhouse St., Germantown 

(Philadelphia 44) 
Forster St. Branch 

614 Forster St., Harrisburg 
Shenango St. Branch 

202 N. Shenango St., New Castle 
Parkside Community Branch 

712 N. 3rd St., Philadelphia 4 
Columbia Community Branch 

1639 N. Broad St., Philadelphia 22 
Christian St. Branch 

1724 Christian St., Philadelphia 46 
Centre Ave. Branch 

2621 Centre Ave., Pittsburgh 19 
Central Branch 

338 King St., Pottstown 
South Branch 

434 S. Main St., Wilkes-Barre 
Community Work 

YMCA, Wilmerding 
South Carolina 

Cannon St. Branch 

61 Cannon St., Charleston 15 
Tennessee 

J. A. Henry Branch 

793 E. 9th St., Chattanooga 3 
Charles W. Cansler Branch 

208 E. Vine St., Knoxville 15 
Lauderdale Branch 

254 S. Louderdale Ave., Memphis 5 
Texas 

Neches St. Branch 

776 Neches St., Beaumont 
Moorland Branch 

2700 Flora St., Dallas 4 
Wm. McDonald, Jr., Branch 

1600 Jones St., Fort Worth 2 
Gibson Branch 

Bay View Homes, Galveston 
Bagby St. Branch 

1217 Bagby St., Houston 3 
41&y 2 Elm St. Branch 

Texarkana 
Doris Miller Branch 

202 Clay Ave., Waco 
Virginia 

P. S. Broadnax Branch 

657 High St., Danville 



Virginia (cont.) 
Hunton Branch 

821 Jackson St., Lynchburg 
Hunton Branch 

440 E. Brambleton Ave., Norfolk 4 
Harding St. Branch 

453 Harding St., Petersburg 
Chestnut St. Branch 

1300 Chestnut St., Portsmouth 
Leigh St. Branch 

214 E. Leigh St., Richmond 19 
William A. Hunton Branch 

416 Gainsboro Road, NW., Roanoke 17 
Washington 

East Madison Branch 

23rd & E. Olive Sts., Seattle 22 
West Virginia 

510 Capitol St. Branch 

Charleston 
Wisconsin 

Northside Branch 

535 W. North Ave., Milwaukee 12 

National Urban League 

The National Urban League was es- 
tablished more than 40 years ago to 
assist Negro migrants from the rural 
South to make satisfactory adjustments 
to city life. It was recognized that these 
newcomers were confronted with serious 
problems in the areas of health, housing, 
recreation, and family organization as 
well as employment. Assistance to these 
bewildered people in all these fields was 
considered by pioneers in the Urban 
League movement as the goal of their 
organization, and for a long time the 
League was the largest organization de- 
voting itself solely to an all-around pro- 
gram of social work among Negroes. 
However, in recent years, while some of 
the local branches of the League continue 
constantly to survey their communities 
for all the unmet social welfare prob- 
lems of the Negro and to attempt to pro- 
vide a solution for them, the larger 
number of League branches, probably 
as a result of the pattern set by the 
National organization, seem to be con- 
centrating on the problem of unemploy- 
ment and under-employment in industry 
and business, which, of course, is only 
one phase of the Negro's maladjustment. 
At the same time, an increasing number 
of nonracial organizations, as for instance 
certain social planning councils, are 
appropriating, as part of their programs, 
the field of all-around social welfare 
planning and community organization for 



196 



SOCIAL WELFARE 



Negroes which was formerly the goal of 
the Urban League. 

The activities of the League are 
planned to promote inter-racial organi- 
zation and action; to improve economic 
and social conditions among Negro popu- 
lations in cities; to conduct social re- 
search and planning in behalf of the 
Negro population; to promote specific 
social work activities among Negroes 
until other agencies are found to accept 
responsibility for such programs; to pro- 
mate the occupational advancement of 
Negroes by industrial relations, voca- 
tional guidance, and public education 
programs; and to encourage the training 
of Negro workers through fellowships in 
accredited schools of social work. 

In its report for 1950, entitled OUT 
Fortieth Year in Race Relations, the 
League summarizes its accomplishments: 

Interviewed for employment 57,715 

Applicants referred 21 ',270 

Job orders received 14'325 

Negro workers placed 12^820 

Negro employed in companies or jobs 
formerly closed to them 285 

Job development visits made to solve 

job and personnel problems .... 8,115 

Persons helped in housing, health, 

personal and family problems 685,000 

Young people helped in choosing and 

preparing for careers 350,000 

Studies completed of social and economic 

conditions by the National Office 9 

Miles covered by National staff members 
to service local Urban League pro- 
grams and promote racial understand- 
ing in non-League communities 141,000 

Written requests answered by the Na- 
tional Office for information 3,850 

Pieces of informational material dis- 
tributed through the National Office. . . 8,770 



Local Urban Leagues 

Akron 4, Ohio 

Akron Community Service Center 

250 E. Market St. 

Raymond R. Brown, Exec. Dir. 
Anderson, Indiana 

Anderson Urban League 

11 00 W.I 4th St. 

William B. Harper, Exec. Secy 
Atlanta 3, Georgia 

Atlanta Urban League 

239 Auburn Ave., NE. 

Mrs. Grace T. Hamilton, Exec. Secy 
Baltimore 17, Maryland 

Baltimore Urban League 

2404 Pennsylvania Ave. 

Furman L. Templeton, Exec. Secy 



Boston 8, Massachusetts 

Urban League of Greater Boston 
14 Somerset, Suite 520 
Edward L. Cooper, Exec. Secy 
Buffalo 4, New York 

Buffalo Urban League, Inc. 
155 Cedar St. 

William L. Evans, Exec. Secy 
Canton 4, Ohio 

Canton Urban League 
819 Liberty Ave., SE. 

John W. Crawford, Exec. Secy 
Chicago 16, Illinois 
Chicago Urban League 

3032 S. Wabash Ave. 

Sidney Williams, Exec. Secy 
Cincinnati 2, Ohio 

Urban League of Greater Cincinnati 

312 W. 9th St. 

Joseph Hall, Exec. Secy 
Cleveland 4, Ohio 

Cleveland Urban League 

8311 Quincy Ave. 

Arnold B. Walker, Exec. Secy 
Columbus 3, Ohio 

Columbus Urban League 

107 N. Monroe Ave. 

Nimrod B. Allen, Exec. Secy 
Dayton 6, Ohio 

Dayton Urban League 

409 W. Fifth St. 

Charles W. Washington, Exec. Secy 
Denver 2, Colorado 

Denver Urban League 

314 Fourteenth St. 

W. Miller Barbour, Exec. Secy 
Detroit 1, Michigan 

Detroit Urban League 

208 Mack Ave. 

John C. Dancy, Director 
Elizabeth, New Jersey 

Urban League of Eastern Union County 

8 W. Jersey St. 

William M. Ashby, Exec. Secy 
Englewood, New Jersey 

Englewood Urban League 

28 N. Van Brunt St. 

Mrs. Albert Metzger, Act. Exec. Secy 
Flint 3, Michigan 

Urban League of Flint 

200 E. Kearsley St. 

Charles Eason, Exec. Secy 
Fort Wayne 2, Indiana 

Fort Wayne Urban League 

436 E. Douglas Ave. 

Robert E. Wilkerson, Exec. Secy 
Fort Worth 3, Texas 

Forth Worth Urban League 

41 IK E. Ninth St. 

Velma T. McEwen, Exec. Secy 
Gary, Indiana 

Gary Urban League '"*' ', 

1448 Broadway 

Clifford E. Minton, Exec. Secy 
Grand Rapids 6, Michigan 

Grand Rapids Urban League 

554 Henry St., NE. 

Paul I. Phillips, Exec. Secy 
Jacksonville 2, Florida 

Jacksonville Urban League 

610 W. DuvalSt. 

Levin W. Armwood, Exec. Secy 



SOCIAL WORK AMONG NEGROES 



197 



Kansas City 8, Missouri 

Urban League of Kansas City . 

1805 Vine St. 

Thomas A. Webster, Exec. Secy 
Lincoln, Nebraska 

Lincoln Urban League 

2030 T St. 

Lynwood Parker, Exec. Secy 
Little Rock, Arkansas 

Urban League of Greater Little Rock 

914 Gaines St. 

W. H. Bass, Jr., Exec. Secy 
Los Angeles 11, California 

Urban League of Los Angeles 

251 OS. Central Ave. 

Wesley R. Brazier, Act. Exec. Dir. 
Louisville 2, Kentucky 

Louisville Urban League 

418 S. Fifth St. 

Charles T. Steele, Exec. Secy 
Marion, Indiana 

Marion Urban League 

Room 11, Resnick Bldg. 

Kenneth O. Wilson, Exec. Secy 
Massillon, Ohio 

Massillon Urban League 

821 Walnut Rd., SE. 

Wesley Scott, Exec. Secy 
Memphis, Tennessee 

Memphis Urban League 

546 Beale Aye. 

J. A. McDaniel, Exec. Secy 
Miami 36, Florida 

Greater Miami Urban League 

340 NW. 13th St. 

Walter C. Pinkston, Exec. Secy 
Milwaukee 5, Wisconsin 

Milwaukee Urban League 

904 W. Vine St. 

William V. Kelley, Exec. Secy 
Minneapolis 1, Minnesota 

Minneapolis Urban League 

510 Pence Bldg. 

Ashby Gaskins, Act. Exec. Secy 
Morristown, New Jersey 

Morris County Urban League 

55 Park Place 

Percy H. Steele, Jr., Exec. Secy 
Muskegon Heights, Michigan 

Urban League of Greater Muskegon 

1260 Jefferson St. 

William Layton, Exec. Secy 
New Brunswick, New Jersey 

New Brunswick Urban League 

122 New St. 

Eric B. Chandler, Exec. Secy 
New Orleans 13, Louisiana 

New Orleans Urban League 

712 N. ClaiborneSt. 

J. Westbrook McPherson, Exec. Secy 
New York 30, New York 

Urban League of Greater New York 

202 W. 136 St. 

Edward S. Lewis, Exec. Dir. 
Newark 3, New Jersey 

Urban League of Essex County 

58 Jones St. 

George H. Robinson, Exec. Secy 
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 

Oklahoma City Urban League 

300 N. Stiles St. 

Mrs. Cernoria Johnson, Exec. Secy 



Omaha 10, Nebraska 

Omaha Urban League 

416 Karback Block 

Whitney M. Young, Jr., Exec. Secy 
Phoenix, Arizona 

Phoenix Urban League 

702 E. Adams St. 

Alton W. Thomas, Exec. Secy 
Pittsburgh 19, Pennsylvania 

Pittsburgh Urban League 

1300 Fifth Ave. 

Alexander J. Allen, Exec. Secy 
Pontiac 15, Michigan 

Urban League of Pontiac 

120 Bagley St. 

Everett C. Spurlqck, Exec. Secy 
Portland 4, Oregon 

Portland Urban League 

202 McKay Building 

Edwin C. Berry, Exec. Secy 
Providence 3, Rhode Island 

Providence Urban League 

433 Westminster St. 

James N. Williams, Exec. Secy 
Richmond 20, Virginia 

Richmond Urban League 

900 St. James St. 

Wiley A. Hall, Exec. Secy 
St. Louis 3, Missouri 

Urban League of St. Louis 

3017 Delmar Blvd. 

M. Leo Bohanon, Exec. Secy 
St. Paul 1, Minnesota 

St. Paul Urban League 

402 First Federal Bank Bldg. 

S. Vincent Owens, Exec. Secy 
San Francisco 3, California 

San Francisco Urban League 

2015 Steiner St. 

Seaton W. Manning, Exec. Secy 
Seattle 22, Washington 

Seattle Urban League 

421 E. Pine St. 

Lewis G. Watts, Exec. Secy 
Springfield, Illinois 

Springfield Urban League 

234 S. 15th St. 

G. B. Winston, Exec. Secy 
Springfield 9, Massachusetts 

Urban League of Springfield 

33 Oak St. 

Alexander B. Mapp, Exec. Secy 
Tampa 2, Florida 

Tampa Urban League 

1615 Lamar Ave. 

Perry Taylor, Exec. Secy 
Warren, Ohio 

Warren Urban League 

479 Second St., SW. 

W. Robert Smalls, Exec. Secy 
Washington 1, D.C. 

Washington Urban League 

1103V St., NW. 

Llewellyn K. Shivery, Exec. Secy 
White Plains, New York 

Urban League of Westchester County 

6 Depot Plaza 

Marion S. English, Exec. Secy 
Winston-Salem, North Carolina 

Community Relations Project 

Pepper Building, 6th Floor 

Samuel D. Harvey, Exec. Secy 



198 



SOCIAL WELFARE 



Housing 

Many public low-cost housing projects 
have been established in various sections 
of the country to meet the fearful prob- 
lems of ill health and delinquency caused 
by the relegation of the masses of Ne- 
groes to overcrowded substandard homes. 
For the most part, the administration of 
these public housing projects has been 
such as to justify their inclusion in the 
category of social work. There is a grow- 
ing opposition, however, to the extension 
of segregated public housing projects, 
based upon the fear that they will per- 
petuate racial distinctions and misunder- 
standing. 

Negro Social Workers 

According to the study just completed 
by the Atlanta University School of So- 
cial Work, there are approximately 5,000 
Negroes engaged in the various fields of 
social work in America. There has been 
a rapid increase in the number of Negro 
social workers during the last 10 years. 
There are several reasons for this expan- 
sion, one of which is the ever increasing 
migration of Negroes into large urban 
and industrial centers. This has increased 
the case loads of many social work agen- 
cies, and their executives seem to have 
concluded that the most effective treat- 
ment of social problems growing out of 
this augmentation of the Negro popula- 
tion is the employment of Negro social- 
work practitioners. A second reason is 
the increasing number of Negroes inter- 
ested in social work as a career. A third 
reason is the growing tendency to employ 
Negro social workers to work with people 
of all races rather than only with Ne- 
groes. There is evidence also of the atti- 
tude in some areas that there should be 
Negro workers in a community as a mat- 
ter of racial justice. 

At the present time about 60% of these 
Negro social workers are employed in 
the North and 40% in the South. A few 
years ago only 10% more Negroes were 
employed in social work in the North 
than in the South. The 20% variation 
results from the rapidly increasing em- 



ployment of Negroes in the North in 
nonracial social-work jobs. 

Conditions of employment of social 
workers in the North vary very little as 
regards race. Salaries are practically the 
same for Negroes and whites in inte- 
grated social-work agencies. In the South 
there is still a great deal of segregation 
of Negro social workers and clients, par- 
ticularly in smaller cities and towns. On 
the other hand, working conditions are 
rapidly improving in the South, even in 
such nonsalary conditions as the type of 
premises provided Negro workers and 
clients. Here again, the presence of 
white and Negro case-workers working 
in the same offices in many sections of 
the South can be attributed to the fact 
that social work is not rooted in the tra- 
ditions of the Old South as is true of the 
public schools and even the churches. 

While in the past social work has not 
been a highly paid occupation and while 
salaries in industry and business continue 
to increase at a much more rapid rate, 
nevertheless, through the influence of 
national, state, and local governments 
the salaries in social work are rapidly 
increasing, with Negroes benefiting along 
with other social workers. 

In the population in general, there 
have always been more women employed 
in social work than men, but in the 
Negro group the proportion of male 
workers is higher than the proportion of 
white male social workers because of 
limited opportunities in other careers for 
Negro men. 

About 50% of the Negroes engaged 
in social work are trained. This is a 
larger percentage than for all social 
workers, but it is understandable since 
social work has long been one of the 
few professions for which Negroes could 
afford to train in any large numbers and 
in which there was a reasonable chance 
of employment. 

The average annual salary paid Negro 
social workers throughout the country 
was found by the Atlanta study to be 
$3,000. Formerly the South paid a much 
lower average wage to Negro social work- 



SOCIAL WORK AMONG NEGROES 



199 



ers than the North, but in recent years, 
largely due to the influence of the Fed- 
eral government upon southern public- 
welfare agencies to which it contributes, 
the differential had decreased tremen- 
dously. According to the Atlanta study, 
the southern average for Negro social 
workers is now about $2,400. 

Now that social workers are no longer 
employed by race in the North, top sala- 
ries paid Negroes are going higher, with 
many over $6,000 a year and some rang- 
ing from $7,000 to $8,500. 

Principal Specializations: The largest 
number of Negro social workers, 70%, 
is found in the general category known 
as social-case work, and for the same 
reason that the largest number of white 
social workers is found in this category 
because this was the first of the three 
major disciplines in social work to crys- 
tallize into a profession. There are about 
three times as many Negroes in social- 
case work as in social-group work, and 
six times as many in social-case work as 
in community organization. The Atlanta 
study reveals that of 2,300 Negro case 
workers, public assistance, private family 
welfare, departments of public welfare, 
and child welfare agencies had 600; pro- 
bation and parole, 254; medical and psy- 
chiatric social work in hospitals and 
clinics, 150. Some are employed in such 
branches of case work as the Home Serv- 
ice of the Red Cross, Travelers Aid, and 
work with training schools for delin- 
quents. 

The study revealed a little over 1,500 
Negroes employed as social-group work- 
ers, of which about 300 were paid head 
residents and leaders of clubs and classes 
in social settlements. Approximately 150 
were YMCA workers (exclusive of execu- 
tive secretaries), 100 were YWCA work- 
ers (exclusive of secretaries), and the 
rest were supervisors and workers with 
the Boy Scouts and the Girl Scouts, Camp 
Fire Girls, Boys Clubs of America, and 
many public recreational organizations. 
As a matter of fact, if one wished to count 
as a group worker every playground 
leader or athletic director connected 



with a public playground or a commu- 
nity center, there would be more Negro 
group workers than case workers. How- 
ever, only those are counted as group 
workers who have had some training in 
the field of social-group work. 

"Community organization" in social 
work aims at coordinating the resources 
of an entire community toward solving 
a social problem. The smallest number of 
Negro workers, 535, is engaged in this 
work. Most Negro community-organiza- 
tion social workers are employed by Ur- 
ban League branches, local tuberculosis 
associations, or one of the social and 
community planning councils. There are 
male and female Negro community- 
organization social workers on the staffs 
of state departments of public welfare 
throughout the North and in certain 
southern states, for instance North Caro- 
lina. Many private, national social-work 
agencies employ Negro community- 
organization social workers on headquar- 
ters and regional staffs, for instance the 
National Tuberculosis Association, the 
National Travelers Aid Association, and 
the National Office of the Boy Scouts. 

Until public social-work agencies be- 
gan recently to employ Negroes in large 
numbers, administrative jobs for them 
in this field were largely confined to 
executive positions with organizations or 
branches with an all- or nearly all-Negro 
clientele. Now that the greater proportion 
of Negro social workers are employed 
under public auspices, Negroes are found 
in a wide variety of administrative posi- 
tions throughout the country. 

The majority of the teaching staffs of 
the Atlanta University School of Social 
Work and the Howard University School 
of Social Work are Negro. In addition, 
there are Negroes teaching in nonracial 
schools of social work, including the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota and Wayne Univer- 
sity. 

'Workers in Nonracial Jobs: The num- 
ber of Negroes entering nonracial social- 
work employment in the North is increas- 
ing so rapidly that, in the case-work field 
at least, it is reasonable to assume that 



200 



SOCIAL WELFARE 



an agency hires a Negro to handle a case 
load made up of all races or one without 
Negro individuals or families. Group- 
work agencies in the North are increas- 
ingly employing Negroes to lead and 
direct clubs and classes in settlements 
and community centers having only small 
Negro attendance. 

In community-organization work also, 
a growing number of Negroes are em- 
ployed in nonracial jobs, some in super- 
visory positions, for instance Robert Neal 
of Chicago, who is Assistant Secretary 
of the Group Work Division of the Com- 
munity Planning Council. 

In such widely scattered and typical 
cities as Minneapolis, Minn.; Hartford, 
Conn.; Los Angeles, Calif., and Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., over 75% of Negro social 
workers are no longer confined to work 
with their own people. Because of this 
increasing integration, it is becoming 
more and more difficult to number social 
workers by race. 

Workers in Foreign Employment: 
There is increasing opportunity for 
Negroes in social-work employment in 
foreign countries and the insular posses- 
sions of the United States. The first 
trained Negro social workers went abroad 
to fill jobs created by the Armed Services 
and the Red Cross during the Second 
World War. A number of the Red Cross 
workers remained with the occupation 
forces at the end of the war and others 
have been employed since not only for 
group work and recreation but for family 
and community rehabilitation in war- 
devastated countries of Europe and the 
Orient. 

Negroes are engaged in social work in 
various insular possessions of the United 
States. In the Virgin Islands, from Com- 
missioner of Welfare down to practicing 
case worker, all workers are Negroes. In 



Puerto Rico Negroes are employed in a 
wide variety of social-work positions, 
including an instructor in social-group 
work at the University of Puerto Rico. 
In Hawaii Negroes are employed as case 
workers in the public-assistance agency. 

Outstanding Positions Held: Many 
high-ranking positions in social work on 
both national and local levels are now 
held by Negroes. There are Negro social 
workers in Washington on the national 
staffs of the FSA, the U. S. Children's 
Bureau, the FHA, and the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Labor. Many private social agen- 
cies of national scope employ Negroes 
on their headquarters staff. Among these 
are such character-building and recrea- 
tional associations as the Boy Scouts, the 
Girl Scouts, and the National Recreation 
Association, and such health agencies as 
the National Tuberculosis Association. 
There are Negro staff members in several 
northern and at least one southern state 
departments of public welfare. There are 
Negro executives of many state schools 
for delinquents, some of which are of 
considerable size, for instance the Boys' 
Republic of the State of Maryland and 
the Kruse School for Girls in Delaware. 
There are Negro supervisors in county 
departments of public welfare all over 
the country, including states in the deep 
South, such as Georgia, and in the South- 
west, such as Oklahoma. There are Negro 
heads of personnel training in certain 
state departments of public welfare and 
in the FSA at Washington, and Negro 
department heads of welfare councils in 
cities the size of New York and Chicago. 

A distinctive honor and responsibility 
came to the veteran Lester B. Granger, 
Executive Secretary of the National 
Urban League, with his election to the 
presidency of the National Conference 
of Social Work for the year 1951. 




Dr. Raymond M. Williams, an inspector in a Chicago packing house since 1927, 

is one of about 200 Negro veterinarians and lay meat inspectors in the meat 

packing industry. USDA Photo 



PLATE XVII 




Edward P. Boyd (right), assistant sales manager of the Pepsi-Cola Co., plans 
promotional campaigns with other members of the staff. Afro-American Photo 



Dr. Frank G. Davis, appointed economic 

adviser to Liberia under the Point IV 

program. Afro-American Photo 



Mrs. Mary Tobias Dean, named mana- 
ger of Macy's handkerchief department, 
New York. Pittsburgh Courier Photo 





PLATE XVIII 




C. C. Spaulding, well-known financier, is president of the North Carolina Mutual 
Life Insurance Co. Pittsburgh Courier Photo 



Lemuel A. Bowman has opened the 

modern Parkway Hotel in Nashville, 

Tenn. Pittsburgh Courier Photo 



Mrs. Mary T. Washington, a CPA, has 

her own firm of public accountants in 

Chicago. 




PLATE XIX 





Miss Dorothy Williams is a chemist in 

the Bureau of Human Nutrition and 

Home Economics, U.S. Department of 

Agriculture. USDA Photo 



Lemuel E. Graves, appointed Deputy 
Chief of the News and Writing Section, 
Economic Cooperation Administration 
headquarters, Paris, France. EC A Photo 



PLATE XX 




Midshipman J. L. Brown, Hattiesburg, Miss., is sworn in as ensign aboard U.S.S. 

Leyte in 1949, making him the first Negro naval aviator. Brown was later killed in 

the Korean fighting. U.S. Navy Photo 



PLATE XXI 




Thurgood Marshall (right), chief legal counsel for the NAACP, with Colonel 

Darwin D. Martin of the Army Inspector General's Office, investigates the courts 

martial of Negro soldiers in Korea and Japan. Afro-American Photo 



Lt. Laurene Martin (left) and Captain Rosalie Wiggins are members of the U.S. 
Army Nurse Corps in hospitals in Tokyo, Japan. Afro-American Photos 





PLATE XXII 




PLATE XXIII 





Dr. John W. Chenault (left), 
the late Dr. Midian O. Bous- 
field, and Mr. Basil O'Connor 
(second from right) presi- 
dent of the National Founda- 
tion for Infantile Paralysis, 
visit polio patients at Tuske- 
gee Institute's John A. An- 
drew Hospital. 



Dr. T. K. Lawless is regarded 
as one of the foremost skin 
specialists in the United 
States. Liggett & Myers To- 
bacco Co. 



PLATE XXIV 




A low cost, experimental farm home (above) nears completion under Tuskegee 
Institute's HHFA farm-construction research project. (Below) A farm youth builds 
house walls on his father's farm with Tuskegee concrete blocks as (left to right) 
Ernest E. Neal, co-director of the HHFA project, George Williams, project con- 
struction superintendent, and a visitor from India look on. 








PLATE XXV 




PLATE XXVI 




PLATE XXVII 




PLATE XXVIII 




PLATE XXIX 




PLATE XXX 




Washington High School, Shreve- 
port, La., (left) built at a cost of 
$1.5 million, was occupied for the 
1950-51 school term, but schools 
like the one above still remain too 
numerous as the only obtainable fa- 
cilities where Negro children are 
taught. Time, Inc. & Jenkins Photo 
Studios 



Mrs. Ethel Butler adopts little 
Haesi, 6, and Ute, 5, the first Ger- 
man "brown babies" to reach Chi- 
cago. Doyle Stewart Photo 




PLATE XXXI 





Bishops W. J. Walls, AMEZ 
Church, and S. L. Greene, 
AME Church, lead the pro- 
cession of signers (above) to 
the charter establishing the 
National Council of Churches. 
Bishop B. W. Doyle, CME 
Church, is seen over Bishop 
Greene's left shoulder. Miller- 
Ertler Photo 



Three generations examine 
photograph of Major R. R. 
Wright, Sr., which hangs in 
the White House reception 
room. Bishop R. R. Wright, 
Jr., holds his father's picture 
as his grandsons, Phillip (ex- 
treme left) and R. R. Wright 
IV (extreme right) look on 
with their father, R. R. 
Wright III. 



PLATE XXXII 



16 
Education 



ELEMENTARY AND 
SECONDARY EDUCATION 1 

Separate Schools Maintained 

Segregation of white and Negro pupils 
in public and nonpublic schools is prac- 
ticed in 17 states and the District of 
Columbia, necessitating separate grounds, 
buildings, equipment, and instructional 
personnel. Numerous noteworthy differ- 
ences because of this separation are found 
between the two systems of schools. Some 
of these are indicated by differentials in 
average length of school term, average 
number of days attended by each pupil 
enrolled, average pupil-teacher load, cur- 
rent expenditure per pupil in average 
daily attendance, average salary per 
member of instructional staff, and in 
many other ways. 

A United Press survey in 11 southern 
cities during August 1951 revealed that 
the cost of providing separate but equal 
facilities for Negroes would be ap- 
proximately $400,000,000. The estimate 
showed that the value of school buildings, 
grounds, and plant facilities for Negroes 
lags that much behind facilities for 
whites in proportion to the enrollment 
of both races. It was concluded that to 
bring Negro facilities up to equal level, 
even if white schools remained at the 
present level, would take ten years. 

The survey pointed out that a Federal 
court ruling in favor of separate but 
equal facilities in South Carolina has 
spurred southern states to take action. 
Negroes make up 30% of the 7,500,000 
students enrolled in the public school 
systems of the 11 states. The property 



value of Negro schools is about 15% 
of the total for both racial groups. School 
property for whites in the State of Geor- 
gia was reported to be valued at five 
times that of Negro facilities. Negroes 
comprise one-third of the Georgia school 
enrollment. 

In Mississippi, where the number of 
white and Negro students is about equal, 
the white school property is reported as 
being valued at four times as much as 
the Negro school property. 

North Carolina's figures approximate 
those for Georgia. Arkansas' facilities 
for white children are valued at eight 
times those for Negro children, although 
only three times as many whites are en- 
rolled in school as Negroes. 

In order to maintain segregation in the 
public schools, some states are moving 
to bring Negro school facilities up to 
those of whites. Among these states are 
Georgia, South Carolina, Florida, and 
Alabama. 

Pertinent data issued by the U. S. 
Office of Education on elementary and 
secondary education in 17 states and the 
District of Columbia describe below some 
phases of this education as they relate 
to Negroes. 

Enrollment: 2 The highest total enroll- 
ment of Negro pupils in the public 
schools of the District of Columbia and 
the 17 states which maintain segregated 
schools was in 1935-36, when it reached 
2,438,981. This enrollment decreased 
through 1945-46, but increased to 2,353,- 
505 in 1948-49. Negro public elementary 
schools reached their highest enrollment 
in 1933-34, 2,266,913, decreased in 1945- 



1 Sources : U.S. Office of Education, Statistical Circular No. 286, Statistical Circular No. 293, Directory of Second- 
ary Schools in the United States Circular No. 250; Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Population 
Characteristics Series P-20, No. 34, July 26, 1951; Birmingham World, Aug. 28, 1951. 

2 The 1948-49 reports issued by the U.S. Office of Education are the latest complete, available sources. 



201 



202 



EDUCATION 



46, but had increased to 2,026,000 by 
194849. 

Negro public secondary enrollment 
has continued to increase except for a 
drop of 26,000 during World War II. 
Enrollment in public secondary schools 
has shown a remarkable growth since 
1919-20, when it was only 33,341. This 
number increased to 327,000 in 1948-49, 
the first time the number has passed the 
300,000 mark. See Table 1. 

TABLE 1 
ENROLLMENT IN NEGRO PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN 17 

STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 
BY PERIODS 1 



Periods 


Elementary 


Secondary 


Total 


1933-34 
1935-36 
1943-44 
1945-46 
1947-48 
1948-49 


2,266,913 
2,250,045 
2,029,362 
1,994,057 
2,006,836 
2,026,327 


163,185 
188,936 
247,373 
272,163 
299,226 
327,178 


2,430,098 
2,438,981 
2,276,735 
2,266,220 
2,306,062 
2,353,505 



Source: U.S. Office of Education, Statistical 
Circular No. 286, January 1951. 

1 Elementary includes grades K to 8 ( or K to 7 ) . 
Secondary includes first 4 years after elementary. 

Enrollment by States: The enrollment 
for 1948-49, all grades by states, is pre- 
sented in Table 2. 



Enrollment, Total and by Color: The 
Bureau of the Census reports a record 
number of 30,000,000 persons 5 to 29 
years old enrolled in school or college in 
October 1950, the beginning of the 1950- 
51 school year. In the age-group of 
7 to 13 years, 99% were enrolled in 1950. 
Nonwhites, however, were still enrolled 
in smaller proportion than whites. The 
1950 figures also show that among those 
14 to 29 years old. more nonwhites were 
in lower grades, for a given age, than 
whites. 

In almost all of the age groups from 
5 to 24 years, for both males and females, 
the enrollment rate for the whites was 
greater than that for nonwhites. As com- 
pared with 1940, however, some of the 
differences in 1950 were substantially 
narrower. There is a tendency for whites 
and nonwhites to start school at more 
nearly the same age and for more nearly 
the same proportion to remain in school 
until they have passed the compulsory 
school age. 

Among white persons under the age 
of 18 years, the proportion attending 



TABLE 2 

ENROLLMENT IN NEGRO ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY DAY SCHOOLS, 
17 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, 1948-49 



State 


Total 


Kinder- 
garten and 
Elementary 1 


Secondary Pupils a 


Per Cent 
Total Enroll- 
ment, Secon- 
dary Grades 


Total 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Alabama 


233,699 
110,992 
7,602 
44,456 
111,781 
255,273 
37,124 
172,677 
69,522 
261,805 
50,738 
261,535 
36,214 
215,559 
104,704 
201,281 
152,951 
25,592 


202,347 
100,004 
6,475 
36,252 
94,031 
218,607 
30,364 
156,642 
51,713 
243,353 
41,117 
221,070 
28,729 
192,971 
87,975 
167,605 
130,130 
16,942 


31,352 
10,988 
1,127 
8,204 
17,750 
36,666 
6,760 
16,035 
17,809 
18,452 
9,621 
40,465 
7,485 
22,588 
16,729 
33,676 
22,821 
8,650 


12,606 
4,751 
585 
3,408 
7,965 
14,716 
3,152 
6,146 
7,731 
7,382 
4,235 
16,468 
3,551 
8,695 
7,318 
14,913 
9,573 
4,118 


18,746 
6,237 
542 
4,796 
9,785 
21,950 
, 3,608 
9,889 
10,078 
11,070 
5,386 
23,997 
3,934 
13,893 
9,411 
18,763 
13,248 
4,532 


13.4 
9.9 
14.8 
18.5 
15.9 
14.4 
18.2 
9.3 
25.6 
7.0 
19.0 
15.5 
20.7 
10.5 
16.0 
16.7 
14.9 
33.8 


Arkansas 


Delaware 


District of Columbia . 
Florida 


Georgia 


Kentucky 


Louisiana 


Maryland 


Mississippi 


Missouri 


North Carolina 


Oklahoma 


South Carolina 


Tennessee 


Texas 


Virginia 


West Virginia 


TOTAL 


2,353,505 


2,026,327 


327,178 


137,313 


189,865 


13.9 





Source: U.S. Office of Education, Statistical Circular No. 286, January 1951. 
'Elementary includes kindergarten through grade 8 (or grade 7 in 11 -grade system). 
Secondary includes 1st 4 years after elementary. 



ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION 



203 



TABLE 3 

PER CENT DISTRIBUTION BY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT OF PERSONS 5 TO 29 YEARS OLD, BY AGE 

AND COLOR, FOR U.S.: CIVILIAN NON-INSTITUTIONAL POPULATION, OCTOBER 1950; 

TOTAL POPULATION, APRIL 1940 



Age 


October 1950 




April 


1940 




White 


Nonwhite 


White 


Nonwhite 


En- 
rolled 


Not En- 
rolled 


En- 
rolled 


Not En- 
rolled 


En- 
rolled 


Not En- 
rolled 


En- 
rolled 


Not En- 
rolled 


Total 5 to 29 ... 


51.6 
64.3 
89.0 
84.4 
30.5 
9.5 
3.0 


48.4 
35.7 
11.0 
15.6 
69.5 
90.5 
97.0 


51.2 
61.4 
86.8 
75.5 
23.3 
6.3 
3.0 


48.8 
38.6 
13.3 
24.5 
76.7 
93.7 
97.0 


( 2 ) 
58.3 
84.8 
80.7 
29.8 
6.9 
( 2 ) 


( 2 ) 
41.7 
15.2 
19.3 
70.2 
93.1 
( 2 ) 


( 2 ) 
53.4 
79.0 
68.2 
21.1 
3.8 
( 2 ) 


( 2 ) 
46.6 
21.0 
31.8 
78.9 
96.2 
( 2 ) 


5 to 24 


5 to 13 years 1 


14 to 17 years 


18 and 19 


20 to 24 


25 to 29 





Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 34. 

1 Per cent enrolled for 1940 includes a small proportion, of 5- and 6-year olds enrolled in kinder- 
garten, which was excluded in 1950. 

2 Not available. 



school was approximately the same for 
both sexes. However, for those 18 to 29 
years old the proportion of males enrolled 
exceeded that for females. Among non- 
whites, enrollment rates for males and 
females were roughly equal in the group 
5 to 13 years. A larger proportion of 
nonwhite females in the age group 20 to 
29 were enrolled. See Table 3. 

Attendance: In Negro schools the pupil 
load per teacher in average daily attend- 
ance in the District of Columbia and the 
17 states in 1948-49 was 28.2. Table 4 
gives comparison of teacher load for 
white and Negro schools by states; and 
Table 5 gives the attendance record in 
Negro public schools for 1948-49. Not all 
figures for 1949-50 were readily available, 
but for the District of Columbia and 14 
states reporting the average daily attend- 
ance for that year indicated an increase 
for all except Texas, which showed a 
small decrease of 914. 

Expenditures per pupil: The highest 
average current expenditure per Negro 
child in 1948-49 was $175.32 in Okla- 
homa; the lowest, $26.81, was in Missis- 
sippi. Comparable figures for white pu- 
pils in eight states reporting for that 
year were $188.35 in Florida and $111.15 
in Arkansas. Comparative figures for 
1948-49 and 1949-50 for states reporting 
are in Table 6. Obvious disparities be- 
tween expenditures for white and Negro 



TABLE 4 

PUPILS IN AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE PER 

TEACHER, WHITE AND NEGRO SCHOOLS, 17 

STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, 1948-49 * 



State 


White 
Schools 


Negro 
Schools 


Alabama 


26.0 


27.8 


Arkansas 


26.0 


31.3 


Delaware 


21.2 


24.4 


District of Columbia 


23.3 


26.6 


Florida 


23.8 


25.4 


Georgia 


23.2 


27.9 


Kentucky 


26.1 


23.5 


Louisiana 


22.8 


30.3 


Maryland 


26.3 


27.7 


Mississippi 


27.3 


34.4 


Missouri 


24.6 


27.1 


North Carolina 


28.7 


30.8 


Oklahoma 


25.1 


22.7 


South Carolina 


23.3 


25.8 


Tennessee 


25.8 


27.7 


Texas 


24.7 


22.9 


Virginia 


27.1 


31.9 


West Virginia 


28.0 


29.5 


Source: U.S. Office of 


Education, 


Statistical 


Circular No. 286, January 1951. 
1 Figures only for those states that 


furnished 


basic data. 







children are apparent for both years. In 
1948-49, however, Oklahoma spent $9.01 
more per Negro child in average daily 
attendance than for the white child in 
average daily attendance, a most unusual 
circumstance. 

Teachers' Salaries: In 1948-49, the 
highest and lowest state average salaries 
for white staff were, respectively, Louisi- 
ana $2,938 and Arkansas $1,718. The 
highest and lowest for Negro staff were 



204 



EDUCATION 



TABLE 5 

ATTENDANCE IN NEGRO FULL-TIME SCHOOLS IN 17 STATES AND DISTRICT OF 
COLUMBIA WHICH HAVE SEGREGATED SCHOOLS, 1948-49 



Attendance 


State 


Average Daily 
Attendance 


Average Number 
Days Schools 
were in Session 


Average Number 
Days Attended 
per Pupil Enrolled 


Per Cent 
Attendance is 
of Enrollment 


Alabama 


195,697 


176.5 
171.3 
182.4 
177.5 
180.5 
178.0 
176.8 
180.0 
185.5 
148.0 
194.7 
179.9 
180.0 
170.3 
180.0 
172.4 
180.0 
173.6 


147.8 
124.1 
163.0 
153.6 
161.8 
139.5 
149.6 
154.3 
163.2 
124.4 
169.1 
154.1 
159.0 
135.2 
157.4 
145.2 
156.4 
160.9 


83.7 
72.5 
89.4 
86.5 
89.6 
78.4 
84.6 
85.7 
87.9 
84.1 
86.9 
85.7 
88.4 
79.4 
87.5 
84.2 
86.9 
92.7 


Arkansas 


80417 


Delaware 


6793 


District of Columbia . . . 
Florida 


38,463 
100,185 


Georgia 


200 075 


Kentucky 


31,415 


Louisiana 


148,039 


Maryland 


61,140 


Mississippi 


220,142 


Missouri 


44075 


North Carolina 


225 082 


Oklahoma 


31,993 


South Carolina 


171,191 


Tennessee 


91,609 


Texas 


169,525 


Virginia 


132,935 


West Virginia 


23,711 


TOTAL 


1 971 487 


174.4 


146.1 


83.8 







Source: U.S. Office of Education, Statistical Circular No. 286, January 1951. 



TABLE 6 
CURRENT EXPENDITURES PER PUPIL IN AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE 



State 



1949-50 



1948-49 



White 



Negro 



White 



Negro 



Alabama 


$144.38 


$ 80.76 


$114.21 


$ 77.75* 


Arkansas 





. . 


111.15 


62.22 


District of Columbia 


270.71 


209.45 


281.41 


210.42 


Florida 


185.89 


131.32 


188.35 


131.67 


Georgia 


131.67 


70.99 







Maryland 


187.82 


172.11 








Mississippi f 


119.09 


27.45 


122.74 


26.81 


North Carolina 


153.00 


113.00 


131.85 


115.02 


Oklahoma 








166.31 


175.32 


South Carolina 








148.48 


69.65 



Source: State Depts. of Education and U.S. Office of Education, Statistical 
1951. 

Note: Figures not available for either year for Del., Ky., La., Mo., Tenn., 

* Corrected figures for 1948-49. 

t In 1950-51, the figures are white $122.49; Negro $38.25. 



Circular No. 286, January 
Texas, Va., W. Va. 



Missouri $2,793 and Mississippi $682. 
Comparative figures for states reporting 
194849 and 1949-50 are shown in Table 
7. Teachers salaries in the South as else- 
where have increased greatly since 1925, 
in spite of the disparity in most cases 
between salaries for white and Negro 
teachers. 

Instructional Staff 

The instructional staff in Negro public 
schools numbered 72,803 in 1948-49. This 



is greater than in any previous year. 
Table 8 shows instructional personnel, 
including supervisors, principals, and 
men and women teachers, for the 17 
states and the District of Columbia hav- 
ing segregated schools. The percentage 
of men teachers, 14.9, is also given. 

Educational Attainment 

The average educational attainment of 
the nonwhite population continues to be 
lower than that of the white population 



ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION 



205 



at each age level, but at the younger ages 
the differences were somewhat smaller in 
1947 than in 1940, though still marked. 
Of all white persons 25 years old and 
over, approximately 35% had completed 
4 years or more of high school, whereas 
only about 13% of nonwhites in the 
same age group had this amount of edu- 
cation. In terms of persons who had had 
some college education, the difference 
was just as striking about 13% for 
white persons, as against 5% for non- 
whites. At the lower end of the educa- 
tional scale, the differences were also 
sharp. About one white person in every 
10 had less than five years of schooling, 
that is, was "functionally illiterate," as 
compared with about 3 nonwhite persons 
in every 10. The median years of school 
completed for adult whites and non- 
whites were 9.4 and 6.9 respectively. 

At each age, the median educational 
attainment of white persons was higher 
than that of nonwhite persons. As indi- 
cated by the median, more whites 25 to 29 
years old had completed high school, as 
compared with the completion of ele- 



TABLE 7 

AVERAGE SALARY PER MEMBER OF INSTRUC- 
TIONAL STAFF, 1948-49 AND 1949-50 * 



1949-50 


1948-49 


State 


White 


Negro 


White 


Negro 


Ala. . . 


. $2,157 


$1,870 

3,853 
2,616 
1,655 
2,329 
3,549 
764 
2,788 
2,650* 
2,707 

2,976 


$2,163 
1,718- 
3,840 
2,935 

2,938 

1,841 
2,265 
2,429 
2,299 
2,019 
1,845 
2,579 
2,439 f 


$1,778 
1,262 
3,619 
2,535 

2,388 

682 
2,793 
2,464 
2,174 
1,403 
1,843 
2,175 
2,364 f 


Ark 




Dist. Col. . . 
Fla. 


. 4,003 
3 030 


Ga 


2 148 


La 


. 2,957 


Md 


. 3 574 


Miss 


. 1,946 


Mo 


2 325 


N. G 


. 2,600 


Okla. . . 


. 2,769 


S.C 




Tenn 




Texas 


. 3,051 


Va 









Sources: State Dept. of Education; U.S. Office 
of Education, Statistical Circular No. 286, January 
1951. 

1 Figures only for those states that furnished 
basic data. 

* Estimate. 

t Corrected salaries for 1948-49. 

mentary school by nonwhites of the same 
age. Among whites 65 years old and 
over the median educational attainment 
was 7.8 years, as compared with only 4.0 
years for nonwhites. Among whites who 



TABLE 8 

INSTRUCTIONAL STAFF AND PERCENTAGE OF MEN TEACHERS IN NEGRO FULL-TIME DAY SCHOOLS 
IN 17 STATES AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA WHICH HAVE SEGREGATED SCHOOLS, 1948-49 



State 


Instructional Staff 


Total 


Supervisors 


Principals 


Teachers 


Total 


Men 


Women 


Per Cent 
Men 
Teachers 


Alabama 


7,175 
2,663 
302 
1,531 
4,095 
7,336 
1,397 
5,050 
2,293 
6,496 
1,741 
7,590 
1,635 
6,738 
3,311 
7,616 
4,866 
968 


44 
1 
6 
21 
21 
91 
5 
32 

23 

10 
9 
34 

27 
83 
2 


95 
89 
18 
62 
128 
73 
56 
133 
87 
69 
116 
306 
219 
60 

189 
618 
162 


7,036 
2,573 
278 
1,448 
3,946 
7,172 
1,336 
4,885 
2,206 
6,404 
1,625 
7,274 
1,407 
6,644 
3,311 
7,400 
4,165 
804 


873 
399 
64 
300 
501 
810 
245 
661 
404 
841 
303 
1,136 
255 
924 
614 
1,339 
490 
180* 


6,163 
2,174 
214 
1,148 
3,445 
6,362 
1,091 
4,224 
1,802 
5,563 
1,322 
6,138 
1,152 
5,720 
2,697 
6,061 
3,675 
624* 


12.4 
15.5 
23.0 
20.7 
12.7 
11.3 
18.3 
13.5 
18.3 
13.1 
18.6 
15.6 
18.1 
13.9 
18.5 
18.1 
11.8 
22.4 


Arkansas 


Delaware 


District of Columbia 


Florida 


Georgia 


Kentucky 


Louisiana 


Maryland 


Mississippi 


Missouri 


North Carolina 


Oklahoma 


South Carolina 


Tennessee 


Texas 


Virginia 


West Virginia 




TOTAL 


72,803 


409 


2,480 


69,914 


10,339 


59,575 


14.9 





Source: U.S. Office of Education, Statistical Circular No. 286, January 1951. 
* Estimated. 



206 



EDUCATION 



obtained most of their education more 
than a generation ago (those 64 years 



old and over) , the proportion completing 
less than 5 years of elementary school 



TABLE 9 

YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED BY PERSONS 14 YEARS OLD AND OVER, BY AGE, COLOR, AND SEX, 

FOR U.S.: CIVILIAN POPULATION, APRIL 1947; TOTAL POPULATION, APRIL 1940 

(Per Cent not shown where less than 0.1) 



Year, Age, Color and Sex 


Elementary School 


High School 


College 


School 
years 
not 
re- 
ported 


Less 
than 5 
years 1 


5 and 6 
years 


7 and 8 
years 


1 to 3 
years 


4 
years 


1 to 3 
years 


4 years 
or more 


PER CENT 1947 
White 
Total, 1 4 and over 


6.9 
2.6 
1.7 
2.0 
8.3 
2.5 
2.9 
4.5 
8.8 
14.4 
18.8 

25.9 
11.6 
11.1 
12.3 
31.4 
18.9 
20.3 
23.8 
38.2 
44.5 
60.8 

8.8 
3.9 
3.0 
2.9 
10.8 
3.4 
4.5 
7.8 
13.9 
16.7 
20.0 

36.0 
24.8 
21.5 
24.7 
41.1 
26.7 
30.1 
37.1 
46.4 
54.6 
70.8 


7.2 
7.1 
3.3 
3.2 
7.9 
3.3 
4.3 
5.7 
9.4 
11.5 
13.7 

18.0 
21.9 
11.7 
16.8 
18.1 
16.2 
13.7 
20.8 
21.2 
17.5 
15.0 

9.3 
8.9 
4.4 
4.4 
10.4 
5.5 
6.8 
9.3 
12.0 
13.7 
15.8 

21.3 
25.1 
19.2 
20.1 
21.1 
21.9 
23.1 
23.4 
21.3 
18.6 
12.6 


28.7 
34.2 
13.6 
13.0 
31.1 
16.2 
21.7 
30.5 
37.0 
38.7 
38.8 

23.3 
32.9 
16,8 
22.9 
22.4 
20.6 
28.0 
27.3 
20.5 
20.0 
10.4 

33.1 
32.4 
17.3 
20.6 
36.1 
26.6 
31.0 
37.1 
39.0 
40.3 
41.1 

20.8 
25.3 
21.1 
21.4 
19.9 
23.3 
23.5 
22.2 
18.6 
15.4 
9.1 


21.2 
53.5 
35.9 
24.6 
16.7 
22.9 
22.1 
19.4 
16.1 
10.9 
7.9 

17.1 
30.9 
35.9 
25.7 
12.3 
2.8 
15.9 
13.0 
7.4 
8.1 
5.6 

20.7 
50.5 
33.9 
23.7 
15.6 
22.9 
21.6 
17.5 
13.0 
10.3 
7.2 

12.3 
22.4 
25.6 
17.8 
8.5 
14.7 
11.9 
8.4 
5.8 
4.3 
2.2 


23.1 
2.2 
37.8 
43.5 
21.7 
38.8 
33.1 
22.9 
15.5 
12.9 
10.3 

9.1 
2.2 
18.8 
14.4 
8.5 
15.8 
13.2 
8.4 
4.8 
3.5 
3.2 

17.0 
3.3 
33.2 
34.2 
15.1 
26.8 
20.6 
15.1 
11.4 
9.8 
7.7 

5.1 
1.3 
9.2 

10.5 
4.4 
7.8 
5.7 
4.0 
3.2 
2.5 
1.3 


7.0 
0.2 
7.4 
10.5 
7.1 
9.8 
8.3 
8.6 
6.6 
5.2 
3.7 

2.6 
0.1 
5.1 
5.0 
2.3 
3.4 
2.8 
2.3 
1.8 
2.0 
1.2 

5.8 
0.4 
7.5 
9.8 
5.8 
7.8 
7.9 
6.5 
5.0 
4.1 
3.2 

1.9 

0.2 
2.4 
3.4 
1.9 
2.7 
2.5 
1.9 
1.6 
1.3 
0.7 


4.7 

2.6 
5.7 
5.9 
7.0 
7.6 
5.0 
3.9 
3.5 

1.9 

1.3 
2.4 
2.7 
3.8 
2.3 
2.9 
1.3 
0.6 

4.0 

0.2 
3.6 
4.9 
6.3 
6.8 
5.5 
4.2 
3.5 
2.7 

1.0 

0.1 
0.9 
1.3 
1.6 
1.6 
1.3 
1.2 
1.0 
0.6 


1.2 
0.2 
0.2 
0.7 
1.5 
0.7 
0.6 
0.8 
1.5 
2.4 
3.2 

2.1 
0.3 
0.6 
1.5 
2.5 
1.6 
2.3 
2.3 
3.2 
3.1 
3.2 

1.2 
0.6 
0.6 
0.7 
1.4 
0.8 
0.9 
1.2 
1.5 
1.7 
2.3 

1.5 
0.8 
0.9 
1.2 
1.8 
1.3 
1.5 
1.7 
1.9 
2.2 
2.8 


14 to 17. . 


18 and 19 . 


20 to 24 


25 and over 


25 to 29 


30 to 34 


35 to 44 


45 to 54 


55 to 64 


65 and over 


Nonwhite 
Total, 14 and over 


14 to 17. . 


18 and 19 . .. 


20 to 24 


25 and over 


25 to 29 


30 to 34 


35 to 44 


45 to 54 


55 to 64 


65 and over 


PER CENT 1940 
White 
Total, 14 and over 


14 to 17 


18 and 19 


20 to 24 


25 and over 


25 to 29 


30 to 34 


35 to 44 


45 to 54 .. 


55 to 64 


65 and over. 


Nonwhite 
Total, 14 and over 
14 to 17 


18 and 19 


20 to 24 


25 and over 


25 to 29 


30 to 34 


35 to 44 


45 to 54 


55 to 64 


65 and over 





Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 15. 
1 Includes persons reporting no school years completed. 



ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION 



207 



TABLE 10 

PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS 5 TO 24 YEARS ENROLLED IN SCHOOL, BY TYPE OF 
SCHOOL, AGE AND COLOR FOR U.S.: CIVILIAN NON -INSTITUTIONAL POPULATION, 

OCTOBER 1950; TOTAL POPULATION, APRIL 1940 
(Per Cent not shown where base is less than 100,000) 







White 






Nonwhite 




Year and Age 


Elementary 
School 


High 
School 


College or 
Professional 
School 


Elementary 
School 


High 
School 


College or 
Professional 
School 


October 1950 


70.4 


23.0 


6.6 


79.4 


17.8 


2.8 


5 to 13 years 


98.1 


1.9 




97.9 


2.0 




14 to 17 years 


12.5 


84.8 


2.7 


38.3 


60.4 


1.4 


1 8 to 24 years 


0.3 


21.3 


78.8 


3.5 


49.1 


47.4 


April 1940 
5 to 24 years 1 


66.6 


27.1 


6.2 


83.2 


14.6 


2.1 




96.8 


3.2 




98.4 


1.6 




14 to 17 years 


21.5 


75.3 


3.2 


58.1 


40.4 


1.5 


18 to 24 years 


1 7 


36.6 


61.7 


18.0 


51.4 


30.6 

















Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 34. 
1 Excludes persons for whom type of school was not reported. 



is approximately equal to that of non- 
whites who were recently educated (those 
now 25 to 29 years old). 

The slightly higher educational attain- 
ment level of women than of men was 
evident in both the white and nonwhite 
population. At each age, median years 
of schooling of females was a little 
higher than, or at least equal to, that 
of males. See Table 9. 

Retardation: A relatively high degree 
of retardation in grades of school among 
nonwhites as compared with whites 
existed in 1950. Among children 14 to 17 
years old, 38% of nonwhites were in 
elementary school as compared with 13% 
of whites. Also, 49% of enrolled non- 
whites 18 to 24 years old were in high 
school as compared with 21% for whites. 
A comparison of the 1950 data with those 
for 1940, however, shows marked prog- 
ress has been achieved in diminishing 
the amount of retardation among non- 
whites. 

In 1950, 58.1% of nonwhites 14 to 17 
years old were in elementary school as 
compared with 22% of whites. Of the 
age group 18 to 24 years old, 51% of 
nonwhites were enrolled in high school; 
for whites the percentage was 38. Com- 
parable figures for 1940 and 1950 for all 
age groups 5 to 24 appear in Table 10. 



TABLE 11 

JEANES TEACHERS, 1951 



State No. 


of Teachers 


No. of Counties 


Alabama 


49 


44 


Arkansas 








Florida 


21 


21 


Georgia 
Kentucky 
Louisiana 


94 
4 
34 


98 
5 
30 


Mississippi 
Missouri 


62 
3 


65 
9 


North Carolina 


58 


64 


Oklahoma 


11 


11 


South Carolina 


34 


34 


Tennessee 


29 


36 


Texas 


45 


33 


Virginia 


62 


65 


TOTAL 


506 


sTs 



Source: The Southern Education Foundation. 

Illiteracy: In 1947, it was estimated 
that the illiteracy rate for whites 14 years 
old and over was 1.8%, whereas for non- 
whites it was 11%, or 6 times as high. 
This ratio held approximately for each 
of the specific age groups as well. How- 
ever, although 32% of nonwhites 65 
years old were illiterate only 4% of non- 
whites 14 to 24 years old could not read 
or write. It seems reasonable to assume 
that further reduction of illiteracy among 
nonwhites will continue, but the progress 
will be less dramatic, resembling instead 
the progress recently made by the white 
population. 



208 



EDUCATION 



Jeanes Teachers 

On April 18, 1907, Miss Anna T. 
Jeanes of Philadelphia, Pa., created an 
endowment fund in perpetuity, the in- 
come of which was to be applied toward 
the maintenance and assistance of ele- 
mentary rural schools for Negroes in the 
southern states. During the year 1950-51, 
506 Jeanes Teachers working in 515 
counties in 13 states cooperated with 
public school superintendents in improv- 
ing rural schools. These teachers by 
states are shown in Table 11. 

Since 1937 the fund has been admin- 
istered by the Southern Education Foun- 
dation, Inc., with headquarters at 918 Cy- 
press Street, N.E., Atlanta 5, Ga. 

In 1949, Miss Virginia Randolph, a 
native of Richmond, Va., who became the 
first Jeanes Supervisor in 1908, submitted 
her resignation to the Henrico County, 
Va., School Board after teaching 57 years. 
Then 75 years old, Miss Randolph began 
her teaching career at a little school 
known as the Mountain Road School for 
Negroes. From her modest salary, she 
purchased gravel to cover the muddy 
road. In later years, she taught at a four- 
room Henrico County school. This school 
had a dormitory built by the funds which 
she and other teachers donated. In 1929, 
the wooden building burned. Her latest 
school was a modern brick high school 
built on 50 acres through gifts, including 
one from Miss Randolph. 

School Lunch Program 

Public Law No. 320, Section 32, passed 
in 1935 by the U.S. Congress, authorized 
the use of an amount of money equal to 
30% of the yearly customs receipts for 
the development of new outlets for farm 
products. These foods, supplied by the 
Department of Agriculture, helped a 
great deal in expanding the school lunch 
program. President Truman signed the 
National School Lunch Act on June 6, 
1946. Over six million children through- 
out the United States now get a well- 
balanced hot lunch in a joint endeavor 



TABLE 12 

APPORTIONMENT OF FUNDS IN SOUTH FOR 

NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM, BY 

STATES AND ESTIMATED PARTICIPATION OF 

NEGRO CHILDREN, 1951-52 



State 


Apportionment 


Estimated Negro 
Participation 


Ala. 


$ 2,476,367 


26,700 


Ark. 


1,535,127 


12,500 


Fla. 


1,197,452 


14,000 


Ga. 


2,297,469 


20,600 


Ky. 


2,083,856 


5,300 


La. 


1,619,286 


100,000 


Miss. 


2,185,658 


35,000 


Mo. 


1,402,200 


21,000 


N. C. 


2,883,099 


24,000 


Okla. 


1,260,228 


8,000 


S. G. 


1,826,302 


32,000 


Tenn. 


2,223,479 


35,000 


Texas 


3,397,057 


29,000 


Va. 


1,714,715 


29,000 




TOTALS $28,102,295* 


392,100 f 



Source: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Release No. 
2376-51, p. 1, June 1951. 

* For all school children in the states listed, 
t School year, 1949-50. 



of the Federal and state governments. 
State and county boards of education are 
responsible for carrying out the program 
under the direction of the Production and 
Marketing Administration of the U.S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. Table 12 shows 
funds appropriated for school lunches in 
14 states and the number of Negro chil- 
dren being benefited. 

High Schools 

The Directory of Secondary Schools in 
the United States, Circular No. 250, is- 
sued by the U.S. Office of Education, 
January 1949, gives a total of 10,617 high 
schools in the 17 southern states and the 
District of Columbia for 1946. Of these, 
8,798 were for whites and 1,819 for Ne- 
groes. Later figures are not readily avail- 
able, but since 1948 numbers of high 
schools for both races have been built. 

Approved Secondary Schools: 1 In 
December 1950, the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Southern Association of 
Colleges and Secondary Schools voted 

(Continued on page 213) 



1 Source: The Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, Frank C. Jenkins, 230 Spring Street, N.W., 
Atlanta 3, Ga. 



ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION 



209 



Approved Secondary Schools, 1950-51 



Location, Name and 
Superintendent 


Rating 


Principal 


Date 

Approvtd 


Alabama 








Anniston, Cobb Ave. H.S., 


B 


M. M. Smith 


1949 


R. S. Owings 








Athens, Trinity School, 


B 


W. Judson King 


1950 


Floyd R. Johnson 








Birmingham, Rosedale H.S., 


B 


B. N. Montgomery 


1946 


I. F. Simmons 








Birmingham, Wenonah H.S., 


B 


Leon Kennedy 


1950 


I. F. Simmons 








Brewton, South. Normal H.S., 


B 


Andrew Branche 


1939 


Andrew Branche 








Mobile, Central H.S., 


A 


B. F. Baker 


1947 


K. J. Clark 








Montgomery, Ala., Lab. Sch. A.S.C., 


A 


Thomas J. Mayberry, Jr. 


1931 


H. C. Trenholm 








Montgomery, St. Jude Ed. Inst., 


A 


Rev. C. F. Mensing 


1949 


Rev. Leo Byrnes 








Normal, Council Trg. Sch. A.&M. Col., 


A 


C. W. Orr 


1931 


E. A. Anderson 








Plateau, Mobile Cty. Trg. Sch., 


A 


J. T. Gaines 


1934 


K. J. Clark 








Sayreton, Hooper City H.S., 


B 


P. L. Ware 


1947 


I. F. Simmons 








Selma, R. B. Hudson H.S., 


B 


R. W. Stone 


1950 


W. E. Snuggs 








Talladega, Westside H.S., 


A 


B. N. Mabro 


1948 


F. L. Harwell 








Troy, E. Academy St. H.S., 


B 


Cecil Griffin 


1950 


Roy E. Jeffcoat 








Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa Ind. H.S., 


A 


McDonald Hughes 


1943 


J. H. Hadley 








Tuscumbia, Trenholm H.S., 


B 


P. H. Wesley 


1946 


Boyd Puryear 








Tuskegee, Tuskegee Inst. H.S., 


A 


K. B. Young 


1931 


B. L. Balch 








Westfield, Westfield H.S., 


A 


C. L. Reeves 


1947 


I. F. Simmons 








Florida 








Fort Myers, Dunbar H.S., 


B 


Edgar L. Barker 


1941 


Charles Bevis 








Jacksonville, Stanton H.S., 


A 


J. L. Terry 


1931 


W. Daniel Boyd 








Miami, B. T. Washington H.S., 


A 


Charles L. Williams 


1940 


James T. Wilson 








Miami, Dorsey H.S., 


A 


D. H. Dobbs 


1946 


James T. Wilson 








Miami, G. W. Carver H.S., 


B 


Mrs. F. S. Tucker 


1948 


James T. Wilson 








St. Petersburg, Gibbs H.S., 


A 


A. J. Pope 


1950 


Floyd T. Christian 








Tallahassee, Lincoln, H.S., 


A 


G. L. Porter 


1942 


A. P. Godby 








Tampa, Middleton Sen. H.S., 


A 


G. V. Stewart 


1948 


Crockett Farnell 








Georgia 








Athens, Athens High & Ind. Sch., 




H. T. Edwards 


1946 


Fred Ayers 








Atlanta, B. T. Washington H.S., 




C. N. Cornell 


1932 


Dr. Ira Jerrell 








Atlanta, D. T. Howard H.S., 




G. L. Gideons 


1947 


Dr. Ira Jerrell 








Brunswick, Risley H.S., 




J. S. Wilkerson 


1932 


R. E. Hood 








Carrollton, Carroll Cty. Trg. Sch., 




L. S. Molette 


1948 


J. M. Chalker 








Cedartown, Cedar Hill H.S., 




R. A. Bryant 


1946 


L. H. Gray 








Columbus, Spencer H.S., 




C. W. DuVaul 


1941 


W. H. Shaw 









210 



EDUCATION 



Approved Secondary Schools, 1950-51 (Cont.) 



Location, Name and 
Superintendent Rating 


Principal 


Date 

Approved 


Georgia (cont.) 






Cordele, Gillcspie-Selden H.S., 


L. S. Brown 


1939 


D. H. Standard 






Dalton, Emery St. H.S., 


James R. Hightower 


1942 


C. G. Hale 






Decatur, Herring St. H.S., 


Chas. M. Clayton 


1946 


O. L. Amsler 






Forsyth, Hubbard Trg. Sch. 


Samuel Hubbard 


1946 


J. H. Clarke 






Gainesville, Fair St. H.S., 


C. W. Daniels 


1946 


C. J. Cheves 






Keysville, Boggs Acad., 


H. N. Stinson 


1942 


A. H. Guann 






Macon, Ballard H.S., 


R. J. Martin 


1933 


Mark A. Smith 






Moultrie, Moultrie H.S., 


George W. Parker, Jr. 


1942 


E. V. Whelchel 






Newman, H. Warner H.S., 


Frank A. Dodson 


1946 


W. H. Drake 






Sandersville, T. J. Elder H.S., 


Edgar W. Lash 


1946 


J- C. Page 






Swainsboro, Swainsboro H.S., 


Nathan F. Williams 


1947 


W. O. Phillips 






Thomasville, Douglass H.S. 


M. D. Roberts 


1946 


R. D. Blakeney 






Waycross, Center H.S., 


J. C. Reese 


1946 


J. D. Salter 






Kentucky 






Bowling Green, State St. H.S., 


E. T. Buford 


1942 


L. C. Curry 






Covington, W. Grant H.S., 


H. R. Merry 


1932 


G. O. Swing 






Henderson, Douglass H.S., 


H. B. Kirkwood 


1943 


H. L. Smith 






Hopkinsville, Attucks H.S., 


Jacob L. Bronaugh 


1936 


Gladstone Koffman 






Lexington, P. L. Dunbar H.S., 


P. L. Guthrie 


1931 


Ben B. Hen- 






Lincoln Ridge, Lincoln Inst., 


W. H. Young 


1937 


R. B. Atwood 






Louisville, Central H.S., 


A. S. Wilson 


1932 


Omer Carmicheal 






Madisonville, Rosenwald H.S., 


Mrs. Pearl A. Patton 


1942 


T. C. Gilbert 






Maysville, John G. Fee Ind. H.S., 


A. W. Whyte 


1935 


Owensboro, West. Jun.-Sen. H.S., 


H. E. Goodloe 


1933 


R. W. Cherry ' 






Paducah, Lincoln H.S., 


E. W. Whiteside 


1936 


Mark F. Scully 






Paris, Western H.S., 


Miss M. E. Kellis 


1946 


Lee Kirkpatrick 






Winchester, Golivar St. H.S., 


G. W. Adams 


1934 


F.J. Ogden 






Louisiana 






Baton Rouge, Southern Univ. H.S.. A 


Miss A. A. Boley 


1937 


F. G. Clark 






Bogalusa, Central Memorial H.S., A 
M. J. Isreal 


A. L.Jordan 


1946 


Lake Charles, Sacred Heart H.S., A 


Sister Mary Frances 


1940 


Mother M. Agatha 






Lake Charles, W. O. Boston H.S., A 


R. C. Reynaud 


1950 


C. W. Ford 






Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish Trg. Sch. A 


F. M. Richardson 


1946 


A. E. Lee 






New Orleans, Gaudet Episcopal H.S., A 


A. P. Pertee 


1950 


Rev. Girault M. Jones 






New Orleans, L. B. Landry H.S., A 


Isreal M. Augustine 


1938 


L. J. Bourgeois 







ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION 



211 



Approved Secondary Schools, 1950-51 (Cont.) 



Location, Name and 
Superintendent 



Rating 



Principal 



Date 

Approved 



Wes 



Louisiana (cont.) 

New Orleans, St. Mary's Acad., 

Mother Mary Philip 
New Orleans, Xavier Univ. H.S., 
Mother M. Agatha 

Mississippi 

Edwards, Southern Christian Inst., 

John Long 
Jackson, Lanier H.S., 

K. P. Walker 
Meridian, T. J. Harris H.S., 

H. M. Ivy 
Okolona, Okolona Col. H.S., 

W. M. Davis 
Oxford, Oxford Trg. H.S., 

R. E. Keye 
Tougaloo, Tougaloo Col. Pract. H.S., 

J. F. Owens 
/est Point, Mary Holmes Junior 

College H.S. 

North Carolina 

Asheville, Allen H.S., 

Mrs. Claire Lennon 
Asheville, Stephens-Lee H.S., 

J. W. Byers 
Burlington, Jordan-Sellers H.S., 

L. E. Spiles 
Chapel Hill, Lincoln H.S., 

C. W. Davis 
Charlotte, Second Ward H.S., 

Dr. E. H. Garinger 
Charlotte, W. Charlotte H.S., 

Dr. E. H. Garinger 
Durham, Hillside H.S., 

L. S. Weaver 
Fayetteville, E. E. Smith H.S., 

Horace Sisk 
Gastonia, Highland H.S., 

F. M. Waters 
Goldsboro, Dillard H.S., 

Ray Armstrong 

Greensboro, Immanuel Lutheran H.S., 
Greensboro, J. B. Dudley H.S., 

B. L. Smith 

Greenville, C. M. Eppes H.S., 

J. H. Rose 
Henderson, Henderson Inst., 

E. M. Rollins 
High Point, W. Penn H.S., 

Charles F. Carroll 
Kannapolis, G. W. Carver H.S., 

W. J. Bullock 
Kings Mountain, Lincoln Acad., 

Hunter Huss 
Lexington, Dunbar H.S., 

L. E. Andrews 
Mount Olive ,Carver H.S., 

R. S . Proctor 
Oxford, Mary Potter H.S., 

C. G. Credle 
Raleigh, Washington H.S., 

J. O. Sanderson 
Reidsville, Washington H.S., 

C. C. Lipscomb 

Rocky Mount, B. T. Washington H.S.; 

D. S. Johnson 
Salisbury, J. C. Price H.S. 

J. H. Knox 



A Sister Mary Rosetta 

A Sister M. Bernice 

A C. C. Mosley 

A I. S. Sanders 

A W. A. Reed, Jr. 

A 

B S. G. Gooden 

A Mrs. Annie F. Davis 

A Margaret E. Hill 

Miss Julia Titus 
Frank A. Tolliver 
H. C. Goore 
C. A. McDougle 
J. E. Grigsby 
C. L. Blake 
H. M. Holmes 
E. E. Miller 
T. Jeffers 
H. V. Brown 

William H. Kampschmidt 
J. A. Tarpley 

W. H. Davenport 
L. E. Spencer 
S. E. Burford 
W. L. Reid 
E. D. Wilson 
A. B. Bingham 
Spencer E. Durante 
H. S. Davis 
C. H. McLendon 
H. K. Griggs 
R. D. Armstrong 
O. C. Hall 



1947 
1937 

1931 
1946 
1946 
1946 
1946 
1931 
1943 



212 



EDUCATION 



Approved Secondary Schools, 1950-51 (Cont.) 



Location, Name and 
Superintendent 


Rating Principal 


Date 
Approved 


North Carolina (cont.) 






Sanford, Lee Cty. Trg. Sch., 


W. B. Wicker 


1946 


J. J. Lentz 






Sedalia, Palmer Memorial Inst., 


J. H. Brockett 


1931 


Mrs. G. Hawkins Brown 






Selma, R. B. Harrison H.S., 


M. L. Wilson 


1950 


H. B. Marrow 






Wake Forest, DuBois H.S., 


L. R. Best 


1947 


Randolph Benton 






Wilmington, Williston Ind. H.S., 


F. J. Rogers 


1937 


H. M. Roland 






Wilson, C. H. Darden H.S., 


E. M. Barnes 


1942 


S. G. Chappell 






Winston-Salem, Atkins H.S., 


J. A. Carter 


1931 


J. W. Moore 






South Carolina 






Charleston, Avery Inst., 


J. F. Potts 


1933 


G. C. Rogers 






Charleston, Burke Ind. H.S., 


W. C. Nichols 


1949 


G. C. Rogers 






Chester, Finley H.S., 


S. L. Finley 


1936 


M. E. Brock man 






Columbia, B. T. Washington H.S., 


Harry V. Rutherford 


1933 


A. C. Flora 






Columbia, C. A. Johnson H.S., 


C. J. Johnson, Jr. 


1949 


A. C. Flora 






Denmark, Voorhees Sch. & Jr. Col., 


T. H. Moore 


1933 


C. D. Halliburton 






Florence, Wilson H.S., 


Gerard A. Anderson 


1950 


John M. Harllee 






Greenville, Sterling H.S., 


J. E. Beck 


1944 


W. F. Loggins 






Orangeburg, Wilkinson H.S., 


J. C. Parler 


1946 


E. W. Rushton 






Spartanburg, Carver H.S., 


C. C. Woodson 


1946 


J. G. McCracken 






Tennessee 






Chattanooga, Howard H.S., 


A W. J. Davenport 


1933 


C. G. Derthick 






Johnson City, Langston H.S., 


A J. N. Armstrong 


1944 


John H. Arrants 






Knoxville, Austin H.S., 


A O. T. Hogue 


1934 


Wilson New 






Morristown, Morristown H.S., 


B S. A. Cain 


1946 


A. B. Wallen 






Nashville, Pearl H.S., 


A J. A. Galloway 


1941 


W. A. Bass 






Rogersville, Swift Memorial H.S., 


A R. E. Lee, Pres. 


1933 


J. O. Harville 






Texas 






Austin, Anderson H.S., 


W. B. Campbell 


1933 


Irby B. Carruth 






Beaumont, Charlton-Pollard H.S., 


H. C. Johnson 


1935 


R. L. Williams 






Dallas, B. T. Washington H.S., 


J. L. Patton, Jr. 


1946 


W. T. White 






Dallas, Lincoln H.S., 


B T. D. Marshall 


1946 


W. T. White 






Fort Worth, I. M. Terrell H.S., 


H. L. King 


1934, 


Joe P. Moore 






Galveston, Central H.S., 


L. A. Morgan 


1933 


J. D. Hill 






Gladewater, Weldon H.S., 


E. F. Green 


1942 


Houston, B. T. Washington H.S., 


I. B. Bryant 


1933 


W. E. Moreland 






Houston, Jack Yates H.S., 


Win. S. Holland 


1933 


W. E. Moreland 







ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION 



213 



Approved Secondary Schools, 1950-51 



Location, Name and 
Superintendent 


Rating Principal 


Date 

Approved 


Texas (cont.) 






Houston, Phyllis Wheatley H.S., 


J. E. Codwell 


1933 


W. E. Moreland 






Jefferson, Central H.S., 


J. C. Pitts 


1937 


L. B. Landers 






Marshall, H. B. Pemberton H.S., 


G. A. Rosborough 


1942 


V. H. Hackney 






San Antonio, Phyllis Wheatley H.S., 


G. P. Inge, Jr. 


1933 


San Antonio, St. Peter Claver H.S., 


Sister Mary Ita 


1942 


Tyler, Emmett Scott H.S., 


A. G. Hilliard 


1950 


Waco, A. J. Moore H.S., 


J. J. Wilson 


1946 


E. N. Dennard 






Wichita Falls, B. T. Washington H.S. 


C. Emerson Jackson 


1936 


J. B. McNiel 






Virginia 






Alexandria, Parker-Gray H.S., 


W. H. Pitts 


1942 


T. C. Williams 






Cambria, Christiansburg Ind. Inst. H.S., 


J. F. Banks 


1942 


S. T. Godbey 






Charlottesville, Jefferson H.S., 


Owen J. Duncan, Jr. 


1942 


H. L. Sulfridge 






Franklin, Hayden H.S., 


S. P. Morton 


1944 


F. F. Jenkins 






Fredericksburg, Walker Grant H.S., 


John G. Johnson 


1946 


G. H. Brown 






Hampton, G. P. Phenix H.S., 


Clifford B. Howlette 


1933 


C. Alton Lindsay 






Lynchburg, Dunbar H.S., 


C. W. Seay 


1936 


Paul M. Munro 






Manassas, Manassas Regional H.S., 


C. N. Bennett 


1941 


R. Worth Peters 






Newport News, Huntington H.S., 


W. D. Scales 


1931 


R. O. Nelson 






Norfolk, B. T. Washington H.S., 


Winston Douglas 


1932 


J. J. Brewbaker 






Petersburg, Peabody H.S., 


A. M. Walker 


1933 


John D. Meade 






Richmond, Armstrong H.S., 


George Peterson, Jr. 


1933 


H. I. Willett 






Richmond, M. L. Walker H.S., 


J. E. Seagear 


1942 


Roanoke, Lucy Addison H.S., 


Miss Sadie V. Lawson 


1940 


D. E. McQuilkin 






Rock Castle, St. Francis de Sales H.S., 


Sister M. Eugene 


1940 


Mother M. Agatha 






Staunton, B. T. Washington H.S., 


S. E. Smith 


1940 


L. F. Shelburne 







to grant the high schools listed above the 
ratings indicated. The year 1950-51 is 
the last in which B rating was granted. 
Negro colleges and secondary schools are 
not members of the Association but are 
visited and inspected by the Committee 
on Approval of Negro Schools. "A" rat- 
ing means that the school is fully accred- 
ited and students are admitted to college 
without any condition. "B" rating indi- 
cates that the school is lacking in suffi- 
cient equipment, in number of teachers 
or perhaps number of teachers with re- 
quired preparation, and the like. Schools 



with rating not indicated do not come 
up to standards of the Association in one 
or more important requirements. 

Private High Schools and Academies: 
The increase in the number of public high 
schools for Negroes has accompanied a 
rapid decline in the number of privately 
conducted schools on the secondary level. 
The Negro Year Book, 1931-32 listed 160 
private institutions having a high school 
enrollment of 10,876 students and a total 
enrollment, including elementary grades, 
of 32,777. In 1951, 29 of these institutions 
had a high school enrollment of 4,276 



214 



EDUCATION 





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11 


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ocsu-ioor-r-ooo-* ON rg oo m T- o^- to-r-in <-> <-> 






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IllSljfe' : 1 Ii 1 1 *1 Ifll 1 ! ^J III 


TOTALS 


Source: Qucstionnaii 
* Mailing address T 
t This figure was no 



ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION 215 

and a total enrollment, including ele- operate without them financially. There 
mentary grades, of 7,848. Some of the is a possible third group which main- 
existing schools are in the process of tains them to meet the needs of a certain 
being absorbed by public school systems. group of their clientele. 
See Table 13. High School Graduates: The number 
Colleges with High School Depart- of high school graduates increased from 
ments: Of the 118 Negro colleges of all 30,009 in 1939-40 to 40,841 in 1948-49, 
types in the United States in 1951, 39 had an increase of 36.1%. Table 15 gives 
a total of at least 7,400 high school stu- these graduates by states, 
dents enrolled, indicating that high school State Agents and Other Supervisors for 
departments still have a place in their Negro Schools: 1 Thirteen states maintain 
programs. Some colleges utilize their agents whose specific duty is to supervise 
secondary school departments as labora- the separate school systems for Negroes, 
tories for teacher training; others have These persons are usually responsible to 
not yet reached the point where they can the State Superintendent of Education. 

TABLE 14 
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES HAVING HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENTS, 1950-51 



Institutions (39) 


Male 


Female 


Total 


A.M.&N. College, Pine Bluff, Ark. 


86 


96 


182 


Alabama A.&M. College, Normal, Ala. 


205 


326 


531 


Alabama State Teachers College, Montgomery, Ala. 


(N) 


(N) 


(N) 


Alcorn A.&M. College, Alcorn, Miss. 


15 


47 


62 


Arkansas Baptist College, Little Rock, Ark. 


46 


29 


75 


Bettis Academy and Junior College, Trenton, S.C. 








118 


Campbell College, Jackson, Miss. 


55 


40 


95 


College of Education & Industrial Arts (now 








Central State College), Wilberforce, Ohio 


15 


21 


36 


Conroe N.&I. College, Conroe, Tex. 


1 


1 


2 


Daniel Payne College, Birmingham, Ala. 


112 


40 


152 


Delaware State College, Dover, Del. 


68 


40 


108 


Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, Fla. 


49 


14 


63 


Florida A.&M. College, Tallahassee, Fla. 


117 


113 


230 


Grambling College, Grambling, La. 


65 


97 


162 


Harbison Junior College, Irmo, S.C. 








56 


Immanuel Lutheran College, Greensboro, N.C. 


33 


59 


92 


Kansas City Kansas Junior College, Kansas City, Kans. 


3 





3 


Leland College, Baker, La. 


10 


15 


25 


Lincoln Junior College, Kansas City, Mo. 


422 


665 


1,087 


Lincoln University, Jefferson City, Mo. 


63 


63 


126 


Lomax-Hannon College, Greenville, Ala. 


20 


42 


62 


Mary Allen Senior College, Crockett, Tex. 


2 


8 


10 


Mary Holmes Junior College, West Point, Miss. 


17 


50 


67 


Morris Booker Memorial Baptist College, Dermott, Ark. 


15 


17 


32 


Morristown, N.&I. College, Morristown, Tenn. 


143 


62 


205 


Oakwood College, Huntsville, Ala. 


41 


42 


83 


Okolona College, Okolona, Miss. 


110 


127 


237 


Piney Woods School (Junior College), Piney Woods, Miss. 


80 


150 


230 


Prairie View A.&M. College, Prairie View, Tex. 


64 


69 


133 


Prentiss N.&I. Institute, Prentiss, Miss. 


327 


241 


568 


Rust College, Holly Springs, Miss. 


9 


17 


26 


Selma University, Selma, Ala. 


60 


50 


110 


Southern Christian Institute, Edwards, Miss. 


55 


125 


180 


Southern University A.&M. College, Baton Rouge, La. 


93 


124 


217 


Swift Memorial Junior College, Rogersville, Tenn. 


33 


47 


80 


Tougaloo College, Tougaloo, Miss. 


70 


74 


144 


Voorhees School and Junior College, Denmark, S.C. 


71 


111 


182 


Washington Junior College, Pensacola, Fla. 
West Virginia State College, Institute, W. Va. 


696 
45 


823 
65 


1,519 
110 


TOTAL: 








7,400 



Source: Questionnaire. 
(N) No report received. 

1 Source: Southern Education Foundation, Inc. 



216 



EDUCATION 



Listed here are these agents and their 
associates for 1949-50: 

Alabama: Dr. J. C. Blair, St. Agt. for Negro 
Schs., St. Dept. of Educ., Montgomery ; 
T. F. Burnside, Ass. St. Agt.; Robert C. 
Hatch, Colored St. Worker. 

Florida: D. E. Williams, St. Agt. for Negro 
Schs., St. Dept. of Educ., Tallahassee; 
W. E. Combs, Colored St. Worker. 

Georgia: R. L. Cousins, St. Agt. for Negro 
Schs., St. Dept. of Educ., Atlanta; Mrs. 
Meanelle Dempsey, Colored St. Worker, 
223 Chestnut St., SW., Atlanta. 

Kentucky: Sam B. Taylor, St. Agt. for Negro 
Schs., St. Dept. of Educ., Frankfort ; Whit- 
ney M. Young, Ass. St. Agt., Lincoln Ridge. 

Louisiana: L. L. Kilgore, St. Agt. for Negro 
Schs., St. Dept. of Educ., Baton Rouge. 

Mississippi: P. H. Easom, St. Agt. for Negro 
Schs., St. Dept. of Educ., Jackson; E. P. 
Rawson, Ass. St. Agt. ; Miss Forence Alex- 
ander, Colored St. Worker, 1120 W. Pas- 
cagoula St., Jackson. 

Missouri: Hubert Wheeler, Conim. of Educ., 
St. Dept. of Educ., Jefferson City; H. Pat 
Wardlaw, Ass. Comm. of Educ. ; D. F. Mar- 
tinez, St. Supv. of Negro Schs. 

North Carolina: N. C. Newbold, St. Agt. for 
Negro Schs., St. Dept. of Educ., Raleigh ; 
G. H. Ferguson, Ass. St. Agt. ; Miss Minnie 
R. Lawrence, Colored St. Worker. 

Oklahoma: Clifford Powell, St. Agt. for Ne- 
gro Schs., St. Dept of Educ., Oklahoma 
City ; Ira D. Hall, Negro H.S. Insp. 

South Carolina: C. ]. Martin, St. Agt. for 
Negro Schs., St. Dept. of Educ., Columbia. 

Tennessee : W. E. Turner, St. Agent for Ne- 
gro Schs., St. Dept. of Educ., Nashville ; 
R. E. Clay, Colored St. Worker, Tenn. A.&I. 
St. Univ., Nashville ; Dr. Eunice S. Mat- 
thews ; Miss Charity Mance. 

Texas: J. B. Rutland, St. Agt. for Negro Schs., 
St. Dept. of Educ., Austin; J. C. McAdams, 
Ass. Supv. of Negro Educ., Prairie View 
Col., Prairie View. 

Virginia: Thomas T. Hamilton, Dir. of Sec- 
ondary Educ., St. Dept. of Educ., Richmond ; 
A. G. Richardson, Ass. Supv. of El. and Sec. 
Educ. ; Mrs. Margaret T. Haley, Ass. Supv. 
of El. Schs., Room 400, 214 E. Clay St., 
Richmond. 

Integration and Public Schools 

A nationwide survey made by the pub- 
lic-opinion-sampler Elmo Roper for Life 
magazine just before the opening of 
school in 1950, and published in the Oct. 
16, 1950, issue of that magazine, gives 
an idea of the attitude of the people of 
the country by age groups, race, educa- 
tion, and geographic area concerning 
integration in public education. 

Three questions were asked: (1) 
Should children of all races and colors 
be allowed to go to the same schools 
everywhere in the country? (2) Should 



TABLE 15 

NEGRO H.S. GRADUATES FOR 17 STATES AND 
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, 1948-49 



State 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Alabama 


4133* 


1638* 


2495* 


Arkansas 


1629 


675 


954 


Delaware 


165 


79 


86 


Dist. of Col. 


944 


390 


604 


Florida 


2741* 


1308* 


1433* 


Georgia 


3422 


1294 


2128 


Kentucky 


1218 


513 


705 


Louisiana 


687 


235 


452 


Maryland 


1410 


563 


847 


Mississippi 


2290 


883 


1407 


Missouri 


1369 


572 


797 


North Carolina 


5779 


2273 


3506 


Oklahoma 


1102 


535 


567 


South Carolina 


2084 


769 


1315 


Tennessee 


2202 


935 


1267 


Texas 


5228 


2123 


3105 


Virginia 


3471 


1365 


2106 


West Virginia 


917 


396 


521 



TOTAL 40,841 16,546 24,295 

Source: U.S. Office of Education, Statistical Cir- 
cular No. 286, January 1951. 
* Figures estimated. 



children of all races and colors be allowed 
to go to the same public schools together 
except in the South, where white and 
Negro children should go to separate 
schools? (3) Should white children and 
Negro children be required to go to 
separate schools everywhere in the coun- 
try? The answers are revealing, as indi- 
cated by Table 16. 

By age groups, the younger people 21 
to 24 years old showed the most liberal 
attitudes toward these questions. By race, 
Negroes were overwhelmingly for inte- 
gration. By education, college-trained 
persons were the most liberal; those with 
an eighth-grade education or less the 
least liberal. By geographic area, a ma- 
jority of the people interviewed in the 
Northeast were for mixed schools every- 
where. In the South, only a minority held 
that the children of all citizens regard- 
less of race or color should attend the 
same schools. The survey itself indicates 
that the American people generally are 
ready to give democracy a chance to 
operate in the public schools of the 
country. 

Federally Operated Schools in South: 
An Associated Press story appearing Oct. 
14, 1951, renorted the opening of the 



HIGHER EDUCATION 



217 



TABLE 16 

ATTITUDE TOWARD INTEGRATION IN PUBLIC EDUCATION IN U.S. BY AGE, RACE, 
EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHIC AREA 





All Races and 
Colors Should At- 
tend Same Schools 
Everywhere in the 
Country 


All Races and 
Colors Should At- 
tend Same Schools 
Except in the South 


All Races and 
Colors Should be 
Required to Attend 
Separate Schools 
Everywhere in the 
Country 


Don't 

Know, 
and No 
Answer 



Total Percentage 


41.3 


16.7 


35.1 


6.9 


Age 










21-34 


47.1 


15.1 


33.8 


4.0 


35-49 


40.4 


19.0 


34.2 


6.4 


50 and Over 


36.6 


16.1 


37.2 


10.1 


Race 










White 


39.0 


17.0 


37.5 


6.5 


Negro 


64.5 


13.3 


11.8 


10.4 


Education 











8th Grade or Less 


31.7 


12.2 


46.0 


10.1 


High School 


43.2 


17.3 


35.4 


4.1 


College 


52.7 


22.5 


20.7 


4.1 


Geographic Area 










Northeast 


57.0 


18.9 


15.3 


8.8 


Midwest 


48.1 


12.7 


32.6 


6.6 


South 


17.1 


14.6 


62.5 


5.8 


Far West 


43.5 


25.4 


25.2 


5.9 



Source: Life, Oct. 16, 1950. Copyright by Time. Inc. 



Federally operated elementary schools 
at Fort Bragg, N.C., on Sept. 6, 1951, to 
both white and Negro children without 
segregation. These schools enrolled 1,175 
white children and 33 colored children. 
There were no Negro students of high 
school age. The 67 white students attend 
Fayetteville high school. 

Of the 43 teachers, one is a Negro who 
teaches 25 white children and one colored 
child in the kindergarten. The director 
of education on the post reported only 
one complaint when the announcement 
was made that the schools would abolish 
segregation completely. The children's 
reaction to the change was spontaneous 
and unaffected friendship. 

Other Federally operated schools in- 
clude those at Fort Knox and Fort 
Campbell, Ky., and at the Quantico, Va., 
Marine base. 

On Nov. 2, 1951, President Truman 
refused to sign a Federal-aid-to-education 
bill passed by Congress in October just 
before it adjourned. This bill would have 
In no phase of the Negro's progress has 



required racial segregation on Federal 
property in 17 states having segregation 
laws. If it became law, the schools now 
operating without separation of races on 
such property would have to discontinue 
integration of white and Negro children 
and of teaching personnel. Such a step, 
as was pointed out, would be away from 
equality of opportunity in education. 

HIGHER EDUCATION 1 

In no phase of the Negro's progress has 
there been more remarkable development 
than in higher education. In students, 
graduates, staff, income, expenditures, 
property, and endowments, Negro institu- 
tions have made great advances. The in- 
crease in the number of institutions has 
been slow, from 99 in 1900 to 108 in 
1950 2 , but development has been in size 
and facilities of existing institutions 
rather than in their number. The accom- 
panying tabulations present data begin- 
ning with 1899-1900 and continuing to 
1949-50, or the nearest date for which 
figures are available. 



1 Source: U.S. Office of Education, Henry C. Badger, Specialist in Education Statistics, Circular No. 293, April 
1951. 

2 Table 23 shows 118 institutions and 71,000 students for itemized institutions. Enrollment for a few institutions 
was not obtained. 



218 



EDUCATION 



Enrollment 

Enrollment increased from 2,624 in 
1899-1900 to an estimated 74,526 in 1950- 
51. The later figure is 28.4 times that for 
the earlier year. For all higher education 
(Negro, white, and nonsegregated insti- 
tutions) the 1950-51 estimated enrollment 
was 10.7 times that for 1899-1900. 

No less noteworthy is the fact that 
whereas in 1900, 41 of the 99 so-called 
colleges for Negroes had no students of 
college grade, in 1947-48 every institu- 
tion listed had college students. In 1951, 
only a minority of these institutions ac- 
cept students of below-college grade. 

Decline in Enrollment: The percentage 
decline in students reported for the Fall 
of 1950 by 108 institutions for Negroes 
was considerably smaller than that ob- 
served for all institutions. Against a gen- 
eral drop of 6.5% in total fall enrollment 
for all institutions, the drop among Ne- 
gro institutions was only 1.1%. While the 
number of men students reported in the 
fall of 1950 dropped 6.8% from that for 

1949, the number of women students in- 
creased 5.4% in the same period. New 
students in Negro institutions increased 
3.6% as compared with a drop of 7.4% 
for all institutions. Although the number 
of male students entering college for the 
first time in Negro institutions was 5.3% 
lower than in 1949, the number of women 
increased 12.5%. 

Veteran Students: During the fall of 

1950, veteran students enrolled in Negro 
colleges numbered 13,242. Of these 13,080 
were men and 162 were women. In only 
three institutions did the enrollment ex- 
ceed 500 in that year. Howard University 
had 1,297, Tuskegee Institute 820, and 
A.&T. College of North Carolina 80S. 1 

Degrees Conferred 

Bachelors' degrees were conferred on 
156 persons in 1900 and on 13,108 in 
1950. For every person who in 1900 re- 
ceived a bachelor's degree at one of the 
Negro institutions, 84 received that degree 
50 years later. Corresponding figures for 
all higher education (continental U.S.) 



TABLE 17 

HISTORICAL SUMMARY OF EARNED DEGREES 
CONFERRED, 1900 TO 1950 



Bachelor's Degree 


Master's Degree 


Year 


Men Women 


Total 


Men 


Women 


Total 


1900 


134* 


22 


156 


i 


1 


i 


1910 


233 f 


277* 


510* 


l 


1 


i 


1920 


818 


191f 


l,009f 


4f 


If 


5f 


1930 


l,200f 


977 f 


2,177 f 


14f 


5f 


19f 


1940 


2,463 


3,244 


5,707 


58 


94 


152 


1942 


2,011 


4,414 


6,425 


22 


75 


97 


1944 


840 


4,036 


4,876 


46 


86 


132 


1946 


1,165 


4,741 


5,906 


88 


223 


311 


1948 


3,062 


5,442 


8,504 


184 


249 


433 


1949 


4,692 


6,618 


11,310 


242 


405 


647 


1950 


6,467 


6,641 


13,108 


335 


433 


768 



Source: U.S. Office of Education, Statistical Cir- 
cular No. 293, April 1951. 

1 Data not available. 

* Includes 120 men and 28 women taking the 
bachelor's degree, and 113 men and 249 women 
taking normal school diplomas. 

t Estimated. 

for 1900 and 1950 were 27,410 and 432,- 
058 respectively, the latter figure being 
approximately 16 times the former. 

The date of first conferment of the 
master's degree at Negro colleges is not 
definitely known. There are indications 
that it was conferred at one or two col- 
leges as early as 1879, but in 1920 the 
master's degree was conferred on five 
persons by these institutions. In 1950, 
it was conferred on 768. 

Table 18 shows institutions offering 
graduate work in 1951, with degrees con- 
ferred 1949-50 and enrollment 1950-51, 
when reported. 

The doctorate is not at present con- 
ferred by Negro institutions. However, in 
1951 it was reported North Carolina had 
on August 6 set aside $271,000 for a Doc- 
tor of Philosophy program at the North 
Carolina College at Durham. This will be 
the first doctorate training for Negroes 
in a southern school for Negroes sup- 
ported by public or private funds. This 
move is not expected to prevent Negro 
students from attending other colleges 
already set up for whites at Raleigh, 
Greensboro, and Chapel Hill that are also 
a part of the state's public educational 
system. 

It is interesting to note that the first 
doctorate in the United States given to a 
white person was in 1866; the first to a 



1 Source: U.S. Office of Education, Statistical Circular No. 293. 



HIGHER EDUCATION 



219 



Negro was awarded in 1876, only ten 
years later. Forty-five years later, in 1921, 
this degree was conferred for the first 
time on three Negro women : Miss Georgi- 
ana Rosa Simpson, by the University of 
Chicago, June 14, Mrs. Sadie T. Mossell 
Alexander, by the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, June 15, and Miss Eva B. Dykes, 
by Radcliffe College, June 22. 

Faculty 

An analysis of faculty members in 
1899-1900 by race shows that in the 24 
institutions under public control, nearly 



85% of the teachers were Negroes. 
Among the 75 institutions under private 
control the distribution was almost ex- 
actly equal between the races. 

For the 99 institutions as a group, 
56.8%, or approximately four-sevenths 
of the faculty members, were Negroes. It 
is believed that Negroes now constitute 
approximately 90 to 95% of the faculty 
of these institutions. 

The increase in faculty members from 
1899-1900 to 1947-48 is also noteworthy. 
In 1899-1900, a total of 1,555 faculty 
members were reported; in 1947-48 the 



TABLE 18 

NEGRO INSTITUTIONS OFFERING GRADUATE WORK, DEGREES CONFERRED 1949-50 AND 

ENROLLMENT 1950-51 



Institution 1 


Master's Degrees 
Conferred 1949-50 


Enrollment 
1950-51 


Men 


Women 


A. & T. College of N. Carolina 


3 


8 


145 


Alabama State Teachers College 


20 


42 


(N) 


Atlanta University 


72 


108 


459 


Bishop College 








76 


Florida A. & M. College 


2 


2 


52 


Fisk University 


13 


11 


59 


Hampton Institute 


13 


27 


(N) 


Howard University 


52 


58 


266 


Lincoln University (Mo.) 








(N) 


N. Carolina College at Durham 


25 


15 


89 


Prairie View A. & M. College 


41 


25 


52 


State A. & M. College of S. Carolina 


6 


5 


152 


Tennessee A. & I. State College (now Tennessee State University) 


19 


5 


407 


Texas State University for Negroes (now Texas Southern University) 


38 


86 


407 


Tuskegee Institute 


18 


13 


70 


Virginia State College 


9 


17 


102 


Xavier University 


4 


7 


18 



Sources: U.S. Office of Education, Statistical Circular No. 293, April 1951, and questionnaire. 

( N ) Enrollment not reported. 

1 For presidents and location, see Table 23 . 

TABLE 19 

HISTORICAL SUMMARY OF SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA, 1899-1900 
TO 1947-48 IN NEGRO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION 



Year 


Education 
and General 
Income 


Educational 
and General 
Expenditures 


Physical 
Property 


Endowment and 
other Nonex- 
pendable Funds* 


1899-1900 
1909-1910 
1919-1920 
1929-1930 
1939-1940 
1941-1942 
1943-1944 
1945-1946 
1947-1948 


$ 1,111,783 
3,037,118 
4,193,333tt 
11,880,641 tt 
11,889,977 
13,141,771 
15,427,072 
25,538,631 
38,318,254 


(t) 
(t) 
$ 3,729,960 tt 
8,158,313tt 
11,007,479 
12,190,257 
10,676,784 
22,968,642 
36,215,919 


$ 7,930,949 
13,143,181 
21,151,425tt 
57,327,354 tt 
76,343,816 
79,398,552 
82,976,515 
99,726,563 tt 
119,857,859 


(t) 
$ 2,155,014 

12,915,015tt 
36,604,552 tt 
39,607,319 
39,018,303 
45,676,900 
49,308,992 tt 
53,229,897 



Source: U.S. Office of Education, Statistical Circular No. 293, April 1951. 
* Values at end of fiscal year, 
t Data not available, 
t t Estimated. 



220 



number reported on a full-time equiva- 
lency basis was 5,851. The figure for the 
later year was 3.8 times that for the 
earlier year. This increase becomes more 
striking when it is recalled that in 1899- 
1900 fewer than 10% of the students at 
these institutions were of college grade. 
If the faculty were reduced in the same 
proportion, it is probable that fewer than 
150 teachers on a full-time equivalency 
basis would have been necessary to admin- 
ister and instruct the college portion of 
the institutions involved. 

Ph.D.'s and Other Doctorates: A survey 
of 118 Negro colleges and universities 
in 1951 shows that at least 553 persons 
with the Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of 
Education, or other earned doctorate 
teach in 58 institutions (the number that 
reported having such scholars). A few 
white faculty members are included in 
the group but their number is compara- 
tively small. Some institutions known to 
have personnel with these degrees did not 
respond. Howard University, Washington, 
D.C., leads with 111 doctorates; Morgan 
State College, Baltimore, has 37 ; and Fisk 
University, Nashville, 33. 

Finances and Physical Property 

Great strides in finances have like- 
wise been made during the past 50 years. 



Increases have been somewhat irregular, 
but they have occurred in all phases of 
finance for which data are available. 
The educational and general income of 
institutions for higher education of Ne- 
groes increased from $1,111,783 in 1899- 
1900 to $38,318,254 in 1947-48, or 34 
times. Remarkable as this growth was, 
it was at a somewhat slower rate than 
has been characteristic of higher educa- 
tion as a whole, for which the 1947-48 
figure was nearly 44 times that for 1899- 
1900. 

The physical property of Negro col- 
leges had a total value of $119,857,859 
in 1947-48. This was 15.1 times the $7,- 
930,949 reported by these institutions in 
1899-1900. This increase is similar to that 
for all higher education, for which the 
1947-48 figure was 15.8 times that for 
1899-1900. 

Analyses of current income for the 
various types of Negro colleges for 1947- 
48, by source of income, appear in Table 
20. Similar analyses of current expendi- 
tures appear in Table 21. The percentages 
in these tables should be taken not as 
standards but rather as measures of com- 
mon practice. 

Endowment: In the summer of 1951, 
out of 118 Negro colleges surveyed, 46, 
or 38.6%, reported having endowment 



TABLE 20 
ANALYSIS OF CURRENT INCOME OF 103 INSTITUTIONS, 1947-48 



Per cent of 



Item 



Amount 



Educational and Total Current 
General Income Income 



Educational and general income: 

Students fees $ 7,312,075 

Federal Government: 

Veterans' education 6,581 ,892 

Other purposes 4,273,509 

State governments 10,881,932 

Local governments 1,052,656 

Endowment earnings 2,1 59,536 

Private benefactions 3,71 5,734 

Sales and services 1 ,348,906 

Miscellaneous sources 992,014 

Total educational and general 38,318,254 

Auxiliary enterprises and activities 17,060,107 

Other noneducational income 545,881 

Total current income $55,924,242 



19.1 

17.2 

11.2 

28.4 

2.7 

5.6 

9.7 

3.5 

2.6 

100.0 



13.1 

11.8 
7.6 

19.4 
1.9 
3.9 
6.6 
2.4 
1.8 

68.5 

30.5 

1.0 

100.0 



Source: U.S. Office of Education, Statistical Circular No. 293, April 1951. 



HIGHER EDUCATION 



221 



TABLE 21 
ANALYSIS OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES OF 103 INSTITUTIONS, 1947-48 



Item 


Amount 


Per Cent of 
Educational and General 
Expenditures 


Total Cur- 
rent Expen- 
ditures 


Except Exten- 
sion and 
Research 


All 


Educational and general expenditures: 
Administration and general expense 
Resident instruction 


$ 5,058,546 
18,233,634 
1,217,651 
6,717,785 
1,245,030 


15.6 
56.2 
3.7 
20.7 
3.8 


14.0 
50.3 
3.5 
18.5 
3.4 


9.2 
33.2 
2.2 
12.3 
2.3 


Libraries 


Plant operation and maintenance 


Organized activities related to instruction . . 
Subtotal 


32,472,646 
1,520,915 
2,222,358 


100.0 


89.7 
4.2 
6.1 


59.2 
2.8 
4.0 


Organized research 


Extension 9 


Total educational and general 
Auxiliary enterprises and activities 


36,215,919 
17,248,601 
1,432,486 


100.0 


66.0 
31.4 
2.6 






$54,897,006 





100.0 





Source: U.S. Office of Education, Statistical Circular No. 293, April 1951. 



funds. 1 These sums ranged from $2,232 to 
$10,000,000. The total endowment re- 
ported by these institutions was $59,091,- 
395.14. See Table 22. 

Negro Colleges in the U.S. 

The information on Negro colleges 
presented in Table 23 is based on three 
sources: Statistical Circular No. 293, by 
Henry G. Badger, U.S. Office of Educa- 
tion; a survey of the colleges during the 
summer of 1951; and data in the Depart- 
ment of Records and Research, Tuskegee 
Institute. 

Land Grant Colleges: 2 The term "land 
grant college or university" is applied to 
any institution of higher education that 
has been designated by the legislature of 
the state in which it is located as being 
eligible to receive the benefits of either 
or both of the Morrill Acts. The term 
originated from the wording of the first 
Morrill Act adopted by Congress in 1862, 
which provided for a grant of 30,000 acres 
of land or its equivalent in scrip to the 
several states for each representative and 
senator in Congress, to be used for ". . . 
the endowment, support, and maintenance 
of at least one college ... in each State 



. . . where the leading object shall be, 
without excluding other scientific and 
classical studies, and including military 
tactics, to teach such branches of learning 
as are related to agriculture and the 
mechanic arts ... in order to promote the 
liberal and practical education of the 
industrial classes in the several pursuits 
and professions in life." 

Land-grant-college funds are now re- 
ceived by all the 48 states and 3 territories 
for 69 institutions, 17 of which are de- 
voted exclusively to the education of Ne- 
groes. These 17 institutions are: Alabama 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
Normal; Agricultural, Mechanical and 
Normal College, Pine Bluff, Ark.; Dela- 
ware State College, Dover; Florida Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College, Talla- 
hassee; Fort Valley State College, Fort 
Valley, Ga.; Kentucky State College, 
Frankfort; Southern University, Baton 
Rouge, La.; Maryland State College. 
Princess Anne; Alcorn Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, Alcorn, Miss.; Lin- 
coln University, Jefferson City, Mo.; 
North Carolina Agricultural and Tech- 
nical State College, Greensboro; Lang- 
ston University, Langston, Okla.; South 



1 This is 10 more than the number reported by 108 colleges in 1950. 

2 Contributed by Pres. R. B. Atwood, Secy., Conference of Presidents of Negro Land Grant Colleges. For presi- 
dents, enrollment, and other data, see Table 23, this chapter. 



222 EDUCATION 

Carolina State College, Orangeburg; nance of a college where a distinction of 
Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial race or color is made in the admission of 
State University, Nashville; Prairie View students, but the establishment and main- 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, tenance of such college separately for 
Prairie View, Texas; Virginia State Col- white and colored students shall be held 
lege, Petersburg; West Virginia State to be a compliance with the provisions 
College, Institute. of this act if the funds received in such 
The 17 land-grant institutions devoted State or Territory be equitably divided 
to the education of Negroes came into . . . ." The Act then gives a definition of 
being as a result of the second Morrill what shall constitute an equitable divi- 
Act passed by Congress in 1890. This Act sion. This provision was the result of a 
contained a provision that "no money failure on the part of many of the south- 
shall be paid under this act to any state ern states to give adequate recognition 
or territory for the support and mainte- to the Negro^ under the first Morrill Act. 

TABLE 22 
ENDOWMENT OF 46 NEGRO COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, 1951 

Institution Amount 



Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga $6,635,200.00 

Barber-Scotia College, Concord, N.C 850,000.00 

Benedict College, Columbia, S.C 353,906.79 

Bennett College, Greenboro, N.C 1,050,932.00 

Bethune-Cookman College, Daytona Beach, Fla 536,060.00 

Bettis Academy and Junior College, Trenton, S.C 35,075.28 

Bishop College, Marshall, Texas 22,463.33 

Claflin University, Orangeburg, S.C 180,000.00 

Clark College, Atlanta, Ga 1 1,007,093.91 

Dillard University, New Orleans, La 3,300,000.00 

Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn 4,485,000.00 

Fort Valley State College, Fort Valley, Ga 63,824.86 

Gammon Theological Seminary, Atlanta, Ga 607,000.00 

Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va 10,000,000.00 

Howard University, Washington, D.C 1,669,595.00 

Jarvis Christian College, Hawkins, Texas 450,000.00 

Johnson C. Smith University, Charlotte, N.C 2,000,000.00 

Knoxville College, Knoxville, Tenn 536,800.00 

Lane College, Jackson, Tenn ". 36,667.21 

Leland College, Baker, La 109,000.00 

LeMoyne College, Memphis, Tenn 2,232.00 

Lincoln University, Lincoln University, Pa 1,012,416.00 

Livingstone College, Salisbury, N.C 75,000.00 

Mississippi Vocational College, Itta Bena, Miss 147,000.00 

Morehouse College, Atlanta, Ga 2,000,000.00 

Morris Booker Memorial Baptist College, Dermott, Ark 125,000.00 

Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Ga 18,000.00 

Morristown N. and I. College, Morristown, Tenn 82,928.12 

Paine College, Augusta, Ga 795,360.75 

Philander Smith College, Little Rock, Ark 2,500,000.00 

Rust College, Holly Springs, Miss 29,099.82 

Samuel Houston College, Austin, Texas 8,943.96 

Shaw University, Raleigh, N.C 500,000.00 

Spelman College, Atlanta, Ga , 3,327,563.01 

St. Augustine's College, Raleigh, N.C 213,000.00 

Stillman College, Tuscaloosa, Ala 128,935.67 

Talladega College, Talladega, Ala 3,730,000.00 

Tillotson College, Austin, Texas '. 1,500,000.00 

Tougaloo College, Tougaloo, Miss 48,521 .08 

Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee Institute, Ala 6,913,911.15 

Virginia State College, Petersburg, Va 173,000.00 

Virginia Union University, Richmond, Va 1,000,000.00 

Voorhees School and Junior College, Denmark, S.C 55,000.00 

Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio 7 76,865.20 

Wiley College, Marshall, Texas 600,000.00 

Winston-Salem Teachers College, Winston-Salem, N.C 100,000.00 

TOTAL: $59,091,395.14 



HIGHER EDUCATION 



223 



The data on the allocation of Federal 
funds made available under the second 
Morrill Act in those states in which sepa- 
rate schools for the races are maintained 
indicate that this restriction has been 
effective. The Federal contribution to the 
cost of resident instruction in the 69 land 
grant colleges now amounts to approxi- 
mately one-twenty-fifth of such cost. The 
remainder is provided by direct appropri- 
ation by the states and territories or 
through income from endowments and 
student payments. 

However, the land grant colleges for 
Negroes have not developed as rapidly 
as those for white persons in the 17 
states where separate institutions are 
maintained for the races. While these 
colleges for Negroes have received a more 
equitable share of Federal funds made 
available under the second Morrill Act, 
this has not been true of other Federal 
funds, notably funds for agricultural ex- 
periment stations made available tinder 
the Hatch Act of 1887 and funds for Co- 
operative Extension Service made avail- 
able under the Smith-Lever Act of 1914. 

In each of the 17 southern states, pro- 
grams of agricultural experimentation 
and extension are carried on under con- 
trol and direction of the white land-grant 
colleges and universities, with exclusion 
of land-grant institutions for Negroes. 

For the year ending June 30, 1950, the 
white land-grant institutions in the 17 
southern states received $43,536,688 in 
Federal funds; in these same 17 states 
and for the same year the land-grant in- 
stitutions for Negroes received $2,370,- 
915 in Federal funds. The 17 Negro in- 
stitutions received approximately 5% of 
the Federal funds which came into the 
area, even though they constituted ap- 
proximately 22% of the total population 
of the area. They should have received 
at least $11,000,000 instead of $2,000,000. 

In 1949-50, the value of the physical 
plants of the 17 white institutions was 
$362,718,526; and in the same states the 
value of the physical plants of the Negro 
institutions was only $49,130,091. H 
equity had been provided, the plant value 



of the Negro institutions would be $90,- 
606,695.74. This, of course, indicates dis- 
crimination against the Negro institutions 
at the state level, since Federal funds 
cannot be used for physical plants. 

In 1923, the president of the land-grant 
colleges for Negroes organized the Con- 
ference of Presidents of Land-Grant and 
Associated Institutions. The associated in- 
stitutions are: Atlanta University, At- 
lanta, Ga. ; Central State College, Wil- 
berforce, Ohio ; Hampton Institute, Hamp- 
ton, Va. ; Howard University, Washing- 
ton, B.C.; Savannah State College, Sav- 
annah, Ga. ; Texas Southern University, 
Houston; and Tuskegee Institute, Tuske- 
gee Institute, Ala. Among other things, 
this body has devoted its efforts to the 
elimination of inequities in distribution 
of land-grant funds as described above. 
The Conference meets annually in Octo- 
ber, usually in Washington, D.C. Its 
annual proceedings, available without 
charge to libraries, organizations, and 
interested individuals, may be secured 
from the Secretary, R. B. Atwood, Ken- 
tucky State College, Frankfort, Ky. 

Professional Schools: Information on 
institutions in this class is shown in 
Tables 24 and 25. It is notably that at 
least 15 professions, in addition to cur- 
ricula traditionally offered, are now being 
taught by at least 14 institutions, not 
including those offering theological 
courses. Students enrolled in professional 
schools and departments numbered 3,886 
in 1950-51. Twenty-six institutions giving 
courses in theology, including theological 
seminaries, reported an enrollment of 700 
students in the same year. 

The exact number of Negro students 
taking professional or other courses in 
interracial colleges is not known, but it 
is considerable. Securing adequate figures 
from these institutions on enrollment is 
getting more and more difficult. Many in- 
stitutions have discontinued keeping rec- 
ords by race. In those states with anti- 
discrimination laws, some institutions do 
not even bother to attempt an estimation 
of the number of Negro students in at- 

(Continued on page 228) 



224 



EDUCATION 





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EDUCATION 



tendance. With this healthy trend, figures 
on Negro student enrollment in these in- 

TABLE 24 
PROFESSIONS OFFERED BY NEGRO COLLEGES 

AND UNIVERSITIES, 1951 1 



Professions and Institutions 



Students 
Fall 1950-51 



stitutions in the future will be a mere 
guess. However, in 1951, in 95 "white" 
seminaries having an enrollment of 21,036 
students, 205, or slightly less than 1%, 
were Negroes. Of these seminaries, 35 
had no Negro students. Of those that had 
no Negro students, 21 reported that they 
encouraged Negroes to enroll, 6 did not 
encourage them, and the others were non- 
committal. In the 60 seminaries which 
Negroes attend, the enrollment was 16,- 
685; students enrolled in the seminaries 
not attended by Negroes numbered 6,351. 

From 1946 to 1951, 451 Negroes, 246 
of them college graduates, graduated 
from Negro seminaries. Records of gradu- 
ates from other institutions were not 
available, but it is safe to say that during 
the past six-year period, not more than 
660 Negroes, or 110 per year, graduated 
from all the seminaries. The demand far 
exceeds 100 per year. Of the 660, approxi- 
mately half were college graduates. 

The inadequacy in the number of per- 
sons being properly trained to enter the 
Christian ministry results in numbers of 
Negroes who have no organized spiritual 
guidance or are misguided by charlatanry, 
according to a survey and statement by 
R. R. Wright, Jr., Bishop of the A.M.E. 
Church. 

The SACSC and 
Negro Institutions 1 

The Southern Association of Colleges 
and Secondary Schools is the accrediting 
agency for the majority of the Negro in- 
stitutions. In 1949, the Association of 
Colleges and Secondary Schools for Ne- 
groes made a formal request for mem- 
bership in the Southern Association. In 
part, this request said: 

We think that the time has come when all of 
us engaged in the same work should share our 
experiences and joinly face our common prob- 
lems. We request, therefore, that the separate 
members of the Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools be considered for full mem- 
bership in said Southern Association ; and this 
Association authorizes its Liaison Committee 
to work toward this end without hesitation and 
with our complete endorsement. 

1 Sources : SACSC Proceedings of the Fifty-fifth Annual Meeting, December 1950, and Journal of Negro Education, 
pp. 1-7, Winter 1951. 



Anesthesia: 

Meharry Medical College (1876) 
Chemical Laboratory Technology: 

Meharry Medical College 
Dental Hygiene: 

Meharry Medical College 
Dental Technology: 

Meharry Medical College 
Dentistry: 

Howard University 

Meharry Medical College 
Engineering: 

A.&T. College of N. Carolina 

Hampton Institute 

Howard University 

Lincoln University (Mo.) 

Prairie View A.&M. College 

State A.&M. College of S. Carolina 

Tuskegee Institute 
Journalism: 

Lincoln University (Mo.) 

Texas Southern University 
Law: 

Florida A.&M. College 

Howard University 

North Carolina at Durham 

Lincoln University (Mo.) 

Southern University and A.&M. Col. 

State A.&M. College of S. Carolina 

Texas Southern University 
Library Science: 

Atlanta University 

N. Carolina College at Durham 

State A.&M. College of S. Carolina 

Texas Southern University 
Medicine: 

Howard University 

Meharry Medical College 
Nurse Training: 

Florida A.&M. College 

Hampton Institute 

Howard University 

Meharry Medical College 

Prairie View A.&M. College 

Tuskegee Institute 
Pharmacy: 

Howard University 

Xavier University 

Texas Southern University 
Social Work: 

Atlanta University 

Howard University 
Theology: 

(see Table 10) 
Veterinary Medicine: 

Tuskegee Institute 



15 

203 
130 

97 
33 

326 
8 

213 
38 
11 

31 
30 



120 
26 
30 

14 
19 
29 

37 
12 
34 
10 

290 
251 

94 
49 
36 
49 
74 
132 

214 

185 
60 

117 
117 

700 
35 



TOTAL: 3,886 



Source: Questionnaire. 

1 For location and presidents, see Table 23. 



HIGHER EDUCATION 



229 



After a discussion, by committees from 
both organizations, of possible issues in- 
volved in carrying out the request, the 
Southern Association's Special Commit- 
tee decided to recommend the request 
formally to its Association, with a time 
schedule and general conditions under 
which it could be accepted. Nevertheless 
it made clear its conviction that present 
acceptance would be untimely. Emphasis 
was placed by the Committee on the con- 
sideration that this was a professional 
matter to be treated professionally. 

It was recognized that many social and non- 
professional problems might be involved in 
granting full membership to Negro institu- 
tions, but the representatives of Negro insti- 
tutions would have to take upon themselves 
the burden of seeing that difficult and embar- 
rassing situations did not arise. [It was sug- 
gested that] further study be given to the 
problem, including the original problem of 
relationship with Negro education in the sec- 
ondary and higher schools throughout the 
South, before final action regarding member- 
ship by the Association of Colleges and Sec- 
ondary Schools for Negroes is taken. Such 



study should include a careful analysis of the 
attitudes and opinions of the educational 
leaders within the several states. 

An editorial in the Winter 1951 Jour- 
nal of Negro Education, by Dr. Chas. H. 
Thompson, points out: 

To put this action in its proper perspective, 
it should be noted that, up until 1930, the 
Southern Association refused to rate the Negro 
secondary schools and colleges in its region. 
However, beginning in 1930 the Association 
agreed to rate the Negro institutions with the 
specific understanding that such rating would 
not carry with it membership status and the 
privileges incident thereto. . . . 

One of the primary reasons, if not the main 
reason, why the Southern Association refused 
to rate Negro schools and colleges prior to 
1930, was that the present formula had not 
been devised so that Negro institutions could 
be rated but denied membership, which car- 
ried with it the privilege of attendance and 
participation at meetings of the Association. 
For, as the Chairman of the Committee on 
Approval of Negro Schools noted, at the end 
of the eighth year of activity: The indirect 
result of the work of the Committee has been 
to cause the men of the Southern Association 
to change their former attitude of hostility 
toward Negro higher education to one of co- 



TABLE 25 
THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS AND DEPARTMENTS, 1951 



Institutions 



Students En- 
Denomination President or Head rolled Fall 

1950-51 



American Baptist Theological Seminary, 








Nashville, Tenn. 


Nat. Baptist 


Ralph W. Riley 


57 


Benedict College, Columbia, S.C. 


Baptist 


J. A. Bacoats 


72 


Bishop College, Marshall, Texas 


Nat. Baptist 


Earl L. Harrison 


25 


Butler College, Tyler, Texas 


Baptist 


William Singleton 


18 


Campbell College, Jackson, Miss. 


A.M.E. 


R. R. Moran 


50 


Conroe N. and I. College, Conroe, Texas 


Baptist 


W. S. Brent 


10 


Daniel Payne College, Birmingham, Ala. 


A.M.E. 


J. King Chandler III 


40 


Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, Fla. 


A.M.E. 


J. B. Epperson 


15 


Gammon, Theological Seminary, Atlanta, Ga. 


Methodist 


Harry V. Richardson 


59 


Howard University, Washington, D.C. 


Non-Sectarian 


F. T. Wilson 


40 


Immanuel Lutheran College, Greensboro, N.C. 


Lutheran 


William H. Kampschmidt 


9 


Johnson C. Smith College, Charlotte, N.C. 


Presbyterian 


A. H. George 


29 


Lincoln University, Lincoln University, Pa. 


Non-Denom. 


Andrew Murray 


13 


Livingstone College, Salisbury, N.C. 
Lomax-Hannon College, Greenville, Ala. 
Morris Booker Memorial College, Dermott, Ark. 


A.M.E.Z. 
A.M.E.Z. 
Baptist 


J. H. Satterwhite 
J. Van Catledge 
P. L. Rowe 


23 
5 

24 


Natchez College, Natchez, Miss. 


Baptist 


W. L. Nelson 





Paul Quinn College, Waco, Texas 


A.M.E. 


John B. Isaacs 


25 


Selma University, Selma, Ala. 


Baptist 


C. Lopez McAllister 


47 


Shaw University, Raleigh, N.C. 


Nat. Baptist 


Wm. R. Strassner 


22 


Shorter College, North Little Rock, Ark. 


A.M.E. 


Robert H. Alexander 


(N) 


Simmons University, Louisville, Ky. 


Miss. Baptist 


M. B. Lanier 


(N) 


St. Augustine's Seminary, Bay St. Louis, Miss. 


R.C. 


Lawrence Walsh, S.V.D. 


(N) 


Virginia Theological Seminary, Lynchburg, Va. 


Nat. Baptist 


W. H. R. Powell 


(N) 


Virginia Union University, Richmond, Va. 


Nat. Baptist 


J. Malcus Ellison 


30 


Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio 


A.M.E. 


J. H. Lewis 


87 






TOTAL: 


700 



Source: Questionnaire. 
(N) No report received. 



230 



EDUCATION 



operation They no longer fear that recog- 
nition of Negro colleges as honest-to-goodness 
educational institutions will result in any color 
line social complications at the meeting of 
the Southern Association. [The editorial con- 
cludes:] It would appear ... that in 1950 not 
enough members of the Association had over- 
come their phobia of the 30' s. 

Interracial Honor Societies 

Prior to 1951, numbers of Negroes in 
attendance at northern institutions had 
been initiated into Phi Beta Kappa, the 
oldest American college Greek-letter fra- 
ternity, and into other honor societies 
in various fields operating on a national 
basis. However, scholars in Negro colleges 
received no such recognition, except in 
the societies formed among the Negro 
institutions. The raising of the educa- 
tional standards in institutions of higher 
learning for Negro youth in recent years, 
due in large measure to the more ad- 
vanced training of their faculties and the 
improvement in facilities and instruction, 
is bringing these societies to the cam- 
puses of Negro colleges and universities. 
Military organizations are the result of 
war conditions. 

The institutions that follow are known 
to have generally recognized national 
honorary societies on their campuses. 
Dates given show year founded: 

A.&T. College of N. Carolina: 

Arnold Air Society 
Atlanta University : 

Alpha Kappa Delta (Sociology) 
Fisk University 

Alpha Kappa Delta (Sociology) 
Hampton Institute: 

Scabbard and Blade (Military, 1949) 
Howard University: 

Arnold Air Society 

Delta Phi Alpha (German) 

Omicron Kappa Epsilon (Dental) 

Phi Kappa Lambda (Music, 1948) 

Phi Mu Epsilon (Mathematics) 

Psi Chi (Psychology, 1947) 

Scabbard and Blade (Military) 

Sigma Pi Sigma (Physics) 

Sigma Xi (Science, 1947) 
Shaw University: 

Sigma Rho Sigma (Social Science, 1947) 
Tennessee A.&I. State College: 

Arnold Air Society 

Gamma Theta Upsilon (Geography, 1949) 

Kappa Delta Pi (Education, 1940) 

Pi Omega Pi (Business, 1951) 



Sigma Delta Pi (Spanish, 1951) 

Theta Alpha Phi (Drama, 1951) 
Tuskegee Institute : 

Arnold Air Society (1949) 

The American Veterinary Medical Ass. 

(1951) 
Virginia State College: 

Pershing Rifles (Military, 1949) 

Scabbard and Blade (Military, 1950) 

Sigma Pi Sigma (Physics, 1951) 

REGIONAL EDUCATION 

Out-of -State Scholarships 

Out-of-state scholarship aid was orig- 
inated by the southern states to help 
Negro students secure graduate and pro- 
fessional training not offered to them 
within these states. At the time of the 
passage of the acts granting this assist- 
ance, Negro students were not admitted 
to white state institutions which offered 
the courses they needed and these courses 
were not a part of the curricula of the 
Negro institutions. In most cases, these 
scholarships make up the difference be- 
tween what it would cost Negro students 

TABLE 26 
OUT-OF-STATE SCHOLARSHIP AID BY STATES 



State 


Date 
Program 
Began 


Negro Stu- 
dents Aided 
through 1951 


Amount 
Appropriated 
1950-51 


Ala. 


1945 


413 


$54,000 


Ark. 


1943 


1,000 


20,000 


DeU 











Fla. 


1945 


895 


10,0002 


Ga. 


1944 


3,931 


100,000 


Kv.3 


1936 


1,200 


10,000 


La. 


1946 


1,135 


75,000 


Md. 


1935 


2,477 


189,236* 


Miss. 


1948 


482 


24,000 


N.C. 


1939 5 


2,220 s 


69,337 


Okla. 


1935 


1,495 


30,000 


S.C. 


1946 


60 


25,000 


Tcnn. 


1937 


1,500 


( 7 ) 


Texas 


1939 


3,000 s 


110,000 


Va. 


1936 


4,1 63 


127,323.62 


W.Va. 


1927 


67 10 


10,000 



1 Out-of-state aid has not been provided for 
several years. 

2 And additional funds as needed. 

8 1951-52 is last year of this program. 

4 The amount actually used; $100,000 was ap- 
propriated. 

5 Program administered by A.&T. College, 
Greensboro and N. Carolina College at Durham; 
the program at A.&T. College began 1943. 

8 Students aided through A.&T. College not in- 
cluded. 

7 Unlimited appropriation. 

8 An approximation. 

Number for 1940-51 only. 
1 For 1940-51 only. 



REGIONAL EDUCATION 



231 



to study in the white institutions, and 
their expenses at other colleges where 
racial segregation is not required. 

It is to he noted that all but five of 
the 16 states giving such aid have opened 
certain graduate and professional courses 
to Negro students when these are not 
offered in the Negro state institutions. 
At the same time, they are willing to as- 
sist students applying for out-of-state aid 
to go elsewhere for their training. Dela- 
ware admits Negro students to all courses. 
See Table 26 for states giving such as- 
sistance. 

Regional Education Summary 1 

Development of a regional program for 
professional training in the South has 
proceeded and taken form in the midst 
of controversy which began with the 
earliest announcement of explorations of 
ways and means of implementing the idea. 
Of four methods of providing for profes- 
sional and technical education considered, 
contracts on an interstate basis, at the 
beginning of the program, seemed the 
most feasible. Progress has been definite 
since 1945: 

Chronological Review of Developments 

December 7, 1945 

The Southern Governors' Conference meet- 
ing at New Orleans received a comprehensive 
report entitled, "Concerning Regional Educa- 
tion," submitted by the Committee on Regional 
Education. The report recognized the "dis- 
parity of higher education offerings to whites 
and Negroes" in the conference states, re- 
ferred to the common "practice of segrega- 
tion" among them, offered regional education 
as one solution but acknowledged that : 

"The Supreme Court of the United States 
has ruled unequivocally that every state must 
maintain equal educational facilities within its 
borders, if demanded, to all citizens who are 
similarly qualified. The Negro's need and 
eligibility for higher education are steadily 
growing, and we desire and must meet that 
need and that eligibility." 
October 19-21, 1947 

The Southern Governors' Conference, meet- 
ing in Asheville, N.C., came to formal agree- 
ment upon ". . . the provision, either within 
the several states or without, of adequate fa- 
cilities for higher education for both whites 



and Negroes," and appointed a committee to 
study this question. 

February 7-8, 1948 

A regional compact for the consideration of 
the governors' meeting in Tallahassee, Fla., 
was presented, designed to provide "greater 
educational advantages and facilities for the 
citizens" of the region ; provide for "the plan- 
ning and establishment of regional educational 
facilities," and implement the proposal of 
Meharry Medical College (Nashville, Tenn.) 
for Negro students, that : 

". . . its lands, building, equipment and the 
net income from its endowment be turned 
over to the Southern States or to an agency 
acting in their behalf, to be operated as a re- 
gional institution for medical, dental and nurs- 
ing education upon terms and conditions to be 
hereafter agreed upon between the Southern 
States and Meharry Medical College, which 
proposal, because of the present financial con- 
dition of the institution, has been approved by 
the said States who are -parties hereto . . ." a 

The governors agreed to the compact and 
the proposal to present it to Congress for ap- 
proval and to their respective state legislatures, 
the regional plan to become operative under a 
Board of Control for Southern Regional Edu- 
cation as soon as the compact should be ap- 
proved by any six legislatures in the region 
and in the interim to be operated by a regional 
council for education. Within a week, the gov- 
ernors of 14 of the -IS interested states signed 
the compact, which was then immediately sub- 
mitted to Congress. 

February 16, 1948 

House Joint Resolution 334 on the regional 
compact was reported favorably by the House 
Committee on the Judiciary without prelimi- 
nary public hearings. On February 25, Senate 
Joint Resolution 191 was presented and re- 
ferred to the Committee on the Judiciary. 
February 1948 

The Regional Council for Education was 
established by the Southern Governors' Con- 
ference ". . . to consist of the governor and 
two designees from each of the states signing 
this compact." The announcement received 
nation-wide comment that all the members 
were white and no Negro leader had been ap- 
pointed by any state. The Council was in- 
structed by the Southern Governors' Confer- 
ence : 

". . . to make a thorough-going survey of 
higher education in the signatory states . . . 
that within the overall survey the Council be 
instructed to direct immediate attention to the 
necessity for the early establishment of re- 
gional schools or institutions covering the 
fields which have been indicated by the sub- 
committee as being urgent, including the Me- 
harry institution." 

March 4, 1948 

The Council convened some 350 to 400 lead- 
ing educators from various parts of the nation 
at Gainesville, Fla., to consider regional edu- 
cation in detail. Minutes of the meeting show 
agreement to : 



1 Sources: American Council on Race Relations; Journal of Negro Education, Winter 1949; Regional Action in 
Higher Education; Records and Research Source materials. 

2 This original plan has been modified and ". . . the only proposal which the Council has agreed to with Meharry 
would provide for services under contract, leaving the school under private operation by its Board of Trustees." 



232 



EDUCATION 



". . . improve the economic and cultural 
status of the Southern States we need the best 
possible educational opportunities for whites 
and Negroes. In areas of higher and profes- 
sional education in which objective studies 
show there is not now enough demand to jus- 
tify establishing schools in each state, plans 
for regionally sponsored schools should be 
developed. 

"Endorse attempts already made to get con- 
gressional approval of Interstate Compact. 

". . . bring into the discussion representa- 
tives of the various groups : all planning for 
education of Negroes should not be done by 
whites only." 

Following the participation of three Negro 
educators present, President Clement of At- 
lanta University, President Patterson of Tus- 
kegee Institute, and President Trenholm of 
Alabama State Teachers College at Mont- 
gomery, a motion was unanimously carried 
"requesting the governor of each state to ap- 
point an outstanding Negro educator from his 
state to compose a consultant group to work 
with the Council." * 

Minutes further show that at this meeting: 
"In order that the Council might proceed with 
the necessary study of higher education," a 
Study Committee of the Council, to be com- 
posed of one member from each state, was 
authorized and the Executive Committee em- 
powered to make the appointments. 

March 8, 1948 

Articles of incorporation were filed and a 
charter of incorporation was secured in Florida 
for the Regional Council for Education, Inc. 

March 12-13, 1948 

The Committee on the Judiciary of the U.S. 
Senate held hearings on Senate Joint Resolu- 
tion 191 requesting the consent of Congress to 
the regional compact. An impressive number 
of southern governors, congressmen, and edu- 
cators appeared before the Committee to speak 
in favor of the compact. 

Among the agencies and organizations whose 
representatives appeared in opposition to the 
compact were : Civil Rights Division of the 
Congress of Industrial Organizations, Confer- 
ence of Presidents of Negro Land Grant Col- 
leges, National Alliance of Postal Employees, 
National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People, National Association of Col- 
ored Graduate Nurses, National Constitutional 
Liberties Committee of the National Lawyers' 
Guild, National Dental Assoication, National 
Medical Association, National Negro Insur- 
ance Association, Negro Newspaper Publish- 
ers' Association, Washington Bureau National 
Fraternal Council of Negro Churches of 
America. 

Mr. Thurgood Marshall, witness for the 
NAACP, reaffirmed that "there is only one 
sure way of equality, and that is that the 
two people may get the same thing at the 
same place at the same time," and advocated 
either admitting Negroes to the existing white 
facilities, or setting up regional schools on 
a non-segregated basis. 

In a prepared joint statement, Mr. George 
M. Johnson and Mr. James M. Nabrit, Jr., 



representing the Conference of Presidents of 
Negro Land Grant Colleges, urged that the 
resolution not be approved, or if approved, 
with amendments : 

". . . to the effect that no regional school 
shall be established for Negroes except where 
one already exists for whites or where simul- 
taneously one is created for whites ; and pro- 
viding further that the establishment of a 
regional school for Negroes shall in no wise 
be deemed to deny Negroes the right to be 
educated in the State of their residence in a 
State school of each type established and 
maintained in the State for whites ; and, pro- 
viding further that this consent of Congress 
shall not be interpreted or construed to con- 
stitute an approval by Congress in any manner 
whatsoever of the policy of segregation in 
education. 

"We wish to make it clear to the committee 
that these college presidents are opposed 
absolutely to segregation in all forms, and 
certainly in education. They are presidents of 
institutions in a segregated system, and neces- 
sarily are working to make these institutions 
as efficient as possible, but in line with all 
other thoughtful members of the Negro peo- 
ple urge this Government not to lend its aid 
and support to segregation, either in the per- 
petuation of it or in the extension of it, and, 
therefore, urge that this resolution be not 
approved." 

Two representatives of governmental agen- 
cies, Dr. John Dale Russell, Director of the 
Division of Higher Eduucation, U.S. Office 
of Education, FSA, and Frank Chambers, 
attorney, Department of Justice, gave state- 
ments neither directly supporting nor directly 
opposing the compact as it stood but support- 
ing the concept of regional education. 
May 4, 1948 

House Joint Resolution 334 was amended 
in the House by adding : "This consent of the 
Congress of the United States of America 
shall not constitute nor be construed to con- 
stitute an endorsement of the principle of 
segregation in education" and was then ap- 
proved by the House by a vote of 236 to 45. 
May 13, 1948 

The Senate by a margin of only one vote 
(38 to 37) recommitted the Resolution to the 
Judiciary Committee. The reasons given in- 
lude : Congress should not approve or con- 
done or in any way reinforce the segregation 
patterns of the South ; the plan would be un- 
constitutional if separate facilities prove un- 
equal ; regional schools do not meet require- 
ments that facilities offered within the state 
be immediately available to one race if avail- 
able to the other ; if the Supreme Court de- 
clares segregation unconstitutional and/or 
state laws requiring it are voided or repealed, 
the need for and the scope of regional facil- 
ities will be substantially changed ; and ap- 
proval by Congress may not be necessary. 
August 1, 1948 

Dr. John Ivey, Jr., of the University of 
North Carolina, was appointed Director of the 
Regional Council for Education. During Sep- 
tember he secured a staff and set up a central 



1 This action did not at that time give any Negro the status of membership on the Council but only the status of 
consultant. The action was subsequently modified at the Dec. 13, 1948, meeting of the Regional Council for Education 
to provide for possible Negro membership but did not stipulate that membership must include a Negro or Negroes 
from each state. 



REGIONAL EDUCATION 



233 



office in Atlanta, Ga., to operate on a budget 
anticipating a $3,000 contribution from each 
participating state. 

October 11, 1948 

The Regional Council for Education met in 
Atlanta, Ga., and approved a number of 
policies for the guidance of the Board and 
staff. Policies 4, 5, and 6 appear to be goals of 
primary relevance : 

"4. Adequate educational services are made 
available for all citizens. 

"5. Insofar as possible, needed regional 
educational services are provided through 
special arrangements among existing institu- 
tions. Regional facilities are established and 
directed by the Board only when no existing 
institution can satisfactorily provide needed 
services under a system of regional collabora- 
tion, or whe_n because of statutory or consti- 
tutional limitations, states cannot collaborate 
in supporting existing institutions. 

"6. Regional services, whether developed at 
existing institutions or directed by the Board, 
are subject to applicable State and Federal 
laws and court decisions." 
November 1948 

The Regional Council for Education, 
Atlanta, Ga., published a pamphlet entitled, 
Regional Council for Education, in which 
it describes the steps taken to initiate the 
Council program and its approach as one of 
defining the problem before taking action. 
December 13, 1948 

The Regional Council for Education met 
at Savannah, Ga., and agreed that the matter 
of seeking congressional approval of the com- 
pact be left to the discretion of the chairman 
and staff. It made an amendment to the inter- 
state compact to : 

"Increase the membership of the Board 
to include the Governor and three additional 
citizens of each State, instead of two addi- 
tional citizens of each State" as presently 
provided. Mr. Cecil Sims, attorney, Nashville, 
Tenn., explained that this amendment was 
recommended in order to enable those gover- 
nors who wished to do so to appoint a Negro 
to the policy-making board without making 
it necessary for any present member to resign. 
January 10, 1949 

The Regional Council for Education stated 
it was continuing its efforts to secure the 
wholehearted collaboration of Negro educa- 
tors in the South and was hopeful that some 
of those who had refused appointment might 
reconsider. 1 

June 11, 1949 

At a meeting at Daytona Beach, Fla., the 
Regional Council for Education was super- 
ceded by the Board of Control for Southern 
Regional Education and the staff of the Coun- 
cil became the staff of the Board. 
July 1949 

The Director of the Board of Control stated : 
"The Board has never enunciated a policy 
which is for or against segregation. Because 
the program has operated wholly through ex- 
isting institutions, it has considered segrega- 
tion a matter which is controlled by the laws 



under which the institutions operate and the 
admission policies which they establish. The 
Board does not consider that its primary func- 
tion is to force the modification of those 
policies, whether they relate to segregation or 
to academic prerequisites. 

"Arrangements made by the Board do not 
crystallize segregation patterns. Contracts 
with institutions do not designate the kind of 
students to be admitted. The state of Okla- 
homa, for example, has approved the Compact, 
and at the same time, has relaxed its statutes 
dealing with segregation in graduate and pro- 
fessional schools. The decision is a state 
matter. 

"Within its own operations, the Board has 
moved ahead of customary practice in the 
Southern States by consistently following a 
policy of bi-racial participation in its affairs 
and deliberations." 

September 1949 

First students began study under regional 
plan. Approximately 350 studied under the 
plan during the school term 1949-50. Schools 
participating : Vanderbilt University ; Tus- 
kegee Institute ; Duke University ; Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute; Meharry Medical Col- 
lege ; Emory University ; University of 
Georgia ; Medical College of Virginia ; Uni- 
versity of Maryland. 

October 10, 1949 

The Board of _ Control for Southern Re- 
gional Education intervened in the mandamus 
hearing as friend of the court in a suit insti- 
tuted by Esther McCready, 18 years old, of 
Baltimore, Md. Miss McCready charged that 
she had been refused admission to the Uni- 
versity of Maryland's nursing school only 
because of her race and color. She asked a 
court order compelling her admission, mean- 
while refusing an offer of a regional scholar- 
ship in the nursing school of Meharry Medical 
College, which participates in the regional 
program. Both .sides to the suit agreed that 
there was only one issue : "Can an applicant 
be required to go out of his state for education 
available at home." The Court decided that 
the State of Maryland was not guilty of dis- 
crimination in offering Miss McCready the 
regional scholarship and the suit was dismissed. 

The intervention of the Board of Control for 
Southern Regional Education stated : "It is 
not the board's purpose that the regional pro- 
gram shall serve any State as legal defense 
for avoiding responsibilities under the exist- 
ing State and Federal laws and court deci- 
sions." Further, the director of the program 
said : "The program cannot and will not de- 
velop if this one issue is allowed to blight its 
over-all purpose." 

November 27, 1949 

Educators and governors meeting at Charle- 
ston, S.C., voted to begin a long-range program 
of joint planning and specialization by insti- 
tutions. 

In opposition to the Regional Education 
Plan. Dr. Charles H. Thompson, editor of 
the Journal of Negro Education, in the Winter 
1949 issue, asks : 



1 The appointment of five Negroes to the Council (and its successor, the Board of Control) was announced by the 
Director in July 1949. Alabama: Dr. J. F. Drake, Pres., State A.&M. Institute, Normal; Florida: Dr. William H. Gray, 
Jr., Pres., Florida A.&M. College, Tallahassee; Louisiana: Dr. Ralph W. E. Jones, Pres., Grambling College, 
Grambling; Oklahoma: Dr. G. L. Harrison,. Pres., Langston University, Langston; Tennessee: Dr. Hollis F. Price, 
Pres., LeMoyne College, Memphis. 



234 



EDUCATION 



"Why are Negroes opposed to segregated 
regional graduate and professional work ? The 
answer briefly is that they are opposed only 
to the segregated aspect of it. They have no 
objection to and see considerable advantage 
in regional services which are based upon a 
principle which looks forward to a greater 
educational future for the South, rather than 
backward to a decade or more ago. 

"More specifically, Negroes are opposed to 
segregated regionalism, (1) Because they are 
convinced that equal educational opportunity 
cannot be provided for Negroes under the 
theory of 'separate but equal,' and thus they 
refuse to cooperate in its very conception. 
(2) Negroes are convinced by recent events 
and the present climate of public opinion that 
segregated graduate and profesional work in 
the South is unnecessary, and constitutes a 
backward step in the educational progress of 
the South. (3) Negroes have concluded that 
even if 'separate but equal' educational oppor- 
tunity were at all possible in theory, it would 
be definitely uneconomical and actually unat- 
tainable in practice. (4) Empirical evidence 
obtained during the past ten years has con- 
vinced Negroes that the old cliche a half loaf 
is better than no bread as far as segregated 
graduate and professional work is concerned, 
is fallacious. The extention of grossly inferior 
graduate and professional work, and particu- 
larly at the expense of the undergraduate pro- 
gram is short sighted so much so, that no 
segregated gradute and professional work for 
the time being is better than what is con- 
templated." 

September 4-11, 1950 

At Daytpna Beach, Fla., 200 educators from 
45 institutions in 14 states took further steps 
toward (1) extending the regional program of 
education into the graduate fields, through "re- 
gional centers" ; (2) bringing more govern- 
mental and industrial contracts for research to 
southern universities and colleges, by recom- 
mending that an Office fo Research Relations 
be created within the regional educational pro- 
gram ; (3) refining a tentative guide for insti- 
tutional self-evaluation by which graduate 
schools may study themselves to identify 
strengths and weaknesses and plan improve- 
ments. 

November 21, 1950 

The Regional Board agreed at its Biloxi, 
Miss,, meeting to: (1) Extend the contracts- 
for-services plan to social work education ; 

(2) continue a study of possible regional ar- 
rangements in the field of forestry training; 

(3) establish regional arrangements among the 
compact states in nursing where desired ; 

(4) continue "survey of graduate study in the 
South, recognizing the need for regional co- 
operation in this field." 

January 5, 1951 

A Committee on Defense Programs was ap- 
pointed, to be "concerned with Federal projects 
in research and development, training, civil 
defense, the Point Four Program and materials 
priorities." : . . 

February 1951 

Announcement was made that contracts for 
584 students had been handled through the 
Regional Education prog_ram for the year 1950- 
51 to provide training in medicine, dentistry, 
and veterinary medicine at 16 colleges and 



universities ; 1 3 states pay the institutions 
$764,625 for the training. The students pay no 
out-of-state fees. 

"This year 402 white and 182 Negro student 
places were provided under regional contracts, 
under which the states pay $1,500 per year 
per student for medical and dental training; 
$1,000 annually for veterinary medicine." 

"Most of the places under regional contracts 
are for medical training. Of the 242 places for 
this training, 134 are for White and 108 for 
Negro students. For veterinary medicine, 180 
places 153 for White and 27 for Negroes. 
For dental training, 162 places 115 for White 
and 47 for Negroes." 

Figures on the numbers of student places 
provided and amounts being paid institutions 
in the regional program are : "Emory Univer- 
sity, 61 dentistry, 40 medical, $145,500; 
Loyola University, 22 dentistry, $33,000 ; Uni- 
versity of Maryland, 8 dentistry, $12,000; 
Medical College of Virginia, 16 dentistry 
$33,250; Meharry Medical College, 47 den- 
tistry, 108 medical, $220,875; University of 
Tennessee, 8 dentistry, 32 medical, $60,000 ; 
University of Alabama, 4 medical, $6,000 ; 
Duke University, 12 medical, $18,000; Loui- 
siana State University, 8 medical, $12,000; 
Tulane University, 28 medical, $42,000 ; Van- 
derbilt University, 10 medical, $15,000; Ala- 
bana Polytechnic Institute, 79 veterinary, 
$76,000 ; University of Georgia, 59 veterinary, 
$58,000; Oklahoma A. and M. College, 5 vet- 
erinary, $3,750; Texas A. and M. College, 10 
veterinary, $9,000 ; and Tuskegee Institute, 27 
veterinary, $20,250." 
March 20, 1951 

Dr. George F. Gant, General Manager of 
TVA, announced his resignation to join the 
Southern Regional Education program to assist 
building graduate-program distinction in re- 
search, training, and service to the region and 
the nation. 

March 21 and March 24, 1951 

Three hundred educators participated in con- 
ferences in Atlanta, Ga., and Memphis, Tenn., 
at which government spokesmen outlined the 
needs o_f the defense program and how colleges 
and universities can servve those needs. 
May 1951 

Announcement was made that the Board of 
Control for Southern Regional Education had 
named a group of 11 distinguished scientists 
and educators to the Commission on Graduate 
Programs, among whom are : S. M. Nabrit, 
Dean of the Graduate School, Atlanta Uni- 
versity ; and Charles S. Johnson, President, 
Fisk University. 

August 1951 

Announcement was made that Texas, through 
its Legislature, had formally joined the re- 
gional education program. 
October 1951 

With 850 students enrolled under regional 
contracts to provide educations not available 
in their home state, the Board of Control an- 
nounced its readiness to expand with the 
graduate fields. 

Negro participation in 1951 was: Board of 
Control Members: Alabama F. D. Patterson, 
Pres., Tuskegee Inst. ; Arkansas Lawrence A. 
Davis, Pres., A.M.&N. College; Florida- 
George W. Gore, Jr., Pres., Fla. A.&M. Col- 
lege : Louisiana Ralph W. E. Jones, Pres., 



REGIONAL EDUCATION 



235 



Grambling College ; Maryland Martin D. 
Jenkins, Pres., Morgan State College ; Missis- 
sippi J. H. White, Pres., Miss. Vocational 
College ; North Carolina F. D. Bluford, Pres., 
A.&T. College of N.C. ; Oklahoma G. L. 
Harrison, Pres., Langston Univ. ; Tennessee 
Hollis F. Price, Pres., LeMoyne College ; 
Texas R. O'Hara Lanier, Pres., Texas South- 
ern Univ. ; Virginia Prof. George G. Single- 
ton, Dept of Business Administration, Va. 
State College, Commission on Graduate Pro- 
grams : Charles S. Johnson, Pres., Fisk Univ. ; 
S. M. Nabrit, Dean, Graduate School, Atlanta 
Univ. Committee on University-Agency Rela- 
tions : Russell W. Brown, Dir., Agr. Res. and 
Ex. Sta., Tuskegee Inst. 

President's Commission on 
Higher Education 

In July 1946, President Harry S. Tru- 
man appointed a commission of 28 out- 
standing citizens, headed by the late 
George F. Zook, President of the Amer- 
ican Council on Education, to consider 
the crucial problems facing the institu- 
tions of higher education in the United 
States. The first report of the Commission 
was published in December 1947, the last 
in March 1948, in six volumes under the 
general title, Higher Education for Amer- 
ican Democracy, 

While the whole report is pertinent to 
the education of Negroes, the treatment 
of barriers to equal opportunities that 
prevent young people from obtaining all 
the education of which they are capable 
is of special interest. The Commission's 
discussion of this point is based on the 
premise that "equal educational oppor- 
tunity for all persons, to the maximum 
of their individual abilities and without 
regard to economic status, race, creed, 
sex, national origin, or ancestry is a major 
goal of American democracy." John Dale 
Russell, Director of the Division of High- 
er Education, U.S. Office of Education, 
summarizes the Commission's discussion 
of these barriers in the Journal of Educa- 
tional Sociology, April 1949: 

Economic Barriers: "By allowing the 
opportunity for higher education to de- 
pend so largely on the individual's eco- 
nomic status, we are not only denying to 
millions of young people the chance in 
life to which they are entitled; we are 
also depriving the Nation of a vast amount 
of potential leadership and potential 



social competence which is sorely needs." 
Publicly controlled institutions should 
eliminate all fees for students through 
the fourteenth grade (sophomore year), 
and, should roll back fees for other levels 
of higher education so that they will not 
be larger than they were in 1939. The 
hope is expressed that the private col- 
leges will do all in their power to keep 
costs to students as low as possible. 

A second and more general solution 
proposed for removing the economic bar- 
rier is ". . . as rapidly as possible, to 
raise economic and cultural levels in our 
less advanced areas, and in the meantime 
to provide outside assistance that will 
enable these areas to give their children 
equal educational opportunities with all 
others in the Nation." 

One element of the financial program 
involves instituting a system of scholar- 
ships and fellowships financed by Federal 
funds. This proposal is one of the major 
recommendations. The suggestion is made 
that the number of students aided by 
scholarships should reach 20% of the 
non-veterans enrolled at any one time. An 
annual appropriation for scholarships is 
suggested, starting at $120,000,000 and 
increasing in subsequent years. 

Discriminations in Admissions: Racial 
discrimination is discussed primarily with 
respect to the plight of Negro students. 
The inadequate provisions for the educa- 
tion of Negroes in the states maintaining 
segregated systems are severely criticized, 
and stress is laid upon the fact that Negro 
youth in states where segregation is not 
legalized also frequently lack opportuni- 
ties given white students. The Commis- 
sion concludes "that there will be no 
fundamental correction of the total condi- 
tion until segregation legislation is re- 
pealed." Pending this action, the "Com- 
mission urges that the separate educa- 
tional institutions for Negroes be made 
truly equal in facilities and quality to 
those for white students." 

A dissenting opinion to the report on 
racial discrimination is entered by four 
members of the Commission, three of 
them presidents of universities in states 



236 



EDUCATION 



where segregation is the practice. It is 
interesting to note that two of these three 
presidents announced, subsequent to the 
publication of the Commission's report, 
that their own universities would admit 
Negro students in certain graduate fields 
of professional study. 

Religious Barriers: Two recommenda- 
tions are made on this point: (1) "... the 
removal from application forms of all 
questions pertaining to religion, color, 
and national or racial origin", and (2) 
". . . that educators support in their re- 
spective States the passage of carefully 
drawn legislation designed to make 
equally applicable in all institutions of 
higher learning the removal of arbitrary 
discriminatory practices in the carrying 
out of admissions policies." 

Arbitrary Discriminations: Other arbi- 
trary discriminations in the admission of 
students condemned are those with re- 
spect to sex, geographic barriers, non- 
veteran status, unwarranted academic re- 
quirements, and fixed-number quotas by 
accrediting organizations in certain pro- 
fessional fields. The lack of adequate 
guidance is also cited as a real barrier 
to continued educational opportunity. 

Restricted Curriculum: The Commis- 
sion states: "If the colleges are to edu- 
cate the great body of American youth, 
they must provide programs for the devel- 
opment of other abilities than those in- 
volved in academic aptitude, and they 
cannot continue to concentrate on stud- 
ents with one type of intelligence to the 
neglect of youth with other talents." 

Southern Members of the Commission 
Dissent: The Commission's stand on seg- 
regation brought dissent from four 
southern members : Goodrich White, pres- 
ident, Emory University, Atlanta; Arthur 
H. Compton, chancellor, Washington Uni- 
versity, St. Louis; Douglas S. Freeman, 
editor, the Richmond News Leader, Va.; 
and Lewis W. Jones, president, University 
of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Their state- 
ment, a footnote in Volume II, said : 

The undersigned wish to record their dissent 
from the Commission's pronouncements on 
"segregation," especially as these pronounce- 



ments are related to education in the South. 
We recognize that many conditions affect ad- 
versely the lives of our Negro citizens and 
that gross inequality of opportunity, economic 
and educational, is a fact. We are concerned 
that as rapidly as possible conditions should 
be improved, inequalities removed and greater 
opportunity provided for all people. 

But we believe that efforts toward these ends 
must, in the South, be made within the estab- 
lished patterns of social relationships, which 
require separate educational institutions for 
whites and Negroes. We believe that pro- 
nouncements such as those of the commission 
on the question of segregation jeopardize these 
efforts, impede progress and threaten tragedy 
to the people of the South, both white and 
Negro. 

We recognize the high purpose and the 
theoretical idealism of the commission's rec- 
ommendations. But a doctrinaire position 
which ignores the facts of history and the 
realities of the present is not one that will 
contribute constructively to the solution of 
difficult problems of human relationships. 

Southern Educators Oppose Commis- 
sion's Report: According to the findings 
of Benjamin Fine, writing in the New 
York Times, Dec. 23, 1947, leading 
southern educators voiced their opposition 
to the recommendation of the President's 
Commission on Higher Education that the 
dual system of schools now in effect in 
17 states, be eliminated. In agreeing with 
the four southern members of the Com- 
mission, the college presidents declared 
that the question of segregation could 
not be settled by any outside agency nor 
by a commission's report. The impetus 
toward a solution would have to come 
from the southern people. 

The educators stressed that they were 
for an abolition to segregation and the 
dual system of education in theory, but 
that from a practical standpoint this step 
would be dangerous and impossible at this 
time. Educators expressing this point of 
view were: Colgate W. Darden, Jr., Uni- 
versity of Virginia; Bennett H. Brans- 
comb, Vanderbilt University; Isaiah Bow- 
man, Johns Hopkins University; Hamil- 
ton Holt, Rollins College; John D. Wil- 
liams, University of Mississippi; Father 
Patrick J. Holloran, St. Louis University; 
Rufus C. Harris, Tulane University; T. 
S. Painter, University of Texas ; and 
Lewis W. Jones, University of Arkansas. 



INTEGRATION IN EDUCATION 



237 



INTEGRATION IN 
EDUCATION 

Southern states operating under the dual 
system of education have within the past 
few years admitted Negro students for 
the first time in their history. Although 
the barriers are not down everywhere, 
an unmistakable trends is evident. 1 Im- 
petus for the present advance came from 
the decisions handed down by the U.S. 
Supreme Court, June 5, 1950, in the 
Sweatt and McLaurin cases. 

The New York Times Survey 

The New York Times made a survey in 
1950 in which 100 representative southern 
colleges and universities and commission- 
ers of education or state superintendents 
of schools in the southern states were 
reached. It showed that 1,000 Negroes 
were attending classes in white southern 
institutions. The various educators 
reached declared that the Supreme Court 
decision was only partly responsible for 
the admittance of Negro students to 
southern institutions. The Court's deci- 
sion was applicable only to public insti- 
tutions, yet a growing number of private 
colleges and universities are enrolling 
Negroes in their graduate or undergrad- 
uate divisions. 

This situation would have been considered 
impossible ten years ago. Responsible educa- 
tors had warned that any breaching of the 
segregation line would prove dangerous and 
might even lead to campus or community 
riots. Today, these same officials report that 
the Negroes have not disturbed normal col- 
legiate life in any manner. 

The picture in Arkansas is typical. Dr. 
A. B. Bonds, Jr., Commissioner of Educa- 
tion, noted that in 1949 and 1950 approxi- 
mately 200 Negro students were enrolled 
for graduate and professional work in the 
state university. Four law students, two 
medical students and one agriculture 
student were in residence on the campus 
in 1950. Dr. Bonds gave the following de- 
scription of the changes made: 



"This . . . democratic procedure to 
modify old practices and open up better 
educational opportunities for Negroes . . . 
has come about without court suits. Ac- 
ceptance of these students by faculty and 
student body has been much more pleas- 
ing and satisfactory than was indicated 
by our earlier misgivings . . ." 

The University of Kansas City took the 
lead in that city in opening its doors to 
Negro students. They were first admitted 
in 1948. In 1950, 12 were in the day 
division and 42 in the evening division. 
Dr. Clarence R. Decker, president of the 
university, reported no visible evidence 
of prejudice. "Not only has no problem 
yet arisen on the campus," he said, "bat 
the students and faculty generally are 
proud of themselves, of their trustees, and 
of their university for being the first in 
the State of Missouri to accept Negroes 
without special reservation." 

Most of the educators surveyed felt 
that the dual system in higher education 
was on its way out. 

The trustees of the University of Louisville 
voted to admit Negro students in the fall of 
1950 to the graduate and professional schools 
of medicine, law, dentistry, social work, music 
and science. That year there were 40 Negroes 
enrolled in the graduate schools. The Louis- 
ville Municipal College (for Negroes only) is 
to be closed at the end of the 1950-51 academic 
year and qualified Negro students will be ad- 
mitted to all schools of the University of 
Louisville at the beginning of the 1951-52 
term. 2 

Student Opinion: Student opinion gen- 
erally favors the admission of Negroes 
to the universities. The president of the 
University of Louisville found the great- 
est prejudice among the older alumni 
"in the top economic stratum." 

Sometimes there is a show of prejudice, 
as at Ursuline College, with a small en- 
rollment of 300. When three Negro stu- 
dents were admitted, a few freshmen from 
the "Deep South" were "slightly awkward 
in their relations with the new students." 
Several threatened to quit school, but 
only one actually left. The upperclassmen 
were undisturbed. 



1 Source : New York Times, Oct. 23, 1950, article by Benjamin Fine. 

2 This plan has been carried out. 



238 



EDUCATION 



Some Educators Voice Opposition: Not 
all southern educators accept the break- 
down of the segregation barriers. Several 
warned that education generally, and 
their colleges in particular, would suffer. 
A spokesman for the University of Texas, 
where 14 Negroes were enrolled in 1950, 
asserted that the general attitude of the 
community and of parents of students was 
unfavorable. 

Dr. M. D. Collins, State Superintendent 
of Schools in Georgia, warned that ad- 
mittance of Negroes to the educational 
institutions in his state would have "more 
serious repercussions than you could pos- 
sibly imagine; it would be tragic." 

Dr. J. M. Tubb, Mississippi State 
Superintendent of Education, held that 
the breakdown of segregation would serve 
no good purpose but "would retard the 
fine progress we are now making in the 
field of Negro education." Dr. A. R. 
Meadows, Alabama State Superintendent 
of Education, voiced the same opinion. 

Outspoken opposition was expressed by 
Dr. Perry B. James, president of Athens 
College, Athens, Ga. He said: "I do not 
foresee any possible chance of admitting 
Negroes to colleges and universities in the 
near future and the sooner we realize 
this, both regionally and nationally, and 
begin providing schools to meet the needs 
of the Negroes, the better off they will 
be and the quicker we will arrive at a 
sound solution to the problem." 

Following the opening up of Louisiana 
State University to Roy S. Wilson by 
order of the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of 
Appeals, six students were enrolled in the 
University in September 1951. In the 
Graduate School were: Leslie Barnum of 
Natchitoches, journalism; Louis L. Eames 
of Baton Rouge, commerce; Charles E. 
Harrington of New Orleans, education. 
Registering for law were : Robert Collins, 
Ernest N. Morial, and Pierre S. Charles, 
all of New Orleans. 

White Institutions in 
South Admitting Negroes 

Public Institutions: Table 27 shows 
that at least 20 public institutions in the 



South admit Negro students, and it gives 
the dates these colleges and universities 
were opened to them, dates they were ac- 
cepted or enrolled, fields of study opened, 
and first Negro students to enroll, where 
these date were available. 

Private Institutions: At least 27 south- 
ern, white, private institutions, including 
theological seminaries, admit Negro stu- 
dents. In more than half of them Negroes 
are able to enter without restrictions. In 
others, they may enter only for graduate 
study or in certain specified departments. 

As among the public institutions, policy 
on the use of campus facilities varies. 
At some institutions Negro students live 
in the dormitories and eat in the dining 
rooms; in others, they are denied the use 
of these facilities. 

The Catholic University of America, in 
Washington, D.C., which has no quotas or 
limitations, has admitted Negroes to all 
departments since it was founded in 1889. 
Between 200 and 300 Negro students at- 
tend the University, which keeps no na- 
tionality 01 racial records. All services 
and facilities are open to them. Approxi- 
mately 500 have received degrees from 
this institution. 

St. Louis University, Mo., another 
Catholic institution, also admits Negroes 
to all facilities. At this institution 351 
Negro students were enrolled in 1950. 

The majority of these colleges and 
theological seminaries are church-related 
institutions Catholic, Presbyterian, Bap- 
tist, and Methodist. The Catholic institu- 
tions show the most liberality in their 
admissions and in throwing open their 
facilities without discrimnation. 

On Oct. 24, 1951, the twenty-fourth 
Synod of the Episcopal Church adopted 
a resolution recommending that the 
Board of Trustees of the University of 
the South at Sewanee, Tenn., consider 
accepting Negro candidates to be trained 
for the ministry in its two southern 
seminaries not presently accepting Negro 
students. The vote of the delegates was 
66 for and 25 against the resolution. 

Table 28 gives information showing 
dates private institutions were opened to 



INTEGRATION IN EDUCATION 



239 



TABLE 27 

WHITE PUBLIC COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH OFFICIALLY ADMITTING NEGROES, 1951 



Date Opened Date Students 
Institution to Accepted or 

Negro Students Admitted 



Fields of Study Opened 



First Students 



Arkansas: 












Univ. of Ark., 


Jan. 30 


, 19482 


Feb. 2, 1948 


Law3-4 


Silas Hunts 


Fayetteville 






1948-49 


Medicine 6 


Edith May Irby 










Graduate 




Delaware: 












Univ. of Del., 


Jan. 31, 


1948 


1948 


Graduate, 7 Academic Exten- 


(Not given) 


Newark 








sion, Engineering (Under- 












graduate) 






Aug. 8, 


1950 


1950 


All fields: 












Undergraduate 7 


Homer Minus 



Kentucky: 
Univ. of Ky., 
Lexington 



Mar. 30, 1949 June 19, 1949 Graduate and Professional 

Schools ;3- 7 

Agricultural Education 
Education 



Univ. of Louisville, 
Louisville 



Louisiana: 

La. State Univ., 
Baton Rouge 



Fall 



Maryland: 
Univ. of Md., 

Baltimore Branch 
College Park 
Branch 



1950 



1950 



1935 
1950 



History 

Mathematics 
Music Education 
Sociology 

Sept. 1950 Graduate, Medicine, Law, 
Dentistry, Social Work, 
Music and Sciences 
Summer 1951 All schools and divisions: 

1951 Medicine 
1951-52 All fields. 9 



Nov. 9, 1950 
June 1951 



Sept. 25, 1935 
1950 



1951 



Law 

Medicine 
Graduate Schools: 
Agriculture 



Law 
Graduate: 

Sociology 
Nursing 
Medicine 



Apr. 27, 1951 



Undergraduate: 

Engineering 
All Professional Schools 



Cora L. Watson 



Willie Lee Jackson 
Mattie I. Ballew; Gwendolyn 
V. Boulden; Roberta A. 
Buford; Frank R. Conner; 
(Miss) Charles F. Chenault; 
Willie Ben Chenault; Anna 
M. Dalton; George H. Ed- 
wards; Susie J. Elster; 
William H. Elster; Levela L. 
Goodwin; George H. F. 
Green; Laura L. Griffin; 
Mildred E. Hall; Katie B. 
Jackson; Mattie R. Jackson; 
James W. Johnson; Augustus 
Mack; Matthew L. Mastin; 
Clara B. O'Neal; William 
M. Sanders; David A. Single- 
ton; Katherine E. Taylor; 
Odie L. Walker. 
Lyman Tefft Johnson 
Eleanor Taylor Lewis 
Ruby F. Dixon 
Cleo R. Johnson; 
Joseph R. Patterson 
Leandrew Green; 
Bernice Nichols 8 



Joseph L. Alexander 

All Students 

Roy S. Wilson" 



Amos Lutril Payne 



Donald Gaines Marray 

Parren J. Mitchell 
Esther McCready 
Donald W. Stewart; 
Roderick E. Charles 

Hiram T. Whittle 



Sources: Questionnaire; press releases. 

1 In a few cases previously, universities and colleges had admitted students unofficially. 

2 First state to voluntarily admit students without court action. 

3 On segregated basis. 

* Some universites admitting Negro students on a segregated basis have removed these restrictions 
without or with court order. 

5 Born March 1, 1922, Silas Hunt died April 2, 1949, at O'Riley Veteran's Hospital, Springfield, Mo. 
8 Without segregation. 

7 For courses not available in Negro state institutions. 

8 Three others, names not given, are studying music. 

9 Louisville Municipal College for Negroes closed 1951. 

10 Withdrew on January 16, 1951, because of personal record before entering. 

11 Under contract between Texas State University, the Negro institution, and the University of Texas. 

12 St. Philip's School of Nursing was opened in 1920. "All schools and courses are open to Virginians 
first (or for white students) from 1951." 



240 



EDUCATION 



TABLE 27 (Continued) 
WHITE PUBLIC COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH OFFICIALLY ADMITTING NEGROES, 1951 



Institution 


Date Opened Date Students 
to Accepted or Fields of Study Opened 
Negro Students Admitted 


First Students 


Missouri: 
Univ. of Kansas 
City, 
Kansas City 




1948 


1948 


All Divisions: 
Education 
Law 
Music 


Clarence E. Gantt 
Harold Lee Holiday 
Paris M. Jones 










Psychology 


Horton Win. Dunn 


Univ. of Mo., 


Fall 


1950 


Fall 1950 


Graduate: 




Columbia 








Art 


Grant Isiah Ridgel; 












Frank W. Logan 










Educational Guidance 


Melbourne C. Langford 










History 


Robert Lee Lilland 










Industrial Education 
Speech and Dramatics 


Samuel Jones 
Hazel McDaniel 










Spanish 


Bettye Jean Bankston 


North Carplina: 












Univ. of N. C., 


June 11, 


1951 


June 11, 1951 


Law 


James Lassiter; Harvey E. 


Chapel Hill 










Beech; J. Kenneth Lee; Floyd 












B. McKissick. James R. 


Oklahoma: 










Walker, Jr. 


Okla. A. & M., 


Summer 


1949 


Summer 1949 


Graduate 7 





Col., Still water 












Univ. of Okla., 


Oct. 


1948 


Oct. 14, 1948 


Graduate: 3 - 4 - 7 




Norman 








School Administration 


G. W. McLaurin 




Feb. 


1949 


Feb. 1949 


School of Social Work 


Opherita Eugenia Daniels 


June 16, 1949 


June 1949 


Law 3 - 4 


Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher 










Nursing 













Medicine 













Pharmacy 





Tennessee: 












Univ. of Tenn., 


Jan. 10, 


1952 











Knoxville 












Texas: 












Howard Cty. Jr. 


Sept. 


1951 


Sept. 17, 1951 


Pre-Medical 


Robert L. Brown; 


Col., Big Spring 










Gwendell White 










Pre-Nursing 


Frances Louise Stewart 








Sept. 18, 1951 


Education 


Jessie Mae Davis 








Sept. 21, 1951 


Business Administration 


Ervin D. Butler, Jr. 


Univ. Texas, Austin 


| 


1949 


1949 


Medicine: 3 - 11 


Herman A. Barnett 




Dec. 31, 


1949 


Feb. 6, 1950 


Law 3 


W. Astor 




June 5, 


1950 


June 6, 1950 


Graduate and Professional: 4 - 6 - 7 










Architecture 
Government 


John Saunders Chase 
Horace L. Heath 








June 1950 
July 1950 


Mathematics 
Education 


Walter D. McClennon 
Mrs. Emma L. Harrison 










English 


L. June Brewer 








Sept. 18, 1950 


Law 


Heman Marion Sweatt 


Virginia: 












Col. of William and 




1951 


Summer 1951 


Physical Education 


Hulon La Von 


Mary, 






1951-52 


Civil Law (Undergraduate) 


Edward Augustus Travis 


Williamsburg 












Med. Col. of Va.,i2 




1920 


1920 


Nursing 





Richmond 


Jan. 12, 


1951 


Sept. 1951 


Medicine 


Jean L. Harris 










Medical Technology 


Vela Taylor 










Physical Therapy 


Marjorie Louise Vaughan; 












Henderson A. Johnson, III 










Chemistry (Pharmacy School) 


Lin wood M. Mosby 


Richmond Pro- 




1951 


1951 


Extension 





fessional Inst., 












Richmond 












Univ. of Va., 


Sept. 5, 


1950 


Sept. 5, 1,951 


Graduate and Professional: 




Charlottesville 








Law 7 


Gregory H. Swanson 










Extension courses in Edu- 












cation for Ph. D. 


Walter N. Ridley 


Va. Polytechnic 






Aug. 8-25, 


Specialized intensified statis- 




Inst., Blacksburg 







1951 


tical course 


Dr. Harry W. Roberts 


West Virginia: 












Univ. of W. Va., 


June 6, 


1940 


June 6, 1940 


Graduate 7 


Willis Wilbur Tones 


Morgan town 






Jan. 29, 1946 


Law 


James Alexander Creasey 








Sept. 15, 1947 
Sept. 13, 1948 


Engineering 
Mines 


Thomas Jefferson Matterson 
Alphonso Carlton, Jr. 








Sept. 18, 1950 


Journalism 


Jackson Lee Hodge 



Negro students, dates students were ac- 
cepted or enrolled, fields of study opened, 
and first students, where these data were 
available. 



Table 28 also indicates the increasing 
liberalization of segregation policies. Nev- 
ertheless, non-discrimination is the excep- 
tion in the South, not the rule. 



INTEGRATION IN EDUCATION 



241 



TABLE 28 

WHITE PRIVATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE SOUTH OFFICIALLY ADMITTING NEGROES, 

1951 



Institution 


Date Opened 
to Negro 
Students 


Date Students 
Accepted, 
Admitted or 
Enrolled 


Fields of Study 
Opened 


First Students 


District of Columbia: 










American Univ., Washington (No report) 
The Catholic Univ. of 


(No report) 


(No report) 


(No report) 


America, Washington 
Dunbarton College of Holy 


1889 


1889 


No restrictions 


No race or creed records kept 


Cross (Women's), 










Washington 


1835 


1947 


Liberal Arts: 










English 


Patricia Coins 


Georgia: 










Columbia Theological Sem- 










inary (Presbyterian), 










Decatur 


1948 


Sept. 1948 


Theology 


E. E. Newberry 


Kentucky: 










Bellarmine College, 










Louisville 


Oct. 1950 


Oct. 1950 


No restrictions: 










Business Adminis- 










tration 


Theodore Wade 








Pre-Medical 


Robert L. Robinson 


Berea College 1 , Berea 


Sept. 1950 


Sept. 1950 


Lib. Arts 
No restrictions 


Joseph Mill 
William R. Ballew, 










Mary E. Ballard 


Louisville Presbyterian 










Theological Seminary, 










Louisville 


May 1950 


Sept. 1950 


Theology 


Snowden I. McKinnon 


Nazareth Women's Col- 










lege, Louisville 


June 1950 


June 1950 


No restrictions: 










Elementary Educa- 










tion 


Mrs. Sadie P. Gulley 










Mrs. Helena V. Lawson 








Nursing 
Library Science 


Mrs. Elenora Higgins 
Mrs. Barbara Miller 



Southern Baptist Theolo- 
gical Seminary, Louisville Sept. 10, 1951 

Ursuline College (Women's), 

Louisville Sept. 1950 



Louisiana: 3 

New Orleans Baptist Theo- 
logical Seminary, New 
Orleans Sept. 4, 1951 

Maryland: 

Johns Hopkins Univ., Bal- 
timore 1 946 



Sept. 10, 1951 No restrictions B. J. Miller; Claude Taylor; 

W. L. Holmes; J. V. Bottoms" 

Fall 1951 Lib. Arts: 

Business (Special) Mrs. Dollye Cunningham 
Education (Special) Jessie Camp; Ethel Kilgore 



(None to da*e) Graduate 



(No report) 



Loyola College Eve. Sch. 
and Graduate Div., Bal- 
timore 



1943 



Saint John's College, 
Annapolis 
Missouri: 
Conservatory of Music, 
Kansas City 


Sept. 1948 
1945 


Kansas City Art Inst. and 
Sch. of Design, Kansas 
City 
Park College, Parkville 


1884 
June 5, 1950 


Rockhurst College 4 , 
Kansas City 


June 6, 1949 



(No report) Undergraduate and 

Graduate (No report) 



1947 Lib. Arts and Gra- 

duate Joseph Richardson 

Sept. 24, 1948 Undergraduate Martin A. Dyer, Jr. 

Not given No restrictions: 



Piano 



Mrs. Desdemona Davis 



Not known No restrictions Not known 

Sept. 1950 College of Lib. Arts: Lawrence Weaver 

English Marvin Brooks 



June 6, 1949 No restrictions: 
Liberal Arts 



Barbara Jean Armstrong; 
Robert L. Bennett; Monroe 
L. Burrows; Effie Geraldine 
Irvin; Alma Ruth King 



Sources: Questionnaire; The New South, Aug.-Sept. 1951, published by the Southern Regional Council, 
Atlanta, Ga.; press releases. 

1 Berea College admitted Negroes 1866 to 1904, when it was prohibited by the Kentucky "Day Law." 
After law was amended in Spring 1950, Trustees voted to admit them again. 

2 Previously enrolled in Extension Department. Three will receive degrees in May 1952. 

8 Another college in Louisiana admits a limited number of Negro students but does not wish publicity. 
4 William Louis Blake, Liberty. Mo., enrolled September 19, 1949, as transfer student; received B.S. 
degree, with education as major, Aug. 31, 1951. 



242 



EDUCATION 



TABLE 28 (Continued) 



Date Opened Date Students 


Institution 


to Negro 
Students 


Accepted, 
Admitted or 


Fields of Study 
Opened 


First Student! 






Enrolled 






Missouri (cont.~): 










St. Louis Univ., St 
Washington Univ., 


. Louis (No report) 
St. Louis June 11, 1947 


(No report) 
June 1947 


(No report) 
Medicine 


(No report) 
James W. Nofles 








Graduate: 








Spring 1948 


Social Work 


Leona Evans 






Summer 1948 


Arts and Sciences 


Raymond R. Palmer 






Fall 1949 


Business and P.A. 


N. F. Davis 






Fall 1949 


Law 


George L. Vaughn 






Fall 1950 


Engineering 


.Ulysses Donaldson 



(Women's), St. Louis 

Texas: 

Amarillo College, Amarillo Oct. 1, 1951 



Austin Theological Seminary 

(Presbyterian), Austin Sept. 1950 

Southwestern Baptist Sem- 
inary, Fort Worth May 25, 1951 



University College 

Evening Division (No report) 



Southern Methodist Univ., 
Dallas 



1950 



Wayland College, Plainview June 5, 1951 



Oct. 3, 1951 


Pre-Medical 
Pre-Nursing 
Home Economics 


Sept. 1950 


Theology 


May 25, 1951 
Sept. 10, 1951 


No restrictions 


(No report) 
June 5, 1951 


Graduate: 
Theology 
No restrictions: 
Education 



West Virginia: 

Wesleyan College, Buck- 
hannon 



June 1, 1949 Sept. 1949 



No restrictions: 
Education 
Pre-Engineering 
Pre-Medical 
Secretarial Studies 



Celia Ann Bennett 
Johnnie Mae Cartez 
Dorothy Reese 

Daniel Clark 

Chester Brookings; S. M. 
Lockeridge; Getral Wright 



(No report) 

Mrs. Bessie Williams; Mrs. 
Annie Taylor; Ernest Dykes; 
Mrs. Ernest Dykes 



Charles W. Johnson 



John S. Chic 
Wm. 



Corner Thomas, II 
Bernadine Hutchison 



Negro Teachers in 
White Institutions 

Historically, Negroes have maintained 
connections with white colleges even in 
the South, but such connections have 
been unofficial. George Moses Morton's 
relationship with the University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill may be cited as 
an example. Born a slave about 1797, his 
master permitted him to hire his service 
to the president of the university, who 
taught him to read and write. He pos- 
sessed a gift for poetry and soon was 
composing love poems "for the local 
gallants," and it is said he often helped 
students who needed assistance with their 
lessons. 

Another pioneer in the education of 
white youth, although not a member of a 
college staff, was John Chavis. After 
securing his freedom, he attended Wash- 
ington Academy (now Washington and 



Lee University), Lexington, Va. He 
opened a school for both white and Negro 
children in Raleigh, N.C., in 1808 but 
soon closed it because of the objection of 
white patrons. He opened another for 
Negro children only. However, many 
prominent families in the state sent their 
sons to him for instruction. 

Charles L. Reason was probably the 
first Negro to be appointed to regular 
teaching duties in a white college. In 
1849, he was "called to the professorship 
of mathematics and belles-lettres" by 
New York Central College at McGraw- 
ville. This institution, established by 
abolitionists, employed two other Ne- 
groes, William G. Allen and George B. 
Vashon. Vashon served as a professor of 
classics. 

Another college of liberal abolitionist 
sentiment, Oberlin, at Oberlin, Ohio, had 
admitted Negro students before the Civil 
War. During the five years she was there, 



1 Source: Taylor, Ivan E., "Negro Teachers in White Colleges," School and Society, Vol. 65, No. 1691, May 24, 
1947; and press releases. 



INTEGRATION IN EDUCATION 



243 



1860-65, although not a regular member 
of the faculty, Fanny Jackson (Coppin) 
tutored a class of freedmen and taught a 
group of whites in the preparatory de- 
partment of the college. 

Richard T. Greener, the first Negro 
graduate of Harvard College, served for 
a time as a professor at the University of 
South Carolina during the period of Re- 
construction. A graduate of the law school 
of the university, he was appointed pro- 
fessor of Latin and Greek. During his 
tenure, he catalogued the 30,000 volumes 
in the university library. W. E. B. DuBois 
was appointed assistant instructor at the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1896 for 
one year but taught no classes. 

For over 50 years, appointments to 
significant posts on the faculties of white 
institutions were closed as far as the 
Negro scholar was concerned, but it was 
not unusual for Negroes to be invited to 
lecture or to conduct regular classes for 
credit during the period prior to World 
War II. The late Hubert Harrison and 
James Weldon Johnson were among those 
who served at New York University and 
Columbia University. Walter White was 
frequently invited to lecture at Teachers 
College, Columbia University. The Col- 
lege of the City of New York has for a 
long period welcomed Negro lecturers. 

Role of Educational Funds: The Gen- 
eral Education Board, a Foundation 
located in New York City, in 1945 made 
a grant of $18,000 to New York Uni- 
versity for the support of a visiting pro- 
fessorship in Negro Culture and Educa- 
tion for a three-year period. Ira De A. 
Reid, professor of sociology at Atlanta 
University, received the appointment. 

William C. Haygood, director of fellow- 
ships for the Julius Rosenwald Fund, 
said: 

The Foundation has tried in all possible 
ways to urge and promote the appointment of 
qualified Negro scholars to wlyte faculties. 
One device we have used is to send out, pe- 
riodically, lists to college presidents, calling 
their attention to the availability of such 
scholars. We have in certain cases, in order to 



secure important appointments, provided 
funds to supplement instructors' salaries for a 
period of time. This was notably true in the 
appointments of Allison Davis at the Univer- 
sity of Chicago and of Hale Woodruff at New 
York University. . . . 

The American Friends Service Com- 
mittee makes a more leisurely but none- 
theless effective approach to achieve the 
same ends. It has organized a Visiting 
Lectureship for Schools and Colleges 
which is designed to introduce the Negro 
scholar to the white college. Each visiting 
lecturer, for a week or more, lives on the 
campus, conducts classes, speaks at 
chapel exercises, and participates in the 
life of the community. 

Universities Take Initiative: With mo- 
tives of their own and without assistance 
or subsidy from the philanthropic or- 
ganizations, individual colleges have ap- 
pointed Negro scholars to their faculties. 
A unique institution in the latter category 
is Black Mountain College in North 
Carolina. This school has engaged at one 
time or another several outstanding 
artists and scholars. The colleges em- 
ploying Negro scholars are among the 
best and, in some instances, the most 
conservative in America. The Negro 
scholars invited to their campuses stand 
high in American education and have 
made splendid records as teachers. Al- 
most without exception they have made 
scholarly contributions. 

White Colleges and Universities Em- 
ploying Negroes? During the period 
1947-51, at least 106 white universities 
employed Negroes in a professional ca- 
pacity. Their rank ranged from teaching 
fellows, lectures, or instructors to visiting 
professors and full professors. Some were 
employed as librarians, assistant libra- 
rians, or research workers in various 
fields. In addition, there were medical 
personnel in several cases. Many were 
temporarily employed. Others have at- 
tained permanent tenure. Universities 
employing these workers, with names of 
persons employed and dates of employ- 
ment, are given in Table 29. 



1 For universities and colleges employing Negro professional workers before 1947 see Negro Year Book 1947 and the 
Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 18, pp. 559-567, Fall 1919. 



244 



EDUCATION 



TABLE 29 

EMPLOYMENT NEGRO TEACHERS BY WHITE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, 

1947-1951 1 



Institution 


Name 


Field of Instruction or 
Specialization 2 


Teachers Serving 
1947-19513 


Antioch Col., Yellow Springs, O. 


Walter F. Anderson 


Music 


1946- 


Aquinas Col., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Barnard Col., New York City 


Dean Yarborough 
Elizabeth G. Hightower 
William M. Boyd 


Sociology 
Library Science 
Political Science 


1948-49 
1947 
1949 


Bennington Col., Bennington, Vt. 


John Caswell Smith, Jr. 


Sociology 


1947- 


Bloomfield Col. and Seminary, 








Bloomfield, N.J. 


Elder Hawkins 


Sociology 


1948- 


Boston Univ., Boston, Mass. 


Charles W. Anderson 


T 

Law 


1948 




Roland Hayes 


Music 


1950 




Bill Simms 


Public Relations 


1948 


Bradley Univ., Peoria, 111. 


Romeo Garret 


Sociology 


1947- 


Brandeis Univ., Waltham, Mass. 


Robert A. Thornton 


Physics 


1950 


Brooklyn Col., Brooklyn, N.Y. 


Marguerite D. Cartwright 
Marian Cuthbert 


Education 
Sociology 


1948-50 
1946- 




Maurice Eastmond 


English 


Feb. 1949- 




William Henry Grayson 


Education 


Feb. 1950- 




Charles R. Lawrence 


Sociology 


1948- 




Mark Parks 


Biology 


1946- 




Danetta Marie Sanders 


Education 


April 1951- 




Marion Watson Starling 


English 


1946- 


Brown Univ., Providence, R.I. 
Catholic Teachers Col. of New 


Mrs. Mabel M. Snythe 
J. Saunders Redding 


Economics 
English 


Feb.-June 1947 
1949-50 


Mexico, 4 Alburquerque, N.M. 
Catholic Univ., Washington, D.C. 


Mary Louise Young 
Ira L. Gibbons 


Education 
Sociology 


1 947-50 
Summer 1951 


Chapman Col., Los Angeles, Gal. 
Chicago Col. of Optometry, 


Lionel L. Hoffman 


Romance Language 


1946-48 


Chicago, 111. 


Junius P. Brodnax 


Optometry 


1948- 


Chicago Medical Col., Chicago, 111. 


Clayborne Tartt 
Clarence E. Mansfield 


Optometry 
Medicine 


1947-48 
1948 




H. H. Morrison 


Medicine 


1948 


Chicago Teachers Col., Chicago, 








111. 


Mrs. Henrietta H. McMillan 


English 


1947- 


City Col. of N.Y., New York City 


Joseph A. Borome 


History 


1950- 




Thomas H. Bembry 


Chemistry 


1947- 




Warren Brown 


Sociology 


1948- 




Mrs. Marian Palmer Capps 


Education 


1950- 




Kenneth B. Clark 


Psychology 


1947- 




Evan Gordon 


Geology 


( e ) 




Gerald Greenidge 


Electrical Engrg. (Tutor) 6 


1947 




Alain L. Locke 


Philosophy 


1948-49 




Maynor Payne 


Electrical Engrg. (Tutor) 6 


1947 




Lawrence D. Reddick 


History 


1947-51 




Staunton L. Wormley 


Romance Languages 


Summer 1948 


Columbia Univ., New York City 


Joseph A. Borome 


Librarian, Burgess Library 


1942-50 




Kenneth A. McClane 


Medicine 


1949- 


Columbia Univ., Teachers Col., 








New York City 


Ruth Johnson 


Nursing Education 


1951- 




Robert E. Weaver 


Economics 


Summer 1947,48 


Connecticut Col., New London, 








Conn. 


Helen F. Chisholm 


Chemistry 


1947- 


Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. 


Carrell Peterson 


Sociology and Anthropology 


1949-50 


Des Moines Still Col. of Osteop- 


Stanley Griffin 


Pharmacology 


1949- 


athy & Surgery, Des Moines, 


Leon S. Jones 


Physiology 


1947-49 


Iowa 


WilliamJ. Reese 


Biochemistry 


1946-47 


Drew Univ., Madison, N.J. 


George D. Kelsey 


Christian Ethics 


1951- 


Fenn Col., Cleveland, Ohio 


Clifford L. Graves 





1947 




Mrs. Sammie Lee Harris 





1947 




Sarah M. Pereira 


Romance Languages 


1947 



1 The term "teachers" is used for all professionals employed. 

2 Subject taught, given when field of specialization not known. 
8 A hyphen after the year indicates teacher is still in service. 
4 Now known as The College of St. Joseph on the Rio Grande. 

6 Indicates date of appointment, served, or serving, not available. 

8 A tutor at City College of N. Y. is much like an assistant instructor. 

7 Appointed to a professorship in government Jan. 16, 1950; confirmed by Board of Overseers in April 
1950; to begin duties when his active service with United Nations is terminated. 

8 Has been in charge of laboratory at Harvard Medical School. Tufts College, Mass., appointed him 
instructor in Medicine 1941-42, but this was cancelled at his request. Has longest experience of working 
in white institution of higher learning. Retired by Harvard, 1950. 

9 This college has been closed. 

10 Has Faculty status but does not teach. 

11 On leave with Atomic Energy Commission, 1951. 

12 Offered position Sept. 1951; called to Army with rank of Captain. 
18 No response received to questionnaire. Data not verified. 

14 On leave for military duty. 



INTEGRATION IN EDUCATION 



245 



TABLE 29 (Continued) 



Institution Name 


Field of Instruction or Teachers Serving 
Specialization* 1947-1951 3 


Fordham Univ., New York City Dennis Glennan Baron 


Economics 1 950- 


Corinne Freeman 


Library Science (Librarian) 1951 


Garrett Biblical Inst., Evanston, 111. Ira De A. Reid 


Sociologv Summer 1948 


George Williams Col., Chicago, Mrs. Sybil Jones 


Library Science 1946-48 


111. Blanche Leatherman 


Library Science 1948-51 


Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. Ralphe Bunche 7 


Government 1950 


William A. HintonS 


Medicine 1923-50 




(Bacteriology and Immunology) 


Haverford Col., Haverford, Pa. Ira De A. Reid 


Sociology 1946 


Hunter Col., New York City Edith Audain 


Elementary School Sept. 1950 


Warren Brown 


Sociology and Anthropology 1944-48 


Marguerite D. Cartwright 


Sociology, Anthropology, 




Education 1948- 


Mary Huff Diggs 


Sociology and Anthropology 1946- 


Katherine Ward Hinton 


Music Sept. 1951- 


Marie Johnson 


Mathematics 1945-47 


Alfred E. Martin 


Physics and Astronomy 1944 


Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, 111. Frank Crossley 


Engineering (Metallurgical) 1947-49 


Robert A. Eubanks 


Assistant Research Engineer 1951- 


Iowa State Col. of Agr. & Frederick M. Graham 


Engineering 1949-50 


Mech. Arts, Ames, Iowa Armesia C. Harper 


Home Economics 1949 


John Marshall Law Sch., Wendell E. Green 


Law 1951 


Chicago, 111. James Benton Parson 


Law 1948 


Juilliard School of Music, New Dean Dixon 
York City Theodore (Teddy) Wilson 


Music 1948-49 
Music Summer 1946-50 


Kent State Univ., Kent, Ohio Oscar W. Ritchie 


Sociology 1946-48; 1949- 


Long Beach City Col., Long 




Beach, Cal. Edwin Jackson Wilson 


Education Sept. 1946-Mar. 1948 


Long Island Univ., Brooklyn, N. Y. Richard S. Grossley 
Mary Helen Harden 


Education June 1948- 
Speech Sept. 1949 


Loras Inst. of Liturgical Music, 




Dubuque, Iowa Rev. Bartholomew Sayles 


Music 1949 


Los Angeles City Col., Los Samuel R. Browne 


Music 1947 


Angeles, Cal. John C. Long 


English 1947-51 


John M. May 


English 1947-50 


Los Angeles State Col. of App. Arts 




Sciences, Los Angeles, Cal. James C. Williamson 
Loyola Univ. of L. A., Los A. Charles Duval 


Psychology 1948- 
Physical Education 1948 


Angeles, Cal. James Hobart Kirk 


Sociology 1951 


Mass. Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, 




Mass. James B. Ames 


Engineering (Research Assistant) ( 8 ) 


The Metropolitan Music School, Edgar R. Clark 


Music 1947 


Inc., New York City Alain L. Locke 


Philosophy 1947 


Theodore (Teddy) Wilson 


Music 1947 


Michigan State Col., East 




Lansing, Mich. David W. Dickson 


English 1948 


Mohawk College, 9 Utica, N.Y. Ernest F. Stevenson 


Chemistry 1947 


New School for Social Research, Robert Blackburn 


Art Spring 1951 


New York City Sterling Brown 
Edgar R. Clark 


English Spring 1947 
Music Spring 1946-47 


Kenneth B. Clark 


Social Psychology Spring 1951 


Arthur P. Davis 


English Spring 1947 


W. E. B. DuBois 


Sociology Fall 1948 


E. Franklin Frazier 


Sociology 1947 


Alain L. Locke 


Philosophy Spring 1947 


Lawrence D. Reddick 


History Spring 1947 


Francis Smith 


Library Science 1947 


Robert C. Weaver 


Housing Summer 1949 




(in Europe) 


N. Y. School of Social Work, E. Franklin Frazier 
New York City Mrs. Alvin J. Martin 


Sociology 1947 
Social Work, Field Work 1949- 


New York Univ., New York City Anna A. Campbell 


English 1946-48 


Mrs. Hortense S. Cochrane 


Education Summer 1949 


E. Franklin Frazier 


Sociology 1 947-50 


Alphonse Heningburg 
Mrs. Estelle M. Osborne 


Educational Sociology 1 944-48 
Nursing Education Summer 1945; 




1950- 


Jewel Plummer 


Biology 1945-50 


Ira De A. Reid 


Education 1946-47 


Gerald A. Spencer 


Dermatology and Syphilogy 1948- 


Nathaniel P. Tillman 


English Education Summer 1950 


__. Mrs. Sadie G. Washington 


Teaching Fellow in Home Eco- 




nomics 1949-51 


Robert Weaver 


Education 1945-51 


Matthew J. Whitehead 


Education 1945-51 


Hale A. Woodruff 


Art Education Sept. 1946-49 


Northwestern Univ., Evanston, 111. Edward Beasley 


Pedria tries 1937- 


Notre Dame Col., South Euclid, 




Ohio Bettye Brown 


Art Jan. 1947-51 


Nursery Trg. School of Boston, 




Boston, Mass. George Lythcott 


Medicine 1947-51 



246 



EDUCATION 



TABLE 29 (Continued) 



Institution Name 


Field of Instruction or 
Specialization 2 


Teachers Serving 
1947-1951 3 


Oberlin Col., Oberlin, Ohio Wade A. Ellis 


Mathematics 


1948 


Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio John A. Davis 


Political Science 


1950-51 


Olivet Col., Olivet, Mich. Catherine Cater 


English 


1947-49 


Cornelius L. Golightly 


Philosophy 


1945-49 


Pasadena City Col., Pasadena, Cal. Jesse Moses 


Social Science 


1951 


Phila. Divinity Sch., Philadel- 






phia, Pa. Rev. Edgar Charles Young 


Old Testament Literature 


1949 


Queens Col., Flushing, N.Y. Kenneth B. Clark 


Psychology 


1945-Jan. 1948 


Deborah C. Partridge 


Education 


1951- 


Roosevelt Col., Chicago, 111. Thelma W. Brown 


Music (Voice) 


Sept. 1946- 


Edward Chandler 


Chemistry 


1945- 


St. Clair Drake 


Sociology 


1947- 


Alyce Graham 


Psychology 


1947 


Valarie F. Hill 


Education 


1948- 


Everett F. Mapp 


Biology 


1947 


Lewis A. McGee 


Philosophy 


1948 


Mrs. Charlemae Rollins 


Library Science 


1946- 


Harriet Trimmingham 


Library Science 10 


1946- 


Edwin W. Turner 


Physical Education 


1947- 


Mrs. Gladys W. Turner 


Library Science 10 


(6) 


Lorenzo D. Turner 


English 


1946- 


Harry Walker 


Sociology 


1948- 


Louis Washington 


Sociology 


1949- 


Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, Aldrich B. Cooper 


Microbiology 


1942- 


N.J. Clyde Winkfield 


Music (Piano) 


1947- 


St. John's Univ., Collegeville, Frater Bernadine Patterson, 


Classics 


1950- 


Minn. O. S. B. 






Rev. Bartholomew Sayles, 


Music 


1947- 


O. S. B. 






St. Louis Univ., St. Louis, Mo. Mrs. Ray Douglas DuValle 
Merle B. Herriford 


Library Science 
Medicine (Urology) 


1950 
1950 


James Hobart Kirk 


Sociology 


lune 1951- 


August T. Piper 


Pediatrics 


1951 51 


Alvin Walcott Rose 


Sociology 


1951 


Alvin Clifton Stewart 11 


Chemistry 


1950 


A. N. Vaughn 


Medicine (Surgery) 


1949- 


H. H. Weathers 


v Medicine (Surgery) 


1948 


Walter A. Younge 


Medicine 


1948 


Sampson Col,. 9 Geneva, N.Y. Charles A. H. Benjamin 


Romance Languages 


1947 


Shelby T. Freeman, Jr. 


Mathematics 


1947 


Lestine Grant 


, 


1947 


San Diego State Col., San Leslie Pinkney Hill 


Consultant Inter-Cultural 




Diego, Cal. 


Relations 


1947 


Wendell R. Lipscomb 


Biology 


Feb.-Junel947 


San Fran. State Col., San Katherine Flippin 


Child Care Center 


1949- 


Francisco, Cal. Helen Hatchett 


Child Care Center 


1947- 


Paul F. Lawrence 12 


Educational Sociology 


Feb. 1, 1952 


Seaton W. Manning 


Social Science 


Spring 1949-50; 






1951-52 


Gloria Romine 


Asst. Music Librarian 


1950- 


Schauffler Col. of Religion & 






Social Work, Cleveland, Ohio Alice Rose 


Physical Education 


1947-49 


Sch. of Museum of Fine Arts, John Wilson 


Oil Painting 


Sept. 1949-June 


Boston, Mass. 




1950 


Seton Hall Col., South Orange, N.J. Marco A. Baeza 


Marketing 


1951- 


Francis M. Hammond 


Philosophy 


1946- 


Sheil Sch. of Social Studies, 






Chicago, 111. Dora B. Somerville 


Education 


1950 


Simmons Col., Boston, Mass. William A. Hinton 


Medicine 


1920- 


Mrs. Mary Parker Johnson 


Biology 


1948- 


Smith Col., Northampton, Mass. Adelaide C. Hill 


Sociology 


1945-47 


Springfield Col., Springfield, Mass. Harold Amos 


Biology 


1947-48 


Stanford Univ., Stanford, Cal. David Blackwell 


Mathematics 


Sept. 1950- 






Aug. 1951 


State Teachers Col. of N.J., Beatrice H. Daniels 


Testing and Remedial Instruc- 




Trenton, N.J. 


tion Demonstration School 


1948-49 


State Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, Phillip G. Hubbard 
Iowa George R. Ragland, Jr. 


Engineering (Electronics) 
Social Science 


Feb. 1946- 
1951- 


Howard Thurman 


Religion 


1946; 1947; 1948 


Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, N.Y. James Burney 


Zoology 


( 5 ) 


Gladys Edna Cooper 


Home Economics 


1948 


William Countryman 


Remedial Reading 


(*) 


Julius Horace Hughes 


Education 


1950 


Charles Vert Willie 


Sociology 


1950 


Teachers Col. of City of Boston, 






Boston, Mass. Emma Taylor 





1945- 


Tufts Col., Medford, Mass. Charles D. Bonner 


Medicine 


1949- 


Ronald Lovell 


Oral Pediatric 


1951- 


Univ. of Akron, Akron, Ohio Raymond K. Brown 


Sociology 


1947 


Univ. of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, William B. Pratt 


Romance Languages 


1945- 


Conn. Arthur D. Wright 


Sociology 


1949-51 



INTEGRATION IN EDUCATION 



247 



TABLE 29 (Continued) 



Institution 


Name 


Field of Instruction or 
Specialization 2 


Teachers Serving 
1947-1951 3 


Univ. of California, Berkeley, Cal. 
Univ. of Chicago, 13 Chicago, 111. 


Joseph T. Gier 
Nathaniel O. Galloway 
Allison Davis 


Electrical Engineering 
Medicine (Pharmacology) 
Education 


1946- 
1942- 




Abram L. Harris 


Economics 


1946- 




Langston Hughes 
William M. Jones 


Literature (Resident Poet) 
Medicine (Surgery) 


1949 
1946- 




Julian H. Lewis 


Medicine 







W. Robert Ming, Jr. 


Law 


1946- 




Robert Thornton 


Physics 


1948 


Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, 


Virginia C. Davison 


Physics 


Sept. 1951- 


Conn. 


Sara M. Kiston 


Home Economics 


Aug. 1944- 








June 1948 


Univ. of Denver, Denver, Colo. 


W. Miller Barbour 


Sociology 


1948- 


Univ. of Illinois, Urbana and 
Chicago, 111. 


Paul P. Boswell 
Roosevelt Brooks 
Nathaniel O. Galloway 1 * 


Medicine (Dermatology) 
Medicine (Ophthalmology) 
Medicine (Internal) 


1944- 
1933- 
1945- 




Earl W. Renfroe 


Dentistry (Orhtodontia) 


1946- 




Helen R. Rhetta 


Medicine (Clinical) 


1944- 




Ralph Scull 


Medicine (Dermatology) 


1947-49 




Theodore R. Sherrod 


Pharmacology 


1941- 




J. D. Solomon 


Biochemistry 


1947-48 




Harold W. Woodson 


Biochemistry 


1942-49 




Ruth Ellen Yancey 


Staff Nurse 


1944- 


Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, 








Mass. 


Edwin D. Driver 


Sociology 


1948 


Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Mich. 


Edward J. Anderson 
Charles J. (Baker) Bolero 


Dental Surgery 
Shop Technician 


1950- 
1948- 




Marjorie Lee Browne 


Teaching Fellow 


1947-49 




Broadus N. Butler 


Philosophy 


1949-50 




Robert H. Davage 


Psychology 


1949- 




Allison Davis 


Sociology 


1949-50 




John D. D. Agyeman Dickson 


Geography 


1949- 




Hazel Garrison 


Botany 


1950-51 




Ralph M. Gibson 


Psychology 


1946-1947; 1951- 




Charles B. Lee 


Zoology 


1948-51 




Raleigh Morgan, Jr. 


French 


1950-51 




Paul Poston 


Business 


1947-48 




James A. Randall 


Sociology 


1951 




Alfred Stevenson 


Speech 


1948 




David L. Stratmon 


Research Assistant 


1951 


Univ. of Minnesota, Minne- 


Jean Turner Coins 


Student Counselor 


1949-50 


apolis, Minn. 


Ruby B. Pernell 


Sociology 


1948- 




Forrest O. Wiggins 


Philosophy 


1946- 


Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 


Whitney Young 


Social Work 


Summer 1951- 


Univ. of Notre Dame, South 








Bend, Ind. 


Lois G. Dozier 


Librarian 


1947- 


Univ. of Penn., Philadelphia, Pa. 


William F. Fontaine 


Philosophy 


1947- 




Mrs. Laure Drake Nichols 


Social Casework 


1950- 




Arthur Thomas 


Medicine 


1946 




Marechal-Neil E. Young 


Social Casework 


1949-51 


Univ. of Southern Cal., Los 








Angeles, Cal. 


E. Franklin Frazier 


Sociology 


Summer 1948 


Univ. of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 


Constance Heslip 


Social Science 


1931- 




Richard Huston 


Athletics 


1950- 




Garfield E. Weathers 


Sociology 


1948 


Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 


Mrs. Pauline R. Coggs 


Sociology 


1945-47 




Mrs. Maggie B. Daniels 


English 


1946-47 




Betty Hinkson 


Romance Language 


1948-49 


Utah State Agricultural Col., 








Logan, Utah 
Vanport Col., Portland, Ore. 


Miss Rhoda Jordan 
Edwin C. Berry 


Drama 
Sociology (Extension Center) 


1951 
1947- 


Walter Hervey Jr. Col., New 








York, N.Y. 


Mark Thaxton 


Science 


1947-51 


Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo. Julian Blache 
Arthur C. Gary 


Pathology 
Physics 


1949- 
1951- 




Conrad H. Cheek 


Chemistry 


1949-51 




G. A. Gaikins 


Surgery (Clinical) 


1949- 




Charles W. Hargrave 


Chemistry 


1949- 




Ruth Harris 


Education 


Summer 1950, 51 




Helen Nash 


Pediatrics (Clinical) 


1949- 




Ernest Simms 


Surgery 


1949- 




William H. Sinkler 


Surgery (Clinical) 


1950- 




William L. Smiley 


Obstetrics and Gynecology 








(Clinical) 


1950- 




Preston T. Talbert 


Chemistry 


1951- 




Edward B. Williams 


Medicine (Clinical) 


1949- 


Wayne Univ., Detroit, Mich. 


Esther H. Benjamin 
Charles W. Buggs 


Nursing 
Bacteriology 


1951- 
1943-49 




Sylvia Massenburg 


Chemistry 


1946-49 




Paul L. Posten 


Mathematics 


1949- 




Beulah T. Whitby 


Social Work 


1938- 



248 



EDUCATION 



TABLE 29 (Continued) 



Institution 


Name 


Field of Instruction or 
Specialization ! 


Teachers Serving 
1947-1951 3 


Wellesley Col., Wcllesley, Mass. 


William Cousins 


Sociology 


1949- 


Western Michigan Col. of Educ., 








Kalamazoo, Mich. 


T. C. Gothran 


Sociology 


Summer 1950 


Western Reserve Univ., Cleve- 


Stanley E. Brown 


Medicine (Otolaryngology) 


1947- 


land, Ohio 


Armen G. Evans 


Medicine (Pediatrics) 


1947- 




Charles H. Garvin 


Medicine (Genito-Urinary 








Surgery) 


1947- 




Middleton H. Lambright 


Medicine (Surgery) 


1947- 


William Penn Col., Oskaloosa, 


Mrs. Madeline C. Foreman 


Biology 


1945-48 


Iowa 


Roland Sorenson 


History 


1948 


Willimantic State Teachers Col., 


Cora Moore 


Education 


Sept. 1950-May 


Willimantic, Conn. 






1951 




Juliette V. Phifer 


Education 


1948- 


Wilson Jr. Col., Chicago, 111. 


Cecil Lewis 


English 


1950- 




Sylvesta C. Scales 


Adult Education 


1951 




Melvin Sikes 


Counseling 


1949 


Women's Medical Col. of Penn., 








Philadelphia, Pa. 


Mildred Mitchell (Bateman) 


Medicine 


Oct. 1948 


Yeshiva Univ., New York City 


Alphonse Heningburg 


Education 


1949 



AGENCIES AND 
FOUNDATIONS 

National Scholarship Service and Fund 
for Negro Students (1947) : x 31 West 
110 St., New York 26, N. Y. Harry J. 
Carman, Chairman; Rev. James H. 
Robinson, Secy.-Treas. ; Richard L. Plaut, 
Exec. Vice-Chairman. A social welfare 
agency, supported by grants from founda- 
tions, allocations from college campus 
chest drives, and individual contributions, 
it was organized by seven college presi- 
dents for the broad purpose of increasing 
opportunities for qualified Negroes to 
obtain higher education in interracial 
colleges. At the present time, there are 165 
college presidents who serve on its ad- 
visory board. 

Its purpose is to help academically 
qualified Negro students obtain admission 
and scholarship assistance at institutions 
of their choice and to help them make 
that choice. The Service brings together 
the large group of colleges who welcome 
Negro applicants and the thousands of 
Negro students who need to know how to 
avail themselves of existing opportunities. 
The need for this kind of service program 
lies in the appallingly low percentage of 
Negro students at nonsegregated colleges. 
They comprise less than 1% of the total 
enrollment, although over 10% of the 
national population is Negro. 



Some reasons for this condition are: (1) 
Two-thirds of all Negro Americans who 
live in the South receive a poor to medi- 
ocre elementary and secondary educa- 
tion; (2) most Negro students in the 
South and North alike lack the money 
for a college education; (3) many aca- 
demically qualified Negroes do not know 
that both the administrations and the 
student bodies of several hundred non- 
segregated colleges in the North, Middle- 
West, and West welcome their applica- 
tions; (4) they do not know that these 
colleges and universities award over 
$14,000,000 worth of scholarships annu- 
ally, for most of which Negroes are 
equally eligible with all other; (5) many 
students lack the know-how and where- 
and-when of making application for ad- 
mission for scholarships. 

The state of Negro education in the 
South is a deep-seated national problem 
far beyond the capacity of any private 
organization to resolve. The agency is con- 
cerned with the last four factors. 

A Counseling and Referral Service 
leading towards admission to, and schol- 
arship aid at, the colleges and universities 
in the nonsegregated states is the basic 
tool of the agency. The Negro student is 
offered general orientation and advice on 
choosing and gaining admission, with 
special attention to whether the college 
chosen or some other source awards suffi- 



1 Source: National Scholarship Service and Fund for Negro Students. 



AGENCIES AND FOUNDATIONS 



249 



ciently large scholarships for which he is 
qualified and eligible. The agency works 
with more than 12,000 high schools 
throughout the country. Information 
about admission and scholarship oppor- 
tunities at more than 200 interracial 
institutions is made available to their 
students. 

A Supplementary Scholarship Fund 
has been established to supplement col- 
lege scholarships, which are often 
awarded in amounts insufficient to meet 
the total financial needs of students. 
Supplementary scholarships are awarded 
to selected southern students who must 
go the farthest from home at the greatest 
expense to attend nonsegregated colleges. 
Some funds are also available to meet the 
needs of students from the North attend- 
ing specified colleges where expenses are 
unusually high. Many such students are 
unable to take advantage of admission 
and scholarship opportunities which they 
have won, for the lack of a few hundred 
dollars. An average of $400 per student 
per year can make the difference. This 
the agency provides whenever possible. 

The Field Service is carried out by the 
agency's representatives, who visit college 
campuses all over the country. Staff visits 
are also made to high schools, first, to 
explain the service more fully, to encour- 
age the cooperation of guidance coun- 
selors, and to recruit applicants, and, 
later, to work with individual students. 

The Private School Program is a lim- 
ited attempt to help some of the large 
numbers of Negro students in the South 
who would otherwise reach their senior 
year in high school with inadequate 
preparation for college. To attack this 
problem the agency has enlisted the co- 
operation of over 40 leading preparatory 
schools. These accept applications from 
qualified Negroes on an equal basis with 
all others and offer, within the school's 
means, full or partial scholarships to 
those whom they accept for admission, 
making it possible for some outstanding 
students from the South to receive better 
secondary-school preparation. 



The United Negro College Fund 
(1943) : 22 E. 54th St., New York 22, 
N.Y. F. D. Patterson, Pres.; George H. 
Burchum, Treas. ; W. J. Trent, Jr., Exec. 
Dir. 1 As the nation's only organization of 
its kind to date, the United Negro Col- 
lege Fund has won a distinctive place for 
itself. It has earned widespread recogni- 
tion, not only for having introduced an 
entirely new formula for the financing of 
private higher education, but for having 
demonstrated in the relatively short 
period of its existence the soundness of 
its unique cooperative plan. 

Chartered in 1944, the Fund is a kind 
of educational community chest. It has a 
participating membership of 32 private 
accredited colleges and universities lo- 
cated in 12 states, ranging from Pennsyl- 
vania to Texas, which serve an average 
of 25,000 students annually. Through the 
Fund, these 32 institutions make one 
united appeal each year for public sup- 
port of their operating expenses. The 
amount sought nationally represents ap- 
proximately 10% of their budgets, and 
since its first campaign the Fund has 
raised over $8,000,000 for its members. 

The idea originated with Dr. F. D. 
Patterson, President of Tuskegee Insti- 
tute, in 1943. At that time, all privately 
supported institutions of higher learning 
were feeling the pinch of rising costs and 
declining income. For the Negro colleges 
of small endowment the situation was 
particularly grave. In his concern for 
their future, Dr. Patterson called publicly 
for group action, in a newspaper article 
which appeared in the Jan. 30, 1943, 
Pittsburgh Courier (Pa.). Written as an 
open letter to other Negro college presi- 
dents, this article stressed the importance 
of insuring the survival of these colleges, 
pointing out that they had "carried the 
brunt of our educational effort for the 
better part of this experience," and add- 
ing that they were "still educating nearly 
half of those who received college train- 
ing." He proposed that these institutions 
"pool their small monies . . . and make a 
united appeal to the national conscience." 



1 Source: W. J. Trent, Jr., Executive Director, The United Negro College Fund. 



250 



EDUCATION 



The interest created by die article re- 
sufced in a series of mrrrmgs of college 
presidents, foundation directors, and 
odier edneatonal andiorities, and finally 
in die organization of die United Negro 
College Fund in October 19431 

There were those, however, who won- 
dered at die audacity of die venture, even 
while diey ipplandtJ its enterprising 
spirit. For not only was die idea of seek- 
ing financial support from die general 
public for private education whoDy new 
and untried, but die nation dien still at 
war, America's rrsynnst to die first 
appeal of die 27 colleges and unieiMties 
diat made up die Fund in 1944 more dun 
justified die vision and fanh of Dr, Pat, 
terson and die odier presidents. Contribu- 
tions came from individual* in every part 
of die country, from philanthropic foun- 
dations, business firms and corporations 
bodi large and smaO, from chnrch groups 
and labor organizations, and even from 
members of die armed forces abroad, 
that first effort resulted in $765,567,63, 
Each year since, over one-million dollars 
has been raised dirough die Fund's na- 
tion-wide campaigns, now conducted in 
more than 70 cities and towns. 

Since its beguming, die tfaited Negro 
College Tmd has bad the approval and 
active support of such ifirtiif iii<h< il 
Americans a* John D, Rockefeller, Jr,, 
Thomas A, Morgan, Winthrop W, Ald- 
rieb, Chair A, Raroett, Jesse Jones, Dr, 
Peter Marshall Murray, Harvey S, Fire- 
tone, Jr,, William Green, Pbiltip Murray, 
C C Spaufding, William Dean Embree, 
W, C Bnford, T, S, Peterson, Mrs, 
Chauneey L, Waddefl, Dr, ^"^^tf H, 
Tobias, and many odier leaders m our 
national fife. 

Some measure of die rfcWtiim* of 
die Fund's financial aid may be taken 
from Ute fact that nine of die original 
member colleges which came into die 
Fund with a "B" rating are now rated as 
elass "A" institution* The money, used 
<web items as scholarship aid, faculty 
*laries, teaching, and laboratory and 
Kbrary rtpiimmtM, not only helps die 
wfleges meet dieir annual operating ex- 



penses but enables diem to improve and 
expand dieir educational services. By 
helping to tram more sound Negro 
IfinVniuji and by bringing together 
Hfgnpfa and whites, northerners and 
sondbenMnv to work harmoniously to- 
ward a common goal, die Fund is making 
a positive contribution to greater inter- 
racial understanding. 

In its capacity as an agency of public 
information, die Fund has served to focus 
national attention on die importance of 
die work now being done by die private 
Negro colleges and dieir potential for die 
future. Thus it paved die way for a new 
and vital part of its program for strength- 
ening its member colleges, die recently 
launched five-year Capital Funds effort 

Opened officially on March 5, 1951, 
with die announcement of a $5,000,000 
gift presented by John D, Rockefeller, 
Jr,, die Capital Funds campaign will 
seek $25,000,000 to be used for building 
purposes by die 32 united colleges and 
universities. Commenting on this second 
important step taken by die member col- 
leges under die leadership of die Fund's 
founder and president, die New York 
Time* stated in its editorial columns that 
the first gift of $5,000,000 by Mr. Rocke- 
feller to this important venture was not 
notable for die sum alone, but that "in a 
time when die role of freedom's champion 
has been given to die United States, die 
gift is a moving example of faith in 
American democracy, whose precept is 
equality of opportunity for afl," 

Bill Rotn*#m Fonndotum (1951): home 
Office, 31 J-A N, 2nd St, Rkbmowi, Va. A 
nmapfpnt organization to perpetuate ffcc mem- 
ory of Bifl "Ve$M|fl*f" KoJwmom, It propose* 
to imjv "die social ami 1M* condition* of 
mmgnifc and to anmum the welt-being of 

:.- --..--. r.V ' .: , V -.-.-: i, : : - : V.'.. .-.I/ " 

jferow /or fnttrclt*ral Education (1999) t 
Broadway, JT,Y, 19, ITY, Tjms of serr- 
mdvde : fcrvist to MMk sdNwrf* (from 
to 1 94tf NMMrvk* course* were Cfrcn to 
1500 feacfaer* m nie N,Y, poMic s4tob alone 
MI the techniques intercthral edocation) ; 
4t**tofimut of technique* through experi- 
wents m selected scfaoolsy tuMttt lessons 
learned avaiJaMe tbrow^i die Bnreati 5 * ptiWica- 
tions; and stflmner workshops to intercoltoral 
- - .. - - ,-.- ,.--: . - -: . ."-.'/.-; ;.- .- : .- ,T 
of cofleces and tniver*itie, 

Corn*** Cor*, of W.Y. O9J1) s original 
xdsvment |125XX/Oj 522 Fifth Av*, 



AGENCIES AND FOUNDATIONS 



251 



N.Y. 18, N.Y. FflTiHhh+ri by Andrew Carnegie 
to advance and diffuse knowledge and under- 
standingamong the people of the U.S. and die 
British Dominions and colonies. Recent grants 
have been chiefly to library service, the arts, 
and educational and scientific research. It 
operates through colleges, universities, national 
organisations, and professional and learned 
societies. 

Carmtgit F&mdatitm for AdnMctmrtti of 
Tracking (1905): original endowment $10,- 
000.000 ; 522 Fifth Ave^ N.Y. 18, N.Y. It pro- 
vides "retiring pensions nitJUMt regard to race, 
sex, creed or color, for teachers of universities, 
colleges and technical schools in die United 
States and Canada" and aims "in general to do 
and perform all things necessary to encourage, 
uphold, and dignify die profession of the 
teacher and die cause of higher education." 
During die period 1947-51, die Foundation set 
aside $235,000 toward setting up a five-year 
experimental cooperative grant-in-aid program 
for teachers in a selected group off Negro col- 
leges in die Southeastern states, plus expendi- 
tures to programs of odier Negro organizations 
and educational institutions. 

FJortiM Ltuktr FJlmn*t* Fttml (1951): 
original endowment $25,000; The United 
Nero Cofleue Fund, 21 E. 54 St., N.Y. 22, 
N.Y. This Fund was set up by Miss Lonla D. 
Lasker widi a grant of $25,000 from a special 
trust designated in her late sister's will for 
social, civic, scientific and educational pur- 
poses. Annual fellowships of $2,000 and $1.000 
are awarded to two women graduates from 
among die graduates of die 32 private, accred- 
ited colleges of the United Negro College Fund. 

Ford FovWotioN (1936) : endowment (Dec. 
31, 1949) $232.000,000 : Buhl Bldg., Detroit 
21, Mich. The purpose is "to receive and ad- 
minister funds for scientific, educational and 
charitable purposes.*" Five general areas are 
defined: (1) activities that promise significant 
contributions to world peace : (2) diose diat 
safeguard American freedoms in all fields; 
(3) diose that seek to advance die economic 
well-being of people everywhere; (4) educa- 
tion, including a* much-needed aim to improve 
die quality and quantity of teachers and to 
develop generally educated students; (5) to 
increase die knowledge of factors which in- 
fluence or determine human behavior, emo- 
tionally, technologically, psychologically, and 
medically. It began to function in 1950 after 
14 years' existence, 

Gtmtrvt E4wcmio* Board (1902): original 
grant $129,209,117; 49 W. 49 St., N.Y. 19. 
N.Y, By its imwoui. contributions to Negro 
education, and more recently to programs look- 
ing toward the improvement of race relations 
and die lifting of die general level of life in 
die southern states, die General Education 
Board is an important factor in die field of 
race relations. It was endowed by John D. 
Rockefeller with the stated object of '"promot- 
ing education within die United States widiout 
distinction of race, sex or creed." Its present 
program concentrates especially oa graduate 
work and aid to a few strong educational 
centers. It emphasizes instruction in fields 
related to economic development of the South ; 
aids research in die social and natural sciences, 
humanities, and agriculture, and promotes 
training of personnel and improvement of 



library service. The Board "aids development 
of undergraduate schools and helps reinforce 
teaching and personnel in public schools." 

Houston Emdovement, Imc. (1937): Box 
1414, Houston 1, Texas. Organized imriii die 
laws of Texas and endowed by Jesse H. Jones. 
former Secy, of OlMMirju and Mrs. Jones. 
It purposes to support charitable, educational, 
and religious undertakings. Scholarships are 
administered and die grants are known as die 
"Jesse H. Jones Scholarships," 

Jok* Hay ir*uwr Fommiftiom (1946) : 30 
Rockefeller Plaza. N.Y. 20, N.Y. Purposes: 
"(1) to promore die de\^lopment of knowledge 
and die application diereof to die improvement 
of social welfare, and to that end to conduct 
and to assist investigation, study, research. 
experiment and die dissemination of informa- 
tion in die fields of medical science, social 
science and social welfare, and (2) to give aid 
and assistance to organizations and institutions 
which are organized and operate i itlmihiilj 
for religious, charitable, scientific, literary, 
educational or other benevolent purposes and 
are exempt from taxation.*" In 1949 this Foun- 
dation MBnaimd Opportunity Fellowships for 
Young Americans whose racial or cultural 
backgrounds have hampered their opportunity 
for personal advancement, widi Dr. Robert C. 
Weaver as director. 

John Simon Gmoyfnmfim Mtmtortot F<XUM(- 
tiom (1925) : original endowment $3.000,000; 
551 Fifdi Are., N.Y. 17, N.Y. Fellowships are 
granted to citizens and permanent residents of 
the U.S. to assist research in any field of 
knowledge and creative work in any of die fine 
arts. Fellows must have demonstrated unusual 
capacity for productive scholarship or unusual 
creative ability in die fine arts. The grants are 
made for varying periods, depending on die 
time needed by Fellows. The sum of $3.000 a 
year is usual. A limited number of fellowships 
are also offered to some foreign students for 
work in die U.S. 

JmiSKtfd Mttsfco! FtttJMtowM (1920) : origi- 
nal uaduwaurt $12,000,000; 31 Nassau St., 
N.Y. 5, N.Y. Maintains die Julliard School 
of Music, aids worthy students to complete 
their education, and provides entertainment 
for the general public. 

K*ff&t FmoMMrwit (1924) : original endow- 
ment $1,557,376; 2727 Second Aye., Detroit 
32, Mich. Created for "die promotion of dee- 
mosynary. philanthropic, ana charitable means 
of any of all of the means of human progress.** 

Jfifemft Mfmonml Fwrf (1905): original 
oadto*eat $3,000,000: 40 Wall SU N.Y. 5, 
N.Y. Established by Mrs. Elizabedi Milbank 
Anderson as a memorial to her parents. Pur- 
pose: To improve die physical, mental, and 
moral condition of humanity and generally to 
advance charitable and benevolent objectives ; 
to assist and promote MtadM in Aft field of 
public health and medicine, education, social 
welfare, and research, widi emphasis on pre- 
ventive activities. Widi additional gifts, Mrs, 
Anderson had increased the original endow- 
ment to $9,315,175 in 1921, die year of her 



N9tJ9*l Foundation for Inftmtilf PtnJysis 
(193$) : 120 Broadway, N.Y. 5, N.Y. Founded 
by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to fight 
infantile paralysis. Funds are obtained through 
voluntary contributions to die annual "March 



252 



EDUCATION 



of Dimes" drive held during last two weeks in 
January. Of funds thus raised, half goes to the 
National Foundation and half to local chapters 
for care and treatment of polio patients and 
for aid during epidemics. Foundation does its 
work through institutions throughout the coun- 
try, with grants for investigations on the cause, 
prevention, and cure of polio. 

National Phyllis Wheatley Foundation, Inc. 
(1950): original endowment $25,000; The 
Phyllis Wheatley Home, 4450 Cedar Ave., 
Cleveland Ohio. The Foundation has estab- 
lished two $5,000 scholarships named in mem- 
ory of Lida Russell Hunter of Lexington, Ky., 
and the late Robert A. Penn, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Objective is to advance training in vocational 
education, with emphasis on home economics, 
cosmetology, nurse training, commercial edu- 
cation, and music. Raised to $30,122.12 in 
1951, Miss Jane E. Hunter, founder, announced 
scholarships would be issued in 1954. 

Phelps-Stokes Fund (1911) : origin'al endow- 
ment $936,000; 101 Park Ave., N.Y. 17, N.Y. 
The Fund has devoted its major attention to 
Negro education and race relations in the 
U.S. and Africa, and the improvement of 
housing conditions in New York City. It has 
sponsored the University Commission on Race 
Relations ; the Commision on Interracial Co- 
operation ; the Committee on Negro Americans 
in Defense Industries ; the Committee on 
Africa, the War, and Peace Aims ; and various 
interracial institutes. The Fund is now espe- 
cially concerned with advancing projects in the 
interest of improving training of Negro min- 
isters, in promoting mutually sympathetic race 
relations through education, and in the work 
of advancing education in Liberia. 

The Rockefeller Foundation (1913) : origi- 
nal endowment $182,814,000; 49 W. 49 St., 
N.Y. 20, N.Y. Purpose : to promote the well- 
being of mankind throughout the world, 
through the advancement of knowledge in spe- 
cific fields, especially the medical sciences, 
the natural sciences, public health, social sci- 
ences, and the humanities. Its activities are 
mainly confined to the support of other agencies 
and to the training, through post-doctoral fel- 
lowships, of competent personnel. 

Rosenwald Fund (Julius Rosenwald) 
(1917): original endowment $20,000,000; 
Chicago, 111. Ceased operation June 30, 1948. 
In operation 31 years, this Fund expended 
some $22,500,000 on varied projects, ranging 
from rural schools for Negroes, to coveted fel- 
lowships for writers, artists, musicians, sci- 
entists, and educators of all races. The money 
came from the capital and interest on the 
original endowment made of 227,784 shares of 
Sears, Roebuck & Company stock. Rosenwald 
specified that returns from the funds set aside 
for this purpose be spent within 25 years after 
his death. Negro colleges, especially Howard, 
Dillard, and Fisk Universities and the six 



schools of the Atlanta Federation of Colleges 
received $5,000,000 of this sum. Another 
$5,184,381 went to stimulate the establishment 
of 5,357 Negro public and rural schools in 15 
southern states. In fellowships, $2,000,000 has 
benefited 600 Negroes and 250 Whites. 

Russell Sage Foundation (1907) : original 
endowment $15,000,000; 130 E. 22 St., N.Y. 
10, N.Y. Purpose _: To promote the improvement 
of social and living conditions in the U.S. by 
studying social conditions and methods of 
social work ; interpreting the findings ; making 
available the information through publications, 
conferences, and other means ; and seeking 
to stimulate action for social betterment. 

Sidney Hillman Foundation (1948) ; orig- 
inal endowment $1,000,000; 15 Union Square, 
N.Y. 3, N.Y. Created in memory of the late 
president of the Amalgamated Clothing Work- 
ers of America, CIO. Awards will be distrib- 
uted yearly for 25 years to schools motivated 
by the aims of the late union leader and hu- 
manitarian, who died in 1946. It allocates 
funds for scholarships, grants-in-aid, merit 
awards, and other prizes. It seeks out excel- 
lence and encourages it in the fields of en- 
lightened labor-management relations, race re- 
lations, and world peace, including achieve- 
ment or efforts in related educational, eco- 
nomic, and political fields. 

Sigmund Livingston Memorial Fund (1947) ; 
212 Fifth Ave., N.Y. 10, N.Y. Maintained by 
voluntary contributions. Allocates fellowships 
to selected universities having graduate social 
science departments. The universities appoint 
the Fellows. 

Southern Conference Educational Fund, Inc. 
(1946) ; 822 Perdido St., New Orleans 12, La. 
Through its organ, The Southern Patriot, con- 
ferences, surveys, etc., this Fund keeps the 
public informed on current trends in educa- 
tion, race relations, and other social and eco- 
nomic problems, in order to eliminate racial 
discrimination by educational methods. 

The Southern Education Foundation, Inc. 
(1937); original endowment $2,310,728; 913 
Cypress St., N.E., Atlanta 5, Ga. This Foun- 
dation is composed of four funds as follows : 
The John F. Slater Fund (1882) ; The George 
Peabody Fund (1918) ; The Anna T. Jeanes 
Fund (1907); The Virginia Randolph Fund 
(1943). The purpose of all is to improve the 
educational and living conditions of the Negro 
race. At present, the chief activity is aid in 
support of some 506 supervisors of Negro rural 
schools. 

W. C. Handy Foundation for the Blind, 
Inc.; established 1949 (reorganized 1950) ; 
112 E. 19 St., N.Y. 3, N.Y. A nation-wide 
agency to aid the blind and particularly the 
Negro blind, established by William C. Handy, 
composer. Supported by contributions. Hon. 
Miles A. Paige, Exec. Secy. 



77 V 

The Church and Religious Work 



DENOMINATIONAL organizations among 
Negroes started because Negroes desired 
larger participation than the organized 
Churches once allowed them. The first 
local churches were formed in the latter 
half of the eighteenth century in Virginia, 
Pennsylvania, Georgia, New York, and 
Maryland. In 1816, the African Methodist 
Episcopal Church was established and 
elected its first bishop to preside over the 
denomination. In 1820, the African Meth- 
odist Episcopal Zion Church was estab- 
lished. Both patterned their organizations 
after the Methodist Episcopal Church, of 
which they had formerly been members. 

No religious denomination is desig- 
nated "The Negro Church." Denomina- 
tions are called "Baptist," "Methodist," 
"African," "Primitive," "Holiness," and 
the like. Nor are local churches, so far 
as is known, called "Negro." The term 
"Negro Church" is simply a convenient 
way to designate that segment of the 
Christian Church set apart by the slowly 
vanishing American pattern of racial 
segregation, emphasizing the racial rather 
than the historical and theological back- 
grounds of denominations. 

Transplanted from Europe, many de- 
nominations have a history of bitterness, 
misunderstanding, persecution, and hair- 
splitting biblical interpretations in which 
Negroes had no part. As a matter of fact, 
Negroes do not have the bitterness against 
Jews which many white Christians have, 
both in Europe and America. The African 
Negro was never involved in the economic 
battles fought in Europe against Jews. 
On the contrary, mutual experience of 
mistreatment as minorities in America 
has brought Negroes and Jews into close 
fellowship, notwithstanding theological 
differences. Negro Protestants do not 
have the suspicion and hatred against 



Catholics held by many other churchmen. 
There are no wars of Reformation or In- 
quisition in their racial memory. Tirades 
against Jews or Catholics are seldom 
heard in Negro churches. 

Three main purposes for which all 
Negro denominations work bring Negroes 
together: (1) they worship God in their 
own way, a God who is the Father of Ne- 
groes also; (2) they encourage and 
inspire Negroes to live the good life, 
which includes improvement in morals, 
social life, education, health, housing, 
politics, business, and recreation, as well 
as worship (in this task, the dynamic 
idea of "getting to heaven," has undoubt- 
edly been the greatest motivating force 
for better living on earth) ; (3) the 
"Negro Church" preaches practical 
Christian brotherhood and strives to have 
the Negro included in that brotherhood. 
Regardless of theoretical differences, all 
Negro Churches easily unite to urge 
American acceptance of the Negro as a 
Christian brother through economic, polit- 
ical, civic, and social justice. Thus the 
"Negro Church" has laid the spiritual 
foundation for many fraternal, business, 
civic, and political movements. Strange as 
it may seem, the "Negro Church" is 
founded more largely on a sociological 
than on a theological basis. 

STATISTICS ON NEGRO 
CHURCHES 

There are no complete statistics on Negro 
churches because most of them do not 
keep accurate records. Churches required 
to make a per capita financial report to 
a central authority with power to remove 
the pastor are apt to report the minimum 
number of members, while those churches 
which have no such responsibilitiy may 



253 



254 



THE CHURCH, RELIGIOUS WORK 



report maximum membership. The U.S. 
Census is therefore the best authority. 1 

The reports of the Census show that in 
1906, 36,563 Negro churches were re- 
ported; in 1916, 39,592; in 1926, 42,585; 
and in 1936, 38,303. In 1936, there were 
256 religious bodies in the United States: 
59 were demonimations having Negro 
churches; 33 were exclusively Negro, 
that is, had no churches except Negro 
churches, and 26 had one or more Negro 
churches among so-called white religious 
bodies. 

The Census of 1936 showed that at 
least 7,000,000 Negroes did not belong 
to any church. The largest membership 
of Negro Churches is found in the South. 
By size of state membership they are: 
Georgia, Alabama, Texas, North Caro- 
lina, Mississippi, Louisiana, South Caro- 
lina, Virginia, and Arkansas. The follow- 
ing northern and southern States have 
over 100,000 Negro members each: Penn- 
sylvania, Tennessee, Florida, New York, 
Illinois, and Ohio. However, in the states 
of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisi- 
ana, South Carolina, Arkansas, Kentucky, 
and Tennessee, Negro church member- 
ship is less than half the total Negro 
population, as is the case in all northern 
states. In Ohio, Church membership is 
about 40% of the Negro population; in 
Illinois and New York, approximately 
25%. 

Denominations Belonging to 
the "Negro Church" 

Information concerning denominations 
of the "Negro Church" is taken from the 
Bureau of the Census, Religious Bodies 
1936, published in 1941; the Year Book 
of American Churches for 1951, edited by 
George F. Ketcham, and latest published 
reports and information furnished by 
executives of the several denominations 
and other religious organizations: 
The African Methodist 
Episcopal Church 

This church started in Philadelphia, Pa. in 
1787. The denomination was formed in Phila- 
delphia in 1816 and extended throughout the 



North before the Civil War, after which it 
made great progress in the South. Since 1887, 
it has also operated in Africa. In 1950 it had 
7,265 churches; inclusive membership, 1,166,- 
301. Membership 13 years of age and over, 
867,035 ; African and foreign membership, 
100,000. Estimated total membership, 1,166,- 
301. General Conference, quadrennial. 

OFFICERS : Chairman, Bishops' Council, 
Bishop John A. Gregg, 1150 Washington Blvd., 
Kansas City, Kans. ; Secy., Bishops' Council, 
Bishop Sherman L. Greene, 1212 Fountain 
Drive, Atlanta, Ga. : Chief Secy, of Gen'l. 
Conference, Rev. Russell Brown, 4000 Cook 
Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

BISHOPS: Dist. 1, D. Ward Nichols, 209 
Edgecomb Ave., New York, N.Y. ; Dist. 2, L. 
H. Hemmingway, 1620 15 St., N.W., Wash- 
ington, D.C. ; Dist. 3, A. J. Allen, 2193 E. 89 
St., Cleveland, Ohio; Dist. 4, George W. Ba- 
ber, 110 E. Boston Blvd., Detroit, Mich.; Dist. 
5, D. O. Walker, Wilberforce, Ohio ; Dist. 6, 
S. L. Greene, Morris Brown Col., Atlanta, 
Ga. ; Dist. 7, F. M. Reid, Allen Univ., Colum- 
bia, S.C.; Dist. 8, M. H. Davis, 1226 Druid 
Hill Ave., Baltimore, Md. ; Dist. 9, W. A. 
Fountain, 242 Blvd., N.E., Atlanta, Ga. ; Dist. 
10, Joseph Gomez, Paul Quinn Col., Waco, 
Texas; Dist. 11, J. A. Gregg, Edward Waters 
Col., Jacksonville, Fla. ; Dist. 12, Richard 
R. Wright, Jr., 2118 Cross St., Little Rock, 
Ark.; Dist. 13, J. H. Clayborn, 1800 Marshall 
St., Little Rock, Ark.; Dist. 14, Carey A. 
Gibbs, Monrovia, Liberia, W. Africa ; Dist. 
15, I. H. Bonner, 28 Walmer Road, Wood- 
stock, Capetown, S. Africa; Dist. 16, W. R. 
Wilkes, Atlanta, Ga. ; Dist. 17, I. H. Bonner; 
Reverdy C. Ransom, Director, Bureau of Re- 
search and History ; Noah W. Williams (Re- 
tired). 

GENERAL OFFICERS : Business Manager, 
A.M.E. Book Concern, Rev. P. C. Williams, 
716 S. 19th St., Philadelphia, Pa. ; Ed., Chris- 
tian Recorder and Western Christian Re- 
corder, Rev. Fred Hughes, 716 S. 19 St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; Secy.-Treas., Dept. of Mis- 
sions, Rev. L. L. Berry, 112 W. 120 St., New 
York, N.Y. ; Secy.-Treas., Dept. of Finance, 
Dr. A. S. Jackson, 1541 14 St., N.W., Wash- 
ington, D.C. ; Secy.-Treas., Dept. of Educ., 
Dr. E. A. Adams, 2113 Lady St., Columbia, 
S.C. ; Ed., A.M.E.^ Church Review, Dr. J. S. 
Brookens, 509 Weinacker Ave., Mobile, Ala. ; 
Dept. of Religious Educ., Dr. S. S. Morris, 
Direc., 414 8th Ave., S., Nashville, Tenn. ; 
Secy.-Treas., Sunday School Union, Dr. E. A. 
Selby, 414 8th Ave., S., Nashville, Tenn.; 
Secy., Dept. of Religious Educ., Dr. C. W. 
Abington, 414 8th Ave., S., Nashville, Tenn.; 
Dept. of Church Extension, Dr. P. W. Rogers, 
1535 14 St., N.W. Washington, D.C. ; Ed., 
Southern Christian Recorder, Dr. E. C. 
Hatcher, 414 8th Ave., S., Nashville, Tenn.; 
Secy.-Treas., Dept. of Pensions, Dr. J. E. 
Beard, 414 8th Ave., S., Nashville, Tenn.; 
American Bible Society, Rev. V. C. Hodges, 
1373 E. Blvd., Cleveland 4, Ohio; Connec- 
tional Woman's Missionary Society, Pres., 
Mrs. Anne E. Heath, Treas., Mrs. Nora W. 
Link, 716 S. 19 St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Ed., 
Woman's Missionary Recorder, Mrs. A. B. 



1 The United States Census of Religious Bodies 1936, contains the latest Government figures on churches in the 
U.S. See The Negro Year Book 1947 for 1936 figures. 



STATISTICS ON NEGRO CHURCHES 



255 



Williams, Jacksonville, Fla. ; Dept. of Evan- 
gelism, Direc., Dr. E. J. Odom, 716 S. 19 St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; Supt. of Young People's 
Dept., Missionary Society, Mrs. Alma A. Polk, 
3103 Center Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

African Methodist Episcopal 
Zion Church 

This Church was started in New York at 
"Mother Zion Church" in 1796. The New York 
and several other Churches broke away from 
the Methodist Episcopal Church and organized 
in 1821, setting up their own first conference 
in Philadelphia. 

Church membership 758,158; number of 
churches 3,060 ; number of ordained Elders, 
3,500. Gen'l. Secy. R. Farley Fisher writes : 
"During this quadrennium. we have carried 
on an extensive building program . . . costing 
more than $3,000,000. To standardize some of 
our schools on the Foreign Field, East and 
West Gold Coast Conferences, Africa, we have 
raised more than $53,000. Church property is 
valued at more than $22,000,000. In the field 
of education, we have contributed more than 
$5,000,000. The director of the Bureau of 
Evangelism is doing much constructive work 
with the ministers of the church." This shows 
the progress which can be made. 

BISHOPS: Dist. 1, Benjamin G. Shaw, 1 1210 
N. Charles St., Birmingham, Ala.; Dist. 2, 
William Jacob Walls, 4736 S. Parkway, 
Chicago, 111.; Dist. 3, John W. Martin, 4550 
S. Michigan Blvd., Chicago, 111.; Dist. 4, 
Cameron C. Alleyne, 5861 Haverford Ave., 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; Dist. 5, William C. Brown, 
527 W. Jefferson Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif.; 
Dist. 6, William W. Slade, 410 E. First St., 
Charlotte, N.C. ; Dist. 7, Buford F. Gordon, 
527 Carmel St. Charlotte, N.C. ; Dist. 8, Frank 
W. Alstork, 1 622 Keefer Place, N.W., Wash- 
ington, D.C. ; Dist. 9, Edgar B. Watson, 1 515 
Bennett St., Greensboro, N.C. ; Dist. 10, James 
Clair Taylor, 353 Boyd St. .Memphis, Tenn. ; 
Dist. 11, Raymond L. Jones, 916 W. Horah 
St., Salisbury, N.C. ; Dist. 12, Hampton T. 
Medford, 715 Randolph St., N.W., Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

GENERAL OFFICERS : Gen'l. Secy .-Auditor, 
Rev. R. Farley Fisher ; Financial Secy., Rev. 
George F. Hall ; Mgr. of the Publication 
House, Rev. William A. Blackwell, III; Ed., 
Star of Zion, Rev. Walter R. Lovell ; Ed., 
Quarterly Review, Rev. David H. Bradley ; 
Secy., Brotherhood Pension, Home Missions & 
Relief, Rev. Herbert B. Shaw ; Secy. Christian 
Educ., Dr. James W. Eichelberger ; Secy. 
Church Extension, Mr. Daniel W. Andrews ; 
Direc. of Evangelism, Rev. W. S. Dacon ; 
Secy.-Treas., Foreign Missions, Rev. Daniel C. 
Pope ; Pres. of Livingstone Col., Dr. W. J. 
Trent ; Ed., Church School Literature, Dr. J. 
S. Nathaniel Tross. 

OFFICERS : WOMEN'S HOME AND FOREIGN 
MISSIONARY SOCIETY : Pres., Mrs. Rosa L. 
Weller ; Vice-Pres., Missouri A. Moore ; Exec. 
Secy., Emma B. Watson ; Recording Secy., 
Cynthia G. Waff ; Treas., Julia Baum Shaw ; 
Secy., Young Women, Willie M. Bascom; 
Supt., Buds of Promise, Edra Mae Hilliard ; 
Secy., Bur. of Supplies, Martha B. Francis ; 
Chairman, Life Members Council, Daisy E. 

1 Deceased. 



Rudd ; Ed., Woman's Section, Missionary 
Seer, Miss Eula M. Brown. 

African Orthodox Church 

This religious organization was organized 
in 1921 by George Alexander McGuire, a for- 
mer priest in the Protestant Episcopal Church 
with orders through Archbishop Vilatte of the 
Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Church. This body 
is autonomous and independent but was asso- 
ciated in the beginning with the Marcus Garvey 
Movement. Churches, 30 ; inclusive member- 
ship, 6,021 (1950). OFI^CERS: Patriarch, 
Archbishop William E. Robertson (James I), 
122 W. 129 St., New York, N.Y. ; Primate 
Western Province, Archbishop Richard G. 
Robinson, 132 N. 57 St., Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Chancellor, Rev. Fr. R. G. Robinson, Jr., 132 
N. 57 St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Secy., Rev. Fr. 
A. C. Perry-Thompson, 73 West 115 St., New 
York, N.Y. ; Financial Secy, and Treas., W. 
Selkridge, 122 W. 129 St., New York, N.Y. 

The African Union First Colored 
Methodist Protestant Church, 
U.S.A. and Canada 

A Negro body formed in 1805 out of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. It became a de- 
nomination in 1813. Churches, 36 ; inclusive 
membership, 2,597 (1944). Estimated mem- 
bership 13 years of age and over, 2,454. Con- 
ference, annual. Hq. : 702 Poplar St., Wil- 
mington, Del. OFFICERS : Gen'l. Pres., Rev. J. 
W. Brown, Secy.-Supvr., Rev. T. E. Bolden, 
808 Tatnal St., Wilmington, Del. 

The Apostolic Methodist Church 

Organized in 1932, with the polity of feder- 
ated Congregationalism, and the Bible as the 
pure and complete work of God. Churches, 2 ; 
inclusive membership, 31 (1936). Membership 
13 years of age and over, 27. OFFICERS : Pas- 
tor Elder, E. H. Crowson, Laughman, Fla. ; 
Lay Elder, F. B. Amer, Zepher Hills, Fla. 

The Apostolic Overcoming 
Holy Church of God 

Organized in Alabama in 1916. Evangelistic 
in purpose. Churches, 200 ; inclusive member- 
ship, 8,000 (1942). Estimated membership 13 
years of age and over, 7,200. OFFICER : Bishop 
W. T. Phillips, 1070 Congress St., Mobile, Ala. 

Christ's Sanctified Holy Church 

Organized in 1903 at West Lake, La., from 
among members of a Negro Methodist Church. 
Churches, 28 ; inclusive estimated membership, 
1500 (1948). Membership 13 years of age and 
over, 831. Conference, annual. Headquarters: 
S. Cutting Ave. and E. Spencer St., Jen- 
nings, La. OFFICERS : Pres., Elder J. A. 
Rigmaiden, Rt. 1, Box 288, West Lake, La.; 
Vice-Pres., Rev. C. C. Bolden, Crowley, La. ; 
Exec. Secy., Mrs. Mary A. Paul, 714 Orange 
St., Box 555, Jennings, La.; Dist. Treas., El- 
der J. Strong, Glenmore, La. 

Church of Christ, Holiness, U.S.A. 

This body was organized by a colored Bap- 
tist preacher as a holiness group in 1894. 
Churches, 139; inclusive membership, 7,882 
(1950). Estimated membership 13 years of age 



256 



THE CHURCH, RELIGIOUS WORK 



and over, 7,000. OFFICERS : Senior Bishop M. 
R. Conic, 329 E. Monument St., Jackson, 
Miss. National Convention, annual. Hg. : Jack- 
son, Miss. 

Church of God and Saints of Christ 

. A Negro body organized in Kansas by Wil- 
liam S. Crowdy, who taught that the Negro 
People are descendants of the ten lost tribes 
of Israel. His followers consequently observe 
the Old Testament feast days, use Hebrew 
names for the months, and are sometimes 
called "Black Jews." Churches, 189 ; inclusive 
membership, 34,045 (1946). Membership 13 
years of age and over, 26,711. OFFICERS: 
Bishop H. Z. Plummer, Belleville, Va. Oper- 
ates Belleville Industrial School and Widows 
and Orphans Home, Inc., P.O. Box 187, Ports- 
mouth, Va. General Conference, quadrennial. 

Church of God in Christ 

"Believes in baptism of the Holy Ghost and 
speaking in new tongues." Organized in 1907 
by Elders C. H. Mason and O. J. Young, at 
Memphis, Tenn. Membership approx. 600,000 
(1951). Main achievement, building of Mason's 
Temple in Memphis, seating 5,000, furnishing 
a permanent meeting place for the annual as- 
semblies. Hq. : 953 S. 5 St., Memphis, Tenn. 

OFFICERS : Bishop C. H. Mason, Senior 
Bishop, 1121 Mississippi Ave., Memphis, 
Tenn.; Bishop W. M. Roberts, 5858 Indiana 
Aye., Chicago, 111.; Bishop O. T. Jones, 5617 
Girard Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. ; Bishop R. F. 
Williams, 1061 E. 97 St., Cleveland, Ohio; 
Bishop A. B. McEwen, /Foreign Fields), 1365 
S. Parkway E., Memphis, Tenn. ; Bishop Sam- 
uel Crouch, 1397 E. 33 St., Los Angeles, Calif. ; 
Bishop C. L. Morton, Canada. 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS : Bishop R. F. Wil- 
liams, Nat'l. Chairman, 1051 E. 97 St., Cleve- 
land, Ohio; Elder U. E. Miller, Gen'l. Secy., 
1092 E. 98 St., Cleveland, Ohio; Elder A. M. 
Cohen, Treas., 1931 N.W. 5th Court, Miami, 
Fla. ; Bishop O. T. Jones, Ed., Y.O.W.W. 
Topics, 57 W. Girard St., Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Elder C. O. Brown, Secy.-Treas., Home and 
Foreign Missions, 2027 Park Ave., Kansas 
City, Mo. ; Elder F. C. Christmas, Gen'l. Supt., 
Sunday School, 569 E. Georgia St., Memphis, 
Tenn. ; Elder E. C. Patrick, Ass. Supt., Sun- 
day School, 237 King St., Detroit, Mich. ; 
Elder S. Lazrd, Nat'l. Registrar of Deeds, 
Amite, La.; Elder C. A. Ashworth, Nat'l. 
Statistician, 739 Rhodes Ave., Akron, Ohio ; 
Elder James Feltus, Treas., Nat'l. Convoca- 
tions, 2619 Galvez Ave., New Orleans, La.; 
Elder C. E. Bennett, Chairman, Nat'l. Finance 
Comm., 2520 Jefferson St., Gary, Indiana ; 
Elder J. E. Bryant, Nat'l. Field Secy., 1635 
Berger St., Brooklyn, N.Y. ; Mrs. Lizzie Rob- 
inson, Gen'l. Supvr., Women's Work, 2723 N. 
28 St., Omaha, Neb.; Mrs. Lillian Brooks 
Coffey, Nat'l. Finance Secy, and Ass. Supvr.. 
(Gen'l.), Women's Work, 429 E. 44 St., 
Chicago, 111. ; Mrs. Annie L. Bailey, Nat'l 
Secy., Women's Work, 4629 Vinewodd 
Ave. ; Detroit, Mich. ; Mrs. Anna Smith, Nat'l. 
Recording Secy., 2455 Brooklyn Ave., Kansas 
City, Kans. ; Mrs. Ella V. Parks, Ed., Whole 
Truth, 820 Montgomery St., Memphis, Tenn. ; 
Mrs. D. J. Young, Publisher Sunday School 

1 Deceased. 



Literature, 1958 N. 6 St., Kansas City, Kans. ; 
Mrs. E. Brooks, Ed., Sunshine Topics, 254 
Warren Blvd., Chicago, 111.; Mrs. Reubell 
Scott, Nat'l. Transportation Comm., 1308 Bar- 
nett St., Kansas City, Kans. ; Miss Arenia C. 
Mallory, Pres., Saint's Industrial School, Lex- 
ington, Miss. 

Church of the Living God 
(Christian Workers for Fellowship) 

A body founded by William Christian, at 
Wrightsville, Ark., in 1889. Its distinctive 
characteristics are believers' baptism by im- 
mersion, foot-washing, and the use of water in 
the sacrament. It is organized along fraternal 
order lines. Churches, 6 ; inclusive member- 
ship, 120 (1944). Membership 13 years of age 
and over, 120. OFFICERS: Chief, John W. 
Christian, 1050 Woodlawn St., Memphis, 
Tenn. ; Ass. Chief, Walter Christian, same 
address. General Assembly, quadrennial. 

Church of the Living God, Pillar 
and Ground of the Truth 

Churches, 121 ; estimated, inclusive mem- 
bership, 8,000 (1950). Membership 13 years 
of age and over, 4,460. OFFICERS : Bishop A. 
W. White, 741 N. 48 St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Churches of God, Holiness 

A "body organized by K. H. Burrus, in 
Georgia, in 1914 in the interest of Holiness 
doctrines. Churches, 35 ; inclusive member- 
ship, 5,872 (1936). Membership 13 of age and 
over, 4,377. Hq. : 170 Ashby St., N.W., At- 
lanta, Ga. OFFICERS : Bishop K. H. Burrus ; 
corresponding secy., B. M. Andrews. 

Colored Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church 

In 1869 the Negro churches of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church were set apart by the 
General Assembly with their own ecclesiastical 
organization. Churches, 121 ; inclusive mem- 
bership, 30,000 (1944). Membership 13 years 
of age and over, 20,000. OFFICERS : Modera- 
tor, Rev. O. F. Bishop, Lewisburg, Tenn. ; 
Statistical Clerk, J. I. Hill, P.O. Box 595, Mt. 
Enterprise, Tex. 

The Colored Methodist 
Episcopal Church 

In 1870 the General Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, approved 
the request of its colored membership for the 
formation of their conference into a separate 
ecclesiastical body. Churches, 4,300 ; inclusive 
membership, 392,167 (1951). Ministers, 1,872. 
Membership 13 years of age and over, 321,000. 
Gen'l. Conference, quadrennial. Significant 
work during past five years was building pro- 
grams at Texas Col. and Mississippi Industrial 
Col. 

BISHOPS: C. H. Phillips, 1 Emeritus, 10828 
Drexel Ave., Cleveland, Ohio; R. A. Carter, 
4408 Vincennes Ave., Chicago 15, 111.; J. 
Arthur Hamlett, 2112 N. 5 St., Kansas City, 
Kans.; H. P. Porter, 817 W. Chestnut St., 
Louisville 3, Ky. ; J. H. More, 1 1382 S. Park- 
way, E., Memphis, Tenn.; W. Y. Bell, RFD 1, 
Box 195 South Boston, Va. ; Luther Stewart, 



STATISTICS ON NEGRO CHURCHES 



257 



Box 375, Hopkinsville, Ky. ; F. L. Lewis, 108 
Leroy St., Shreveport, La. ; Bertram W. Doyle, 
1702 Heiman St., Nashville, Term. ; A. W. 
Womack, 1926 N. Capitol St., Indianapolis. 
GENERAL OFFICERS : Rev. E. P. Murchison, 
Ed., Christian Index, P.O. Box 269, Jackson, 
Tenn. ; Rev. G. H. Carter, Publishing Agent, 
109-11 Shannon St., Jackson, Tenn.; Prof. F. 
T. Jeans, Financial Secy., Box 229, Jackson, 
Tenn. ; Rev. B. J. Smith, Gen'l. Secy, of 
S.P.W.&O. Dept., 1486 Felix St., Memphis, 
Tenn. ; Rev. J. C. Allen, Gen'l. Secy., Kingdon 
Extension, 2533 Washington St., Gary, Ind. ; 
Rev. J. L. Tolbert, Gen'l. Secy, of Evangelism, 
270 Bankhead St., New Albany, Miss. ; Mr. 
W. L. Graham, Gen'l. Secy, of Lay Activities, 
Paine Col., Augusta, Ga. ; Rev. E. T. Woods, 
Ed., Eastern Index, 1124 E. 14 St., Winston 
Salem, N.C. ; Dr. W. S. Martin, Supt., Collins 
Chapel Hospital, 416 Ashland St., Memphis, 
Tenn.; Mrs. R. T. Hollis, Rt. 1, Box 97B, 
Spencer, Okla. ; Mr. James A. Hamlett, Jr., 
Ed., Western Index, 1612 N. 5 St., Kansas 
City, Kans. ; Mr. W. A. Bell, Secretary, 141^ 
Auburn Ave., Atlanta, Ga. 

Colored Methodist Protestant Church 

See African Union First Colored Methodist 
Protestant Church. 

Colored Primitive Baptist 

Now National Primitive Baptist. 

Fire Baptized Holiness Church 

Organized 1898 in Atlanta, Ga., as a Holi- 
ness association. Churches, 300 ; inclusive 
membership, 6,000 (1940). Estimated mem- 
bership 13 years of age and over, 5,838. Gen'l. 
Council, annual. Hq. : 556 Houston St., At- 
lanta, Ga. OFFICERS: Bishop W. E. Fuller; 
Gen'l. Secy., Rev. E. Y. Bowman. 

Free Christian Zion Church of Christ 

Organized 1905, at Redemption, Ark., by a 
company of Negro ministers associated with 
various denominations, with polity in general 
accord with that of Methodist bodies. Churches, 
37 ; inclusive membership, 2,478 (1944). Mem- 
bership 13 of age and over, 2,286. 

The House of God, The Holy Church of 
The Living God, The Pillar and 
Ground of Truth, House of 
Prayer For All People 

A group organized by R. A. R. Johnson in 
1918. Churches, 4; inclusive membership, 200 
(1936). Estimated membership 13 years of 
age and over, 75. 

The House of the Lord 

Organized in 1925 in Detroit, Mich., by W. 
H. Johnson. Churches, 4 ; inclusive member- 
ship, 302 (1936). Estimated membership 13 
years of age and over, 302. 

The Independent A.M.E. Denomination 

Organized in Jacksonville, Fla., 1907, by 
twelve elders who withdrew from the A.M.E. 
Church. Churches, 12 ; inclusive membership, 
1,000 (1940). Estimated membership 13 years 
of age and over, 905. Conference, annual. Hq. : 
Valdosta, Ga. OFFICERS : Financial Secy., Dr. 
J. P. Green, 77 S. Concord St., Charleston, 
S.C. : Gen'l. Missionary Secy., Dr. G. W. 
Jones, R.F.D. 3, Box 56, Live Oak, Fla. 



Kodesh Church of Immanuel 

Founded by Rev. Frank Russell Killings- 
worth in 1929 from among a group withdraw- 
ing from the African Methodist Episcopal 
Zion Church. Churches, 9 ; inclusive member- 
ship, 562 (1936). Membership 13 years of age 
and over, 354. Gen'l. Assembly, quadrennial ; 
also, Annual Assembly. OFFICERS : Supervis- 
ing Elders, Rev. R. F. Killingsworth, 1509 S. 
St., N.W., Washington, D.C. ; Rev. J. W. 
Harty, 24 Bluffington Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The Latter House of 
the Lord Apostolic Faith 

Organized, 1936 in Georgia, basically Cal- 
vinistic. Churches, 2 ; inclusive membership, 
29 (1936). Membership 13 years of age and 
over, 26. 

National Baptist Convention of America 

This body of Baptists, sometimes called 
"Boyd Baptists," withdrew from the National 
Baptist Convention, U.S.A., under the leader- 
ship of Dr. R. F. Boyd of Nashville, Tenn., in 
1916. Churches, 10,851 ; inclusive membership, 
2,645,789 (1950). Estimated membership 13 
years of age and over, 2,117,091. 

OFFICERS : Pres. G. L. Prince, 2610 Ave. L 
Galveston, Tex. ; 1st Vice-Pres., Rev. C. D 
Pettaway, 714 W. 10 St., Little Rock, Ark. 
2nd Vice-Pres., Rev. S. A. Pleasants, Jr. 
2803 Live Oak St., Houston, Tex. ; Recording 
Secy., Rev. G. Goings Daniels, 1215 Church 
St., Georgetown, S.C. ; 1st Ass. Recording 
Secy., Mr. A. W. Jackson, P.O. Box 849, 
Rosenberg, Tex. ; 2nd Ass. Recording Secy., 
Rev. D. C. Cooksey, 564 N. 5 St., Mus- 
kogee, Okla. ; 3rd Ass. Recording Secy., 
Rev. R. W. Woullard, P.O. Box 1294 Hattis- 
burg, Miss. ; Corresponding Secy., Rev. Wil- 
liam Grimble, Alexandria, La. ; 4th Ass. Re- 
cording Secy., Rev. A. J. Bebelle, New Or- 
leans, La. ; Field Secy., Rev. A. L. Roach, 
1062 Parkside Road, N.E., Cleveland, Ohio; 
Official Reporter, Rev. William Downs, 2272 
E. 103 St., Cleveland, Ohio ; Treas., Rev. A. A. 
Lucas, 5169 Farmer St. Houston, Tex.; Audi- 
tor, Rev. M. C. Allen, Va. Seminary & Col- 
lege, Lynchburg, Va. ; Statistician, Rev. L. B. 
Tolson, 3215 Berry St., Houston, Tex. 

OFFICERS OF WOMAN'S AUXILIARY : Pres., 
Mrs. M. A. Fuller; Vice-Pres., Anna Wash- 
ington; Recording Secy., J. L. Harding; 
Treas., Rebecca F. Smith ; Parliamentarian, 

E. J. Toomer ; Statistician, Jessie Mae Hicks. 
PRESIDENTS OF STATES : ALA., Rev. L. S. 

Thomas, 2428 26 Ave., N., Birmingham; 
ARIZ., Rev. T. D. West, Mesa ; ARK., Rev. C. 
D. Petaway ; CALIF., Union General, Rev. Ben 

F. Floyd, Los Angeles, Baptist State Conven- 
tion, Rev. B. O. Byrd, Los Angeles ; COL., S. 
M. Mitchell; FLA., Rev. W. J. Johnson. Rev. 
C. J. Smith ; CANADA, Rev. Melvin Singleton, 
Winnipeg ; GA., Rev. George J. Owens, Al- 
bany ; IND., Rev. C. Henry Bell, Indianapolis; 
ILL., Dr. J. H. L. Smith, Chicago; KY., Rev. 
A. C. Goodlow, Box 33, Crab Orchard; LA., 
Dr. C. Chas. Taylor, New Orleans, Home and 
Foreign Mission Convention, Dr. William 
Grimble; Miss., (South) Rev. R. W. Woul- 
lard, Hattisburg, (Progressive) Rev. J. A. 
Parsons, Tupelo; MICH., Rev. B. A. Roberson, 
Kalamazoo ; Mo., Rev. John W. Williams, 
Kansas City, Kans. ; MD., Rev. J. R. Butler, 



258 



THE CHURCH, RELIGIOUS WORK 



Baltimore; N.C., Rev. W. H. Davidson, Char- 
lotte; N.Y., Rev. A. T. Williams, 796 E. 168 
St., Bronx; OHIO, R. D. Wess, Cincinnati, 
Rev. A. L. Roach, Cleveland; OKLA., Dr. J. 
H. Winn, Oklahoma City; ORE., Rev. O. B. 
Williams, 2821 N. Van Ave., Portland; S.C., 
Rev. G. G. Daniels, 1215 Church St., George- 
town; TENN., Rev. W. T. Speed, 1319 Cheat- 
ham St., Springfield; TEXAS, (Gen'l. Baptist) 
Rev. S. R. Prince, Fort Worth (State Baptist) 
Dr. P. S. Wilkinson, San Antonio; VA., Dr. 
E. C. Smith, 2528 R St., N.W., Washington, 
D.C. ; WASH., Rev. D. H. Griggs, 211 E. 4th 
Ave., Spokane. 

National Baptists Convention, 
U.S.A. Inc. 

The National Baptist Convention was or- 
ganized in 1880 at Montgomery, Ala. The Con- 
vention meets annually in September. Churches, 
25,350 ; inclusive membership 4,445,605 
(1950). Membership 13 years of age and over, 
3,776,764. 

OFFICERS : Pres., Dr. D. V. Jemison, 1605 
Lapsley St., Selma, Ala. ; Vice-Pres. at Large, 
Rev. E. W. Perry, 511 E. Third St., Oklahoma 
City, Okla. ; Regional Vice-Pres., Rev. W. D. 
Archer, 855 Manzanita Ave., Pasadena, Calif., 
Rev. T. S. Harten, 433 Franklin St., Brooklyn, 
N.Y., Rev. J. H. Jackson, 3103 S. Parkway, 
Chicago, 111. ; Secy., Rev. U. J. Robinson, 256 
N. Franklin St., Mobile, Ala. ; Ass. Sees., Rev. 
W. B. Whitfield, 709 Poindexter St., Jackson, 
Miss., Rev. G. W. Lucas, 401 Summit St., S. 
Dayton, Ohio, Rev. O. T. Moore King, 156 
Joliet St., Joliet, 111., Rev. M. K. Curry, 600 
Sullivan St., Wichita Falls, Tex. ; Secy, of 
Publicity, Rev. W. P. Offutt, 2300 W. Chest- 
nut St., Louisville, Ky. ; Statistician, Rev. 
Roland Smith, 239 Auburn Ave., N.E., At- 
lanta, Ga. ; Historiographer, Rev. T. S. Boone, 
59 E. Boston Blvd., Detroit, Mich.; Ed., 
Voice, Rev. J. Pius Barbour, 1614 W. Second 
St., Chester, Pa.; Treas., Rev. B. J. Perkins, 
7803 Cedar St., Cleveland, Ohio; Attorneys, 
Mr. A. T. Walden, 239 Auburn Ave., N.E., 
Atlanta Ga., Mr. C. L. Ennix, Masonic Tem- 
ple Building, 4th Ave., N., Nashville, Tenn. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS : ALA., J. C. Cunningham, 
1414 20 St., Ensley, G. H. Hogue, Box 384, 
Dora ; ARIZ., R. N. Holt, 41 N. 1 1 St., Phoenix ; 
ARK., Fred T. Guy, 1900 Ringo St., Little 
Rock, J. R. Jamison, 110 Cherokee St., Morril- 
ton; CALIF., W. P. Carter, 1907 20 St., Santa 
Monica, L. B. Moss, 2775 11 St., Riverside; 
COL., A. C. Dones, 2520 Emerson St., Denver ; 
CONN., F. W. Jacobs, 26 Buckingham PI., 
Bridgeport ; DIST. OF COLUMBIA, Augustus 
Lewis, 2466 Ontario Road, N.W., Washing- 
ton ; FLA., J. A. Finlayson, 3339 Charles Ave., 
Miami ; GA., L. A. Pinkston, 973 Mayson 
Turner, N.W., Atlanta, W. H. Borders, 14 
Younge St., Atlanta; ILL., J. C. Austin, 3301 
Indiana Ave., Chicago, J. L. Horace, 632 Oak- 
wood Blvd., Chicago; IND., D. G. Lewis, 1610 
Monroe St., Gary, G. E. Johnson, 1004 Walnut 
St., Evansville, A. D. Banks, 2833 E. 25 St., 
Indianapoils ; IOWA, NEB., S. DAK., J. H. 
Reynolds, 2810 Seward St., Omaha, Neb.; 
KANS., J. W. Hayer, 805 Mathewson St., 
Wichita; KY., William H. Ballew, 2222 W. 
Chestnut St., Louisville ; LA., E. D. Billoups, 
Box 1252, Baton Rouge; MD., Simon William- 
son, 1220 N. Carolina St., Baltimore; MASS., 



Rev. A. J. Spratley, Boston; MICH., J. S. Wil- 
liams, 5600 Chene St., Detroit, Elbert L. Todd, 
4174 11 St., Ecourse; MINN., Floyd Massie, 
Jr., 719 St. Anthony St., St. Paul; Miss., M, 
M. Morris, 216 N. Edison St., Greenville, H, 
H. Humes, 534 E. Alexander St., Greenville, 
R. B. Ooten, R. 1, Box 59, Lawrence, E. M, 
Wicks, 311A N. Washington St., Starkville; 
Mo., R. C. Clopton, 2951 Dayton St., St, 
Louis; N.J., J. H. Ashby, 125 Union Ave., 
Asbury Park; N. MEX., A. W. Willis, 416 Wi 
Second St., Clovis ; N.Y., G. H. Sims, 131 W 
131st St., New York City; N.C., (State) Rev 
J. M. Newkirk, Rose Hill, P. A. Bishop, Ricks- 
grove; OHIO, J. Franklin Walker, 3240 Beres- 
ford St., Cincinnati, C. H. Crable, 2223 E. 43 
St., Cleveland ; OKLA., Theodore Rowland 
2607 N. Peoria St., Tulsa ; PENNA., Rev. W' 
B. Toland, 631 Harris St., Harrisburg ; S.C, 
W. L. Wilson, 164 Freemont St., Spartanburg; 
TENN., S. A. Owen, 761 Walker Ave., Mem- 
phis, J. L. Campbell, 1287 S. Parkway, Mem- 
phis; TEXAS, T. M. Chambers, 902 Goode St. 
Dallas ,S. T. Alexander, 2713 Flora St., Dallas : 
VA., E. C. Smith, 2801 13 St., N.W., Wash- 
ington, C. C. Scott, 1003 N. 4 St., Richmond; 
WASH., Emmett B. Reed, E. 207 Third Ave.' 
Spokane; W. VA., S. S. Abram, 111 Deegir 
Ave., E. Beckley; Wis., J. L. Williams, 1635 
N. 9 St., Milwaukee