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Full text of "Nelson's biographical dictionary and historical reference book of Erie County, Pennsylvania : containing a condensed history of Pennsylvania, of Erie County, and of the several cities, boroughs and townships in the county also portraits and biographies of the governor's since 1790, and of numerous representative citizens"

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Biographical Dictionary 

Historical Reference Book 

... OF 

Erib County, 

Pennsylvani a. 

Containing a Condensed History of Pennsylvania, of Brie County, and of the 
Several Cities, Boroughs and Townships in the County; 

Portraits and Biographies of the Governors since 1790, and of Numerous 
Representative Citizens. 

Historical and Descriptive Matter (Page 19 to Page 540) Prepared 
by Benjamin Whitman. 




PREFACE. 1147161 

IN submitting the present work to the people of Erie county, the publisher takes satisfaction 
in the belief that he has fully complied with every promise that has been made to those 
who have honored him with their patronage. In the character of its reading matter, the 
fidelity to its purpose, the neatness of its typography and the general style in which it 

appears, it may reasonably be claimed to be at least the equal of any publication of similar 
nature that has ever been issued in Pennsylvania. 

As announced in the prospectus, the work is designed as a Historical Reference Book and 
Biographical Dictionary, rather than as a detailed County History. The limit placed upon it 
from the beginning did not* admit of the numerous incidents and illustrations that form an 
extended County History, and the aim, both of the writers and publisher, has been to present 
the leading events as briefly as the facts seemed to warrant, and to so arrange them that they 
could be conveniently found by the average reader. With this in view, the chapters have 
been made short and supplied with frequent sub-headings, reference has been noted in various 
parts of the book to other pages treating of the same subject, a copious Table of Contents has 
been given, and the whole has been supplemented with a full Alphabetical Index. 

Attention is specially called to the Engravings, which must be conceded to be far in ad- 
vance of the majority of art work in publications of the kind. 

The Portraits of the Governors, the Biographies of the same, and the Political and other 
information relating to Pennsylvania, are features that will be appreciated by every citizen 
who has a patriotic interest in the state of his residence. 

To those who are tempted to complain of the price and peculiar character of the book, it 
may be proper to explain that it would be impossible to print a creditable work of Local His- 
tory at a lower figure or on a different basis without great loss to the publisher. Numerous 
historical publications have been issued, in Erie and elsewhere, relying upon the general public 
for support, and in every instance that can now be recalled they have been a sad financial 
failure, the sales in one or two home instances having been barely enough to pay for the white 
paper on which they were printed. Erie county has not yet reached the degree of wealth 
and population that will permit of the publication of a County History at the price of a book 
intended for state or national circulation, nor without some distinctive feature that will secure 
for it a special and remunerative patronage. The highest ambition of the writers and publisher 
of this book will be attained if it shall prove to be a useful preparatory effort to the complete 
edition of Local Annals that will come after the county has had many years of growth and its 
people have attained to a more wide-spread prosperity. 

The Historical and Descriptive chapters of the book (pages 19 to 540) have been prepared 
by Benjamin Whitman, who has spent the main part of a year in collecting the material. He 
desires that credit shall be given for much of the information secured to Capt. N. W. Russell's 
newspaper contributions ; Miss Sanford's History of Erie County ; Warner, Beers & Co.'s 
History of the County, printed in 1884; Day's "Historical Collections"; Dr. Egle's His- 
tory of Pennsylvania ; The Archives of Pennsylvania ; the Herald's " Souvenir of Erie," 
issued in 1888; Atkinson's Erie City Directory; the files of the several Erie journals; Han- 
Ion's City Manual and Digest of City Laws and Ordinances, and various other sources "too 
numerous to mention." 

The Biographical section owes much of its interest to the pen of Hon. James Sill, who 
contributed a number of the family and individual sketches. 

The publisher returns thanks to the citizens of the county for the hearty support they have 
given to the enterprise, and begs leave to express the hope that they will receive the book with 
as much satisfaction as he remembers their kindness and liberality. 




Pennsylvania — Historical, Descriptive and Statistical — State Constitution of 1873. 

Biographies of the Governors. 

General History and Description of Erie County. 

Township and Borough History. 


The Cities of Erie and Corry. 

Family Histories and Biographical Sketches. 

Alphabetical Index. 



Pennsylvania — Historical, Descriptive and Statistical. 


Aborig^ines 19 

Anthracite Coal 19 

Area of the State 19 

Anti-Slavery Riot 38 

Battles Fought in Pennsylvania 19 

Bituminous Coal 20 

Braddock's Defeat 20-24 

Buckshot War 20 

Boroughs, principal 20 

Battle Flag-s of Pennsylvania 44 

Capitals of the State 20 

Colleges 20 

Churches 20 

Continental Congress, sessions of 20 

Cities and Towns, principal 20 

Criminals, Number of 21 

Centennial Exhibition, 1876 21 

Climate 21 

Coat of Arms 21 

Congressmen, leading- 21 

Congressional Districts 21 

Constitutions, several State 21 

Constitution, present State, in full 45 

Chambersburg, burning of 44 

Courts 21 

Debt— State, Municipal and School District.. . 22 

Debt, mortgage 22 

Declaration of Independence 22 

Early Settlements 22 

Eminent Men 23 

Elections, when held 23 

Execu< ive Officers, principal 23 

Founder of the State 23 

First Things (Canals, Railroads, etc.) 23 

Flag of the United States 24 

French War 24 

Fruits grown in the State 24 

Floods, Great 24 

Fish and Fisheries 25 

Franklin, Benjamin 25 

Farms, number of, value, production, etc 25 

Fries Rebellion 37 

Game Laws 26 

Governors, list of 26 

General Progress 26 

Gettysburg, Battle of 26 

Holidays, legal 27 

Homestead Riots 38 

Indians, The 19 

Indian Titles 27 

Indian Wars and Disturbances 28 

Iron and Iron Ore 28 


Johnstown Flood 28 

Judiciary System 28 

Keystone State, Origin of name 28 

Lincoln's Address at Gettysburg 27 

Lieutenant-Governors, list of 27 

Leading Products 29 

Legislature, number of Members, etc 29 

Legislation, restriction upon 29 

Language 29 

Lakes 29 

Liberty Bell 29 

Libraries, Art Galleries and Museums 29 

Live Stock, statistics of , etc 29 

Military System 30 

Manufactures 30 

Motto of the State 30 

Mineral Products 30 

Mason and Dixon's Line 30 

Northwestern Pennsylvania, counties of 30 

Name of State, origin of 30 

Natural Gas 30 

Newspapers, number of 30 

Native American Riots 38 

Oil (Natural) 31 

" Pennsylvania Dutch," Origin of Language. 29 

Proprietary Government 31 

Population of the State, 1790 to 1890 31 

Population of the State, by Counties 31 

Population of the United States, 1790 to 1890. . 31 

Penn, William 32 

Presidents of the United States from Pennsyl- 
vania 32 

Presidential Candidates from Pennsylvania.. 32 

Presidential Electors, number of 32 

Political History 32 

Public Receipts and Expenditures 32 

Prisoners, number of 32 

Paupers, number of 32 

Physical Features of the State 32 

Perry's Victory 33 

Petroleum, Discovery and Development of . . . . 33 

Public Improvements 33 

Public Buildings 33 

Public Schools 34 

Philadelphia, description of 34 

Pittsburg, description of 35 

Presidential vote of the State 35 

Representatives in Congress, leading 36 

Religious Denominations 36 

Royal Government 36 

Railroads in the State 36 

Railroad Riots of 1877 38 



Revenue and Expenses 36 

Revolution, American 36 

Rivers, principal 37 

Rebellions in the State 37 

Rebellion, Southern 43 

Riots, most noted 37 

Richest Counties in the United States 38 

Seal of the State 38 

State Buildings 38 

Slavery, when abolished in the State 38 

Summer Resorts, principal 38 

State Officers, principal 39 

Salaries and Fees of State Officers 39 

Stone, leading kinds 39 

Senators from Pennsylvania in the United 

States Congress 39 

School System 39 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans 44 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Erie 44 

Triangle, The 39 

Timber, varieties of 39 

Universities and Colleges 40 

United States Constitution, Pennsylvania's 

part in establishing 40 

United States Officers, principal from Penn- 
sylvania 40 

United States Senators from Pennsylvania, 

list of 41 

United States Representatives in Congress, 

leading from the State 41 

Vice-President from Pennsylvania 41 

Vice-Presidential Candidates from Pennsyl- 
vania 41 

Vote of the State for Governor 41 

Vote of the State for President 35 

Vegetable Productions 42 

Valuations, real and personal property 43 

Whisky Rebellion 37 

Wayne, Anthony 43 

Wealth of the State 43 

War of 1812 43 

War with Mexico 43 

War for the Union, Pennsylvania's part in. . . 43 

World's Fair, part taken by Pennsylvania. ... 44 



Constitution of Pennsylvania, present 45 

Date of Adoption, etc 45 

Preamble 45 

Declaration of Rights, Article 1 45 

The Legislature, Article II 46 

Legislation, Article III 47 

The Executive, Article IV 49 

The Judiciary, Article V 51 

Impeachment and Removal From Office, Ar- 
ticle VI 53 

Oath of Office, Article VII 54 

Suffrage and Elections, Article VIII 54 


Taxation and Finance, Article IX 55 

Education, Article X 56 

Militia, Article XI 56 

Public Officers, Article XII 56 

New Counties, Article XIII 57 

County Officers, Article XIV 57 

Cities and City Charters, Article XV 57 

Private Corporations, Article XVI 57 

Railroads and Canals, Article XVII 58 

Future Amendments, Article XVIII 59 

Schedule 59 


Biographies of the Governors. 

First Governor Thomas Mifflin .... 65 

Second Governor Thomas McKean . . 65 

Third Governor Simon Snyder. ... 65 

Fourth Governor William Findlay. . 65 

Fifth Governor Joseph Hiester 65 

Sixth Governor John A. Shulze. ... 65 

Seventh Governor George Wolf 66 

Eighth Governor Joseph Ritner 66 

Ninth Governor David R. Porter .. . 66 

Tenth Governor Francis R. Shunk . 66 

Eleventh Governor Wm. F. Johnston . . 66 


Twelfth Governor William Bigler 66 

Thirteenth Governor James Pollock 66 

Fourteenth Governor W'illiam F. Packer. 67 

Fifteenth Governor Andrew G. Curtin . 67 

Sixteenth Governor John W. Geary .... 67 

Seventeenth Governor. .. .John F. Hartranft. 67 

Eighteenth Governor Henry M. Hoyt 67 

Nineteenth Governor Robert E. Pattison 67 

Twentieth Governor James A. Beaver . . 67 

Twenty-first Governor Robert E. Pattison 68 

Twenty-second Governor. .Daniel H. Hastings 68 



General HisTORr and Description of Erie County. 

Boundaries, etc... . 
Ridg-es and Valleys. 
Hig-hest Elevations. 


Physicai, Geography, Etc. — Page 71 to Page 73. 


Character of the Soil 72 

Climate, Geology and Timber 73 

Scarcity of Good Stone 73 

Minerals, Natural Gas, Oil, etc 73 

County, Township, City and Borough Organizations. — Page 74 to Page 76. 


Boundary Lines 

Table of Distances from Erie. 


Original Townships 74 

Additional Townships 74 

Cities and Boroughs 74 

Election Districts 75 


Population of the County, Vai,u.ations, Tax Rates, Etc.— Page 77 to Page i 

Census of Erie Co. 1800 to 1890 77 

Population of Erie, 1870^'80-'90 77 

Population of Corry, 1870-'80-'90 78 

General Statistics of the Population 78 

Receipts and Expenditures of Erie Co., 1894 ... 78 

Sheep Fund, 1894 78 

School Fund, 1894 78 

Road Fund, 1894. 

Assessment Table for 189S 

Valuations for 1895 

Acreage of the Several Townships, etc. 

Money at Interest, etc.. 1895 

Rate of County Taxation, 1869-189S 

Pre-Historic Remains, Natural Curiosities, Etc. — Pag-e 

Masses of Human Bones Dug Up. 

Skeletons of Giants 

An Ancient Graveyard 

Pre-Historic Mounds 

Strange Discoveries 

" Gulfs " of the Lake Shore Streati 

The " Devil's Backbone " 



Streams and Interior Lakes, Bridges, Etc.— Page 82 to Page 85. 

Principal Creeks 

Tributary Streams 

Peculiarities of the Lake Shore Streaii 
French Creek and its Branches 

Chief Lake Shore Streams 

Lakes LeBoeuf, Conneauttee and Pleasant. 
Bridges and Culverts 

Lake Erie, Bays, Peninsula, Fish and Fishing Interests.— Page 86 to Page 91. 


The Great Lakes 86 

Dimensions of the same 86 

Origin of their Names 86 

Lake Erie described 86 

Curious Phenomena 87 

Bay of Presque Isle 87 


Misery Bay 87 

The Peninsula 87 

Ownership of the Peninsula 88 

Custodian of the Peninsula 88 

Fish and Fishing Industry 88 

Valuable Information 89 


Indian History.— Page 91 to Page 


The Aboriginal Inhabitants 91 

Extermination of the Eriez 91 

The Iroquois 92 

The Seneca Tribe 92 

French and British Wars 92 

Pontiac's Conspiracy 93 

Capture of the Forts at Waterford and Erie.. . 93 

British Possession 94 


A British Army at Erie 94 

American Occupation 94 

Indian Threats 95 

Indian Councils 95 

Wayne's Great Victory 95 

Peace with the Indians 95 

Indian Villages and Graveyards 95 

Eand Purchased from the Indians 96 

Gen. Anthony Wayne. — Page 96 to Page ' 

Revolutionarj' Career 96 

Why Called " Mad Anthony " 97 

Victories Over the Indians 97 

Sickness and Death in Erie 97 


Disposal of His Remains 97 

The Wayne Block House 9g 

Final Resting Place 98 

Inscription on His Monument 98 

French and British Occupation.— Page 99 to Page 102. 


Early French Explorers 99 

French and British Claims 99 

French Soldiers in Erie and EeBoeuf 99 

French Take Possession 99 

Washington's Visit to Waterford 100 

Correspondence between Washington and St. 

Pierre 100 

The French War 101 


Braddock's Defeat 101 

The French Forts 101-2 

British Victories 101 

The French Withdraw 102 

British and Indians at Erie 102 

American Independence 102 

The French Road and Forts 102 

Purchase of the Triangle.— Page 103 to Page 104. 


Disputed Boundary Lines 103 

Survey of the Boundary 103 

Price Paid for the Triangle 103 


The Indians Offended 104 

Description of the Triangle 104 

First Settlements in Erie County.— Page IDS to Page 107. 


Early Surveys and Land Purchases 105 

Indian Hostility 105 

Measures for the Protection of the Settlers. . . 105 

American Garrison at LeBoeuf 105 

Washington Advises Caution 106 

The American Fort LeBoeuf 106 

Peace Secured with the Indians 106 

An American Force at Erie 107 

Waterford and Erie Laid Out 107 

Early Land Matters.— Page 107 to Page 11 


" The Actual Settlement Law " 107 

Pennsylvania Population Company 107 

Holland Land Company 108 

Harrisburg and Presque Isle Company 108 

Tenth Donation District 108 

Moravian Grant 109 

State Reservations 109 

Irvine's Reservation 109 

Erie State Reserve 109 


Waterford and LeBoeuf Reserves 109 

The Garrison Reservation 109 

Academy Lands 109 

Early Surveyors and Land Agents 110 

Change in the Settlement Law 110 

Extensive Land Sales Ill 

First Purchasers Ill 

Land Litigation Ill 

Speculation of 1836 112 


Early Settlers in Erie County.— Page 113 to Page 115. 


First White Men and Women 113 

Nativity of the Pioneers 114 

First Marriages, Births and Deaths 114 


How the Pioneers Lived 114 

A Hard but Healthy Mode of Existence 115 

Wild Beasts, Birds and Fish 115 

First Mills, Factories, Etc.— Page 116 to Page : 


Early Mills, Etc., in Erie 116 

Mills Outside of Erie 117 


Beginning of the Iron Industry 119 

Wages and their Payment in the Early Days. 119 

Public Roads, Mail Routes, Stage Lines, Old Taverns, Etc. — Page 120 to Page 124. 


Earliest Thoroughfares in the County 120 

Buffalo Road 120 

Ridge Road 121 

Lake Road 121 

Waterford Turnpike 121 

Edinboro Plank Road 121 

Waterford Plank Road 122 

Erie and Meadville Plank Road 122 

The " Shunpike " 122 

Wattsburg Plank Road 122 

Lake Pleasant Road 122 

Other Prominent Roads 123 

Old Public Houses 123 

Trade and Travel in the Early Days 123 

Stage Lines and Mail Routes 124 

The Salt Trade 124 


Lake Navig 

Etc.— Page 125 to Page 131. 


Earliest Merchant Vessels 125 

Earliest War Vessels 125 

Pioneer Lake Captains 125 

Introduction of Steamboats 126 

First Propellers and Ships 126 

Vessel Statistics 126 

U. S. S. " Michigan " 127 

U. S. Revenue Cutters 127 

Appalling Lake Disasters 12S 

Burning of the Steamboat " Erie " 128 

Distances by Water From Erie 128 

Opening of Navigation, Dates of The 129 

Close of Navigation, Dates of 129 


Unusual Seasons of Navigation, etc 129 

Collection District of Presque Isle 129 

U. S. Collectors and Deputies 129 

Vessels Owned in Erie, 1860-94 129 

Business of the Port of Erie 130 

Lighthouses at Erie 130 

Lighthouse Keepers at Erie 130 

Assistant Lighthouse Keepers at Erie 131 

Naval Inspectors. List of 131 

Life-Saving Service . . . ■ 131 

Officers of the Life-Saving Service 131 

U. S. Weather and Signal Service Office 131 

War ok 1812-14.— Page 132 to Page 138. 

Defenseless Condition of the Frontier 132 

The Military Called to Erie 132 

A War Fleet for the Lakes Decided Upon 133 

Perry's Arrival in Erie 133 

Difficulties Contended With 133 

Perry's Fleet 133 

Incidents Before the Battle 134 

Perry's Great Victory 134 

Perry's Famous Dispatch 135 

After the Battle 136 

Perry's Return to Erie 136 


Gen. Harrison in Erie 136 

Other Features of the War 136 

Burning of Black Rock and Buffalo 136 

Large Military Force at Erie 136 

Fatal Duel at Erie 136 

Campaign of 1814 136 

Disposal of the Vessels 137 

The Lawrence and Niagara 137 

Bell of the Queen Charlotte 137 

Erie County Officers and Soldiers 137 

Fate of Bird, Rankin and Davis 138 


Rewgious History, Old Graveyards, Etc. 

-Pag-e 138 to Pag-e 144. 


First Religious Services 138 

The Presbyterians 139 

The Methodist Episcopalians 139 

Other Protestant Denominations 140 

The Roman Catholics 140 

The Erie Diocese 140 

Bishops of the Erie Diocese 140 

Catholic Churches, Schools, etc 141 

Church Organizations in the County, 1880 ... 141 

Presbyterian Synods, etc 141 

United Presbyterian Church 141 

Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburg 142 


Episcopal Bishops 142 

Erie Conferences M. E. Church 142 

Elderships M. E. Church 142 

First Sunday Schools 143 

Horace Greeley an Erie Sunday School 

Scholar 143 

Erie County Bible Society 143 

Y. M. C. Association 143 

Christian Endeavor Societies 143 

Old Graveyards 144 

Cemeteries Established 144 


County, St.^.te 

AND United States Buildings.— Page 145 to Page 



Court Houses 145 

Expenses of Maintaining the Court House. . . 14S 

County Jails 145 

Co-st of Maintaining the Jail 146 

County Almshouse 146 

Expenses for the Poor and Insane 147 


Marine Hospital 147 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Home 147 

Wayne Blockhouse 148 

Normal School at Edinboro 148 

State Fish Hatcheries at Erie and Corry 148 

United States Buildings 148 

The Bench and Bar.— Page 149 to Page 165. 



Early Courts 

Judges, when first elected 149 

List of President Judges 150 

Additional Law Judges ISO 

District Judge 150 

Judges who have Died in Office ISO 

Supreme Judges from the County and Dis- 
trict ISO 

Competing Candidates for Judge 150 

Judicial District, 1800 to date 150 

Terms of Court, 1894 151 

Court Expenses, 1894 151 

Associate Judges 151 

City Recorder of Erie 152 

District Attorneys 152 

Supreme Court, term of for Erie County 152 

Only Execution by the Sheriff 152 

United States Courts 153 



United States Judges 153 

United States District Attorneys 153 

United States Marshals 153 

Clerks of the United States Courts 153 

Terms of the United States Courts 153 

Selection of United States Jurors 153 

Early Lawyers 153 

List of Erie County Attorneys, 1823-1895 154 

A Notable Law Suit 156 

Personal Reminiscences 157 

Official Positions Held by Erie County Lawyers 158 

Deaths, Removals, etc 159 

Court Criers 160 

Erie County Law Library 160 

Erie Bar Association 160 

Justices and Aldermen, 1796-1895 161 

Oldest Justice of the Peace 165 

Doctors, Surgeons and Dentists.— Page 166 to Page 173. 


Early Physicians 166 

Law as to Registry 166 

List of Registered Physicians- 
Erie 166 

Corry 168 

McKean 169 

Wattsburg- 169 

Fairview 169 

Girard 169 

Union City 169 

North East 170 

Albion 170 

Waterford 170 

Springfield 170 


Mill Village 


Miles Grove 

Wesley ville 

Other Localities 

Erie County Medical Society . . 
Homoeopathy, Introduction of. 
Homoeopathic Medical Society. 
HomcEOpathic Dispensary, etc. 

Early Dentists 

List of Registered Dentists. . . . 
Erie Society of Dentists 


Newspaper History.— Page 173 to Pag-e 179. 


The Earliest Newspapers 173 

Erie Gazette 173 

Erie Observer 174 

Erie Dispatch 174 

Erie Herald 175 

Erie Ti:nes 175 

Erie News 175 

Erie Tageblatt-Zuschauer 175 

Lake Shore Visitor 175 

Sunday Graphic 175 

Erie Advertiser 176 

Highland Light 176 


The Truth 176 

Sunday Messenger 176 

Erie Sonlaggsgast 176 

Arbeiter-Zietung 176 

The People 176 

Defunct Erie Papers 176 

Papers Outside of Erie 177 

Northwestern Editorial Association 177 

Erie Press Club 177 

Pennsylvania Editorial Association in Erie . . 177 

Personal Mention of Erie Newspaper Men .... 177 

Deceased Erie Editors 179 

The Canai, and Raii,roads. — Page 179 to Page 186. 

Early Projects for the Public Benefit 

Erie and Beaver Canal 

Its Abandonment 

Erie and North East R. R 

Buffalo and Erie R. R 

Cleveland and Erie R. R 

The Roads Consolidated 

Litigation Over the Same 

The Railroad War 

The Lake Shore R. R 

Distances by Lake Shore R. R 

Ashtabula and Angola Disasters 

Fastest Long Distance Train 

Philadelphia and Erie R. R 


Distances by the P. & E. R. R 183 

Highest Points on the Road , 184 

Superintendents of the Road 184 

Erie and Pittsburg R. R 184 

Distances by the Same 184 

General Information About the Road 184 

Western New York and Pennsylvania R. R. . . 185 

"Nypano" R. R 185 

Union and Titusville R. R 185 

" Nickel Plate " R. R 185 

" Shenango " R. R 185 

Distances by the Same 186 

Projected Railroads 186 


Public and Private Schools, Academies, Etc.— Page 187 to Page 190. 

Penn's Wise Provision 

Pennsylvania One of the First States to Pro- 
vide for General Education 

Public Schools Urged by the Early Govern- 

Efforts of Thaddeus Stevens and Others 

The Common School System Adopted 

Erie County Schools Previous to the General 

Catholic Parochial Schools 

Books in Early Use 

Adoption of the Common School Svstem in 

Erie County ." 189 

Old-Fashioned Spelling Schools 189 

Edinboro Normal School 189 

Academies and Seminaries 189 

School System Generally 190 

Independent School Districts 190 

Erie County Teachers' Institute 190 

Proposed Public Library System 190 

County Superintendents, 1854-1895 190 

City Superintendents of Erie and Corry 190 

Events of Special Note and Miscellaneous Information.— Page 191 to Page 201. 


A King of France in Erie 191 

Lafayette's Visit 191 

Horace Greeley, Brief Residence, in Erie 191 

Presidential Visitors to Erie 191 

Exciting Campaign of 1840 192 

Francisco Hung for Murder 193 

Agricultural Societies 193 

State and County Fairs 193 

Harvest Home Picnics 194 

The Grange 194 


Farmers' Alliance 194 

State Police 194 

Erie Fair Association, etc 194 

The Old Militia System 194 

Early Military Companies 194 

Distilleries, Breweries, etc 195 

Wine Making 195 

Temperance Societies 195 

Slaves and Slavery 195 

Unusual Spells of Weather 195 



Earliest Snow Falls 196 

Weather Table for Twenty-two Years 197 

The Cholera in Erie 198 

Telegraph and Telephone Lines 198 

First Shows and Circuses 198 

The Cattle Trade 19S 

Old Style Currency 198 

Soldiers' anu Sailors' Monuments 199 


Revolutionary Soldiers 199 

The Anti-Slavery Movement 199 

Oldest Men and Women 199 

First Thanksgiving 200 

Great Floods 200 

The Liberty Bell in Erie 200 

Grape Culture and Wine Making 200 

Grape Growers' Association 201 

The War for the Union. — Page 201 to Page 215. 


First War Meetings in Erie County 201 

Liberal Subscriptions by the Citizens 201 

Erie County Military Companies Tender their 

Services 201 

Three Mouths' Regiment Organized 201 

Eighty-third Regiment Organized 202 

Cavalry Companies Recruited 202 

Recruiting for the Navy 202 

Ladies' Aid Society Established 202 

One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment Or- 
ganized 202 

One Hundred and Forty fifth Regiment Or- 
ganized 203 

First Draft 203 

Money Matters and Politics 204 


Rebel Invasion of Pennsylvania 204 

Second Draft 205 

Other Drafts 206 

Prices for Substitutes 207 

Close of the War 207 

General Rejoicing 207 

Officers from Erie County 207 

County Finances, 1861 to 1870 208 

Prices During the War 208 

Brief History of the Erie County Regiments . . 209 

Three Months' Regiment 209 

Eighty-third Regiment 210 

One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment 211 

One Hundred and Forty-fifth Regiment . 213 

Company L, Twelfth Cavalry 215 

Record of Political Events, 1798 to 1895.— Page 215 to Page 262. 


Election of Washington and Adams 215 

Election of Thomas Jefferson 215 

Erie County Votes Separately for the First 

Time 216 

Re-Election of Jefferson 216 

Party Names in the Early Days 216 

First Election Districts in Erie County 216 

Madison Twice Elected 217 

Monroe Twice Elected 218 

The Era of Political Harmony 218 

John Quincy Adams Chosen President by the 

House 219 

Andrew Jackson Elected 220 

The Anti-Masonic Era 220 

Democratic Party Name Adopted 221 

Jackson Re-Elected 221 

Democratic Split in the State 222 

Van Buren Elected 222 

State Constitutional Convention 223 

The " Buck-Shot War " 223 

Constitutional Amendments Adopted 224 

Prothonotarv, Register and Recorder First 

Elected ." 224 

The Whig Party Organized 225 

Harrison and Tyler Elected 225 

Directors of the Poor First Elected 225 

Justices of the Peace First Elected 225 

The Abolition Party Started 225 

County Treasurer First Elected 226 

Canal Commissioners First Elected 226 

The Clay and Polk Campaign 227 

Gen. Reed Defeated for Congress 227 

Native American Party Organized 228 


Judge Thompson Re-elected 228 

First Prohibition Movement 229 

Soldier Vote in the Mexican War 229 

Taylor and Fillmore Elected 229 

Auditor and Surveyor General First Elected. 230 

Judges First Elected 231 

John Galbraith Chosen President Judge 231 

Last Whig National Ticket 231 

Pierce and King Elected 231 

First Free Soil County Ticket 232 

Rise of Know-Nothingism 233 

Mott's Enormous Majority 233 

Maine Liquor Law Voted Down 233 

The " Railroad War " in Erie County 233 

Local Issues Supersede Party 234 

Republican Party Organized 234 

Buchanan and Breckeuridge Elected 234 

More State Constitutional Amendments 235 

The Railroad Question Still Prominent 236 

Public Works Sold by the State 236 

Break-up of the Democratic Party in 1860 237 

Lincoln and Hamlin Elected 237 

Governor Curtin's First Election 237 

The War for the Union 238 

The Galbraith-Lowrv Contest 238 

Scofield's First Election 238 

The Democrats carrj' Pennsylvania 238 

Governor Curtin's Second Election 239 

Lincoln and Johnson Elected 239 

More Amendments to the State Constitution. . 239 

Soldiers Authorized to Vote 239 

Period of Soldier Candidates Begins 240 

Johnson's "Swing Around the Circle " 240 



Governor Geary Elected 240 

Election of Judge Sharswood 241 

First Jury Commissioners Elected 241 

Grant and Colfax Elected 241 

Governor Geary Re-elected 242 

The Scofield-Marvin Campaign 242 

Vote in Favor of a Constitutional Convention. 243 

Governor Hartranf t's First Election 243 

Delegates Elected to Constitutional Conven- 
tion 244 

Office of State Treasurer Made Elective 244 

Liberal Republican Movement 244 

Grant and Wilson Elected 245 

Local Option Adopted and Repealed 245 

Wilson Moore's Close Run for Sheriff 246 

New Constitution Adopted 246 

Democratic "Tidal Wave" Year 246 

First Election of Lieutenant-Governor 246 

Dr. Egbert Elected to Congress 246 

Democratic State Convention in Erie 247 

New Constitution in Force 247 

Minority Representation in the Boards of 

County Commissioners and Auditors 247 

First November Election for State and County 

Officers 247 

Start of the National Greenback Party 247 

The Hayes and Tilden Campaign 247 

The " Eight by Seven " Commission 248 

Wni. A. Galbraith Elected President Judge. . . 248 
Election of Trunkey, Noyes and Schell 249 


Governor Hoyt and Lieutenant-Governor 

Stone Elected 249 

Garfield and Arthur Elected 250 

Anti-Cameron Outbreak in the Republican 

Party 251 

Orange Noble's Defeat for State Treasurer. . . 251 

Another Republican Revolt 252 

Pattison and Black Elected 252 

Cleveland and Hendricks Elected 253 

First Scott and Mackey Campaign 253 

Wm. L. Scott's Big Vote in Erie 254 

Second Scott and Mackey Campaign 254 

General Beaver Chosen Governor 254 

Harrison and Morton Elected 255 

Liquor and Suffrage Amendments Defeated.. 257 

Further Republican Dissensions 257 

The Pattison-Delemater Contest 257 

Governor Pattison Re-elected 257 

The Tildeu-Griswold Contest 257 

Constitutional Convention Voted Down 258 

Cleveland's Re-election 258 

National People's Party Started 258 

The Flood-Sibley Campaign 259 

Republican " Tidal Wave " Year 260 

Grow's Immense Majority 260 

Another Republican Sweep 260 

Governor Hastings Elected 260 

Griswold Defeats Sibley 261 

Election of 1895 261 

Judges of the Superior Court First Elected.. . 261 
Cost of Elections 262 

United States, State, District and County Officeks.— Page 262 to Page 27 

ited States Officers 


Postmasters at Erie 

Assistant Postmasters at Erie. 

Collectors of Customs 

Deputy Collectors of Ciiston 

.. 262 
.. 262 
.. 263 
.. 263 
.. 263 
.. 263 

Collectors of Internal Revenue 263 

Deputy Collectors of Internal Revenue . . . 263 
Assistant Assessors of Internal Revenue . 264 

United States Commissioners 264 

Deputy Clerks United States Courts 264 

Other United States Officers 264 

State Officers from Erie County 264 

General List 264 

Presidential Electors 265 

State Senators 265 

Members of the House of Representatives 266 

District and County Officers 267 

President Judges 267 

District Judge 268 

Additional Law Judges 268 

Associate Judges 268 

Deputy Attorney Generals 268 

District Attorneys 269 

Sheriffs 269 


Registers and Recorders and Clerks of the 


Registers and Recorders 

Clerks of the Courts 

County Treasurers 


County Commissioners 

Clerks to County Commissioners 

Counsel to County Counnissioncrs 

Directors of the Poor 

Stewards of the Almshouse 

Clerks to the Directors of the Poor 

Attorneys for the Directors of the Poor. . 
County Superintendents of Public Schools 

County Detectives 

County Surveyors 

County Auditors 

Jury Commissioners 

Court Criers 

Mercantile Appraisers 

Oil Inspectors 

Sealers of Weights and Measures 

Salaries of County Officers 

See Alphabetical Index (Part VII); Also 




AND Boroughs of Erie County. 


Albion Boroug-h 285-286 

Amity Township 287-289 

Conneaut Township 281-285 

Concord Township 289-291 

East Springfield Boroug-h ^ ZSd 

Edinboro Borough 367-369 

Elgin Borough 291 

Elk Creek Township 292-294 

Fairview Township 295-299 

Fairview Borough 299-300 

Franklin Township 300-302 

Girard Township 302-306 

Girard Borough 306 309 

Greene Township 310-312 

Greenfield Township 312-315 

Harbor Creek Township 315-319 

LeBoeuf Township 319-322 


Lockport Borough 309 

Mill Village Borough 322-323 

McKean Township 323-326 

Middleboro Borough 326 

Mill Creek Township 327-336 

North East Township 336-340 

North East Borough 340-345 

Springfield Township 345-350 

Summit Township 350-352 

Union Township 352-355 

Union City Borough 355-358 

Venango Township 359-363 

Wattsburg Borough 363-364 

Washington Township 365-367 

Waterford Township 369-372 

Waterford Borough 372-378 

Wayne Township 379-383 

See Alphabeticai, Index (Part VII); Also Map of Erie County. 


Cities of Erie and Corry. 

See Alphabetical Index (Part VII); Map of Erie County; Also Mill Creek, Wayne and Con- 
cord Townships. 



of the Town— Early Settlers, Etc.— Page 387 to Page 392. 

Act for Laying Out the Town of Presquelsle. 387 

Indian Hostility 387 

Second Act for Laying Out the Town 388 

First American Settlers 388 

First Women 389 

First Building 389 

How the Town was Laid Out 389 

Incorporated as a Borough 389 


First Divided Into Wards 389 

City Charter 389 

City Boundaries 390 

Sale of Town Lots 390 

Prices Paid for Lots 390 

Early Arrivals 391 

Population, 1820 to 1890 392 

UEF Description of Erie.— Page 392 to Page 399. 


Location of City 392 

Elevations Above the Lake 393 

Streams and Ravines 393 

Streets and Avenues 393 

Business and Residence Streets 394 

Public Parks 394 

Street Names that have been Changed 394 

Legal Width of Streets, etc 394 

Street Numbering 395 

Street Lighting 395 

Sewer System 395 

Public Buildings, Churches, etc 395 

Railroads and Transportation Facilities 396 

Local Names 396 

Cloughsburg 396 


Stumptown 396 

New Jerusalem 396 

Kingtown 397 

Federal Hill 397 

Eagle Village 397 

Marvintown 397 

South Erie 397 

Warfeltowu 397 

Weigelville 397 

Wards and Election Districts 397 

City Finances 398 

Assessments, 1893 and 1895 Compared 398 

Tax Rate for Twenty-seven Years 398 

Building Permits, 1889-1894 399 



i^ND City Officers.— Pag-e 399 to Pa^e 407 


First Borough Officers 399 

Burgesses 399 

Mayors 399 

City Counciluien 400 

Presidents of City Councils 400 

Clerks of City Councils 400 

City Treasurers 405 

City Controllers 406 

City Solicitors 406 

City Engineers 406 

Superintendents of Streets and Sidewalks. . . . 406 

Hig-h Constables 406 

Harbor Masters 

Health Officers 

Clerks of the Markets 

City Assessors 


City Electrician 

Building Inspector 

Fire, Water, Police and School Officials. 

Park Superintendents 

Justices of the Peace 

.. 406 
.. 406 
.. 406 
.. 406 
.. 406 
.. 406 
.. 406 
.. 406 
.. 406 
. 406 

Aldermen 406 

Annual Salaries of City Officials 407 

Water, Fire and Police Departments,— Page 408 to Puge 414. 


Water Department 408 

Earliest Movement Toward a Public Water 

Supply 408 

The Second Step Forward 408 

Contract Authorized for a Water Supplj'. . 408 

Differences of Opinion 409 

New Legislation Secured 409 

First Water Commissioners 409 

Present Water Works Begun 409 

A Reservoir Provided 410 

The Old and the New Engines 410 

Miscellaneous Information 410 

List of Water Cotnmissioners 411 

Other Officers of the Department 411 

Salary List of the Department 411 

Fire Department 411 

Early Moves for Fire Protection 411 

First Steamer Purchased 411 


Paid Department Organized 411 

Fire Apparatus Now in Use 412 

Engine Houses 412 

Number of Men in the Department 412 

Pay of the Men in the Department 412 

Periods of Incendiary Fires 413 

Fire Alarm System 413 

List of Fire Commissioner,s 413 

Lists of Chiefs of the Department 414 

Assistant Chiefs 414 

Fire Limits 414 

Police Department 414 

Early Police Svstem 414 

Present Police' Force 414 

Patrol Wagon 414 

Police Call System 414 

Chiefs of Police 414 

Captains of Police 414 

Peninsula, Bay, Harbor, Etc.— Page 415 to Page 425. 


The Peninsula in General 415 

Cranberrj' Day 415 

Historical Items 415 

Protection of the Peninsula 415 

Damage in Recent Years 417 

No Material Change in Genera! Features... . 417 

Reports of Government Officers 417 

Title to the Peninsula 418 

Judge Galbraith's Opinion Thereon 418 

The Bay and Harbor 419 

Harbor Improvements 419 

Government Appropriations 419 

Government Engineers 420 

Principal Docks 420 

Reed's Dock 420 

The Public Dock 420 

Hard Coal Docks 420 


Anchor Line Docks 421 

Grain Elevators 421 

Erie and Pittsburg Docks 421 

Carnegie Docks 421 

The Watson Dock 422 

The Lake Trade 422 

Imports and Exports, 1884-1894 422 

Coal Shipments, 1874-1894 422 

Grain Receipts, Where From 422 

The Fishing Industry 423 

A Fisherman's Paradise 423 

. 423 
. 424 
. 424 
. 424 
. 425 
. 425 

Gill-Net Fishing 

Pound-Net Fishing 

Introduction of Steam Fishing Boats . 

Amateur Fishermen 

Pleasure Boats 

Erie Yacht Club 



Public Pleasure Resorts. — Pag-e 425 to Pag-e 429. 


Cascade Park 425 

Lakeside Park 425 

Central Park 425 

Soldiers' and Sailor's Monument 426 

The Park Fountains 426 

Keepers of the Parks 426 

The Head, or Massassaug-a Point 426 

Tracj' Point 427 

The Sommerheim Association 427 


Glenwood Park 428 

The Grove House 428 

The Cedars 428 

Cochran's Grove 428 

The Maples 428 

Fair Grounds 429 

Race Tracks 429 

Base Ball Grounds 429 

Club Houses, etc 429 


City and State Buildings, Charitable Institutions, Etc.— Page 429 to Page 436. 

Home . 

City Hall 

Court House Bell . 

City Hospital 

Soldiers' and Sailo 
Wayne Block Hous 

Home for the Friendless 432 

Hamot Hospital 433 

St. Joseph's Orphan Asylum 434 

Old Folks' Home 434 

, . . 429 
, .. 430 
. .. 430 
. .. 430 
, .. 430 

St. Vincent's Hospital 

Bureau of Charities 

Northwestern Pennsylvania H 
Erie Board of Public Charities 
Erie Day Nursery 




Societ}'. 435 



Free Kindergarten 436 

Exchange for Women's Work 436 

HomoLopathic Hospital and Free Dispensary . 436 

Churches, Sunday Schools, Religious vSocieties, Etc. — Page 437 to Page 468. 


Presbyterian Churches 437 

First Church 437 

Selden Memorial Chapel 438 

Park Church 438 

Park Home Chapel 439 

Park Mission Chapel 439 

Central Church 440 

Central Church Mission Schools 440 

Chestnut Street Church 441 

United Presbyterian Church 441 

Protestant Episcopal Churches 443 

St. Paul's Church 443 

Bishop Spaulding 444 

Trinity Mission 445 

Grace Mission 445 

Lundy's Lane Mission 445 

St. John's Church 445 

St. Vincent's Church 446 

Bishop Vincent 446 

St. Alban's Church 447 

Methodist' Episcopal Churches 447 

First Church 447 

Brown's Avenue Mission 448 

Simpson Church 448 

Tenth Street Church 449 

Wayne Street Church 450 

Methodist Episcopal Church Alliance 450 

Methodist Episcopal Conferences 450 

St. James' African Church 450 

Baptist Churches 451 

First Church 451 

North Star Mission . 452 

Hope Mission 452 

Wallace Mission 452 


Second Church 452 

First German Church 452 

Swedish Church 453 

Lutheran Churches 453 

St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Reformed 453 

Luther Memorial 454 

Grace Mission 454 

Zion's Mission 454 

German Evangelical Trinity Lutheran. . . 454 
Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Bethany.. 455 

Emanuel Evangelical Lutheran 455 

Roman Catholic Churches 455 

St. Patrick's Church 456 

Catholic Bishops of the Erie Diocese. . . . 456 

St. Patrick's Auditorium 456 

St. Peter's Cathedral 457 

Bishop Mullen 457 

Vicar Generals, Erie Diocese 456-457 


St. Mary's Church. 

St. Mary's Priory, Convent, etc. 

St. Joseph's Church 

St. John's Church 

St. Andrew's Church 

St. Stanislaus' Church 

St. Michael's Church 

St. Paul's Church 461 


Catholic Chapels 462 

German St. Paul's Evangelical Church. 
Ansche Chesed Hebrew Reformed Congrega- 
tion 462 

United Brethren Church 463 

First Christian Church 463 


First Universalist Church 463 

Salem Evang-elical Association 464 

The New Church (Swedenborgiau) 464 

Church of Christ (The Tabernacle) 465 

Church of Christian Scientists 465 

First Spiritual Society 466 

German Temple Congreg-ation 466 

Young- Men's Christian Association 466 

L,adies' Auxiliary Society, Y. M. C. A 466 


State Convention, Y. M. C. A 466 

Erie Bethel Association , 467 

Himrod Mission Sunday School 467 

Christian Endeavor Union of Erie City 467 

Women's Christian Association 467 

Ministerial Association of Erie 467 

State Convention of Christian Endeavor So- 
cieties 468 

Religious Statistics of Erie City for 1890 468 

Graveyards and Cemeteries. — Page 468 to Page 471. 

Early Protestant Burial Places. 

Old French Graveyard 

Earlj' Catholic Burial Places. . , 
Hebrew Cemetery 

. . . 468 
. .. 469 
, .. 469 
. . . 469 


Erie Cemetery 469 

Trinity Cemetery 471 

Polish Cemetery 471 

Lakeside Cemetery Association 471 


Clubs, Secret, Pouticai,, Religious and Other Societies — Page 472 to 477. 

Clubs ,.... 472 

Ancient Order of United Workmen 472 

Benevolent Societies (Miscellaneous) 472 

Catholic Societies 472 

Catholic Benevolent Legion 473 

Catholic Union of the Knights of St. John 473 

Catholic Mutual Benefit Association 473 

Catholic Ladies' Mutual Benevolent Asso- 
ciation 473 

Catholic Literary and Other Societies 473 

Colored Masons 474 

Colored Odd Fellows ■. 474 

Daughters of Liberty 474 

Equitable Aid Union 474 

Eclectic Assembly 474 

Elks, B. P. O. of 474 

Fraternal Mystic Circle 474 

Grand Army of the Republic 474 

Sons of Veterans 474 

Women's Relief Corps 474 

Harugaris 474 

Hebrew Societies 475 

Improved Order of Red Men 475 

Independent Order of Foresters 475 

Junior Order U. A. M 475 

Knights of the Golden Eagle 475 

Knights and Ladies of Maccabees 475 

Knights of St. John and Malta 475 


Knights of Honor 475 

Knights of Malta 475 

Knights of Pythias 475 

Knights and Ladies of Honor 475 

Knights of Labor 475 

Masonic Societies 475 

Mystic Shrine 476 

Musical Societies 476 

Medical Societies 476 

Miscellaneous Societies 476 

National Union 476 

Odd Fellows 476 

Order of United Friends 476 

Protective Trades and Labor Organizations.. 476 

Patriotic Order Sons of America 477 

Protected Home Circle 477 

Political Societies 477 

Railroad Societies 477 

Royal Arcanum 477 

Royal Templars of Temperance 477 

Regular Army and Navy Union 477 

Religious Societies not Otherwise named 477 

Sons of St. George 477 

Turners 477 

Union Veteran Legion 477 

Ladies of the U. V. L 477 

W^oodmen of the World 477 

Banks, Insurance Companies, Public Corporations, Etc.— Page 478 to Page 4f 


First Erie Bank 478 

United States Branch Bank at Erie 478 

Erie City Bank 478 

Bank of Commerce 478 

Private Bankers in 1861 478 

German Savings Institution 479 

Humboldt Savings Bank 479 

Erie County Savings Bank 479 

John Eliot & Co 479 

First National. Bank 479 

.. 479 
. . 480 

Keystone National Bank 

Second National Bank 

Marine National Bank 480 

Dime Savings Bank 480 

Ball & Colt 480 

Erie County Mutual Fire Insurance Company. 480 

Harbor Creek Fire Insurance Company 481 

German Insurance Company 481 

Alps Insurance Company 481 

Erie Gas Company 481 


Pennsylvania Natural Gas Company 481 

Welsbach Gas Company 482 

Edison Electric Light and Power Company. . . 482 
Merchants' and Manufacturers' Electric Light, 

Heat and Power Company 482 

Erie Electric Motor Company 483 

Erie Transfer Company 

Erie Real Estate Title Company 

Building and Loan Associations 

Telegraph Systems 

Telephone Exchange 

Express and General Carrying Companies 

.. 483 
.. 484 

.. 484 


Public and Parochial Schools, School Officers, Academies, Etc. — Page 485 to Page 495. 


First School House in Erie 485 

Roll of the School 485 

Public School System Adopted 485 

Early School Buildings 486 

Present School Buildings 487 

The High School 487 

List of Principals 487 

City Superintendents 487 

List of School Directors, 1834-1895 488 

Superintendent of Buildings 489 

Free School Books 489 

Courses of Study, etc 489 

Teachers' Institute 489 

Mechanical Drawing School 490 

Teachers' Training Class 490 


Music, German, Evening Schools, etc 490 

Teachers Who Have Been Employed Ten 

Years or More 490 

Salaries Paid Teachers 490 

Growth of the Schools 491 

Miscellaneous Information 491 

Free Public Library Law 491 

Erie Academy 491 

Academy Pupils in 1844 492 

Erie Female Seminary 493 

St. Benedict's Academy 493 

Villa Maria Academy 493 

Catholic Parochial Schools 493 

Erie Business University 494 

The Kindergartens 494 


Manufactures — Historical and Statistical. — Page 495 to Page 504. 


Early Mills and Factories 495 

" Big Oaks From Little Acorns Grow " 495 

Absence of Strikes 495 

Manufacturing Statistics, 1880-1890-4 496 

Abbatoirs and Packing Establishments 496 

Bakeries 496 

Breweries 496 

Bicycle Works 497 

Blank Books, Printing, etc 497 

Brick Works 497 

Brass Works 497 

Button Works r 498 

Carriage and Wagon Works 498 

Flouring Mills 498 

Furniture and Fine Wood Work 498 

Iron Works (Miscellaneous) 498 


Lime and Cement Works 500 

Lumber and Building Material 500 

Malt House 501 

Nickel Works SOI 

Oil Refineries 501 

Paint Works 501 

Paper Mill and Chemical Works 501 

Piano Factories 501 

Pump Makers 501 

Rubber Works 501 

Stone Cutters 501 

Stove Factories 502 

Tanneries 502 

Vinegar and Pickling Works 502 

Manufactures Not Classified 502 

Factories that have been Discontinued 503 

Business Matters in General. — Page 504 to Page 51/ 


Board of Trade 504 

Charter Members of the same 504 

Presidents and Secretaries 504 

Business Centers, Various Periods 505 


List of Former Business Men 505 

Mercantile Agencies 512 

Lake and Railroad Business 512 

Business Blocks, when Erected 513 

Hotels, Markets, Public Halls and Military Companies. — Page 518 to Page 525. 


First Public Houses 518 

Later Public Houses 518 

Brown's Hotel— Ellsworth House 519 

South Erie Hotels 519 


Mansion House 519 

Present Hotels 519 

Reed House 519 

Liebel House 519 



.... 519 

Arcade Hotel 

.... 520 

Other Halls 

.... 521 

Wilson House 

.... 520 

The Public Markets 

.... 522 

Kimberly House 

.... 520 

First Market House 

.... 522 

Moore House 

.... 520 

South Erie Market House 

.... 522 

Living-ston Hotel 

.... 520 

The Street Markets 

.... 522 

Park View House 

.... 520 

Hay and Wood Market 

.... 522 

Union Depot Hotel 

.... 520 

Modern Market Houses 

.... 522 

Morton House 

.... 520 

Central Market House 

.... 523 

Massassaug-a Hotel, etc 

.... 520 

Abolishment of the Street Market. 

.... 523 

.... S20 

Palace Hotel 

.... 520 

Parade Street Market House 

.... 523 

South Erie Hotel 

.... 520 

People's Market House 

.... 523 

Other Public Houses 

.... 520 

Military Companies 

.... 524 

Public Halls and Places of Amusement. . 

.... 521 

Companies Previous to the Last War 

.... 524 


.... 521 
.... 521 

Park Opera House 

McLane Light Guard 

.... 524 

New York Opera House 

.... 521 

Sheridan Guard 

.... 524 

Old Wayne Hall 

.... 521 

Noble Light Guard 

.... 524 

Park Hall 

.... 521 

Governor's Guard 

.... 524 

Dreisig-aker's Hall 

.... 521 

Co.'s A. and C, iSth Regiment, N. G. 

P.. 524 

New Wayne Hall 

... 521 

Services of the Latter Companies 

.... 524 

Academy of Music 

.... 521 

Fifteenth Regiment N. G. P 

.... 524 

Gabel's Hall 

.... 521 

National Guard of Pennsylvania 

.... 524 


MiscEi,i,.\NEOus Information. — Page 525 to Page 534. 


Centen nial Celebration of 1895 525 

The Tanning Industry 526 

Natural Gas Wells 527 

The Erie Test Well 527 

Destructive Floods in Mill Creek 527 

Grand Efforts for Charity 528 

Musical Organizations 528 

Prices and Wages in Years Past 528 

Cranberries and Cranberry Day 529 

Pioneer Mechanics 529 

Taxes in 1820 .529 

Original Town of Erie 529 

A Curious Custom 530 

Drive Along the Beach 530 

Erie Horticultural Society 530 

An Ancient Structure 530 

Letter Carrier System — When Introduced 530 

Erie City Directory 530 

Lake Shore Masonic Relief Association 530 

Art and Artists 530 


Masonic History 530 

Sisters of St. Joseph 531 

Beer, Ale and Malt 531 

The Lumber Interests 531 

Effect of Railroads 531 

Erie Capital Abroad 532 

Erie a Healthy City 532 

Lime and Cement Trade 532 

Council Records 532 

The Bottling Business 532 

Largest Picnics and Fairs 532 

Coal Dealers and Dock Builders 533 

A Memorable Event 533 

Low Water in the Lake 533 

The Niagara, Place where Suuk 534 

Tonnage Through the " Soo " Canal 534 

Early Postoffice Sites 534 

Doctors and Dentists 534 

Erie Citizens' Association 534 

Grand Army of the Republic, List of Posts. . . 534 

See Ai.phabeticai, Index (Part VII); Map of Erie County; Ai 


Creek Township. 


Generai, and Historical. — Page 535 to Page 540. 


Origin of the Place 535 

Downer Oil Works 535 

Rapid Growth at the Start 535 

General Description 536 

Borough and City Charters 536 

List of Mayors 536 

Population, 1870-'80-'90 536 


Factories, Hotels and Business Houses 536 

Banks and Bank Failures 537 

Public Schools 537 

School Superintendents 537 

Churches 538 

Nevvspapers 538 

Secret Societies 539 



Sewerag'e System 540 

Street Paving- 540 

Miscellaneous 540 


State and Count}' Officers 539 

Postmasters 540 

Water Works 540 

SEE AI.PHABETICAL INDEX (Part VII); Map of Erie County; Also Wayne and Concord Townships. 


Family Histories and Biographical Sketches.— Pag-e 541 to Page 896. 


Alphabetical Index to Entire Book. 




Historical, Descriptive and Statistical 





BORIGINES.— The por- 
tion of America included 
in Pennsylvania was or- 
iginally occupied by an 
Indian tribe who " called 
themselves the Lenni Le- 
nape, or original people." 
They spoke a common 
language and assembled 
around the same council 
tire. They were united, by conquest, with 
the historical Six Nations, embracing the 
Onondagas, the Cayugas, the Oneidas, the 
Senecas, the Mohawks, and the Tuscaroras. 
These natives became known to the white set- 
tlers by the general name of the Iroquois, who 
had their great council fire in the Onondaga 
vallej' of New York. Of this confederacy, 
the Senecas held control of the northwestern 
portion of the State, embracing Erie and ad- 
joining counties. The Eriez, or " Cat tribe," 
who were the original people along the south 
shore of Lake Erie, were exterminated about 
the year 1650 by the Iroquois, as is more 
fully detailed in the general history of Erie 
county. [For a full account of the Indians of 
this region see the latter history.] 

Anthracite Coal. — Pennsylvania is the 
only part of the world where anthracite coal 
is produced in a large quantity. The anthra- 
cite coal production is limited to the north- 
eastern portion of the State, and alm'ost en- 
tirely to the counties of Luzerne, Schuylkill, 
Lackawanna, and Carbon, covering an area 
of about 480 square miles. This coal was first 
tested in what is now Luzerne county about 
1768 or 1769. Previous to that the coal in use 
throughout the world was bituminous or semi- 
bituminous in character. Anthracite coal was 
experimented with, for local purposes, in a 
small way, in the counties where found, for a 
number of years, but was not received with 
favor by the general public until about 1820- 

23, when it began to be shipped in considera- 
ble quantities, by means of the Lehigh and 
Schuylkill systems of navigation. In 1826 
about 50,000 tons were received in Philadel- 
phia, which was then the only port of ship- 
ment on salt water. Since then the produc- 
tion has increased to such an extent that an- 
thracite coal is .sent to every part of the world, 
and the mining and transportation of the same 
has become one of the great industries of 
the State. The amount carried by rail and 
canal in 1893 was 43,089,536 tons. 

Area, etc. — The State is bounded on the 
north by Lake Erie and New York ; on the 
east by New York and New Jersey ; on the 
south by Delaware, Maryland, and West Vir- 
ginia ; and on the west by West Virginia and 
Ohio. The Delaware river forms the boun- 
dary between Pennsylvania on the west and 
New York and New Jeisey on the east. The 
greatest width of the State is 175 miles, and 
its greatest length 303. By official tables pre- 
pared at Harrisburg, the State is represented 
as embracing 45,086 square miles and 28,- 
808,443 acres. 

Battles. — Although founded by Qiiakers, 
who are opposed to war for any cause, the 
State has been the scene of some of the most 
bloody battles and frontier troubles in the his- 
tory of America. Among these may be men- 
tioned the struggle between the Eriez and 
Iroquois along the south shore of Lake Erie, 
hereafter described at length ; the engagements 
between the French and English in the west- 
ern part of the State, including Biaddock's 
defeat near Pittsburg ; the various skirmishes 
with the Indians, embracing the attacks on 
Forts LeBoeuf and Presque Isle ; the Revolu- 
tionary battles of Paoli, Brandy wine and 
Germantown ; the massacre at Wyoming ; 
the Confederate raid upon the Cumberland 
Valley, and the burning of Chambersburg ; 
and the decisive battles of the war for the 


Union at Gettysburg. Perry's victory, on the 
10th of September, 1813, which gave the 
United States control of the Great Lakes, was 
won by a fleet prepared and equipped at Erie. 

Bituminous Coal. — The bituminous coal 
fields of Pennsylvania lie west of the Susque- 
hanna river, and include an area of more than 
9,000 square miles. In the fifteen years from 
1880 to 1895 they yielded a product of 470,- 
867,769 gross tons. The officers of the State 
Geological Survey calculate that at the pres- 
ent rate of production the bituminous coal 
supply of Pennsylvania will last nearly a 
thousand years. 

Braddock's Defeat. — The terrible defeat 
of Gen. Braddock, the English commander 
who was sent out to drive the French from 
the western part of the State, took place on 
the north bank of the Monongahela river, a 
few miles from the present site of Pittsburg, 
on the 9th of July, 1755. The French troops 
who effected this result came up Lake Erie 
from Canada, were assembled and organized 
at Erie (then known as Presque Isle), and 
moved south bj- way of LeBoeuf creek, French 
creek and the Allegheny river. [For an ac- 
count of the French occupation of Western 
Pennsylvania, see the General History of Erie 

Buckshot War. — This is the derisive title 
given to a dispute between the Anti-Ma.sons 
and the Whigs on the one hand, and the 
Democrats on the other, in 1838-9, over the 
organization of the State House of Repre- 
sentatives. Governor Ritner ordered out the 
State militia and appealed to the general gov- 
ernment for aid, but, happily, the controversy 
was settled without bloodshed. [See the Po- 
litical Record in General History of Erie 

Capital— State.— The capital of the State 
is Harrisburg, on the east bank of the Sus- 
quehanna river. Up to 1799 Philadelphia 
was the seat of the State government, but in 
the latter year it was removed to Lancaster. 
Harri.sburg became the capital in 1812. The 
corner stone of the " State House," or Capitol 
building, at Harrisburg was laid in 1819, and 
the first meeting of the Legislature therein 
was held in 1822. The original buildings, 
which are still occupied, are of brick, plain. 
but very substantial in their nature. A hand- 
some additional structure for executive and 
library purposes was erected in 1894. 

Colleges. — [See L^niversities and Col- 

Churches. — [See Religious Denomina- 

Continental Congress. — The sessions of 
the Continental Congress within the limits of 
Pennsylvania were held as follows : In Phila- 
delphia, September 5, 1774, to October 26, 
1774, and May 10, 1775, to December 12, 
1776; March 4, 1777, to September 18, 1777; 
Lancaster, September 27, 1777; York, Sep- 
tember 30, 1777, to June 27, 1778; Philadel- 
phia, July 2, 1778, to June 21, 1788. 

Cities and Towns. — Below is a list of the 
principal cities and towns, with their popula- 
tion, as shown by the LI. S. census report of 
Cities and Population. 

Boroughs. Counties. 1890. 

Philadelphia city Philadelphia 1,046,964 

Pittsburgh city Alleg-heny 238,617 

AUeg-heny city Allegheny 105,287 

Scranton city Lackawanna 75,215 

Reading city Berks 58,661 

Erie city Erie 40,634 

Harrisburg city Dauphin 39,383 

Wilkes-Barre city Luzerne 37,718 

Lancaster city Lancaster 32,011 

Altoona city Blair 30,337 city Lycoming 27,132 

AUentown city Lehigh 25,228 

Johnstown citj' Cambria 21,805 

York borough York 20,793 

McKeesport borough. . . Allegheny 20,741 

Chester city Delaware 20,226 

Norristown borough . . . Montgomery 19,791 

Shenandoah borough. .Schuylkill.'. 15,944 

Lebanon city Lebanon 14,664 

Easton city Northampton 14 ,481 

Shamokin borough.. .'. .Northumberland. . 14,403 

Pottsville borough Schuylkill 14,117 

Pottstown borough . . . .Montgomery 13,285 

Hazleton borough Luzerne 11,872 

New Castle city Lawrence 11,600 

Mahanoy Citv borough. Schuylkill 11,286 


Steelton borough Dauphin 9,250 

Butler borough Butler 8,734 

Braddock borough Allegheny 8,561 

Phojnixville borough. .Chester 8,514 

Dunmore borough Lackawanna 8,315 

Mount Carmel borough. Northumberland.. 8,254 

TitusviUe city Crawford 8,073 

West Chester borough . Chester 8,028 

Oil City Venango... 

Carbondale city Lackawanna. . 

Columbia borough Lancaster 

Bradford city McKean 

South Bethlehem boro ..Northampton 

Pittston borough Luzerne 

Nanticoke borough Luzerne 

Beaver Falls borough. .Beaver 

Meadville city Crawford 

Plymouth borough Luzerne. 


Danville boroug-h.... 



Homestead borouffh. . 






Carlisle borough 



Sharon borouph 




Ashland borough .... 



South Chester borough. Delaware 


Washington borough 



Bethlehem borough.. 



Bristol borough 

Uniontown borough. . 

• Fayette 


Franklin city 



Du Bois borough 



Taniaqua borough... 




Huntingdon borough. 


Corry city 



Conuellsville borough 

• Fayette 


New Brighton borough. Beaver 


South Easton borough 



Conshohocken boroug 

1. Montgomery 



Middletown borough. . 


Sharpsburg borough.. 


Tyrone borough 

Wilkinsburg borough 




Blootnsburg borough 
Tarentum borough . . 



Warren borough 



Greensburg borough. 

.Westmoreland ... 


Towanda borough . . . 



Renovo borough 







Ol3'phant borough . . . 



Archbald borough . . 

.Lackawanna .... 


Lansford borough . . . 

• Carbon 


Criminals. — [See Prisoners.] 

Centennial Exhibition. — The Centennial 
Exhibition at Philadelphia, held in 1876, in 
commemoration of the one hundredth anniver- 
sary of the independence of the United States, 
was the first great World's Fair in America, 
and one of the most successful known up to 
that date. It was liberally aided bj' Penn- 
sylvania, and owed most of its success to the 
active and intelligent effort of citizens of 
Philadelphia and the State at large. 

Climate.— The climate of the State is that 
of the Central temperate zone, with consider- 
able variation between its northern and south- 
ern sections. As a rule, there is about two 
weeks difference between the extreme north 
and south. This, of course, is somewhat varied 
by the altitude of the several localities. The 
summers of the southern counties are very hot 
at times, while those of the south shore of 
Lake Erie are almost uniformly pleasant. 
The temperature of the latter region is great- 
ly affected by the large body of water, so that 

spring sets in a week earlier than in the elevat- 
ed sections to the east and south of the lake, 
while winter commences a week later. The 
same influence makes the lake shore portion 
of Erie county one of tlie best grape, fruit, 
berry and melon regions of the world. 

Coat of Arms. — An authentic copy of 
the coat of arms of the State will be found on 
a preceding page of this book. 

Congressmen. — [See Representatives in 
Congress of the United States.] 

Congressional Districts. — Under the cen- 
sus of 189(.) the State is entitled to thirty Con- 
gres.=men, being only four less than New 
York, which at one time was much more ahead 
of Pennsjivania in population and representa- 
tion. For want of proper apportionment, 
twenty-eight of these are elected by Congres- 
sional Districts and two by the State at large. 
Eiie and Crawford counties constitute the 
2(5th Congressional District. A list of the 
Congressmen who have represented Erie 
county will be found in the Political Record. 

Constitutions. — The State has had three 
Constitutions since the Revolution, viz. : The 
first adopted in 1776; the second in 1790, and 
revised in 1838; and the third (being the one 
now in force, a copy of which is appended), 
adopted December 18, 1873. Under the old 
Constitutions, most of the State and county 
officers were appointed by the Governors ; 
now, with rare exceptions, they are elected by 
the people, except for limited periods^ Penn- 
sylvania, always patriotic, was the second of 
tiie States to ratify the Federal Constitution, 
which was framed in her chief city in 1787^ 
[See United States Constitution.] 

Courts. — The judicial power is vested in a 
supreme court, consisting of seven judges, a 
superior court, of the same number, and 
the several county, district and minor courts. 
The Supreme judges are chosen by the people 
for twenty-one years, each one becoming 
Chief Justice in turn, according to the expira- 
tion of his term. The salary of each Supreme 
Judge is .$8,000 a year, witli $500 additional to 
the Chief Justice. The judges of the superior 
court hold office for ten years, and receive a 
salary, each, of .i!7,500 per annum. Each 
county with 40,000 inhabitants constitutes a 
separate judicial district. The salaries of the 
county judges vary from |4,0(X» to $7,000 a 
year, being largest in Philadelphia and Alle- 
gheny counties. Their term of office is ten 


years. All judicial salaries are paid out of 
the State treasury. [For a list of judges in 
Erie county see the general history of the 

Debt. — The extensive public improvements 
upon which the State embarked in its early 
history created a large debt, which was at one 
time a very heavy burden. By wise legisla- 
tion this debt has been practically wiped out 
of existence. With assets on hand in the 
sinking fund, it was less than two and a half 
millions on the 80th of November, 1894. The 
figures below, from the U. S. census reports 
of 1890 give the entire debt of the State at 
that date : 

State, Municipal, County and School 
District Debt. 

1880. 1890. 
Total debt, less sink- 
ing- fund $107,201,692 $71,041,675 

Per capita 25.03 13.51 

State debt (see above) 13,883,218 4,068,610 

County debt 9,781,384 7,841,484 

Municipal debt 81,081,128 54,208,547 

School district debt.. 2,455,902 4,893,034 

Average Interest Charges on Above 

1880. 1890. 

Annual interest 

charg-e $7,444,813 $5,778,853 

Average rate of in- 
terest 5.78 5.35 

Interest charge per 

capita 1.74 1.10 

Mortgages in Force January 1, 1890. 

on farm on city or average amt. 

land. town property. of mortgagks. 

$613,105,802 $491,260,895 $1,183 

Declaration of Independence. — The 

most important historical event that ever hap- 
pened on Pennsylvania soil, and the greatest in 
the history of America, was the signing of the 
Declaration of Independence. This moment- 
ous incident took place in what is now known 
as Independence Hall, in Philadelphia, on the 
4th of July, 1776. The building is preserved 
just as it was at the time of the Declaration, 
and contains numerous interesting relics of the 
Revolution. It is generally regarded as the 
most sacred place in American history. The 
old bell, which rang out " Liberty through the 
land," is kept in the building, and is an object 
of great curiosity. The signers of the Declara- 
tion from Pennsylvania were as follows : 

Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin 
Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, 
James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, 
George Ross. 

Early Settlements. — The first settlement 
of Pennsj'lvania is generally credited to the 
Swedes, w-ho located on the Delaware river in 
1688. They established several forts and vil- 
lages on that stream and its tributaries, and 
gave name to various localities in the extreme 
southeastern portion of the State. Delaware 
river and bay had been previously visited, 
however, by the Dutch, who established them- 
selves at various points south of Philadelphia, 
within the present limits of the State of Dela- 
ware. It is not certain that they may not 
have settled in Pennsylvania in advance of 
the Swedes, but if such is the case no authen- 
tic record remains. The Delaware region was 
conquered b}' the English in 1(564, recovered 
by the Dutch in 1672, and returned to the 
English two years later. Beginning at the 
latter period, it was settled rapidly under 
English auspices, principally by Qiiakers, who 
came to enjoy religious freedom. On the ac- 
quirement of Pennsylvania by William Penn, 
in 1681, he took prompt steps to induce emi- 
gration. The liberal laws and government he 
instituted attracted the notice of those who 
objected to the established churches of Europe, 
and it was not long until there was a large in- 
flux of Qiiakers, Welsh dissenters, and Pres- 
byterians from Scotland and the north of Ire- 
land. An extensive colon}' of Mennonists, or 
German Baptists, and Dunkards, came in dur- 
ing the period between 1698 and 1780, and 
these were joined about the latter date by a 
host of German Lutherans, who continued to 
arrive for a number of years. The Germans 
settled on the rich lands of the southeastern 
counties, while the Scotch-Irish gradually 
pushed forward into the western districts, each 
nationality giving character to the sections in 
which it located. The German emigration 
ceased about 1750 or '60, and did not revive 
until after the Revolution. Few Catholic 
Irish or Germans settled in the State until a 
comparatively modern date. As long as the 
crown of England held control the English 
and Scotch-Irish element dominated, but some 
years after Independence the Germans rose 
into political power, and, for a long period, 
elected most of the public officeis, and gave 
tone to State legislation. 


Eminent Men. — Among the eminent men 
who have been connected with the history of 
Pennsylvania were : William Penn, the 
founder; Benjamin Franklin, the greatest 
" all-round man " the American nation has 
produced; Anthony Wayne, the Revolution- 
ary hero; Stephen Girard, the millionaire and 
philanthropist; Robert Morris, the financier 
of the Revolution; Chief Justice Gibson, the 
profound jurist ; John Fitch, the inventor of 
the steamboat, and Robert Fulton, who 
brought the idea into prominence before the 
public; Benjamin West, P. F. Rothermel and 
Thomas Hovenden, the famous painters ; Lind- 
ley Murray, the grammarian ; David Ritten- 
house, the mathematician; David Wilmot, 
the anti-slavery agitator ; Simon Cameron, the 
shrewd politician ; William Strong and 
Jeremiah S. Black, the distinguished lawyers ; 
Thaddeus Stevens, " the great commoner ;" 
Edwin M. Stanton, the "organizer of vic- 
tory " in the late war ; Stephen Decatur and 
David D. Porter, the brilliant naval officers; 
Generals McClellan, Meade. Hancock, Rey- 
nolds, Geary and Hartranft, leaders in the war 
for the Union; Geo. W. Childs and Andrew 
Carnegie, the liberal givers; and many others, 
second only to these in reputation, whose 
names appear on other pages of this book. 

Elections. — The city, ward, borough and 
township elections are held on the third Tues- 
day of February, and the general elections for 
State and county officers on the Tuesday next 
following the first Monday of November. 

Executive Officers. — The principal exec- 
utive officers are : Governor, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, Secretary of the Commonwealth (ap- 
pointed) , AttorneyGeneral (appointed), Audi- 
tor General, State Treasurer, Secretary of In- 
ternal Affairs and Superintendent of Public 
Instruction (the latter appointed). Adjutant 
General (appointed), Insurance Commissioner 
(appointed). Superintendent of Banking (ap- 
pointed), State Librarian (appointed). Fac- 
tory Inspector (appointed), and Superintend- 
ent of Public Printing (appointed). These 
officers are assisted by numerous deputies and 
chiefs of departments, and there are a great 
variety of boards, commissions and minor posi- 
tions, making a list too long for publication 

Founder of the State.— The State was 
founded by William Penn, who acquired it by 
gift from King Charles II of England, in 

liquidation of claims held by his father, a dis- 
tinguished admiral, against the crown of that 
countr}'. The charter from the King was 
dated March 4, 1681, and is still in good pres- 
ervation at Ilarrisburg. By the King's order, 
and against Penn's protest, the province was 
named Pennsylvania (meaning Penn's woods 
or forest) in honor of the distinguished serv- 
ices of his father. On securing possession of 
his territory, Penn drew up " a form of govern- 
ment and a code of laws, all bearing the stamp 
of his benevolent mind." His prevailing pur- 
pose was to establish a commonwealth that 
should be devoted to peace, good morals, 
general education and religious freedom. His 
course of action was so different from that of 
other colonial founders, and his dealing with 
the Indians was so just and humane, that his 
name is illustrious as that of one of the wisest 
and greatest of men. Penn's first visit to the 
province was on the 27th of October, 1682. 
He returned to England in 1684, and made a 
second visit in 1699, remaining some two 
years. By religion he was a Quaker, and he 
made many sacrifices and suffered severe per- 
secution in behalf of personal and religious 
liberty. He was born in London October 14, 
1644, and died of paralysis at Rushcombe, 
England, July 30, 1718. " His enduring 
monument is the great State founded by him 
' in deeds of peace.'" 

First Things. — The first stone turnpike in 
the United States was built between Philadel- 
phia and Lancaster, by a private company, in 
1792—4. The first canal of any considerable 
length within the limits of the Union was 
begun in 1792, with the intention of construct- 
ing a water way between the Delaware at 
Philadelphia and Lake Erie, at or near Erie. 
The first line of coaches between Philadelphia 
and Pittsburg was started in August, 1804, 
via Harrisburg, Carlisle, Bedford and Greens- 
burg, the time from one terminus to the other 
occupying seven days. The first carriage in 
the world moved by steam on common roads 
was built by Oliver Evans and successfully 
operated at Philadelphia in July, 1807- The 
first railroad in America was built at a stone 
quarry in Ridley township, Delaware county, 
in 1808. The railroad from Philadelphia to 
Columbia was opened for travel in October, 
1834 (being part of the State improvement 
system), and the first boat on the main line of 
the State canal between the latter place and 


Pittsburg reached the Ohio in the same month. 
The Pennsylvania railroad, the first great line 
of the kind in the State, and one of the ear- 
liest through systems in the country, was com- 
pleted to Pittsburg in 1854. The first really 
successful steamboat was built by Robert Ful- 
ton, a Pennsylvanian, though the idea of pro- 
pelling boats by steam had previously been 
patented by John Fitch, another citizen of the 
State, who made some experiments on the 
Delaware which foreshadowed the future use- 
fulness of his scheme. 

Flag of the United States.— The Na- 
tional Flag, which was designed by a Philadel- 
phia lady, Mrs. Betsey Ross, was adopted by 
the Continental Congress, sitting in that city, 
on the 14th of June, 1777. The resolution to 
that effect was as follows : " That the flag of 
the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, 
alternate red and white ; that the union be 
thirteen stars, white in a blue field, represent- 
ing a new constellation." Describing the 
flag, Charles Sumner said: "The stripes of 
alternate red and white on the United States 
flag proclaim the original union of thirteen 
States to maintain the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. Its stars, white on a field of blue, 
proclaim that union of States constituting our 
national constellation, which receives a new 
star with every new State. The two together 
signify union, past and present. The very 
colors have a language which was officially 
recognized by our fathers. White is for 
purity ; red for valor ; blue for justice." In 
commemoration of the adoption of the national 
emblem, the 14th of June in each year has 
been set apart as "Flag Day," and is generally 
observed, more especially by the schools. By 
a later act of Congress to the one above men- 
tioned, a star is added upon the admission of 
every new .State. 

French War. — As is more fully detailed 
in the general history of Erie county, the 
French at one time claimed all the country 
from the headwaters of the Allegheny river, 
down the Ohio, to the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi. Their claim was disputed by the 
English. The French made their base of 
operations at Erie (formerly known as Presque 
Isle), and established a chain of forts from 
there southward, among other points, at 
Waterford (LeBoeuf), Franklin (Venango), 
and Pittsburg (Duquesne). Early in 1753, 
George Washington, then a young man, was 

sent to LeBoeuf to inquire into the purpose of 
the French. Receiving an evasive answer, 
he returned to Virginia, and headed a force to 
drive the French out of the country. The 
latter pushed forward a thousand men from 
Erie to Pittsburg, and forced Washington, 
with a small detachment, to capitulate. Brad- 
dock's expedition, in behalf of the English 
and English colonists, was organized in 1758, 
with Washington as an aid-de-camp to the 
commander-in-chief. It consisted largely of 
British regulars, added to a considerable body 
of Colonial troops from Pennsylvania, Virginia 
and Maryland. The French and their Indian 
allies waited in ambush at a point on the 
Monongahela river, ten miles from Pittsburg, 
where they surprised Braddock and effected 
one of the most complete routs in history. A 
second army was organized in 1758 bj' the 
English, assisted by the Colonies, who march- 
ed to attack Fort Duquesne. The French, on 
learning of the superior force of their foes, 
abandoned the fort, which was promptly 
christened Fort Pitt, in honor of the great 
English premier. Soon after the French dis- 
appeared from the western part of the State, 
and, by a treaty of peace in 1762, relinquished 
all claim to the country. By the same treaty 
Canada became a British province. 

Fruits. — Every variety known to the north 
temperate zone grows in profusion, especially 
apples, pears, peaches, cherries, plums, prunes, 
quinces, grapes, and apricots. 

Floods (Great.) — Some of the most de- 
structive floods ever known have occurred in 
Pennsylvania. Scarcely a year passes that 
much damage is not done along the rivers and 
creeks of the State, due mainly to the cutting 
off of the timber. The most terrible calamity 
that ever happened in Pennsylvania took 
place on May 31, 1889. Heavy rains had oc- 
curred all over the State, filling every stream 
to excess. A large dam on the South Fork 
of the Conemaugh river burst suddenly, let- 
ting out an immense volume of water that 
swept everything before it. The flourishing 
towns of Johnstown and Conemaugh were 
practically wiped out of existence. It is esti- 
mated tha't from 3,500 to 4,000 persons lost 
their lives, and that the flood caused the de- 
struction of $75,000,000 worth of property. 
The sympathy of the whole country was 
aroused in behalf of the surviving population, 
and donations of money, clothing, etc., were 




sent in to an unprecedented amount, the total 
cash contributions alon'e being 13,746,819. 
Tlie same unusual period of rains caused great 
mischief along the valleys of the Juniata and 
the West Branch, especially at W'illiamsport 
and Lock Haven, in tiie latter region, but the 
disasters at those points were almost lost sight of 
in view of the overwhelming calamity at Johns- 
town. It is characteristic of the American 
people that the citizens of the latter place set 
to work immediately to retrieve their misfor- 
tune, and to-day Johnstown is larger and 
more prosperous than before the disaster. An- 
other memorable flood took place on Oil 
Creek June 5, 1892, caused, as before, by the 
breaking of a dam. It did vast damage at 
Titusville and Oil Citv, and led to much loss 
of life. The floods of 1892 extended all over 
the northwestern part of the State, and were 
particularly disastrous at Union City, in Erie 
county, and Irvineton, in Warren county. 
An account of this and other serious floods in 
Erie county will be found in the ensuing 

Fisfi and Fisheries. — Tiie lisherics of the 
State are quite extensive, being most produc- 
tive in the Delaware, near Philadelphia ; in 
the Susquehanna, below Columbia, and in 
Lake Erie at Erie city. Shad are caught in 
great numbers in the rivers named, and white 
fish, pike, sturgeon, bass, perch, herring and 
other fish in Lake Erie. The rivers and creeks 
were once well stocked with a large variety of 
fish, but they have decreased in consequence 
of the dams and the filth poured into the 
streams by the cities, towns, mines and factor- 
ies. Brook trout, once plentiful, are now only 
found to any extent in the mountain streams. 
The State has established several fish hatcheries, 
and the Fish Commission are making a strong 
effort to restock the lakes and streams. The 
following statistics, from the censuses of 1880 
and 1890, show the extent to which fishing is 
carried on in a commercial way : 

Peksons Capit.^i, Valuk OI' 

Employes. Invested. Product. 

18^0 SS2 119,810 $320,050 

1890 2,631 735,035 903,005 

[See Cjeneral Historj- of Erie County.] 
Franklin, Benjamin. — The most illustri- 
ous person in Pennsylvania history was born 
in Boston in 1705, and died in Philadelpha, 
after residing there most of his life, and fill- 
ing almost every important position in the 

gift of his State and country, on the 17th of 
April, 1790, aged about 83 years. He was 
buried by the' side of his wife in the cemetery- 
of Christ Church, Philadelphia, at the south- 
! east corner of Fifth and Arch streets, 
j where the slab that covers his remains is open 
to the public view, through an iron railing, 
on the line of the public walk. The follow- 
ing epitaph was written by Franklin when he 
was only twenty-two years old : 

The Body 



(Like the cover opan old book. 
Its contents torn out. 
And stripped of its lettering and 
i gilding), 

1 Lies here food for worms. 

But the work shall not be lost. 
For it will (as he believes) appear once 


In a new and more elegant edition. 
Revised and Corrected 



Farms and Farm Products. — The United 

States census reports give these statistics in 
, regard to farms and farming products, exclu- 
j sive of live stock : 

Number of Farms, Etc. 


improved unimproved size in 

total. acres. acres. acres. 

1870 174,041 11,515,965 6,478,235 103 

1S80 313,542 13,423,007 6,368,334 93 

1890 211,557 13,210,597 5,153,773 87 

1 Valuation of Farm Lands. 

j LAND & iMPLE- live 


1870 (depre- 
ciated cur- 

I rency) 1,043,481,582 36,658,196 115,647,075 

! 1880(g-old 

basis) 975,689,410 35,473,037 84,242,877 

1890 (gold 
basis) 922,240,233 39,046,855 101,652,758 

Bushels of Cereals Produced. 


]870 529,562 2,532,173 34,702,006 

1880 438,100 3,593,326 45,821,531 

1890 493,893 3,069,717 42,318,279 



1890 36,197,469 





Hay, Potatoes and Tobacco. 



.2,848,219 12.889,367 3,467,539 

.2,811,517 16,284,819 36,943,272 

.4,331,582 12,899,315 28,956,247 

Poultry and Eggs. 

other eggs- 
chickens, fowl. dozens. 

6,620,016 740,787 34,377,889 

10,381,781 999,604 50,049,915 


Game Laws. — The Acts of Assembly 
make it lawful to kill wild birds, animals and 
fish in the State — excepting Pike county and 
the Delaware river — only within the periods 
stated below ; the penalties for infringement 
thereof being from $5 to $50 : 

Turkeys Oct. 15 to Jan. 1 

Ducks •. Sept. 1 to May 1 

Plover Sept. 1 to Dec. 1 

Woodcock July 4 to Jan. 1 

Quail Nov . 1 to Dec. 15 

Ruffled grouse or pheasants Oct. 1 to Jan. 1 

Rail and reed birds Sept. 1 to Dec. 1 


Elk and deer Oct. 1 to Dec. 15 

Squirrels Sept. 1 to Jan. 1 

Hares and rabbits Nov. 1 to Jan. 1 


Salmon or speckled trout April 15 to Julj- IS 

Lake trout April 15 to July 15 

Black bass, pike and pickerel. ..June 1 to Jan. 1 
German carp Sept. 1 to May 1 

Governors and Lieutenant-Governors. 

— Under the original system the Governors 
were appointed by \\'illiam Penn and his fam- 
ily, who also named the legislative council. 
William Penn himself acted as Governor for 
some six years. The last proprietary Governor 
was John Penn, a grandson of the founder — 
who was deposed in 1770, together with all 
officers of the royal government. During the 
Revolution, and up to the adoption of the 
Constitution of 1790, the presidents of the 
Supreme Executive Council acted as Govern- 
ors. Among the most famous of these 
were John Dickinson, Benjamin Franklin and 
Thomas Mifflin. The Governors and Lieuten- 
ant-Governors have been as follows [See 
sketches of Governors on other pages] : 




Under the Constitution of 1790. 

1— Thomas Mifflin Philadelphia Dec. 21, 1790, to Dec. 17, 1799. 

2— Thomas McKean Chester Dec. 17, 1799, to Dec. 20, 1808. 

3— Simon Snyder Union Dec. 20, 1808, to Dec. 16, 1817. 

4— William Findlay Franklin Dec. 16, 1817, to Dec. 19, 1820. 

5— Joseph Hiester Berks Dec. 19, 1830, to Dec. 16, 1823. 

6— John Andrew Shulze Lebanon Dec. 16, 1823, to Dec. 15, 1829. 

7— Georg-e Wolf Northampton Dec. 15, 1829, to Dec. IS, 1835. 

8— Joseph Ritner Washington Dec. 15, 1835, to Jan. 15, 1839. 

Under the Constitution of 1838. 

9— David Rittenhouse Porter Huntingdon Jan. IS, 1839, to Jan. 21, 1845. 

10— Francis Rawn Shunk* Allegheny Jan. 21, 1845, to July 9, 1848. 

11— William Freame Johnston* Armstrong July 26, 1848. to Jan. 20, 1852. 

12— William Bigler Clearfield Jan. 20, 1852, to Jan. 16, 18S5. 

13— James Pollock Northumberland Jan. 16, 1855, to Jan. 19, 1858. 

14— William Fisher Packer Lycoming Jan. 19, 1858, to Jan. IS, 1861. 

15— Andrew Gregg Curtin Centre Jan. 15, 1861, to Jan. 15, 1867. 

16— John White Geary Westmoreland Jan. 15. 1867, to Jan. 21, 1873. 

Under the Constitution of 1873. 

17— John Frederick Hartranft Montgomery Jan. 21, 1873, to Jan. 18, 1879. 

18— Henry Martyn Hoyt Luzerne Jan. 18, 1879, to Jan. 16, 1883. 

19— Robert Emory Pattison Philadelphia Jan. 16, 1883, to Jan. 18, 1887. 

20— James Addams Beaver Centre Jan. 18, 1887, to Jan. 20, 1891. 

21— Robert Emory Pattison Philadelphia Jan. 20, 1891, to Jan. 15, 1895. 

22— Daniel Hartman Hastings Centre Jan. 15, 1895, 

*Governor Shunk resigned on his death-bed July 9, 1848, and was succeeded by Mr. Johnston, 
who, as president of the Senate, became Governor by the Constitutional provision. Governor Shunk 
was the only Chief Executive who died during the term for which he was elected. 


Lieutenant-Governors Under the Constitution of 1873. 

John Latta Westmoreland county Jan. 1'), 1875, to Jan. 21, 1879. 

Charles W. Stone Warren county Jan. 21, 1879, to Jan. 16, 1883. 

Chauncev Forward Black York county." Jan. 16, 1883, to Jan. 18, 1887. 

William T. Davies Bradford county Jan. 18, 1887, to Jan. 20, 1891. 

Louis Arthur Watres Lackawanna county Jan. 20, 1891, to Jan. 15, 1895. 

Walter Lyon Alleg-heny county Jan. IS, 1895, 

General Progress. — The general progress 
of Pennsylvania for the last twenty years has 
been greater than that of any other Eastern 
State. The following figures from the l'. S. 
census reports show how the State is gaining 
in population upon Xew York : 





Gettysburg. — The most decisive and a- 
mong the most desperate series of battles in the 
war for tiie Union took place on Pennsylvania 
soil, at Gettysbuig, in Adams county, near the 
Maryland line. A brief account of the three- 
days' series of fights at that point will be 
found under the heading, "War for the 
Union." The battlefield is now largely occu- 
pied as a national cemetery and public park, 
and is covered with splendid memorial stones, 
marking all the important positions, and mak- 
ing it one of the most interesting spots in the 
world. Gettysburg is easily reached by rail 
from Ilarrisburg, York and Baltimore. It was 
at the dedication of the monument to the 
Union dead, in the National Cemetery at Get- 
tysburg, on the 19th of November, 1864, that 
Lincjaln delivered the address which ranks as 
one of the classics of American oratory, read- 
ing as follows : 

" Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers 
brought forth upon this continent a new na- 
tion, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to 
the proposition that all men are created equal. 

" Now we are engaged in a great civil 
war, testing whether that nation, or any na- 
tion, so conceived and so dedicated, can long 
endure. We are met on a great battlefield of 
that war. We are met to dedicate a portion 
of it as the final resting place of those who 
here gave their lives that this nation might 
live. It is altogether fitting and proper that 
we should do this. 

'But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, 
we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this 

ground. The brave men, living and dead, 
who struggled here, have consecrated it far 
above our power to add or detract. The 
world will little note nor long remember what 
we say here, but it can never forget what they 
did here. 

" It is for us, the living, rather to be dedi- 
cated here to the unfinished work that they 
have thus far so nobl)- carried on. It is rather 
for us to be here dedicated to the great task 
remaining before us — that from these honored 
dead we take increased devotion to the cause 
for which they here gave the last full measure 
of devotion — that we here higiily resolve that 
the dead shall not have died in vain ; that the 
nation shall, under God, have a new birth of 
freedom, and that the government of the peo- 
ple, by the people, and for the people, shall 
not perish from tiie earth.'' 

Holidays. — The following are the legal 
holidays and half-holidays in the State. Ac- 
cording to law, all notes due on any holiday 
or half-holiday are payable and protestable on 
the next secular business day : 

January 1st — New Year's Day. 

Third Tuesday of February (municipal 
election). After 12 o'clock noon. 

February 22d — Washington's Birthday. 

Good Friday. 

May 30th — Decoration Day. 

July 4th — Independence Day. 

First Saturday in September — Labor Day. 

First Tuesday after the first Monday in 
November — General election. 

Thanksgiving Day (by appointment of 
the Governor). 

December 25th — Christmas. 

Every Saturday after 12 o'clock noon. 

Indian Titles.— Under the peaceful policy 
adopted by William Penn all Indian claims to 
the lands of the State were extinguished by 
treaty and purchase. The release of the Tri- 
angle portion of Erie county was secured from 
the Six Nations in November, 1784, and con- 
firmed in 1789. The lands south of the Tri- 
angle, in the northwestern part of the State, 
were sold by the Indians in 1784, and relin- 


quished by all the tribes who claimed an inter- 
est, in 1785. [See General History of Erie 

Iron and Iron Ore. — Extensive bodies of 
iron ore exist in various sections, which are 
largely used in the furnaces of the State. One 
of the most valuable deposits of iron ore in 
the world is in Cornwall, Lebanon county, 
which is generally spoken of as inexhausti- 
ble, and which is worth many millions of dol- 
lars. The ore consists of one vast mass, and 
is dug as gravel or clay would be in most 
places. It is one of the richest deposits of 
mineral in the entire world, and probably the 
easiest of access. Deposits of iron ore are 
found in manj- parts of the State, but none 
are equal in extent to the one mentioned 
above. Generally speaking, the ore, coal and 
limestone lie conveniently near to each other, 
making Penn.sylvania one of tlie great iron- 
producing portions of the world. 

Indian Wars and Disturbances. — While 
Penn lived and his policy was adhered to, the 
Indians gave the white settlers little trouble. 
As the conflict between the French and 
English developed, they showed a decided 
favor, however, for the former, who seem to 
have been the more skillful in courting their 
friendship. They took an active part with 
the French in their efforts to circumvent the 
English, and were present in large numbers at 
the defeat of Braddock. This latter event en- 
couraged them in the hope of driving the 
English out of the country, and was succeeded 
by numerous Indian murders and outrages. 
The departure of the French left them still 
hostile, but apparently submissive. Pontiac, 
the celebrated Indian chief, conceived the idea 
of striking a sudden and simultaneous blow 
that should wipe the English, and the colonists 
under them, out of existence, west of the 
AUeghenies. To this end he, in 17(53, enlist- 
ed a considerable body of the natives, who 
were to make a concerted attack upon all the 
English posts from the Allegheny mountains 
westward. The forts at Erie, Waterford and 
Franklin were captured, but the attempt on 
the one at Pittsburg and elsewhere in the 
southern counties proved a failure. This des- 
perate venture, known in history as " Pontiac's 
Conspiracy," was succeeded by frequent skir- 
mishes with the savages and the loss of many 
lives, both white and Indian. The white 
people, roused by a spirit of retaliation, in- 

flicted severe damage upon the Indians, and 
it is a question to the person who studies the 
events of the times, which side was most cruel. 
The Indians became overawed, sued for peace 
in 1764, and remained comparatively quiet for. 
some years. They looked upon the white 
colonists, though, as their natural foes, and, 
when the Revolution opened, transferred their 
allegiance from the French to the British, 
whom they were led to believe would restore 
them to their former rights and possessions. 
Early in 1778, a bod)' of Indians joined with 
some tories and British regulars, descended 
the North Branch and destroyed the flourish- 
ing settlements in the Wyoming Valley. The 
barbarity shown in this raid has gone into his- 
tory as the " W^yoming Massacre." The 
colonists quickly organized expeditions in re- 
tribution of their injuries which destroyed the 
Indian villages along the Upper Susquehanna 
and Allegheny rivers. By 1788 most of the 
hostile Indians had been driven into "the 
wilds of Ohio." Thej' continued troublesome 
for a number of years, during which it was 
unsafe for white men to locate in the northern 
or northwestern counties. Several expeditions 
were sent against them, but they were not 
finally subdued until Wayne took command, 
and by his energy and courage compelled them 
to accept terms of peace. The treaty by 
which this was effected was made at Green- 
ville, Ohio, on the 3d of August, 1795. From 
this date there were no serious Indian disturb- 
ances in the part of the Union embraced within 
western and northwestern Pennsylvania, and 
the country was rapidly opened to settlement. 
[For an account of the Indians of the north- 
west, and a sketch of General W^aj'ne, see the 
General Historj' of Erie County. ] 

Johnstown Flood. — [See Floods.] 
Judiciary System. — [See Courts.] 
Keystone State. — The name, Keystone 
State, as usually applied to Pennsylvania, 
arose from the fact that it was the central one 
of the thirteen colonies that revolted against 
Great Britain. The colonies on the north 
were New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hamp- 
shire (6) ; on the south, Delaware, Mary- 
land, Virginia, Nortli Carolina, South Carolina 
and Georgia (6). As far as known, the term 
was first applied in an address issued by the 
Democratic or Democratic Republican com- 
mittee in 1803. 



Leading Products. — The leading products 
of the State, aside from manufactures, are as 
follows : 

Minerals. — Anthracite coal, bituminous 
coal, semi-bituminous coal, petroleum, iron 
ore, natural gas and nickel. 

Vegetable Productions. — Everything 
that is produced in the temperate zone, includ- 
ing vast quantities of tobacco in the eastern 

Stone. — Slate, marble, sandstone, lime- 
stone, greenstone, and a variet\- of the most 
valuable building stones. 

Timber. — Pine, hemlock, chestnut, wal- 
nut, oak, ash, beech, maple, cherry, cucum- 
ber, etc. 

Fruits, etc. — Peaches, pears, apples, 
grapes, cherries, quinces, plums, apricots, 
prunes; in fact, all the varieties that grow in 
the north. The south shore of Lake Erie, in 
Erie county, has become one of the finest grape 
and wine regions in the world. 

Nuts. — Walnuts, chestnuts, beech nuts, 
hickory nuts, hazel nuts, butternuts, etc. 

Fish. — Shad, white fish, salmon, trout, 
perch, pike, eel, herring, muscalonge, black, 
yellow and white bass, sturgeon, sunfish, etc. 
Vast fisheries are carried on upon the Susque- 
hanna and Delaware rivers, and on Lake Erie 
at the city of Erie and in its vicinity. 

Domestic Animals. — Cattle, horses, 
sheep, hogs, mules, and all the animals that 
thrive in the temperate zone are produced in 
great nimibers. 

Grains. — All kinds of grain that grow in 
the United States are cultivated in Pennsyl- 
vania. The State is one of the most prolific 
grain-growing sections of America. In fact, 
Pennsylvania maj- be said, without boasting, 
to be one of the choicest spots of the earth. 
Ever}' kind of mineral useful to man is natural 
to the State except the precious metals, and, 
as a fruit, grain-growing, agricultural, veget- 
able and timber-producing State, it is unsur- 
passed. Natural gas is found in vast quanti- 
ties west of the Alleghenies, and many cities 
and towns are heated by this useful natural 
product. The State contains some fine mineral 
springs, chief of which are those at Bedford, 
Cresson, Minnequa, Cambridge and Saeger- 

Legislature. — The Legislature consists of 
50 Senators, elected for four years, and 204 
Representatives, elected for two years. The 

pay of each Senator and Representative is 
I 11,500, and mileage both ways, for each regu- 
lar session. The Legislature meets every two 
years, unless called in extra session by the 
Governor, when additional pay and mileage 
are allowed to the members. 

Legislation. — All legislation is closely re- 
stricted by the Constitution. 

Language. — The language of the people is 
generally English, biit there is a large popula- 
tion, mainly in the southeastern counties, who 
; use what is known as " Pennsylvania Dutch," 
being a mixture of English and German, due 
to the early emigration heretofore referred to. 
Up to 1840 or thereabouts, this portion of the 
population was strong enough to compel the 
laws and ofiicial papers to be printed in the 
German language. They also dominated the 
politics of the State for a number of years. 

Lakes. — The largest lake is Lake Erie, 
which forms the northwestern border. The 
next largest is Conneaut lake, in Crawford 
county, which has become a popular summer 
resort. There are a number of small lakes, 
chiefl)' in the northern counties. 

Liberty Bell.— The old Liberty Bell, per- 
haps the most precious historical relic in 
America, is carefully preserved in Independ- 
ence Hall, Philadelphia. 

Libraries, Art Galleries and Museums. 
— The State contains a number of valuable 
public libraries, art galleries and museums. 
Chief among these are the ones in Philadel- 
phia, Pittsburg and Allegheny, and the State 
library at llarrisburg. The Carnegie library 
buildings in Pittsburg and Allegheny are 
among the costliest and finest for the purpose 
in the world. The State completed a splendid 
building at Harrisburg in 1894 for the storage 
of its library, which comprises thousands of 
valuable volumes. 

Live Stock. — Below are the statistics of 
live stock, as given in the United States cen- 
sus reports : 


1870 460,339 ]S,009 30,048 706,437 

1880 533,587 22,914 15,062 854,156 

1890 618,660 29,563 17,364 927.524 



1870 608,066 867,548 1,794,301 

1880 861,019 1.187,968 1.776,598 

1890 761,800 1,278,029 1,612,107 


Live Stock Products. 

fleeces pounds gals. of 

shorn. ok wool. milk. 

1870 6,551,722 *14,411,729 

1880 l,17fi,598 8,470,273 f36,540,540 

IS'JO 1.226,669 6,441,164 ^368,906,480 


1870 60,834,644 1,145,209 

1880 79,336,012 1,008,686 

1890 76,809,041 439,060 

*Milk sold. 

I Milk sold or sent to butter or cheese factories. 

i:All milk produced on farms. 

Military System. — The Governor is the 
head of the military system, and the next of- 
iicer in command is the Adjutant General, 
who is appointed by the former, and consti- 
tutes one of his cabinet officers. The organi- 
zation is purely voluntary, and is recognized 
as one of the best in the Union. Almost every 
town of an}' size has a military company, and 
there are from two to a dozen or more in the 
cities, according to their size. Every member 
of an active military organization is sworn in 
for three years, and is obliged to render duty 
when called upon by his superior officers. 
The military force consists of three brigades, 
commanded by one major general and three 
brigadier generals. The brigades are divided 
into regiments and companies, and are known 
as the National Guard of Pennsylvania. An 
encampment, the cost of which is paid by the 
State, is held annually at some convenient 
point, for the purpose of drill and general 
manoeuvres. Each companj- is critically ex- 
amined by chosen officers once each year, and 
the system is regarded as one of the best 
peace protections of the State. Under the 
Constitution, every citizen between eighteen 
and forty-five years of age is liable to be call- 
ed upon for defence of the State, but the 
Legislature is authorized to exempt by law 
those who have conscientious scruples against 
bearing arms. 

Manufactures. — The State is one of the 
greatest manufacturing sections of the Union, 
being only excelled by New York, which has 
an advantage in its large cities. The most 
important iron and steel works in America 
are located in Pennsylvania, and the State is 
hardly equalled in her carpet and silk factor- 
ies. The census reports of the United .States 
fin-nish the statistics below given : 


1880 387,072 $134,055,904 S 744,818,445 

1890 620,562 305,591,033 1,331,794,901 

Motto.— The motto of the State is " Vir- 
tue, Liberty and Independence" which forms 
a part of the coat of arms, elsewhere shown. 

Mineral Products. — The principal miner- 
al products, in tons, are given as follows in 
the U. S. census reports : 

1880. 1890. 

Iron ore 1,951,496 1,560,234 

Coal 47,065,982 81,719,059 

Total value of the mineral products of Penn- 
sylvania in 1889, $150,876,619. 

Mason and Dixon's Line. — This once 
famous line, being the division between the 
free and slave States of the Union, was the 
boundary between Pennsj-lvania, Delaware, 
Maryland and Virginia. It was run duringthe 
years 17(33-7 by Charles Mason and Jeremiah 
Dixon, of England, to settle disputes between 
the colonies above-named as to their proper 
boundaries, and has ever since been agreed to. 

Northwestern Pennsylvania — The coun- 
ties generally known as Northwestern Penn- 
sylvania are as follows, with their population 
and area : 

Population. Area. 

1890. So. Miles. Acres. 

Cameron 7,238 ~ 381 243,840 

Clarion 36,802 572 366,080 

Crawford 65,324 1.005 643,200 

Elk - 22,239 774 495,360 

Erie 86,074 772 494,080 

Forest 8,482 431 275,840 

Jefferson 44,005 646 413,440 

McKean 46,863 1 ,007 644,480 

Mercer 55.744 666 426,240 

Venang-o 46.640 658 421,120 

Warren 37,585 914 584,960 

Name. — The origin of the name Pennsyl- 
vania, meaning " Penn's woods " or " forest,'" 
has been given in the paragraph relating to 
the founder of the State. 

Natural Gas. — Is found in large quantities 
in the western part of the State, and is exten- 
sively used for cooking, heating and manufac- 
turing purposes. [See Petroleum.] 

Newspapers. — The newspapers of the 
State are some 1200 in number, of which a 
considerable proisortion are dailies. There is 
a large variety of periodicals, trade issues and 
religious publications. The dail}- newspapers 
of Philadelphia and Pittsburg are not surpass- 
ed in any part of the country, and, for the 
price, have no superiors. Northwestern Penn- 


sylvania has some of the best papers, consid- 
ering their limited patronage, to be found in 
any part of the world. 

Oil.— (Natural)— [See Petroleum.] 
Proprietary Government. — As before 
stated, the colony was ruled by Governors sent 
out from England, and named by the proprie- 
tors, until the era of the Revolution. The 
royal and proprietary government was over- 
turned in 1776, since which date the people 
have selected in the main their own public 
officers. In changing the government, care was 
taken not to disturb the personal and landed 
rights of the citizens, and all laws remained 
in force that were not inconsistent with the 
independence of the State. 

Population — State. — The population of 
the State, under the several censuses taken since 
the Revolution has been as follows. For com- 
parison the census of the United States is 
given at each period : 


1790 434,373 3,929,214 

1800 602,365 5,308,483 

1810 810,091 7,239,881 

1820 1,047,507 9,633,822 

1830 1,348.233 12,866,020 

1840 1,724,033 17,069,453 

1850 2,311,786 23,191,876 

1860 2,906,215 31,443,321 

1870 3,521,951 38,558,371 

1880 4,282,891 50,155,783 

1890 5,258,014 62,622,250 

The figures for the United States in 1890 
are exclusive of Alaska and Indians, including 
which and whom it is estimated that the popu- 
lation in that year was 62,979,666. 

Male and Female Population in Penn- 

mai.k. female. 

1870 1,758,499 1,763,452 

1880 2,136,655 2,146,236 

1890 2,666,331 2,591,683 

White and Colored Population in 

white. colored. 

1870 3,456,609 65,294 

1880 4,197,016 85,535 

1890 5,148,257 109,757 

Native and Foreign Population. 

native. foreign. 

1880 3,609,953 587,063 

1890 4,412,294 845,720 

Persons of foreign parentage in 1890. 1,000,580. 

Chinese, Japanese and Indians. 

chinese. japanese. indians. 

1870 13 1 34 

1880 148 8 184 

1890 1,146 32 983 

Of the native-born population in 1890, 
2,198,872 were males and 2,213,423 females; 
of the foreign-born in the same year, 467,459 
were males and 378,260 females. The colored 
population in 1890 consisted of 56,477 males 
and 53,280 females. 

The foreign-born population, 845,720 in 
all, came from the countries below named : 
Canada 12,171, Mexico 114, Central America 
57, South America 271, West Indies 1,047, 
England 125,089, Scotland 32,081, Wales 
38,301, Ireland 243,836, Great Britain (not 
specified) 56, Germany 230,516, Austria 
21,038, Holland 652, Belgium 3,149, Luxem- 
burg 19, Switzerland 6,149, Norway 2,238, 
Sweden 19,346, Denmark 2,010, Russia 17,315, 
Hungary 24.901, Bohemia 2,031, Poland 
25,191, France 9,033, Italy 24,662, Spain 216, 
Portugal 131, Greece 81 ; balance from various 

By Counties. 

The population by counties was as given 
below : 







Allegheny . 




Blair. . . ... 




Carbon . .... 


37 922 







Dauphin . 




Erie . 




























T ehiiJ-h 


T ii7ernp 


T : 





Mifflin . 













Potter . . 




Snyder . . 
















YOTk .5 





[See " Cities and Boroughs."] 
Penn, 'William. — [See Founder.] 
Presidents of the United States. — Penn- 
sylvania has furnished three Presidents of the 
United States, viz. : Thomas Mifflin and 
Arthur St. Clair, previous to the adoption of 
the National Constitution, and James Bu- 
chanan since. The latter was elected in 1856, 
and held office from March 4, 1857, to March 
4, 1861. He was born in Franklin county in 
1791, and died at Wheatland, Lanca.ster coun- 
ty, where he made his home from early life, 
in 1868. In addition to the above-named 
gentlemen, the State has given birth to four 
unsuccessful nominees for the Presidency, as 
follows: George B. McClellan (Dem.), in 
1864; James Black (Prohibition), in 1872; 

VVinfield S. Hancock (Dem.), in 1880; and 
Jaines G. Blaine (Rep.), in 1884. 

Presidential Electors. — Under the census 
of 1890 Pennsylvania is entitled to 32 Presi- 
dential electors, being only 4 less than New 
York, the largest State in the Union. 

Political History. — Except that it favored 
Harrison in 1840, and Taylor in 1848, the 
vote of the State was uniformly in favor of 
the Democratic Presidential nominees from 
1796 to 1860, when it voted for Lincoln, and 
since then has regularly given its support to 
the Republican Presidential ticket. On local 
questions it sometimes elects Democratic nomi- 
nees for State office, and has twice since 1860 
chosen a Democratic Governor, viz. : Robert 
E. Pattison, in 1882 and 1890. [For a list of 
the several State candidates, with their votes, 
see the Political Record in the General His- 
tory of Erie County.] 

Public Receipts and Expenditures. — 
The U. S. census report gives the following as 
the public receipts and expenditures of the 
State and its several sub-divisions in 1890: 


State $ 7,831,037 S 5,212,128 

Counties 5,794,558 6,474,703 

Municipalities (over 4,000 

population) 22,540,318 17,790,461 

Schools, etc 13,.514,0O0 12,828,645 

Additional (estimated).. 2,975.000 

The receipts of the State alone for the year 
ending May, 1895, were $12,873,786, and the expen- 
ses $13,622,769. Notwithstanding this apparent 
discrepancy, there was a balance in the treasury 
at the close of the year of over $5,000,000, due to 
an excess from former fiscal periods. 

Prisoners. — The prisoners in the peniten- 
tiaries and jails of the State were, in 1890, as fol- 
lows : Whites, born of native parents, 2,009 ; 
one or both parents foreign, 1,757; foreign- 
born, 1,747; parentage unknown, 213; nativ- 
ity unknown, 23. Other colors : negroes, 
mostly native-born, 738; Chinese, 2. 

Paupers. — The paupers in the several 
almshouses were, in 1890, as follows : Whites, 
born of native parents, 1,327; one or both 
parents foreign, 320; foreign born, 2,539; 
parentage unknown, 650; nativity unknown, 
70. Other colors: negroes, 201; Chinese, 1. 

Physical Features. — The State is crossed 
from south to north, or rather northeast, by 
two great mountain chains, the Alleghenies 
and the Blue Ridge or Kittatinny range. 



These, with their spurs and foot-hills, cover 
fully one-third of its territory. The moun- 
tains attain an elevation of 1,000 to :2,700feet ; 
the highest point where they are crossed by 
railroads being a little west of Altoona, on 
the main line of the Pennsylvania road, and 
at Kane, on the Philadelphia and Erie line. 
Southeast of the Blue Ridge is the famous i 
limestone, slate and sandstone region of the i 
State, one of the most beautiful and fertile sec- 
tions in existence. Enclosed by the moun- 
tains are numerous valleys that are unsurpass- 
ed for beauty and fertility. The bituminous 
coal fields are, in general, on the western slope 
of the Alleghenies, while the anthracite 
mines aie limited to the eastern side, along 
and between the Susquehanna, Schuylkill and 
Lehigh rivers. The mountains and hills give 
rise to numerous streams, which flow into the 
great rivers of the State, and render it one of 
the best watered sections of the earth. In the 
western portion of the State the elevations do 
not equal, those of the east and center in 1 
height, and the country is much broken by i 
moderate-sized hills and ridges, interspersed 
with frequent valleys. Leaving out the steep 
mountain chains in the central part of the 
.State, nearly every foot of ground is suscept- 
ible of cultivation. The State, as a whole, 
considering its area, is perhaps the richest 
section of the world in point of natural, agri- 
cultural and mineral productions. 

Perry's Victory. — [For a full account of 
Perry's victory upon Lake Erie, September 
10, 1813, and the incidents preceding and sub- 
sequent to the same, see General History of 
Erie County.] 

Petroleum. — Although petroleum, or nat- 
ural oil, is found in many parts of the world, 
Pennsylvania still remains the great produc- 
ing section. Natural oil and gas have been I 
known from a very early period, but were 
long regarded as curiosities rather than as arti- | 
cles for the benefit of mankind. The earliest 
French writers refer to them as existing in the 
western part of Pennsylvania, along the Alle- 
gheny river and some of its tributaries. The 
oil was at one time gathered as a medicine, 
and the gas was treated as a natural wonder. 
For a long period nearh- all the developments 
in this direction were along Oil creek, from 
above Titusville to its mouth at Oil City, j 
Col. E. L. Drake first conceived the idea of 
securing the natural oil on a large scale as a 

commercial commodity. He drilled a well 
near Titusville, in 1859, and struck a flow of 
oil which started others to follow his example. 
A wild speculation ensued ; oil was found in 
immense quantities, and hundreds of men 
made and lost fortunes. Beginning at the 
original center on Oil creek, oil has been ob- 
tained for commercial purposes along the 
western slopes of the Alleghenies in every 
county through which they extend, and has 
become one of the most valuable and widely 
distributed products of the United States. 
Natural gas is invariably found in connection 
with the oil, and, at some points, prevails in 
quantities that make it scarcely second in 
value to the latter production. Erie, Warren, 
Franklin, Titusville, Corry, Pittsburg, Alle- 
gheny and a number of the cities and towns in 
the western part of the State are largely heat- 
ed and illuminated by natural gas. 

Public Improvements. — Pennsylvania 
was one of the first States in the L^nion to en- 
ter upon a general system of public improve- 
ments. Railroads being almost unknown un- 
til half a centur}' ago, the enterprise of the 
State was directed mainly to the building of 
canals, which were the great highways of the 
age. A scheme to connect Lake Erie with 
the Delaware river was projected as long ago 
as 1762. In 1824 the State started a gigantic 
plan of internal improvements, which includ- 
ed canals along the Delaware, the Susque- 
hanna, the Juniata, the Conemaugh, the 
Beaver and the Shenango, the object being to 
connect every important part of the State 
with Philadelphia and Pittsburg. The main 
line between Pittsburg and Philadelphia, con- 
sisting mainly of canal, but partly of a system 
of railroads and portages, was completed in , 
1831. Unfortunately, about the time the canal 
system was well under waj-, it was discovered 
that railroads were boimd to supersede water 
transportation ; and the State, after incurring 
a huge debt in making its improvements, was 
glad to dispose of them at a low price. The 
main line, above spoken of, was sold in June, 
1857, and the branches have been transferred 
from time to time until the State is no longer 
owner of anv canal or railroad property. 
The proceeds of the sales and transfers have 
been so managed that the debt incurred for 
public improvements has been practically ex- 

Public Buildings. — Aside from the capi- 


tol buildings at Harrisburg, the main public 
institutions owned or supported in whole or 
in part by the State are as follows : 


At West Chester, Millersvil'e, Kutztown, 
Edinboro, East Stroudsburg, Mansfield, Ship- 
pensburg, Bloomsburg, Lock Haven, Indiana, 
California, Slippery Rock and Clarion. Some 
of these are owned by private corporations, 
but nearly all have been built with money 
supplied by the State, and all are under its 


Eastern at Philadelphia, and Western at 
Allegheny. The latter is used as a place of 
punishment for desperate and confirmed crim- 
inals from Erie and the western and north- 
western counties generally. 


Industrial at Huntingdon and Reform 
School at Morganza. Criminals who are 
thought to be reclaimable are sent to both in- 
stitutions from every part of the State. 


At Harrisburg, Dixmont, Norristown, Dan- 
ville and Warren. The latter is the one where 
the unfortunate from Erie county are mainly 
cared for. The Pennsylvania Hospital for the 
Insane at Philadelphia (better known as Kirk- 
bride's) is conducted under private auspices. 


At Werners villa, Berks county. 

soldiers' and sailors' home at ehie, 
containing some 500 inmates who took part in 
the war for the Union and are unable to sup- 
port themselves. 

STATE college, 

in Centre county, specially established for the 
training of young men in agricultural and in- 
dustrial pursuits. 

for injured persons in the anthracite coal 
regions at Ashland and Hazleton ; for injured 
persons in the bituminous and semi-bituminous 
coal regions at Mercer, Phillipsburg, Con- 
nellsville and Blossburg. 


at Chester Springs, Harford and Uniontown. 

soldiers' orphans' industrial school, 
Scotland, Franklin county. 

training school for feeble-minded chil- 
at Elwyn, Delaware county. 
FOR training in speech of deaf children, 
at Philadelphia. 


at Polk, Venango county (in course of con- 

state .\rsenal, 

at Harrisburg. 

fish hatcheries, 

at Erie, Corry and Allentown. 

Public Schools. — [See School System.] 
Philadelphia. — The largest city in Penn- 
sylvania, and its commercial metropolis, is 
situated at the junction of the Delaware and 
Schuylkill rivers. It had a population of over 
a million in 1890, and is one of the great 
cities of the world. The city ranks second of 
the manufacturing places in America, and has 
an extensive foreign and domestic commerce. 
The Delaware river is navigable for the larg- 
est vessels to Philadelphia, and the city has 
become the most important ship-building point 
on the western continent. Historically, Phila- 
delphia is, perhaps, the most interesting place 
in the United States. The city was laid out 
by William Penn in 1682. It was in Phila- 
delphia that the Declaration of Independence 
was adopted, July 4th, 1776, and that 
the Constitution of the United States was 
framed in 1787. The city was the seat 
of the United States Government for a num- 
ber of years after the adoption of the Constitu- 
tion. Though Washington was inaugurated 
iirst President in New York, he lived and 
performed his official duties during most of his 
eight-years' term in Philadelphia. The city 
contains an unusual number of handsome and 
interesting buildings, chief of which are In- 
dependence Hall, the U. S. Mint, the city 
hall (grandest of all edifices for the purpose 
in America), the Masonic and Odd Fellows 
" Temples," and the Pennsylvania and Read- 



ing railroad stations. No other city in the 
Union surpasses Philadelphia in the number 
of its public libraries, art galleries and places 
of entertainment. Fairmount Park, the great 
pleasure ground of the city, has few rivals and 
no superiors. 

Pittsburg. — The second city in Pennsyl- 
vania, is situated at the junction of the Alle- 
gheny and Monongahela rivers, where they 
form the Ohio. With its sister city of Alle- 
gheny, and the suburbs belonging to both, 
Pittsburg had a population of over 360,000 in 
1890, making it the eighth in rank of the 
great cities of the Union. A movement is in 
progress to consolidate the entire population 
directlv tributary to Pittsburg into one city, 
which, it is to be hoped, will be successful. 
As a manufacturing and shipping point, Pitts- 
burg is hardly surpassed in any portion of the 
world. It excels in the making of iron, steel 
and glass ; but almost every other kind of 
manufacture is to be found within its limits. 
The city is surrounded by the richest coal dis- 
trict in America, and more coal is shipped 
down the Ohio and by the various railroads 
than from any other point. While the busi- 
ness and manufacturing portion is smoky and 
uninviting, the suburban districts are remark- 
able for their beautiful parks, streets and resi- 
dences. Pittsburg was named after William 
Pitt, the celebrated English statesman. His 
torically it is famous as the site of the French 
Fort Duquesne, and as the place where the 
first national convention of the Republican 
party was held, and Fremont nominated for 
President, in 185(5. 

Presidential Vote of Pennsylvania. — 
[See Political Record in General History of 
Erie County] — The Presidential vote of the 
State since the adoption of the United States 
Constitution has been as follows : 

1788. — George Washington elected unani- 

1792. — George Washington elected unani- 

1796. — The State cast one electoral vote 
for Adams, Federalist (who was elected), and 
14 for Jefferson, Democratic-Republican. 

1800. — Jefferson, Dem.-Rep. (who was 
elected), received 8 of the electoral votes of 
the State, and Adams, Federalist, 7. 

1804.— Tlie State gave all of its electoral 
votes for Jeft'erson. Dem.-Rep., who was 

1808.— The vote of the State was for 
James Madison, Dem.-Rep., who was elected. 

1812. — The State gave its vote to James 
Madison, Dem.-Rep., who was elected. 

1816.— James Monroe, Dem.-Rep., 25,009 ; 
opposition vote, 7,537. (Monroe elected). 

1820. — James Monroe, Dem.-Rep., was 
unanimously elected. 

1824.— Andrew Jackson, 35,894; John 
Quincy Adams, 3,405; Wm. H. Crawford, 
4,186; Henry Clay, 1,701. None of the can- 
didates receiving a majoritj- of the electoral 
votes, the election was thrown into the House 
of Representatives of Congress, where Adams 
was chosen. All of the above candidates were 

1828. — Andrew Jackson, Democrat (elect- 
ted), 101,652 ; John Quincy Adams, opposi- 
tion, 50,848. 

1832. — Andrew Jackson, -Dem. (elected), 
90,983; William Wirt, Anti-Masonic, 66,716; 
Henry Clay, Anti-Jackson, record not at 

1836.— Martin Van Buren, Dem. (elect- 
ed), 91,475; William H. Harrison, Anti- 
Mas., 87,111. 

1840.— William H. Harrison, Whig (elect- 
ed), 144,021 ; Martin Van Buren, Dem., 143.- 

1844. — James K. Polk, Dem. (elected), 
167,245; Henry Clay, Whig, 1G1,8()3 ; James 
G. Birnev, Abolitionist, record not at hand. 

1848.— Zachary Taylor, Whig (elected), 
185,514; Lewis Cass, Dem., 171.998; Martin 
Van Buren, Free Soil, 11,263. 

1852. — Franklin Pierce, Dem. (elected), 
198,534; Winfield Scott, Whig, 179,743; 
John P. Hale, Free Soil, 8,800. 

1856. — James Buchanan, Dem. (elected), 
230,500; John C.Fremont, Republican and 
Fusion, 147,447; Millard Fillmore, American 
and Fusion, 82,229. 

1860. — Abraham Lincoln, Republican 
(elected), 268,030; Stephen A. Douglas, 
Northern Dem., and Jno. C. Breckenridge, 
Southern Dem. (Fusion), 178,871 ; John Bell, 
American, 59,673. A portion of Mr. Doug- 
las' friends would not enter into the Fusion 
arrangement, and cast 16,677 votes. 

1864.— Abraham Lincoln, Rep., 296,389: 
Geo. B. McClellan, Dem., 276,308. 

1868.— Ulvsses S. Grant, Rep. (elected), 
342,280; Horatio Seymour, Dem., 313,382. 

1872.— Ulvsses S! Grant, Rep. (elected). 



349,689 ; Horace Greeley, Liberal Republican 
and Democrat, 211,961; James Black, Pro- 
hibition, 4,630. 

1876.— Rutherford B. Hayes, Rep. (declar- 
ed elected), 884,184 ; Samuel J. Tilden, Dem., 
366,204; Peter Cooper, Greenback, 7,204; 
Green Clay Smith, Pro., 1,318; James B. 
Walker, Anti-Secret Society, 85. 

1880.— Tames A. Garfield, Rep. (elected), 
444,704; Winfield S. Hancock, Dem., 407,- 
428; James B. Weaver, Greenback, 20,668; 
Neal Dow, Pro., 1,939; John D. Phelps, 
Anti-Masonic, 44. 

1884. — Grover Cleveland, Dem. (elected), 
392,785; James G. Blaine, Rep., 473,804; 
Benjamin F. Butler, Greenback-Labor, 17,002 ; 
John P. St. John, Pro., 15,737; Mrs. Belva 
A. Lockwood, Equal Rights, 3. 

1888. — Benjamin Harrison, Rep. (elect- 
ed), 526,091 ; Grover Cleveland, Dem., 446,- 
633; Clinton B. Fisk, Pro., 20,947; A. ]. 
Streeter, Union-Labor, 3,873. 

1892.— Grover Cleveland, Dem. (elected), 
452,264; Benjamin Harrison, Rep., 516,011; 
John Bidwell, Pro., 25,123; James B. Weav- 
er, People's, 8,714; Simon Wing, Socialist- 
Labor, 808. 

Representatives in Congress. — [For a 
list of the leading Representatives from Penn- 
sylvania in the Congress of the United States, 
see U. S. Congress.] 

Religious Denominations. — The princi- 
pal religious denominations in 1890 were as 
follows — the total number of communicants 
being 1,726,640, or a percentage to the whole 
population of 32.84 : 

Adventists 1,952 

Baptists 86,620 

Brethren 2,350 

Catholics (Roman) 559,127 

Catholic Apostolic 73 

Christadelphians 60 

Christians 3,219 

Christian Scientists 155 

Church of God 9,344 

Church of the New Jerusalem (Sweden- 

borg'ians) 744 

Communists 250 

Congreg^ationalists 9,818 

Disciples 12,007 

Dunkards 16,707 

Episcopalians 57,360 

Evangelicals 42,379 

Friends (Quakers) 13,627 

German Evangelical Protestant 12,287 

German Evangelical Synod 5,293 

Hebrew 8,029 

Latter Day Saints 417 

Lutherans 219,725 

Mennonists 15,330 

Methodists 260,388 

Moravians 4,308 

Presbyterians 219.725 

Reformed Church 124,700 

Schwenkfeldians 306 

Salvation Army 772 

Ethical Societies 139 

Spiritualists 4,659 

Theosophists 25 

United Brethren 33,951 

Unitarians 1,171 

Universalists 2,209 

Independent Societies 948 

The number of church organizations was 
10,175; of church buildings, 9,624; and the 
estimated value of church property, $85,- 

Royal Government. — The government 
established by Penn and perpetuated under 
royal control was overthrown in 1776, and, 
from that time on, the people have managed 
their own affairs (except when checked and 
humbugged by the politicians!). . 

Railroads. — The railroads of Pennsylvania 
are among the most important in the whole 
country. The sj'stem owned and controlled 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company is not 
excelled in the world ; and the Reading and 
Lehigh Valley systems are only second in ex- 
tent, value and usefulness. According to 
Cram's Atlas for 1894, Pennsylvania stood 
second in the number of miles of railroads in 
use of all the States in the Union, Illinois 
alone exceeding her. Of the 9,027 miles of 
railroad in the State at that date, the system 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company em- 
braced fully one-half, and two-thirds of the 
balance were owned or controlled by the 
Reading and Lehigh Valley systems. 

The following statistics from the reports 
of the Internal Revenue Department for 1894 
show the vast railroad interests of the State : 

Capital $1,927,222,235 

Wages paid to employes 99,683,991 

Employes 176,228 

Revenue and Expenses. — [See Public 
Receipts, etc.] 

Revolution — American. — It is to the last- 
ing honor of Pennsylvania that she was not 
only one of the first of the American colonies 
to protest against the wrongs of the mother 
country, but one of the most patriotic in defence 
of liberty and independence. Much of this 
was due to the influence of Benjamin Frank- 


lin, who was one of the greatest men, if not 
the very greatest man, America has produced. 
The first Continental Congress met in Phila- 
delphia in 1774: Washington was elected 
commander-in-chief at the same city in 1775; 
the Declaration of Independence was adopted 
there in 1776. and the National Flag in 1777. 
Pennsylvania's ciiief city was the seat of the > 
Colonial government during the entire period 1 
of the Revolution, except when it was com- j 
pelled by military necessity to move to Lan- 
caster and York for brief seasons. The earliest 
troops to march to the defence of Boston from 
south of the Hudson were from Pennsylvania, 
and the Pennsylvania troops were known as 
"The First Regiment of the Army of the 
United Colonies, commanded by Gen. George 
Washington." The victories of Washington 
at Trenton and Princeton, in 1776, were chiefly 
secured by Pennsylvania troops. During 1777 
occurred on Pennsylvania soil the battles of 
Brandy wine and Germantown, and the " mas- 
sacre of Paoli,'" all in September of that year. 
A number of minor engagements took place 
about the same time. The British entered 
Philadelphia in September, 1777, and evacua- 1 
ted it in June, 1778. During the winter of j 
1777-78, the American army was encamped at 
Valley Forge, on the Schuylkill river above 
Philadelphia, where they endured hardships \ 
that are almost beyond description. When j 
the British left Philadelphia they were fol- 
lowed by Washington across New Jersey, his [ 
army consisting of Pennsylvania troops mainly, 
with whom he won the famous victory of 
Monmouth. Peace with Great Britain came 
in the winter of 1782-3. The Revolution was 
largely won through the aid of Pennsylvania 
officers, soldiers, statesmen and financiers, and 
many of the most important events of that 
momentous era took place upon her soil. New 
England and Virginia have taken most of the 
glory of the Revolution to themselves, but it 
is none the less true that had it not been for 
the efforts of Pennsylvania, the " Keystone of 
the arch," the result would have been very 

Rivers. — The principal rivers are the Dela- 
ware, Susquehanna and Ohio. Of these the 
main tributaries are as follows : Delaware — 
Schuylkill, Lehigh and Lackawaxen ; Susque- 
hanna — North Branch, West Branch and 
Juniata ; Ohio — Allegheny, Monongahela and 
IBeaver. Of the minor streams, the following 

are worthy of special note : Flowing into the 
North Branch of the Susquehanna, the Che- 
mung, Wyalusing and Lackawanna ; into 
the West Branch, the Sinnemahoning, Clear- 
field, Buffalo, Pine and Lycoming; into the 
main stream of the Susquehanna (below 
Northumberland), the Conestoga, Fishing, 
Swatara, Conodoquiuet, Codorus and Cone- 
wago ; into the Allegheny, the Conewango, 
Venango (or French creek). Clarion, Red- 
bank and Kiskiminetas ; into the Mononga- 
hela, the Youghiogheny and Cheat rivers; 
into the Beaver, the Shenango and Mahoning. 
The Delaware is navigable from Trenton to 
the ocean ; the Susquehanna flows into the 
head of Chesapeake bay, which is one of the 
great water courses of the country ; and the 
Ohio, by its connection with the Mississippi 
and other rivers, forms one of the grandest 
systems of inland communication to be found 
in the entire world. 

Rebellions and Riots. — In 1791 Congress 
passed an act laying a small excise on distilled 
spirits. This was very distasteful to the coun- 
ties adjacent to Pittsburg, where the manufac- 
ture of whisky was carried on to a consider- 
able extent. The citizens generally deter- 
mined to oppose the law, and various acts of 
violence and insubordination ensued, covering 
a period of two or three years. Affairs finally 
reached a stage where President Washington 
felt it to be his duty to compel an enforce- 
ment of the laws. In 1794 he called out the 
militia of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland 
and New Jersey to the number of 15,000, with 
orders to march upon the revolting counties 
and put down all resistance to the laws of 
Congress. This large force overawed the in- 
surrectionists, and peace was promptly re- 
stored. The incident is known in history as 
"the Whisky Insurrection." 


A disturbance on a smaller scale broke out 
among the Germans of Lehigh, Berks, North- 
ampton and adjoining counties in 1798-9, 
which is chiefly interesting from the political 
effect it had upon those sections. It was 
headed by John Fries, and was directed 
against a so-called " house tax " that had been 
levied by Congress. Several arrests were 
made, but no serious punishment followed. 
The agitation connected with this tax is gen- 



erally understood to have given the counties 
named their Democratic complexion. 


In April and May, 1844, occurred the dis- 
turbances in Philadelphia which are usually 
known as the Native American riots. A bit- 
ter feeling, for some cause, had grown up be- 
tween a portion of the native born Protestants 
of that city and the foreign Catholic element, 
which resulted in serious encounters, the loss 
of a number of lives and the destruction of 
some Catholic church property. The State 
militia were called out, and peace was restored 
only after several persons had been killed and 


One of the most important affairs in its 
results that ever happened in the State took 
place at Christiana, Lancaster count}-, in 1851. 
An attempt was made to restore an escaped 
slave to his master, under the Fugitive Slave 
Law of Congress, which was resisted with 
bloody consequences. This was at the time 
when hostility to slavery was steadily increas- 
ing in the North, and the " Christiana riot," 
as it became known, had a good deal of influ- 
ence in creating the Republican party. 

RIOTS OF 1877. 
The riots in 1877 grew out of a dispute 
between the railroad corporations and their 
employes over the wages and hours of labor. 
For several days in July of that year nearly 
every railroad in the State was obliged to sus- 
pend operations. July lOth to the 25th, a 
mob held possession of Pittsburg, and the dis- 
turbances that ensued led to the death of fifty 
persons and the destruction of $5,000,000 
worth of property. As usual in such cases, 
the militia were ordered out, and matters were 
quieted, after a great expenditure of money 
and much difficulty. 


The latest of the great disturbances in the 
State took place at Homestead, near. Pitts- 
burg, in 1892. A dispute between the Car- 
negie Compan}' and some of its employes led 
to an extensive strike. The company pro- 
cured the aid of the "Pinkertons," a well- 
known detective force, who attempted to se- 
cure possession of the works at Homestead by 

strategy. The strikers learned of their pur- 
pose, and determined to resist it. A severe 
fight occurred on July 6th, in which about 
twenty persons were killed and twice as many 
wounded. The whole military force of the 
State was placed upon duty, and succeeded in 
so settling matters that the works partially re- 
sumed operations in about a month. As in sev- 
eral of the instances above mentioned, this trou- 
ble had a considerable political effect. Mr. Car- 
negie was a leading Republican, and the tend- 
ency of the Homestead affair — whether just- 
ly or unjustly is not argued here — was to drive 
thousands of working men into the ranks of 
the Democratic party, and undoubtedly led to 
the election of Grover Cleveland for the sec- 
ond term as President of the United States. 

Richest Counties in the United States. 
— According to the United States census of 
1890, the six leading counties in the value of 
agricultural products are as follows : 1, Lan- 
caster county. Pa., $7,657,790 ; 2, St. Law- 
rence county, N. Y., $6,054,160; 3, Chester 
county, Pa., $5,863,800 ; 4, Worcester county, 
Mass., $5,489,430; 5, Bucks county. Pa., 
$5,411,370 ; 6, Colusa county, Cal., $5,357,350. 
Lancaster has long been known as the richest 
farming county in America. The above figures 
do not refer to the value of the land, but give 
the value of the yearly farming product. 
Lncaster leads by great odds in the value of 
farm lands, although it is only one-third as 
large as St. Lawrence county, N. Y. 

Seal of the State. — An authentic engrav- 
ing of the seal of the State is printed on another 
page of this book. 

State Buildings. — [See list of Public 

Slavery Abolished. — As in most or all of 
the Colonies, slavery at one period was legal 
in Pennsylvania. The act for the gradual 
abolishment of slavery passed the Assembly 
in March, 1780. Every person in bondage at 
the time was continued in slavery for a cer- 
tain period, and the children of slaves became 
free at a certain age. The first important 
proposition in Congress to limit slavery in the 
territories owned by the United States was 
offered by David Wilmot, a Pennsylvania 
representative, in 1840, and the first national 
convention of the Republican party was held 
in Pittsburg in 1856. 

Summer Resorts. — The best-known sum- 
mer and health resorts are at Bedford, Cres- 



son, Minnequa, Cambridge and Saegertown. 
The mineral springs at Bedford have been cel- 
ebrated for upwards of a century, and are 
among the most valuable knov\'n. Forty or 
fifty years ago they were the most popular in 
the Union, being a famous resort for politi- 
cians of national fame. The water is not sur- 
passed by any of a mineral character in any 
part of the world. 

State Officers.— [ See Executive Officers. ] 
Salaries of State Officers. — The salaries 
and fees attached to some of the principal ex- 
ecutive offices were as follows in 1894: 

(per year). Fees, etc. 

Governor $10,000 

Lieutenant-Governor 5,000 

Sec'yof the Commonwealth.... 4,000 $13,067 

Deputy Secretary 2,500 

Auditor General 4,000 525 

State Treasurer 5,000 525 

Attorney General 3,500 7,500 

Deputy Attorney General 4,000 

Insurance Commissioner 3,0C0 4,370 

Dep. Insurance Commissioner 1,800 

Secretary of Internal Affairs 4,000 

Dep. Sec'y of Internal Affairs 2,300 

Supt. of Public Instruction 4,000 

Two Deputies (each) 1,800 

Adjutant General 2,500 

State Librarian 2,500 

First Assistant Librarian 1,800 

Superintendent of Banking- 4,000 

Deputy Supt. of Banking 1,400 

Factory Inspector 3,oro 

Sec'}' Board of Agriculture. . . . 2,500 

Dairy and Food Commissioner 2,000 

Supt. of Public Printing 1,600 

Stone. — The State contains nearly all the 
ornamental and building stones in general use, 
but slate, limestone and sandstone are the 
leading products in this direction. Slate is 
procured in great quantities on the south side 
of the Kittatinny range, in Lehigh and North- 
ampton counties, and the other stones named 
are distributed generally over the State. A fine 
variety of marble is occasionally found, and the 
greenstone, extensively used in building in 
some of the eastern cities, belongs almost ex- 
clusively to Pennsylvania. 

Senators froni Pennsylvania in U. S. 
Congress. — | .See U. S. Senators.] 

School System. — The public-school sys- 
tem of Pennsylvania is properly regarded as 
one of the best in the Union. It was a cardinal 
principle of William Penn,in establishing his 
colony, that a good education should be open to 
every child born within its limits. One of the 

earliest provisions made by the State was for an 
academy in every county. When the common- 
school idea came into vogue, it was eagerly 
embraced by the old-time Governors, who 
lost no opportunity for recommending it to 
the Legislature. The first law on the subject 
was passed during the administration of Gov- 
ernor Wolf, and this was improved, at various 
times, by the efforts of Governors Ritner, 
Packer, and others, aided bj- such men as 
Thaddeus Stevens, Thomas II. Burrowes and 
Henry L. Dieffenbach. A more complete ac- 
count of the system than can be given here 
will be found in the General History of Erie 
County, and a list of the State Normal Schools 
is given elsewhere. The following statistics, 
from the State reports for 1893, are of value 
in this connection : 

Number of school districts. . 

Number of schools 

Number of male teachers.. . 
Number of female teachers. 



Average salaries of male teachers per 

month 143 94 

Average salaries of female teachers 

I per month 33 04 

1 Average length of school term in 

months 8.10 

Number of pupils 994,407 

Cost of tuition for the year $8,468,437 

The estimated value of the school property in 
some of the counties and towns in northwestern 
Pennsylvania in the same year was as follows : 
Counties (exclusive of cities)— Crawford, $231,400; 
Erie, $268,554 ; Venango, $193,500 ; Warren, $271,- 
550. Cities and towns— Bradford, $100,000 ; Corry, 
$52,304 ; Erie. $600,000 ; Meadville, $150,000 : Oil 
City, $112,500 ; Titusville, $100,000. 

Triangle. — [For an account of the pur- 
chase of the Triangle, embracing Presque 
Isle Bay and the northern portion of Erie 
county, see the General History of said 

Timber. — Probably no portion of the world 
was more densely covered with timber than 
Pennsylvania when operjed to white set- 
tlement. Every kind of timber that grows in 
the temperate zone was found in the State, 
including among the principal varieties pine, 
'\ hemlock, oak, hickory, walnut, ash, cucumber 
— in fact, almost any sort that can be named. 
Unfortunately for the welfare of the State, 
the timber has been recklessly destroyed, and 
' but few large bodies remain, most of these 
j being at remote points. Suggestions have 
I been made in favor of a general system of tree 



propagation, and there is not much doubt that 
some day the mountains and hillsides will 
again be covered with valuable timber, under 
the care of the State. Measures have also been 
adopted that will eventually lead to a wider 
cultivation of trees along the highways and 
upon the banks of the streams. 

Universities and Colleges. — Xo State in 
the Union has given more attention to the 
higher education of its citizens than Pennsyl- 
vania. Aside from her splendid system of 
Public Schools and Academies, some of the 
largest and best Colleges and Universities in 
the world are located within her boundaries. 
Among the most widely known are the fol- 
lowing : 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

Western University of Pennsylvania, Pitts- 

Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. 

Girard College for Orphans, Philadelphia. 

Lehigh University, Bethlehem. 

Alleghenj- College, Meadville. 

State College, Centre county. 

Dickinson College, Carlisle. 

Haverford College, near Philadelphia. 

Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster. 

St. Vincent's, near Latrobe. 

Villa Nova, near Philadelphia. 

Swarthmore College, Delaware county. 

Lafayette College, Easton. 

Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg. 

Washington and Jefferson College, Can- 

Bucknell University, Lewisburg. 

Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny. 

Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr. 

These are but a few of the leading educa- 
tional institutions of the State, nearly every 
county containing one or more that are only 
second to the above-named in reputation. 

United States Constitution. — As previ- | 
ously mentioned, the convention which drafted I 
the Constitution of the United States was held | 
in Philadelphia. The State was the second 
one to ratify this invaluable document, little 
Delaware, under Pennsylvania influence, hav- 
ing been the first. The ratification by Dela- 
ware was December 7, 1787, and by Pennsyl- 
vania December 12th of the same year. The 
delegation from Pennsylvania who helped 
to frame and who signed the Constitution of 
the United States were : Benjamin Franklin, 
Thomas Mifflin, Thomas Fitzsimmons, James 

Wilson, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Jared 
Ingersoll, Gouverneur Morris. 

United States Officers — Principal ones 
from Pennsylvania. — Below is a list of the 
persons from Pennsj'lvania who have held 
leading positions in the civil service of the 
United States Government at Washington : 


Thomas Mifflin Nov. 3,17>>3 

Arthur St. Clair Feb. 2,1787 


Term of 


James Buchanan 1857-1861 

George M. Dallas 184A-1849 


Timothy Pickering 179S-1800 

James Buchanan 1845-1849 

Jeremiah S. Black 1860-1861 


Albert Gallatin 1801-1814 

Alexander J. Dallas 1814-1817 

Richard Rush 1825-1829 

Samuel D. Ingham 1829-1831 

William J. Duane 1833 

Walter Forward 1841-1843 

William M . Meredith 1849-1850 


Timothy Pickering 1795 

James M. Porter 1843-1844 

William Wilkins 1844-1845 

Simon Cameron 1861-1862 

Edwin M. Stanton 1862-1868 

J. Donald Cameron 1876-1877 


William Jones 1813-1814 

Adolph E. Borie 1869 


T. M. T. McKennan 1850 


Timothy Pickering 1791-1795 

James Campbell 1853-1857 

John Wanamaker 1889-1893 


William Bradford 1794-1795 

Richard Rush 1814-1817 

Henry D. Gilpin 1840-1841 

Jeremiah S. Black 1857-1860 

Edwin M. Stanton 1860-1861 

Wayne MacVeagh 1881 

Benjamin H. Brewster 1881-1885 



James Wilson 1789-1798 

Henry Baldwin 1830-1846 

Robert C. Grier 1846-1870 

William Strong 1870-1880 

George Shiras 1892 


William Bingham 1797 

James Ross 1797-1799 

Andrew Gregg 1809 


F. A. Muhlenberg 1789-1791 

F. A. Muhlenberg 1793-1795 

Galusha A. Grow 1861-1863 

Samuel J. Randall 1876-1881 


Joseph Casey 1863-1870 

United States Senators. — The Senators 
in the Congress of the United States from 
Pennsylvania have been as follows : 

William Maclay 1789-1791 

Robert Morris 1789-1795 

Albert Gallatin 1793-1794 

James Ross 1794-1803 

William Bingham 1795-1801 

John P. G. Muhlenberg 1801 

George Logan 1801-1807 

Samuel Maclay 1803-1808 

Andrew Gregg 1807-1813 

Michael Leib 1808-1814 

Abner Leacock 1813-1819 

Jonathan Roberts 1814-1821 

Walter Lowrie 1819-1825 

William Findlay 1821-1827 

William Marks 1825-1831 

Isaac D. Barnard 1827-1831 

George Mifflin Dallas 1831-1833 

William Wilkins 1831-1834 

Samuel McKean 1833-1839 

James Buchanan 1834-1845 

Daniel Sturgeon 1839-1851 

Simon Cameron 1845-1849 

James Cooper 1849-1855 

Richard Brodhead 1851-1857 

William Bigler 1855-1861 

Simon Cameron 1857-1861 

David Wilmot 1861-1863 

Edgar Cowan 1861-1867 

Charles R. Buckalew 1863-1869 

Simon Cameron 1867-1877 

John Scott 1869-1875 

William A. Wallace 1875-1881 

J. Donald Cameron 1877 

John I. Mitchell 1881-1887 

Matthew Stanley Ouay 1887 

United States Representatives in Con- 
gress. — Of the members in the House of Rep- 
resentatives of Congress from Pennsylvania, 

the gentlemen named below have been among 
the most distinguished : 

Henry Baldwin, Horace Binney, James 
Buchanan, Charles R. Buckalew, Joseph 
Casey, John Cessna, Hiester Clymer, John 
Covode, Andrew G. Curtin, John Dalzell, 
John L. Dawson, Henry D. Foster, Albert 
Gallatin, Galusha A. Grow, Samuel D. Ing- 
ham, Charles J. Ingersoll, Joseph R. Inger- 
soll, T- Glancy Jones, George A. Tenks, 
William D. KelleV, John C. Kunkel,'D. J- 
Morrell, Edward J. Morris, F. A. Muhlen- 
burg, William Mutchlei', James Pollock, Alex- 
ander Ramsey, Samuel J. Randall, Glenni 
W. Scofield, John Scott," William L. Scott, 
Joseph C. Sibley, Thaddeus Stevens, Andrew 
Stewart, Charles W. Stone, William Strong, 
James Thompson, Richard Vaux, William 
Wilkins, David Wilmot, George W. Wood- 
ward, Hendrick B. Wright. 

Vice-President.— The only Vice-Presi- 
dent the State has furnished to the Union was 
George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, elected with 
President Polk, in 1844. The unsuccessful 
candidates from the State for Vice-President 
have been as follows: Albert Gallatin, on the 
Anti-Jack.son ticket with William H. Craw- 
ford, in 1824 ; and William Wilkins, Demo- 
crat, John Sergeant, Anti-Jackson, and Amos 
Ellmaker, Anti-Masonic, all in 1832. The 
parents of John C. Calhoun, the eminent 
statesman, elected Vice-President on the ticket 
with Jackson, in 1828, moved from Lancaster 
county to South Carolina but a short time be- 
fore his birth. 

Votes for Governor. — [See Political Rec- 
ord in General History of Erie County.] — 
The following has been the vote for the prin- 
cipal Gubernatorial candidates since the adop- 
tion of the Constitution of 1790 : 

1790. — Thomas Mifflin, Democratic-Re- 
publican, 27,725; Arthur St. Clair, Federal- 
ist, 2,802. 

1793._Thomas Mifflin, Dem-Rep., 18,590; 
F. A. Muhlenberg, Fed., 10,706. 

1796.— Thomas Mifflin, Dem-Rep., 30,020 ; 
F. A. Muhlenberg, Fed., 1,011. 

1799. — Thomas McKean, Dem-Rep., 38,- 
036; James Ross, Fed., 32,641. 

1802. — Thomas McKean, Dem-Rep., 47,- 
879; James Ross, Fed., 17,037. 

1808.— Simon Snyder, Dem-Rep., 67,975 ; 
Tames Ross, Fed., .89,575 ; John Spayd, Inde- 
pendent, 4,006. 



1811.— Simon Snyder, Dem-Rep., 52,319; 
William Tighlman, Ind., 3,609. 

1814.— Simon Snyder, Dem-Rep., 51,099; 
Isaac Wayne, Fed., 29,566; G. Lattimer, 
Ind., 910. 

1817.— William Findlay, Dem-Rep., 66,- 
331 ; Joseph Hiester, Fed.," 59,272. 

1820.— Joseph Hiester, Fed., 67,905; 
William Findlay, Dem-Rep., 66,300. 

1823.— J. A. Schulze, Dem-Rep., 89,928; 
Andrew Gregg, Fed., 64,205. 

1826.— J. Andrew Schulze, Dem-Rep., 
72,710; John Sergeant, Fed., 1,175; scatter- 
ing, 1,174. 

1829.— George Wolf, Democrat, 78,219; 
Joseph Ritner, Anti-Masonic, 51,776. 

1832.— George Wolf, Dem., 91,335 ; Joseph 
Ritner, Anti-Mas., 88,165. 

1885.— Joseph Ritner, Anti-Mas., 94,023; 
George Wolf, Dem., 65,804; Henry A. Muhl- 
enberg, Dem., 40,586. 

1838.— David R. Porter, Dem., 127,827 ; 
Joseph Ritner, Anti-Mas., 122,321. 

1841.— David R. Porter, Dem. , 136,504 ; 
John Banks, Whig, 113,473; F. J. Lemoyne, 
Abolition, 763. 

1844.— Francis R. Shunk, Dem., 160,322; 
Joseph Markle, Whig, 156,040. 

1847.— Francis R. Shunk, Dem., 146,081; 
James Irvin, Whig,' 128,148; Emanuel C. 
Reigart, Native American, 11,247; F. J. Le- 
moyne, Abolition, 1,861. 

1848.— William F. Johnston, Whig, 168,- 
522; Morris Longstreth, Dem., 168,225. 

1851.— William Bigler, Dem., 186,489; 
William F. Johnston, Whig, 178,034 ; Kimber 
Cleaver, Native American, 1,850. 

1854. — James Pollock, Whig and Know 
Nothing, 203,822; William Bigler, Dem., 
166,991 ; B. Rush Bradford, Native American, 

1857.— William F. Packer, Dem., 188,846; 
David Wilmot, Fusion, 149,139; Isaac Hazle- 
hurst, American, 28,168. 

1860. — Andrew G. Curtin, Republican, 
262,346; Henry D. Foster, Dem., 230.239. 

1863.— Andrew G. Curtin, Rep., 269,506; 
George W. Woodward, Dem., 254,171. 

1866.— John W. Geary, Rep., 307,274; 
Hiester Clymer, Dem., 290,097. 

1869.— John W. Geary, Rep., 290,552; 
Asa Packer, Dem., 285,956. 

1872.— John F. Hartranft, Rep., 353.387; 

Charles R. Buckalew, Dem., 317,760; S. B. 
Chase, Prohibition, 1,197. 

1875.— John F. Hartranft, Rep., 304,175; 
Cyrus L. Pershing, Dem., 292,145; R. Audlev 
Brown, Pro., 13,244. 

1878.— Henry M. Hoyt, Rep., 319,490; 
Andrew H. Dill, Dem., 297,137 ; Samuel R. 
Mason, Greenback, 81,758 ; Franklin H. Lane, 
Pro., 3,753. 

1882.— Robert E. Pattison, Dem., 355,791 ; 
James A. Beaver, Rep., 315,589; John Stew- 
art, Independent Republican, 43,748 ; Thomas 
A. Armstrong, Greenback-Labor, 23,996; 
Alfred C. Pettit, Pro., 5,196. 

1886.— James A. Beaver, Rep., 412,285; 
Chauncey F. Black, Dem., 369,684; Charles 
S. Wolfe, Pro. and Ind. Rep., 32,458; Robert 
J. Houston, Greenback-Labor, 4,835. 

1890.— Robert E. Pattison, Dem., 464,209 ; 
George B. Delamater, Rep., 447,655 ; John D. 
Gill, Pro., 16,108; Theo. P. Rynder,' Green- 
back-Labor, 224. 

1894.— Daniel H. Hastings, Rep.. 574,801 ; 
William M. Singerly, Dem., 333,404; Charles 
L. Hawley, Pro., 23,433; J. T. Ailman, 
Populist, 19,464; Thomas H. Grundy, Social- 
ist-Labor, 1,733. 

Vegetable Productions. — The vegetable 
productions are those that pertain to the tem- 
perate zone. Everything that can be grown 
in the temperate regions is produced in Penn- 
sylvania, with, perhaps, as much ease and 
abundance as in any part of the world. 

Valuations. — The valuations of real and 
personal property for 1890, with other statis- 
tics relating to the- wealth and taxation of the 
State, as given in the United States census re- 
port for that year, are herewith submitted : 

Real estate, with improvements $3,781,117,285 

Live stock and fanning- implements.. 140,699,613 

Mines and quarries 361,888,490 

Machinery of mills and product on 

hand 486,944,603 

Railroads and equipments 455,446,676 

Telegraphs, telephones, shipping and 

canals _87,347,794 

Miscellaneous 777,541,606 

Gold and silver coin and bullion 99,700,483 

Total $6,190,746,550 


1880. 1890. 

True value .of real and 

personal property. . .$4,942,000,000 $6,190,746,550 






Assessed value 






Ad valorem taxation. 




Per capita 

6 72 

7 10 

Rate per hundred oi 

assessed valuation. 

1 71 

1 40 

Rate per hundred o 

true valuation 



Wayne, Anthony. — An extended account 
of the life, death and important public sersices 
of Gen. Anthony Wayne, Pennsylvania's 
most eminent soldier in the Revolutionary 
war, will be found in the General Historv of 
Erie County. 

Wealth. — Pennsylvania is second in 
wealth of the .States of the Union, being 
exceeded only by New York. 

War of 1812. — During the last war with 
Great Britain, usually known as the " War of 
1812," but which reallj- lasted from June 19, 
1812, to the spring of 1815, tiie people of 
Pennsj-lvania were enthusiastic for the Amer- 
ican cause. When the war opened the Gov- 
ernor asked for 14,(K)0 volunteers, and three 
times as many were offered within a few weeks. 
The British at no time gained a footing on 
Pennsylvania soil, but the troops of the State 
were kept constantly on the alert to repel 
rumored or threatened attacks upon Erie and 
Philadelphia. Detachments of Pennsylvania 
volunteers rendered good service in the battles 
along the Niagara, and others responded with 
alacrity to the call of the country when Wash- 
ington was burned and the enemy marched 
upon Baltimore. The victorious fleet of Perry 
was partly built and entirely created and 
equipped in the harbor of Erie, and largely I 
manned by volunteers from the Pennsylvania 
militia stationed at the post. During the war 
the little navy of the United States rendered I 
distinguished service, on the ocean as well as | 
the lakes, and among the most famous of its 
heroes were four Pennsylvanians — Stephen 
Decatur, James Biddle, Charles Stewart and 
Jesse D. Elliott. Each of these received 
well-merited testimonials from his native 
State. [For a full account of Perry's victory 
and the events of the war along the north- i 
western border, see the General History- of 
Erie County.] 

War with Mexico. — In the war with 
Mexico, 18-1G-7, the State oft'ered nine regi- 
ments — four times her quota. Two regiments 

and two additional companies were accepted 
and sent to the seat of war. These were 
among the most efficient in the service, and, 
on several occasions, won the special commen- 
dation of the commanding general. The State 
has erected a handsome monument to the mem- 
ory of. her fallen soldiers in the Mexican war 
on the capitol grounds at Harrisburg. 

War for the Union. — Under the direction 
of her patriotic Governor, Andrew G. Curtin, 
Pennsj-lvania was one of the most ardent and 
energetic of the loyal States in defense of the 
Union during the memorable struggle which 
lasted from 1861 to '65. President Lincoln's 
first call for 75,000 volunteers to maintain the 
national authority was made on the 15th of 
April, 1861. On the 18th of that month over 
500 Pennsylvania soldiers reached Washing- 
ton, being the first .State troops to arrive at 
the National Capital in response to the Presi- 
dent's proclamation. On the way through 
Baltimore they were grossly insulted, but suc- 
ceeded in getting to Washington without a 
fight. By the end of April twentj^-five regi- 
ments had been sent forward — nearly twice 
the number asked for from the State — and 
steps had been taken for the organization of a 
large reserve force. From that time to the 
close of the war Pennsylvania met every call, 
heartily and promptly, and there was scarcely 
an important battle in which her brave men 
did not take a conspicuous part. The total 
number of men furnished by the State during 
the contest was 387,284, of whom 60,000 were 
killed in battle, 35,000 mortally wounded, 
and many thousands died of disease in camps, 
hospitals and elsewhere. 


In the month of June, 1863, the main 
Southern army, led by General Lee, invaded 
the State, by way of the Cumberland Valley, 
in the hope of transferring the scene of war 
in the East from Virginian to Northern soil. 
A portion of the force reached York and 
penetrated to within a few miles of Harris- 
burg ; but learning thai the Army of the Po- 
tomac was marching northward, Lee rapidly 
concentrated his men in the direction of Get- 
tysburg. The two armies came together at 
the latter place, and a series of battles ensued 
on the 1st, 2d and 8d of July, which were not 
only among the most desperate of the war, 
but" among the bloodiest in history. The 


Southerners were repulsed at every point, and 
Lee was glad to withdraw his shattered force 
through a gap in the mountains to a place of 
safety south of the Potomac. It is estimated 
that the Southerners engaged at Gettysburg 
were 70,000 in number, with 250 guns ; the 
Union troops numbered some 80,000, with 
300 guns. The Union loss, as given by Gen- 
eral Bingham, in his address at Gettysburg in 
1889, was : 3,063 killed, 14,492 wounded and 
5,455 missing— a total of 22,990 ; that of the 
Southerners was never fully returned, but is 
thought — in killed, wounded and prisoners — 
to have been about 27,500. Many prominent 
officers were killed, or died of their wounds, 
including Generals Reynolds, Vincent, Weed, 
Zuck and Farnsworth of the Union army, 
and Generals Pender, Barksdale, Armstead, 
Garnett and Semmes of the Southern. Gen- 
eral Meade, commander of the Union forces, 
several of his leading officers, pre-eminently 
Generals Hancock, Reynolds, Geary, Vincent, 
Gregg and McCandless, and 26,628 of his 
army, were Pennsylvanians. 


A sudden dash into the State, for the os- 
tensible purpose of retaliating upon the North 
for the injuries done to property in the Shen- 
andoah Valley b}' the Union troops, was made 
on July 29, 1864, by a considerable body of 
Southerners under the lead of General Mc- 
Causland. They reached the outskirts of 
Chambersburg early in the morning of the 
30th of July, and entered the place soon after 
daylight, there being no Union force in that 
section of sufficient size to oppose their prog- 
ress. An immediate demand was made upon 
the citizens for .1(100,000 in gold, or $500,000 
in greenbacks, to be paid within a half an 
hour, under the threat of burning the town. 
This, of course, the people were unable to do, 
and, while negotiations were going on, the 
town was set on fire in a hundred places, and 
the main portion destroyed. Millions of dol- 
lars' worth of property were eaten up by the 
flames within a few hours, and 3,000 persons 
robbed of their homes, money and valuables. 

This was one of the most atrocious acts of the 
war, and has rendered the name of General 
McCausland forever odious. Having accom- 
plished their object, the enemy hurried back 
to the Southern lines, plundering the Union 
farmers of horses, provisions, etc., on the way. 


The State has remembered the deeds of its 
gallant men who fought in defense of the 
Union, with characteristic generosity. One 
of its first acts was to provide a series of 
orphan schools, in which the children of de- 
ceased soldiers were educated, clothed and 
cared for at the public charge until they 
reached an age where they could provide for 
themselves. It has also fitted up a home at 
Erie for sick and disabled soldiers and sailors, 
which is doubtless the best institution of the 
kind in any State of the Union. [See Gen- 
eral History of Erie County and City of 

Pennsylvania's battle flags. 

The torn and bloodstained battle flags of 
the several Pennsylvania regiments in the last 
war are sacredl)' preserved in a handsome 
room in the Capitol building at Harrisburg. 

World's Fair. — The part taken by Penn- 
sylvania in the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion at Chicago, in 1893, was greatly to her 
credit. .She was one of the first common- 
wealths to respond to the request of the Ex- 
position authorities for aid, voting the liberal 
sum of $300,000, and by various acts, official 
and otherwise, doing much to encourage their 
efforts. Her State building was one of the 
finest on the grounds, and was generally con- 
ceded to be the best adapted for its purpose. 
Among the many articles from the State was 
the Liberty Bell, which attracted remarkable 
attention, and was unquestionably the most 
precious relic at the Exposition. Pennsyl- 
vania Day, September 7, 1893, was a proud 
event for the State, over 200,000 people hav- 
ing attended, as shown by the official reports 
of the Fair authorities. 


[Adopted December 18, 1873; Went Into Operation January 1st, 1874, Except as 
Otherwise Provided Therein.] 


We, the people of the Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania, grateful to Almighty God for the bless- 
ings of civil and religious libertj', and humblj' in- 
voking His guidance, do ordain and establish this 


declaration of rights. 

That the general, great and essential prin- 
ciples of liberty and free government may be re- 
cognized and unalterably established, we declare 

Section 1. All men are born equally free 
and independent, and have certain inherent and 
indefeasible rights, among which are those of en- 
joying and defending life and libertj', of acquir- 
ing, possessing, and protecting property and re- 
putation, and of pursuing their own happiness. 

Sec. 2. All power is inherent in the people, 
and all free governments are founded on their au- 
thority and instituted for their peace, safety and 
happiness. For the advancement of these ends, 
they have at all times an inalienable and inde- 
feasible right to alter, reform, or abolLsh their 
government in such manner as they may think 

Sec. 3. All men have a natural and indefea.s- 
ible right to worship Almighty God according to 
the dictates of their own consciences; no man can 
of right be compelled to attend, erect, or support 
any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry 
against his consent; no human authority can, in 
any case whatever, control or interfere with the 
rights of conscience, and no preference shall ever 
be given by law to any religious establishments 
or modes of worship. 

Sec. 4. No person who acknowledges the be- 
ing of a God, and a future state of rewards and 
punishments, shall, on account of his religious 
sentiments, be disqualified to hold any office or 
place of trust or profit under the commonweath. 

Sec. S. Elections shall be free and equal; and 
no power, civil or military, shall at any time 
interfere to prevent the free exercise of the 
right of suffrage. 

Sec. 6. Trial by jury shall be, as heretofore, 
and the right thereof remain inviolate. 

Sec. 7. Theprintingpressshallbefreetoevery 
person who may undertake to examine the pro- 
ceedings of the legislature, or any branch of gov- 
ernment, and no law shall ever be made torestrain 

the right thereof. The free communication of 
thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable 
rights of man, and every citizen may freely speak, 
write and print on any subject, being responsible 
for the abuse of that liberty. No conviction shall 
be had in any prosecution for the publication of 
papers relating to the official conduct of officers or 
men in public capacity, or to any other matter 
proper for public investigation or information, 
where the fact that such publication was not ma- 
liciously or negligently made shall be established 
to the satisfaction of the jury; and in all indict- 
ments for libel, the jury shall have the right to 
determine the law and the facts, under the direc- 
tion of the court, as in other cases. 

Sec. 8. The people shall be secure in their 
persons, houses, papers and possessions from un- 
reasonable searches and seizures, and no warrant 
to search anyplace or to seize any person or things 
shall issue without describing them as nearly as 
may be, nor without probable cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation, subscribed to by the affiant. ' 

Sec. 9. In all criminal prosecutions the accus- 
ed hath a right to be heard by himself and his 
counsel, to demand the nature and cause of the 
accusation against him, to meet the witnesses 
face to face, to have compulsory process for ob- 
taining witnesses in his favor, and, in prosecutions 
by indictment or information, a speedy public 
trial by an impartial jury of the vicinage: he can- 
not be compelled to give evidence against himself, 
nor can he be deprived of his life, liberty or prop- 
erty', unless by the judgment of his peers or the 
law of the land. 

Sec. 10. No person shall, for any indictable 
offense, be proceeded against criminally by in- 
formation, except in cases arising in the land or 
naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual serv- 
ice, in time of war or public danger, or by leave 
of the court, for oppression or misdemeanor in 
office. No person shall, for the same offense, be 
twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall 
private property be taken or applied to public use, 
without authority of law and without just com- 
pensation being first made or secured. 

Sec. 11. All courts shall be open, and every 
man for an injury done him in his lands, goods, 
person or reputation, shall have remedy by due 
course of law, and right and justice administered 
without sale, denial or delay. Suits may be 
brought against the commonwealth in such man- 
ner, in such courts and in such cases as the legis- 
lature may by law direct. 

Sec. 12. No power of suspending laws shall 



be exercised unless by the leg-islature, or by its 

Sec. 13. Excessive bail shall not be required, 
nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel punishments 

Sec. 14. All prisoners shall be bailable by 
sufficient sureties, unless for capital offenses, 
when the proof is evident or presumption great; 
and the privilege of the vprit of habean rorpuii shall 
not be suspended, unless when in case of rebellion 
or invasion the public safety may require it. 

Sec. 15. No commission of oyer or terminer 
or jail delivery shall be issued. 

vSec. 16. The person of a debtor, where there 
is not strong presumption of fraud, shall not be 
continued in prison after delivering up his estate 
for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as 
shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 17. No e.r fiiftd law, nor any law im- 
pairing the obligation of contracts, or making 
irrevocable any grant of special privileges or 
immunities shall be passed. 

Sec. 18. No person shall be attainted of trea- 
son or felony by the legislature. 

Sec. 19. ' No attainder shall work corruption 
of blood, nor, except during the life of the offend- 
er, forfeiture of estate to the commonwealth. 
The estate of such persons as shall destroy their 
own lives shall descend or vest as in cases of nat- 
ural death, and if any person shall be killed by 
casualty there shall be no forfeiture by reason 

Sec. 20. The citizens have a right in a peace- 
able manner to assemble together for their com- 
mon good, and to apply to those invested with the 
powers of government for redress of grievances 
or other proper purposes, by petition, address or 

Sec. 21. The right of the citizens to bear 
arms in defense of themselves and the state shall 
not be questioned. 

Sec. 22. No standing army shall, in time of 
peace, be kept up without the consent of the legis- 
lature, and the military shall in all cases and at 
all times be in strict subordination to the civil 

Sec. 23. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be 
quartered in any house without the consent of the 
owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be 
prescribed by law. 

Sec. 24. The legislature shall not grant any 
title of nobility or hereditary distinction, nor 
create any office, the appointment to which shall 
be for a longer term than during good behavior. 

Sec. 25. Emigration from the state shall not 
be prohibited. 

Sec. 26. To guard against transgressions of 
the high powers which we have delegated, we de- 
clare that everything in this article is excepted 
out of the general powers of government and shall 
forever remain inviolate. 



Sec. 1. The legislative power of thi 
wealth shall be vested in a general assembly, 

which shall consist of a Senate and a House of 

Sec. 2. Members of the general assembly 
shall be chosen at the general election every 
second year. Their term of service shall begin on 
the first day of December next after their election. 
Whenever a vacancy' shall occur in either House, the 
presiding officer thereof shall issue a writ of elec- 
tion to fill such vacancy for the remainder of the 

Sec. 3. Senators shall be elected for the term 
of four years, and representatives for the term of 
two years. 

Sec. 4. The general assembly shall meet at 
twelve o'clock, noon, on the first Tuesday of Jan- 
uary, every second year, and at other times when 
convened bj' the Governor, but shall hold no ad- 
journed annual session after the year one thou- 
sand eight hundred and seventy-eight. In case of 
a vacancy in the office of United States Senator 
from this commonwealth, in a recess between ses- 
sions, the Governor shall convene the two Houses, 
by proclamation on notice not exceeding sixty 
days, to fill the same. 

Sec. 5. Senators shall be at least twenty-five 
years of age, and representatives twenty-one 
years of age. They shall have been citizens and 
inhabitants of the state four years, and inhabi- 
tants of their respective districts one year next 
before their election (unless absent on the public 
business of the United States, or of this state), 
and shall reside in their respective districts dur- 
ing their terms of service. 

Sec. 6. No senator or representative shall, 
during the time for which he shall have been 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under this 
commonwealth, and no member of congress, or 
other person holding any office (except of attor- 
ney-at-law or in the militia), under the United 
States, or this commonwealth, shall be a member 
of either House during his continuance in office. 

Sec. 7. No person liereafter convicted of em- 
bezzlement of public moneys, bribery, perjury, or 
other infamous crime, shall be eligible to the gen- 
eral assembly, or capable of holding any office of 
trust or profit in this commonwealth. 

Sec. 8. The members of the general assembl)' 
shall receive such salary and mileage for regular 
and special sessions as shall be fixed by law, and 
no other compensation whatever, whether for serv- 
ice upon committee or otherwise. No member of 
either House shall, during the term for which he 
may have been elected, receive any increase of 
salary or mileage, under any law passed during 
such term. 

Sec. 9. The Senate shall, at the beginning 
and close of each regular session, and at such 
other times as may be necessary, elect one of its 
members president pro tempore, who shall perform 
the duties of the Lieutenant Governor, in any case 
of absence or disability of that officer, and when- 
ever the said office of Lieutenant Governor shall 
be vacant. The House of Representatives shall 
elect one of its members as speaker. Each House 
shall choose its other officers, and shall judge of 
the election and qualifications of its members. 

Sec. 10. A majority of each House shall con- 



stitute a quorum, but a smaller number may ad- 
journ from day to day, and compel the attendance 
of absent members. 

Sec. 11. Each House shall have power to de- 
termine the rules of its proceedings, and punish its 
members or other persons for contempt or disor- 
derly behavior in its presence, to enforce obedience 
to its, to protect its members ag^ainst vio- 
lence, or offers of bribesor private solicitation, and, 
with the concurrence of two-thirds, to expel a 
member, but not a second time for the same cause, 
and shall have all other powers necessary for the 
legi,slature of a free state. A member expelled 
for corruption shall not thereafter be eligible to 
either House, and punishment for contempt or dis- 
orderly behavior shall not bar an indictment for 
the same offense. 

Sec. 12. Each House shall keep a journal of 
its proceedings, and from time to time publish the 
same, except such parts as require secrecy, and 
the yeas and nays of the members on any question 
shall, at the desire of any two of them, be entered 
on the journal. 

Sec. 13. The sessions of each House, and of 
committees of the whole, shall be open, unless 
when the business is such that it ought to be kept 

Sec. 14. Neither House shall, without the 
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three 
days, nor to any other place than that in which 
the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. IvS. The members of the general assembly 
shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, violation 
of their oath of office, and breach or surety of the 
peace, be privileged from arrest during their at- 
tendance at the sessions of their respective Houses, 
and in going to and returning from the same; and 
for any speech or debate in either House they shall 
not be questioned in any other place. 

Sec. 16. The State shall be divided into fifty 
senatorial districts of compact and contiguous ter- 
ritorj', as nearly equal in population as may be, 
and each district shall be entitled to elect one 
senator. Each county containing one or more 
ratios of population shall be entitled to one senator 
for each ratio, and to an additional senator for a 
surplus of population exceeding three-fifths of a 
ratio, but no county shall form a separate district 
unless it shall contain four-fifths of a ratio, except 
where the adjoining counties are each entitled to 
one or more senators, when such county may be 
assigned a senator on less than four-fifths and ex- 
ceeding one-half of a ratio; and no county shall 
be divided unless entitled to two or more senators. 
No city or county shall be entitled to separate rep- 
resentation exceeding one-sixth of the whole 
number of senators. No ward, borough, or town- 
ship shall be divided in the formation of a district. 
The senatorial ratio shall be ascertained by divid- 
ing the whole population of the State by the num- 
ber fifty. 

Sec. 17. The members of the House of Repre- 
sentatives shall be apportioned among the several 
counties, on a ratio obtained by dividing the popu- 
lation of the State, as ascertained by the most re- 
cent United States census, by two hundred. Every 
county containing less than five ratios shall have 

one representative for every full ratio, and an ad- 
tional representative when the surplus exceeds 
half a ratio; but each county shall have at least 
one representative. Every county containing five 
ratios or more shall have one representative for 
every full ratio. Every city containing a popula- 
tion equal to a ratio shall elect separately its pro- 
portion of the representatives allotted to the 
county in which it is located. Every city entitled 
to more than four representatives, and every coun- 
ty having over one hundred thousand inhabitants, 
shall be divided into districts of compact and con- 
tiguous territory, each district to elect its propor- 
tion of representatives according to its population, 
but no district shall elect more than four repre- 

Sec. 18. The general assembly at its first 
session after the adoption of this constitution, and 
immediately after each United States decennial 
census, shall apportion the State into senatorial 
and representative districts, agreeably to the pro- 
visions of the two next preceding sections. 



Sec. 1. No law shall be passed except by bill, 
and no bill shall be so altered or amended, on its 
passage through either House, as to change its 
original purpose. 

Sec. 2. No bill shall be considered unless re- 
ferred to a committee, returned therefrom, and 
printed for the use of the members. 

Sec. 3. No bills, except general appropriation 
bills, shall be passed containing more than one 
subject, which shall be clearly expressed in the 

Sec. 4. Every bill shall be read at length on 
three different days, in each House: all amend- 
ments made thereto shall be printed for the use of 
the members before the final vote is taken on the 
bill, and no bill shall become a law, unless on its 
final passage the vote be taken by yeas and nays, 
the names of the persons voting for and against 
the same be entered on the journal, and a majority 
of the members elected to each House be recorded 
thereon as voting in its favor. 

Sec. S. No amendments to bills by one House 
shall be concurred in by the other except by the 
vote of a majority of the members elected thereto, 
taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those 
voting for and against recorded upon the journal 
thereof; and reports of committees of conference 
shall be adopted in either House only by the vote 
of a majority of the members elected thereto, 
taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those 
voting recorded upon the journals. 

Sec. 6. No law shall be revived, amended, or 
the provisions thereof extended or conferred, by 
reference to its title only, but so much thereof as 
is revived, amended, extended, or conferred, shall 
be re-enacted and published at length. 

Sec. 7. The general assembly shall not pass 
any local or special law authorizing the creation, 
extension or impairing of liens; regulating the 
affairs of counties, cities, town.ships, wards, bor- 
oughs, or school districts; changing the names of 



persons or places; chang-ing the venue in civil or 
criminal cases; authorizing- the laj'ing out. open- 
ing, altering or maiutaioing roads, highways, 
streets or alleys; relating to ferries or bridges, or 
incorporating ferry or bridge companies, except 
for the erection of bridges crossing streams which 
form boundaries between this and any other 
States; vacating roads, town plats, streets or 
alleys; relating to cemeteries, grave-yards, or 
public grounds not of the State; authorizing the 
adoption or legitimation of children; locating or 
changing county seats; erecting new counties, or 
changing county lines; incorporating cities, towns 
or villages, or changing their charters; for the 
opening and conducting of elections, or fixing or 
changing the place of voting; granting divorces; 
erecting new townships or boroughs; changing 
township lines, borough limits or districts; creat- 
ing offices, or prescribing the powers and duties 
of officers in counties, cities, boroughs, townships, 
election, or school districts; changing the law of 
descent or succession; regulating the practice or 
jurisdiction of, or changing the rules of evidence 
in, any judicial proceeding or inquiry before 
courts, aldermen, justices of the peace, sheriffs, 
commissioners, arbitrators, auditors, masters in 
chancery, or other tribunals, or providing or 
changing methods for the collection of debts, or 
the enforcing of judgments, or prescribing the 
effect of judicial sales of real estate; regulating 
the fees, or extending the powers and duties of 
aldermen, justices of the peace, magistrates or 
constables; regulating the management of public 
schools, the building or repairing of school-houses, 
and the raising of money for such purposes; fixing 
the rate of interest; affecting the estates of minors 
or persons under disability, except after due notice 
to all parties in interest, to be recited in the spe- 
cial enactment; remitting fines, penalties and for- 
feitures, or refunding moneys legally paid into the 
treasury; exempting property from taxation; regu- 
lating labor, trade, mining or manufacturing; 
creating corporations, or amending, renewing, or 
extending the charters thereof; granting to any 
corporation, association, or individual any special 
or exclusive privilege or immunity, or to any cor- 
poration, association, or individual the right to 
lay down a railroad track; nor shall the general 
assembly indirectly enact such special or local law 
by the partial repeal of a general law; but laws 
repealing local or special acts may be passed; nor 
shall any law be passed granting powers or privi- 
leges in any case where the granting of such 
powers and privileges shall have been provided 
for by general law, nor where the courts have 
jurisdiction to grant the same or give the relief 
asked for. 

Sec. 8. No local or special bill shall be passed 
unless notice of the intention to apply therefor 
shall have been published in the locality where 
the matter or the thing to be affected may be situ- 
ated, which notice shall be at least thirty days 
prior to the introduction into the general assem- 
bly of such bill and in the manner to be provided 
by law ; the evidence of such notice having been 
published shall be exhibited in the general as- 
sembly before such act shall be passed. 

Sec. 9. The presiding officer of each House 
shall, in the presence of the House over which he 
presides, sign all bills and joint resolutions passed 
by the general assembly, after their titles have 
been publicly read immediately before signing ; 
and the fact of signing shall be entered on the 

Sec. 10. The general assembly shall prescribe 
by law the number, duties and compensation 
of the officers and employes of each House, and no 
payment shall be made from the State treasury, 
or be in any way authorized, to any person, except 
to an acting officer or employe elected or appoint- 
ed in pursuance of law. 

Sec. 11. No bill shall be passed giving any 
extra compeisation to any public officer, servant, 
employe, agent or contractor, after services shall 
have been rendered or contract made, nor pro- 
viding for the payment of any claim against the 
commonwealth without previous authority of law. 

Sec. 12. All stationery, printing paper and 
fuel used in the legislative and other departments 
of government shall be furnished, and the print- 
ing, binding and distributing of the laws, jour- 
nals, department reports, and all other printing 
and binding, and the repairing and furnishing the 
halls and rooms used for the meetings of the gen- 
eral assembly and its committees, shall be per- 
formed under contract to be given to the lowest 
responsible bidder below such maximum price and 
under such regulations as shall be prescribed by 
law; no member or officer of any department of 
the government shall be in any way interested in 
such contracts, and all such contracts shall be 
subject to the approval of the Governor, Auditor 
General and State Treasurer. 

Sec. 13. No law shall extend the term of any 
public officer, or increase or diminish his salary 
or emoluments, after his election or appointment. 

Sec. 14. All bills for raising revenue shall 
originate in the House of Representatives, but the 
Senate may propose amendments as in other bills. 

Sec. 15. The general appropriation bill shall 
embrace nothing but appropriations for the ordi- 
nary expenses of the executive, legislative and 
judicial departments of the commonwealth, inter- 
est on the public debt and for public schools; all 
other appropriations shall be made by separate 
bills, each embracing but one subject. 

Sec. 16. No money shall be paid out of the 
treasury except upon appropriations made by law, 
and on warrant drawn by the proper officer in 
pursuance thereof. 

Sec. 17. No appropriation shall be made to 
any charitable or educational institution not un- 
der the absolute control of the commonwealth, 
other than normal schools established by law for 
the professional training of teachers for the pub- 
lic schools of the State, except by a vote of two- 
thirds of all the members elect to each House. 

Sec. 18. No appropriations, except for pen- 
sions or gratuities for military services, shall be 
made for charitable, educational or benevolent 
purposes to any person or communi'y, nor to any 
denominational or sectarian institution, corpora- 
tion or association. 

Sec. 19, The general assembly may make ap- 


1 ^ ^ 

JAMES POLLOC^. W' -"'■'f • NOPEW Q, CURTl/^1 






propriations of money to institutions wherein the 
widows of soldiers are supported or assisted, or 
the orphans of soldiers are maintained and edu- 
cated, but such appropriations shall be applied 
exclusively to the support of such widows and 

Sec. 20. The general assembly shall not dele- 
gate to any special commission, private corpora- 
tion or association, any power to make, supervise 
or interfere with any municipal improvement, 
money, property or effects, whether held in trust 
or otherwise, or to levy taxes or perform any 
municipal function whatever. 

Sec. 21. No act of the general assembly shall 
limit the amount to be recovered for injuries re- 
sulting in death, or for persons or property; and 
in case of death from injuries the right of action 
shall survive, and the general assembly shall pre- 
scribe for whose benefit such actions shall be 
prosecuted. No act shall prescribe any limitations 
of time within which suits may be brought against 
corporations for injuries to persons or property, or 
for other causes different from those fixed by gen- 
eral laws regulating actions against natural per- 
sons, and such acts now existing are avoided. 

Sec. 22. No act of the general assembly shall 
authorize the investment of trust funds by execu- 
tors, administrators, guardians or other trustees, 
in the bonds or stock of any private corporation, 
and such acts now existing are avoided, saving in- 
vestments heretofore made. 

Sec. 23. The power to change the venue in 
civil and criminal cases shall be vested in the 
courts, to be exercised in such manner as shall be 
provided by law. 

Sec. 24. No obligation or liability of any 
railroad or other corporation, held or owned by the 
commonwealth, shall ever be exchanged, trans- 
ferred, remitted, postponed or in any way dimin- 
ished by the general assembly, nor shall such 
liability or obligation be released, except by pay- 
ment thereof into the state treasury. 

Sec. 25. When the general assembly shall be 
convened in special session there shall be no legis- 
lation upon subjects other than those designated 
in the proclamation of the Governor calling such 

Sec. 26. Every order, resolution or vote, to 
which the concurrence of both Houses may be 
necessary (except on the question of adjournment), 
shall be presented to the Governor, and, before it 
shall take effect, be approved by him, or, being 
disapproved, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of 
both Houses, according to the rules and limitations 
prescribed in case of a bill. 

Sec. 27. No State office shall be continued or 
created for the inspection or measuring of any 
merchandise, manufacture or commodity, but any 
county or municipality may appoint such officers 
when authorized by law. 

Sec. 28. No law changing the location of the 
capital of the State shall be valid until the same 
shall have been submitted to the qualified electors 
of the commonwealth, at a general election, and 
ratified and approved by them. 

Sec. 29. A member of the general assembly 
who shall solicit, demand or receive, or consent to 

receive, directly or indirectly, for himself or for 
another, from any company, corporation or per- 
son, any money, office, appointment, employment, 
testimonial, reward, thing of value or enjoyment, 
or of personal advantage, or promise thereof, for 
his vote, or official influence, or for withholding 
the same, or with an understanding, expressed or 
implied, that his vote or official action shall be, in 
any way, influenced thereby, or who shall solicit 
or demand any such money, or other advantage, 
matter or thing aforesaid, for another, as the con- 
sideration of his vote or official influence, or for 
withholding the same, or shall give or withhold 
his vote or influence, in consideration of the pay- 
ment of or promise of such money, advantage, 
matter or thing to another, shall be held guilty of 
bribery within the meaning of this constitution, 
and shall incur the disabilities provided thereby 
for said offense, and such additional punishment 
as is or shall be provided by law. 

Sec. 30. Any person who shall, directly or in- 
directly, offer, give or promise any money or thing 
of value, testimonial, privilege or personal ad- 
vantage, to any executive or judicial officer, or 
member of the general assembly, to influence him 
in the performance of any of his public or official 
duties, shall be guilty of bribery, and be punished 
in such manner as shall be provided by law. 

Sec. 31. The offense of corrupt solicitation of 
members of the general assembly, or of public 
officers of the State, or of any municipal division 
thereof, and any occupation, or practice of solicita- 
tion, of such members or officers, to influence 
their official action, shall be defined by law, and 
shall be punished by fine and imprisonment. 

Sec. 32. Any person may be compelled to 
testify in anj' lawful investigation, or judicial pro- 
ceeding, against any person, who may be charged 
with having committed the oft'ense of bribery or 
corrupt solicitation, or practices of solicitation, 
and shall not be permitted to withhold his testi- 
mony upon the ground that it may criminate him- 
self, or subject him to public infamy; but such 
testimony shall not afterwards be used against 
him in any judicial proceeding, except for perjury 
in giving such testimony; and any person convict- 
ed of either of the offenses aforesaid shall, as part 
of the punishment therefor, be disqualified from 
holding any office or position of honor, trust, or 
profit in this commonwealth. 

Sec. 33. A member who has a personal or 
private interest in any measure or bill proposed 
or pending before the general assembly, shall dis- 
close the fact to the House of which he is a mem- 
ber, and shall not vote thereon. 



Sec. 1. The executive department of this 
commonwealth shall consist of a Governor, Lieu- 
tenant Governor, Secretary of the Commonwealth, 
Attorney General, Auditor General, State Treas- 
urer, Secretary of Internal Affairs, and a Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction. 

Sec. 2. The supreme executive power shall 


be vested ia the Governor, who shall take care 
that the laws be faithfully executed; he shall be 
chosen on the day of the general election, by the 
qualified electors of the commonwealth, at the 
places where they shall vote for representatives. 
The returns of every election for Governor shall 
be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of Gov- 
ernment, directed to the President of the Senate, 
who shall open and publish them in the presence 
of the members of both Houses of the general 
assembly. The person having- the highest num- 
ber of votes shall be Governor; but if two or more 
be equal and highest in votes, one of them shall 
be chosen Governor by the joint vote of the mem- 
bers of both Houses. Contested elections shall be 
determined by a committee, to be selected from 
both Houses of the general assembly, and formed 
and regulated in such manner as shall be directed 
by law. 

Sec. 3. The Governor shall hold his office 
during four years, from the third Tuesday of Jan- 
uary next ensuing his election, and shall not be 
eligible to office for the next succeeding term. 

Sec. 4. A Lieutenant Governor shall be 
chosen at the same time, in the same manner, for 
the same term, and subject to the same provisions 
as the Governor; he shall be President of the Sen- 
ate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally 

Sec. 5. No person shall be eligible to the 
office of Governor or Lieutenant Governor, except 
a citizen of the United States, who shall have at- 
tained the age of thirty years, and have been 
seven years next preceding his election an inhab- 
itant of the State, unless he shall have been 
absent on the public business of the United States 
or of this State. 

Sec. 6. No member of congress, or person 
holding any office under the United States or this 
State, shall exercise the office of Governor or 
Lieutenant Governor. 

Sec. 7. The Governor shall be commander- 
in-chief of the army and navy of the common- 
wealth, and of the militia, except when they shall 
be called into the actual service of the United 

Sec. 8. He shall nominate, and, by and with 
the advice and consent of two-thirds of all the 
members of the Senate, appoint a Secretary of 
the Commonwealth and an Attorney General dur- 
ing pleasure, a Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion for four years, and such other officers of the 
commonwealth as he is or may be authorized by 
the constitution or by law to appoint; he shall 
have power to fill all vacancies that may happen in 
offices to which he may appoint, during the recess 
of the Senate, by granting commissions which 
shall expire at the end of their next session; he 
shall have power to fill any vacancy that may 
happen in offices to which he may appoint, during 
the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions 
which shall expire at the end of their next session; 
he shall have power to fill an)' vacancy that may 
happen, during the recess of the Senate, in the 
office of Auditor General, State Treasurer, Secre- 
tary of Internal Affairs, or Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, in a judicial office, or in any 

other elective office which he is ormay be authoriz- 
ed to fill; if the vacancy shall happen during the 
session of the Senate, the Governor .shall nominate 
to the Senate, before their final adjournment, a 
proper person to fill said vacancy; but in any such 
case of vacancy in an elective office, a person 
shall be chosen to said office at the next general 
election, unless the vacancy shall happen within 
three calendar months immediately preceding such 
election, in which case the election for said office 
shall be at the second succeeding general election. 
In acting on executive nominations the Senate 
shall sit with open doors, and, in confirming or 
rejecting the nominations of the Governor, the 
vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and shall 
be entered on the journal. 

Sec. 9. He shall have power to remit fines 
and forfeitures, to grant reprieves, commutations 
of sentences and pardons, except in cases of im- 
peachment; but no pardon shall be granted nor sent- 
ence commuted, except upon the recommendation, 
in writing, of the Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of 
the Commonwealth, Attorney General and Secre- 
tary of Internal Affairs, or any three of them, 
after full hearing, upon due public notice and in 
open session; and such recommendation, with the 
reasons therefor at length, shall be recorded and 
filed in the office of the Secretary of the Common- 

Sec. 10. He may require information, in writ- 
ing, from the officers of the executive department, 
upon any subject relating to the duties of their 
respective offices. 

Sec. 11. He shall, from time to time, give to 
the general assembly information of the state of 
the commonwealth, and recommend to their con- 
sideration such measures as he may judge expe- 

Sec. 12. He may, on extraordinary occasions, 
convene the general assembly; and, in case of dis- 
agreement between the two Houses, with respect 
to the time of adjournment, adjourn them to such 
time as he shall think proper, not exceeding four 
months. He shall have power to convene the 
Senate in extraordinary session by proclamation, 
for the transaction of executive business. 

Sec. 13. In case of the death, conviction or 
impeachment, failure to qualify, resignation, or 
other disability of the Governor, the powers, 
duties and emoluments of the office, for the re- 
mainder of the term, or until the disability be 
removed, shall devolve upon the Lieutenant Gov- 

Sec. 14. In case of a vacancy in the office of 
Lieutenant Governor, or when the Lieutenant 
Governor shall be impeached by the House of Rep- 
resentatives, or shall be unable to exercise the 
duties of his office, the powers, duties and emolu- 
ments thereof for the remainder of the term, or 
until the disability be removed, shall devolve up- 
on the President pru tempore of the Senate; and 
the President pro tempore of the Senate shall in 
like manner become Governor if a vacancy or dis- 
ability shall occur in the office of Governor; his 
seat as Senator shall become vacant whenever he 
shall become Governor, and shall be filled by 
election as any other vacancy in the Senate. 


Sec. 15. Every bill which shall have passed 
both Houses shall be presented to the Governor; 
if he approve he shall sig'a it; but if he shall uot 
approve he shall return it, with his objections, to 
the House in which it shall have originated, which 
House shall enter the objections at large upon 
their journal and proceed to reconsider it. If, after 
such reconsideration, two-thirds of all the mem- 
bers elected to that House shall agree to pass the 
bill, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the 
other House, by which likewise it shall be recon- 
sidered, and if approved by two-thirds of all the 
members elected to that House, it shall be a law; 
but in such cases the votes of both Houses shall 
be determined by yeas and nays, and the names 
of the members voting for and against the bill 
shall be entered on the journals of each House 
respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by 
the Governor within ten days after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in 
like manner as if he had signed it, unless the gen- 
eral assembh', by their adjournment, prevent its 
return; in which case it shall be a law, unless he 
shall file the same, with his objections, in the 
office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, and 
give notice thereof by public proclamation with- 
in thirty days after such adjournment. 

Skc. 16. The Governor shall have power to 
disapprove of any item or items of any bill mak- 
ing appropriations of money, embracing distinct 
items, and the part or parts of the bill approved 
shall be the law, and the item or items of appro- 
priation disapproved shall be void, unless re-pass- 
ed according to the rules and limitations prescrib- 
ed for the passage of other bills over the execu- 
tive veto. 

Sec. 17. The chief justice of the supreme 
court shall preside upon the trial of any contested 
election of Governor or Lieutenant Governor, and 
shall decide questions regarding the admissabil- 
ity of evidence, and shall, upon request of the 
committee, pronounce his opinion upon other 
questions of the law involved in the trial. The 
Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall exercise 
the duties of their respective offices until their 
successor shall be duly qualified. 

Sec. 18. The Secretary of the Common- 
wealth shall keep a record of all official acts and 
proceedings of the Governor, and when required 
lay the same, with all papers, minutes and vouch- 
ers relating thereto, before either branch of the 
general assembly, and perform such other duties 
as may be enjoined upon him by law. 

Sec. 19. The Secretary of Internal Affairs 
shall exercise all the powers, and perform all the 
duties of the Surveyor General, subject to such 
changes as shall be made by law. His department 
shall embrace a bureau of industrial statistics, 
and he shall discharge such duties relating to cor- 
porations, to the charitable institutions, the agri- 
cultural, manufacturing, mining, mineral, timber 
and other material or business interests of the 
State as may be prescribed by law. He shall an- 
nually, and at such other times as may be required 
by law, make report to the general assembly. 

Sec. 20. The Superintendent of Public In- 
struction shall exercise all the powers and perform 

all the duties of the superintendent of common 
schools, subject to such changes as shall be made 
by law. 

Sec. 21. The term of the Secretary of Inter- 
nal Affairs shall be four years; of the Auditor 
General three years, and of the State Treasurer 
two years. These officers shall be chosen by the 
qualified electors of the State at general elections. 
No person elected to the office of Auditor General 
or State Treasurer shall be capable of holding the 
same office for two consecutive terms. 

Sec. 22. The present Great Seal of Pennsyl- 
vania shall be the seal of the State. All commis- 
sions shall be in the name and by authority of the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and be sealed 
with the State sea!, and signed by the Governor. 



Sec. 1. The judicial powers of this common- 
wealth shall be vested in a supreme court, in 
courts of common pleas, courts of oyer and ter- 
miner and general jail delivery, courts of quarter 
sessions of the peace, orphans' courts, magistrates' 
courts, and such other courts as the general as- 
sembly may from time to time establish. 

Sec. 2. The supreme court shall consist of 
seven judges, who shall be elected by the qualified 
electors of the State at large. They shall hold 
their offices for the term of twenty-one years, if 
they so long behave themselves well, but shall not 
be again eligible. The judge whose commission 
shall first expire shall be chief justice, and there- 
after each judge whose commission shall first ex- 
pire shall in turn be chief justice. 

Sec. 3. The jurisdiction of the supreme court 
shall extend over the State, and the judges thereof 
shall, by virtue of their offices, be justices of oyer 
and terminer and general jail delivery in the sev- 
eral counties; they shall have original jurisdiction 
in cases of injunction where a corporation is a 
party defendant, of habidx corpus, of mandamus to 
courts of inferior jurisdiction, and of quo warranto 
as to all officers of the commonwealth whose juris- 
diction extends over the State, but shall not exer- 
cise any other original jurisdiction; they shall 
have appellate jurisdiction by appeal, certiorari, or 
writ of error in all cases, as is now or may here- 
after be provided by law. 

Sec. 4. Until otherwise directed by law, the 
courts of common pleas shall continue as at pres- 
ent established, except as herein changed; not 
more than four counties shall, at any time, be in- 
cluded in one judicial district organized for said 

Sec. S. Whenever a county shall contain forty 
thousand inhabitants it shall constitute a separate 
judicial district, and shall elect one judge learned 
in the law; and the general assembly shall provide 
for additional judges, as the business of said dis- 
tricts may require. Counties containing a popula- 
tion less than is sufficient to constitute separate 
districts shall be formed into convenient single 
districts, or, if necessary, may be attached to 
contiguous districts, as the general assembly may 


provide. The office of associate judg-e, not learned 
in the law, is abolished in counties forming sep- 
arate districts; but the several associate judg-es in 
office when this constitution shall be adopted shall 
serve for their unexpired terms. 

Sec. 6. In the counties of Philadelphia and 
Alleg-heny all the jurisdiction and powers now 
vested in the district courts of common pleas, sub- 
ject to such changes as may be made by this con- 
stitution or by law, shall be, in Philadelphia, 
vested in four, and in Allegheny in two, distinct 
and separate courts of equal and co-ordinate juris- 
diction, composed of three judges each; the said 
courts in Philadelphia shall be designated respect- 
ively as the court of common pleas number one, 
number two, number three, and number four, and 
in Allegheny as the court of common pleas number 
one and number two, but the number of said 
courts may be by law increased, from time to time, 
and shall be, in like manner, designated by suc- 
cessive numbers; the number of judges in any of 
said courts, or in any county where the establish- 
ment of an additional court may be authorized by 
law, may be increased from time to time, and 
whenever such increase shall amount in the whole 
to three, such three judges shall compose a dis-- 
tinct and separate court as aforesaid, which shall 
be numbered as aforesaid. In Philadelphia, all 
suits shall be instituted in the said courts of com- 
mon pleas without designating the number of said 
court, and the several courts shall distribute and 
apportion the business among them in such man- 
ner as shall be provided by rules of court, and 
each court to which any suit shall be thus as- 
signed, shall have exclusive jurisdiction thereof, 
subject to change of venue, as shall be provided 
by law. In Allegheny each court shall have ex- 
clusive jurisdiction of all proceedings at law and 
in equity, commenced therein, subject to change 
of venue, as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 7. For Philadelphia there shall beonepro- 
thonotary's office and one prothonotary for all 
said courts, to be appointed by the judges of said 
courts, and to hold office for three years, subject 
to removal by a majority of the said judges; the 
said prothonotary shall appoint such assistants as 
may be necessary and authorized by said courts; 
and he and his assistants shall receive fixed sala- 
ries, to be determined by law and paid by said 
county; all fees collected in said office, except 
such as may be by law due to the commonwealth, 
shall be paid by the prothonotary into the county 
treasury. Each court shall have its separate 
docket, except the judgment docket, which shall 
contain the judgments and liens of all the said 
courts, as is or may be directed by law. 

Sec. 8. The said courts in the counties of 
Philadelphia and Allegheny, respectively, shall, 
from time to time, in turn, detail one or more of 
their judges to hold the courts of oyer and terminer 
and the courts of quarter sessions of the peace of 
said counties, in such manner as may be directed 
by law. 

Sec. 9. Judges of the courts of common pleas 
learned in the law shall be judges of the courts of 
oyer and terminer, quarter sessions of the peace, 
and general jail delivery, and of the orphans' 

court, and within their respective districts, shall 
be justices of the peace as to criminal matters. 

Sec. 10. The judges of the courts of common 

pleas, within their respective counties shall have 

power to issue writs of rcrlioi-ari to justices of the 

; peace, and other inferior courts, not of record, and 

[ to cause their proceedings to be brought before 

j them, and right and justice to be done. 

Sec. 11. Except as otherwise provided in this 

I constitution, justices of the peace, or aldermen, 

i shall be elected in the several wards, districts, 

I boroughs and townships at the time of the elec- 

I tion of constables by the qualified electors thereof, 

I in such manner as shall be directed by law, and 

! shall be commissioned bj- the Governor for a term 

i of five years. No township, ward, district or bor- 

j ough shall elect more than two justices of the 

peace or aldermen, without the consent of a ma- 

, jority of the qualified electors within such town- 

i ship, ward or borough: no person shall be elected 

to such office unless he shall have resided within 

the township, borough, ward or district for one 

[ year next preceding his election. In cities con- 

! taining over fifty thousand inhabitants not more 

than one alderman shall be elected in each ward 

or district. 

Sec. 12. In Philadelphia there shall be estab- 
lished, for each thirty thousand inhabitants, one 
court, not of record, of police and civil causes, 
with jurisdiction not exceeding one hundred dol- 
lars; such courts shall be held by magistrates 
whose term of office shall be five years, and they 
shall be elected on general ticket by the qualified 
voters at large; and in the election of the said 
magistrates no voter shall vote for more than two- 
thirds of the number of persons to be elected when 
more than one are to be chosen; they shall be 
compensated only by fixed salaries, to be paid by 
said county, and shall exercise such jurisdiction, 
civil and criminal, except as herein provided, as is 
now exercised by aldermen, subject to such 
changes, not involving an increase of civil juris- 
diction or conferring political duties, as may be 
made by law. In Philadelphia, the office of alder- 
' man is abolished. 

\ Sec. 13. All fees, fines and penalties in said 

[ courts shall be paid into the county treasury. 
I Sec. 14. In all cases of summary conviction 

I in this commonwealth, or of judgment in suit for 
I a penalty before a magistrate or court not of 
I record, either party may appeal to such court of 
record, as may be prescribed by law, upon allow- 
j ance of the appellate court, or judge thereof, upon 
cause shown. 

Sec. is. All judges required to be learned in 
the law, except the judges of the supreme court, 
! shall be elected by the qualified electors of the 
respective districts over which they are to preside, 
and shall hold their offices for the period of ten 
j'ears, if they shall so long behave themselves 
well: but for any reasonable cause, which shall 
not be sufficient ground for impeachment, the 
Governor may remove any of them on the address 
of two-thirds of each House of the general as- 

Sec. 16. Whenever two judges of the supreme 
court are to be chosen for the same term of serv- 


ice, each voter shall vote for one only, and when 
three are to be chosen he shall vote for no more 
than two; candidates highest in vote shall be de- 
clared elected. 

Sec. 17. Should any two or more judges of 
the supreme court, or any two or more judges of 
the court of common pleas for the same district, 
be elected at the same time, they shall, as soon 
after the election as convenient, cast lots for pri- 
ority of commission, and certify the result to the 
Governor, who shall issue their commissions in 
accordance therewith. 

Sec. is. The judges of the supreme court and 
the judges of the several courts of common pleas, 
and all other judges required to be learned in the 
law, shall, at stated times, receive for their serv- 
ices an adequate compen;5ation, which shall be 
fixed by law and paid by the State. They shall 
receive no other compensation, fees or perquisites 
of office for their services from any source, nor 
hold any other office of profit under the United 
States, this State, or any other State. 

Sec. 19. The judges of the supreme court, 
during their continuance in office, shall reside 
within this commonwealth, and the other judges 
during their continuance in office shall reside 
within the districts for which they shall be re- 
spectively elected. 

Sec. 20. The several courts of common pleas, 
besides the powers herein conferred, shall have 
and exercise within their respective districts, sub- 
ject to such changes as may be made by law, such 
chancery powers as are now vested by law in the 
several courts of common pleas of this common- 
wealth, or as may hereafter be conferred upon 
them by law. 

Sec. 21. No duties shall be imposed by law 
upon the supreme court or any of the judges there- 
of except such as are judicial, nor shall any of the 
judges exercise any power of appointment except 
as herein provided. The court of iiixi priiis is 
hereby abolished, and no court of original juris- 
diction to be presided over by any one or more 
of the judges of the supreme court shall be estab- 

Sec. 22. In every county wherein the popula- 
tion shall exceed one hundred and fifty thousand, 
the general assembly shall, and in any other coun- 
ty may, establish a separate orphans' court, to 
consist of one or more judges who shall be learned 
in the law, which court shall exercise all the juris- 
diction and powers now vested in or which may 
hereafter be conferred upon the orphans' courts, 
and thereupon the jurisdiction of the judges of 
the court of common pleas within such county, in 
orphans' court proceedings, shall cease and de- 
termine. In any county in which a separate or- 
phans' court shall be established, the register of 
wills shall be clerk of such court and subject to its 
directions, in all matters pertaining to his office; 
he may appoint assistant clerks, but only with the 
consent and approval of said court. All accounts 
filed with him as register or as clerk of the said 
separate orphans' court shall be audited by the 
court without expense to parties, except where all 
the parties in interest in a pending proceeding 
shall nominate an auditor whom the court may, 

in its discretion, appoint. In every county or- 
phans' courts shall possess all the powers and 
jurisdiction of a registers' court, and .separate 
registers' courts are hereby abolished. 

Sec. 23. The style of all process shall be 
"The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania." All 
prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and 
by the authority of the Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania, and conclude " against the peace and 
dignity of the same." 

Sec. 24. In all cases of felonious homicide, 
and in such other criminal cases as may be pro- 
vided for by law, the accused, after conviction 
and sentence, may remove the indictment, record 
and all proceedings to the supreme court for re- 

Sec. 25. Any vacancy happening by death, 
resignation or otherwise, in any court of record, 
shall be filled by appointment by the Governor, to 
continue until the first Monday of January next 
succeeding the first general election, which shall 
occur three or more months after the happening 
of such vacancy. 

Sec. 26. All laws relating to courts shall be 
general, and of uniform operations, and the or- 
ganization, jurisdiction and powers of all courts 
of the same class or grade, so far as regulated by 
law, and the force and effect of the process and 
judgments of such courts shall be uniform; and the 
general assembly is hereby prohibited from creat- 
ing other courts to exercise the powers vested by 
the constitution in the judges of the courts of 
common pleas and orphans' courts. 

Sec. 27. The parties, by agreement filed, 
may, in any civil case, dispense with trial by jury, 
and submit the decision of such case to the court 
having jurisdiction thereof, and such court shall 
hear and determine the same; and the judgment 
thereon shall be subject to writ of error, as in 
other cases. 


impe.^chment and remov.^i, from ofeice. 

Sec. 1. The House of Representatives shall 
have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 2. All impeachments shall be tried by 
the Senate. When sitting for that purpose, the 
senators shall be upon oath or affirmation. No 
person shall be convicted without the concurrence 
of two-thirds of the members present. 

Sec. 3. The Governor, and all other civil of- 
ficers, shall be liable to impeachment for any 
misdemeanor in office; but judgment in such cases 
shall not extend further than to removal from of- 
fice, and disqualification to hold any office of trust 
or profit under this commonwealth; the person ac- 
cused, whether convicted or acquitted, shall never- 
theless be liable to indictment, trial, judgment, 
and punishment, according to law. 

Sec. 4 All officers shall hold their offices on 
the condition that they behave themselves well 
while in office, and shall be removed on conviction 
of misbehavior in office, or of any infamous 
crime. Appointed officers, other than judges of 
the courts of record and the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, may be removed at the pleas- 



ure of the power by which they shall have been 
appointed. All officers elected by the people, ex- 
cept Governor, Lieutenant Governor, members of 
the g-eneral assembly, and judges of the courts of 
record learned in the law, shall be removed by the 
Governor for reasonable cause, after due notice 
and full hearing-, on the address of two-thirds of 
the Senate. 



Sec. 1. Senators and representatives, and all 
judicial, state and county officers, shall, before 
entering- on the duties of their respective offices, 
take and subscribe the following oath or affirma- 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will sup- 
port, obey and defend the Constitution of the 
United States, and the Constitution of this Com- 
monwealth, and that I will discharge the duties of 
my office with fidelity; that I have not paid or 
contributed, or promised to pay or contribute, 
either directly or indirectly, any money or other 
valuable thing, to procure my nomination or elec- 
tion (or appointment), except for necessary and 
proper expenses expressly authorized by law; that 
I have not knowingly violated any election law of 
this commonwealth, or procured it to be done by 
others in my behalf; that I will not knowingly re- 
ceive, directly or indirectly, any moneys or other 
valuable thing for the performance or non-per- 
formance of any act or duty pertaining to my 
office, other than the compensation allowed by 

The foregoing oath shall be adtuinistered by 
some person authorized to administer oaths, and 
in the case of State officers and judges of the 
supreme court, shall be filed in the office of the 
Secretary of the Commonwealth, and in the case 
of other judicial and county officers, in the office 
of the prothonotary of the county in which the 
same is taken; any person refusing to take said 
oath or affirmation shall forfeit his office, and any 
person who shall be convicted of having sworn or 
affirmed f alselj', or of having violated said oath or 
affirmation, shall be guilt3' of perjury, and be for- 
ever disqualified from holding any office of trust 
or profit within this commonwealth. The oath to 
the members of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives shall be administered by one of the 
judges of the supreme court or of a court of com- 
mon pleas, learned in the law, in the hall of the 
House to which the members shall be elected. 



Sec. 1. Every male citizen twenty-one years 
of age possessing the following qualifications 
shall be entitled to vote at all elections: First. 
He shall have been a citizen of the United States 
at least one month. Scivnd, He shall have resided 
in the State one year (or if, having previously 
been a qualified elector or native-born citizen of 

the State, he shall have removed therefrom and 
returned, then six months) immediately preceding 
the election. Thit-d. He shall have resided in the 
election district where he shall offer to vote at 
least two months immediatel}' preceding the elec- 
tion. Fourth. If twenty-two years of age or up- 
wards, he shall have paid within two years a State 
or county tax, which shall have been assessed at 
least two months and paid at least one month be- 
fore the election. 

Sec. 2. The general election shall be held an- 
nually on the Tuesday next following the first 
Monday of November, but the general assembly 
may by law fix a different day, two-thirds of all 
the members of each House consenting thereto. 

Sec. 3. All elections for city, ward, borough 
and township officers, for regular terms of serv- 
ice, shall be held on the third Tuesdaj' of Feb- 

Sec. 4. All elections by the citizens shall be 
by ballot. Every ballot voted shall be numbered 
in the order in which it shall be received, and the 
number recorded by the election officers on the list 
of voters, opposite the name of the elector who 
presents the ballot. Any elector may write his 
name upon his ticket, or cause the same to be writ- 
ten thereon and attested bj' a citizen of the dis- 
trict. The election officers shall be sworn or af- 
firmed not to disclose how any elector shall have 
voted unless required to do so as witnesses in a 
judicial proceeding. 

Sec. 5. Electors shall in all cases, except 

i treason, felony and breach or surety of the peace, 

be privileged from arrest during their attendance 

on elections, and going to and returning there- 

Sec. 6. Whenever any of the qualified elect- 
ors of this commonwealth shall be in actual mili- 
tary service, under a requisition from the Presi- 
dent of the United States, or by the authority of 
this commonwealth, such electors may exercise 
the right of suffrage in all elections by the citi- 
zens, under such regulations as are, or shall be, 
prescribed by law, as fully as if they were present 
at their usual places of election. 

Sec. 7. All laws regulating the holding of 
elections by the citizens or for the registration of 
electors shall be uniform throughout the State, 
but no elector shall be deprived of the privilege of 
voting by reason of his name not being registered. 
Sec. 8. Any person who shall give, or prom- 
ise or offer to give, to an elector, any money, re- 
ward or other valuable consideration for his vote 
I at an election, or for withholding the same, or 
I who shall give or promise to give such considera- 
tion to any other person or party for such elector's 
vote or for the withholding thereof, and any 
' elector who shall receive or agree to receive, 
j for himself or for another, any money, reward os 
other valuable consideration for his vote at an 
election, or for withholding the same, shall there- 
by forfeit the right to vote at such election, and 
any elector whose right to vote shall be challenged 
for such cause before the election officers, shall be 
I required to swear or affirm that the matter of the 
' challenge is untrue before his vote shall be re- 


Sec. 9. Any person who shall, while a candi- 
date for office, be guilty of bribery, fraud or wil- 
ful violation of any election law, shall be forever 
disqualified from holding- an office of trust or profit 
in this commonwealth: and any person convicted 
of wilful violation of the election laws shall, in 
addition to any penalties provided by law, be de- 
prived of the right of suffrage absolutely for a 
term of four years. 

Sec. 10. In trials of contested elections and 
in proceedings for the investigation of elections, 
no person shall be permitted to withhold his testi- 
mony upon the ground that it may criminate him- 
self or subject him to public infamy; but such tes- 
timony shall not afterwards be used against him 
in any judicial proceeding except for perjury in 
giving such testimony. 

Sec. 11. Townships and wards of cities or 
boroughs shall form or be divided into election 
districts of compact and contiguous territory, in 
such manner as the court of quarter sessions of 
the city or county in which the same are located 
may direct; but districts in cities of over one hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants shall be divided by the 
courts of quarter sessions, having jurisdiction 
therein, whenever at the next preceding election 
more than two hundred and fifty votes shall have 
been polled therein; and other election districts 
whenever the court of the proper county shall be 
of opinion that the convenience of the electors and 
public interests will be promoted thereby. 

Sec. 12. All elections by persons in a repre- 
sentative capacity shall be cira kxy. 

Sec. 13. For the purpose of voting no person 
shall be deemed to have gained a residence by 
reason of his presence, or lost it by reason of his 
absence, while employed in the service, either 
civil or military, of this State or the United 
States, nor while engaged in the navigation of the 
waters of the State or of the United States, or on 
the high seas, nor while a student of any institu- 
tion of learning, nor while kept in any poorhouse 
or other asylum at public expense, nor while con- 
fined in public prison. 

Sec. 14. District election boards shall consist 
of a judge and two inspectors, who shall be chosen 
annually by the citizens. Each elector shall have 
the right to vote for the judge and one inspector, 
and each inspector shall appoint one clerk. The 
first election board for any new district shall be 
selected, and vacancies in election boards filled 
as shall be provided by law. Election officers 
shall be privileged from arrest upon days of elec- 
tion, and while making up and transmitting re- 
turns, except upon warrant of court of record, or 
judge thereof, for an election fraud, for felony, or 
for wanton breach of the peace. In cities they 
may claim exemption from jury duty during their 
terms of service. 

Sec. 15. No person shall be qualified to serve 
as an election officer who shall hold, or shall 
within two months have held, an office, appoint- 
ment or employment in or under the government 
of the United States or of this State, or of any 
city or county, or of anj- municipal board, com- 
mission or trust in any city, save only justices of 
the peace and aldermen, notaries public, and per- 

sons in the militia service of the State; nor shall 
any election officer be eligible to any civil office 
to be filled at an election at which he shall serve, 
save only to such subordinate, municipal or local 
offices, below the grade of city or county offices. 
as shall be designated by general law. 

Sec. 16. The courts of common pleas of the 
several counties of the commonwealth shall have 
power, within their respective jurisdictions, to ap- 
point overseers of elections, to supervise the pro- 
ceedings of election officers, and to make report 
to the court as may be required; such appoint- 
ments to be made for any district in a city or 
county, upon petition of five citizens, lawful vot- 
ers of such election districts, setting forth that 
such appointment is a reasonable precaution to 
secure the purity and fairness of elections; over- 
seers shall be two in number for an election dis- 
trict, shall be residents therein, and shall be per- 
sons qualified to serve upon election boards, and 
in each case members of different political par- 
ties. Whenever the members of an election board 
shall differ in opinion, the overseers, if they shall 
be agreed thereon, shall decide the question of 
difference; in appointing overseers of election, all 
the law judges of the proper court, able to act at 
the time, shall concur in the appointments made. 

Sec. 17. The trial and determination of con- 
tested elections of electors of President and Vice 
President, members of the general assembly, and 
of all public officers, whether State, judicial, 
municipal or local, shall be, by the courts of law, 
or by one or more of the law judges thereof; the 
general assembly shall, by general law, designate 
the courts and judges by whom the several classes 
of election contests shall be tried, and regulate 
the manner of trial, and all matters incident 
thereto; but no such law assigning jurisdiction, or 
regulating its exercise, shall apply to any contest 
arising out of an election held before its passage. 


Sec. 1. All taxes shall be uniform, upon the 
same class of subjects, within the territorial lim- 
its of the authority levying the tax. and shall be 
levied and collected under general laws; but the 
general assembly may, by general laws, exempt 
from taxation public property used for public pur- 
poses, actual places of religious worship, places of 
burial not used or held for private or corporate 
profit, and institutions of a purely public charity. 

Sec. 2. All laws exempting property from 
taxation, other than the property above enumer- 
ated, shall be void. 

Sec. 3. The power to tax corporations and 
corporate property shall not be surrendered or sus- 
pended by any contract or grant to which the 
State shall be a party. 

Sec. 4. No debt shall be created by or on be- 
half of the State, except to supply casual de- 
ficiencies of revenue, repel invasions, suppress in- 
surrection, defend the State in war, or to pay 
existing debt; and the debt created to supply de- 
ficiencies in revenue shall never exceed, in the 


ag-greg^ate at any one time, one million of dollars. 

Sec. 5. All laws authorizing the borrowing 
of money by and on behalf of the State shall 
specify the purpose for which the money is to be 
used, and the money so borrowed shall be used for 
the purpose specified, and no other. 

Sec. 6. The credit of the commonwealth shall 
not be pledged or loaned to any individual, com- 
pany, corporation or association, nor shall the 
commonwealth become a joint-owner or stock- 
holder in any company, association or corporation. 

Sec. 7. The general assembly shall not au- 
thorize any county, city, borough, township or in- 
corporated district to become a stockholder in any 
company, association or corporation, or to obtain 
or appropriate money for, or to loan its credit to, 
any corporation, association, institution or indi- 

Sec. 8. The debt of any county, city, bor- 
ough, township, school district or other munici- 
pality or incorporated district, except as herein 
provided, shall never exceed seven per centum up- 
on the assessed value of the taxable property 
therein, nor shall any such municipalitj' or district 
incur any new debt, or increase its indebtedness 
to an amount exceeding two per centum upon 
such assessed valuation of property, without the 
assent of the electors thereof at a public election 
in such manner as shall be provided by law; but 
any city, the debt of which now exxeeds seven 
per centum of such assessed valuation, may be 
authorized by law to increase the same three per 
centum, in the aggregate at any one time, upon 
such valuation. 

Sec. 9. The commonwealth shall not assume 
the debt, or any part thereof, of any city, county, 
borough or township, unless such debt shall have 
been contracted to enable the State to repel inva- 
sion, suppress domestic insurrection, defend itself 
in time of war, or to assist the State in the dis- 
charge of any portion of its present indebtedness. 

Sec. 10. Any county, township, school dis- 
trict or other municipality, incurring any indebt- 
edness, shall, at or before the time of so doing, 
provide for the collection of an annual tax, suffi- 
cient to pay the interest, and also the principal 
thereof within thirty years. 

Sec. 11. To provide for the payment of the 
present State debt, and any additional debt con- 
tracted as aforesaid, the general assembly shall 
continue and maintain the sinking fund sufficient 
to pay the accruing interest on such debt, and 
annually to reduce the principal thereof by a sum 
not less than two hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars; the said sinking fund shall consist of the 
proceeds of the sales of the public works, or any part 
thereof, and of the income or proceeds of the sale of 
any stocks owned by the commonwealth, together 
with other funds and resources that may be des- 
ignated by law, and shall be increased from time 
to time by assigning to it any part of the taxes, or 
other revenues of the State, not required for the 
ordinary and current expenses of government; 
and unless in case of war, invasion or insurrection, 
no part of the said sinking fund shall be used or 
applied otherwise than in the extinguishment of 
the public debt. 

Sec. 12. The moneys of the State, over and 
above the necessary reserve, shall be used in the 
payment of the debt of the State, either directly 
or through the sinking fund, and the moneys of 
the sinking fund shall never be invested in or 
loaned upon the security of anything, except the 
bonds of the United States, or of this State. 

Sec. 13. The moneys held as necessary re- 
serve shall be limited by law to the amount requir- 
ed for current expenses, and shall be secured and 
kept as may be provided by law. Monthly state- 
ments shall be published, showing the amount of 
such moneys, where the same are deposited and 
how secured. 

Sec. 14. The making of profit out of the pub- 
lic moneys, or using the same for any purpose not 
authorized by the law, by an officer of the State, 
or member or officer of the general assembl.v, shall 
be a misdemeanor, and shall be punished as may 
be provided by law; but part of such punishment 
shall be disqualification to hold office for a period 
or not less than five years. 



Sec. 1. The general assembly shall provide 
for the maintenance and support of a thorough and 
efficient system of public schools, wherein all the 
children of this commonwealth, above the age of 
six years, may be educated, and shall appropriate 
at least one million dollars each year for that 

i purpose. 

' Sec. 2. No money raised for the support of 

the public schools of the commonwealth, shall be 
appropriated to, or used for, the support of an)' 
sectarian school. 

Sec. 3. Women twenty-one years of age and 
upwards shall be eligible to an)' office of control or 
management under the school law of this State. 



Sec. 1. The freemen of this commonwealth 
shall be armed, organized and disciplined for its 
defense, when, and in such manner as may be di- 
rected by law. The general assembly shall pro- 
vide for maintaining the militia, by appropriations 
from the treasury of the commonwealth, and may 
exempt from military service persons having con- 
scientious scruples against bearing arms. 


public officers. 

Sec. 1. All officers whose selection is not 
provided for in this constitution, shall be elected 
or appointed, as may be directed by law. 

Sec. 2. No member of congress from this 
State, nor any person holding or exercising any 
office or appointment of trust or profit under the 
United States, shall at the same time hold or exer- 
cise any office in this State to which a salary. 






fees or perquisites shall be attached. The g-eneral 
assembly may by law declare what offices are 

Sec. 3. Any person who shall fight a duel, or 
send a challenge for that purpose, or be aider or 
abettor in fighting- a duel, shall be deprived of the 
right of holding any office of honor or profit in 
this State, and may be otherwise punished as shall 
be prescribed by law. 



Sec. 1. No new county shall be established 
which shall reduce any county to less than four 
hundred square miles, or to less than twenty thou- 
sand inhabitants, nor shall any county be formed 
of less area, or containing less population; nor 
shall any line thereof pass within ten miles of the 
county seat of any county proposed to be divided. 



Sec. 1. County officers shall consist of sherifl^s, 
coroners, prothonotaries, registers of wills, recorders 
of deeds, commissioners, treasurers, surveyors, 
auditors and controller.-, clerks of the courts, dis- 
trict attorneys, or such others as may from time 
to time be established by law; and no sheriff or 
treasurer shall be eligible for the term next suc- 
ceeding the one for which he may be elected. 

Sec. 2. County officers shall be elected at the 
general elections, and shall hold their offices for 
the term of three years, beginning on the first 
Monday of January next after their election, and 
until their successors shall be duly qualified: all 
vacancies not otherwise provided for shall be filled 
in such manner as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 3. No person shall be appointed to any 
office within any county, who shall not have been 
a citizen and an inhabitant therein one year next 
before his appointment, if the county shall have 
been so long erected, but if it shall not have been 
so long erected, then within the limits of the coun- 
ty or counties out of which it shall have been 

Sec. 4. Prothonotaries, clerks of the courts, 
recorders of deeds, registers of wills, county sur- 
veyors, and sheriffs, shall keep their offices in the 
county town, of the county in which they respect- 
ively shall be officers. 

Sec. 5. The compensation of officers shall be 
regulated by law, and all county officers who are 
or may be salaried shall pay all fees which they 
may be authorized to receive, into the treasury of 
the county or State, as may be directed by law. In 
counties containing over one hundred and fifty 
thousand inhabitants all county officers shall be 
paid by salary, and the salary of any such officer 
and his clerks, heretofore paid by fees, shall not ex- 
ceed the aggregate amount of fees earned during 
his term and collected by or for him. 

Sec. 6. The general assembly shall provide 
by law for the strict accountability of all county, 

township and borough officers, as well as for the 
fees which may be collected by them, as for all 
public or municipal moneys which may be paid to 

Sec. 7. Three county commissioners and 
three county auditors shall be elected in each 
county where such officers are chosen, in the year 
one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five and 
every third year thereafter; and in the election of 
said officers each qualified elector shall vote for no 
more than two persons, and the three persons hav- 
ing the highest number of votes shall be elected; 
any casual vacancy in the office of county com- 
missioner or county auditor shall be filled by the 
court of common pleas of the county in which 
such vacancy shall occur, by the appointment of 
an elector of the proper county who shall have 
voted for the commissioner or auditor whose place 
is to be filled. 



Sec. 1. Cities may be chartered whenever a 

majority of the electors of any town or borough 

having a population of at least ten thousand shall 

vote at any general election in favor of the same. 

Sec. 2. Nodebt shall be contracted or liability 

i incurred by any municipal commission, except in 

j pursuance of an appropriation previouslv made 

therefor by the municipal government. 

Sec. 3. Every city shall create a sinking fund, 
[ which shall be inviolably pledged for the payment 
of its funded debt. 



! Sec. 1. All existing charters or grants of 

special or exclusive privileges, under which a bona 
fide organization shall not have taken place and 
business been commenced in good faith, at the 
time of the adoption of this constitution, shall 
thereafter have no validity. 

Sec. 2. The general assembly shall not remit 
the forfeiture of the charter of any corporation 
now existing, or alter or amend the same, or pass 
any other general or special law for the benefit of 
such corporation, except upon the condition that 
such corporation shall thereafter hold its charter 
subject to the provisions of this constitution. 

Sec. 3. The exercise of the right of eminent 
domain shall never be abridged or so construed as 
to prevent the general assembly from taking the 
property and franchises of incorporated com- 
panies, and subjecting them to public use, the 
same as the property of individuals; and the exer- 
cise of the police power of the State shall never be 
abridged or so construed as to permit corporations 
to conduct their business in such manner as to 
infringe the equal rights of individuals or the 
general wellbeing of the State. 

Sec. 4. In all elections for directors or man- 
agers of a corporation, each member or share- 
holder may cast the whole number of bis votes for 



one candidate, or distribute them upon two or 
more candidates, as he may prefer. 

Sec. 5. No foreign corporation shall do any 
business in this State without having one or more 
known places of business and an authorized agent 
or agents in the same upon whom process maj' be 

Sec. 6. No corporation shall engage in any 
business other than that expressly authorized in 
its charter, nor shall it take or hold any real 
estate except such as may be necessary and proper 
for its legitimate business. 

Sec. 7. No corporation shall issue stocks or 
bonds except for money, labor done, or money or 
property actually received, and all fictitious in- 
crease of stock or indebtedness shall be void. The 
stock and indebtedness of corporations shall not 
be increased except in pursuance of general law, 
nor without the consent of the persons holding the 
larger amount in value of the stock first obtained 
at a meeting to be held after sixty days' notice 
given in pursuance of law. 

Sec. 8. Municipal and other corporations and 
individuals invested with the privilege of taking 
private property for public use shall make just 
compensation for property taken, injured or de- 
stroyed by the construction or enlargement of 
their works, highways or improvements, which 
compensation shall be paid or secured before such 
taking, injury or destruction. The general as- 
sembly is hereby prohibited from depriving any 
person of an appeal from any preliminary assess- 
ment of damages against any such corporations 
or individuals made by viewers or otherwise; and 
the amount of such damages in all cases of appeal 
shall, on the demand of either party, be deter- 
mined by a jury, according to the course of the 
common law. 

Sec. 9. Every banking law shall provide for 
the registry and countersigning, by an officer of 
the State, of all notes or bills designed for circu- 
lation, and that ample security to the full amount 
thereof shall be deposited with the Auditor 
General for the redemption of such notes or bills. 
. Sec. 10. The general assembly shall have the 
power to alter, revoke or annul any charter of in- 
corporation now existing and revocable at the 
adoption of this constitution, or any that may 
hereafter be created, whenever, in their opinion, 
it may be injurious to the citizens of this common- 
wealth, in such manner, however, that no injust- 
ice shall be done to the corporators. No law here- 
after enacted shall create, renew or extend the 
charter of more than one corporation. 

Sec. 11. No corporate body to possess bank- 
ing and discounting privileges shall be created or 
organized in pursuance of any law without three 
months' previous public notice, at the place of the 
intended location, of the intention to apply for 
such privileges, in such manner as shall be pre- 
scribed by law, nor shall a charter for such priv- 
ilege be granted for a longer period than twenty 

Sec. 12. Any association or corporation, or- 
ganized for the purpose, or any individual, shall 
have the right to construct and maintain lines of 
telegraph within this State, and to connect the 

same with other lines, and the general assembly 
shall, by general law of uniform operation, provide 
reasonable regulations to give full effect to this 
section. No telegraph company shall consolidate 
with, or hold a controlling interest in, the stock or 
bonds of any other telegraph company owning a 
competing line, or acquire, by purchase or other- 
wise, any other competing line of telegraph. 

Sec. 13. The term "corporations," as used 
in this article, shall be construed to include all 
joint-stock companies or associations having any 
of the powers, or privileges of corporations, not 
possessed by individuals or partnerships. 




Sec. 1. All railroads and canals shall be pub- 
lic highways, and all railroad and canal companies 
shall be common carriers. Any association or 
corporation, organized for the purpose, shall have 
the right to construct and operate a railroad be- 
tween any points within this State, and to connect 
at the State line with railroads of other States. 
Every railroad company shall have the right with 
its road to intersect, connect with, or cross any- 
other railroad; and shall receive and transport 
each the other's passengers, tonnage and cars, 
loaded or empty, without delay or discrimination. 

Sec. 2. Every railroad or canal corporation 
organized in this State, shall maintain an office 
therein, where transfers of its stocks shall be 
made, and where its books shall be kept for in- 
spection by any stockholder or creditor of such 
corporation, in which shall be recorded the 
amount of capital stock subscribed or paid in, and 
by whom, the names of the owners of its stock, 
and the amounts owned by them, respectively, the 
transfers of said stock, and the names and places 
of residence of its officers. 

Sec. 3. All individuals, associations and cor- 
porations shall have equal right to have persons 
and property transported over railroads and 
canals, and no undue or unreasonable discrimina- 
tion shall be made in charges for, or in facilities 
for, transportation of freight or passengers within 
this State, or coming from or going to any other 
State. Persons and property transported over 
any railroad, shall be delivered at any station, at 
charges not exceeding the charges for transporta- 
tion of persons and property of the same class, in 
the same direction, to any more distant station; 
but excursion and commutation tickets maj' be 
issued at special rates. 

Sec. 4. No railroad, canal or other corpora- 
tion, or the lessees, purchasers or managers of 
any railroad or canal corporation, shall consoli- 
date the stock, property- or franchises of suc'n cor- 
poration with, or lease or purchase the works or 
franchises of, or in any way control any other 
railroad or canal corporation, owning, or having 
under its control, a parallel or competing line; 
nor shall any officer of such railroad or canal cor- 
poration act as an officer of any other railroad or 
canal corporation, owning, or having the control 
of a parallel or competing line; and the question 


whether railroads or canals are parallel or com- 
peting lines shall, when demanded by the party 
complainant, be decided by a jury as in other civil 

Sec. 5. No incorporated company doing- the 
business of a common carrier shall, directly or in- 
directly, prosecute or engage in mining or manu- 
facturing articles for transportation over its 
works; nor shall such company, directly or in- 
directly, engage in any other business than that 
of common carriers, or hold or acquire lands, free- 
hold or leasehold, directlj- or indirectly, except 
such as shall be necessary for carrying on its 
business; but any mining or manufacturing com- 
pany may carry the products of its mines and 
manufactories on its railroad or canal not exceed- 
ing fifty miles in length. 

Sec. 6. No president, director, officer, agent 
or employe of any railroad or canal company shall 
be interested, directly or indirectly, in the furnish- 
ing of material or supplies to such company, or in 
the business of transportation as a common car- 
rier of freight or passengers over the works 
owned, leased, controlled or worked by such com- 

Sec. 7. No discrimination in charges or facil- 
ities for transportation shall be made between 
transportation companies and individuals, or in 
favor of either, by abatement, drawback, or 
otherwise, and no railroad or canal company, or 
an3' lessee, manager, or employe thereof, shall 
make any preferences in furnishing cars or 
motive power. 

Sec. 8. No railroad, railway or other trans- 
portation company shall grant free passes, or 
passes at a discount, to any person except officers 
or employes of the company-. 

Sec. 9. No street passenger railway shall be 
constructed within the limits of any city borough 
or township without the consent of its local au- 

Sec. 10. No railroad, canal or other trans- 
portation company, in existence at the time of the 
adoption of this article, shall have the benefit of 
any future legislation by general or special laws, 
except on condition of complete acceptance of 
all the provisions of this article. 

Sec. 11. The existing powers and duties of 
the Auditor General in regard to railroads, canals 
and other transportation companies, except as to 
their accounts, are hereb3' transferred to the 
Secretary of Internal Affairs, who shall have a 
general supervision over them, subject to such 
regulations and alterations as shall be provided by 
law; and in addition to the annual reports now re- 
quired to be made, said secretary may require 
special reports at any time upon any subject relat- 
ing to the business of said companies from any 
officer or officers thereof. 

Sec. 12. The general assembly shall enforce, 
by appropriate legislation, the provisicms of this 



Sec. 1. Any amendment or amendments to 
this constitution may be proposed in the Senate or 

House of Representatives; and if the same shall 
: be agreed to by a majority of the members elected 
to each House, such proposed amendment or 
! amendments shall be entered on their journals 
1 with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and the 
j Secretary of the Commonwealth shall cause the 
; same to be published three months before the next 
general election, in at least two newspapers in 
every county in which such newspapers shall be 
j published, and if, in the general assembly next 
I afterwards chosen, such proposed amendment or 
J amendments shall be agreed to by a majority of 
I the members elected to each House, the Secretary 
of the Commonwealth shall cause the same again 
to be published in the manner aforesaid; and such 
proposed amendment or amendments shall be sub- 
mitted to the qualified electors of the State in such 
manner anu at such time, at least three months 
I after being so agreed to by the two Houses, as the 
general assembly shall prescribe; and, if such 
amendment or amendments shall be approved by 
a majority of those voting thereon, such amend- 
j ment or amendments shall become a part of the 
I constitution; but no amendment or amendments 
} shall be submitted oftener than once in five years. 
When two or more amendments shall be submitted 
they .shall be voted upon separately. 


That no inconvenience may arise from the 
changes in the constitution of the commonwealth, 
and in order to carr3' the same into complete 
operation, it is hereby declared that: 

Sec. 1. This constitution shall take effect on 
the first day of January, in the j-ear one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-four, for all purposes 
not otherwise provided for therein. 

Sec. 2. All laws in force in this common- 
wealth at the time of the adoption of this consti- 
tution not inconsistent therewith, and all rights, 
actions, prosecutions and contracts shall continue 
as if this constitution had not been adopted. 

Sec. 3. At the general election in the j-ears 
one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four and 
one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, 
senators shall be elected in all districts where 
there shall be vacancies. Those elected in the 
year one thousand eight hundred and sevent3'- 
four shall serve for two years, and those elected in 
the 3'ear one thousand eight hundred and sevent3'- 
five shall serve for one year. Senators now elect- 
ed and those whose terms are unexpired shall 
represent the districts in which they reside until 
the end of the terms for which they were elected. 

Sec. 4. At the general election in the 3-ear 
one thousand eight hundred and sevent3--six, sena- 
tors shall be elected from even numbered districts 
to serve for two 3'ears, and from odd numbered 
districts to serve four years. 

Sec. 5. The first election of Governor under 
this constitution shall be at the general election in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy- 
five, when a Governor shall be elected for three 
years; and the term of the Governor elected in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy- 
eight, and of those thereafter elected, shall be four 



years, according to the provisions of this con- 

Sec. 6. At the g-eneral election in the year 
one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four, a 
Lieutenant Governor shall be elected, according 
to the provisions of this constitution. 

Sec. 7. The Secretary of Internal Affairs 
shall be elected at the first general election after 
the adoption of this constitution; and when the 
said officer shall be duly elected and qualified, the 
office of Surveyor General shall be abolished. 
The Surveyor General in office at the time of the 
adoption of this constitution shall continue in of- 
fice until the expiration of the term for which he 
was elected. 

Sec. 8. When the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction shall be duly qualified, the office of 
superintendent of common schools shall cease. 

Sec. 9. Nothing contained in this constitution 
shall be construed to render any person now hold- 
ing any State office for a first official term inelig- 
ible for re-election at the end of such term. 

Sec. 10. The judges of the supreme court in 
office when this constitution shall take effect shall 
continue until their commissions severally expire. 
Two judges, in addition to the number now com- 
posing the said court, shall be elected at the first 
general election after the adoption of this consti- 

Sec. 11. All courts of record, and all existing 
courts which are not specified in this constitution, 
shall continue in existence until the first day of De- 
cember, in the yearone thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-five, without abridgment of their present 
jurisdiction, but no longer. The court of first 
criminal jurisdiction for the counties of Schuyl- 
kill, Lebanon and Dauphin, is hereby abolished, 
and all causes and proceedings pending therein in 
the county of Schuylkill shall be tried and dis- 
posed of in the courts of oyer and terminer and 
quarter sessions of the peace of said county. 

Sec. 12. The registers' courts now in exist- 
ence shall be abolished on the first day of Janu- 
ary next succeeding the adoption of this consti- 

Sec. 13. The general assembly shall, at the 
next session after the adoption of this constitu- 
tion, designate the several judicial districts, as re- 
quired by this constitution. The judges in com- 
mission when such designation shall be made shall 
continue during their unexpired terms judges of 
the new districts in which they reside; but, when 
there shall be two judges residing in the same dis- 
trict, the president judge shall elect to which dis- 
trict he shall be assigned, and the additional law 
judge shall be assigned to the other district. 

Sec. 14. The general assembly shall, at the 
next succeeding session after each decennial cen- 
sus, and not oftener, designate the several judicial 
districts, as required by this constitution. 

Sec. 15. Judges learned in the law of any 
court of record, holding commissions in force at 
the adoption of this constitution, shall hold their 
respective offices until the expiration of the terms 
for which they were commissioned, and until their 
successors shall be duly qualified. The Governor 
shall commission the president judge of the court 

of first criminal jurisdiction for the counties of 
Schuylkill, Lebanon and Dauphin as a judge of 
the court of common pleas of Schuylkill county, 
for the unexpired term of his office. 

Sec. 16. After the expiration of the term of 
any president judge of any court of common pleas 
in commission at the adoption of this constitution, 
the judge of such court learned in the law and old- 
est in commission shall be the president judge 
thereof: and when two or more judges are elected 
at the same time in any judicial district, they shall 
decide by lot which shall be president judge; but 
when the president judge of a court shall be re- 
elected he shall continue to be president judge of 
that court. Associate judges not learned in the 
law, elected after the adoption of this constitu- 
tion, shall be commissioned to hold their offices for 
the term of five years from the first day of Janu- 
ary next after their election. 

Sec. 17. The general assembly, at the first 
session after the adoption of this constitution, 
shall fix and determine the compensation of the 
judges of the supreme court and of the judges of 
the several judicial districts of the commonwealth; 
and the provisions of the thirteenth section of the 
article on legislation shall not be deemed incon- 
sistent herewith. Nothing contained in this con- 
stitution shall be held to reduce the compensation 
now paid to any law judge of this commonwealth 
now in commission. 

Sec. 18. The courts of common pleas in the 
counties of Philadelphia and Allegheny shall be 
composed of the present judges of the district 
court and court of common pleas of said counties 
until their offices shall severally end, and of such 
other judges as may from time to time be selected. 
For the purpose of first organization in Philadel- 
phia, the judges of the court number one shall be 
Judges Allison, Pierce and Paxson; of the court 
number two. Judges Hare, Mitchell and one other 
judge, to be elected; of the court number three. 
Judges Ludlow, Finletter and Lynd; and of the 
court number four. Judges Thayer, Briggs and 
one other judge, to be elected. The judge first 
named shall be the president judge of said courts 
respectively, and thereafter the president judge 
shall be the judge oldest in commission; but any 
president judge re-elected in the same court or dis- 
trict shall continue to be president judge thereof. 
The additional judges for courts numbers two and 
four shall be voted for and elected at the first 
general election after the adoption of this consti- 
tution, in the same manner as the two additional 
judges of the supreme court, and they shall decide 
by lot to which court they shall belong. Their 
term of office shall commence on the first Monday 
of January, in the year one thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy-five. 

Sec. 19. In the county of Allegheny, for the 
I purpose of first organization under this constitu- 
I tion, the judges of the court of common pleas, at 
the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall 
be the judges of the court number one, and the 
judges of the district court, at the same date, shall 
be the judges of the common pleas number two. 
The president judges of the common pleas and 
district courts shall be president judge of said 


courts number one and two, respectively, until 
their otfices shall end; and thereafter the judge 
oldest in commission shall be president judge; but 
any president judge re-elected in the same court or 
district shall continue to be president judge there- 

Sec. 20. The organization of the courts of 
common pleas under this constitution for the coun- 
ties of Philadelphia and Allegheny shall take 
effect on the first Monday of January, one thou- 
sand eight hundred and seventy-five, and existing 
courts in said counties shall continue with their 
present powers and jurisdictions until that date, 
but no new suits shall be instituted in the courts 
of niKi piiiift, after the adoption of this constitution. 

Sec. 21. The causes and proceedings pending 
in the court of nisipriuti, court of common pleas and 
district court in Philadelphia, shal'. be tried and 
disposed of in the court of common pleas. The 
records and dockets of said courts shall be trans- 
ferred to the ijrothonotary's office of the said 

Sec. 22. The causes and proceedings pending 
in the court of common pleas in the county of 
Allegheny, shall be tried and disposed of in the 
court number one; and the causes and proceedings 
pending in the district courts shall be tried and 
disposed of in court number two. 

Sec. 23. The prothonotary of the court of 
common pleas of Philadelphia, shall be first ap- 
pointed by the judges of said court, on the first 
Monday of December, in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-five, and the present 
prothonotary of the district court, in said county, 
shall be the prothonotary of the said court of com- 
mon pleas until said date, when his commission 
shall expire; and the present clerk of the court of 
oyer and terminer and quarter sessions of the 
peace, in Philadelphia, shall be the clerk of such 
court until the expiration of his present commis- 
sion, on the first Monday of December, in the year 
one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five. 

Sec. 24. In cities containing over fifty thou- 
sand inhabitants, except Philadelphia, all alder- 
men in office at the time of the adoption of this 
constitution shall continue in office until the ex- 
piration of their commissions; and at the election 
for city and ward officers, in the year one thou- 
sand eight hundred and seventy-five, one alderman 
shall be elected in each ward, as provided in this 

Sec. 25. In Philadelphia, magistrates, in lieu 
of alderman, shall be chosen, as required in this 
constitution, at the election, in said city, for city 
and ward officers, in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-five; their term of office shall 
commence on the first Monday of April succeeding 

their election. The terms of office of aldermen, in 
said city, holding, or entitled to, commissions at 
the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall 
not be afi^ected thereby. 

Sec. 26. All persons in office in this common- 
wealth, at the time of the adoption of this constitu- 
tion, and at the first election under it, shall hold 
their respective offices until the term for which 
they have been elected or appointed shall expire, 
and until their successors shall be duly qualified, 
unless otherwise provided in this constitution. 

Sec. 27. The seventh article of this constitu- 
tion, prescribing an oath of office, shall take effect 
on and after the first day of January, one thou- 
sand eight hundred and seventy-five. 

Sec. 28. The terms of office of county com- 
missioners and county auditors, chosen prior to 
the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy- 
five, which shall not have expired before the first 
Monday of January, in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-six, shall expire on 
that day. 

Sec. 29. All State, county, city, ward, bor- 
ough and township officers, in office at the time of 
the adoption of this constitution, whose compensa- 
tion is not provided for by salaries alone, shall 
continue to receive the compensation allowed 
them by law until the expiration of their re- 
spective terms of office 

Sec. 30. All State and judicial officers hereto- 
fore elected*, sworn, affirmed, or in office when this 
co-.-istitution shall take effect, shall severally, with- 
in one month after such adoption, take and sub- 
scribe an oath or affirmation to support this con- 

Sec. 31. The general assembly, at its first 
session, or as soon as may be, after the adoption 
of this constitution, shall pass such laws as may 
be necessary to carry the same into full force and 

Sec. 32. The ordinance passed by this con- 
vention, entitled "An ordinance for submitting 
the amended Constitution of Pennsylvania to a 
vote of the electors thereof," shall be held to be 
valid for all the purposes thereof. 

Sec. 33. The words " county commissioners," 
wherever used in this constitution and in any or- 
dinance accompanying the same, shall be held to 
include the commissioners for the city of Phila- 

Adopted at Philadelphia, on the third day of 
November in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-three. 

Attest: D. L. Imbrie, President. 

Chief Clerk. 






I Skk Gkneral State History ; also Politicai, Record 
General History of Erie County. | 



Born in Philadelphia in 1744, of Quaker 
parentage. After receiving a college educa- 
tion, visited Europe. On his return engaged 
in mercantile pursuits. Elected to the Assem- 
bly in 1772, and to the Continental Congress 
in 1774. Served in the Revolutionary war, 
beginning as major and ending as major gen- 
eral. President of Congress in 1783; held 
numerous other official positions ; president of 
the State Constitutional Convention of 1790. 
Governor from 1790 to 1799. Died at Lan- 
caster January 21, 1800. His body is interred 
in the latter city. 


Born in Chester county in 17'34. Lineage, 
Scotch-Irish. Received an academic educa- 
tion and admitted to the bar. Member of the 
State Assembly from 17(52 to 1709, and of the 
Continental Congress from 1774 to 1783. 
Signer of the Declaration of Independence. 
President of Congress in 1781. Member of 
the Convention which framed the Articles of 
Confederation in 1778. Served in the Conti- 
nental army in 1776-7. President of the 
State of Delaware in 1777, and Governor of 
Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1808. Died in 
Philadelphia June 24, 1817. 


Born in Lancaster in 1759. Descent, Ger- 
man. Learned the trade of a tanner. Be- 
came a merchant at Selinsgrove in 1784. Held 
the position of justice of the peace for twelve 

years. Member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1790, and speaker of the House of 
Representatives of Pennsylvania for six suc- 
cessive terms. Chosen Governor in 1808 and 
served until 1817. Died November 9, 1819, 
while a member of the State Senate, and 
buried at Selinsgrove. 


Born in Franklin county in 1768. An- 
cestors, Scotch-Irish. Received a good Eng- 
lish education, but was unable to take a col- 
legiate course. Began life as a farmer. Was 
a Representative in the Legislature several 
terms, which position he resigned to take the 
office of State Treasurer. Held the latter 
place ten years. Elected Governor in 1817, 
and \J . S. .Senator in 1821. Treasurer of the 
U. S. Mint under President Jackson. Died 
at Harrisburg November 12, 1846. 


Born at Reading, of German descent, in 
1752. Captain and major in the War of the 
Revolution. ^Member of the Legislature a 
number of years; delegate to the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1790 ; and Representa- 
tive in Congress fifteen years. Elected Gov- 
ernor in 1820. Died June 10, 1832. 


Born at Tulpehocken, Berks county, in 
1775; son of a Lutheran clergyman. De- 
scent, German. Studied theology, ordained 
as a Lutheran minister, and pastor of congre- 
gations in Berks county six years. Entered 
the mercantile business. Served three years 
in the State House of Representatives. Pro- 
thonotary of Lebanon county eight years. 


Elected to the Legislature, both as a member 
of the House and Senate. Chosen Governor 
in 1823 and '2(3. Died in Lancaster Novem- 
ber 18. 1852. 

German by descent. Bora in Northamp- 
ton county in 1777. Received a classical edu- 
cation and studied law. Postmaster of Easton 
and clerk of the Orphans' Court of North- 
ampton county. Member of the Legislature. 
Congressman three terms. Governor from 
1829 to 1835. Inaugurated the common school 
.system. Comptroller of the U. S. Treasury [ 
in 1836, and Collector of the port of Phila'- 
delphia in 1838. Died in the latter citv 
March 11, 1840. 


Born of German lineage in Berks county 
in 1780. Received a very limited education. 
iSIoved to Washington county and elected to 
the Legislature ; served in the House six 
years, and Speaker of that body two years. 
Chosen Governor as the anti-Masonic candi- 
date in 1835. An ardent friend of the com- 
mon schools, and strongly opposed to slavery. 
Appointed Director of the Mint in 1848. 
Died in Cumberland county, which he had 
made his home, October 1(5, 18(50. 



Born near Norristown in 1788, of Scotch- 
Irish lineage. Received an academic educa- 
tion. Served as assistant to his father in the 
office of Surveyor-General. Moved to Hunt- 
ingdon county and became an iron manufac- 
turer. Member of the Assembly from 1819 to 
1821. Appointed prothonotary of Hunting- 
don county. State Senator two years. Elect- 
ed Governor in 1838 and 1841. Died at Harris- 
burg August 6, 1867. 


(jerman by descent. Born in Montgomerv 
county in 1788. Taught school when quite 
young. Appointed a clerk under Surveyor- 
General Porter. Admitted to practice law. 
First assistant and then chief clerk of the 
.State House of. Representatives. Secretary 

to the Board of Canal Commissioners. Secre- 
tary of the Commonwealth under Governor 
Porter. Located in Pittsburg as an attorney. 
Elected Governor in 1844, and re-elected in 
1847. Resigned on account of sickness July 
9, 1848, and died at Harrisburg on the 30th o"f 
the same month. 



Born in Greensburg in 1808, of Scotch- 
Irish ancestry. Admitted to the practice of 
law. Located in Armstrong county and ap- 
pointed district attorney. Served in the State 
House of Representatives several years, and 
elected to the State Senate in 1847. Chosen 
Speaker of the Senate, and became Governor 
by virtue of the Constitution, upon the resig- 
nation of Governor Sliunk, in July, 1848. 
Elected for the full term in the fall of the 
same year. Entered business life upon his 
retirement. Died in Pittsburg October 25, 



By descent, German. Born in Cumber- 
land county in 1814. Received a limited edu- 
cation. Learned the printing trade at Belle- 
fonte ; started a paper in Clearfield, which he 
sold in order to engage in the lumbering 
business. Became a member of the .State 
Senate, and elected Speaker of that body. 
Served as Governor from 1852 to 1855. Elect- 
ed U. S. Senator in 1855, and held the position 
six j'ears. Democratic nominee for Congres.s 
in the Erie district in 1864. Delegate to the 
Constitutional Convention of 1873, and act- 
ive in promoting the success of the Centen- 
nial Exposition of 1876. Died at Clearfield 
August 9, 1880. 


Born in Northumberland county, of Scotch- 
Irish ancestry, in 1810. Graduated from 
Princeton College. Admitted to the bar at 
Milton. Became district attorney, member 
of Congress for three terms, and Presi- 
dent Judge. Elected Governor in 1854. 
Director of the Mint in Philadelphia from 
1861 to 1866. and appointed to the same posi- 
tion in 1869. Died in Philadelphia April 19. 




Of English-Quaker descent. Born in 
Center county in 1807. Became a printer. 
Studied law. Edited papers at Williamsport 
and Harrisburg. Appointed Canal Commis- 
sioner in 1839, and Auditor General in 1842. 
Elected to the State House of Representatives 
in 1847 and '48 (being Speaker of the body 
the second year), and to the State Senate in 
1849. Chosen Governor in 1857, serving one 
term. Died in ^^'illiamsport September 27, 





Born in Bcllefonte, of Scotch-Irish stock, 
in 1817. Received a good education. Ad- 
mitted to the practice of law in his native 
town. Secretary of the Commonwealth and 
Superintendent of common schools from 1855 
to 1858. Elected Governor in 1860, and re- 
elected in 1863. Minister to Russia from 
1869 to 1872. Member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1873. Served three terms in 
Congress. Died in Bellefonte October 7, 1894. 


Of English and Scotch-Irish ancestry. 
Born in Westmoreland county in 1819. Be- 
came a civil engineer. Went to the Mexican 
war as lieutenant-colonel of the 2d Pa. 
Reg., and became its colonel. Going to 
San Francisco, became first mayor of the city. 
Returned to his farm in Westmoreland county. 
Appointed Governor of the Territory of 
Kansas in 1856. Served as a general during 
the war for the Union with great distinction. 
Elected Governor of Pennsylvania in 1867, 
and re-elected in 1870. Died in Harrisburg 
February 8, 1878. 


Born in Montgomery county, of German 
stock, in 1880. Received a college training. 
Admitted to the bar. Entered the war for 
the Union as a colonel, and rose to be a major 
general. Elected Auditor General in 1805 
and '68, and Governor in 1872 and '75. Ap- 
pointed U. S. Collector of the port of Phila- 
delphia, and Postmaster of that city. Died 
October 17. 1889, and buried at Norristown. 

F. Hartranft, second term- 
above. ] 


Born in Luzerne county, of New England 
parentage, June 8, 1880. Received a college 
education. Taught school several years. Ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1858. Enlisted in the 
war for the Union as a lieutenant colonel. 
Mustered out as a brevet brigadier general. 
Appointed additional law judge of Luzerne 
county in 1867. Chairman of the Republican 
State "Committee in 1875-6. Elected Gover- 
nor in 1878. While Governor "broke "with 
the .State Republican " machine," and wrote 
a scathing letter denouncing its methods. Re- 
sumed the practice of law in Wilkesbarre at 
the expiration of his term as Governor. Wrote 
a book in favor of the High Tariff system. 
Died in Wilkesbarre December 1, 1892. 



.Son of a Methodist Episcopal clergyman, 
of English descent. Born in Maryland in 
1850. Educated in the public schoolsof Phila- 
delphia, studied law, and admitted to prac- 
tice. Elected controller of Philadelphia in 
1877, and re-elected in 1880. Chosen Gov- 
ernor in 1882. Appointed by President Cleve- 
land one of the commission to investigate the 
affairs of the Pacific Railroad companies. Be- 
came president of a bank in Philadelphia. 
Elected Governor the second time in 1890. 
Taken up as the Reform candidate for mayor 
of Philadelphia on the expiration of his term 
as Governor in 1895, but defeated. Now 
( 1895) practicing law in the latter city. 


Born, of Huguenot descent, in Perry coun- 
ty, October 21, 1837. Passed through college. 
Commenced the practice of law at Bellefonte. 
Joined the local military company. At the 
outbreak of the war for the Union became 
lieutenant-colonel of a Pennsylvania regiment. 
Lost a leg in the war. Mustered out of the 
army as a brigadier general in December, 
186-1. Resumed his law practice at Belle- 
fonte. Took an active part in politics on the 
Republican side. Nominated for Governor in 
1882, and defeated through factional quarrels. 


N£;LS0N'S biogbapeical dictionaby 

Renominated in 1886, and elected. On the 
close of his term engaged largely in coal and 
manufacturing enterprises. In 1895 became 
a Judge of the Superior Court of the State. 
a" Presbyterian by religion, and has taken a 
leading part in the assemblages of that body. 
Living in Bellefonte. 


[See above. J 


Born of Scotch-Irish ancestry, in Clinton 
county, in 1849. Became a school teacher at 

15, and principal of Bellefonte academy in 
1867. Edited a paper in Bellefonte for three 
years. Admitted to the bar at the latter place 
in 1875. Engaged in the mining of coal. 
Enlisted in the National Guard of Pennsyl- 
vania and promoted to the colonelcy of the 
5th regiment. Appointed Adjutant General 
of the State in 1887. Took charge of the re- 
lief operations in Johnstown at the time of the 
great flood in 1889. Delegate to numerous 
State and National conventions ot his party. 
Active on the stump in 1888 and 1892. Elect- 
ed Governor in 1894 by the largest majority 
ever given in the State. Prominent in the 
councils of the M. E. Church. 



Descriptive and Historical. 



General Desckiption — Physical Geography, &c. 

extreme northwestern portion of Penn- 
sylvania, and is the only section of the 
State that borders on Lake Erie. It 
is bounded on the north by Lake Erie, 
on the east by Chautauqua county, New York, 
and Warren county, Pennsylvania, on the 
south by Crawford county, Pennsylvania, and 
on the west by Ashtabula county, Ohio. The 
length of the county along the lake is about 
forty-five miles, along the Chautauqua and 
Warren county lines thirty-six miles, along 
that of Crawford county forty-five miles, and 
along the Ohio line nine miles. It contains 
772 square miles, or about 500.U00 square 
acres. Its mean or center latitude is forty-two 
degrees north, and its longitude is three 
degrees west from Washington. 

The surface of the county is divided into 
five distinct sections, viz. : The Lake Shore 
plain, the series of dividing ridges, the valleys 
between the ridges, the valleys of French 
creek and its tributaries, and the high lands 
south of the last-named stream. 

Four separate ranges of hills extend across 
the county from east to west, known respect- 
ively as the First, Second, Third and Fourth 
ridges. The First ridge rises to a height of 
150 to 200 feet above Lake Erie, the Second 
to about 400, and the height of the Third and 
Fourth ridges varies from 600 to 1,200 feet, 
their most elevated summits being in the east- 
ern portion of McKean, the western portion of 
Waterford, the northern portion of Venango, 
the southern part of Greenfield, and in the 
vicinity of Corry. The separation of the 
ridges becomes more clearly defined along a 
line drawn through Harbor Creek, Mill Creek, 
Summit, Waterford and McKean townships 
than further east ; but from there westward 
each ridge is as distinct as though it belonged 

to a system of its own. As the Third and 
Fourth ridges extend westward they recede 
from the lake until they run into Crawford 


Three continuous valleys cross the county 
between the ridges, from the line above men- 
tioned, broken in places by slight elevations, 
and known in succession as the Mill Creek, 
the Walnut Creek and the Elk Creek valleys. 
These streams rise on the high ground of the 
Third and Fourth ridges, and, after flowing 
westward for some distance down their re- 
spective valleys, suddenly turn to the north 
and break through the First and Second ridges 
by a series of deep "gulfs" or gullies, which 
are a striking feature of the region. North of 
the First ridge, and between it and Lake Erie, 
is a broad alluvial tract, from two to three 
miles in width, which extends along the whole 
water front of the county. Its general height 
above the lake is from fifty to sixty feet, but 
in the eastern part of Harbor Creek township 
its elevation suddenly rises to nearly 100 feet 
and so continues almost to the New York 

South of the dividing ridges are the valleys 
of French creek and of the streams which 
empty into it, and still beyond are the hills 
which form the water-shed between that 
stream and Brokenstraw, Spring and Oil 
creeks. The water on the north side of the 
main ridge flows into Lake Erie, and on the 
south side to the Allegheny river. The 
dividing line between the waters is some eight 
miles south of Lake Erie in Greenfield and 
j Greene townships, twelve miles in Summit, 
! fourteen in Waterford, McKean and Wash- 
ington, and sixteen in Franklin and Elk Creek. 
Along French, Walnut, Elk, Conneaut, Mill, 



Big Conneauttee, Little Conneauttee and Le- 
Boeuf creeks, Hatch Hollow Alder run, 
Beaver Dam run, and the outlet of Lake 
Pleasant are very handsome valleys, from a 
quarter of a mile to more than a mile in 


The State Geological Report gives the fol- 
lowing as the elevation above tide-water of 
the points named : Surface of Lake Erie, 
573 7-10 feet; Philadelphia and Erie R. R. 
summit between Walnut and LeBoeuf Creeks, 
1,229 ; hill tops on each side of the same sum- 
mit, 1,355; hill tops in western Waterford 
and eastern McKean, 1,470; Philadelphia & 
Erie Railroad station at Union City, 1,270; | 
hill tops southwest of Union City, 1,301 ; rail- 
road station at Corry, 1,431 ; hill tops, east of | 
Corry, 1,500; hill tops south of Corry, 1,725 ; j 
hill tops along the Little Conneauttee, 1,196; 
hill tops southwest of Edinboro, 1,400. 

The same report gives the following as the 
barometric elevations above Lake Erie : 


Corry (depot) 854 

Union City (P. & E. depot) 728 

North East (L. S. & M. S. R. R.) 231 

Moorheads (L. S. & M. S. R. R.) 195 

Harbor Creek (L. S. & M. S. R. R.) 157 

WesleyviUe (L. S. & M. S. R. R.) 124 

Erie (L. S. & M. S. R. R.) 113 

Swanville (L. S. & M. S. R. R.) 152 

Fairview (L. S. & M. S. R. R.) 162 

Girard (L. S. & M. S. R. R.) 144 

Springfield (L. S. & M. S. R. R.) 90 

Concord Station (N. Y., P. & O. R. R.) 788 

Union City (N. Y., P. & O. R. R.) 738 

Mill Villajfe Station (N. Y. , P. & O. R. R.) 643 

Beaver Dam.. 862 

Eagle Hotel, Waterford 612 

Cross Roads at Cranesville 382 

Girard Junction (E. & P- R. R.) 124 

Crosses (E. & P. R. R.) 192 

Albion (E. & P. R. R.) 284 

Belle Valley (Phila. & E. R. R.) 434 

Langdon's (Phila & E. R. R.) 562 

Jackson'-s (Phila. & E. R. R.) 657 

Waterford (Phila. & E. R. R.) 620 

LeBoeuf (Phila. & E. R. R.) 644 

Loveirs (Phila. & E. R. R.) 791 

Cedar Ridge, Concord Township 1285 

Greenfield P. 852 

Wattsburg 752 

Cross Roads at Middleboro 497 

Franklin P. 667 


Jutting out from the mainland, in Mill 
Creek township, is the peninsula of Presque 

Isle, which forms the bay of Presque Isle, the 
harbor of the city of Erie. It is a low sand 
bank, washed up by the action of the waves, 
some six miles in length, and varying in width 
from a few rods to a mile and a half. Except 
at its head and foot, it is covered with trees 
and shrubs of almost every variety that grows 
in this latitude. The peninsula is indented 
with several shallow ponds, one or two of 
which run half way across. [For a fuller ac- 
count of the peninsula and the improvements 
for its protection see Chapter VI. ; also Erie 


In general, the Lake Shore plain has a 
sandy soil, while immediately south of it, 
along the First ridge, is a wide and continu- 
ous strip of gravel. The valleys between the 
ridges are a mixture of loam, clay and sand, 
making a mellow soil that is easy to work. 
On the high lands and slopes of the ridges the 
soil is mostly of a claj-ey nature, somewhat 
damp and cold. That of the vallej's of the 
French creek system is a rich alluvial de- 
posit corresponding in character to bottom 
lands the country over. 

The lands bordering on Lake Erie are 
generally regarded as the best in the county 
for grain and fruits. This favored section 
produces everything that is common to the 
north temperate zone. The lake moderates the 
climate so that it is less troubled by frosts 
than regions many miles south, and as fine 
melons, grapes, peaches, strawberries, etc., 
are raised as in any part of the State. A belt 
of swamp land about half a mile wide origi- 
nally extended along the Lake Shore plain, in 
an east and west direction, from Twelve-Mile 
creek to the Ohio boundary. Most of this 
has been drained, and is now fertile land. 
The valleys of the French creek system are 
all rich, but are subject to frosts, which pre- 
vent the successful culture of the more deli- 
cate fruits. On the high lands the frosts are 
less troublesome, but the nature of the soil 
adapts them best for grazing. Oft" of the lake 
shore the attention of the farmers is mainly 
given to dairying, which may be said to be 
the leading agricultural industry of the county. 
Aside from vv'heat, every kind of grain does 
well in all sections. That grain has of late 
years, however, been grown with consider- 
able success in various portions of the coun- 


ty south of the lake shore, and it is possible 
that in time it will be generally cultivated. 
The apple crop is everywhere sure and pro- 
lific. Large quantities of this fruit and of po- 
tatoes are annually shipped to the Southern 
and Eastern markets. 

The highest-priced farming lands are in 
the vicinitj' of Erie, Girard, North East, 
Fairview and Wate'-ford, and the lowest- 
priced in Greenfield, Elk Creek, Franklin and 


The climate is more moderate than woiild 
be thought from the high northern latitude. 
The county lies within the same isothermal 
lines as Philadelphia and Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania generally, but, while the average tem- 
perature corresponds with that section, there 
is less sultry weather in summer and more 
piercing wind in winter and spring. This is 
due to the proximity of Lake Erie, which, as 
stated above, has a wonderful effect upon the 
atmosphere. To the same influence is due the 
fact that spring sets in from one to two 
weeks earlier on the lake shore than in 
the southern part of the county. It some- 
times happens that good sleighing prevails in 
the southern townships when the ground is 
bare along the lake. The winters and sum- 
mers are about of equal length, but it is seldom 
that either are extreme. For six months in 
the year the county is as delightful a place of 
residence as the most fastidious could desire. 

A peculiarly of the county is the scarcity 
of stone, which is not sufficient in quantity 
for ordinary home use. The only quarries of 
much account are in Franklin, LeBopuf, Sum- 
mit and Waterford townships, and these do 
not consist of vast masses of rock, but are 
merely thin layers, one above the other, rang- 
ing from five to twenty feet in total thick- 
ness. The stone is hard, of good quality and 
easily worked, but is saturated with oil, which 
causes it to blemish after exposure. Small 
quarries exist in Fairview, Washington, Am- 
ity, Venango, McKean and Union, but are 
rarely worked to advantage. 

The first settlers found the country cover- 
ed with a dense forest, consisting mainly of 
pine, hemlock, chestnut, walnut, cherry, cu- 
cumber, beech and maple. Perhaps two-thirds 
of the land has been cleared, and but little 

good timber is left. The pine and hemlock of 
the French valley were largely rafted to Pitts- 
burgh. That of the lake shore was shipped 
to Cleveland, Buffalo and New York markets. 
The county does not furnish building mater- 
ial enough now for home use. 


No minerals of any kind have ever been 
found in the county, except small deposits of 
iron, of the grade known as bog ore, in Mill 
Creek and Elk Creek townships, and a few 
unimportant beds of marl in Waterford, 
Wayne and LeBoeuf. 

Mineral springs, the waters of which 
are of a medicinal character have been discover- 
ed in different localities. One in Elk Creek 
township and another in Erie, near the corner 
of Eighth and Chestnut streets, were once 
quite widely known. 

In early days a number of salt wells were 
put down at various points, and the manu- 
facture of salt was carried on to a considerable 
extent. The most valuable of these were 
along the East branch of Conneaut creek, 
near Wellsburg. A salt spring still flows in 
Springfield, and salt licks prevailed in almost 
every township. 

Many test wells for oil have been bored, 
nearly ever)- section having had from three to 
half a dozen experiments of that character. 
With scarcely an exception, a small yield of 
oil has resulted, but not enough to encourage 
the belief that it will be found in paying 
quantities. The Althof well in Erie produc- 
ed oil enough for several years to warrant the 
expense of pumping. The oil that has been 
secured is of the heavy kind used for lubricat- 
ing purposes. [See Erie City]. 

Natural gas is found almost everywhere 
by boring. The wells put down for oil have 
invariably yielded gas in a heavy volume, and 
it has been used in nimierous instances for 
light and fuel. In the course of time, the gas 
diminishes and the wells lose their value. 
[See Erie City]. 

Tamarack Swamp, in the northeast part 
of Waterford and the eastern part of McKean 
townships, is about two miles long by ICKI 
rods wide. Its waters flow into Lake Le- 
Bffiuf. Portions of the swamp have been 
drained, leaving a rich, black mold that is very 


County, Township, City and Borough Organizations — Post Offices — Boundary 
Line — Table of Distances from Erie, &c. 

PREVIOUS to the '24:th of September, 
1788, all of the State lying west of the 
Allegheny mountains was embraced 
in Westmoreland and Washington 
counties. On that date, the section 
north of the Ohio and west of the Alleghenj' 
to the Ohio line was set off as a new county, 
which was named after the latter river. Pitts- 
burgh was designated as its county seat. The 
population was sparse, and it was not until 
ten years later that a necessity arose in the 
Northwest for a separate organization. On 
the 4th of April, 1798, Erie township was 
erected with the identical limits of the present 

Erie, Butler, Beaver, Crawford, Mercer, 
Venango and Warren counties were created 
by an act of the Legislature approved March 
12, 1800, their seats of justice being named at 
the same time. Being unable to sustain a 
separate organization, five of these, Erie, 
Crawford, Mercer, Venango and Warren, 
were joined as one county for governmental 
purposes, with the general title of Crawford 
county, under the act of April 9, 1801. The 
county seat was at Meadville, and one set of 
county officers and one member of the Assem- 
bly served for the whole five. This relation 
continued until 1803. when the first county 
officers were elected in Erie county. 

original townships and formation of 

NEW ones. 

The townships originally established in 
Erie county were sixteen in number as follows : 
Brokenstraw, Beaver Dam, " Coniaute," 
" Conniat," Elk Creek, Fairview, Greenfield, 
Harbor Creek, " LeBoeuff," Mill Creek, Mc- 
Kean, North East, Springfield, Union, Ve- 
nango and Waterford. 

The following townships have been added, 
making twenty-one in all : Amity, Franklin, 

Girard, .Summit, Wayne. 

The name of Brokenstraw was changed to 
Concord in 1821. 

Amity was taken from Union in 1826. 

Wayne was formed out of Concord in 1826. 

Girard was set off from Elk Creek, Fair- 
view and Springfield in 1832. 

The name of " Coniaute '' was changed to 
Washington in 1884. 

That of Beaver Dam was changed to 
Greene in 1840. 

Franklin was created out of parts of Wash- 
ington, McKean and Elk Creek in 1844. 

Summit was formed out of Greene, Water- 
ford and McKean in 1854. 


The cities and boroughs are as follows : 

Cities. — Erie and Corry, 2. 

Boroughs. — Albion, East Springfield, Ed- 
inboro, Elgin, Fairview, Girard, Lockport, 
Middleboro, Mill Village, North East, Union 
City, Wattsburg and Waterford, 13. 

Erie was incorporated as a borough in 1805, 
having previously formed a part of Mill Creek 
township; divided into two wards in 1840; 
granted a city charter in 1851 ; and divided 
into four wards in 1858. South Erie was set 
off from Mill Creek township and incorpora- 
ted as a borough in 1866; consolidated with 
the city in 1870, and became the Fifth and 
Si.xth wards, some additions having been 
made from Mill Creek township. 

The following shows the years in which 
the several boroughs were incorporated : 
Waterford, 1833; Wattsburg, 1834; North 
East, 1884; Edinboro, 1840; Girard, 1846; 
Albion, 1861 ; Middleboro, 1861 ; Union Mills, 
1863; Fairview, 1808; Mill Village, 1870; 
Lockport, 1870; Elgin, 1876; East Spring- 
field, 1887.- 

Corry was established as a borough in 



1863, and granted a city charter in 1866. It 
is divided into the First, Second, Third and 
Fourth wards. 

The name of Union Mills borough was 
changed to Union Cit}- July 4, 1871. 


The election districts of the county, with 
the changes from time to time, are shown in 
the tables of the Presidential vote, as given in 
the chapter devoted to political subjects. 


The following are the post oifices in the 
county, with the townships in which those 
outside of the cities and boroughs are located : 

Albion (borough) ; Arbuckle, Amity 
township; Avonia (Fairview Station), Fair- 
view township; Belle Valley, Mill, Creek town- 
ship; Boscobel (Six-Mile Creek), Greene 
township; Cherry Hill, Conneaut township; 
Clipper, Greene township; Corry (city); 
Cranesville, Elk Creek township; Delhil, 
Greenfield township; East Gieene, Greene 
township; East Sprmgfield (borough) ; Edin- 
boro (borough) ; Elgin (borough) ; Erie (city) ; 
Fairplain, Girard township; Fairview (bor- 
ough) ; Ferdinand, Union township; Francis, 
Girard township ; Franklin Corners, Franklin 
township; Girard (borough); Godard, Summit 
township; Greenfield, Greenfield township; 
Hamot, Greene township; Harbor Creek. Har- 
bor Creek township; Hatch Hollow, Amity 
township; Hornby, Greenfield township; Itley 
(Draketown) , Washington township ; Ivarea, 
Franklin township; Juva, Waterford lown- 
ship ; Katan (Carter Hill), Wayne town- 
ship; Kearsarge, Mill Creek township; 
Keepville, Conneaut township ; Lake Pleas- 
ant (Mill Town), Venango township; Lav- 
ery. Elk Creek township; LeBtcuf, LeBoeuf 
township; Little Elk, Elk Creek township; 
Lovell's Station, Concord township; Low- 
ville, Venango township ; Lundy's Lane 
(Wellsburg), Elk Creek township; McKean 
(Middleboro); McLallen's Corners, Washing- 
ton township; McLane, Washington town- 
ship; Miles Grove (Girard Station), Girard 
township; Mill Village (borough); Moorhead- 
ville. Harbor Creek township ; Mystic, Le- 
BcEuf township ; Nasby, Greenfield township ; 
North East (borough) ; North Springfield, 
Springfield township ; Northville, North East 

township; Ovid (Beaver Dam), Wayne 
township; Pennside, Conneaut township; 
Phillipsville, Venango township ; Platea 
(Lockpon borough) ; Pont, Elk Creek town- 
ship ; Sibleyville, McKean township (near 
Waterford line) ; Sterrettania, McKean town- 
ship ; Swanville, Fairview township ; Teller, 
Amity township ; Tracy, Conneaut township ; 
Union City (borough); Wannetta (Albion 
depot), Conneaut township ; Waterford (bor- 
ough); Wattsburg (borough); Wesleyville, 
Harbor Creek township ; West Greene, Greene 
township ; West Mill Creek, Mill Creek town- 
ship ; West Springfield, Springfield township ; 
Wheelock, Wayne township. 

Erie, Corry, North East and Union City 
are "Presidential ofiices," their incumbents 
being appointed by the President and subject 
to confirmation by the Senate. 

The following are money order offices : 
Albion, Corry, Edinboro, Erie, Fairview, 
Girard, Harbor Creek, Lundy's Lane, Mill Vil- 
lage, Miles Grove, North East, Northville, 
North Springfield, Platea, Union City, Water- 
ford, Wattsburg, West Springfield. 

Erie is the only letter carrier office. 


The boundary line between Erie and Craw- 
ford counties was long a subject of dispute. 
To settle the question, the Legislature passed 
an act at the session of 1849-50, providing for 
three commissioners to run a new line, who 
were given full power to act, and whose deci- 
sion should be final. In 1850, Humphrey A. 
Hills, then of Albion, was appointed commis- 
sioner for Erie county ; Andrew Ryan was 
appointed for Crawford, and they two named 
H. P. Kinnear, of Warren, as the third mem- 
ber. Wilson King was chosen surveyor on 
the part of Erie, and Mr. Jagger on that of 
Crawford; but David Wilson, as deputj' for 
Mr. King, did most of the work. A perfectly 
straight line was run from east to west, and 
marked by stones set two miles apart. The 
commission added a long, narrow strip of 
territory to Erie county, which is usually 
outlined upon the county and township maps. 
A number of persons found themselves in Erie 
who had supposed they were citizens of Craw- 
ford, and a less number in Crawford who had 
imagined they belonged to Erie. 








The distances from Erie, as adopted by the 

Lockport (Platea P. O.) 







county commissioners May 1, 1882 

and fol- 

lowed in computing the pay of ju 

rors, vvit- 


nesses, etc., are here given : 

LeBceut Station 


McLallen's Corners 









Belle Valley 


Middleboro (McKean P. O.) 




Miles Grove 


Beaver Dam 


Milltown (Lake Pleasant P. O.) 


Cherry Hill 


Mill Village 




North East 









. .28 





East Spring^field 






St. Boniface (Hamot P. O.) 




Union City 


Franklin Center (FrankHn Corners P. O.) 17 

West Greene 




West Springfield 





Wellsburg- (Lundy's Lane P. O.) 


Hatch Hollow 









Population 1800 to 1890, Inclusive — Acreage ok the Several Townships — Taxa- 
BLEs — Valuations and Taxes for 1895 — County Receipts and Expenses, &c. 

THE first census of the county was taken 
in 1800, and has been renewed every 
ten years under the auspices of the 
United States authorities. Up to 1840, 
the enumeration was made by one per- 
son for the whole county. In the latter year 
the county was cut up into two districts, and 
since then the number of enumerators has been 
regularly increased at each census. The coun- 
ty contained 1,468 inhabitants in 1800, and 
3,758 in 1810. Below is the result of the 
enumerations from 1820 to 1890, inclusive of 
both years : 









,;;J m: 


Concord |i)l - - 

- - - 1 2.* 

- , 1 .,1 

.( -I J 

1 '. 

i.'' ■] ■ '. 




-i 2W, 



1 4 

1 --■■-' l.rWi 

1 ^Hl 1,7* 



1 IJ- 

1 -'■' 

Total coiinty ... 


1 Wl 







^ adding a portion to Springfield 
of Albion Borougli in I8t;i. 
off in 18W. A slice taken 

I Glrard Borough Incorporated in IMtj, 

I to form Corr.v Bor- 
nade a cit.v in IStW. 
ivnsliip was known 

.sliip in ISffi. and an- 

5w Borough created 

,nd Lockport in ISrO. 

1.0 Known as Beaver Dam until 1S4U. A part of Summit taken 
If) Mil! ^'il!;l^'t' incorporated in 1870, after the census was 

(..I .\ |.,iTii.iii Mf Franklin cut off in 1844 and of Summit in 1854. 

Mi. 1^1. I...!-,! in,.ir|„.r,itcd in ISIil. 

;, -^..nih I- n. Ill, iH-iinratfrt asa borough in 1866. and added to 

ill' II ! , ' .. i.iin r >,]ic'ewas taken from the township. 

I: I ' Mill Creek contained a population of 

\p ||"i ' I -: ,1 r I iilvrn otr in I83i. and of Conneant add- 

'il.i A'liiitv lak.ii I. tr 111 !■<:;,;. Union Borough In 1883. 

1)1 WaltHhurL' i]irni-|i,nMtcd in 1S;M. 

i;;ii W:itfrf()idlii.iuui.'li incorporated in 1833. A part of Sum- 

i/t) Known as ■ (\>ni;uit("" till Ift^. Edinboro incorporated In 
1S4U. A portion of Franklin cut off in 1841. 

('») A slice ctu off to form Corr.v Borough in 18(!3. and another 
in the creation of Corr.v Cit.v in l,«i. 

il>) Inclusive of East Springfield Borough. 


The following was the population of Erie 
Cit\ by wards in 1870, 1880 and 1890: 

1870. 1880. 1890. 

Fir t Ward 3,364 4,629 6,492 

^ec nd " 5,031 6,581 9,985 

n rd " 3,730 5,378 7,318 

I rth " 4,526 5,799 7,292 

I ftl " 1,497 2,348 4,360 

^ \tl - 1,498 3,000 5,187 

19,646 27,737 40,634 

Male. Female. Native ForeiKn. WhitcCol'd. 
Ward 3487 3 005 4812 1.680 6,413 79 

1" 5 134 4 861 6 948 2,987 9.978 7 

d " 3,693 3,625 5 723 1,595 7 306 12 

•■ 3607 3,685 5 819 1.473 7,144 148 

1 •' '2.287 2,073 3 080 1,280 4 357 3 

" 2,558 2,629 3 806 1,331 5 187 ,.. 

20 756 19.878 30.238 10.396 40,385 249 
1 olored colnmn embraces seven Chinese and one Japanese. 

I he following figures relating to Erie City 
iL from the U. S, census report for 1890: 

I'jrsons of votingage — Native born, 6,644; 
foreign born, 4,893; colored, 82. 

Deaths— Males, 421 ; females, 354 ; total, 

Dwellings, 7,168; families, 8,027; per- 
sons to a dwelling, 5.67 ; to a family, 5.06. 

Public school enrollment — Male teachers, 
9; female, 145; boy pupils, 2,700; girl, 
2,700; colored boys, 24; girls, 16. 


Debt— 1880, $1,148,729; per capita, 
$41.42; 1890,11,027,309; per capita, $21.54. 

Population— 1870— Native, 12,718; for- 
eign, (3,298. 1880— Native, 20,031 ; foreign, 


Tiie population of Corry by wards was as 
follows : 

1870. 1880. 1890. 

First Ward 3,559 2,758 957 

Second '• 3,250 2,519 1,357 

Third " 1,737 

Fourth " 1,626 

6,809 5,277 5,677 

The following are from the United States 
census reports relating to Corry : 

Population— 1870 — Native, 5,080 ; foreign, 
1,729. 1880— Native, 4,250; foreign, 1,012. 
1890— Native, 4,895 ; foreign, 782 ; male citi- 
zens, 2,736; female, 2,941; whites, 5,657; 
colored, 20. 

Debt— 1880, $65,148; per capita, $12.35. 
1890, $122,300; per capita, $21.54. 


The following figures, from the U. S. cen- 
sus reports, relate to Erie county in general : 




Puptiliititin. II 

White 49,251 65,584 74,345 

Colored 181 389 332 

Male 37,303 43,526 

Female 37,295 42,548 

Native-born... 40,758 52,699 61,543 71,196 

Foreig-n-born.. 8,674 13,274 13,145 14,878 

Persons of voting age in 189(1 — Natives, 
17,520; foreign, 7,094; colored, 114. 

Dwellings and families in 1890 — Dwell- 
ings, 17,668 ; families, 18,849 ; persons to a 
dwelling, 4.87 ; to a family, 4.57. 

General statistics for 1890 — Insane per- 
sons, 211; feeble-minded, 139; deaf, 156; 
deaf and dumb, 84; blind in one eye, 150; in 
both eyes, 66. 


Below were the receipts and expenses of 
Erie county for 1894, as shown by the state- 
ment of the county commissioners, approved 
by the county auditors, February 22, 1895 : 

Balance in treasury January 1, 1894 S 62,059 36 

Net avails county tax 74,063 78 

License fees under high license 11,571 60 

Unseated lands 440 85 

State tax 19,770 84 

Redemption monej' 212 10 

Commonwealth costs 398 59 

Outstanding- tax 835 09 

Maintenance at Warren Asylum 369 50 

Transferred from sheep fund 3,000 00 

All other receipts 204 12 

.?n2,925 83 


Publishing annual statement S ^'^Z ^^ 

Auditors' pay 707 88 

Appropriations to societies 300 00 

Assessments 3,.556 32 

Blanks, blank books, etc . . . 1,88!) 80 

Apprehension and punishment of crime. 21,936 17 

Court House expenses 6,096 26 

Commissioners' office 4,854 50 

County Treasurer 2,304 00 

Court expenses 17,853 81 

Election expenses 12,170 06 

Inquests _ 424 49 

Poor and insane 45,615 34 

Other expenses 2,.j02 84 

Balance in the treasury January 1, 1895. 52,507 36 

3;i72,92o 83 


Balance in the treasury 

January 1, 1894 $ 6,506 76 

Net available dog tax ... . 4,863 05 

Cash on dog tax 1 00 

Amount transferred to 

county fund 3,000 00 

Sheep warrants paid in 

1894 2,517 15 

Balance in the treasury 

January 1, 1895 5,853 66 

Sll,370 81 fll,370 81 


Balance in the treasury 

January 1, 1894 $ 2,222 00 

Amount on unseated lands 1,286 84 

Amount on unseated lands 

sold, not paid for 16 75 

School warrants paid in 

1894 1,940 64 

Balance in treasury Janu- 
ary 1, 1895 1,584 95 

$3,525 59 $3,525 59 


Balance in the treasury 
January 1, 1894 # 903 73 

Amount from unseated 

lands 533 64 

Amount from unseated 

lands sold, not paid for.. 2 37 

Road warrants paid in 

1894 134 23 

Balance in treasury Janu- 
ary 1, 1895 1,305 49 

$1,439 74 $1,439 74 




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The county rate of taxation has been as 
follows for twenty-six years : 


























*Since 1871 the rate has been based upon the 
assumed value of the property. 

The count}' is entirely- free from debt, and 
has been for a long period. 


Remains ok a Pue-Historic Race — Gulfs, Cascades axd Nati-ral Curiosities 

VARIOUS indications have been found 
in the county which lead to the con- 
clusion that it must have been peopled 
centuries ago by a different race from 
the Indians who were found here 
when it was first visited by white men. When 
the link of the Erie and Pittsburg R. R. 
from the Lake Shore road to the dock at Erie 
was in process of construction, the laborers 
dug into a great mass of bones at the crossing 
of the public road which joins the Lake road 
near vScott's Pioneer Farm. From the pro- 
miscuous way in which they were thrown to- 
gether, it is surmised that a terrible battle 
must have taken place in the vicinity at some 
day so far distant that not even a tradition of 
the event has been preserved. The skulls 
were flattened, and the foreheads were seldom 
more than an inch in width. The bodies were 
in a sitting posture, and there were no traces 
that garments, weapons or ornaments had 
been buried with them. 

At a later date, when the roadway of the 
Philadelphia and Erie R. R., where it passes 
through the Warfel farm, was being widened, 
another deposit of bones was dug up and 
ruthlessly disposed of. Among the skeletons 
was one of a giant, side by side with a smaller 
person, probably that of his wife. The arm 
and leg bones of this native American Go- 
liath were about one-half longer than those of 
the tallest man among the laborers ; the skull 

was immensely large ; the lower jawbone 
easily slipped over the face and whiskers of a 
full-faced man, and the teeth were in a per- 
fect state of preservation. 

Another skeleton was dug up in Conneaut 
township some years ago which was quite as 
remarkable in its dimensions. A comparison 
was made with the largest man in the neigh- 
borhood, and the jawbone readily covered his 
face, while the lower bone of the leg was 
nearly a foot longer than the one with which 
it was measured, indicating that the man 
must have been eight to ten feet in height. 
The bones of a flathead were turned up in 
the same township some two years ago with a 
skull of unusual size. Relics of a former time 
have been gathered in that section by the 
pailful, and among other curiosities a brass 
watch was found that was as big as a com- 
mon saucer. 

In preparing the bed for the ''Nickel 
Plate" railroad, near the bridge over Elk 
creek, in Girard township, numerous skele- 
tons were thrown up by the steam shovel and 
carelessly dumped to one side with as little 
respect as if they had been the bones of so 
many cattle. 

An ancient graveyard was discovered in 
1820 on the land now known as the Carter 
and Dickinson places in Erie. Dr. Albert 
Thayer dug up some of the bones, and all in- 
dicated a race of beings of immense size. 



No less curious are the pre-historic mounds 
and circles found in Wayne, Harbor Creek, 
Conneaut, Girard, Springfield, LeBocuf, Ve- 
nango and Fairview townships. The princi- 
pal one in Wayne township, which is still in 
a fair state of preservation, is near the road 
from Corry to Elgin, and but a short distance 
east of the springs which furnish water for 
the State fish-hatching establishment. It con- 
sists of a circle of raised earth, surrounded by 
a trench, from which the dirt was dug, the 
whole enclosing about three acres of unbroken 
ground. The embankment has been much 
flattened and reduced by the elements, but was 
still from one to two feet high and from three 
to four feet wide at the base some years 
ago. When the first settlers discovered it the 
interior of the circle was covered with forest 
trees. Half a mile west, a little to the north 
of the road, on a slight eminence, was another 
and smaller circle, w'hich has been plowed 
down, leaving no vestige behind. 

The circles in other portions of the county 
are or were similar in their general features, 
with one exception, to the above. Those in 
Harbor Creek township were situated on each 
side of Four-Mile creek, slightly southeast of 
the big curve of the Philadelphia and Erie 
R. R., on points overlooking the deep gulf of 
that stream. The one on the west side of the 
creek is still in a fair state of preservation. 
The two Conneaut circles were near together, 
while those in Girard and Springfield, four in 
number, extended in a direct line from the west- 
ern part of the former township to the south- 
western part of the latter. One of the circles 
partially occupied the site of the cemetery at 
East Springfield. In Fairview township there 
was both a circle and a mound, th.e first at the 
mouth of Front run, and the second at Man- 
chester. The latter, at the close of the last 
century, was about six feet high and fifteen 
feet in diameter. A tree was cut on one of 
the embankments in Conneaut that had at- 
tained the age of 500 years. The circles in 
LeBtruf and Venango were very much like 
those above described. 


The skeletons of extinct species of animals 

have frequently been found 



Perhaps the most extraordinary discovery of 
that nature was made near Girard borough, in 
the early part of May^, 1880. A man, while 
plowing, turned up some bones of a mammoth, 
which were thought to indicate an animal fif- 
teen feet long and from twelve to thirteen 
feet high. One of the teeth weighed three 
and a half pounds, having a grinding surface 
of three and a half by four inches. Pieces of 
the tusks led to the opinion that they must 
.have been eight or ten feet long. 

In the year 1825, while Francis Carnahan 
was plowing along the lake shore in Harbor 
Creek township, he turned up a strange look- 
ing bead, which was cleaned and preserved. 
It fell into the hands of L. G. Olmstead, 
LL. D., a traveler and archa;ologist of some 
reputation, who pronounced it to be one of the 
celebrated " Chorean beads" of ancient Egypt, 
and kept it until his death as a relic of rare 
interest and value. 


Among the natural curiosities of the coun- 
ty are the "gulfs" or gullies through which 
the lake shore streams descend from the divi- 
ding ridges in the south to the level of the lake. 
The gulf of Four-Mile creek extends from 
near the crossing of the Station road, about 
half a mile south of Wesleyville, to Ripley's 
mill, in Greene township, a distance in a 
direct line of about four miles, and by the 
course of the stream of about one-half more. 
Its depth varies from fifty to a hundred and 
fifty feet, with sides that are almost perpen- 
dicular at some points, and its width is from 
one to two hundred feet. The deepest part is 
at a spot locally known as Wintergreen Gulf, 
some four and a half miles southeast of Erie. 
The "gulf" of Six-Mile creek, which is 
wholly in Harbor Creelv township, is very 
similar to the other. It commences about 
half a mile south of the Buffalo road and ter- 
minates a little north of the Station road, 
being about the same length as the gully of 
Four-Mile creek. Its deepest and most pic- 

: turesque point is at the Clark settlement, 
where the banks are not far from a hundred 
and fifty feet high. 

" Gulfs '■ of a like nature attend every one of 

1 the lake shore streams, but are less pictu- 

I resque, generally speaking, than the two above 
named. The most interesting are those of 

. Twelve-Mile creek, near the lake; of Sixteen- 


Mile creek, in the southern part of North East 
township; of Twenty-Mile creek, near the 
New York line; of Walnut creek, where it 
was crossed by the old aqueduct ; of Crooked 
creek, in Springfield township : and of Elk 
creek, in the southern part of Fairview town- 

In Girard township, south of the borough, 
is the "Devil's Backbone," which owes its 
novelty, as in the other cases mentioned, 
mainly to the long-continued action of water. 
The West branch of Elk creek winds around 
the base of a ridge for about one-fourth of a 
mile until it reaches its point. This it sud- 
denly turns, and then runs in the opposite 
direction along the same ridge. The constant 
washing of the base has reduced the ridge to 
very slender limits, so that it has a width on 
top, in some parts, of barely two feet. The 

summit is about a hundred feet above the bed 
of the creek, and the sides of the ridge are 
nearly perpendicular. 


On Falls run, a small stream ihat flows 
into Elk creek from Franklin township, is a 
cascade, some fifty feet in height, which is 
said to be quite attractive at certain seasons. 
A beautiful waterfall formerly existed on the 
bank of the bay at the mouth of Cascade run, 
but was destroyed in the building of the Erie 
and Pittsburg R. R. and dock, to the regret 
of many citizens. A small waterfall still 
e.xists on Little Cascade creek, where it joins 
the bay, within the city limits, and numerous 
low but picturesque falls prevail on most of 
the lake shore streams as they approach their 

CHAPTER V., Interior Lakes — Bridges, (Sit 

ERIE COUNTY, though one of the 
best-watered sections of the State, 
has no rivers and few streams of im- 
portance. A large number of creeks 
and runs have their origin on the 
dividing ridges, and course through the county 
in all directions, so that almost every farm has 
its running water, but only three or four are j 
of sufficient size to be given a place on the ' 
general map of the commonwealth. The 
dividing ridges separate the water system of 
the countj' into two distinct divisions, which 
may be classed for the present purpose into 
the Northern and .Southern. All of the 
streams which form on the north side of the 
main ridge flow into Lake Erie, and thence, 
through Niagara river. Lake Ontario and the 
St. Lawrence, to the Atlantic ocean. Those 
on the south side invariably unite with the 
Allegheny river, which in turn pours its waters 
into the Ohio, the Mississippi, and the Gulf of 
Mexico. Of the southern streams the most 

important is French creek, the common recep- 
tacle of all the rest, with the exception of the 
Brokenstraw (which flows through a corner 
of Wayne township), and the head-waters of 
Spring creek and Oil creek, having their 
sources, the former in Concord and the latter 
in that and Union township. The principal 
tributaries of French creek, within the county, 
are the East, West and South branches, the 
outlet of Lake Pleasant and LeBoeuf creek. 
The Conneauttee, which rises in Franklin 
township, and the Cussewago, the sources of 
which are both in that township and Elk 
creek, join the same stream in Crawford 

The leading lake shore streams are as fol- 
lows : Conneaut, Crooked, Elk, Trout, Walnut, 
Mill, Four-Mile, Six-Mile, Twelve-Mile, Six- 
teen-Mile and Twenty-Mile, the five last men- 
tioned being named according to their distance 
from Erie City. The smaller streams which 
empty directly into Lake Erie, are Raccoon 


and Turkey runs, in Springfield township ; 
Trout run, in Fairview township; Fassetrun, 
Kelso run, the Head run, and One, Two and 
Three-jSIile creeks, in Mill Creek townsiiip ; 
Cascade and Garrison runs, in Erie City ; Five- 
Mile creek, Elliott's run and Scott's run, in 
Harbor Creek township ; Spring, Spafford and 
Averill runs, in North East township; and 
several rivulets, tiie titles of which are various- 
h- given. 


The tributaries of the above streams are as 
follows, the terminus of each being in the 
township indicated : 

French Creek. — In Greenfield township, a 
number of creeks and runs ; in Venango town- 
ship, Middlebrook Alder run and Fritts run 
of the West branch, and Spafford run of the 
East branch; in Amity township (East and 
West branches unite), the outlet of Lake 
Pleasant, Jones' brook, Henry brook, the Hub- 
bell Alder run, Deerlick run, the Hatch Hol- 
low Alder run and Buncombe run ; in Water- 
ford township, Davis run ; in LeBoeuf town- 
ship, the South branch, LeBocuf creek. Trout 
brook, Colt run. Mill run, Moravian run, Gill 
brook and Mallory run. 

LcBauf Creek. — In Waterford township, 
the West branch, Boyd run. Trout run and 
Benson run. (Boyd and Trout runs empty 
into Lake LeBo-uf, which is really no more 
than an expansion of the creek.) 

The .South Branch of French Creek.— in 
Concord township, Scotch run. Spring brook, 
Lilly run, Beaver Dam run, Spencer run, 
Baskin run and Slaughter run ; in Union 
township, Scotchman's, Wilson, Mulvin, 
Carroll, Pine, Tolbert and Benson runs. 

Conncant Creek. — In Conneaut township, 
the East branch, the West branch and Marsh 
run. The tributaiies of the East branch are 
Frazier's run in Elk Creek township, and 
Crane and Jackson runs in Conneaut town- 

Elk Creek. — In ^IcKean township, the 
South branch ; in Fairview township. Fall's 
run; in Girard township, Little Elk. Hall's 
run, Brandy run and Spring run. 

Walnut Creek. — In Mill Creek township, 
Thomas run ; in Fairview township, Bear and 
Beaver Dam runs. 

Mill Crcek.~ln Mill Creek township, 
Bladen's run. 

Four-Mile Creek. — In Harbor Creek town- 
ship, McConnell run. 

I Sixteen-Mile Creek. — In Xoith Easttown- 

j siiip, the Borough branch. 

1 Hare Creek, the only tributary of the - 

I Brokenstraw flowing from the county, joins 

I that stream in Warren county, below Corry. 

I Its chief inlets in Erie county are Bear creek 

' and .Scioto run. 

! The Conneanttee is joined by the Little 

Conneauttee a short distance across the line, 
in Crawford county, and by Pratt and Her- 
bert creeks in Washington township. 


i -\ feature of the lake shore streams deserv- 

j ing of mention is the fact that, while those 
eastward from Erie City flow directlj- to the 
lake in a general northwesterly course, those 
in and west of the city run almost exactlv 
westward until within a short distance of the 
lake, when they suddenly turn to the north, 
i and soon after unite with the great current 
J whicii pours over Niagara. This is the more 
noticeable of Mill creek, which rises in Greene 
[ and empties into the lake at Erie ; Walnut 
I creek, which also rises in Greene, flows across 
j Summit, Mill Creek and Fairview townships, 
I and terminates at ^Manchester ; and Elk creek, 
I whicii rises in Waterford, crosses McKean, 
Fairview and Girard townships, and enters 
I the lake below Miles Grove. Conneaut creek 
' is to some extent an exception to the rule, ris- 
ing as it does in Crawford county, flowing 
nearly due north through Conneaut township 
; to within a short distance of the Girard line, 
and then bending abruptly westward, forming 
the boundary line between that and Spring- 
field townships, finally entering Ohio, and, 
after a devious course, becoming the harbor of 
Conneaut in that State. 

All of the streams in the county were 
formerly much larger and more reliable than 
now. The cutting off of the timber has had 
an alarming effect in drying up the streams, 
j and the seasons of high water, which were 
once of two or three weeks' duration, now 
! last only a few days. 


; French Creek — the most important in the 

I county — was variously known to the Indians 

as the Toranadakin and Innungah, the latter 

word havinef some reference to ''a rude and 


indecent figure carved upon a tree," which 
the Seneca tribe found when they came to 
this region after having conquered the Eriez. 
The French first gave it the name of the River 
Aux BfTufs, but changed it to the River 
Venango, being a corruption of the Indian 
word Innungah. When the Americans occu- 
pied the country, they dropped both the Indian 
and French names, and gave the stream the 
plain appellation of French creek. The main 
stream is created by the junction of the East 
and West branches in Amity township, just 
south of the borough limits of Wattsburg. 
The East branch takes its rise in Chautauqua 
county, N. Y., near the village of Sherman, 
and the head of the West branch is usually 
said to be in Findley's lake, about two miles 
over the New York line, in the same county, 
each having a length of about twenty miles. 
After the junction of the East and West 
branches, the creek traverses Amity, Water- 
ford and LeBoeuf townships, leaving the 
county to enter Crawford in the last named. 
It passes through the whole width of Craw- 
ford county from north to south, nearly in the 
center of the county, and after watering half 
of Venango county unites with the Allegheny 
at Franklin. Its length from Wattsburg to 
Franklin cannot be less than a hundred miles. 
It was along the valley of this creek that 
Washington traveled on his visit to the French 
at Fort LeBoeuf, and he descended the stream 
in a canoe on his return journe)'. 

Outlet of Lake Pleasant. — This stream, as 
its name indicates, carries off the excess of 
water in Lake Pleasant. It issues from the 
foot of the lake in Venango township, and 
empties into French creek in Amity, after a 
course of some three miles. 

The South Branch.— The South branch of 
French creek rises in Concord township, and 
unites with the main stream in LeBoeuf, a 
short distance below the Philadelphia & Erie 
Railroad bridge. It lias a length of perhaps 
twenty miles. 

LeBivufCrcck was known to the French 
as the River Aux Bocufs, being at first sup- 
posed to be the main stream. It was so named 
from the number of cattle discovered by them 
on the flats near its mouth. The creek is 
formed by two stems, the eastern one of which 
rises on the Venango township line, and flows 
across Greene township, while the western 
has its source in Summit township, the two 

coming together on the northern boundary of 
Waterford township. On the edge of Water- 
ford borough the creek enters Lake LeBoeuf, 
from which it issues somewhat increased in 
size. It joins French creek in LeBoeuf town- 
ship. From the head of the East branch to 
the mouth of the creek, the distance is about 
twenty miles. 

French creek, all three of its branches — 
the East, West and South — and LeBoeuf creek 
were at one period navigable for rafts and 
flat-boats, and before the building of good 
roads were the chief avenues for bringing 
goods and provisions into the county from the 
southern part of the State. There has been 
no rafting to speak of on the branches of 
French creek for forty years, and the busi- 
ness on the main stream may be said to have 
suspended about 1861 or '62. 


Conncaut Creek, the second largest in the 
county, rises south of Conneautville, Crawford 
county, flows in a general northerly direction 
through Conneaut township, nearly to the 
Springfield line, then turns abruptly westward 
and continues into Ohio. In Ohio it flows 
nine miles westward to Kingsville, then 
makes another sudden bend to the east, and 
comes back eight miles to Conneaut, where it 
turns again to the north, and, after a further 
course of about a mile, empties into Lake Erie 
not far from the Pennsylvania line, forming 
Conneaut harbor. It is a very crooked 
stream, the length from head to mouth being 
fully sixty miles, while the distance by an 
air line is not more than twenty-five. The 
East branch of Conneaut creek rises on the 
northern edge of Crawford county, flows 
through Elk Creek township, and unites with 
the main stream northeast of Albion. In the 
latter borough it is joined by Jackson creek, 
which rises on the Elk creek and Conneaut 
line, near Crawford county. The East branch 
is about ten miles long, and Jackson creek 
some five miles. 

Elk Creek rises in Waterford township 
and flows in a general westerly course through 
McKean, Fairview and Girard townships to 
Lake Erie, north of Miles Grove. The length 
of Elk creek is between twenty-five and thirty 
miles. An effort was made to have the mouth 
of this stream made the terminus of, the canal, 
and various projects have been advocated for 



establishing a harbor there. The name of Elk 
creek was given from the number of elk found 
in its valley. Falls run starts in Franklin 
township and joins Elk creek in Fairview. 
Brandy run rises in Fairview township and 
unites with Elk creek in Girard. The Little 
Elk, which also joins the same stream in 
the latter township, rises in Elk Creek town- 
ship. They are all small. 

Walnut Creek, so named because its banks 
are lined with walnut trees, rises on the west- 
ern edge of Greene township, and flows 
through Summit, Mill Creek and Fairview, 
entering the lake at IManchester. Its length is 
about fifteen miles. 

Crooked Creek rises in Lockport borough, 
and flows through Girard and Springfield to 
Lake Erie, a short distance from North 
Springfield. It is about ten miles long. 

The Head Rn)i is the small stream that 
enters Presque Isle bay just above the Massas- 
sauga pleasure ground. 

Cascade RiDi is historical because a portion 
of Perry's fleet was built at itsmoutii. It falls in- 
to the bay at the Pittsburgh docks, in Erie City. 

Mill Creek is formed by two branches, the 
one rising in the extreme southeastern section 
of Mill Creek township, and the other in the 
northwestern part of Greene. They unit enear 
the southeastern line of the first named town- 
ship, and the stream enters the bay within the 
city limits of Erie. Mill creek cannot be less 
than eight miles long. It received its name 
from the fact that the first mill in the county 
was built at its mouth. 

Four-Mile Creek rises in Greene, runs 
through the western edge of Harbor Creek, and 
enters the lake in the northeastern corner of 
Mill Creek township, after a course of about 
eight miles. 

Tkvelve-^lilc Creek heads on the line of 
North East and Greenfield townships, and | 
joins the lake in Harbor Creek. Its length is 
about seven miles. 

T-Mci/ty-Milc Creek rises in Chautauqua 
county, N. Y., and empties into the lake in 
North East township, near the State line. It 
is from sixteen to eighteen miles long. 

Besides the above there are a number of 
smaller streams which are referred to else- 


In the interior of the county are three small 
lakes — LeBcEuf, Pleasant and Conneauttee 

— all of which lie on the south side of the 
dividing ridge, and empty into French creek. 

Lake LeBa-uf. —Th\s lake is in Waterford 
township, on the southwestern edge of Water- 
ford borough. It is about two-thirds of a 
mile long, by half a mile wide. The lake is 
fed by LeBojuf creek and Boyd and Trout 
runs. Its outlet falls into French creek, in Le- 
Boeuf township. 

Lake Pleasant, in the southwestern corner 
of Venango township, is about two-thirds of 
a mile long by a third of a mile wide, with a 
depth of five to fifty feet. It has no tributary 
streams except two tiny rivulets, and is appa- 
rently fed by springs in the bottom. The out- 
let joins French creek in Amity township. 

Lake Conneauttee lies on the northern side 
of Edinboro, and is partly in that borough and 
partly in Washington township. Its length is 
about a mile, and its width a little over half a 
mile. The deepest water is about fift}- feet. 
Big Conneauttee creek enters at its northern 
extremity, and leaves at the southern, continu- 
ing on to Crawford county, where it unites 
with French creek. 


Where there are so many streams, it fol- 
lows as a consequence that there must be a 
large number of bridges. None of these are 
very extensive or costly compared with the 
immense structures that are found in other 
parts of the country. The most expensive 
public bridges are those which span French 
creek in Amity, Waterford and LeBn>uf town- 
ships, and Conneaut creek in Conneaut town- 
ship, and upon the line between that town- 
ship and Springfield. The iron bridges of 
the "Nickel Plate" railroad over Crooked, 
Elk, Walnut and Twenty-Mile creeks are the 
longest and costliest in the county. 

The Lake Shore railroad formerly overcame 
the gullies of Twenty-]Mile creek, Sixteen- 
Mile creek. Walnut creek, Elk creek and 
Crooked creek by extensive trestle works, 
which have been replaced by substantial cul- 
verts and embankments that cost many thou- 
sands of dollars. All of the streams upon the 
line of this road are now spanned by stone cul- 
verts or iron bridges. 

The aqueducts of the canal over Walnut 
creek, in Fairview township, and Elk creek, 
in Girard, were at one time looked upon as 
wonders of engineering and mechanical skill. 


Lake Erik — Bay or Presqiie Isle — Misery Bay — The Peninsula and the Fishing 
Industry. — [See Chapter V.. Erie City.] 

THE whole northern front of the county 
is bordered by Lake Erie and Presque 
Isle bay, giving a shore line, with the j 
various indentations, of fully forty-five | 
miles. Lake Erie is one of the chain 
of -'Great Lakes," consisting, besides itself, 
of Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, St. 
Clair and Ontario. No one of these, except 
St. Clair, is excelled or equaled in size by any 
body of fresh water elsewhere in the world. 
Recent measurements give the following re- 
sults : 

" The greatest length of Lake Superior is 
iVSb miles; its greatest breadth, 160 miles; 
mean depth, 688 feet; elevation above the 
ocean, 602 feet ; area, 82,000 square miles. 

" The greatest length of Lake Michigan \ 
is 300 miles ; its greatest breadth, 108 miles; j 
mean depth, 600 feet; elevation, 581:^ feet; \ 
area, 23,000 square miles. 

"The greatest length of Lake Huron is 
200 miles; its greatest breadth, 169; mean 
depth, 600 feet; elevation, 58^ feet; area, 
23,(KX) square miles. 

" The greatest length of Lake Erie is 250 
miles ; its greatest breadth is 80 miles ; its 
mean depth is 84 feet ; elevation, STSj-",,- feet ; 
area, 6,000 square miles. 

"The greatest length of Lake Ontario is 
180 miles; its greatest breadth, 65 miles; its 
mean depth is 50() feet ; elevation, 246i feet ; 
area, 6,000 square miles. 

"The length of all five is 1,2(55 miles, and 
the area covered by their waters is upward of 
135,000 square miles." 


A prominent writer in one of the maga- 
zines furnishes the following information : 

" The first discoverers of Lake Ontario 
gave it the name ' St. Louis ;' another party 
of travelers called it ' Frontenac,' after the 

great pioneer. Then came the English, who 
preferred to call it 'Ontario.' 

" Lake Huron was named after the Indian 
tribe that lived upon its borders. 

" Lake Michigan was for many years called 
' Lake Illinois,' from the tribe of Indians who 
lived near it. In 1719 the pioneer Sener gave 
it the present name of Michigan. 

" Champlain was the first one to describe 
Lake Superior, and on his map it is called 
'Grand Lac' Later on, the Jesuit fathers 
called it ' Tracey,' or ' Superior.' 

" Lake Erie was named by the Iroquois 
' Erike,' from a tribe living on its shores. 
The French called it 'Racoon,' or 'Cat 
Lake,' and on various old maps it appears as 
'Lac de Conty,' 'Lac Herrie,' ' Lak Erie,' 
' Lac Erocoise.' or 'Eriez.' " 


Lake Erie receives the outflow of Lake 
Huron through the St. Clair river. Lake St. 
Clair and the Detroit river, and empties itself 
through the Niagara river into Lake Ontario. 
The outlet of the latter is the St. Lawrence 
river, which, after a course of some five or six 
hundred miles, falls into the Atlantic ocean, 
the volume of water which it carries down 
being greater than that of the Mississippi. 
The breadth of Lake Erie is from thirty to 
eighty-four miles. The narrowest part of the 
lake is between Long Point, Canada, and 
Presque Isle, and the widest is between Ash- 
tabula, Ohio, and Port Stanley, Canada. The 
average depth of Lake Erie is less than that 
of any other of the chain, except St. Clair. 
It has few natural harbors, that of Erie being 
the best. 

In commercial importance, Lake Erie ex- 
cels any other of the chain. The falls of 
Niagara, about twenty miles below its foot, 
forbid direct navigation between Erie and 


Ontario. This has been remedied in part by 
the construction of the Welland Ship canal, 
opened in 1829, and built and operated by the 
Canadian Government. Vessels pass through 
this artificial channel to and from Lake On- 
tario, the St. Lawrence river and the Atlantic 
ocean. The lake seldom freezes over more 
than a few miles from shore, but instances 
have been known of the ice being clogged 
between Long Point and Presque Isle so that 
teams and wagons have crossed. Navigation 
usually closes about the 1st of December and 
opens early in April. Several winters are re- 
corded when vessels have sailed every month 
of the year. [See chapter on lake naviga- 
tion.] It is subject to fluctuations of several 
feet in the iieight of the water, according to 
the direction of the wind and tiie amount of 
rainfall on the upper lakes. 

Some puzzling phenomena are reported by 
old settlers along the shores of the lake. Just 
after sunset on the 30th of May, 18253, several 
swells were observed at the mouths of Otter 
and Kettle creeks, Canada, being twenty miles 
apart, and the water suddenly dashed to a 
height of nine feet at the former point and of 
seven at the latter. The weather was fine and 
the lake had previously been calm. A similar 
incident was witnessed at the mouth of Six- 
teen-Mile creek in 1820, at that of Cunning- 
ham creek, Ohio, in 1826, and again at that of 
Grand river, Ohio, in 1830. At the second 
point named the water rose fifteen and at the 
third eight feet. VVater-spouts are of frequent 
occurrence, as many as three having been seen 
at one time. A whirlwind was experienced 
at Conneaut, Ohio, in September, 1839, which 
lifted the water of the lake to a height of 
thirty feet. Three monster waves are report- 
ed as having dashed upon the dock at Madi- 
son, Ohio, the first of which was fifteen or 
twent)' feet high. "In 1844 or 1845 a wave 
came into Euclid creek fifteen feet in height, 
carrying everything before it. * * * The 
Toledo Blade recorded a change of ten feet on 
December 5, 1850." The records of lowest 
water are for 1808, "18, '34 and '95. and of 
highest for 1813, '88 and '58. 


T/ic Bay of Presque Isle, forming the har- 
bor of Erie — the onlv one in the countv — is a 

beautiful body of water, about four and one- 
half miles long, with a breadth ranging from 
a mile and a quarter to a mile and a lialf. 
The long and narrow sand bank which divides 
it from the lake is known as the Peninsula, or 
in French as Presque Isle, meaning " nearly 
an island." Within a hundred years the bay 
extended by a narrow channel half a mile 
further westward than it does now. The en- 
trance to the bay is at its eastern end, between 
two long piers, which create an artificial 
channel 200 feet wide. Before the govern- 
ment improvements were made the mouth 
of the bay was nearly a mile in width, 
and obstructed by a bar which afforded only 
eight to ten feet of water. Now the largest 
vessels upon the lake can enter easily, and 
when within the bay are secure against the 
worst storms. Three lighthouses direct mari- 
ners to the entrance, while the course of the 
channel is made clear by a series of range 
lights. The greatest depth of water in the 
bay is nearly opposite the Pittsburg docks, 
where the lead touches bottom at twenty- 
seven feet. 

Misery Bay is a small subdivision of the 
bay proper at its northeastern extremity. Its 
name was suggested by Lieut. Holdup during 
the war of 1814, when the vessels of the Lake 
Erie squadron were anchored there. The 
gloomy weather that prevailed, and the un- 
comfortable condition of the crews, made the 
title eminently appropriate. Within this lit- 
tle bay were sunk two of the vessels of Per- 
ry's fleet, the Lawrence and Niagara. The 
former was raised and taken to the Centen- 
nial Exhibition in 1870; the latter still lies at 
the bottom of the bay on the east side. Both 

I of the bays freeze over in winter, and usually 

j continue closed until about the 1st of April. 

i [For a further account of the bay. harbor and 

i peninsula see Erie City.] 


Presque Isle, or •' The Peninsula," as it is 

j best known, which forms the harbor of Erie. 

i is a low sand formation about six miles long, 

j and varying in width from three hundred feet, 

; at the " Head," or place where it joins the 

mainland, to a mile and a half in its widest 

part. It is covered with trees and bushes. 

j representing nearly every variety in the north, 

and contains several small " ponds," lakes 

and lagoons. Large sums of money have 


been spent to prevent the heavy fall and 
spring waves from washing through the pen- 
insula at its narrow points. A break occurr- 
ed during the winter of 1828-9, another dur- 
ing that of 1832-3, and a third in No- 
vember, 1874, all of which were promptly 
closed at the cost of the U. S. Government. 
Constant vigilance is required to keep the 
storms from breaking through the neck of the 
peninsula, a result which, it is generally 
thought, if not speedily corrected, would cause 
great injury to the harbor. Several attempts 
have been made to propagate willows for the 
purpose of strengthening the neck, but they 
have not been successful, though a consider- 
able growth of those trees has sprung up 
naturally. It was at one time contemplated 
to open a channel from the west into the har- 
bor and a good deal of money was expended 
in that direction. After a few years of ex- 
periment, the project was given up as im- 
practicable. It is a matter of local tradition 
that several vessels entered the bay through 
the entrance thus created. The peninsula is 
constantly eroding on its north and widest 
part, and extending at its eastern projection. 
[See Erie City.] 


The extracts below, from a communica- 
tion written by Henry W. Babbitt, of the 
General Land Office at Washington, are of 
historical value. After speaking of the pur- 
chase of this section by Pennsj'lvania, a full 
account of which is given further on, he saj's : 

" By act of Legislature of February 4, 
18(59, the State of Pennsylvania conveyed the 
said Presque Isle to Marine Hospital (the pre- 
decessor of the Soldiers" and Sailors' Home) 
at Erie, Pa. (Congressional Record, 49th 
Cong., 1st Sess., page 3,790). By act of tiie 
Legislature of Pennsylvania of May 11, 1871, 
title to said Peninsula or Presque Isle was 
tendered to the United States Marine Hos- 
pital, at Erie, Pa. (Ibid). 

•' By act of Congress, approved August 5, 
1880 (U.S. Statutes, v. 24, page 312), the 
secretary of war is authorized and directed to 
receive and accept title from said Marine 
Hospital as tendered by said legislative enact- 
ment of May II, 1871; $37,500 being the 
sum appropriated to pay for the same. 

" From the letter of December 7, 1889, on 
this subject, from 'Ihomas Lincoln Casey, 

brigadier general, chief engineer U. S. A., to 
Hon. B. F. Gilkerson, second comptroller U. 
S. treasury department, I am advised that the 
deed of said Marine Hospital, conveying title 
to said Peninsula, or Presque Isle, to the 
United States, is dated May 25, 1871 ; that 
the acting judge advocate of the U. S. army, 
on the 18th of November, 1886, rendered an 
opinion that the acceptance of said deed, 
under the provisions of said act of Congress of 
August 5, 1886, might be signitied by enter- 
ing upon and taking possession of the land in 
behalf of the United States ; that the honor- 
able secretary of war approved this opinion 
and directed, December 14, 1886, that tiie 
necessary action be taken. Accordingly, in 
pursuance of this order, the land was entered 
upon, and taken possession of, in behalf of the 
United States, by the war department," 
(which now controls the same). 

Capt. James Hunter, of Erie, has been 
custodian of the Peninsula, appointed by the 
U. S. government, since 1886. 


From Capt. John Fleeharty's valuable 
and interesting contribution to the work is- 
sued by the State Fish Commisioners in con- 
nection with their exhibit at the World's 
Columbian Exposition, the following facts 
are gathered : 

"Ever since the appearance of the white man 
on the shore of Lake Erie it has been noted 
for the quantity, variety and fine quality of 
its fish. Long before the advent of the whites 
the Indian was aware and appreciated this 
fact, and fish in connection with game was 
his whole food supply. In addition to the 
fish in the lake, all of the small streams empty- 
ing into it abounded with brook trout and 
other species of small fish. The writer when 
a boy has taken them within half a mile of the 
Union depot in a small stream coming down 
from the ridge, and emptying into Mill creek 
in the neighborhood of Sixteenth and State 
streets. Big Cascade creek also abounded 
with them. * * * UpperMill creek, Walnut 
creek and Trout run were noted for their fine 
fishing. In fact, without particularizing, all 
of the streams in Erie county were prolific in 
fish, and all of them contained many brook 

" When the pioneers located on Presque 
Isle, in 1795, they had to resort to fishing in 

^ 4hn^^i^ ^^y^^^^^^^ 



their log canoes from the lake and bay for the 
purpose of adding to their food supply, and 
the soldiers in the forts east of Mill creek 
laid in a large supply each season for their 
own use. * * * The bay of Presque Isle 
abounded in all varieties of lake fish, particu- 
larly the black bass, and all fish were taken 
with the hook and line prior to 1880. * * * 
The ponds in the Peninsula, and Pike pond 
on the south side of the bay, near the harbor 
entrance, were the spawning grounds for a 
large variety of fish. Pike pond was rated 
for the number and size of the grass pike. 

* * * The black bass and lake pike have 
always been the game fish of the lakes, and 
trolling in a school of black bass is the finest 
sport for a tour fisherman that can be con- 
ceived. * * * 

"Formerly perch abounded in the bay, 
particularly in Misery bay ; but thej- are by 
no means as plentiful now, and yet they 
are not nearly as scarce as black bass in 
proportion. Rock bass and sunfish were some 
years ago e.xceedingly abundant. The differ- 
ent varieties of pike indigenous to the lakes 
formerly were in great numbers, but are not 
now nearK" as numerous. The herring are 
also not nearly as plenteous as formerly, al- 
though they are still caught in large quan- 
tities. It used to be the occupation during the 
winter months of many persons to fish for 
them through the ice, and as many as five to 
eigiit hundred persons have been seen fishing 
for them through the ice in the bay, and in 
the lake near the piers. 

"In 1852 Captain Nash, a fisherman frem 
Mackinac, took from there to Dunkirk, N. Y., 
two Mackinac fish boats, with gill nets and 
complete outfit, and began fishing at that 
point as an experiment. He set his nets about 
eight miles northwest from the harbor, and 
his first catch was a large one of white fish. 

* * * It was mentioned in the Dunkirk, 
Buffalo and Cleveland papers of the day as 
the first catch of white fish on Lake Erie, and 
Captain Nash positively informed the writer 
of this. * * * As soon as it became known 
that white fish had been taken in Lake Erie 
people began fishing for them in these waters. 
Previous to finding the white fish it had been 
the custom all along the lake for persons who 
could afford it to send to Mackinac or Detroit 
every fall for a barrel, half barrel or kit of 
sugar-cured white fish for winter u.^e. 

"The muskallonge used to be quite plenti- 
ful in this vicinit}-. The largest one taken at 
this point was sixty-two pounds; the next 
largest forty-four pounds. * * * Only a 
few years ago sturgeon were considered of no 
use, and were taken to the peninsula and 
buried. Thousands of them have been buried 
there. To-day they are worth two dollars and 
fifty cents each."" 

An account of the rise and progress of the 
fishing interest, now one of the most import- 
ant in the city, is given in one of the chapters 
devoted to Erie. 


The following article by an unknown 
writer in the New York S/m is worthy of 
preservation : 

"No other bod)- of fresh water on the 
globe produces so large a quantity of fresh 
fish as Lake Erie, and Sandusky, Ohio, is the 
greatest market for fresh fish in the world. 
About 2,00(),0(X) pounds of sturgeon alone are 
handled at Sandusky everj- year, nearly one- 
third of which are taken in the vicinity of that 
place. Three-fouiths of that immense quan- 
tity of sturgeon are taken by Buffalo fisher- 
men. Tons of sturgeon roe are spiced and 
pickled at Sandusky annually, and the trade 
in isinglass made from the air bladders of that 
fish is an important one. A sturgeon's roe 
will weigh from twenty to sixty pounds 
Three-quarters of the Sandusky caviare is sent 
to Germany, and is exported from that coun- 
try' back to this in large cjuantities, the same 
as the finest English dairj- cheese is male up 
in Cattaraugus count)', sent to England and 
shipped back here again. vSandusky gets ten 
cents a pound for her caviare, and lays by 
quite a snug pile annually from its sale. Yet 
it was not until 1865 that the sturgeon was 
looked upon with even a small degree of favor 
by lake fishermen. Now smoked sturgeon is 
found not only in the markets of all the large 
cities and towns, but in country stores also, 
while fresh sturgeon is one of the highest- 
priced of fresh water fishes. 

^' SpawniiigGrouiids. — In none of the other 
great lakes do the conditions for fish seem to 
be so favorable as in Lake Erie. This is due 
in a great measure, fish culturists think, to the 
variations in the depth which are peculiar to 
that lake. The western end is shallow, and 


thus provides vast areas for spawning grounds, i 
The deep water at the eastern end is an almost 1 
boundless retreat for the half-grown j'oung. | 
The line between deep and shallow water ; 
seems to be drawn at Cleveland, for west of | 
that city the water is not more than sixty feet 
deep anywhere, and the average depth will | 
perhaps fall below fort}'. East of that line the 
water grows rapidly deeper until it reaches a 
depth of 225 feet in some places. 

" Trout, Muskallonge and Herring. — 
There is something singular in the distribution 
of fishes in Lake Erie. The lake trout, one of 
the most valuable of lake fishes, is rare at the 
best in Lake Erie, but it is never taken west 
of Erie. On the other hand, pike and mus- 
kallonge are taken only west of Erie. If a 
fisherman is after lake herring, he knows he j 
will be wasting his time if he sets his nets in 
the eastern waters. He seeks this beautiful 
and delicious fish at or west of Erie. The lake 
herring is the lesser white fish of Lake Erie, j 
Here is another funny thing ; at least it may i 
seem so to those who don't know the reason. 
While Erie herring fishermen are hauling in i 
fish by the ton in April and May, and getting 
a good many all along through the summer, j 
the fishermen further west know better than i 
to wet their nets during these months, for they | 
wouldn't get herring enough to make a smell 1 
in a frying pan. When fall comes, though, 
the Erie fishermen know enough to take out 
their nets and keep them out, and the San- 
dusky and other western fishermen put their's 
in. In the western waters the champion 
month for catching herring is November. The 
reason for this is that in that month the fish 
are moving in enormous schools on to the 
spawning grounds around Bass Island and 
grounds further west. A similar situation 
exists in the matter of white fish. The most 
profitable months for taking them from the 
Erie deep water fisheries are July and August, 1 
and the shallow water fishermen to the west- 
ward don't get a chance at them until No- 

'■'Muskallonge Decreasing. — One of the 
most lamentable facts about the fish of the lakes 
is that the muskallonge, that king of game 
fishes, is decreasing in numbers every year. The 
home of this great fish is in the deep waters i 
of the lakes. It is only when it is on its an- 
nual spawning migration to the streams and ] 
tributaries of the lakes that the sportsman 

with rod and line comes in contact with the 
muskallonge. It ascends those streams to 
spawn, and when that duty is performed the 
gigantic pike turns its head homeward again, 
and seeks once more the depths of the lakes. 
It is not due to the fishing that the muskal- 
longe is growing rarer everj' year in the lakes, 
in the lakes, but to the defilement of the 
spawning grounds by the sewage of towns 
and the refuse of manufacturing establish- 

'■'■Lake Sturgeon. — There is something also 
that is playing hob with fhe sturgeon of Lake 
Erie, and one of these days, if the sturgeon 
fishermen don't mend their waj'S, they will 
wake up and find their ugly but valuable fish 
one of the has-beens. Sturgeon spawn in 
June along the rocky ledges of the eastern end 
of the lake and leave deep water the same 
month. They travel in schools. The favor- 
ite method the fishermen have of taking them 
is by grappling irons. Attaching a far-reach- 
ing grappling iron to a long rope, the fisher- 
man throws it overboard and drags it along 
rowing. When this overtakes a school of 
sturgeon the grappler knows it at once by the 
strike the iron makes on a fish. The line is 
then drawn up hand over hand, and if the 
grappling hook fixed itself firmly in the stur- 
geon the fisherman will probably get his fish 
aboard. If not, it will tear loose, perhaps mort- 
ally hurt. Thousands of sturgeons are killed 
in this way every year and become a dead 
loss. Lake Erie fish have curious migrations. 
The sturgeon, the blue pike, and many other 
species regularly leave their spring and early 
summer haunts toward the end of July, and 
seek the Canadian shore of the lake, and it 
will be useless to look for them in their old 
haunts again until the coming of the fierce 
November gales. Soon after the first hard 
sou'wester the blue pike will appear on its old 
feeding grounds, and the sturgeon be found 
nosing around again in Sandusky Bay. 

"■Lake Fishing. — Fishing in Lake Erie is 
done with pound and gill nets. The gill net 
is used almost exclusively by the fishermen at 
Erie, and, in fact, almost everj'where in the 
eastern waters. Half the whitefish taken 
from Lake Erie are caught in gill nets, which 
is to be regretted, for these gill nets are doing 
untold damage to the whitefish supply of the 
lake, on account, not of the fish the)' catch, 
but of the fish that are destroyed and wasted 


by them. The fish are caught by getting fast 
in the meshes by their gills, hence the name 
of the net. The tish thus caught soon die. 
Whitefish are so delicate that a few hours' 
delay in removing them from the nets makes 
them worthless. Gill-net fishermen plan to lift 
their nets every forty-eight hours. Lake Erie 
is subject to fierce storms that frequently con- 
tinue several days, during which it is impos- 
sible for nets to be lifted. Thus hundreds of 
tons of choice whitefish, to say nothing of the 
other varieties, are held in the nets until they 
are of no use, and have to be thrown away. 
This feature of gill-net fishing has done more 
to lessen the number of whitefish in the lakes 
than any other one thing. The pound net is 
used almost exclusively in the western waters 
of the lake, and with the exception of white- 
fish a large percentage of the fish taken in 
Lake Erie are caught in pound nets. This 
device was introduced on Lake Erie at Dun- 
kirk by a man named McClosky, in 1850. 
There are now several hundred miles of them 
stretched along the lake, some of the lines 
being from ten to fifteen miles in length. 

''Herring. Etc. — The lake herring is a 

wonderful variety of fish. In spite of the 
thousands upon thousands of tons of them 
that have been taken from Lake Erie in the 
last few years, they are more abundant than 
ever, and they are the only lake fish of which 
that can be said. Sometimes the nets will be 
so jammed with herring that the markets will 
be knocked galleywest. 

" It is estimated that 0,000 tons of fish are 
salted along Lake Erie annually, not less than 
5,000 tons are frozen, and probably 2,000 tons 
are smoked. The amount of fish sold from 
Lake Erie points fresh, which is principally a 
local trade, will reach 18,000 tons a year. 
These figures represent the catch of Lake Erie 
only. The other lakes west of Erie add some- 
thing like 50,000 tons to the annual total of 
the supply. While Lake Erie produces more 
fish than any of the other lakes, the whitefish 
of Lake Superior surpass those of Lake Erie 
in quality — as they do all other whitefish. 
The lake trout of Lake Superior are also the 
finest in the world. Lake Michigan produces 
a close .second to Lake Erie in whitefish, and 
exceeds all the other great lakes in amount of 
lake trout.'" 


The Indians — Extermin-vtion of the Eriez Tribe — Ponti.\c's Consimracv-stCapture 
oi- Forts PREscyLrE Isi.e and LeB<euf — American Occi'pation. 

I HE State Library at Harrisburg con- 
tains two old French maps, one print- 


I ed in 1763 and the other in 1768, in 
■ which rude attempts are made to show 
the leading geographical features of 
portions of the United States and Canada. 
Both represent the south shore of Lake Erie 
as having been peopled by a tribe or nation of 
Indians known as the " Eriez." A note on 
the margin of each reads as follows : " The 
ancient Eriez were exterminated by the Iro- 
quois upwards of 100 years ago, ever since 
which time they have been in possession of 
Lake Erie." 

This information is corroborated in a 
French book printed in 1703, describing the 
voyages of Le Baron de Lahonton, an ad- 
venturous Frenchman, who spent ten years 
among the Indians, commencing in 1688 
"The shores of Lake Erie," he says, "are 
frequented by the Iroquois, the Illinois, the 
Oumanies, etc., who are so savage that it is a 
risk to stop with them. The Errieronens and 
x\ndestiguerons, who formerly inhabited the 
borders of the lake, were exterminated by the 
Iroquois." Incidentally it may be added, he 
refers to the Massassaugues as a tribe living 
somewhere near the western end of the lake. 


All of the authorities agree that the date of 
the extermination of the Eriez was some- 
where about 1650. It is claimed by most his- 
torians that the word Eriez was the Indian 
expression for wild cat, but a recent writer 
contends that " this is a mistake, that it does 
not mean wild cat, but raccoon. The latter 
were abundant on the lake shore, while the j 
former were rarely seen." 

When the French visited this section in 
1626 the Eriez were governed by a queen, 
called in their own language Yagowania, and 
in the vSeneca tongue Gegosasa. The chief 
warrior of the tribe was Ragnotha, who had 
his principal location at Tu-shu-way, now 
Buffalo. The Massassaugas were described 
by French writers of the period as a tribe liv- 
ing near the western end of Lake Erie. 


The war of extermination between the 
Eriez and the Iroquois occurred about 1650, 
and was one of the most cruel in aboriginal 
history. From tlie opening it was understood 
by both sides to mean the destruction of one 
or the other. The Eriez organized a powerful 
body of warriors and sought to surprise their 
enemies in their own countrj'. The latter 
raised a force and marched out to meet the in- 
vaders. The engagement resulted in a com- 
plete victory for the Iroquois. Seven times 
the Eriez crossed the stream dividing the hos- 
tile lines and they were as often driven back 
with terrible loss. On another occasion several 
hundred Iroquois attacked nearly three times 
their number of Eriez, encamped near the 
mouth of French creek, dispersed them, took 
many prisoners, and compelled the balance to 
fly to remote regions. In a battle near the site 
of the Cattaraugus Indian mission house, on 
the Allegheny river, the loss of the Eriez was 
enormous. Finally a pestilence broke out 
among the Eriez, which "swept away greater 
numbers even than the club and arrow." The 
Iroquois took advantage of their opportunity 
to end all future trouble with the ill-fated Er- 
iez. Those who were taken captive were, 
with rare exceptions, remorselessly butchered, 
and their wives and children were distributed 
among the Iroquois villages, never again to be 
restored to their husbands and brothers. The 
few survivors " fled to distant regions in the 
West and South, and were followed by the 
undying hatred of the Iroquois. * * * 

Their council fire was put out, and their name 
and language as a tribe lost." 

It is claimed by some that the Eriez were 
also known by the name of Kah-Kwahs, but 
the investigations of the writer lead to the be- 
lief that this was only a local title given to a 
tribe located at or near the foot of the lake. 

THE iROiyois. 
After the extermination of the Eriez, the 
country on the south side of the lake was oc- 
cupied by the Iroquois, as they were called by 
the French, or the Six Nations, as they were 
known to the English. The Six Nations were 
originally a confederacy of five tribes — the On- 
ondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, Oneidas and Mo- 
hawks — and were then styled the Five Na- 
tions. In 1712, the Tuscaroras, being ex- 
pelled from the interior of North Carolina and 
Virginia, were adopted as a sixth tribe. Their 
territory stretched from Vermont nearh' to the 
upper end of Lake Erie, embracing the head- 
waters of the Allegheny, Susquehanna and 
Delaware rivers, and the seat of their "great 
council fire" was in the Onondaga valley. 
The Senecas, who were the most powerful 
tribe, occupied the western part of the do- 
main, having their headquarters on the Alle- 
gheny river, near the line between New York 
and Pennsylvania. The In Jians in the north- 
western part of this State were Senecas inter- 
mixed with stray members from each of the 
other tribes. 


When the French and English began to 
extend their settlements westward, the lake 
region was under the full dominion of the 
Irocjuois, with the Senecas as the immediate 
possessors of the soil. Both nations appreci- 
ated the importance of having the good will 
of the Indians, but the adroit French were 
more successful in winning their friendship 
than their blunt and less politic competitors. 
As far back as 1730, the French Indian agent, 
Joncaire, penetrated this section, adopted the 
habits of the natives, became one of their 
number, and "won them over to the French 
interest." The French built up a considerable 
trade with the Indians, which yielded an im- 
mense profit. The English viewed the pro- 
jects of the French with mingled jealousy and 
alarm, sent out numerous agents, and suc- 
ceeded in some quarters in estranging the In- 



dians from their rivals, but not to any extended 
degree. Some of tiieir traders were located at 
LeBcuuf (Waterford) when the advance troops 
of the French reached that point in 1753. 

Friendly as the Six Nations were toward 
the French in a commercial sense, they did not 
take kindly at first to the occupation of the 
country by armed bodies of the latter. The ' 
expedition of Sieur Marin (or Morang) , in 
1753, and the erection of forts at Presque Isle 
and LeBouuf, worked them up to a spirit of ; 
bitter resentment. A delegation of Senecas ; 
waited upon that officer at LeBtpuf to inquire j 
of him "by a belt"' whether he "was march- 
ing with a banner uplifted or to establish tran- 
quility." He answered that his purpose was j 
to support and assist them in their necessities, [ 
and to drive away the evil spirits that encom- j 
passed them and disturbed the earth, meaning 
the English. His manner and conduct ap- 
peased them, so that the Allegheny river 
Senecas zealously assisted the French with 
horses and provisions. 

The Indians of Western Pennsylvania 
were generally favorable to the French 
throughout the war. JM. de Vaudreil, in a 
letter from Montreal, dated August 8, 1756, | 
wrote that "the domiciliated Massassaugues 
of Presque Isle have been out to the number 
of ten against the English. They have taken 
one prisoner and 'two scalps, and gave them 
to cover the death of M. de St. Pierre." 

By 1757, the English seem to have won 
some of the tribes over to their side, for we 
learn from the Pennsylvania Archives that 
the French kept "100 men in garrison at 
Presciue Isle, being apprehensive that the 
English and the Indians might attack them 
there," and by 1759 the aborigines had 
reached the conclusion that they could very 
well dispense with the presence of both. The 
war closed in 1760, leaving the whole West- 
ern country under the domination of the 
English. Presque Isle was the last of the 
French forts south of Lake Erie to be aban- 
doned. The parting between the French and 
the Indians was extremely afl'ecting. The 
Indians called them their "brethren," and 
invoked the aid of the Great Spirit to give 
them a speedy return. 


The most powerful and influential of the 
Western chiefs was the renowned Pontiac, 

head of the Ottawa tribe. When the Eng- 
lish assumed dominion of the country he 
was at first distant and sullen toward them; 
but in time liis prejudices seemed to be con- 
quered, and he even rendered some service 
that led them to believe that they could rely 
upon his CO operation. His friendship proved, 
however, to be assumed, and he was quietly 
at work fomenting a spirit of hostility among 
the several tribes, and organizing them for 
concerted action. His plan included a com- 
bination of all the tribes west of the Alle- 
ghenies, acting in unison with the Si.x 
Nations. The conspiracy was conducted with 
such secrecy and planned with so much skill. 
that almost before the English knew that 
hostile measures were on foot nine of the 
thirteen western forts had been captured, 
among the number being Presque Isle, Le- 
BcEuf and Venango. Niagara, Pittsburg 
and the two other forts were invested, " but 
withstood the attacks until relief arrived from 
the Eastern settlements."' 

The fort at Le Boeuf was assaulted on the 
17th of June, 1763. It was commanded by 
Ensign Price, who had a force of thirteen 
men. Finding it impossible to hold the post, 
they crept out at night, managed to elude the 
savage enemy, and escaped to Pittsburg. 
From Le Bcpuf the Indians, consisting of 
about 200 Senecas and Ottawas, marched 
immediately to Presque Isle, which surren- 
dered on the 22d of the same month. This 
fort stood upon the bank of the bay, on a 
point of land just west of the mouth of Mill 
creek, that has been mainly dug away for 
railroad and other purposes. The following 
account of its capture is from Parkman's 
Historj- of the " Conspiracy of Pontiac." 


"There had been hot fighting before 
Presqu'ile was taken. Could courage have 
saved it, it never would have fallen. * * 
Atone of its angles was a large block-house. 
* * It was two stories in height, and solid- 
ly built of massive timber, the diameter of 
the upper story exceeding that of the lower 
by several feet, so that through the openings 
in the projecting floor of the former the 
defenders could shoot down upon the heads of 
an enemy assailing the outer wall below. 
The roof being covered with shingles might 
easilv be set on fire, but to guard against this 



there was an opening through which the gar- 
rison, partially protected by a covering of 
plank, might pour water upon the ilames. 

* * And now the defenders could see the 
Indians throwing up earth and stones behind 
one of the breastworks ; their implacable foes 
were laboring to undermine the block-house, 
a sure and insidious expedient, against which 
there was no defense. * * * * The 
barrels of water always kept in the block- 
house were nearly emptied in extinguishing 
the frequent fires, and though there was a 
well in the parade ground, yet to approach it 
would be certain death. The only recourse 
was to dig one in the block-house itself. The 
floor was torn up, and while some of the men 
fired their heated muskets from the loopholes 
to keep the enemy in check, the rest labored 
with desperate energy at this toilsome and 
cheerless task. Before it was half completed, 
the cry of fire was again raised, and, at the 
imminent risk of life, they tore off the blazing 
shingles and arrested the danger. By this 
time it was evening. The little garrison had 
fought from earliest daylight without a min- 
ute's rest. Nor did darkness bring relief, for 
the Indians' guns flashed all night long from 
the intrenchments. They seemed determined 
to wear out the obstinate defenders by fatigue. 
While some slept, others in their turn con- 
tinued the assault, and morning brought fresh 
dangers. The block-house was fired several 
times during the day, but they kept up their 
forlorn and desperate resistance. The house 
of the commanding officer sank into glowing 
embers. The fire on both sides did not cease 
till midnight, at which hour a voice was 
heard in French, calling out that further 
defense was useless, since preparations were 
made to burn above and below at once. En- 
sign Christie, the officer in command, de- 
manded if any one spoke English, upon 
which, a man in Indian dress came forward. 

* * * He said if they yielded they would 
be saved alive, if not, they would be burned. 
Christie resolved to hold out as long as a 
shadow of hope remained, and while some of 
the garrison slept, the rest watched. They 
told them to wait until morning. They as- 
sented, and suspended their fire. When 
morning came, they sent out two persons, on 
pretense of treating, but in reality to learn the 
truth of the preparations to burn the block- 
house, whose sides were pierced with bullets 

and scorched with fire. In spite of the capit- 
ulation, they were surrounded and seized, 
and, having been detained for some time in 
the neighborhood, were sent as prisoners to 
Detroit, where Ensign Christie soon made his 


During the interval between the summer 
and fall of 1763 many barbarities were com- 
mitted by the Indians upon the white settlers. 
Late in tliat year a covenant was made with 
the tribes of New York and Western Penn- 
sylvania, but hostilities, though not upon an 
extended scale, were soon renewed. Early in 
1764, a British army of 8,000, under the com- 
mand of (Jen. Bradstreet, passed up the lake 
in canoes. They stopped at Presque Isle and 
dragged their canoes across the neck of the 
peninsula to avoid paddling several miles 
around. After relieving Detroit, Bradstreet 
returned to Presque Isle, where, on the 1:2th 
of August, 1764, he made a treaty of peace 
with the Dela wares and Shawnees, which 
was scarcely signed till it was broken. 

No authentic record of events in this sec- 
tion can be found from that date until 1794. 
The fort appears to have been abandoned, 
and it is probable that the English made no 
attempt to exercise more than nominal control 
over the country. 



The treaty of peace with Great Britain, 
which secured the independence of the United 
States, was made in 1788. By its provisions 
the British Government abandoned all claim 
to the western country, and agreed to with- 
draw its troops and yield up the forts, block- 
houses and other military structures. In Oc- 
tober, 1784, a treaty was made with the vSix 
Nations by which they relinquished to Penn- 
sylvania all of the northwestern part of the 
State to a line parallel with the southern 
boundary of New York. By another treaty, 
made on the 9th of January, 1789, with a por- 
tion only of the Six Nations, they acknowl- 
edged " the right of soil and jurisdiction to 
and over" the Triangle " to be vested in the 
State of Pennsylvania." Some dissatisfaction 
having arisen among the Seneca tribe in 
consequence of this act, the Legislature em- 
powered the Governor to draw a warrant for 
$800 in favor of Cornplanter, Half Town and 



Big Tree, in trust for the use of the tribe and 
in full satisfaction of all demands, in consider- 
ation of which the said chiefs, on the 8d of 
February, 1791, signed a release of all claims 
against the State for themselves and their peo- 
ple forever. On the M of March, 1792, the 
Triangle was purchased from the United States 
by the Commonwealth, and a month later an 
act of Assembly was passed to encourage its 
setilement by white people. State troops, to 
facilitate this puipose, were first stationed at 
LeBa?uf early in May, 1794. 


The treaty which ceded the territory em- 
braced in the Triangle was very obnoxious to 
a large portion of the Six Nations, among the 
most hostile being Joseph Brant, head of the 
Mohawk tribe. On the other hand. Corn- 
planter, the Seneca chief, was friendly to the 
Americans, and it was mainly through his ef- 
forts that another war with the Indians was 
averted. Early in 1794, an Indian council 
was held at Buffalo to protest against the set- 
tlement at Presque Isle, on the result of which, 
it was given out, would depend the issue of 
peace or war. To this council Cornplanter, 
whom Brant was seeking to win to his side, 
W'as invited. It was attended by Gen. Israel 
Chapin, United States Superintendent of the 
Six Nations, who wrote to the Secretary of 
War: "lam afraid of the consequences of 
the attempt to settle Presque Isle at present. 
The Indians do not acknowledge the validity 
of the Cornplanter sale to Pennsylvania." By 
request of the council, he went to LeBoeuf on 
or about the 26th of June, 1794, accompanied 
by Mr. Johnson, British Indian Agent, and 
twenty-five chiefs and warriors, the purpose 
of the latter being to remonstrate with the 
State officers at that post against the placing 
of garrisons in the Northwest. The repre- 
sentatives of the Six Nations claimed to be 
anxious to live at peace with the United 
States, but pretended to be much disturbed by 
the presence of the troops, fearing that it 
would involve them in strife with the hostile 
Indians. They were assured by Ellicott and 
Denny, the state officers at LeBicuf, that the 
soldiers could not move from there till or- 
dered, and that they would await the com- 
mands of their superiors in authority. The 
council adjourned without accomplishing any- 
thing of a definite character. Another Indian 

council was held at LeBoeuf on the 4th of 
July, 1794, at w-hich the chiefs reiterated their 
purpose of preventing a garrison being sta- 
tioned at Presque Isle. 

Wayne's vicTduv settled all trouble. 
The savages continued to be sullen and 
threatening for some months. .Several raid.s 
were made upon the southern settlements, 
among others on Cussewago, near the Craw- 
ford county line. A Mr. Dickson, living 
near there, was fired upon by a party of In- 
dians on the 10th of September. Twelve 
soldiers, sent from LeBunif for the protection 
of the settlement, were fired upon, and the 
Indians drove oft' several horses. 

Matters remained in this alarming condi- 

I tion till October, when news reached LeBopuf 

I of Wayne's victory on the Maumee. This had 
a wonderful effect on the Indians of our vicin- 

; ity. A number of warriors of the Six Nations 
had taken part in the fight, and the reports 
they brought back of Wayne's fighting quali- 
ties had a disheartening effect upon their com- 
rades. The .Senecas, who had been strongly 
urged to go into the war, gave the messengers 
a peremptory refusal. Notwithstanding this 
decision, disturbances broke out on several 

j occasions. On Saturday, the 29th of May, 
1795, four men who were journeying from 
LeBwuf to Presque Isle were attacked 
near the present Union depot in Erie, by a 
party of Indians, in retaliation, it is supposed, 
because some of their friends had been fired 

i upon by wliites along the Allegheny. Ralph 
Rutledge, one of the number, was killed and 
scalped, and his body was interred on a piece 
of rising ground on the west side of State 

i street, near its junction with Turnpike. His 
son was also shot and scalped, but lived to be 
taken to the fort at LeBoeuf, where he died. 

i This is the last Indian difficulty known to 
have taken place in the county. 

A treaty of peace was effected with the 
Western tribes by Gen. Wayne at Greenville, 
Ohio, on the 3d of August, 1795, and another 
was made with the Six Nations at Canan- 
daigua, X. Y., on the 9th of November en- 

1 villages and graveyards of the INDIANS. 

There is no evidence that any large num- 

' ber of Indians ever made their abode within 

the limits of Erie county after it became 



known to the whites. In 1795, there were 
Indian villages on Mill creek, and at the head 
of the bay, each numbering from twentj' to 
thirty families. Other villages were located at 
Waterford and Cranesville. 

On the Scouller farm, in the southeast cor- 
ner of the city, was an Indian graveyard, 
where the boys of fifty years ago used to dig 
into the mounds and gather bones as relics. 
The first field east of the burial ground was 
cleared in 1821. For some years after it was 
a frequent thing to find stone hatchets and 
other rude implements of the aborigines. It 
was the custom for many years after the in- 
coming of the whites, for parties of Indians 
to camp near by and indulge in peculiar rites 
in commemoration of their ancestors. The 
last Indian encampment was in June, 1841, 
when about a dozen Indians spent a couple of 
days on the site. 

Indian graves, arrow heads, pieces of pot- 
tery, and other curiosities have been found in 
a grave on the Hunter place, bordering French 
creek, in LeBoeuf township. A graveyard 
was opened on the Ebersole farm, east of 

Erie City, which contained numerous bones, 
beads and other Indian remains. All of the 
bodies were in a sitting position. Graves 
have been foimd in spots all along the Ridge 
road from Ebersole's woods to State street in 

Early in the century occasional bodies of 
Indians passed through the county on friendly 
visits between the New York and the West- 
ern tribes. Parties of 100 to 150 red men, 
women and children are known to have en- 
camped on the parks in the City of Erie. 

ixniAX PuncirAsp;s. 

The land in tiic northern and northwestern 
parts of the State was purchased from the Si.x 
Nations by commissioners appointed by the 
Legislature, who met in conference with the 
Indians at Fort Stanwix (now Rome), N. Y., 
and concluded a treaty in October, 1784. This 
action of the Six Nations was confirmed by a 
treaty made with the Delawares and Wj'an- 
dots at Fort Mcintosh in January, 1785. 
Neither of these purchases covered the terri- 
tory known as " The Triangle." 


iND Death of Gkx. A: 

THIS work would not be complete with- 
out a sketch of the career of Gen. An- 
thony Wayne, whose last sickness, 
death and burial are inseparably asso- 
ciated with the history of Erie county. 
He was born in the, township of Eastown, 
Chester county, Pa., on the 1st of January, 
1745. After receiving a good education, 
he embraced the profession of a surveyor, 
at which lie was engaged for a brief period in 
his native county. A member of the Assem- 
bly in 1774, and of the Provincial Convention 
in the same year, to consider the troubles with 
Great Britain, he became one of the Commit- 
tee of Safety in 1775. Believing war to be 
inevitable, he resigned his civil office in Sep- 
tember, and, after some time spent in military 

study and practice, raised a regiment, of which 
he was commissioned colonel. His first serv- 
ice was with Gen. SulliNan in the spring of 
1776, and he bore a brilliant part in the battle 
of Three Rivers, Canada. When the expedi- 
j tion returned, he was placed in charge of the 
posts of Ticonderoga and Mt. Independence. 
In February, 1777, he was commissioned a 
brigadier general, and served with Washing- 
ton in the New Jersej' and Delaware Valley 
campaign. On the 20th of September, 1777, 
while stationed at Paoli, near his Ciiester 
county home, with a detachment of 1,500 
men, "his position was betrayed by some tories 
to the enemy, who fell upon him during the 
night and killed and wounded one-tenth of his 
command. A court-martial convened bv Gen. 

^A^^^-dL^^^^-^ cV^ 



Washington, at Wayne's urgent request, de- 
cided, after minute investigation, tliat he did 
everything that could be expected from an 
active, brave and gallant officer under the 
orders which he then had. 


He led the attack of the American right 
wing at Germantown, and received the special j 
applause of Washington for his conduct at ■ 
■Monmouth. His surprise and capture of i 
vStony Point, one of the strongest British posi- ' 
tions on the Hudson, was among the most gal- 
lant events of the war, and elicited resolutions 
of thanks from Congress and the Legislature 
of Pennsylvania. His last sphere of duty 
during the Revolution was in Georgia, from 
which he succeeded in driving the enemy- He 
was distinguished in all councils of war for 
supporting the most energetic measures, from 
which, and from his wonderful dash and cour- 
age, he won the popular appellation of " Mad j 
Anthony." At the close of the war, he re- ! 
tired to his farm in Chester count^^ He was 
called in 1789 to serve in the Pennsylvania i 
convention, and in that body earnestly advo- i 
cated the adoption of the United States Con- ; 


In the year 1792, Wayne was commis- 
sioned major general by President Washing- 
ton and assigned to the Northwestern frontier, 
for the purpose of forcing the Indians into 
subjection. After various minor engage- 
ments, he gained a signal victory over the sav- 
ages on the Maumee, in August, 1794. His 
skill, promptness and bravery made a strong 
impression among the hostile tribes, and they 
hastened to sue for forgiveness. He was then 
appointed sole commissioner to deal with them 
on the part of the United States, and effected 
a treaty of peace at Greenville, Ohio, in 1795, 
which paved the way for the settlement of 
northwestern Pennsvlvania and northern Ohio. 


In the fall of 1796 he embarked in a small 
vessel at Detroit for Presque Isle, now Erie, 
on his way homeward. During his passage 
down the lake, he was attacked with the gout, 
which had afflicted him for .some years, and 
Tieen much aggravated by his exposure in the 

Western wilds. The vessel being without 
suitable remedies, he could obtain no relief, 
and on landing at Presque Isle was in a dan- 
gerous condition. By his own request, he was 
taken to the block house, the attic of which 
had been fitted up as a sleeping apartment. 
Dr. J. C. Wallace, who had served with him 
as a surgeon during his Indian campaign, and 
who was familiar with his disease, was then 
stationed at Fort Fayette, near Pittsburg. The 
general sent a messenger for the doctor, and 
the latter started instantly for Erie, but on 
reaching Franklin was astonished to learn 
the news of his death, which occurred on the 
15th of December, 1796. Two days after his 
death the body was buried, as he directed, in 
a plain coffin, with his uniform and boots on, 
at the foot of the flagstaff of the block house. 
The top of the coffin was marked, "A. W., 
O. B., December 15, 1796," in round-headed 
brass tacks, driven into the wood. At the 
time of his decease Wayne was the ranking 
officer of the United States army. 


In the spring of 1809, Col. Isaac Wayne, 
the general's son, came to Erie, through what 
was then a wilderness, for the purpose of re- 
moving the remains to Chester county. He 
engaged Dr. Wallace, the same one spoken of 
above, to attend to the disinterment and pre- 
paration of the remains, and gave him entire 
charge of the operation, declining to witness 
it on the giound that he preferred to remem- 
ber his father as as he knew him when living. 
On opening the grave, all present were amazed 
to find the body petrified, with the e.xception 
of one foot and leg, which were partially gone. 
The boot on the unsound leg had decayed and 
most of the clothing was missing. Dr. Wal- 
lace separated the body into convenient parts 
and placed them in a kettle of boiling water 
until the flesh could be removed from the bones. 
He then carefully scraped the bones, packed 
them in a small bo.x and returned the flesh, 
with the implements used in the operation, to 
the coffin, which had been left undisturbed, 
and it was again covered over with earth. 
The box was secured to Col. Wayne's sulky 
and carried to Eastern Pennsylvania, where 
the contents were deposited in a second grave 
among those of the general's deceased relatives. 

In explanation of Dr. Wallace's course, it 
is argued that the remains had to be placed in 


as small a space as possible, to accommodate 
the means of conveyance. Col. Wayne is 
reported to have said, in regard to the affair: 
" I always regretted it ; had I known the state 
the remains were in before separated I think 
1 should certainly have had them again depos- 
ited there and let them rest, and had a monu- 
ment erected to his memory. " 


About the year 1878 Dr. Germer, for many 
years Health Officer of the city of Erie, ascer- 
tained the site of the block-house, which had 
long before disappeared with the other struc- 
tures, and digging down at the foot of the 
flagstaff readily found the grave and coffin. 
The lid of the coffin, with the initials, etc., 
before described, upon it, was fairly preserv- 
ed, but the balance had mostly rotted away. 
Largely through the efforts of Dr. Germer 
and Capt. Welsh, an appropriation was ob- 
tained from the Legislature, with which a 
substantial log block-house in imitation of the 
original was built in 1880, to mark the site, 
and the grounds were surrounded by a railing 
with cannon at each of the four corners. The 
grave has been neatly and substantially built 
up with stone, and the coffin lid, with other 
relics of the early days, is carefullj- sheltered 
within the block house — the whole forming as 
appropriate a monument to the hero as could 
well be devised. The block-house is on the 
grounds of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, 
and is open to visitors during certain hours of 
each week dav. 


The Wayne familj' burial ground, where 
the bones of the gallant General repose, is in 
the cemetery attached to St. David's Episco- 
pal Church, at Radnor, Delaware county, not 
far from the Chester county line, less than an 
hour's walk from Waj'ne Station, on the 
Pennsylvania R. R., and fourteen miles west 
from Philadelphia. A plain granite shaft, 
with a pyramid cap, has been erected over 
the remains, one side of which contains the 
following inscription : 






A. D. 1745. 















FuExcH AND English Occupation. 

AS early as KUl-li' Sieur do Cham- 
plain, an athenturou.s Frenchman, as- 
cended the chain of lakes as far as 
Lake Huron. At a period extending 
from 1()L>0 to 1640 the Indians were 
\ isitod by numerous French Catholic priests, 
among whom were the celebrated Joliet and 
Marquette, on the double mission of spread- 
ing the Gospel and promoting the interests of 
their king and nation. In 1679 La Salle 
launched the schooner Griffin in Niagara 
river, and sailed with a picked body of men to 
Green bay, in Lake Michigan. A French 
post was established at Mackinaw in 1G84. 
The dominion of the country was not wholly 
given over to the French by the English until 
1T53. The French did a large trade with the 
Indians by exchanging beads, goods, pro- 
visions, guns and ammunition for furs. 

Although the French possession was un- 
disturbed for years, it must not be inferred 
that it was quietly acquiesced in by the Eng- 
lish. The French claimed that their discovery 
of the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi en- 
titled them to the ownership of the territory 
bordering upon those streams and their tribu- 
taries. The English claim was based upon a 
grant by King James I, in 1606, to "divers 
of his subjects, of all the countries between 
north latitude 48 deg. and 34 deg., and west- 
ward from the Atlantic ocean to the South 
sea," and also upon purchases of Western 
lands made from the Six Nations by commis- 
sioners from Pennsylvania, Maryland and 
Virginia, representing the mother country^ 
A long and sometimes acrimonious contro- 
versy was waged between the foreign depart- 
ments of the two nations over the question. 


Up to the year 1749 the French had done 
nothing of an official nature looking to the 

occupation of the country between Lake Erie 
and the Ohio. Their discoverers had taken 
possession of it long before in the name of the 
king, and from that time it had been a sort of 
common tramping ground for traders of both 
nations, without being directly subject to the 
control of either. In the year named Capt. 
Celeron, with a detachment of 800 men, was 
sent by the Captain General of Canada to 
" renew the French possession " of the Ohio 
and its tributaries. He came up Lake Erie to 
the mouth of Chautauqua creek, from which 
point he crossed over to the Allegheny. De- 
scending the latter river and the Ohio as far 
as the Muskingum, he deposited leaden plates 
at the mouths of some of the most important 
streams, as a "monument of renewal of pos- 
session," and as a mark for the guidance of 
those who might follow him. The expedition 
caused much alarm among the Indians, who 
regarded it as the beginning of a scheme to 
" steal their country," and also created much 
commotion throughout the English colonies. 


The final occupation by the French began 
in the spring of 1753. The expedition was in 
charge of three young officers — Sieur Marin, 
commander, and Major Pean and the Cheva- 
lier Mercier, assistants — and consisted, ac- 
cording to various authorities, of from 250 to 
800 men. The little army marched up Lake 
Erie by land and ice to Presque Isle, where it 
was decided to build a fort and establish a 
base of supplies. The reasons which prompt- 
ed the selection of Presque Isle were the short 
portage to Lake LeBoouf and the facility with 
which canoes could be floated down French 
creek from the latter to the Allegheny. 

On the 3d of August the fort at Presque 
Isle was finished, the Portage road, six leagues 
long, was " ready for carriages," the store- 
house, half way across, was in a condition to 


receive stock, and the fort at LeBoeuf was 
nearly completed. The Indians willingly as- 
sisted in the transportation of the stores. 
Among the soldiers was one Stephen Coffin, 
who gives the following account of the Fi-ench 
Fort Presque Isle : "It was of chestnut logs, 
squared and lapped over each other to the 
height of fifteen feet, about 120 feet on the 
sides, with a log house in each corner, and 
had gates in the north and south sides." 


The Commander-in-Chief, Marin, died in 
the fall of 1753, soon after the main body of 
the troops started on their return to Can- 
ada, leaving the forts at Presque Isle and Le- 
Bceuf respectively in charge of Capt. Riparti 
and Commander St. Pierre. The latter was 
visited during the winter by a gentleman who 
afterward rose to the first place in American 
love and history. This was no less a person- 
age than George Washington, then in his 
twenty- first year, who was accompanied by 
Christopher Gist, an experienced white fron- 
tiersman, and one Indian interpreter. They 
reached LeBcpuf on the 11th of December and 
remained till the 16th, during which time Capt. 
Riparti was called over from Presque Isle to 
confer with Washington and St. Pierre. 
Washington's treatment, though formal, was 
courteous and kind, and he has left on record 
in his journal a warm compliment to the gen- 
tlemanly character of the French officers. 
The object and result of Washington's mission 
are given in the following letters, the first be- 
ing the one he was charged with delivering to 
the Commander-in-Chief of the French forces 
by Gov. Dinwiddle, of Virginia, and the sec- 
ond the reply of St. Pierre : 

uinwiddie's letter. 

October 31, 1753. 
Sir: The lands upon the River Ohio, in the 
western part of the colony of Virg-inia, are so no- 
toriously known to be the property of the crown 
of Great Britain that it is a matter of equal con- 
cern and surprise to ine to hear that a body of 
French forces are erecting^ fortresses and making- 
settlements upon that river within His Majesty's 
dominions. The many and repeated complaints I 
have received of these acts of hostility lay me un- 
der the necessity of sending-, in the name of the 
King, my master, the bearer hereof, George 
Washington, Esq., one of the Adjutants General 
of the forces of this dominion, to complain to you 
(if the encroachments thus made, and of the in- 
juries done to the subjects of Great Britain, in 

violation of the law of nations and the treaties 
subsisting between the two crowns. If these facts 
are true and you think fit to justify your proceed- 
ings, I must desire you to acquaint me by whose 
authority and instructions you have lately 
marched from Canada with an armed force and 
invaded the King of Great Britain's territory, in 
the manner complained of; that, according to the 
purport and resolution of your answer, I may act 
agreeably to the commission I am honored with 
from the King, my master. However, sir, in obe- 
dience to my instructions, it becomes my duty to 
require your peaceable departure ; and that you 
would forbear prosecuting a purpose so interrup- 
tive of the harmony and good understanding 
which His Majesty is desirous to continue and cul- 
tivate with the most Christian King, etc. 

Robert Dinwiddie. 



From the Fort on the River au Bojue, ) 
December IS, 1753. f 
Sir: As I have the honor of commanding 
here as chief, Mr. Washington delivered to me 
the letter which you wrote to the commander of the 
French troops. I should have been glad that you 
had given him orders, or that he had been inclined 
to proceed to Canada to see our General, to whom 
it better belongs than to me to set forth the evi- 
dence and the reality of the rights of the King, 
my master, to the lands situate along the River 
Ohio, and to contest the pretensions of the King 
of Great Britain thereto. I shall transmit your 
letter to the Marquis DuOuesne. His answer will 
be a law to me. And if he shall order me to com- 
municate it to you, sir, you may be assured I shall 
not fail to dispatch it forthwith to you. As to the 
summons you send me to retire, I do not think myself 
obliged to obey it. Whatever may be your inten- 
tions, I am here by virtue of the orders of my Gen- 
eral, and I entreat you, sir, not to doubt one mo- 
ment but that I am determined to conform myself 
to them with all the exactness and resolution 
which can be expected from the best officer. I do 
not know that in the progress of this campaign 
anything has passed which can be reputed an act 
of hostility, or that is contrary to the treaties 
which subsist between the two crowns ; the con- 
tinuance whereof interests and pleases us as 
much as it does the English. Had you been 
pleased, sir, to descend to particularize the facts 
i which occasioned your complaint, I should have 
j had the honor of answering you in the fullest, 
I and, I am persuaded, the most satisfactory man- 
ner, etc. Legardeur de St. Pierre. 
I [A 'further account of Washington's visit 
will be found under the heading of Water- 
! ford.] 


Both sides were busily engaged during the 
winter in preparing for the war which was 
now inevitable. The French plan was to es- 
tablish a chain of fortifications from Qiiebec 
along Lakes Ontario and Erie and the waters 


of French creek and the Allegheny to the 
junction of the last-named stream with the 
Monongahela, and thence along the Ohio and 
Mississippi, to the Gulf of Mexico. Provi- 
sions, arms and ammunition were sent from 
Qiiebec to Presque Isle, and from there dis- 
tributed to the lower forts. 

As soon as the weather would permit in 
the spring of 1754, troops were moved by bith 
sides in the direction of the Ohio. The first 
French detachment to reach Pittsburgh, then 
known as the " Forks of the Ohio," was on 
tiie 17th of April. It consisted of 1,000 French 
and Indians, with eighteen cannon. Tiieir 
route was from Presque Isle to LeBoeuf, thence 
down French creek and the Allegheny. The 
English had put up a stockade at the "Forks of 
the Ohio," now Pittsburgh, during the winter, 
which was unfinished and guarded only by an 
ensign and forty-one men. This small body 
immediately surrendered. On the 3d or 4th 
of July, 500 English capitulated to the French 
at Fort Necessity, in Fayette county, after an 
engagement of about ten hours. The French 
seem to have been uniformly successful in the 
campaign of 1754. Deserters from their ranks 
reported that the number of French and 
Indians in the country during the year was 
about 2,000. On the 9th of July, 1755, Brad- 
dock's defeat took place near Pittsburgh, an 
event which raised the French hopes to a 
pitch of the utmost exultation, and seemed for 
the time to destroy all prospect of English 
ascendency in the West. 

DuQiiesne, in a letter of July 6, 1755, says: 
" The fort at Presque Isle serves as a depot for 
all others on the Ohio. * * The effects are 
put on board pirogues at Fort LeBoeuf. * * 
At the latter fort tiie prairies, which are ex- 
tensive, furnish only bad hay. * * At 
Presque Isle the hay is very abundant and 
good. The quantity of pirogues constructed 
on the River AuBoeuf has exhausted all the 
large trees in the neighborhood." 

THE FRENCH IN 175(5-7 AND 1758. 

A prisoner who escaped from the Indians 
in 1756 described Fort LeBoeuf as "garrisoned 
with 150 men, and a few straggling Indians. 
Presque Isle is built of square logs filled up 
with earth ; the barracks are within the fort, 
and garrisoned with 150 men, supported chiefly 
from a French settlement begun near it. The 
settlement consists of about one hundred fami- 

lies. The Indian families about the settlement 
are pretty numerous ; they have a priest and 
schoolmaster, and some grist mills and stills in 
the settlement."' The village here referred to 
w-as on the east bank of Mill creek, a little 
back from the lake, almost on a line with Pa- 
rade street. 

No events of importance occurred in this 
section in 1757 or '8. The forts were gar- 
risoned by small bodies of men ; but a consider- 
able force was maintained on the line between 
tlie lake and the Ohio. The supplies for the 
troops were brought by canoes, creeping along 
the south shore of the lake, from Buff"alo. The 
forts were allowed to get out of repair and 
could easily have been captured. 


An Indian spy employed by the English 
in 1758 gave some additional particulars of 
the fort at Presijue Isle. " It is," he said, 
" square, with four bastions * * * The 
wall is only of single logs, with no bank with- 
in — a ditch without. * * * The magazine 
is a stone hause covered with shingles, and 
not sunk in the ground, standing in the right 
bastion, next the lake. * * * The other 
houses are of square logs."' Fort LeBoeuf he 
described as of " the same plan, but very 
small — the logs mostly rotten. Platforms are 
erected in the bastions, and loopholes properly 
cut; one gun is mounted in a bastion, and 
looks down the river. It has only one gate, 
and that faces the side opposite the creek. 
The magazine is on the right of the gate, go- 
ing in, partly sunk in the ground, and above 
are some casks of powder to serve the Indians. 
Here are two officers, a storekeeper, clerk, 
priest and 150 soldiers, who have no employ- 
ment." [See Waterford.] 


The English made sufficient progress dur- 
ing 1758 in the direction of the Ohio to com- 
pel the French to evacuate Fort DuQiiesne on 
the 22d of November. By this time the In- 
dians had lost confidence in the triumph of 
the French, and manj' were either siding witli 
the English or pretending to be neutral. The 
English finally besieged Fort Niagara below 
Buffalo, com-pelling the French to withdraw 
1,200 men from Detroit, Presque Isle and Ven- 
ango for its defense. Its capture by the English 
astonished and terrified the French in this sec- 


tion. A messenger reached Presque Isle from 
Sir William Johnson, the victorious English 
commander, notifying the officer in charge 
tliat the other posts must surrender in a few 
days. The French began making hasty prepa- 
rations for departure. Their principal stores 
at Presque Isle were sent up the lake August 
13, 1759, and the garrison waited a brief time 
for their comrades at LeBceuf and Venango, 
when the entire army left in batteaux for 

The English did not take formal posses- 
sion of Forts Presque Isle and LeBceuf until 
17G0, when Major Rogers was sent out for 
that purpose. A treaty of peace was signed 
at Paris in 1763, b}- which the French ceded 
Canada and confirmed the Western country 
to the British Crown. The Indians did not 
take kindly to the British, and eventually 
made a concerted effort to drive them out of 
the country, as detailed in another chapter, 
hut failed of success. 

Col. Bradstreet, with an army of 3,000, 
arrived at Presciue Isle in August, 1764, and 
met a band of Shawnees and Delawares, who 
agreed to articles of peace and friendship. 
These proceedings seem to have been entered 
into by the savages merely as a deception, for 
iu a short time they renewed hostilities. An- 
other expedition, under Col. Boquet, was 
fitted out, and punished the troublesome tribes 
so severely that they were glad to accept the 
conditions offered them. 

The independence of the United States 
was acknowledged by Great Britain in 1783. 
By the treaty of peace the mother country 
abandoned all pretensions to the western re- 
gion. Her officers in Canada, however, still 
retained a hope of the ultimate return of the 
colonies to the protection of the British 
crown. The English had, by this date, won 
tiie confidence of the Indians, who were kept 
iiostile to the Americans by representations 
that Great Britain would vet resume posses- 

sion of the country. As late as 1785 Mr. 
Adams, our minister at London, complained 
to the English Secretary of State that though 
two years had elapsed since the definitive 
treaty, the forts at Presque Isle, Niagara and 
elsewhere on the northern frontier were still 
held by British garrisons. The actual Ameri- 
can occupation dates from 1795. 


While the British occupied the countrj' 
they put Fort Presque Isle in repair and kept it 
up until after our National Independence was 
acknowledged, soon after which it fell into 
ruin. Its site was easily traceable as late as 
1863, by mounds and depressions on the bank 
of the lake near the mouth of Mill creek on 
its west side. 

The fort at LeBceuf stood within the pres- 
ent limits of Waterford borough, on the brow 
of the hill above LeBceuf creek, nearly in line 
with the iron bridge across that stream. A 
! ravine, which has since been partially filled 
up, extended along its north side, down which 
flowed a rivulet, leading Washington to de- 
scribe the fort as standing on " a kind of an 
island." Practically the same site was success- 
ively occupied by the English and Americans. 
The French road commenced at the mouth 
of Mill creek, extended up that stream a short 
distance, and then struck oft' to the higher 
land, nearly following the line of Parade 
street. A branch road led from the south 
gate of the fort, and connected with the main 
j road in the hollow of Mill creek. From the 
I southern end of Parade street the main road 
I ran across Mill Creek township to the present 
I Waterford plank road. Leaving the latter, 
I the French road took across the hills and ter- 
1 minated at the gate of Fort LeBceuf, near 
I where the Eagle Hotel stands. The route 
known as the French road in Summit town- 
ship is understood to be exactly on the line of 
its historical original. The road was laid out 
thirty feet wide, and was "corduroyed"' 
throughout most of its length. 


Purchase of the Triaxgi.e. 

THE limits of Pennsylvania are describ- 
ed in the charter granted by King 
Charles II. to William Penn as " three 
degrees of latitude in breadth, and five 
degrees of longitude in length, the 
eastern boundary being the Delaware river, 
the northern the beginning of the three and 
fortieth degree of northern latitude ; on the 
south a circle drawn at twelve miles dis- 
tance from New Castle (Delaware) northward 
and westward unto the beginning of the for- 
.tieth degree of northern latitude, and then by 
a straight line westward to the limits of longi- 
tude above mentioned." 

The boundaries of the State were long a 
subject of earnest and sometimes bitter dis- 
pute. Fiftj- years before the grant to Penn, 
King James f. granted to the Plymouth Com- 
pany " all the land lying in the same latitude 
with Connecticut and Massachusetts, as far 
west as the Pacific ocean, not previously set- 
tled by other Christian powers." Under the 
construction placed upon this clause by Con- 
necticut, more than one-third of Pennsylvania, 
including the whole northern part, belonged 
to that province. The dispute was finally 
settled by the action of Congress, which ap- 
pointed Commissioners in 1782, to investigate 
the subject, who reported that "Connecticut 
has no right to the land in controversv." 


Pennsylvania and New York, in 1785, mu- 
tually agreed upon commissioners to determine 
and establish the east and west boundary line 
between the two States, being the forty-sec- 
ond degree of latitude. The con^missioners 
who finally did the work, which was con- 
firmed by the Legislatures of both States, were 
Andrew Ellicott on the part of Pennsylvania, 
and James Clinton and Simeon DeWitt on 
that of New York. They surveyed the entire 

line from the Delaware to Lake Erie, planting 
a stone every mile, with the distance from the 
river marked upon it, and marking mile trees 
in the same manner. The distance from the 
point of departure to where the north line of 
Pennsylvania terminated on tlie shore of Lake 
Erie in Springfield township, tiiis county, was 
found to be 259 miles and eiglity-eight perches. 

The charter of New York defined its west- 
ern boundary as extending from the soutli 
shore of Lake Erie to the forty-second degree 
of latitude, on a line drawn from the western 
extremity of Lake Ontario. In determining 
this line it became necessary to agree whether 
the " western extremity of Lake Ontario" in- 
cluded Burlington bay, or was at the Penin- 
sula dividing the latter from the lake. An- 
drew Ellicott and Frederick Saxton, the sur- 
veyors sent out to establish the boundary, de- 
cided upon the peninsula as the proper point 
from which to draw the line, and the western 
boundary of New York was therefore fixed at 
twenty miles east of Presque Isle. This left 
a triangular tract, which was not included in 
the charter of either State, and which was 
variously claimed bj' New York. Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut. 


At an early period. Gen. William Irvine 
was sent to the Northwest by the authorities 
of Pennsylvania to examine into the quality 
of its lands and report upon the best manner 
of putting them into the market. While upon 
this tour he was struck with the fact tiiat the 
State had no harbor upon the lake, and the 
great desirability of securing the one at 
Presque Isle. On his return to the East he 
interested a number of intelligent and pro- 
gressive citizens in the project of purchasing 
the Triangle. After a protracted negotiation, 


New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut 
released their claims to the United States gov- 
ernment, and the latter, in turn, conveyed the 
tract to Pennsylvania. The contract for the 
sale of the Triangle, made between the Rep- 
resentatives of the United States and Penn- 
sylvania was ratified by Congress on the 4th 
o'f September, 1788. On the 18th of April, 

1791, the Governor was authorized by the Leg- 
islature to complete the purchase. March 3, 

1792, a patent was issued to the State, signed 
by George Washington as President, and 
Thomas Jefi"erson as Secretary of State. The 
consideration was $151,()40.25, in Continental 
certificates, which were much below par. 

TllK INDl 


Pending the negotiations with the general 
government, the State authorities proceeded 
to secure a release of the Triangle tract from 
the Six Nations, which was only effected after 
a protracted effort. The conference for this 
purpose with the chiefs and warriors of the 
several tribes was held on the 9th of January, 
1789, and the deed from the Indians appears 
to have been signed sometime during the same 
month.' The price paid to the Six Nations 
was $2,000 bv Pennsvlvania and $1,200 by the 
United States. 

The cession of the Triangle gave offense to 
a portion of the Indians, who claimed that they 
had not been fairly represented in the council. 
There was a great deal of talk among them of 
resisting its occupancy by the State, and at one 
time matters looked really serious. On the8d 
of February, 1791, Cornplanter, Half Town. 

and Big Tree executed a second instrument, 
in which, after reciting the dissatisfaction 
that existed among the Seneca nation, they 
acknowledged the receipt of IStK) as full satis- 
faction of all claims and demands by their na- 
tion against the commonwealth. 


The Triangle, which includes the city of 
Erie and the Peninsula, extends some forty- 
three miles in a straight line along the lake, and 
is about eighteen miles in breadth along the 
New York boundary, tapering from there to a 
point in Springfield township, between four 
and five miles east of the Ohio line. It em- 
braces 202,187 acres, and the United States 
received pay for it at the rate of three-fourths 
of a dollar per acre. The townships included 
in the Triangle are North East, Greenfield. 
Venango, Harbor Creek, Greene, Summit, 
Mill Creek, a small portion of Springfield, 
about two-fifths of Girard and McKean, and 
four-fifths of Fairview. The terminus of the 
Triangle on the shore of Lake Erie was marked 
by a stone in Springfield township. [See map.] 

Some time ago a corps of engineers, repre- 
senting both States, renewed the monuments 
marking the boundary between New York 
and Pennsj'lvania, many of which had been 
destroyed or lost sight of. In the execution 
of their task they made use of blocks of 
Qiiincy granite, about four feet long and six 
inches square at the top, set ordinarily at a dis- 
tance of one mile apart. The letters '"Pa." 
and " N. Y.," about two inches long, face 
Pennsvlvania and New York respectively. 




First Steps Toward the Settlement of Erie Couni 

IN the year 1785 David Watts and William 
Miles were sent under the auspices of the 
State to survey the Tenth Donation Dis- 
trict, embracing portions of Waterford, 
Wayne and Amity townships. March 24, 
1789, it was resolved by the General Assembly 
that not exceeding 8,000 acres should be sur- 
veyed at Presque Isle, LeBreuf and two other 
places for the use of the commonwealth. This 
was followed by the settlement law of the 8d 
of April, 1792, which provided for the survey 
of all the lands north and west of the Alle- 
gheny and Ohio rivers and Conewango creek, 
and their sale upon terms that will be stated 
in another chapter. The Pennsylvania Popula- 
tion Company, formed at Philadelphia ^Iarch 
8, 1792, purchased a large tract of land in the 
Triangle with the object of inducing settlement. 
On the 8th of April, of the same year, the 
Legislature passed and Gov. Mifflin approved 
a bill for laying out a town at Presque Isle. 


Rumors of Indian hostilities induced the 
Legislature February 25, 1794, to authorize 
the Governor to station a detachment of the 
State troops at such place or places at or near 
Presque Isle as might be necessary for the pro- 
tection of the settlers. In accordance with its 
provisions. Gov. Mifflin, on the 1st of March, 
1794, issued a circular to the Brigade Inspectors 
of Washington, Westmoreland and Allegheny 
counties, requiring them to raise men to serve 
eight months, unless sooner discharged, with 
a stipulation that, if necessarj-, they should 
continue in service till the next meeting of the 
Legislature. Four companies were to be or- 
ganized within the district, of whom one cap- 
tain, one lieutenant, twoensigns, six corporals, 
six sergeants and ninety-five privates were to 
be detached for the Presque Isle expedition. 
The command was given to Capt. tbenezer 
Denny, of Allegheny county, who is pre- 
sumed to have seen service in border warfare. 

Gen. William Irvine and Andrew Ellicott 
had been appointed commissioners to lay out 
a road from Reading to Presque Isle. On the 
day the circular was issued they were notified 
that Albert Gallatin had been associated in 
their appointment, and that they three were 
to lay out the town contemplated by the act 
of 1792. The Governor's instructions desired 
them to " promote peace, order and friendship 
with the peaceable Indians or British garrison, 
should any intercourse * * be produced 
by accident or necessity." Capt. Denny was 
required "to comply with every lawful request 
of the commissioners," and was further re- 
minded that the objects of his appointment 
were "strictly those of protection and 



The troops took possession of " the forks 
of French creek, about two miles below the 
old post of LeBojuf," on or near the 11th of 
May, where thej' built a small block-house, 
pending the cutting out of the logs which 
obstructed the navigation of the stream. 
From this point, Gen. John Wilkins, of 
Pittsburgh, who accompanied the expedition, 
wrote on the day of their arrival that " the 
British are determined to oppose the progress 
of the State troops from LeBcpuf to Presque 
Isle by sending a number of Indians and Eng- 
lish to cut them off." In a few days more 
the detachment reached LeBoeuf, where they 
immediatel}- erected two small picketed block- 
houses, which, Wilkins reported, "will make 
them sufficiently strong until the re-enforce- 
ment arrives under Capt. Denny." The 
latter event did not occur until the 24th of 

While these events were ni progress, a 
letter reached Gen. Knox, Secretary ot War 
under President Washington, from Gen. 
Israel Chapin, the United States Commis- 


sioner to the Six Nations, to the effect that 
the British " feel very much alarmed at the 
garrisoning of Presque Isle. * * If the 
garrison destined for that place," wrote 
Chapin, " is not very strong, it is doubtful 
whether it will not be attacked." On the 
9th of May, Gen. Knox wrote to Wilkins and 
Denny, cautioning them to " proceed with the 
utmost vigilance and precaution." The next 
day, he addressed a communication to Gen. 
Mifflin, stating that " affairs are critically 
circumstanced between the United States and 
the Six Nations," and giving it as the opin- 
ion of the President, " on mature reflection, 
that it is advisable to suspend for the present 
the establishment of Presque Isle." In ac- 
cordance with this suggestion, the Governor 
rescinded all orders for drafting men, directed 
the commissioners, who had not yet left 
Pittsburgh, to postpone further proceedings, 
and commanded Denny's detachment to 
remain at LeBoeuf, "unless it should be found 
necessary to retire from the station in order 
to prevent an actual contest with the friendly 

The people of the western counties were 
highly indignant at the suspension of the 
proceedings for settlement, and, without 
knowing the reason that prompted Gov. 
Mifflin, hotly condemned what they called his 
timidity. The Governor, however, soon 
righted himself by spreading the intelligence 
abroad that he had acted in pursuance of a 
special request from President Washington. 


Three days after reaching LeBoeuf, Denny 
asked for "a few militia," on the ground that 
a number of his men at LeBcruf were ill with 
the flux and others had to be detached. To 
the Governor he reported on the 4th of July : 
" Have been busy erecting a stockade post. 
Moved the detachment in 3'esterday. Am 
now beyond the power of any body of hostile 
Indians. None have been around since the 
party on the 24th. Hear firing almost daily, 
but whether friends or foes is uncertain." 
EUicott, who must have arrived soon after 
Denny, wrote on the 1st of August: "The 
Indians consider themselves as our enemies 
and that we are their's. From this consider- 
ation they never come near the garrison ex- 
cept as spies and then escape as soon as dis- 

covered." Denny notified the Governor on 
the same date that they had four block-houses 
at LeBoeuf, on two of which a six-pounder 
was mounted, the others not being calculated 
for cannon. Over each gate was a swivel. 
The officers occupied their tents in the ab- 
sence of more agreeable quarters. The sit- 
uation he regarded as excellent, except that 
there was a hollow way parallel with the 
rear of the works and within gunshot that 
would " cover any number of Indians." This 
was examined every morning before the gates 
were thrown open. The troops at the post 
numbered one hundred and ten, inclusive of 
officers. [See Waterford.] 


A treaty of peace was concluded with the 
Six Nations at Canandaigua, N. Y., on the 
11th of November, in which they unreservedly 
acknowledged the title of Pennsylvania to the 
Triangle, and for themselves and their suc- 
cessors released all claims upon the lands 
within its limits. This happy conclusion was 
much hastened by the terror of Anthony 
Wayne's name and victories. As soon as 
tidings of the treaty reached Washington, 
word was sent by the President to Gov. Mifflin 
that the temporary obstacles to the establish- 
ment were removed. It being too late in the 
season when the good news arrived at LeBopuf 
to do any effective work at Presque Isle, the 
detachment remained at the former post until 
early spring. The force there on the 27th of 
March, 1795, consisted of ninety-nine in all. 

Maj. Craig, of the United States Army, 
stationed at Pittsburg, reported to the Secre- 
tary of War on the 24th of May, 1795, that 
" the State troops at LeBcEuf are nearly all 
disbanded. Capt. Buchanan," he says, " who 
commanded at that post (Denny having left), 
arrived here yesterday with the greater part 
of the men under his command, who are all 
discharged." In Buchanan's communication 
to the Governor, of June 19, he states, how- 
ever, that Lieut. Mehaffey, with twenty-six 
men, marched from Pittsburgh with Commis- 
sioners Irvine and Ellicott toward LeBoeuf. 
He, Buchanan, expected to start that day with 
the balance of the escort. This would imply 
that a new set of men had been enlisted for 
the purpose. 




While Ellicott was at LeBoeuf, in the sum- 
mer of 1794, he laid out the town of Water- 
ford, the plan of which was afterward sanc- 
tioned by the Legislature. An act for laying 
out towns at Presque Isle, LeBoeuf, Venango 
and Conewango (Erie, Waterford, Franklin 
and Warren) passed that body in April, 1795, 
being the second in regard to the first-named 

About two hundred men from Wayne's 
army landed at Presque Isle early in the spring 
of 1795, under command of Capt Russell 
Bissell. They set to work at once, cutting 
timber for block-houses, of which two were 
erected on the bluff overlooking the entrance 

to the harbor, just east of the mouth of Mill 
creek. They also cleared a good deal of land 
to raise corn for the use of the garrison. A 
sawmill was put up, and by 1796 a warehouse 
and stockade were completed. The supplies 
of food, etc., for some time were mainly ob- 
tained by vessel from Detroit. 

In June, 1795, Ellicott and Irvine, com- 
missioners, arrived, accompanied by a corps 
of surveyors, and escorted by State troops 
under command of Capt. John Grubb, to lay 
, out the town of Erie, which was done during 
I that year. Troops remained at the post until 
! 1806, but were few in number. [See chapters 
relating to Erie city and the several townships 
I for a further account of the early settlements.] 


Legislation ix Regard to Land .\nd Early Land Sales. — [See Chapter I, Erie City. 

ONE month after the cession of the Tri- 
angle, in 179:2, the General Assembly 
passed an act for the encouragement 
of emigration to the newly-acquired 
territory. This measure, generally 
known as the "actual settlement law," was 
in substance as follows : 

The lands north and west of the Rivers 
Ohio, Allegheny and Conewango are to be 
sold to any person who will cultivate, improve 
and settle the same, or cause them to be im- 
proved and settled, at £7 10 shillings for 
every hundred acres, witli an allowance of six 
per cent, for roads, etc. 

On application to the Land Office, giving 
a description of the lands applied for, a war- 
rant is to be issued to the applicant for any 
quantity not exceeding 400 acres. 

No title shall vest in the lands unless the 
grantee has, prior to the issuance of his war- 
rant, made or caused to be made, or shall, 
within two years next after the same, make or 
cause to be made an actual settlement thereon, 
by clearing, fencing and cultivating at least 
two acres for every hundred in one survey, 

and erected a house, and resided or caused a 
family to reside on the same for the five years 
immediately following; and in default thereof 
new warrants shall be i.ssued to actual settlers ; 
^'provided, tliat if any siic/i actual settler or 
grantee '' sliall, by force of arms of the enemies 
of the I'll i ted States, be prevented from mak- 
ing- s/ich settlement, or be driven therefrom, 
and shall persist in his endeavors to make 
such actual settlement, then, in either case, he 
and his heirs shall be entitled to have and to 
hold such lands in the same manner as if the 
actual settlement had been made.'' 

The la*ids actually settled and improved to 
remain chargeable with the purchase money 
and interest, and if the grantee shall neglect 
to apply for a warrant for ten years after the 
passage of this act, unless hindered by death 
or the enemies of the United States, the lands 
may be granted to others by warrants reciting 
the defaults. 

land companies. 

Almost simultaneously with the enactment 
of the " actual settlement law,'" the Pennsyl- 


vania Population Company was formed at 
Philadelphia, to settle and dispose of the lands 
in the Triangle. John Nicholson, the famous 
land speculator, was elected president. Pre- 
vious to the organization of the company, Mr. 
Nicholson had applied for 390 warrants in the 
Triangle. These he transferred to the corpo- 
ration, which paid for them and perfected the 
title. The company took up about 500 addi- 
tional warrants in Erie and Crawford coun- 
ties. The lands located by the Population 
Company embraced the whole Triangle except 
the town plot of Erie, the Erie State Reserve, 
the Garrison Reserve and Irvine's Reserva- 
tion, in addition to tracts in the southern part 
of Erie county. The corporation was dis- 
solved in 1814, after the last war with Great 
Britain, and the remaining lands and unset- 
tled contracts for the sale of lands passed into 
the hands of individual members. 

The Population Company, on the 8th of 
March, 1798, issued instructions to their 
agents, offering the following inducements to 
settlers in Erie county : 

A gift of 150 acres each to the first twenty 
families that shall settle on French creek. 

A similar gift to the first twenty families 
that shall settle in " the Lake Erie territory." 

A gift of 100 acres each to the next fifty 
families (after the first twenty) who shall set- 
tle on French creek. 

A similar gift to the next fifty families 
(after the first ten) who shall settle in the 
Lake Erie territory. 

The settlers were privileged to locate on 
any lands of the company they chose, and if 
they cleared at least ten acres, and erected a 
comfortable house thereon, in which they re- 
sided, were to have a deed after two years. 
In case they were driven off by the Indians, 
no part of the two years was to run against 
them, and no title was to vest in any person 
or his heirs who abandoned the lands before 
receiving his deed. 

Thirty thousand acres were offered for sale 
to actual settlers, in tracts not exceeding 300 
acres, at $1 per acre, payable at the option of 
the purchaser, in three years, with interest 
the last two years. 


Some time after the Revolution, a number 
of wealthy gentlemen living in Holland, or- 
ganized under the name of the Holland Land 

Company, purchased of Robert Morris, the 
financier of the Revolution, vast bodies of 
land in western New York and northwestern 
Pennsylvania. They also took up by warrant 
large tracts in Erie and Crawford counties, 
besides those purchased from Morris. The war- 
rants were issued to them at various times in 
1793, 1794 and 1795. The lands of the Holland 
Company in Erie county lay south of the 
Triangle line, across the entire width of the 
county. Maj. Alden, the first agent of the 
company, was succeeded by William Miles. 
In 1815, H. J. Huidekoper, a member of the 
corporation, came on from Holland, took 
charge of the company's affairs, and establish- 
ed his office in Meadville. The lands remain- 
ing unsold were bought by Mr. Huidekoper 
in 1833. William H. Seward, afterward 
famous as a statesman, was agent for the 
company in western New York, having his 
oflice in Mayville or Westfield. 


An association was formed at Harrisburg 
on the 18th of August, 1796, under the title 
of the Harrisburg and Presque Isle Company, 
for the purpose of " settling, improving and 
populating the country near and adjoining 
to Lake Erie." It was limited to ten persons, 
among whom were Richard Swan, Thomas 
Forster, Samuel Laird and William Kelso. 
The company purchased thirty-seven Erie in- 
lots and eight outlots at the public sale at 
Carlisle in August, 1790. They also obtained 
possession of 480 acres at the mouth of Wal- 
nut creek, and of some land at Waterford. 
Mr. Forster came on as agent, in company with 
Mr. Swan, in the spring of 1797, and located 
on the Walnut creek property. By the fall 
of that year, they had a sawmill erected, and 
the next year a gristmill was commenced, 
which was completed in the fall of 1798. 
They laid out a town at the mouth of the 
creek and called it Fairview. Both Forster 
and Swan took up large tracts in the vicinity 
on their own account. The title to a portion 
of the company's property was disputed by 
the Population Company, and, after long 
litigation, the Walnut creek site was sold at 
Sheriff's sale. 


The Legislature in 1783 directed the laying 
out of large tracts in the northwestern and 



western portions of the commonwealth, to be 
known as Donation Districts, and to be ap- 
plied in fulfillment of a promise made on the 
Tth of March, 1780, " to the officers and pri- 
vates belonging to this State in the Federal 
army, of certain donations and quantities of 
land, according to their several ranks, to be 
surveyed and divided off to them, severally, at 
the end of the Revolutionary war." The Do- 
nation District was divided into sub-districts, 
each of which was known by its number. The 
Tenth District commenced about a mile' east 
of the borough of Waterford and extended 
eastward across the present townships of 
Amity and Wayne to the Warren county line. 
It was surveyed on the part of the State, in 
1785, by David Watts and William Miles. 
Few of the soldiers for whose benefit the lands 
were set aside, moved onto them, the patents 
having generally been disposed of at a small 
price to speculators. 


In recognition of its services in maintain- 
ing missionaries at its own expense among 
the Indians, the State, in 1791, voted to " the 
Society of the United Brethren for propaga- 
ting the Gospel among the heathen " — com- 
monly known as the Moravians — two grants 
of land of 2,500 acres each, with allowance, 
to be located respectively on " the River Con- 
nought, near the northwestern part of the 
State," and on " the heads of French creek." 
The society located 2,875 acres in LeBopuf 
township, which they named the "Good 
Luck" tract, and 2,797 in Springfield and 
Conneaut townships, to which they gave the 
title of " Hospitality." These lands were 
leased until 1850, when they were purchased 
by N. Blickensderfer and James Miles. The 
first agent for the Moravians was William 
Miles, of Union, who was succeeded by his 
son James as manager of the " Hospitality," 
and by John Wood, of Waterford, as manager 
of the " Good Luck " tract. 


In laying out the lands of the county for 
settlement, the State reserved four tracts, 
which are briefly described below : 

Irvine's Reservation consisted of 2,000 acres 
in Harbor Creek township, donated by the com- 
monwealth to Gen. William Irvine as a special 
reward for his services during the Revolution. 

The tract which became known as the 
Erie State Reserve commenced at the head of 
the bay and ran south three miles, then east- 
ward, parallel with the lake, eight miles, then 
back to the lake shore three miles, excluding 
the lands originally embraced within the limits 
of Erie. These lands were first surveyed by 
George Moore in 1795, again by John Coch- 
ran in 1796-97. and finally by Thomas Rees in 
1799. The latter laid them out in three tiers 
— the one furthest from the lake consisting of 
150-acre tracts, the second mainly of 130-acre 
tracts, and the last, or nearest to the lake, of 
tracts ranging from 50 to 100 acres. None of 
the lands were sold until 1801, and but few 
before 1804. Those_ who bought earliest paid 
from $3 to $4 per acre; one-fifth in hand, the 
balance in four equal annual payments. One 
party who owned 411 acres deeded the whole 
of it, in 1804, for a male slave. The final sale 
of the Reserve lands took place on the first 
Monday of August, 1888, when a number of 
fifty-acre tracts on the bank of the lake west 
of the city were purchased at from $9 to $22 
per acre. 

The Reserve at Waterford consisted of 1,800 
acres in Waterford township, and 4(X) in Le- 
Ba_'uf. Provision for its sale was made in the 
act of 1799, and most of the tract had passed 
into private hands by 1804. 

The Garrison tract was provided for in the 
act of 1794, for laying out a town at Presque 
Isle, which directed the Governor to reserve 
"out of the lots of the said town so much land 
as he shall deem necessary for public uses ; 
also, so much land, within or out of the said 
town, as may, in his opinion, be wanted by 
the United States for the purpose of erecting 
forts, magazines, arsenals and dock-yards." 
It lies on the bank of the bay on the east side 
of Mill creek, and is now occupied in whole 
or in part by the grounds of the Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Home. 


By an act passed in 1799 it was provided 
that in the sales of land 500 acres should be 
held back from each of the Reserve tracts at 
Erie and Waterford " for the use of such 
schools and academies as may hereafter be es- 
tablished by law" in those towns. The lands 
that fell tothe share of Waterford Academy 
lie in LeBocuf township, at the mouth of Le- 
Bo-uf creek. They were sold oft" about 1840. 


The Erie Academy grant was in Mill Creek 
township, and extended some distance along 
the Waterford turnpike, commencing near the 
present southern boundary of the city. The 
land has mainly passed into the iiands of pri- 
vate owners. 



Under the act of 1792, the territory north 
and west of the Ohio, Allegheny and Cone- 
wango rivers, was divided into five districts, 
each of which was assigned to a deputy sur- 
veyor. District No. 1, embracing the Tri- 
angle, was assigned to Thomas Rees, Jr., 
who left for Presque Isle in the spring of 
1798. After long delay, on account of In- 
dian threats, he reached his destination ; but 
the attitude of the Indians was so hostile, 
and reports of Indian murders so frequent, 
that he abandoned the field and returned to the 
East. In the spring of 1795 Mr. Rees came 
on again, put up a tent at the mouth of 
Mill creek, and resumed his duties as a sur- 
veyor. About this time he was also appointed 
agent for the Population Companj-. He em- 
ployed several assistant surveyors during the 
season, among whom were George Moore and 
David McNair, and by fall reported the sale 
for the company of 74,790 acres to some 200 
different persons. Few of these, however, 
made an immediate settlement upon the land, 
through fear of Indian depredations. Mr. 
Rees resigned both as deputy surveyor and 
agent for the Population Company at the be- 
ginning of 1796, and from that date until tiie 
spring of 1802 served the State as commis- 
sioner for the sale of lots, etc. He was suc- 
ceeded in the first position by John Cochran, 
and in the second by Judah Colt, who con- 
tinued until his death. Mr. Rees took up a 
large tract in Harbor Creek township, about 
one mile south of the present Buffalo road, to 
which he cut a highway in 1797. The sev- 
eral parties who acted on the part of the State 
for the sale of lots and lands were as follows : 

Erie— 1800, Thomas Rees, Jr.; 1802, John 
Kelso; 1805, Thomas Forster ; 1809, Conrad 
Brown; 1810, John Kelso ; 1811, Robert Knox. 

Waterford— 1800, David McNair and 
James Naylor; 1805, John Vincent; 1809, 
Charles Martin ; 1811, James Boyd. 

Wilson Smith was appointed deputy 
surveyor for the town of Erie April 25th, 

Judah Colt, who had been appointed to 
succeed Mr. Rees as agent of the Population 
Compan)', came on in that capacity on the 
1st of July, 1796. He assisted in his 
duties by Elisha and Enoch Marvin. Singu- 
lar to state, they preferred the high lands in 
Greenfield township, and the first permanent 
settlement in the county, outside of Erie and 
W^aterford, was made early in 1797 at Colt's 
Station. [See Greenfield.] Mr. Colt died 
in 1832, and left a large estate. His succes- 
sor for most of the members of the company 
was Judah C. Spencer. A few of the mem- 
bers placed their interests in charge of 
Thomas H. Sill. Dunning McNair estab- 
lished an agency for the company on Con- 
neaut creek in 1797, later in the year than the 
settlement in Greenfield, and made contracts 
with most of the early settlers of that region. 


In 1794 the Legislature passed an act 
which provided that no further applications 
should be received by the land office for any un- 
improved land within the Triangle. This was 
after it had been ascertained that the territory 
was not sufficient to supply the warrants 
issued to the Population Company. The 
same act directed that no warrant should 
issue after the 15th of June of that year, for 
any land within the Triangle except in favor 
of persons claiming byviitueof some settle- 
ment and improvement having been made 
thereon, and that all applications remaining 
in the land office after that date for which 
the purchase money had not been paid, should 
be void. It was stipulated, however, that 
applications might be " received and war- 
rants issued until the 1st of January, 1795, 
in favor of any persons to whom a balance 
might be due in the land office on unsatisfied 
warrants issued before the 29th of March, 
1792, for such quantities of land as might be 
sufficient to discharge such balances;" pro- 
vided, that the act should not be "so con- 
strued as that any warrants, except those 
wherein the land is particularly described, 
should in any manner affect the title of the 
claim of any person having made an actual 
improvement before such warrant was entered 
and surveyed in the Deputy Surveyor's books." 
Another act, passed in September of the 
same year, made it unlawful for any appli- 
cation for lands to be received at the land 


office, after its passage, " except for such 
lands where a settlement has been or here- 
after shall be made, grain raised and a per- 
son or persons residing thereon." 


At an early date David Watts and William 
Miles, the first surveyors under the State, lo- 
cated 1,40C) acres at Wattsburg and 1,200 
acres at Lake Pleasant. In 1796, Mr. Miles 
also purchased four tracts on the lake shore 
from the Population Company, on which he 
agreed to place settlers. Martin Strong, who 
came to the coiintj' in 1795 as a surveyor for 
the Holland Land Company, took up a large 
tract on the ridge, in Waterford and Summit 
townships. David McNair chose 800 acres of 
the Walnut creek flats, at Kearsarge, besides 
other extensive tracts. He at one time owned 
some of the most valuable property in the 
county, including half of what is now South 
Erie. George Fisher, of Dauphin county, se- 
cured a vast body of land in Waterford and 
Washington townships, and William Wallace, 
who was the first lawyer in the county, be- 
came the owner of numerous tracts in various 
townships. Many sales were made by the 
different companies between 1796 and 1799, 
and by 1800 a good share of the county had 
passed into the hands of actual settlers, or 
persons who intended to become such. 


Below is a list of parties who entered into 
agreements with the Population Company for 
the purchase of lands in 1796-97 and 1798, all 
being for full tracts except the one in the 
nameof George Hurst, which was forSOO acres : 

James Baird. 
Russell Bissell, 
Richard Clement, 
Joshua Fairbanks, 
Thomas Gallagher, 
John Grubb, 
Thomas P. Miller, 
Thomas Rees, Jr., 
Beriah Davis, ' 
Elihu Crane, 
Patrick Kenned\-, 
Morrow Lowry, . 
Rowland Rees, 
William M. Grundy, 
James O'Harra, 
Laton Dick, 

George Balfour, 
Negro " Boe," 
Isaac Craig, 
Thomas Forster, 
Thomas Greer, 
Samuel HoUidav, . 
Francis Brawley, 
Abraham Custard, 
Miles Crane, 
Abiathar Crane, 
John Sanderson, • 
William Lee, 
Robert Lowry, 
John Mill, 
Judah Coll, 
Charles John Reed, 

Benjamin Richardson, 
David Hays, 
Francis Scott, 
Joseph McCord, 
George Hurst, 
William Paul, 
Israel Bodine, 
John Kennedy, 
George Nicholson, 
Thomas Dunn, 
Henry Hurst, 
William Dunn, 
Martin Strong, 
Richard Swan, 
J. F. Vollaine, 
John McKee, 
John Oliver, 
Mary Reed, 
Milhall Condon, 
David Long, 
Peter Grasoss, 
Joseph L. Rowley, 
William G. Tysner, 
Freeman Tuttle, 
Hamilton Stone, 
John Anderson, 
John Shaffer, 
Thomas Hughes, 
David Seely, 
John Morris, 
bavid McCullough, 
William Sturgeon, 
Hugh Trimble, 
Robert Brown, 
John Nichols, 
Robert Mclntire, 
Samuel Barker, 
George Tracy, 
Oliver Dunn, 
Oliver Thornton, 
Timothy Tuttle. 


Mr. Colt's first years as agent of the Pop- 
ulation Company were much disturbed by 
hostile manifestations and costly litigation to 
maintain the real or assumed rights of the or- 
ganization. The causes of the troubles, in 
brief, were as follows : The law of 1792 pro- 
vided that any actual settler, or grantee in 
any original or succeeding warrant, who 
should be driven from the country by the ene- 
mies of the United States, and who should 
persist in the endeavor to make a settlement, 

Benjamin Russell, 
Anthonj' Saltsman, 
James Herman, 
Azariah Davis, 
Arnold Custard, 
William Barker, 
Samuel Barker, 
Israel Miller, 
George Lowry, 
James Dunn, 
Ezekiel Dunning, 
William Parcell, 
Hugh Spears, 
Elihu Talmadge, 
Alex. Vance, 
Hugh McLaughlin, 
Rufus S. Reed. 
Stephen Oliver, 
Alex. McKee, 
Stephen Forster, 
James Greer, 
James Foulke, 
John Hay, 
Bernard Tracy, 
Zelmar Barker, 
Daniel Dobbins, 
John Cummings, 
John Daggett. 
Samuel Holliday, 
Patrick McKee, 
Henry Strowman, 
Jeremiah Sturgeon, 
James Leland, 
Peter Prime, 
John Gordon, 
George W. Reed. 
John Cochran, 
William Weed, 
William Baird, 
Thomas Greer, 


should be entitled to hold his lands in the 
same manner as if an actual settlement had 
been made. The Population Company and 
the Holland Company claimed that by their 
several efforts to occupy the lands in 1798, 
'94 and '95, they had fulfilled all the condi- 
tions of the law. In the spring of 1795, a 
proclamation was issued by the Governor de- 
claring that the Indians had been conquered, 
and stating that the northwestern section of 
the State was open to settlement. The effect 
of this was to induce a number of people to 
emigrate to the county, some of whom pur- 
chased from the agents, while others set up 
adverse claims, asserting that the companies 
had forfeited the lands. 

The companies alleged that peace was not 
really secured until 1796, citing the Rutledge 
murder as proof. To this the adverse claimants 
replied that the murder was not committed 
by the Indians, but was the deed of white 
men in pay of the company, to relieve them 
from their embarrassment. The principal 
seat of the troubles was in Greenfield and 
North East townships; but they extended 
in some degree to Conneaut, Harbor Creek 
and other sections. 

The Holland Company also had difficulties 
with various parties who claimed to be actual 
settlers. Among those who became involved 
in litigation with the company was William 
Miles, who had located and placed settlers up- 
on lands which the company complained had 
been allotted to them. The Miles suits were 
ultimately settled by amicable arrangement, 
and he became the agent of the companj'. 

The .Supreme Court of Pennsylvania de- 
cided against the adverse claimants, creating 
an intense feeling of indignation and disap- 
pointment throughout the Northwest. This 
settled the business, so far as the Population 
Company was concerned, it being a State 
corporation, wholly composed of citizens of 
Pennsylvania. The Holland Land Company, 
being a foreign concern, brought their action 
in the United States Circuit Court, where the 
decision was precisely like that of the State 
Supreme Court. It was appealed to the Su- 
preme Court of the United States, where the 
other courts were fully sustained in an opinion 
rendered by Chief Justice Marshall in 1805. 

This result settled the dispute for good. 
There being no further question of title, the 
county began to fill up rapidly. Some of the 

adverse settlers left in disgust and despair ; but 
the majority entered into arrangements with 
the companies to purchase the land which 
they had improved. 


One of the wildest, if not the most reck- 
less, land speculations ever known in Erie 
county took place in 1836, being confined 
mainly to the borough of Erie and vicinity. 
j It grew out of the important internal improve- 
j ments conceived and set in operation about 
1 that time, added to a tremendous over-issue of 
j papermoney throughout the countrjr. The canal 
to Beaver had been surveyed, a charter had 
been granted for the railroad to Sunbury, and 
considerable work had been done by the Unit- 
ed States Government in building piers and 
deepening the harbor. A widespread impres- 
sion sprung up that Erie was destined to be- 
come a great city. The charter of the United 
States Bank at Philadelphia expired in 1880. 
In the early part of that year, the State Legis- 
lature chartered the United States Bank of 
Pennsylvania with a capital- of $35,000,000. 
This institution established a branch at Erie, 
erecting the old custom house on State below 
Fifth street, and the residence adjoining, for a 
banking office and cashier's house. The stock 
of the Erie branch, amounting to |200,000, 
was all taken on the 27th of February, 1880. 
These matters combined gave an extraordinary 
impulse to real estate in the borough of Erie. 
The price of town lots jumped up 100 per 
cent. In a single week the sales of real estate 
amounted to over half a million dollars. One 
lot, purchased in February for lj!10,000, was 
resold in Buffalo within a month for $50,000. 
The speculation lasted until 1837, when the 
banks failed throughout the Union, causing a 
terrible revulsion. Although the speculation 
in this county was limited to Erie and its vi- 
cinity, a general spirit of adventure prevailed 
in the whole nation, and thousands of persons 
were ruined by their faith in inflation and the 
speculative tendency of the time. The history 
of that day is one of the best arguments that 
can be produced against the theories of those 
who believe in the issue of a large« volume of 
paper curreiTcy without taking proper steps 
for its redemption and security. 

[For an account of the land sales and set- 
tlements at Erie, see the chapter on that sub- 
ject under the heading of Erie Citj.] 

/^hc/u^ / /LC/^L^ 


First Settlers ix the Countv- 

si Marriages, Births and Deaths. 

AS may be seen by the preceding chap- 
ters, the first known American citi- 
zens wlio located permanently within 
the bounds of Erie county were 
Thomas Rees and John Grubb, who 
reached Erie in the spring of 1795 and re- 
mained until their deaths. At a later date in 
the same year William Miles and William 
Cook, with their wives, made a settlement in 
Concord township, near the Crawford county 
line, where they were the sole residents for 
some years. A month or so later. Col. Seth 
Reed, accompanied by his wife and sons, 
Manning and Charles Johni came to Erie in a 
sail boat from Buffalo, which was piloted by 
James Talmadge, who took up lands during 
the season in McKean township. These 
three ladies were the first white persons of 
their sex who are known to have resided in 
the county. The other settlers during 1795 
were Rufus S. and George W. Reed, James 
Baird and children, Mrs. Thomas Rees and 
Mrs. J. Fairbanks, at Erie; Amos Judson, 
James Naylor, Lieut. Martin, and Martin 
Strong, in Waterford ; John W. Russell, 
George Moore and David McNair, in Mill 
creek ; Capt. Robert King and family, Will- 
iam and Thomas Black and Thomas Ford and 
wife, in LeBoeuf ; Jonathan Spaulding in Con- 
neaut ; Michael Hare and two men named 
Ridue and Call, in Wayne ; James and Bailey 
Donaldson, in North East, and James Blair in 
Girard. So far as the records show, these 
were the only white people living in the 
county that year. Among the settlers during 
the interval between 1795 and 1800 were the 
following : 

nW—lVas/i/ri.i^>io/! toxviiship, Alexander 
Hamilton and William Culbertson ; Eric, 
Capt. Daniel Dobbins ; Mill Creek, Benjamin 
Russell, Thomas P. Miller, David Dewey, 
Anthony Saltsman and John McFarland ; 
Greenfield, Judah Colt, Elisha and Enoch 
Marvin, Cyrus Robinson, Charles Allen, Jo- 

seph Berry, John Wilson, James Moore' 
Joseph Webster, Philo Barker," Timothy Tut- 
tle, Silas and William Smith, Joseph Shat- 
tuck, John Daggett, John Andrews and 
Leverett Bissell ; hlcKean, Thomas and Oliver 
Dunn ; Fairvicw, Francis Scott ; Summit, 
George W. Reed ; ^'ort/l East, William Wil- 
son, George and Henry Hurst and Henr}' and 
DverLoomis; SpriiigyiclJ, 'S&vaueX Holliday, 
John Devore, John Mershom, William ]SIc- 
Intj're and Patrick Ager ; Vcnaitgo, Adam 
and James Reed, Burrill and Zalmon Tracj- ; 
Waterford, John Lytle, Robert Brotherton, 
John Lennox and Thomas Skinner. 

1797 — Waterford, John Vincent and Wil- 
son Smith ; Wayne, Joseph Hall and 

Prosser; Union, Hugh Wilson, Andrew 
Thompson, Matthew Gray, Francis B. and 
Robert Smith; Elk Creek, Eli Colton; IV- 
naiigo, Thomas, John and David Phillips ; 
Springfield, Oliver Cross ; Eairviev.', Thomas 
Forster, Jacob Weiss, George Nicholson, John 
Kelso, Richard Swan, Patrick Vance, Patrick 
and John McKee, Jeremiah and William 
Sturgeon and William Haggerty ; LcBa'iif, 
Francis Isherwood, James, Robert and Adam 
Pollock; Conneant, Col. Dunning McNair; 
Mill Creek, John Nicholson, the McKees and 
Boe Bladen ; Wasliiiigton, Job Reeder, Sam- 
uel Galloway, Simeon Dunn, John and James 
Campbell, Matthias Sipps, Phineas McLene- 
than, Matthew Hamilton, John Mc Williams, 
James, John, Andrew and Samuel Culbertson, 
and Mrs. Jane Campbell (widow) ; Xortli 
East. Thomas Robinson, Joseph McCord, 
James McMahon, Margaret Lowry (widow), 
fames Duncan, Francis Brawley and Abram 
and Arnold Custard ; Harbor Creek, William 
Saltsman, Amasa Prindle and Andrew El- 

11^%— Erie, William Wallace; Wayne, 
William Smith and David Findley ; Union, 
Jacob Shephard, John Welsh, John Fagan 
and John Wilson ; Elk Creek, George Hay- 


barger and John Dietz ; \'e>iango, William 
iVllison and wife ; Springjicld, Nicholas Le- 
Barger ; Fa i rvic-d; , John Dempsey ; Comicaiit, 
Abiathar and Elihu Crane; Washington, 
Peter Kline; Girard, Abraham and William 
Silverthorn ; North East, Thomas Crawford, 
Lemuel Brown, Henry and Matthew Taylor, 
^^'illiam Allison, Henry Burgett, John, James 
and Matthew Greer ; Watcrford, Aaron 

1799 — Watcrford, John, James and David 
Boyd, Capt. John Trac)^ M. Himebaugh, 
John Clemens, the Simpsons and Lattimores; 
Eric, John Teel ; McKcau, Lemuel and 
Russell Stancliff ; Sii/ninit, Eliakim Cook. 

The above is not claimed to be a complete 
list of the settlers up to 1800, but is as nearly 
full as can now be obtained. Emigration 
was slow the first five years in consequence 
of the land troubles. After 1805, the county 
commenced to fill up more rapidly, and to 
attempt to give a roll of the settlers would 
exceed the limits of a work like this. [See 
the City, Township and Borough Chapters.] 


Most of the people named above were 
from New England or New York, but quite 
a number were Scotch Irish from the south- 
ern counties of Pennsylvania, and a few were 
of Pennsylvania Dutch descent. The New 
Yorkers were in general from the interior of 
that State, and the Pennsylvanians from 
Dauphin, Cumberland, Lancaster and Nor- 
thumberland counties. The Riblets, Eber- 
soles, Loops, Zucks, Browns, Stoughs, Zim- 
mermans, Kreiders, and others of that class, 
came in at a period ranging from 1801 to 
1805. From that time the people who 
settled in the county were almost universally 
of New England and New York origin until 
about 1825, when another emigration of Penn- 
sylvania Dutch set in, which continued until 
1835 or thereabouts. Among those who 
located in the county during this period were 
the Weigels, Warfels, Mohrs, Metzlers, Ber- 
gers, Brennemans, Charleses and others 
whose names are familiar. The foreign ele- 
ment began to come in at a comparatively 
recent date — the Irish about 1825, and the 
Germans from five to ten years after. The 
first settlers were a hardy, adventurous race 
of men, and their wives were brave, loving 
and dutiful women. 


The earliest marriage was that of Charles 
J. Reed, of Walnut Creek (Kearsarge), to 
Miss Rachel Miller, which occurred on Decem- 
ber 27, 1797. The earliest recorded birth was 
that of John R., son of William Black, 
in Fort LeBoPuf, August 29, 1795. Mr. 
Boardman, of Washington township, was 
born in the Conneauttee valley the same j-ear 

The earliest known deaths occurred in the 
years below : 

Ralph Rutledge, killed by the Indians at 
Erie, May 29th, 1795. His son was fatally 
shot at the same time, and died shortly after, 
in the fort at LeBoeuf. 

Gen. Anthony Wayne, in the block-house 
at Erie, December 15, 1796. 

Col. Seth Reed, at Walnut Creek, March 
19, 1797. 


The majority, if not all, of the settlers 
were in moderate circumstances, and were 
content to live in a very cheap way. They 
had to depend on the produce of their little 
clearings, which consisted to a large extent of 
potatoes and corn. Mush, corn bread and 
potatoes were the principal food. There was 
no meat except game, and often this had to 
be eaten without salt. Pork, flour, sugar and 
other groceries sold at high prices, and were 
looked upon as luxuries. In 1798—99, wheat 
brought $2.50 per bushel ; flour, $18 a barrel ; 
corn,|2 per bushel; oats, $1.50; and potatoes, 
$1 .50. The mills were far apart, the roads scarce- 
ly more than pathways through the woods, and 
the grists had to be carried in small quantities 
on the backs of men or horses. Few families 
had stoves, and the cooking was done almost 
entirely over open fires. The beds were 
without springs and were made up in general 
by laying coarse blankets upon boxes or rude 
frames. All clothing was homemade. Every 
house had a spinning wheel, and many were 
provided with looms. Liquor was in com- 
mon use, and there was seldom a family 
without its bottle, for the comfort of the 
husband and the entertainment of his guests. 

The first buildings were log cabins con- 
structed of unhewn logs laid one upon another 
with the crevices filled in with mud. Tiiese 
gave way, as the condition of the people im- 
proved, to structures of hewn timber in which 
mortar was substituted for mud. Hardly any 


of the houses were plastered. Many were 
without window glass, and wall paper was 
unknown. As saw mills increased, frame 
buildings of a better character were substi- 
tuted for the log cabins, and occasionally a 
brick or stone structure was erected, which 
was talked about in all the country round as a 
marvel of architecture. The people were sepa- 
rated by long distances ; for years there were 
few clearings that joined. In every house 
there was an immense fire-place, in which 
tremendous amounts of wood were consumed, 
which practically cost nothing. 

When a new residence or barn was to be 
erected, the neighbors were invariably invited 
to the raising. On such occasions, liquor or 
cider was expected to be freely dispensed, and 
it was rarely the case that the invitations were 
declined. These raisings were the merry- 
making events of the day, and generally 
brought together twenty-five to fifty of the 
settlers, who worked hard, drank freely, and 
flattered themselves when they were through 
that they had experienced a jolly good time. 


All the cooking and warming, in town as 
well as in country, was done by the aid of 
fires kindled on the brick hearths or in the 
brick ovens. Pine knots or tallow candles 
furnished the light for the long winter nights, 
and sanded floors supplied the place of rugs 
and carpets. The water used for household 
purposes was drawn from deep wells by the 
creaking sweeps. There were no friction 
matches, by the aid of which a fire could be 
easily kindled, and if the fire went out upon 
the hearth over night, and the tinder was 
damp, so that the spark would not catch, the 
alternative remained of wading through the 
snow a mile or so to borrow a brand from a 
neighbor. Only one room in any house was 
warm, in all the rest the temperature was at 
zero during the extreme winter nights. The 
men and women undressed and went to their 
beds in a temperature as cold as our barns and 

Churches and schoolhouses were sparsely 
located, and of the most primitive character. 
One pastor served a number of congregations ; 
and salaries were so low that the preachers 
had to take part in working their farms to pro- 
cure support for their families. The people 
went to religious service on foot or horseback, 

and the children often walked two or three 
miles through the woods to school. There 
were no fires in the churches for a number of 
years. When they were introduced they were 
at first built in holes cut in the floors, and the 
smoke found its way out through openings in 
the roofs. The seats were of unsmoothed 
slabs, the ends and centers of which were laid 
upon blocks, and the pulpits were little better. 
Worship was held once or twice a month, con- 
sisting usuall}' of two services, one in the 
forenoon and one immediately after noon, the 
people remaining during the interval and 
spending the time in social intercourse. 


A dense forest covered the county, when 
it was opened to settlement, which aijounded 
with deer, bears, wolves, panthers, rabbits, 
foxes, raccoons, squirrels, oppossums, minks, 
skunks, martins, and some wild cattle, or 
" buffalo," as they were called by the French. 
Every man kept a gun and went into the 
woods in pursuit of game whenever the sup- 
ply of food in his household ran short. Deer 
were abundant for years. There were numer- 
ous deer-licks, where the animals resorted to 
find salt water, at which the hunters lay in 
wait and shot them down without mercy. 
Packs of wolves often surrounded the cabins 
and kept the inmates awake with their howl- 
ing. A bounty was long paid for their scalps, 
varying in amount from $10 to |12 per head. 
Accounts are given of sheep being killed by 
wolves as late as 1813. Occasionally a pan- 
ther or wild cat terrified whole neighborhoods 
by its screaming. The last panther was shot 
at Lake Pleasant by Abram Knapp in 1857- 

The country was full of pigeons, ducks, 
geese, pheasants, partridges, and turkeys in 
their season, all of which fell easy victims to 
the guns or traps of the pioneers. The lakes, 
of course, contained plenty of fish, and most 
of the small streams abounded in trout. It 
does not appear that the county was ever much 
troubled with poisonous snakes. There were 
some massassaugies and copperheads on the 
peninsula ; but the interior seems to have been 
remarkabh' free from dangerous reptiles. 

Taken altogether, while they had to en- 
dure many privations and hardships, it is 
doubtful whether the pioneers of any part of 
America were more fortunate in their selec- 
tion than those of Erie county. 


Gristmills, Sawmills, Factories, Tanneries, Breweries, Etc. — [See Chapters XIII 
and XVI, Erie City History.] 

THE first mill in Erie county was built 
at the mouth of Mill creek in 179G, 
under the direction of Capt. Russell 
Bissell, of the l^nited States army, to 
supply timber for barracks, dwellings, 
etc., for the use of the troops who had been sent 
forward as a protection to the settlers. It 
gave name to the stream and stood until 1820, 
when it burned down. The dam was just east 
of Parade street, nearly on a line with Fourth. 
In 1831, George W. Reed and William Him- 
rod built another sawmill on the old site, the 
frame of which was standing for more than 
thirty years after its erection. 

The second sawmill was built by John 
Cochran in 1800, on the site of what became 
known as the Eliot or Densmore mill. The 
following year, he added a gristmill, both 
being constructed of logs. In the year 1816 
John Teel replaced them by a frame, which was 
subsequently operated by John Gray and son 
James, Jonathan Baird and John McClure. 
In May, 1836, upon the death of John Coch- 
ran, it fell into the hands of his son Robert, 
and about 1845 was sold to Gen. C. M. Reed, 
who conveyed it to George A. Eliot. In 
1850, Mr. Eliot gave the control of it to his 
son John, who in March, 1871, sold it to 
Henry Shotwell; thence it passed into the 
possession of William Densmore. When Mr. 
Teel rebuilt the mill, the contract price was 
$3(K). He took in part pay for his services the 
two outlots bounded by Chestnut, Sassafras, 
Twentieth and Twenty-second streets. The 
land alone, included in this property, is now 
worth .$(50,000. 

In 1806, Robert Brotherton built a saw- 
mill at or near the site of the present Hope- 
dale mill. The farm and mill were pur- 
chased by John Gingrich, and the latter was 
discontinued when timber became scarce in 
the neighborhood. An oil mill was subse- 

quently erected there by C. .Siegel. Upon 
his father's death, Henry Gingrich inherited 
the property, and about 1850 built a flouring 
mill, which he called " Hopedale." This mill 
was operated for some years by Oliver & Ba- 
con, who left it in 1865, and it was then taken 
in charge by its owner, Henry Gingrich. 

During the years 1807-8, another sawmill 
was erected on Mill creek at its intersection 
with Eighth street, by Thomas Forster and 
William Wallace, who got control of the wa- 
ter-power from Twelfth to Parade streets. 
About 1810, R. S. Reed purchased the prop- 
erty and built a gristmill below. In 1822, 
George Moore bought these mills and added a 
carding and fulling-mill. Some time during 
the winter of 1834-35, the mills were pur- 
chased by E. D. Gunnison, who became asso- 
ciated in business with Abraham Johnson, and 
they built and named the Fairmount flouring- 
mill. Gunnison sold his interest to John H. 
Walker, who converted the carding and full- 
ing mill into a plaster mill, and built a large 
tannery opposite and a number of dwellings 
for the workmen. Jehiel Towner was miller 
for man)- years. The tannery burned down 
and the mill fell into the hands of Liddell, 
Kepler & Co. In the spring of 1859 it was 
bought by P. & O. E. Crouch, and is now 
owned and operated by J. B. Crouch & Co. 

Rufus S. Reed built a gristmill on Mill 
creek in 1815. It was located on Parade street 
between Fourth and Fifth, and the dam 
crossed the stream just below Sixth street. 
He afterward added a distillery, both of which 
were carried on by him until his death. The 
mill stood until some twenty years ago. 

The same year ( 1815), Robert Large erected 
a gristmill near the corner of Eleventh and 
French streets, with the dam above Twelfth. 
It did not, however, prove successful, and in 
1822 was sold to Alvah Flint, who converted 


it into a cloth, carding and fulling-mill. This 
was kept up until 1840, when the ■ site and 
water-power were purchased by Vincent, 
Himrod & Co., who erected a foundry subse- 
quently known as the Erie City Iron Works. 
It is now occupied by Althofs planing mill 
and the Ball Engine Works. 


The first beer brewery in the city was 
built in 1815, by Maj. David McNair, on Turn- 
pike street, near where the Erie City mill was 
afterward erected. He added a distillery in 
1823, and in 1827 built a grist mill on State 
street, south of the Lake Shore R. R., the 
motive power for all being furnished by the 
water of Ichabod run. This stream came 
down from the ridge on the west side of the 
city and emptied into Mill creek near the 
State street bridge of the Lake Shore Railroad 
company. The small amount of water that 
remains has been carried into the sewers. 
The mill w-ent down, and in 1849 the Erie 
City mill was built by McSparren & Dumars, 
to use the water of the same stream. It 
became the property of William Densmore, 
who still carries on the milling business at the 
corner of .State and Sixteenth streets. 

Jacob Diefenthaler was the second beer 
brewer in the city. He was succeeded by 
John Knobloch. The brewery was located 
on the east side of French street, between 
Third and Fourth. Mr. Jacobi started a beer 
brewery in the same locality, which he sold 
out to George L. Baker, who converted it into 
an ale brewer^-. The former then built a beer 
brewery on Fourth street near Poplar, which 
had quite a successful run. Jacob Deitz es- 
tablished the brewery afterward operated by 
Charles Koehler, now owned by Frederick 
Koehler & Co. An ale brewery was started 
by James Carnagie on Myrtle street, east 
side, between Second and Third, about 1837, 
which only continued a few years. The Eagle 
brewery (Jackson Koehler's) was founded by 
Fry & Schaff in 1846, and long operated by 
Henry Kalvelage ; the National brewery 
(Conrad's), by Jacob Fuess, about 1848. 
A Mr. Heilman was in the brewing business 
for some time. One of the most prominent 
of the early breweries was that of Alfred 
King, on the Ridge road, a little west of Erie 
cemetery. Mr. King also did a large business 
in barley and malt. 


The pioneer tannery of Erie was erected 
by Ezekiel Dunning, on Holland street, be- 
tween Fifth and Sixth, about the beginning 
of the present century. It was long known 
as Sterrett's tannery, and was kept in operation 
until 1852. The next tannery in the order of 
time was established in 1805, by Samuel and 
Robert Hays, on the corner of Ninth and 
French streets. The latter sold his interest to 
Samuel, and he in turn was succeeded by his 
sons, W. B. and J. W. Hays, who carried on 
a tannery in Erie for many years. William 
Arbuckle, who learned the trade with Samuel 
Hays, started a tannery in 1820, on Eighth 
street, west of Myrtle, which he ran until 1880, 
when it ceased operations. 

A fulling-mill was started about 1830, at 
the northwest corner of Tenth and Myrtle 
streets, by John Glover. It was abandoned 
about 1840.' 

The first brickyard in the county was 
opened in 1808, by Isaac Austin and B. Rice, 
and was located east of Parade, between Sec- 
ond and Third streets. From brick made in 
this }"ard, James Baird erected the first brick 
house in Erie county. It stood on German, 
between Front and Second streets, was two 
stories in height, and occupied for many j'ears 
by Thomas Wilson. The building was used 
as a hospital in 1813 for the wounded prison- 
ers captured at the battle of Lake Erie, and 
was burned down in 1827. 

When there was not one-fifth of the pop- 
ulation, a distillery was to be found in almost 
every neighborhood. Some families were as 
particular about laying in their barrel of 
whisky as their barrel of pork, and would 
rather be without the latter than the former. 


The second and third sawmills in the 
county were put up in 1797 — one by Thomas 
Forster at the mouth of Walnut creek, and 
the other by Robert Brotherton, on LeBrpuf 
creek, near the Waterford station of the 
P. & E. R.R. The latter added a gristmill in 
1802. In 1798, a fourth sawmill was built 
near the mouth of Four-Mile creek by Thomas 
Rees, for the Population Company. The 
fifth was built by Leverett Bissell, on French 
creek, in Greenfield township, in 1799. 

During the year 1798 the first gristmill in 


the count}' was built at the mouth of VVahuit 
creek under the superintendence of Thomas 
Forster. The other mills established outside 
of Eiie City before the last war with Great 
Britain were as follows : 

One on Spring run, Girard township, by 
Mr. Silverthorn, in 1799. 

A grist and sawmill by William Miles, at 
Union, in 180*3, later known as Church's mill. 
In the same year, a small gristmill, by James 
Foulk, at the mouth of Six-Mile creek. 

A sawmill by William Culbertson, in 1801, 
and a gristmill in 1802, at Edinboro, since 
known as Taylor & Reeder's mills. 

A sawmill by Capt. Holliday, in 1801, 
and a gristmill in 1803, at the mouth of 
Crooked creek, in Springfield township. 

A sawmill in 1802 or 1803, by John 
Riblet, Sr. , on Four-Mile creek, half a mile 
south of Wesleyville. 

Lattimore's and Boyd's sawmills, in 
Waterford township, about 1802. Gristmills 
were added to each at a later date, and allow- 
ed to go down some fifty years ago. 

A grist and sawmill, in 1803, by Capt. 
Daniel Dobbins and James Foulk, near the 
mouth of Twelve-Mile creek, since known as 
Neely's mill. 

A gristmill on Sixteen-Mile creek, in 
North East township, by Col. Tuttle, in 1807, 
afterward known as Scouller's. 

Three miles south of the city, on what is 
now the Waterford Flank Road, Robert 
McCullough, in 1802 or 1804, put up a saw 
and gristmill, which became known as the 
Erie County Mills. He used the water of 
Mill creek. In 1814, a small gristmill was 
built by Thomas Miller, on the little stream 
which empties into the bay at the Head, to 
which he soon after added a mill for making 
linseed oil. 

The following shows when the mills 
mentioned were erected : 

1814— The West Girard grist and sawmill, 
on Elk creek, by Peter Woolverton. A saw- 
mill where Lines' mills stand, on Crooked 
creek, in Springfield, by Amos Remington 
and Oliver Cross. 

1815 — A sawmill by William Saltsman, 
at the foot of the gulley of Four-Mile creek, 
in Harbor Creek township. 

1816 — A sawmill by James Lo\e, on Wal- 

nut creek, in Mill Creek township. A saw- 
mill on Mill creek, by Foote & Parker. 

About 1820 — The Strong gristmill, on 
Crooked creek, in Springfield, by Andrew 

1822— The Low vi lie mills, by Samuel 
Low. The Wattsburg mills, by William 

1828 — The Nason mill, on Bear run, in 
Fairview, by Daniel Bear. The Porter mill, 
on Conneaut creek, in Springfield, by Com- 
fort Ha}'. Two mills in Amitj' township, 
near Milltown, one by Capt. James Donald- 
son. A gristmill at Wesleyville, by John 

1824 — A sawmill in the south part of 
Greenfield, by John Whiteside. 

1825 — Shattuck's sawmill at Wesleyville. 
The mills at Wellsburg, by Samuel Wells. 

1826— The old Cooper mill, on Four Mile 
creek, by William Saltsman. 

The Burger gristmill, on French creek, in 
LeBfEuf township, was built by George 
Burger about 1830; the Line gristmill, in 
Springfield, by Mr. Case, about 1832 ; the 
Sterrettania mills, on Elk creek, by David S. 
Sterrett, in 1839; the Moore sawmill, in 
LeBocuf, about 1840: and the Branchville 
mill, about 1850. 


Among the earliest mills were Weigle's, at 
the crossing of Walnut creek by the Ridge 
road, in Fairview township, built by S. F. 
Gudtner ; the Elgin mills, on Beaver Dam 
run, by Joseph Hall; the grist mill on Le- 
Boeuf creek, in Greene, by Jacob Brown; and 
the Backus mill on Six-Mile creek, in Harbor 
creek. All of these were established in the 
beginning of the century, but the exact dates 
cannot be obtained. A sawmill was built at 
an early period by Michael Jackson, and a 
gristmill by Amos King, at Albion. In 1810 
there was a carding and woolen mill on the 
site of the Cass factory in Harbor creek. 

Soon after the war of 1812-14, a perfect 
mania arose for building sawmills, and every 
stream that could be turned to use was em- 
ployed to drive from one to a dozen wheels. 
The county was still largely co\ered with 
forest trees, and all of the streams contained 
an abundance of water. The cutting off of the 
timber was followed by the drying up of the 
streams. Most of the mills have gone down. 


and those that remain generally use steam, 
With few exceptions, the gristmills remain on 
the sites originally adopted. 


The first concern in the county for the 
manufacture of iron goods was a foundry at 
Freeport, North East township, built in 1824, 
by Philetus Glass. The next was established 
in 1833 "by Messrs. Hinkley, Jarvis & Co., 
of Westfield, N. Y., who erected two small 
wooden buildings near the corner of Eleventh 
and State streets, in Erie, and began the man- 
ufacture in them of iron castings for plows, 
sawmill machinery and a cheap class of stoves. 
The motive power at first consisted of one 
blind horse. Various changes in the members 
of the firm connected with the business oc- 
curred in the eighteen years which followed ; 
W. II. Johnson, James Sennett, Pardon Ben- 
nett, E. A. Lester and Walter Chester being 
members of the firm under various names dur- 
ing that period. The invested capital in land, 
buildings, machinery and patterns was |22,- 
000 in 1851, and it was considered a large es- 
tablishment. Then followed other firms : 
Senneit & Co., Sennett, Barr & Co., Barr & 
Johnson, Barr, Johnson & Co., Johnson, 
Black & Co., and' Black & Germer. ' 

" In 1840 W' . H. Johnson withdrew from 
the firm of Johnson, Sennett & Co., ' The 
Old Furnace,' and, associated with William 
Ilimrod, David Himrod and B. B. Vincent, 
organized 'The New Furnace Company,' 
which had its works on the square bounded by 
State, French, Eleventh and Twelfth streets. 
The business has been continued under the 
firm names of Johnson, Himrod & Co., Vin- 
cent, Himrod & Co., Tibbals, Shirk & White- 
head, and the Chicago and Erie Stove Com- 

Out of " The New Furnace Company " has 
also grown the Erie City Iron Works, 
Cleveland & Hardwick and others of the most 
prominent manufacturing institutions in the 

Of the later mills and factories mention 
will be made in the city, borough and town- 
ship chapters. The number in the county, 
outside of Erie and Corry, in 1880, was com- 
puted to be as follows : Creamery, 1 ; cheese 
factories, 28 ; gristmills, 36 ; tanneries, 14 ; 
saw, shingle, lath and heading mills, 117; 
cider, jell and vinegar factories, 27 ; planing 

mills and sash, door and blind factories, 17; 
woolen, carding and fulling mills, 6; paper 
mills, 2 ; brick and tile works, 8; manufac- 
tories of wooden articles, 39; beer breweries, 
3; carriage and wagon shops, 11; miscella- 
neous, 12; total, 316. Altogether, there were 
probably 450 dift'erent manufacturing estab- 
lishments in Erie county, and the number 
doubtless exceeds 500 at present. 


The following interesting particulars were 
contributed by M, R. Barr, Esq., to the Erie 
^owzr///;-, published in 1888: "To one ac- 
quainted only with the present methods of 
paying wages, the old-time method would 
seem to be as extraordinary as it really was. 
Printed due-bills in the fractional parts of a 
dollar in eighths, and for one, two, five and 
ten dollars, were issued, payable in merchan- 
dise or castings, and this ' currency ' was good 
in the hands of employes for such meat, flour 
and other provisions as they might need for 
their own use ; but if presented by any other 
party payment could only be claimed in regu- 
lar ' store goods' or castings. A small por- 
tion of the wages was paid in cash ; but an 
employe must be an exceptionally good and 
important ' hand ' if his cash receipts on ac- 
count of wages exceeded an average of a dol- 
lar per week. 

" After the passage of the law by the 
Pennsylvania Legislature forbidding the issu- 
ing of printed due-bills, or anything in the 
similitude of bank bills, or intended to circu- 
late as bank bills, or payable in anything but 
cash, a scheme was devised and executed by 
the ' New Furnace Company,' to issue metal- 
lic tokens having very much the appearance 
of coin, and in the fractions of a dollar, in 
eighths and one dollar amounts ; and there- 
after 'Pewteringtum,' as it was generally 
called, formed quite a considerable part of the 
circulating medium in local trade, and entirely 
superseded ' Blue Crackee,' as the due-bills 
were named (excepting those payable in 
'castings only'), and which were vulgarly 
called ' Crackee and be d d." 

"The following incident illustrates the 
mode of paying wages forty years ago : The 
bookkeeper, Mr. M., said to the member of 
the Furnace Company firm who acted as cash- 
ier : ' Mr. C, one of the men, Mr. H., wants 
six dollars in cash this evening to pay the taxes 


on his farm.' 'Well,' replied Mr. C, 'he 
cannot have so much money as that at once.' 
Mr. M. argued that H. had had no money 
since he (M.) had been bookkeeper for the 
firm, and, by M.'s persuasion, C. consented to 
give H. the money. H. was called into the 
office and the money handed to him ; and Mr. 
C. asked, ' Mr. H., how long have you worked 
in this establishment ? ' H. replied, ' Over 
ten years.' ' How much of your wages have 
you had in cash during that time? " inquired 

Mr. C. ' Just what I now have in my hand. 
This is the first money I have ever received 
for my work,' was the reply of H. 

" The system of monthly cash payment of 
wages was commenced by Barr & Johnson in 
1862, and very soon afterward they were fol- 
lowed by Tibbals, Shirk & Whitehead, who 
paid their workmen their full wages in cash 
weekly, and this system has been regularly con- 
tinued, with but few exceptions, by all the manu- 
facturing firms of the city to the present day." 


Main Thoroi-ghpares, Mail Roi'tes, Stage Lines, Old Taverns, Etc. 

IT is scarcely necessary to remind those who 
have read the preceding chapters that the 
French cut a road from Presque Isle to 
LeBcEuf in 1758, the first year of their oc- 
cupation, and kept it up as long as they 
maintained posts in western Pennsylvania. 
This was the first, ar d for more than forty 
years the only road in Erie county. The 
French road began at the mouth of Mill creek, 
ran south on a line parallel with Parade street, 
in Erie, to the corners in Marvintown, and 
then across Mill creek. Summit and Water- 
ford townships, to Fort LeBoeuf, in the pres- 
ent Waterford borough. 

An act passed the Legislature of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1791 to open a road from Presque 
Isle to French creek, and another in 1795 for 
the survey of a route from LeBoeuf to the 
Juniata river in MifHin county. The .Susque- 
hanna and Waterford turnpike was located by 
Andrew Ellicott in 1796, from Lake LeBcpuf 
to Curwensville, in Clearfield county, by way 
of Meadville and Franklin. Its purpose was 
to give a continuous road from Erie to Phila- 

The earliest road opened after the Ameri- 
can occupation was by Judah Colt, as agent 
of the Population Company, in 1797, from 
Freeport, on the lake near North East, to 
Colt's Station, and from the latter place to the 

forks of French creek, or Wattsburg, late in 
the season of 1798. The Eastern road through 
Greenfield, from North East to Wattsburg was 
laid out about 1800; tiie ones from Waterford 
to Cranesville through Washington township, 
and from Waterford to Edinboro, about 1802, 
and the road from North East to Waterford, 
by way of Phillipsville, in 1804. 

The vState opened a road through the 
northern tier of counties, from the head-wa- 
ters of the Delaware river, in almost a direct 
line, to Ohio, in 1802 or 1808, which is still 
known as the State road. 


This road was surveyed by James McMa- 
hon in 1805, and appears to have been ready 
for travel in the same year. It was opened 
westward, from the New York line, in a di- 
rect course to Wesleyville, at which place 
travel diverged by a cross-road to the Lake 
road, and reached Erie, which consisted of a 
small collection of houses at the mouth of Mill 
creek, by the latter thoroughfare. The court, 
in 1812, ordered the completion of the road to 
Peach street in Erie, and it was thrown open 
to travel some time in that year. The Buff'alo 
road generally follows a nearly straight line 
from Peach street to the city of Buffalo, but 
there is an abrupt jog at the Saltsman place, 



the reason for which has been a puzzle to 
many. It is said to be due to two causes, — 
first, there was an ugly swamp on the straight 
line, south of the present road; and, second, 
it was considered more desirable to enter 
the city on the line of Eighteenth street. The 
Bulfalo road forms the principal street of the 
borough of North East, and of the villages of 
VVesleyville, Harbor Creek, Moorheadville, 
and Northville. The distances from Central 
park in Erie bv this route are as follows : 
Buffalo ; 90 miles ; Northville, 19 ; North East, 
15; Moorheadville, lOi ; Harbor Creek, 7i ; 
Wesleyville, 4^. 


The Ridge road is practically a continua- 
tion of the Buffalo road, and is connected with 
it by the southern part of Peach street in the 
city of Erie. It follows the line of the First 
Ridge and traverses the western part of Mill 
Creek, and the entire width of Fairview, 
Girard and Springfield townships to the Ohio 
line. It was opened in 1805, the same j'ear 
as the Buffalo road. The Ridge road passes 
through and constitutes the principal streets 
of East Springfield, Girard and Fairview bor- 
oughs and the villages of Weigleville, Swan- 
vilie, West Girard and West Springfield. It 
is 100 miles by this route to Cleveland, 25 to 
West Springfield, 21 to East Springfield, 16^ 
to West Girard, 16 to Girard, 12 to Fairview, 
9 to Swanville, and 2^ to Weigleville, meas- 
uring from Central paik in Erie City. 


The Lake road crosses the entire county 
from east to west, at a distance from Lake 
Erie varying from a few rods to half a mile. 
It enters Erie on the east by Sixth street, and 
leaves on the west by Eighth street. The 
Lake road becomes merged into the Ridge 
road at or near Conneaut, Ohio. It was laid 
out in 180(3, and opened partly in that year 
and at intervals of several j'ears after, as the 
country became settled. This road is the main 
avenue to the Head, Trinity cemetery, Lake- 
side cemetery and the various club houses and 
pleasure resorts east and west of the city. It 
is occupied in part by the electric road from 
the western terminus of Eighth street, in Erie, 
to a little beyond the crossroads at the Cath- 
olic cemetery. 


The Erie and Waterford turnpike was orig- 
inated by Col. Thomas Forster. Previous to 
its completion, the travel between Erie and 
Waterford was wholly over the old French 
road, which had been but slightly repaired 
and was in a horrible condition. The turn- 
I pike company was formed in 1805, its avowed 
I object being the building of a link in the great 
contemplated thoroughfare from Erie to Phila- 
delphia by way of the French creek, Juniata, 
and Susquehanna valleys. Work was com- 
menced in 1806 and the road was completed 
in 1809. The turnpike was a paying property 
until 1845, when it ceased to be remunerative 
to the stockholders. It was soon after aban- 
doned by them and accepted as a township 
road. Judge Cochran opposed the building of 
the " pike" on the ground that it was uncon- 
stitutional to make the public pay toll. The 
toll question was tested before the county 
court, and Judge Moore gave an opinion sus- 
taining the constitutionality of the act of in- 

The turnpike originally ended at Water- 
ford ; but twenty years later the Waterford & 
Susquehanna Turnpike Co. was organized, 
which extended the route by Meadville and 
Franklin to Curwensville, Clearfield county, 
where it connected with another turnpike run- 
ning across the State, making a good wagon 
road from Erie to Harrisburg and Philadel- 
phia. The first toll gate out of Erie was kept 
by Robert Brown, near the southern line of 
Erie City, and the second by Martin Strong, 
on the summit between Erie and Waterford. 
The " pike " commenced at the Ridge road, 
now Twenty-sixth street in Erie, and from 
there extended across Mill Creek, Summit and 
Waterford townships to Waterford borough. 
It is four miles by this route to Kearsarge and 
fourteen to the borough of Waterford. 


The Erie & Edinboro Plank Road Co. 
was organized in 1850, and the road 
was completed in 1852. It followed the 
course of the Waterford turnpike to a point a 
little south of Walnut creek, where it 
branched off and adopted a route partly new 
and partly the old Edinboro road. The road 
bed was covered, as the name indicates, with 
heavy planks, and the grade being in general 
quite moderate, furnished an easy and 


pleasant thoroughfare while it was kept in 
good condition. The Edinboro & Meadville 
plank road, completed simultaneously, formed 
a smooth, continuous route from Lake Erie to 
the county seat of Crawford county. Though 
the travel was large, neither road proved a 
profitable investment, and both were aban- 
doned as plank roads and became township 
roads in 1868 or 1809. The distances are 
twenty miles to Edinboro, fourteen to Mc- 
Lane, twelve to Branchville, ten to Middle- 
boro and four to Kearsarge. 


The Erie & Waterford plank road was 
commenced in 1850 and completed in 1851, 
one year in advance of the one to Edinboro. 
In laying out the road an entirely new route 
was adopted, following the valleys of Mill 
creek. Walnut creek and LeBoeuf creek, and 
obviating the heavy grades of the old turn- 
pike. So skillfully was the engineering and 
grading performed, that a horse can trot 
most of the length of the road. The stranger 
traveling over this easy route would scarcely 
believe that at the Walnut creek summit he 
was about 500 and at Graham's summit be- 
tween 650 and 700 feet above the level of 
Lake Erie. There were three toll gates on 
the line — one a short distance north of 
Waterford, another at Capt. J. C. Graham's, 
in Summit, and the third near Eliot's or 
Densmore's mill. The road never paid a 
profit, and was abandoned to the townships 
in 1868 or 1869. The distance between Erie 
and Waterford is slightly more than by tiie 


About the same time that the above plank 
roads were built, another was pushed through 
from Waterford to Drake's mills, Crawford 
county, to prevent the diversion of travel that 
was feared from the opening of the Erie & 
Edinboro and Edinboro & Meadville roads. 
This enterprise was no more of a financial 
success than the others, and, like them, was 
given up to the townships. 




The stage company owning the line be- 
tween Erie and Waterford had a quarrel over 
tolls with the turnpike company in the win- 

ter of 1827-28, which resulted in the con- 
struction by the former, at considerable 
expense, through Summit, Greene and Water- 
ford townships, of a new road, to which was 
given the suggestive name of the Shunpike. 
The route adopted commenced at W^aterford, 
near where the plank road and turnpike 
separate, and ran across the country until it 
connected with the old French road. A 
good share of the route is still used as a town- 
ship road. 


A road was opened in 1809 from Erie to 
Wattsburg, through Phillipsville. In 1828 a 
re-survej' was made under the authority of 
the State, which appropriated a small sum for 
the purpose. This resulted in some changes 
in the location. In 1851, the Erie & Watts- 
burg Plank Road Co. was organized. The 
plank road was completed in 1853, a year 
after the one to Edinboro, and two years 
after the one to Waterford. In the adoption 
of a route the old road was pretty closely 
pursued, except for a short distance in 
Greene township, and from the Siegel place in 
Greene, to Lowville, where a new route was 
adopted. The highest points are at the H. 
L. Pinney and Bailey places, in Greene 
township, the elevation above Lake Erie 
being some 500 feet at the former and GOO 
at the latter. 

There were four regular toll gates — at 
Lowville, at Oscar Sears's in Venango, at 
Diefenthaler's in Greene, and at Marvintown. 
The road was a non-paying enterprise, and it 
was allowed to run down, though toll was 
still exacted. In the spring of 1865, public 
feeling became so much excited that a party 
of farmers was formed who started at Erie 
and tore down every gate on the road. 
Though they were severely threatened, none 
of the party were tried or punished, and no 
toll has been charged on the road since. It is 
now kept up by the townships through which 
it extends. The distances from Erie are : To 
Wattsburg, twenty miles ; to Lowville, eight- 
een miles ; to St. Boniface, seven and a half 
miles, and to Belle Vallev four miles. 

iKE ple; 


The first road in the direction of Lake 
Pleasant was opened in 1821-22 from Erie to 
a point near the Martin Hayes farm, in Greene 


township. In 1826-27, at a heavy expense 
for the period, the county continued the road 
past Lake Pleasant to French creek, where it 
meets the thoroughfare between Union and 
Wattsburg. The distance from Erie to Lake 
Pleasant is twelve miles, and to French creek 
two and a half miles further. It is said to be 
two miles shorter from Erie to Wattsburg by 
this road than by the plank road. The road 
branches off from the Wattsburg plank at the 
Davidson place, a mile or more outside of 

THE colt's station RO.VD. 

The road from Wesleyville to Colt's sta- 
tion was laid out about 1813, to give a route 
between Erie and Mayville, N. Y. At Colt's 
station, an intersection is made with the 
North East and Wattsburg road. 


The first public house on the soutli shore 
of Lake Erie, west of Buffalo, and the first 
building erected within the limits of Erie 
City, was the Presque Isle Tavern, built by 
Col. Seth Reed in July, 1795. It stood near 
the mouth of Mill creek, and was a one-story 
log and stone structure. The next year. Col. 
Reed built a two-story log building on the 
southwest corner of Second and Parade 
streets, which he turned over to his son, 
Rufus S. Reed, who kept a store and tavern 
in it for many years. 

The third tavern was built in Erie by 
George Buehler in 1800, at the northeast cor- 
ner of Third and French streets, which after- 
ward became known as the " McConkey 
House." This building was occupied as 
Perry's headquarters in 1813. 

[A fuller account of the early public 
houses in Erie will be found in Chapter XIV. 
of the City History.] 

Outside of Erie, the earliest public house 
was opened in Waterford by Lieut. Martin in 
1795. Public houses were established by Rich- 
ard Swan at Manchester in 1805; by Henrj' 
Burgett in North East in 1806 ; by Lemuel 
Brown on the site of the Haynes house, in the 
same place, in 1808; by John Ryan on the 
Buffalo road, between Erie and Wesleyville, 
in 1809; by George W. Reed in Waterford in 
1810; and by John and David Phillips in 
Phillips\ille in the same year. 

Previous to the introduction of railroads, 
the Buft'alo and Ridge roads were among 

the busiest thoroughfares in the country, be- 
ing the great avenues for emigration, trading 
and droving between the Northeastern States 
and the West. Numerous public houses 
sprung up and did a good business. The tav- 
ern keepers of those days were usually men of 
much force of character, and wielded wide po- 
litical influence. It is said that at one time 
there was not a mile along the roads named 
without a public house. 

Among the most noted of the old lake 
shore taverns were the " Doty" and "Keith" 
Houses at East Springfield; the "Martin 
House" at Girard ; the "Fairview House" at 
Fairview ; "Swan's Hotel " at Swanville ; the 
"Halfwav House," a little west of the county 
almshou-c ; I he "Weigleville House;" the 
"Ryan" or ■ I'a^i^art House" near Wesleyville ; 
"FuIIl-i-'s Tavern" at Wesleyville; and the 
" Brawley House" at North East. 

Back from the lake shore the best known 
of the older hotels were Martin Strong's, at 
the summit of the Waterford turnpike; the 
"Eagle Hotel" at Waterford ; the "Robinson 
House " at Edinboro ; the " Sherman House " 
at Albion; the "Wattsburg House " at Watts- 
burg ; and the " Lockport House" at Lock- 

The Erie City hotels, and the more recent 
ones outside, will be described in their proper 


Up to 1800, a good share of the travel and 
transportation was by means of small boats on 
the lake from Buffalo, and by way of French 
creek from Pittsburg. The boats on French 
creek generally went no farther up than 
Waterford, but in times of good water they 
were poled to Greenfield Village. They were 
either canoes or flat-bottomed vessels, the lat- 
ter being somewhat like the mud scows now 
seen on Presque Isle bay, but small and shal- 
low, drawing but a trifling amount of water. 
Those on the lake were originally propelled 
by oars ; but it was not long till sails were in- 
troduced. In winter many persons came into 
the country, either on foot or in sledges, by 
traveling on the ice of the lake. 

By 1810, there were roads to all points 
south, east and west, and the opportunities for 
travel and transportation became greatly im- 
proved. The roads, however, were still rough 
and muddy, and horseback riding was the 


favorite mode of travel. As the roads became 
better, the once familiar two-horse wagons 
were introduced. These were covered with 
cotton cloth stretched over hickory ribs, and 
furnished shelter for a whole family, besides 
carrying their goods Each party brought 
their provisions along, stopping at meal times 
by the springs or streams, and doing their 
cooking over open fires. From the direction 
of Pittsburg the French creek route continued 
to be the one used till some time after the 
second war with Great Britain. The supplies 
for Perry's fleet, including the cannon, were 
largely transported in flat boats to Waterford, 
and from there by the turnpike to Erie. 

The first step ahead was the introduction 
of stage coaches. After that came the steam- 
boats, which carried hundreds of passengers 
on each trip. For a number of years succeed- 
ing the opening of the canal, thousands of 
emigrants, bound for the southwest, reached 
Erie by steamboat, and from there went by 
way of the new water route, down to the 


A route was opened in 1801 between Erie 
and Pittsburg, via Waterford and Meadville, 
to carry mail once a week. The mode of tran- 
sportation was on horseback, and later by 
horse and common wagon. A regular stage 
line commenced running about the date of the 
completion of the turnpike. In 1826 stages 
began running each way three times a week, 
carrying a mail everj' trip. This was increased 
to a daily mail, each direction, which con- 
tinued until the era of railroads. 

In 1806 a route was established between 
Erie and Buffalo, to carry the mail once a 
week. The first line of stages between Erie 
and Buffalo, making weekly trips, was estab- 
lished in December, 1820. At the beginning a 
stage left Buffalo every Saturday at noon and 
reached Erie the next Monday at 6 p. m ; re- 
turning, it started from Erie at 6 a. m. every 
Tuesday and arrived at Buffalo on Thursday 
at noon. By January 8, 1824, a stage with 
mail was making semi-weekly trips between 
Erie and Cleveland. On the 10th of Feb- 
ruary', 1825, a mail coach commenced running 
daily between Erie and Buffalo, and soon after 

a daily stage and mail line was commenced 
between Erie and Cleveland. 

In 1827 a line of four-horse coaches was 
placed on the road between Buffalo and 
Cleveland by a company of which Rufus S. 
Reed was one of the chief men. This event 
was as much talked about as the opening of a 
new railroad would be to-day. The new line 
carried a daily mail each direction, and was a 
source of large profit to its owners. Eighteen 
hours were allowed as the time between Buf- 
falo and Erie. 

A mail route to Jamestown, N. Y., via 
Wattsburg, was established in 1828. At the 
start a man or boy on foot carried a pouch 
once a week. The route to Edinboro was 
established in the winter of 1835-36, and the 
pouch was carried weekly on a horse's back. 

The arrival of the stage was as important 
an event fifty years ago as that of a railroad 
train to-day in a village with but a single 


The salt trade, which commenced about 
1800, and continued until about 1819, was one 
of the leading industries of the early days. 
The salt was purchased at Salina, N. Y., 
hauled from there to Buffalo in wagons, 
brought in vessels to Erie, unloaded in ware- 
houses at the mouth of Mill creek, and from 
there carried by ox teams to Waterford, where 
it was placed in flat boats and floated down 
French creek and the Allegheny to Pittsburg. 
It is estimated that when the trade was at its 
best, one hundred teams and as many persons 
were constantly on the road between Erie and 
Waterford. The time for making each trip 
was calculated at two days, and the average 
load for a four-ox-team was fourteen barrels. 
A number of warehouses were erected on the 
bank of LeBtpuf creek at Waterford for stor- 
ing the salt until the water was at a suitable 
stage for floating it down French creek. 
There was a period when salt was almost the 
only circulating medium in the county. Oxen, 
horses, negro slaves and land were sold to be 
paid for in so much salt. The discovery of 
salt wells on the Kiskiminitas and Kanawha, 
about 1813, cheapened the price of the article 
at Pittsburg, so that Salina salt could not com- 
pete, and the trade by way of Erie steadily 


Navigation of the Lakes — Merchant and Government Vessels — The Light-House 
AND Life-Saving Service, Etc. 

THE first sailing vessel that tloated on 
the waters of Lake Erie was built by 
Robert Cavalier de la Salle, an ad- 
venturous Frenchman, on the Niagara 
river, six miles above the Falls, in the 
year 1677. She was named the "Griffin," 
and was of six tons burthen. La Salle navi- 
gated Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan, to 
Green bay, where, with a picked body of men, 
he left the vessel and marched overland to the 
Mississippi. With the exception of one more 
attempt by the French to sail the lakes, many 
years afterward, which proved a failure, no 
record is to be found of any other sailing ves- 
sel on the lake until 1766, when the British, 
who had secured possession of both shores, 
built and launched four. They were of light 
burthen, and were chiefly used for carrjing 
troops and army supplies. All transportation 
of a commercial character, and all of the very 
limited passenger business was carried on by 
batteaux until after the close of the Revolu- 
tionary war. 

The earliest American sailing vessel on the 
lake was a small boat, owned and run by 
Capt. William Lee, in which he carried pas- 
sengers and light articles of freight between 
Buffalo and Erie. She was constructed to use 
oars in going against the wind, and had no 
crew, the passengers being obliged to "work 
their passage." 

The first sailing vessel built on the south 
shore of Lake Erie was the sloop " Washing- 
ton," of thirty tons, at the mouth of Four- 
Mile creek, for the Pennsylvania Population 
Company, owners of the bulk of the land in 
the Triangle. She was launched in Septem- 
ber, 1798, and was employed for some twelve 
years in the service of the company. 

The first vessel launched at Erie was built 
at the mouth of Mill creek in 1799, Capt. Lee 
and Rufus S. Reed being her principal own- 
ers. She was named the " Good Intent," and 

sunk at Point Abino in 1806, with all on 
board. The " Harlequin," built at Erie in 

1800 by Eliphalet Beebe, was also lost the 
first season, with her entire crew. About 

1801 the " Wilkinson," of sixty-five tons, was 
owned at Erie. Another early Erie vessel 
was the schooner " Mary," of 100 tons, built 
in 1805. 

vessels of war. 

The British kept a fleet of armed vessels 
on the lakes from 1792 until Perry's victory in 
1813, and in 1810 had as many as seven in 
commission. They were called the " pro- 
vincial marine service," and were manned, 
mostly by Canadians. To counteract their 
movements, the United States Government, 
at various times up to 1809, had placed four 
vessels of war upon the lakes, the most formid- 
able of which was the "Detroit," the one 
that brought Gen. Wayne to Erie on return- 
ing from his Western expedition. She was 
wrecked off Presque Isle the next fall. Of 
this class of vessels the only one that was in 
service on Lake Erie at the outbreak of the 
last war with Great Britain was the "Adams," 
of 150 tons, which was captured by the Brit- 
ish in 1812. 

merchant vessels. 

Before the war of 1812-14, a dozen or 
more vessels comprised the whole merchant 
fleet of the lake, averaging about sixty tons. 
The chief article of freight was salt from Sa- 
lina, N. Y. Some business was also done in 
carrying furs from the Far West to Buffalo. 

Among the pioneer lake captains were 
Daniel Dobbins, William Lee, Thomas Wil- 
kins, Seth Barney, C. Blake, James Rough, 
John F. Wight, William Davenport, Levi Al- 
len, John Richards, George Miles and Charles 
Hayt. Capt. Richards quit sailing and went 
into ship-building with considerable success. 
Capt. VVilkins commenced with the Reeds in 


1822, and was long one of their most popular 
commanders. Rufus S. Reed owned several 
vessels at an early daj', and continued in the 
lake business during the balance of his life. 


The first steamboat to navigate Lake Erie 
was the " Walk-in-the-Water," of 842 tons, 
built on the Niagara river, between Black 
Rock and Tonawanda, and launched on the 
28th of May, 1818. On her first trip it took 
from 7 •■30 P. M., on Monday, to 11 a. m. on 
Tuesday, to reach Cleveland from Erie, and 
the entire voyage from Buffalo to Detroit re- 
quired forty-one hours and ten minutes, the 
wind being ahead all the way. She carried 
quite a number of passengers, who enjoyed 
the trip mightily. As the boat neared the 
head of the lake, the Indians ran down to the 
water's edge, and gave utterance to their 
amazement by repeated signs and shouts. 
The " Walk-in-the-Water" made regular trips 
each season between Buffalo and Detroit, on 
each of which she stopped at Erie. 

The first steamboat launched at Erie was 
the William Penn, of 200 tons, on May 18, 
1826. She was the sixth on the lake, and was 
built by the Erie & Chautauqua Steamboat 
Company, the managers of which included, be- 
sides some New York parties, R. S. Reed, P. 
S. V. Hamot, Josiah Kellogg, John F. Wight, 
Daniel Dobbins and Peter Christie, of Erie. 
The William Penn was first commanded by 
Capt. Thomas Wilkins, and afterward by 
Capt. John Spires. 

Gen. C. M. Reed's first steamboat was the 
"Pennsylvania," Capt. John Fleeharty, mas- 
ter. She was built near the foot of Sassafras 
street, in July, 1832, and towed to Black 
Rock, where her engines were put in. Gen. 
Reed built the " Thomas Jefferson" in 1884 
and the "James Madison" in 1886, both at 
Erie, in about the same locality as the " Penn- 
sylvania." His boats did a heav}' business, 
sometimes carrying a thousand passengers, 
besides large amounts of freight. The "Alad- 
ison" is said to have cleared $80,000 on her 
first trip. 

In 1887, the ill-fated "Erie" was built at 
the foot of French street, by the Erie Steam- 
boat Co. — Thomas G. Colt and Smith I. Jack- 
son being the chief men — and the " Missouri " 
followed, built by Gen. Reed in 1840. The 
" Erie" was subsequently purchased by Gen. 

Reed, who owned the vessel until her destruc- 
tion b)' fire. All of these were large, elegant, 
rapid and popular boats. In fact, the boats 
built at Erie had the reputation of being the 
best on the lakes, and Gen. Reed was long the 
most extensive and famous vessel owner on 
the entire chain. 

In 1826, three steamboats entered and 
cleared from Erie harbor every week, and 
from two to ten schooners. The opening of 
the canal between Erie and the Ohio river, in 
the spring of 1845, gave an immense impetus 
to the lake trade at this port. In 1846 a daily 
steamboat line had been established between 
Erie and Buff'alo. Tens of thousands of emi- 
grants were brought from Buffalo each year, 
taking the canal route to the Ohio valley, and 
the harbor of Erie was one of the liveliest on 
the lake. The tide of travel by way of the 
lake continued until the completion of the 
Lake Shore R. R. to Toledo in 1853, when 
the emigrant business dropped off and the 
steamboats were compelled to depend mainly 
upon freight to and from the upper lakes. Be- 
fore the opening of the canal, all the lake 
steamboats used wood for fuel, giving employ- 
ment to a large number of men and teams. 


The first propeller on Lake Erie was the 
" Vandalia," of 150 tons, built at Oswego, 
and brought through the Welland canal in 
1842. Two others appeared the same season. 
The propellers have entirely taken the place 
of the old style steamboats. 

The first full-rigged ship on the lake was 
the " lulia Palmer," of 300 tons, launched at 
Buffalo in 1886. The ship "Milwaukee" 
was built in the same year at Grand Island, in 
the Niagara river. 

The following statistics of the vessels on 
Lake Erie at various periods show the progress 
that has been made : 

In 1810, eight or nine sailing vessels, aver- 
aging sixty tons. 

In 1820, one small steamboat and thirty 
sailing vessels, the latter averaging fifty tons. 

In 1831, eleven steamboats aggregating 
2,260 tons, and 100 sailing vessels, averaging 
seventy tons. 

In 1845, forty-five steamboats, aggregating 


80,000 tons, and 217 other vessels, aggrega- 
ting 20,000 tons. 

In 1860 (including Lake Ontario), 138 
steamers, 197 propellers, 58 barks, 90 brigs and 
974 sloops and schooners. Total tonnage, 
586,000; valuation, $80,000,000. 

The books of the United States Treasury 
Department gave the following as the tonnage 
on all the lakes June 80, 1894: 


Steam vessels 1 ,781 828,702 . 29 

Sailing vessels 1,139 817,789.37 

Canal boats 386 76.843 . 57 

Barges 85 37,731.99 

Totals 8,341 1,261,067.22 

" The number of steam vessels registering 
1,000 tons and upward is 859, with a gross 
tonnage of (384,467.84 tons. The number of 
vessels of this class owned in all other parts 
of the United States is 316, with a tonnage 
of 642,642.50 tons, so that half of the best 
steamship tonnage in the United States is 
owned on the lakes. 

" The freight borne upon the lake waters 
during 234 days of 1894 exceeded 80,000,000 
tons, being equal to one-quarter of the freight 
carried by all the railroads in the United 
States during 365 days." 

Years ago the trade of the lakes was done 
in schooners of from 200 to 500 tons. A 
schooner of the latter size was considered a 
monster. Then came the steamers, carrying 
from 40,000 to 50,000 bushels of corn. Lar- 
ger steamers began to crowd out the schoon- 
ers from the grain, coal and iron trade, and in 
a few years they had grown until they carried 
70,000 and 80,000 bushels. In the changes of 
the times the old lake schooners are rapidly 
passing from the field. Many marine men 
think the coming boat will be nearer 6,000 
tons in carrying capacity than 4,000. 


The United States Steamer " Michigan," 
the only vessel of war now on the lakes, was 
launched at Erie on the 9th of November, 
1848, and accepted and commissioned by the 
Government on the 15th of August, 1844. The 
" Michigan " is a side-wheeler, with a length 
over all of 167 feet, an extreme beam of 47 
feet, a depth of hold of 14 feet, a registered 

tonnage of 450 tons and a displacement of 685 
tons. She was built at Pittsburg, transported 
in pieces to Cleveland, brought from that 
city to Erie in a steamer, and put together at 
Erie harbor, being the first iron hull ever set 
afloat on the lakes. Her tonnage, armament 
and crew are regulated by a treat)- with Great 
Britain, which is also authorized to place a 
ves.sel of the same character on the lakes. 
Erie has always been the headquarters of the 
" Michigan." 

Erie was the station for the LTnited States 
revenue cutters from the time that branch of 
the Government service was established on 
Lake Erie up to a few years ago. The first 
cutter was the Benjamin Rush, of thirty tons, 
built at Erie by Capt. John Richards, about 
1827, and first commanded by Capt. Gilbert 
Knapp, who was succeeded by Capt. Daniel 
Dobbins. The second was the " Erie," of 
sixty-two tons, launched at Reed's dock, in 
March, l833, and placed in charge of Capt. 
Dobbins, with Douglas Ottinger as his second 
lieutenant. The "Erie" was succeeded in 1846 
by the iron steamer "Dallas," of which Michael 
Connor was captain and Douglas Ottinger 
first lieutenant. This vessel was removed to 
the Atlantic coast, by way of the Canadian 
canals and the St. Lawrence river, in 1848. 
The "Jeremiah S. Black" was one of six 
steam cutters built by the government, being 
one for each lake, in 1857, and was placed 
under the command of Capt. Ottinger, who had 
been promoted. At the outbreak of the Civil 
war, these vessels were moved to the Atlantic 
coast under the direction of Capt. Ottinger. 
In 1864, Capt. Ottinger superintended the 
construction of the steam cutter " Perry," of 
which he was commander, with the exception 
of two years, until 1881, when he was placed 
on the retired list. This vessel was built on 
the Niagara river, and her capacity was fixed 
at 404 tons. She was peculiarly constructed, 
having propeller wheels at the sides. Some 
ten years ago she was condemned and sold to 
Buffalo parties, who u.sed her as an excursion 
steamer. Immediately after the sale, the 
Government built a new cutter, also known as 
the "Perry," which continued in the lake service 
until the fall of 1890, when she was ordered 
to the ocean. After being refitted at New 
York, she took a trip around the Horn, and is 
now stationed in Pacific waters, as one of 
the fleet to protect the American seal interests. 




The early disasters have already been re- 
cited, and it is unnecessary to I'epeat them. 
The following are some of the most terrible 
incidents that have happened in later years on 
the bay and lake : 

The schooner " Franklin," owned by P. S. 
V. Hamot, loaded at Buffalo for an upper 
port, left Erie on the 16th of October, 1820, 
and was never seen afterward. Capt. Hayt 
and three men, all residents of Erie or vicin- 
ity, were lost. 

In April, 1823, four men — Hutchinson, 
Zuck, Fox and Granger — started to cross the 
bay in a boat. The water was rough, the 
boat capsized, and all but Granger were 

The steamboat " Washington" burned off 
Silver Creek in 1838, and sixty persons lost 
their lives. 

Eleven men left the wharf at Erie in a 
small boat on the 14th of May, 1884, to go to 
the steamboat New York, lying at the outer 
pier. A blinding snow storm prevailed, and 
the boat was upset. Nine of the party were 

One of the most dreadful calamities in the 
history of lake navigation occurred on the 9th 
of August, 1841. The steamboat " Erie," of 
Erie, owned by Gen. Reed, and bearing a 
large party of emigrants, was coming up the 
lake from Buff"alo, and when off Silver Creek 
was discovered to be ablaze. In an incon- 
ceivably brief period of time the boat was 
burned to the water's edge. Two hundred 
and forty-nine persons were lost, of whom 
twenty-six were residents of Erie. Between 
120 and 130 bodies rose to the surface and 
were recovered. The "Erie" was valued at 
$75,000. Her cargo was worth about $20,000, 
and the emigrants, it is calculated, had with 
them $180,000 in gold and silver. 

In 1850 the steamboat " G. P. GrifHn " 
burned near Chagrin, Ohio, and 250 souls 
were lost. 

The propeller " Henry Clay " foundered 
in 1851, and nothing was ever heard of any 
one on board. 

Nineteen lives were lost by the foundering 
of the propeller " Oneida" in 1852. 

In the summer of 1852 the steamboat "At- 
lantic " collided with another vessel, and sunk 

off Long Point, opposite Erie. One hundred 
and fifty lives were lost. 

The sloop " Washington Irving," of Erie, 
Capt. Vanatta, left that port for Buffalo on 
the 7th of July, 1860, and was never heard 
from again. She is supposed to have found- 
ered. All on board — seven persons — were 

The loss of life and property on the chain 
of lakes each year is very large. In 1860, 578 
persons were drowned and a million dollars' 
worth of property destroyed. In one gale, on 
the 10th of September, 1882, 157 persons lost 
their lives, of whom upwards of 1(X) came 
to their deaths by the foundering of the 
Canadian steamer " Asia, " in Georgian 
bay. One of the severest gales ever known 
occurred in November, 1883, lasting from the 
11th for several days, and extending over the 
whole chain of lakes. Nothing like it had 
been seen for many years. From fifty to sixty 
vessels were lost, and the damage was scarce- 
ly less than a million dollars. The largest 
loss of life during a single season, in recent 
years, happened in 1887, when 204 persons 
were drowned. The storm of October 14-15, 
1893, strewed the lakes with wrecks and 
caused the loss of over seventy seamen. In 
that year the dead numbered 123, and in 1892 
they numbered ninety-nine. During the sea- 
son of 1894 sixty sailors were lost, and thirty- 
eight vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 
15,881 tons, passed out of existence. 


The following are the distances by water 
in miles from the harbor of Erie : 

Alpena 513 

Bay City 397 

Buffalo..'. 85 

Cheboygan 517 

Chicago 818 

Cleveland 90 

Detroit 185 

Duluth 921 

Grand Haven 735 

Green Bay 692 

Mackinaw 535 

Mackinac I.sland 533 

Marquette 682 

Milwaukee 753 

Ogdensburg- 328 

Oscoda 365 

Oswego 238 

Port Huron 247 

Saginaw 412 

Sarnia 247 


Sault 3te. Marie 523 

St. Ig-nace 538 

Toledo 180 

Toronto 129 


Navigation usually opens at the port of 
Erie late in March or early in April, and 
closes about the 1st of December. As a rule, 
the harbor of Erie is open two or three weeks 
before that of Buffalo. The following are 
some of the earliest and latest periods of 
opening : 

Ear/ies/.— 1828, March 5th ; 1829, January 
29th; 1842, March 12th ; 185(t, March 11th"; 
1863, February 27th ; 1878 and 1880, March 
16th; 1883, April 13th; 1894, March 13th. 

Lateif. —185B, May 9th ; 1855, May 10th ; 
1856, May 5th. 

In 1834 navigation opened the 24th of 
March, but was much retarded by ice and 
storms. On the 14th of May, snow fell along 
the south shore of the lake to the depth of six 

The Revenue Cutter " Erie" sailed from 
the port of Erie to Buffalo about the last of 
December, 1837, without interruption. In 
February, 1838, the steamer " Dewitt Clin- 
ton " came into Erie from Buffalo and went 
from Erie to Detroit. 

In the winter of 1844—45, the steamer 
" United States " made a trip every month 
between Buffalo and Detroit. 

On the 13th of December, 1852, a steam- 
boat passed up the lake and another on the 
10th of January, 1853. 

The 'winter of 1893-4 was remarkably 
mild. The bay was only frozen over eight or 
ten days. Vessels could have entered the 
harbor anj' time during the month of Jan- 
uary, and two did actually leave the port on 
the 13th of the month. 

The straits of Mackinaw, upon the open- 
ing of which depends the lake traffic to 
Chicago, are generally clear of ice about the 
last of April Qr the 1st of May. Vessel insu- 
rance begins as a rule on the latter date, and 
alway closes on the 1st of December. 


The f^ ,S. Collection district of Presque 

le embraces the whole coast line of Penn- 

: Ivani; on Lake Erie. The Collectors' 

c in the old custom house (formerly 

t e Bank building), on State street, 

below Fourth, until the completion of the 
new government structure, at State and 
Central Park, when it was removed to the 
latter, with the other Federal offices. Below 
is a list of the Collectors and Deputy Collect- 
ors, with the dates of the commissions of the 


Thomas Forster, March 26, 1799 ; Edwin 
J. Kelso, July 1, 1836; Charles W. Kelso, 
July 10, 1841 ; Murray Whallon, June 19, 
1845; William M. Gallagher, April 29, 1849; 
James Lytle, April 22, 1853; John Brawley, 
October 15, 1857; Murray Whallon, March 11, 
1859; Charles M. Tibbals, November 1, 1859; 
Thomas Wilkins, June 22, 1861; Richard F. 
Gaggin, May 7, 1869; James R. Willard, 
February 19, 1874; Hiram L. Brown, March 
22, 1878: Matthew R. Barr, December 1, 1880 
(resigned) ; H. C. Stafford, July 17, 1883; 
R. H. Arbuckle, November 21^ 1885 ; John M. 
Glazier, November 21, 1889; Nelson Baldwin, 
November 29, 1893. 


Under Col. Forster — Thomas McConkey, 
James Maurice; under E. J. Kelso — Murray 
Whallon ; under C. W. Kelso— A. C. Hilton ; 
under Murray ^^'haIlon (first term) — A. P. 
Durlin ; under W. M. Gallagher — William 
S. Brown ; under Messrs. Lytle, Brawley, 
Whallon (second term) and Tibbals— W. W. 
Loomis; under Thomas Wilkins — R. F. 
Gaggin; under R. F. Gaggin — Thomas 
Wilkins; under J. R. WiHard— William F. 
Luetje ; under Messrs. Brown and Barr — R. 
F. Gaggin; under Mr. Barr, from March, 
1883— Andrew H. Caughey ; under Mr. Staf- 
ford — E. H. Wilcox and Alfred King; under 
Mr. Arbuckle — Henry Mayer ; under Mr. 
Glazier — Giles D. Price; under Mr. Baldwin 
— R. S. P. Lowry. 

The Collectors are appointed by the Presi- 
dent, and the Deputies by the Collector, with 
the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury. 


The following list of vessels owned in 
Erie in 1860 and 1894 is given for the pur- 
pose of comparison ; the figures for 1894 being 
taken from the report of the Board of Trade : 

1860. — Brig, one; barque, one; schooners, 
twenty-four; total, 5,294 tons; valuation, 



1894. — Sailing vessels, four; steam vessels, 
(wood), forty-five; steam vessels (iron), nine; 
yacht, one; sailing yacht, one; total tonnage, 
'36,055; valuation, $2,800,000. 


The entrances at the port of Erie during 
1860 were 655, and the clearances 678, with a 
total tonnage of about 300,000. The follow- 
ing persons and firms were in the lake busi- 
ness in that year: Coal and shipping. Walker 
& Gilson, John Hearn & Co.. Charles M. 
Reed, Josiah Kellogg, Starr & Payne, George 
J.Morton, Scott & Rankin; coal and iron, 
Curtis & Boyce ; grocery and ship chandlery, 
Andrew Hofsies. With the exception of the 
lumber and fishing business, the whole trade of 
the port is now done by the Anchor Line, the 
Carnegie Company, and the firm of which the 
late Wm. L. Scott was the controlling spirit. 
The former do all the grain and miscellaneous 
business, and the two latter control the coal 
and iron ore trade. 

The following table shows the business of 
the port for the years stated : 

1880 1890 1894 
Vessels entered and 

cleared 2,024 3,195 2,683 

Tonnage of same 1,565,183 2,492,253 3,069,739 

Enrolled tonnag-e 28,248 110,801 

The first grain elevator at the port of 
Erie, now known as "Elevator A," was built 
in 1868, by William S. Brown, Orange Noble, 
Joseph McCarter and Henry C. Shannon. 
After being operated, by the firm for a short 
time, it was sold to the Erie and Western 
Transportation Co., (generally known as 
the Anchor line), which erected two others, 
all three of which are still operated. 


The first lighthouse upon the chain of 
lakes was erected at Erie in 1818, on the bluff 
overlooking the entrance to the harbor, a 
tract of land for the purpose having been 
ceded to the United States Government bj- 
Gen. John Kelso. A new structure was built 
of Milwaukee brick in 1858, but proved to be 
defective, and it was replaced by a third 
building of stone in 1866, at a cost of |20,000. 
This was discontinued in 1880 and the build- 
ing and land sold in the spring of 1881. 
There was a strong protest on the part of the 
lake men, which induced the government to 

re-purchase the land and restore the light at 
the opening of navigation in 1882. 

About tiie year 1830, the government added 
a beacon light on the north pier at the en- 
trance to the harbor of Erie. It consisted of 
a tall wooden tower, resting upon a heavy bed 
of masonry. This structure was carried awav 
by a sailing vessel in the summer or fall of 1857, 
and was replaced by the present wrought iron 
tower in the summer of 1858. The light- 
house was modeled and forged into form in 
France, reaching Erie with nothing to be done 
except to bolt the pieces into their proper po- 
sitions. Five diff'erent lights are maintained 
at this station, all fixed, white, sixth order 
lenses, and used as ranges. In addition to 
these and for the further protection of navi- 
gators, there is a 1,200-pound Meneely fog 
bell, which is operated by clock work, and 
tolls three times each minute in snowy and 
foggy weather. 

A third station was established 
on the north shore of the peninsula, and a 
handsome brick tower erected for the pur- 
pose, from which the first light was exhibited 
on the night of July 12, 1873. It is known 
as the Flash Light, and cost the government 


Below is a list of the several Light-house 
Keepers, with the years of their appointment : 

Eric (or Land) Z/V/;/.— 1818-1833, 
Capt. John Bone, of Erie ; 1833, Robert Kin- 
caide, of Erie; 1841. Griffith Hinton, of 
Harbor Creek; 1845, Eli Webster, of Mc- 
Kean ; 1849, James W. Miles, of West Mill 
Creek, who died in the summer of 1853, the 
duties being performed by his wife, Isabel 
Miles, till the ensuing spring; April 1, 1854, 
John Graham, of Erie; April 1,1858, Gen. 
James Fleming, of Erie; October 27, 1858, 
A. C. Landon, of Erie; July 15, 1861, John 
Goalding, of Erie; April 1, 1864, George 
Demond, of Erie; August 1,. 1871, A. J. 
Fargo, of Fairview; 1885, George W. Miller, 
of Conneaut, Ohio. 

Prcsquc Isle Pier Head (or Beaco?i) 
Light. — William T. Downs, years unknown; 
Benjamin Fleming, Erie, years unknown ; 
John Hess, Erie, years unknown ; Leonard 
Vaughn, Summit, years unknown; George 
\V. Bone, Erie, appointed July 19, 1861; 
Richard P. Burke, Erie, March 1, 1863 ; Frank 


Henry, Harbor Creek, May 1, 1869; Charles 
D. Coyle, Erie, 1884; Robert Hunter, Erie, 

Assistants. — James Johnson, Erie, ap- 
pointed in June', 1873; C. E. McDannell, 
Mill Creek, September, 1871; William H. 
Harlow, 1885; Robert Hunter, Erie, 1886: 
Thomas L. Wilkins, 1889 ; Edward Plister, 
1892; John W. Reddy, 1894. 

Prcsqite Is/c {or Flask) Lii;/it.—]u\y 12, 
1873, Charles T. Waldo, of Fairview ; spring 
of 1880, George E. Irvin, A. J. Harrison; 
Fall of 1880, O. J. McAllister, of Wattsburg ; 
1880, George E. Town, of North East; 1883, 
Clark M. Cole, of Erie; 1886, Lewis Van- 
natta, Erie; 1891, Lewis Walrose ; 1892, 
Thomas L. Wilkins, Erie. 

Up to June, 1894, the appointment of 
Light-house Keeper was made by the Col- 
lector of the port, but under the civil service 
rules it is now vested in the Inspector of light- 

The new gas buoy, one of the latest and 
most useful inventions of the day, was placed 
in the harbor during the summer of 1895, 
through the recommendation of Capt. Gridley, 
light-house Inspector of the district. 


The Erie lights are in the Tenth Light- 
house district of the United States, extending 
from the mouth of St. Regis river, in New 
York, to and including Grassy Island, in the 
Detroit river. Each district is in charge of a 
United States naval oflicer, who is officially 
known as Inspector. 

The following have been the recent in- 
spectors : 

Com. Ellison, from to 1868; 1868-71, 

Com. G. H. Scott ; 1871-74, Com. N. Collins ; 
1874-77, Com. E. E. Potter; 1877-78, Capt. 
George Brown; 1878-80, Com. W. R. Bridg- 
man; 1880-83, Com. George W. Hay ward ; 
1883-87, Com. N. M. Dwyer; 1887-91, Com. 
Charles V. Gridley; 1891-93, Com. E. T. 

Woodward; 1893-94, Com. James G. Green ; 
1894, Com. Charles V. Gridley. 


The U. S. Life-Saving Service on Lake 
Erie was organized in 1876 by Capt. Ottinger, 
of the revenue service, who was soon suc- 
ceeded in regular charge by Capt. D. P. Dob- 
bins, a resident of Buffalo, but a native of 
Erie, who continued till his death, August 20, 
1892. He was followed by Capt. Chapman, 
of Oswego, whose headquarters are in Buffalo. 
The Ninth district, of which the latter has 
supervision, embraces Lakes Erie and Ontario, 
and the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville, Ky. 
The stations on Lake Erie are located at Buf- 
falo, Erie, Ashtabula, Cleveland, Fairport and 
Point Marblehead. 

The original station at Erie was built on 
the north shore of the peninsula, with Clark 
Jones in charge. This location being found 
inconvenient, the station was removed to the 
north pier at the entrance of the harbor. 
William Clark took charge of the station in 
1877. He was drowned while trying to rescue 
the passengers of the Badger State on June 
4th, 1891. His successor was Andrew P. 
Jansen. A new and improved life-boat of the 
English type, which had been on exhibition 
at the World's Fair, was placed in the station 
during the spring of 1894. 


The U. S. Weather and Signal Service 
office, intended largely for the benefit of mari- 
ners, was established in Erie May 23, 1873. 
Peter Wood, who had been in the chief office 
at Washington city, assumed charge in Feb- 
ruary, 1884, and has been on duty ever since. 
The office is on the fourth floor of the govern- 
ment building, at State street and Central 

[For other information regarding the har- 
bor, the lake trade, fishing interests, etc., see 
Chapter V., Erie City.] 


The War of 1812-14— Perry's Victory- 

County's Pai 

WAR was declared for the second time 
by the United States against Great 
Britain on the 18th of June, 1812. 
At that time the Canadian territory 
bordering the hikes and the St. Law- 
rence was far in advance of the United States 
on the opposite side in population, commerce 
and agriculture. The British were also much 
better prepared for war, having a series of 
military posts, from Niagara to Sault Ste. 
Marie, and being provided with a " Provincial 
Navy," which gave them the mastery of the 
lakes. They were on the best of terms with 
the Indians on both sides of the water, who 
were generally hostile to the Americans. 

Erie, than a mere handful of buildings, 
from its position near the center of the lake 
and the excellence of its harbor, was regarded 
as one of the most important points on the 
south shore. 

On the east, there was no village of any 
size nearer than Buffalo, and the country be- 
tween scarcely contained ten families to the 
square mile. Westward the greater portion 
of the region remained an unbroken forest, 
the only settlements worthy of a name being 
those which surrounded the military posts at 
Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo and Detroit. 


When hostilities commenced, they were so 
little expected on the frontier that Capt. 
Daniel Dobbins, Rufus Seth Reed and W.W. 
Reed sailed in a trading vessel for Mackinaw 
soon after the opening of navigation. While 
at that place a body of British and Indians 
took possession of the island and captured the 
party with their vessel. As prisoners of war 
they were carried in their own vessel to De- 
troit, where they were allowed to depart, and 
finally reached home in safety. 

On the outbreak of the war a military 
companv was in existence at Erie, under com- 
mand of Capt. Thomas Forster. The mem- 

bers immediately tendered their services to the 
President, and were accepted for the time 
being. In anticipation of the conflict. Gov. 
Snyder had organized the militia of the State 
into two grand divisions — one for the east and 
one for the west. The western division was 
under the command of Maj.-Gen. Adamson 
Tannehill, of Pittsburg ; the brigade of which 
the Erie county militia formed a part was 
commanded by Brig. -Gen. John Kelso, and 
the Erie county regiment was under the com- 
mand of Dr. John C. Wallace. Among the 
oflicers of the regiment were Capts. Andrew 
Cochran, Zelotus Lee, James Barr, William 
Dickson, Robert Davison, Warren Foote, 
John Morris, — Smith and — Donaldson. 
Capt. Barr and his men were sent to San- 
dusk}', and spent the winter of 1812-13 there. 
Capt. Cochran's Springfield company kept 
guard along the lake for some months, and 
was frequently called out at later stages of 
the war. The company commanded by Capt. 
Foote was assigned, in the beginning, to 
'■ keep sentry at the head of the peninsula." 

Before the close of June, Gen. Kelso 
ordered out his brigade for the defence of 
Erie. This was quickly followed by a general 
call for the Sixteenth Division, the State hav- 
ing by this time been apportioned into more 
numerous military districts. The brigade 
rendezvous was on the farm of John Lytle, 
upon the flats at Waterford station. Upward 
of two thousand men were collected from 
Erie, Crawford, Mercer and the adjoining 
counties. August 13, a detachment of 2,500 
of the Northwestern militia — increased in 
September by 2,000 more — were ordered to 
march to Buffalo, which was menaced by the 
enemy. They continued at Buffalo the winter 
through, under command of Gen. Tannehill, 
and it is related to the credit of Erie county, 
that while many others deserted, not one man 
of Col. Wallace's command shirked his duty. 
In the meantime measures had been taken for 


tlie defence of Erie, which was reported in 
danger of an attack by the enemy's fleet seve- 
ral times during the year. 

The summer campaign of 1812 along the 
lake was a series of disasters to the Americans. 
The surrender of Detroit by Hull, the defeat 
of Van Rensselaer at Niagara in October, and 
the capture of the Adams, the only armed ves- 
sel that had been left to us, gave the British 
full control upon the lake. 


Upon the return of Capt. Dobbins to Erie, 
he was called into immediate consultation 
with Gen. Mead, commander of the post, who 
sent him to Washington for the purpose of 
informing the President of the situation on 
the lakes. On reaching the capital, he met 
the cabinet, in official session, and earnestly 
advocated the establishment of a naval station 
and the building of a fleet powerful enough 
to cope with the British upon the lake. These 
suggestions were adopted. A Sailing Master's 
commission in the navy was tendered to him 
and accepted, and he was ordered to proceed 
to Erie and begin the construction of gun- 
boats. An effort was made to secure ship 
carpenters, but only one being secured, Capt. 
Dobbins decided to go on with such house 
builders and laborers as he could gather to- 

About January 1, 1818, Commodore 
Chauncej' came to Erie, accompanied by a 
United States naval constructor, and, after 
approving what Dobbins had done, ordered 
him to prepare for the building of two sloops 
of war in addition to the gunboats. The keels 
of these vessels were ready to lay and much of 
the timber on hand about the lOth of March, 
when a gang of twenty-five carpenters, in 
charge of Noah Brown, a master ship builder 
from New York, reached Erie. A temporary 
guard was improvised, consisting of Capt. 
Forster's volunteer military company, who 
had got back from Buffalo, and the workmen 
at the station. 


Lieut. Oliver Hazard Perry, to whom the 
command on Lake Erie had been assigned, 
arrived at Erie March 27, 1813, and estab- 
lished his headquarters in " Duncan's Hotel " 
(later the " McConkey House"), at the 
northeast corner of Third and French streets. 

He was only twenty-seven years of age, 
and his sole war service was as a Mid- 
shipman in the war with Tripoli ; but he was 
active, brave and patriotic. By the joint ex- 
ertions of Perry and Mead, a thousand State 
militia were ordered to rendezvous at Erie on 
or before the 20th of April. The old Ameri- 
can block-house of 1795, which had nearly 
gone to ruins, was hurriedly restored, as was 
also the one on the point of the peninsula. 
Redoubts were subsequently thrown up at 
several points on the bank of the bay and lake. 

It is next to impossible at the present day 
to comprehend the difficulties that attended 
Perry and Dobbins in their efforts. Of prac- 
tical ship builders there were few in the lake 
country. The timber for the vessels had to be 
cut in the forests and used while yet green. 
Iron was scarce, and had to be picked up 
wherever it could be found. The guns, arms 
and ammunition had to be brought by small 
boats from Buffalo and Pittsburg. 

Carpenters, blacksmiths, sail makers, rig- 
gers, and other workmen came on from New 
York and Philadelphia, infusing new energy 
into the operations. The " Lawrence '' and 
" Niagara," sloops of war, and the pilot boat 
" Ariel," schooner-rigged, were built on the 
beach at the mouth of Cascade run, now occu- 
pied by the Erie & Pittsburgh docks, and the 
" Porcupine " and " Tigress," gunboats, on a 
beach that jutted out from the mouth of Lee's 
run, afterward the terminus of the canal. The 
brig " Caledonia" and sloop '■ Trippe," and 
the schooners Ohio, Amelia and Somers were 
brought up the lake from Black Rock, great 
vigilance being required to elude the enemy. 
They reached Erie on the 17th of June. 

perry's fleet. 
The entire fleet with which Perry was ex- 
pected to humble British pride on the lake 
was now concentrated in the harbor of Erie. 
It consisted of the "Lawrence" and "Ni- 
agara," built after the same model, being 100 
feet straight rabbit, 100 feet between per- 
pendiculars, 30 feet beam, 9 feet hold, flush 
deck, and pierced for twenty guns, with two 
stern ports; the "Ariel" and "Scorpion,'' each 
of 63 tons ; the " Porcupine" and "Tigress," of 
about 50 tons ; the "Caledonia," of 85 tons ; 
the " Trippe," of 63 tons, and the "Amelia," 
" Somers" and " Ohio," of 72, 65 and 62 tons 
respective!)'. The " Lawrence " was named 


after the heroic Capt. James Lawrence, who 
was killed in the encounter between the 
Chesapeake and Shannon, and whose last 
words, "Don't give up the ship," were in- 
scribed by Perry on his fighting flag. One of 
the schooners brought up from Black Rock, 
the "Amelia," was condemned as worthless 
and sunk in the harbor. 

Up to the 25th of June something like 150 
men and officers had arrived for service in the 
fleet, of whom many were sick in the hos- 
pitals, of which there were three — in the 
court house, on the point of Misery bay and in 
the block house, respectively. More men 
reached Erie on or about the 25th of July, and 
by August 1st Perry's force numbered about 
300, of whom quite one-third were landsmen, 
who volunteered for the service. 

While Perry was preparing the fleet, ves- 
sels of the enemy anchored in the roadstead 
several times, and would have entered the bay 
but for the shallow water on the bar. Some- 
times the "Queen Charlotte," the British flag- 
ship, would appear alone, and at others the 
whole squadron. July 19th, six of the enemy's 
vessels were in sight outside the harbor, where 
they lay becalmed for two daj-s. Perry went 
with three gunboats to attack them, and a few 
shots were exchanged at a mile's distance. A 
breeze springing up, the enemy sailed away, 
evidently desiring to avoid a fight. All this 
time the meager land force at Erie was kept 
busy parading the bank of the lake, to give 
the impression to the enemy of a larger army 
than was really the case. On the 27th of Au- 
gust a force of 1,600 State militia was report- 
ed as being in camp at Erie. 


On Sunday, the 1st of August, the vessels 
were moved to the mouth of the bay, then free 
from piers, and preparations were made for 
getting them over the bar and for defending 
them in case of an attack while the operation 
was in progress. The guns, ballast and other 
heavy material were removed from the " Law- 
rence '' to the sand beach, being so adjusted as 
to be readily replaced, and the ship was lifted 
over the bar by the aid of "camels." This 
proceeding was considerably delayed by an 
unfavorable wind, and it was not until the 
morning of the 4th, after two nights and days 
of wearisome labor, that the 'Lawrence" 
was floated to her anchorage in the roadstead. 

The " Niagara " was lifted over by the same 
process a few days after, the smaller vessels 
crossing without serious trouble. 

Before the work of moving the " Niagara " 
over the bar was completed, the enemy ap- 
peared early one morning, and hove to about 
eight miles out for the purpose of reconnoiter- 
ing. After looking over the situation for an 
hour or two, the British crossed the lake to 
Port Dover, where it had been intended to 
concentrate a sea and land force for a com- 
bined attack upon Erie. This failed because 
the troops could not be got up in season. 


On the 9th, to the joy of all, the little band 
were joined by Lieut. Elliott, with some offi- 
cers and ninety men, most of whom were ex- 
perienced sailors. The squadron, though still 
lacking a proper equipment, was now thought 
to be ready for active service, and, on the 
morning of the 12th of August, sailed up the 
lake in search of the enemy. A dinner was 
given to Perry, just before his departure, by 
the citizens of Erie, at which he expressed a 
desire to return a victor or in his shroud. The 
fleet consisted of ten vessels. Before sailing 
Perry had been created a commander, and El- 
liott had been promoted to the same rank. 
Most of the officers were young men — the av- 
erage ages of the commissioned ones being less 
than twenty-three years. With few excep- 
tions, they had no acquaintance with the navi- 
gation of the lakes. While at Sandusky, 
Sailing-Master Dobbins, in command of the 
" Ohio," was ordered to Erie with his vessel, 
for the purpose of procuring " provisions and 
other articles," and very unwillingly remained 
at anchorage in the harbor while the battle 
Was iu progress. 


On the 10th of September, at the rising of 
the sun, while the fleet lay in Put-in Ba^s the 
lookout shouted "Sail, ho !" and the men of 
the squadron, who were almost instantly astir, 
saw the British vessels, six in number, rise 
above the horizon. Feeble from sickness as he 
was, Perry gave the signal immediately to get 
under way, adding that he was " determined 
to fight the enemy that day." At a quarter 
before 12 o'clock, when the "Detroit" and 
"Lawrence" were still more than a mile 
apart, the sound of a bugle was heard on the 



British flagship, followed by cheers along their 
line, the band struck up "Rule Brittannia," 
and in a moment after the music ceased, a shot 
was thrown at the "Lawrence" which fell 

The purpose of this sketch being to deal 
with the subject mainly in its local bearings, 
no attempt will be made to give a minute 
account of the action, which has been graphi- 
cally described by several of the most emi- 
nent writers of the country. It is enough to 
say, that, through some cause, the real na- 
ture of which has been hotly discussed, the 
"Niagara" did not engage the enemy at 
close quarters, and the battle, for a time, was 
maintained " by the ' Lawi-ence,' ' Caledonia,' 
'Scorpion' and 'Ariel,' against- the whole 
British squadron, assisted only by the long 
twelves of the ' Niagara,' and the distant, 
rambling shots from the headmost gunboats." 
The " Lawrence" for two hours sustained 
the fire of the two heaviest British vessels, 
as well as some stray shots from the others, 
" until ever}- gun was dismounted, two-thii'ds 
of her crew killed or wounded, and the ship 
so badly cut up aloft as to be unmanageable." 
In this critical situation. Perry took his fight- 
ing flag under his arm and passed in a row 
boat, accompanied by his brother and four 
men, to the " Niagara," which was making 
an effort to gain the head of the enemj-'s line. 
The British felt sure that the day was their's 
and sent up a cheer. 

On boarding the " Niagara," Perry, who 
had stood erect in the boat the whole way, 
was met cordially by Elliott, in command of 
the vessel, who off'ered and was ordered to 
bring the gunboats into close action, while 
the former assumed command of the vessel. 
The gunboats being well up, and the " Cale- 
donia " in good position, the signal to break 
through the British line was shown from the 
"Niagara" at '1 -Ab in the afternoon. The 
fire of the "Niagara" was reserved until she 
got abreast of the " Detroit," when she poured 
her starboard at pistol shot into that vessel and 
the " Qiieen Charlotte," while with the 
port broadside she sent a storm of ball into 
the '■ Lady Provost " and " Chippewa." The 
"Caledonia" and the gunboats followed 
close behind, dealing death on both sides, and 
the " Detroit " having fouled with the " Qiieen 
Charlotte," neither vessel was able to reply. 
After passing through the British line, the 

"Niagara" rounded to under their lee, and 
sent one broadside after another into the en- 
tangled vessels, causing such fearful damage 
that in fifteen minutes from the time she bore 
up a white handkerchief was waved from the 
" Qiieen Charlotte" as a symbol of submis- 
sion, shortly succeeded by one from the " De- 
troit." The firing ceased almost instantly, 
after a struggle of almost three hours' dura- 
tion. Two of the smaller British vessels un- 
dertook to escape, but were brought back by 
the " Scorpion" and " Trippe." 

perry's famous dispatch. 
When the smoke of battle cleared away, 
the two squadrons were found to be inter- 
mingled, with the exception of the shattered 
" Lawrence," which was drifting with the 
wind some distance to the eastward. As the 
shout of victory went up, her flag, which had 
been struck after Perry left, was again hoisted 
to the masthead by the remaining few of her 
crew who were able to witness the triumph of 
their comrades. Perry sat down as soon as 
the firing had ceased and wrote on the back of 
an old letter this modest and memorable epis- 
tle to Gen. Harrison : 

United States Steamship Niagara, 

September 10, 4 p. M. . 
Dear Genekai, : We have met the enemy and 
the}' are ours ; two ships, two brig^s, one schooner, 
and one sloop. 

Yours with great respect and esteem, 
O. H. Perry. 

To the Secretary of the Navy he messaged : 
" It has pleased the Almighty to give to the 
United States a signal victory on this lake," 
detailing the number of captured vessels. 
These brief dispatches were forwarded by 
schooner to Gen. Harrison, then at the mouth 
of Portage river, distant some twelve miles. 

Taking all the circumstances into consid- 
eration, the victory of Perry was one of the 
proudest in naval annals. The Americans 
had the most vessels, but the British had the 
superiority in guns, their number being sixty- 
three to our fifty-four. The men engaged 
were about ecjual in number, but the British 
marines were veterans while ours were chiefly 
raw volunteers. 

The captured sc(uadron consisted of the 
" Detroit," " Qiieen Charlotte," "Lady Pro- 
vost," " Chippewa," " Hunter " and "Little 
Belt." Their killed were forty-one and the 


wounded ninety-four, being more than one in 
four of the men engaged. The casualties on 
the American side were twenty-seven killed 
and ninety-six wounded, of whom two-thirds 
belonged to the crew of the " Lawrence." 


The badly wounded were put on board the 
" Lawrence," which had been sufficiently re- 
paired for the purpose, and brought to Erie, 
reaching port on the 23d, thirteen days after 
the battle. The citizens of Erie vied with 
each other in showing them every attention, 
no discrimination being made between friend 
and foe. 

The Americans being now in absolute con- 
trol of the lake. Perry and Harrison com- 
menced instant preparations to retrieve the 
disasters to our cause on the frontier. Harri- 
son's army, which had received large acces- 
sions of volunteers, was mainly transported 
on the serviceable vessels of the two fleets to 
the Canadian shore near the head of the lake. 
The British abandoned Maiden, retreating up 
the Detroit river, followed by our army and 
squadron. At Sandwich, after finding he 
could be of no direct service on the water. 
Perry volunteered as an aide to Harrison. The 
battle of the Thames, the defeat of Proctor 
'and the death of Tecumseh folbwed, wiping 
out all armed resistance in that quarter and 
leaving the western part of Canada in the 
quiet possession of the Americans. 

Taking Harrison and his staff, who had 
been ordered to Fort George, on board the 
"Ariel," Perry sailed for Erie, where the 
"Niagara" was ordered to meet him. At 
Put-in-Bay the captured British naval com- 
mander, Barclay, and his attending surgeon 
were invited to join the party, and willingly 
accepted. The "Ariel," with her distin- 
guished passengers, arrived at Erie on the 
morning of the 22d of October. As the ves- 
sel appeared off the point of the peninsula, 
two field pieces greeted her with a national 
salute. A large delegation of citizens met 
Perry at the foot of French street, escorted 
him and his party to " Duncan's Hotel" and 
almost smothered him with congratulations. 
In the evening, the town was illuminated and 
a torchlight procession paraded the streets. 
Perry had requested that no noise or display 
should be made near the hotel to annoy the 
wounded Commodore, a desire that was cour- 

teously complied with. The " Niagara " ar- 
rived at Erie the afternoon of the same day as 
the "Ariel." The forenoon of the 23d Perry 
employed in a visit to the "Lawrence," which 
lay at anchor in Misery bay, and in the after- 
noon he sailed for Buffalo, accompanied by 
Harrison and Barclay. Reaching that place 
on the 24th, he turned over the command on 
the Upper Lakes to Elliott, and journeyed east- 
ward by land " amid a blaze of rejoicing." 
He never returned to Erie. While in charge 
of the squadron in the West Indies he was at- 
tacked by yellow fever, and died in 1819, on 
the anniversary of his birthday (August 23), 
at the early age of thirty-four. 

WINTER OF 1813-14. 

The season being well advanced, Elliott 
ordered the vessels into winter quarters — the 
" Ariel " and " Chippewa " going to Buffalo, 
where they were driven ashore and went to 
pieces; the " Trippe " and " Little Belt " to 
Black Rock, where they were burned by the 
British when they crossed over to Bufialo, 
and the balance of the squadron to Erie. 

On the 30th of December word reached 
Erie that an army of British and Indians had 
landed at Black Rock, forced our army to re- 
treat, burned the villages of Black Rock and 
Buffalo, captured and destroyed the govern- 
ment vessels, and, flushed with triumph, were 
advancing up the lake for the purpose of cap- 
turing Erie. A defensive force of 4,000 
State militia was collected. Though the 
rumor of a British advance proved false, a 
considerable body of troops was kept at Erie 
during the winter. The principal camp was 
just north of the First Presbyterian church, 
where the ground was covered with low log 
barracks, most of which burned down soon 
after they were abandoned. 

A duel, growing out of the frequent dis- 
putes over the respective merits of Elliott and 
Perry, took place during the winter near the 
corner of Third and Sassafrass streets, be- 
tween Midshipman Senat, who commanded 
the " Porcupine " during the fight, and Acting 
Master McDonald, resulting in the death of 
the former. The unfortunate man was en- 
gaged to an Erie lady at the time. 


As soon as the ice was out of the lake, 
Elliott sent Dobbins on a cruise between Erie 

') 'T^ 


and Long Point, to obtain information of 
the enemy's movements and intercept any 
supplies that might be going by water. 

In April Elliott was ordered to Lake On- 
tario, being succeeded by Capt. Arthur Sin- 
clair. An e.vpedition against Mackinaw was 
planned. The " Lawrence " and " Niagara " 
were rendered seaworth}-, the " Detroit" and 
" Queen Charlotte " were brought from Put- 
in-Bay to Erie, and the squadron sailed for 
the upper lakes on the 25th of June. Their 
attack was repulsed and the expedition re- 
turned to Erie, with the exception of the 
"Scorpion" and "Tigress." These vessels 
were surprised and captured at the lower end 
of Lake Huron, by a body of British and In- 
dians, who boarded them in boats at night. 
Sinclair left the " Lawrence '' at Erie, and 
with the bijlance of the squadron conveyed a 
portion of the troops to Buffalo. Remaining 
there a few days, he came back to Erie, leav- 
ing the " Somers " and " Ohio," from which 
Dobbins had been detached, at the lower end 
of the lake. Shortly afterward, these vessels, 
while lying at anchor at Fort Erie, were 
boarded at night, and captured by a British 
party, making six that were destroyed by the 
enemy after the battle. 


In 1815, orders were issued to dispose of 
the vessels to the best advantage. The 
" Lawrence," " Detroit " and " Queen Char- 
lotte " were sunk for preservation in Misery 
bay ; the " Caledonia " and " Lady Provost" 
were sold and converted into merchant ves- 
sels ; the " Porcupine" was transferred to the 
revenue service, and the " Niagara" was kept 
afloat as a receiving ship for some years when 
she was beached on the northeast side of Misery 

At the auction of go\ernment property, 
upon the breaking up of the naval station, 
June 12, 1826, the " Lawrence," " Detroit," 
"Niagara" and " Qiieen Charlotte" were 
purchased by a Mr. Brown, of Rochester, who 
re-sold them in 1836 to Capt. George Miles 
and others. They raised some of the vessels, 
intending to fit them up for the merchant serv- 
ice. The "Detroit" and "Queen Char- 
lotte " were found in tolerable condition, but 
the " Lawrence " being .so badly riddled that 
she was not worth repairing, was again allow- 
ed to sink in the waters of the bay. After 

some years of duty, the " Detroit " was dis- 
mantled and sent adrift to go over Niagara 
Falls as a spectacle. Capt. Miles transferred 
his interest in the " Lawrence" and " Niag- 
ara " to Leander Dobbins in 1857, who in 
turn disposed of the vessel in 1875 to John 
Dunlap and Thomas J. Viers. In the spring 
of 1876, the latter had her raised, cut in two 
and- transported on cars to Philadelphia for 
exhibition at the Centennial. The people, 
however, would not believe that a vessel no 
larger than a modern canal boat was the fam-. 
ous " Lawrence." The show proved a dis- 
astrous financial failure, and the old hulk 
was finally purchased bj- a firm who expected 
to realize something by converting it into 
relics. The " Niagara " was never removed 
from the place where she was beached. [See 
Chapter XVI.] 

The bell of the " Queen Charlotte " was 
bought at auction by Rufus S. Reed, and pre- 
sented to the borough of Erie. It hung in the 
court house that stood in the park till the 
building was torn down, when it passed into 
various hands, and was used for a period as a 
fire alarm. On one occasion it was rung so 
violently that it became cracked. It then fell 
into disuse and was lost sight of until 1893, 
when it became the property of the city, and 
is now suspended in the main corridor of the 
city hall. 


The following is a partial list of officers 
from Erie county, who participated in the 
war : 

Quartermaster General, Wilson Smith, 
1812-U. Major General, Sixteenth Division 
— John Phillips, 1814. Brigadier General, 
First Brigade, Sixteenth Division — John 
Kelso, 1812-14:: Henry Hurst, 1814. Pay- 
master, John Phillips, 1812-18. Major and 
Lieutenant Colonel, Dr. John C. Wallace. 
Commissaries, Rufus S. Reed, Stephen \No\- 
verton. Sergeant Major, Henry Colt. 

The members of Capt. Thomas Forster's 
company of " Erie Light Infantry," who spent 
the winter of 1812 at Buffalo, were as follows : 
First Lieutenant, Thomas Rees ; Ensign, 
Thomas Stewart ; First Sergeant, Thomas 
Wilkins ; Second Sergeant, John Hay: Drum- 
mer, Ira Glazier; Fifer, Rufus Clough ; Pri- 
vates — Archibald McSparren, George Kelley, 
John Sloan, William Murray, Jonas Duncan, 



John Clough, John Woodside, Wilham Dun- 
can, John Eakens, George S. Russell, John 
E. Lapsley, Peter Grawosz, Jacob Carmack, 
William Henderson, Robert Irwin, Ebenezer 
Dwinnell, Samuel Hays, Thomas Laird, John 
W. Bell, Robert McDonald, Thomas Hughes, 
Robert Brown, John Morris, George Buehler, 
William Lattimore, James E. Herron, Simeon 
Dunn, Adam Arbuckle, Stephen Woherton, 
Francis Scott, Thomas Vance. 

Among those who came to Erie as ship- 
"builders and became permanent residents of 
the town were John Justice, John Rich- 
ards and Jeremiah Osborne. 


Among the State militia who came on to 
defend Erie was James Bird, a young man 
from Center county. He volunteered for serv- 

ice in Perry's fleet and fought gallantly on 
the "Lawrence," receiving a severe wound. 

In the spring of 1814, a warehouse having 
been fitted up at the mouth of Mill creek, 
Bird was one of the guard assigned for its 
protection. He and John Rankin, another 
marine, took advantage of the opportunity to 
desert. They were recognized shortly after 
at a tavern in Mercer county, brought back to 
Erie, tried by court martial, and condemned 
to death. A sailor named John Davis, who 
had deserted several times, was tried and sen- 
tenced with them to the same fate. 

Their execution took place in October, 
1814, on board the '• Niagara," lying at anchor 
in Misery bay. Bird and Rankin being shot, 
and Davis hung at the yard arm. Tl^e bodies 
were interred on the sand beach, east of the 
mouth of Mill creek. 


Religious Denominations — Church Buildings — Sunday-Schools — Old Graveyards 
— Cemeteries, Etc. — [See Chapters VIII and IX Erie City ; also Corry, Borough 
and Township Chapters.] 

THE Catholic priests who accompanied 
the French to this section in 1753 
caused a small log chapel to be erected 
at Fort Presque Isle, and another 
within the walls of Fort LeBoeuf, at 
Waterford, in which the solemn rites of the 
mother church were regularly administered 
until the departure of the invading forces in 
1759. As far as any record exists, these were 
the only religious services held within the 
bounds of Erie county previous to the year 

The first Protestant exercises of which 
there is any account took place at Colt's Sta- 
tion, in Greenfield township, on Sunday, the 
2d of July, 1797. About thirty persons assem- 
bled in response to a general invitation. No 
minister was located within the bounds of the 
county, and the services were led by Judah 
Colt, founder of the settlement. 


first in thi 

In 1799 a tour was made through this sec- 
tion by Revs. McCurdy and Stockton, two 
missionaries who were sent out by the Ohio 
and Redstone Presbyteries. They visited 
Erie, Waterford and North East, and preached 
at each place. A period of two years ensued 
before the colonists were favored with an- 
other ministerial visitation, when Mr. Mc- 
Curdy was again sent forth, assisted by Revs. 
Satterfield, Tate and Boyd, all of the Presby- 
teries above named. The first two reached 
Middlebrook, in Venango township, in Au- 
gust, 1801, and preached in a chopping that 
had been prepared for the purpose on the bank 
of French creek. 

The efforts of the two ministers met with 
such favor that it was resolved upon the spot 
that a meeting should be put up within 



the ensuing week. On the next Thursday the 
population for miles around gathered at the 
site that had been chosen, and by night had a 
rough log building under roof, the first house 
for Protestant worship erected in Erie county. 
This structure was succeeded by another and 
better one in 1802, known to every old settler 
as the Middlebrook Church. From Middle- 
brook, after organizing a congregation of 
eighteen members, Messrs. McCurdy and Sat- 
terfield continued their journey to Colt's Sta- 
tion and North East, where thev were joined 
by Messrs. Tate and Boyd. At the latttr 
place these four participated in the first sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper ever administered 
in Erie county, according to Protestant forms, 
on the 27th of September. 1801. An audi- 
ence of about 300 had assembled, of whom 
some forty sat down to the tables. A congre- 
gation with the title of " The Churches of 
Upper and Lower Greenfield" was organized 
at the same time. 

The Erie Presbytery was established on 
the 2d of October, 1801, including the terri- 
tory between the Ohio and Allegheny rivers 
and Lake Erie, extending some distance also 
west of the Ohio line. The Presbytery first 
met at Mt. Pleasant, Beaver county, on the 
13th of April, 1802, seven ministers only be- 
ing in attendance. Supplications were filed 
from Upper and Lower Greenfield, Middle- 
brook and Presque Isle. Revs. McCurdy, 
Satterfield and McPherrin were chosen mis- 


Rev. Robert Patterson, who had accepted 
a call from " The Churches of Upper and 
Lower Greenfield," was received by the Pres- 
bytery on the 30th of September. "I8O2. He 
returned to North East, and entered upon his 
pastoral work on the 31st of December. A 
log church was built at North East in 1804, 
on the knoll now occupied by the cemetery of 
that borough. Mr. Patterson preached at 
Springfield during that year, and organized a 
preaching point there. The first church in 
the latter township was built in 1804 on the 
site of the cemetery at East Springfield. 

Rev. Johnson Eaton came on from the 
southern part of the State in April, 1805, and 
preached for some time at the mouth of Wal- 
nut creek and in Springfield. In the fall of 
that year he went back to his home, return- 

ing in 1806 with a bride, and settling perman- 
ently in Fairview township. He had the 
whole county for his field, but gave special 
attention to the people at Fairview and Spring- 
field. In 1807 he succeeded Mr. Patterson at 
North East, and he also held occasional serv- 
ices for several years at Colt's Station, Mid- 
dlebrook, VVaterford and Erie. A church was 
built at the mouth of Walnut creek in 1810. 
During the war with Great Britain, Mr. Eaton 
gave his services to the government as a chap- 
lain, besides ministering to his congregation 
with as much regularity as the unsettled con- 
dition of the time would allow. By 1816, the 
population of Erie had increased sufficiently 
to enable an arrangement to be made by which 
he gave one-third of his time to the congrega- 
tion there, which had been organized by him 
September 15, 1815. He continued as pastor 
of the Erie congregation until 1823, and of the 
Fairview church until his death, on the 17th 
of June, 1847. 

In 1808, supplies were granted by the Pres- 
bytery to " Upper Greenfield, Middlebrook, 
VVaterford and Erietown," and in 1809 it was 
reported to that body that none of these places 
could support a pastor. 

No regular preaching of any kind was had 
at Erie until Mr. Eaton was called to give one- 
third of his time, as before stated. 

The Presbyterian congregation at Water- 
ford was organized in 1809, and that at Union 
in 1811, being the first in those places. 
Rev. John Matthews was settled as pastor 
of the' Waterford congregation October 17, 
1810. The LTnion congregation did not put 
up a building till 1831, and that of Waterford 
till 1834. In 1817, Rev. Mr. Camp was em- 
ployed as a missionary to supply the churches 
unable to support a pastor, and served in that 
capacity for two years. The minutes of the 
Presbytery in 1820 show congregations at 
Springfield, North East, Waterford, Middle- 
brook, Union, Fairview and Erie. 


Occasional services were held by members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church at an early 
date in various portions of the county, but 
principally in the western and southwestern 
townships. The first of which there is any 
positive knowledge was led by Rev. Joseph 
Bo wen, a local preacher, at the house of Mrs. 
Mershon, near West Springfield, in Septem- 



ber, 1800. A class was orjifanized near Lex- 
ington, in Conneaut township, in 1801, and 
the same year a great revival was held at 
Ash's Corners, Washington township. The 
first church building was erected in 1804, 
about a mile south of West Springfield. The 
first quarterly meeting was held in that church 
in July, 1810. Meetings of the denomination 
in Erie were held by circuit preachers, at long 
intervals, commencing in 1801. Worship 
took place in the winter of 1810-11, in a 
tavern on the west side of French street, be- 
tween Sixth and Seventh. A congregation 
would seem to have been partially established 
soon after the beginning of the century, but 
was probably unable to support a pastor until 
1826, at which period the First Church of 
Erie city dates its organization. The earliest 
of the other congregations in the county were 
those at Mill Village, organized in 1810 ; North 
East, in 1812; Fair Haven, Girard township, 
1815; Girard borough, 1815; Waterford bor- 
ough, 1816; Union City and Fairview, 1817; 
Middleboro, 1819; Northville, 1820; Watts- 
burg, 1827; Wesleyville, 1828. 


Rev. Robert Reid, a minister of the Asso- 
ciate Reformed Presbyterian Church, gathered 
a congregation in Erie in 1811, which was the 
first regularlj' organized religious body in the 
city. Services were held in a school-house 
until 1816, when a church building was 
erected, eight years in advance of that of the 
First Presbyterian congregation. These two 
were the sole religious organizations in the 
city in 1820. A second society was organized 
by Mr. Reid at Waterford in 1812, three 
years after the Presbyterian body of that 

In the year 1815 or '16, Rev. Charles Col- 
son, a Lutheran minister from Germany, or- 
ganized four congregations of that church, 
one each at Meadville, French Creek, Con- 
neaut and Erie. The Erie society died out 
very soon, and does not appear to have been 
revived until many years later. The earliest 
Lutheran church in Erie city was built in 

No organization of the Episcopalians was 
effected till March 17, 1827, when a number 
of persons withdrew from the Presbyterian 
church of Erie and became united as St. Paul's 
Episcopal congregation. Rev. Charles Smith 

came on from Philadelphia and assumed 
charge as rector. Services were held in the 
court-house till a building was completed in 
November, 1882. The Waterford society 
was organized the same year as the one at 

The first building of the Christian denom- 
ination was erected at East Springfield in 
1826, and the second in Fairview township in 

The Lake Erie Universalist Association 
was organized in Wellsburg in 1839, where a 
church had been established the preceding year. 
The Erie church was not organized until 

The earliest Baptist congregation was in 
Harbor Creek township in 1822. This was 
followed by societies in Erie in 1831, and in 
North East and Waterford townships in 1832. 

The other Protestant denominations exist- 
ing in the coimty are comparatively new and 
will be referred to in their proper connection. 


The Roman Catholics had no organization 
in the county until 1833, when a church was 
erected in the northern partof McKean town- 
ship, and occupied until the new one was put 
up in Middleboro. St. Mary's and St. Pat- 
rick's congregations in Erie date from 1838 
and 1837 respectively. The Catholics now 
number more communicants than any single 
denomination in the county. Their Cathedral 
church, at the corner of Tenth and Sassafras 
streets, in Erie, is the most extensive, costly 
and handsome religious edifice in this part of 
Pennsylvania. The corner-stone was laid 
August 1, 1875, and the building was dedi- 
cated August 2, 1893, having been eighteen 
years in process of erection, after the founda- 
tion walls had been laid. 

The Erie Diocese comprises the counties of 
Erie, Crawford, Mercer, Venango, Forest, 
Clarion, Jefferson, Clearfield, Cameron, Elk, 
McKean, Potter and Warren. It was estab- 
lished in 1853, Rt. Rev. Michael O'Connor 
being the first bishop. He was transferred 
from" Pittsburg in 1853, and re-transferred in 
1854. His successor, Rt. Rev. J. M. Young, 
was consecrated April 23, 1854, and died 
September 18, 1866. Rt. Rev. T. Mullen, 
present bishop, was consecrated August 2, 
1868. The vicar-generals have been the 
Very Revs. John D. Coady, Thomas A. 


Casey and Peter J. Sheridan, the latter being [ 
the present incumbent. 

Tlie information given below, in regard to 
the affairs of the church in Erie county, is 
from the Catholic Directory for 18U5 : 

Congregations in Eric Cotuiiy Outside of 
Erie City. — Albion, attended from Conneaut- 
ville ; Concord, attended from Union City; 
Corry — St. Thomas' Church, Rev. Thomas 
Lonergan, rector. Rev. Patrick McGovern, 
assistant; St. Elizabeth's, Rev. E. Franck, 
rector; Elgin, attended from Union City; 
Girard — St. John's Church, attended from 
North East; llamot — St. Boniface Church, 
Rev. S. Assenmacher; Jackson's — St. Mat- 
thew's, attended from Aliddleboro ; Middle- 
boro — St. Francis Xavier's Church, Rev. 
Francis Aaron ; Mill Village, attended from 
Union City ; North East, St. Gregory's 
Church, Rev. F. Briody ; Union City — St. 
Teresa's Church, Rev. David Hanley; Water- 
ford — St. Cj'prian's Church, attended from 
Union City. [See Erie, for a list of the city 
churches. ] 

Religious Communities and Convents. — 
Erie — Benedictine Monks, St. Mary's Priorj' ; 
Benedictine Nuns, St. Benedict's Convent; 
Sisters of vSt. Joseph, St. Joseph's Convent ; 
North East — Redemptorist Fathers' Convent, 
dedicated to Blessed Gerard, and attached to 
St. Marj''s College ; Union City — Sisters of 
St. Joseph, St. Teresa's Convent. 

Hospitals, Asylums, .fi'/'c— Erie— St. Jo- 
seph's Orphan A.sylum, St. Vincent's Hos- 
pital, Old Folks' Home. 

Colleges and Academies.— Y.r-ie—Y\\\A Ma- 
ria Academy, St. Benedict's Academy, .St. 
Joseph's Academy ; Corry — St. Thomas' 
Academ}' ; North East — St. Mary's College ; 
Union City — St. Teresa's Academy. 

Parochial Scliools. — Erie — St. Patrick's, 
children, 400 ; St, John's, 200; St. Jo.seph's, 
880; St. Mary's, (JOO ; St. Michael's, 175; St. 
Stanislaus', 800; total, 2,055; Hamot— St. 
Boniface's, 80 ; Corry— St. Thomas' 300 ; St. 
Elizabeth's, 55; Union City— St. Teresa's, 70. 
Total attendance of parochial schools in the 
county, 2,560. 

Church Membership, d-c, in the Erie Dio- 
cese. — Bishop, 1 ; priests, 83 ; ecclesiastical stu- 
dents, 16; churches, 102; chapels, 11; sta- 
tions visited, 16; colleges, 11; convents, 17; 
academ.ies or select schools, 86 ; children at- 
tending parochial schools, 6,417; orphan 

asylum, 1 ; orphans cared for, 164 ; hospitals, 
2 ; other charitable institutions, 1 ; Catholic 
population, 65,000. 


Below is a list of the various congregations 
in the county in 1880, with the year each one 
is supposed to have been organized. Any ad- 
ditions that have been made since that year, 
or any errors in dates, &c., will be noted in 
the city, borough and township sketches : 

Presbyterian (19).— Belle Valley, 1841; 
Beaver Dam, Wayne township, about 1820; 
Central Church, Erie, 1871 ; Chestnut street, 
Erie, 1873; Corry, 1864; East Springfield, 
1804; Edinboro, 1829; Fairview borough, 
1845; First Church, Erie, 1815; Girard bor- 
ough, 1835; Harbor Creek, 1832; Mill Vil- 
lage, 1870; North East borough, 1801; Park 
Church, Erie, 1855 ; Union City, 1811 ; Water- 
ford borough, 1809; Wattsburg, 1826; West- 
minster, Mill Creek township, 1806-1851 ; 
Wales, Greene township, 1849. The Presby- 
terian Churches of Erie county are within the 
bounds of the Synod of Pennsylvania and of 
the Presbytery of Erie. The Synod was con- 
stituted in 1881, and embraces the four old 
Synods of Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Erie and 
Pittsburg. The Presbytery embraces Erie, 
Crawford, Warren, Venango and Mercer 

United Presbyterian (6). — Beaver Dam, 
Wayne township, 1859; First Church, Erie, 
1811; Five Points, Summit township, 1842; 
Mission Church, Erie, 1874; Waterford bor- 
ough, 1812; Whiteford's Corners, Summit 
township, 1876. The name of this denomina- 
tion in Erie county was originalh- the Asso- 
ciate Reformed Presbyterian Church. On the 
26th of May, 1858, the Associated Presbyterian 
and the Associate Reformed Presbyterian 
societies of the Northern States consolidated 
under the name of the United Presbyterian 
Church. The churches of this county are at- 
tached to the First Synod of the West and to 
the Lake Presbytery. The Synod embraces 
all of the churches in Pennsylvania west of 
the Allegheny and portions of Ohio and 
Michigan, The Presbytery covers Erie and 
Crawford counties, a portion of Mercer, and 
a small part of Trumbull county, Ohio. 

Episcopal (8). — Emanuel, Corry, 1864; 
Cross and Crown, Erie, 1867; Miles Grove, 
1862 ; Mission of the Holy Cross, North East, 



1872; St. Paul's, Erie, 1827; St. John's, Erie, 
1867; Union City, 1875; St. Peter's, Water- 
ford borough, 1827. The churches of Erie 
county are embraced in the Diocese of Pitts- 
burg. The diocese inchides all of Pennsyl- 
vania west of the eastern lines of Somerset, 
Cambria, Clearfield, Elk, Cameron and Mc- 
Kean counties. The Pittsburg Diocese was 
organized November 15, 1865, on which date 
Rev. John B. Kerfoot was elected bishop. 
His consecration took place on the ensuing 
26th of January. He was succeeded by Rev. 
Dr. Cortland Whitehead, who was consecrated 
on January 25, 1882, and remains in the posi- 
tion. The Erie Deanery was erected on the 
12th ot June, 1874. 

UnCtcii Brethren ( 13).— Branchville, Mc- 
Kean township, about 1866; Corry, 1864; 
Clark settlement, Harbor Creek township, 
1856; Erie, 1878; Elk Creek and Girard line, 
1870 ; Elk Creek township, 1853 ; Fairview 
township, about 1857; Greene and Venango 
line, 1871 ; Macedonia, Venango township, 

; New Ireland, LeBnpuf township, 1876; 

Shattuck's Corners, Greenfield township, about 
1874; Union City, 1872; Wayne Valley, 
Wayne township, 1870. 

Roniau Catholic (16). — Albion, prior to 
1850; St. Mary's, Erie, 1833; St. Patrick's, 
Erie, 1837; St. Joseph's, Erie, about 1853; 
St. John's, Erie, 1869; St. Andrew's, Erie, 
1871; St. Thomas's, Corry, 1860; St. Eliza- 
beth, Corry, 1875; St. John's, Girard, 1853; 
St. IBoniface's, Greene township, 1857 ; St. 
Peter's, Greene township, 1870; St. Mat- 
thew's, Summit township, 1867; St. Francis 
Xavier's, Middleboro, 1833; St. Gregory's, 
North East, 1854; St. Theresa's, Union City, 
1857 ; St. Cyprian's, Waterford Station, 1878. 

Methodist Episcopal (55).— Albion, prior 
to 1850; Ash's Corners. Washington town- 
ship, 1867; Asbury, Mill Creek township, 
1846; Asbury, Union township, 1840; Beaver 
Dam, 1838;"Carter Hill, about 1835 ; Corry, 
1862; Cherry Hill, 1858; Concord township, 
1879; Cranesville, about 1880; Crane road, 
Franklin township, 1867; East Springfield, 
1825; Edinboro, 1829; Edenville, LeBoeuf 
township, 1839; Elgin, 1854; Eureka, 1867; 
First Church. Erie, 1826; Fair Haven, Girard 
township, 1815; Fairplain, Girard township, 
1840; Fairview borough, 1817; Franklin Cor- 
ners, 1866; Gospel Hill. Harbor Creek town- 
ship, 1816; Greenfield, 1836; Girard borough, 

1815; Harbor Creek, 1834; Hatch Hollow, 
Amity township, prior to 1835; Hamlin, 
Summit township. 1837 ; Keepville, about 
1867 ; Lowville, 187.5 ; Lockport, 1843 ; Miles 
Grove, 1867 : McLane, Washington township, 
1863; Mill Village, prior to 1810; Middle- 
boro, 1819; North Corry, 1870; North East 
borough, 1812; Northville, about 1820 ; Phil- 
lipsville, prior to 1848; South Harbor Creek, 
Harbor Creek township, prior to 1830 ; Simp- 
son Church, Erie, 1858; Sterrettania, 1842; 
South Hill, McKean township, about 
1860; Sharp's Corners, Waterford township, 
1838; Sherrod Hill, ; Tower school- 
house, Venango township, ; Tenth street, 

Erie, 1867; Union Citv, 1817; Waterford 
borough, 1814; Wellsburg, 1838; Wattsburg, 
1827 ; West Springfield. 1801 ; Wales, Greene 
township, about 1850; West Greene, 1827; 
Wesleyville, 1828. 

The Methodist Episcopal Churches in Erie 
county are attached to the Erie Conference, 
organized in 1836, the bounds of which extend 
on the west to the Ohio State line, on the 
east to a line running slightly beyond James- 
town, N. Y., and Ridgway, Pa., and on 
the south to a line running east and west be- 
low New Castle, Pa. The conference is sub- 
divided into six Presiding Elders' districts, 
viz. : Erie, Clarion, Franklin, Jamestown, 
Meadville and New Castle. The Erie Dis- 
trict includes the churches of Erie, Mill 
Creek, Fairview, Girard, Greene, Greenfield, 
Harbor Creek, McKean, North East, Summit, 
Springfield, Wesleyville and Waterford; the 
Meadville District "those of Albion, Edinboro, 
Lockport, Mill Village, Union and Wattsburg; 
the Jamestown District those of Corry. 

Univcrsalist (5). — Corrv, 1877; Erie, 
1844 ; Girard, about 1850; Wellsburg, 1838; 
West Springfield, 1848. 

Evangelical Association (6). — Emanuel, 
Summit township, about 1838; Salem, Fair- 
view and Mill Creek line, 1833; Salem, Erie, 
1838; Mt. Nabo, Farview borough, 1833; 
North East borough, 1870; congregation at 

Geriimii Evangelical ( 1 ).— St. Paul's, 
Erie, 1850. 

Lutheran (10). — St. John's Evangelical 
Lutheran and Reformed, Erie, 1835; Ger- 
man Evangelical Lutheran Trinity, Erie, 1881 ; 
First English Evangelical Lutheran, Erie, 
1861 ; Evangelical Lutheran, Girard borough. 



1866; Evangelical Lutheran, Fairview, 1856 ; 
St. Paul's German Lutheran, Mill Creek 
township, about 1836; St. Paul's German 
Evangelical, North East, 1864; St. Jacob's 
Evangelical United, Fairview township, 1852 ; 
Franklin Township Church, 1871 ; German 
(Lutheran), Corry, about 1874. 

Baptist (16).— Corry, 1868; Edinboro, 
1838; Franklin and Elk Creek line, 1866; 
First Church, Erie, 1831 ; German Church, 
Erie, 1861 ; Lowrey settlement. Harbor Creek 
township, 1822; McLane, Washington town- 
ship, 1838; North East, 1832; Newman's 
Bridge, Waterford township, 1832 or 1833; 
Pageville, 1839 ; Second Greenfield Union 
Free-Will Baptist, Greenfield township, 1881 ; 
Union City, 1859; Waterford and Amity 
line, about 1835; West Springfield, 1826; 
Wattsburg, 1850; Wellsburg, 1839. 

Christian (8).— Corry, 1864; Draketown, 
1877; East Springfield, 1826 ; Fairview town- 
ship, 1835; Girard and Franklin line, 1872; 
Hare Creek, Wayne township, 1877; McLal- 
len's Corners, 1828; Oak Hill, Waterford 
township, 1854. 

Disciple (2).— Albion, 1880; Lockport, 

Congrcgatioiial. — Corry, 1874. 

Hcbrczv.—Er\e, 1858;" Corry, about 1873 

^•4 </:■(•// /—Edinboro, 1863. 

IVcslcvctn Methodist (3). — Concord town- 
ship, 1840; Erie, 1847; Keepville, 1,S54. 

African Methodist Episcopal.— Etk, re- 
organized, 1877. 

Union. — Manross Church, LeBopuf town- 
ship, erected 1869. 

[For any changes or corrections in above 
list, see the City, Borough and Township 


The first Sunday-school in the county was 
founded by Rev. Mr. Morton and Col. James 
Moorhead, at Moorheadville, in 1817. In 
1818, Mrs. Judah Colt returned to Erie after 
a visit to New England, where schools for the 
religious instruction of children on the Sab- 
bath had recently been introduced, and, bv the 
aid of Mrs. R. S. Reed and Mrs. Carr, 
established a class for girls, which met alter- 
nately at the houses of the ladies named. 
A public meeting was held in the court house 
on the 25th of March, 1821, to consider the 
project of regularly organizing " a Sunday- 

school and Moral Society."' A paper for con- 
tributions was passed around, and the sum of 
$28.50 subscribed to procure suitable books. 
The school commenced in May with an at- 
tendance of sixty-four. Horace Greeley, then 
an employe in the office of the Erie Gazette, 
was one of the scholars in the winter of 1830- 
31. A second school was started in Septem- 
ber, 1830, by the ladies of St. Paul's Episcopal 
congregation, and held its sessions in the 
court house until their church building was 
completed. The first schools had to encounter 
some opposition, even from zealous church 


The Erie County Bible Society was 
established in 1824, and has been in continu- 
ous operation ever since. Its mission is to 
distribute the Holy Book free of cost to those 
who are too poor to buy, and at a moderate 
price to persons in better circumstances. It 
celebrated its seventy-first anniversarv in 
April, 1895. 

The first officers were Rev. Johnston 
Eaton, president ; Rev. Robert Reid, vice- 
president ; E. D. Gunnison, treasurer ; George 
Selden, secretary; Giles Sanford, William 
Gould, Robert Porter, John McCord, Joseph 
Selden, Judah Colt, Robert McClelland, John 
Phillips, Oliver Alford, directors. 

The Young Men's Christian Association 
of Erie was organized in September, 1860. 
The society owns a fine building at the corner 
of Tenth and Peach streets, which is conve- 
niently fitted up for the purpose. 


The Society of Christian Endeavor was 
originated in Portland, Me., by Rev. Dr. 
Francis E. Clark and wife, pastor of the 
Williston Church of that city, in the year 
1881. J he idea "took" with amazing fervor 
and the organization spread until it has 
societies in nearly every part of the world. At 
the last general convention of the society, held 
in Boston, in 1895, there was an attendance 
of over 50,000 — the largest religious gathering 
ever known in America. The Erie Countj' 
Union of Christian Endeavor was organized 
November 21, 1894, with Herman Eldridge, 
of Erie, as president ; Miss Margaret McCord, 
of Erie, as corresponding secretary ; Miss Ellen 
McCord, of North East, as recording secre- 



tary, and Mr. J. A. Bebee, of Union City, as 
treasurer. It embraces all of the societies in 
Erie county, fifty-two in number at the time 
of writing, July 20, 1895. The State conven- 
tion of Christian Endeavor .Societies was held 
in Erie during the last week in August, 1895. 
[For a fuller account of the several relig- 
ious societies, see the city, borough and town- 
ship chapters.] 


The first burial place of which there is a 
record was established at Colt's Station in 
Greenfield township, on the 6th of July, 1801. 
A party of fifteen met and cleared ofT an acre 
for the interment of the dead, which has re- 
mained as a graveyard to this day. Their ex- 
ample led the people of Middlebrook to fol- 
low suit, and a burial place was begun there 
in the following month. A graveyard was 
established at Erie nearly at the same time, 
on the bank of the lake, near the mouth of 
Mill creek, but was abandoned about 1805. 
Others were located at an early day at Water- 
ford, North East, Fairview, Springfield and 

In 1805, three lots were set aside for a 
graveyard at the southeast corner of French 
and Eighth streets, Erie, which was used by 
all denominations until 1827, when it became 
the property of the United Presbyterian 
Church. The property was sold in 1862 and 
the bodies were removed to the cemetery. 
The Presbyterians purchased- four lots at the 
southeast corner of Seventh and Myrtle streets, 
in Erie, in 1826, and used them for burial pur- 
poses for upward of twent}' years, when the 
bodies were taken up and the land sold. Near 
by was the Episcopal graveyard, established 
in 1827. 

Ground for the earliest Catholic grave- 
yard was purchased in 1837, and the property 
was duly consecrated August 2, 1840. It was 
established by St. Mary's congregation, and 
occupied the site of St. Benedict's Academy. 
In 1848, a large tract on Chestnut street, be- 
tween Twenty-fourth and Twentj'-fifth, was 
purchased, to which the bodies were removed 
from Ninth street, and which was long in use. 
St. Patrick's congregation started a small 
graveyard, about 1838, on Third street, be- 
tween German and Parade. Finding it in- 
sufficient for their purpose, they purchased a 
five-acre tract, in 1852, at the corner of Twen- 
ty-fourth and Sassafras streets. Since the 
consecration of Trinity cemetery, in 1869, 
these graveyards have all been abandoned and 
the bones of the dead taken to the new loca- 

A graveyard has been maintained in con- 
nection with St. John's Lutheran Church for 
many years, but no further burials take place 
in it. 

As the county increased in population, 
graveyards were located in every section, 
some of which continue, while the sites of oth- 
ers have almost or entirely been forgotten. 
Many families chose burial places on their 
farms, and some of these still exist. The es- 
tablishment of the cemetery at Erie, which 
was dedicated in May, 1851, and speedily be- 
came one of the handsomest in the Union, has 
had a good effect upon the whole county. 

Corry, Union City, North East, Water- 
ford, Girard, Edinboro, Fairview, Springfield, 
Sterrettania, Lowville and other places now 
have cemeteries that speak well for the taste 
of their citizens. 

[See city, borough and township chap- 



County, State and United States Buildings. 

UP to the time of building the first 
court house, in 1808, court was vari- 
ously held in " Buehler's Hotel," cor- 
ner of Third and French streets, in 
the log jail, which stood at Second and 
Holland streets, east of French, and in a build- 
ing belonging to Conrad Brown, on the opposite 
corner from the hotel above mentioned. The 
original court house was a small brick build- 
ing, that stood in the West Park, at Erie, a 
little north of the Soldiers and Sailors' monu- 
ment. The county was too poor toafFord the 
total expense, and the State generously granted 
$2,000 toward the erection of the "building. 
On Sunday morning, March 23, 1823, be- 
tween the hours of 12 and -3 o'clock, this 
court house was destroyed by fire, with all the 
books, papers and records. The ensuing term 
of court was held in the- Erie Academy, and 
that edifice was rented for county purposes 
and occupied by the various county officials 
for two years. 

In 1824 the County Commissioners entered 
into contracts for the erection of a new build- 
ing, which was completed and occupied in 
the spring of 1825. It stood nearly on the 
site of its predecessor, and was a two-story 
brick structure, surmounted by a wooden 
cupola. For nearly thirty years this was the 
principal hall of the town, being used for re- 
ligious worship, political meetings, entertain- 
ments, and, in fact, for almost ever}' public 
purpose. The building was long the most 
elegant court house in Northwestern Penn- 
sylvania, and its erection was a heav}- burden 
upon the county. In the cupola hung the 
bell of the captured British vessel, the 
" Qiieen Charlotte," a brief history of which 
has been given in a previous chapter. A 
little to the west of the court house was a two- 
stor}' building containing the county offices. 

The corner-stone of the third and present 
court house was laid on Tuesday, August 17, 
1852. The building required nearly three 

years to complete, the first court held therein 
being on the 7th of May, 1855. It originally 
cost some .$63,000, but subsequent additions 
and improvements have brought the sum to 
about $130,000. The land on which the court 
house stands was purchased for the County 
Commissioners in 1804. It was upon this lot, 
within the old jail ground, that Henry Fran- 
cisco, the only person ever executed in the 
county by judicial sentence, was hung in 1838. 

In 1889-90 the court house was enlarged 
by the addition of a wing, etc., to accommodate 
the increased business of the county, at a cost, 
with furnishings, of about .$40,000. The 
original building was surmounted by a bell 
tower and had a fence in front, both of which 
were removed in 1894. 

The cost of maintaining the court house, 
inclusive of heating and lighting the jail, and 
supplying the same with city water, was 
given as follows in the report of the County 
Commissioners for 1894 : 

Heating- court-house and jail $1,100 00 

Lig-hting- court-house and jail 1,045 87 

Watchman's salary 720 00 

Furniture, etc 137 44 

Janitor 540 00 

Supplies 212 94 

Repairs 2,340 01 

Insurance 480 87 

Incidentals 368 67 

City water 407 00 

Telephone 60 00 

$7,412 80 
[For a list of Judges, Attorneys and 
Court Criers, see Chapter XX.] 


The first jail was a small log building, on 
the southwest corner of Holland and Second 
streets. A second jail, of brick, was put up 
on the site of the present court house in 1830. 
The third and existing jail was erected in 
1850, and remodeled in 1869 at ag expense of 
$39,671. Its total cost up to date, including 



sheriff's residence, which occupies the Fifth 
street front, is about 1(30,000. On the third 
floor of the sheriff's house is the hospital, in 
which are various conveniences for the sick. 

The regular bill of fare for the prisoners is 
as follows : Breakfast — a loaf of bread and 
cup of coffee; dinner — meat, potatoes, and 
sometimes other vegetables ; supper — a cup of 
tea and the balance of the bread left fiom 
breakfast and dinner. The meals are handed 
in to the prisoners through a narrow opening 
in the wall between the jail and the sherifl''s 
kitchen. To the above is frequently added 
some palatable dish, through the kindness of 
the sheriff's family', and on holidays the pris- 
oners are usually treated to roast turkey. 

Prisoners of the worst class are sen- 
tenced to the Western Penitentiary at Al- 
legheny ; young men who are convicted of the 
first offense to the Allegheny County Work 
House and boys and girls to the State Re- 
form School at Morganza, Washington county, 
or the Reformatory at Huntingdon. 

The first jailer was Robert Irvin, who was 
succeeded by John Gray, James Gray, Will- 
iam Judd, Robert Kincaid and Cornelius 
Foy. John Gray held the position, off and 
on, for many years. The first sheriff who 
acted in the capacity of jailer was Albert 
Thayer, who was elected in 1825. For some 
years past the sheriff's duties have been too 
onerous to allow of his taking immediate 
charge of the jail, and the institution has been 
in care of a warden, acting under and respon- 
sible to that officer. [For list of Sheriffs, 
Deputy Sheriff's and Wardens, see Chapter 


The cost of maintaining the jail, as shown 
by the report of the County Commissioners for 
1894, was as follows, exclusive of heat, light 
and water -. 

Clothing- for prisoners * 26 64 

Furniture, etc 72 00 

Physician and medicine 125 00 

Repairs, etc 99 88 

Boarding prisoners (paid on account) 3,000 00 

$4,323 52 


John H. Walker, while a member of the 
Assembly, in 1832, procured an act ceding 
the third section of two thousand acres of 
State land in Mill Creek township, west of 
Erie, to the borough, the proceeds to be used 
in constructing a canal basin in the harbor. 

It was stipulated in the act that one hundred 
acres should be reserved to Erie county, on 
which to erect an almshouse, the land to be 
selected by three Commissioners appointed by 
the County Commissioners. The latter offi- 
cers, on May 7, 1833, named William Miles, 
George Moore and David McNair, who chose 
the piece of ground on the Ridge road, three 
miles west of Erie, which has ever since been 
known as the " poor house farm." The origi- 
nal tract was increased to about one hundred 
and thirteen acres, including the allowance, 
by the purchase of eight and three-fourths 
acres from Martin Warfel in 1877. This was 
added to subsequently by purchasing some' 
five acres of the abandoned canal bed, making 
the present size of the farm about one hun- 
dred and eighteen acres. 

Soon after the selection of the farm, an 
agitation began for the erection of a county 
almshouse on the property. A proposition to 
that effect was submitted to the people in 

1839, and, after a hard fight, was voted down 
by a majority of 154. The friends of the 
measure claimed that the question had not 
been fairly treated, and it was again brought 
before the people at the spring election of 

1840, when it was carried by the close vote of 
1,599 in favor to 1,594 in opposition. Three 
Directors of the Poor were elected the same 
year. Contracts were soon after let for the 
construction of a building, and by the fall of 
1841 it was ready for the reception of the pau- 
pers. Before that each borough and township 
took care of its own poor, under the supervi- 
sion of two overseers elected by their citizens. 
While Mr. Stranahan was a member of the 
Legislature, he secured an act changing the 
almshouse to the southern part of the county, 
but the opposition of the city and the lake 
shore townships resulted in its repeal and the re- 
tention of the building upon its original site. 

The present edifice was commenced in 
1870 and substantially completed in 1871, 
though the finishing and furnishing continued 
until 1873. Its cost was $118,000. A further 
sum of |10,(X)0 was voted in 1874. of which 
perhaps one-half was applied to the improve- 
ment of the building and grounds. About 
$3,000 of the balance are understood to have 
been used in building the barn, and nearly 
$2,000 in putting down gas wells upon the 
farm. A building for insane male persons 
was added in 1875, at a cost of about $2,000. 


The food supplied to the inmates is clean 
and abundant, though plain. The hours for 
meals are : Breakfast at 7 :15, dinner at 12 :80, 
and supper at 5 :80 or 6. Every inmate is 
obliged to be in bed by 9 o'clock p. M. and to 
rise by half-past six in the morning. Those 
who are over thirty-five years of age are 
allowed a certain quantity of tobacco each 
week. Few of the paupers are able to work, 
and those who are have to make themselves 
useful, the men by helping in the garden or on 
the farm, and the women by sewing or doing 
household service 

The poor house farm is one of the best in 
the county, and has generally been kept under 
fine cultivation. A few rods north of the 
buildings is a large spring, which will furnish 
an ample supply of water for all the needs of 
the institution to the end of time. A little to 
the east, inclosed by a neat fence, is the pau- 
per burial ground, which already contains the 
bodies of about 200 unfortunates. Each grave, 
is marked by a stone and a number cor- 
responding with the one in the death book. 

The charity system of the county is in 
charge of three Directors of the Poor, one of 
whom is elected annually. They employ a 
Steward of the almshouse, a Secretary and 
Treasurer, an Attorney, a Physician for the 
almshouse (who also attends to the Erie poor), 
and one physician each at Corry, North East, 
Union and other important points in the 
county. [For a list of the Directors of the 
Poor, Stewards of the Almshouse, and other 
officers of the Board, see Chapter XXVIII.] 


By way of showing how pauperism has 
increased, some figures for 1860, 1880 and 
1890 are taken from the official report : 

18(30— Population of Erie county, 49,432 
Inmates of the almshouse at the beginning of 
the year, 107. Total expense for the support 
of the poor of the entire county, including 
some old debts on building, .$7,629 

1880— Population, 74,578. Paupers in the 
almshouse, 221. Total expense for the county 

1890 — Population, 86,074. Paupers in the 
almshouse, 188. Expenses about $33,000. 

The following shows the requisitions of 
the Directors of the Poor for the years named : 

1845 S 5,000 

1855 4,500 

1860 8,000 

1865 11,000 

1870 20,000 

1880 20,000 

1890 33,000 

1891 35,000 

1892 37,000 

1893 40,000 

1894 40,000 


The expense of the indigent, insane, &c., 
during the year 1894 is given as below in the 
annual statenient of the County Commission- 
ers • 

Conveying- to asylum f 35 84 

Requisition of Directors of the Poor 40,000 00 

School for feeble-minded children 5 54 

Warren asylum 5,457 25 

Warnersville asylum 116 71 

Burial indigent soldiers 175 00 

Headstones for soldiers' graves 45 00 

L. W. Olds, for services rendered in the 
construction of the Poor House as 
per order of court 600 00 

$46,430 34 



While Hon. Morrow B. Lowry was a 
member of the State Senate, he conceived the 
idea of a Marine Hospital at Erie, for the 
care of sick and unfortunate seamen of the 
lake service. Through his efforts, appropria- 
tions were made from year to year, until a 
building was erected which constitutes in the 
main, the central portion of the present Sol- 
diers' and Sailors' Home. The structure was 
never used for the purpose of the original ap- 
propriation, and was neglected for some years 
until it became badly out of repair. On June 
3, 1885, a bill was introduced in the Legisla- 
ture by Hon. I. B. Brown, of Corry, passed 
and approved by the Governor, creating a com- 
mission to locate a Home " for the disabled sol- 
diers and sailors of Pennsylvania." This body, 
consisting of Gov. Pattison and ten other 
prominent citizens, concluded to make use of 
the Marine Hospital for the purpose. An 
appropriation was secured, Trustees appoint- 
ed, additions made to the original structure, 
and, within less than a year from the day of 
the first legislation on the subject, the institu- 
tion was ready for occupancy. The two 
most active men in " working up " the enter- 
prise were Maj. John W. Walker and Capt. 
John H. Welsh, both of Erie. 


The Home was dedicated on the 22d of 
February, 1887, at which time it was formally 
opened for inmates. Gen. Gobin, of Leba- 
non, delivered the dedicatory address, and 
speeches were made by Gov. Pattison and 
others. Maj. W. W. Tyson was appointed 
Commander, and has remained in the position 
ever since He is assisted by Capt. N. W. 
Lowell as Qiiartermaster, who was chosen 
March 1, 1888. Dr. S. F. Chapin has been 
Surgeon since October 1, 1889, and David 
Reinhold Resident Physician since the fall of 

The buildings have been much enlarged 
and improved, and the grounds, whicb em- 
brace 107 acres, are kept up in a handsome 
manner. Altogether, the institution is a great 
credit to the State, and makes a most comfort- 
able abiding place for the aged and unfortu- 
nate soldiers and sailors who become inmates. 
None but those who are disabled and without 
proper means of support are received. 

The institution is in charge of a board of 
Trustees, of whom the Governor is, cx-officio, 
the President. 

On the grounds of the Home is a block- 
house in imitation of the one in which Gen. 
Anthony Wayne died, which stands on or 
very near the place of his burial. It contains 
portions of his coffin and various mementos 
of the Revolutionary hero. The main men in 
locating Gen. Wayne's grave and securing the 
erection of the blockhouse were Dr. Edward 
W. Germer and Capt. John H. Welsh. [See 
Chapter VII., Erie City.] 


The Normal School at Edinboro for the 
training of teachers in the common schools, 
was first recognized as a State institution on 
January 26, 1861 . It embraces a number of 
buildings, generally well adapted for the pur- 
pose, and in the main has had a large degree 
of success. The school was managed by Prof. 
J. A. Cooper from 18(33 to 1892, and. since 
the latter date, by Prof. Martin G. Benedict. 
[See Edinboro.] 


Erie county has been selected as the site of 
two of the vState hatcheries, for the propaga- 
tion of fish, to restock the rivers, lakes and 
creeks — one at Erie and the other at Corry. 

The one at Corry was established in 1873, 

by Seth Weeks, as a private enterprise, and 
made a State institution in 1876. It is located 
in Wayne township, a short distance east of 
Corry, and is wholly supplied by springs, 
which burst out copiously from the hill near 
by. [See Wayne township.] 

The Erie hatchery was opened December 
12, 1885. It occupies a neat building at the 
corner of .Second and Sassafras streets, and 
draws its supplj' of water from the city water 
works. From 15,000,000 to 20,000,000 small 
fry — largely white fish — are hatched out each 
season, and placed in the lake or other suitable 
places. [See Erie City.] 

Both hatcheries are under the supervision 
of the State Fish Commission, and in charge 
of William Buller, who has brought them up 
to a high state of efficiency. 


Before the purchase of a government edi- 
fice in Erie, the postoffice and Collector's office 
were housed in private buildings. In 1844 Con- 
gress appropriated $27,000 for a government 
structure in Erie. Previous to that — in 1836-7 
— the LTnited States Bank of Pennsylvania 
had erected a marble building for its branch 
in Erie, on the east side of State street, near 
Fourth,' with a house for its cashier adjoining. 
The bank failed, and the Government bought 
the building in 1849. It was soon after oc- 
cupied as the custom house, and the postoffice 
was moved into it in 1853. On -the establish- 
ment of the internal revenue system, the of- 
fices for this district were located in the same 
building, which caused it to be inconveniently 
crowded. The postoffice was removed to the 
Noble block in 1867, and afterward to one of 
the store rooms in the Reed House. 

In 1882 Congressman Watson secured an 
appropriation of |150,000 for a building in 
Erie, which slnould be adapted for the various 
United States offices in the city and district. 
This sum was increased to $250,000 through 
the efforts of Congressman Brainerd. A Com- 
mission on the part of the government selected 
the site of the old Rufus S. Reed mansion, at 
the southeast corner of Central Park and 
State street. For this the sum of $36,000 
was paid. Ground for the building was 
broken in April, 1885, Henry Shenk being 
the contractor, Jacob Bootz, the superintend- 
ent, and Jos. P.' O'Brien clerk to the latter 
officer. The structure was completed in 1887, 



within the amount appropriated, inclusive of 
the furniture. It was occupied by the post- 
office and custom house shortly after. The 
iirst Hoor is used by the postoffice ; the second 
by the Collector of customs and the internal 
revenue offices. On the third floor are two 
rooms for the United States Courts and the 
offices appertaining to the same, and the fourth 
floor is used by the weather office, for jury 
rooms, etc. 

The building fronts seventy-two feet on 
State street, and one hundred and fourteen on 
Central Park. The Collector of the port is 
custodian, makes all the appointments that 
relate to its care, and looks after repairs and 

[For a list of Postmasters and other United 
States officials from Erie county, see Chapter 


The Courts, Judges and Bar qv Erie County — Supreme Court — United States 
Courts — Justices of the Peace and Aldermen. 

AS heretofore stated, Erie county con- 
stituted a sub-division of Allegheny 
county up to the year 1800, and all 
judicial proceedings took place at 
Pittsburg, the county seat. The act 
creating Erie a separate county is dated the 
12th of March, 1800. The county was too 
sparsely settled to maintain a distinct organ- 
ization, and by the act of April 9, 1801, Erie, 
Crawford, Mercer, Venango and Warren were 
thrown temporarily together for election and 
governmental purposes. Meadville was desig- 
nated as the place where the county business 
should be transacted. This arrangement con- 
tinued for two years. 

The first court in Erie was held by Hon. 
Jesse Moore, in April, 1803. The hours for 
con veninjT were announced by the Crier by the 
blowing of a horn. This horn continued to 
be used for the purpose until 18:23. The Su- 
preme Judges at that time were obliged to 
hold Circuit Courts in the several counties 
of the State, and in the course of their duties 
Judge Yates visited Erie on the 15th of Octo- 
ber, 1806, and Judge Brackenridge in 1807 
and 1811. A session of the Supreme Court 
was held in the city in 1854, at which Judges 
Lewis, Woodward. Lowrie and Knox were 

The County Courts were held by the Pres- 

ident Judge, aided by two Associate Judges — 
usually farmers of good standing — until May, 
1839, when a District Court was created to 
dispose of the accumulated business in Erie, 
Crawford, Venango and Mercer counties. 
Hon. James Thompson, of Venango, was ap- 
pointed to the District Judgeship, and filled the 
position until May, 1815. The term originally 
was for live years, but was extended one year 
by request of the bar. 

Previous to 1851, both the President Judges 
and Associate Judges were appointed by the 
Governor. The first election by the people 
was in October, 1851, when Hon. John Gal- 
braith was chosen President Judge, and Hon. 
Joseph M. Sterrett and Hon. James Miles, 
Associates. The office of Additional Law 
Judge was created in 1856, Hon. David Der- 
rickson, of Crawford county, being its first 
incumbent, and expired by the operation of 
the constitution on the 17th of April, 1874. 
1 he Associate Judges were abolished on No- 
vember 17, 1876, and since that date the en- 
tire duties of the Court have been performed 
by the President Judge. All law Judges in 
the State are elected for ten years. 

The "new" constitution, which went into 
operation January 1, 1874, allowed the Presi- 
dent Judge of each district, where there was 
an Additional Law Judge, to elect to which 



of the districts into which his original juris- 
diction had been divided he might be assigned. 
Under this provision, Judge Wetmore selected 
the Thirty-seventh District, consisting of War- 
ren and Elk counties, and Judge Vincent, 
Additional Law Judge for the district, became 
President Judge of Erie county, which had 
been created a district by itself. 


The following is a list of the President, 
District and Additional Law Judges, with the 
dates of their commissions : 

President yudges. — Alexander Addison, 
Pittsburg, August 17, 179L 

David Clark, Allegheny county, March 3, 

Jesse Moore, Crawford county, April 5, 

Henry Shippen, Huntingdon county, Jan- 
uary :24, 1825. 

Nathaniel B. Eldred, Wayne county, March 
23, 1889. 

Gaylord Church, Crawford county, April 
8, 1843. ^ ^ 

John Galbraith, Erie county, November (3, 

Rasselas Brown, Warren county, June 29, 

Samuel P. Johnson, Warren county, De- 
cember 3, 1860. 

Lansing D. Wetmore, Warren county, first 
Monday in January, 1870. 

John P. Vincent, Erie county, April 17, 

William A. Galbraith, Erie county, first 
Monday in January, 1877. 

Frank Gunnison, Erie county, December 
13, 1886. 

Additional La-x' yiidg-es. — David Derick- 
son, Crawford county, first Mondaji in De- 
cember, 1850. 

John P.Vincent, Eric county, first Monday 
in December, 186C. 

District yitdg-e. — James Thompson, Ve- 
nango county, May 18, 1839. 

Three President Judges have died in office, 
viz. : Hon. Jesse Moore, at Meadville, on the 
21st of December, 1824 ; Hon. Henry Shippen, 
at Meadville, in 1839; and Hon. John Gal- 
braith, at Erie, on the 15th of June, 1860. 
Rasselas Brown, of Warren county, was ap- 
pointed by the Governor to succeed Judge 

John Galbraith, and served until Decembers, 
1800. One Judge for the district — Hon. 
Alexander Addison — was impeached and re- 
moved from his office. Judge Eldred resigned 
in 1843, but afterward went on the bench as 
President Judge of the Dauphin district. 

Two of the Judges were promoted to seats 
on the Supreme Bench of the State. James 
Thompson was elected one of the Justices of 
the Supreme Court in 1850, and held the po- 
sition until 1872, the full term of fifteen 3'ears, 
the last five of which he presided as Chief 
Justice. Gaylord Church was appointed a 
Supreme Judge in 1858, to fill a vacancy 
caused by the resignation of one of the mem- 
bers of the Court. Judge William A. Gal- 
braith is a son of Judge John Galbraith, be- 
ing the only instance in the history of the 
county where a son was elected to fill a prom- 
inent official place occupied by his father. 

The salaries of the Judges are paid by the 


The following shows the competing can- 
didates for President and Additional Law 
Judges since the offices have been elective : 

1851 — President Judge, John Galbraith, 
Democrat; Elijah Babbitt, Whig. 

1856 — Additional Law Judge, David Der- 
rickson, Republican ; Rasselas Brown, Dem- 

1860— President Judge, Samuel P. John- 
son, Republican; Rasselas Brown, Demo- 

1866 — Additional Law Judge, John P. 
Vincent, Republican ; Benjamin Grant, Dem- 

1870 — President Judge, Lansing D. Wet- 
more, Republican' ; Samuel E. Woodruff, In- 
dependent Republican; Rasselas Brown, 

1876— President Judge, William. A. Gal- 
braith, Independent Democrat; William Ben- 
son, Republican. 

188(3 — President Judge, Theo. A. Lamb, 
Democrat; Frank Gunnison, Republican ; S. 
P. McCalmont (Venango county), Prohibi- 

[See Chapter XXVII. for the vote given to 
the several candidates.] 


The judicial districts since the organiza- 
tion of the county have been as follows : 


1800— All of the State west of the Alle 
gheny river. 

1808 — Erie, Crawford, Mercer, \'eiuinwo, 
Warren and Beaver. 

1825 — Erie, Crawford, Mercer and \'e- 

1851 — Erie, Crawford and Warren. 

1860— Erie, Crawford, Warren and Elk. 

1870— Erie, Warren and Elk. 

1874 — Erie alone, to date. 

It is worthy of note that the district has 
been designated the Sixth almost or entirely 
from the day the county was organized. 


The regular terms of court were fixed in 
1894 as follows : 

^/tarter Sessions — 1st Monday in Febru- 
ary ; 2d Monday in May ; 1st Monday in Sep- 
tember ; 2d Monday in November. 

License Court — 1st Monday in February. 

Civil List— 2d, 3d and 4th Mondays in 
January ; 1st, 2d and 3d Mondays in March ; 
1st, 2d and 3d Mondays in October ; 1st, 2d 
and 3d Mondays in December. 

Argument Court — Last Monday, each, in 
February, March, Maj-, June, September, Oc- 
tober and November 


The cost to the county for " administering 
law and justice " for 1894, as shown by the 
statement of the County Commissioners, is as 
follows, exclusive of the expense for main- 
taining the court house, etc. : 

Justices' costs 2,112 45 

Reward for horse thieves 25 76 

Conveying^ convicts 1,213 83 

County detective, salary 840 00 

Constables' returns to court. . . . 685 84 

District attorney's fees 1,101 00 

Assistant district attorney's fees 120 00 

Costs in <:oninionwealth cases. . . 2,337 75 

Clothing- for prisoners 26 64 

Furniture, etc 72 00 

Physician and medicine 125 00 

Repairs, etc 99 88 

Boarding prisoners (paid on ac- 
count) 3,000 00 

4,323 52 

Allegheny County Workhouse. .. 857 99 

Morganza Reform School 878 99 

Pa. Industrial Reformatory 2,458 96 

Western Penitentiary 4,980 08 

Grand jurors' pay 1,159 66 

Conveying grand jury 39 00 

Constable attendance grand jury 42 00 
Traverse jurors' pay 5,925 48 

Meals for jurors 59 35 

Common Pleas Jurors' pay 5,753 30 

Crier and tipstaves 1,210 00 

Stenographer's pay 1 ,668 50 

Prothonotary'sfees 1,188 35 

Recorder's fees 251 75 

Publishing trial list 110 95 


17,408 34 
$46,005 51 


Two Associate Judges assisted the Presi- 
dent Judge from the organization of the 
county until the 17th of November, 1876, 
when the office was abolished by the new 
constitution. The Associate Judges were ap- 
pointed by the Governor until 1851, at which 
time the office was made elective. The in- 
cumbents of the position were not required to 
be learned in the law, and in every instance 
were either substantial farmers or intelligent 
business men. One Associate Judge, William 
Bell, died in office, and Samuel Smith re- 
signed to take a seat in Congress. Before the 
constitution of 1888, all judges w-ere commis- 
sioned for life or good behavior, but that 
instrument limited the term of President 
Judges to ten years and of As.sociate Judges to 
five years. The following is a list of the As- 
sociate Judges from the time the count}' was 
separated from Allegheny, with the dates of 
their commissions : 

Appointed. — David Mead, Crawford coun- 
ty, March 18, 1800, resigned. 

John Kelso, Erie county, March 14, 
1800; resigned December 21, 1804. 

William Bell, Erie county, December 20, 
1800; in place of David Mead. 

Samuel Smith, Mill Creek, July 6, 1803; 
resigned in 1805. 

William Bell, Erie, May 9, 1805; in place 
of John Kelso, resigned. 

John Vincent, Waterford, Deciynber 23, 
1805; in place of Samuel Smith. 

Wilson Smith, Waterford, March 15, 1814; 
in place of William Bell, who died in office. 

John Grubb, Mill Creek, January 8, 1820 ; 
in place of Wilson Smith, elected to the Leg- 

John Brawley, North East, March 26, 
1840 ; re-commissioned March 8, 1845. 

Myron Hutchinson, Girard, March 13, 
1841 ; re-commissioned March 18, 1846. 

Joseph M. Sterrett. Erie, June 4, 1850; re- 
commissioned January 23, 1851. 



James Miles, Girard, April 1, 1851. 

'^/ff /<■</.— Joseph M. Sterrett, Erie, No- 
vember 10, 1851. 

James Miles, Girard, November 10, 1851. 

Samuel Hutchins, Waterford, November 
12, 1856. 

John Greer, North East, November 12, 
1856. Re-elected in 1861. 

William Cross, Springfield, November 28, 

William Benson, Waterford. November 8, 
1866. Re-elected in 1871. 

Mollis King, Corry, November 8, 1866. 

Allen A. Craig, E"rie, November 17, 1871- 

[See Chapter XXVII. for the vote on 
Associate Judge since 1851.] 


By a special act of Assembly a Recorder's 
Court was established in cities of the third 
class, the Recorder to be chosen by the people 
and to be a person versed in the law. The Court 
had equal jurisdiction with the city Aldermen 
in all criminal cases, and in civil cases not 
involving more than !i!500. Hon. Selden Mar- 
vin, who had been County Judge in Chautau- 
qua county, was elected City Recorder of 
Erie in the fall of 1877, and continued to hold 
the position until 1892, three terms of five 
years each, when the act was pronounced un- 
constitutional. The Recorder was paid by 
fees, and his Court was held in a room on the 
second floor of the Noble block, now the Penn 


From 1804 to 1850, the position which 
answers to the present office of District At- 
torney was known by the title of Depoity 
Attorney General, and its incumbents were 
appointed by and retained in office during the 
pleasure of the Attorney General of the State. 
The name was changed to District Attorney 
in 1850, the office was made elective, and the 
term fixed at three years. Below is a list of 
the persons who have filled the position : 

1804 — William N. Irvine, Erie. 

William Wallace, Erie. 

1809 — Patrick Farrelly, Crawford county. 

Ralph Marlin, Crawford county. 

1819— George A. Eliot, Erie. 
1824— William Kelly, Erie. 
1833— Don Carlos Barrett, Erie. 
1885— Galen Foster, Erie. 

1886— Elijah Babbitt, Erie. 

1837— William M. Watts, Erie. 

1889 — Carson Graham, Erie. 

1845— Horace M. Ha was, Erie. 

1846— William A. Galbraith, Erie. 

Of the above, all but Messrs. Kelly, Fos- 
ter, Babbitt and Watts were appointed as 
anti-Federalists or Democrats. The District 
Attorneys elected by the people have invaria- 
bly been Whigs or Republicans, with the 
exception of Mr. Baker. They are as follows : 

1850 — Matthew Taylor, Erie. 

1858— Samuel E. Woodruff', Girard. 

1856^G. Nelson Johnson, Erie. Died 
shortly after the election , and Charles W. Kelso 
appointed by the Governor to serve until the 
October election in 1857. 

1857— James Sill, Erie. 

1860— Samuel A. Davenport, Erie. 

1863— J. F. Downing, Erie. 

186(3— Charles M. Lynch, Erie. 

1869— John C. Sturgeon, Erie. 

1872 — Samuel M. Brainerd, North East. 

1875— A. B. Force, Erie. 

1878 — Charles E. Lovett, Erie. 

1881— E. A. Walling, North East; re- 
signed December 1, 1884 (having been elected 
to the State Senate), and Cassius L. Baker, 
of Corry, appointed by the Court. 

188i— Cassius L. Baker, Corry. 

1887-90— A. E. Sisson, Erie. 

1893— U. P. Rossiter, Girard. 

[For the vote on District Attorney since 
1850, see Chapter XXVII. ; and for a list of 
the other Court officers, see Chapter XXVIII.] 


Erie county is attached to the Eastern 
District of the Supreme Court, which holds 
its sessions at Philadelphia. The hearing of 
cases from Erie county commences on the last 
Monday in April of each year. 


Although a number of persons have been 
tried for murder in the county, the death pen- 
alty has only been enforced against a single 
individual. Henry Francisco was sentenced 
by Judge Shippen on November 11, 1837, and 
hung by Sheriff Andrew Scott on March 9, 
1838, within the yard of the jail, which then 
occupied the site of the present court house. 

[For full particulars, see Chapter XXV.] 



^z ^^-^~- 




By an act of Congress passed in 1806, 
Erie was named as one of the places for the 
sittings of the United States District and Cir- 
cuit Courts for the Western District of Penn- 
sylvania. The Supreme Judges may, if they 
choose, sit with the Circuit Judge or hold 
Court alone. The only time one of the Su- 
preme Judges of the United States has been 
present in Erie was wl"M;n Judaje Strong was 
here in July, 1875. 

The first session of the District Court was 
held in Erie in January, 1867, and of the Cir- 
cuit Court in July, 1868, Judge Wilson Mc- 
Candless presiding. Both Courts were regu- 
larly held by him until Hon. William Mc- 
Kennan, of Washington county, was sworn 
in as Circuit Judge. Judge McCandless con- 
tinued to serve until July 24, 1876, when he 
was honorably retired on account of ad- 
vanced years, and was succeeded as District 
Judge by Hon. Winthrop W. Ketchum. 
Judges McKennan and Ketchum were sworn 
in and began their official duties at Erie. 
Judges McCandless and Ketchum both died 
in 1880. The following is a list of the later 
officers of the Courts, with the dates of their 

yudgcs r. S. Circuit C('«/-/.— William 
McKennan, Washington countv, December 
22, 1869; Marcus W. Acheson, Allegheny 
county, Februarj' 3, 1891. 

yiidgcsLT. S. District Court W. W. Ket- 
chum, Luzerne county, June 26, 1876; M. W. 
Acheson, Allegheny county, January 14, 1880 ; 
James H. Reed, February 20, 189"l ; Joseph 
Buffington, February 28, 1892- 

U. S. District Attorneys.— K. B. Carna- 

han, Allegheny county, appointed ; H. 

Bucher Swoope, Clearfield county, 1870; 
David Reed, Allegheny county, 1874; H. H. 
McCormick, Allegheny county, June 29, 1876; 
William A. Stone, Allegheny county, July 6, 
1880; George A. Allen, Erie county, Decem- 
ber 4, 1886; Walter Lyon, Allegheiiv county, 
June 27, 1890; Stephen C. McCandfess, Alle- 
gheny county, April 26, 1893 (temporarily 
appointed) ; Harry Alvin Hall, Elk county, 
June 8, 1893. 

U. S. J/«;-.v/,a/.v.— Samuel .McKelvy, Alle- 
gheny county, appointed ; Thomas A. 

Rowley, Allegheny county, 1868; Alex. Mur- 
dock, Washington county, 1869; John Hall, 

Washington county, December 19, 1872 ; 
James S. Rutan, Beaver county, May 22, 
1882 ; George W. Miller, Washington county, 
August 2, 1886 ; Joseph R. Harrah, December 
20, 1889; John W. Walker, Erie countv, Jan- 
uary 16, 1894. 

Clerks Cr. S. District 6"o//;-/.— Stephen C. 
McCandless, Allegheny county, appointed 
November 8, 1863 ; William T. Lindsey, Al- 
legheny county. May 11, 1891. 

Deputy Clerks (all from Erie). — George 
W. Gunnison, 1867; George A. Allen, 1869; 
F. W. Grant, 1873. 

Clerks U. S. Circuit Court.— Uenry 

Sproul, Allegheny county, ; H. D. 

Gamble, Allegheny county, January 5, 1870. 

Deputy Clerks (all from Erie). — George 
W. Gunnison, 1868; George A. Allen, 1869; 
A. B. Force. 1871 ; Frank W. Grant, Novem- 
ber 26, 1875. 

The regular terms of both Cqurts at Erie 
were originally fixed to commence on the 
second Monday of January and the third 
Monday of July. The January term was held 
at Erie every year until 1875. since when it 
has been omitted. 

Under the old system, the selection of 
jurors for the United States Courts was wholly 
in the hands of the Marshal, who summoned 
any person he pleased. In 1879, Congress 
passed an act making the Clerk of each Court 
a Jury Commissioner for his own Court, and 
requiring him to appoint another Jury Com- 
missioner of opposite politics, thus securing 
representation on the juries from both of the 
leading parties. 

The first lawyer to locate in Erie was 
William Wallace, who came on from Eastern 
Pennsylvania in 1800, as attorney for the 
Pennsylvania Population Compan}'. He re- 
mained until 1811, when he returned to 
Harrisburg. The second was William N. 
Irvine, who settled here in 1804, but also re- 
turned to Harrisburg in a few years, even- 
tually becoming President Judge of the Adams 
district. Among the lawyers who located in 
Erie at an earlj' day, and who became per- 
manent residents were Anselen Potter, George 
A. Eliot, Thomas H. Sill. Philo E. Judd and 
William Kelly. 

The early lawyers were obliged to practice 
in a dozen counties in order to make a liveli- 


hood, and some of them were away from their 
homes and offices more than half of the time. 
They traveled from one county seat to the 
other on horseback, with their legal papers 
and a few books in a sack across the saddle. 

Among the first lawyers who practiced at 
the Erie bar was Henry Baldwin, of Pittsburg, 
who was appointed a Judge of the U. S. Su- 
preme Court in 1830. John Banks, of Mer- 
cer, another practitioner, was appointed Judge 
of the Berks county Court, and became the 
Whig candidate for Governor in 1841. 

Dudley Marvin, the eminent New York 
lawyer, was admitted to the Erie bar at an 
early day. Other early lawyers who practiced 
at the Erie bar were John B. Wallace, the 
Fosters, Ralph Martin, Patrick Farrelly, John 
J. Pearson and Gaylord Church. Gen. C. M. 
Reed was admitted, but never became a regu- 
lar practitioner. 


The following is a list of those who have 
been admitted to the bar since the destruction 
of the court house in 1823, with the dates of 
their admission : 

A— Allen, George A., June 1(), 1868; 
James W. Allison, June 1, 1875; F. H. Abell, 
June 16, 1877 ; John Arthur, November 10, 
1881; O. C. Allen, May 20, 1892; Frank L. 
Armstrong, May 18, 1895. 

B— Babbitt, ' Elijah, February!, 1826; 
Don Carlos Barrett, July 1, 1826 ; Peter A. 
R. Brace, May 3, 1843; William Benson, 
August 7, 1846; J. W. Brigden, October 23, 
1849; Rush S. Battles, December 11, 1855; 
Charles Burnham, November 30, 1865; Gur- 
don S. Berry, December 21, 1865; Charles O. 
Bowman, November 30, 1865; W. M. Biddle, 
April 30, 1866; R. B. Brawley, August 9, 
1866; Henry Butterfield, April 2, 1867; S. J. 
Butterfield, April 2, 1867; Hiram A. Baker, 
October 1, 1867; Julius Byles, August 15, 
1868; Samuel B. Brooks, September 29, 1868; 
Charles P. Biddle, October 15, 1868; Geo. D. 
Buckley, November 27, 1868; W. W. Brown, 
August 81, 1869; Samuel M. Brainerd, De- 
cember 22, 1869 ; Cassius L.Baker, May 8, 
1872 ; H. W. Blakeslee, November 22, 1872 ; 
Ulric Blickensderfer, December 12, 1873; A. 
F. Bole, February 27, 1874; Isaac B. Brown, 
May 6, 1875; Judge William Benson, De- 
cember 4, 1876; M. H. Byles, February 12, 
1879; John C. Brady, .September 30, 1879; 

Charles H. Burton, May 31, 1881; J. R. 
Brotherton, September 14, 1883 ; Eben Brew- 
er, June 80, 1885 ; James R. Burns, May 10, 
188(3 ; Arthur L. Bates, June 8, 1886 ; Chas. 
S. Burchfield, September 6, 1886 ; Frank A. 
Bliley, May 20, 1891 ; Saml. S. Bayle, Sep- 
tember 9, 1891 ; C. M. Bousch, September 15, 
1891; D. I. Ball, November 80, 1891; C. W. 
Benedict, January 16, 1893; Paul A. Benson, 
April 3, 1893 ; John A^ Bolard, June 26, 1893 ; 
Wm. J. Breene, December 8, 1893; Geo. W. 
Barker, September 3, 1894. 

C— Curtis, C. B., 1834; George H. Cutler, 
November 7, 1840; Justin B. Chapin, May 4, 
1848; Andrew H. Caughey, November 26, 
1851; Marcus N. Cutler, January 31, 1857; 
Junius B. Clark, May 10, 1860; Edward 
Camphausen, March 15, 1865; Edward Clark, 
March 14, 1867 ; Manly Crosby, September 
30, 1868 ; A. W. Covell, May 25, 1870; C. L. 
Covell, May 27, 1873; W. B. Chapman, 
March 28, 1873; George A. Cutler, October 7, 
1873; C. C. Converse, March 11, 1874; D. R. 
Cushman, June 23, 1874; Herman J. Curtze, 
January 4, 1875; Allen A. Craig, December 
18, 1875; A. G. Covell, September 7, 1880; 
Jno. B. Compton, July 18, 1881 ; F. H. Coch- 
ran, November 14, 1881; Frank M. Catlin, 
February 19, 1884; Henry A. Clark, May 10, 
1884; M. D. Christy, June 1, 1885; Wm. G. 
Crosby, December, 1889; J. R. Craig, Decem- 
ber 28, 1893. 

D— Dunlap, James D., October, 1837; 
John W. Douglass, May 8, 1850; Samuel A. 
Davenport, May 7, 1854; John F. Duncombe, 
August 8, 1854"; GeorgeW. DeCamp, August 
7, 1857; J. F. Downing, 1859; Myron E. 
Dunlap, December 12, 1878; James Doughty, 
June 6, 1881 ; Geo. F. Davenport, January 22, 
1885; J. Fold Dorrence, July 15, 1887: C. 
C. Dickey, December 12, 1891. 

E— Edwards, T. D., June 29, 1853; Clark 
Ewing, December 24, 1863 ; Joseph D. Eber- 
sole, May 7, 1851 ; John B. Eichenlaub, Sep- 
tember 6, 1886; Henry M. Eaton, May 10, 
1892; Monroe J. Echols, June 19, 1893. 

F— Fisk, James B., June 10, 1845; A. J. 
Foster, March 15, 1865; A. B. Force, August 
22, 1871; J. M. Force, November 28, 1879; 
A B. Friedley, April 18, 1883 ; K. F. Friend, 
May 18, 1885; A. A. Freeman, May 10, 1886; 
George M. Fletcher, October 18, 1887 ; Henry 
E. Fish, February 9, 1889: Edward M. Foye, 
June 18, 1894. 


G — Graham, Carson, December 19, 1837; 
John Galbraith, 1887 ; C. S. Gzowski, August 

5, 1889; St. John Goodrich, August 2, 1841 ; 
Michael Gallagher, May 1, 1843: William A. 
Galbraith, May 9, 1844; Benjamin Grant, 
October 27, 1845; John L. Gallatew, Decem- 
ber 3, 1846; Jonas Gunnison, November 9, 
1849; George 'p. Griffith, August 4, 1864; 
George W. Gunnison, March 15, 1865; Frank 
Gunnison, February 5, 1870; Frank W. 
Grant, March 12, 1874; Paul H. Gaither, No- 
vember 19, 1874; William Griffith, January 
27, 1875; Edward P. Gould, May S'l, 1875, 
Edward Graser, May 6, 1876; Samuel L. Gil- 
son, September 4, 1878 ; John W. Galbraith, 
September 28, 1885; S. C. Grumbine, Febru- 
ary 14,1888; Davenport Galbraith, October 
80, 1888; Joseph A. Guignon, January 7, 

H — Hawes, Horace M., November 7, 1840; 
William M. Heister, May 8, 1841 ; D. W. 
Hutcliinson, May 11, 1855; Calvin J. Hinds. 
May U, 1860; Charles Horton, January 29, 
1866; John K. Hallock, March 24, 1868: 
John L. Hyner, April 4, 1870; David S. Her- 
ron, September 8, 1875 ; Thomas C. Hinie- 
baugh, May 20, 1880; James D. Hancock, 
January 27, 1881 ; George D. Higgins, De- 
cember 10, 1888; E. E. Hickernell, May 9, 
1887 ; Charles Heydrick, June 28, 1887 ; F. 
W. Hastings, December 20, 1887 ; L. E. Hay- 
berger, January 20, 1888; C. A. Hitchcock, 
June 25, 1888 ; M. J. Hevwang, September 

6, 1888; Theodore A. Hunter, May 17, 1890; 
George W. Haskins, December 11, 1890; A. 
F. Henlein, November 6, 1891 ; A. P. Heney, 
March 11, 1892; C. D. Higby, November 17, 
1892; W. D. Hmkley, November 28, 1893. 

J — Johnson, Q_uilicy A., August 6, 1839; 
John B. Johnson, April 5, 1842; George N. 
Johnson, May 9, 1855; M. W. Jacobs", Oc- 
tober 29, 1872 ; A. M. Judson, M'ay 9, 1851 ; 
George A. Jenks, September 8, 1892. 

K— Kelso, Charles W., 1835; William C. 
Kelso, May 10, 1839 ; Louis F. Keller, No- 
vember 8, 1869; D. H. Kline, November 14, 
1874; Joseph K. Kelso, June 27, 1876; Otto 
Kohler, May 12, 1887. 

L— Law, Samuel A, April 5, 1841 ; Will- 
iam S. Lane, July 22, 1844; Wilson Laird, 
February 8, 1849 ; A. McDonald Lyon, March 
20, 1857; George A. Lyon, Jr.." March 12, 
1861; Charles M. Lynch, February 6, 1866; 
H. B. Loomis, August 6, 1866, Samuel P. 

Longstreet, January 25, 1869; James H. 
Lewis, January 28, 1869; William E. Lathy, 
March 7, 1871 ; Theodore A. Lamb, August 
22, 1871; Francis P. Longstreet, August 22, 

1871 ; George W. Lathy, December 18, 1871; 
Charles E. Lovett, October 10, 1874; J. W. 
Lee, January 20, 1880; Hugh C. Lord, De- 
cember 15, 18S(K 

M — Marvin, Dudley, — ; Moses McLean, 
November 2, 1825 ; Oilman Merrill, November 
9, 1826; George Morton, June 7, 1827; James 
C. Marshall, August 4, 1829; George H. 
Myers, May 10, 1849; David B. McCreary, 
August 8, 1851 ; Francis F. Marshall, October 
28, 1857; Selden Marvin, December 14, Lsr>9 ; 
William E. Marsh, May 7,1879; Frank M. 
McClintock, May 11, 1878 ; Samuel Miner,— ; 
William O. Morrow, January 25, 1884; Paul 
W. McKay, June 26, 1889; E. W. McArthur, 
May 12, 1892; C. H. McAuley, September 
12, 1892. 

N— Norton, L. S., October 12, 1868; 
Miles R. Nason, March 12, 1892; Samuel T. 
Neill, November 19, 1892 

O — Olmstead, C. G., September 7, 1875; 
Clark Olds, April 26, 1876; Edward J. 
O'Conner, December 5, 1878 ; Joseph P. 
O'Brien, March 17, 1888; A. B. Osborne, May 
31, 1887; John Ormerod, November 14, 1889; 
N. J. Osmer, July 17, 1898; M. E. Olmstead, 
April 18, 1895. 

P — t^helps, Mortimer, September 12, 1850; 
James G. Payne, February 1, 1861; T. S. 
Parker, December 19, 1865 ; James O, Parme- 
lee, October 7, 1871 ; John Proudfit, April 26, 
1876 ; C, L. Pierce, October 23, 1877 ; William 
R. Perkins, June 25, 1878; Rodman F. Pugh, 
September 4, 1878 ; Frank L. Perlev, Septem- 
ber 30, 1879; E. C. Page, July" 22, 1889; 
James M. Proudfit, February 24, 1890; B. B. 
Pickett, Jr., September 23, 1891 ; George W. 
Perkins, June 5, 1893. 

R— Riddle, John S., August 9, 1826; Al- 
bert C. Ramsey, May 7, 1838; John J. Ran 
dall. May 8. 1839; S. W. Randall, May 10, 
1889 ; James C. Reid, August 10, 1848 ; John 
! W. Riddell, December 26, 1854; David W. 
Rambo, November 2, 1864; Henry M. Riblet, 
I October 3, 1867; B. J. Reid, January 22, 

1872 ; Louis Rosenzweig, April 6, 1872 ; Craig 
J. Reid, September 11,1876; John S. Rill- 
ing, February 19. 1885 ; Thomas Roddy, May 
9, 1885; U.' P. Rossiter, January 28", 1887"; 
George A. Rathburn, September 10, 1888 ; 



C. p. Rogers, Jr., September 5, 1890; John 
E. Reynolds, October 7, 1891 ; ]. E. Reed, 
June 28, 1895. 

S — Smith, Silas T., June 4, 1827; George 
\Y. Smith, November' 7, 1831 ; Stephen 
Strong (District Court), April 8, 1841; Reid 
T. Stewart, August 5, 1845; S.Merwin Smith, 
May 5, 1846; James Sill, October 29, 1852; 
Samuel S. Spencer, February 12, 1853; Will- 
iam R. Scott, February 2, 1858; B. J. Ster- 
rett. May 7, 1861 ; C. B. Sleeper, August 9, 
1865; J. C. Sturgeon, February 28, 1867; C. 
R. Saunders, May 24, 1869; Henry Souther, 
October 30, 1872; James W. Sproul, April 
13, 1874; Earl N." Sackett. December 28, 
1875; Henry A. Strong, September 17, 1881 ; 
A. E. Sisson, November 19, 1881 ; David A. 
Sawdey, December 1, 1881 ; James A. Strana- 
han, Apiil 24, 1884; George Sturgeon, Sep- 
tember 28, 1884 ; Isador Sobel, May 14, 1888 ; 
Frank S. Shaw, June 26, 1889; James M. 

Sherwin, November 18, 1890; Schmer, 

March 2, 1891 ; Rufus B. Stone, January 26, 
1893; H. M. Sturgeon, February 24, 1894; 
Ralph B. Sterrett, May 14, 1894; Patrick C. 
Sheehan, February 15, 1895; Justin P. Slo- 
cum, May 28, 1895. 

T— Tyler, Nathan, October 22, 1828; 
James Thompson, May 5, 1845 ; Matthew 
Taylor, April 26, 1847; William Taylor, Feb- 
ruary 2, 1849; Henry R. Terry, January 25, 
1852; J. Ross Thompson, May 3, 1856; 

Samuel Thomas, Jr., May 8, 1857 ; Titus, 

October 31, 1860; O. O. Trantum, May 25, 
1868; O. E.Taylor, January 30, 1877; C. W. 
Tyler, January 24, 1884 ; F. N. Thorpe, June 
25, 1885: Albert Truesdell, December 14, 
1886 ; L. E. Torry, October 18, 1887 ; E. T. 
Templeton, February 29, 1892; James C. 
Thomas, October 2, 1893. 

V— Virgil, Almon, May 8, 1839; John P. 
Vincent, February 2, 1841; E. B. Van Tassel, 
December 16, 1858 ; Strong Vincent, Decem- 
ber 12, 1860; Cornelius Van Horn, May 28, 

W— Walker, John H., July 27, 1824; John 
H. Waugh, May 25, 1825; David Walker, 
February 7, 1827; William M. Watts, July 17, 
1839; Murray Whallon, October 19, 1839; 
Irwin M. Wallace, May 28, 1843; Edwin C. 
Wilson, August 3, 1846; S. E. Woodruff, 
October 28, 1846; Jeron-e W. Wetmore, No- 
vember 9, 1849; George Williamson, January 
24, 1850; John W. Walker, November 15, 

1854; Hy. T- Walters, April 27, 1857; A. 
D. Woods, September 8, 1863; George W. 
Walker. August 1. 1864; Thomas J. Wells, 
August 4, 1864; D. M. R. Wilson. December 
19, 1865; Calvin D. Whitney, May 10, 1866; 
C. S. Wilson, October 6, 1870; Thomas S. 
Woodruff, May 25, 1871 ; David J. Winton, 
March 6, 1873 ; E. L.Whittelsey, May 15, 1877 ; 
Emory A. Walling, September 4, 1878; 
Charles L. White, October 2, 1882. 

Y— Yard, H. C, November 28, 1879. 


The most notable suit against a railroad 
company to recover damages for injuries sus- 
1 tained through the negligence or alleged 
negligence of the company's employes, and 
one that involved the largest sum of money 
ever paid in the United States for personal 
injuries received, was that of Louis Rosen- 
zweig, attorney at law, of Erie, against the 
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway 
Company. The plaintiff had purchased a 
ticket " good for thirty days from November 
25, 1883," for passage from Erie to Cleveland 
and return. Upon presenting his ticket on 
the following day, shortly after midnight, on 
his return trip, he was ejected from the train, 
on the ground that his ticket was not good on 
that train, the " Limited Express." The 
ticket presented was unconditioned, and the 
plaintiff had no knowledge that a recent order 
of the company limited its use ; yet he tendered 
cash in payment for his passage, which was 
refused, and the plaintiff" was compelled to 
alight from the train a short distance out from 
Cleveland, on a most dangerous part of the 
railway company's yard, where there were 
many tracks, and where freight trains were 
being made up and numerous locomotives, 
trains and sections of trains were passing in 
each direction. The plaintiff" was an utter 
stranger to the locality, the night was dark, 
and the lights of passing engines served to 
accentuate the d.-.rkness when they had passed. 
While endeavoring to escape the dangers and 
perils of his position, he was struck in the 
back and seriously injured. Suit to recover 
damages was instituted by his law partner, 
George A. Allen, Esq., and subsequently 
Samuel A. Davenport and J. Ross Thompson, 
Esqs., were retained as associate counsel. 
The defendant company was represented by 
C. R. Roys, Esq,, of Chicago, Hon. John P. 


Vincent and Hon. S. M. Brainerd, of Erie, 
and, when tlie case reached the Supreme 
Court, Hon. Rasselas Brown, of Warren, was 
added to counsel for defense. The case was 
heard twice, in 1884, before Judge 
Galbraith, of the Court of Common Pleas, of 
Erie county, the trials occupying eleven days 
and two weeks respectively, resulting in a 
verdict for the plaintiff in the sum of $48,- 
750. It was carried to the Supreme Court of 
Pennsylvania on error by defendant. The 
judgment of the lower Court was affirmed 
October 4th, 1886. the sum finally paid the 
plaintiff, being the amount of verdict, with 
interest, aggregating the sum of $53,150. 


The public careers of some of the above- 
named gentlemen include almost the whole 
political history of the county. The limits of 
this work leave room for only a few brief ref- 
erences. John H. Walker reached Erie when 
quite a young man, walking from Pittsburg 
to Meadville, where he was obliged to borrow 
money to enable him to reach his destination. 
Elijah Babbitt built his office and house in 
1828, and stuck to the same spot the balance 
of his life. Messrs. Walker, Babbitt and 
Thomas H. Sill filled numeious public posi- 
tions, among them some of the most conspic- 
uous in the gift of the people. Dudley Mar- 
vin, after remaining in Erie a brief period, re- 
moved to Canandaigua, N. Y., and becanje 
one of the most eminent lawyers of that State. 
James C. Marshall moved to Girard in 1830, 
engaged in business, and did not return to the 
practice of law in Erie until 1844. Don Car- 
los Barrett's name was stricken from the roll 
of the bar in 1834, and he .soon after left the 
county, never to return. He located in Texas 
and accumulated a large property. John 
Galbraith came to Erie from Franklin in 1837, 
and was elected President Judge. Carson Gra- 
ham and John F. Duncomlse went West and 
speedily grew prominent in public life, the 
one as a Judge and the other as a Legislator 
and popular orator. James D. Dunlap was 
the author of Dunlap's Book of Forms, and 
Benjamin Grant of several volumes of the 
State Reports. Horace M. Hawes emigrated 
to California and became worth several mill- 
ions. William M. Heister returned to Read- 
ing, served a term or two in the .State Sen- 
ate, and was Secretary of State during Gov- 

ernor Packer's administration. George H. 
Cutler came to Erie county in 1835 from 
Cortland county. N.Y. , where he had read law. 
After a time spent in other pursuits he took a 
second course of reading with Hon. John 
Galbraith, to comply with the rule. Selden 
Marvin came here from Chautauqua county, 
N. Y., where he served a term as County 
Judge, with credit and general acceptability. 
Henry Souther, before coming to Erie, had 
held several prominent State positions, and 
was Judge of Schuylkill county by appoint- 
ment of the Governor. John J. Pearson 
served for thirty-two years as Presiding Judge 
of the Dauphin-Lebanon district. Gaylord 
Church was appointed to the .Supreme Bench 
and served a brief term. 

General Curtis went to Warren immedi- 
ately after his admission, and lived there until 
186(), when he came back to Erie. He was a 
i Colonel in the war for the LTnion, and was 
! elected to the Legislature and Congress. C. 
,S. Gzowski moved to Canada and became 
prominent there. A monument to his memory 
stands in the Victoria Park at Niagara Falls. 
S. E. Woodruff" lived in Girard until 1872, 
when he moved to Erie. Strong Vincent 
served gallantly in the war for the Union, 
rose to be a brigadier general, won an envia- 
ble reputation as a brave soldier and was 
killed at Gettysburg. Murray Whallon moved 
to California, where he was elected several 
times to the Legislature. Samuel A. Law 
went to New York, and was chosen to the 
Legislature of that State. John W. Douglass 
is now a resident of Washington City, after 
long service as Deputy Commissioner and 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, and Com- 
missioner of the District of Columbia. Judge 
Thompson removed to Philadelphia after his 
election to the .Supreme Bench, of which he 
became Chief Justice. On his retirement from 
that position he entered upon the practice of 
law, and died in February, 1877, while ad- 
dressing the Court of which he had been a 

Moses McLean removed to Getty.sburg 
and represented the Adams district in the 
Twenty-ninth Congress. Albert C. Ramsey 
moved to York, Pa., and was chosen colonel 
of a regiment in the Mexican war of 1847-48. 
George W. Smith changed to Butler and 
afterward to Kansas, where he was promi- 
nent in the Territorial troubles. Richard Sill 


went to Pittsburg and entered active busi- 


Of the attorneys resident in Erie county 
and admitted since 1823, the following have 
held the otficial positions named. [See Political 
Record— List of Public Officers.] 

George A. Allen, deputy clerk U. S. 
court, city solicitor, U. S. district attorney. 

James W. Allison, U. S. position in Col- 

Elijah Babbitt, city solicitor, Assembly, 
State Senator, Congress ; died in his ninety- 
second year. 

Charles O. Bowman, Assembly, delegate 
to Constitutional Convention of 1873. 

Henry Butterfield, clerk of the courts. As- 
sembly, State Senator. 

S.J. Butterfield, U. S. clerkships at Erie 
and Washington. 

W. W. Brown, Assembly, Congress. 

Isaac B. Brown, Assembl)^ deputy secre- 
tary of Internal Affairs, secretary. 

S. M. Brainerd, justice of the peace, dis- 
trict attorney. Congress. 

C. T^. Baker, district attornev. 

John C. Brady, mayor of Erie. 

Eben Brewer, secretary to Director General 
World's Fair. 

James R. Burns, Assembly. 

A. F. Bole, mayor of Corry. 

C. B. Curtis, Legislature, Congress. 

George H. Cutler, State Senator, President 
of the State vSenate. 

M. N. Cutler, clerkship at Harrisburg. 

E. Camphausen, select council, alderman, 
city solicitor, consul to Naples. 

M. Crosby, mayor of Corry. 

A. A. Craig, alderman, sheriff, U. S. pay- 
master, associate judge. 

James D. Dunlap, city council, Assembly, 
State Senate. 

J. F. Downing, clerk of select council, 
select council, justice of the peace, district 

John VV. Douglass, collector of Internal 
Revenue, deputy commissioner and com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue, commissioner 
of the District of Columbia. 

S. A. Davenport, district attorney. 

M. E. Dunlap, common council. 

George A. Eliot, burgess of Erie, 

A. B. Force, district attorney. 

A. A. Freeman, alderman, school director. 

A.J. Foster, clerk select council. 

John Galbraith, Congress, president 

William A. Galbraith, president judge. 

Jonas Gunnison, clerk of select council, 
city council, Assembl}'. 

Frank Gunnison, select council, counsel 
to the count}' commissioners, president 

George P. Griffith, clerk of common coun- 
cil, alderman, attorney to the Erie School 

Frank W. Grant, select council, deputy 
clerk \]. S. Courts. 

E. P. Gould, attorney to the board of 
directors of the poor, Assembly. 

S. L. Gilson, Indian agent in Dakota. 

George W. Gunnison, justice of the p^ace, 
deputy clerk U. S. Courts. 

D. W. Hutchinson, U. S. receiver of pub- 
lic money, Bismarck, N. Dak. 

John L. Hyncr, sheriff. 

E. E. Hickernell, deputy U. S. marshal. 
Western Pennsylvania, deputy sheriff in 

C. A. Hitchcock, Assembly. 
Charles Horton, postmaster, North East. 
J. B. Johnson, Assembly, State Senator. 
George N. Johnson, deputy attorney gen- 

C. W. Kelso, burgess of Erie, city solici- 
tor. Assembly. 

William S. Lane, city council. 

Wilson Laird, Assembly, mayor of Erie. 

A. McD. Lyon, paymaster U. S. army. 

Geo. A. Lyon, paymaster U. S. navy. 

Chas. M. Lynch, district attorney, collect- 
or of Internal Revenue. 

Theo. A. Lamb, city solicitor. 

Chas. E. Lovett, district attorney. 

Geo. W. and W^m. E. Lathy, city solicitors. 

James C. Marshall, prothonotary, clerk of 
the courts, revenue commissioner. 

D. B. McCreary, Assembly, State Senate, 
adjutant general. 

Selden Marvin, county Judge of Chautau- 
qua county, N. Y., city recorder. 

F. F. Marshall, U. S. commissioner. 
Jos. P. O'Brien, city solicitor. 

A. B. Osborne, mayor of Corry. 
James G. Payne, clerk common council 
of Erie, judge in the District of Columbia. 


M. Phelps, county treasurer. 
John Proudfit, justice of the peace. 

C. L. Pierce, clerk of the courts. 
John S. Riddle, Assembly. 
Gen. Chas. M. Reed, Congress. 
James C. Reid, Assembly. 

John S. Rilling, attorney to the Erie 
School Board. 

L. Rosenzweig, alderman. 

U. P. Rossiter, district attorney'. 

Thos. H. Sill, burgess of Erie, deputy U. 
S. marshal, deputy attorney general. Assem- 
bly, Congress, Presidential elector, postmaster 
of Erie. 

James Sill, city solicitor, city council, dis- 
trict attorney. State Senate. 

J. C. Sturgeon, district attorney. 

Henry Souther, State Senate, surveyor 
general, president judge of Schuylkill county. 

D. B. J. Sterrett, city solicitor. 
A. E. Sisson, district attorney. 

D. A. Sawdey, counsel for county com- 

James A. Stianahan, Legislature, deputy 
attorney general of Penna. 

Isador Sobel, common council. 

J. Ross Thompson, common council. 

James Thompson, Assembly, district judge. 
Congress, supreme judge, chief justice. 

Matthew Taylor, district attornej-. 

Albert Truesdell, justice of the peace. 

John P. Vincent, city solicitor. Assembly, 
assistant law Judge, president judge. 

Jno. H. ^^'alker, Assembly, Senate, dele- 
gate to Constitutional Convention of 1873, 
president of the latter body. 

W. M. Watts, Assembly (from Cumber- 
land count}'). 

Murray Whallon, Assembly, mayor, col- 
lector of the port. Legislature in California. 

E. C. Wilson, adjutant general, commis- 
sary general. 

S. E. Woodruff, district attorney, register 
in bankruptcy. 

John W. Walker, Assembly U. S. marshal 
Western District of Penna. 

E. L. Whittelsey, prothonotarv. 

E. A. Walling!^ district attorney. State 


The following attorneys are known to be 
dead : Don Carlos Barrett, Charles Burnham, 
Wm. Benson (of Erie, Chas. O. Bowman, H. 

A. Baker, A. F. Bole, Peter A. R. Brace, 
Gurdon S. Berry, W. M. Biddle, Justin B. 
Chapin, C. B. Curtis, Geo. H. Cutler, M. N. 
Cutler, M. D. Christy, W. B. Chapman, 
James D. Dunlap, Clark Ewing, George A. 
Eliot, Galen Foster, Carson Graham, John 
Galbraith, S. L. Gilson, C. S. Gzwoski, 
Benjamin Grant, Jonas Gunnison, William 
Griffith, George W. Gunnison, Horace M. 
Hawes, William M. Heister, Charles Hor- 
ton, John L. Hyner, D. W. Hutchinson, 
Qiiincy A. Johnson, John B. Johnson, 
George N. Johnston, Charles W. Kelso, 
William Kelley, W. C. Kelso, A. McDonald 
Lyon, Samuel A. Law, F. P. Longstreet, S. 
P. Longstreet, Wm. S. Lane, Wilson Laird, 
Moses McLane, Jas. C. Marshall, Selden 
Marvin, L. S.Norton, C. L. Pierce, John S. 
Riddle, James C. Reid. A. C. Ramsey, Jno. 
J. Randall, S. W. Randall, B. J. Reid, Silas 
T. Smith, S. Merwin Smith. Thomas H. Sill, 
Reid T. Stewart, George W. Smith, Henry 
Souther, Matthew Taylor, William Taylor, 
James Thompson, Oliver E. Taylor, Strong 
Vincent, John H. Walker, Edwin C. Wilson, 
W. M. Watts. Irvin M. W^allace, Murray 
Whallon, S. E. Woodruff and George W. 
Walker. Mr. Brace died at Prarie du Chien, 
Wis., Mr. Berry in Titusville, Mr. Chapin in 
Ridgway, Mr. Chapman in Bradford, Pa., 
Mr, Foster in New England, Mr. Graham 
in Iowa, Mr. G. W. Gunnison in Massachusetts, 
Mr. Hawes in California, Mr. Heister in Read- 
ing, Mr. Kelly in the West, Mr. S. M. Smith 
in Vermont, Judge Thompson in Philadelphia, 
Gen. Vincent at Gettysburg, Judge .Souther 
at Fredericksburg, Va., Mr. Lane in Philadel- 
phia, Mr. Reid in Clarion, Mr. Norton in New 
York, Mr. Whallon in California, and Gen. 
Wilson in Baltimore. Mr. Stewart married 
an Erie lady and died on his wedding trip. 

The following attorneys are. or were, in 
practice elsewhere : John Arthur, State of 
Washington; Julius Byles, Titusville ; G. D. 
Buckley, California; W. W. Brown, Brad- 
ford; M. H. Byles, Titusville; W. B. Chap- 
man, Bradford; John W. Douglass, Washing- 
ton, D. C. ; John F. Duncombe, Iowa ; George 
W. DeCamp, Kansas; A. B. Force, Pitts- 
burg; Paul' H. Gaither, Greensburg; D. S. 
Herron, oil regions; M.W.Jacobs, Harris- 
burg; William E. Lathy, Kansas; William S. 
Lane, Philadelphia; Charles E. Lovett, Du- 
luth ; James O. Parmlee, Warren ; James G. 


Payne, Washington, D. C. ; T. S. Parker, 
Pittsburg; John W. Riddle, Pittsburg; Will- 
iam R. Scott, Meadville ; C. B. Sleeper.West ; 
C. R. Saunders, Cleveland; E. B. VanTassel, 
Conneautville ; Murray Whallon, California; 
George Williamson, West; A. D. Woods, 
Warren ; Thomas J. Wells, Frank S. Shaw, 
Paul W. McKay and .S. S. Bayle, Chicago. 

Mr. Caughey entered the ministry after his 
admission to the bar, being the only instance 
of the kind in the history of the county. 

The following left the county, but their 
locations, business, etc.. are not known to the 
writer: R. B. Brawley, Charles P. Biddle, 
H. W. Blakeslee, Junius B. Clark, Edward 
Clark, M. E. Dunlap, St. John Goodrich, 
Michael Gallagher, John L. Gallatew, Thomas 
C. Himebaugh, Louis F. Keller, D. H. Kline, 
James H. Lewis, George H. Myers, R. F. 
Pugh, F. L. Perley, John J. and S. W. Ran- 
dall, D. W. Rambo, 'Stephen Strong, D. B. 
J. Sterrett, Almon Virgil. 

The following abandoned the profession 
and are engaged in other pursuits : F. H. 
Abell, J. W. Brigden, Rush S. Battles, S. J. 
Butterfield, U. Blickensderfer, James R. 
Burns, A. H. Caughey, C. C. Converse, E. 
Graser, A. M. JiK^son, George A. Lyon, E. J. 
O'Conner, J. F'. Downing, John W. WalkeV. 

In looking over the list of attorneys, it is 
curious to see how few have acquired fortunes 
by their practice. A number have become 
possessed of large means, but in every instance 
the writer recalls to mind, their financial 
prosperity has been due to real estate invest- 
ments or to some other piece of good luck out- 
side of the regular course of their profession. 
The law — in Erie county, at least — may be 
the pathway to reputation, but it is very far 
from being the easy road to affluence. 




The following have been the court criers : 
David Langley, Basil Hoskinson, Robert Kin- 
caide, Joshua Randall, Remras Baldwin, P. 
D. Bryant, Edward B. Lvtle, A. E. White 
(since 1851). 

The law library of the county consists of 
1,200 or more volumes. It was purchased 
largely from the proceeds of fines in certain 
criminal cases. The selection of books is made 
by a library committee consisting of five mem- 
bers of the bar, 

The Erie Bar Association has been in oper- 
ation since about 1876, the object being to 
advance the general interest of the profession. 



Up to 1838, w'hen the Constitution was 
amended, all Justices of the Peace were ap- 
pointed by the Governor, to hold their offices 
during good behavior. For some years the 
larger part of the marrying and a good share 
of the conveyancing were done by the Justices, 
who were usually men of more than ordinary 
standing. The records of the State Depart- 
ment at Harrisburg show the following ap- 
pointments to that office from 1796 to 1823, 
inclusive : 

179(5_March 31, Thomas Rees, William 

17C)7_April 15, John Grubb. 

1798— April 6, David McNair ; August 3, 
John Way. 

1799— March 8, Timothy Tuttle ; March 
28, Thomas Robinson ; December 10, William 

1800 — August 15, William Clarke, John 

IgOl — February 25, Cornelius Van Horn, 
Abiather Crane, John Hay ; May 16, James 
Pollock, George Williamson, Adam Stewart, 
John Grubb. 

1802— January 2, Thomas McCreary, Abi- 
athar Crane. 

1803 — January 8, Hugh Wilson, John Vin- 

1804 — January 2, Joseph M. Kratz, John 

1805 — April 1, Thomas Brown. 

1806— January 1, John C. Wallace ; April 
1, William Culbertson, Jacob Hildebrand, 

1807— February 28, John Boyd; July 4, 
Elisha Marvin, George Moore. 

1808— July 4, John Way; October 20, 
Timothy tuttle. 

1809— February 28, John Boyd. William 
Porter; June 22, Thomas Wilson. 

1810— April 12, Dr. Waitstill Hastings. 

1811- January 24, Cardiff Taggart ; No- 
vember 7, George Hurst. 

1812 — February 2, Howard Salsbury. 

1815— March 3, Alex. T. Blaine. 

1816— January 2, John Phillips; November 
13, John Gray. 



1817 — February 21, James Hall ; March 14, 
Francis Brawley. 

1818— January 28, John Morris ; March 11, 
John McCord. 

1819 — December 14, Oliver Dunn, Myron 

1820— February 28, Robert McClelland; 
May 18, James Weston. 

1821— March 29, William Hall ; November 
2, Thomas Forster, Jr. 

1822— February 'l8, Henry Colt, Jesse D. 
Jackson; March 16, 1 homas Stewart, Hamil- 
ton H. Graham. 

1823— March (j, George Moore ; M^rch 28, 
William Colt ; December 8, Thomas Green- 
wood ; December 9, Shepherd Beals ; Decem- 
ber 12, Jonathan Stafford ; December 13, Giles 


FROM 1823 TO 1895, inclusive. 
Below is a list of the Justices of the Peace 
and Aldermen whose commissions have been 
recorded at the Court House since 1823. The 
figures show the dates of their first commis- 
sions ; 

A— Geo. W. Addi.son, August 26, 1836. 

C. B. Allen, April 13, 1841. 

Ensign Anderson, April 15, 1845. 

Wm. H. Armstrong, April 26, 1862. 

C. W. S. Anderson, April 12, 1866. 

Henry C. Aubrev, March 29, 1878. 

Adam Acheson, "April 18, 1878. 

Wm. Aldrich, March 30, 1880. 

J. W. Allison, March 18, 1885. 

Benj. P. Allen, April 5, 1888. 

Frank A. Akin, April 21, 1891. 

E. R. Allen, April 19, 1892. 
B — John Brawley, August 8, 1825. 

Lewis S. Bowers, December 5, 1828. 

Mark Baldwin, November 10, 1829. 

John Brecht, April 3, 1830. 

John Bennett, March 8, 1832. 

A. W. Brewster, October 26, 1837. 

G. T- Ball, March 8. 1838. 

Tohn Boyd, April 14, 1840. 
■ Wm. Benson. April 14, 1840. 

John Barney. April 14, 1840. 

Wm. Blore, April 14. 1840. 

Roswell H. Brown. April 12, 1842. 

Wm. K. Black, April 12, 1842. 

Edmund Bunting, April 12, 1842. 

Royal B. Barnes, April 11, 1843. 

A. W. Blaine, May 13, 1845. 
Henry Ball, April 14, 1846. 
James Benson, April 14, 1846. 
L. I. Baldwin, April 18, 1847. 
John S. Barnes, April 13, 1847. 
Wm. Bracken, April 13, 1847. 
Daniel Branch, April 11, 1854. 
John Braden, April 14, 1857. 
David Baker, March 12, 1857. 
R. R. Burchfield, April 9, 1861. 
Philo E. Bennett, May 10, 1861. 
T. C. Burnside, May 10, 1861. 
W. P. Barber, May 10, 1861. 
L. K. Bennett, September 25, 1863. 
L. D. Brooks, April 12, 1864. 
Chas. Burnham, April 27, 1865. 

E. P. Bennett, April 12, 1866. 
G. C. Barney, April 20, 1867. 
H. A. Baker", March 11, 1867. 
Graham Benson, April 21, 1868. 
S. B. Brooks, April 15, 1869. 

John Blackmarr, November 6, 1869. 
S. M. Brainerd, November 13, 1869. 
Geo. D. Buckley, April 20, 1871. 
Timothv Butler, April 9, 1872. 
Edwin Bragg. April 15, 1873. 
A. S. Bunnell, April 15, 1873. 
Samuel Brooks, March 14, 1874. 

F. H. Button, March 18, 1875. 
Geo. N. Barnes, April 11, 1876. 
Tames R. Burns, March 17, 1877. 
R. C. Bromley, March 25, 1878. 
I. Llovd Benson, March 27, 1879. 
Chas."Q, Brown, March 30, 1880. 
Chas. S. Burchfield, April 9, 1881. 
Byron B. Bean, March 30, 1882. 

G. Sid. Beavis, April 16, 1885. 
H. S. Barnes, April 16, 1885. 
I. T. Beecher, April 8, 1886. 
A. G. Burnham, April 8. 1886. 
D. R. Bovee, April 8, 1886. 

F. S. Barney, April 11,1887. 
H. R. Briggs, April 16, 1890. 
T. V. Baldwin, April 21, 1891. 
"lames S. Benson. April 24, 1893. 
C— Ansel Crouch, June 18, 1886. 

Tames Chambers, December 18, 1838. 
"David Crozier, April 14, 1840. 
Andrew Caughey, April 14, 1840. 
Andrew Couse, April 14, 1840. 
Hiram Crow, April 14. 1840. 
Tacob Comstock, April 14, 1840. 
"Tames Culver, April 14, 1840. 
"Wm. Campbell, May 19, 1840. 


Luke H. Cutter, April 15, 1845. 
Matthew G. Cook, April 15, 1845. 
Cyrus A. Culbertson. April 15, 1845. 
Pliny Chapin, (2d), April 15, 1845. 
Joel A. Curtis, May 18, 1845. 
David H. Chapman, April 13, 1847. 
John W. Campbell, April 11, 1848. 
Hiram Cook, April 11, 1848. 
Rodney Cole, April 9, 1850. 

A. A. Craig, April 13, 1858. 

E. Camphausen, April 13, 1858. 
Frederick Curtze, April 10, 1860. 
Lawrence Colegrove, March 21, 1860. 
Wm. Cheeseman, April 11, 1865. 
Samuel Cummins, April 11, 1865. 
M. B. Chamberlain, November 6, 1869. 
J. C. Coffman, April 17, 1871. 
John Crowell, April 17, 1871. 
C. C. Carter, March 18, 1875. 
Thomas Crowley, March 13, 1875. 
Elijah Crow, March 11, 1876. 
E. A. Church, March 15, 1880. 
S. F. Chapin, May 6, 1881. 
Norman H. Clark, April 16, 1885. 
T.G. Carroll, April 16, 1885. 
Clark M. Cole, April 8, 1886. 
E. A. Collins, April 16, 1890. 
T. H. Crandall, April 21, 1891. 
C. C. Chappell, April 21, 1891. 
E. S. Crooker, April 19, 1S92. 
G. H. Cornell, April 16, 1894. 
John Chapman, April 16, 1894. 
D— Robt. M. Douglas, Marcii 1, 1825. 
John L. Davis, April 3, 1828. 
Hiram Drury, November 9, 1835. 
Robt. Dunn, June 13, 1836. 
Almcn Duncombe, April 14, 1840. 
Ira Dewey, April 14, 1845. 
Eli Duncombe, April 15, 1845. 
Jeremiah Davis, April 13, 1847. 
t. F. Downing, April 14, 1857. 
'Tames Dunn, April 21, 1868. 
C. E. Duncombe, April 21, 1868. 
M. Detzel. April 20, 1871. 
Philip Diefenbach, April 15, 1873. 
Wm. VV. Davis, April 23, 1873. 
Hosea Drown, March 30, 1880. 
E. F. Davenport. March 30, 1880. 
Richard B. Dempsey, May 16, 1881. 
Chas. E. Davis, April 11, 1887. 
]. F. Dearing, April 21, 1891. 

B. C. Drury, April 24, 1893. 
Albert J. Doerr, April 16, 1895. 

E — Allen Ensworth, April 16, 1856. 

G. A. Ebisch, April 20, 1871. 
M. S. Edmunds, March 13, 1875. 

E. J. Evans, April 16, 1895. 
F—Ashel B. Foster, March 3, 1838. 

Lewis Frisbee, April 14, 1840. 
H. D. Frances, March 9, 1850. 
A. J. Foster (police justice), March 

10, 1870. 
Perry Fargo, April 19, 1872. 
J. M. Finn, April 9, 1872. 
John Ferrier, April 11, 1876. 
A. A. Freeman, April 9, 1881. 

F. E. Fenton, March 30, 1882. 
O. D. Fitch, April 16, 1885. 
U. S. Fuller, April 21, 1891. 

G— Wm. Gray, jr., March 3, 1824. 
E. D. Gunni-son, March 15, 1825. 
Wm. Graham, April 12, 1827. 
Oren Goff, April 11, 1840. 
L. B. Goodell, April 14, 1840. 
Wm. Griffith, April 10, 1849. 
Henry Gingrich, April 13, 1853. 
John'Greer, April 11, 1854. 
R. M. Greene, April 10, 1855. 

E. W. Gerrish, April 16, 1856. 
y. O. Griffin, April 16, 1856. 
Stephen J- Godfrey, April 12, 1859. 
Stephen Griffith, April 10, 1860. 
Philip P. Glazier, April 9, 1S61. 
Geo. W. Gunnison, April 12, 1864. 
L. E. Guignon, April 12, 1864. 
Charles Galliard, April 20, 1867. 
Geo. W. GiUett, March 6, 1869. 
Geo. P. Griffith, November 6, 1869. 
John W. Goodell, June 3, 1875. 
Benj. P. Griffith, A'pril % 1877. 

T. L. Green, March 30, 1880. 
b. F. GifFord, April 9, 1881. 

C. R. Gray, April 9, 1881. 

F. M. Gould, March 30, 1882. 

G. W. Griffen, April 16, 1885. 
Robeit Gough, April 16, 1890. 

H — Myron Hutchinson, April 12, 1827. 
Richard O. Hulbert, July 1, 1832. 
Robert Heath, October 31, 1834. 
Peter Haldeman, March 3, 1838. 
Christian Heck, April 14, 1840. 
Horace Hall, April 14, 1840. 
Uriah Hawkins, April 15, 1845. 
Anderson Hubbard, April 15, 1845. 
Humphrey A. Hills, April 9, 1850. 

D. W. Howard, March 10, 1854. 
Jonathan A. Hill, April 11, 1854. 
Heman Heath March 10, 1855, 



M. A. Hays, April ]3, 1858. 

S. S. Hammond, April 25, 1862. 

E. W. Hatch, April 14, 1803. 
T. L. Hyner, April 14, 1868, 
P. B. Honecker, April 14, 1868. 
Henrv S. Holdridge, March 6, 1869. 
Wm. 'Harrington, March 24, 1870. 
Wm. Himrod, April 17, 1871. 

J. Robert Hall, April 17, 1871. 
Monroe Hutchinson, April 17, 1871. 
Chas. A. Hitchcock, April 15, 1873. 
S. M. Hayes, March 13, 1875. 
Wm. E. Haves, March 13, 1875. 
L. L. Howard, March 11, 1876. 
James Hubbard, March 11, 1870. 
Henry P. Hall, March 17, 1877. 

C. L. Hills, March 17, 1877. 
A. W. Hayes, October 8, 1878. 

G. A. Hampson, November 13, 1884. 

H. C. Hayes, April 8, 1886. 

H. G. Harvey, April 5, 1888. 

Bryan S. Hill, April 5, 1888. 

R. A. Holman, April 5, 1888. 

M. A. Harrington, April 16, 1890. 

H. C. Hayes, April 21, 1891. 

T. C. Hughes. April 21. ISDI. 

Jos. P. Hollen, May IS, l,s'.i2. 
-John B. Jones, March 1. 1,S25. 

Michael Jackson, February 20, 1834. 

Lyman Jackson, April 15, 1845. 

Peter P.\judson, April 9, 1850. 

Chauncyjoslin, April 11, 1854. 

William C. Jackson, April 9, 1861. 

Gustave Jarecki, May 24, 1862. 

W'. C. Johnson, April 7, 1884. 
-William Kelley, August 1, 1828. 

Thomas King, April 3, 1838. 

Amos King, August 14, 1838. 

George Kellogg, April 14, 1840. 

Thomas G. King, April 13, 1853. 

Melvin M. Kelso, April 13, 1853. 

Enos Kress, April 13, 1858. 

Perry Kidder, April 13, 1858. 

F. W. Koehler, April 14. ls(',3. 
Hollis King, April 12, ]S('iii. 

S. E. Kincaid, March C). ]S(V.). 

D. C. Kennedv, November 6, 1869. 
Wilson King, March 14, 1874. 

Joseph Knight, March 16, 1876. 
W. B. Kirnan, March 17, 1877. 

Jos. W. Kelso, Julv 6, 1878. 

E. S. Kennedy, 'March 27, 1879. 
Julius Koenig, September 21, 1885. 
William Kernick, April 19, 1892. 

L — Jacob Lefever, January 16, 1832. 

W. W. Loomis.' April 24, 1834. 

Joseph E. Lee, April 14, 1840. 

Ezra Lilley. July 2, 1S40. 

Dyer Loomis, April 15, 1845. 

Newton Lounsberrv, April 11, 1848. 

Wilson Laird, May" 10, 1852. 

Nelson Lewis, April 12, 1859. 

N. D. Lowry, April 10, 1860. 

Cyrenus Lindsley, May 10, 1861. 

Hartley Lampson, May 10, 1861. 

H. E. Ladd, April 12, 1866. 

F. P. Liebel, April 25, 1871. 

C. W. Lowell, April 9, 1881. 

Joseph Laverv, April 16, 1890. 
M— Alex. McClaskey, April 11, 1825. 

Wm. T. Mackey, Februarv 16, 1833. 

Thomas Mellen, April 24,' 1833. 

Harry Mailorv, March 13, 1834. 

James McConkev, November 27, 1835. 

David McKinne'y, April 14, 1840. 

John McCullough, April 14, 1840. 

'John B. Milliken. April 14, 1840. 

'S. F. Moore. April 14, 1840. 

James Moorhead, April 14, 1840. 

Thomas R. Miller, Mav 15, 1840. 

Hiram Moore, April 14, 1846. 

William S. Mavnard, April 13, 1847. 


April 10. 1849. 


William K, Marvin, April 9, 1850. 
Hector McLean. April 15, 1851. 
George McLean, November 22, 1852. 
I. Newton JSIiller, April 10, I860. 
W. E. McLean, April 12, 1864. 
Jackson McCreary, April 27, 1867. 
A. J. McCreary, April 19, lcS72. 
James McCreary, April 19, 1872. 
'M. M. Moore, March 14, 1874. 
William T. Myer, March 11, 1876. 
James A. McCullough, March 17, 1877. 
William Marsh, April 3, 1879. 
Melvin W. Moffitt, Mav 15, 1879. 
W. H. Moore, March 30, 1882. 
M. Munson, April 6. 1883. 
George W. Mitchell, April 6, 1883. 
Daniel McMahon, December 6, 1883. 
Presslev McCreary, April 8, 1886. 
John McGonnell, "April 21'- 1891. 
'D. J. Mead, April 19, 1892. 
N.'T. McLallen, April 16, 1894. 
N— James Nelson, March 4, 1828. 
Elisha Nason, April 14, 1840. 
Marshall Niles, April 9, 1850. 
Robert Nesbitt, April 10, 1860. 



D. W. Nason, April 21, 1868. 

Samuel Rea, Jr., April 10, 1860. 

M. M. Nason, December 17. 1869. 

F. N. Runnefs, March 7, 1863. 

Wm. Nicholson, April 14, 1870. 

Philip Royer, April 14, 1863. 

David Nason, April 28, 1873. 

Albert Rockwood, April 12, 1864. 

Wm. M. Nason, Jime 15, 1875. 

N. W. Russell, April 12, 1867. 

E. K. Nason, November 13, 1876. 

David Reed, April 17, 1871. 

Henry S. Nash, March 30, 1880. 

M. W\ Robinson, April 17, 1871. 

Elmer Nesbitt, April 10. 1885. 

Louis Rosenzweig, April 9, 1872. 

B. T. Nason, April 3, 1886. 

C. S. Raymond, April 9, 1872. 

Geo. A. Nantes, April 11, 1887. 

Wm. S. Randall, April 11, 1876. 

Wm. M. Nason, April 20, 1889. 

Wm. J. Robinson, February 4, 1880. 

Thayer W. Northrup, May 2, 1892. 

A. Z. Randall, December 15, 1881. 

p_john Phillips, October 28, 1825. 

M. S. Rouse, April 7, 1884. 

Elijah Pond, April 14, 1840. 

Elijah K. Range, March 19, 1887. 

David Proudfit, April 13, 1841. 

Hiram Rice, April 21, 1891. 

Halsey Pelton, April 11, 1843. 

J. P. Ross, March 7, 1892. 

John Parmater, April 11, 1848. 

John G. Reed, April 16, 1894. 

Geo. M. Pope, April 10, 1849. 

C. K. Riblet, April 16. 1894. 

E. 0. Pinney, April 10, 1849. 

S — John Salsbury, December 10, 1829. 

Wm. Putnam, April 9, 1850. 

James Smiley, August 13, 1833. 

Willard Perry, April 9, 1850. 

Josenh M. Sterrett, January 15, 1886. 

James D. Phillips, April 24, 1852. 

Harley Sherman, December 12, 1837. 

H. L. Pinney, April 12, 1859. 

EliasSalsburv, April 14. 1840. 

Wm. B. Pier, March 21, 1860. 

John C. Smith, April 14, 1840. 

Jesse R. Prindle, April 10, I860. 

Henry Strong, April 14, 1840. 

D. N. Patterson, April 14, 1863. 

Job Stafford, April 14, 1840. 

George Pierce, April 11, 1865. 

Russell Stanclifi^, April 15, 1845. 

James E. Pettihone, April 12, 1866. 

John Smith, April 15, 1845. 

Mortimer Phelps, April 12, 1866. 

"John R. Smith, April 13, 1847. 

Loren Pease, April 14, 1868. 

Ethel Shelmadine, April 13,1847. 

J. B Potter, April 15, 1869. 

S. Merwin Smith, April 10, 1849. 

John Proudfit, November 6. 1869. 

William Scott, April 10, 1849. 

Giles D. Price, April 17, 1871. 

Levi Silverthorn, April 10, 1849. 

D. R. Palmer, December 28, 1874. 

L. W. Savage, April 9, 1850. 

J. B. Page, May 9, 1879. 

S. S. Spencer, April 9, 1850. 

H. A. Porter, March 30, 1880. 

John Sweeney, June 25, 1850. 

Ralph I. Pettit, March 30, 1881. 

Geo. S. Sweet, April 18, 1852. 

C. R. Powell, April 11, 1887. 

F. W. M. Sherwood, April 24, 1852. 

J. M. Proudfit, April 11, 1887. 

Moses Smiley, April 11, 1854. 

Davis Peck, July 6, 1887. 

Ira Sherwin, April 11, 1854. 

Henry S. Parson, April 5, 1888. 

John Stewart, April 10, 1855. 

George Peck, April 20, 1889. 

Sanford Slater. April 16, 1856. 

E. Pool, April 16, 1890. 

James D. Smith, March 5, 1859. 

R. S. Pierce, April 16, 1895. 

'John Spaulding, April 10, 1860. 

R — Casper M. Rouse, November 17, 1832. 

Alex. Smiley, April 10, 1860. 

Alvan Ryan, February 16, 1835. 

Josiah Sullivan, April 10, 1860. 

Theo. Ryman, April 14. 1840. 

Geo. J. Sherman, April 9, 1861. 

James Robinson, April 14, 1840. 

David Stanclifi", April 14, 1863. 

Robt. Ransom, April 13, 1841. 

E. P. Snow, April 11, 1865. 

Richard R. Robinson, April 15, 1845. 

A. P. Salsbury, April 11, 1865. 

Lyman Robinson, April 13, 1852. 

Thomas Sterrett, April 17, 1871. 

Samuel Rea, April 10, 1855. 

James Skinner, April 20, 1871. 

James H. Rouse, May 16, 1856. 

W. Barry Smith, April 17, 1871. 

H. M. Range, April 13, 1858. 

Thos. B. Smiley, March 14, 1871. 



]. R. Smith, March 23, 1875. 

Frank Schlaudecker, March 18, 1875. 

M. H. Silverthorn, March 13, 1875. 

C. Swallev, April 11, 1876. 

C. C. Stoddard, March 11, 1876. 

C. P. Sherman, March 18, 1878. 
R. D. Silverthorn, March 27, 1879. 
T. B. Smiley, March 27, 1879. 
Marvin St. John, March 30, 1882. 
F. M. Spaiilding, April 16, 1885. 
Clinton B. Smith, April 16, 1885. 
H. H. Strieker, April 5, 1888. 

D. G. Smiley, April 20, 1889. 
Geo. H. Spaulding, April 24, 1893. 
John Scott, May 3, 1893. 

"John W. Scott, April 16, 1894. 
"Tacob E. Swap, April 16, 1894. 
Samuel C. Smith, April 16, 1894. 
W. C. Shields, April 16, 1894. 
n. A. Skinner, April l(j, lSi)5. 
T— Albert Tuttle, December 1, 1S29. 
Henry A. Terry, October 24, 1836. 

A. C. Tiffany, July 10, 1839. 

B. O. Town, April 11, 1843. 

John A. Tracy (2d), April 10, 1849. 
Isaac R. Taylor, April 9, 1850. 
Tames R. Taylor, April 15, 1851. 

E. W. Twichell, April 13, 1852. 
John Tuckey, April 11, 1854. 
John C. Trask, April 10, 1855. 
William Thornton, June 21, 1855. 
Caleb Thompson, April 16, 1856. 
D. H. Troop, April 10, 18()0. 
John G. Taylor, April 11, 18(;5. 
fohn 'Ihompson, Jr., April 11, 1865. 
Albert Truesdell, March 12, 1879. 
R. B. Temple, April 16, 1885. 
Taylor Tome, April 11, 1887. 
Isaac L. Tubbs, April 5, 1888. 

B. C. Town, April 16, 1890. 

T. L. Titus, . 

V— Wm. Vincent, October 12, 1829. 

David W. Vorse, April 9, 1850. 

Lewis Van Anden, April 16, 1856. 

S A. Van Dusen, April 5, 1888. 
W— Joseph Wright, March 15, 1825. 

James H. Woodworth, December 23, 
. ' 1830. 

Tames Wilson, July 30, 1831. 

Tames Weston, May 22, 1832. 

Philip Wells, Tune 18, 1832. 

David G. W^ebber, Mav 27, 1834. 
Isaac Webster, December 18, 1838. 
John L. Way, April 14, 1840. 
Noyes White, April 12. 1842. 
Isaac M. White, April 15, l,"<45. 
John M. Warren, April 15, 1,S45. 
Wareham Warner, April 1), 1850. 
Teduthan Wells, April 15, 1851. 
Z. L. Webster, April 15, 1851. 
G. W. Walker, April 18, 1853. 
Orrin G. Wood, April 10, 1855. 
Jonas Wendall, April 16, 1856. 
Seymour Washburn, April 14, 1857. 
H. R. Whittlesey. April 13, 1858. 
D. C. Wilbur, April 12, 1859. 
D. M. Wood, April 10, 1860. 
H. L. VVyman, September 25, 1863. 
R. H. Williamson, March 25, 1864. 
David W^ilson, April 12, 1864. 
James W^inchester. April 27. 1865. 
O. G. Wood, April L'S. ISC,.-,. 
Chester S. Wilson, April 2, , 1867. 
D. M. R. Wilson, April 15, 1869. 
J. L. Waterhouse, April 9, 1872. 
Sam Woods, April 11, 1876. 
T. C. Wheeler, April 11, 1876. 
T. A. Walling, April 9, 1877. 

B. J. Wakelev, April 9, 1877. 
Wm. E. Williams, March 25, 1878. 
Wm. R. Wade, March 30, 1880. 
George S. Washburn, April 9, 1881. 

C. C. Wright, April 9, 1881. 
A. D. Wiard, March 29, 1882. 
T. V. WaUis, April 6, 1883. 
Tohn G. Weiblein, April 16,1885. 
W. Wheaton, April 21, 1891. 
James Watson, April 16, 1894. 
George E. Watrous, April 16, 1895. 
Hugh Wilson, April 16, 1895. 

Y— Thos. L. Young, August 26, 1834. 

James W. Yost, April 20, 1867. 
Z — David Zimmerman, November 18, 
Reinhard Zimmer, April 6, 1883. 
The venerable James Chambers, of Har- 
bor Creek, has been Justice of the Peace for a 
longer period than any other man in the coun- 
ty, if not in the State. Appointed by Gov. 
Ritner in 1888, he has held the oflice, with 
the exception of one or two brief intervals, 
ever since. 


Doctors, Surgeons and Dentists. 

THE first and, for a number of years, the 
only resident physician in Eriecounty, 
was Dr. John C. Wallace, who located 
in the borough of Erie about the time 
of its first settlement. He continued 
in the practice of medicine nearly to the day 
of his death, whicii occurred on the 8th of De- 
cember, 18:27. 

Dr. Plara Thayer located in or near Erie 
about 1811, and was joined in a short time by 
his brother. Dr. Albert Thayer. They resided 
on Federal Hill, and their practice extended 
over a good part of the county. 

Dr. Asa Coltrin settled in Erie about 1815, 
and continued in practice until his death in 
November, 1824. The next physician in Erie 
was Dr. Peter Christie, who was a surgeon in 
the United States navy. 

The list of Erie physicians was increased 
by the arrival of Dr. William Johns in 1822, 
and by Drs. Taber and Elijah Beebe in 1825. 
All of these remained until their decease. 

Dr. Peter Faulkner located in South Erie 
in 1825. After a time he changed to Craw- 
ford county, but returned to Erie in 1848. 
His sons, Drs. William and Robert Faulkner, 
both became practitioners in Erie at a com- 
paratively early period. 

Dr. Jacob Vosburg reached Erie the same 
year as Dr. Faulkner, and Dr. Sanford Dickin- 
son, who had practiced in Wattsburg a short 
time, removed to Erie in 1840. 

Outside of Erie, the earliest physician was 
Dr. James Smedley, who located in North 
East at an early day. Dr. Ira Sherwin made 
his home in Harbor Creek in 1825, and Dr. 
W. T. Bradley in Wesleyville about 1840. 
Dr. Rufus Hills practiced in Girard from an 
early date until 1830, when he changed to 
Erie. He removed to Pittsburg, where he 
died. Dr. M. C. Kellogg practiced in connec- 
tion with Dr. Vosburg at Erie until 1881, 
when he changed to Girard. He died in Al- 
bion, to which place he had removed, in 1855. 

Among the physicians of prominence in 
Erie, at a later period, were Dr. William A. 
Wallace, Dr. P. Hall, Dr. C. Sevens, Dr. T. 
H. Stuart, Dr. S. Dickinson, Dr. J. L. Stew- 
art, Dr. Perkins, Dr. H. A. Spencer, Dr. N. 
vSeymour, Dr. George Bennett, Dr. W. O. 
Gilson, Dr. Charles Aichner and Dr. E. W. 
Germer — not naming those who are still in 
active practice in the city. Dr. Seymour re- 
moved to North East in 1894, and still gives 
some attention to the practice of medicine. 


The law of Pennsylvania provides that 
every person engaged in the regular practice 
of medicine or surgery shall be a graduate of 
a legally chartered medical college or univer- 
sity, and have his diploma registered in the 
Prothonotary's ofiice in the county where he 
resides. In case the diploma has been lost, a 
certified copy of the same may be presented, 
or, if not obtainable, the party may make affi- 
davit to the fact, with the name of the school 
he attended. Exception is made in the case of 
physicians who have been in continuous prac- 
tice within this commonwealth for a long 
period. These are allowed to continue in 
practice, but must appear before the Prothon- 
otary and make affidavit in accordance with 
the law. 


Below is a list of the physicians who regis- 
tered in Erie county up to July 1, 1895, with 
the colleges from which they graduated, the 
time when, or the periods they claimed on the 
day of registry to have practiced. When no 
dates are given, they do not appear on the 
registry, due probably to an oversight in re- 
cording : 


A — Charles Aichner, University of Basle, 
Switzerland, 1857. 
E. P. Abbott, JefTerson Medical Col- 



lege of Philadelphia, 1877. 

Oscar F. Aichner, Jefferson Medical 
College of Philadelphia, 1893. 
B — P. Barkey, University of Medicine and 
Surgery, Philadelphia, Pa., 1871. 

J. Q. H. Bassett. practiced a number 
of years. Diploma destroyed in 
Chicago fire. 

Charles Brandes, practice since 1845. 

Mrs. E. S. Burnham, practice for twen- 
ty years. 

Linnie Burnham, Electropathic Insti- 
tute of Binghamton, N. Y., 1879. 

E. P. Banning, Sr., College of Medi- 
cine at Evansville, Ind. 

W. F. Ball, United States Medical 
College, New York. 

A. A. Bancroft. Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania, 1869. 

Louis B. Baker, University of Buffalo, 

Max Bosch, practice since 1871. 

William K. Byron, University of Buf- 
falo, 1890. ' 

B. F. Brubaker, Medico-Chirurgical 
College of Philadelphia, 1893. 

C — Jeannette Caldwell, Homeopathic Col- 
lege, New York City, 1876. 

J. S. Carter, practice since 1840. 

J. T. Clark, National Medical College, 
Washington, D. C , 1870. 

W. K. Cleveland, University of the 
City of New York, I860 ; New York 
Ophthalmic Hospital, 1860; Belle- 
vue Hospital, 1862, and Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Board of Canada, 

Edward Cranch, University of George- 
town, D. C, 1873. 

C. B. Chidester, Baltimore College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, 1881. 

J. M. Cooper, Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege of Philadelphia, 1888. 
D — J. C. M. Drake, Hahnemann Medical 
College, Chicago, 1880. 

Michael C. Dunnigan, Bellevue Medi- 
cal College, New York City, 1875. 

James H. Delaney, Bellevue Hospital 
Medical College, New York, 1886. 

John Doll, practice since 1886. 

David N. Dennis, Jefferson Medical 
College of Philadelphia, 1881. 

George S. Dickinson, Jefferson Medi- 
cal College of Philadelphia, 1893. 

E — Martin Ernst, attended lectures upon 
surgery by Prof. Buntz, at Delbruge, 
Germany ; diploma lost. 

W. C. Evans, Western Reserve Col- 
lege, Cleveland, Ohio, 1854. 

William Evans, College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, New York, 1890. 
F — Robert Faulkner, Homoeopathic Medi- 
cal College, New York City, 1867. 

W^illiam Faulkner, Geneva Medical 
College, Geneva, N. Y., 1842. 

Eugene B, Fletcher, Cleveland Medi- 
cal College, 1879. 

John F. Flint, University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, 1881. 

A. A. Freeman, Universitv of Buffalo, 

Charles A. French, Western Reserve 
College, Cleveland, 1876. 

J. Finert}', Niagara University of Buf- 

B. F. French, Hahnemann Medical 
College, Philadelphia, 1880. 

H. E. Flint, HoHKeopathic Medical 
College, Universitv of Michigan, 
H. H. Foringer, Western Reserve Uni- 
versity, Cleveland, 1893. 
G — Henry F. Garey, Washington Univer- 
sity, Baltimore, 1876. 

George A. Carries, Western Reserve 
Medical College, Cleveland, 1881. 

E. D. Gates, University ^^ictoria Col- 
lege, Medical Department, 1859. 

E. W. Germer, Medical College of 
Vienna, also certificate from Freiburg 

Thomas H. Gray, University of Michi- 
gan, 1871. 

Amos S. Gregory, Union College of 
Medicine and Surgery, Philadelphia, 
Pa., 1872. 

S. F. Ginner, practice of medicine 
since 1870. 

W. O. Gilson, Western Reserve Uni- 
versity of Ohio. 

H. C. Galster, Cleveland Medical Col- 
lege, 1892. 

Eugene D. Geer, license from State 
Medical Council, February 16, 1895. 
II — Peter Hall, practice since 1844. 

Susan A. Hills, practice since 1871. 

John N. Hauptmann, University of 
Michigan, 1892. 

1 68 


Wallace R. Hunter, University of 
Pennsylvania, 1890. 

F. L. Hall, Western Reserve Univer- 
sity of Ohio, 188l>. 
I — J. L. Ireland, Hahnemann Medical Col- 
lege of Philadelphia, 1893. 
L — John M. Lewis, Bellevue Medical Col- 
lege, New York City, 1880. 

A. S. Lovett, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 
University of Michigan. 
M — Susan Meyer, practice for fifteen 

A. McPherson, Hahnemann Medical 
College of Chicago, 1885. 

James H. Montgomery, New York 
College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

Alfred Mullhaupt, Jefferson Medical 
College of Philadelphia, 1884. 

Helena M. Mullhaupt, Women's Medi- 
cal College of Philadelphia, 1880. 

Alvin J. Miller, Hahnemann Medical 
College, Philadelphia, 1880. 

R. T. Marks, Homo-opathic Hospital 
College, Cleveland, 1880. 
N — William Nick, practice sirce 1859. 

H. C. Nick, practice since 1867. 

William F. Nick, practice since 1859. 

Frederick Nick, practice since 1869. 
P — Anna Pressley, Electropathic Institute 

of Binghamton, N. Y., 1882. 
R — A. Z. Randall, University of Michi- 
gan, Ann Arbor, 1864. 

David P. Robbins, University of 
S — Nelson Seymour, practice for thirty- 
five years. 

James E. Silliman, Jefferson Medical 
College, Philadelphia, 1874. 

Byron A. Smith, practice since 1866. 

Mrs. Jane A. Smith, practice since 

H. A. Spencer, Western Reserve Col- 
lege, Cleveland, Ohio, 1851. 

J. L. Stewart, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, Pa., 1848. 

Chester W. Stranahan, Jefferson Medi- 
cal College of Philadelphia, 1867. 

D. H. Strickland, University of Penn- 
sylvania, 1863. 

Jones J. Seward, Medical College of 
Ohio at Cincinnati, 1883. 

C. J. A. Schneider, University of New 
York, 1880. 

Henry C. Statzer, Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital College, Cleveland, 1886. 

Wm. O. Smith, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1878. 

Augustus Soper, Ontario College of 
Physicians and Surgeons. 

J. W. Seip, Jefferson Medical College 
of Philadelphia, 1883. 
T — Alvin Thayer, practice since 1845. 

Robert D. Tipple, Homoeopathic Col- 
lege of Cleveland, 1878. 

G. S. Tubbs, practice since 1870. 

J. C. Thorns, Homoeopathic College 
of Cleveland. 

C. C. Taylor, Homoeopathic College 
of Cleveland, 1894. 
U — George Ulrich, German Medical Col- 
lege of Germany, 1860. 

G. F. E. Umrath, practice since 1872. 
W— Richard H. Walker, Medical Depart- 
ment of Wooster University, Cleve- 
land, 1879. 

Mrs. A. B. Woods, Women's Medical 
College of Pennsylvania, 1876. 

Arthur A W^oods, Miami Medical 
College, Cincinnati, 1876. 

Mary A. B. Woods, Western Homoeo- 
pathic College, Cleveland, 1864. 

John Wilbur, University City of New 

I. N. Willard, Bellevue Medical Hos- 
pital College of New York, 1875. 

Emerson J. Wood, practice since 1871. 

Samuel H. Warren, University of Buf- 
falo, 1880. 

Albert W. Wilson, Philadelphia Elec- 
tropathic Institute, 1889. 

Arthur C. Wheeler, Columbia College, 
New York, 1898. 

Almon S. Bonsteel, Bellevue Hospital Col- 
lege, New York City, 1872. 

S. R. Breed, practice since 1856. 

Reuben Brinker, Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, 1851. 

Charles Adams Bush, practice since 1871. 

Jolm B. Chace, American Medical Col- 
lege, Cincinnati. 

D. E. DeRoss, Eclectic College of Cincin- 
nati, 1875. 

G. A. Elston, Medical Department of Uni- 
versity of New York, 1880. 



H. G. Fay, Medical Society of Steuben 
Co., N. Y., 1875. 

Daniel D. Franklin, Eclectic Institute 
of Cincinnati, 1850. 

Flora Hayward Stanford, Boston Univer- 

Emma L. Jordan, Eclectic Medical Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, 1879. 

C. B. Kibler, University of Buffalo, 1870. 
H. O. Mackres, University of Buffalo, 1867. 

B. H. Phelps, Cleveland Medical College, 

Manhattan Pickett, Medical College of 
Buffalo, 1869. 

Joseph R. Phillips, Homoeopathic Hospia 
tal College at Cleveland. 

D. C. Storer, practice since 1862. 
Henry S. Tanner, Eclectic Medical Col- 
lege of Cincinnati, 1859. 

J. E. Weeks, University of Michigan, Ann 

Oliver J. Shannon, N. Y. Free Medical 
College, 1876. 

James \V. Chace, Med. Dept. of Univer- 
sity'of Buffalo, 1885. 

F. C. Price, Medical College of Ohio, Cin- 
cinnati, 1879. 

G. H. Waggoner, Hahnemann Medical 
College, Chicago. 1882. 

C. H. McCoy, practice since 1869. 

Jno. C. Jackson, Homoeopathic Hospital 
Med. College^ Cleveland, 1882. 

Melvin L. Adams, Homoeopathic Hospital 
Med. College, Cleveland. 

H. W. Thayer, Rush Medical College, 

A. M. Fisher, Jefferson Medical College, 
Philadelphia, 1890. 

P. P. Fisher, College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, Baltimore, 1881. 

D. R. Waggoner, Medical College of Ohio, 

John W. Jarvis (Middleboro) , University 
at Ann Arbor, Mich., 1869. 

George M. Edick, College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, 1883. 

John N. Bo^vers, Western Reserve Univer- 
sity of Ohio, 1885. 

W. T. Greenfield, Miami Medical College. 
Cincinnati, 1883. 

Earl B. Potter, Western Pennsylvania 
Medical College, Pittsburg, 1892. 


D. T. Bennett, Eclectic Medical Associa- 
tion of Pennsylvania, 1876. 

Samuel F. Chapin, Yale Medical College, 

G. Thickstun, Bellevue Hospital Medical 
College, New York City, 1864. 

William C. Tracy, Harvard Medical Col- 
lege, Boston, 1866. 

Joseph C. Shuey, Western Reserve Uni- 
versity, Ohio, 1876. 


M. D. Satterlee, University of New 
York City, 1879. 

M. A. Millard, University of Buffalo, 1873. 

W. J. Weeks, practice since 1870. 

F. L. Hart, W^estern Reserve Universitv, 
Ohio, 1892. 


A. G. Ely, Geneva Medical College, 
Geneva, N. Y., 1840. 

T. J. Kellogg, practice since 1836. 

A. R. Smith, Eclectic Medical Institute of 
Cincinnati, 1858. 

I. N. Taylor, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1866. 

Helen M. Weeks. Honoeopathic College, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

J. M. Ealy, Western Reserve Universitv, 
Ohio, 1884. 

Earl M. Pratt, Western Reserve Uni- 
versity, Ohio. 

B." C. Ely, Medical College of Castle- 
ton, Vt. 

R. H. Duff, Adalbert College of Western 
Reserve University of Ohio. 


O. L. Abbey, University of Buffalo, 1863. 

Stephen R. Davis, practice since 1872. 

Mrs. .S. R. Davis, practice since 1872. 

Curtis N. Goucher, Medical Department 
of the Western Reserve College of Hudson, 
Ohio, 1870. 

James F. Read, practice since 1838. 

L. D. Rockwell, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, 1874. 

Alfred C. Sherwood, University- of Penn- 
sylvania, 1878. 

Ernest B. Smith, Cleveland Homoeopathic 
Hospital College, 1882. 

William J. Humphrey, Universitv of 
Buff"alo, 1890.' 



John W.Wright, Jefferson Medical College 
of Philadelphia, 1890. 

H. M. Northain, HomrEopathic Medical 
College, University of Michigan, 1893. 

William S. Pierce, University of New 
York, 1884. 

J. C. Agard, practice since 1857. 

H. L. Leonard, Eclectic Medical In- 
stitute of Cincinnati. 

Clarence G. Hollister, registered in Craw- 
ford county. 

George D. Marsh, Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege of Philadelphia. 

Edson C. Barker, Eclectic Medical Col- 
lege of Cincinnati, 1880. 

D. S. Brown, Western Reserve University 
of Ohio, 1884. 

G. E. Humphry, University of Pennsyl- 

N. Cheney, practice since 1871. 


John K. Griffin, University of Buffalo, 

L. G. Hall, Medical Universitv of Buffalo, 

A. B. Heard, Detroit Medical College, ' 

D. D. Loop, University of Buffalo, 1865. | 

Burton H. Putnam, University of Buffalo. 

A. T- Sears, University of Wooster, Cleve- ! 
land, 1878. ^ 

George B. Stillman, College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, Baltimore, 1880. j 

Mullin A. Wilson, New York HomtBO- 
pathic Medical College, New York City. 

M. C. Smith, Baltimore College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons. 

James W. Losee, Homeopathic Medical 
College of Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1891. 

Arthur J. Adams, Ontario College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, 1877. 

J. C. Dowville, University of Maryland, 
Baltimore, 1892. 

P. D. Flower, Philadelphia University of 
Medicine and Surgery, 1869. 

O. Logan, practice for twenty-five years; 
Medical University of Buffalo, 1882. 

James S. Skeels, Western Reserve Medi 
cal College at Hudson, Ohio, 1848. 

William S. Hubbard, Pulte Medical Col- 
lege, Cincinnati, 1887. 


T. W. Barton, Buffalo Medical College, 

John W. Bowman, Cleveland Medical 
College, 1859. 

Frank L. Clemens, Jefferson jSIedical Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, 1881. 

L. A. Burrows, Eclectic Medical Institute, 
Cincinnati, 1887. 

Eugene E. Kendall, Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, 1887. 

Charles L. Townlev, Western Reserve 
University of Ohio, 1884. 

Henry L. Stern, Cleveland Medical Col- 
lege, 1892. 


George Ellis, Hudson Medical College of 
Cleveland, Ohio, 1869. 

Charles N. Moore, Hygeia Therapeutic 
College, New York, 1804. 

Lamarr V. Knapp, Buft'alo Medical Col- 
lege, 1873. 

Joseph R. Hewett, practice since 1865. 

John Ross, practice since 1860. 

b. O. Blakeslee, College of Physicians 
and Surgeons of Baltimore, 1882. 

Ranson C. Sloan. Buffalo Medical College, 

Thomas Purcell, Buffalo Medical Univer- 
sity, 1888. 

A. H. Cartright, Western Reserve Uni- 
versity of Ohio, 1888. 

Charles O. Robinson, Western Pennsyl- 
vania Medical College, Pittsburg, 1891. 

N. J. Cooper, license from State Medical 
Council, June 16, 1894. 


George M. Cole, Eclectic College of Cin- 
cinnati, 1881. 

Willard Greenfield, practice for twenty- 
eight years. 

Truman Hawkins, Western Reserve L^ni- 
versity, 1850. " 

S.B. Hotchkiss, Belle vue Hospital :Medi- 
cal College, New York City, 1871. 

Henry R. Terry, Jefferson Medical College, 
Philadelphia, 1863. 

Joseph C. Wilson, Starling Medical Col- 
lege, Columbus, 1851. 

Frank G. Greenfield, Miami Medical Col- 
lege, Cincinnati, 1882. 

M. C. Cornell, Baltimore College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons, 1884. 



William P. Biles, Eclectic Medical Insti- 
tute of Cincinnati, 1879. 

John H. Kirk, University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, 1875. 

G. W. Wilson, practice since 1860. 

John J. Sharp, University of the City of 
New York, 1883. 

William O. Smith, Bellevue Hospital Medi- 
cal College, New York, 1887. 

W. K. Andrews, Medical Department, 
University of City of New York, 1889. 


M. V. B. Johnson, Medical College of 
Cincinnati, 18(35 

Mary Steward, University of Medicine and 
Surgery, Philadelphia, 1878. 

Milton M. Henry, Western Reserve Uni- 
versity of Ohio, 1885. 

Francis M. Temple, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1884. 

Robt. M. Powers, Western Pennsylvania 
Medical College, Pittsburg, 1890. 

Joel M. Peters, Jefferson Medical College 
of Pennsylvania, 1889. 


James C. Leffingvvell, University of Mich- 
igan, 1878. 

WiUard F. Greenfield, Miami Medical 
College of Cincinnati, 1888. 

R. W. Clark, Adelbert College, Western 
Reserve University of Ohio. 

F. W. Dunning, University of City of New 


M. M. Moore, practice since 185:^. 
Charles L. Allen. Jefferson Medical Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, 187l^ 


H. R. Hayes, Amity Township, practice 
since 1801. 

J. L. Bennett, East Greene, practice for 
twenty-one years. 

Johnson Wright, Franklin Township, 
Homeopathic Hospital College, Cleveland, 

Barker A. Skinner, Elgin, University of 
Wooster, 1878. 

George Wright, Lockport, Homcpopathic 
Hospital College, Cleveland, 1871. 

W. V. Blakeslee, Concord Township, 
practice since 1846. 

M. B. Cook, Harbor Creek, Cleveland 
I Medical College, 1877. 

i James G. Leffingwell, Miles Grove, Michi- 

' gan University, Ann Arbor, 1878. 
j W. L. Shawk, Harbor Creek, Western 

•Reserve University of Ohio, 1883. 

Charles G. Miller, Harbor Creek, practice 
" since before 1871." 

L. D. Church, Cherry Hill, practice since 
I 1858. 

F. A. Beebe, Finley's Lake, Wooster 
University, Cleveland, 1877. 
I D. Ripley, Sr., Greene township, practice 

I since 1871. 

Thomas L. Mills, Philadelphia University 
of Medicine and Surgery, 1876. 

Homer L. Clark, Universitv of Marj'land, 


The first Erie County Medical Society was 
organized in 1829, with the following officers : 
President, William Johns; vice president, A. 
Thayer; secretary, F. W. Miller; treasurer, 
A. IBeebe; censors, J. Sinedley, Jacob Vos- 
burg, A. N. Molton. 

The present Medical Society of Erie 
county was established in 1841 and has been 
in perpetual existence ever since. Among its 
presidents and other officers have been some 
of the most prominent physicians in the 

Hoiiuvopathv ai/d the Hoinceopathic Medi- 
cal Society. — The Homeopathic Medical So- 
ciety of Erie County was organized July 1, 
1891, by the following physicians : Edward 
Cranch, J. C. M. Drake, J. R. Phillips, J. F. 
Flint, H. E. Flint, J. S. Skeels, M. A. Wil- 
son, J. T. Sturtevant, R. T. Marks, A. Mc- 
Pherson, D. W. Byron, M. A. B. Woods. 

The following have since become mem- 
bers: "W. S. Hubbard, W. K. Cleveland, J. 
O. Jackson, J. M. Stemm, H. C. Galster, J. 
L. Ireland, E. F. Gifford, Wm. R. Powell. 

Homoeopathy was first practiced in Erie 
by Dr. Bianchini, a learned Italian, who lo- 
cated in the city about 1840. Soon after came 
Dr. Nelson Seymour, lately removed to North 
East. Dr. Peter Faulkner, a practitioner of 
allopathy from 1818, became an enthusiastic 
convert, and was followed by his son. Robert. 
An organization of homoeopathic physicians 
of Erie and neighboring towns existed in 1866, 
and later in 1878. 



A corporation for the purpose of establish- 
ing a hospital, free dispensary and training 
school for nurses in Erie was chartered in 
1894, including twelve physicians of the city 
and county, but its objects as to the hospital 
and training school are as yet unfulfilled. The 
free dispensary has been in operation for some 


The earliest dentist was a traveling man 
who stopped in Erie for a short time in 1826. 
He made a set of false teeth for the wife of 
Rev. Dr. Whallon, who was the first woman 
in the county to enjoy that sort of a luxury. A 
dentist by the name of O. N. Sage practiced 
in Erie several years. The first permanent 
dentist was Dr. O. N. Elliott, who settled in 
Erie about 1840. The next was Dr. W. E. 

The dentists of the county who have regis- 
tered under the Act of Assembly, passed 
April 17, 1876, and amended May 17, 1883, 
are given below, in the order of their registry, 
up to July 1, 1895: 

1883— F. H. Abell. Practiced (except for 
eight months in 1878) for sixteen years. 

1883 — Henry B. Blair. Practiced twenty- 
four years. 

1883 — F. H. Lawrence. Practiced nine 

1883— W. E. Magill. Practiced twenty 

1883 — T- H. Devore. Diploma of the 
Philadelphia Dental College. 

1883 — Andrew McPherson. Practiced 
since 1872. 

1883 — T. J. Elliott. Practiced eight years. 
1883 — L. Essick. Practiced twenty years. 
1883— George B. TVIcDonald. Diploma 
from the Philadelphia Dental College. 

1883— G. F. McDonald. Practiced nine 

1883— O. L. Elliott. Practiced thirty-six 

1883 — Perry A. Gibson. Diploma from 
the State University of Iowa. 

1883— V. D. Gibson. Practiced twelve 

1883 — T- H. GiflFord. Practiced ten years. 
1883— W. L. Battles. Diploma from the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

1883 — G. J. Mead. Practiced fifteen 

1883 — E. R. Allen. Practiced nineteen 

1883 — J. H. Nelson. Practiced fourteen 

1883 — M. C. Burgess. Practiced eleven 

1883- C. H. Harvey. Practiced fifteen 

1883— S. R. Bryant. Practiced fifteen 

1883 — Frank C. Callaghan. Diploma from 
the Indiana Dental College. 

1883— T. D. IngersoU. Practiced ten 

1883— Edward E. Giftord. Practiced nine- 
teen years. 

1883— H. L. Wilkins. Diploma from 
Indiana Medical College. 

1884— W. T. Kendall. Practiced for 
twenty-three years. 

1884 — B. D. Schlaudecker. Diploma from 
Philadelphia Medical College. 

1884— D. D. Magill. Diploma from Uni- 
versity of Michigan. 

1884 — Lewis Craine. Diploma from Uni- 
versity of Michigan. 

1884 — F. C. Higgins. Diploma from 
Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery. 

1885 — George G. Hollister. Diploma from 
Indiana Dental College. 

1886— S. M. White. Diploma from Phila- 
delphia Dental College. 

1887 — James A. Hodkins. Diploma from 
Philadelphia Dental College. 

1887 — P. E. Wood. Diploma from Penn- 
sylvania College of Dental Surgery. 

1887 — H. G. Keeler. Diploma' from Penn- 
sylvania College of Dental Surgery. 

1887 — L. G Gable. Diploma from Penn- 
sylvania College of Dental Surgery. 

1888— W. M. Hackman. Practiced for fif- 
teen years. 

1888 — James A. Mead. Practiced for four- 
teen years. 

1888— G. R. McKay. Diploma Philadel- 
phia Dental College. 

1889 — Herman Muller. Diploma Balti- 
more Dental College. 

1889 — C. G. Woolsey. Diploma Universi- 
ty of Pennsylvania. 

1890 — Jno. V. Anderson. Diploma Uni- 
versity of Iowa. 

1890 — Geo. B. Cameron. Diploma Phila- 
delphia Dental College. 


1890— C. F. Rodgers. Diploma Phila- 
delphia Dental College. 

1890— James Brady. Diploma Philadel- 
phia Dental College. 

1890— Frank E. Taft. Diploma Dental 
Department of Central University, Louisville. 

1890 — Geo. E. Wetherton. Diploma Den- 
tal Dept. of Central University, Louisville. 

1890— Wm. T. Magill. Diploma Phila- 
delphia Dental College. 

1891— C. O. Jerrel. Diploma University 
of Iowa. 

1891— Geo. W. Cochran. Diploma Phila- 
delphia Dental College. 

1891.— Wm. E. Linn. Diploma Pennsyl- 
vania College of Dental Siirgerv. 

1891— L. E. Craine. Diploma Eclectic 
Medical College of Des Moines, Iowa. 

1891— T. A. Hatch. Practiced since 1873. 

1892— C. C. Pollitt. Diploma Ohio Col- 
lege of Dental .Surgery. 

1892— O. O. Williams. Diploma Hahne- 
mann Medical College, Chicago. 

1898— H. C. Sturdevant. Diploma Phila- 
delphia Dental College. 

1893— Jno. A. Clarke. Diploma Philadel- 
phia Dental College. 

1893— S. H. Swift. Diploma University 
of Michigan. 

1893— D. N. Swift. Diploma University 
of Michigan. 

1895— John Walter Glas. Diploma West- 
ern Reserve University at Cleveland. 


The Erie Society of Dentists was organ- 
ized February 6, 1895, with the following 
officers: President, Dr. W. E. Magill; vice- 
president, Dr. L. Esseck ; secretary. Dr. F. 
C. Callahan ; treasurer, Dr. B. D. Schlau- 


Newspapers of the County, 

THE earliest newspaper printed in the 
county was the Mirror, started in 
Erie by George Wyeth in 1808. It 
lasted but a short time. In 1812 the 
Northern Sentinel appeared, with R. 
J. Curtis as editor. It was discontinued at 
the end of a year, but revived in 1816 under 
the name of the Genius of the Lakes. The 
title was again changed to the Phoenix, and 
finally to the Reflector, and the paper was 
printed in Erie till 1819 or 1820, when it was 
removed to Mayville, N. Y., where it lived 
but a short time. Meanwhile, another journal 
had sprung into existence. This was the Pa- 
triot, founded in 1818 by Zeba Willis. It ran 
a course of one year in Erie, when the office was 
moved to Cleveland, and became the basis of 
the Herald of that city. 


The first paper in Erie that came to stay 
was the Weekly Gazette, established on the 

15th of January, 1820, by Joseph M. Ster- 
rett. Mr. Sterrett was assisted in the edi- 
torial conduct of his paper at various times 
by James Buchanan (not the President), 
J. Hoge Waugh, John Riddell and others. 
John Shaner was associated in its publication 
from 1835 to 1842, when J. P. Cochran and 
George W. Riblet took control. In 1845, 
Mr. Sterrett resumed charge, and on the 10th 
of September, 1846, he associated I. B. Gara 
with him, who edited the paper till May 8, 
1865, when it was sold to S. A. Davenport. 
The latter not being a practical newspaper 
man was obliged to turn over the management 
to others, and it had numerous editors dur- 
ing the period between 1865 and 1873. Among 
them were E. L. Clark, John R. Graham, R. 
Lyle White, James Hendricks, B. F. McCarty, 
and perhaps others. On the 5th of June, 
1873, the Gazette was purchased from Mr. 
Davenport by F. A. Crandall, who retained 
possession until February 1, 1882. Mr. Cran- 



dall started the Saturday Evening Gazette, 
March 20, 1875, and changed it to the Sunday 
Morning Gazette on the 17th of June in the 
same year. During its middle age, Hon. 
Gideon J. Ball and William Kelley were fre- 
quent contributors to the Gazette. Among 
the later editors of the paper were W. G. 
McKean, John R. Hess and F. A. Mallory. 
The oifice and good will were purchased by 
the Dispatch Company in 1890. The Sunday 
edition was discontinued in 1894, but the 
weekly edition is still printed, under the title 
of the Dispatch- Gazette. 

Horace Greeley worked as a journeyman in 
the office of the Gazette during the winter of 
1830-31. Among those who learned the print- 
ing trade in the Gazette office was Sidney 
Kelsey, a well-known newspaper man. The 
Gazette has always been anti-Democratic in 
its politics. 


Was started in 1830, as the result of a quarrel 
over the Masonic order, to which the Gazette 
was hostile. The first editor was T. B. Bar- 
num, who was succeeded in 1832 by H. L. 
Harvey. The latter printed a specimeu copy 
of a daily in 1836. Among the editors and 
publishers of the paper from 1837 to 1843 
were S. ^\'. Randall, Thomas Laird, Hiram A. 
Beebe, J. M. Kuester, W. McKinstry, Wm. 
A. Galbraith and John W. Douglass. In May, 
1843, the office wn\s purchased by A. P. Durlin 
and B. F. Sloan. These gentlemen tried the 
experiment of a semi-weekly for a few months 
in 1849. Mr. Durlin withdrew from the con- 
cern on the 26th of January, 1856, and was 
succeeded by M. M. Moore. This partnership 
continued until January 1, 1859, when Mr. 
Moore retired. On the 1st of January, 1861, 
Mr. Sloan sold the office to Andrew Hopkins. 
This gentleman disposed of it to Benjamin 
Whitman and James I. Brecht on the 17th of 
January. 1862. Their partnership continued 
until April 1, 1865. Mr. Whitman then be- 
came sole proprietor and remained such until 
December 1, 1878, when the office was pur- 
chased by R. B. Brown. The latter started 
the Daily Evening Observer on the 15th of 
October, 1881, which was discontinued in 
1884. Mr. Brown sold to Eugene J. Miller in 
December, 1885, who, in turn, sold to John C. 
Brady. The latter consolidated the office with 
that of the Sunday Graphic, Deceniber 13, 

1886, the joint papers being edited by F. E. 
Woods. The consolidated establishment was 
purchased by F. S. Phelps on the 1st of De- 
cember, 1892, who united it with the Times 
office February 1, 1894, by which company 
the Observer is still published. Under the 
management of Mr. Whitman the Observer 
secured a State-wide reputation, and became 
the most prosperous paper ever known in the 
county. It has always been Democratic. 

The earliest daily papers issued in the county 
were printed in the Observer office, first in 
1836, as the Dai/v Observer, and second as 
the Dai /y But/et in, m 1861. The latter was 
published by W. H. Harris, who received the 
daily telegraphic reports of war news at his 
restaurant. State street and the Park, had 
them issued in the form of a small newspaper, 
and continued their publication for a month 
or two. 


In 1851, a small paper, named the Dis- 
patch, was started at Waterford by Joseph S. 
M. Young. When the railroad war broke 
out, it took such a lively part on the side of 
the "rippers," or "anti-railroad men," that 
their leaders induced Mr. Young to remove 
his office to Erie. This he did in 1856. In a 
short time after the removal, the office was 
completely destroyed by fire. Its friends club- 
bed together and bought Mr. Young new ma- 
terial, which gave him a great advantage over 
his competitors. During 1861, a daily was 
started, which was only continued a few 
months. The office was purchased on the 1st 
of February, 1864, by B. F. H. Lynn. The 
daily was revived on May 22. 1864, and has 
been printed regularlj' ever since. Mr. Lynn 
became embarrassed and the establishment 
was sold at Sheriff''s sale. After that it was 
conducted bv various parties, among whom 
were S. Todd Perley, Azro Goff", W. P. Atkin- 
son ; Willard, Redway & Cook; Willard & 
Brewer; Willard, Brewer & Hooker; Camp, 
Belknap & Johnson, and the Dispatch Print- 
ing Co. Among the best known editors the 
Dispatch has had were J. R. Willard and 
Eben Brewer, both now living in Chicago. 
For a time the paper was managed by W. J. 
Robinson. Among those who have been on 
its editorial force were Nelson Baldwin, Eu- 
gene Camp, W. G. McKcan, Sam Woods, 
D. P. Robbins, A, F. Moses, Otto Pettit, D. 


S. Crawford, Frank Bray, Allen McKean and 
J. J. McAndrews. The paper was purchased 
by'S. W. Bolles in December, 1894, who is 
now its editor and publisher. 

The Dispatch started as an independent 
paper, but changed to Republican about 1860, 
and has ever since advocated that party. From 
1864 to 1878, the Dispatch may be said to 
have been practically the only English daily 
in Erie. Others were started at various pe- 
riods, but the most successful of them only 
lasted a year or two. 

The publications issued from the ofHce are 
the Daily Dispatch, Evoiiiig- Xc-vs. and 
IVcckly Dispatch- Gazette. 


This journal, a Democratic evening paper, 
first appeared on the 20th of July, 1878. Its 
editors were James R. Burns and H. C. Mis- 
simer, teachers in the Erie High School. After 
it had been printed two or three months the 
paper was purchased by William L. Scott, and 
a weekly edition was added. Thomas F. 
O'Brien was placed in charge and continued 
as manager until after the election in 1881. 
Nelson Baldwin became managing editor in 
February, 1888, and continued in charge till 
the first Monday in December, 1898, when he 
became Collector of the port. He was first 
succeeded by S. E. Holly, and on Oct. 7, 1895, 
bv T- M. Cooper. The latter is assisted by 
S'. E. Holly, W. D. Kinney, Frank Weiss and 
others. The business managers of the estab- 
lishment are Wm. Wallace and W. P. Atkin- 
son, and the office is owned by the Herald 
Printing and Publishing Company, limited. 
Their publications are the Evening' Herald, 
the Weekly Herald, and the Sunday Mcsseti- 
g'cr. W. P. Atkinson is general manager of 
the newspaper branch of the office. 


The Daily Times was started as an inde- 
pendent evening paper, on the co-operative 
plan, April 12, 1888, bv nine union printers. 
Later all retired but J. H. Mead and J. F. 
Liehel, who became associated with J. H. 
Kelley, John Miller, Jr., and D. S. Crawford, 
Mr. Kelley being the managing and Maj. 
Crawford the local editor. In the course of 
time Mr. Miller and Maj. Crawford withdrew. 
The Graphic and the Observer offices were 
consolidated with the Times in February. 

1894, F. S. Phelps becoming the managing 
editor. John J. McAndrews was local editor 
after Maj. Crawford, until June, 1895, when 
J. F. Liebel took charge of that department. 
The publications of the company are the 
Evening Times, the Weekly Observer and the 
Sunday Graphic. 


Independent in politics, was started in 
1892 by Mr. Hathaway of Cleveland. It was 
purchased by the Dispatch Company in 1893, 
and edited by Otto Pettit until the fall of 
1894, w'hen Sam Woods became the editor. 


A Mr. Schuefflen started the Ziischaiier 
[Spectator) in 1852. It was purchased by C. 
Moeser, in 1855, and by E. E. Stuerznickel in 
1861. On the 1st of January, 1877, Mr. 
Stuerznickel sold the Ziischauer to F. G. 
Gorenflo. In March, 1890, Mr. Gorenflo 
commenced a daily edition. This was con- 
solidated with the Tageblatt. a German daily 
started in 1884 by Otto Luedicke. Hugo 
Held became the manager. In October, ]8'59, 
the company purchased the Sonntaggsgast, 
and the two papers have since been published 
from the same office by Held, Gorenflo & Co. 
The name of the weekly edition is the Tage- 
blatt-Sonntaggsgast, Frank Wiess being the 
editor. Both papers are Republican, with 
independent tendencies. 


The Lake Shore I'isitor was commenced 
in 1874, as the organ of the Catholics of the 
Erie diocese. The writing was mainly done 
by Bishop Mullen until 1875, when Rev. 
Thomas A. Casey became editor, who contin- 
ued until his death, February 9, 1894, since 
when Bishop Mullen has been in charge. The 
first publisher was B. F. McCarty, who was 
succeeded by Thomas F. O'Brien. 

The Erie Sunday Graphic was established 
by Boyle & McCaulev on the 20th of May, 
1880. In the spring of 1882, John T. Boyle 
purchased the interest of his partner, and on 
the 27th of August, 1882, he sold the office to 
Jacob Bender. The office was purchased by 
Woods & Hickernell in the spring of 1884, 
and Mr. Woods became sole owner in 1885. 
The Observer and Graphic were consolidated 
December 31. 1886. In 1898 the office was 


purchased by F. S. Phelps, who edited the 
two papers until February, 1894, when they 
were united with the Dailv Times. In poli- 
tics the Graphic is independent, with Demo- 
cratic leanings. 

The Erie Advertiser was started on the 1st 
of April, 1876, by John M. Glazier. Dr. D. 
P. Robbins purchased the plant November 
10, 1891, and organized the Advertiser Print- 
ing Company, limited, April 18, 1893. The 
paper was independent, with Republican pro- 
clivities, until the consolidation mentioned 

The Highland Light was established in 
1892 by Rev. O. O". Wiard as a religious 
paper. It espoused the cause of the O. U. A. 
M. in 1893, and that of the A. P. A. in 1894. 
February 27, 1894, it was united with the 
Advertiser. The joint papers were published 
by the Advertiser Printing Company. Dwight 
J. Robbins was editor and manager. The 
Advertiser-Highland Light was discontinued 
in the fall of 1895, and succeeded by The 
Truth., under the same management. 

The Sunday Messenger was started Feb- 
ruary 4, 1894, with S. E. Holly as editor, and 
Frank E. Woods as telegraph editor. Otto 
Pettit became editor, and was succeeded by 
J. H Kelley in the spring of 1895. Mr. Kelly 
was followed by F. E. Woods, as editor, on 
Oct. 13, 1895. The paper is issued by the 
Herald Company, and takes no part in politics. 

The weekly editions of the Herald., 
Dispatch and Gazette and Observer are re- 
ferred to above. 

The Sonntaggsgast was established in 1881 
by Frank Weiss & Co. It was sold to the 
Herald Company in 1886, was purchased by 
the Tageblatt-Zuschauer Company in 1889, 
and is now issued from the latter office, under 
the name of the Tageblatt- Sonntaggsgast, w\ih 
Mr. Weiss in editorial charge. 

The Arbiter- Zeit ling (independent, with 
strong Socialistic notions) was started by 
Samuel Weiss in August, 1891. In 1892 he 
was succeeded by Charles Backofen. M. Ph. 
Jahn too< charge in the spring of 1893. He 
died early in 1895, since when the paper has 
been conducted by Samuel Weiss. 

The People, organ of the Populist party, 
was founded by a cooperative company on 
October 1, 1892. It has been edited from' the 
first by Samuel Weiss, aided by a corps of 


The Erie Chronicle was started by Samuel 
Perley, in 1840, as a rival Whig organ to the 
Gazette. Mr. Perley moved the office to 

In 1846 a second rival of the Gazette made 
its appearance under the title of the Commer- 
cial Advertiser, with J. P. Cochran as editor. 
In 1850 the paper passed into the hands of A. 
H. Caughey, who, at the end of a year and a 
half sold it to J. B. Johnson. The latter 
changed the name to the Constitution, which 
became the advocate of the " railroad men " as 
against the " rippers " during the eventful era 
of the railroad war. A party of "rippers" 
entered the office in 1855, "pied" the type 
and threw the press into the street. The paper 
was resuscitated by R. Lyle White, who kept 
it up for a short time. He issued a daily bul- 
letin for some months in 1858. 

The first outspoken abolition paper in the 
city was the True American, started by 
Compton & Moore in 1853. It was published 
for a time by James Perley and Henry Catlin. 
The latter finally became sole editor and pro- 
prietor. The paper died in 1861 or '02. 

The Express, started in 1857 by E. C. 
Goodrich, as a rival Democratic paper to the 
Observer, WAS merged into the True American 
in a few months. 

The daily Republican was printed some 
two or three years, commencing about 1867. 
During its brief life it had several editors and 
publishers, none of whom made a financial 
success of the enterprise. 

The Argus was brought into existence 
mainly through the labors of S. Todd Perley. 
As a basis for the enterprise, he effected a 
consolidation of the offices of the Union City 
Times and the Corry Republican, the material 
of which was moved to Erie on the 1st of May, 
1875. A daily and a weekly paper were is- 
sued for some months, but failed to secure a 
living patronage. 

R. Lyle White, published the Daily Bul- 
letin for a few months about 1874. 

The Lake City Daily, a penny paper, was 
printed by Woods, Constable & Co., three 
young graduates of the high school in 1878, 
and lasted about a year. It was ultimately 
merged in the Herald. 

The first German paper in Erie was the 
Unsere World {Our World), founded by Carl 

Ih ir" /^^tis 



Benson in 1851. The name was changed to 
the Frcie Pressc (Free Press) in 1860. The 
paper went down in 1868. 

The Weekly Leicchtthurm (Light-House) 
was established in 1860 by Baetzel & Atkin- 
son. It was purchased about 1873 by Merhoff 
& Wallenhorst. Wallenhorst soon retired, and 
H. Merhoft" assumed sole control. In April, 
1875, Otto Luedicke became a partner with 
Merhoff, and assumed editorial charge. The 
Daily Leuchtthuriii -WAS, started in June, 1875. 
Mr. Luedicke withdrew in 1879. and was suc- 
ceeded by Merhoff, Boyer cS: Rastatter. Mer- 
hoff and Rastatter sold out, and John F. Boyer 
became sole proprietor in 1880. October 1, 
1882, Mr. Luedicke resumed control under a 
lease from Mr. Boyer. The paper finally gave 
up the ghost. 

The Star of Libertv, a monthly publication, 
established A'pril 1, 1882, by H. R. Storrs, as 
an advocate of liberal views on the liquor 
question, ended its career with the death of the 
proprietor, about 1885. 

The Jonrna/de Noticias (General News) 
enjoyed the distinction for several years of be- 
ing the only paper in the Portuguese language 
in the United States. It was established on 
the 27th of October, 1877, by A. M. & John 
M. Vincent. The office was removed to the 

The Erie Sunday Globe was started by R. 
R. Cornell, as an independent paper. After 
a spasmodic career, it was wound up for good 
in January, 1895, Mr. Cornell locating in the 

The Morning Record was born on August 
22, 1895, and departed this life on September 
2 ensuing. A. ,S. Porter was editor and pub- 


Below is a list of the newspapers in the 
county, outside of Erie, in the year 1895. The 
figures show the time they were founded : 
Albion. — Blizzard, weekly, 1882. 
CoTvy.— Fiver, daily, 1884. 
Leader, daily, 1884. 
Telegraph, weekly, 1863. 
Herald, weekly, 1876. 
Democrat, weekly. 1890. 

Edinboro Educational Independent, 

weekly, 1891. 
Independent, weekly, 1881. 
Conneauttee Wave, 1893. 

Giiard. — Cosmopolite, weekly 1867. 

Mill WW&ge.— Herald, weekly, 1876. 

North East.— ^ww, weekly, 1868. 

Advertiser, weekly, 1884. 
Breeze, weekly, 1893. 

Union C\i\.— Times, weekly, 1870. 

Wa.terioxA.— Leader, weekly, 1878. 

Wattsburg. — Sentinel, weekly, 1884. 

[See the chapters relative to the places 
above named for a history of the several pub- 


I The Northwestern Editorial Association, 

organized in Erie about 1865, was composed 
of newspaper men in Warren, Erie, Crawford, 
Mercer, Venango, Butler and several other 
counties. It had two or three annual meet- 
ings, and then quietly expired. A meeting to 
resuscitate it, or rather to start a new associa- 
tion, was held in Erie, in January, 1895. 
This resulted in the establishment of the 
Northwestern Pennsylvania Press Associa- 
tion, which seems to have a prosperous career 
before it. Their annual meeting in Erie on 
July 12, 1895, was one of the most pleasant 
gatherings ever known in the cit)-. 

The Erie Press Club, composed of news- 
paper men and business men in harmony with 
their eftbrts to build up the city, was started 
in 1887, and had a brilliant career for several 
years. Through its influence the Pennsylvania 
Editorial Association came to Erie on June 
26,1888, and remained three days. The visit 
of the Association and the events connected 
with it are remembered as among the most in- 
teresting and important features in the pro- 
gress of the city. The Club went out of ex- 
istance about 1891. During its brief life it 
probably did as much toward the growth 
and reputation of Erie as any organization 
ever started within its limits. ' 


Joseph M. Sterrett, for years the Nestor of 
the "Erie press, died at his residence in the lat- 
ter city, on the 20th of June, 1888. He had 
held the positions of County Commissioner. 
State vSenator, Associate Judge and Postmas- 
ter of Erie. 

Isaac B. Gara, long the associate of Judge 
Sterrett, was Enrolling Commissioner for the 
draft in 1863, Deputy Secretary of the Com- 



monwealth and Postmaster of Erie. He died 
June 15, 1895. 

George W. Riblet was Director of the 
Poor, and held numerous positions of trust in 
the city. 

Gideon J. Ball was State Treasurer, Chief 
Clerk to the Sixth Auditor of the Treasury, 
member of the Assembly six terms, and Pay- 
master in the army during the war for the 

B. F. Sloan was Postmaster of Eiie, clerk 
to the Pension Committee of Congress, and 
Secretary of the Erie Water Department. 
He is now a resident of Rochester, N. Y. 

Benjamin Whitman is a resident of Erie, 
engaged in literary and business pursuits. He 
has held the positions of Water Commissioner, 
member of the Board of World's Fair Com- 
missioners of Pennsylvania, and Executive 
Commissioner of the latter body. 

Jno. W. Douglas has lived in Washington 
City many years. 

M. M. Moore still resides in Erie, where 
he has been elected to several city offices, in- 
cluding Alderman and School Director. 

Andrew Hopkins died in Washington, 
Pa., where he was publishing a Democratic 

Robert B. Brown served as a member of 
the Assembly from Clarion county in 1869 
and 1870. He moved from Erie tn Mf adville, 
purchased the Mcsscngvr of that city, and is 
now Postmaster there. 

F. A. Crandall went to Buffalo and held 
prominent positions on the press of that city. 
He now occupies the post of Superintendent 
of Public Documents at the National Capital. 

Nelson Baldwin is Collector of the Port of 

W. L. Scott was twice elected to Congress, 
and became very prominent as a political lead- 
er. He died September 19, 1891. The funeral 
was attended by President Cleveland, Governor 
Pattison and a number of eminent public men 
and railroad officials. 

W. P. Atkinson is prominently identified 
with the Herald Printing and Publishing 
Company of this city ; also publisher of the 
Erie Directory. 

W. McKinstry is one of the editors and 
publishers of the Fredonia (N. Y.) Censor. 

A. P. Durlin, after a long newspaper ca- 
reer in Iowa, returned to Erie and established 
a job printing office. 

W. A. Galbraith is the honored ex-Presi- 
dent Judge of the Erie county Courts. He 
has been remarkably successful both in law 
and business. 

Joseph S. M. Young went from Erie to 
Pittsburg, and became a specialist in medi- 

B. F. H. Lynn, after a yaried career, was 
found dead in the house of a relatiye atMauch 

E. E. Stuerznickel was .Sheriff from 1877 
to 1880. 

Samuel Parley was Prothonotary from 1851 
to 1854. 

A. H. Caughey was one of the professors 
in Lafayette College, at Easton, for several 
years, and is now engaged in the Presbyterian 
miniiitry. • 

J. B. Johnson was a member of the Assem- 
bly and State Senator. 

Henry Catlin is still a resident of Erie, 
engaged in the Downing insurance office. 

Jacob Bender died early in 1895 in New 
York, where he had been working as a com- 

S. A. Davenport is one of Erie's leading 
lawyers. Though long owner of the Gazette, 
he never took an active part in its manage- 

W. G. McKean. after a brief newspaper 
career in Dakota, returned to Erie, and devotes 
his time mainly to literary and general press 

Sidney Kelsey lives a life of retirement in 

John C. Brady has been Mayor of Erie, 
and is one of its most pushing lawyers and 
business men. 

S. Todd Perley is a pension attorney in 

Dr. D. P. Robbins is a resident of Erie, 
engaged in business and literature. 

|. R. Willard is a prosperous broker in 

Eben Brewer is also a resident of Chicago. 
He was conspicuously identified with the exe- 
cutive department of the World's Fair. 

James H. Burns served two terms in the 
Assembly, was the Democratic nominee for 
Congress in 1888, and has long been a pro- 
fessor in the Erie high school. 

H. C. Missimer, after serving many years 
as principal of the high school, is now Super- 
intendent of the city schools. 



John R. Hess and John Miller, Jr., are 
department editors on the Providence (R. I.) 
youriial . 

Thomas A. Casey was long in charge of 
St. Patrick's congregation and St. Peter's 
Cathedral congregation in Erie, and Vicar 
General of the Erie diocese. He died Feb- 
ruary 9, 1894, and the funeral exercises over 
his remains were the most impressive ever 
seen in the city. 

John M. Glazier was Collector of the port 
of Erie, and is now business manager of the 
Erie Business ITniversity. 

Otto Luedecke left Erie to do editorial 
work in Milwaukee. 

F. A. Mallory has a position on a leading 
New York daily. 

H. Merhoff is working at the printing 

John F. Boj-er is in the railroad service. 

The following persons not previously 
named, are dead : R. Lyle White, James 
Hendricks, B. F. McCarty, John Shaner, J. 
P. Cochran, George W. Riblet, G. J. Ball, 
Wm. Kelley, T. B. Barnum, H. L. Harvey, 
Eugene J. Miller, W. H. Harris, Joseph S. 
M. Young, S. W. Randall, Thomas Laird, 
Hiram A. Beebe, J. M. Kuester, Carl Benson, 
J. B. Johnson, C. Moeser, Samuel Perley. 



Canal and the Several Railroads. 

AS early as 1762 a suggestion was made 
to unite the waters of Lake Erie with 
the Delaware river. The Legislature 
in 1823 passed an act for the ap- 
appointment of Commissioners to 
explore a route for connecting Lake Erie 
with French creek by canal and slack- 
water. A convention of delegates from forty- 
six counties, Giles Sanford representing Erie, 
met at Harrisburg in August, 1825, and passed 
resolutions in favor of a canal from the Sus- 
quehanna to the Allegheny, and from the 
Allegheny to Lake Erie. The State embarked 
in the enterprise soon after, going heavily in 
debt for the purpose, and by October, 1834, 
the first boat from the east reached Pittsburg. 


In the meantime a furious agitation sprung 
up in the Northwest over the question 
whether the extension of the canal from Pitts- 
burg to Lake Erie should be by way of the 
Allegheny river and French creek, or down 
the Ohio and up the Beaver and Shenango 
rivers. The first was known as the " East- 

ern" and the latter as the "Western" route. 
The Western route having been adopted by 
the advice of the engineers in charge, another 
controversy arose in the county over the lake 
terminus of the canal, some wanting it to be 
at Erie and others at the niouth of Elk creek. 
Erie was finally selected, through the labors of 
Elijah Babbitt, who was a member of the Leg- 
islature at the time. In 1832, through the 
eflForts of John H. Walker, the State ceded the 
third section of 2,000 acres of land west of 
Erie to the borough, for the purpose of build- 
ing a canal basin at the harbor, reserving 100 
acres for a county almshouse. Work on 
the enterprise progressed at irregular spots 
and intervals until 1842, when the State re- 
fused to appropriate any more money. At Erie 
ground was broken for the canal on the 4th of 
July, 1888, amid great festivities. To Capt. 
Daniel Dobbins was awarded the honor of 
throwing up the first shovelfull of earth. L"p 
to 1843 the State had expended more than ,|4,- 
000,000, and it was calculated that but $211,- 
000 more were needed to make the canal 
ready for use. 




At the session of 1842-43, the Legislature 
passed an act incorporating the Erie Canal 
Company, and ceding to it all the work that 
had been done at such immense cost, on con- 
dition that the corporation would finish and 
operate the improvement. This company was 
organized with Rufus S. Reed as president, 
and C. M. Reed as treasurer. The first boats 
to reach Erie were the Qiieen of the West, a 
packet boat, crowded with passengers, and the 
R. ,S. Reed, loaded with Mercer county coal, 
both coming in on the same day, the t5th of 
December, 1844. The canal entered the city 
limits of Erie near the recently destroyed car 
works, and followed the ravine of Lee's run 
to the bay, which it joined near the foot of Sas- 
safras street. A commodious basin for the 
protection of the boats was built in 
the bay, at the outlet, which still re- 
mains, being the enclosed part of the harbor 
on both sides of the public dock. The canal 
was of moderate capacity, the average boat 
only carrying sixty-five tons. 


A good business was done for thirty years 
after its completion, mainly in coal, iron ore 
and merchandise. Up to 1858, when the 
Lake Shore R. R. was opened to Toledo, 
the canal also carried large numbers of emi- 
grants, who came to Erie by steamer from 
BufTalo, and took this route to the Ohio val- 
le}'. A number of packet boats for conveying 
passengers ran on the canal, and it was the 
grand avenue of trade and travel for the west- 
tern counties. W. W. Reed was superintend- 
ent in 1860, and continued in that capacity 
until the canal was abandoned. 

The canal continued to flourish until the 
completion of the Erie and Pittsburg R. R., 
which soon proved to be a formidable com- 
petitor. An enlargement was proposed, but 
never undertaken. The capitalists who had 
faith in its enlargement offered Gen. Reed, 
who controlled most of the stock, a handsome 
sum for the canal, but, in the midst of their 
negotiations, were notified that he had dis- 
posed of it to the railroad management. The 
latter operated it in an unsatisfactorv manner 
to the boatmen until 1871, when the fall of 
the Elk creek aqueduct gave them an excuse 
for abandoning the work. Since then the 
locks and bridges have been taken to pieces. 

and the channel filled almost everywhere in 
the county. 


The earliest public movement in regard to 
the construction of a railroad along the lake 
shore was through a convention held in Fre- 
donia, N. Y., in 1831. Its object was to ar- 
range for building a road from Buffalo to the 
State line, with the understanding that it was 
to connect with one in Pennsylvania. The 
delegates from Erie were C. M. Reed, P. S. 
V. Hamot and Thomas H. Sill. 

The Erie and North East R. R. Company, 
the first railroad organization in the county, 
was incorporated April 12, 1842. Books for 
subscriptions were opened on the I9th of 
October, 1846, most of the stock being taken 
in Erie. The active men in forwarding the 
project were Charles M. Reed, John A. Tracy 
and John H. Walker. The surveys of the 
road were completed in the spring of 1849, 
under the direction of Milton Courtright, who 
had been one of the engineers in locating the 
canal. Contracts for the construction of the 
road were let on the 26th of July of the same 
year, and the grading was commenced soon 
after. The road extended from Erie to the 
State line, at or near Northville. 


Previous to thi.s, a company had been 
formed to build a railroad from Dunkirk 
to the State line, under the auspices of the 
New York and Erie R. R. Company. A 
second road was projected by the New York 
Central Company from Buffalo, by way of 
Fredonia. to the State line. Both routes were 
surveyed, the right of way obtained, and some 
work done. A contract was entered into by 
the Erie and North East Company for a connec- 
tion with the Dunkirk and State line road, 
which would have given a uniform six-feet 
gauge, and made Erie the practical terminus 
of the NewYork and Erie R. R. Shortly after- 
ward, another arrangement was made with the 
Buffalo, Fredonia and State line road for the 
laying of an additional track of the NewYork 
gauge of four feet eight and one-half inches. 
In course of time, a compromise was effected 
between the two New York corporations, by 
which they violated their contract with the 
Erie and North East Company, and agreed to 
build but one road between Buffalo and the 


State line of the Ohio gauge of four feet ten 
inches. The object of this was to force the 
Erie and Xorth East Company to adopt the 
same gauge, and compel the break, which had 
to occur at some point, to be made within the 
limits of New York. This did not have the 
effect they anticipated, and the Erie & North 
East R. R. was completed with a six-feet 
track. Work on the road went on slowly, 
and the first passenger train did not come into 
Erie until the 19th of January, 1852. 


The Franklin Canal Company was incor- 
porated on the 27th of April, 1844, to repair 
the Franklin division of the canal. On the 
9th of April, 1849, a supplement to the char- 
ter was secured authorizing the company to 
build a railroad on the route of the canal be- 
tween Meadville and Franklin, and to extend 
it northward to Lake Erie, and southward to 
Pittsburg. This charter was so construed as 
to permit the building of a railroad from Erie 
to the Ohio State line, and one was accord- 
ingly constructed, largely through the efforts 
of Judge John Galbraith and Alfred Kelle)-. 
At the State linejt connected with a road that 
had been completed to Cleveland, under the 
laws of the State of Ohio. The first train ran 
from Erie to Ashtabula on the morning of the 
28d of November, 1852. As the Pennsylvania 
law stood at that time, all roads entering Erie 
from the east were to be six feet or four feet 
eight and one-half gauge, and all from the 
west four feet ten. The gauge of the Franklin 
Canal Company's road was therefore different 
from that of the Erie & North East road, ne- 
cessitating a break at Erie. 


The change of gauge at Erie and at the 
State line proved to be a serious inconvenience 
to the railroad companies, and on the 17th of 
November, 1853, a contract was entered into 
between the Buffalo and State Line and the 
Erie and North East Companies, by which the 
latter were to alter their track to four feet ten 
inches, making a uniform gauge from Buffalo 
to Cleveland. By this time, two-thirds of the 
stock of the E. andN. E. R. R. had passed into 
the hands of Buffalo and State Line parties, who 
had entered into a contract to run the improve- 
ment as one road. The change of gauge was 
commenced on the 7th of December, 1858, but 

was not completed till February 1, 1854, when 
the first train under the new arrangement ar- 
rived at Erie from the East. 


This scheme created the utmost indigna- 
tion amonp; the people of Erie county, who 
saw in it the defeat of their hope of having 
Erie made the lake terminus of the New York 
and Erie R. R., and a purpose to make the 
city nothing more than a way station. At 10 
o'clock in the forenoon of the 7th day of De- 
cember, 1858, an immense assemblage of the 
citizens of Erie gathered at the depot, tore 

' down the bridges over State and French streets, 
and took up the track across every street east 
of Sassafras. Near Harbor Creek Station, on 
the same day, the track was torn up in three 
places. In the latter township, on the 28th 
of December, while the railroad men were re- 
laying the track, a fracas took place, in which 
a pistol was fired by a train conductor, and 
two citizens of the township slightly wound- 

[ ed. The excitement that ensued was the most 

; intense ever known in the county. f)nly a 
few citizens of Erie sided with tiie railroad 

1 companies, and they were treated as common 

I enemies. 

i The railroad question obliterated party 

lines to a great extent, and in each of the years 

! 1854, 1855 and 1858, for'the first time in a long 
period, one of the two legislative Representa- 

I tives elected from the county was a Democrat. 

j The agitation among the people was followed 
by an appeal to the Courts, and the interposi- 

! tion of both State and United States officials 
was required on several occasions. During 

I the two months in which the populace pre- 
vented the track from being changed, passen- 
gers and freight were transferred between 
Harbor Creek and Erie by stages and wagons, 
causing a delay that-subjected our city, county 

! and people to innumerable curses from the 

1 eastern and western patrons of the railroad. 
A second series of outbreaks occurred in Erie 

I and Harbor Creek in 1855, when the bridges 
were again destroved and the track torn up. 


j The Supreme Court decided that the road 

1 constructed by the Franklin Canal Company 

was not a legal building under the charter, and 

the charter itself was repealed in 1854. Mean- 


while, the stock had been mostly purchased 
by the Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula 
Company, owners of the connecting road 
from the Ohio State line westward. A new 
charter was granted by the Legislature in 1855 
or 1856, on condition that the company, known 
as the Cleveland and Erie, should subscribe 
$500,000 to the Philadelphia and Erie R. R., ex- 
tend its track to the harbor of Erie, and retain 
three citizens of Pennsylvania perpetually in 
its Board of Directors. 

The charter of the Erie and North East 
Company was repealed in 1855, but restored 
in April, 1856, conditioned upon the expendi- 
ture of $400,000 toward the building of a 
road from Pittsburg to Erie. A few years 
afterward the Erie and North East and the Buf- 
falo and State Line R. R.were consolidated un- 
der the title of the Buffalo and Erie R. R. 

Some time in the early sixties the consoli- 
dation of the Cleveland and Erie R. R. was ef- 
fected with the Cleveland and Toledo, and at a 
still later date this organization was consoli- 
dated with the Michigan Southern, making 
one management from Erie to Chicago, which 
became known as the Lake Shore and Michigan 
Southern Company. Into this organization 
the Buffalo & Erie was merged in 1869. The 
control of the Lake Shore R. R. is in the hands 
of the rich Vanderbilt family, with Chauncey 
M. Depew as their legal and bu-iness repre- 


The track of the road is ostensibly four 
feet, ten ixiches, but has been graduall}' nar- 
rowed to four feet, nine inches, which is the 
universal gauge of the United States, with few 
exceptions. In building the road the greatest 
difficulties experienced were at the gullies of 
the lake shore streams. These were originally 
crossed by wooden viaducts, which have been 
replaced by arches or iron bridges. 

The first depot at Erie was a clumsy look- 
ing brick structure, built in 1851. It was re- 
placed by the LTnion depot in 1864, the ex- 
pense of constructing which was borne equally 
by the two Lake Shore organizations then ex- 
isting. The Philadelphia and Erie Company 
pays interest for its use on one-third of the 
cost and one-third of the current expense of 
keeping it up, less a small rental from the Erie 
and Pittsburg Company. Ira W. Hart was the 
first ticket agent, commencing in 1852, and 

Wm. S. Brown the first freight agent, ap- 
pointed in 1853. John Sutter became con- 
nected with the road September 16, 1855, 
being probably the oldest employe in continu- 
ous service at Erie. 

The western roundhouse was built in 1862, 
and the eastern in 1863. 


The following are the distances by this 
route from Erie to the places named : 

E.'iSTw.\RD— Miles, Westward— Miles. 

Wesleyville 4 Swanville 9 

Harbor Creek 8 Fairview 11 

Moorhead's 11 Miles Grove 16 

North East IS Spring-field 20 

State Line 20 Ohio Line 26 

Ripley 23 Conneaut 28 

Westfield 31 Ashtabula 41 

Brocton 39 Painesville 67 

Dunkirk 48 Cleveland 95 

Buffalo 88 Sandusky 158 

Rochester 137 Toledo 208 

Albany 385 Chicag-o 452 

New York 528 

This road, while one of the best managed 
and constructed in the Union, has, strange to 
say, had two or three of the worst disasters 
ever known in railroad history. One of these 
was at Ashtabula, on Friday, December 29, 
1876, at 7 : 30 p. m., when seventy-two persons 
were killed, and the other at Angola, N. Y., 
when the loss was smaller, but scarcely less ap- 
palling in its general features. In both cases 
citizens of Erie were among the dead or in- 



The Lake Shore R. R. claims the record 
of having made the fastest time for a long 
distance of any in the world. A train of three 
Wagner cars, drawn by a single engine, left 
Chicago at 3 : 30 A. m. (Central time), on the 
24th of October, 1895, and reached Buffalo at 
11 : 30: 43. The distance is 510.1 miles, and 
the time was 481 minutes and 7 seconds, an 
average speed, incrlusive of stops and changing 
of engines, of 65.7 miles an hour. The great- 
est run was made between Erie and Buffalo, 
a distance of 86 miles, which was made in 70 
minutes and 16 seconds. In two instances 
between Erie and Buffalo the train attained a 
1 speed of 96 miles an hour. The engine which 
I secured this remarkable result was No. 564, 
handled by Engineer William Tunkey. The 
object of the fast run was to ascertain at what 


rate a train could be taken over the road with 
safety for general through passenger business. 
Different engines were used on each of the 
divisions, and the run for the divisions were : 
Chicago to Elkhart, 87.4 miles, in 85 minutes 
•li) seconds ; Elkhart to Toledo, 138.4 miles, 
in 124 minutes 85 seconds ; Toledo to Cleve- 
land, 107.8 miles, in 10(5 minutes 6 seconds; 
Cleveland to Erie, 95.5 miles, in 85 minutes 
82 seconds; Erie to Buffalo, 80 miles, in 70 
minutes 16 seconds. 

The train arrived in New York City, over 
the Central road, at 10: 15 (Eastern time) in 
the evening of the day it left Chicago, having 
made the distance of 980 miles in 17 hours 
and 45 minutes. 



A railroad was projected from Erie to 
Philadelphia as long ago as 1830, upon nearly 
the same route that was ultimately adopted. 
In 1838 a railroad was commenced at Sunbui-y 
by Stephen Girard and others, intended to 
connect Erie with Philadelphia by way of 
Pottsville. A few miles of it were built 
eastward, and then the work stopped on ac- 
count of financial depression. 

In 1837 a bill passed the Legislature in- 
corporating the Sunbury and Erie R. R. 
Company. An organization was regularly 
effected, the stock to secure the charter being 
taken by the United States Bank, and engi- 
neers were emplojed to survey a route in 1838 
and 1889. Nothing further was done for some 
years. In 1854 the project was simultaneously 
revived in Philadelphia, in Erie and in the Leg- 
islature. The city of Philadelphia subscribed 
$1,000,000 toward the construction of the 
road, the county of Erie $200,000 and the city 
of Erie $300,000, in addition to 150 water lots 
for dock accommodations. The Cleveland 
and Erie Company were required to subscribe 
$500,000 to the road, as a condition of secu- 
ring a new charter. About this time the State 
exchanged a portion of her carKil.s for $3,500,- 
000 of Sunbury and Erie bonds, thus placing the 
company on a substantial footing. By Decem- 
ber, 1854, the road was in running order from 
Sunbury to Williamsport, where a connection 
was made with the Northern Central R. R. to 
Elmira. The division of the road from Erie 
to Warren was begun in August, 1856, and 
completed in December, 1859, the Middle 
division remaining unfinished. In the spring 

of 1861, the name of the corporation was 
changed to the Philadelphia and Erie R. R. 
Company. The war coming on in that year 
alarmed the stockholders, and the road was 
leased, in 1862, to the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Companj- for a term of 999 years. Work was 
vigorously p osecuted by the lessees, and in 
October, 1864, the first passenger train came 
through to Erie from Philadelphia with a 
large party ot excursionists. 


The road is 287 6-10 miles in length, oper- 
ated in three divisions, as follows : Eastern — 
Sunbury to Renovo, 92 4-10 miles; Middle — 
Renovo to Kane, 100 7- 10 miles ; Western — 
Kane to Erie, 94 5-10. At Sunbury, con- 
nection is made with the Southern division of 
the Northern Central R. R., under the same 
management, which gives a direct route to 
Harrisburg, Baltimore, Washington, Phila- 
delphia and New York. The distance from 
Erie to Harrisburg is 347 miles ; to Baltimore, 
425; to Washington, 468, to Philadelphia, 
453, and to New York, 548. Below are the 
distances along the road itself, measuring from 
the foot of State street in Erie : 

Outer Depot 2 

Wag-ner's S 

Belle Valley 7 

Lang^don's 9 

Jackson's 13 

Waterford Depot 18": 

Le Boeuf 23 

Union City 27 

ElKin....: 32 

Ivovell's 34 

Corry 37 

Columbus 39 

Spring- Creek 44 

Garland SO 

Pittsfield 54 

Youngsville 58 

Irvineton 60 

Warren 66 

Stoneham 71 

Clarendon 73 

Tiona 76 

Sheffield 79 

Roystone 82 

Ludlow 86 

Wetmore 90 

Kane 9.=; 

Wilcox 104 

Ridgwav 119 

St. Mary's 129 

Emporium 149 

Cameron 155 

Driftwood 168 

Renovo 196 

Lock Haven 224 

Jersey Shore 236 

Williamsport 248 

Muncy 260 

Milton 275 

Northumberland .285.6 
Sunbury 287.6 


In surveying the road, considerable diffi- 
culty was experienced in finding a suitable 
route to reach the level of the lake from the 
high lands on the south. The course finally 
adopted was bv way of Four-Mile creek, 
necessitating a long curve to round the Second 
ridge, which compels over seven miles of rail- 
road to make the distance of four and a half 


miles by common road from Erie to Belle 
Valley. The grade between Jackson's and 
Erie is at one place eighty-three feet to the 

Tiie following figures give the height of 
the road above tide-water at the points 
named : 


Erie, foot of State street 573 

Summit, at Jackson's 1,229 

Union City 1,270 

Corry 1,431 

Garland 1,309 

Warren 1,200 

Sheffield 1,337 

Kane 2,130 

Wilcox 1,527 

Ridgway 1,393 

St. Mary's Summit 1,696 

Emporium 1,021 

The first general Superintendent of the 
road was Joseph D. Potts, who took charge at 
its opening in 1864. The superintendents of 
the western division have been : Samuel A. 
Black, appointed in July, 1859; William A. 
Baldwin, February 7, 186-' ; John W. Rey- 
nolds, May 1, 1868. The general oflices were 
at Erie until 1874. when they were removed 
to Williamsport. 

The company occupied a frame building at 
the foot of State street, in Erie, as a passen- 
ger and freight depot, until the completion of 
the Union depot, to which the passenger 
traffic was at once transferred. The freight 
business continued at the former point until 
the erection of the new freight building on 
Parade street in 1880. 

The shops of the road are at Erie, Kane, 
Renovo and Sunbury. 


The charter for the Erie and Pittsburg 
Company, was obtained in 1856, by parties in- 
terested in the Erie and North East Companj^ 
The new charter of the latter company pro- 
vided that it should invest $400,000 in the con- 
struction of a road in the direction of Pitts- 
burg. With this sum and the money of the 
stockholders, the Erie and Pittsburg road was 
graded from near Miles Grove to Jamestown, 
Mercer county, and the track laid to Albion. 
In 1864, the road was continued to New 
Castle, where the Erie and Pittsburg R. R. 
proper terminates. At that place connection 
is made with the New Castle and Beaver Valley 
R. R., which connects in turn with the Pitts- 

burg, Fort Wayne and Chicago at Home- 
wood, and with a road down the Beaver val- 
ley, making direct connection in both cases 
with the " smoky city." 

The company own extensive docks at Erie 
for the handling of coal and iron ore, built in 
1863, and since then largely extended. The 
round-house in Erie was erected in 1865, and 
the shops bought of McCarter & Scoville in 

The distances by this route are as follows : 


Erie to a little west of Miles Grove (Lake 

Shore road) 16.5 

Cross' 21 

Albion 27 

Spring- 32 

Conneautville 35 

Jamestown 57 

Greenville 63 

Sharpsville 75 

Sharon 78 

Middlesex 84 

New Castle 99 

Homewood 113.9 

Pittsburg- 148.9 

The superintendents of the road have been 
R. N. Brown, J. L. Grant, W. S. Brown, J. 
J. Lawrence, F. N. Finney, John M. Kimball 
and H. W. Byers. W. L. Scott, of Erie, was 
president of the corporation many years. 

The road was operated as a feeder to the 
Lake Shore until the 24th of March, 1870, 
when it was leased to the Pennsylvania R. R. 
Company for a term of 999 years. On 
the first of March, 1871, the management 
was transferred to the Pennsylvania Companj', 
a separate corporation from the Pennsylvania 
R. R. Company, organized to operate the 
Western lines leased or owned by the latter. 

From Erie to a short distance west of Miles 
Grove, the E. & P. uses the Lake Shore track, 
with the exception of two and one-half miles 
between the city and the dock junction. The 
company own the connecting road along the 
bay front of Erie, from the Pittsburg dock 
to the foot of State street. It was built about 

The headquarters of the road were in Erie 
until 1881, when they were removed to 
Youngstown, Ohio, and subsequently to the 
Junction, a short distance below New Castle. 

The following figures show the elevation 
in feet above tide-water of various points on 
the road : Summit, near Conneautville, 1 ,141 ; 
Greenville, 984; Sharon, 853; New Castle, 

/f} Q^ 

"^ ^'V-^ZT' 



802. In crossing- the dividing ridge south of 
Conneautville, the summit is approached from 
the north for two or three miles by a grade of 
fifty-two feet to the mile. 

Mr. J. A. Wood held the position of mas- 
ter mechanic of the road, with headquarters 
at Erie, for some twentj- years. 


A railroad, known as the Oil Creek R. R., 
was completed between Corry and Miller 
Farm in 1862. In 1865, a majority of its cap- 
ital stock was purchased by Dean Richmond, 
representing the Lake Shore and New York 
Central Companies, and by Thomas A. Scott, 
representing the Pennsylvania Company, and 
placed in the hands of Samuel J. Tilden, of 
Xew York. ;i> (niNtre for the three corpora- 
tions. Tlu' ic.Kul w as extended to Petroleum 
Centre in IcStjC). where it connected with the 
Farmers' road to Oil City. Not long after- 
ward, the Allegheny Vallej- R. R. was com- 
pleted to Oil City, from Pittsburg, making a 
continuous line from the latter cit}-. The fail- 
ure of the wells on Oil creek robbed the road 
of its prosperity, and it was sold out upon mort- 
gage, and purchased by the Alleghenv \'alley 
R. R. management. 

The Cross-Cut R. R. was built from Corry 
to Brocton in 1867, to secure a lake outlet for 
the Oil Creek R. R., and a connection with the 
Lake Shore R. R., independent of the Phila- I 
delphia and Erie R. R. 

All the above roads were consolidated un- 
der one management, as the Buffalo, Corry and 
Pittsburg, and have since become a part of 
the Western New York and Pennsylvania 
system, which embraces over six hundred 
miles of track within the two States. 

ANO) U. R. 

The Atlantic and Great Western R. R. was 
completed to Corry in June, 1861, and extended 
westward through the southern porlion of the 
county in 1862. It was intended and is still 
operated as the western extension of the Erie 
Railway (now the New York, Lake Erie and 
Western),withwhichitconnects at Salamanca, 
N. Y. The track was originally six feet wide, 
but the gauge was changed about 1884 to the 
general standard of the country. The above 
name was adopted about 1882. In March, 
1883, the load was leased to the New York, 

Lake Erie and Western Company for ninety- 
nine years. 


This road extended from Titusville to 
Union City, where it connected with the Phila- 
delphia and Erie R. R. It was originated in 
1865, and completed in Februarj'. 1871. It 
was operated by the Pennsylvania R. R. 
Companv for some years, and finally aban- 
doned about 1892 or 1808. 

new york, chicago and st. louis r. r. 
(the nickel plate). 

The New York, Chicago and St. Louis 
R. R. Company was organized in 1880 to build 
a railroad from Buffalo to Chicago by way of 
Dunkirk, Erie, Cleveland, Fostoria and Fort 
Wayne. The grading of the road commenced 
in Jnne, 1881, and the first through passenger 
train reached Erie from the West in the after- 
noon of August 31, 1882. The train returned 
from Buffalo on the 1st of September. Regu- 
lar passenger trains commenced running on 
Monday, October 23, 1882. 

In the winter of 1882-83, a majority of the 
stock of the road was purchased in Erie by 
William H. Vanderbilt and others in the in- 
terest of the Lake Shore R.R.,and it has since 
been run in harmon)^ with that line, although 
a separate organization and an apparent com- 
petition are kept up. 

The principal office of the company is at 
Cleveland. The main shops are at Chicago. 
Division shops are located at Fort Wayne, 
Ind., and Btllevue and Conneaut, Ohio. The 
divisions for engine service are : Buffalo to 
Conneaut ; Conneaut to Bellevue ; Bellevue to 
Fort Wayne ; Fort Wayne to Chicago. 

Instead of the culverts used by the L. .S. and 
M. S. R. R., this route crosses the gullies of 
the lake shore streams by iron viaducts, some 
of which are of unusual height and length. 

The distances bv the Nickel Plate R. R. are 
as follows: Buffalo to Erie, 87.48 miles; to 
Conneaut, 115.51 miles: to Cleveland,- 183.79 
miles; to Bellevue, 247.86 miles; to Fort 
Wayne, 370.63 miles; to Chicago. 524.74 


This, the latest road entering Erie, was 
opened for business in the spring of ^1892. 


:k was 

d down on Twelfth street 


November, 1891. The depot, at Twelfth and 
Sassafras streets, was built in the spring of 
1892, and the first passenger train reached 
Erie in June of the same year. The road ex- 
tends from Erie to Butler, following, in the 
main, the route of the old canal, and trains 
enter Pittsburg from Butler over the track of 
the Pittsburg and Western R. R. The distance 
from Erie to Pittsburg by this road is 152i 
miles. At Cranesville, in this county, the 
road branches, one track coming to Erie and 
the other extending to the lake at Conneaut, 
O., a distance of 14 4-10 miles from the first- 
mentioned point. The first is used for the 
passenger and general freight business, and 
the second for the coal and iron ore traffic. 
Arrangements have been made with the Grand 
Trunk R. R. of Canada by which powerful 
boats are run between Conneaut and Port 
Dover, summer and winter, carrying cars 
loaded with coal and general merchandise. 
These boats were first put in operation in 
August, 1895. 


Below are the distances by this road to the 
most important points between Erie and Pitts- 
burg : 

Wallace Junction... 14.4 Meadville 60.3 

Girard IS.S Hartstown S2.2 

Elk Creek Siding- ... 17.3 Adamsville 55.0 

Lockport 20.2 Greenville 63.6 

Cranesville 23.7 Shenango 65.6 

Albion 2-1.9 Fredonia 74.5 

Pennside 28.6 Mercer Junction. . . 81.3 

Shadeland 31.2 Mercer 82.1 

Springboro 32.5 Grove City 91.1 

Conneautville ,''5.6 P. & W. Junction. .121.1 

Dicksonburg 39.8 Butler 121.6 

Harnionsburg- 42.9 Pittsburg- 152.6 

Meadville Junction 44.9 


Books were opened in 1886 for subscrip- 
tions to build a railroad, twenty-three miles 

long, from Erie to the State line, three miles 
east of Wattsburg, where it was designed to 
connect with a branch of the Erie railway. 
The scheme was to make Erie the terminus of 
the latter thoroughfare. When the Erie and 
North East R. R. was built, the project was 

The Erie City R. R. Company was 
chartered, in 1853, to build a road from Erie 
to some point on the State line in North East, 
Greenfield or Venango Townships, as a con- 
nection of the Erie Railway. Its organization 
was maintained until the Atlantic and Great 
Western R R. was completed, when the pro- 
jectors concluded that further effort to induce 
the Erie Railway to come to the harbor of 
Erie would be useless. 

The Erie Southern was designed to give 
Erie a connection with the N. Y., P. & O. R. R. 
road at Cambridge, and the Oil Creek R. R. at 
Titusville, opening up a new route, b)' way 
of McKean and Edinboro, for the coal and oil 
traffic. The project was much talked about in 
1873, considerable subscriptions were obtained, 
and the city voted the corporation a block of 
water-lots, besides the right of way on Liberty 
street. A small amount of digging and gra- 
ding was done in the southwestern part of the 
city, when the enterprise was given up. 

Another railroad was projected from Erie 
to Mill Village via Waterford, the purpose 
being also to secure a connection with the 
New York, Pennsylvania & Ohio. Surveys 
made by Col. Irvin Canip, in 1882-83, de- 
veloped the fact that the length of the pro- 
posed road would be but nineteen miles from 
the depot at Erie to the one at Mill Village. 

Of late the scheme for building a road from 
Erie to the " Nypano " at Cambridge has 
been much discussed, and it is safe to predict 
that this line, or one connecting with the lat- 
ter system at Mill Village, will be built before 
many years. 


Public and Private Schools, Academies, Seminaries, Etc. 

IN providing a frame of government for the 
Colony of Pennsylvania, William Penn 
declared that wisdom and morality " must 
be carefully propagated by a virtuous ed- 
ucation of the youth," and that the Gov- 
ernor and Councils should " erect and order 
public schools." The wise example of the 
founder was followed i)y the heroes of the 
Revolution, in framing the Constitution of 
177G, with a requirement that "a school or 
schools shall be established in each county." 
The Constitution of 1790 went still further'by 
declaring that the Legislature might provide 
for the establishment of schools throughout 
the State "in such manner that the poor may 
be taught gratis." 

Notwithstanding these noble sentiments, 
little progress toward the schooling of the 
masses was efiFecteil until a comparatively re- 
cent period. Generous endowments were 
made by the State to colleges and academies, 
but the idea of " common schools," open alike 
to rich and poor, and supported at the public 
expense by a system of equal taxation, was 
slow in winning the approval of property 
owners. "Pay schools," in which the chil- 
dren were trained for a moderate compensa- 
tion, were common, however, almost every 
district having one or more, according to its 
population. The primary schools in Erie 
county, up to 1884, were all of this character. 


In 1821 Governor Heister, in his message 
to the Legislature, declared it to be " an im- 
perative duty to introduce and support a lib- 
eral system of education, connected with some 
general religious instruction." Governor 
Shultze's message to the Legislature of 1827 
contained this passage : " Among the in- 
junctions of the Constitution, there is none 
more interesting than that which enjoins it as 
a dut)' on the Legislature to provide for the 

I education of the poor throughout the Common- 
[ wealth." In 1828 the same executive stated 
in his annual message that he could not for- 
bear from " again calling attention to the sub- 
ject of public education. To devise means for 
the establishment of a fund and the adoption 
of a plan by which the blessings of the more 
necessary branches of education should be con- 
ferred on every famil}' within our borders 
would be every way worthy the Legislature 
of Pennsylvania."" 

The first practical step in the direction of 
a common school system for Pennsylvania was 
taken when George Wolf, of Northamption 
county, was elected Governor in 1829. The 
question of public schools entered largelj' into 
the canvass preceding his election, and the 
Democratic leaders were generally pledged to 
some sort of a measure for the purpose. In a 
speech delivered during the campaign. James 
Buchanan said : " If ever the passion of envy 
could be excused in a man ambitious of true 
glory, he might almost be justified in envying 
the fame of that favored individual, whoever 
he may be, whom Providence intends to make 
the instrument in establishing common schools 
throughout the Commonwealth." Gov. Wolf's 
inaugural address took strong ground in favor 
of the education of the masses, and the Legis- 
lature of 1830, in accordance with his recom- 
mendation, set apart a sum of monej' to be 
placed at interest and used at some future 
period in establishing a common school sj-s- 
tem. The Governor continued to urge the free 
school idea until the passage of the act of 
1834-5. The original law made it optional 
with each township, ward and borough to 
adopt the system. 


Strange as it may seem, there was violent 
opposition to the measure in some parts of the 
State. The persons interested in colleges, 
academies and pay schools objected to it 


through fear of a loss to their revenues ; the 
wealthy and the snobbish disliked it because 
they did not want their children to mix with 
the " vulgar herd ;" the penurious dreaded an 
increase of taxation ; and a hundred objections 
were urged that seem too absurd now for any 
reasonable person ever to have believed. At 
the ensuing session a motion for the repeal of 
the law was oflfered by John vStrohm, of Lan- 
caster county, and eloquently opposed by 
Thaddeus Stevens, then a representative from 
Adams. Mr. Stevens closed his remarks with 
this thrilling sentence : "If the opponent of 
education were my most intimate personal 
and political friend, and the free school can- 
didate my most obnoxious enemy, I should 
deem it my duty as a patriot, at this moment 
o'f our intellectual crisis, to forget all other 
considerations, and I should place myself un- 
hesitatingly and cordially in the ranks of him 
whose banner streams in light." The bill 
was saved, but was improved and made more 
acceptable during the administration of Gov. 
Ritner, who succeeded Gov. Wolf. 

Probably no one man did more effective 
service in building up the system than Thomas 
H. Burrowes, who was Gov. Ritner's Secre- 
tary of State, and, as such, official head of the 
school department. During Ritner's admin- 
istration the annual State appropriation was 
increased from ^75,000 to 1400,000, and the 
number of schools to 5,000. 

The act passed in 1849 made the adoption 
of the system obligator)' throughout the State. 
The law of 1854, providing for County Super- 
intendents, teachers' examinations, and other 
important measures, was prepared by Hon. H. 
L. Dieffenbach of Clinton countv, acting head 
of the School Department, with the assistance 
of Governor Bigler and Secretary of State 
Charles A. Black. After that came the normal 
school act of 1857, making a complete system, 
and giving to Pennsylvania the conceded pre- 
eminence of having the best school laws 
in the Union. 


For several years after the county was 
established, the population was too sparse to 
sustain more than a few schools. These were 
wholly private, parents paying the teachers 
a stated sum for each of their children who at- 
tended. The first schools of which a record can 

be found were established in Waterford about 
1800 ; at Manchester, in Fairview township, in 
1804; at Erie in 180G; at Union in 1820; and 
at Phillipsville in 1828. Others were opened 
at an early date, on Federal Hill, within the 
present limits of Erie ; in Springfield ; and in 
Mill Creek township. The earliest school 
buildings in Waterford and Erie were 
erected in 1800 and 180G respectively, being 
built by the free contributions of the citizens. 
By 1812 almost everj' village and township 
had one or more " pay "' schools. These were 
increased by degrees so that when the law of 
1834 went into force it found every district 
fairly well supplied with educational facilities. 
The school buildings were generally built of 
logs, and were very poorly arranged and ven- 
tilated. The "schoolmasters," as they were 
called, were plain men, who made no preten- 
tion to a knowledge of more than the rudi- 
mentary branches. They believed in the use 
of the rod, and applied it with vigor for every 
small offense. A ready knowledge of " the 
three R's" — Readin', 'Ritin' and Rithmetic — 
was all that was supposed to be necessary for 
the average child. 

The first Catholic parochial school was 
established in connection with St. Mary's 
Church, in Erie, in 1850, and the second in 
1863, in connection with St. Patrick's Church. 
The Catholic parochial schools of the county 
in 1895 numbered 2,560 children, of whom 
2,055 were in Erie City, 355 in Corry, 70 in 
Union City and 80 at St. Boniface, in Greene 


The school books most universally used in 
the beginning were Webster's and Byerly's 
Spelling Books, the English Reader and Da- 
boU's Arithmetic. The teacher was expected 
to be a good penman and to be able to " set 
the copy" himself. A better class of books 
came in at a later date, including Cobb's 
Spelling Book, Goodrich's, Parley's and 
Mitchell's Geographies, Parley's and Mitchell's 
Histories, the First, Second and Third Read- 
ers, Smith's Grammar, and Davies' Arithme- 
tics. Cobb's Spelling Book was introduced 
into this section in 1827. The copyright for 
one-half of the State of Pennsylvania was 
purchased by Joseph M. Sterrett and Oliver 
SpafFord, who published the work in Erie for 
many years, realizing a snug profit from the 



enterprise. Mr. Spafford ;it one time also 
published the " English Reader." 

Erie count)- was one of the foremost in 
taking advantage of the common school law. 
The act required that the Directors of each 
county should meet annually in convention 
with the County Commissioners and determine 
the amount of school tax to be raised. The 
first convention for this purpose was held in 
the court house soon after the passage of the 
law, and was attended by representatives from 
every district in the county. A levy of $2,000 
was voted unanimously, and the people were 
requested to decide by vote whether an addi- 
tional sum should be raised in the several dis- 
tricts. An extra tax of $1,000 was voted in 
Erie, the active spirits in having it done being 
E. Babbitt, George Kellogg, Dr. William 
Johns and William Kelly. In a few years the 
law was changed so as to leave the amount of 
tax to be designated by the Directors of the 
several districts, in which shape it still re- 


The spelling school was a once popular in- 
stitution, in both town and country. As us- 
ually conducted, the pupils of the district 
school would assemble on some winter eve- 
ning and choose two of the best spellers for 
leaders, who, in turn, would select from six 
to a dozen others on each side. These would 
range themselves in standing rows on opposite 
sides of the building, and the teacher or some 
other competent person would give out the 
words to be spelled from a book that h; d been 
agreed upon. The pupil who missed a word 
had to take his seat immediately, and the ex- 
ercise continued until but one of the contest- 
ants remained upon the floor, who became the 
hero of the occasion. Sometimes half a dozen 
spelling matches would occur in an evening. 
Two or more schools would often meet in 
rivalry, and the event would be the talk of the 
neighborhood for a month or so. In many 
districts, the spelling school was the regular 
winter amusement, old and young attending, 
and all looking forward to the evening with 


While the State was slow in adopting the 
common school svstem, the liberality she dis- 

played in founding colleges and academies 
proves that it was wholly through doubts of 
its policy, and not because good educational 
facilities were not appreciated. Provision was 
made at an early day for an academy in each 
county, and generous appropriations were 
made to colleges and universities. The Water- 
ford and Erie Academies were incorporated in 
1811 and 1817 respectively, the buildings for 
both being completed in 1822. A bountiful 
donation of lands was given by the State for 
the support of each institution. Both are still 
in operation. 

The Erie Female Seminary was incorpo- 
rated in 1838 and went into operation soon 
after, receiving an annual appropriation of 
$800 from the Legislature for several years. 
It kept up till about 1866, but never had any 
buildings of its own. The last location of the 
seminary was in the Hamot House, on the 
bank of the bay, at the foot of State street. 

Academies were established at West 
Springfield in 1858, at East Springfield in 
1856, at Girard in 1859, and at North Spring- 
field in 1866, which were conducted for some 
years with a certain degree of success. All 
have become merged into the common school 

The Normal School at Edinboro is the only 
State educational institution in the countv. It 
was founded as an Academy in 1857, and re- 
organized as a State Normal School in 1861. 
This school has been quite prosperous and has 
the promise of a long and useful career. 

The Lake Shore Seminary was established 
at North East in 1870 under the auspices of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. Liberal 
contributions were secured and a fine building 
was erected. The institution became involved, 
and the property was bought in at Sheriff's 
sale by the principal creditor. The latter, in 
1881, sold the building to the Redemptorist 
Fathers, who re-dedicated it as St. Mary's 
College. It is conducted as a preparatory 
school for young men intending to enter the 
Catholic priesthood. The buildings have re- 
cently been much enlarged and improved. 

St. Benedict's Academy of the Catholic 
Church, is on East Ninth street, in Erie, ad- 
joining St. Mary's Church. The institution 
has extensive buildings, with a boarding place 

Villa Marie Academy, the latest Catholic 
educational institution, is located in Erie, near 


the western city limits. It was dedicated May 
9, 1892, and is managed by the Sisters of St. 
Joseph as an institution for the higlier educa- 
tion of young ladies. The grounds, which 
occupy a whole square, were donated by the 
lamented Father Thomas A. Casey, who also 
furnished the means for the erection of the 

Besides the above, there are St. Thomas' 
Academy at Corry and St. Teresa's Academy 
at Union City, attached to the Roman Cath- 
olic Churches of similar name in those places. 

Additional particulars of the above institu- 
tions will be found in the sketches of iheir 
respective localities. 


The public schools of the county, as of the 
State at large, are under the control of Direc- 
tors, who are elected by the people of the 
several districts at the spring elections, a 
certain number going out each year. Gen- 
erally speaking, each city, borough and 
township is a district by itself. There are 
three independent districts in the county, how- 
ever, viz. : Belle Valley, Elk Creek and 
Franklin, and Lake Pleasant. The State 
grants every district an annual appropriation, 
which is apportioned according to the number 
of pupils. Teachers are employed by the 
Directors of the district in which they are 
to serve, but must have passed an examination 
and received a certificate of competency from 
the County Superintendent. The latter holds 
an annual examination in each district, and is 
expected to visit every school in the county 
once in each year. 

A teacher's institute, or gathering of the 
teachers in the county, for mutual benefit, is 
held annually, under the direction of the 
County Superintendent. The cities of Erie 
and Corr)' each have local institutes, which 
meet at frequent intervals during the year. 

Within tiie last year a movement has been 
started by Benjamin Whitman. Dr. A. A. 
Freeman, Prof. Missimer and others for the 

establishment of free non-sectarian public li- 
braries throughout the State, to be under the 
control of the school Directors in the several 
districts, and supported by a general tax upon 
the public. The act drafted by Mr. Whitman, 
assisted by the above named gentlemen, pass- 
ed the Legislature, largely through the labors 
of Senator McCreary and Representative 
Gould, and was cordially approved by Gov. 
Hastings. The law, in the opinion of its 
friends, will give Pennsylvania the best public 
library system in America, if not in the world. 


The first convention for the choice of a 
County Superintendent was held in Erie in 
1854. William H. Armstrong was elected at 
a salary of $800 per year. The following is 
a list of the County Superintendents since the 
adoption of the law creating the office : 

William H. Armstrong, Wattsburg, 1864 
to 1860. 

L. W. Savage, Springfield, 1860 to 1863. 

D. P. Ensign, Erie, served six months in 
1863, and resigned. 

Julius Degmier, Erie, appointed for six 
months, and then elected to serve until 1866. 

L. T. Fisk, Girard, 1866 to 1869. 

C C. Taylor, Elk Creek, 1869 to 1878. 

Charles Twining, Union, 1878 to 1884. 

James M. Morrison, Girard, 1884 to 1889 

Thos. C. Miller, Mill Creek, 1889 to date. 

The office of City Superintendent of the 
schools of Erie was filled from 1867 to 1890 
by H. S. Jones. H. C. Missimer, who still 
fills the position, was elected in 1890. 

V. G. Curtis was the Superintendent of 
the Corry schools for many years. He was 
succeeded bj- A. D. Colegrove, who holds the 
place at present. 

Erie and Corry, having city governments, 
are not subject to the county rules, and have 
separate Boards and Superintendents. 

[For the school history of the several cities, 
boroughs and townships, see the chapters re- 
lating theicto]. 


Events of Special Note and Miscellaneous Information. 

IN addition to the events heretofore men- 
tioned, the county has been the scene of 
numerous occurrences of more than com- 
mon interest. 

A live king in ERIE. 

One of these was the visit of Louis Phil- 
lippe, future King of France, accompanied by 
his brother and a servant. They spent a day 
or two at Erie, in 1795, with Thomas Rees, 
sleeping and eating in his tent on the bank of 
the lake, near the mouth of Mill creek. 
Lafayette's visit. 

In 1825 the county was honored with a 
visit from Lafayette, who was making a tour 
of the country whose independence he had 
periled his life and fortune to establish. He 
was accompanied b)' his son, a companion and 
a servant, on their way from New Orleans to 
New York. They reached Waterford, where 
they were hospitably received, on the evening 
of the 2d of June, and stayed there overnight. 
A committee from Erie met them at Water- 
ford, and the party left the latter place early 
on the morning of the 3d, by way of the turn- 
pike. At Federal Hill, they were met by a 
body of military, who escorted the distinguish- 
ed guest to the foot of .State street, where they 
were greeted with a national salute and for- 
mally presented to the United States naval 
officers and other prominent citizens. From 
there a procession marched to the public 
house of Capt. Daniel Dobbins, at the north- 
east corner of State and Third streets, where 
Burgess Wallace welcomed Lafayette in the 
name of the borough. He was then taken to 
the residence of Judah Colt (at the corner of 
French and Fourth streets), who was chair- 
man of the reception committee, and intro- 
duced to the ladies. Meanwhile, a public 
dinner had been in course of preparation, un- 
der the supervision of John Dickson, which 
was the grandest affair of the kind known up 
to that day in Erie. The tables, which had 
been erected on a bridge over the ravine on 
Second street, between State and French, were 
J70 feet long, elegantly adorned and covered 

with an awning made of the sails of the 
British vessels captured by Perry. After the 
dinner, toasts were offered, among them the 
following by the hero of the occasion : 

" Erie — a name which has a great share in 
American glory ; may this town ever enjoy a 
proportionate share in American prosperity 
and happiness." 

Lafayette and his party left on the fore- 
noon of June 4th, and were accompanied by 
numerous citizens to Portland, at the mouth 
of Chautauqua creek, N. Y., where he took 
a steamer for Buffalo. During his stay in Erie 
his stopping place was in the Dobbins House 
above mentioned, which is still standing. He 
occupied a large room on the second iloor, at 
the northwest corner of the house. 

HORACE Greeley's residence in erie. 
Horace Greeley, the world-famed editor, 
and the Liberal-Democratic nominee for Presi- 
dent in 1872, resided in Erie a short time as a 
journeyman printer, in the employ of the 
Gazette. His parents settled in Wayne town- 
ship in 1826, and in the spring of 1830 Horace, 
who had remained in New England to finish 
his apprenticeship, came on foot to visit them, 
secured employment as above, and stopped in 
Erie until the summer of 1831. During most 
or all the period of his stay, he boarded at the 
house of Judge Sterrett, then proprietor of 
the Gazette. Even at that youthful age, he 
was fond of talking politics, and was regarded 
as an oracle on subjects of that nature. He 
left Erie for New York in August, 1831, 
reaching there with only .$10 in his purse. 
His father and mother died in W^ayne town- 
ship. Mr. Greeley's last appearance in Erie 
was during the campaign of 1872, when he 
made a speech from one of the east windows 
of the Union depot. [See Wayne Township 
for a sketch of the Greeley Family.] 

numerous presidential visitors. 

Erie has been visited by no less than 

eleven gentlemen who either had been, were 

at the time, or afterwards became President 

of the United States, viz. : William H. Harri- 


son, 1813; Buchanan in 1840; Van Buren in 
1842; John Quincy Adams, in 1848; Taylor 
and Fillmore in 1849; Lincoln, in 1861 ; John- 
son and Grant, in 18(50 ; Garfield at various 
periods between 1860 and 1880; and Cleve- 
land in 1891. Stephen A. Douglass, one of 
the Democratic nominees for President in 1860, 
made a long speech in the West Park during 
the campaign of that year. 

Harrison came as the cominanding gen- 
eral of the western army, in company with 
Perry, as detailed at length in the account of 
the battle of Lake Erie. He stopped at the 
McConkey House, on the northeast corner of 
French and Third streets. 

Buchanan was the leading speaker on the 
Democratic side at the great assemblage in 
1840, when the two rival parties sought to see 
which could collect the largest crowd, an ac- 
count of which will be found later on. 

Van Buren readied Erie by steamer from 
the west on the 6th of June, 1842, and was 
given a public reception. 

Ex-President John Qiiincy Adams also 
arrived in Erie by steamer, and remained from 
7 to 9 o'clock in the evening. He was wel- 
comed by Hon. Thomas H. Sill, on belialf of 
the citizens. The Wayne Grajs and the three 
fire companies paraded in his honor. 

President Taylor was on a journey up the 
lakes for recreation from the cares of office. 
He came by way of Waterford, where he was 
taken sick. On reaching Erie, he was too 
ill to proceed any further. He remained in 
the city some ten days, stopping with Dr. W. 
M. Woods, of the United States Navy, in a 
dwelling on or near the northwest corner of 
Eighth and State streets. Vice-President 
Fillmore came up from Buffalo and met the 
President, remaining with him until the next 
day. On departing, the United States 
steamer Michigan undertook to fire a Vice 
President's salute, when the gun exploded, 
killing two men. Finding that his condition 
unfitted him for proceeding further, the 
President returned to Washington, where he 
died in less than a year, and was succeeded by 
Mr. Fillmore. 

Lincoln passed through Erie on his way to 
\V'ashingion to be inaugurated. He made a 
few remarks from the .second story of the old 
ilepiit. Mis remains were taken over the Lake 
Shore road in 1865. A short halt was made 

in Erie to enable the citizens to pay their re- 
spects to his memory. 

Erie was favored with a speech by Presi- 
dent Johnson in his famous "swing around 
the circle,'' in 1866. He was attended by 
Gen. Grant and Wm. H. Seward, the latter 
of whom also spoke. 

Garfield, being a near neighbor, made 
frequent trips to Erie, both political and 
social. He spoke in the court house during 
the canvass of 1878. 

Cleveland was in the city to attend the 
burial of Wm. L. Scott, on Thursday, Sep- 
tember 24, 1891. He and Gov. Pattison rode 
in the same carriage in the funeral procession. 


The Presidential campaign of 1840, when 
Harrison and Van Buren were the opposing 
candidates, was probably the most bitter and 
i exciting ever experienced in America. The 
I feeling between the two parties was intense, 
j and the meetings everywhere were character- 
ized by a retaliatory spirit that has seldom if 
ever been exhibited in politics. At a conclave 
of the Whig magnates, it was agreed to hold 
a mass meeting in Erie on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, the anniversai-y of Perry's victory. The 
Democrats, determined not to be excelled, and 
fearful that the prestige of the day might give 
their enemies an advantage, resolved to hold 
j a convention at the same time. This decision 
j created the wildest indignation among their 
antagonists. The excitement ran up to fever 
heat. Both elements made the utmost exer- 
tion to get out their adherents. Runners and 
bills were sent all over the western counties of 
the State, as well as through northeastern 
[ Ohio and western New York. For several 
days before the 10th, the roads leading to Erie 
] were crowded with men, women and children, 
on foot, in wagons and on horseback, many 
carrying banners and all shouting themselves 
hoarse for tiicir favorite candidates. On the 
eventful day, the town was crowded as it 
never had been before and probably never has 
been since. It was feared that collisions 
might occur between the embittered partisans, 
but the danger was averted by holding the 
conventions in different sections of the town. 
The Whig gathering assembled on a vacant lot 
on Second street between Holland and Mill 
creek, and the Democratic at the corner of 



Second and Walnut streets. James Buchanan, 
afterward President of the United States, was 
chief speaker for the Democrats, and Francis 
Granger, of New York, subsequently ap- 
pointed Postmaster General, presided over and 
was the leading figure of the Whig convention. 



Though numerous persons have been tried 
for murder, it is worthy of note that but one 
execution for that offense has ever taken place i 
in the county. Henry Francisco was convicted 
before Judge Shippen, on the 8th of Novem 
ber, 1837, of having poisoned his wife, and 
was sentenced to be hanged. The history of 
the case is very peculiar. Fiancisco married 
a Miss Maria Robinson, who is described by 
old residents as one of the handsomest girls 
ever seen in Erie. For reasons not proper to 
mention, thej- mutually agreed, three weeks 
after the wedding, to commit suicide. Each 
took four ounces of laudanum at the same 
time. The liquid acted as an emetic upon 
Francisco, but caused the death of his wife. 
He was sick for some time, and immediately 
after his recovery was arrested for murder, on , 
the ground that he had influenced liis wife to 
take the poi«on. On the 9th day of March, ' 
1838, " Sheriff Andrew Scott pinioned Fran- 
cisco s arms in his cell, and the procession 
started with solemn tread for the fatal spot in 
the jail yard. First came the Deputy At- 
torney General from Harrisburg, with Dr. 
Johns, the jail physician, then Sheriff Scott 
and three deputies, followed by the iury that 
convicted the culprit. Next came the pris- I 
oner, supported by Rev. Dr. Lyon, of the I 
First Presbyterian Church, and Rev. Mr. 1 
Glover, of the Episcopal Church. Three 
guards brought up the rear. These were the 
only witnesses to the execution. 

" Upon reaching the gallo\\s. Francisco 
was placed beneath the beam and over the 
drop, and Sheriff Scott proceeded to strap his 
legs. The condemned man conducted himself 
with great firmness, betraying no signs of fear 
for his fate. The prisoner shook hands with 
his jailers and spiritual advisers, and with the ; 
jury. To his waiting executioner, he was pro- i 
fuse in express-ions of gratitude for kind and j 
humane treatment. The farewells being over, 
tlie Sheriff slipped the noose over his head and 
pulled down the cap that wms to spare the 
witnesses the horrible sight of his distorted 

features while undergoing strangulation. AH 
was silent as the grave as the neighboring 
clock chimed a quarter after two. The drop 
was to fall at 2 :30. 

" Rev. Dr. Lyon knelt down and offered an 
impressive prayer, and when he arose Sheriff" 
Scott, according to the usage of those days, 
told the poor wretch how many minutes he 
had to live, and adjured him to make good use 
of them in petitioning for mercy at the Throne 
of Grace. In the middle of his passionate 
prayer the bolt was drawn, the drop fell and 
Francisco's body plunged down the trap, and 
after three minutes of violent contortions it 
hung motionless at the end of the rope. 

■' In thirty five minutes the body was cut 
down and inclosed in a neat coffin, which was 
screwed down in jail, but such was the 
curiosity to see the remains that those charged 
with the burial had to unscrew the coffin 
twice. The body was interred at the corner 
of Seventh and Myrtle streets, on property 
long owned by H. S. Jones." 


The first agricultural society was formed 
in 1822. and held a fair on the public square 
of Erie in 1823. The next organization was 
perfected in 1848 under the title of the Erie 
County Agricultural Society. Fairs were 
held on the Academy grounds in 1849, 1850, 
1851, 1852; on the Cunningham lot, east of 
Parade street, in 1853. 1854 and 1855; on the 
Garrison tract in 1856, 1857 and 1858 ; and on 
the Ebersole farm, in East Mill Creek, in 1859 
and 1860. The society was chartered as a 
joint stock association in 1860, with a capital 
of $5,000. Thirty acres of the Ebersole farm, 
east of the city, were purchased, a race track 
laid out, and a small exhibition building erect- 
ed, but no fair was held after 18*30, in conse- 
quence of the war. 

The Erie County Agricultural Society was 
formed in 1869 and held fairs annually on the 
Reed lots, just west of Erie City, until within 
a few years. 

The Pennsylvania State Agricultural 
Society has held four exhibitions at Erie, on 
the Reed tract above referred to. The years 
of its fairs were 1872, 1873, 1877 and 1878. 
John W. Hammond, of Erie, was president 
of the society when its last two fairs in this 


county were held. James Miles, of Girard, 
was president in 1882-83-84 

An association was formed in 1864 for 
holding a " Harvest Home " picnic annually, 
which has been one of the most successful in 
the county. These picnics are usually held in 
August, at the Head, and are attended by 
thousands of farmers, as well as many city 
people. J. C. Thornton, one of the origi- 
nators of the idea, has attended every picnic 
from the beginning. The 30th annual Harv- 
est Home Picnic was held at the Head on 
Thursday, August 16, 1894. 

The order of Patrons of Husbandry, or 
" Grange," as it is usually known, was intro- 
duced into Erie county December 23, 1873, 
when Corry Grange, No. 55, the first in the 
county, was instituted. D. C. Kennedy was 
the first master and H. G. Pratt the first 
secretary in the county. The order has since 
spread until it numbers a dozen or more so- 
cieties and wields large influence. 

The first Farmers' Alliance, known as 
" Erie County," was organized near Hornby, 
in Greenfield township. May 20, 1889 ; the 
second, called Greenfield Alliance, at the 
Prindle school-house, in the same township, 
November 25, 1889, and the third (Macedonia) 
in Venango township, January 11, 1890. 
Charles Morgan, Jr., of Greenfield, was the 
active man in starting the organization. 
From Erie county the association has spread 
over a number of the States, and is one of the 
most influential farmers' organizations in the 

The organization known as the State Police 
and Home Guards of Pennsylvania and Ohio, 
was started in Ashtabula county, Ohio, and 
Crawford county, Pennsylvania. At the begin- 
ning, the societies had no regular legal author- 
ity, but in 1872 Hon. E. H. Wilcox secured an 
act of Assembly which entitled them to incor- 
poration, and gave them specific powers. The 
object of the organization is to protect the 
farmers and citizens of villages against outlaws, 
and more particularly against horse thieves. 
Numerous camps of the organization exist in 
this and the adjacent counties of Pennsylvania 
and Ohio. Geo. C. Gates, of Springfield, 
was secretary of the society for seven years, 
and captain for three years. 

The Erie Fair Association was organized 
in Januarj', 1895. A fine racing track for 
their use has been prepared by Charles M. 

Reed, on the Reed farm, located upon the 
Lake road, some three miles east of the city. 

Local fairs have long been held annually 
at Corry, Edinboro and Wattsburg, under the 
direction of the .societies at those places. 


By the act of 1804, every able-bodied man 
between the ages of eighteen and forty-five 
was enrolled and compelled to perform two 
days' military duty each year, or pay a fine. 
The militia were divided into companies, bat- 
talions, regiments and brigades, each of which 
elected its own officers. Beginning in a 
proper spirit, the " militia trainings," as they 
were termed, degenerated into a public farce. 
Every member was expected to have a gun 
and bring it along for inspection, but, as the 
system weakened in popular estimation, the 
discipline giew more slack, and many carried 
sticks, canes, brooms, corn stalks, and even 
light fence rails. The contrast between the 
flaming uniforms of the officers, and the out- 
landish appearance of the men was indescri- 
I bably laughable. For a long time, though, 
training day was a great event throughout the 
I State, and was looked forward to as a fair or 
I a circus is now. The militia law was repealed 
at the session of 1847-48, and the old-fashioned 
! trainings went out of vogue. A good many 
men who are or have been known as generals, 
majors or colonels, secured their titles under 
i the old militia system. 

In addition to the regular militia, volunteer 
companies have been in existence almost from 
the earliest settlement. The first of these was 
Capt. Elisha Marvin's Greenfield company, 
organized in 1801, with about eight)' mem- 
bers. The second was Capt. Thomas Forster's 
Erie Light Infantry, organized in 1806. This 
company took part in the war of 1812-13. 
; Other old-time companies were as follows : In 
: 1821, the Erie Greens; in 1824, the Washing- 
! ton Artillery ; in the same year, the Erie 
Guards; in 1831, an artillery company: in 
[ 1836, a cavalry company; about 1841, the 
I German Guards and the Washington Guards ; 
! in 1842, the Wayne Grays; in 1858, the 
Franklin Pierce Rifle Company ; in 1859, the 
Wayne Guard, John W. McLane, captain, 
I and the Perry Artillery Company, Gustav 
Jarecki, captain. 

The Wayne Grays and the Wayne Guard 
are the best known, a number of citizens who 



are yet living having been members of one or 
the other of these companies. The Grays 
tendered their services in the Mexican war, 
but they were declined, the quota from Penn- 
sylvania being full. The Wayne Guard were 
at the height of their prosperity at the out- 
break of the rebellion, and the company 
formed the nucleus of all the regiments that 
left Erie. More than half of the company be- 
came oflicers in the war. 

Besides these volunteer organizations, the 
following are known to have been in exist- 
ence in the county : At North East, in 1822, 
the Burgettstown Blues; at Waterford, in 
1824, the Invincibles; at Fairview, in 1824, 
a company, name unknown ; at the same place, 
the Fairview Guards; at Girard, in 1860, the 
Guards. Most of the volunteer soldiery of 
the county tendered their services to the gov- 
ernment in 1861, when the war for the Union 
opened. [For an account of the military 
organizations in Erie since the war for the 
Union, see chapter XIII., Erie .City.] 


In the early days of the county the use of 
whisky was almost universal, and there were 
few houses in which a supply was not kept 
constantly on hand. No one thought it wrong 
to "treat" visitors, or to drink in the pres- 
ence of his family. Distilleries were as com- 
mon as gristmills became afterward, and a 
large share of the grain was converted into 
liquor. Many farmers made a practice of 
regularly taking a portion of their grain to the 
distilleries and having a jug full or a barrel 
full of whisky made for their household use. 
The first prohibition society was established 
at Wattsburg in 1829, and the next year a 
grt at temperance wave swept over the county. 
A large portion of the people signed the 
pledge, it became unpopular to keep liquor 
in the house or to have grain made into 
whisky, and the distilleries rapidly disap- 
peared. To-day there is not one in the 
county. The manufacture of wine began at 
North East in 1869, and has since become 
considerable of an industry at that place and 
Erie. Beer is a comparatively modern bev- 
erage in the county, having been introduced 
with the later German immigration. There 
are eight or ten breweries in the county, of 
which three in Erie are on quite an extensive 


In 1840 there was a temperance society in 
almost every town and township. Temper- 
ance organizations have been in existence ever 
since, and the Temperance party has run a 
county ticket annually for many years. The 
Good Templar society in Erie county was 
first organized in 1856. 


j The colored population of the county was 

larger, proportionately, eighty years ago than 
now. Most of those who were here in early 

I days, were brought in as slaves, some of the 
most reputable families having been owners 
of this kind of property. The emancipation 
act of the State provided that all negroes over 
a certain age should remain slaves until their 
death ; all below should become free at the 
age of twenty-eight. Under its provisions, a 

I large portion of the colored race became en- 
titled to their freedom, but there were a few 

I who continued in slavery till released by the 

j Master of all. 


The month of May, 1834, is notable in the 
weather records of the lake shore country. 
For three days before the 13th, there were 
strong cold winds from the west, with snow 
squalls. On the 13th, the bay and lake were 
unusually rough. Six inches of snow fell on 
the 15th. The leaves and blossoms were 
I nearly all killed. No vessel was able to enter 
the port of Erie for four days. At the end of 
that time, the steamboat "New York," from 
Buffalo, stopped at the channel pier. A small 
boat set out from the wharves to board her, 
and was capsized on the way over. Of eleven 
persons in the boat but two were saved. 
Frosts took place as late as June of that year. 
Two of the worst storms on record occur- 
red on the 10th and 11th of November. 1835. 
and on the 15th of the same month, 1842. On 
the occasion first named, the water was lashed 
I into such fury that a party of fifteen men, who 
were raising the " Detroit " in Misery bay, 
I dared not venture to return home, and had to re- 
\ main on the Peninsula from the evening of the 
i 10th to the morning of the 12th without food, 
! fire or shelter. The waves rolled over the sand 
beach clear up to the foot of Garrison Hill. 

In May, 1858, there was a continued period 
of cold weather. Rain fell nearly every day 
in the month, and fruits of all kinds were kill- 




ed b)' frost. The heaviest late frost recorded 
by the weather office in Erie occurred May 29, 
1884, but milder frosts took place the first 
week of June, 1878, 79, '86 and '88. 

On June 6, 1842, there were snow and ice 
in various parts of the county, and in July of 
the same year frost formed over a good por- 
tion of Northwestern Pennsj'lvania. Snow 
fell in some parts of the State on June 6, 1843. 
The greatest snow storm on record fell on the 
afternoon and night of December 29, 1876, 
the date of the Ashtabula disaster. It was so 
deep that people in the city doing business, 
but a few squares from their homes, were ex- 
hausted in making their way to their suppers. 

In the winter of 1880-81, snow fell about 
the middle of November, and lasted without 
interruption till February. During most of 
that time there was a slight snow-fall daily. 
A break-up came in February, but it was 
quickly followed by more snow, which lasted 
until the 15th of March. Then came the great 
snow-storm of March 30 and 31. The cold 
was intense during most of the winter. On 
the 3d of February the thermometer was 18 
deg. below zero at Erie, 20 deg. at McKean, 
24 deg. at Edinboro, 28 deg. at Albion, and 
30 deg. at Waterford. February 10, 1881, 
the weather was 20 deg. below zero in Erie 
at 8 A. M. The lake was frozen over to the 
Canada shore during a good portion of the 
winter, and the ice on the bay was over twenty 
inches thick. The snow and cold prevailed 
over the country from the Rocky Mountains 
to the Atlantic. There were snow and ice in 
portions of the South where they had never 
been known before. 

The winter of 1882—83 was unusually long 
and steady. There was .scarcely a pleasant 
day from November 1 to April 1. The groimd 
was found to be frozen in some places in Erie 
to a depth of three and a half feet. 

The night of Februarj' 10, 1885, is memor- 
able as one of the coldest periods known in 
the county. On the morning of the 11th the 
thermometer registered 17 to 28 below zero at 
Erie, 25 to 30 at Waterford. 23 at Corry and 
32 at Wattsburg. 

A long-to-be-remembered cold spell set in 
the night of February 3, 1895, and lasted un- 
til the 8th. During most of this period the 
thermometer at Erie ranged from 3 to 4 below 
zero in the day time, and 8 to 10 at night. 
On the 7th occurred one of the severest bliz- 

zards ever experienced. The cold and storm 
extended over the most of North America, 
Europe and Northern Asia. Zero weather 
prevailed as far south as Tennessee, and deep 
snow fell where it is seldom known. The 
railroads were blocked for days all over the 
country, and many persons died from the ex- 
I treme cold. At Corry and in the southern 
' parts of the county generally, the thermome- 
ter, from February 3 to 7, inclusive, ranged 
from 4 to 28 below zero, averaging, during 
the five days, \^\. On February 15, the ice 
in Erie harbor was from 28 to 30 inches thick. 
On Sunday night, May 12, 1895, a heavy 
frost fell that injured the grapes and small 
fruit considerably. The week ensuing, the 
weather was quite chilly. On the morning of 
May 15th ice was reported half an inch thick 
on quiet water in the hill townships. Snow 
to the depth of two inches fell in some of the 
southern districts of the county. The cold 
spell was preceded by several days of unusu- 
ally warm weather. The extreme heat, fol- 
lowed by cold and frost, prevailed over a large 
portion of the Union. 

On the other hand, several winters have 
been remarkable for their mildness. A num- 
ber of instances are mentioned in the article 
on lake navigation. During the winter of 
1881-2, the bay was open most of the season, 
and there was never more than a light coating 
of ice on the lake. On the 26th of December, 
1865, fires were not needed, and people were 
glad to throw open their doors and windows 
for cool air. On the 1st of January, 1876, the 
day was so pleasant that the people of Girard 
indulged in a picnic in the woods. 

The month of July, 1895, was unseason- 
ably cool, especially during the last week. 
July 30 and 31 and August 1, fires were quite 
comfortable, and many persons wore their 
winter clothing in the evenings. The free 
band concerts in Central Park, Erie city, had 
to be postponed on account of the cool w eather. 
The earliest fall snow storms on record are 
; as follows : October 13, 1844 or '45, remain- 
ing until the ensuing April ; October 20, 1866, 
ten inches in depth, which disappeared in some 
three days ; September 22, 1870, lasting the 
fall and 'winter through; October 8, 1879 or 
I '80, eight inches, followed by mild weather ; 
1 October 20, 1895, ten inches in Erie, disap- 
j pearing in a day or two, and succeeded by a 
spell of pleasant weather, 



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Few persons are aware that the Asiatic 
cholera — most dreadful of all contagious dis- 
eases — at one time threatened the city of Erie. 
It was in July, 1832, in the days of steam- 
boating. A party of immigrants were being 
conveyed up the lake from Buffalo, when a 
Mrs. Hunter, and her daughter developed 
symptoms of the terrible epidemic. The steam- 
boat stopped at the channel pier and they were 
landed on the peninsula, where both died — 
Mrs. Hunter after an illness of thirteen hours, 
and her daughter a few hours later. The in- 
cident created much excitement among the 
citizens, who instantly adopted measures to 
prevent the contagion from getting a foothold 
in the town. Numerous cases of cholera de- 
veloped during that season on board lake 
steamboats and in other lake cities. 


The first telegraph line in Erie county was 
put up in 1847. It extended from Buffalo to 
Cleveland. The only telegraph office in the 
county for several years was at Erie. The 
telephone exchange in Erie, the first in the 
county, was established August 1, 1878. 


The early shows were altogether of the 
animal order, and the exhibitions generally 
took place in the barns of the best known 
hotels. In the beginning they consisted of a 
lion or tiger, and a monkey or two, and from 
that developed into large collections. We 
find a record of an elephant being in Erie in 
the summer of 1820, and of other animal 
shows in 1822 and 1823. The price of admis- 
sion was twenty-five cents for adults and 
twelve and a half cents for children. This 
charge continued up to the second or third 
year of the civil war. In Julj', 1827, the first 
circus appeared, and in the same month in 
1831, a violent storm blew down the tent of 
another, which was considered by the pious 
people as a manifestation of the disapproval of 
Providence. Within a date comparatively 
recent, it was looked upon as wicked to attend 
a circus, and, if religious persons went at 
all, it was with fear that they were not doing 
exactly the right thing. 


Before the era of railroads, cattle driving 

was one of the great industries of the county. 
There was no market for cattle nearer than 
the eastern counties of the State, and the only 
way of getting them there was by the common 
roads. They were collected annually and 
driven across the mountains in droves of one 
hundred or more to Berks, Lancaster and other 
counties convenient to Philadelphia. Two 
men and a boy, with as many horses, usually 
managed a drove, and the trip took from two to 
three months. Sheep, hogs and horses were 
driven to market in the same way. There 
were numerous taverns on the route, where 
rest and sustenance was provided for men and 
beasts. The business was started by Thomas 
P. and Isaac Miller, and was also carried on 
extensively by S. Hutchins, John Marvin and 
others. It required considerable capital to 
carry on the business, but, with ordinary luck, 
it paid well. The heaviest cattle buyer of 
later years was Wilson Moore, of Waterford. 


Located between New York and Ohio, 
far away from the wealthier portions of the 
State, Erie county suffered all the evils of the 
miserable currency which prevailed before 
greenbacks and National bank notes were in- 
troduced. With the exception of a few years, 
there was no bank of issue in the county, and 
the only banking institutions were private 
brokers' offices. The best currency of those 
times was New ^ork bank notes, and the 
poorest those of the western banks. Pennsyl- 
vania bank notes had only a small circulation 
in the county, and held a place in popular 
estimation intermediate between the above. 
There was a discount on all of these, ranging 
from one to twenty per cent. It was for the 
interest of the private bankers to circulate the 
notes on which there was the largest discount, 
and, as a consequence, the county was flooded 
with the bills of banks the locations of which 
were hardly known. Every business man had 
to keep a " bank note detector," revised and 
published monthly or weekly, on hand, and 
was not sure then that the notes he accepted 
would not be pronounced worthless by the 
next mail. There was hardly a week without 
a bank failure, and nearly every man had bills 
of broken banks in his possession. To add to 
the perplexities of the situation, there were 
innumerable counterfeits which could with 
difficulty be distinguished from the genuine. 



Granting that the bank was good, and that the 
discount was properly figured, there was no 
assurance that the bill was what it purported 
to be. All this was a terrible annoyance and 
loss to the people, but it was a regular 
bonanza to the " shaving shops." Even 
of the uncertain bank notes, there was not 
enough to do the business of the community. 
Most of the buying and selling was done 
on long credit, and occasionally a manufactu- 
ring firm, to ease itself along, and relieve the 
necessities of the public, would issue a mon- 
grel coin, which went by the name of " pew- 
terinctum." This condition of affairs lasted 
until a year or two after the rebellion broke 

People of this day who have no knowledge 
of the old bank note currenc}', can scarcely 
conceive of the advantage of a uniform system, 
such as has been given to us by the United 
States government. 

soldiers' and sailors' monuments. 

Erie county enjoys the distinction of hav- 
iug erected the first monument in Pennsyl- 
vania to the memory of the soldiers and sailors 
who lost their lives in the war for the Union. 
It stands in the center of the public square of 
Girard, and the entire expense of its erection, 
about ifOjOOO, was incurred by Dan Rice, the 
showman. The monument was dedicated on 
the 1st of November, 1865, in the presence of 
a vast multitude. Gov. Curtin, of Pennsyl- 
vania, and Gov. Tod, of Ohio, were among 
the eminent men who graced the occasion. 

A second monument, one of the hand- 
somest of its kind in the Union, was dedicated 
in Erie in 1872, and adds to the attractiveness 
of the Central park of the citj^. It commemo- 
rates the dead sailors as well as soldiers of the 
county, and owes its existence largely to the 
persistent labor of three patriotic ladies — Mrs. 
Isaac Moorhead, Miss Sarah Reed and Miss 
Helen Ball. The monument cost $10,000 ex- 
clusive of $500 paid by the city for the foun- 
dation. A monument to the unknown dead 
of the war for the Union was dedicated in Eiie 
cemetery in 1894. 


The pioneers of the county included a fair 
proportion of Revolutionary soldiers. Among 
tlieni were Seth Reed, who fought at Bunker 
Hill and rose to the rank of colonel ; Capts. 

John Lytle and Robert King, and Privates 
John Vincent, Thomas Rees, William Miles, 
Zelotus Lee, Michael Hare, Daniel Stancliff, 
John McCoy, Stephen Sparrow, Titus Allen, 
Stephen Oliver, Robert Irwin, and Messrs. 
Nash, Trask and Burrows. 


The first anti-slavery society in the county 
(which was also one of the earliest in the 
State) was formed in 1836. The principal 
members were Philetus Glass, Dr. Smedley, 
and Truman Tuttle, of North East ; Col. J. M. 
Moorhead, Mr. Jessup and Samuel Low, of 
Harbor Creek ; William Himrod, Alex. Me- 
haffey and Aaron Kellogg, of Erie; Giles 
and Hamlin Russell, of Mill Creek ; Stephen 
C. Lee, of Summit; Rev. T. H. Burroughs, 
of Concord; and William Gray, of Wayne. 
Another society was formed in North East 
about the same time, with Truman Tuttle as 
President, James Duncan as Vice-president, 
Dr. Smedley as Secretary, and R. L. Loomis 
as Treasurer. An anti-abolition meeting was 
held the same year in Springfield. 

The "underground railroad," which was 
the name generally given to the system bj- 
which s'aves from the South were run away 
from their masters, was in full operation in 
this county from about 1840 to 1860. There 
wert regular stations along the route, where 
zealous anti-slaveiy people openly defied the 
law and gave the runaway slaves food, shelter 
and money. The chief " station agents, " as 
they were jokingly called in Erie county, were 
William Gray, Stephen C. Lee, Hamlin Rus- 
sell and William Himrod. The slaves were 
secreted until a good chance offered to send 
them to Canada. 


Michael Hare, who was buried in Water- 
ford cemetery, attained the remarkable age of 
115 years, 8 months and 23 days. He was 
born in Ireland June 10, 1728, and died at 
Waterford on the 3d of May, 1843. 

Patrick Ward died in Girard township, 
aged 105 years. When in his 103d year 
he walked three miles to Girard borough in 
order to vote. 

James Davis lived in Greenfield until he 
was 100, when he moved to Michigan, where 
he died, either 103 or 105 years old. 

Two men have died in their 100th vear. 


They were Levi Atkins, of North East, and 
Elias Palmer, of Conneaut. The latter died 
in 1878. 

John Teel, first, a native of New England, 
died in Erie early in the century, aged 97 
years; Stephen Oliver, in McKean, January 
14, 1857, lacking one month of 97 ; John Cook, 
in Belle Valley, Octobers, 1895, aged 97; James 
Steadman, in McKean, in 1892, aged 96 years 
and 6 months; Benjamin CuUom, in the same 
township, in May, 1883, aged 96; Griffith 
Hinton, in Venango, on the 15th of March, 
1880, aged 96; Andrew Matteson, at or near 
Corry, on the 26th of March, 1883, aged 
95; and Mr. Mclntyre, in Springfield, in 1867, 
at the same age. 

The oldest woman was Mrs. Sarah Green, 
of Fairview, who died about 1885 or '86, at 
the age of 104 ydars. Next in the order of 
age was Mrs. Mary Dobbins, relict of Capt. 
D. Dobbins, of Erie, who died on the 24th of 
January, 1879, in her 100th year. Mrs. Mary 
Shaughnessy died in Erie July 30, 1882, aged 
100 years. The fourth oldest was Mrs. Will- 
iam Smith, formerly of Waterford, but later 
of Beaver Dam. Her death occurred in the 
latter place on the 6th of August, 1875, in 
her 99th year. 

Mrs. Anna Margaret, relict of Casper Doll, 
of Fairview, died February 3, 1881, aged 
97 years and 10 days ; Miss Rosanna Bliss, in 
Venango township, on the 16th of May, 1895, 
at the age of 97 years and 10 months ; Mrs. 
Lucy, relict of Asa G. Olds, in Erie, August 
13, 1881, lacking a few days of 97; Mrs. 
Phelps, of Waterford, in August, 1879, aged 
95; Mrs. Elias Parmer, of Conneaut, in 1876, 
aged 94; and Mrs. Johnston Eaton, of Fair- 
view, in 1872, aged 93. 

Below are the oldest persons known to the 
writer to be living in the county on the 1st of 
September, 1895: Thomas Dillon, Erie, in 
his 99th year ; Mrs. Weed, Greene township, 
aged 97 ; Mrs. Eliza Wilson Yost, Greenfield, 
94; Mrs. Matthew Gray, Erie, in her 93d 
year; Mrs. Oliver Dunn, Erie, in her 92d 
year; James Hampson, North East, aged 92. 
All of these, except Mr. Dillon, were born in 
Erie county. 


The first time a day for Thanksgiving was 
set apart in Pennsylvania was on the last 
Thursday of November, 1819, at the sugges- 

tion of Gov. Findlay. The governor's proc- 
lamation was generally respected throughout 
Erie county. The first chief executive to pro- 
pose a day of national Thanksgiving was 
President Washington, who fixed Thursday, 
November 26, 1789, for that purpose. 


The largest rainfall ever known, within 
the same period, occurred on August 25, 1873, 
when the weather office reported that two 
inches of water fell within two hours' time. 

A flood in the fall of 1878 did much dam- 
age in the western part of the county. 

One of the greatest floods ever known 
took place at the beginning of February, 1883. 
It washed away nearly every mill dam in the 
county and destroyed numerous bridges. The 
damage amounted to tens of thousands of dol- 

An extraordinary downpour occurred in 
June, 1892, lasting several days and extend- 
ing over the whole State. It did much dam- 
age in this county, especially along the South 
Branch of French creek, at Corry, Union and 
other points. 

The biggest flood known in Erie city oc- 
curred in the spring of 1893, sweeping bridges 
and houses off their foundations along Mill 
creek, and causing damage that cost the city 
many thousands of dollars to repair. 


One of the most interesting incidents in 
the history of the county was the trip of the 
Liberty Bell in 1893. It reached Erie at 3 
A. M. on the 26th of April, on its way from 
Philadelphia to the World's Fair in Chicago, 
accompanied by a large delegation of officials 
of the second named city. An immense con- 
course gathered at the depot to greet the relic, 
including thousands of school children. The 
special train left Erie at noon of the 26th, and 
proceeded to Chicago by way of Corry, Oil 
City and Pittsburg. It was received every- 
where with touching demonstrations. 


One of the main interests of the agricul- 
tural portion of the county is the raising of 
grapes, which are produced in enormous 
quantities in North East, Harbor Creek and 
some of the other lake shore townships. An 
account of the beginning and progress of this 



important interest will be found in the chapter 
relating to North East township. From 
North East and Harbor Creek, the grape cul- 
ture spread to the lake shore townships of 
Girard, Fairview, Mill Creek and Spring- 
field, and it will not be many years until the 
entire lake border of the county will be one 
vast grape, fruit, berry and vegetable section. 
When the grape culture developed into a large 
business, the principal growers of Erie and 
Chautauqua counties entered into an organiza- 

tion which was known as the Chautauqua and 
North East Grape Union. This was in 1891. 
The Union lasted three years, when it was 
dissolved and a new organization formed at 
North East, under the title of the Lake Erie 
Grape Union. It embraces the leading grow- 
ers of North East and Harbor Creek, but is 
open to members from all parts of Erie coun- 
ty. The purpose of the Union is to sell and 
ship grapes and advance the general interests 
of the grape-growing industry. 


Erie County in the War for the Union. 

ON the inauguration of Civil War by the 
attack on Fort Sumter. April 12, 
1861, the people of Erie county were 
practically unanimous in the senti- 
ment that the Union must be pre- 
served at all hazards. Party differences were 
forgotten, for the time being, and men of all 
shades of politics vied with each other in 
acts of patriotism. 

The first war meeting in the county was 
held in Wayne Hall, Erie, on the 2(3th of 
April, 1861. It was largely attended, and 
was presided over by William A. Galbraith. 
Speeches were made, in addition to Mr. Gal- 
braith's, by George H. Cutler, John H. Walker 
and George W. DeCamp. Of these gentle- 
men, Messrs. Galbraith, Cutler and DeCamp 
had been identified with the Democratic party. 
A movement had already been started by 
Capt. John W. McLane to organize a regi- 
ment to serve for three months. Volunteers 
were flocking to McLane's standard with sur- 
prising rapidity, and it was necessar}- to raise 
a fund for the support of the families of many 
of those who had enlisted. The sum of 
$7,000 for the purpose was subscribed at the 
meeting, which was increased in a few days 
to $17,000. Similar meetings were held in 
almost every town in the county, and vol- 
unteer relief funds were subscribed everv 

where. The speakers in most general de- 
mand were Messrs. Galbraith and DeCamp. 

The Ferry Artillery Company, C. F. 
Mueller captain, and W.F. Leutje, first lieuten- 
ant, at once tendered their services to the gov- 
ernment and were accepted. The Wayne 
Guard, of which Jno. W. McLane was cap- 
tain, generally enlisted, as did those of the 
Girard Guards, D. W. Hutchinson captain. 
Many of the members of these companies be- 
came officers in the regiments subsequently 

THE three months' REGIMENT. 

When the war broke out, no person, North 
or South, believed it would last bej-ond three 
months. The first proclamation of President 
Lincoln called for volunteers for that period, 
and a large portion of the men who went into 
the field on both sides did so with the thought 
that it would be nothing more than a grand 
picnic at the public expense. 

The camp of the three months" regiment 
was established on a piece of vacant ground 
in Erie at the southeast corner of Parade and 
Sixth streets, where volunteers poured in 
from all parts of the northwest. More offer- 
ed in a few days than could be accepted, and 
many were reluctantly compelled to return 
home. As a sample of the spirit of the time, 


the borough and township of Waterford sent 
forward nearly 100 men. Five companies 
were recruited in Erie alone, but of these 
fully one-half were from other places. It was 
considered a privilege to be accepted, and 
those who failed to pass muster or arrived too 
late were grievously disappointed. The regi- 
ment left Erie for Pittsburg at 2 p. m. on 
Wednesday, the 1st of May, being accom- 
panied by Mehl's Brass Band. A vast crowd 
was at the railroad depot to witness its de- 
parture. The regiment reached Pittsburg at 
9 A. M. the next day, and took up quarters 
in Camp Wilkins. A number of its members 
were discharged because the companies to 
which they were attached exceeded their 
quota. It received arms and uniforms on the 
29th of May, and was carefully drilled every 
day that it remained in camp. For some rea- 
son, the regiment was never called into active 
service, and it returned to Erie on Saturday 
evening, July 20. It was escorted by a dele- 
gation of citizens to Central park, where a 
public supper had been prepared by the ladies 
of the city. But one member died during the 
absence of the regiment. 


Meantime, the President had issued a call 
for 300,000 men for the war, and Col. Mc- 
Lane had made a tender of a regiment for that 
service. Many of the members of the three 
months' regiment volunteered to go with the 
colonel, and they were accordingly dismissed 
until the 1st of August to await an answer 
to his proffer. On the 24th of July Col. Mc- 
Lane received an order authorizing him to re- 
cruit a new regiment. Those of the first 
regiment who had re-enlisted were recalled, 
and recruiting began actively throughout the 
Northwestern counties. A camp was estab- 
lished on the old fair grounds, about two 
miles east of the city, on the Buffalo road, 
which was used for the same purpose by the 
regiments afterward organized. 

An immense meeting was held in Farrar 
Hall, on the 24th of August, to assist in rais- 
ing men for the regiment. It was addressed 
by William A. Galbraith, James C. Marshall, 
George W. DeCamp, Col. McLane, Miles W. 
Caughey and Capt. John Graham. Meetings 
of a like character followed throughout the 
county. The principal speakers besides those 
named were Alfred King, Strong Vincent, 

William S. Lane, Morrow B. Lowrj- and Dan 

The regiment of Col. McLane, on being 
reported full, was ordered to the front, and 
left for Harrisburg on the 16th of September. 
Its departure was attended by the same vast 
outpouring and marked by the same pathetic 
incidents as before, and none who were eye- 
witnesses will ever forget the scenes of the 
day. A flag was presented to it on the part 
of the State December 21, and it became 
officially known as the Eighty-third Regiment. 


While these measures were in progress 
Capts. Gregg and Bell, of the United States 
army, opened a recruiting office in the city 
for the regular cavalry, and enlisted a consid- 
erable number of young men. Recruiting 
was going on at the same time with great 
vigor for the navy. Some sixty persons from 
Erie went to New York to serve under the 
command of Lieut. T. H. Stevens, formerly 
of the Michigan. Up to September 7, Capt. 
Carter, of the United States steamer " Mich- 
igan," had enlisted 700 seamen, who were 
forwarded in squads to the seaboard. 

By September, the Ladies' Aid Society 
had been organized in Erie to furnish relief 
to the sick and wounded soldiers in the field, 
with branches in most of the towns in the 
county. It was maintained during the entire 
war, and did invaluable service. Through its 
labors boxes of delicacies, hospital supplies, 
medicines and other comforts for the sick were 
forwarded to the front almost daily. 


Before the departure of the Eighty-third 
Regiment, M. Schlaudecker, of Erie, major 
of the three months' regiment, commenced re- 
cruiting for another. Enlistments went on 
with such alacrit)' tiiat the regiment left for 
the front on Tuesday, the 25th of February, 
1862, with every company full. At Harris- 
burg it was presented by Gov. Curtin with a 
stand of colors, and took rank as the One 
Hundred and Eleventh Regiment. The regi- 
ment was accompanied by Zimmerman's Brass 

A meeting was held in Erie on the 12th of 
April to provide for the relief of those who 
might be wounded in the battles that were 
daily expected in Virginia. Considerable 



money was raised, and committees were ap- 
pointed to furnish attendants for those who 
might need their services. By this date, the 
country was having war in earnest. Squads 
of rebel prisoners were taken through on the 
Lake Shore R. R. every few days. 

It might be supposed that war matters ab- 
sorbed the whole of the public attention, but 
this was only the case in a general sense. All 
lines of trade and manufacture were carried 
on with unabated energy during the entire 
conflict, and a course of public lectures was 
maintained in the city each winter, compri- 
sing some of the most noted orators of the 

The news of the battles around Richmond, 
in which the Eighty-third suffered terribl)' 
and Col. McLane was killed, reached Erie in 
the later part of June, and caused great mourn- 
ing. Emblems of sorrow for the dead were 
placed on many buildings, and hospital stores 
were hastilv sent forward for the wounded. 



Early in July the President called for 
300,000 more troops, and of this number it 
was announced that Erie county's proportion 
was five companies of 100 men each. A meet- 
ing to encourage enlistments was held in 
Wayne Hall, at which the County Commis- 
sioners were asked to appropriate $100,000 to- 
ward equipping a new regiment. This was 
succeeded by others, both in Erie and in the 
country districts. The martial spirit had 
been much cooled by the disasters in Virginia, 
and it began to be necessary to offer extra in- 
ducements to volunteers. Erie city offered a 
bounty of |50 to each recruit and the various 
townships hastened to imitate its example. 
Another call for 800,000 men decided the 
County Commissioners to appropriate $25,000 
to pay an additional bounty of the same 
amount. In August, for the third time, the 
fair grounds were turned into a militarj' camp, 
and the organization of the One Hundred and 
Forty-fifth Regiment began. Recruits came 
forward rapidly, and the regiment left for the 
seat of war on the 11th of September, 1862. 

At the same time that enlistments were 
in progress for the last-named regiment, vol- 
unteers were being gathered for other organi- 
zations. The navy was receiving numerous 
accessions, mainly from Erie. Capts. Lennon, 
Miles and Roberts were each raising a cavalry 

company. On September25, Capt. Lennon's 
company left with full ranks, and by the 4th 
of October, Roberts' and Miles' companies 
were both in camp at Pittsburg. A cavalry 
company had previously been raised at Union 
by Capt. Geo. H. Russell, which went into 
camp at Philadelphia, and became a part of 
the Twelfth Cavalry Regiment. 


Notwithstanding the large number of vol- 
unteers, the quota of Erie county, under the 
various calls of the President, was still short, 
and a draft seemed inevitable. The papers 
were full of articles urging the people, for the 
credit of the county, to avoid the draft, and 
meetings were constantly heingheld to induce 
volunteering. Many persons were badly 
scared over the probability of being forced in- 
to the service, and a few quietly took up 
their abode in Canada. As the chance of a 
draft became more certain, insurance com- 
panies were formed for the protection of the 
members. Those who joined these organiza- 
tions paid a sum varying from $20 to $50, 
which was placed in a common fund, to pro- 
cure substitutes for such of their number as 
might be drawn from the wheel of fate. 
While preparations for the draft were in pro- 
gress, recuiting for both the army and the 
navy went on with great energy. 

Toward the latter part of September, the 
State authorities became alarmed for the safe- 
ty of Harrisburg, and a hasty call was issued 
for minutemen to assist in the defense of the 
capital. Six companies, including some of the 
leading business men, left Erie for Harrisburg, 
in response to the Governor's appeal, but, hap- 
pily, were not needed to take part in any fight- 
ing. They returned in the beginning of 

Meanwhile, an enrollment of the militia 
had been made, preliminary to the draft, 
under the direction of I. B. Gara, who had 
been appointed a commissioner for that pur- 
pose. These proceedings, as well as the sub- 
sequent measures in connection with the sub- 
ject, were carried on under the State militia 
law. W. P. Gilson was appointed a deputy 
marshal to prevent the escape of persons lia- 
ble to conscription into Canada. The officers 
to manage the draft were B. B. Vincent, com 
missioner, and Charles Brandes, surgeon. 



Volunteers were accepted up to the day of 

The draft was held in the grand jury room 
of the court house on the 16th of October, 
1862, 1,055 names being drawn for the whole 
county, the owners of which were to serve for 
nine months. A blindfolded man drew the slips 
from the wlieel, which were read as they came 
out to the crowd in attendance. There were 
many funny incidents, and some that were 
very sad indeed. North East and Springfield 
were the only districts in the county that 
escaped the draft, their quotas being full. In 
filling the wheel, all persons were exempted 
above the age of forty-five years ; also, all 
ministers, school teachers and school directors. 

After the draft, the main business for some 
weeks was hunting up substitutes. The price 
of these ranged from $50 to |250, though the 
average was in the neighborhood of $150. 
The act released parties from military service 
on payment of $300, and those who were able 
to raise the money generally availed them- 
selves of the privilege. A good many persons 
who had concluded that the war was to be a 
long and bloody one, put substitutes into the 

^ice for a term of three vears. 


were plenty, who hired out as substitutes, got 
their money in advance and then left for parts 
unknown. Some 300 persons were exempted 
for physical disabilit}', about 250 failed to re- 
port, and, altogether? it is doubtful whether 
500 of the drafted men ever went into the 
army. The first lot of conscripts, fifty-one in 
number, left for camp at Pittsburg in the lat- 
ter part of October, some 300 were forwarded 
on the 10th of November, and the balance 
went on at intervals between that and the end 
of the year. Andiew Scott was appointed a 
Provost Marshal to hunt up the delinquents, 
but hardly found enough to pay for the 
trouble. The Councils of Erie voted $45,000 
for the relief of the families of conscripts from 
the city, and the Ladies' Aid Society' supplied 
each family with a Thanksgiving dinner. A 
majority of the conscripts reached home by 
the ensuing August. Few saw any fighting, 
and the number of deaths was meager. 


By the fall of 18(52, prices had gone up 
twenty-five to forty per cent., with a steady 
tendency to advance. The national tax law 
was in full operation, and county, city and 

township levies were largely increased to pro- 
vide money for bounties. Gold and silver had 
disappeared from circulation, and national 
treasury notes, or greenbacks, as they came to 
be known, were slowly finding their way into 
use ; but the principal medium of exchange 
still consisted of the notes of uncertain State 
banks, county and city scrip and government 
fractional currency or "shin plasters." Even 
of the latter there were not enough for public 
convenience, and business men resorted to 
checks and due bills for fractional parts of a 
dollar. To meet the demand for small change, 
the city issued scrip in sums of five, ten, 
twenty, twenty-five and fifty cents, which 
proved of much convenience for the time 

While this was the state of aft'airs finan- 
cially, political feeling grew daily more in- 
tense. The term " Copperhead," as applied 
to the Democrats, came into use about the 
beginning of 1868, and the latter, to retort 
upon the Republicans, styled them Black- 
snakes, Revolutionists, Radicals and other 
names more forcible than polite. The Repub- 
licans taunted the Democrats with being op- 
posed to the war, and the latter answered by 
saying that the Republicans aimed at the de- 
struction of the people's liberty. Looking at 
the subject now, the embittered partisanship 
of the dav seems supremely foolish and incom- 
prehensible. There were true patriots on 
both sides, and both parties doubtless contain- 
ed men who were more anxious for the triumph 
of selfish ends than for the good of the coun- 
try'. The mass of the people were anxious 
for the preservation of the Union, though 
they held different views about the way of do- 
ing it. 


The news of the rebel invasion of Pennsyl- 
vania in June, 1863, caused a wonderful com- 
motion throughout the county. The Governor 
made an urgent appeal for militia to defend 
the State, and instant measures were taken in re- 
sponse. A vast meeting was held inErie on the 
evening of June 15, at which earnest speeches 
were made by Messrs. Lowry, Sill, Galbraith, 
Walker, Marvin, McCreary and others, point- 
ing out the duty of the people to drive the 
enemy from the soil of Pennsylvania. About 
400 citizens enlisted for the State defense, but, 
on reaching Pittsburg, they were ordered 



home, the victory of Meade at Gettysburg 
having rendered their immediate service un- 
necessary. Generous contributions of hospital 
stores were sent to the wounded Erie county 
soldiers by the efforts of the Ladies' Aid 
Society. The fall of Vicksburg and Meade's 
triumph were celebrated in Erie with great 

By reference to the newspapers of the day, 
we find that in the summer of 1863, Capt. 
Mueller was in Erie recruiting another bat- 
tery. Large numbers of young men were 
shipping in the navy. The citizens were mak- 
ing extraortlinary exertions to avert another 
draft. Insurance companies against the draft 
were formed by the score, and hundreds of 
persons were putting in claims for exemption 
to the enrolling officers. Regiments were 
passing through the city as often as two or 
three a week, on their way home to fill up 
their ranks. Not a few liable to military 
service were slipping off to Canada, and an 
occasional instance was reported of young 
men maiming themselves to secure exemption. 
The only portion of the male population who 
felt really comfortable were the deformed, the 
crippled and the over-aged. 


Early in the year 1863 Congress passed an 
act taking the matter of conscription out of 
the hands of the States, rendering all persons 
liable between the ages of twenty and fort}'- 
five, except such as were exempt from physi- 
cal causes, or other special reasons, and mak- 
ing each Congressional district a military 
district, under the supervision of a provost 
marshal, an enrolling commissioner, and an 
examining surgeon, to be appointed by the 
President. To escape military duty when 
called upon, it was made necessary to prove 
exemption, furnish a substitute, or pay !t!300. 
Lieut. Col. H. S. Campbell, late of the Eighty- 
third Regiment, was named as marshal; Jerome 
Powell, of Elk county, as commissioner; and 
Dr. John Macklin, of Jefferson county, as 
surgeon, to act for this Congressional district. 
Headquarters were established at Waterford, 
and a new enrollment was made during the 
months of May and June. In the prosecution 
of their duties, the enrolling officers met with 
some hostility among the laborers and me- 
chanics of the city, but nothing occurred of a 
serious nature. The government was now en- 

listing negroes into the army, and bodies of 
these troops passed through Erie frequently. 
The second draft in numerical order, and 
the first under the United States law, occurred 
at Waterford under the supervision of the 
officers above named on Monday and Tuesday 
the 24th and 25th of August. The wheel stood 
on a platform in front of the provost marshal's 
office, and the names were drawn by a blind 
man. An audience of a thousand or more 
surrounded the officers, one of whom took 
each slip as it came out of the wheel and read 
it aloud, so that all present could hear. The 
crowd was good natured throughout the pro- 
ceedings, but many a man who assumed in- 
difference when his name was drawn was at 
heart sick and sore. The saddest features of 
'the case did not appear to the public; they 
were only known to the parents, the wives, 
the children and the sweethearts of the con- 
j scripts. It is impossible now to state the 
number who were drafted, but as the county 
was announced to be nearly 1,400 short of its 
quota a week or so before, it is probable that 
it did not fall much below that figure. The 
! price for substitutes ran up to 1300, with the 
I supply quite equal to the demand. On the 26th 
of September, it was stated in the newspapers 
that eighty-three of the conscripts had fur- 
! nished substitutes, 245 had paid commutation, 
I 706 had been exempted and 127 had been 
forwarded to camp at Pittsburg. 


In October, 1863, appeared a call 

President Lincoln for 300,000 more men. Gov. 
Curtin announced Pennsylvania's quota to be 
38,268, which he asked to be made up by 
volunteering. A general bount}' of $402 was 
offered to veterans who should re-enlist, and 
$100 less to new recruits. To this sum the 
county added $300, and most of the districts 
$50 to $100 more. 

During a portion of the season, the L^nited 
States steamer* 'Michigan" was guarding John- 
son's Island, in the upper part of the lake, 
where about two thousand rebel prisoners 
were confined, whom rumor accused of a 
design to escape. In the month of November 
reports became current of a proposed rebel in- 
vasion from Canada, Erie being named as the 
landing place. This was the most startling 
news, in a local sense, that had yet arisen out 
of the war, and the citizens were correspond- 



ingly agitated. While the excitement was at 
its height, 600 troops arrived from Pittsburg 
with a battery, under the command of Maj. 
Gen. Brooks. The hotter directed intrench- 
ments to be thrown up on the blockhouse 
bluff, and called upon the citizens to lend him 
their assistance. Something like one thousand 
obeyed his summons, with picks and shovels, 
on the first day, but the workers dwindled 
woefully in number on the second day. The 
rumor proved to be false, the work was aban- 
doned, and the troops left for the South in a 
few days, with the exception of the battery. 
The encouragement given by the large 
bounties did much to promote volunteering. 
Erie county's quota of the new call was 673, 
which it was determined by the public should 
be made up without a draft. To the joy of all, 
when the day for the draft arrived, Erie 
county escaped, her proportion having been 


On the Uthof January, 1864, the members 
of the One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment 
came home to reciuit their ranks. They were 
given a grand reception at the depot, and treat- 
ed by the ladies to a sumptuous repast. The regi- 
ment went into camp on the fair grounds, and 
remained until February 25, when they left for 
the seat of war with ranks nearly full. A 
good many members of the Eighty-third Reg- 
iment, whose term had expired, also came 
home in January, and were received with the 
cordiality their bravery entitled them to. 
Seventy-five more arrived on the 4th of 

Among the features at the beginning of 
1864, it is to be noted that two recruiting 
officers for the regular army were busy at 
work in the city. The national currency had 
supplanted all other paper circulation, and, 
being issued in vast amounts, had inflated 
prices to twice and thrice their normal stand- 
ard. A remarkable speculation had com- 
menced in real estate. Sixty persons had re- 
cently enlisted from Erie in the navy, and 
hosts of others were thinking of doing the 
same in preference to entering the army. 
Several sciuadsof negro soldiers passed through 
Erie from Waterford. where they had been 
accepted to apply on the quota of the county. 
Five or six criminals were released from prison 
by the Court at the May session on condition 

that they must join the army. It was a com- 
mon practice of the day for the Courts to per- 
mit prisoners indicted for minor offenses to go 
without sentence if they volunteered to fight 
for the Union. 


The call of the President, in July, 1864, 
for 500,000 more men, was succeeded by the 
usual periodical endeavor to avoid the draft, 
which had become the all-exciting topic of 
discussion. At a meeting in Erie, $20,000 
were subscribed to offer extra inducements to 
volunteers, besides the United States, county 
and district bounties. The quota of the 
county was stated to be 1,289, and of this, the 
city's proportion was about one hundred and 
fifty. Provost Marshal Campbell, in pursu- 
ance of instruction, gave notice that negroes 
would be taken as substitutes. This hint was 
eagerly accepted, and Asa Battles, John W. 
Halderman and Richard M. Broas were 
deputed to go to the Southwest and pick up 
recruits to apply on the quota of Erie county. 
Meanvi'hile Ensign Bone had opened an office 
in the city, where he was shipping men by the 
hundreds for the navy. About a thousand 
entered the service through that channel, re- 
ceiving an average bounty of $400. The 
price of substitutes had increased to $550, 
$600 and $700. 

President Lincoln was re-elected in No- 
vember, 1864, after a contest which has never 
been surpassed in the hatred it engendered, 
and the vigor with which it was fought on 
both sides. Every speaker who could be 
mustered was forced upon the stump, and 
there was scarcely a cross-roads that did not 
have its mass meetings, pole raisings and 
political clubs. The great processions of the 
two parties in Erie during that campaign were 
the events of a life-time to many of the par- 
ticipants. Notwithstanding the heated can- 
vas, the election passed off without a disturb- 
ance, and the defeated party acquiesced in 
the result with the calmness of a martyr. 


The call for 800,000 more men in January, 
1865, led the Councils of Erie to increase their 
offer of a bounty to $150, which was ulti- 
mately increased to $400. A draft took place 
at Ridgway, where the Provost Marshal's 



office had been moved from Waterford, on the 
6th of March, in which 2,010 names were 
drawn from Erie county. The only district 
that did not have to contribute was Girard 
borough. The names of the conscripts were 
telegraphed to Erie and read to the anxious 
thousands in waiting, from a window of the 
Daily Dispatch office, in Wright's block, at 
the northeast corner of State and Fifth streets. 
Occasionally a" sound of forced laughter 
would be heard as some e.xcitable person's 
name was announced, but the general bearing 
of the crowd was solemn and painful. Hun- 
dreds of women were in the crowd, and their 
distress upon learning of the conscription of 
some father, husband or brother was most 
pitiful. The people were at last face to face 
with war's sternest and crudest realities. The 
Legislature had passed an act authorizing any 
district to pay a bounty of .$400, and large 
sums were now offered for volunteers and 
substitutes. The price of the latter at one 
period rose to tl,500, but got down tinallv 
to an average of between $800 and .$900. Of 
the drafted men, a good portion entered the 
service and were mostly assigned to guard 
duty in the forts at and near Washidgton. 
The majority of them were back by the last 
of June. 


On Sunday, April 9, came the glad news 
of the surrender of Lee, at Appomattox, which 
was everywhere hailed as the virtual end of 
the war. The demonstration in Erie over the 
event was the most joyful and impressive in 
the city's history. Cannons were fired, bells 
were rung, il.igs were thrown to the breeze, 
and the whole population shouted themselves 
hoarse for the Union and its gallant soldiers. 
The illumination in the evening made the 
streets almost as bright as the noonday sun. 
The universal gladness was quickly changed 
to profound sorrow by the assassination of 
President Lincoln on that dreadful Friday, 
the 12th of April. Emblems of mourning 
instantly took the place of the tokens of 
victory, and every warehouse, shop and busi- 
ness establishment was closed on Saturday. 
The special train bearing the martyred Presi- 
dent's remains to Springfield passed through 
the city on the 27th of April. Thousands of 
people gathered at the depot to pay their last 
tribute of respect to the honored dead. 


Here ends the story of the war, so far as 
relates to its general features in Erie county. 
j A sketch in detail of the several regiments is 
I given later on, to which all are referred who 
wish to know more of their history. The fol- 
lowing is a partial list of officers from Erie 
county who took part in the contest, aside 
from those already named or in the regular 
regimental organizations : 
1 United States ^Vazn'.— Regular officers, R. 

' B. Lowry, Thomas H' Stevens, R. N. Spotts, 
James E. Jouett, James W. Shirk, Leonard 
Paulding, D. Lanman, Napoleon Collins. 

Chief Engineer — William H. Rutherford. 

Surgeon — W. Maxwell Wood. 

Assistant Paymasters — J. P. Loomis, Wal- 
ter \V. Chester, George A. Lyon. 

Volunteer Service. — Masters — John H. 
Welsh, M. J. Cronen, James C. Marshall, Jr. 

Ensigns — A. J. Louch, M. E. Flannigan, 
Patrick Donnelly, William Slocum, James 
Hunter, George W. Bone, Felix McCann, 
Philip Englehart, James S. Roberts, C. M. 
Bragg, John Dunlap, Frank Oliver, James 
Downs, J. M. Reed, John Sullivan, Norman 
McCloud, Warren Burch, — Reed, — Reed, 
Patrick Murphy, Braxton Bragg. 

Engineers — Patrick Maloney, Robert 
Riley, William Bass, Bennett Jones, P. H. 
Fales, Jonas Slocum, William Moran, John 
Miles, George Odell. 

Gunners — John Murray, William Barton, 
Thomas Carpenter. 

Carpenters — J. G. Thomas, John O. Baker. 

Masters' Mates — Patrick Sullivan, Horace 
Sprague, Robert Roberts, Thomas J. Dunlap, 
William Marsh, Henry C. Warren, William 
E. Leonard, Jesse M. Rutherford, Joseph K. 
Kelso, James Cummins, Henry Van Velsor. 

Revenue Service. — Douglass Ottinger. 

United States Army. — Regular officers — 
Gen. Reno, H. B. Fleming, Josiah Kellogg, 
W. W. Lyon. 

Paymasters — A. McDowell Lyon. 

Quartermaster — E. C. Wilson. 

Volunteer Service. — A. F. Swan, 16th Pa. 
Cav. ; Lockwood Caughev, 16th Pa. Cav. ; 
William H. McAllister, 12th Pa. Cav. ; T. J. 
Hoskinson, 58th Pa. Inf. 

Paymasters — Allen A. Craig, S. V. Holli- 


day, Gideon J. Ball, Henry C. Rogers, John 

Quartermaster — Robert C. Caughey. 

Surgeons — J. L. Stewart, Thomas H. 

State Agent — S. Todd Perley. 


The following are extracts from the records 
of the County Commissioners during and im- 
mediately following the war : 

1861— April 22— The sum of $10,000 of 
the county funds set apart for the support of 
such persons as shall enlist in support of the 

1862 — August 5 — A bounty of $50 voted 
to each person who will volunteer to make up 
the quota of 500 men required from Erie county 
to make up the call of the President. 

September 10 — The quota being full and a 
large excess of volunteers in the One Hun- 
dreth and Forty-fifth Regiment ; the resolu- 
tion offering a bounty of $50 extended to all 
who may hereafter form the Eighty-third, 
One Hundred and Eleventh and One Hundred 
and Forty-fifth Regiments, or Thomas Len- 
non's Cavalry Company, to be credited to 
Erie county. 

1868— December 14— A bounty of $300 
voted to each person who shall volunteer to 
the credit of Erie county, so as to avoid the 
draft fixed for the 5th of January, warrants 
to be issued for the purpose drawing interest, 
redeemable at the will of the County Commis- 
sioners in county scrip, at par without interest. 

1864— February 9— The bounty of $300 ex- 
tended, under the same condition as above. 

April 5 — County script signed to date, 

March 14 — Rate of bounty tax fixed at 20 
mills on the dollar of valuation. Amount 
levied, $93,652. 

March 22— The bounty of $300 continued 
till the quota of Erie county is full ; provided, 
that if a local bounty is offered by any ward, 
borough or township, the county will only 
pay so much in addition as will make the sum 
of $300. 

December 15 — The other banks of Erie 
having refused to receive the county script on 

deposit, arrangements made by which it will 
be received bj' the Keystone National Bank 
at par. 

A tax of $35,000 levied to redeem county 

1865 — January 9 — Rate of county bounty 
tax fixed at 3 per cent on the valuation. 
Amount levied $171,867. 

October 2 — Tax to the amount of $12,000 
levied to pay interest on script and bounty 

December 27 — The rate of county bounty 
tax fixed at 15 mills on the valuation. Amount 
levied $88,643. 

1866— January 2— Burned $74,891 of the 
county script. 

1867— January 7— Burned $54,582 of coun- 
ty script. 

April 1 — Burned $25,000 of county scrip. 

1870 — October 4 — Estimate of county ex- 
penses : To replace scrip burned by Auditors 
for 1869, $14,800; to redeem county scrip yet 
outstanding, $3,700. 


During the war the government issued 
large amounts of paper money, which were 
generally understood to be irredeemable except 
in case of the preservation of the Union. 
Starting at par, or nearly so, this currency de- 
preciated until at one time it was worth, in 
gold, only forty cents on the dollar. The fol- 
lowing table ot retail prices, compiled from 
the Erie papers, shows how the cost of living 
advanced in consequence of the depreciated 
currency : 

Flour, per barrel t5 00@6 00 

wheat, per bushel 1 10 

Corn, per bushel 40 

Rye. per bushel 60 

Oats, per bushel 30 

Barlev, per bushel 40(al50 

Clover seed, per bushel 4 00(54 26 

Timothy seed, per bush 2 00 

Flax seed, per bushel. . 87 

Potatoes, per bushel. . j 217\: 

Beans, per bushel j 125 

Dried apples, per bush. 150 

Butter, per pound I 15(Sil6 

Lard, per pound , 8(S 10 

Cheese, per pound | 5(81 6 

Ham. per pound [ 7(gi % 

Shoulder, per pound . . 6 

EgBS, per dozen | I0@12 

Hard wood, per cord..| 2 00@2 50 

Soft wood, per cord . ..' 2 00 

12, 1864. Sept. 14, 



2 00@2 25 

ger lb, 25^30 

110 50@11 00 

1 80® 2 40 


1 75 

50®2 00 




Brtef History of the Erie County 

THE three months' REGIMENT. 

This regiment was recruited under a call 
issued on the 21st of April, 1861, by Capt. 
John W. McLane, who had served in the 
Mexican war, and at the breaking out of the 
rebellion was in command of the Wayne Guard 
at Erie. Twelve hundred men responded to 
the call in four days, of whom ten companies 
of seventy-seven men each were accepted. 
The regiment was mainly recruited from Erie 
and Crawford counties. It went into camp 
on a piece of vacant ground in Erie city, on 
the east side of Parade street, near the inter- 
section of Sixth, which was duly christened 
Camp Waj'ne. Field officers were elected on 
the 27th of April. The regiment proceeded 
by rail to Pittsburg on Wednesday, May 1, 
and camped along the Allegheny river a short 
distance above the city. Being the first or- 
ganized regiment that had reached the city, it 
was received with much curiosity and enthu- 
siasm, and the people vied with each other in 
deeds of kindness to both officers and men. 
After six weeks spent in idleness at Camp 
Wilkins, as its first quarters were known, the 
regiment was moved to Hulton Station, twelve 
miles further up the Alleghenv, where a gene- 
ral rendezvous had been established for the 
troops of Western Pennsylvania, under the 
name of Camp Wright. Here the men re- 
ceived muskets and were carefully drilled, but 
labored under much disadvantage in target 
practice for want of suitable ammunition. 
The term of enlistment of the regiment expired 
without its having been mustered into the 
United States service. It returned to Erie on 
the 20th of July. 

The following were the principal officers 
of the regiment : 


Colonel — John W. McLane. 
Lieutenant Colonel — Benjamin Grant. 
Major — M. Schlaudecker. 
Adjutant — Strong Vincent. 
Quartermaster — S. B. Benson. 
Surgeon — J. L. Stewart. 

company a RECRUITED .\T ERIE. 

Captain — T. M. Austin. 

First Lieutenant — A. McD. Lyon. 

Second Lieutenant — Strong Vincent (re- 
signed to take the Adjutancy of the regi- 

Second Lieutenant — William E. Bates. 

company B RECRUITED Al' ERIE. 

Captain — Hiram L. Brown. 
First Lieutenant — James F. Wittich. 
First Lieutenant — D. B. McCreary. 
Second Lieutenant — John M. Clark. 


Captain — John Graham. 
First Lieutenant — A. E. Yale. 
Second Lieutenant — C. P. Rogers. 


Captain — J. L. Dunn. 

First Lieutenant — J. W. Patton. 

Second Lieutenant — I. S. Krick. 


Captain — John A. Austin. 

First Lieutenant — A. M. Judson. 

Second Lieutenant — J. W. McKay. 


Captain — Charles B. Morgan. 
First Lieutenant — James Farrell. 
Second Lieutenant — David P. Sigler. 


Captain — D. W. Hutchinson. 
First Lieutenant — J. Godfrey. 
Second Lieutenants — C. A. Pettibone, J. 
E. Pettibone. 



Captain — John Landsrath. 
First Lieutenant — John M. Sell. 
Second Lieutenant — W. W. Gould. 


Captain — Frank Wagner. 

First Lieutenant — Peter Liebel. 

Second Lieutenant — Peter Schlaudecker. 


Captain — John Kilpatrick. 

First Lieutenant — Thomas C. McLane. 

Second Lieutenant — Edward Coughlin. 

The regiment was accompanied by Mehl's 
Band during the entire period of its absence. 
This band was organized and led by M. W. 
Mehl, of Erie. 




On the return of the three months' regi- 
ment Col. McLane immediately announced 
his purpose of raising another regiment for 
three years. Authority for this purpose was 
received on the 24th of July, 1861, and in less 
than five weeks the full complement of 1,000 
men had enlisted, mainly from the counties 
of Erie, Crawford, Warren and Forest. Of 
these, nearly 300 had been members of the 
three months' regiment. The rendezvous was 
on the old fair grounds east of Erie, and the 
regiment was mustered into the United States 
service on the 8th of September. It left for 
Washington on the 16th of September, ac- 
companied by Mehl's Band, where it was as- 
signed to the Third brigade of Porter's divi- 
sion, under command of Gen. Butterfield. 
The regiment soon attained to a high reputa- 
tion for drill and soldierly appearance. On 
one occasion Gen. McClellan said to Col. Mc- 
Lane : "I congratulate you upon having one 
of the very best regiments in the army." Gen. 
Butterfield also congratulated and commended 
the regiment in a general order. 

The regiment remained in camp in front 
of Washington until the 8th of March, 1862, 
when orders were received for the whole army 
to move. It took part in the reconnoissance 
toward Big Bethel and the siege of Yorktown, 
and was prominently engaged in the battles 
of Hanover Court House, Gaines' Mill, Mal- 
vern Hill and most of the desperate encoun- 
ters along and in the vicinity of the Chicka- 
hominy. At Gaines' Mill on the 27th of June 
Col. McLane was killed. On the 11th of" Au- 
gust Mehl's Band, which had been with the 
regiment to that date, was discharged by gen- 
eral order, and returned to Erie. 

When the army moved north the Eighty- 
third accompanied it, and participated in 
Pope's campaign, Antietam, Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Spottsylvania, 
and, in fact, nearly every battle that was 
fought down to the closing scene at Appo- 
mattox. Col. Vincent, who had succeeded 
Col. McLane, and who was at the time in 
command of the brigade, fell, mortally 
wounded, at Gettysburg on the 2d of July, 
1868. He had been appointed a Brigadier 
General, but the news of his promotion did 
not reach the regiment until after his death. 
After Gettysburg the regiment, which had 

been reduced by losses in battle and sickness 
to but 200 of its original members, was en- 
larged to the extent of some 400 drafted men 
and substitutes, and it received accessions 
from time to time sufficient to swell its total 
roll to about 2,600. 

It was mustered out of tiie service at 
Washington on the 28th of June, 1865, and 
formally disbanded on the 4th of July at Har- 
risburg. The members of the regiment re- 
turned to their homes in small bodies, but 
their welcome was none the less warm and 
cheering. In the official history of Pennsyl- 
vania volunteers, published by the Common- 
wealth, it is stated that the Eighty-third Regi- 
ment was engaged in twenty-five battles, 
" more by two than any other Pennsylvania 
Infantry regiment." 

Below is a list of the principal officers of 
the regiment : 


Colonels — John W. McLane, Strong Vin- 
cent, O. S. Woodward, Chauncey P. Rogers. 

Lieutenant Colonels — Strong Vincent, 
Hugh S. Campbell, Dewitt C. McCoy, Chaun- 
cey P. Rogers, William O. Colt. 

Majors — Louis H. Naghel, William H. 
Lamont. William O. Colt,'W. H. Dunbar. 

Adjutants— John M. Clark, B. M. Frank. 

Qiiartermasters — James Saeger, Daniel W. 
Clark, George M. Bo'al. 

Surgeons — William Faulkner, E. P. Allen, 
J. P. Burchfield. 

Assistant Surgeons — David E. Belknap, 
Isaac Waiborn, Michael Thompson, Jonathan 
Wotring, William S. Stewart, Jared Free, T. 
C. M. Stockton. 

Chaplains — Josiah Flower, Orson B. Clark. 


Captains — Charles B. Morgan, David P. 
Sigler, David P. Jones, William O. Colt, E. 
L. Whittelsey. 

First Lieutenants — David P. Sigler, David 
P. Jones, James M. Hunter, Martin V. B. 
Gifford, Wilkes S. Colt. 

Second Lieutenants — David P. Jones, 
James M. Hunter, Wilkes S. Colt, William H. 
Lamont, Pierce Hanrahan, David R. Rogers. 


Captains — John F. Morris, David A. Ap- 
ple, Daniel G. Saeger, Israel Thickstun, 
Andrew J. McKee. 


First Lieutenants — James Saeger, Daniel 
G. Saeger, Orrin A. Hotchkiss, David A. 
Apple, Andrew J. McKee, A. C. Montgomery, 
Harrison Raymond. 

Second Lieutenants — David A. Apple, 
Daniel G. Saeger, Orrin A. Hotchkiss, A. C. 
Montgomery, Harrison Raymond, Charles W. 


Captains — John Graham, John H. Borden. 

First T>ieutenants — Aaron E. Yale, John 
W. Vannatta. Abner B. Edson, Charle"s H. 

Second Lieutenant.s — James R. Parrel], 
Bethuel J. Gofi', Joseph B. 'Grimier, John w! 
Vannatta, Samuel L. Fluke, Charles^H. Hub- 
bell, Daniel B. Foote. 


Captains — O. S. Woodward, Chauncey P. 
Rogers, John P. Kleckner. 

First Lieutenants — Chauncey P. Rogers, 
Isaac Keck. 

Second Lieutenants — Plympton A. White, 
Isaac Keck, Abijah H. Burnett. 


Captains — Hugh S. Campbell, Amos M. 
Judson, Benjamin A. Smith, Peter Grace. 

First Lieutenants — Amos M. Judson, Will- 
iam O. Colt, Peter Grace, William H. Mc- 

Second Lieutenants — William O. Colt, 
James H. Barnett, Peter Grace, ^Vi^iam H. 
McGill, Alex B. Langley, E. L. Whittelsey, 
James C. Percival. 


Captains — Dewitt C. McCoy, Thomas A' 
Stebbins, C. V. Van Dusen. 

First Lieutenants— -Joel Smith, Thomas 
A. Stebbins, C. V. Van Dusen, John W. 
Marshall, Noble L. Terrell. 

Second Lieutenants — Thomas A. Stebbins, 
John W. Marshall, Augustus McGill, William 
J. Gleason, John P. Kleckner, William L. 


Captains — Daniel S. Knox, George Stowe, 
Moses G. Corey. 

First Lieutenants — George Stowe, Moses 
G. Corey, Thomas Van Giesen. 

Second Lieutenants — Daniel W. Clark, 
John Herrington, Moses G. Corey, Thomas J. 
I Van Giesen, Benjamin A. Smith. 

A new company G, recruited in ^Vlleghenv 
county, was assigned to the regiment in March, 


Captains — P. B. Carpenter, Israel Thicks- 
; stun. 

First Lieutenants — John E. Wilson, Israel 
Thickstuu, Roswell B. Hynes. 

Second Lieutenants — Israel Thickstun, 
I James W. Foster, Oliver L. Hall, Andrew J. 
I McKee. 

A new company H, recruited at Pittsburg, 
I was assigned to the regiment in March, 1865. 


Captains — Hiram L. Brown, John M. Sell, 
John H. Borden. 

First Lieutenants — John M, Sell, John H. 
I Borden, Frederick C. Wittich. 

Second Lieutenants — John M. Clark, 

Frederick C. Wittich, William J. Wittich, 

Abner B. Edson. 

1 A new company I, recruited at Harrisburg 

and Reading, was assigned to the regiment in 

I March, 1865. 


Captains — Thomas M. Austin, John 

First Lieutenants — William E. Bates, John 
Hechtman, Henry Austin. 
j Second Lieutenants — Edmund W.Reed, 

j Henry Austin, Noble L.Terrell. 

A new company K, recruited in Dauphin 
county, was assigned to the regiment in March, 


While the Eighty-third regiment was or- 
ganizing, application was made to the Secre- 
tary of War by Matthias Schlaudecker, of 
Erie, who had served as Major of the three 
months' regiment, for authority to recruit a 
new infantry regiment for the three years' 
service. His request was granted on the 2d 
of September, 1861, a rendezvous was at once 
established at the old fair ground, and on the 
24th of January, 1862, the ranks being full, a 
regimental organization was effected. The 


regiment left for Harrisburg on the 25th, by 
way of Cleveland and Pittsburg, reaching the 
State capital on the 27th. There it was fur- 
nished with colors, arms and equipments, and 
on the 1st of March proceeded to Baltimore. 

Its first serious engagement was on the 9th 
of August, at Cedar Mountain, where it lost 
nineteen killed, sixty-one wounded and thir- 
teen missing. From that time to the 24th of 
September, 1868, when the regiment was 
transferred to Tennessee, it was constantly 
connected with the Army of the Potomac, and 
participated in nearly all of the battles in Vir- 
ginia and Maryland, including Antietam, 
Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. While sta- 
tioned at Acquia Creek it was one of fifteen 
regiments specially commended by General 
Hooker in his general order of March 3. Col. 
Schlaudecker was honorably discharged in 
November, 1862, and the other field officers 
were duly promoted. 

The regiment joined Rosecrans' army at 
Murfreesboro on the 6th of October, 1863, and 
took a conspicuous part in the movement upon 
Lookout ISIountain. In December, most of 
its members enlisted for a second term, and 
were given a furlough to come home, arriving 
at Erie the 14th of January, 1864. On return- 
ing to the scene of war in the Southwest, the 
regiment took part in the march upon Atlanta, 
being ore of the first to enter that city. Dur- 
ing the severe fighting before the capture of 
Atlanta, Col. Cobham was shot, and died on 
the field of battle. The regiment performed 
provost duty in Atlanta some two months, 
when it joined the main body of the army in 
Sherman's famous " march to the sea." At 
Goldsboro, N. C, the One Hundred and 
Ninth and One Hundred and Eleventh regi- 
ments, which had served side by side since 
1862, were consolidated, with 885 members, 
retaining the latter title. It was mustered out 
of service at Washington on the 19th of July, 
1865, and the Northwestern Pennsylvania por- 
tion of the regiment reached Erie on the 27th 
of the same month, where, after a grand re- 
ception, the gallant veterans quietly separated 
for their respective homes. Below is a list of 
the principal officers of the regiment : 


Colonels — M. Schlaudecker, George A. 
Cobham, Thomas M. Walker. 

Lieutenant Colonels — George A. Cobham, 
Thomas M. Walker, Frank J. Osgood. 

Majors — Thomas M. Walker, Frank J. Os- 
good, John A. Boyle. 

Adjutants — John A. Boyle, James M. 
Wells, Hiram L. Blodgett, John R. Boyle, 
Albert G. Lucas. 

Qiiartermasters — Alexander Thompson, 
William Saeger, Noah W. Lowell. 

Surgeons — Wallace B. Stewart, George P. 
Oliver, James L. Dunn, D. H. Strickland. 

Assistant Surgeons — John Nicholson, 
James Stokes, Henry F. Conrad, Joseph F. 
Ake, G. M. Bradfield, D. H. Strickland. 

Chaplains — Loren D. Williams, John R. 


Captains — Josiah Brown, John D. Bentley, 
Martellus H. Todd, George Selkregg. 

First Lieutenants — John D. Bentley, Mar- 
tellus H. Todd, Nelson E. Ames, Joseph 

Second Lieutenants — M. H. Todd, N. E. 
Ames, Cyrus A. Hayes. 


Captains — Arthur Corrigan, W. P. Lang- 
worthy, Wallace B. Warner, William Gearj', 
John J. Haight. 

First Lieutenants — W. P. Langworthy, 
Wallace B. Warner, John J. Haight. 

Second Lieutenants — Wallace B. Warner, 
John J. Haight, Marvin D. Pettit. 


Captains — Richard Cross, O. H. P. Fergu- 

First Lieutenants — O. H. P. Ferguson, 
Hiram L. Blodgett, William C. Hay, John 

Second Lieutenants — Hiram L. Blodgett, 
William C. Hay, Philetus D. Fowler. 


Captains — Elias M. Pierce, William J. 
Alexander, H. R. Sturdevant. 

First Lieutenants — William J. Alexander, 
H. R. Sturdevant, Nelson Spencer, C. W. 

Second Lieutenants — H. R. Sturdevant, 
Nelson Spencer, Warren M. Foster. 


Captains — Samuel M. Davis, Peter S. Ban- 


croft, Francis A. Guthrie, William L. Patter- 

First Lieutenants — Leander W. Kimball, 
F. A. Guthrie, W. L. Patterson, Jesse Moore. 

Second Lieutenants — W. L. Patterson, 
Jesse Moore, Hiram Bissell. 


Captains — John Braden, James M. Wells. 

Fi.rst Lieutenants — James M. Wells, C. 
M. Kingsbury, Andrew W. Tracy. 

Second Lieutenants — C. \N . Kingsbury, 
George Selkregg, John L. Wells. 


Captains — William A. Thomas, Frederick 
L. Gimber. 

First Lieutenants — Christian .Sexaur, Will- 
iam Mathers. 

Second Lieutenants — Joseph Cronenber- 
ger, Valentine Hitchcock, Albert N. Kinnej'. 


Captains — J. P. Schlaudecker, Hiram L; 
Blodgett, William C. Hay. 

First Lieutenants — George J. Whitnev, 
John R. Boyle, William P. Gould. 

Second Lieutenants — Samuel S. Bloom, 
John R. Boyle. 

Captains — Frank Wagner, Chas. Woeltge, 
Moses Veale. 

First Lieutenants — Charles Woeltge, John 
C. Teel, Henry Dieffenbach, William W^ 

Second Lieutenants — U. Schlaudecker, 
W^illiam Saeger, Henry Dieffenbach. 


Captains — Jonas J. Pierce, Frank J. Os- 
good, Plympton A. Mead. 

First Lieutenants — F. J. Osgood, P. A. 
Mead, Albert E. Black, George W. Clark. 

Second Lieutenants — George W. Smith, 
P. A. Mead, A. E. Black, George W. Clark. 


A fourth regiment, which received the 
title of the One Hundred and Forty -fifth, was 
recruited during the summer and fall of 1862, 
having its rendezvous at the same camp which 

I had been used by the Eighty-third and One 

j Hundred and Eleventh regiments. The date 

of its organization, September 5, 1862, was 

j one of the most critical in the history of the 

j war. The regiment was accordingly hurried 

; forward without arms and with little training 

in militarj' duty. Leaving Erie on the 11th 

of September, it reached Chambersburg by 

way of Buffalo and Elmira within thirty-six 

I hours, was there furnished with arms, and in 

i two days more was within sound of the 

I enemy's guns at Antietam. About noon on 

the 17th the regiment joined the extreme 

right of the Union line, and rendered good 

service in preventing a flank movement of the 

enemy. After the battle it was one of the 

detail to bury the dead, some of whom had 

lain upon the field of battle four days. The 

exposure to which the regiment had been 

thus suddenly subjected told with serious 

effect upon many of the men, so that between 

200 and 800 were disqualified for duty within 

a mouth after it was ordered to the front. 

Quite a number died or were permanently 

disabled. The regiment was assigned to the 

First Brigade, First Division, of the Second 


On the 13th of December the One Hun- 
dred and Forty-fifth took part in the terrible 
charge at Fredericksburg, under the lead of 
Gen. Hancock. The division to which it be- 
longed was composed of 5,000 men, 2,000 of 
whom fell in that single charge. Of the 556 
members of the One Hundred and Forty-fifth 
who crossed the river, 226 were either killed 
or wounded. At Chancellorsville a detail of 
150 men from the One Hundred and Forty- 
i fifth was ordered to the relief of the skirmish 
line, and, after some hard fighting, failing to 
receive the command to retire, were mostly 
captured. The regiment entered the battle of 
Gettysburg 200 strong, and lost upward of 
eighty in killed and wounded. Returning to 
Virginia, it participated in nearly all of the 
marches and engagernents of the Union army 
. until the winter of 1863 brought the cam- 
1 paign to a close. 

1 The renewal of operations in May, 1864, 
found the regiment recruited almost to its 
I original strength. From this date the historj' 
of the Arm)- of Virginia, with its never-ceas- 
ing marches and well-nigh daily battles, is 
equally the history of the regiment. In the 
charge in front of Petersburg, the regiment 



had about fifty killed and wounded, and some 
ninety fell into the hands of the enemy. The 
remainder of the men were almost constantly 
under fire during the balance of the season. 
In the spring campaign of 1865 the regiment 
did good service with Sheridan. 

It was mustered out of the service on the 
31st of May, and returned to Erie on the 5th 
of June, where it was welcomed with the 
honors it so richly deserved. 

Below is a list of the principal officers : 


Colonels — Hiram L. Brown, David B. 

Lieutenant Colonels — David B. McCreary, 
Charles M. Lynch. 

Majors — John W. Patton, John \V. Rey- 
nolds, Charles M. Lynch, John D. Black. 

Adjutants — James C. Hart, John D. Black. 

Qj-iartermasters — James G. Payne, D. W. 

Surgeon — George L. Potter. 

Assistant Surgeons — Simon V. Pilgrim, 
J. S. Whilldin, Daniel W. Richards, I. N. 

Chaplain — J. H. W. Stuckenberg. 




T. De 


Captains— David B. McCreary, Charles 
M. Lynch, Clayton W. Lytle. 

First Lieutenants — John H. Hubbard, 
Horatio F. Lewis, C. \V. Lytle, Thomas C. 

Second Lieutenants — Charles H. Riblet, 
C. W. Lytle, Thomas C. Lee, JohnC. Mcin- 


Captain — Kimball H. Stiles. 

First Lieutenants — Richard Magill, Jere- 
miah Birtcil. 

Second Lieutenants —Stephen H. Evans, 
Jeremiah Birtcil, Louis B. Carlile. 


Captains — William W. W. Wood. Thomas 

F. McCreary, George F. C. Smart. 

First Lieutenants — T. F. McCreary, G. F. 
C. Smart, Joseph L. Linn. 

Secor.d Lieutenants — John W. Vincent, 

G. F. C. Smart, Joseph L. Linn, Robert C. 
McClure, Stephen A. Osborne. 


Captains — John W. Rej'nolds, Fi 
Schryver, Horace McCray. 

First Lieutenants — James C. Hart, Fletch- 
er Clay, Daniel Long, Frs J. De Schryver, 
Horace McCray, Elias Brockway. 

Second Lieutenants — Frs J. De Schryver, 
Daniel Long, Horace McCray, Elias Brock- 
way, William F. Brockway. 


Captains— Moses W. Oliver, John H. Col- i 
lom, Marlton O. Way. 

First Lieutenants — William H. Grant, j 
John H. Collom, M. O. Way. I 

Second Lieutenants — Joseph A. Moray, \ 
John H. Collom, M. O. Way, S. M. Burchfield. ' 


Captains — Dyer Loomls, George T. Jewett, 
Melvin H. Bemis. 

First Lieutenants — Ezra A. Parker, George 
T. Jewett, M. H. Bemis. 

Second Lieutenants — George T. Jewett, 
M. H. Bemis, A. II. Rathbone, John M. 



Captains — Andrew J. Mason, J. Boyd 
Espy, Peter W. Free. 

First Lieutenants — J. Boyd Espj', Hugh 
R. Stewart, Peter W. Free, William S. 

Second Lieutenants — H. R. Stewart, P. 
W. Free. 


Captains — Washington Brown, George G. 
Griswold, James B. Hamlin. 

First Lieutenants — George G. .Griswold, 
James B. Hamlin, Edwin W. Sampson, 
George A. Evans. 

Second Lieutenants — James B. Hamlin, 
George A. Evans. 


Captains— John W. Walker, John C. Hil- 
ton', C. W. Deveieatrx, Samuel V. Dean. 

First Lieutenants — James F. Wittich, John 
C. Hilton, C. W. Devereaux, Samuel C. 
Snell, George W. Young. 

Second Lieutenants — C. W. Devereaux, 
R. M. Brown, Samuel V. Dean, Samiiel C. 



A company was enlisted at Union for the 
cavalry service, which became a part of the 
Twelfth Cavalry regiment. It did good serv- 
ice from early in 1862 to the 20th of July, 
1865, when it was mustered out. The follow- 
ing were the several officers of the company : 

Captains — Geo. H. Russell, Elmer F. 
Jennings, Wm. H. McAllister, 6. B. Tour- 

H. Fenno, 

First Lieutenants — Melvi 
Henry A. Drake. 

Second Lieutenant — Bela P. Scovi 

Sergeants — C. S. McCullough. 
White, H. S. Logan, Newton B. 
Wm. H. Keasey, Perry Smiley. 

Capt. McAllister was promoted to be 
Lieutenant-Colonel, May 18, 1865. The regi- 
ment has held an annual re-union since 1890, 
the last one at Union Citv, August 13, 1895. 



Record of Political Evexts from 1798 to 1895 Inclusive. 

1788 to 1800— In 1788 and 1792, Allegheny 
county, which embraced Erie county until 
1800, gave a unanimous vote for George 
Washington for President, who was elect- 
ed without opposition. John Adams was 
chosen Vice President. 

In 1790 Thomas Mifflin was elected the 
first Governor of the State under the Consti- 
tutional system. 

In 1796, the Jefferson electors received 392 
votes, and the Adams electors seventy-seven in 
Allegheny county. The State cast one elec- 
toral vote for Adams, fourteen for Jefferson, 
two for Thomas Pickering, and thirteen for 
Aaron Burr. Adams was elected President 
and Jefferson Vice President. 

The vote of the commonwealth within the 
above period was for Governor : 1790 — 
Thomas Tslifflin, Democrat, 27,725; Arthur 
St. Clair, Federal, 2,802. 1793— Thomas 
Mifflin, Democrat, 18,590; F.A.Muhlenberg, 
Federal, 10,706. 1796— Thomas Mifflin, 
Democrat, 30,020; F. A. Muhlenberg, Fede- 
ral, 1,011. 1799— Thomas McKean, Demo- 
crat, 38,086; James Ross, Federal, 32,641. 

Allegheny county voted each time for the 
successful candidate. 

The first election of which there is a record 
in Erie countv occurred at Erie in October, 

April 8, 1799, six election districts were 
created in the township of Erie — one to hold 
elections in the town of Erie ; one at the house 
of Timothy Tuttle, in North East ; one at the 
house of John McGonigle, at or near Edin- 
boro ; one at the house of Thomas Hamilton, 
in Lexington, Conneaut township ; one at the 
house of Daniel Henderson, in Waterford ; 
one at the house of William Miles, in Concord 


1800 — The State cast eight electoral votes 
for Jefferson, eight for Burr, seven for Adams, 
and seven for C. C. Pinckney. Jeflerson was 
chosen President and Burr Vice President. 
This section of the .State gave a majority for 
Jefferson and Burr. 

Albert Gallatin was elected to Congress 
from the Western District of the State, em- 
bracing Erie county. Gallatin was appointed 
Secretary of the Treasury by President Jeffer- 
son in 1801, and resigned his seat in Con- 
gress. • 

The candidates for other positions received 
the following votes : 

State Senator — John Hamilton, Washing- 
ton county, 2,002 ; John Hoge, Washington, 
847. The district comprised the whole of 



Western Pennsylvania north of Virginia at)d 
west of the Allegheny river. 

Samuel Ewalt, of Allegheny county, was 
chosen to the Assembly. 

1801 — William Hoge, Washington county, 
was elected to fill the vacancy in Congress 
caused by the resignation of Albert Gallatin. 

William McArthur, of Meadville, was 
elected to represent Erie, Mercer, Crawford 
Venango and Warren counties in the Senate. 
This Senatorial District continued until 1886. 

Alexander Buchanan, of Crawford county, 
was sent to the Assembly. 

1802— For Governor, Erie, Crawford, 
Mercer, Venango and Warren counties still 
voting together, cast 1,835 votes for Thomas 
McKean, the Democratic, and 187 for James 
Ross, the Federal candidate. The vote of the 
State was as follows: Thomas McKean, 
Democrat, 88,086; James Ross. Federal, 

John B. C. Lucas, of Beaver county, was 
elected to Congress. 

John Lytle, Jr., of Erie county, was elected 
to the Assembly- 


1803 — This year Erie county voted sep- 
arately for county officers for the first time. 
The following was the result : Sheriff — Wil- 
son Smith, Waterford, 267; Martin Strong, 
Waterford, 201. Coroner — Abraham Smith, 
Erie, 288; John C. Wallace, Erie, 184. 

The County Commissioners elected were 
John Vincent, of Waterford ; James Weston, 
of LeBcEuf; and Abiather Crane, of Mill 

John Lytle, Jr., was elected to the As- 

John Hoge, of Washington county, was 
elected to Congress. 


1804— The county cast 112 ballots for 
President, all for the Jefferson electors. The 
State gave its electoral votes to Jeflerson and 
Burr, who were elected. 

John B. C. Lucas was re-elected to Con- 

Wilson Smith, of Waterford, was elected 
to the Assembly. 

William Clark, of Erie, James Lowry, of 
North East, and John Phillips, of Venango, 
were elected County Commissioners. 


1805 — The candidates for Governor were 
Thomas McKean and Simon Snyder, both 
Democrats. Erie county gave McKean 254, 
and Snyder 377 votes. The vote of the State 
was as follows : Thomas McKean, 43,644; 
Simon Snyder, 38,433 ; Samuel Snyder, 395. 

For Sheriff, John Milroy, of Erie, received 
296, and Jacob Carmack, of Erie, 295 votes. 
By law the two highest candidates were re- 
turned to the Governor, who made a choice 
between them. Carmack received the ap- 

William McArthur was re-elected to the 
Senate and Wilson Smith to the Assembly. 
John Hay, of Erie, was chosen. County Com- 

John B. C. Lucas having resigned from 
Congress November 7, Samuel Smith, of Mill 
Creek, Erie county, was chosen in his place. 

The opposing parties were distinguished as 
Democratic-Republican and Federal Repub- 
lican. This continued to be the case until 
1829, when the anti-Masonic excitement came 
up. Erie county was strongl}' Democratic- 
Republican, and all of the candidates elected 
up to 1880 were nominated by that party, ex- 
cept an occasional Independent. The Demo- 
cratic-Republicans held a convention in the 
county every year from 1805 to 1880. The 
name Democratic — without the annex — is first 
found in the Erie Observer in 1831. 

1806 — Samuel Smith was re-elected to 
Congress by a majority of 715. 

Wilson Smith was elected Assemblyman, 
and John McCreary, of Mill Creek, County 

John Milroy was elected Coroner. 


1807 — Wilson Smith was re-elected to the 

John Gray, of Erie, was elected Coroner, 
and John Boyd, of Waterford, County Com- 

April 11, 1807, the following election dis- 
tricts were constituted, and their voting places 
designated : 

No. 1. Erie and Mill Creek, at the court 

No. 2. " Coniaute " and McKean, at 
house of James McGuines. 

No. 3. Fairview, at house of William 


No. 4. Springfield, at liouse of William 

No. 5. "Conniat '' and Elk Creek, at town 
of Lexington. 

No. f). •' LeBtrurt' ■" and Waterford, at 
house of Jonas Clark. 

No. 7- Beaver Dam and Harbor Creek, 
at house of Thomas Morton. 

No. 8. North East, at house of Andrew 

No. i). Greenfield and \^enango, at house 
of Philo Parker. 

No. 10. Brokenstraw and Union, at house 
of John Taj'lor. 

In 1808, Venango was made District No. 
11. The election place was fi.xed at the house 
of John Yost. 


180S — Erie county cast 200 votes for the 
Madison electors, and eighty-six against them. 
The State gave her vote for James Madison for 
President and George Clinton for Vice Presi- 
dent, who were elected. 

The vote for Governor was 345 for Simon 
Snyder, Democrat, and 244 for James Ross, 
Federal. That of the State was as follows : 
Simon Snyder, Democrat, 67,975 ; James 
Ross, Federal, 39,575; John Spavd, Independ- 
ent Democrat, 4,006. 

Samuel Smith was re-elected to Congress. 

John Phillips, of Erie county, and J^^mes 
Harrington, of Mercer, were elected fo the 

The vote on other officers was as follows : 
■Sheriff' — Jacob Spang, of Erie, 328; Robert 
Irvin, of Er^e, 287; John Salsbury, of Con- 
neaut, 307. 

Francis Brawley, of North East, was 
elected County Conunissioner. and Thomas 
Rees. of Harbor Creek, Coroner. 

1809 — ^^'ilson Smith was elected to the 
State Senate. 

John Phillips, of Erie countv. and James 
Harrington, of ^Mercer countv. were chosen to 
the Assembly. 

Thomas Forster. of Erie, was elected 
County Commissioner, and John C. \Vallace. 
of Erie, Coroner. 

1810— John Phillips, of Erie county, and 
Roger ,\lden, of Crawford county, were 
elected to the Assembly. 

Abner Lacock, of Beaver county, was 
elected to Congress. 

For Sheriff, James E. Herron, of Erie, re- 
I ceived 278, and James Weston, of LeBceuf, 
278 votes. Weston obtained the appointment 
from the Governor. 

John Salsbury was elected County Com- 

1811 — The county gave Simon Snyder, 
Democratic candidate for Governor, 343 votes, 
he having no regular opposition. The vote of 
the State was as follows ; Simon Snyder, 
i Democrat, 52,319; William Tilghman, Inde- 
pendent, 3,609, 

John Phillips, of Erie county, and Patrick 
Farrelly, of Crawford county, were elected to 
[ the Assembly. 

Thomas Wilson, of Erie, was elected 
County Commissioner. 


1812 — The vote of Erie county was 152 for 
the Madison, and 129 for the opposition 
electors. The State cast its electoral vote for 
James Madison for President, and Elbridge 
Gerr}' for Vice President, who were elected. 

Phillips and Farrelly were re-elected to the 

Abner Lacock, Beaver county, was re- 
elected to Congress. 

Henry Taylor, North East, was elected 
County Commissioner and John ?\Iilroy. of 
Erie, Coroner. 

1813 — The Legislature having chosen 
Abner Lacock United States Senator, he re- 
signed, and Thomas Wilson, of Erie, was 
elected to Congress in his stead at a special 
election held in May. 

Joseph Shannon was elected to the Senate 
and James Weston, of Erie county, and James 
Burchfield, of Crawford county, to the A.s- 

For SheritT. Da\id Wallace, of Erie, re- 
ceived 187, and John Tracy, of Waterford, 
127 votes. 

Thomas Forster was reelected County 
Commissioner. John Grubb, of Mill Creek, 
was elected to the same office to fill a vacancj- 
caused by the resignation of Thomas Wilson. 

1814— The vote of the county was 308 for 
Simon Snyder, Democrat, fifty-five for Isaac 
Wayne, Federal, and seventy-seven for George 
Lattimore, Independent Democrat. The State 
voted as follows : 

Simon Snyder, 51,099 ; Isaac Wayne, 29,- 
566 ; George Lattimore, 910. 



Thomas Wilson was re-elected to Congress, 
and Weston and Burchfield to the Assembly. 

Henry Taylor, of North East, was re- 
elected County Commissioner. 

1815 — Jacob Harrington, of Mercer, James 
Weston, of Erie, and Ralph Marlin, of Craw- 
ford, were elected to the Assembly. Tlie dis- 
trict had been changed to Erie, Crawford, 
Mercer, Warren and Venango, electing three 

Robert McClelland, of Mill Creek, was 
elected County Commissioner, and John Mor- 
ris, of Erie, Coroner. 


1816 — James Monroe was elected Presi- 
dent, and Elbridge Gerry, Vice President. 
The county gave the Monroe ticket 130, and 
the opposition eighty-four votes. In the State 
Monroe had 25,609 votes, and the opposition 
ticket 17,587. 

Henry Hurst, of Crawford county, formerly 
of North East, was elected State Senator in 
place of Joseph Shannon, resigned. 

Robert Moore, of Beaver, was elected to 
Congress; Jacob Harrington, Ralph Marlin, 
and Samuel Hays, of Venango county, to the 
Assembly, and Thomas Forster, of Erie, Coun- 
ty Commissioner. 

The vote for Sheriff was as follows : 
Stephen Wolverton, of Erie, 290; James Hall, 
of Springfield, 242. 

1817 — The candidates for Governor were 
William Findlay, Democrat ; and Joseph 
Hiester, Federal. Erie county gave Findlay 
385, and Hiester, 261. The vote of the State 
was : Findlay, 66,331 ; Hiester, 59,292. 

Henry Hurst was re-elected to the Senate, 
the district comprising Erie, Crawford, Mer- 
cer, Venango and Warren counties. 

Samuel Haj's, of Venango county, Thomas 
Wilson, of Erie county, and Ralph Marlin, of 
Crawford county, were elected to the Assem- 
bly, and Robert Brown, of Erie, was elected 
County Commissioner. 

1818 — Robert Moore, of Beaver county, 
was re-elected to Congress over Thomas Wil- 
son, of Erie. 

Jacob Harrington, Mercer. James Coch- 
ran, Crawford, and Joseph Hackney, Ve- 
nango, were elected Assemblymen, George 
Moore, of Erie, County Commissioner, and 
Samuel Hays, of Erie, Coroner. 

1819 — Wilson Smith, of Erie county. 

James Cochran, of Crawford, and William 
Connelly, of Venango, were elected to the As- 

The vote for county ofiicers was as follows ; 

Sheriff— Thomas Laird, Erie, 349 ; David 
Wallace, Erie, 330; Amos P. Woodford, 
Waterford, 157. 

Commissioner — Stephen Wolverton, Erie, 
427 ; James Hall, Springfield, 255 ; Abiather 
Crane, Mill Creek, forty-nine ; Jonah Cowgill, 
Erie, three. 


1820 — The Presidential election was held 
in the fall of this year, James Monroe being 
unanimously supported for re-election. Patrick 
Farrelly was the elector for this district. For 
Governor, the Democrats supported William 
Findlay, of Franklin, and the Federalists Gen. 
Joseph Hiester, of Berks. Hiester was elect- 
ed. Erie gave Findlay 519 votes, and Hiester 

The candidates for Congress were Robert 
Moore, of Beaver, and Patrick Farrelly, of 
Crawford. Farrelly was elected. The can- 
didates for Assembly were Wilson Smith, 
Erie county ; George Moore, Erie ; Jacob Har- 
rington, Mercer ; William Connelly, Venango ; 
James Cochran, Crawford; William Mooie, 
Venango, and Walter Oliver, Mercer. All of 
the above gentlemen claimed to be Democrats. 
Messrs. Smith, Connelly and Harrington were 
elected. George Nicholson, Fairview, was 
chosen Commissioner by se\-enty-five majority 
over Henry Colt, of Waterford. Thomas H. 
Sill, Erie, and Thomas Dunn, McKean, were 
elected Auditors. 

Alexander McNair, formerly of Mill Creek, 
was this year elected first Governor of Mis- 

1821 — The following were the candidates: 
State Senate — Samuel Lord, Meadville; Gen. 
Henry Hurst, Meadville ; Jacob Harrington, 
Mercer. Harrington was elected. George 
Moore, Erie; James Cochran, Crawford, and 
David Brown, Warren, were elected to the 
Assembly. Thomas Forster, Erie, was elected 
Commissioner by twenty-three majority over 
Henry Colt. Thomas Rees, Harbor Creek, was 
elected Auditor, and Benjamin Russell, Mill 
Creek. Coroner. 

1822 — The candidates for Congress were 
Patrick Farrelly, Crawford, and Samuel Wil- 
liamson, Mercer, both Democrats. Farrelly 


was elected by a majority of about 2,000 in 
the district. 

The Assembly district was changed this 
year, Erie and Warren being placed together, 
and allowed one member. George Moore, 
Erie borough, and James Weston, LeBoeuf, 
were the candidates for that office, the latter 
being elected by a majority of only seventeen 
votes. Stephen Wolverton, Erie, David Wal- 
lace, Mill Creek, and Simeon Dunn, Erie, were 
candidates for Sheriff. Wolverton's majority 
was 306 over both of his competitors. Henry 
Colt, Waterford, Alexander McClosky, North 
East, and Thomas Rees, Harbor Creek, were 
candidates for Commissioner. Colt was elected 
by a majority of sixtj'-tvvo votes over both of 
the others. Thomas Dunn, McKean, was 
chosen Auditor. 

1823 — For Governor the Democrats sup- 
ported John Andrew Shulze, Lebanon ; the 
Federalists, Andrew Gregg, Centre. The vote 
of the county was : Schulze, 754 ; Gregg, fi04 
— Democratic majority, 150. The vote of the 
State was : Schulze, 89,928; Gregg, 64,211. 
For Assembly, George Moore, Erie, and 
Thomas H. Sill, Erie, were the candidates. 
Sill was elected by a majority of 149 in the 
district. Alexander McClosky was chosen 
Commissioner over John Cochran, Mill Creek, 
and E. D. Gunnison, Erie. Daniel Sayre, 
Fairview, was elected Auditor. 


1824 — A convention met March 4, of this 
year, at Harrisburg, and nominated Andrew 
Jackson for President, and John C. Calhoun 
for Vice President. Henry Clay, who at that 
time acted with the Democratic party, re- 
ceived ten votes for the latter position. An- 
other convention was held in Harrisburg, 
August 9, which nominated William H. Craw- 
ford, of Georgia, for President, and Albert 
Gallatin, Pennsylvania, for Vice President. 
Henry Clay and John Qiiincy Adams were 
also candidates before the people for President. 
The candidates for elector were as follows ; 
For Jackson, John Boyd, Waterford; for 
Adams, Jesse Moore, Meadville; for Craw- 
ford, James Montgomerv ; for Clav, Charles 
H. Israel. 

The vote of the county was ; For Jackson, 
302; Adams, fifty-five : Crawford, ten ; Clay 

The vote in the State was : Jackson, 35,- 
894; Adams, 8,405; Crawford, 4,186; Clay, 
: 1,701. 

None of the candidates received a majority 
of the electoral votes in the Union, and the 
election was thrown into the House, where 
Adams was chosen President. 

For Congress, Patrick Farrelly and Samuel 
Williamson were opposing candidates. Far- 
relly's majority in the district was 3,133. 
The district consisted of Erie, Crawford, 
Mercer, Venango and Warren. 

John Phillips, of Venango township, was 
elected to the Assembly over George Moore. 
John Morris, Erie, was chosen Commissioner 
over John Salsbury, Conneaut, and E. D. 
Gunnison, Erie. Rufus Seth Reed, Erie, was 
elected Coroner, and Thomas Rees, Harbor 
Creek, Auditor. 

1825 — For State Senate, Wilson Smith. 
Waterford ; George Moore, Erie ; Thomas 
Atkinson , Crawford ; James Herriott, Mercer ; 
I and John Leech, Mercer, were opposing can- 
i didates. Moore had one majority over all 
I in this county, but Leech received a majority 
in the district. Stephen Wolverton was 
chosen to the Assembly over John Phillips 
and Abiather Crane, Erie county, and Archi- 
bald Tanner and J. W. Irvine, Warren. The 
candidates for Sheriflf were : Henry Colt, 
Waterford : Thomas Forster, Erie ; Thomas 
Laird, Erie; A. W. Brewster, Erie; Albert 
Thayer, Mill Creek, and David McCreary, 
Mill Creek. Mr. Thayer was elected. The 
candidates forCommissioner were : John Sals- 
bury, Conneaut ; William Benson, Waterford ; 
John Gray, Erie ; Thomas Dunn, McKean, 
and Giles Hulbert, Waterford. Mr. Salsbury 
was elected. Col. James McKay, Waterford, 
was chosen Auditor for the regular term, and 
William E. McNair, Mill Creek, for one year, 
in place of Daniel Sayre, who moved out of 
the county. 

A proposition to form a new State Consti- 
tution was brought before the people and 
voted down, the majority against it in Erie 
county being 1,062. 

1826 — Patrick Farrelly, Congressman from 
this district, died at Pittsburg, on his way to 
Washington, February 12, 1826, and a special 
election was held in March, following, for his 
successor. The candidates were Thomas H. 
Sill, Erie ; Samuel Hays, Venango ; Jacob 
Harrington, Mercer: and Stephen Barlow, 


Crawford. Mr. Sill was elected. At the 
regular October election, Sill. Barlow and 
John Findlaj', Mercer, were candidates for 
Congress. Barlow was elected. 

At the October election of this year, Gov. 
Shulze had no opposition in Erie county. 
The vote of the Suite was : John Andrew 
Shulze, Democrat, 64,211 ; John Sergeant. 
Philadelphia, Federal, 1,474. " 

The candidates for Assembly were Stephen 
Wolverton, Ale.x. McCloskey, George Moore 
and George Stuntz, Erie coimty; and John 
Andrews, Warren. Wolverton was re-elect- 
ed. William Benson, Waterford ; Thomas 
Forster, Erie, and James M. Moorhead, 
Harbor Creek, were candidates for Commis- 
sioner. Benson was elected. Martin Strong, 
McKean, was chosen Auditor. 

1837 — Stephen Wolverton was re-elected 
to the Assembly over Alex. McCloskey, North 
East, his only opponent. William Fleming, 
Erie, was elected Coroner ; James M. Moor- 
head was chosen Comlnissioner over Thomas 
Forster. David H. Chapman, Fairview, was 
chosen Auditor. 


1828 — The Jackson State Convention was 
held in Harrisburg January 8. Andrew Jack- 
son was nominated for President, and John 
C. Calhoun for Vice President. James Dun- 
can, Mercer county, was the electoral candi- 
date for this Congressional district. 

The Adams Convention met about the 4th 
of March, and nominated John Qiiincy Adams 
for President, and Richard Rush, Pennsyl- 
vania, for Vice President. John Leech, Mercer 
county, was the electoral candidate for this 
Congressional district. 

The State election was held October 14. 
The candidates in this district and county 
were as follows : Congress — Thomas H. Sill, 
Erie county; and Stephen Barlow, Crawford. 
The vote in the county was 1,406 for Sill and 
866 for Barlow. Sill received a majority of 
about 600 in the district. Assembly — George 
Moore, Stephen Wolverton and Wilson Smith, 
all of Erie county. Moore was elected. Sheriff 
— Alex. W. Brewster, Erie ; Thomas Mellen, 
North East; Daniel vSawtell, Springfield; 
.Smith Jackson, Erie; Richard Arbuckle and 
John G. Caldwell, Mill Creek. Brewster was 
elected. Commissioner (three years) — Albert 
Thayer, Erie ; George Nicholson, Fairview. 

Thayer was elected by a nearly unanimous 
vote. Commissioner (one year) — in place of 
William Benson, Waterford, resigned — My- 
ron Hutchinson. Springfield; James Pollock, 
LeBanif ; and John Boyd, Waterford. Hutch- 
inson was elected. Robert Cochran, Mill 
Creek, was elected Auditor. 

The Presidential election was held on Fri- 
day, October 31, and resulted as follows : 

Erie and Mill Creek 




.. 133 

.. 52 




.. 118 


Waterford and LeBoeuf 



Harbor Creek 

North East 

. . 56 




.. 24 



Conneauttee (now Washington 

.. 23 
.. 58 


Beaver Dam (now Greene) 


.. 8 
.. 16 




.. 12 
,. 945 


The vote of the State was : Jackson, 101,- 
652 ; Adams, 50,848 ; Jackson's majority, 
50,804. Jackson and Calhoun had a large 
majority of the electoral votes of the Union. 


1829 — The Anti-Masonic excitement had 
by this year risen into a political issue, and a 
separate party organization was formed, em- 
bracing a large portion of the supporters of 
Mr. Adams. The Democratic State Conven- 
tion met at Havrisbuig on the 4th of March 
and nominated George Wolf, Northampton 
county, for Governor. The Anti-Masonic 
State Convention met at the same place on the 
same day, and nominated Joseph Ritner, 
Washington county. The vote of Erie countv 
was : Ritner, 1,545 ; Wolf, 497. The vote o"f 
the State was ■. George Wolf, Democrat, 
77,988; Joseph Ritner, Anti-Mason, 51,724 : 
Wolf's majority, 2(5,264. 

For .State Senate, Thomas S. Cunningham, 
Mercer county, defeated Wilson Smith, Erie 
county, by over 2,7(X) majority in the district. 
George Moore was elected to the Assembly 
over Stephen Wolverton. Joseph M. Ster- 
rett, Erie; Myron Hutchinson, Springfield, 
and William Grav, Wayne, were candidates 


for Commissioner. Sterrett was elected bv w 
majority of twenty-six o\er Hutcliinson, the 
next highest candidate. Eli Webster, McKcan. 
was elected Auditor. 

1830 — This was the tirst year in which 
Anti-Masonry entered directly into the choice 
of district and county officers. The Anti-Ma- 
sonic candidate for Congress was John Banks, 
of Mercer county. The Democratic candidate 
was Thomas .S. Cunningham, Mercer^ county. 
Banks had a majority of 316 in Erie county, 
and 1,135 in the district. The candidates for 
county officers were as follows : 

Anti-Masonic — Assembly, John Riddle, 
Erie ; Commissioner, James Pollock, LeBreuf ; 
Coroner, David Wallace, Erie ; Auditor, John 
J. Swan, Fairview. 

Democratic-Republican — Assembly, P. S. 
V. Hamot, Erie; Commissioner, John Sals- 
bury, Fairview; Coroner, Charles Lay, Erie; 
Auditor, Thomas Laird, of Erie. 

The Anti-Masonic ticket was successful by 
an average majority of 250. 

1831— The candidates were as follows : 

Anti-Masonic — Assemblj', John Riddle ; 
Sheriff, William Fleming, Erie; Commis- 
sioner, Thomas R. Miller, Springfield; Audi- 
tor, James Smedley, North East. 

*Democratic — Assembly, George Moore, 
Erie; Sherifl", Albert Thayer, Erie ; Commis- 
sioner, Thomas Mellen, North East; Auditor, 
John G. Caldwell, Mill Creek. 

Independent Candidates — Assembly, Will- 
iam Dickson, North East ; Sheriff, David Zim- 
merman and James McConkey, Erie. 

The Anti-Masonic candidates were suc- 
cessful by average majorities of about 400. 
None of the independent candidates had much 
of a support. 


1832 — The candidates for Governor were 
George Wolf, Democrat, and Joseph Ritner, 

The Democrats of Pennsylvania supported 
Andrew Jackson for President, and William 
Wilkins, this State, for Vice President. Mar- 
tin Van Buren, New York, was also a Demo- 
cratic candidate for Vice President, and was 
elected, though Pennsylvania cast her vote for 
Wilkins. Henry Clay ran as an Anti-Jackson 

Democratic candidate for President, with John 
Sergeant, Pennsylvania, for Vice President. 
The Anti-Masons supported William Wirt, 
Maryland, for President, and Amos Ellmaker, 
Pennsylvania, for Vice President. Wilson 

I Smith was the Jackson candidate for Elector in 
this district ; David Dick, Crawford, the Clay 

■ candidate ; and Robert Falconer, Warren, the 
Anti-Masonic. The Jackson and Clay men 
went by the designatioa of Democratic-Re- 

[ publicans; the supporters of Wirt by that of 

I Republican Anti-Masons. The vote of the 
county was as follows : 


284 163 

04 16 

89 12 

Erie and Mill Creek 



Springfield 82 69 

Conneaut 118 74 

Waterford 92 65 

Harbor Creek 80 76 

North East 110 42 

Greenfield 37 52 

Union 138 1 

Venango 72 42 

Conneauttee (Washing-ton) 36 26 

Concord ' 16 33 

Beaver Dam 64 31 

Elk Creek 33 32 

Araity 30 39 

Wayne 23 17 

LeBoeuf 37 61 

Girard 109 88 





themselves Pemocrati 

Only three ballots were cast for Clay, all 
in North East township. 

In the State the result was as follows : 
George Wolf, Democrat, 91,235; Joseph 
Ritner, Anti-Mason, 88,180 ; Wolf's majority, 
3,049. The vote for President was: Jackson, 
90,983; Wirt, (i(i,71(); majority for "j^ickson. 

Mr. Clay's vote was too light to be con- 
sidered worthy of record by (he papers of the 

The candidates for district and county 
offices were as follows : 

Anti-Masonic — Congress, Thomas H. Sill, 
of Erie; Assembly, John H. Walker, Erie; 
Commissioner, John McCord, North East ; 
Auditor, Samuel Low, Venango township. 

Democratic — Congress, John Galbraith, 
Venango county ; Assembly, Rufus Seth 
Reed, Erie; Commissioner, Thomas Mellen, 
North East; Auditor, John Phillips, Ve- 

All of the Anti-Masonic candidates were 


elected except Mr. Sill. John Galbraith was 
defeated by 833 votes in Erie county, but re- 
ceived a majority of 778 in the district. 

1833 — Anti-Masonic Candidates — State 
Senate, Charles M. Reed, Erie county ; As- 
sembly, John H. Walker, Erie; Commis- 
sioner, James Love, Mill Creek: Coroner, 
David McNair, of Mill Creek ; Auditor, Mark 
Baldwin, Greenfield. 

Democratic Candidates — State Senate, 
Thomas S. Cunningham, Mercer county ; 
Assembly, Dr. Tabor Beebe, Erie; Commis- 
sioner, John Gingrich, Mill Creek; Coroner, 
Wareham Taggart, Springfield; Auditor, 
John Saulsbur)', Conneaut. 

All of the Anti-Masonic candidates were 
elected except Reed, who received a majoritj' 
in the county, but was defeated in the district. 

1834 — Anti-Masonic Candidates — Con- 
gress, Thomas H. Sill, Erie county; As- 
sembly, John H. Walker, Erie; Sheriff, 
Thomas Mehaffey, Erie ; Commissioner, 
Stephen Skinner, McKean ; Auditor, Russell 
StanclifF, Washington. 

Democratic — Congress, John Galbraith, 
Venango county ; Assembly, James M. 
Moorhead, Harbor Creek; Sherifl^, Albert 
Thayer, Erie; Commissioner, Daniel Gillespie, 
Erie; Auditor, John R. Rouse, Venango. 

Independent Candidate for Sheriff' — 
Chauncey Rogers, Girard. 

The Anti-Masonic candidates were elected 
with the exception of Mr. Sill, who received 
353 majority in the county, but was defeated 
by 1,622 in the district. 


1835 — The Democratic party of Pennsyl- 
vania was divided this year over a candidate 
for Governor, one portion supporting George 
Wolf, and another Henry A. Muhlenberg, 
Berks. The Anti-Masons again chose Joseph 
Ritncr as a candidate. 

The vote of Erie county was : For Ritner, 
1,743; Wolf, 164; Muhlenburg, 1,281. In 
the State the vote was as follows: Joseph 
Ritner, Anti-Masonic, 94,023 ; George" Wolf, 
Democrat, 65,804; Henry A. Muhlenberg, 
Democrat, 40,586. 

Anti Masonic County Ticket — Assembly, 
John H. Walker, Erie: Commissioner, James 
Miles, Girard; Auditor, William Benson, 

Democratic County Ticket — Assemblv. P. 

S. V. Hamot, Erie; Commissioner, John 
Gingrich, Mill Creek; Auditor, David Webber, 

All of the Anti-Masonic candidates were 
elected by an average majority of 400. 

A proposition to hold a convention for re- 
vising the State Constitution was carried by 
10,404 majorit)'. Erie county cast 3,023 votes 
for the convention and twentj'-one against it. 


1836 — The Democratic candidate for Con- 
gress was Arnold Plumer, Venango county ; 
the Anti-Masonic was David Dick. Crawford 
county. The vote of the countv was : For 
Dick, 1,773; for Plumer, 1,214.' In the dis- 
trict Dick had 3,628, Plumer, 4,828, the lat- 
ter being elected. 

The county tickets, with the vote for each 
candidate, were as follows : 

Anti-Masonic — Assembly, Thomas R. Mil- 
ler, Springfield, 1,948; Elijah Babbitt, Erie, 
1,716 ; Commissioner, Samuel Low, Harbor 
Creek, 1,719; Coroner. Samuel W. Keefer, 
Erie, 1,696; Auditor, William H. Crawford. 
North East, 1,689. 

Democratic — Assembly, James C. Mar- 
shall, Girard, 1,281; Frederick W. Miller, 
Waterford, 1,032 ; Commissioner, William 
Doty, Springfield, 1,244; Coroner, Anthony 
Saltsman, Mill Creek, 1,158; Auditor, James 
Wilson, Greenfield, 1,176. 

The presidential election was held October 
31. The Anti-Masonic candidates were : For 
President, Gen. William H. Harrison, Ohio; 
for Vice-President, Francis Granger, New 
York. The elector for this district was James 
Cochran, Crawford county. The Democratic 
candidates were : For President, Martin Van 
Buren, New York; for Vice-President, Rich- 
ard M. Johnson, Kentucky. The elector was 
John P. Davis, Crawford county. Below is 
the vote : 


Erie 217 113 

McKean 147 20 

Fairview 125 18 

Springfield 182 67 

Conneaut 86 91 

Waterford 122 92 

Harbor Creek 154 75 

North East 137 197 

Greenfield 48 37 

Union 59 25 

Venango 86 44 



Washington 133 58 

Beaver Dam 81 37 

Elk Creek 79 82 

Concord 15 47 

Amity 26 43 

Wayne 42 22 

LeBoeuf 35 55 

Girard 155 94 

Mill Creek 205 95 

Total 2,134 1,312 

The vote of the State was for Van Biiren, 

91,475; Harrison, 87,111. 

Van Buren and Johnson were elected by a 

large inajorit)' of the electoral votes of the 



An election for Delegates to the conven- 
tion for revising the Constitution was held 
on the same day. The candidates, with their 
votes, were as follows ; 

Senatorial Delegate — Anti-Masonic, Daniel 
Sager, Crawford county, 2,064 in Erie county, 
and 3,249 in the district. Democratic, Henry 
Colt, Waterford, 1,330 in Erie county, 3,016 
in the district. 

Representative Delegates — Anti-Masonic , 
Thomas H. Sill, Erie, 2,079; James Pollock, 
LeBffiuf, 2,063. Democratic. Wilson Smith, 
Waterford, 1,314; Henry L. Harvev, Erie, 

The convention met at Harrisburg in May 
or June, 1837, and adjourned to Philadelphia 
in the winter, finally adjourning in 1838, after 
adopting various amendments to the Constitu- 
tion, which are referred to hereafter. 

1837 — The candidates for State Senator 
(Erie and Crawford constituting the district) 
were : Anti-Masonic, Joseph M. Sterrett, 
Erie ; Democratic, Edward A. Reynolds, 
Crawford. The vote for Sterrett, in Erie 
county, was 1,840; for Reynolds, 1,065. 
Sterrett was elected by about 400 majority in 
the district, Crawford being at that time 

The county tickets, with the vote, were as 
follows : 

Anti-Masonic — Assembly, Charles M. 
Reed, Erie, 2,087; David Sawdy, Conneaut, 
1,773; Sheriff, Andrew Scott, Erie, 1,715; 
Commissioner, Thomas Sterrett, McKean, 
1.757; Auditor, Thomas Nicholson, Mill Creek, 

Democratic — Assembly, Martin Strong, 
sr., Beaver Dam, 962; David H. Chapman, 

Fairview, 680; Sheriff, Albert Thayer, Mill 
Creek, 1,204; Commissioner, Eli Webster, 
Beaver Dam, 944. 

THE "buckshot" WAR. 

1838 — The Anti-Masons again nominated 
Joseph Ritner for Governor ; the Democrats 
placed in nomination David R. Porter, of 
Huntingdon county. The vote of the county 
was : For Ritner, 2,747 ; for Porter, 1,565 — 
Ritner's majority, 1,182. In the State the 
result was as follows : David R. Porter, 
Democrat, 127,821 ; Joseph Ritner, Anti- 
Mason, 122,325. 

The organization of the Legislature, in 
December following this election, caused the 
troubles which have been named in derision 
the " Buckshot war." Their history may be 
brieily given as follows: When the Return 
Judges of Philadelphia county met in conven- 
tion, a motion was made to throw out the 
votes of the Northern Liberties, on account of 
alleged frauds. By accepting the votes, the 
Anti-Masonic candidates for Congress, State 
Senator and Assembly were elected ; their re- 
jection gave the seats to the Democratic can- 
didates. The Democrats had a majority of the 
Judges, and the returns were not accepted. 
The Anti-Masonic Judges bolted and made 
out other returns, including the vote of the 
Northern Liberties, which were sent to 
Thomas H. Burro wes, Anti-Masonic Secretary 
of State, at Harrisburg. When the Legisla- 
ture assembled, each set of candidates appeared 
for admission, and in the House the two parties 
were so nearly balanced that the acceptance 
or rejection of the Philadelphians involved the 
control of the body. Meantime, much excite- 
ment prevailed throughout the State, and se- 
rious disturbances were threatened. On the 
day of meeting, Harrisburg was full of angry 
men, but if we can rely on the Anti-Masonic 
papers of the time, the Democrats were largely 
in the ascendent. The vote for Speaker was 
taken, when the Democrats supported Will- 
iam Hopkins, and the Anti-Masons Thomas 
S. Cunningham, each party having separate 
tellers. Both claimed to be elected, and for 
some time occupied seats on the platform, side 
by side. Under such circumstances no busi- 
ness could be transacted, and affairs were 
brought to a dead-lock. The Senate, which 
contained a majority of Anti-Masons, recog- 
nized the Cunningham House. Excitement 

2 34 


increased throughout the State, and the Demo- 
crats, resolved not to be defeated in their pro- 
gramme, threatened to maintain Mr. Hopkins' 
right to the Speakership by force. The Gov- 
ernor called out the militia of the adjoining 
counties, but when they reached Harrisburgit 
was found that the Democrats were in the 
majority among the troops, so that the Anti- 
Masons could not depend upon their support. 
He then wrote to President Van Buren for aid, 
who plumply refused.* After an agitation of 
several weeks, four Anti-Masonic Senators re- 
ceded from their original position, voted to 
recognize the Hopkins House, and terminated 
the trouble. The Anti -Masons throughout 
the State were fierce in their denunciations of 
the recreant Senators, but soon subsided into 
acquiescence, and thus ended one of the most 
memorable, as it was also one of the most dis- 
graceful, incidents in Pennsylvania history. 
Amid all the excitement no blood was spilled. 
From this date, the -Vnti-Masonic party of 
Pennsylvania rapidly declined, and in a few 
years sunk out of existence. 

The Anti-Masons again nominated David 
Dick for Congress. John Galbraith, who had 
removed to Erie county, was the Democratic 
candidate. In the county, Dick received 2,614 
votes, and Galbraith, 1,610. Dick's vote in 
the district was 5,918; Galbraith's 6,198. The 
district comprised Erie, Crawford, Venango 
and Warren counties, the three latter giving 
Democratic majorities. 

The county tickets, with the vote for each 
candidate, were as follows : 

Anti-Masonic — Assembly, Samuel Hutch- 
ins, Waterford, 2,581 ; William M. Watts, 
Erie, 2,368; Commissioner, William E. Mc- 
Nair, Mill Creek, 2,591; Auditor, Alexander 
W. Brewster, Erie, 2,601. 

Democratic — Assembly, Ebenezer D. Gun- 
nison, Erie, 1,646; Myron Hutchinson, 
Girard, 1,580; Commissioner. J. P. Grant, 
Wayne, 1,522; Auditor, Samuel T. Axtell, 
Union, 1,524. 



A vote was taken on the adoption of the 
proposed amendments to the Constitution, 

*The United States Storekeeper at Frankfort turned over a 
liberal supply of ammunition to the State authorities, much of 
which consisted of buckshot cartridges. Hence the name of 
•' Buckshot war;" 

with the following result in the State : For 
the amendments, 113,981; against, 112,759. 
Erie county gave a majority of 1,721 against 
the amendments. 

Previous to this, negroes had voted in the 
State. The revised Constitution excluded them 
from suffrage. In the convention the delegates 
from Erie county were divided, Mr. Sill vo- 
ting for negro suflfrage, and Mr. Pollock 
against. The Anti-Masons had a slight ma- 
jority in the body. 

The revised Constitution provided for the 
election of Prothonotary and Register and Re- 
corder, instead of their appointment by the 
Governor as before. The same instrument 
also changed the manner of selecting Justices 
of the Peace from appointment by the Gov- 
ernor to election bj- the people. The choice 
of the latter officers was not made until the 
spring election in 1840, the old incumbents re- 
taining their position until the first Monday 
of May in that year. 

1839 — The county tickets, with the vote 
for each candidate, were as follows : 

Anti-Masonic^As.sembly, Samuel Hutch- 
ins, Waterford, 1,927; WiUiam M. Watts, 
Erie, 1,713; Prothonotary, William Kelly, 
Erie, 1,791 ; Register and Recorder, Thomas 
Moorhead, Erie, 1,997: Commissioner for three 
years, Lyman Robinson, Wattsburg, 1,845 ; 
Commissioner for one year (to supply the va- 
cancy occasioned by the death of Thomas 
Sterrett), Samuel Low, Harbor Creek, 1,886; 
Coroner, John K. Caldwell, Mill Creek, 1,817; 
Auditor, Gideon J. Ball, Erie, 1,791. 

Democratic — Assembly, William Town- 
send, Springfield, 1,522; Prothonotary, James 
C. Marshall, Girard, 1,155; Register and Re- 
corder, E. D. Gunnison, 1,396; Commissioner, 
three years, James Duncan, North East, 1,420 ; 
Commissioner, one year, Horace Powers, 
Washington, 1,374; Coroner, P. P. Glazier, 
Erie, 1,391; Auditor, Martin Strong, Beaver 
Dam, 1,403. 

Dr. William Johns, Erie, who had pre- 
viously sought the Anti-Masonic nomination 
for the office, announced himself as an inde- 
pendent candidate for Assembly, and was sup- 
ported by a portion of the Democrats. He 
received 1,137 votes in the county. 

A proposition to build a county poor house 
was submitted to the people, and defeated hy 
a majority of 154 votes. 

/^/!7M^(3^^^ ^/^/u 

'^^-^^^^ A^ha^cy 




1840 — Before this year, each township took 
care of its own poor. A proposition to build 
a county poor house met with much opposi- 
tion, but, on being submitted to a vote of the 
people at the spring elections, was carried by 
a vote of 1,599 in favor to 1,515 against. At 
this election. Justices of the Peace were chosen 
by popular vote for the first time, their se- 
lection having been pre\iously \ested in the 

The Anti-Masonic party had by this time 
given up the ghost, and the Whig party was 
organized upon its remains. The Whig can- 
didate for Congress was William A. Irvine, 
of Warren county; the Democratic, Arnold 
Plumer, of Venango. Below is the vote in 
the district : 


Erie 3,301 2,005 

Crawford 2,175 2,640 

Venango 679 1.0O7 

Warren 835 925 

Clarion 610 1,329 

Total 7,600 7,906 

The county tickets, with the vote for each 
candidate, were as follows : 

Whig — Assemblv, Stephen .Skinner, Mc- 
Kean, 8,289; Jame.s D. Dunlap, Erie, 3,281 ; 
Sheriff, E. W. M. Blaine, North East, H,29(3; 
Commissioner, Russell Stanclifl', Wa^^liington, 
8,284 ; Auditor, James Miles, Girard township. 

Democratic — Assemblv, William Town- 
.send, Springfield, 2,038; Anthonv Saltsman, 
Mill Creek, 2,080; Sheriff", Benjamin F. Mor- 
ris, Greene, 2,012; Commissioner, James 
Duncan, North East, 2,004; Auditor, G.J. 
Stranahan, Concord, 2,002. 

At this election. Directors of the Poor 
were chosen for the first time, each township 
having before elected its own Overseers. The 
candidates on the Whig ticket were Thomas 
R. Miller, Springfield; James Benson, Water- 
ford township; and George W. Walker, Har- 
bor Creek, all of whom were elected. The 
Democratic candidates were William W. 
Warner, Fairview ; Sherburn Smith, Erie; 
and William Wyatt, Harbor Creek. 

At the general election following, the 
Whig candidates were : For President, Gen. 
William H. Harrison, of Ohio ; for \'ice Pres- 

ident, John Tyler, of ^'irginia. John Dick, 
of Crawford count)-, was the Whig elector for 
this district. The Democrats again supported 
\'an Buren and Johnson. Stephen Barlow, 
of Crawford county, was the electoral candi- 
date. The following is the vote of the county : 


Erie, West ward 175 96 

Erie, East " 203-378 83-179 

McKean 208 71 

Fairview 247 53 

Spring-field 285 87 

Conneaut 197 125 

Waterford township 172 67 

Harbor Creek 227 106 

North East township 158 - 174 

Greenfield 91 55 

Union 81 36 

Venango and Wattsburg. . 122 69 

Washington and Edinboro. 244 71 

Greene 112 66 

Elk Creek 163 137 

Concord 38 81 

Amity 46 61 

Wayne 85 51 

LeBueuf 71 93 

Girard 301 229 

Mill Creek 319 182 

North East borough 43 .^8 

Waterford borough 46 30 

Total 3,636 2,061 

In the State — Harrison. 144,021 ; Van 
Buren, 143,672. 

Harrison and Tyler were elected. The 
former served only one month, when he died 
in office, and was succeeded by John Tyler. 


1841 — The Whig candidate for Governor 
was John Banks, of Berks county, formerly 
of Mercer; the Democrats again supported 
David R. Porter, of Huntingdon. The 
county gave Banks 2,956 votes, and Porter 
1,855. In the State the vote was : For Porter 
186,504; Banks, 118,478. 

The Abolitionists held their first conven- 
tion in Pennsylvania this year, and nominated 
Dr. Francis J. LeMoyne, of Washington 
county, for Governor, who received 736 votes 
in all. Of these, forty were cast in Erie 

The Democrats made no nomination for 
the State Senate, and supported John W. 
Farrelly, of Crawford, who ran as an inde- 
pendent Whig candidate. John Dick, of 
Crawford, was the regular Whig candidate. 
The vote of the district was as follows : 



Erie 2,663 1,9SS 

Crawford 1,887 2,774 

Total 4,550 4,729 

The countv tickets, with the votes, were as 
follows : 

Whig — Assembly, Janies D. Duiilap, Erie, 
2,683; Stephen C. Lee, Greene, 2,640; Com- 
missioner, David Sawdej', Conneaut, 2,489 ; 
Treasurer, James Williams, Erie, 2,589; Audi- 
tor, Moses Barnett, Fairview, 2,571 ; Director 
of the Poor, Conrad Brown, of Mill Creek (no 

The Democrats made no nominations, but 
supported Independent candidates, as follows : 

Assembly, Robert S. Hunter, Erie, 1,696; 
William Miner, Harbor Creek, 1,667 ; Commis- 
sioner, Ira Parker, Mill Creek, 1,465; Treas- 
urer, John Hughes, Erie, 1,866; Auditor, 
Joseph Y. Moorhead, Harbor Creek, 1,327. 


Mr. Williams was the first County Treas- 
urer chosen by popular vote. 

18-1:2 — The Whig county ticket, with the 
vote for each candidate, was as follows: 
Assembly, Stephen Skinner, McKean, 1,880; 
Lyman Robinson, Wattsburg, 1,864; Prothon- 
otary, Wilson King, Erie, 1,928; Register, 
Thomas Moorhead, Jr., Erie, 2,430; Commis- 
sioner, Joseph Henderson, Mill Creek, 2,075; 
Coroner, Hezekiah Bates, Erie, 1,971; Auditor, 
Benjamin Gimnison, Greene, 2,027 ; Director 
of the Poor, John Evans, sr., Mill Creek, 

The Democrats made no regular nomina- 
tions, but supported Independent candidates 
for the various offices. The Abolitionists had 
a regular ticket in the field for every office ex- 
cept Director of the Poor. Below is a list of 
all the candidates, with their votes : 

Assembly, Dr. William Johns, Erie (Inde- 
pendent Whig) , 989; Sylvester W. Randall 
(Democrat), Erie, 1,358; Jo.seph Neely, 
(Working Men's), Harbor Creek, 117; David 
H. Chapman (Abolitionist), Fairview, 216; 
James M. Moorhead (Abolitionist), Harbor 
Creek, 288; Prothonotary, James C. Marshall 
(Democrat), Girard, 1,627; George Kellogg 
(Abolitionist), Erie, 179 ; Register, William 
Gray (Abolitionist), Wayne, 134; Commis- 
sioner, Matthew Greer (Democrat), North 
East, 781 ; William Himrod (Abolitionist), 

Erie, 166; Coroner, Alex Mehaffey (Abolition- 
ist), Erie, 301; Auditor, William Vincent 
(Abolitionist), Waterford, 162; Director of 
the Poor, John Gingrich (Democrat), Mill 
Creek, 717. 


1843 — The first Canal Commissioners 
elected by popular vote were chosen this year. 
The Whig candidates were William Tweed, 
Benjamin Weaver, and Simeon Gulliford ; the 
Democratic, James Clark, Jesse Miller and 
William B. Foster, Jr. The average Whig 
majority in the county was about 1,150. The 
Democrats carried the State by an average 
majority of 14,500. Hugh Mehaffey, Hugh 
D. King and James Moorhead ran as Inde- 
pendent Anti-Masons, and received about 270 
votes in the State. 

The Whig candidate for Congress was 
Charles M. Reed, of Erie; the Democratic, 
Dr. Galbraith A. Irvine, of Warren. The 
vote of the district was as follows : 


Erie 2,867 1,560 

Warren 620 860 

McKean 259 342 

Potter 135 405 

Jefferson 449 536 

Clarion 743 1,330 

Total 5,073 5,033 

The apportionment bill of 1842 made a 
Senatorial district of Erie county. Elijah 
Babbitt was the Whig candidate, and James 
C. Marshall the Democratic. The vote was 
for Babbitt 2,646, for Marshall 1,554. Galen 
I Foster, Abolition candidate, received seventy- 
j three votes. 

The following was the vote for other 
candidates : 

Whig — Assembly, James D. Dunlap, Erie, 
2,586; David A. Gould, Springfield, 2,573; 
Sheriff, William E. McNair, Mill Creek, 
2,465; Commissioner, Robert Gray, Union, 
2,648; Treasurer, Gideon J. Ball, Erie, 2,595; 
Auditor, William M. Arbuckle, Erie, 2,574; 
Director of the Poor, James Anderson, Water- 
ford township, 2,544. 

Democratic — Assembly, Martin Strong, 
j Greene, 1,657; George H. Cutler, Elk Creek. 
! 1,639; Sheriff, James Lytle, Erie, 1,729; 
j Commissioner, G. J. Stranahan, Concord. 
! 1,504; Treasurer, Stephen C. Walker, Erie. 
1,481; Auditor, EH Webster, Greene, 1,561 ; 



Director of the Poor, Joseph E. Lee, North 
East, 1,512. 

Abolition — Assembly, Wm. Gray, Wayne, 
seventy-nine; James M. Moorhead, Harbor 
Creek, eighty-seven; Sheriff, Alex. McCIellan, 
Mill Creek, eighty-six; Commissioner, John 
B. Fluke, Erie, seventy-three; Treasurer, 
Clinton George, Erie, eighty-five; Auditor, 
Ambrose Shelly, Harbor Creek, ninety; Di- 
rector of the Poor, Samuel Brecht, Fairview, 



184-4 — For Governor, the Democrats nom- 
inated Francis R. Shunk, Allegheny county; 
the Whigs, Gen. Joseph Markle, Westmore- 
land ; the Abolitionists, F. J. LeMoyne, 
Washington. Erie county gave Markle 3,501 
votes, Shunk, 2,207, and LeMoyne, sixty-nine. 

The vote of the State was as follows : 

Shunk, 160,403; Markle, 15(5,120; Le- 
Moyne, 2,675. 

The candidates for Canal Commissioner 
were Simeon Gulliford, Whig; Joshua Harts- 
horn, Democrat; William Larimer, Jr., Abo- 
lition. The vote was about the same as that 
for Governor. 

Gen. Reed was renominated by the Whigs 
for Congress. James Thompson, Erie, was 
the Democratic, and John Mann, Potter, the 
Abolition candidate. 

The vote of the district was as follows : 


Erie 3,554 2,180 

Warren 856 1.061 

McKean 311 415 

Potter 206 531 

Jefferson 638 777 

Clarion 799 1,868 

Total 6,364 6,832 

Mr. Mann received but ninety votes in all, 
of which forty-five were cast in Erie county. 
Hamlin Russell, Abolition, also received four- 
teen votes in this county. 

The county tickets, with the vote for each 
candidate, were as follows: 

Whig — Assemblv, Mark Baldwin, North 
East, 3,442; James" D. Dunlap, Erie, 3,445 ; 
Commissioner, Isaac Webster, Fairview, 
3,343; Auditor, Thomas Pierce, LeBa?uf, 

3,380; Director of Poor, David Kennedy, 

i Erie, 3,332 — all being elected. 

j Democratic — Assembly, George H. Cut- 

ler, Girard, 2,147 ; David Allison, North East, 
2,185; Commissioner, James Wilson, Green- 

I field, 2,210; Auditor, Michael Jackson, Con- 

I neaut, 2,148 ; Director of Poor, James M. 
Reed, Mill Creek, 2,156. 

Abolition — Assembly, David H. Chap- 
man, Fairview; Aaron Kellogg, Erie; Com- 
missioner, Nathaniel Wilson, Union ; Audi- 
tor, Alexander McCIellan, Mil! Creek; Direc- 
tor of Poor, Silas Walker. Harbor Creek. 
This ticket received an average of about 
seventy votes. 

[ A vote was taken to decide whether the 

main line of the State public works should be 
sold or not. The proposition received a ma- 

j jority of 447 in Erie county, but was defeated 
in the general vote of the State bv a majoritv 
of 21,433. 

The Whig party nominated Henry Clay, 
of Kentucky, for President, and Theodore 
Frelinghuj'sen, of New Jersey, for Vice Pres- 
ident. William A. Irvine was the electoral 

I candidate for this district. The Democratic 
nominees were James K. Polk, of Tennessee, 
for President, and George M. Dallas, of Penn- 
.sylvania, for Vice President. Christian Mj^ers, 
of Clarion county, was the candidate for elec- 
tor. The Abolitionists ran James G. Birney, 
of Michigan, for President, who received 
seventy-four votes in the county and 3,138 in 
the btate. James M. Moorhead, of Harbor 
Creek, was the candidate for elector. 

The following was the Whig and Demo- 
cratic vote in the county : 


Erie, West ward 151 118 

Erie, East ward 170-321 112-230 

Amity 37 77 

Concord 45 89 

Conneaut 201 110 

Edinboro 30 11 

Elk Creek 108 121 

Fairview 244 52 

Franklin -. 62 10 

Girard 344 166 

Greene 104 99 

Greenfield 73 32 

Harbor Creek 203 127 

Le Boeuf 88 114 

Mill Creek 350 209 

McKean 223 79 

North East township 168 192 

North East borough 48 34 

Spring-field 269 103 

Union 73 S3 


Venango 102 55 

Wattsburg 20 13 

Washington 215 79 

Waterf ord borough 54 25 

Waterford township 178 78 

Wayne 55 68 

Total 3,630 2,226 

The vote of the State was as follows : 
Clay, 161,863; Polk, 167,245. Polk's major- 
ity, 6,882. 

Polk and Dallas were elected by a large 
majority of the electoral votes of the Union. 


1845 — The Democratic candidate for Canal 
Commissioner was James Burns, MifHin 
county; the Whig candidate, Samuel D. 
Karns, Dauphin; the Abolition, William 
Larimer, Allegheny. In Erie county. Burns 
received 1,103 votes, Karns, 1,831, Larimer, 
eighty-two. In the State, Burns had 119,510 ; 
Karns, 89,118 and Larimer, 2,857. TheNative 
American party placed a ticket in the field for 
the first time this year, and George Morton, 
their candidate, received 22,93-4 votes, most of 
them being cast in Philadelphia and the 
neighboring counties. 

Elijah Babbitt, elected State Senator in 
1843, resigned his seat at the close of his sec- 
ond session, and candidates were nominated to 
supply the vacancy. The Whigs supported 
James D. Dunlap, the Democrats Carson 
Graham, and the Abolitionists David H. Chap- 
man. The vote was 1,794 for Dunlap, l,l92 
for Graham and eighty-nine for Chapman. 

The Democrats made no county nomin- 
ations. The following were the candidates 
voted for : 

Whig— Assembly, J. B. .lohnson. Erie, 
1,755; Lyman Robinson, Wattsburg, 1,785; 
Prothonotary, Wilson King, Erie, 1,888 ; Reg- 
ister, Thomas Moorhead, jr., Erie, 1,810; 
Commissioner, Wm. E. Marvin, Greenfield, 
1,768; Auditor, three years, James H. 
Campbell, Edinboro, 1,699; Auditor, to sup- 
ply vacancy, vSimeon Hunt, Waterford, 1,694, 
Coroner, Thomas Dillon, Erie, 1,703; Direc- 
tor of Poor, Curtis Heidler, Fairview, 1,693. 

Abolition — Assembl)-, Samuel Kingsbury, 
North East, 191; Nathan Gould, Springfield, 
190; Prothonotary, N. Wilson, Union, 160; 
Register, John B. Fluke, Erie, 163; Commis- 
sioner, Wm. Robinson, North East, 154; 
Auditor, A. N. Wood, Venango, 156; David 

Nellis, Harbor Creek. 153 ; Coroner, Alex. 
McClellan, Mill Creek, 168; Director of 
Poor, Richard Barnett, Fairview, 169. 


1846 — The Democratic candidate for Canal 
Commissioner was Wm. B. Foster ; the 
Whig, James M. Power; the Abolitionist, 
Wm. Elder, and the Native American, 
George Morton. In Erie county. Power had 
1,801 votes, Foster, 895, and Elder, seventy- 
four. The State gave Power 97,913, Foster 
89,084, Morton 15,438, Elder 2,097. 

James Thompson was re-nominated by the 
Democrats for Congress, and elected. The 
Whig candidate was James Campbell, of 
Clarion, and the Abolition, John Mann, of 
Potter. The vote of the district was as fol- 
lows : 


Erie 1,792 942 77 

Clarion 617 1,199 — 

Warren 486 684 19 

Jefferson 278 333 — 

McKean 168 256 — 

Potter 99 237 54 

Elk 113 128 — 

Total 3,553 3,779 150 

The Democratic candidate for State Sen- 
ate was Smith Jackson, Erie ; the Whig, J. B. 
Johnson, Erie, and the Abolition, Nathan 
Gould, of Springfield. Johnson received 1,708 
votes, Jackson 873, and Gould eighty-six. 

The county tickets and their votes were as 
follows : 

Whig — Assemblv. William Sanborn, 
Amity, 1,719; David" A. Gould, Springfield, 
1,668; Sheriff, Miles W. Caughey, Fairview, 
1,723; Commissioner, William Campbell, 
Washington, 1,710; Treasurer, John S. 
Brown, Erie, 1,709; Auditor, James Cham- 
bers, Harbor Creek, 1,703; Director of Poor, 
William Bracken, LeBoeuf, 1,680. 

Democratic — Assembly, E. Duncombe, 
Amity, 876 ; Newton Lounsbury, North East, 
857; Commissioner, James Wilson, Green- 
field, 781 ; Treasurer, John S. Carter, Erie, 
846; Auditor, Martin Strong, jr., Waterford, 
796; Director of Poor, Isaac R. Taylor, 
Washington, 806. 

Abolitionist — Assembly, William Gray, 
Wayne, eighty-four; R. Barnett, Fairview, 
eighty-four; .Sheriff, Aaron Kellogg, North 
East, 182; Commissioner, Thomas McClellan, 


Mill Creek, eighty; Treasurer, Alexander Me- 
haffey, Erie, eighty-three; Auditor. Abner 
H. Gould, Springtield, seventv-nine ; Direc- 
tor of Poor, Alvah Francis, Franklin, eighty- 



184:7 — A vote was taken at the spring 
election whether or not license to sell liquor 
should be granted in the county. The vote 
was 2,416 in favor of license", and 2,188 

The Whigs nominated for Governor James 
Irvin, of Center county ; the Democrats sup- 
ported Francis R. Shunk ; the Abolitionists, 
F. J. LeMoyne ;, and the Native Americans, 
E. C. Reigart, Lancaster. Erie county gave 
Irvin 2,58(5 votes; Shunk, 1,728; LeMoyne, 

The vote of the State was as follows : 
Shunk, 146,084; Irvin, 128,148; Reigart, 
11,247; LeMoyne, 1,861. 

For Canal Commissioner, Joseph W. Pat- 
ton, Cumberland, was the Whig candidate ; 
Morris Longstreth, Montgomery, the Demo- 
cratic ; William B. Thomas, Philadelphia, the 
Abolition, and George Morton, Dauphin, the 
Native American, Longstreth being elected by 
about the same vote as Shunk. 

The Pennsylvania soldiers in the Mexican 
war voted for State officers, and gave a large 
majority for the Democratic candidates. 

The Democrats made no nominations for 
county officers. The following were the 
county candidates, with the vote for each : 

Whig— Assembly. Gideon T- Ball, Erie, 
2,545 ; William Sanborn, Amity, 2.478 ; Com- 
missioner, H. A. Hills, Conneaut, 2,359; Audi- 
tor, John Wood, LeBceuf, 2,421 ; Director of 
Poor, David Sterrett, McKean, no opposition. 

Abolition — Assembly, Nathaniel Wilson, 
Union, 158; Orange Selkrigg, North East, 
158; Commissioner, B. Beebe, Wayne, 152 ; 
Auditor, E. N. Wood, Venango, 148." 


1848 — The Democratic State candidates 
were : For Governor, Morris Longstreth, 
Montgomery ; for Canal Commissioner, Israel 
Painter, Westmoreland. The W^hig candidates 
were William F. Johnson, Armstrong, for 
Governor, and Ner Middleswarth, Union, for 

Canal Commissioner. Gov. Shunk had died 
before the expiration of his term, and Mr. 
Johnson, who was Speaker of the Senate, be- 
came Governor. The gubernatorial vote was 
the closest that ever occurred in Pennsylvania, 
Johnson having succeeded by only 802 ma- 
jority. The Democratic nominee for Canal 
Commissioner was elected by 2,958 majority. 
Erie county gave Johnson 8,500 votes ; Long- 
streth, 2,087; Middleswarth, 8,805; and 
Painter, 2,096. The Abolitionists and Native 
Americans had no State ticket in the field. 

The candidates for Congress were the same 
as in 1846, and James Thompson was again 
elected by 4Sr! majority over Mr. Campbell. 

The county tickets were as follows : 

Whig— Assembly, G. |. Ball, I'.rir, 8,169; 
Theodore Ryman, Girard. :;,ir)."); l'ri>tliono- 
tary, James Skinner, Erie, 8,1()2: Register, 
R. !■' Sibley, Waterford, 8,077; Commis- 
sioner, George W. Brecht, Mill Creek, 3,067: 
Auditor, John Eagley, Springfield, 3,059; 
Treasurer, John Hughes, Erie, 8,101 ; Director 
of Poor, David Kennedy, Erie, 3,025 ; Coro- 
ner. Samuel L. Foster, Erie, 3,080. 

Democratic — Assembly, Smith Jackson, 
Erie, 1,628; John S. Barnes, Girard, 1,(328 : 
Commissioner, JamesWilson, Greenfield, 1,681 ; 
Auditor, D. W. Howard, Amity, 1,585; Di- 
rector of Poor, Henry Colt, Waterford, 1,555. 
There were no candidates for Prothonotary. 
Register, Treasurer or Coroner. 

Abolition — Assembly, William Beatty, 
Erie, 371 ; Job Stafford, McKean, 8(37; Pro- 
thonotary, Aaron Kellogg, North East, 1,803 ; 
Register, Ira Sherwin, Harbor Creek, 487; 
Commissioner, James M. Moorhead, Harbor 
Creek, 882 ; Auditor, B. Beebe, Concord, 325 ; 
Treasurer, Henry Cadwell, Erie, 877 ; Direc- 
tor of Poor, Eli" Perkins, Wayne. 857; Coro- 
ner, John B. Fluke, Erie, 470. 

The National tickets were as follows : 
Whig — For President, Zachary Taylor, Louis- 
iana ; Vice President, Millard Fillmore, New 
York. Democratic — For President, Lewis 
Cass, Michigan ; for Vice President, William 
O. Butler, Kentucky. Free Soil — For Presi- 
dent, Martin Van Buren.New York; for Vice 
President, Charles Francis Adams, Massachu- 
setts. The Whig candidate for Elector in this 
district was Thomas H. Sill, Erie; the Demo- 
cratic, Timothy Ives, Potter; the Free Soil, 
William F. Clark, Crawford. Below is the 
vote of the countv : 




Erie, East Ward 209 ISl 12 

Erie, West Ward 260-469 152-303 4-16 

Mill Creek 317 159 3 

Fairview 249 40 6 

Girard borough 46 29 2 

Girard township 263 154 16 

Spring-field 234 87 31 

Conneaut 202 87 5 

Elk Creek 122 125 4 

Franklin 45 4 20 

Washington 196 63 — 

Edinboro 40 14 — 

McKean 182 58 30 

Greene 109 116 — 

Waterf ord borough 62 42 1 

Waterford township 161 49 — 

LeBoeuf 63 72 — 

Union 73 48 23 

Concord 32 35 43 

Wayne 7 37 39 

Wattsburg 24 15 3 

Venango 62 48 34 

Greenfield 60 28 20 

North East borough 44 37 7 

North East township 133 178 27 

Harbor Creek 184 113 26 

Total 3,418 2,022 356 

The vote of the State was as follows : Tay- 
lor, 185,514; Cass, 171,998; Van Buren, 

Taylor and Fillmore were elected. The 
former died after being in office about a year 
and a half, and Mr. Fillmore served out the 
balance of the term. 

1849— The Whig candidate for Canal Com- 
sioner was Henry M. Fuller, of Luzerne ; the 
Democratic, John A. Gamble, of Lycoming. 
The vote of the county was 2,503 for Fuller 
and l,3f59 for Gamble. Mr. Gamble was elect- 
ed, receiving 185,840 votes to 133,111 for Ful- 
ler. Kimber Cleaver, of Schuylkill, the Native 
American candidate, received 8,259 votes in 
the State, but none in Erie county. 

The candidates for State Senate were John 
H. Walker, Whig, and Murray Whallon, 
Democrat. Mr. Walker was elected by a vote 
of 2,417 to 1,399 for Whallon. 

The county tickets were as follows : 

Whig — Assembly, James C. Reid, Erie, 
2,487 ; Leffert Hart, Girard, 2,302 ; Sheriff, P. 
E. Burton, Erie, 2.474 ; Commissioner, vSimeon 
Stewart, Concord, 2,467 ; Auditor, John L. 
Way, Greene, 2,474 ; Director of Poor. George 
Fritts, Waterford, 2,457. 

Democratic — Assembly, Da^■id Olin, Gi- 
rard, 1,349; William Griffith, North East, 

1,850; Sheriff, E. W. Gerrish, Edinboro, 
1,370; Commissioner, Truman Stewart, Con- 
cord, 1,355; Auditor, Henry Teller, Girard, 
1,857; Director of Poor, Henry Gingrich, 
Mill Creek, 1,363. 


1850 — The first election for Auditor and 
Surveyor General was held this year. The 
Democratic State ticket consisted of William 
T. Morrison, of Montgomery, for Canal Com- 
missioner; Ephraim Banks, of Mifflin, for 
Auditor General ; and James Porter Brawley, 
of Crawford, for Surveyor General. The 
Whig ticket consisted of Joshua Duncan, of 
Bucks, for Canal Commissioner; Henry W. 
Snyder, of Union, for Auditor General; and 
Joseph Henderson, of Washington, for Sur- 
veyor General. The Whigs carried the county 
by an average nrajority of 1,460, but were de- 
feated in the State. 

An amendment to the Constitution making 
Judges elective was submitted to the people, 
and 144,578 votes were cast in its favor to 
71,092 votes in opposition. Erie county gave 
3,908 votes for the amendment, and only 369 
against it. 

The Whig candidate for Congress was 
John H. Walker, of Erie county; the Demo- 
cratic, Carlton B. Curtis, of Warren. The 
following was the vote in the district : 


Erie 3,226 1,636 

Clarion 1,193 1,697 

Jefferson 519 780 

Warren 717 1,117 

Potter 360 541 

Elk 109 277 

McKean 297 454 

Total 6,416 6,522 

The county tickets, with the vote for each 
candidate, were as follows : 

Whig — Assembly, James C. Reid, of Erie, 
8,159; Alexander W. Blaine, North East, 
3,103; Commissioner, Thomas Dunn, Mc- 
Kean, 8,149; Treasurer. Alfred King, Erie, 
3,175; Auditor, Flavel Boyd, Waterford, 
8,158; Director of Poor, Melvin M. Kelso, 
Fairview, 8,097. 

Democratic — Assembly, George H. Cutler, 
Girard, 1,699; C. M. tibbals, Erie, 1,681 ; 
Commissioner, Henry Allison, North East, 
1,615; Treasurer, Henry Cadwell, Erie, 1,694; 


Auditor, Henry Gingrich, Mill Creek, 1,704; 
Director of Poor, A. Mallory, Springfield, 

At this election, the District Attorney and 
County Surveyor were chosen by popular 
vote for the first time. The following were 
the candidates, with their vote : 

Whig — District Attorney, Matthew Tay- 
lor, Erie, 3,164; Surveyor, David Wilson, 
Union, 8,152. ' 

Democratic — District Attorney, Benjamin 
Grant, Erie, 1,641 ; Surveyor, Irvin Camp, 
Erie, 1,698. 



1851 — The Democratic State ticket con- 
sisted of William Bigler, Clearfield, for Gov- 
ernor, and Seth Clover, Clarion, Canal Com- 
missioner. The Whigs re-nominated Governor 
Johnston, and John Strohm, Lancaster, was 
their candidate for Canal Commissioner. Erie 
county gave 3,()10 votes for Johnston, and 
2,106 for Bigler. 

The vote of the State was as follows : 
Bigler, 186,507; Johnston, 178,070. 

The Democratic candidate for Canal Com- 
missioner was elected by about the same vote. 
The Native American candidate for Governor 
was Kimber Cleaver, Schuylkill, who received 
1,713 votes; for Canal Commissioner, David : 
McDonald, Philadelphia, who received 1,875 — t 
no votes for either being cast in Erie county. 

The first election of Judges bv popular vote ' 
took place this year under the constitutional 
provision adopted in 1850. The Democratic 
candidates for the Supreme Court were Jere- 
miah S. Black, Somerset ; James Campbell, 
Philadelphia; Ellis Lewis, Lancaster ; John B. ' 
Gibson, Cumberland; and Walter H. Lowrie, \ 
Allegheny. The Whig candidates were Rich- 
ard Coulter, Westmoreland; William M. 
Meredith, Philadelphia; George Chambers, I 
Franklin; Joshua W. Comly, Montour; and 
William Jessup, Susquehanna. All of the 
Democratic candidates were elected by con- j 
siderable majorities except Mr. Campbell, who 
was defeated because he was a member of the 
Catholic Church. The Native Americans 
united their force upon Richard Coulter, who 
had a majority of 3,199. 

In this district, the Democratic candidate 
for President Judge was John Galbraith, Erie ; 

the Whig, Elijah Babbitt, Erie. The vote 

was as follows : 


Erie 2,573 2,942 

Crawford 3,337 2,661 

Warren 1,316 1,022 

Total 7.226 6,62S 

The Democrats made no nominations for 
county officers, but supported independent 
candidates. The following were the candi- 
dates, with their vote : 

Associate Judge, Joseph M. Sterrett, Erie, 
(Reg. Whig), 3,062; John Wood, Waterford 
(Reg. Whig), 2,426; James Miles, Girard 
(Ind. Whig), 3,090; Assembly, Alex. W. 
Blaine, North East (Reg. Whig), 3,531; 
Charles W. Kelso (Reg. Whig), 3,460; Pro- 
thonotary, James Skinner, Erie (Reg. Whig), 
2,540; Samuel Perley (Ind. Whig). 2,752; 
Register, David McAllister, Erie ( Reg. Whig), 
3,472; Commissioner, Rodney Cole, Greene 
(Reg. Whig), 3,414; Coroner, Simeon Dunn, 
Erie (Reg. Whig), 3,426; Director of Poor, 
William E. McNair, Mill Creek (Reg. 
Whig), 3,432; Auditor, Samuel Reeder, 
Washington (Reg. Whig), 3,319. Messrs. 
Sterrett and Miles were elected Associate 
Judges, and Mr. Perley, Prothonotary. All 
of the balance of the regular Whig ticket was 



1852 — The Democratic candidates were : 
For Canal Commissioner, William Hopkins, 
Washington ; for Supreme Judge, in place of 
R. Coulter, who died, George W. Woodward, 
Luzerne. The Whig candidates were : For 
Canal Commissioner, Jacob Hofl'man, Berks; 
for Supreme Judge, Joseph Buflington, Arm- 
strong. The Abolitionists and Native Amer- 
icans also had candidates in the field. Erie 
county gave 2,180 votes for Hopkins, 3,257 
for Hoffman, 2,165 for Woodward, 8,247 for 
Buffington, and 212 for the Abolition ticket. 
The vote of the State was as follows : Hopkins. 
171,548; Hofl'man, 151,600; Woodward, 172,- 
610; Bufl^ngton, 153,681— Hopkins and Wood- 
ward being elected. The Abolition ticket re- 
ceived 3,061 votes, and the Native American 
8,099 in the State. 

For Congress, the Whigs nominated Gen. 
John Dick, of Crawford; the Democrats, 



George H. Cutler, of Erie ; and the Abolition- 
ists, David A. Gould, of Erie. The district 
had been changed since the last election, and 
comprised only Erie and Crawtord counties. 
The following was the vote : 


Erie county 3,253 2,152 321 

Crawford county 2,741 1,905 619 

Total 5,994 4,057 940 

The Senatorial district was also changed, 
and consisted of the same counties as the 
Congressional. The Whigs nominated James 
Skinner, of Erie, and the Abolitionists, Charles 
A. Hammond, of Crawford. The Democrats 
made no nomination, and supported David 
Derrickson, of Crawford, who ran as an Inde- 
pendent Whig candidate. Below is the vote : 



Erie couutv 3,271 2,072 271 

Crawford 2,056 2,687 523 

Total .=;.327 4.759 794 

The Democrats had no nominees for coun- 
ty officers, and supported Independent Whig 
candidates. Below is a list of the candidates 
with their vote: 

Regular Whig— Assemblv, Charles W. 
Kelso, Erie, 3,140; Humphrey A. Hills, Con- 
neaut, 2,932; Sheriff, Thomas B. Vincent, 
Waterford, 8,054; Commissioner, Richard R. 
Robinson, Springfield, 3,137; Treasurer, 
James Chambers, Harbor Creek, 3,164; Au- 
ditor, Orin Reed, McKean, 3,079; Director of 
Poor, Joseph B. Moorhead, Harbor Creek, 

Independent Whig — Assembly, James 
Hoskinson, Erie, 2,254 ; John McKee, Spring- 
field, 2,393; Sheriff, James H. Campbell, 
Edinboro, 2,489 ; Joseph R. Ferguson, Erie, 
sixty-three; Commissioner, Gilbert Kurd, 
Springfield, 1.806; Treasurer, James M. Reed, 
Mill Creek, 1,931; -Vuditor, "D. W. Vorce, 
McKean, 2,002; Director of Poor. John Par- 
meter, McKean, 1,952. 

Abolition — Assembly, Job Stafford and 
Nathaniel Wilson ; Commissioner, Samuel 
Kingsbury; Treasurer, Alex. Mehaffey ; 
Sheriff, J. A. French ; Auditor, Aaron Kel- 
logg ; Director of Poor, Benjamin Grant, Mc- 
Kean. These candidates received an average 
of about 150 votes. 

The Whig candidate for President was 

Gen. VVinfield Scott, of New Jersey; for Vice 
President, William A. Graham, of North 
Carolina. The elector for this district was 
Christian Myers, of Clarion. The Democratic 
candidate for President was Franklin Pierce, 
of New Hampshire ; for Vice President, Wm. 
R. King, of Alabama. J. S. McCalmont, of 
Venango, was the candidate for Elector. The 
Free Soil party ran John P. Hale, of New 
Hampshire, for President, and G. W. Julian, 
of Indiana, for Vice President. Below is the 
vote of the county: 


Erie East ward 208 240 S 

Erie, West ward 262-470 206-446 9-14 

Amity 67 69 5 

Concord 42 65 61 

Conneaut 190 109 56 

Edinboro 33 18 6 

Elk Creek 131 145 55 

Fairview 276 70 14 

Franklin 50 26 34 

Greenfield 84 35 32 

Greene 135 141 — 

Harbor Creek 236 122 45 

Girard boroug-h 66 41 1 

Girard township 306 166 41 

McKean 223 91 28 

Mill Creek 307 234 13 

LeBoeuf 108 111 — 

North East boroug-h 57 43 4 

North East township 191 171 21 

Spring-field 267 79 41 

Union 114 82 27 

Venango 131 71 10 

Wattsburg 25 27 3 

Washington 181 95 S3 

Waterford borough 71 62 4 

Waterford township 204 102 — 

Wayne 55 96 53 

Total 4,015 2,748 611 

The State gave Scott 179,748 votes, Pierce 
198,584. and Hale 8,860. Pierce and King 
were elected by a large majority of the elec- 
toral votes of the Union. Jacob Broom, the 
Native American candidate for President, re- 
ceived 11,048 votes in the State, but none in 
Erie count^ . 



-The Democratic ticket for State 
officers was as follows : Supreme Judge, 
John C. Knox, Tioga ; Canal Commissioner, 
Thomas H. Forsyth, Philadelphia; Auditor 
General, Ephraim Banks, MifHin ; Surveyor 
General, J. Porter Brawley, of Crawford. 
The Whig candidates were : Supreme Judge, 
Thomas A. Budd, Philadelphia; Canal Com- 




missioner, Moses Pownal, Lancaster ; Auditor 
General, Alexander K. McClure, Franklin ; 
Surveyor General, Christian Myers, Clarion. 
The Democrats were successful by average 
majorities of 35,000, except in the case of Mr. 
Brawley, who ran some 10,000 votes beliind 
his ticket. In Erie county the vote for Su- 
preme Judge was 1,434 for the Democrats, 
and 2,017 for the Whigs, this being about the 
average for all the candidates except Brawley. 

The county tickets and their votes were as 
follows : 

Whig — Assembly, Gideon J. Ball, Erie, 
2,073; H. A. Hills," Conneaut, 2,341; Com- 
missioner, William Parker, Greenfield, 1,978; 
Surveyor, William Benson, Waterford, 1,899; 
District Attorney, S. E. Woodruff, Girard, 
1,831; Auditor, Robert Gray, Union, 1,931 ; 
Director of Poor, John Hay", Girard, 1,901— 
all being elected. 

Democratic — Assembly, Wilson Laird, 
Erie, 1,164; E. W. Gerrish, Edinboro, 1,353; 
Commissioner, Myron Hutchinson, Girard, 
1,281; District Attorney, Carson Graham, 
Erie, 1,560; Director of "Poor. T- P- Grant, 
Wayne, 1,257. 

Free Soil — Assembly, X. Wilson and N. 
Gould; Commissioner, J. J. Compton ; Sur- 
veyor, P. C. Compton; District Attorney, 
Andrew H. Caughey ; Auditor, William Gray; 
Director of Poor, John B. Fluke. This ticket 
received an average vote of about 250. 



1854 — The Know-Xothing party (the foun- 
dation principle of which was opposition to 
foreigners in office, and particularly to mem- 
bers of the Catholic church), had risen into 
sudden importance, and swallowed up a large 
portion of the Whig organization, together 
with some Democrats. The Whigs and Know- 
Xothings nominated James Pollock, of North- 
umberland, for Governor. The Democrats 
re-nominated William Bigler for Governor, 
and Henry S. Mott. of Pike, for Canal Com- 
missioner. The Whig candidate for the latter 
office was George Darsie, of Allegheny, the 
Know-Nothings making no nomination. The 
Democratic candidate for Supreme Judge was 

Jeremiah S. Black; the Whig, Daniel M. 
Smyser, of Montgomery ; the Know-Nothing, 
Thomas H. Baird, of Washington. Erie 
county gave Pollock 3,637 votes ; Bigler, 
2,526; Darsie, 1,885; Mott, 3,364; Black, 
2,389; Smyser, 1,494; Baird, 1,694. 

The vote of the State was as follows : Pol- 
lock, 204,008; Bigler, 167,001 ; Darsie, 83,331; 
Mott, 274,074; Black, 167,010; Smyser, 83,- 
571; Baird, 120,516. 

Mr. Darsie, the Whig candidate for Canal 
Commissioner, was of foreign birth, and the 
Know-Xothings threw their votes for Mr. 
Mott. The original Native Americans had 
separate candidates in the field for Governor 
and Canal Commissioner, but they received 
only a trifling support. 

A ballot was taken at this election to de- 
cide whether or not the Maine Liquor Law 
should be adopted in this State, and resulted 
in 158,842 votes for to 163,510 against. Erie 
county cast 2,767 for the law, and 1,501 
against it. 

Gen. John Dick was re-elected to Con- 
gress w-ithout opposition. 

The memorable " railroad war " in our 
county was in full vigor this year and weak- 
ened party obligations to a considerable ex- 
tent. The following were the tickets with their 
votes : 

Whig— Assembly, G. J. Ball, Erie, 2,889: 

Wareham Warner, Venango, 2,766; Prothon- 

otary, Alfred King, Erie, 3,391 ; Register, 

[ Dav'id McAllister, Erie, 2,525 ; Treasurer, M. 

I Phelps, Edinboro, 3,043; Commissioner, Flavel 

! Boyd, Waterford, 1,619; Coroner, David Bur- 

I ton, Erie, 1,583; Auditor, George W. Brecht, 

Mill Creek, 1 ,648 ; Director of Poor, Thomas 

! McKee, Mill Creek, 1,482. 

Democratic — Assembly, James Thompson, 
[ Erie, 2,881 (elected) ; Prothonotary, Robert 
j S. Hunter, Erie, 2,169 ; Commissioner, John 

S. Barnes, Girard, 1,829. 
j Know-Nothing — Register. Thomas Moor- 

! head, Erie, 2,386; Commissioner, Samuel L. 
Foster, Erie, 1,301. 

Free-Soil — Assembly, N. Wilson, Union, 
1,612; Audley Magill, Harbor Creek, 
I 353; Prothonotary, S. Mervin Smith. Erie, 
j 151 ; Register, Azro Goff, Erie, 551 ; Treas- 
urer, Ira Sherwin, Harbor Creek, 1,246; Com- 
missioner, John Pickney, Erie, 1.024. 




1855 — A portion of the Whigs and Know- 
Nothings nominated Thomas Nicholson, of 
Beaver, for Canal Commissioner. The Dem- 
ocratic candidate for the same office was Ar- 
nold Plumer, of Franklin. The Republicans, 
by which name the old Abolitionists and Free- 
Soilers had christened themselves, nominated 
Passmore Williamson, of Philadelphia, whose 
resistance to the Fugitive Slave Law had got 
him into prison, and caused him to be looked 
upon as a martyr. The original Native 
Americans supported Kimber Cleaver. The 
dissatisfied Know-Nothings nominated Peter [ 
Martin, of Lancaster, and the old-fashioned 1 
Whigs supported Joseph Henderson, of Wash- j 
ington. Erie county gave Plumer 1,698 votes; 
Nicholson, 2,118; Williamson, 471; and 
Cleaver, fifteen. The vote of the State was as 
follows: Plumer, 161,280; Nicholson, 150,- 
359 ; Williamson, 7,063 ; Cleaver, 4,041 ; Mar- 
tin, 571 ; Henderson, 2,270. 

The '-railroad war" continued to excite 
the people of this county and district, and 
party lines were not drawn in the choice of 
local officers. The candidates were voted for I 
with reference to that issue entirely. For j 
State Senate, Darwin A. Finney and Charles 
B. Power, both of Crawford county, were the j 
candidates. The vote was as follows : 


Erie count v.. . 1.886 3,034 

Crawford county 4,112 871 

Total 5,998 


The candidates for other offices were as 
follows: Assembly, G. J. Ball, Erie, 2,716; 
Murray Whallon, Erie, 2,575; Theodore Ry- 
man, Girard, 2,114; Robert Dunn, Summit, 
2,136; Sheriff, John Evans, Girard, 1,151; 
Allen A. Craig, Erie, 1,834; John Killpatrick, 
Harbor Creek, 2,083; Commissioner, W. W. 
Eaton, Fairview, 1,571 ; Myron Hutchinson, 
Girard, 1,051 ; T J- Compton, Washington, 
2,005; Director' of the Poor, S. W. Keefer, 
Erie, 2,319; Samuel Kingsburv, North East, 
458; Isaac R. Tavlor, Washington, 1,259; 
Auditor, N. W. Russell, Mill Creek, 1,250; 
Jehiel Towner, Erie, 383; S. B. Benson, 
"Waterford, 1,219; Z. E. Peck, Harbor Creek, 
1,160. The successful parties were Messrs. 
Ball (Whig), Whallon (Democrat), Killpat- 
rick (Democrat), Compton (Free-Soil), Keef- 
er (Whig), and Russell (Whig). . 


1856^A National Convention of delegates 
met in Pittsburg on February 22d of this year 
and organized the Republican party. 

The opposition to the Democracy nomina- 
ted a Fusion State ticket, which was defeated, 
as shown below : 

Canal Commissioner, George Scott, Co- 
lumbia county (Democrat), 212,921 ; Thomas 
E. Cochran, Lancaster county (Fusion) , 210,- 
172 ; Auditor General, Jacob Fry, Montgom- 
ery county (Democrat), 212,468; Darwin 
Phelps, Armstrong county (Fusion), 209,261 ; 
Surveyor General, John Rowe, Franklin 
county (Democrat), 212,623; Bartholomew 
Laporte, Bradford county (Fusion), 208,888. 
The vote of Erie county was ; Scott, 1,980; 
Cochran, 4,083; Fry, 1,985; Phelps, 4,021, 
Rowe, 1,967; Laporte, 4,008. 

For Congress, in the district composed of 
Erie and Crawford, the Democratic candidate 
was James A. McFadden, of Crawford, and 
the Fusion candidate, John Dick, of the same 
county. The latter was elected by the fol- 
lowing vote : 


Erie county 4,235 1,582 

Crawford county 4,709 2,633 

Total 8,944 4,215 

The Fusion candidate for Additional Law 
Judge (being the first election held for thut 
office) was David Derrickson, of Crawford; 
the Democratic, Rasselas Brown, of Warren. 
Below is the vote : 


Erie county 3,970 2,114 

Crawford county 4,354 2,974 

Warren county 1,472 1,440 

Total 9,796 6,528 

The county tickets, with the vote for each 
candidate, were as follows : Fusion — As- 
sembly, G. J. Ball, 4,003; Wareham Warner, 
Venango, 3,922. Associate Judges — Samuel 
Hutchins, Waterford, 3,538; John Greer, 
North East, 3,790. Commissioner — William 
W. Eaton, Fairview, 4,273. Treasurer, Jere- 
miah Davis, Lockport, 3,833. District A'ttor- 
ney — G. Nelson Johnson, Erie, 3,923. Sur- 
veyor — William Benson, Waterford, 3,377. 
Auditor — John W. Campbell, Washington, 
3,589. Director of the Poor— John Spauld- 



Johnson died 
, and Charles 

ing, Springfield, 3,786. Mr. 
immediately after his electio 
W. Kelso was appointed by the Governor. Mr. 
Spauldincr refused to serve, and John Hay, of 
Girard, was appointed by the Court. 

Democratic — Assembly, Murray Whallon, 
Erie, 1,97] ; Wilson Laird, Erie. 1,246; Asso- 
ciate Judges, Anthonv Saltsman, Mill Creek, 
1,885; Henry Gingrich, Mill Creek, 1,809; 
Commissioner, Joseph Neeley, Harbor Creek, 
1,818; District Attorney, John W. Douglas, 
Erie, 2,141; Director of the Poor, Eli Dun- 
combe, Amity, 1,869; Auditor, C. C. Boyd, 
Waterford, 1,471. 

Independent — Associate Judge, Jas. Miles, 
Girard, 1,178: Treasurer, Joseph S. M. Young, 
Erie, 1,366; vSurveyor, Samuel Low, Harbor 
Creek, 1 , 142 ; Auditor, Samuel Drown, Greene, 

The Democratic National candidates were 
James Buchanan, Pennsylvania, for President, 
and John C. Breckenridge, of Kentucky, for 
Vice-President. Vincent Phelps, Crawford, 
was the Elector for this district. The Repub- 
lican party ran John C. Fremont, of Califor- 
nia, for President, and William L. Dayton, of 
New Jersey, for Vice President. The Amer- 
ican party supported Millard Fillmore of New 
York, for President, and A. J. Donelson, of 
Tennessee, for Vice President. A fusion of 
the two latter elements was formed, and an 
electoral ticket nominated, with the under- 
standing that the votes for each candidate for 
President and Vice-President should be count- 
ed separately. James Skinner, of Erie, was 
the district nominee for Elector. A portion 
of Mr. Fillmore's friends would not unite, and 
ran a separate electoral ticket, with James 
Webster, of Fairview, as the candidate for 
this district. 

The vote of the btate was as follows : 
Buchanan, 230,500; Fusion (Fremont), 147,- 
447; Fusion (Fillmore), 55,891 ; Straight Fill- 
more, 26,388. 

Below is the vote of the countv : 


Erie, East ward 245 

Erie, West ward 333-S7S 

Mill Creek 321 

Lockport 180 

Conneaut 282 

Elk Creek 170 

Girard borough 36 

Girard township 176 





















Waterford borough .... 79 42 13 

Waterford township. . 243 95 2 

Greene 126 83 3 

Greenfield 128 41 1 

Harbor Creek 242 111 10 

Concord 160 74 2 

Wayne 185 62 — 

Washington 315 89 — 

McKean 241 46 3 

Summit 78 80 1 

Franklin 127 32 2 

Fairview 197 93 52 

Union 202 85 7 

Le Bceuf 136 133 4 

Amity 94 65 1 

North East borough... 75 40 1 

North East township.. 195 141 2 

Edinboro 62 23 4 

Springfield 342' 38 12 

Venango 190 55 2 

Wattsburg 30 19 — 

Total 5,156 2,584 252 

Of the Fusion votes, only thirty-seven 
were for Fillmore, all the rest being in favor 
of Fremont. Buchanan and Breckenridge 
were elected. 


1857 — The vote of the State was as fol- 
lows : 

Governor — William F. Packer, Lycoming 
(Dem.), 188,890; David Wilmot, Bradford 
(Fusion). 146,147; Isaac Hazlehurst, Phila- 
delphia (American), 28,160. 

Supreme Judge — James Thompson, Erie 
(Democrat), 187,023;" William Strong, Berks 
(Democrat), 186,823; Joseph J. Lewis, Ches- 
ter (Fusion), 141,377; James V^eech, Fayette 
(Fusion), 141,467; JacoljBroom, Philadelphia 
(American), 27,244; Jasper E. Brady, Cum- 
berland (American), 26,954; Canal Commis- 
sioner, Nimrod Strickland, Chester (Demo- 
crat), 186,578; William Millward, Philadel- 
phia (Fusion), 142,479; John F. Linderman, 
Berks (American), 25,730. 

The vote of Krie county was, for Packer, 
2.105; Wilmot. 3,306; Hazlehurst, 143, 
Thompson, 2,598; Strong, 2,027; Lewis, 
2,767; Veech, 2,678; Broom, 101; Brady, 

The Democrats made no nominations for 
county officers, and supported Independent 
candidates. Below is a list of those who ran, 
with their votes : 

Fusion — Assembly, W^areham Warner, 
V'enango, 8,299; John R. Cochran, Erie. 
2,235; Prothonotary, James Skinner. Erie, 



3,778 ; Register, William P. Trimbell, Harbor 
Creek, 3,075; Commissioner, Amos Gould, 
North East, 2,995; District Attorney, James 
Sill, Erie, 3,163; Auditor, Elias Brecht, Mc- 
Kean, 2,869; Coroner, Thomas Dillon, Erie, 
2,948; Director of the Poor (three years), 
Alex. Nicholson, Fairview, 2,938; William 
Bracken (two years), Le Boeuf, 2,919. 

Independent — Assembly, David Himrod, 
Waterford, 2,724; Register, John Rice, Har- 
bor Creek, 1,321 ; District Attorney, William 
J. Herring, Erie, 102; Coroner, Samuel L. 
Foster, Erie, 435. 

American — Assembly, James McClelland, 
Girard, 245; Prothonotary, Isaac Webster, 
Fairview, 654; Register, Silas E. Teel, Erie, 
eighty -eight ; Commissioner, Andrew Oliver, 
Waterford, 115; Auditor; Charles Sterrett, 
McKean, 100; Director of the Poor (three 
years), James P. Paul, Conneaut, 134. 

Mr. Himrod, Independent, was elected to 
the Assembly over John R. Cochran, Fusion. 

A series of amendments to the State con- 
stitution were submitted to the people, and 
carried by a large majority — in the county as 
well as in the State. 


1858 — All elements of opposition to the 
Democrats rallied under the Republican ban- 
ner, and won a sweeping victory. The State 
candidates with their votes were as follows : 

Supreme Judge, John M. Reed, Philadel- 
phia (Rep.),' 198,116; William A. Porter, 
Philadelphia (Dem.), 171,130. Canal Com- 
missioner, William E. Frazier, Fayette 
(Rep.), 196,626; Weslev Frost, Fayette 
(Dem.), 170,336. 

The vote of Erie county was, for Reed, 
3,233; Porter, 1,921; Frazier, 3,187; Frost, 

For Congress, Elijah Babbitt, of Erie, ran 
as the Republican candidate, and James C. 
Marshall, of Erie, as the Democratic. The 
vote of the district was as follows : 


Erie county 3,220 2,080 

Crawford countv 3,140 2,033 

Total 6,360 4,113 

The Republican candidate for State Sen- 
ate was Darwin A. Finney, of Crawford ; the 
Democratic, Benjamin Grant, of Erie. The 
vote of the district was as follows : 


Erie county 2,419 2,443 

Crawford county 3,230 1,932 

Total 5,649 4,375 

The vote for county officers hinged wholly 
upon the railroad issue, the Democrats ma- 
king no regular nominations, and supporting 
Independent candidates of both parties. Be- 
low is the vote : Assembly (Reg. Rep.), John 
W. Campbell, Washington, 2,937; Henrv 
Teller, Girard, 2,401; (Ind. Rep.) David 
Himrod, 1,966; (Ind. Dem.) Wilson Laird, 
Erie, 2,656; Sheriff (Reg. Rep.), John W. 
McLane, Harbor Creek, 3,029; (Ind. Rep.) 
Elias Brecht, McKean, 156; (Ind. Dem.) 
D. D. Walker, Erie, 2,279; (Ind. Dem.) 
James Lytle, Erie, 117; Treasurer (Reg. 
Rep.), Thomas J. Devore, Springfield, 2,794; 
(Ind. Rep.) Mortimer Phelps, Edinboro, 2,220; 
Commissioner (Reg. Rep.), William Putnam, 
Union, 3,043; Director of the Poor (Reg. 
Rep.), Thomas Stewart, Erie, 2,523 ; Auditors 
(three years), David Nash, Concord, 2,473 ; 
(two years) H. H. Bassler, Fairview, 2,431. 
Wilson Laird (Dem.) was elected to the As- 
sembly over Henry Teller. 

1859 — The State candidates were as fol- 
lows : 

Auditor General, Thomas E. Cochran, 
York (Rep.), 181,835; Richardson L. Wright, 
Philadelphia (Dem.) , 164,544; Survevor Gen- 
eral, William H. Keim, Berks (Rep.)," 182,282; 
John Rowe, Franklin (Dem.), 163,970. 

The public works of the State having been 
sold, the office of Canal Commissioner was 

Erie county's vote was, for Cochran, 2,325 ; 
Wright, 1,119"; Keim, 2,299; Rowe, 1,144. 

The Democrats made no county nomina- 
tions, and the only Democratic candidate in 
the field was Wilson Laird, for Assembly, 
who received 1,632 votes, and was defeated. 
The following were the Republican candi- 
dates, all of whom but Mr. Brockway were 
elected : Assembly, Jonas Gunnison, Erie, 
and Henry Teller, Girard ; Commissioner, 
Hiram Brockway, Springfield; Director of the 
Poor, William Bracken, Le Bcpuf ; vSurveyor, 
William Benson, Waterford; Auditor (three 
years), John L. Way, Summit; (two years), 
H. H. Bassler, Fairview. Joseph Henderson, 
Mill Creek, Independent candidate for Com- 
missioner, was elected by 265 majorit}'. 



TIN's first ELECTION. 

1860 — The Republican candidate for Gov- 
ernor was Andrew G. Curtin, of Centre 
county; the Democratic, Henry D. Foster, of 
Westmoreland. The vote of the State was 
262,349 for Curtin, and 280,257 for Foster— 
Curtin's majority, 82,092. Erie county gave 
Curtin 5,613 votes, and Foster 2,469. 

Elijah Babbitt was the Republican candi- 
date for re-election to Congress. The Demo- 
cratic candidate was Edwin C. Wilson, of Erie 
county. Below is the vote : 


Erie county 5,440 2,432 

Crawford county 5,265 3,119 

Total 10,705 5,551 

John Galbraith, President Judge, died 
June 15 of this year, and Rasselas Brown, of 
Warren was appointed to serve until the elec- 
tion. The Democrats nominated the latter 
gentleman ; the Republican candidate was 
Samuel P. Johnson, of the same county. The 
vote of the district was as follows : 


Erie county 5,545 2,602 

Crawford county 5,172 3,200 

Warren county 1,594 1,590 

Total 12.111 7,392 

The county tickets, with their vote, were 
as follows : 

Republican — Assembly, Henry Teller, 
5,546; G. J. Ball, 5,509; P'rothonotary, James 
Skinner, 5,652; Register, Samuel Rea, Jr., 
Springfield, 5,294; Treasurer, William O. 
Black, Union, 5,384; Commissioner, Jacob 
Fritts, Venango, 5,446; Coroner, Richard 
Gaggin, Erie, 5,886; District Attorney, S. 
A. Davenport, Erie, 5,596; Auditor, Will- 
iam H. Belknap, Concord, 5,298 ; Philip Os- 
born, Girard, 5,280; Director of the Poor, 
Thomas Willis, Mill Creek, 5,486. 

Democratic — Assembly, James Stranahan, 
Le Boeuf, 2,307; E. Camphausen, Erie, 2,260 ; 
Prothonotary, Henry Ball, Girard, 1,810; 
Register, S. E. Teel, Erie, 2,370; Treasurer, 
G, D. Wagner, Mill Creek, 2,811; Commis- 
sioner, I. M. White, Waterford, 2,679; Coro- 
ner, Daniel Wood, Elk Creek, 1,895; Audi- 
tor, D. M. Merrill, North East, 1,673; T- T- 
Lintz, Erie, 223. 

The Democratic party was divided upon 
national candidates, one branch supporting 
Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, for President, 
and Herschell V. Johnson, of Georgia, for 
Vice President; the other branch, John C. 
Breckenridge, of Kentucky, for President, 
and Joseph Lane, of Oregon, for Vice Presi- 
dent. A Fusion of the two elements was 
formed in Pennsylvania, which nominated an 
electoral ticket, comprising seventeen Douglas 
men and ten Breckenridge men, which was 
supported by the mass of the party. A small 
portion of Mr. Douglas' friends, under Col. 
Forney's lead, refused to harmonize, and ran 
an electoral ticket embracing the Douglas men 
on the Fusion ticket, with others substituted 
for the Breckenridge electors. The Republi- 
can candidates were Abraham Lincoln, of Illi- 
nois, for President, and Hannibal Hamlin, of 
Maine, for Vice President. The American 
party supported John Bell of Tennessee, for 
President, and Edward Everett, of Massachu- 
setts, for Vice President. The candidates for 
elector were : Republican, John Greer, North 
East; Democratic (on all the tickets). Gay- 
lord Church, Crawford county; American, 
Isaac Webster, Fairview. 

The vote of the State was as follows : 

Lincoln 268,030 

Democratic Fusion 178,871 

Straigfhtout Doug-las 16,677 

Bell 12,809 

The vote of the county was as follows : 


Erie, First Ward... 177 103 6 7 

Erie, Second " ... 203 144 1 — 

Erie, Third "... 216 92 — 9 

Erie, Fourth " ... 222-818 122-461 10-17 9-25 

Mill Creek 419 288 — 1 

Harbor Creek 261 96—4 

Fairview 265 88 — 20 

Girard township . . . 258 62 — 9 

Girard boroug-h 48 55 — 11 

North East towns'p 235 134 — — 

North East boroug-h 117 21 — — 

Greenfield 128 20 — — 

Venango 196 61 — — 

Wattsburg 51 21 — — 

Amitv 107 74 — — 

Wayne 191 77 — — 

Concord 189 78 — — 

Union 254 128 — — 

Le Boeuf 166 100 — — 

Waterford borough. 166 41 — — 

Waterford towns'p. 292 76 — — 

Greene 122 100 — — 

Summit 66 78 — — 

McKean 280 26 — — 



Washington 336 75 — 4 

Edinboro 75 38 — 7 

Franklin 145 31 — 1 

Elk Creek 183 96 — — 

Conneaut 231 55 — — 

Albion 69 32 — — 

Springfield 265 31 — 7 

Lockport . 177 87 — 1 

Total 6,160 2,531 17 90 

Lincoln and Hamlin were elected by a 
large majority of the electoral votes, carrying 
every Northern State, except New Jersey, 
three-sevenths of whose Electors voted for 
Douglas and the balance for Lincoln. 


1861 — The outbreak of the rebellion weak- 
ened party ties, and there was a strong dispo- 
sition in Erie county to cast aside old political 
prejudices. The Republican party nominated 
a ticket headed by Morrow B. Lowrj', of 
Erie, for State Senate. Soon after, a call was 
issued for a LTnion Convention, irrespective 
of party, which met on the 19th of September, 
every district being represented. The dele- 
gates were about evenly divided between 
Democrats and Republicans. William A. 
Galbraith and Judge Miles were named as 
candidates for the Senate. The nomination 
fell upon the former. In Crawford county, 
the two parties voted for Galbraith and 
Lowry, respectively, with little deviation. 
Below is the vote of the district : 


Erie county 3,621 3,521 

Crawford county 3,753 2,238 

Total 7,374 5,759 

The Eighty-third Regiment, under com- 
mand of Col. John W. McLane, held an elec- 
tion at Hall's Hill, Va., the result of which 
is included in the above and following re- 
turns. The Erie county soldiers gave Gal- 
braith thirt}' majority; the Crawford county 
soldiers gave a majority of eighty-five for 

The following were the county tickets, 
with their vote : 

Republican — Assembly, fohn P. Vincent, 
Erie, 8,995; E. W. TwichelC Edinboro, 3,450; 
Sheriff, Allen A. Craig, Erie, 4,079; Associ- 
ate Judges, John Greer, North East, 3,794; 
William Cross, Springfield (on both tickets), 
4,897 ; Commissioner, Seymour Washburne, 

McKean, 3,648 ; Director of the Poor, Thomas 
Stewart, Erie, 3,241 ; Auditor, Joseph W. 
Swalley, Fairview, 3,426. 

Union — Assembly, George H. Cutler 
(Dem,), Girard, 2,928; Matthew R. Barr 
(Rep.), Erie, 2,548; Sheriff, Joseph L. Cook 
(Rep.), Waterford, 1,962; Associate Judge, 
James Chambers (Rep.), Harbor Creek, 
2,708; Commissioner, Isaac Webster (Dem.), 
Fairview, 2,-597 ; Director of the Poor, Henry 
Gingrich (Dem.), Mill Creek, 2,266 ; Auditor, 
Stutely Stafford (Rep.), McKean, 2,201. 

Robert S. Hunter, of Erie, Independent 
Democratic candidate for Sheriff, received 668 
votes. David Kennedy, Independent Repub- 
lican candidate for Director of the Poor, re- 
ceived 220 votes. 

SCOFIELD's first election DEMOCRATIC 


1862 — The Republican State ticket con- 
sisted of Thomas E. Cochran, of York, for 
Auditor General, and William S. Ross, of 
Luzerne, for Surveyor General. The Dem- 
ocratic candidates were Isaac Slenker, of Co- 
lumbia, for Auditor General, and James P. 
Barr, of Allegheny, for Surveyor General. 
The State gave a Democratic majority of about 
3,450. Erie county cast 4,255 votes for Coch- 
ran and 2,718 for Slenker. 

The Republican Confex'ence at Ridgway 
nominated Glenni W. Scofield, of Warren, 
for Congress. A portion of the party in this 
county were dissatisfied with the nomination, 
and united with a number of Democrats in a 
letter to Milton Courtright, of Erie, asking 
him to be a Union candidate. He accepted 
the honor, and was indorsed by the Dem 
ocratic Conference at Ridgway. Below is 
the vote of the district : 


Erie 4,112 3,143 

Warren 1,890 1,245 

McKean 671 564 

Cameron 195 143 

Forest ; 82 59 

Jefferson 1,424 1,503 

Elk 276 607 

Clearfield 1,304 2,198 

Total 9,954 9,462 

The following were the county tickets, 

with the vote for each candidate : 

Republican — Assembly, John P. Vincent, 

4,218; E. VV, Twichell, 4,289; Commissioner, 



Garner Palmer, Albion, 4,238; Treasurer, 
Lieut. Egbert D. Hulbert, Erie, (3,975; Direc- 
tor of the Poor, Archibald Duncan, North 
East, 6,819; Auditor, Henrv Gingrich, Mill 
Creek, 6,714. 

Democratic — Assembly, Selden Marvin, 
Erie, 2,812 ; Isaac M. White, Waterford, 2,801; 
Commissioner, Ralph Bowman, Conneaut, 

Messrs. Hulbert, Duncan and Gingrich 
were upon both tickets. 


1863 — Andrew G. Curtin was re-nomi- 
nated by the Republicans for Governor. 
George W. Woodward, Luzerne, was the Dem- 
ocratic candidate. For Supreme Judge, the 
Democratic candidate was Walter H. Lowrie, 
Allegheny ; the Republican, Daniel Agnew, 
Beaver. Curtin and Agnew were elected by 
majorities respectively of 15,325 and 12,308. 
Erie county cast 6,259 votes for Curtin, and 
3,260 for Woodward. 

The county tickets, with the vote for each 
candidate, were as follows : 

Republican — Assembly, John R. Cochran, 
Erie, 6,167 ; Byron S. Hill", Wattsburg, 6,161 ; 
Prothonotary, George W. Colton, Erie, 6,107 ; 
District Attorney, J. F- Downing, Erie, 6,088 ; 
Register, Samuel Rea, Erie, 6,129; Clerk of 
Courts, Capt. John C. Hilton, Erie, 6,156 ; 
Commissioner, C. C. Boyd, Waterford, 6,129 ; 
Director of the Poor, Thomas Willis, Mill 
Creek, 6,025; Surveyor, R. P. Holliday, 
Springfield, 6,002; Coroner, Thomas Dillon, 
Erie, 6,505; Auditor, Orin Reed, McKean, 

Democratic — Assembly, Watts B. Lloyd, 
Waterford, 3,233; Irvin Camp, Erie, 3,234; 
Prothonotarv, Col. William O. Colt, Water- 
ford, 3,197;" Register, Calvin L. Randall (de- 
clined), 538; Commissioner, R. J.Osborne, 
Wayne, 3,137; Clerk of the Courts, no nom- 
ination ; Director of the Poor, John LThr, Mill 
Creek. 3,112; Survey'or, Isaac R. Taylor, 
W^ashington, 3,110. 

The One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment 
voted 343 for Curtin, four for Woodward. 

additional constitutional amendments 

Lincoln's second election. 

1864- — A special election was held August 
2. to decide upon the proposed three amend- 
ments to the State Constitution, allowinsr sol- 

diers to vote away from their place of residence, 
providing that the Legislature should pass no 
bill containing more than one subject, and pro- 
hibiting the same body from passing any bill 
allowing counties, cities or boroughs to loan 
their credit to corporations. They were all 
adopted by large majorities. 

The following was the vote of the district 

for Congress, Glenni W. Scofield, Warren, 

I being the Republican, and ex-Governor Will- 

; iam Bigler, Clearfield, the Democratic nomi- 

I nee : 


Erie 5,575 3,054 

Warren 2,009 1,281 

Cameron 277 193 

Clearfield 1,302 2,476 

Elk 261 656 

Forest 71 S3 

McKean 643 580 

Jefferson : 1,514 1,621 

Total 11,652 


j For State Senate, the Republicans re- 

nominated Morrow B. Lowry, and the Demo- 
crats took up Dan Rice, of Girard, the cele- 
brated showman. 

Below is the vote of the district : 



LOWRV. rice. 
, . 5,311 3,031 

. . 4,768 3,638 

Total 10,079 6,669 

The county tickets with their votes were as 
follows : 

Republican — Assembly, John R. Cochran, 
Erie, 5,390 ; Byron S. Hill, Wattsburg, 5,390 ; 
Sheriff, Col. H. L. Brown, Erie, 5,407; Clerk 
of the Courts (in place of Mr. Hilton, re- 
signed), Henry Butterfield, Erie, 5,358 ; Treas- 
urer, Lieut. E. D. Hulbert, Erie, 5,348; Com- 
missioner, James Chambers, Harbor Creek, 
5,373; Auditor, Philip Osbom, Girard, 5,261 ; 
Director of the Poor, Thomas Stewart, Erie, 

Democratic — Assembly, H. D. Francis, 
Corry, 3,039; L. W. Savage, Springfield, 
3,039; Sheriff, Col. William O. Colt. Water- 
ford, 3,013 ; Clerk of the Courts, F. W. Koeh- 
ler, South Erie, 2,979 ; Commissioner, Mon- 
roe Hutchinson, Girard, 2,979 ; Treasurer, P. 
A. Becker, Erie, 3,018 ; Director of the Poor, 
Ralph Bowman, Conneaut, 2,973; Auditor, 
Uras Schluraff, Mill Cr-eek, 3,000. 

The Republican National Convention 
nominated Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois, for 


President, and Andrew Johnson, of Tennes- 
see, for Vice President. John Patton, Clear- 
field, was the Elector for this district. The 
Democrats nominated George B. McClellan, 
of Pennsylvania, for President, and George H. 
Pendleton, of Ohio, for Vice President. Ras- 
selas Brown, Warren, was the candidate for 
Elector. The vote of the countv was as fol- 
lows : 


Erie, First Ward 183 131 

Erie, Second " 124 248 

Erie, Tliird " 271 122 

Erie, Fourth " 290-868 183-684 

West Mill Creek 198 137 

East Mill Creek 220 333 

Harbor Creek 237 149 

Greenfield 131 38 

North East township 242 180 

North East borough 119 31 

Waterford borough ..135 31 

Waterford township 263 88 

Wattsburg 43 19 

Venango 193 86 

Edinboro 81 SO 

Washington 312 110 

Franklin 142 39 

Concord 174 102 

Corry 199 70 

Amity 94 94 

McKean 230 42 

Middleboro 32 — 

Greene 116 156 

Summit 73 107 

Elk Creek 153 127 

Conneaut 212 65 

Springfield 392 41 

Fairview 249 156 

Girard township 236 70 

Girard borough 72 68 

Albion 61 27 

LeBoeuf 179 140 

Union township 194 103 

Union borough 95 92 

Wayne 188 87 

Lockport 164 97 

Total 6,387 3,619 

The soldiers from Erie covmty gave Lincoln 
524 votes, and McClellan 103, which are not 
included in the above. 

The vote of the State was as follows : Lin- 
coln, 290,389; McClellan, 276,308. 


l%Qo— Auditor Gene, -a!. —Gun. John F. 
Hartranft, Montgomery county. Republican, 
288,400; Gen. W. W. H. Davi's, Bucks coun- 
ty. Democrat, 215,714. 

Survevor General. — J. M. Campbell, Cam- 
bria county. Republican, 237,969; Col. John 

P. Linton, Cambria county. Democrat, 

The vote of the countv was as follows : 
Hartranft, 3,845; Davis, 2,051: Campbell 
3,842; Linton, 2,041. 

Countv Candidates . — Republican — Assem- 
bly, Col.'O. S. Woodward, Waterford, 3,875 
Gen. D. B. McCreary, Erie, 8,845; County 
Commissioner, L. M. Childs, Wayne, 3,808 
Director of the Poor, Andrew Thompson 
Union, 3,781 ; Surveyor, G. W. F. Sherwin 
Harbor Creek, 3,720; Auditor, O. H. P. Fer 
guson, Fairview, 3,744. 

Democratic — Assembly, Maj. T. J. Hos- 
kinson, Erie, 2,016; Col. W. O. Colt, Water- 
ford, 2,027; County Commissioner, Edwin 
Hall, Girard, 2,061 ; Director of the Poor, 
William C. Keeler, Erie, 2,040; Surveyor, 
Capt. John H. Miller, Mill Creek, 2,053; 
Auditor, George W. Arbuckle, Girard, 2,029. 


1866 — Governor. — Gen. John W. Geary, 
Westmoreland county. Republican, 807,274 ; 
Hiester Clymer, Berks county. Democrat, 

The vote of the county was as follows : 
Geary, 7,287; Clymer, 8,957. 

John P. Vincent, of Erie, was nominated 
as the Republican, and Lieut. Col. Benjamin 
Grant, of Erie, as the Democratic candidate 
for Additional Law Judge. The vote of the 
district was as follows : 


Erie 7,193 3,956 

Crawford 6,707 4,969 

Warren 2,656 1,579 

Total 16,556 11,504 

For Congress, Glenni W. Scofield was re- 
nominated by the Republicans, and William L. 
Scott, of Erie, was the candidate of the Demo- 
crats. The vote of the district was as follows : 


Cameron 372 305 

Clearfield 1,646 2,791 

Elk 3S9 636 

Erie 7,128 4,094 

Forest 99 77 

Jefferson 1.986 1,944 

McKean ' 854 739 

Warren 2,663 1,595 

Total 15,107 12,481 



County Candidates. — Republican — Assem- 
bly, Gen. D. B. McCreary, Erie, 7,147; Col. 
O. S. Woodward, Waterfoid, 7,149; Associate 
Judges, Hollis King, Corry, 7,U)0; William 
Benson, Waterford, 7,150 ; Prothonotary, Col. 
Chauncey P. Rogers, Edinboro, 7,197; Dis- 
trict Attorney, Col. Charles M. Lynch, Erie, 
7,158 ; Register and Recorder, Capt. H. G. 
Harvey, Springfield, 7,209; Treasurer, Lieut. 
C. W. Keller, Union, 7,205; Commissioner, 
Stephen J. Godfrey, Elk Creek, 7,158; Audi- 
tor, M. Hartleb, Erie, 7,192; Director of the 
Poor, Thomas Willis, Mill Creek, 7,207 ; Coro- 
ner, William J. Sterrett, Erie, f3,721. 

Democratic — Assembly, William Henry, 
South Erie. 4,036; F. "F. Marshall, Erie, 
4,007; Associate Judges, Henry R. Porter, 
North East, 8,940; P. P. T"clson, Waterford, 
3,955 ; Prothonotary, Col. W. O. Colt, Water- 
ford, 3,971 ; District Attorney, Charles B. 
Sleeper, Corry, 3,996 ; Register and Recorder, 
Frank Schlaudecker, Erie, 3,971 ; Treasurer, 
P. A. Becker, Erie, 3,997; Commissioner, 
Charles Wright, Franklin, 8,989; Auditor, 
Amos Stone, Fairview, 3,991 ; Director of the ! 
Poor, L?ras SchluraflF, Mill Creek, 4,070 ; Coro- 
ner, James A. Shearer, LeBoeuf , 3,775. 


1867 Supreme Judge.— \i&yxxy W. Will- 
iams, Allegheny county, Republican, 266,824; 
George Sharswood, Philadelphia, Democrat, 

The vote of Erie county was as follows : 
Williams, 5,504; Sharswood, 8,428. 

The candidates for State Senate were 
Morrow B. Lowry, Erie county. Republican, 
and George W. Hecker, Crawford county, 
Democrat. Below is the vote of the district : 


Erie 4,615 3,562 

Crawford 5,248 4,071 


County Candidates. — This was the first 
year Jury Commissioners were elected. 

Republican — Assembly, George P. Rea, 
Girard, 5,182 ; John D. Stranahan, LeBa?uf, 
5,588; Sheriff, >laj. Andrew F. Swan, Fair- 
view, 5,451 ; Clerk of the Courts, Capt. 
Charles L. Pierce, Venango, 5,511 ; Jury Com- 
missioner, D. W. Patterson, Wattsburg, 5,490; 
Commissioner, William B. Reed, Greene, 
5,502 ; Director of the Poor, Jacob Hanson, 

Erie, 5,499 ; Auditor, Francis F. Stow, Amity, 

Democratic — Assembly, Isaac R. Taylor, 
Washington, 3,839; F. P." Liebel, Erie, 3,434, 
Sheriff, Wilson Moore, Waterford, 8,409; 
Clerk of the Courts, R. H. Arbuckle, Mill 
Creek, 3,365; Jury Commissioner, P. G. 
btranahan, L^nion, 3,364; County Commis- 
sioner, J. C. Cauffman, Lockport, 8,368; Di- 
rector of the Poor, James Lytle, Erie, 3,371 ; 
Auditor, Alden Pomeroy, Conneaut, 3,345. 


XWt^,— Auditor Genera/.— Gen. John F. 
Hartranft, Montgomery county. Republican, 
331,408; Charles E. Boyle, Fayette county. 
Democrat, 321,731. 

Surveyor Genera/. — James M. Campbell, 
Cambria county. Republican, 831,126; Col. 
Wellington H. Ent, Columbia county. Demo- 
crat, 321,947. 

The vote of Erie county was 7,702 for 
Hartranft, 4,581 for Boyle, 7,699 for Camp- 
bell, and 4,582 for Ent. 

The candidates for Congress were Glenni 
W. Scofield, Republican, and Rasselas Brown, 
of Warren, Democrat. Below is the vote of 
the district : 


Erie 7,675 4,572 

Warren 2,935 1,934 

McKean 964 825 

Elk 501 1,061 

Cameron 537 440 

Jefferson 2,067 2,107 

Clearfield 1,890 3,066 

Forest 334 350 

Total 16,903 14.355 

County C<7;/<//(/(r/r.T.— Republican— Assem- 
bly, John D. Stranahan, LeBoeuf, 7,679; 
George P. Rea, Girard, 7,632; Treasurer, 
Lieut. C. W. Keller, Union, 7,736; Commis- 
sioner, L. M. Childs, Wayne, 7,649; Director 
of the Poor, Andrew Thompson, Union, 7,671 ; 
Auditor, Thomas Evans, Erie, 7,717 ; Survey- 
or, R. P. Holliday, Fairview, 7,717. 

Democratic — Assembly, P. A. Becker, 
Erie, 4,602; James Lewis, Corry, 4,556; 
Treasurer, Henry Ball, Girard, 4,548; Com- 
missioner, Wilson Moore, Waterford, 4,567; 
Director of the Poor, James D. Phillips, 
Amity, 4,554; Auditor, W. W. Dobbins, 
Erie, 4,559; Surveyor, H. L. Pinney, Greene, 



Presidential ]'ole. — The State vote for 
President at the November election was as fol- 
lows : Ulysses S. Grant, of Illinois, Republi- 
can, 342,280 ; Horatio Seymour, of New York, 
Democratic, 813,382. 

Schuyler Colfax, of Indiana, was the Rep- 
publican, and Gen. Frank P. Blair, of Mis- 
souri, the Democratic nominee for Vice Presi- 

Grant and Colfax were 
county vote was as follows ; 

Erie, First ward 

Drie, Second ward... 

Erie, Third ward 

Erie, Fourth ward. ... 
Corry, North ward. . . . 
Corry, South ward. . , . 






Elk Creek 

Fairview township... 

Fairview boroug^h 


Girard township 

Girard borough . ; 



Harbor Creek 




Middleboro . . . . 

Mill Creek (East) 

Mill Creek (West) 

North East township. 
North East borough... 


Summit l . . . 

South Erie 

Union township 

Union boroug-h 




Waterford township. . 
Waterford borough . . . 


elected. The 





1561 235-897 

Asa Packer, Carbon county. Democrat, 285,- 

Supreme Ji/Jge.—H. W. Williams, Alle- 
gheny county. Republican, 291,278; Cyrus 
L. Pershing, Cambria county. Democrat, 282,- 

Erie county gave 6,990 votes for Geary, 
4,338 for Packer, 6,426 for Williams, and 
4,250 for Pershing. 

County Candidates — Republican — As- 
1 sembly, Charles O. Bowman, Corry, 6,490; 
Gen. D. B. McCreary, Erie, 6,411. Prothon- 
otary, Capt. E. L. Whittlesey, Waterford, 
6,520; Register and Recorder^ Capt. H. G. 
Harvey, Springfield, 6,614 ; District Attorney, 
j J. C. Sturgeon, Erie, 6,540, Commissioner, 
I Garner Parmer, Albion, 5,974 ; Director of the 
I Poor, S. A. Beavis, Corry, 6,429; Auditors, 
Thomas Woods, Union (three years), 6,610; 
I George W. Griffin, North East (one year), 
I 6,584; Coroner, Thomas Dillon, Erie, no op- 

Democratic — Assembly, Frank Schlau- 
decker, Erie, 4,226 ; Isaac R. Taylor, Edin- 
boro, 4,001; Prothonotary, Col. W. O. Colt, 
Waterford, 4,284; Register and Recorder, 
Charles Horton, North East, 4,191; District 
Attorney, George A. Allen, Erie, 4,260; Com- 
missioner, George C. Gallowhur, Girard, 
4,737; Director of the Poor, John Burton, East 
Mill Creek, 4,353; Auditors, James M. Finn, 
Greenfield (three years), 4,205; Ephraim 
I Boyer, Fairview (one year), 4,202. 


1870 — The Republican candidate for Pres- 
ident Judge was Lansing D. Wetmore, War- 
ren, and the Democratic, Rasselas Brown, 
same county. S. E. Woodruff, Erie, was an 
Independent Republican candidate. The vote 
of the district was as follows: 

Total 8,007 4,555 

James Sill, of Erie, was the Republican, 
and William A. Galbraith, of Erie, the Dem- 
ocratic candidate for Elector. 

Warren , 

Total 1,765 

















I The candidates for Congress were Glenni 

1 W. Scofield, Republican, Warren, and Selden 

1869 — Governor — Gen. John W.Geary, | Marvin, Democrat, Erie. Below was the vote 

Cumberland county, Reputslican, 290,552; I of the district; 




Erie 5,595 4,C89 

Warren 2,250 1,657 

Clearfield 1,371 2,608 

Elk 342 787 

Forest 366 276 

Cameron 437 390 

McKean 882 700 

Jefferson 1,812 1,914 

Total 13,055 12,451 

For the State Senate, George B. Delama- 
ter, of Crawford county, was the Republican, 
and J. Ross Thompson, of Erie county, the 
Democratic candidate. The vote of the dis- 
trict was as follows : 


Erie 5,691 3,921 

Crawford 5,109 4,602 

Total 10,800 8,523 

County Candidates. — Republican — As- 
sembly, George W. Starr, Erie, 5,940; I. 
Newton Miller, Springfield, 5,887; Sheriff, 
Gen. Thomas M. Walker, Erie, 5,600; Treas- 
urer, Logan J. Dyke, Erie, 5,929; Clerk of 
the Courts, Capt. C. L. Pierce, Venango, 6,- 
019; Commissioner, Myron H. Silverthorn, 
Fairview township, 5,869; Jury Commis- 
sioner, William W. Love, West Mill Creek, 
5,954; Director of the Poor, Stephen A. 
Beavis, Corry, 5,891; W. W. Eaton, Fair- 
view borough, 5,894; L. W. Olds, Erie, 
5,886 ; Auditor, Jesse Ebersole, Harbor Creek, 

Democratic — Assembly, Eli Duncombe, 
Amity, 3,750; Spencer H. Ellis, Washington, 
3,797; Sheriff, Wilson Moore. Waterford 
township, 3,462; Treasurer, Amos Heath, 
Corry, 3,765; Clerk of the Courts, A. J. 
Proudfit, Edinboro, 3,765; Commissioner, 
John Burton, East Mill Creek, 3,770; Jury 
Commissioner, H. L. Pinney, Greene (elect- 
ed), 3,742; Director of the Poor, Henry 
Wolf, North East township, 3,722; Jacob 
Bootz, Erie, 3,709; Josiah Shreve, Union 
township, 3,722; Auditor, S. C. Sturgeon, 
Fairview borough , 3,747. 

Independent Democrat — Sheriff. Levi 
Jackson, Girard borough, 362. 

The election of three Directors of the 
Poor W3s due to the following circumstances : 
For some time the southern townships had 
urged the sale of the poor house farm and the 
purchase of a cheaper property. A bill to 

that effect passed the Legislature, and a sale 
was made, which the Court refused to confirm. 
The question was taken to the Supreme 
Court, which decided the act unconstitutional. 
The Legislature thereupon repealed the act, 
and another one was adopted, requiring the 
election of a new board, who should serve 
one, two and three years, respectively. 


W!\— Auditor General.— H&vid B. Stan- 
ton, Beaver county, Republican, 284,097; 
Gen. William McCandless, Philadelphia, 
Democrat, 269,522 ; Barr Spangler, Lancas- 
ter county, Proiiiliilion, 3.132. 

Surveyor G,v/<v,?/.— Cc.l. Robert B. Beath, 
Schuylkill county, Repul)lioin, 287,045; Maj . 
James H. Cooper, Lawrence county. Demo- 
crat, 266,335 ; Edward A. Wheeler. Mercer 
county, Prohibition, 2,969. 

Erie county cast 4,282 votes for Stanton. 
2,966 for McCandless, si,\ty-two for Spansfler, 
4,285 for Beath, 2,964 for Cooper, and sixty- 
two for Wheeler. 

County Candidates. — Republican — Asso- 
ciate Judges, William Benson, Waterford 
borough, 4,495; Allen A. Craig, Erie, 3,820; 
Assembly, George W. Starr, Erie, 3,957; 
Col. Chauncey P.Rogers, Edinboro, 4,343; 
Commissioner, Clark Bliss, North East town- 
ship, 4,371 ; Director of the Poor, Michael 
Henry, Erie, 4,018; Auditor, Col. C. W. 
Lytle", Erie, 4,285. 

Democratic — Associate Judge, Isaac R. 
Taylor, Edinboro, 3,467 ; Assembly, Charles 
Horton, North East borough, 3,406 ; Commis- 
sioner, R. H. Palmer, Corrj-, 2,982 ; Director 
of the Poor, Amos Heath, Corry, 3,039; 
Auditor, W. J. Brockway, Conneaut, 3,007. 

A vote was taken this year to decide 
whether a Constitutional Convention should 
be held. Erie county cast 6,490 for a Con- 
vention, and 204 against. I'he vote of the 
State. was 352,439 in favor of and 72.081 in 
opposition to the Convention. 


\ST2— Governor. — Gen. John F. Har- 
tranft, of Montgomery county. Republican, 
353,387; Charles R. Buckalew, Columbia 
county, Democrat, 317,760 ; Simeon B. Chase, 
Susquehanna county, Prohibition, 1,252. 



Auditor General. — Gen. Harrison Allen, 
Warren county, Republican, 352,767 ; William 
Hartley, Bedford county, Democrat, 315,851 ; 
Barr Spangkr, Lancaster county, Prohibition, 

Congressmen at Large. — Lemuel Todd, 
Cumberland county. Republican, 357,743 ; G. 
W. Scofield, Warren county. Republican, 359,- 
043; Charles Albright, Carbon county. Re- 
publican, 360,546 ; Richard Vaux, Philadel- 
phia, Democrat, 811,036; Hendrick B. 
Wright, Luzerne county, Democrat, 814,014; 
James H. Hopkins, Allegheny county. Demo- 
crat, 313,334. 

George F. McFarland, Dauphin county, 
Andrew J. Clark, Luzerne, and B. Rush Brad- 
ford, Beaver, the Prohibition candidates, re- 
ceived an average of 1,250 votes. 

Suprc7ne Judge. — L^lysses Mercur, Brad- 
ford county. Republican, 354,319; James 
Thompson, Philadelphia, Democrat, 813,876; 
Joseph Henderson, Washington, Prohibition, 

Erie county gave an average vote of 7,500 
for the Republican, and 5,200 for the Demo- 
cratic State ticket. 

By the act of Assembly providing for 
a Constitutional Convention, fourteen dele- 
gates at large were allotted to each of the two 
leading parties, and three delegates to each 
Senatorial district, in the latter case no voter 
being entitled to vote for more than two, so as 
to secure minority representation. John H. 
Walker, of Erie, was one of the Republican 
delegates at large. The Senatorial delegates 
elected were C. O. Bowman, of Corry, and 
Thomas Struthers, of Warren, Republicans, 
and Rasselas Brown, of Warren, Democrat. 
John Miller, sr., of Erie was one of the Pro- 
hibition nominees for district delegate. 

An amendment to the Constitution was 
adopted this year, making the office of State 
Treasurer elective. Erie county gave 11,509 
votes for the amendment and only two 
against it. 


The Republican candidate for Congress 
was Gen. Carlton B. Curtis, of Erie county. 
Gen. Thomas L. Kane, of McKean countjf, 
was supported by the Liberal Republicans and 
Democrats. The vote of the district was as 
follows : 


Erie 7,506 5,111 

Warren 3,221 2,332 

McKean 956 1,000 

Jefferson 2,375 2,318 

Clearfield 2,052 3,506 

Elk 626 1,181 

Cameron 590 531 

Forest 416 3S6 

Total 17,742 16,235 

David Wilson, of Union, Prohibition can- 
didate, received fourteen votes in Erie county 
and none outside. 

The candidates for the State Senate were 
George H. Cutler, of Girard, Republican, and 
J. F. Downing, of Erie, Liberal Republican, 
supported by the Democrats. The following 
was the vote of the district : 


Erie 7,507 5,139 

Warren 3,256 2,298 

Total 10.363 7,427 

Jehiel Towner, of Erie city. Prohibition 
candidate for State Senate, received ten votes 
in this county and none in Warren. 

County Candidates. — Republican — Assem- 
bly, W. W. Brown, Corry, 7,446; Emmett H. 
Wilcox, Washington, 7,413 ; District Attorney, 
S. M. Brainerd, North East, 7,435; Prothon- 
otary, Capt. E. L. Whittlesey, Waterford, 
7,564 (no opposition) ; Register and Record- 
er, Daniel Long, Fairview, 7,558 ; Treasurer, 
Jacob Yeagla, Fairview, 7,300 ; Commissioner, 
William T. Brown, Corry, 7,539; Auditor, 
D. W. Titus, Venango, 7,555; Surveyor, 
George Piatt, Girard, 7,555 (no opposition) ; 
Coroner, M. S. Vincent, Erie, 7,237. 

Democratic and Liberal. — Assembly, 
Thomas McClure, Girard borough. Liberal, 
5,124; S. B. Brooks, Corry, Liberal, 5,113; 
District Attorney, George" P. Griffith, Erie, 
Democrat, 5,217; Register and Recorder, 
Harry Ellen, Democrat, North East borough, 
5,116; Treasurer, Eugene Metz, Democrat, 
Erie, 5,192; Commissioner, Isaac R. Taylor, 
Democrat, Edinboro, 5,141 ; Auditor, W. J. 
Brockway, Democrat, 5,127. 

Prohibition. — Assembly, Jas. Lytle, Erie, 
seventeen; David Carroll, Union, twenty- 
one; Prothonotary, John Miller, Erie, six- 
teen; Treasurer, Dr. C. N. Moore, Spring- 
field, sixteen ; Commissioner, Myron H. Cole, 
Elk Creek, sixteen, 



Independent Republican. — Coroner, Thos. 
Dillon, Erie, 5,350. 

The authorities at Harrisburg decided that 
this was not the proper year to elect a Sur- 
veyor, and refused Mr. Piatt a commission. 
He was appointed by the Court until the next 


Presidential Vote. — The Republicans nom- 
inated Ulysses S. Grant, of Illinois, for Presi- 
dent, and Henry Wilson, of Massachusetts, for 
Vice President. The dissatisfied element of 
tl\e party called another convention, adopted 
the title of Liberal Republicans, and nomi- 
nated Horace Greeley, of New York, for Pres- 
ident, and B. Gratz Brown, of Missouri, for 
Vice President. This ticket was subsequently 
adopted by the Democrats. The Prohibition 
ticket was James Black, of Pennsylvania, for 
President, and Rev. John Russell, of Michi- 
gan, for Vice President. 

Selden Marvin, of Erie, was one of the 
Democratic nominees for Elector at Large, and 
George W. Arbuckle, of Girard, one of the 
Prohibition nominees. The district candidates 
for Elector were : Charles C. Boyd, Water- 
ford, Republican ; William A. Galbraith, Erie, 
Democrat ; John J. Taylor, Clearfield, Prohi- 

The vote of the State was as follows : 
Grant, 349,689; Greelev. 211,961; Black, 

Grant and Wilson were elected. Below is 
the vote of the county : 

;raxT. GREELEY. 

Erie, First ward 291 

Erie, Second ward .... 368 

Erie, Third ward 421 

Erie, Fourth ward.... 440 

Erie, Fifth ward ... 105 

Erie, Sixth ward 120 

Total 1,745 

Corry, First ward. . . . 313 

Corry, Second ward. . 281 

Total 594 

East Mill Creek 93 

West Mill Creek 160 

Harbor Creek 208 

North East township.. 215 

North East borough. . 183 

Greenfield 133 

Venango 196 

Wattsburg 44 

Amity T4 70 

Wayne 211 80 

Concord 182 83 

Union township 167 75 12 

Union City 239 195 4 

LeBoeuf 159 99 2 

Mill Village SO 26 1 

Waterford township. . 291 98 

Waterford borough . . 147 54 2 

Greene Ill 120 

Summit 86 94 1 

McKean 218 20 

Middleboro 29 5 

Washington 285 116 

Edinboro 74 53 

Franklin 152 43 

Elk Creek 180 133 1 

Conneaut 232 57 2 

Albion 50 29 13 

Springfield 352 60 5 

Girard township 288 132 

Girard borough 79 59 

Lockport 46 48 

Fairview township . . . 171 89 

Fairview borough .... 61 34 

Total 7,504 3,587 53 

A large portion of the Democrats were dis- 
satisfied with Mr. Greeley's nomination, and 
refused to vote at the November election. To 
show the falling off in the vote, the following 
recapitulation is given : 


Opposition vote in State. .. . 317,760 211,961 

Opposition vote in county 5,200 3.587 


1873 — A law known as the Local Option 
Act was passed by the Legislature which sub- 
mitted the question to a vote of the people on 
the 16th of March whether licenses for the sale 
of liquor should or should not he granted for 
the three years ensuing. Each city and county 
decided the matter for itself. The vote of 
Erie was 2,017 for license and 696 against ; of 
Corry, 556 for license and 319 against ; and of 
the county, outside of those cities, 1,760 for 
license and 2,620 against. In accordance with 
this result, no licenses were granted in the 
county, with the exception of Erie and Corry, 
for about a year, when the Legislature repealed 
the act. The complete vote of the State, apart 
from the cities, was 165,427 for license and 
164,505 against ; of the cities alone, 79,908 for 
license and 50,929 against. 

The following was the vote for State offi- 
cers at the October election : Supreme Judge, 



Isaac G. Gordon, Jefferson county, Republi- 
can, 240,335; James R. Ludlow, Philadel- 
phia, Democrat, 225,941. 

State Treasurer. — (First election by the 
people) Robert W. Mackey, Allegheny coun- 
ty. Republican, 243,823; Frank M.Hutchi- 
son, Allegheny county, Democratic, 219,471. 

The vote of the county was 3,887 for Gor- 
don, 2.709 for Ludlow, 8,652 for Mackey, and 
2,899 for Hutchison. 

Coutitv Candidates. — Republican — As- 
sembly, Henry Butterfield, Erie, 4,568 ; Em- 
mett H. Wilcox, Edinboro, 4,077; Sheriff, 
John L. Hyner, Wateiford borough, 3,457 ; 
Clerk of Courts, Capl. C. L. Pierce, 7,249 (on 
the Democratic ticket also) ; Commissioner, 
M. H. Silverthorn, Fairview, 5,484 (Demo- 
crats made no nomination); Director of the 
Poor, James Dunn, McKean, 4,423; Auditor. 
W. W. Thomas, Erie, 4,874; Jury Commis- 
sioner, William Grant, McKean, 4,474. 

Democratic and Liberal — Assembly, Wil- 
son Laird, Erie, 3,096; Isaac R. Taylor, Edin- 
boro, 2,756; Sheriff, Wilson Moore, Water- 
ford township, 3,450 ; Director of the Poor, 
Mortimer Phelps, Edinboro, Liberal, 2,687; 
Auditor, Thomas McClure, Girard, Liberal, 
2,682; Jury Commissioner, Robert Leslie, 
Wattsburg, 2,797 (elected). 

Prohibition — Assembly, David Wilson, 
Union township, 138; Sheriff, A. L. Haskell, 
Amity, 134; Clerk of the Courts, John Mil- 
ler, jr., Erie, 144; Commissioner, Clark Rice, 
Union, 179 ; Director of the Poor, Hugh Gush- 
ing, 181; Auditor, Lyman G. Hall, North 
East, 168 ; Jury Commissioner, James Lytle, 
Erie, 155. 

Independent Democrat — Sheriff, Robert 
S. Hunter, Erie, 203; Levi Jackson, Girard, 80. 

Independent Republican — County Com- 
missioner, M. Hartleb, Erie, 1,767. 

The first returns for Sheriff gave Wilson 
Moore four majority, and he was declared 
elected. Just as the convention of Return 
Judges was about to adjourn, an error was re- 
ported in Middleboro which gave J. L. Hyner 
a majority of seven. He was given the com- 
mission, and served out the term. 

Sfeeial Election . — A special election was 
held on the 16th of December, to decide upon 
the adoption or rejection of the new constitu- 
tion which had been prepared by a convention 
held during the year. The vote of Erie county 
was 6,624 for the constitution, and 742 

against ; the vote of the State, 252,744 for, 
and 108.594 against. 


Wl^^Supreme Judge. — Edward M. Pax- 
son, Philadelphia, Republican, 270,230; W. J.